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Title: Final Report of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Commission
Author: Louisiana Purchase Exposition Commission
Language: English
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DECEMBER 4, 1905--JUNE 30, 1906
VOL. 14, 1906

      SENATE: 59TH CONGRESS: 1st Session
              DOCUMENT No. 202
             FINAL REPORT OF THE
              FEBRUARY 8, 1906


Letters of transmittal
Final report
Centennial Day
Diplomatic Day
State Day
  Report on Accounts and Statement of Receipts and Disbursements
  Disposal of Salvage
  Reports of Foreign Countries
  Reports of States, Territories, and Districts
  Report of Board of Lady Managers
  Statement of Expenditures


_To the Senate and House of Representatives:_

I transmit herewith a communication from the Secretary of State
submitting the final report of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition
Commission, furnished in pursuance of section 11 of the "Act to provide
for celebrating the one hundredth anniversary of the purchase of the
Louisiana Territory," etc., approved March 3, 1901.

_February 8, 1906._

       *       *       *       *       *


The undersigned, Secretary of State, has the honor to lay before the
President the final report of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition
Commission, presented, as required by section 11 of the act of Congress
approved March 3, 1901, entitled "An act to provide for celebrating the
one hundredth anniversary of the Louisiana Territory by the United
States by holding an international exhibition of arts, industries,
manufactures, and the products of the soil, mine, forest, and sea in the
city of St. Louis, in the State of Missouri."

Respectfully submitted.

_Washington, February 5, 1906._

             FINAL REPORT
               OF THE

As required by section 11 of an act of Congress entitled "An act to
provide for the celebrating of the one hundredth anniversary of the
purchase of the Louisiana Territory by the United States by holding an
international exhibition of arts, industries, manufacturers, and the
products of the soil, mine, forest, and the sea in the city of St.
Louis, in the State of Missouri," approved March 3, 1901, this final
report is here presented:

In the early part of the year 1900 the citizens of St. Louis inaugurated
a movement looking to the celebration of the one hundredth anniversary
of the acquisition of the Louisiana Territory by an international
exposition. A temporary organization having been effected, the subject
was presented to Congress through a committee of citizens appointed for
that purpose. Congress conditionally approved the enterprise by enacting
a law which in substance provided that the Government would extend the
required aid to the proposed exposition, providing the petitioners would
furnish assurance that the sum of $10,000,000 had been raised for and on
account of inaugurating and carrying forward an exposition at the city
of St. Louis, Mo., in the year 1903, to celebrate the one hundredth
anniversary of the purchase of the Louisiana Territory.

Prior to March 3, 1901, the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company, then
consisting of an association of persons, furnished the Secretary of the
Treasury proof to his satisfaction that said sum of $10,000,000 had been
raised for the purpose indicated. Thereupon the act hereinbefore cited
was passed and duly approved by the President.

Including the appropriation made by the act of Congress, the sum of
$15,000,000 was provided for the exposition, as follows:

Donated by the city of St. Louis ...................... $5,000,000
Subscription to the capital stock of the Louisiana
  Purchase Exposition Company .........................  5,000,000
Appropriated by Congress, through the act aforesaid ...  5,000,000

On April 1, 1901, in accordance with section 2 of the act of Congress,
the President appointed a nonpartisan commission, consisting of nine
members, known and designated as the "Louisiana Purchase Exposition
Commission," the names of the appointees and the States in which they
resided being as follows:

JOHN M. THURSTON      Nebraska.
THOMAS H. CARTER      Montana.
WILLIAM LINDSAY       Kentucky.
FREDERICK A. BETTS    Connecticut.
JOHN M. ALLEN         Mississippi.
MARTIN H. GLYNN       New York.
JOHN F. MILLER        Indiana.
PHILIP D. SCOTT       Arkansas.

The name of the Commission being somewhat lengthy it became known and
was referred to in the law and proceedings throughout as "The National

Pursuant to a call by the Secretary of State, the members of the
Commission met at the Southern Hotel, in the city of St. Louis, on April
23, 1901, and adjourned until the following day, when organization was

Thomas H. Carter, of Montana, was elected president; Martin H. Glynn, of
New York, vice-president, and Mr. Joseph Flory, of St. Louis, Mo.,

The following committees were appointed:



_Plan and Scope._

_Members of Board of Arbitration._




Mr. Claude Hough, of Sedalia, Mo., was appointed official stenographer
of the Commission on May 6, 1901, and has capably and efficiently served
in that capacity throughout.

The organization of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company was not
formally perfected until about a month after the first meeting of the
National Commission, when the association which had theretofore existed
under that name was duly organized and became an incorporated company
under and in conformity with the laws of the State of Missouri. In the
meantime informal conferences were held between the Commission and the
prospective officers of the company in reference to a site for the

The municipal assembly of the city of St. Louis enacted an ordinance
authorizing the use of a portion of Forest Park as a site for the
exposition, as follows:

    An ordinance authorizing the use of either O'Fallon Park or
    Carondelet Park or a portion of Forest Park as a site for the
    world's fair, to be held in commemoration of the Louisiana

    _Be it ordained by the municipal assembly of the city of St.
    Louis as follows:_

    SECTION 1. The corporation or association formed to manage and
    conduct the world's fair or exposition in commemoration of the
    purchase of the Louisiana Territory, when organized or
    incorporated in accordance with the law, is hereby granted the
    privilege of using either O'Fallon Park or Carondelet Park or
    that portion of Forest Park lying west of the line described as
    follows, to wit: Beginning at the intersection of the south line
    of Forest Park with the north line of Clayton road, and running
    thence in a northerly direction along the west line of the
    Concourse drive two thousand five hundred fifty feet; thence in
    a northerly direction to the east end of the large lake, a
    distance of twelve hundred feet; thence northwesterly direction
    about two thousand feet to the intersection of the south line of
    Lindell avenue, with the west line of De Baliviere avenue
    produced southwardly, for and as a site for said world's fair or
    exposition, reserving, however, unto the city of St. Louis all
    regulation and control of any of the sites above described,
    together with all right to excises and licenses.

    SEC. 2. The board of public improvements shall at all times,
    beginning with the selection of the site out of the three sites
    above referred to, until the close of said world's fair or
    exposition, and until the complete restoration of said site as
    hereinafter provided, have the power to provide such
    regulations, conditions, and requirements as it may deem
    necessary to protect the interests of the city with respect to
    the construction of all sewers, drains, and conduits of any
    kind, and the laying of water pipes or fixtures; and the plans
    and specifications for the construction of the foregoing work
    shall be subject to the approval of the board of public
    improvements, and no such work of any kind shall be done without
    such approval by the board. All such sewers, drains, conduits,
    pipes, and fixtures shall become and be the property of the

    SEC. 3. Within six months after the close of said fair or
    exposition, the corporation or association aforesaid shall clear
    the park, or in the event of the selection of Forest Park, the
    part thereof above described, of all tramways and railway
    tracks, rubbish and debris, and of all buildings, sheds,
    pavilions, towers, and other structures of every kind, and shall
    within twelve months after the close of such fair or exposition,
    fully restore the park selected as a site, or in the case of
    Forest Park, that portion thereof above-described, by doing all
    necessary grading, the restoration and repair, or the formation
    of all walks and roads, the planting of trees, the placing of
    sod and the planting of shrubs and plants, all in accordance
    with plans to be approved by the board of public improvements,
    and all to be done subject to the inspection of the park
    commissioner, and to his entire satisfaction and approval.

    SEC. 4. The corporation or association aforesaid shall, within
    six months after the approval of this ordinance by the mayor,
    file its written acceptance thereof with the city register, and
    make its selection of the park to be used as aforesaid; and said
    corporation or association shall also, within the same time,
    file its bond in the sum of one hundred thousand dollars, with
    good and sufficient sureties, to be approved by the mayor and
    council, conditioned for a full compliance with and performance
    of all the terms, requirements, and conditions of this
    ordinance. Said board of public improvements shall have the
    right, however, at any time before the opening of said fair or
    exposition, if it deems it necessary in the interest of the
    city, to require an additional bond in such amount as it may
    believe to be proper, whereupon said corporation or company
    shall give such bond with sureties to be approved in like
    manner, and said corporation or association shall have no
    authority to open or hold any fair or exposition upon the site
    so selected, and no machinery or improvements of any kind shall
    be removed from the premises of said world's fair site until
    said bond in the sum so demanded shall have been so filed and

    Approved May 16, 1901.

Considerable correspondence ensued between the Commission and the
Exposition Company in reference to the proposed site, the Commission
particularly insisting upon an adequate water supply and proper drainage
and grading of the property. On June 28, 1901, the site was formally
approved by the Commission and, according to section 9 of the act
authorizing the exposition, the President of the United States was duly

Prior to August 15, 1901, the National Commission having ascertained
that due provision had been made for grounds and buildings for the uses
contemplated by the act of Congress, so certified to the President of
the United States, who did thereafter, to wit, on the 20th day of
August, 1901, in behalf of the Government and the people, invite foreign
nations to take part in said exposition, and to appoint representatives
thereto, the President's proclamation reading as follows:

    Whereas notice has been given me by the Louisiana Purchase
    Exposition Commission, in accordance with the provisions of
    section 9 of the act of Congress, approved March 3, 1901,
    entitled "An act to provide for celebrating the one hundredth
    anniversary of the purchase of the Louisiana Territory by the
    United States by holding an international exhibition of arts,
    industries, manufactures, and the products of the soil, mine,
    forest, and sea in the city of St. Louis, in the State of
    Missouri," that provision has been made for grounds and
    buildings for the uses provided for in the said act of Congress:

    Now, therefore, I, William McKinley, President of the United
    States, by virtue of the authority vested in me by said act, do
    hereby declare and proclaim that such international exhibition
    will be opened in the city of St. Louis, in the State of
    Missouri, not later than the first day of May, nineteen hundred
    and three, and will be closed not later than the first day of
    December thereafter. And in the name of the Government and of
    the people of the United States, I do hereby invite all the
    nations of the earth to take part in the commemoration of the
    purchase of the Louisiana Territory, an event of great interest
    to the United States and of abiding effect on their development,
    by appointing representatives and sending such exhibits to the
    Louisiana Purchase Exposition as will most fitly and fully
    illustrate their resources, their industries, and their progress
    in civilization.

    In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the
    seal of the United States to be affixed.

    Done at the city of Washington, this twentieth day of August,
    one thousand nine hundred and one, and of the Independence of
    the United States the one hundred and twenty-sixth.



    By the President:
    _Secretary of State_.

At a meeting of the Commission held on October 15, 1901, the following
resolution relative to the lamented death of President McKinley was
unanimously adopted by the Commission:


    Since this Commission last convened the President of the United
    States has met a tragic death.

    The manner of his death was a blow at republican institutions
    and felt by every patriotic American as aimed at himself. It can
    truly be said that of all our Presidents William McKinley was
    the best beloved; no section of the country held him as an alien
    to it. Partisan differences never led to partisan hatred of him;
    party faction did not touch him. Nearly half the people differed
    with him on public questions, but his opponents accorded to him
    the same honesty of purpose which he always accorded to them. He
    was the President of the whole people, and was received by them
    as such with the honors due his great office and his splendid
    manhood, from the Atlantic to the Pacific and from the Lakes to
    the Gulf. Pure of life, lofty of purpose, and patriotic in every
    endeavor, he was the highest type of our American citizenship.

    The prayers of an united people were wafted on high to spare our
    President, but "God's will, not ours" was done, and the pain of
    personal grief was felt in every American home.

    _Resolved by the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Commission_,

    First. That in the death of President McKinley, the United
    States have lost a President who fulfilled the best ideals of
    the Republic.

    Second. That in every walk of life, in peace and in war, in
    private and in public station, he was faithful to every trust
    and did his duty as God gave him light to see it.

    Third. That these resolutions be spread upon our record and a
    copy thereof sent, with an expression of our tenderest sympathy,
    to Mrs. McKinley.

Certain rules and regulations governing foreign exhibitors, which had
been formulated by President Carter of the Commission and President
Francis of the Exposition Company at a meeting held in Chicago, Ill., on
August 14, 1901, were approved by the National Commission on October 15,
1901. The rules are as follows:

    Adopted under, and in pursuance of an act of the Congress of the
    United States, entitled,

    "An act to provide for celebrating the one hundredth anniversary
    of the purchase of the Louisiana Territory by the United States,
    by holding an international exhibition of arts, industries,
    manufactures, and the products of the soil, mine, forest, and
    sea in the city of Saint Louis, in the State of Missouri,"

    approved March 3, 1901, a copy of which said act is hereunto
    attached. As provided by law the Louisiana Purchase Exposition
    will be held in the city of St. Louis, State of Missouri,
    U.S.A., and will be opened on the 30th day of April, A.D. 1903,
    and will be closed on the 1st day of December of that year. The
    exposition will be closed on Sundays.

    This exposition will embrace an exhibition of arts, industries,
    manufactures, and the products of the soil, mine, forest, and
    sea. It will be held to celebrate the one hundredth anniversary
    of the purchase of the Louisiana Territory by the United States
    from France.

    The exposition will be international in character, as
    contemplated by section 9 of the act of Congress, which reads as

    "That whenever the President of the United States shall be
    notified by the National Commission that provision has been made
    for grounds and buildings for the uses herein provided for, he
    shall be authorized to make proclamation of the same, through
    the Department of State, setting forth the time at which said
    exposition will be held, and the purposes thereof, and he shall
    communicate to the diplomatic representatives of foreign nations
    copies thereof, together with such regulations as may be adopted
    by the Commission, for publication in their respective
    countries, and he shall in behalf of the Government and the
    people invite foreign nations to take part in the said
    exposition and appoint representatives thereto."

    Rules and regulations have been adopted by the National
    Commission to be communicated to the diplomatic representatives
    of foreign nations for publication in their respective countries
    as follows:

    ARTICLE 1. All communications relating to the exposition should
    be addressed to Hon. David R. Francis, president of the
    Exposition Company, St. Louis, U.S.A.

    ART. 2. All applications for space for buildings must be filed
    with the company on or before July 1, 1902.

    ART. 3. Applications for space for exhibits in the buildings of
    the Exposition Company must be filed on or before the respective
    dates following, to wit:

    (A) For machinery and mechanical appliances intended for
    exhibition, in operation, October 1, 1902.

    (B) For machinery and mechanical appliances not intended for
    exhibition, in operation, November 1, 1902.

    (C) For works of art, natural and manufactured, products, and
    all productions not herein expressly classified, December 1,

    ART. 4. Applications for special concessions to individuals,
    associations, or corporations, December 1, 1902.

    All applications must be in writing and should be presented on
    forms which will be furnished by the Exposition Company.

    ART. 5. No charge will be made for space allotted for buildings
    or exhibits of foreign governments. Allotments of space to
    exhibitors from countries whose governments have appointed
    commissioners to the exposition will be made by or through such

    ART. 6. No exhibit shall be removed in whole or in part until
    the close of the exposition.

    Immediately after the close of the exposition exhibitors shall
    remove their effects and complete such removal before January 1,

    ART. 7. Exhibits from foreign countries will be admitted free of
    customs duties, as provided in the law and the regulations of
    the Treasury Department.

    ART. 8. The Exposition Company may from time to time, with the
    approval of the National Commission, promulgate a classification
    and such additional rules and regulations, not in conflict with
    the law or regulations herein announced, as may be necessary to
    facilitate the success of the exposition and to serve the
    interest of exhibitors.

On October 15, 1901, the Commission was notified that the Exposition
Company had, by a resolution dated October 8, 1901, of which the
Secretary of the Treasury had been duly notified, authorized the
Commission to disburse the sum of $10,000 per annum for contingent
expenses, in accordance with the act of Congress therein referred to.
Following is a copy of the resolution:

    _Resolved_, That the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Commission
    be, and is hereby, authorized to disburse out of the $5,000,000
    appropriated under the provisions of the act approved March 3,
    1901, in aid of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, the sum of
    $10,000 annually for contingent expenses of said Commission
    under such rules and regulations as may be prescribed by the
    Secretary of the Treasury, and upon vouchers to be approved by



The question of appointing a board of lady managers, authorized by
section 6 of the act of Congress, was considered by the National
Commission and the Exposition Company at a meeting held on October 16,

After giving the matter due and careful consideration, the Commission
and the company decided to create a board of lady managers of 21
members. The membership of the board was subsequently increased to 24.
The names of the board of lady managers are as follows:

Miss Helen Miller Gould.
Mrs. John A. McCall.
Mrs. John M. Holcombe.
Miss Anna L. Dawes.
Mrs. W.E. Andrews.
Mrs. Helen-Boice Hunsicker.
Mrs. James L. Blair.
Mrs. Fannie L. Porter.
Mrs. Frederick M. Hanger.
Mrs. Jennie Gilmore Knott.
Mrs. Emily Warren Roebling.
Mrs. M.H. De Young.
Mrs. Belle L. Everest.
Mrs. Margaret P. Daly.
Mrs. W.H. Coleman.
Mrs. C.B. Buchwalter.
Mrs. Louis D. Frost.
Mrs. Finis P. Ernst.
Mrs. Mary Phelps Montgomery.
Mrs. John Miller Horton.
Mrs. Annie McLean Moores.
Mrs. A.L. Von Mayhoff.
Mrs. Daniel Manning.
Mrs. James Edmund Sullivan.
Miss Lavinia H. Egan.

Rules and regulations for the classification of exhibits at the
exposition, which had been presented for the consideration of the
Commission by the Exposition Company, and which had been discussed at
length, were finally approved on October 17, 1901, and the Exposition
Company was notified of that fact.

The matter of formulating rules and regulations for the government of
the exposition was one of the first questions to be considered by the
Commission. The matter was taken up at the various meetings of the
Commission, and conferences were held with the officers of the
Exposition Company from time to time. The Commission contended that in
the event of a disagreement between the representative of any foreign
government and the Exposition Company the representative of such foreign
government should be allowed to refer the matter to the National
Commission for joint consideration and adjustment with the company. With
that end in view the Commission insisted that the following provision
should be incorporated in the rules and regulations governing the

    Should disagreement arise between the Exposition Company and the
    representative of any Government, State, Territory, or District,
    such representative shall have the privilege, under such rules
    of procedure as the National Commission may from time to time
    promulgate, of referring the matter in disagreement between such
    representative and the company to the National Commission for
    joint consideration and adjustment with the company.

The company objected to the insertion of this clause.

Thereupon the Commission and the company agreed to submit the matter in
dispute to arbitration, in accordance with law. The Commission notified
the company that the members of the arbitration board appointed by the
Commission were prepared to meet the arbitrators of the company when
such last-named arbitrators should be appointed. But owing to the fact
that the arbitrators on behalf of the company had not yet been
appointed, it was impossible at the time to submit the matter in
controversy to arbitration.

In November, 1901, it became evident that the success of the exposition
demanded the immediate promulgation of the rules and regulations for the
guidance of intending competitors. The Exposition Company communicated
with the National Commission to that effect and requested that it be
allowed to promulgate the rules and regulations so far as agreed upon,
and that the matter in dispute should be left to subsequent arbitration.
On November 22, 1901, the Commission consented to the promulgation of
the rules and regulations, so far as modified, with the understanding
that the provision in dispute, hereinbefore stated, should thereafter be
incorporated and given due publicity, provided it was adopted by the
board of arbitration. On December 1, 1901, the rules and regulations
were published, and a copy thereof, as approved by the National
Commission, is as follows:

    An act to provide for celebrating the one hundredth anniversary
    of the purchase of the Louisiana Territory by the United States,
    by holding an international exhibition of arts, industries,
    manufactures, and the products of the soil, mine, forest, and
    sea, in the city of St. Louis, in the State of Missouri,
    approved March 3, 1901, a copy of which said act is hereto

    As provided by law, the Louisiana Purchase Exposition will be
    held in the city of St. Louis, State of Missouri, U.S.A., and
    will be opened on the 30th day of April, A.D. 1903, and will be
    closed on the 1st day of December of that year. The exposition
    will be closed on Sundays.

    This exposition will embrace an exhibition of arts, industries,
    manufactures, and the products of the soil, mine, forest, and
    sea. It will be held to celebrate the one hundredth anniversary
    of the purchase of the Louisiana Territory by the United States
    from France.

    The exposition will be international in character, as
    contemplated by section 9 of the act of Congress, which reads as

    "That whenever the President of the United States shall be
    notified by the National Commission that provision has been made
    for grounds and buildings, for the uses herein provided for, he
    shall be authorized to make proclamation of the same, through
    the Department of State, setting forth the time at which said
    exposition will be held, and the purposes thereof, and he shall
    communicate to the diplomatic representatives of foreign nations
    copies thereof, together with such regulations as may be adopted
    by the Commission, for publication in their respective
    countries, and he shall, in behalf of the Government and the
    people, invite foreign nations to take part in the said
    exposition and to appoint representatives thereto."

    Rules and Regulations.

    The following general rules and regulations are promulgated by
    the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company, having been approved
    by the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Commission:


    SECTION I. Under a proclamation of the President of the United
    States, signed August 20, 1901, all nations and peoples are
    invited to and may participate in this exposition.

    SEC. II. The site of the exposition will be the west portion of
    Forest Park and adjacent territory, and will comprise,
    approximately, 1,000 acres.

    SEC. III. The executive of the exposition is the president of
    the board of directors of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition
    Company. There are four principal executive divisions presided
    over by the following officers: Director of exhibits, director
    of exploitation, director of works, director of concessions and

    Under the officers subordinate departments for the supervision
    of exhibits, of construction, and of maintenance may be created,
    each department having its individual chief.

    SEC. IV. The bureau of transportation shall have entire charge
    of all matters relating to the transportation of passengers and
    freight to and from the exposition grounds from all parts of the
    world. It will quote rates and classifications, remedy delays,
    and be constituted in such a manner as to extend practical
    assistance and information to all exhibitors and the public at
    large. This bureau has for its chief officer a traffic manager,
    who will report direct to the president.


    SECTION I. For the development of the exposition to the full
    extent of the general plan as outlined, provision will be made
    for the installation and care of exhibits, and for the
    construction of exhibition palaces, ample and adequate to the
    theoretical and physical scope of the exposition.

    SEC. II. For the purposes of installation and review of exhibits
    a classification has been adopted. The classification heretofore
    adopted has been divided into a number of departments, each of
    which is again divided into groups and subdivided into classes.
    Under this scope and plan the exposition will be constructed,
    the installation perfected, and the system of awards conducted.
    In conformity therewith the following exhibit departments are
    created: Department A--Education; Department B--Art; Department
    C--Liberal Arts; Department D--Manufactures; Department
    E--Machinery; Department F--Electricity; Department
    G--Transportation; Department H--Agriculture; Department
    J--Horticulture; Department K--Forestry; Department L--Mines and
    Metallurgy; Department M--Fish and Game; Department
    N--Anthropology; Department O--Social Economy; Department
    P--Physical Culture.

    Exhibits shall be classified into 15 departments, in 144 groups,
    and in 807 classes.


    SECTION I. The directors of the four executive divisions, and
    the chief of the different departments thereunder, may
    promulgate special rules and regulations governing the more
    minute and technical details of the operation of the respective

    SEC. II. The director of exhibits shall have general charge of
    the installation of all exhibits and the control and management
    of the same.


    SECTION I. The general classification is hereby made a part of
    these rules and regulations.

    SEC. II. The Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company reserves the
    right, subject to the approval of the Commission, to amend or
    correct the classification at any time before the opening of the
    exposition by giving thirty days' public notice.


    SECTION I. The price of admission will be 50 cents.

    SEC. II. While the broadest construction will be placed upon the
    rights of exhibitors and their agents to free admission to the
    grounds for the purpose of caring for their respective exhibits,
    it is intended to restrict these courtesies within reasonable


    SECTION I. No charge will be made for space allotted for

    SEC. II. No charge will be made for space allotted for buildings
    of foreign governments, or the United States Government, or of
    the State, Territorial, or District governments of the United


    SECTION I. Exhibitors of manufactured articles must be the
    manufacturers or producers thereof.

    SEC. II. The country where an exhibit is produced, and not the
    citizenship of the exhibitor, will determine the nationality of
    an exhibit.

    SEC. III. Each foreign nation participating in the exposition
    will be accorded an official representative, to be accredited to
    the president of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company,
    through the Secretary of State of the United States, or

    SEC. IV. Allotment of space to exhibitors from countries where
    governments have appointed official representatives to the
    exposition will be made by or through such representatives.

    SEC. V. While it is expected, as far as possible, to confine
    negotiations in the United States to the official
    representatives of the respective States, Territories, and
    Districts, the right is reserved to confer directly with


    SECTION I. All applications for space for buildings must be
    filed on or before July 1, 1902.

    SEC. II. Application for space for exhibits in the buildings of
    the exposition must be filed on or before the respective dates
    following, to wit:

    (a) For machinery and mechanical appliances intended for
    exhibition in operation October 1, 1902.

    (b) For machinery and mechanical appliances not intended for
    exhibition in operation, November 1, 1902.

    (c) For works of art, natural and manufactured products not
    herein expressly classified, December 1, 1902.

    (d) For special concessions to individuals, associations, or
    corporations, December 1, 1902.

    SEC. III. All applications for space must be in writing,
    addressed to the president of the exposition, and should be
    presented on forms which will be furnished by the Exposition

    SEC. IV. Each application for space for exhibits must be
    accompanied by a sketch, drawn to a scale of one-fourth of an
    inch to the foot, showing the ground floor plan, and, if
    possible, the front elevation and general outlines. These
    installation plans and schemes must receive the indorsement of
    the chief of the department in which the exhibit is to be
    located, and the approval of the director of exhibits, and must
    conform to the general architectural design for the treatment of
    the interior of the building as prepared by the director of

    SEC. V. Permits for space will not be transferable, and
    exhibitors will be confined to such exhibits as are specified in
    their applications.


    SECTION I. All communications relating to the exposition should
    be addressed to the president of the Louisiana Purchase
    Exposition Company, St. Louis, U.S.A.

    SEC. II. All packages containing exhibits must be addressed to
    the president of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company.

    SEC. III. Direction labels will be furnished by the Exposition
    Company to be attached to each package. This label must be
    filled out so as to convey the following information:

    (a) The department in which the exhibit is to be installed.

    (b) The country, State, or Territory from which the package is

    (c) The name and address of the exhibitor and the total number
    of packages sent by such exhibitor.

    SEC. IV. In boxing or casing any material intended for
    exhibition, screws should be employed in preference to nails or
    steel hoops, and packages should be addressed on two or more
    sides. Each package should contain a list of the goods therein.

    SEC. V. Consignments intended for different buildings should be
    in separate packages, and not be included in the same box,
    crate, or barrel.

    SEC. VI. Freight and express charges and all charges
    appertaining to the transportation of material belonging to
    individuals, such as exhibits, building material, concession
    material and supplies, etc., must be prepaid at the point of
    shipment, and the goods delivered at the exposition clear of all
    charges of any description incident to the transportation.


    SECTION I. If no authorized person is at hand to take charge of
    an exhibit within reasonable time after its arrival at the
    exposition buildings said exhibit will be removed and stored at
    the cost and risk of whosoever it may concern.

    SEC. II. The installation of heavy articles, requiring
    foundation, may, by special agreement with the director of
    works, begin as soon as the progress of the construction of the
    buildings will permit.

    SEC. III. No exhibits shall be removed in whole or in part until
    the close of the exposition.

    SEC. IV. Immediately after the close of the exposition
    exhibitors shall remove their exhibits and construction, and
    complete such removal before March 1, 1904. Any exhibit or
    material not removed on March 1, 1904, will be considered to
    have been abandoned by the exhibitor, and will be subject to
    removal at the cost of the exhibitors, or to such disposition by
    the Exposition Company as may be deemed advisable.


    SECTION I. All show cases, cabinets, shelving, counters, etc.,
    required in the installation of an exhibit, must be provided at
    the expense of the exhibitor, and all countershafts, steam
    pulleys, belting, etc., and all compressed-air connections, and
    all water and sewerage connections must be paid for by the
    person applying for the same.

    SEC. II. All decorations and designs to be constructed in
    connection with the installation must conform to the rules and
    regulations promulgated by the director of exhibits, and receive
    the approval of the chief of the department interested.

    SEC. III. No exhibitor will be permitted to install an exhibit
    so as to obstruct the light or occasion any inconvenience to or
    disadvantageously affect the display of other exhibitors.

    SEC. IV. The flooring of an exposition building must not be cut
    or removed, or its foundation disturbed, and no part of the
    construction of a building shall be employed for installation
    purposes, except upon the recommendation of the director of
    exhibits, approved by the director of works.

    SEC. V. Special rules regulating the height of platforms,
    partitions, rails, cases, cabinets, counters, and any special
    trophy or feature will be issued by the chiefs of the different
    departments, with the approval of the director of exhibits.

    SEC. VI. All designs for the treatment of exhibition spaces must
    be in accordance with the foregoing limitations. The material
    used for covering counters, screens, partitions, or floors will
    be subject to the approval of the director of exhibits, upon the
    recommendation of the chiefs of the department, and must be in
    accordance with the general color scheme of the director of

    SEC. VII. Special rules and regulations in addition to and not
    in conflict with the general rules and regulations of the
    Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company may be promulgated by the
    different departments.


    SECTION I. All articles which shall be imported from foreign
    countries for the sole purpose of exhibition at said exposition,
    upon which there shall be a tariff or customs duty, will be
    admitted free of payment of duty, customs fees, or charges,
    under such regulations as the Secretary of the Treasury shall
    prescribe under an act of the Congress providing for the

    SEC. II. It will be lawful at any time during the exposition to
    sell for delivery at the close thereof any goods or property
    imported for and actually on exhibition in the exposition
    buildings or on the grounds, subject to such regulations for the
    security of the revenue and for the collection of import duty as
    the Secretary of the Treasury shall prescribe. Such articles
    when sold or withdrawn for consumption in the United States will
    be subject to the duty, if any, imposed upon such articles by
    the revenue laws in force at the date of the importation, and
    all penalties prescribed by the laws of the United States will
    be applied and enforced against such articles and against the
    person who may be guilty of any illegal sale or withdrawal.

    SEC. III. Such arrangements will be made with the Government of
    the United States as will permit the transportation of foreign
    exhibits in bond direct to the exposition grounds, which will be
    designated as a United States bonded warehouse.


    SECTION I. While the Exposition Company will provide every,
    possible protection for exhibits and for the property of
    exhibitors, it will not be responsible in any case for loss by
    fire, accident, vandalism, or theft, through which objects
    placed upon exhibition may suffer, whatever may be the cause or
    the amount of the damage.

    SEC. II. Any object or article of a dangerous or detrimental
    character, or that is incompatible with the object or decorum of
    the exposition or the comfort or safety of the public, will be
    refused admission to the grounds or removed from any building or
    any part of the grounds upon the recommendation of the director
    of exhibits, approved by the president.

    SEC. III. Articles that are in any way dangerous or offensive,
    also patent medicines, nostrums, and empirical preparations
    whose ingredients are concealed, will not be admitted to the
    exposition. The director of exhibits, with the approval of the
    president, has the authority to order the removal of any article
    he may consider dangerous, detrimental to, or incompatible with
    the object or decorum of the exposition or the comfort and
    safety of the public.

    SEC. IV. The Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company will carry no
    insurance on exhibits, but favorable terms will be secured by
    the Exposition Company under which exhibitors may insure their
    own goods in responsible companies.


    SECTION I. Advertisement by means of posters, prints, handbills,
    etc., will not be permitted within the exposition grounds except
    upon the recommendation of the proper authorities, approved by
    the president of the Exposition Company, and then to a
    restricted degree only.

    SEC. II. Exhibitors' business cards and brief descriptive
    circulars only may be conveniently placed within such exhibition
    space for distribution; but the right is reserved to the chief
    of the department, upon the approval of the director of
    exhibits, to restrict or discontinue this privilege whenever it
    is carried to excess or becomes an annoyance.


    SECTION I. Exhibitors will be held responsible for the
    cleanliness of their exhibits and the space surrounding same.

    SEC. II. All exhibits must be in complete order each day at
    least thirty minutes before the buildings are open to the
    public. No janitor or other work of this character will be
    permitted during the hours the buildings are open to the public.
    In case of failure on the part of any exhibitor to observe these
    rules, the chief of the department, with the approval of the
    director of exhibits, may adopt such means to enforce the same
    as circumstances may suggest.


    SECTION I. No crates, barrels, or packing cases will be
    permitted to remain upon the exhibition space after their
    contents have been removed, except upon the recommendation of
    the chief of the department where the exhibit is installed,
    approved by the director of exhibits.

    SEC. II. The Exposition Company will provide a storage warehouse
    for crates, barrels, and packing cases, under a reasonable
    schedule of charges based upon those levied by similar
    warehouses, which it will be optional for exhibitors to use.

    SEC. III. Facilities for the conveyance of empty crates,
    barrels, or packing cases to storage places will be provided at
    a moderate price.


    SECTION I. No exhibit or object upon exhibition may be sketched,
    copied, or reproduced in any way whatever without the permission
    of the exhibitor, approved by the director of exhibits, except
    that the president of the company may give such permission.


    SECTION I. Exhibitors desiring to contract for service of
    electricity, steam, compressed air, power from shafting, gas, or
    water, must make application to the chief of the department in
    which their exhibits are installed. No application for service
    will be entertained unless made upon a blank furnished by the
    director of works, which may be obtained from a chief of a
    department, and when an application for service has been
    approved by the director of exhibits the contract will be
    executed on the part of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition
    Company by the director of works on terms and conditions that
    will be stated in each case. The director of exhibits and the
    director of works, in their discretion, are authorized to
    furnish gratuitously to exhibitors a limited amount of power for
    the operation of machines and processes. The character of the
    exhibit requiring power for its operation will have much to do
    with determining the amount of power that will be furnished


    SECTION I. Concessions may be granted for private exhibitions
    for which a charge for admission may be made; for restaurants,
    for places of amusement, for merchandising, and for other
    purposes not incompatible with the scope and dignity of the
    exposition, under terms and conditions to be determined upon by
    the proper authorities in each case.


    SECTION I. An official catalogue of all exhibits will be
    published in English by the Exposition Company. Foreign
    governments and the governments of the States, Territories, and
    Districts of the United States, making a collective exhibit, may
    publish separate catalogues of their own exhibits when
    recommended by the director of exhibits to the president and
    approved by him.

    SEC. II. The sale of catalogues is reserved exclusively by the
    Exposition Company.


    SECTION I. The Exposition Company will organize, equip, and
    maintain an efficient police system for the protection of
    property and the preservation of peace and good order.

    SEC. II. The exposition will maintain a corps of janitors and
    scavengers, whose duty it will be to properly care for and clean
    the roadways, approaches, paths, etc., in general of the
    exposition and the aisles within the exhibit buildings; but
    their duties and responsibilities will not extend to exhibit
    spaces, to the subsidiary aisles, or to the buildings of foreign
    or domestic governments or individuals.

    SEC. III. Exhibitors may employ watchmen and janitors of their
    choice to guard and care for their material during the hours the
    exposition is open to the public. Such watchmen will be subject
    to the rules and regulations governing employees of the
    exposition; but no exhibitor will be permitted to employ
    attendants for service of this character except upon the written
    consent of the chief of the department, approved by the director
    of exhibits.

    SEC. IV. Each country, commission, organization, corporation and
    individual, by becoming an exhibitor, agrees to conform to all
    the rules and regulations established for the government and
    conduct of the exposition.



    SECTION I The system of awards will be competitive. The merit of
    exhibits as determined by the jury of awards will be manifested
    by the issuance of diplomas, which will be divided into four
    classes; a grand prize, a gold medal, a silver medal, and a
    bronze medal.

    SEC. II. No exhibit can be excluded from competition for award
    without the consent of the president of the Exposition Company,
    after a review of the reasons or motives by competent
    authorities hereafter to be provided.

    SEC. III. In a fixed ratio to the number of exhibits, but
    reserving to the citizens of the United States approximately 60
    per cent of the jury membership, the construction of the
    international jury will be based upon a predetermined number of
    judges allotted to each group of the classification and upon the
    number and importance of the exhibits in such group.

    SEC. IV. A chairman of the group jury will be elected by his
    colleagues in each group, this chairman to become, by right of
    his position, a member of the department jury, which department
    jury shall in turn elect its chairman, who shall thereupon
    become a member of the superior jury.

    SEC. V. Special rules and regulations governing the system of
    making awards and determining the extent to which foreign
    countries may have representation on the juries will be
    hereafter promulgated.

    SEC. VI. Allotment of space for exhibitors, the classification
    of exhibits, the appointment of all judges and examiners for the
    exposition, and the awarding of premiums, if any, shall be done
    and performed by the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company,
    subject, however, to the approval of the Louisiana Purchase
    Exposition Commission.

    DAVID R. FRANCIS, _President_.


On February 7, 1902, the Commission, subject to the approval of the
Exposition Company, which approval was thereafter given, adopted the
following general rules, prescribing the general scope of the duties to
be performed by the board of lady managers, to wit:

    First. To appoint one member of all committees authorized to
    award prizes for such exhibits as may have been produced in
    whole or in part by female labor.

    Second. To exercise general supervisory control over such
    features of the exposition as may be specially devoted to
    woman's work.

    Third. To take part in the ceremonies connected with the
    dedication of the buildings of the exposition, and in all
    official functions in which women may be invited to participate,
    and in other official functions upon the request of the company
    and the Commission.

    Fourth. To elect such officers, appoint such committees, and to
    make and promulgate such rules and regulations as may be deemed
    necessary for the efficient discharge of the duties aforesaid;
    provided, that said board shall not make any expenditures nor
    incur any financial obligation except under authority previously
    obtained from the company and the Commission.

The members of the board of lady managers voluntarily proposed to serve
without compensation, and in view of such proposal, at a conference
between the Commission and the president of the Exposition Company, it
was decided to remunerate them for their traveling and other expenses
while attending meetings of the board by an allowance of 5 cents per
mile for travel and a per diem allowance of $6 in lieu of subsistence
during the sessions of the board.

It was decided, also, that the membership of the board be increased to a
maximum of 24 members.

Early in 1902 it became evident that it would be necessary to postpone
the exposition for one year, and the Exposition Company consequently
notified Congress to that effect.

In the act making appropriations for sundry civil expenses of the
Government for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1903, and for other
purposes, approved June 28, 1902, provision was made for the
postponement of the Exposition until 1904 in terms as follows:

    _Provided, further:_ That sections eight and twelve of an act
    entitled "An act to provide for celebrating the one hundredth
    anniversary of the purchase of the Louisiana Territory by the
    United States by holding an international exhibition of arts,
    industries, manufactures, and the products of the soil, mine,
    forest, and sea in the city of Saint Louis, in the State of
    Missouri," approved March third, nineteen hundred and one, be,
    and the same are hereby, amended so as to read as follows:

    SEC. 8. That said Commission shall provide for the dedication of
    the buildings of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition in said city
    of Saint Louis not later than the thirtieth day of April,
    nineteen hundred and three, with appropriate ceremonies, and
    thereafter said exposition shall be opened to visitors at such
    time as may be designated by said company, subject to the
    approval of said Commission, not later than the first day of
    May, nineteen hundred and four, and shall be closed at such time
    as the National Commission may determine, subject to the
    approval of said company, but not later than the first day of
    December thereafter.

    SEC. 12. That the National Commission hereby authorized shall
    cease to exist on the first day of July, nineteen hundred and

On July 1, 1902 the following proclamation, announcing the postponement
of the exposition, was issued by the President of the United States:

    Whereas the President on August 20, 1901, issued his
    proclamation stating that he has been advised by the Louisiana
    Purchase Exposition Commission, pursuant to the provisions of
    section 9 of the act of Congress approved March 3, 1901,
    entitled "An act to provide for celebrating the one hundredth
    anniversary of the purchase of the Louisiana Territory by the
    United States by holding an international exhibition of arts,
    industries, manufactures, and the products of the soil, mine,
    forest, and sea in the city of St. Louis, in the State of
    Missouri," that provision had been made for grounds and
    buildings for the uses specified in the said mentioned act of

    Whereas it was declared and proclaimed by the President in his
    aforesaid proclamation that such international exhibition would
    be opened in the city of St. Louis, in the State of Missouri,
    not later than the 1st day of May, 1903, and be closed not later
    than the 1st day of December thereafter;

    And whereas section 8 of the act of Congress approved June 28,
    1902, entitled "An act making appropriations for sundry civil
    expenses of the Government for the fiscal year ending June 30,
    1903, and for other purposes," fixes a subsequent date for the
    holding of the said international exhibition, and specifically
    states that said Commission shall provide for the dedication of
    the buildings of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition in said city
    of St. Louis not later than the 30th day of April, 1903, with
    appropriate ceremonies, and thereafter said exposition shall be
    opened to visitors at such time as may be designated by said
    company, subject to the approval of said Commission, not later
    than the 1st day of May, 1904, and shall be closed at such time
    as the National Commission may determine, subject to the
    approval of said company, but not later than the 1st day of
    December thereafter;

    Now, therefore, I, Theodore Roosevelt, President of the United
    States, do hereby declare and proclaim the aforesaid provision
    of law to the end that it may definitely and formally be known
    that such international exhibition will be opened in the city of
    St. Louis, in the State of Missouri, not later than May 1, 1904,
    and will be closed not later than December 1 of that year.

    In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the
    seal of the United States to be affixed.

    Done at the city of Washington the 1st day of July, 1902, and of
    the independence of the United States the one hundred and



    By the President:
    Acting Secretary of State.

On April 30, 1903, the buildings of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition
were dedicated in the city of St. Louis under the direction of the



       *       *       *       *       *

At 10 o'clock a.m. the freedom of the city was tendered to the President
of the United States by the mayor of St. Louis.

The military parade, composed of United States troops and the National
Guard in attendance, assembled under direction of the grand marshal and
moved from the junction of Grand avenue and Lindell boulevard promptly
at half-past 10 o'clock, preceded by the President of the United States
and official guests in carriages, through Forest Park to the exposition
grounds, where the Presidential salute was fired, and the parade was
reviewed by the President of the United States.

At 1.30 p.m. a grand band concert took place, the doors of the Liberal
Arts Building, where the dedication exercises were held, were thrown
open, and the audience seated under direction of the guards and ushers.

Promptly at 2 o'clock the assembly was called to order by Hon. David R.
Francis, president of the Exposition Company, and the following
programme was carried out:

First. Invocation by his eminence Cardinal James Gibbons, as follows:

    We pray Thee, O God of might, wisdom, and justice, through Whom
    authority is rightly administered, laws are enacted, and
    judgment decreed, assist with the Holy Spirit of counsel and
    fortitude the President of the United States, that his
    Administration may be conducted in righteousness and be
    eminently useful to Thy people over whom he presides, by
    encouraging due respect for virtue and religion, by a faithful
    execution of the laws in justice and mercy, and by restraining
    vice and immorality.

    By the light of Thy divine wisdom direct the deliberations of
    Congress and shine forth in all their proceedings and laws
    framed for our rule and government, so that they may tend to the
    preservation of peace, the promotion of national happiness, the
    increase of industry, sobriety, and useful knowledge, and may
    perpetuate to us the blessings of equal liberty.

    We pray for his excellency, the governor of this State, for the
    members of the legislature, for all judges, magistrates, and
    other officers who are appointed to guard our political welfare,
    that they may be enabled by Thy powerful protection to discharge
    the duties of their respective stations with honesty and

    We pray for the president and directors of the Louisiana
    Purchase Exposition, that their arduous labors may be crowned
    with success, and may redound to the greater growth and
    development of this flourishing city on the banks of the Father
    of Waters.

    May this vast territory which was peacefully acquired a hundred
    years ago be for all time to come the tranquil and happy abode
    of millions of enlightened, God-fearing, and industrious people
    engaged in the various pursuits and avocations of life. As this
    new domain was added to our possessions without sanguinary
    strife, so may its soil never be stained by bloodshed in any
    foreign or domestic warfare.

    May this commemorative exposition to which the family of nations
    are generously contributing their treasures of art and industry
    bind together the governments of the earth in closer ties of
    fellowship and good will, and of social and commercial
    intercourse. May it hasten the dawn of the reign of the Prince
    of Peace, when national conflicts will be adjusted, not by
    hostile armies, but by permanent courts of arbitration.

    May this international exposition, inaugurated in the interests
    of people and commerce, help to break down the walls of
    dissension, of jealousy, and prejudice that divides race from
    race, nation from nation, and people from people, by proclaiming
    aloud the sublime gospel truth that we are all children of the
    same God, brothers and sisters of the same Lord Jesus Christ,
    and that we are all aspiring to a glorious inheritance in the
    everlasting kingdom of our common Father.

Second. Address by Mr. Thomas H. Carter, of the National Commission,
president of the day.

    One hundred years ago to-day the Government of the United States
    acquired sovereignty over the vast territory west of the
    Mississippi River, which has since been known to the
    geographical nomenclature of the world as the "Louisiana
    Purchase." Beyond the river the boundaries and the resources of
    the territory were ill defined and but vaguely comprehended. The
    purchase price of $15,000,000 was pronounced exorbitant, the
    free navigation of the Mississippi being the only part of the
    property deemed worthy of serious consideration. The transaction
    was regarded by many as a violation of the Constitution and a
    menace to our form of government. The grave doubts of president
    Jefferson were only resolved into action by his patriotic desire
    for national supremacy over the river and his prophetic faith in
    the possibilities of the mysterious country beyond it. The
    revelations of a century most amply justified his faith.

    When the treaty of cession was concluded, President Jefferson
    represented less than 6,000,000 people. During these ceremonies,
    President Roosevelt, the Executive of over 80,000,000 of
    freemen, will dedicate the buildings.

    The magical story of local development puts to shame the
    creations of fiction. The contented and prosperous inhabitants
    of the Louisiana Purchase to-day substantially equal in numbers
    three times the total population of the United States in 1800.
    The conquest of space, forests, streams, and deserts and the
    founding of cities and States in waste places within this
    territory mark an advance unsurpassed in the history of human

    In conformity with a special act of Congress, the President has
    invited all the nations to cooperate with us in properly
    commemorating the masterful achievements of a century in this
    new country.

    It is fitting that the celebration should be international, for
    you will in vain attempt to name a civilized country whose sons
    and daughters have not contributed to the glorious triumphs of
    peace recorded here. In vain will you seek a more cosmopolitan
    and at the same time a more homogeneous population than that of
    the Louisiana territory. The purchase facilitated by the
    exigencies of European war, and made in a season of darkness and
    peril, has proven a boon not only to the grantor and the
    grantee, but to humanity at large, for here the nations have
    commingled, and the brotherhood of man has become a demonstrated

    As a means of giving expression to the universal appreciation of
    what has been accomplished for humanity within this field during
    the century, the Louisiana Purchase Exposition was organized
    under authority of an act of Congress. With the aid of the
    United States Government and the city of St. Louis, the
    Exposition Company, through its officers, agents, and employees,
    has erected the majestic exposition buildings whose massive
    proportions and classical outlines excite the wonder and
    admiration of the vast multitude assembled within and about
    their walls.

    To everyone present is accorded the privilege of assisting in
    the dedication of these buildings to their intended use. The
    President of the United States honors us by being present to
    extend his greetings and to voice the approving sentiments of
    his countrymen.

    Moved by a broad and generous spirit, the nations of the earth,
    from the empire of most ancient origin to the republic of
    twentieth-century creation, dignifies the occasion by the
    presence of their accredited representatives. Our home folks
    from all the States, Territories, and districts betoken by their
    numbers and enthusiasm the interest of the body of the people in
    the exposition and the great historic event it is intended to

    In the name of the National Commission, directed by Congress to
    provide for the dedication ceremonies, I extend to you all a
    cordial welcome, and as responsive to this inspiring scene of
    peace and generous feeling, I call upon the chorus to favor us
    with Beethoven's Creation hymn.

    Those best informed will, by unanimous consent, yield to Hon.
    David R. Francis, president of the company, the highest measure
    of praise for the organization of the exposition and the
    construction of the buildings he will now present to the
    President of the United States for dedication.

Third. Grand chorus: "The Heavens Proclaiming."

Fourth. Presentation of the buildings by Hon. David R. Francis,
president of the Exposition Company:

    The people of the Louisiana Purchase are proud of their
    membership in the Federal Union.

    They are grateful for the benefits that have flowed from a life
    under the enduring institutions framed by the founders of the
    Republic. They congratulate their brethren on the position our
    country occupies among the nations of the earth, and felicitate
    themselves on the part they have performed toward raising it to
    its present prestige and power.

    They felt it a patriotic duty to fittingly commemorate the
    completion of the first century of their connection with the
    American Republic, and the rounding out of an important epoch in
    the life of the Republic. In the discharge of that duty this
    exposition was conceived. The inhabitants of the fourteen States
    and two Territories comprised within the purchase selected St.
    Louis as the scene of the celebration.

    The people of this city, grateful for the honor conferred,
    promptly accepted it and cheerfully assumed the immense
    responsibility it entailed. The century just closed, unequaled
    as it was in every line of progress, furnishes no more striking
    evidence of the advance of civilization than the development of
    the Louisiana territory. A celebration in such an age and in
    such a country, to be fit, should be upon a scale in keeping
    with the best and the highest, and should be planned upon lines
    broad enough to take in every people and every clime.

    A scheme so ambitious in its inception naturally had
    comparatively few advocates and encountered many antagonists and
    more doubters. It could not be accomplished without the
    recognition and the aid of the General Government, which, for a
    time, it seemed impossible to enlist. It was decided that the
    amount required to launch an undertaking so comprehensive should
    be the same as that paid for the empire which Jefferson
    purchased--$15,000,000. The Congress said to St. Louis, "When
    you have secured two-thirds of that sum, we will provide the
    remaining third." The conditions were accepted and fulfilled.

    After three years of struggle the sinews had been secured--the
    first step accomplished. Two years have since elapsed. During
    that period the work has been pushed in every State and
    Territory and possession of the United States, and in every
    civilized country on the earth. The disappointments experienced
    and the obstacles encountered have but served to spur to renewed
    effort those who, from the inception of the movement, had
    determined to carry it to a successful consummation.

    The further encouragement of the General Government on the
    provision for its own exhibit, the cooperation of 41 States and
    Territories and possessions of the United States, the pledged
    participation of 32 foreign countries are the results of
    vigorous domestic and foreign exploitation. That, and what you
    behold here to-day in physical shape, we submit as the product
    of five years of labor, nearly four of which were devoted to
    propaganda and appeal and organization.

    The plan and scope, comprehensive as they were in the beginning,
    have never diminished at any stage of the progress; rather have
    they been amplified and enlarged.

    St. Louis, with an ever-widening sense of the responsibility,
    and an ever-growing appreciation of the opportunity, has, up to
    this moment, risen to the full measure of the duty assumed. The
    management of the exposition has never despaired, but with a
    realizing sense of the mighty task it has undertaken, and
    mindful of the limitations of human capabilities, with
    singleness of purpose and with personal sacrifice for which it
    neither asks nor deserves credit, has striven to meet the
    expectations of those whose trust it holds.

    The Exposition Company makes its acknowledgments to those
    faithful and efficient officials whose intelligent service have
    contributed so much toward bringing the enterprise to its
    present stage. The company expresses its obligation to the
    artists and artisans who have reared these graceful and majestic
    structures and whose labors have been inspired more by pride in
    the end to be achieved than by hope of material reward.

    The Universal Exposition of 1904, when the date of opening rolls
    around one year from to-day, will, with its buildings completed,
    its exhibits installed, be thoroughly prepared to receive the
    millions of visitors who will enter its gates. The distinguished
    assemblage which honors us with its presence to-day can come
    nearer forming an adequate conception of the scope of the work
    by personal inspection than through the writings or
    illustrations of authors and designers, however great their
    talent may be.

    To the President of the United States, to the accomplished
    representatives of foreign countries, to the chief executives of
    the sovereign States, to the Senators and Representatives of the
    National Congress, to the great concourse of visitors here
    congregated, we extend greeting. If you are pleased with what
    has been accomplished, your approval is abundant reward for the
    labor we have performed.

    We bear in mind and trust you do not overlook that this
    celebration is of no section, but of the entire country. It is
    our hope and our expectation that every section and every
    commonwealth, and in fact, every community, will cherish a
    proprietary interest and lend hopeful aid to this undertaking,
    to the end that it may prove as nearly as may be commensurate
    with the country and the century whose achievement and
    advancement it is designed to commemorate.

    The beautiful picture whose outlines you now behold will, to
    adopt the simile of the chief designer, when completed, compose
    a song that will reverberate around the globe.

    And now, Mr. President, it is my pleasing privilege and high
    honor to present to you for dedication the buildings of the
    Louisiana Purchase Exposition. May a high standard of
    citizenship and broader humanity and the mission of the country
    whose worthy representative you are be sustained and fostered
    and promoted by the uses to which these structures are devoted.
    May the happiness of mankind be advanced and broadened by the
    lofty purposes that inspired this undertaking and moved our own
    and sister countries to unite in its accomplishment.

Fifth. Dedication address by the President of the United States:

    MR. PRESIDENT, LADIES AND GENTLEMEN: At the outset of my address
    let me recall to the minds of my hearers that the soil upon
    which we stand, before it was ours was successively the
    possession of two mighty empires--Spain and France--whose sons
    made a deathless record of heroism in the early annals of the
    New World.

    No history of the Western country can be written without paying
    heed to the wonderful part played therein in the early days by
    the soldiers, missionaries, explorers, and traders who did their
    work for the honor of the proud banners of France and Castile.

    While the settlers of English-speaking stock and those of Dutch,
    German, and Scandinavian origin, who were associated with them,
    were still clinging close to the eastern seaboard, the pioneers
    of Spain and of France had penetrated deep into the hitherto
    unknown wildness of the West and had wandered far and wide
    within the boundaries of what is now our mighty country. The
    very cities themselves--St. Louis, New Orleans, Santa Fe, N.
    Mex.--bear witness by their titles to the nationalities of their
    founders. It was not until the Revolution had begun that the
    English-speaking settlers pushed west across the Alleghanies,
    and not until a century ago that they entered in to possess the
    land upon which we now stand.

    We have met here to-day to commemorate the hundredth anniversary
    of the event which more than any other, after the foundation of
    the Government, and always excepting its preservation,
    determined the character of our national life--determined that
    we should be a great expanding nation instead of relatively a
    small and stationary one.

    Of course, it was not with the Louisiana Purchase that our
    career of expansion began. In the middle of the Revolutionary
    war the Illinois region, including the present States of
    Illinois and Indiana, was added to our domain by force of arms,
    as a sequel to the adventurous expedition of George Rogers Clark
    and his frontier riflemen.

    Later the treaties of Jay and Pinckney materially extended our
    real boundaries to the west. But none of these events was of so
    striking a character as to fix the popular imagination. The old
    thirteen colonies had always claimed that their rights stretched
    westward to the Mississippi, and vague and unreal though these
    claims were until made good by conquest, settlement, and
    diplomacy, they still served to give the impression that the
    earliest westward movements of our people were little more than
    the filling in of already existing national boundaries.

    But there could be no illusion about the acquisition of the vast
    territory beyond the Mississippi, stretching westward to the
    Pacific, which in that day was known as Louisiana. This immense
    region was admittedly the territory of a foreign power, of a
    European kingdom. None of our people had ever laid claim to a
    foot of it. Its acquisition could in no sense be treated as
    rounding out any existing claims. When we acquired it, we made
    evident once for all that consciously and of set purpose we had
    embarked on a career of expansion; that we had taken our place
    among those daring and hardy nations who risk much with the hope
    and desire of winning high position among the great powers of
    the earth. As is so often the case in nature the law of
    development of a living organism showed itself in its actual
    workings to be wiser than the wisdom of the wisest.

    This work of expansion was by far the greatest work of our
    people during the years that intervened between the adoption of
    the Constitution and the outbreak of the civil war. There were
    other questions of real moment and importance, and there were
    many which at the time seemed such to those engaged in answering
    them; but the greatest feat of our forefathers of those
    generations was the deed of the men, who with pack train or
    wagon train, on horseback, on foot, or by boat upon the waters
    pushed the frontier ever westward across the continent.

    Never before had the world seen the kind of national expansion
    which gave our people all that part of the American continent
    lying west of the thirteen original States--the greatest
    landmark in which was the Louisiana Purchase. Our triumph in
    this process of expansion was indissolubly bound up with the
    success of our peculiar kind of Federal Government, and this
    success has been so complete that because of its very
    completeness we now sometimes fail to appreciate not only the
    all importance but the tremendous difficulty of the problem with
    which our nation was originally faced.

    When our forefathers joined to call into being this nation, they
    undertook a task for which there was but little encouraging
    precedent. The development of civilization from the earliest
    period seemed to show the truth of two propositions: In the
    first place, it had always proved exceedingly difficult to
    secure both freedom and strength in any Government; and in the
    second place, it had always proved well-nigh impossible for a
    nation to expand without either breaking up or becoming a
    centralized tyranny. With the success of our effort to combine a
    strong and efficient national union, able to put down disorder
    at home and to maintain our honor and interest abroad, I have
    not now to deal. This success was signal and all important, but
    it was by no means unprecedented in the same sense that our type
    of expansion was unprecedented.

    The history of Rome and of Greece illustrates very well the two
    types of expansion which had taken place in ancient times, and
    which had been universally accepted as the only possible types
    up to the period when, as a nation, we ourselves began to take
    possession of this continent. The Grecian states performed
    remarkable feats of colonization, but each colony as soon as
    created became entirely independent of the mother state, and in
    after years was almost as apt to prove its enemy as its friend.
    Local self-government, local independence was secured, but only
    by the absolute sacrifice of anything resembling national unity.

    In consequence, the Greek world, for all its wonderful
    brilliancy and extraordinary artistic, literary, and
    philosophical development, which has made all mankind its debtor
    for the ages, was yet wholly unable to withstand a formidable
    foreign foe, save spasmodically. As soon as powerful permanent
    empires arose on its outskirts, the Greek states in the
    neighborhood of such empires fell under their sway. National
    power and greatness were completely sacrificed to local liberty.

    With Rome the exact opposite occurred. The imperial city rose to
    absolute dominion over all the people of Italy, and then
    expanded her rule over the entire civilized world, by a process
    which kept the nation strong and united, but gave no room
    whatever for local liberty and self-government. All other cities
    and countries were subject to Rome. In consequence, this great
    and masterful race of warriors, rulers, road builders, and
    administrators stamped their indelible impress upon all the
    after life of our race, and yet let an over-centralization eat
    out the vitals of their empire until it became an empty shell,
    so that when the barbarians came they destroyed only what had
    already become worthless to the world.

    The underlying viciousness of each type of expansion was plain
    enough, and the remedy now seems simple enough. But when the
    fathers of the Republic first formulated the Constitution under
    which we live, this remedy was untried, and no one could
    foretell how it would work. They themselves began the experiment
    almost immediately by adding new States to the original
    thirteen. Excellent people in the East viewed this initial
    expansion of the country with great alarm. Exactly as during the
    colonial period many good people in the mother country thought
    it highly important that settlers should be kept out of the Ohio
    Valley in the interest of the fur companies, so after we had
    become a nation many good people on the Atlantic coast felt
    grave apprehension lest they might somehow be hurt by the
    westward growth of the nation.

    These good people shook their heads over the formation of States
    in the fertile Ohio Valley, which now forms part of the heart of
    our nation, and they declared that the destruction of the
    Republic had been accomplished when through the Louisiana
    Purchase we acquired nearly half of what is now that same
    Republic's present territory. Nor was their feeling unnatural.
    Only the adventurous and the farseeing can be expected heartily
    to welcome the process of expansion, for a nation which expands
    is a nation which is entering upon a great career, and with
    greatness there must of necessity come perils which daunt all
    save the most stout-hearted.

    We expand by carving the wilderness into Territories, and out of
    these Territories building new States when once they had
    received as permanent settlers a sufficient number of our own
    people. Being a practical nation, we have never tried to force
    on any section of our new territory an unsuitable form of
    government merely because it was suitable for another section
    under different conditions. Of the territory covered by the
    Louisiana Purchase, a portion was given statehood within a few
    years. Another portion has not been admitted to statehood,
    although a century has elapsed, although doubtless it soon will
    be. In each case we showed the practical governmental genius of
    our race by devising methods suitable to meet the actual
    existing needs, not by insisting upon the application of some
    abstract shibboleth to all our new possessions alike, no matter
    how incongruous this application might sometimes be.

    Over by far the major part of the territory, however, our people
    spread in such numbers during the course of the nineteenth
    century that we were able to build up State after State, each
    with exactly the same complete local independence in all matters
    affecting purely its own domestic interests as in any of the
    original thirteen States, each owing the same absolute fealty to
    the Union of all the States which each of the original thirteen
    States also owes, and, finally, each having the same
    proportional right to its share in shaping and directing the
    common policy of the Union which is possessed by any other
    State, whether of the original thirteen or not.

    This process now seems to us part of the natural order of
    things, but it was wholly unknown until our own people devised
    it. It seems to us a mere matter of course, a matter of
    elementary right and justice, that in the deliberations of the
    national representative bodies the representatives of a State
    which came into the Union but yesterday stand on a footing of
    exact and entire equality with those of the commonwealth whose
    sons once signed the Declaration of Independence.

    But this way of looking at the matter is purely modern and in
    its origin purely American. When Washington, during his
    Presidency, saw new States come into the Union on a footing of
    complete equality with the old, every European nation which had
    colonies still administered them as dependencies, and every
    other mother country treated the colonists not as a
    self-governing equal, but as a subject.

    The process which we began has since been followed by all the
    great people who were capable both of expansion and of
    self-government, and now the world accepts it as the natural
    process, as the rule; but a century and a quarter ago it was not
    merely exceptional--it was unknown.

    This, then, is the great historic significance of the movement
    of continental expansion, in which the Louisiana Purchase was
    the most striking single achievement. It stands out in marked
    relief even among the feats of a nation of pioneers, a nation
    whose people have, from the beginning, been picked out by a
    process of natural selection from among the most enterprising
    individuals of the nations of western Europe.

    The acquisition of the territory is a credit to the broad and
    far-sighted statesmanship of the great statesmen to whom it was
    immediately due, and, above all, to the aggressive and masterful
    character of the hardy pioneer folk to whose restless energy
    these statesmen gave expression and direction, whom they
    followed rather than led. The history of the land comprised
    within the limits of the Purchase is an epitome of the entire
    history of our people. Within these limits we have gradually
    built up State after State, until now they many times over
    surpass in wealth, in population, and in many-sided development
    the original thirteen States as they were when their delegates
    met in the Continental Congress.

    The people of these States have shown themselves mighty in war
    with their fellow-man and mighty in strength to tame the rugged
    wilderness. They could not thus have conquered the forest, the
    prairie, the mountain and the desert, had they not possessed the
    great fighting virtues, the qualities which enable a people to
    overcome the forces of hostile men and hostile nature.

    On the other hand they could not have used aright their conquest
    had they not in addition possessed the qualities of self-mastery
    and self-restraint, the power of acting in combination with
    their fellows, the power of yielding obedience to the law and of
    building up an orderly civilization. Courage and hardihood are
    indispensable virtues in a people, but the people which possess
    no others can never rise high in the scale either of power or of
    culture. Great peoples must have in addition the governmental
    capacity which comes only when individuals fully recognize their
    duties to one another and to the whole body politic and are able
    to join together in feats of constructive statesmanship and of
    honest and effective administration.

    The old pioneer days are gone with their roughness and their
    hardship, their incredible toil and their wild, half-savage
    romance. But the need for the pioneer virtues remains the same
    as ever. The peculiar frontier conditions have vanished; but the
    manliness and stalwart hardihood of the frontiersman can be
    given even freer scope under the conditions surrounding the
    complex industrialism of the present day.

    In this great region acquired for our people under the
    presidency of Jefferson, this region stretching from the Gulf to
    the Canadian border, from the Mississippi to the Rockies, the
    material and social progress has been so vast that alike for
    weal and for woe, the people share the opportunities and bear
    the burdens common to the entire civilized world. The problems
    before us are fundamentally the same east and west of the
    Mississippi, in the new States and in the old, and exactly the
    same qualities are required for their successful solution.

    We meet here to-day to commemorate a great event, an event which
    marks an era in statesmanship no less than in pioneering. It is
    fitting that we should pay our homage in words; but we must in
    honor make our words good by deeds. We have every right to take
    a just pride in the great deeds of our forefathers; but we show
    ourselves unworthy to be their descendants if we make what they
    did an excuse for our lying supine instead of an incentive to
    the effort to show ourselves, by our acts, worthy of them. In
    the administration of city, State, and nation, in the management
    of our home life and conduct of our business and social
    relations, we are bound to show certain high and fine qualities
    of character under penalty of seeing the whole heart of our
    civilization eaten out while the body still lives.

    We justly pride ourselves on our marvelous material prosperity,
    and such prosperity must exist in order to establish a
    foundation upon which a higher life can be built; but unless we
    do in very fact build this higher life thereon, the material
    prosperity itself will go but for very little. Now, in 1903, in
    the altered conditions, we must meet the changed and changing
    problems with the spirit shown by the men who in 1803 and in
    subsequent years, gained, explored, conquered, and settled this
    vast territory, then a desert, now filled with thriving and
    populous States.

    The old days were great because the men who lived in them had
    mighty qualities; and we must make the new days great by showing
    the same qualities. We must insist upon courage and resolution,
    upon hardihood, tenacity, and fertility in resource; we must
    insist upon the strong virile virtues; and we must insist no
    less upon the virtues of self-restraint, self-mastery, regard
    for the rights of others; we must show our abhorrence of
    cruelty, brutality, and corruption, in public and private life

    If we come short in any of these qualities we shall measurably
    fail; and if, as I believe we surely shall, we develop these
    qualities in the future to an even greater degree than in the
    past, then in the century now beginning we shall make of this
    Republic the freest and most orderly, the most just and most
    mighty nation which has ever come forth from the womb of time.

Sixth. Grand chorus: "Unfold Ye Portals."

Seventh. Address by Hon. Grover Cleveland:

    MR. PRESIDENT, LADIES AND GENTLEMEN: The impressiveness of this
    occasion is greatly enhanced by reason of an atmosphere of
    prophecy's fulfillment which surrounds it. The thought is in our
    minds that we are amid awe-inspiring surroundings, where we may
    see and feel things foretold a century ago. We are here in
    recognition of the one hundredth anniversary of an event which
    doubled the area of the young American nation, and dedicated a
    new and wide domain of American progress and achievement. The
    treaty whose completion we to-day commemorate was itself a
    prophecy of our youthful nation's mighty growth and development.
    At its birth prophets in waiting joyously foretold the happiness
    which its future promised. He who was the chief actor in the
    United States in its negotiations, as he signed the perfected
    instrument, thus declared its effect and far-reaching
    consequences: "The instrument which we have just signed will
    cause no tears to be shed. It prepares ages of happiness for
    innumerable generations of human creatures. The Mississippi and
    the Missouri will see them succeed one another, truly worthy of
    the regard and care of Providence in the bosom of equality under
    just laws, freed from the errors of superstition and the
    scourges of bad government."

    He who represented the nation with whom we negotiated, when he
    afterwards gave to the world his account of the transactions,
    declared: "The consequences of the cession of Louisiana will
    extend to the most distant posterity. It interests vast regions
    that will become by their civilization and power the rivals of
    Europe before another century commences," and warmed to
    enthusiasm by the developments already in view and greater ones
    promised, he added: "Who can contemplate without vivid emotion
    this spectacle of the happiness of the present generation and
    the certain pledges of the prosperity of numberless generations
    that will follow? At these magnificent prospects the heart beats
    with joy in the breasts of those who were permitted to see the
    dawn of these bright days, and who are assured that so many
    happy presages will be accomplished."

    There was another prophet, greater than all--prophet and
    priest--who, higher up the mountain than others, heard more
    distinctly the voice of destiny, whose heart and soul were full
    of prophecy and whose every faculty was tense and strong as he
    wrought for our nation's advancement and for the peace and
    contentment of his fellow-countryman. From the fullness of
    gratitude and joy, he thus wrote to one who had assisted in the
    consummation of this great treaty:

    "For myself and my country, I thank you for the aid you have
    given in it; and I congratulate you on having lived to give
    these aids in a transaction replete with blessings to unborn
    millions of men, and which will mark the face of a portion of
    the globe so extensive as that which now composes the United
    States of America;" and when, as President, he gave notice in a
    message to Congress of the actual occupancy by the Government of
    its new acquisition, he happily presaged the future and gave
    assurance of his complete faith and confidence in the beneficent
    result of our nation's extensions, in these words: "On this
    important acquisition, so favorable to the immediate interests
    of our western citizens, so auspicious to the peace and security
    of the nation in general, which adds to our country territories
    so extensive and fertile and to our citizens new brethren to
    partake of the blessings of freedom and self-government, I offer
    Congress and our country my sincere congratulations."

    Our prophets do not live forever. They are not here to see how
    stupendously the growth and development of the American nation,
    or the domain newly acquired in their day, have, during a short
    century, outrun their anticipations and predictions.

    Almost within the limits of the territory gained by the
    Louisiana purchase, we have already carved out twelve great
    States, leaving still a large residue whose occupants are even
    now loudly clamoring for statehood.

    Instead of the 50,000 white settlers who occupied this domain in
    1803, it now contains 15,000,000 of industrious, enterprising,
    intelligent Americans, constituting about one-fifth of the
    population of all our States; and these are defiantly contesting
    for premiership in wealth and material success with the oldest
    of our States, and are their equals in every phase of advanced
    intelligence and refined civilization.

    The States which composed the Union when its possessions were so
    greatly extended have since that time seen the center of the
    nation's population carried more than 500 miles westward by the
    swift and constant current of settlement toward this new domain;
    and the citizens of these States have been flocking thither,
    "new brethren to partake of the blessings of freedom and
    self-government," in multitudes greater than even Jefferson
    would have dared to foretell.

    I shall not enter the field of statistics for the purpose of
    giving details of the development of the territory acquired
    under the treaty we commemorate. I have referred to such
    development in some of its general features by way of suggesting
    how distinctly the century just ended gives assurance of a
    startling and superabundant final fulfillment of the prophecies
    of its beginners.

    The supreme importance of the Louisiana purchase and its value
    as a national accomplishment, when seen in the incidents of its
    short history and in the light of its present and prospective
    effects, and judged solely by its palpable and independent
    merits, can not be better characterized than by the adoption of
    the following language from the pen of a brilliant American
    historian: "The annexation of Louisiana was an event so
    portentious as to defy measurement. It gave a new face to
    politics and ranked in historical importance next to the
    Declaration of Independence and the adoption of the
    Constitution, events of which it was the logical outcome. But as
    a matter of diplomacy it was unparalleled because it cost almost

    How fitting on every ground it is that the centennial of this
    stupendous event should be joyously and appropriately
    celebrated; and that it should be celebrated here in the most
    populous of the States created from the territory which the
    Louisiana purchase gave to us. And how in keeping it is with the
    character of this acquisition and with its purpose and mission
    that our celebration should not waste itself on the pomp and
    pageantry that belongs to the triumphs and spoils of war, or to
    the rapacious dispossessions of ruthless conquest. Every feature
    of our celebration should remind us that we memorialize a
    peaceful acquisition of territory for truly American uses and
    purposes; and we should rejoice not only because this
    acquisition immediately gave peace and contentment to the
    spirited and determined American settlers who demanded an outlet
    of trade to the sea, but also because it provided homes and
    means of livelihood for the millions of new Americans whose
    coming tread fell upon the ears of the expectant fathers of the
    Republic, and whose stout hearts and brawny arms wrought the
    miracles which our celebration should interpret.

    We are here at this hour to dedicate beautiful and stately
    edifices to the purposes of our commemoration, but as we do this
    let us remember that the soil whereon we stand was a century ago
    dedicated to the genius of American industry and thrift. For
    every reason, nothing could be more appropriate as an important
    part of the centennial commemoration we have undertaken than the
    gathering together on this spot of the things that are
    characteristic of American effort and which tell the story of
    American achievement; and how happily will this be supplemented
    and crowned by the generous, magnanimous, and instructive
    contributions from other and older lands, which, standing side
    by side with our exhibits, shall manifest the high and friendly
    regard our Republic has gained among the governments of the
    earth, and shall demonstrate how greatly advancing civilization
    has fostered and stimulated the brotherhood of nations.

    I can not, however, rid myself of the feeling that the
    inspiration and value attending such an exposition may be
    anticipated and increased if on this dedicatory occasion we
    promote appropriate reflections by a retrospection of some of
    the incidents which accompanied the event we celebrate.

    We all know that long before the negotiations of the treaty of
    1803 our Government had a keen appreciation of the importance to
    American settlers in the valley of the Mississippi of an
    arrangement permitting their products to be deposited and
    exported at the entrance of that river to the sea. It will be
    remembered that this need of our settlers had been met in a
    limited and not altogether secure manner by a treaty with Spain,
    allowing such deposits and exports to be made at the city of New
    Orleans. This privilege was entirely withdrawn in October, 1792,
    the territory appurtenant to such privilege having been in the
    meantime transferred to France. The situation thus created was
    extremely delicate. There was presented to the Government on the
    one hand the injury to western settlers through the loss of
    their trading outlet, and on the other the perplexing question
    of affording them relief by means of diplomatic agreement, or in
    some other method. The abandonment of our settlers to their
    disheartening fate was of course not contemplated.

    It can not be denied that the conditions plainly pointed to
    cautious and deliberate negotiations as the way of prudence and
    safety. It very soon became apparent, however, that delay and
    too much deliberation did not suit the temper and spirit of
    sturdy Americans chafing under a sense of wrong and convinced
    that they were entitled to prompt assistance. The inhabitants of
    our territory bounding on the east side of the Mississippi, in a
    memorial addressed to the President, Senate, and House of
    Representatives, after reciting their discouraging conditions
    and expressing their faith in the Government's disposition to
    extend the necessary aid, closed their memorial with these
    significant words: "And so far as may depend on ourselves, we
    tender to our country our lives and fortunes in support of such
    measures as Congress may deem necessary to vindicate the honor
    and protect the interests of the United States."

    The settlers in the States "west of the Allegheny Mountains"
    also, in a memorial to the Government, clearly indicated their
    impatience and readiness for extreme action, declared that
    prompt and decisive measures were necessary, and referred to the
    maxim that protection and allegiance are reciprocal as being
    particularly applicable to their situation. They concluded their
    statement with these solemn words: "Without interfering in the
    measures that have been adopted to bring about the amicable
    arrangement of a difference which has grown out of the
    gratuitous violation of a solemn treaty, they desire that the
    United States may explicitly understand that their condition is
    critical; that the delay of a single season would be ruinous to
    their country, and that an imperious necessity may consequently
    oblige them, if they receive no aid, to adopt themselves the
    measures that may appear to them calculated to protect their
    commerce, even though those measures should produce consequences
    unfavorable to the harmony of the Confederacy."

    These representations emphasized the apprehension of those
    charged with governmental affairs that the course of deliberate
    caution and waiting, which up to that time had appeared to be
    the only one permissible, might be insufficient to meet the
    situation, and that whatever the result might be, a more
    pronounced position and more urgent action should be entered
    upon. President Jefferson wrote to a friend on the 1st of
    February, 1803: "Our circumstances are so imperious as to admit
    of no delay as to our course, and the use of the Mississippi so
    indispensible that we can not hesitate one moment to hazard our
    existence for its maintenance." He appointed an additional envoy
    to cooperate with our representative already at the French
    capital in an attempt to obtain a concession that would cure the
    difficulty, and, in a communication to him, after referring to
    the excitement caused by the withdrawal of the right of deposit,
    he thus characterizes the condition which he believed confronted
    the nation: "On the event of this mission depend the future
    destinies of this Republic. If we can not by a purchase of the
    country insure to ourselves a course of perpetual peace and
    friendship of all nations, then, as war can not be far distant,
    it behooves us immediately to be preparing for that course,
    though not hastening it."

    I have not recited these details for the purpose of claiming
    that this accelerated speed and advanced position on the part of
    our Government had any important effect in hastening final
    results. I have thought it not amiss, however, to call attention
    to the fact that a century ago the people of this country were
    not seeking to gain governmental benefit by clandestine approach
    and cunning pretense, but were apt to plainly present their
    wants and grievances, and to openly demand such consideration
    and care from the General Government as was their due under the
    mandate of popular rule, and that in making their demands they
    relied on the mutual obligation of the relationship between the
    governed and those invested with authority, and invoked the
    reciprocity in political duty which enjoins that for the
    people's obedience and support of government, there shall be
    given in exchange, by the Government to the people, defense of
    their personal rights and the assurance that in safety and peace
    they shall surely reap the fruits of their enterprise and labor.

    It may also be well to note the efficacy of the people's call
    upon the Government in those early days, and how quickly the
    response came; not by yielding to gusts of popular whim and
    caprice; not by conferring benefits upon the few at the expense
    of the many; but by a quick observation of the fact that the
    withdrawal of certain rightful privilege by another nation from
    American settlers had caused them distress, and by a prompt
    determination to relieve their distress, even if the unwelcome
    visage of war frowned in opposition.

    Another incident which, it seems to me, we may recall to-day
    with profit and satisfaction, grew out of the conduct of the
    President when the treaty of 1803 had been formulated and was
    returned to him for ratification and final completion. He was,
    as is well known, originally quite firm in his belief that the
    Constitution as it stood did not authorize such an extension of
    our limits by purchase as the treaty for the acquisition of the
    Louisiana Territory contemplated. Holding this opinion, and at
    the same time confronted with the clear conviction that the
    treaty, with all its stupendous advantages, could not be allowed
    to fail without positive peril, if not to our national life, at
    least to its most vital object and aspirations, his perplexity
    was increased by the receipt of an authoritative intimation that
    any delay in final action on the treaty might open the way to a
    recession on the part of France. In these circumstances, not
    daring to risk the delay of an amendment to the Constitution
    prior to such final action, he proposed reconciling consistency
    with duty by procuring confirmation of the treaty by the Senate
    and compassing its unquestionable validation by a subsequent
    constitutional amendment.

    In view of the conclusive statement, since that time of this
    constitutional question by every branch of the Government
    against Mr. Jefferson's original opinion and in favor of the
    nation's power to acquire territory, as was done under the
    treaty of 1803, and considering the fact that we have since that
    time immensely increased our area by the acquisition, not only
    of neighboring territory, but of distant islands of the sea,
    separated by thousands of miles from our home domain, we may be
    inclined to think lightly of President Jefferson's scruples
    concerning the acquisition of lands, not only next adjacent to
    us, but indisputably necessary to our peace and development.

    There were wise men near our President in 1803 who differed with
    him touching the nation's power to acquire new territory under
    the original provisions of the Constitution; and these men did
    not fail to make known their dissent. Moreover, in the Senate,
    to which the treaty was submitted for confirmation, there was an
    able discussion of its constitutional validity and
    effectiveness. The judgment of that body on this phase of the
    subject was emphatically declared, when out of 31 votes 24 were
    cast in favor of confirmation. An amendment to the Constitution
    was afterwards presented to Congress, but its first appearance
    was its last. It does not appear that the President interested
    himself in its fate, and it died at the moment of introduction.

    While in this day and generation we may wonder at the doubts
    which so perplexed Jefferson in 1803 and at his estimate of the
    limitation of our fundamental law, and may be startled when we
    reflect that if they had been allowed to control his action we
    might have lost the greatest national opportunity which has been
    presented to our people since the adoption of the Constitution,
    we can not fail at the same time to be profoundly grateful that
    these doubts and this estimate were those of a man sincere
    enough and patriotic enough to listen to wise and able
    counselors and to give his country the benefit of his admission
    of the fallibility of his judgment.

    Thomas Jefferson never furnished better evidence of his
    greatness than when, just before the submission of the treaty to
    the Senate, he wrote to a distinguished Senator who differed
    with him on this question: "I confess that I think it important
    in the present case to set an example against broad construction
    by appealing for new power to the people. If, however, our
    friends shall think differently, certainly I shall acquiesce
    with satisfaction, confiding that the good sense of our country
    will correct the evil of construction when it shall produce ill

    A recent writer on American diplomacy, who is not suspected of
    partiality for Jeffersonian political doctrine, gave in strong
    and graceful terms a good reason for our gratitude to-day, when,
    in referring to this subject, he wrote: "It was fortunate for
    the future of America that we had at the head of affairs a man
    of such broad views of our country's future. A less able
    President, with the same views as entertained by Jefferson as to
    the constitutionality of the measure would have put aside the
    opportunity. Jefferson put aside his preconceived views as to
    the fundamental law; or subordinated them to the will of the
    nation and welcomed the opportunity to open up the continent to
    the expansion of American democracy and free institutions."

    We are glad at this hour that Jefferson was wrong in his adverse
    construction of the Constitution and glad that he was liberal
    minded enough to see that he might be wrong. And yet may we not
    profitably pause here long enough to contrast in our thoughts
    the careful and reverent manner in which the restrictions of our
    fundamental law were scrutinized a hundred years ago with the
    tendency often seen in later times to flippantly attempt the
    adjustment of our Constitution to the purposes of interest and

    In conclusion, I hope I may be permitted to suggest that our
    thoughts and surroundings on this occasion should lead us to
    humble recognition of the providence of God in all that has made
    us a great nation. From our beginning as a people our course has
    been marked by concurrences and incidents so striking, so
    significant and so constant, that only superstitious dullness or
    intellectual blindness will place them to the credit of luck or

    In the midst of our rejoicing to-day it is peculiarly fitting
    that we recall with soberness and meekness some of the happiness
    in connection with the great event we celebrate, which
    impressively illustrate the interposition of Divine Providence
    in our behalf. We sought from a nation ruled by one whose
    ambition was boundless and whose scheme for aggrandizement knew
    neither the obligations of public morality nor the restraints of
    good faith, the free navigation of the Mississippi River, and
    such insignificant territory as would make such navigation
    useful. While our efforts toward the accomplishment of this
    slight result languished and were fast assuming a hopeless
    condition, the autocrat of France suddenly commanded one of his
    ministers to enter into negotiations with our waiting and
    dispirited representatives and exclaimed: "I renounce Louisiana.
    It is not only New Orleans I cede. It is the whole colony
    without reserve."

    It was only nineteen days thereafter that the treaty
    transferring to us the magnificent domain comprised within the
    Louisiana Purchase was concluded.

    This astonishing change in our prospects, which dissipated the
    fears and apprehensions of our Government and revived the
    promise of our perpetuity and happy destiny, came at the very
    moment that Bonaparte was organizing a force to occupy the
    Louisiana Territory in the prosecution of colonial occupation
    and development, which, if consummated, would probably have
    closed the door even to the slight acquisition which we
    originally sought. The French colony of Santo Domingo was,
    however, a prime factor in this scheme of occupation, and it was
    essential to its success that this colony and Louisiana should
    both be included and should supplement each other. A serious
    revolt then raging in Santo Domingo delaying proceedings, the
    occupation of Louisiana was postponed until this revolt should
    be overcome. The troops sent from France to accomplish this
    apparently easy task were so stubbornly resisted by hundreds of
    thousands of freed blacks fighting against their reenslavement,
    and they suffered so terribly from climatic conditions and
    deadly fever, that after the sacrifice of 25,000 soldiers, many
    of whom were intended for the subsequent occupation of
    Louisiana, Bonaparte's plan for the occupation of both colonies
    miscarried. The disappointment and the conception of new schemes
    of war and conquest by the restless dictator of France, and his
    need of money to carry out these schemes, were controlling
    circumstances in leading him to throw in our lap the entire
    Louisiana Territory. None of these circumstances were within our
    procurement or knowledge; but who shall say that God was not
    accomplishing His designs in our behalf amid the turmoil and
    distressing scenes of Santo Domingo's revolt? And how can it be
    said that there was no Providence in the unexpected unyielding
    and successful fight for continued freedom on the part of the
    negroes of Santo Domingo, or in the fatal pestilence that vied
    with bloody warfare in the destruction of the army of
    subjugation, or in the fever of war and aggression which heated
    the blood of Bonaparte, all combining to turn him away from the
    occupation of the Louisiana Territory? All these things, so
    remote and so far out of sight, pointed with the coercion that
    belongs to the decrees of God to a consummation which restored
    to our people peace and contentment, and secured to our nation
    extension and development beyond the dreams of our fathers.

    Thus we may well recall in these surroundings the wonderful
    measure of prophecy's fulfillment within the span of a short
    century, the spirit, the patriotism, and the civic virtue of
    Americans who lived a hundred years ago, and God's overruling of
    the wrath of man and His devious ways for the blessing of our

    We are all proud of our American citizenship. Let us leave this
    place with this feeling stimulated by the sentiments born of the
    occasion. Let us appreciate more keenly than ever how vitally
    necessary it is to our country's weal that everyone within its
    citizenship should be clean minded in political aim and
    aspiration, sincere and honest in his conception of our
    country's mission, and aroused to higher and more responsive
    patriotism by the reflection that it is a solemn thing to belong
    to a people favored of God.

Eighth. "America," with full chorus and band accompaniment.

Ninth. Prayer by Bishop E.R. Hendrix:

    Almighty God, our Heavenly Father, we devoutly thank and worship
    Thee, the Author of our being, and the gracious source of all
    our blessings. We are because Thou art; and Thou hast made us in
    Thy image capable of fellowship with Thee and delighting in a
    fellowship with one another as we resemble Thee. Thou hast given
    us our reason and the power of cooperation with one another in
    all worthy ends looking to the well-being of our race.
    Civilization with its conquests over the material world is
    possible only with Thy aid. Christianity with its conquests over
    evil is the work of God and man, as Thou dost call us to be Thy
    fellow-workers and dost inspire us with courage and faith.

    This wonderful achievement of human effort and skill which we
    dedicate this day is possible only by Thy help and as we have
    imitated Thy example. Thou art the great Architect and Builder.
    Thou art the great Mathematician and Engineer. Thou art the
    great Chemist and Electrician. Thou art the great Thinker and
    Artist. Our works are but pale and feeble copies of Thine, and
    are possible only because Thou workest until now and dost bless
    our works. The uniformity of Thy laws bids us work in
    confidence, and the unity of nature bids us work intelligently,
    because we work with Thee. We praise Thee for thy growing
    confidence in man, as Thou dost place in his hand the keys of
    every laboratory and dost trust him with the secrets of nature
    that have been hid from the foundation of the world. Again Thou
    dost give man dominion, whether in science, or art, or
    government, nor wilt Thou remove his scepter if he wield it for
    the betterment of his kind and for Thy glory. As the high priest
    and interpreter of nature may he prove worthy of his great

    We thank Thee for this great exposition, whose stately and noble
    exterior gives promise of being the home of a mighty spirit of
    worldwide fellowship of the nations. It is not only another
    milestone of progress, it is a timekeeper of civilization. We
    thank Thee for the pioneers and the prophets, the statesmen and
    the patriots who secured for us this great inheritance, and for
    their sons who have cultivated and developed it. Help us that we
    may realize the high ideals of our fathers who sought to
    establish and maintain good and righteous government, and to
    reap the harvests of patient industry. May no evil occurrence
    mar the happiness and good will which we invoke for the council
    of nations which shall here be held. May the commerce of ideas
    no less than of products be borne by favoring tides around the
    globe. To this end we implore Thy blessings upon the rulers of
    the nations of the earth which may be presented here. Grant
    peace in our time, O Lord, and may the victories of peace

    And now, O Lord, our God, we dedicate to Thee and to the welfare
    of our common humanity these buildings and grounds which Thy
    providence has made possible. Bless with Thy presence and favor
    this great festival of the nations that it may help to make
    stronger the bonds of human brotherhood in all the world. And
    all this we ask in the name of Christ, our Lord. Amen.

Tenth. Benediction by Right Rev. Henry C. Potter:

    May the blessing of the Lord God Almighty, without whom all our
    labor is but vain, rest upon this work, and all who are or shall
    be engaged in it.

    May He take these buildings under His gracious keeping and crown
    this great undertaking with His enduring favor, making it the
    school of truth and beauty and so a revelation of His infinite
    mind working and through the mind of man. And to Him be glory
    and honor and power now and always.

    The Lord bless us and keep us; the Lord make His face to shine
    upon us and be gracious unto us; the Lord lift up the light of
    His countenance upon us and give to us and to all the people of
    this land peace, purity, and prosperity, both now and
    forevermore. Amen.

Eleventh. Centennial salute of 100 guns.

At 8 o'clock p. m. a grand pyrotechnic display took place on the open
grounds south of the Administration Building.



At 10.30 a. m. the members of the Diplomatic Corps, the representatives
of the foreign governments to the exposition, and other official guests
assembled at the St. Louis Club, and they were then conducted by
military escort to the Liberal Arts Building.

At 12 o'clock m. the assembly was called to order by Mr. Corwin H.
Spencer, chairman of the committee on ceremonies of the Exposition
Company, and the following programme was carried out:

First. Invocation by Rev. Carl Swenson:

    Great God, the God of our fathers and of their children, accept
    our heartfelt worship and gratitude. We bless Thy holy name for
    that wonderful providence of bountiful love and inspiring
    benevolence by which Thou hast made us a great and mighty nation
    out of an insignificant, struggling, and sorrow-laden beginning.

    We render willing and adoring worship to Thee for that divine
    guidance and wisdom so admirably exhibited in the wide-visioned
    policy in the nation's most inspired leaders a hundred years
    ago, and to-day the policy which in one brief century has
    created an empire of a dozen magnificent Commonwealths of an
    unknown expanse of uninhabited wilderness and desert.

    Vouchsafe ever to us as a people leaders of prophetic
    understanding, who in an uncertain present fathom the true
    inwardness of conditions pregnated with the greatest
    possibilities for a future of ever increasing proportions and

    We thank Thee for the wealth of hope and promise implied in the
    dedication and completion of this unparalleled congress of
    peace, good will, and universal fraternity, made possible not
    only by the enterprise, patriotism, and gratitude of this
    splendid Commonwealth and our own entire people, but also by the
    responsive, generous, and helpful cooperation of the nations of
    the whole world.

    We pray for Thy blessing, guidance, and love upon every national
    life here represented. May, in Thy beneficent providence, the
    inspiring competitions and tournaments so necessary between one
    people and another become an ennobling race for a higher culture
    of the human heart and mind; a more universal usage of the
    forces of nature for the best interests of man and for the full
    fruition for each and every one of the unexampled industrial and
    commercial activities which has taken possession of the
    civilized world.

    We pray Thee that the forces ever jointly employed in producing
    the advance of a free people may learn better to understand
    their mutual relationship.

    Liberate and save capital from every alleged and real form of a
    grasping, destructive, and disloyal selfishness, which may turn
    even the present midday of national prosperity and contentment
    into the threatening deepening gloom of an advancing cyclone of
    unavoidable loss and destruction.

    Give to the possessors of our fabulous wealth an ever-increasing
    philanthropy, devoting a surplus of possessions unheard of by
    our fathers to education, literature, arts, and mercy, thereby
    making themselves the beloved and blessed favorites of a happy
    and grateful people.

    We pray Thee that labor and toil may ever be held in due honor
    and respect in our broad land. Help us to realize that labor, be
    it of hand or brains, is the sinews and backbone alike of our
    past, present, and future as a free people.

    Grant, O God, to the leaders in the world of labor the highest
    and most patriotic ideals of citizenship--ideals and purposes
    commending themselves to the intelligence and justice of the
    entire people.

    And as neither capital alone, nor labor alone, could have built
    this wonderful exposition, grant, O God, that capital and labor
    all over our glorious land may learn to join hands in
    fair-minded cooperation for the upbuilding of such conditions of
    society which will prove an inspiration to ourselves and a
    worthy example to others, ending all forms of illegal coercion
    by one party or the other, and calling into permanent existence
    that truest and greatest America which is ever the dream of
    loyal and patriotic hearts.

    We pray Thee help us to realize and profess, amidst the
    justifiable joy of a happy people, that Thou art God alone, and
    that there is salvation only in the name of the Blessed
    Redeemer. Grant that we may continually see in the cross on
    Calvary the tested emblem of a new life for time and eternity, a
    life of insight, energy, and the power of universally recognized
    leadership ever characterizing the nation whose boon is the
    Bible and whose master is Christ. Bless and protect the
    President of our nation, the governor of the State, the mayor of
    this city, and the president of this exposition, with all their
    associations. God of our fathers, give unto us all that
    sincerity of purpose, that rectitude of action so necessary for
    the preservation of our rights and privileges. Make us the
    toiling means for promulgating for Thee, and ever more
    successfully, the divine message of the Fatherhood of God and
    the brotherhood of man, and to Thee, the Father and the Son and
    the Holy Ghost, shall be glory now and forevermore. Amen.

Second. The following is a brief outline of the sentiments expressed by
Mr. Thurston, president of the day:

    We are here to welcome the ambassadors, ministers, and
    representatives of friendly foreign nations.

    Here we gather to commemorate an event which changed the whole
    history of America, for the acquisition of the Louisiana
    Purchase extended the boundaries of the young Republic, which up
    to that time had no seacoast, except that of the Atlantic Ocean
    on the east, and gave us a continental domain extending from
    ocean to ocean.

    We come here to celebrate, through this magnificent exposition,
    the centennial anniversary of the Louisiana Purchase. This is
    not an exposition of a city or of a State, or even of the United
    States; it is an exposition of and for the world.

    Gentlemen, our visitors and our friends, in this temple of
    peace, dedicated to the progress of man, your presence is
    significant of the friendliness to us and toward each other of
    the nations of the world. May we not hope that in the electric
    splendor of the twentieth century there will come to all peoples
    a living exemplification of the words of the Master, "Peace on
    earth, good will toward men."

Third. Greeting to the representatives of foreign governments, from the
Universal Exposition of 1904, by Hon. David R. Francis, president of the
Exposition Company:

    The Universal Exposition of 1904 extends a cordial greeting to
    the distinguished representatives of foreign countries who favor
    us with their presence on this memorable occasion.

    An assembling of envoys of organized governments, however
    limited in their number and whatever its object may be, is
    characteristic of a high civilization; but when that convening
    is as general in its character as this, it indicates marked
    progress in the establishment of a better understanding between
    interests and policies long antagonistic and at variance.

    And when the object of such a meeting is, as in this case, to
    establish and cement friendly relations between people who
    differ in form of government, in religion, and in race, it means
    a distinct step toward the organization of a parliament, an
    accomplishment worthy of highest endeavor, because its
    consummation would result in universal peace.

    When the civilized nations of the earth meet in friendly
    rivalry, their better acquaintance engenders increased respect.
    The closer commercial relations that follow are conducive to
    mutual benefit. They efface prejudice, they broaden sympathies,
    they deepen and widen the foundations of human progress.

    The civilization of past ages would have experienced no
    overthrows if they had been based on intelligence of the masses
    and had been imbued with broader humanity which distinguishes
    and ennobles the fraternal spirit of the twentieth century.

    The cycle of one hundred years, whose close we have just passed,
    incomparable as it was in the discovery and the invention and
    the application of forces and methods in the physical world, and
    remarkable as it was for an advancement in every line of thought
    and research, will be surpassed and distanced by the new century
    upon which we have entered if the material potentialities and
    the intellectual faculties of mankind can be utilized and
    trained toward a common end, and that end the uplifting of the
    human race and the promotion of its happiness.

    Concomitant with industrial progress is social development. The
    policy of engaging in foreign wars in order to prevent or to
    pacify domestic unrest may have been wise if not humane, but the
    time for such a policy has passed. That government is strongest
    whose subjects are intelligent and contented. Contentment
    follows the employment of intellectual faculties, in the
    development of natural resources, and in the production of those
    activities that result in greater comforts of living and higher
    planes of thought. The bringing together in a Universal
    Exposition of the best that all civilized countries have
    produced, opens to all who participate new lines of thought,
    better methods and better appliances, and, therefore, conduces
    to the material benefit of every country participating. It
    promotes universal economy of human endeavor by enabling the
    countries taking part to determine through a comparison of their
    exhibits the lines in which they can produce the best results.

    The economy of the world for saving time and energy by the
    adaptation of physical and intellectual forces to pursuits in
    which they are most effective, is a profitable study for
    nations, as it is for individuals. Hand in hand, however, with
    such occupation should go the cultivation of the taste for the
    beautiful, and an abounding conviction that man is his brother's
    keeper and has an inalienable obligation to better the condition
    of his fellows.

    The International Exposition whose dedication you honor by your
    presence, was conceived in an effort to commemorate a great
    achievement which has proven a potent factor in increasing our
    wealth and sustaining our institutions and perpetuating our

    The interest manifested by the governments and people whom you
    represent in pledges of participating has been encouraging and
    helpful in the highest degree, and we are glad of the
    opportunity to express our deep gratitude. Your coming enables
    us to show you the scope of the undertaking we have launched.
    Our plans are ambitious and our hopes high, but we are energetic
    and untiring, and with your recognition and assistance we expect
    to carry to a successful consummation an enterprise which will
    not only assemble the natural resources of the earth and bring
    together the best products of human skill, but will be the
    occasion for eliciting the expression of the best thought and
    for classifying and systematizing all human knowledge.

    We hope this exposition will be an epitome of the progress of
    the world from the beginning of history. The nineteenth century
    was characterized by unprecedented and almost incomprehensible
    industrial advancement. The earth was made to reveal its hidden
    treasures. The unknown forces of nature were harnessed and
    utilized. Lines of commerce were established which encircle the

    Sections of the globe remote and almost unknown to each other
    were brought into close communication and friendly relation. It
    would seem that there is little to be done in the field of
    scientific effort. But every discovery and every advance opens a
    broader plane for the exercise of human ingenuity.

    The problems, however, that seem to confront us most prominently
    to-day, and that require for their solution not only experience
    and intelligence, but fraternal sentiment as well, are those of
    a social character. The aggregation that we call society is
    bound together by ties of sympathy, strengthened it may be by
    culture, but often strained by selfishness and pride. The
    relation of man to nature and her physical forces commands the
    highest functions of the mind, but the relation of man to his
    fellows not only enlists the highest intellectual effort, but
    requires that it be tempered by impulses of human kindness.
    Those who have as the mainspring of their actions the elevation
    of their fellows live and move upon a higher plane and are
    better members of society than those who subordinate sentiment
    and sympathy to gain and power.

    The earth in its fertility and resourcefulness furnishes
    material sufficient to maintain in comfort all of its sons. If
    their genius and energy could be devoted to the utilization of
    that material instead of to a continuous struggle between
    themselves for occupation and possession, the destiny of the
    human race would be higher and nobler and nearer in accord with
    the immortal principles enunciated by Him whose life and
    teachings have for nearly two thousand years been a rule of
    conduct for man, while broadening his usefulness and enhancing
    his happiness.

    That this exposition may be a powerful aid in the elevation and
    advancement of the human race is the prayer of those who
    organized and have brought it to its present stage of progress.
    That the countries for which you stand may unite with us in
    promoting an undertaking fraught with much good to humanity is
    the earnest wish of the local management and the sincere hope of
    every right-thinking citizen of the American Republic.

    Again, I welcome you as guests whom we delight to honor for your
    personal worth, as well as for what you represent.

Fourth. Music, United States Marine Band, "Marseillaise Hymn of

Fifth. Address by the French ambassador, M. Jean J. Jusserand:

    When the treaty signed in Paris one hundred years ago, and by
    which the area of the United States was to be more than doubled,
    stood for ratification before Congress, there were, contrary to
    what we might suppose, protracted discussions and objections of
    many sorts. Some thought that the title to the new acquisition
    was not a sufficient one; others were anxious on account of the
    very magnitude of the new territories, and expressed the fear
    that the federal tie would be loosened if extended to such
    remote and partially unknown regions. Many were the criticisms
    and long the speeches.

    Senator Jackson, of Georgia, rose and turning toward one of the
    hostile parties, said: "In a century, sir, we shall be well
    populated * * * and instead of the description given of it by
    the honorable gentleman, instead of howling wilderness where no
    civilized foot shall ever tread, if we could return at the
    proper period, we should find it the seat of science and

    Senator Jackson's time has come the very year he named; one
    century has just elapsed since he spoke. If he could return
    among us, he would see no howling wilderness, but one of the
    most brilliant gatherings which this country has ever beheld,
    including the Chief of the State and a former Chief of the
    State, representatives of all the powers of the globe, soldiers
    and sailors, priests, magistrates, savants, artists, tradesmen
    and agriculturists, workmen and citizens innumerable, all bent
    upon consecrating by their presence and homage the work done
    during the hundred years. Good work indeed; nay, stupendous.

    Sanguine as he was, Senator Jackson would, I think, scarcely
    believe his eyes and ears if he saw the matchless sight we
    presently behold, and the preparation for the pending exhibition
    of the produce, all the discoveries, all the art of the wide

    He would scarcely believe his ears if he heard that we came in
    twenty-seven hours from the place where he had delivered his
    prophecy and which had become only two years before the seat of
    Government. No less would be his surprise, if he learned that
    the supposed "howling wilderness" had been turned into an
    immense garden, dotted with wealthy towns; that all the land
    called in his days Louisiana produces yearly now millions of
    bushels of various kinds of grain, and that the private
    belongings of the successors of the scattered settlers of his
    time are valued in ours at many millions of dollars.

    But he would not be surprised if he learned that the federal tie
    has not been loosened; that the number of States has increased,
    their wealth, too, the number of their inhabitants, their
    importance in every respect, and that they consider as more and
    more sacred the bond which unites them to the older part of the
    community. Such are the effects of liberty and just laws.

    In this triumphal day, amid the shouts of joy, the reports of
    the guns and ringing of the bells, considering the splendid
    results, it is only natural that we carry our look backward to
    the past and have a thought for the lonely pioneers of long ago,
    who came one by one to this then unknown land, and who tried
    among incredible difficulties to make it less unknown, to make
    it more productive and easier to reclaim for you, their distant
    inheritors. No one, I am sure, will think it amiss that I, a
    compatriot of theirs and a representative of their country,
    shall recall at this day their efforts, and express to-day's
    gratitude for yesterday's work. For they were hardy men, those
    children of distant France; they were plucky, enterprising, and
    courageous; they led strenuous lives indeed; all qualities for
    which you ever had a special regard. To say that they did not
    fear danger is to slander them; they loved it.

    Soldiers, missionaries, governors of cities, explorers came year
    after year from the time of Louis XIV, attracted by the chances
    or the beauty of the unknown and the opportunity of increasing
    their country's dominions, or of becoming famous, or of
    instructing souls, and of dying, if death was to be met, bravely
    and honorably. Very French they were, with all the qualities of
    their race, and something else, perhaps, some of them, than the

    As they went down the great rivers from the regions of the
    Canadian lakes to the Mexican sea they gave them French names,
    and the reading of a map of that epoch reminds one of the
    century of the Sun King. There he is with all his court, figured
    in lands, cities, lakes, and rivers. Louisiana bears his own
    name; Lake Pontchartrain the name of his minister for marine;
    Fort Duquesne, the name of his famous sailor. There were also
    the rivers Colbert and Seigneley, better known nowadays as
    Mississippi and Illinois. One of the Great Lakes had been named
    after the Duke of Orleans; another, the great Conde, the winner
    of Rocroy; another after his brother, Prince de Conti; but this
    last inland sea, as indeed most of the others, soon resumed its
    Indian name, the homely name of Lake Erie, the Lake of the Cat.

    Very French they were, those men--this Father Marquette, who,
    with Joliet, first beheld the magnificent water that washes your
    walls, the vast existence of which was then unknown, and who
    explored it down to the country of the Arkansas; this Robert
    Cavalier Sieur de la Salle, who had, long before our days, our
    days' notions of the importance of great commercial routes;
    whose purpose was to open one to China across this continent at
    the very spot where your northern lines of railways have opened
    theirs; who called his first house on American soil La China in
    order that he might never forget his initial purpose. He died in
    the quest, but not before he had explored the Mississippi down
    to its mouth; not before he had ascertained that its source was
    to the West, and that the river therefore could be used as a
    guiding thread toward the Pacific; not before he had made the
    first French settlement in this, your country, and given it a
    name, which has not been replaced by another, and is its present
    name of Louisiana.

    Long is the roll and great were the hardships. To the same
    region, with the same object of discovering and improving, came
    that typical cadet De Gascogne, the Chevalier Antoine de la
    Mothe Cadillac, who, on the 21st of July, 1701, unfurled the
    French flag at a certain spot where he began the building of a
    town, now the town of Detroit. He became afterwards governor of
    Louisiana. Then such men came as Du Tissnet, as the brothers Le
    Moine de Iberville and Le Moine de Bienville, this last the
    founder of New Orleans; as Father de Charlevoix, who gave the
    best account we have of the country, and spoke most wisely about
    its future; as La Clede, worthier than anyone to be remembered
    at this day and this place, as he was the founder of your town.

    The exploration of the coasts had been comparatively easy, and
    thousands had attempted it. Settlers from France were the first
    to try their chance inland; they traveled across a huge
    continent more unknown then to the civilized world than was in
    our time the Africa of Livingstone and Stanley. They did it in a
    cheerful, optimistic spirit that nothing daunted but death.
    Living as they did in truly "howling wildernesses," there
    remained yet with them something of the mother country; and that
    appeared not only in their speech and manners, but in their very
    attitudes. Charlevoix meets figures of dead men fabricated by
    Indians. He was glad to find that they were represented with
    falling arms, from which he concluded that the authors of the
    trophies had massacred some of their own kin. When Indians
    killed French people, the figures represented men with their
    fist on their hip, Versailles fashion.

    How could it be otherwise when they lived, some of them, on a
    settlement owned by a gentleman called d'Artagnan and managed,
    as was appropriate, by two musketeers. One almost expects the
    names of those two to have been Porthos and Aramis; but they
    were d'Artiguidres and De Benac.

    And these men recalled their country in more important things
    than names and attitudes. Cadillac had scarcely given a name to
    the spot where he meant to create a town than he sent for his
    wife and younger son. It was to be a town, indeed, with wives
    and children and family life, and it was so, and it has ever
    been so since Cadillac willed it. When La Salle was killed in
    his second journey to the Mississippi in 1687, he had with him
    his brother and two nephews. The newcomers soon discovered that
    the region was not the metallic eldorado they had heard of it in
    Europe, but that it was a matchless agricultural country, and
    they began cutting the trees and tilling the ground, with none
    of the modern instruments and helps, no harvesting machines from
    "Chicago," as the then desert spot was called in their days; no
    horses, no horned cattle. They led, indeed not in fiction, but
    in truth--and long before the famous "Mariner of York" was
    wrecked by the Orinoco River--the life of Robinson Crusoe.
    Unknown to Europe, far from any neighbors, by the shade of the
    pathless forest, they tried their best. They died, many of them
    obscurely, leaving no name to be engraved on the bronze tables
    of history, but leaving better than a mere name--families, many
    of which still subsist; better than families--examples of
    earnestness and endurance, creating a tradition which will never
    die out, "Rien ne se perd."

    The greatness of their difficulties, the scantiness of their
    means, the wisdom of many of their views are equally striking.
    More than one did their utmost to teach and improve their Indian
    neighbor. They forbade at an early date the selling to them of
    the destructive "fire water." Cadillac did so from the first;
    the Marquis de Vaudreuil reissued the same orders later. They
    soon discovered that the northern regions alone could produce
    wheat enough to feed the whole country, "though it should be
    quite peopled down to the sea." The question of labor was one of
    prominent difficulty and importance. Should it be hired labor of
    freemen or the compulsory labor of the imported negro? On this,
    one of those early French explorers, Charlevoix, summed up his
    opinion in the following memorable sentence: "Hired servants
    should be preferred. When the time of their service is expired
    they become inhabitants and increase the number of the King's
    natural subjects, whereas the slaves are always strangers. And
    who can be assured that by continually increasing in our
    colonies they will not one day become formidable enemies? Can we
    depend upon slaves who are only attached to us by fear and for
    whom the very land where they are born has not the dear name of
    mother country?"

    More striking than all was the observation of a Frenchman who
    never visited America, except in thought, but saw distinctly its
    future. When no one yet believed it, that great economist and
    statesman, Turgot, said: "America one day will be free."

    Years went on. The dark shadows and splendid rays of light with
    which French history is interwoven shone and vanished in their
    grand and awful alternance. One day the French flag was lowered
    in Louisiana; that was at the close of the Seven Years War.
    Another day the same flag was seen on the mast of a small vessel
    leaving the harbor at Bordeaux and sailing for America. The ship
    happened to bear the auspicious name of _La Victoire_, and it
    bore Lafayette. Then it was the alliance of 1778, and the coming
    on the same year of the first envoy accredited by any nation to
    this country, my predecessor, Gerard de Rayneval, a staunch
    friend of America; then the peace of 1783, when, with the assent
    of the whole world, to the joy of every French heart, 13 stars
    shone on the American flag.

    France recovered, then, neither Louisiana nor Canada, nor
    anything. But she never intended it. She won a friend, and such
    a friend is better than any province.

    She was very happy, having exactly fulfilled without change,
    bargain, or extenuation the task she had mapped out for herself
    in 1778, when she declared in the alliance treaty that the
    "direct and essential object of the same was efficaciously to
    maintain the freedom, sovereignty, and absolute and illimited
    independence of the United States." The joy was such in Paris at
    the news of American independence that performances in the
    theaters were interrupted; the great event was announced, and
    audiences rose to their feet to cheer the new-born Republic.
    Festivities were given and colored prints were scattered all
    over France for the benefit of those who could not be present.
    Such souvenirs were proudly kept in families. One such came to
    the remote house of my own parents in the mountains, and it was
    carefully preserved and I possess it at this day.

    France followed her destinies; in 1800 Louisiana was French
    again; three years later on the spontaneous proposal of the
    French Republic, not New Orleans alone, not a mere strip of
    land, but the whole country became forever American.

    The treaty signed one hundred years and a day ago had little
    precedent in history; it dealt with territories larger than the
    Empire of Alexander; it followed no war; it was preceded by no
    shedding of human blood; the new possessions got a hundred times
    more than they even thought of demanding, and the negotiations
    were so simple, the good faith and mutual friendship so obvious,
    that all was concluded in a fortnight. The simplest protocol on
    postal or sanitary questions takes nowadays more time. Each
    party found its interest in the transaction, but something more
    than interest led the affair to a speedy conclusion and that was
    the deep-rooted sympathy of the French and American nations.

    The French were simply continuing what they had begun; they had
    wished America to be free and they were glad to think that she
    would be great. Money was paid, it is true; had this been the
    main consideration, Louisiana would have been preserved, for the
    money was not by far the equivalent of the buildings and lands
    belonging to the State. Part of the money was employed in
    satisfying American claims. "Those," says the French negotiator,
    Marbois, "who knew the importance of a good understanding
    between these two countries, attached more importance to the
    $4,000,000 set apart for American claims than to the $12,000,000
    offered to France."

    An impending war in Europe, the possibilities of an occupation
    of Louisiana by a foreign power was not, either, the main
    motive. In the council held at the Tuileries on Easter day,
    1803, the Marshal and Prince of Wagram, Berthier, whose first
    war had been the war of American independence, said, as to this:
    "If Louisiana is taken from us by our rivals what does it
    matter? Other possessions would soon be in our hands, and by
    means of an exchange, we should quickly obtain a restitution."
    He concluded, "No navy without colonies, no colonies without a

    Add again that the value of Louisiana was much better understood
    than it had been before. "I know the worth of what I give up,"
    said Bonaparte; and the French Government knew it indeed. They
    acted with open eyes, for they had taken care from the year 1800
    to gather all available information. One of the memoirs with
    which they enlightened themselves had been asked of Louis
    Vilemont, former captain in the regiment of Louisiana. It is
    still unpublished; and it informed the Government that "from
    various reports of Canadian and Indian hunters it is possible to
    walk from Missouri to the sea in less than two months and a

    An access to the Pacific was not so easy as now, but yet an
    access was practicable, and the wealth of the country was
    extraordinary. Warming at the souvenir of what he knew, the
    retired officer exclaimed, "What sources of wealth can we not
    expect to find in those parts! At each step made from east to
    west all produce, all things increase tenfold. It seems as if
    nature had made this corner of the globe the most favored one of
    our immense empire. The samples of all reigns have more beauty
    and majesty than anywhere else. The men born there look more
    like the descendants of Alcides than the kinsmen of the tribes
    who worship Manitou."

    The main motive power, without which all the others would have
    been of no avail, was, indeed, mutual sympathy. When the treaty
    was signed the three negotiators, Barbe-Marbois, Monroe, and
    Livingston, who had known each other in America at the time of
    the war of Independence, rose, and, what is rare on such
    occasions, one of them was able to express in a single sentence
    the intimate feelings of the three. "The treaty which we have
    just signed," said Livingston, "will cause no tears; they
    prepare centuries of happiness to innumerable generations of
    human beings; from this day the United States take their place
    among the powers of the first rank."

    I do not think that there is another example in the history of
    the world of a cession of such vast territories thus obtained by
    the representatives of one of the parties to the applause and
    with the heartfelt consent of the representatives of the other.

    The treaty giving away in full possession and forever Louisiana
    to the United States, allowing them to spread without meeting
    any foreign neighbors from one ocean to the other, adding
    fourteen States to the original thirteen, was signed one hundred
    years ago, "au nom du peuple Francais" in the year XI of the
    French Republic. The results have passed the most sanguine
    hopes, but they have not gone beyond the extent of our friendly
    wishes for the sister Republic of America. The representative of
    France comes to this spot that was French in former times with a
    feeling of admiration for what you have done, and no feeling of
    regret. He sees splendid development, arts, sciences, trade, and
    agriculture equally prosperous; he applauds your success, and
    expresses from his heart his good wishes for your grand
    exhibition of next year.

    As for his own country, if she no longer holds those immense
    domains, she has, on the other hand, found other territories for
    the peaceful employment of her inexhaustible energy, with
    results which will forever redound to the praise of the
    Government of the Republic. And as for Louisiana itself, France
    rests satisfied with remembering that she could not have more
    friendly nor more sympathetic intentions. She remembers also,
    not without pride, that her sons first discovered and tilled the
    soil, first described it, and first drew a map of it; that one
    of her most famous writers first revealed to the world the
    springs of poetry that lay concealed as much under the fir trees
    of the Mississippi Valley as under the plane trees of Tempe; the
    diplomat and literary artist who made all those who had a mind
    and heart weep for the fate of Atala.

    Seeing the results, my countrymen have never ceased to approve
    of the treaty signed a hundred years ago "au nom de peuple
    Francais." Eighteen hundred and three is the third memorable
    date in the relations between France and America. In giving the
    United States, according to the words of your negotiator, its
    place among the greatest powers in the world, 1803 did nothing
    but perfect what had been gloriously begun in 1778 and 1783.

Sixth. Music by the Marine Band, playing the Spanish "Himno de Riego."

Seventh. Address by the Spanish minister, Señor de Ojeda:

    MR. PRESIDENT, LADIES AND GENTLEMEN: I greatly regret my
    inability to respond to the very flattering recognition of the
    part played by Spain in the early history of this territory. I
    wish I were endowed with the same eloquence displayed by
    previous orators, which it has been our privilege to listen to
    and admire. Still, had not the national glories of Spain been so
    brilliantly alluded to, were I able to recall them now with
    colors as glowing as the warmth their memory brings to my
    Spanish heart, I feel I could not raise to them a loftier or
    more eloquent monument than has been raised by those immortal
    works of Washington Irving, Prescott, Lowell, and Ticknor, which
    have made of Spanish tradition a familiar household patrimony of
    this nation.

    I am sure you will agree with me in thinking that I could do no
    better, that I could not pay a higher nor more honorable nor
    lasting tribute to our share in the history of this continent
    than by invoking the testimony of your own literary genius and
    by referring now to that grateful recognition which moved the
    founders of this Republic to associate the revered memory of
    Isabella, the soul-stirring deeds of Pizarro, Cortez, and Ojeda,
    with the temple of your nationality.

    If ever the engrossing conclusions of your wonderful actual
    prosperity, the intensity of your life, made one of your
    strenuous citizens forget what your present owes to your past,
    let him ascend the steps of your national capitol, let him pause
    before its majestic gates, and there he will behold, carved in
    bronze on the threshold of your proudest monument, the effigies
    and the names of those Spanish heroes who discovered, conquered,
    and pointed to you the way in which path you have so
    successfully followed.

    As a guest, sitting now for the first time at the hearth of the
    American nation, I feel bound to respond to that high tribute
    made to Spain by publicly acknowledging here the enviable
    kindness shown by all classes of your people since I landed on
    your shores.

    As the representative of the nation whose ancient and honored
    flag was the first to be reflected in the majestic course of the
    father of American rivers, I am happy to feel that my first
    official appearance before an American audience is associated in
    both your minds and mine with the commemoration of an event
    which, although involving far-reaching issues in the respective
    histories of three great nations, has not and never was darkened
    by the rankling memories which war and international strife
    always leave in their wake.

    For, Mr. President, Spain, exclusively devoted to-day to the
    task of developing her immense resources, is happy to be
    associated with you in this peaceful celebration of a peaceful
    event. Believe me, Mr. President, the Spanish people will enter
    into this noble competition for the prizes of progress and
    civilization with that same stubbornness with which during seven
    centuries they maintained the heroic struggle which saved Europe
    and the Christian world from the baneful invasion of African

    Spain will apply to the arts of peace, to the conquests of
    progress, that same and indomitable spirit which enabled her to
    enrich the Old World with a new one, over whose brilliant
    destinies she watches and ever will watch with intense and
    undying interest.

    Spain hails with pleasure an opportunity like your future
    exposition will afford of showing her peaceful conquests in the
    domains of labor, and is especially bent on attracting toward
    her the benefits to be derived from this growing tendency of her
    people to an everlasting commercial, agricultural, and
    industrial interchange. She, more than over anxious to cultivate
    and strengthen her friendly relations with the world, could not
    but welcome with sympathy the announcement of this vast
    enterprise as a right step toward that blending of her material
    and moral interests with those of other nations, to that better
    understanding among them which she will indefatigably strive to

    You can therefore rest assured, Mr. President, that my country
    will contribute to the World's Fair and enhance with its varied
    exhibits its universal and historical features. I am, in fact,
    authorized to inform you that His Majesty's Government has
    decided to ask for the requisite appropriation as soon as
    Parliament assembles. Spain will appear before you, if not in
    all the splendor that the requirements of her wise, economical
    programme now forbid, at least in the manly garb of a nation
    meaning to show you and to show the world that her gloriously
    checkered career, instead of impairing our vitality, has
    retempered the ever-elastic steel of our national fiber and
    concentrated and directed all its latent energies toward the
    modern conquests of progress, labor, and civilization to which
    the city of St. Louis is now erecting a temple worthy of the
    city itself and of the auspicious event we are now

    And now, Mr. President, in wishing success to your noble
    undertaking, in thanking you and this city for its cordial
    hospitality, I beg to acknowledge also my gratitude for the
    numerous tokens and expressions of good will toward Spain which
    have been uttered during this solemn celebration and which I so
    fully appreciate.

    I beg to salute reverently in that new-born flag of your
    exhibition and august emblem of peace and labor, a touching
    appeal to fraternity among nations. In that flag are blended the
    past and the present with the glorious colors of the three
    nations representative of St. Louis's early and contemporary
    history. Let us welcome its appealing and eloquent symbolism
    like the herald of an ever-cloudless future.

Eighth. "Hallelujah Chorus" from The Messiah.

Ninth. Benediction by Rev. Samuel J. Niccolls:

    Almighty God, Heavenly Father, whose all-wise Providence did
    lead our fathers across the seas to this land, and Who hath
    given their children a goodly heritage, let Thy blessing rest
    upon their children. Let Thy blessings rest upon all the nations
    represented here to-day and upon the representatives. May we
    continue in the bonds of peace for all time. May the grace of
    God, mercy, and peace be with us. Amen.

Tenth. Centennial salute of 100 guns.


STATE DAY, MAY 2, 1903.

The civic parade assembled at 10.30 a.m. under direction of Col. Eugene
J. Spencer, marshal of the day, and moved from the junction of Grand
avenue and Lindell boulevard through Forest Park to the exposition
grounds, where the parade was reviewed by the governors of the States.

At 1.30 p. m. the audience assembled in the Liberal Arts Building. The
assembly was called to order by Mr. William H. Thompson, chairman of the
committee on grounds and buildings, and the following programme was
carried out:

First. Invocation by Rev. William R. Harper:

    Our Father which art in Heaven, whose work for man no man knows,
    whose heart is full of wisdom, to Thee be our prayers directed.
    Hallowed be Thy name. Thou art the pure and the very great. May
    Thy peace be manifested to us in all Thy work.

    Give us this day our daily bread, and for the following day.
    Forgive us our sins, as well as forgive them that sin against
    us. Take away all hatred and strife and whatever prejudice may
    hinder us from union and concord. Let us be under one bond of
    faith and peace.

    Show us Thy kindness and so fill us with Thy goodness that our
    souls may be filled with the manifold delights of charity and
    good will. Let nations abide under Thy law, for Thine is the
    kingdom, the power, and the glory. Amen.

Second. Address by Mr. William Lindsay, of the National Commission,
president of the day, as follows:

    MR. PRESIDENT AND LADIES AND GENTLEMEN: This is the last day of
    the interesting and memorable ceremonies with which the great
    exposition has been inaugurated. We have had with us the chief
    representative of the people. The next day we had with us the
    diplomats, the representatives of foreign climes. To-day we have
    with us the toilers. We have had the governors of the sovereign
    States which make up this great Union. When I beheld the great
    cavalcade I felt that the time had almost come when the
    industries will solely be confined to working for peace and
    divorced from devotion to the implements of war.

    It is not merely a question of a fair profit upon money that is
    uppermost before the people to-day. It is not the question of a
    fair return for labor. But it is the question of equitable
    distribution of the products of labor and of the surplus of
    capital. This is the great question; that is what involves the
    happiness of mankind, and the man who solves that question will
    rise in greatness to such a point that other statesmen, or even
    Presidents, will pale into insignificance.

    This is labor day, and as such we should honor it.

    And the governors. We had governors before ever we had a
    President. Each State represents yet a great residuum of power.
    In the hands of State are the life and liberty of the people. We
    must remember that the governors, representing the unit of the
    national power, have the first place in national precedence.

    There is on the right of me the governor of the great Empire
    State of the Atlantic. There is on the left of me the governor
    of the great Empire State of the Louisiana Purchase. I need not
    introduce to you the governor of Missouri, but it is upon the
    programme, and hence I will say the words--I beg to introduce
    Governor A.M. Dockery, who will now address you.

Third. Address of welcome by Hon. A.M. Dockery, governor of Missouri, as

    The pleasing duty devolves upon me of extending a cordial
    greeting in behalf of the people of Missouri to you as the chief
    magistrates and representatives of sister States, who come with
    kindly messages and substantial evidence of the nation's
    interest in our stupendous undertaking. The work already
    completed and yet to be done could only be accomplished by a
    people known and respected as the incarnation of intelligent,
    ennobling enterprise.

    The occasion which will bring us together is the precursor of
    the most marvelous exhibition the world has ever seen. The
    wealth, the ingenuity, the forethought, and the ability of all
    nations will contribute to this magnificent result. The
    masterful statesmanship of Thomas Jefferson builded better than
    even he could know when he purchased from the Emperor Napoleon
    this vast domain--the connecting link between the fair country
    skirting the Atlantic coast, which had only been recently
    emancipated from despotic rule, and the rich possession on our
    west, extending to the Pacific Ocean.

    The Mississippi River marks the eastern limit of this priceless
    acquisition. Sweeping away to the west, the south, and the
    north, its area of 14 States and Territories embraces great
    cities, beautiful towns and villages, farms and gardens, mighty
    waterways, vast railway systems, and a wealth of gold, silver,
    and other resources which a wise Providence provided for His
    people. Can the mind of man conceive a more resplendent
    territory? And when it is remembered that the Louisiana Purchase
    States are only a part of the still more glorious whole, is it
    any wonder that the American people are proud of their country
    and true to their Government?

    Nature, with regal prodigality, has lavished gifts on this fair
    land, and its people are especially endowed with those
    qualifications which can not fail to produce the greatest
    excellence in everything.

    But to return to the coming exposition. Everywhere during this
    pageant of entertainment have we seen evidences of the progress
    of this enterprise so mighty in its conception as to be
    astounding. Sites have been assigned to each State and foreign
    country, and the result already accomplished is spread out
    before you in brilliant panorama. There is no longer any
    question about anything but the magnitude of the success of the
    undertaking. This has been made possible only by the intelligent
    cooperation of all the people, and to you, as representatives of
    sister States, I extend most grateful acknowledgment.

    The selection of our own metropolitan city as the proper place
    in which to hold this exposition seems peculiarly fitting. Its
    very name breathes the spirit of its French ancestry to whom we
    are so greatly indebted, and its geographical situation is
    preeminently satisfactory.

    To guard our shores, to make impregnable our southern border
    against foreign assault, and to enlarge the scope of our
    commerce and liberty was the controlling thought of Thomas
    Jefferson and his compatriots when the "Purchase Territory" was
    added to the American Union. Fifteen millions of dollars
    represented the purchase price, and by a happy coincidence which
    may not have been altogether accidental, $15,000,000 represented
    the basic sum by which this exposition first became
    possible--$5,000,000 contributed by the city of St. Louis,
    $5,000,000 raised by popular subscription, and $5,000,000 given
    by the National Government. Missouri has since appropriated
    $1,000,000, that her resources may be fittingly exploited, while
    your States have in turn liberally set apart amounts which will
    lend the magnificence of their products to the scene.

    To-day closes the celebration incident to the dedicatory
    exercises of the exposition, and in the hour of greeting we are
    reminded that soon we must part for a time. The panoply of war
    in the execution of our regular and citizen soldiery has joined
    with the pomp and pageantry of civil life. Their commingling is
    further proof of the pride of the people in all the institutions
    of our country. Civilian and soldier have given the weight of
    their influence to make more impressive the scenes attendant on
    this display, and will be equally enthusiastic when the gates of
    the great exhibition are formally opened. Months will pass
    before that event, but in the meantime an army of the employed
    will perfect the scheme which, in its full fruition, will herald
    abroad the triumph of this wonderful exposition.

    In conclusion, permit me to say, the welcome of every true
    Missourian is yours, and in parting a cordial adieu is wafted
    with the hope expressed for a safe return to your homes and to
    your people.

Fourth. Music by the Marine Band.

Fifth. Response by Hon. Benj. B. Odell, jr., governor of New York, as

    The past, with all of its achievements, with all its successes,
    is to us but an incentive and guide for the future progress of
    our country. America still beckons to the oppressed of all lands
    and holds out the gifts of freedom, and we at this time and upon
    this occasion should renew our adherence to those policies which
    have made us a great nation. The future is before us, and the
    patriotism and self-sacrifice of those who made the country's
    history so glorious should be an Inspiration to us for all
    higher ideals of citizenship. Through the golden gates of
    commerce pours an unceasing stream of immigration which must be
    amalgamated with American ideas and American principles.

    The battles of the past have been for freedom and liberty, and
    the struggle of the future will be for their preservation, not,
    however, by force of arms, but through the peaceful methods
    which come through the education of our people. The declaration
    which brought our Republic into existence has insured and
    guaranteed that liberty of conscience and that freedom of action
    which does not interfere, with the prerogatives or privileges of
    a man's neighbors.

    Capital and labor are the two great elements upon which the
    prosperity and happiness of our people rest, and when,
    therefore, aggregations of the one are met by combinations of
    the other, it should be the aim of all to prevent the clashing
    of these great interests. The products of toil are worthless
    unless there be some means by which they can be substituted or
    transferred for that which labor requires. The concrete form in
    which these transactions are conducted is the money power or the
    capital of the land.

    Without work all of these fertile fields, these teeming towns,
    would have been impossible; and without a desire to benefit and
    elevate humanity, its onward progress would have been useless.
    To work, to labor, is man's bounden duty, and in the performance
    of the tasks which have been placed upon him he should be
    encouraged, and his greatest incentive should be the knowledge
    that he may transmit to his children and his children's children
    a higher civilization and greater advantages than he himself

    Trade conditions which would permit to the toiler but a bare
    sustenance, the bare means of a livelihood, would be a hindrance
    to human progress, a hindrance not to be removed by all of the
    maxims of the philosopher or the theories of the doctrinaire.

    Promise without fulfillment is barren, but when you can place
    before the mechanic the assured fact that the performance of his
    duty means success in life, and that his nonperformance means
    failure; when you can show him that this law is immutable, you
    have made of him a useful citizen and have instilled into his
    mind a firm belief that the freedom and liberty of which we
    boast is not an inchoate substance to be dreamed of and not

    But this desired result can not be secured if combinations of
    capital, which produce the necessaries of life cheaper and
    better, are assailed as the enemies of mankind. There is always
    a mean between those who seek only a fair recompense and return
    for that which they produce and those who seek undue advantages
    for the few at the expense of the many. The laws which have been
    enacted, if properly executed, are sufficient in their force and
    effort to encourage the one and to punish the other, but in our
    condemnation let us not forget that with the expansion that has
    come to our country an expansion of our business relations is
    also necessary.

    This growth has brought us into intimate contact with the
    markets of the world, and in the struggle that is always before
    us the competition of trade, if we are to hold our own among the
    world's producers, we should encourage, not hinder, those who,
    by their energy, their capital, and their labor, have banded
    together for the purpose of meeting these new
    conditions--problems which our individual efforts alone can not
    solve, but which require the concentrated force and genius of
    both capital and labor.

    Incentive for good citizenship would indeed be lacking if these
    were taken from us--the opportunities for development, the
    opportunities for the young man to follow in the footsteps of
    those who have written their names in the history of our country
    as the great captains of industry.

    Success will always follow perseverance and genius. Every
    heresy, every doctrine which would teach the young man of this
    country differently, is an insult to the intelligence of our
    people, and is in the direction of building up a dangerous
    element in American society which in time would threaten not
    only the peace and prosperity we enjoy, but our very
    institutions themselves.

    When you have placed before the young man all of his
    possibilities, you have made it impossible to make of our
    Republic a plutocracy controlled by the few at the expense of
    the many. The individual should count for as much as the
    aggregation of individuals, because an injury to the one will
    lead to the destruction of the many.

    The question of adjusting and harmonizing the relations of
    capital and labor is the problem before us to-day, and is one
    which will become more urgent in the future. Its solution must
    be along those lines of constitutional right which every citizen
    has been guaranteed.

    Every man is entitled, in the prosecution of his work, to the
    broadest possible liberty of action and the protection of
    law--of that law which is the outgrowth of necessity and which
    seeks to encourage and not to oppress. Such recognition can
    always be secured if there is a determination upon the part of
    those charged with the responsibility of government to have it.
    And who is not?

    Every man possessed of a ballot is responsible and has the power
    not only to formulate, but to criticise and punish as well. If
    the right be properly exercised, an honest and efficient
    administration of our affairs can always be secured.

    The greatest solvent for political heresies, for doctrines which
    are antagonistic to popular government, is education. To the
    educated mind there comes a conception of duty which is not
    possible to the ignorant.

Sixth. Grand chorus.

Seventh. Benediction by Rabbi Leon Harrison:

    Unto Thee, Almighty God, the God of Moses, the God of Jesus, the
    God of Mohammed, and the God of every living creature, God of
    the church, of the mosque, and of the synagogue, unto Thee we
    bring homage and praise.

    We worship Thee in this temple of labor, reared by faithful
    hands, and implore Thy benediction on the work, for, unless the
    Lord blesses the house, the labor is in vain. May it be
    dedicated to the enlightenment of humanity that brotherhood may
    be increased and patriotism deepened.

    Bless this august assembly. Bless this great cause, its tireless
    leaders, and faithful workers, and above all bless our beloved
    country, the haven of the oppressed and the home of liberty.
    Bless its rulers and its people.

    May it go on as from the beginning, from strength to strength,
    that the nation and the Government may increase in power and in
    the end be a union of all mankind, all races, all nations,
    proclaiming one God, one law of righteousness, one humanity, and
    saying Thy God shall reign from generation to generation. Amen.

Eighth. Centennial salute of 100 guns.

A grand display of daylight fireworks took place at the conclusion of
the exercises in the building.

Immediately after the close of the ceremonies in the Liberal Arts
Building, the governors present proceeded to the building sites selected
for their respective States, where corner stones were laid and State
colors were raised with appropriate ceremonies.

The lady managers of the exposition were conducted by military escort in
advance of the parade each day to the reviewing stand. They were
accompanied by the wives of the members of the Diplomatic Corps, members
of the Supreme Court of the United States, members of the Cabinet,
members of the Joint Committee of Congress, the Admiral of the Navy, the
Lieutenant-General of the Army, the grand marshal, the governors of the
States, the officiating clergymen, and members of the National

Receptions were held each day by the board of lady managers during the
progress of the dedication ceremonies.

The magnificence of the spectacle will live long in the memories of the
hundreds of thousands of people who witnessed the ceremonies.

All the nations were present by their diplomatic and accredited

The presence of Theodore Roosevelt, President of the United States, and
of Grover Cleveland, his only living predecessor in office, intensified
the interest of the vast concourse of people at the dedication
ceremonies. Their addresses were listened to by 80,000 persons assembled
in the Liberal Arts Building.

The committees appointed by the respective Houses of Congress to attend
the dedication ceremonies consisted of the following Senators and

    _Committee of the Senate_.--Messrs. Burnham, New Hampshire;
    Depew, New York; Penrose, Pennsylvania; Dolliver, Iowa;
    Hansbrough, North Dakota; Mitchell, Oregon; Teller, Colorado;
    Berry, Arkansas; Martin, Virginia; Foster, Louisiana.

    _Committee of the House of Representatives_.--Messrs. Jas. A.
    Tawney, Jas. S. Sherman, Thad. M. Mahon, Richard Bartholdt, H.
    C. Van Voorhis, Richard W. Parker, Jesse Overstreet, Jas. R.
    Mann, Walter I. Smith, Jas. M. Miller, E.J. Burkett, S.M.
    Robertson, C.L. Bartlett, John F. Shafroth, Jas. Hay.

Special rules and regulations providing for an international jury and
governing the system of awards, which had been in course of preparation
by the Commission and the Exposition Company for some time, were finally
drafted and sent to the Commission for approval on May 2, 1902. As
approved by the Commission and subsequently promulgated the rules read
as follows:


    1. The total number of jurors in the international jury of
    awards shall be approximately 2 per cent of the total number of
    exhibitors, but not in excess of that number, and each nation
    having 50 exhibitors or more shall be entitled to representation
    on the jury. The number of jurors from each art or industry and
    for each nationality represented shall, as far as practicable,
    be proportional to the number of exhibitors and the importance
    of the exhibits.

    Of this selected body of international jurors three graded
    juries will be constituted: One, the general organization of
    group juries; two, department juries; three, a superior jury.

    2. Each group jury shall be composed of jurors and alternates.

    The number of alternates shall in no case exceed one-fourth of
    the number of jurors, and they shall have a deliberative voice
    and vote only when occupying the places of absent jurors.

    3. The United States jurors and alternates of the group juries
    shall be nominated by the chiefs of departments to which the
    respective groups belong. The jurors and alternates of the group
    juries representing foreign countries and the United States
    insular possessions shall be nominated by the commissioners of
    such countries.

    The Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company shall certify to the
    board of lady managers the number of groups in which the
    exhibits have been produced in whole or in part by female labor;
    to each of the groups so certified the board of lady managers
    may appoint one juror and one alternate to that juror; such
    appointees, when confirmed, shall have the privileges and be
    amenable to the regulations provided for other jurors and

    All the above nominations shall be made not later than August 1,
    1904, except that nominations made to fill vacancies may be made
    at any subsequent time.

    Jury nominations made by commissioners of foreign countries
    shall be forwarded to the president of the Louisiana Purchase
    Exposition Company.

    Nominations made by chiefs of departments and by the board of
    lady managers shall be submitted to the director of exhibits,
    and when approved he shall transmit them to the president of the
    Exposition Company.

    The nomination of group jurors and alternates, when approved by
    the president of the exposition, shall be transmitted to the
    president of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Commission for
    the approval of that body.

    These nominations having been considered and confirmed by the
    authorities, as provided by section 6 of the act of Congress
    relating to the approval of the awarding of premiums, the
    appointments to the international jury shall be made in
    accordance with section 6 of Article XXII of the official rules
    and regulations of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company.

    4. Each group jury shall choose its own officers, consisting of
    a chairman, a vice-chairman, and a secretary.

    Of the two first-named officers one shall be a citizen of the
    United States and the other shall be from a foreign country
    represented in the division of exhibits.

    5. The chief of each department shall have general charge of the
    organization and direction of the group of juries in his
    department for the purpose of securing the proper examinations
    of all exhibits and to see that the work laid out for the juries
    is conducted strictly in accordance with the official rules and

    He shall be admitted to all sessions of these juries for the
    purpose of directing their attention to matters relating to the
    judging of exhibits.

    6. The work of the group juries shall begin September 1, 1904,
    and shall be completed not later than twenty days thereafter.

    Examinations or other work not completed in the time specified
    herein will be transferred to the department jury.

    7. Group juries may, on the recommendation of the chiefs of
    their respective departments, and with the approval of the
    director of exhibits, have authority to appoint, as associates
    or experts, one or more persons especially skilled in matters
    submitted for examination. These experts shall participate only
    in such special work as they are selected to perform and shall
    have no vote on the question of the merit of the exhibit under

    8. Each group jury shall carefully examine all exhibits
    pertaining to the group to which it has been assigned. It shall
    also consider and pass upon the merits of the collaborators
    whose work may be conspicuous in the design, development, or
    construction of the exhibits.

    The jury shall prepare separate lists presenting the names of
    such exhibitors as are out of competition, awards recommended to
    exhibitors in order of merit, awards recommended to
    collaborators in order of merit, a report giving an account of
    the most important objects exhibited, and a general account of
    the group as a whole.

    These papers shall be certified to the chief of the department
    to which the group belongs, and the chief of the department
    shall certify the same, with such recommendations as he may deem
    advisable, to the department jury.

    9. In order to expedite their work group juries may be divided
    into committees for the examination of exhibits.

    These committees shall be governed by paragraphs 1, 2, and 3 of
    rule 8, just cited; when they have completed the work assigned
    them they shall report to the full jury, which shall review the
    findings after an inspection of all the exhibits in the group.

    10. When the exigencies of the work require such procedure, and
    when recommended by a chief of a department and approved by the
    director of exhibits, two or more group juries may be combined.

    11. In the case of temporary exhibits and such other exhibits as
    are developed through a considerable period of time, or which
    for other reasons can not be governed by the time limits
    prescribed, the juries of such groups may continue in service
    throughout the entire period of the exposition. Special juries
    may be formed when urgently needed for special occasions.

    At the close of each temporary exhibit or competition the jury
    having the same in charge shall prepare a list of awards
    proposed in order of merit and shall certify the same to the
    chief of the department to which the exhibit pertains.

    Special awards for such temporary exhibits or competitions may
    be provided by the chief of the department to which the exhibits
    belong, on the approval of the director of exhibits and the
    president of the Exposition Company.

    12. Each department jury shall be composed of the chairman and
    vice-chairman of the group juries of the respective departments,
    with one member of the directory of the Louisiana Purchase
    Exposition Company, to be named by the president of the company,
    and one person appointed by the board of lady managers.

    The department juries shall choose their own officers,
    consisting of a chairman, three vice-chairmen, and a secretary.

    The chairman and first vice-chairman shall be, one a citizen of
    the United States, and the other a citizen of a foreign country.

    The secretary may be selected by the members of the jury from a
    list of persons recommended by the director of exhibits.

    13. Each department jury shall complete its organization and
    begin its work on September 20, 1904.

    The duties of these juries shall be to consider carefully and
    review the reports of the group juries; to harmonize any
    differences that may exist between the recommendations of the
    several group juries as to awards, and to adjust all awards
    recommended so that they will be consistent with the rules and

    No more than ten days may be devoted to this work, and when the
    awards recommended by the group juries have been adjusted, the
    department juries shall, through the chiefs of their respective
    departments, submit their findings to the director of exhibits,
    who shall, within five days after the receipt thereof, certify
    the same to the superior jury, including such work as may have
    been left incomplete by the department jury.

    14. The officers and members of the superior jury shall be as
    follows: President, the president of the Louisiana Purchase
    Exposition Company; first vice-president, the director of
    exhibits; second vice-president, a citizen of the United States
    to be named by the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Commission. The
    members of the jury shall further consist of the
    commissioners-general of the nine foreign countries occupying
    with exhibits the largest amounts of space in the exhibit
    palaces; the chairman and first vice-chairman of the department
    juries; the chiefs of the exhibit departments, and one person
    appointed by the board of lady managers.

    Two additional vice-presidents and such other officers as may be
    required shall be elected by the superior jury from the members
    herein provided for.

    No chief of a department shall represent more than a single
    department. The president of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition
    Company shall appoint from the United States membership of the
    department juries such other members as may be necessary to give
    to each exhibit department of the exposition a representative on
    the superior jury.

    There shall also be a secretary of the superior jury, who may be
    selected by the members of the jury from a list of persons
    recommended by the president of the jury.

    15. The superior jury shall determine finally and fully the
    awards to be made to exhibitors and collaborators in all cases
    that are formally presented for its consideration.

    Formal notification of the awards shall, in each case, be sent
    by the president of the jury to the exhibitors at the place of
    their respective exhibits.

    If, for any reason, an award is not satisfactory to an
    exhibitor, he may file written notice to that effect with the
    president of the jury within three days after the date of the
    official notification of the award; and this notice shall be
    followed, within seven days after said date, by a written
    statement setting forth at length his views as to wherein the
    award is inconsistent or unjust.

    In the adjustment of differences and in considering the
    recommendations of the department juries, the superior jury may
    provide for hearings of members of the department jury and of
    exhibitors, but in no case shall it be required to consider
    matters which have not been regularly presented as heretofore

    16. The work of the superior jury shall be completed on October
    15, 1904, and, as soon as practicable thereafter, formal public
    announcement of the awards shall be made. A final complete list
    of awards shall be published by the Louisiana Purchase
    Exposition Company, in accordance with the provisions of section
    6 of the act of Congress, and section 6, Article XXII, of the
    rules and regulations.

    17. A committee, consisting of the president and the four
    vice-presidents of the superior jury, shall continue the work of
    the superior jury as long as may be found necessary after that
    jury has disbanded.

    This committee shall have charge of the preparation, collection,
    and publication of the official list of awards and shall make
    the necessary provisions for the proper distribution of the

    18. The deliberations of all juries shall be strictly secret.

    The president of the Exposition Company, the director of
    exhibits, and the chiefs of departments shall have the privilege
    of attending any sessions of the several juries.

    A majority of any jury shall, in all cases, render and confirm a

    19. The exhibits of persons serving as jurors or alternates over
    groups embracing their exhibits shall be classed as
    noncompetitive and shall not be examined by the juries. This
    rule applies to managers, agents, or others representing a
    company or corporation which is entered as an exhibitor. It does
    not, however, apply to the officers or representatives of
    governments which are entered as exhibitors.

    20. Each regular exhibitor may receive an award, although his
    exhibit be joined with that of others in a single installation.

    Only one award shall be given to a collective exhibit, but the
    names of all the contributors to such collective exhibit may be
    entered on the diplomas awarded, and each participant shall
    receive a copy.

    If so desired by a group of exhibitors, a single award may be
    made to an individual representing such group.

    21. An exhibit shall receive only one award in any group.

    The same object, shown in several groups and adjudged by more
    than one jury, shall be entitled only to the highest award
    accorded to it.

    An exhibitor who has different objects entered as exhibits in
    different groups may be given an award in each group.

    22. Exhibitors who desire to have their exhibits excluded from
    competition shall notify the chief of department as to their
    wishes when making application for space, giving their reasons
    at length for their request and objections to a competitive
    exhibit; and these papers shall be transmitted through the
    directory of exhibits to the president of the Louisiana Purchase
    Exposition Company with such recommendations as may be deemed
    necessary. Exhibits thus exempted from competition shall not be
    examined by the juries, and shall not be entitled to official
    recognition in connection with the system of awards.

    23. In addition to the awards prescribed for exhibitors, an
    award may also be made to the inventor, designer, or artisan,
    who, as collaborator, has, in the judgment of the jury, shown
    more than ordinary skill in connection with an exhibit. A
    collaborator is a person who has distinguished himself as the
    designer or producer of remarkable objects shown at the
    exposition. He is not a person who has merely aided in the
    arrangement or installation of exhibits.

    In order that this may be equitably accomplished, each exhibitor
    who has received an award may furnish the chief of his
    respective department, for transmission to the proper jury, a
    list of the names of his collaborators, arranged in order of
    merit, based on skill, ability, magnitude and value of work, and
    length of service. It will then remain for the jury of awards to
    determine whether the assistance rendered by the persons named
    in the manner described has been sufficient to entitle them, or
    any of them, to the rank of collaborator, and to name the award
    which may be conferred therefor.

    24. Whenever it is applicable, a decimal scale system shall be
    used in judging the merits of exhibits, 100 representing
    perfection; and as a suggestion to juries, for instance, in
    commercial exhibits, the following is offered:

    (a) Value of the product, process, machine or device, as
    measured by its usefulness, its beneficent influence on mankind
    in its physical, mental, moral, and educational aspects.
    Counting not to exceed 25.

    (b) Skill and ingenuity displayed in the invention,
    construction, and application. Counting not to exceed 25.

    (c) Merits of the installation as to the ingenuity and taste
    displayed, the cost and value as an exposition attraction.
    Counting not to exceed 10.

    (d) Magnitude of the business represented, as measured by the
    gross sales during the calendar year preceding the opening of
    the exposition. Counting not to exceed 10.

    (e) Quality or cheapness, with reference to the possession by
    the exhibit of the highest possible quality, or the fact that
    the article is sold at so low a price with reference to its
    quality as to make it a valuable acquisition to the purchaser.
    Counting not to exceed 10.

    (f) For completion of installation within required time and for
    excellence of maintenance. Counting not to exceed 10.

    (g) Length of time exhibitor has been in business as showing
    whether exhibit is a development of original invention or is an
    improvement on the work of some prior inventor. Counting not to
    exceed 5.

    (h) Number and character of awards received from former
    expositions. Counting not to exceed 5.

    25. A special award, consisting of a gold medal in each
    department, may be recommended by the department jury for the
    best, most complete, and most attractive installation.

    26. The following scale of markings shall be used in determining
    the final merits of an exhibit and fixing the award that should
    be made, 100 being used as indicating perfection:

    Exhibits receiving markings ranging from 60 to 74 inclusive,
    bronze medal.

    Exhibits receiving markings ranging from 75 to 84 inclusive,
    silver medal.

    Exhibits receiving markings ranging from 85 to 94 inclusive,
    gold medal.

    Exhibits receiving markings ranging from 95 to 100 inclusive,
    grand prize.

    27. The diplomas or certificates of award for exhibitors shall
    be signed by the president of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition
    Company, the president of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition
    Commission, the secretary of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition
    Company, the director of exhibits, and the chief of the
    department to which the exhibit pertains.

    28. Special commemorative medals and diplomas may be issued to
    the officers of the exposition, to the United States, State, and
    foreign commissioners, to the members of the international jury
    of awards, and to such other persons as may be deemed worthy of
    special recognition.

    29. The compensation of foreign jurors shall be fixed and paid
    by the countries which they respectively represent.

    30. United States jurors, except such as are officers and
    employees of the exposition, shall receive actual cost of
    necessary transportation, and compensation at the rate of $7 per
    day for such time as they are actually engaged in the work
    assigned them at the exposition.


    _Director of Exhibits._

    _President Louisiana Purchase Exposition Commission._

    _Secretary Louisiana Purchase Exposition._

The Commission early experienced great inconvenience in preparing and
submitting its monthly reports, as required by law, to the President of
the United States, of the financial condition of the exposition, owing
to delay in receiving monthly statements from the company and the
incomplete nature of such statements when received.

From an examination of the reports furnished by the Exposition Company,
it will be observed that they were at all times deficient in that they
did not show the outstanding liabilities of the company. The Commission
assiduously endeavored to secure such amendment to the books of account
kept by the company as would secure the incorporation of a statement of
such outstanding liabilities.

The following correspondence between the Commission and the Exposition
Company shows the repeated efforts of the Commission to obtain the
information essential to the preparation of the monthly reports referred

    OCTOBER 3, 1902.

    DEAR SIR: I am directed by the Commission to refresh your memory
    as to our conversation yesterday with regard to furnishing a
    statement of all outstanding liabilities of the Exposition

    Section 11 of the act of Congress, approved March 3, 1901,
    requires the Commission to furnish the President of the United
    States a summary of the financial condition of the Exposition
    Company, and this can not be done in a satisfactory manner
    without a statement of outstanding liabilities under contract,
    expressed or implied.

    It is the desire of the Commission to furnish the President with
    detailed information of the character indicated, in connection
    with the report for the current month, to the end that he may
    have complete data available for consideration in connection
    with his message to Congress.

    It will greatly oblige the Commission to have the statement
    referred to furnished in duplicate.

    Yours, very truly,

    Hon. D.R. FRANCIS,
    _President Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company, City._

    ST. Louis, U.S.A., _October 15, 1902._

    DEAR SIR: In reply to your letter of October 3 with respect to a
    summary of the financial condition of the Louisiana Purchase
    Exposition Company, I desire to say that the attention of the
    proper officers of the company has been called to this request
    of your part, and I may assure you that the desired information
    will be prepared and furnished at an early date.

    Yours, truly,

    _President National Commission, St. Louis, Mo._

    ST. Louis, U.S.A., _November 1, 1902._

    DEAR SIR: I am directed by President Francis to transmit to you
    the following information of the total receipts and
    disbursements of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company to
    November 1, 1902:

    As shown by the report of the treasurer, the collections on
    account of subscriptions to the capital stock to November 1,
    1902, amount to $2,478,030.83.

    The treasurer has received from the city of St. Louis the
    proceeds of the sale of $5,000,000 in bonds, said sale having
    been made in June, 1902, at a price slightly above par.

    The total disbursements to November 1, 1902, as shown by the
    books of the treasurer, amount to $21,284,141.01.

    The outstanding obligations and contracts, including
    disbursements to November 1, 1902, amount to $6,931,853.41.

    There is in the hands of the treasurer, November 1, 1902, the
    sum of $5,193,889.82.


    _Secretary Louisiana Purchase Exposition Commission._

    ST. Louis, U.S.A., _November 26, 1902._

    DEAR SIR: By direction of the Commission I respectfully call
    your attention to the following entry in the minutes of the
    proceedings at a meeting of the Commission held on October 2,
    1902, as follows:

    "President Francis was requested by the Commission to furnish a
    detailed statement of all outstanding contract obligations and
    other liabilities of the exposition for transmission to the
    President of the United States with the monthly report for the
    current month. He said the statement would be furnished the
    Commission as requested."

    The statement referred to was not furnished to the Commission
    for transmission to the President of the United States with the
    monthly statement for the month of October. Presumably this
    default occurred because of your inability to have the statement
    prepared in season for transmission with that report. It is
    deemed by the Commission absolutely essential that the statement
    should be transmitted with the report for the month of November,
    to the end that it may be on file and available for examination
    by the President or by Congress.

    You are, therefore, respectfully requested to furnish such
    detailed statement to the Commission at the earliest practicable
    date, to the end that it may be examined during the present
    meeting of the Commission.

    The Commission desires that the statement should show the
    contract obligations for the several buildings, the names of the
    contractors, the dates fixed for payment, the amounts heretofore
    paid, and the date for final completion of each structure. Also
    all contracts existing requiring the payment of money for the
    acquisition of grounds and improvements to be made thereon, and
    for services rendered, or to be rendered, together with the
    amounts heretofore paid on the respective contracts, and the
    names of the contractors to whom payments have been or are to be
    made. In short, it is the desire of the Commission that the
    statement should give the substance of each and every contract
    for the payment of money made by the Exposition Company prior to
    November 1.

    The Commission also desires that the statement should embrace an
    approximate estimate of the cost of all contemplated
    construction, improvements, and necessary expenditures connected
    with the exposition as contemplated by the plan and scope
    thereof heretofore approved.

    The Commission deems the statement referred to necessary under
    the requirements of section 11 of the act of Congress approved
    March 3, 1901, which requires the Commission to give a general
    summary of the financial condition of the exposition.

    The Commission will appreciate the courtesy of the statement in

    Very respectfully,

    Hon. D.R. FRANCIS,
    President Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company,
    _St. Louis, Mo_.

    ST. LOUIS, _November 26, 1902_.

    DEAR SIR: I beg to acknowledge receipt of a communication dated
    November 26, signed by President Carter, requesting a detailed
    statement of the financial obligations and expenditures of the
    Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company up to and including
    October 31, 1902.


    _Secretary National Commission, City_.

    ST. LOUIS, U.S.A., _November 26, 1902_.

    DEAR SIR: I send herewith a statement of the disbursements and
    liabilities of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company, which,
    I think, meets the request made by the National Commission.


    _President National Commission, St. Louis_.

    ST. LOUIS, _November 29, 1902_.

    DEAR SIR: I send herewith the financial statement and duplicate
    duly certified in accordance with the request of the National


    FEBRUARY 5, 1903.

    DEAR SIR: Referring to conversation had with you this morning,
    relative to the detailed statement of disbursements and
    liabilities transmitted this Commission each month, I wish to
    say that the statement does not furnish all the information

    By reference to letter addressed President Francis by President
    Carter under date of November 26, 1902, on the second page of
    which you will note this Commission desires a statement showing
    the contract obligations for the several buildings, the name of
    the contractors, the dates fixed for payment, the amounts
    heretofore paid, and the date for final completion of each
    structure. Also all contracts existing requiring the payment of
    money for the acquisition of grounds and improvements to be made
    thereon, and for services rendered or to be rendered, together
    with the amounts heretofore paid on the respective contracts,
    and the names of the contractors to whom payments have been or
    are to be made, giving the substance of each and every contract
    for the payment of money made by the Exposition Company prior to
    November 1. If you could have the statement include the months
    of November, December, and January it would be appreciated.

    You will also note that it is desired that the statement should
    embrace an approximate estimate of the cost of all contemplated
    construction, improvements, and necessary expenditures connected
    with the exposition, as contemplated by the plan and scope
    thereof heretofore approved.

    This Commission will meet on March 10, and I will appreciate it
    if you will have the statement furnished at your earliest

    Thanking you in advance for your kindness, I beg to remain,

    Yours, very truly,

    W.B. STEVENS, Esq.,
    _Secretary Exposition Company, Building._

    ST. LOUIS, U.S.A., _February 19, 1903._

    DEAR SIR: The information asked for in your letter of the 5th
    instant, namely, "A statement showing contract obligations for
    the several buildings, names of contractors, dates fixed for
    payment, amount heretofore paid, and dates for final completion
    of each structure," is being prepared and will be forwarded to



The statements furnished by the Exposition Company following this
correspondence did not seem to the Commission to be sufficiently
explanatory of the financial condition of the exposition, and with a
view of obviating this difficulty, and of insuring better results in the
future, the Commission on March 13, 1903, appointed a special auditing
committee, consisting of Messrs. Scott, Thurston, and Miller, to audit
the books and accounts of the Exposition Company up to April 1, 1903.
Mr. Scott, as chairman, was authorized by the following resolution to
make the audit:

    Copy of Resolution.

    _Resolved_, That the special auditing committee heretofore
    appointed be, and said committee is hereby, directed to inquire
    into and report to the Commission at its earliest convenience
    the true situation concerning the financial condition of the
    Exposition Company in the matter of cash receipts from different
    sources, including receipts for admissions and concessions and
    other sources; also all disbursements of any nature made by the
    Exposition Company. They will also examine all advertisements
    for bids; also all competitive bids submitted by contractors
    under each advertisement, and compare the accepted bids with the
    rejected bids, and determine if the accepted bids are reasonable
    in comparison with the material and service rendered. They will
    also prepare a comparative statement showing all bids submitted,
    and a copy of all contracts as finally awarded.

    It is the wish of the Commission that you, as chairman of the
    special auditing committee, proceed with as much expedition as
    possible to make the examination and secure the information as
    set forth in above resolution.

Owing to the magnitude of the work of auditing the books of such an
immense enterprise, Mr. Scott engaged the services of Jones, Caesar &
Co., expert accountants, of St. Louis, to make the investigation under
supervision of the committee.

On June 23, 1903, the special auditing committee made a report to the
Commission, and at various times thereafter submitted other reports of
the financial standing of the Exposition Company, based upon the
findings of the above-named firm of expert accountants, all of which are
in the files of the Commission.

The last report of the expert accountants employed by the Commission,
containing a statement of receipts and disbursements of the Exposition
Company from date of its incorporation to date of April 30, 1905,
together with a condensed statement compiled by said expert accountants,
showing their estimate of the financial result of the exposition, which
they state has been prepared from the accounts of the company to May 3,
1905, and from an estimate of future receipts and expenditures,
furnished by the president of the Exposition Company, is herewith
submitted as a part of this report as "Appendix No. 1."

The Commission was compelled from time to time to call the attention of
the Exposition Company to the apparently excessive number of free
admissions in comparison with the total attendance at the exposition.

On May 10, 1904, the Commission wrote to the Exposition Company,
pointing out that for the first seven days of the exposition, with the
exception of the opening day, the number of free admissions compared
with paid admissions was in the ratio of 7 to 6. On several subsequent
occasions the Commission insisted that prompt action should be taken to
check the indiscriminate use of passes.

On May 24, 1904, the Commission adopted the following resolution:

    _Resolved_, That Mr. Thurston, as a member of the judiciary
    committee present, call upon Judge Ferris, general counsel for
    the Exposition Company, and indicate to him the condition of
    correspondence with reference to free admissions to the fair
    grounds, and to suggest to him that in the absence of any
    disposition on the part of the Exposition Company to take notice
    of the protests of the Commission, he has been authorized to
    prepare the case for submission to the Attorney-General of the
    United States, with request that action be taken in the courts
    to prevent further violation of the law and rules as agreed upon
    by the joint action of the company and the Commission.

On the same day Mr. Thurston, in a conference with Judge Ferris, general
counsel of the Exposition Company, brought the said action of the
Commission to his attention and insisted that the Exposition Company
should at once take immediate steps to put an end to the excessive and
improper issuance of free passes. Mr. Thurston was assured by Judge
Ferris that he would immediately consult with the exposition officials
and endeavor to secure such action on their part as would meet the views
and wishes of the Commission.

As there was no apparent cessation in the distribution of passes, the
president of the Commission, on May 31, addressed the following
communication to the president of the Exposition Company:

    MAY 31, 1904.

    SIR: Under date of May 26 Secretary Stevens transmitted to the
    National Commission what he denominated "The rules and
    regulations governing and restricting the issuance and use of
    passes," as adopted by the company and now in operation. This
    communication, with the rules referred to attached, was
    obviously intended as an answer to the communication of the
    Commission to the company on that subject under dates of May 10
    and May 19.

    I am directed by the Commission to call your attention to the
    following sentence contained in my letter of 19th, above
    referred to, to wit:

    "Persons not entitled to admission to the grounds under article
    5 of the rules and regulations can only be legally and properly
    admitted by the Exposition Company with the approval of the
    National Commission."

    With that proposition the answer of the executive committee of
    your company takes issue by submitting what you evidently deemed
    a sufficient answer through rules and regulations adopted by the
    company and now in operation, without the approval of the

    The Commission understands that the following issues arise from
    this letter and the correspondence to which it refers, to wit:

    First. That the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company asserts
    and is exercising the asserted right to formulate and put into
    operation rules and regulations governing and restricting the
    issuance and use of free passes to the exposition grounds,
    without submitting such rules and regulations to the Commission
    and obtaining its approval thereof.

    Second. That the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company asserts
    and is acting upon the assertion of its alleged right, through
    its officers and agents, to issue free passes to the exposition
    grounds without the concurrence or approval of the National
    Commission, expressed through general rules or regulations or

    In reply to these asserted rights, and the exercise thereof by
    the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company, the Louisiana
    Purchase Exposition Commission denies the right of the company
    to promulgate and put into operation rules and regulations
    governing and prescribing the issuance and use of free passes to
    the exposition grounds without submitting such rules and
    regulations to the Commission, and without obtaining its
    approval thereof, and denies the right of the Louisiana Purchase
    Exposition Company to issue free passes to the exposition
    grounds without the concurrence or approval of the National
    Commission, expressed through general rules and regulations, or

    Upon the two issues here presented the Commission invokes the
    judgment of the board of arbitration, provided for in section 4
    of the act of Congress, entitled:

    "An act to provide for celebrating the one hundredth anniversary
    of the purchase of the Louisiana territory by the United States
    by holding an international exhibition of arts, industries,
    manufactures, and the products of the soil, mine, forest, and
    sea, in the city of St. Louis, in the State of Missouri,
    approved March 3, 1901."

    For convenience a copy of the correspondence referred to is
    hereunto attached.

    Hon. John M. Allen and Hon. John M. Thurston, the members of the
    Commission appointed to act for this body on the board of
    arbitration, will hold themselves in readiness to meet the
    members of that board appointed by the company at their

    Yours, very respectfully,

    Hon. D.R. FRANCIS,
    _President Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company._

On June 14 the Exposition Company submitted certain rules and
regulations governing the issuance of passes. The Commission gave due
consideration to the proposed rules, and on June 25 returned them to the
Exposition Company with certain modifications, which the executive
committee of the Exposition Company refused to adopt. Whereupon, on July
7, the Commission, by resolution, demanded immediate arbitration on the
matter and protested against the issuance of free admissions pending a
decision by the board of arbitration.

Mr. Joseph Flory, secretary of the Commission since its organization,
resigned from that office on July 1, 1904. Mr. Lawrence H. Grahame, of
New York, assistant secretary, was elected as secretary to succeed Mr.

On July 13, 1904, the board of arbitration of the Commission and the
Exposition Company finally met, and the question of free passes was
discussed. Another meeting of the arbitrators was held on July 18, and
rules and regulations governing the use of passes were drafted.

These rules were subsequently adopted by the company and approved by the
Commission on July 20, 1904. The rules read as, follows:

    _Resolved,_ That the rules and regulations governing free
    admission to the exposition grounds, prepared by the Louisiana
    Purchase Exposition Company, governing the corporation are fixed
    and established by said company to read as follows:

    The official badges of the officers and directors of the
    company, directors of divisions, and chiefs of departments of
    the exposition, duly approved by the board of directors of the
    company; the official badges of the officers and members of the
    National Commission, duly approved by said Commission; and the
    official badge of the board of lady managers, duly approved by
    said board, shall entitle the officers and members wearing the
    same to free admission to the exposition grounds.

    Card passes for the entire period of the exposition will be
    issued to the following officials and their wives, to wit:

    The President of the United States.

    The Vice-President of the United States.

    Members of the Cabinet.

    Judges of the Supreme Court of the United States.

    The Secretary to the President of the United States.

    Members and officers of the National Commission.

    The directors and officers of the Exposition Company.

    The mayor of the city of St. Louis.

    Card passes for the entire period of the exposition will be
    issued to the following persons, to wit:

    Members of both Houses of Congress, and the chief officers

    The Diplomatic Corps.

    The diplomatic representatives of the United States abroad.

    The governors of States, Territories, Districts, and
    dependencies of the United States, and the Commissioners of the
    District of Columbia.

    Commissioners of foreign countries accredited to the exposition.

    Commissioners of States, Territories, Districts, and
    dependencies of the United States accredited to the exposition.

    Directors of divisions and chiefs of the departments and bureaus
    of the exposition.

    The widows of deceased directors of the Exposition Company.

    The members of the board of lady managers.

    Members of the United States Government board.

    The commander of the Jefferson Guards and his official aides.

    The members and chief officers of the municipal assembly of the
    city of St. Louis.

    The heads of departments of the municipal government of the city
    of St. Louis.

    The chief of police and the chief of the detective force of St.

    Limited admission passes will be granted, under such rules and
    regulations as the Exposition Company may prescribe, to the
    following classes of persons whose duties require their presence
    upon the exposition grounds, to wit:

    The judges and jurors of awards.

    Employees of the Exposition Company.

    Employees of the National Commission.

    Employees of the board of lady managers.

    Officers and employees of the United States actually in charge
    of or connected with the Government exhibits, or otherwise
    officially engaged within the exposition grounds.

    Agents and employees of foreign governments actually in charge
    of or connected with their exhibits or buildings.

    Duly accredited press representatives.

    Private exhibitors and their employees.

    Concessionaires and their employees.

    The term "employee" as herein used shall be construed as meaning
    only such persons as are actually and necessarily employed
    within the exposition grounds, and when in any case such
    employment ceases the pass shall be taken up and canceled.

    A vehicle may be admitted to the grounds upon payment of 50
    cents, but the driver and occupants thereof shall be subject to
    the general rules governing admissions.

    _Provided,_ That all official vehicles and the vehicles of
    officers and directors of the Exposition Company, of officers
    and members of the National Commission, and the members of the
    board of lady managers shall, with the driver thereof, be
    admitted free upon presentation of official permit.

    Any person entering the grounds upon a badge or card pass shall
    be required to deposit with the gate keeper a personal card with
    pass number thereon.

    In exceptional cases the president of the Exposition Company may
    issue passes to persons not included in the foregoing
    classification, when such action is deemed for the best interest
    of the exposition.

    Passes will not be replaced during the period for which same may
    have been issued. When a pass is lost, prompt notice should be
    given to the department of admissions in order that notice of
    same may be posted and the pass taken up if presented.

    When an employee is discharged or resigns, a pass will not be
    issued to his successor until the original pass is returned to
    the department of admissions.

    The Louisiana Purchase Exposition reserves the right to call in
    and revoke or cancel any pass at any time.

    Passes are void and will be forfeited if showing any evidence of
    alteration or erasure. All passes are nontransferable, and will
    be forfeited if presented by any other than person named

    Any person holding a pass may be required to prove his identity
    by signature or otherwise.

    All passes will be issued subject to the conditions printed

    All passes issued in conflict with the foregoing rules and
    regulations shall be recalled and canceled.

    The Exposition Company shall furnish the National Commission a
    complete list of all card passes and a statement of all other
    passes issued prior to July 1, classified as to departments,
    divisions, and bureaus, as accurately as may be done from the
    books of the company, and hereafter the company shall keep an
    accurate record by departments, divisions, and bureaus, showing
    all passes issued by each under the foregoing rules, and shall
    furnish a copy of such record to the National Commission with
    each monthly financial statement, and such statement shall
    contain a list of all card passes issued during the month to
    which the financial report refers.

Prior to the approval of the rules and regulations governing free
admissions to the exposition grounds, the president of the Exposition
Company exercised a free hand in the distribution of passes.

On April 30, and during the month of May, 1904, of the 1,841,275 total
admissions only 667,772 were paid admissions, thus making the free
admissions substantially two-thirds of the total.

In June, 1904, the total admissions were 2,448,519, and of this number
1,382,865 were paid.

In July an improvement occurred. Of the 2,498,265 admissions during that
month, 1,514,743 were paid. Thenceforward less than one-half of the
total admissions were free. But notwithstanding the effort to check this
abuse it was indulged to such an extent that the final totals make a
remarkable showing, as follows:

Total admissions during the entire period
  of the exposition ....................... 20,066,537
Total paid admissions during the entire
  period of the exposition ................ 12,804,616

The total attendance and the paid admissions at the exposition do not
compare favorably with those of the Columbian Exposition of 1893. The
Columbian Exposition was conducted during a period of great financial
depression, while the St. Louis Exposition was held during a period of
remarkable prosperity. The Government aid extended to the latter was far
greater in every respect than was given the former.

The method of advertising the exposition adopted by the company was a
subject of constant and almost universal criticism, and complaints were
made to the Commission and in the public press that exploitation of the
fair was inadequate. On every possible occasion members of the
Commission personally brought the matter to the attention of the
exposition officials and suggested that steps be taken to give the
enterprise wider publicity.

The Commission received communications and personal visits almost daily
from persons interested in the success of the exposition, urging that
some official action be taken to improve the existing advertising
arrangements. So insistent became the demand for greater publicity that
the president of the Commission addressed the following letter to the
Exposition Company, suggesting the importance of properly advertising
the exposition throughout the country.

    JULY 20, 1904.

    DEAR SIR: By direction of the National Commission, I
    respectfully call your attention to the apparent need for an
    extension and enlargement of the publicity feature of the

    The zeal and efficiency of the press of the city of St. Louis
    has demonstrated what may be done in the creation of active
    interest by enlightened exploitation through the public press.
    Within the range of the general circulation of the papers
    published in this city all features of the fair have been made
    known; but, unhappily, the journals of this city, like those of
    all other cities, enjoy general circulation only in a limited
    area. Beyond the line of the special influence of the local
    press the extensive proportions and interesting details of the
    fair do not appear to the Commission to have been made known to
    the general public, to the extent or in the manner calculated to
    inspire the interest and secure the attendance warranted by the
    extraordinary merits of the great educational force here
    installed. In the opinion of the Commission this delinquency
    does not arise from any lack of devotion to the public welfare
    by the press of the country at large.

    The munificent recognition of the fair by the General Government
    attracted national attention. The invitation extended by the
    President of the United States, under authority of law, to the
    nations of the earth to participate in the exposition,
    supplemented by the cordial cooperation of our diplomatic and
    consular representatives abroad, secured the most extensive
    foreign participation ever accorded to any like undertaking.
    Moved thereto by the example of the National Government, the
    States, Territories, and dependencies of the United States
    joined in the exposition with unparalleled generosity and
    enthusiasm. The groups of palatial buildings erected by the
    foreign governments and by the States and minor subdivisions of
    our country, together with the exhibits installed in the
    exhibition palaces provided by the company, bear the amplest
    testimony of their earnest desire to make the exposition a
    pronounced success. The splendid exhibit installed here by the
    government of the Philippine Islands rises to the proportions of
    an exposition on its own account.

    The buildings are completed, the exhibits are installed, and the
    exposition has been in progress for substantially three-sevenths
    of its allotted period. The faith of the management in the
    merits of the exposition has been justified by the approving
    judgment of all who have entered the gates; but the daily
    attendance has been far short of what it should be from any
    point of view.

    Unhappily, the magnificent proportions and the numberless
    attractions of the exposition do not seem to be fully understood
    by the masses of the people throughout the United States, whence
    attendance must be chiefly expected. The results obtained from
    the territory commanded by the press of St. Louis warrants the
    belief that the unsatisfactory conditions prevailing would be
    overcome if the country at large could be adequately advised of
    what is to be seen, learned, and enjoyed within these grounds.

    All the National, State, Territorial, and District governments
    participating in the exposition are quite as much interested as
    the company in the diffusion of knowledge concerning the merits
    of the exposition and securing the attendance of the largest
    number of people who may find it possible to enjoy the benefits
    and the pleasure of a visit to the grounds. It appears to the
    Commission that the company may well call to its aid the forces
    referred to. The details through which publicity may be widely
    extended might wisely be made the result of a conference by a
    committee made up of persons appointed by the Exposition
    Company, the National Commission, and the representatives of
    Governments, States, Territories, and Districts having duly
    accredited commissioners appointed to represent them. It is
    probable that such a conference would find the representatives
    of each Government, State, and District anxious to cooperate by
    furnishing detailed information along well-considered lines
    concerning the participation of each in the fair. For example,
    the people of New York will be interested in a well-prepared
    description of the exhibits of that State, whereas the same
    subject-matter would not be of like interest to the people of
    California; but, on the contrary, the people of California would
    be interested in a graphic description of California exhibits.

    The newspapers of the respective States will, without doubt,
    cheerfully give space to descriptive matter directly relating to
    the exhibits and achievements of their readers.

    One instance has been called to the attention of the Commission
    where the names of visitors to the fair, registered at a State
    building, are being forwarded to the leading daily papers of the
    State, and published as a matter of news in their columns. The
    papers in question not only publish the list of arrivals at the
    exposition, but have called for any other matter of interest
    occurring here relating to the people or affairs of the State.
    This method of publicity pursued by the commissioners of one
    State might, as the result of conference, become generally
    adopted. The Exposition Company could well afford to aid and
    assist in the preparation of descriptive articles, accompanied
    by plate matter, relating to different localities, because it is
    evident that the creation of interest in any locality will
    contribute to the general purpose. But it is not the intention
    to here attempt to detail the many ways of securing merited
    publicity which would undoubtedly evolve from a general
    conference by representatives of all the interested forces.

    The commissioners representing the various States and
    governments are persons of wide experience and broad
    intelligence; and they are all, in their respective spheres,
    undoubtedly as anxious to contribute to the success of the
    exposition as the directors and officers of the Exposition
    Company are known to be.

    It is far from the intention of the Commission to interfere with
    the operation of any of your own matured plans; but it is
    respectfully submitted that the failure of expected and
    necessary attendance at the exposition is a matter of such
    supreme importance as to warrant the employment of every
    available force connected with this enterprise in the work of
    calling public attention to the exposition through the press of
    the whole country, and such other agencies as may be suggested
    and adopted.

    Very respectfully,

    Thos. H. CARTER,

    Hon. D.R. FRANCIS,
    _President Exposition Company, Building_.

The exposition management did not elect to avail itself of the
cooperation of the National Commission in the matter of exploitation,
but very shortly after the foregoing letter was delivered the
advertising department became more active by advertising in the
newspapers and by the use of billboards in St. Louis and the adjacent

The National Bill Posters' Association, which met in St. Louis about
this time, observing the inadequacy of the provision made for
advertising, volunteered to cooperate with the Exposition Company by
posting bills on their boards free of charge throughout an extensive

A cursory examination of reports of the daily attendance will show a
very perceptible increase of receipts at the gates in consequence of the
effort made about this time to call the attractions of the exposition to
the attention of the people. Unhappily the exploitation work thus
commenced was practically one year behind time. Undoubtedly the paid
attendance at the exposition could have been very largely increased by
an efficient system of exploitation initiated one year before the gates
were opened and vigorously prosecuted until the close of the exposition.

In order to increase the attendance at the exposition, as well as to
increase the revenues of the Exposition Company at certain periods, the
National Commission at different times cheerfully approved the
modifications of the rules proposed by the Exposition Company
authorizing the sale of season tickets, also of special tickets for
limited periods, at reduced rates. Such modifications proposed by the
Exposition Company were in all instances, except one, approved by the
National Commission substantially as proposed; but in one instance the
Commission was impelled from a sense of its duty to the Government to
decline to approve a rule proposed by the company providing for the sale
of special coupon tickets good for 50 admissions to stockholders of the
company only.

It is proper to say that prior to the submission to the Commission of
the proposed rule, or modification of the rules, announcement had been
made in the newspapers of St. Louis that such tickets would be sold by
the company, and, in fact, the sale of the proposed tickets had already

The following letter contains the proposal of the company to authorize
the sale of such special tickets to stockholders only:

    MAY 18, 1904.

    DEAR SIR: I am directed by the executive committee of the
    Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company to inform the National
    Commission that the committee has approved the following

    _Resolved_, That a ticket, photographic, nontransferable, having
    50 coupons good for admission at any time during the World's
    Fair shall be sold to stockholders at the rate of $12.50; this
    privilege to continue to and including June 15, to be open to
    all who shall be stockholders up to and including that day.

    I am directed by the executive committee to ask favorable action
    upon the resolution by the National Commission.



    _Secretary National Commission._

It was the opinion of the National Commission that the sale of the
proposed tickets to stockholders alone at the reduced price proposed was
in the nature of a dividend or pecuniary benefit in which the United
States Government could not participate, and therefore contrary to law;
and in view of the fact that the people of the United States had
contributed through the Government appropriation for the exposition an
amount of money equal to that which had been furnished by the
stockholders of the company it seemed to the Commission that no special
privilege respecting the purchase of tickets should be given such
stockholders that was not given equally to all citizens of the United

This view was especially enforced by the consideration that stockholders
of the company had subscribed for such stock in the belief that the
citizens of the city of St. Louis would reap large local benefits from
the holding of the fair in that city, while it was obvious that the
other citizens of the United States could not in any degree participate
in such benefits.

The Commission, believing that the sale of special coupon tickets at
that time would increase the revenues of the company at a time when such
increase seemed to be especially desirable, submitted to the company a
modification of the proposed rule, as set forth in the following letter:

    MAY 19, 1904.

    DEAR SIR: I am directed by the National Commission to inform you
    that they have had under consideration the resolution contained
    in your esteemed favor of 18th instant, reading as follows:

    "_Resolved_, That a ticket, photographic, nontransferable,
    having 50 coupons, good for admission at any time during the
    World's Fair, shall be sold to stockholders at the rate of
    $12.50; this privilege to continue to and including June 15, and
    to be open to all who shall be stockholders up to and including
    that day."

    The Commission respectfully declines to approve the resolution
    as presented, but, being in hearty accord with the laudable
    purpose of the company to offer inducements tending to insure an
    extensive sale of admission tickets before the 15th of June,
    approves that feature of the resolution by modifying the same so
    as to read as follows:

    "There shall be sold to the public up to and including June 15
    at $12.50 a photographic, nontransferable ticket with 50 coupons
    thereunto attached, each good for one admission to the fair at
    any time prior to August 31."

    In the judgment of the Commission the use of the tickets
    proposed should be restricted by a time limit, inasmuch as a
    failure to provide such a restriction would be equivalent to a
    reduction of admissions to 25 cents each. Moreover, limiting the
    time for use of the tickets, as proposed, would tend to
    stimulate attendance at the fair during the summer months.

    The Commission is not insensible to the natural desire of the
    Exposition Company to give some privilege to the stockholders
    who subscribed to the capital stock of the corporation, but,
    while appreciating the generous motive of the executive
    committee, the Commission feels constrained to withhold its
    approval for the reason that approval thereof would, in the
    judgment of the Commission, violate the letter and spirit of
    section 20 of the act of Congress approved March 3, 1901, which,
    in so far as applicable, reads as follows:

    "That there shall be repaid into the Treasury of the United
    States the same proportionate amount of the aid given by the
    United States as shall be repaid to either the Louisiana
    Purchase Exposition Company or the city of St. Louis."

    The proposal to give to stockholders of the Exposition Company
    tickets of admission good until December 1 at half price confers
    upon the stock a special privilege not contemplated by the act
    of Congress, and is apparently in the nature of a dividend or
    pecuniary benefit in which the United States can not

    I am also directed by the Commission to say that if, in the
    opinion of the company, the best interests of the fair would be
    advanced by making the proposed tickets good for the entire time
    of the fair the Commission would view such action with favor,
    providing the price of the ticket should be fixed at $15.

    Yours, very respectfully,

    _Secretary Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company, Building_.

On May 23, 1904, a conference was held between the National Commission
and a committee on conference appointed by the Exposition Company. At
such conference the National Commission insisted that the proposed
special coupon tickets be sold to the public, while the conferees on the
part of the company urged the acceptance of the original rule proposed
by said company, limiting the sale of stockholders only. Finally, upon
the proposal of the conferees of the company, and in order to reach an
agreement, the National Commission assented to a rule whereby the
company should be authorized to sell such tickets to its stockholders,
also to any person presenting an order from the National Commission
therefor, as is set forth in the following copy of the conference

    At a conference between the officers and members of the
    executive committee of the Exposition Company and members of the
    National Commission, held at the office of President Francis on
    Monday, May 23, it was agreed, after a full and free conference,
    that the disagreement existing between the Exposition Company
    and the Commission with reference to the sale of 50-coupon,
    photographic, nontransferable tickets to stockholders of the
    Exposition Company, at $12.50 each, on or before June 15, such
    tickets to be good during the period of the fair, was settled by
    the adoption of the following addition to article 5, to wit:

    "That any stockholder of the Exposition Company, or any person
    presenting an order from the National Commission to the
    treasurer of the company, may, at any time prior to June 15,
    purchase for $12.50 one photographic nontransferable ticket with
    50 coupons attached, each coupon good for one admission to the
    fair at any time on or before December 1, 1904."

    To which addition to the aforesaid article 5 full assent was
    given by the company and the Commission.

    D.R. FRANCIS, President,
    W.H. THOMPSON, Treasurer,
    _Chairman Ways and Means Committee,
    Committee Representing Louisiana Purchase Exposition Co_.

    Thos. H. CARTER,
    _For the National Commission Louisiana Purchase Exposition_.

The Commission, desiring that the public should have the amplest
opportunity to participate in the purchase of these special tickets at
reduced rates, and in order that the knowledge of such privilege should
have the widest publicity, addressed and sent to the Associated Press
the following notice:

    _To the Associated Press_:

    Some days ago the Exposition Company proposed to issue a
    nontransferable photographic coupon ticket good for 50
    admissions for the sum of $12.50, that amount being half rate.
    This proposal was disapproved by the National Commission,
    because deemed in the nature of a dividend on the stock. The
    Commission insisted that if the price of tickets was reduced in
    the manner proposed, they should be presented to the public for
    sale without preference as to purchasers. As the result of a
    conference it was agreed that the Exposition Company might sell
    to its stockholders nontransferable tickets at the rate of
    $12.50 each for 50 admissions, and that at the same time any
    person not a stockholder presenting an order from the National
    Commission to the treasurer of the company would be entitled to
    the same privilege. The Commission desires to announce that any
    person not a stockholder of the Exposition Company may, upon
    application to the Commission, procure an order on the treasurer
    of the Exposition Company for the delivery of one of the tickets
    referred to upon the payment of $12.50. The privilege of
    purchase can not be exercised after June 15. Applications for
    orders may be made in person or by letter addressed to the
    National Commission, Administration Building, St. Louis. Payment
    for tickets to be made to William H. Thompson, treasurer,
    Laclede Building, St. Louis.


The sale of these tickets was larger than had been expected either by
the company or the Commission, and that it was satisfactory to the
company was indicated by its proposal, under date of June 7, 1904, to
extend the sale of such tickets from June 15 to and including July 1,
the price being increased to $15. This proposal was promptly approved by
the National Commission, and the sale resulted in materially increasing
the revenues of the Exposition Company.


It will be perceived that rules and regulations governing the
appointment of jurors and the awarding of premiums were presented by the
company and adopted by the company and adopted by the Commission on May
2, 1903. These rules required that the nominations of all proposed
jurors be submitted to the Commission on or before August 1, 1904.

Believing that the approval of the jurors by the Commission should not
be merely perfunctory, but that the nominations should be scrutinized
with care before approval, the Commission, on the 18th day of May, 1904,
addressed the Exposition Company the following self-explanatory

    ST. LOUIS, _May 19, 1904_.

    Hon. D.R. FRANCIS,
    _President Exposition Company_.

    MY DEAR SIR: Inasmuch as objections may be urged to the
    appointment of certain persons upon juries of awards, it is the
    intention of the National Commission to give public notice,
    allowing reasonable time for the filing of any objections that
    may be offered to the appointment of any individual on the jury.
    As this proceeding will necessarily consume time, it is
    desirable that the names of persons proposed for the respective
    juries be transmitted to the Commission from time to time as the
    respective groups are completed by the company. It is believed
    that final action can be reached in a more orderly and
    satisfactory manner by taking up the names proposed for each
    jury separately rather than to have the entire membership of all
    the juries submitted for consideration simultaneously.

    Yours, very respectfully,
    THOS. H. CARTER, _President_.

A communication on the same subject was addressed to the president of
the Exposition Company on May 23, as follows:

    MAY 23, 1904.

    DEAR SIR: By direction of the Commission, I have the honor to
    call your attention to section 6 of the act of Congress making
    an appropriation for the exposition, and for other purposes,
    approved March 3, 1901, which provides that the appointment of
    all judges and examiners for the exposition shall be made by the
    Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company, subject to the approval
    of the Commission created by section 2 of the act.

    Some days ago a gentleman reported to the Commission that
    certain jurors had been appointed and were actually discharging
    their duties as judges and examiners. This rumor seemed to the
    Commission utterly incredible, but this morning the director of
    exhibits confirmed the rumor informally by admitting that
    certain jurors had been at work for a considerable length of
    time in certain departments of the exposition.

    The Commission does not desire to assume a position at all
    hypercritical, but I am directed to say that an utter disregard
    of provisions of the law can not be countenanced.

    To the end that no question may arise concerning the legality or
    regularity of the action of any jury or board of examiners, I
    have the honor to request, in behalf of the Commission, that the
    names of jurors be forwarded to the Commission for consideration
    before there is any pretense to giving them authority to act.

    Inasmuch as an infraction of the law has heretofore occurred
    according to the director of exhibits, I can but request that
    the names of the jurors who have heretofore been commissioned to
    act be forwarded for consideration without delay. We are not
    unmindful that free and full consideration of the names of
    persons thus empowered to act without full authority will be
    somewhat embarrassing in view of their having been employed for
    a considerable length of time before the Commission will have
    been advised of their designation by the company.

    Yours, very respectfully,

    Thos. H. CARTER,

    Hon. D.R. FRANCIS,
    _President Exposition Company, Building_.

As indicated by correspondence hereinafter set forth, the company did
not present the names of jurors to the Commission on or before August 1,
and indeed did not advise the Commission of the names of many of the
jurors until long after the time had elapsed for the performance of
their duties.

After the group juries had performed their duties certain persons,
feeling aggrieved by the awards made, undertook to appeal to the
Commission for redress. The Commission disclaimed jurisdiction to
consider the matter until the awards were submitted to it for approval.
Upon inquiry growing out of these attempted appeals, it was ascertained
by the Commission that the Exposition Company questioned the right of
the Commission to inquire into or in any manner to pass upon the justice
or regularity of any award made. The company having submitted certain
proposed amendments to the rules and regulations, the Commission
undertook by further amendments to settle the question as to the right
of the company to refuse to submit awards made to the Commission for its
approval, as required by law. The right of the Commission to even
inquire into charges of fraud, bribery, or corruption in connection with
awards the company steadily denied and never conceded.

In the records of the Commission filed with this report will be found
charges under oath against a division chief, alleging that he was a
party to negotiations for a bribe of $2,000 to be paid on the awarding
of the grand prize to a certain manufactured article, and that when the
matter was brought to his attention his only explanation was that he had
declined to be the stakeholder or custodian of the money because of
possible criticism in case the transaction should become public. This
individual was a member of the group jury, a member of the department
jury of his department, and a member of the superior jury.

The Commission felt that investigation of such serious charges was
absolutely necessary to guarantee the integrity of the awards.

On October 18, 1904, Commissioner Allen, as acting president of the
Commission, set forth the existing status of the case in a letter to
Hon. D.R. Francis, president of the Exposition Company, reading as

    OCTOBER 18, 1904.

    SIR: On October 11 the National Commission sent to the local
    company a communication suggesting certain amendments to an
    amendment to the rules and regulations governing the system of
    awards sent us by the Exposition Company. To date we have not
    received reply to the communication referred to, nor have we
    heard from your company, excepting a visit from Judge Wilbur F.
    Boyle, a member of your executive committee, who called on the
    Commission on Friday, October 14, in relation to this matter.

    The amendments suggested by this Commission were to carry into
    effect the law as we understand it, and what we have been
    assured was so understood by your company, to wit: That the
    awards, before becoming final, should be approved by the
    National Commission. We infer from what was said by you to Mr.
    Scott, a member of this Commission, and what was said by Judge
    Boyle to the Commission, that the position of your company is
    that the approval of the National Commission only refers to the
    system of making the awards, and not to the awards of the
    juries. While we do not agree to this contention, we desire to
    call your attention to what we consider a number of violations
    of the rules and regulations governing the system of awards, as
    agreed upon by the local company and the National Commission. In
    the first place, in paragraph 3 of the special rules and
    regulations providing for the appointment of jurors and
    governing the system of making awards, it is set forth "that the
    nominations for group jurors shall be made not later than August
    1, 1904, except that nominations made to fill vacancies may be
    made at any subsequent time." It is also provided "that
    nominations of group jurors and alternates, when approved by the
    president of the Exposition Company, shall be transmitted to the
    National Commission for the approval of that body." "These
    nominations, having been considered and confirmed by the
    authority provided by section 6 of the act of Congress, relating
    to the approval of the awarding of premiums, the appointment to
    the international jury shall be made in accordance with section
    6 of article 22 of the official rules and regulations of the
    Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company."

    You will remember that the nominations of group jurors were not
    made until long after the time specified in the rules and
    regulations, which left but a brief time to notify the jurors
    and allow them time to get here to begin the performance of
    their duties by the 1st of September.

    You will doubtless remember that the writer, Mr. Allen, had an
    interview with you and Mr. Skiff, in which he protested on
    behalf of the National Commission that no time was given the
    Commission to investigate the character of qualifications of the
    jurors thus nominated, and that it was placing in the hands of
    the chiefs of the different departments the power to fix up
    juries and make the awards conform to their own wishes, if they
    desired to do so.

    You will also doubtless remember that Mr. Skiff, in your
    presence, said to Mr. Allen, as he has said to the Commission
    frequently before and as he assured us he had said to hundreds
    of exhibitors, that after the action of the group juries these
    awards would have to pass the department juries, then the
    superior jury, then the local company, and finally be approved
    by the National Commission, and that if anything wrong was done
    by the group juries thus selected ample opportunity would be had
    to right such wrong. Acting on this assurance the National
    Commission went ahead and approved such jurors as were sent them
    for their approval.

    Paragraph 4 of said rules and regulations provides that each
    group jury shall choose its own officers, consisting of a
    chairman, vice-chairman, and secretary. It came to the knowledge
    of the Commission that when the group juries were being
    organized this rule was being violated, and in most, if not all
    instances, the officers of the group juries were being selected
    by the chiefs of the departments. We went to see the secretary
    of the exhibit department, who had charge of the matter of
    juries in that department, and informed him of this violation of
    the rules. We were informed by him that he did not know the
    chiefs had gone to the extent of informing the juries who their
    officers should be, but that they had been instructed to make
    suggestions that they might keep the chairmanship of the juries
    in the hands of the Americans.

    We find that a large number of group jurors have been appointed,
    have participated in making awards, have been paid off, and have
    gone home without their names ever having been submitted to the
    National Commission for approval.

    We are informed that the course adopted by the chiefs in the
    organization of the group juries was pursued when it came to the
    organization of the department juries, and in this way the
    chiefs, in violation of the rules, have selected the main body
    of the superior jury. We were also informed that the department
    juries were instructed to pass the matters that we think would
    properly belong to that body up to the superior jury;
    consequently the principal duty performed by the department jury
    was to enable the chiefs to select two members for the superior
    jury. We have been informed that the chiefs in some departments
    have taken it upon themselves to forbid the jurors from
    considering certain matters that were proper subjects for their

    In paragraph 15 of said rules and regulations it is provided
    that if for any reason an award is not satisfactory to an
    exhibitor he may file notice to that effect with the president
    of the superior jury within three days after the official
    notification of the award; this notice shall be followed within
    seven days by a written statement setting forth at length his
    views as to wherein the award is unjust. We see now that the
    superior jury has been disbanded within three or four days after
    most of the exhibitors received their official notification,
    thus cutting off the opportunity of exhibitors who were
    dissatisfied with the awards to present their cases as provided
    for by the rules.

    We are also informed that instead of the superior jury hearing
    any protests or complaints of the awards, these were referred to
    subboards or subjuries made up in the main of jurors who had
    been brought up by the chiefs from the various group juries to
    the superior jury by the methods heretofore described.

    We have also been informed by a gentleman who attempted to make
    a protest and get a hearing before these subcommittees so
    organized with the superior jury that he was informed he could
    only make his complaint to the chief of the department from
    which the exhibit referred to came, and when one chief was
    approached he said he would not permit the matter complained of
    to be investigated by the superior jury. He then appealed to the
    full superior jury to hear him, and he was informed that they
    had agreed that no one should be heard. So that it occurs to us
    that the thing we sought to warn you against has been
    practically accomplished, and the assurance given us that the
    method by which these things might be corrected has been denied,
    so that if we understand your contention that we were only to
    approve the system of making awards instead of the awards we
    claim the system that we approved has been violated from start
    to finish.

    We also find that some jurors who were appointed and approved
    for certain departments had been transferred to other groups and
    departments without the knowledge or approval of the National

    We are not thoroughly familiar with the character of all your
    chiefs for integrity or impartiality, but from some things that
    we have heard we are unwilling for some of them to make up a
    list of awards without the National Commission's performance of
    the duty that devolves on us by the act of Congress and by
    section 6 of article 22 of the rules and regulations of the
    Louisiana Purchase Exposition, adopted in pursuance of an act of
    Congress of the United States, and we again wish to protest as
    we have had occasion to do several times before, against the
    apparent disposition on the part of the local company to ignore
    the National Commission, and disregard the powers vested in this
    body by the act of Congress, under which this exposition is

    We see from the papers that your company, without any reference
    to the National Commission, is proceeding to publish the list of
    awards made as heretofore described in this communication. We
    wish to enter a protest against this being done, and to inform
    you that under section 4 of the act of Congress a board of
    arbitration is provided for, "to whom all matters of difference
    arising between the Commission and said company concerning the
    administration, management, and general supervision of said
    exposition, including all matters of difference arising out of
    the power given by this act to the said company, or to the said
    National Commission to modify or approve any act of the other of
    the two bodies, shall be referred for determination," and to
    notify you that we insist upon such arbitration if your company
    insists upon its refusal to submit these awards to the National
    Commission for approval.

    The matters to be submitted to said arbitration board are as

    First. The right of the National Commission to have submitted
    for its approval the awards found under the jury system and
    ready to be promulgated by the superior jury.

    Second. If our contention as to our rights in this matter be
    found by said board of arbitration against us, then as to
    whether or not the rules and regulations adopted by the local
    company and the National Commission governing the system of
    awards have been so complied with as to bind the National
    Commission to any approval of the system by which the awards
    have been made.

    Third. Whether or not, under the rules and regulations, it is
    necessary for the president of the National Commission to sign
    the diplomas or certificate of awards; and if so, can his name
    be put on such diplomas or certificates without his consent.

    We trust any further announcement of the awards of the superior
    jury may be withheld until this matter shall have been


    JOHN M. ALLEN, _Acting President_.

    Hon. D.R. FRANCIS,
    _President Exposition Company, Building_.

A formal acknowledgment of this letter was received from Secretary
Stevens, with the advice that the same had been placed before the
executive committee for consideration.

At about this time there appeared in several St. Louis newspapers
advertisements of prominent firms of St. Louis, setting forth the
alleged fact that they had been awarded grand prizes on their exhibits,
and in connection with such advertisements was displayed a cut of an
official award ribbon, bearing the facsimile signature of the president,
the director of exhibits, the secretary of the Exposition Company, and
the chief of the department in which the exhibit was made.

The fact that the awards were being advertised broadcast in this manner
before they had been approved by the Commission was called to the
attention of President Francis by Mr. Allen, acting president, by a
letter under date of November 4, as follows:

    NOVEMBER 4, 1904.

    SIR: If the inclosed advertisement is published by authority of
    the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company, it seems to be
    directly in conflict with the understanding had with the
    National Commission that before awards be announced officially
    they were to be submitted to the National Commission for
    approval. This advertisement purports to be by authority of the
    Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company, signed by David R.
    Francis, president, and F.J.V. Skiff, director of exhibits. No
    final action on awards by the superior jury have been submitted
    to the National Commission, but nearly all the exhibitors in the
    exhibit buildings are advertising what purports to be the
    official awards.

    We most earnestly submit that this action on the part of the
    exhibitors is in direct conflict with the law and with the
    agreement had with you by the National Commission, and if it is
    being done with the approval of your company, we desire again to
    protest against it. We understood after our demand for
    arbitration on the construction of the law as to the right of
    the National Commission to approve or disapprove of awards, that
    your company agreed to our contention, and that these awards
    were to be submitted to us before being published. If your
    understanding does not accord with ours, we again ask for
    arbitration. If it does accord with ours, we insist that the
    spirit of this agreement be adhered to.

    Very respectfully,

    _Acting President_.

    Hon. D.R. FRANCIS,
    _President Louisiana Purchase Exposition
    Company, Administration Building_.

The following communication was received from President Francis, in
reply to Mr. Allen's letter:

    NOVEMBER 4, 1904.

    DEAR SIR: I am in receipt of contents of your letter of this
    date concerning the advertisement of the Brown Shoe Company of
    their awards. It surprised me as much as it did you. I have
    instituted inquiries, and as soon as I ascertain by whose
    authority the announcement was put in the papers, I shall advise
    you. Of course you know that the exposition authorities had no
    knowledge of such an advertisement until it was given to the
    public. These ribbons are sold by a concessionaire, who was
    instructed weeks ago to sell none of them until the awards are
    officially announced.

    Very truly, yours,


    Hon. J.M. ALLEN,
    _Acting President National Commission, St. Louis, Mo_.

Shortly after the receipt of the foregoing letter from President Francis
another letter bearing the same matter was delivered to the Commission,
as follows:

    NOVEMBER 4, 1904.

    DEAR SIR: Since writing you a hurried note this morning, I have
    read your letter more carefully, and desire to state in addition
    that, referring to that portion of your letter relating to what
    you term an "agreement" between this company and the National
    Commission that no award can be made without being approved by
    the Commission, I beg to say I am not advised of such an
    agreement or understanding having been made. It was our
    understanding that, before official notification to exhibitors,
    a list of the awards made by the superior jury would be
    furnished by the secretary of said jury to the Commission and
    also to this company for their information and for the purpose
    of giving to the Commission and to this company an opportunity
    to call the attention of the jury (or the committee of five now
    acting as such) to any errors which the Commission or this
    company might discover, so that the same might be considered and
    corrected before giving official notification to the exhibitors.
    My understanding is that the committee of five are sending these
    lists as fast as its clerical force can make them out.

    Yours, truly,


    Hon. JOHN M. ALLEN,
    _Acting President National Commission_.

On November 5, Mr. Allen addressed another communication to President
Francis, as follows:

    NOVEMBER 5, 1904.

    SIR: The National Commission is in receipt of your two letters
    of the 4th instant, in reply to one of same date sent to you.
    The first of the two letters recognizes our contention. Your
    second letter is one of the most surprising communications we
    have ever had from the local company. You seem to have mended
    your hold after your first letter of the 4th instant and for
    some reason repudiated what Mr. Miller, Mr. Betts, and the
    writer clearly understood to be an acquiescence in and an
    agreement to the contentions as to the rights of the National
    Commission contained in our letter to you of October 18. We
    inclose herewith a copy of said letter of the 18th instant for
    the purpose of refreshing your memory without the necessity of
    looking it up.

    You will see that in that letter we defined the contention of
    the National Commission as to its right to approve or disapprove
    of the awards of the juries, and it concludes with a demand for
    arbitration unless this right is conceded by your company.

    You will remember that instead of answering this letter you
    invited Mr. Betts and the writer into your office, where we sent
    for Mr. Miller, to discuss this question. You should remember
    that when you broached this subject the writer said to you, "We
    are not looking for work, nor are we looking for trouble, but we
    think Congress has imposed this duty of approving and
    disapproving these awards on us, and we will not shirk it."
    There was considerable discussion in your office that day, but
    no intimation from you or anyone else that there was still
    opposition to our contention. You went on to say that the lists
    that you were getting out were not official in any sense and
    would not be until we said so.

    You will recall that this interview between us was at your
    suggestion and intended, we supposed, as an answer to our
    communication of the 18th of October, in which we had demanded
    arbitration on this very question. You say in your second letter
    of the 4th instant that "It was our understanding that before
    official notification to exhibitors a list of awards of the
    superior jury would be furnished by the secretary of said jury
    to the Commission and also to this company for their information
    and for the purpose of giving the Commission and this company an
    opportunity to call the attention of the jury, or the committee
    of five now acting as such, to any errors which the Commission
    or this company might discover, so that the same might be
    considered and corrected before giving official notification to
    the exhibitors." We can not understand where you could have
    gotten that understanding. I know that there was nothing said
    about the National Commission having a list submitted to it for
    any other purpose than the purpose of approval or disapproval.
    We never asked for a list for information, nor was anything ever
    said about referring anything back to the committee of five.
    What was ever said by the members of the National Commission
    then present to indicate to you that we withdrew or abandoned
    our demand for arbitration if the right of approval or
    disapproval was not accorded the National Commission? And if
    nothing was said by us evidencing such an abandonment of the
    demand, what answer have you ever made to such a demand? If your
    conversation with the members of the National Commission in your
    office that day was not intended to make the impression on them
    that you assented to sending the awards to the National
    Commission for approval or disapproval, it was as misleading a
    conversation as I ever listened to, and both the other gentlemen
    of the National Commission who were present agree with me in
    this view.

    Right here let me suggest that in the future our written
    communications be answered in writing. We will then at least
    have a record in writing.

    We reiterate that we are not looking for trouble or work, but as
    the representatives of the Federal Government we do not propose,
    if we can prevent it, to acquiesce in having the awards of this
    exposition promulgated without our approval when we think the
    law devolves this duty upon us. If your second letter of the 4th
    instant, in which you state your understanding, is the course
    your company proposes to take about this matter, we reiterate
    our demand for arbitration as contained in our letter of October
    18. We suppose it will not be contended that we have lost the
    right of arbitration. We insist that there be no official
    promulgation of the action of the superior jury until such
    arbitration shall have been concluded.

    Awaiting your early reply,
    Very respectfully,

    _Acting President_.

    Hon. D.R. FRANCIS,
    _President Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company,
    Administration Building_.

Under date of November 8, President Francis replied to the foregoing
letter as follows:

    NOVEMBER 8, 1904.

    DEAR SIR: Your communication of Saturday, November 5, was not
    read by me until yesterday, Monday, November 7, and was
    submitted to the executive committee to-day. I can not say
    whether the tone and spirit of the letter, or the statement that
    you misunderstood the position of the Exposition Company, was
    the more surprising. I desire to state emphatically that at no
    time have I ever told you or said anything that would justify
    you in believing that the Exposition Company accepted the
    contention that the National Commission has the right to approve
    or disapprove the awards of the superior jury before they are
    final. It is true I did invite you into my office after the
    receipt of your letter of October 18, and also true that I
    stated to you I regretted the view taken by the National
    Commission of its prerogatives or its duty, but none the less
    true that I also said that, inasmuch as the rules governing the
    system of awards had been promulgated and acted upon after
    approval by the Exhibition Company and the National Commission,
    that neither the Exposition Company nor the National Commission
    has the right to review the awards or overturn them. I did state
    that no official announcement of awards would be made until the
    Exposition Company and the National Commission should be advised
    of what they were, to the end that, if there had been any
    irregularity in the awarding, any errors or omissions, or any
    fraud, the same might be corrected; but at no time have I ever
    said anything that would justify you or anyone else in the
    conclusion that either the Exposition Company or the National
    Commission had the right to review the action of the superior
    jury with the power to overturn the awards on the ground that
    they were not justly made on the merits of the exhibits. It was
    certainly my understanding when we parted after the conference
    in my office that the situation was clear to you, and I have a
    distinct recollection, as does Judge Ferriss, who was present at
    the conference, that Mr. Betts accepted the situation. You
    offered no definite objection, but did state in an interrogatory
    tone that you were not yet ready to relinquish the right of the
    National Commission to approve the awards. I have had no
    conversation with you since that date on the subject, but Judge
    Boyle tells me that in conversation with Mr. Betts on the
    subject, after the interview in my office, he told Mr. Betts
    that the superior jury was progressing with its work and had no
    objection to any member or members of the National Commission
    being present at its sessions; and further, that as fast as the
    work progressed the results would be informally communicated to
    the National Commission, so that if the Commission should find
    any errors it could call the committee's attention to same, so
    that corrections could be made before an official announcement
    of awards. His impression, from the conversation with Mr. Betts,
    was that this arrangement was entirely satisfactory to the
    Commission, and would obviate any further controversy as to the
    right of the Commission to approve or disapprove the awards
    before they became final.

    I therefore not only deny any intention to mislead you or the
    National Commission concerning the position of the superior jury
    and the Exposition Company, but state emphatically that I have
    said nothing that justifies any belief or impression on the part
    of anyone that either the superior jury or the Exposition
    Company admitted the contention of the National Commission that
    it had the right to approve or disapprove awards finally made by
    the superior jury in pursuance of the rules and regulations
    adopted by this company and approved by the Commission.

    I made two replies to your letter of November 4, and my reason
    for doing so was explained in the second letter. My first letter
    was dictated immediately on receipt and on a cursory reading of
    your communication inclosing the advertisement of an award in
    the morning papers of November 4, and was hurriedly made through
    earnest consideration for and extreme courtesy toward the
    National Commission. It merely advised that I was investigating
    the advertisement and would report as soon as I could learn upon
    what authority of the Exposition Company or superior jury, if
    any, it had been inserted in the daily papers. Upon a rereading
    of your letter and a reference of same to members of the
    superior jury, my attention was called to the fact that a
    failure to reply to that portion of your letter claiming the
    right of the National Commission to approve or disapprove awards
    made on their merits might be construed as an acknowledgment of
    such contention, whereupon I sent to you the second
    communication. Until the receipt of your letter of the 5th, I
    was under the impression that the situation as it exists was
    accepted by the National Commission, as it has been by the
    Exposition Company.

    I note the request in your letter "that in future our (your)
    written communications be answered in writing," and it will be
    complied with. Furthermore, if this request is made by authority
    of the National Commission, as such, I desire that all
    communications of the National Commission to the Exposition
    Company shall hereafter be in writing.

    As to your request for an arbitration, if you still insist on
    having it the Exposition Company will interpose no obstacle.

    In this connection, I desire to inform you that the diplomas or
    certificates of award provided for in the rules and regulations
    are being engraved, and the facsimile signatures of the
    president, secretary, and director of exhibits of the Exposition
    Company, and of the president of the National Commission placed
    thereon. If the National Commission is unwilling to have the
    name of its president engraved on these diplomas until or unless
    the awards are approved by the National Commission, the fact
    should be made known at the earliest possible moment, so that
    there may be no unnecessary expense incurred.

    This letter has been submitted to the executive committee of the
    Exposition Company and has been approved by it.

    Yours truly


    Hon. JOHN M. ALLEN,
    _Acting President National Commission,
    Administration Building._

Informal conferences were held with the exposition officials from time
to time, but no agreement was reached, and on November 11 the Commission
submitted the following draft of suggestions to the Exposition Company
for the finding of the board of arbitration:

    First. The awards as made by the superior jury are final and
    binding upon the Exposition Company and the National Commission,
    unless the same are impeached for fraud, or unless misconduct
    amounting to fraud is proven.

    Second. The lists of awards as made by the superior jury are to
    be transmitted to the Exposition Company, and certificates of
    awards shall be authorized by said company, and thereafter said
    lists are to be transmitted to the National Commission and
    certificates of award authorized by said Commission, all without
    further question or investigation, unless the said awards are
    impeached for fraud or misconduct, as hereinbefore stated.

    Third. No complaint or protest as to any of said awards will be
    received or considered, either by the Exposition Company or the
    National Commission, unless the same is made in writing over the
    signature of some competing exhibitor and substantiated by
    affidavit or other sworn testimony establishing a prima facie
    case of such fraud or misconduct in procuring or making of said

The arbitration committee of the Exposition Company replied to the
foregoing propositions as follows:

    NOVEMBER 11, 1904.

    DEAR SIR: After consulting Judge Boyle I find that the
    suggestions you have presented for a finding by the board of
    arbitration will be acceptable to both of us if the following
    amendments are made:

    First. Change in the first clause, so as to read as follows:

    "The awards as made by the superior jury are final and binding
    upon the Exposition Company and the National Commission, except
    as to any award or awards which are impeached by said company or
    Commission for fraudulent conduct on the part of said jury in
    making the awards."

    Second. Omit entirely the third clause.

    We are of the opinion that ample provision is made in the rules
    and regulations for having any fraud or fraudulent conduct on
    the part of any subordinate jury or juror fully considered and
    determined by appeal to the superior jury, and that no further
    precaution or provision is needed unless the conduct of the
    superior jury is shown to have been fraudulent.

    Our purpose in striking out the third clause is that a charge of
    fraud against the superior jury should be made only when
    supported with the character and dignity pertaining to the
    Exposition Company or the National Commission, and that the
    provision made in the third clause for affidavits is wholly
    unnecessary because the charge would not be made by either of
    those bodies except upon such evidence as they would be
    satisfied warranted making the charge.

    Yours, very truly,

    _Member Board of Arbitration_.

    _Member Arbitration Board, National Commission._

On November 12, 1904, the Commission addressed the following
communication to the President of the Exposition Company, forbidding the
use of the signature of the president of the Commission to any
certificate of award until the matter at issue was determined.

    NOVEMBER 12, 1904.

    SIR: Your letter of November 8 received and contents noted. The
    statements contained therein as to what occurred in your office
    on the 19th of October in your interview with Mr. Betts, Mr.
    Miller, and the writer do not accord with the distinct
    recollection or understanding of any of the three parties

    I am glad to know that our communications will hereafter be in
    writing, that these misunderstandings may be avoided. The
    National Commission is in entire accord with this position, and
    we will try and observe our part of this understanding.

    The informal conferences between the members of the National
    Commission and representatives of your company seem to have
    resulted in no definite understanding, and the Commission
    therefore insists that arbitration be had to determine the true
    effect and meaning of section 6 of the act of Congress approved
    March 3, 1901, as affecting the rights and duties of the
    National Commission to approve or not approve the awards.

    In the meantime and until this question is determined the
    Commission can not authorize the use of its president's
    signature on any certificate of award.

    In any arrangement preliminary to the settlement of this
    controversy the writer will be pleased to confer with your
    arbitration committee at any time.

    Very respectfully,

    Acting President.

    Hon. D.R. FRANCIS,
    President Exposition Company, Building.

After many futile efforts to reach an agreement as to the subject-matter
to be submitted for arbitration, it became obvious to the Commission
that it was the intention of the Exposition Company to ignore the right
of the Commission to finally consider or approve the awards of the
superior jury. Under these circumstances the president of the Commission
was directed, on November 22, 1904, by resolution, to forward to the
president of the Exposition Company a communication summing up the
controversy and stating clearly the stand taken by the Commission.

The communication is as follows:

    St. Louis, November 22, 1904.

    Sir: To the end that an understanding may be reached as to
    issues involved in correspondence between your company and the
    National Commission, extending from the month of May, 1904,
    almost to the present date, relative to the appointment of
    jurors and the awarding of premiums, it appears desirable and
    necessary that the law and the facts be briefly stated and the
    relative position of your company and the Commission clearly

    In so far as applicable to the subjects referred to, section 6
    of the act of Congress making an appropriation for the
    exposition, and for other purposes, approved March 3, 1901,
    reads as follows:

    "That the allotment of space for exhibitors, classification of
    exhibits, plan and scope of the exposition, the appointment of
    all judges and examiners for the exposition, and the awarding of
    premiums, if any, shall all be done and performed by the said
    Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company, subject, however, to the
    approval of the Commission created by section two of this act."

    Under and in conformity with the provisions of law above cited,
    certain general and special rules and regulations providing for
    an international jury and governing the system of making awards
    were submitted by the company and approved by the Commission in
    the year 1903.

    The general rules applicable read as follows:



    SECTION 1. The system of awards will be competitive. The merit
    of exhibits as determined by the jury of awards will be
    manifested by the issuance of diplomas, which will be divided
    into four classes--a grand prize, a gold medal, a silver medal,
    and a bronze medal.

    SEC. 2. No exhibit can be excluded from competition for award
    without the consent of the president of the Exposition Company
    after a review of the reasons or motives by competent
    authorities hereafter to be provided.

    SEC. 3. In a fixed ratio to the number of exhibits, but
    reserving to the citizens of the United States approximately 60
    per cent of the jury membership, the construction of the
    international jury will be based upon a predetermined number of
    judges allotted to each group of the classification and upon the
    number and importance of the exhibits in such group.

    SEC. 4. A chairman of the group jury will be elected by his
    colleagues in each group, this chairman to become, by right of
    his position, a member of the department jury, which department
    jury shall in turn elect its chairman, who shall thereupon
    become a member of the superior jury.

    SEC. 5. Special rules and regulations governing the system of
    making awards and determining the extent to which foreign
    countries may have representation on the juries, will be
    hereafter promulgated.

    SEC. 6. Allotment of space for exhibitors, the classification of
    exhibits, the appointment of all judges and examiners for the
    exposition, and the awarding of premiums, if any, shall be done
    and performed by the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company,
    subject, however, to the approval of the Louisiana Purchase
    Exposition Commission.

    The special rules provide for the appointment of three graded
    juries, designated as, first, the general organization of group
    juries; second, department juries, and, third, the superior

    At the conclusion of the recital of the manner of selecting the
    jurors a paragraph in section 3 of the rules provides that "all
    the above nominations shall be made not later than August 1,
    1904, except that nominations made to fill vacancies may be made
    at any subsequent time."

    In conclusion, the section last referred to reads as follows:

    "The nominations of group jurors and alternates, when approved
    by the president of the exposition, shall be transmitted to the
    president of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Commission for
    approval of that body.

    "These nominations having been considered and confirmed by the
    authorities as provided by section 6 of the act of Congress
    relating to the approval of the awarding of premiums, the
    appointment of the international jury shall be made in
    accordance with section 6 of Article XXII of the official rules
    and regulations of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company."

    Section 6 of the aforesaid special rules provides that--

    "The work of the group juries shall begin September 1, 1904, and
    shall be completed not later than twenty days thereafter."

    Section 15 of the special rules and regulations provides that--

    "The superior jury shall determine finally and fully the awards
    to be made to exhibitors and collaborators in all cases that are
    formally presented for its consideration."

    Section 16 of the special rules and regulations provides that--

    "The work of the superior jury shall be completed on October 15,
    1904, and, as soon as practicable thereafter, formal public
    announcement of the awards shall be made. A final complete list
    of awards shall be published by the Louisiana Purchase
    Exposition Company, in accordance with the provisions of section
    6 of the act of Congress, and section 6, Article XXII, of the
    rules and regulations."

    Sec. 27 of the special rules and regulations provides that--

    "The diplomas or certificates of award for exhibitors shall be
    signed by the president of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition
    Company, the president of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition
    Commission, the secretary of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition
    Company, the director of exhibits, and the chief of the
    department to which the exhibit pertains."

    The foregoing rules clearly required the submission of the names
    of all proposed jurors to the Commission for its approval or
    disapproval prior to August 1, 1904, except as to nominations to
    fill vacancies.

    Realizing the necessity for the exercise of great care on the
    part of the Commission in the discharge of its duties in the
    premises, and the necessity for ample time for investigation as
    to the fitness of persons and their willingness to serve as
    jurors of awards, the Commission addressed you a letter under
    date of May 18, 1904, reading as follows:

    "SIR: Inasmuch as objections may be urged to the appointment of
    certain persons upon juries of awards, it is the intention of
    the National Commission to give public notice, allowing
    reasonable time for the filing of any objections that may be
    offered to the appointment of any individual on a jury. As this
    proceeding will necessarily consume time, it is desirable that
    the names of persons proposed for the respective juries be
    transmitted to the Commission from time to time, as the
    respective groups are completed by the company. It is believed
    that final action can be reached in a more orderly and
    satisfactory manner by taking up the names proposed for each
    jury separately rather than to have the entire membership of all
    the juries submitted for consideration simultaneously.

    Yours, very respectfully,


    Our files do not show any recognition of this communication by
    your company. A short time thereafter the Commission was
    unofficially advised that certain jurors had been selected by
    the company and were actually exercising the functions of judges
    and examiners without notice to or approval by the Commission,
    and on the 23d of May, 1905, this fact was duly called to your
    attention by letter. Some time later the director of exhibits
    appeared before the Commission and admitted that certain
    examiners and jurors had been selected, without reference to the
    Commission, to pass upon exhibits of a perishable character. In
    three communications, each bearing the date of June 3, 1904, you
    transmitted the names of the jurors referred to, and in the
    light of the explanations made by the director of exhibits and
    in your communications, the Commission, with many misgivings as
    to the regularity of the proceedings and solely to avoid
    embarrassment to the exhibitors and to the company, approved the
    names submitted as of the date of their selection by the

    Aside from the few jurors thus irregularly selected for
    emergency work, no jurors were nominated or submitted to the
    Commission as required by the rules and regulations prior to
    August 1.

    The first list of group jurors was transmitted in your
    communication bearing date of August 10, delivered to the
    Commission about August 15, and the last list was transmitted to
    this Commission on October 27.

    The respective dates of your letter transmitting nominations of
    group jurors and the respective dates of the receipt of the same
    by the Commission are as follows:

                              |            |
                              | Date of    | Date same
                              | letters of | letters
                              | Exposition | received
                              | Company.   | by National
                              |            | Commission.
           _Department._      |            |
                              |            |
Education and Social Economy  | Aug. 10    | Aug. 15
                              | Sept. 6    | Oct. 3
Art Department                | Aug. 10    | Aug. 15
                              | Aug. 23    | Aug. 26
                              | Aug. 26    | Aug. 28
                              | Aug. 27    | Aug. 29
Liberal Arts                  | Aug. 10    | Aug. 15
Manufactures                  | Aug. 25    | Aug. 29
Machinery                     | Aug. 10    | Aug. 15
                              | Aug. 16    | Aug. 20
                              |    Corrected list
                              |       Oct. 18.
                              | Sept. 7    | Sept. 10
Electricity                   | Aug. 10    | Aug. 15
                              | Sept. 9    |
Transportation                | Aug. 9     | Aug. 15
                              | Sept. 8    | Oct. 3
Horticulture                  | June 3     | June 6
                              | Aug. 18    | Aug. 19
                              | Aug. 23    | Aug. 24
Agriculture                   | Aug. 10    | Aug. 15
                              | Aug. 13    | Aug. 22
                              | Aug. 31    | Sept. 3
                              | Sept. 2    |   Do.
Fish and game                 | Aug. 10    | Aug. 15
                              | Aug. 31    | Sept. 1
                              |     do     | Sept. 3
Mines and metallurgy          | Aug. 10    | Aug. 15
                              | Sept. 6    | Oct. 3
                              | Sept. 13   | Oct. 27
                              |   Corrected list
                              |       Oct. 18.
Anthropology                  | Aug. 10    | Aug. 15
Physical culture              |     do     |   Do.
Livestock                     | Aug. 4     | Aug. 19
                              | Aug. 11    | Aug. 18
                              | Sept. 1    | Sept. 14
Poultry                       | Sept. 26   | Oct. 3
Dogs and pigeons              | Oct. 17    | Oct. 27
Rabbits                       | Oct. 22    |   Do.
                              |            |
             _Country._       |            |
                              |            |
Austria                       | Aug. 12    | Aug. 15
                              | Sept. 7    | Sept. 12
Argentine                     | Aug. 23    | Aug. 26
Brazil                        | Aug. 17    | Aug. 22
                              | Aug. 31    | Sept. 1
Belgium                       | Aug. 12    | Aug. 15
Bulgaria                      | Aug. 31    | Sept. 1
Ceylon                        | Aug. 12    | Aug. 15
China                         |    do      |    Do.
                              | Aug. 31    | Sept. 1
Cuba                          | Aug. 12    | Aug. 15
Egypt                         | Aug. 14    | Aug. 18
France                        | Aug. 12    | Aug. 15
                              | Sept. 1    | Sept. 12
Germany                       | Aug. 24    | Aug. 26
                              | Aug. 31    | Sept. 1
                              | Sept. 1    | Sept. 12
                              | Sept. 4    |    Do.
Guatemala                     |     do     |    Do.
Great Britain                 | Aug. 12    | Aug. 18
                              | Aug. 24    | Aug. 26
                              | Sept. 1    | Sept. 12
Hungary                       | Aug. 31    | Sept. 1
                              | Aug. 16    | Sept. 18
Holland                       | Sept. 8    | Sept. 15
Haiti                         |    do      | Sept. 12
India                         | Aug. 24    | Aug. 26
Italy                         | Aug. 12    | Aug. 18
                              | Aug. 31    | Sept. 1
                              | Aug. 26    | Aug. 30
                              | Aug. 31    | Sept. 1
                              | Sept. 7    | Sept. 12
                              | Sept. 16   | Sept. 17
Japan                         | Aug. 23    | Aug. 26
                              | Sept. 7    | Sept. 8
Monaco                        | Sept. 2    | Sept. 12
Mexico                        | Aug. 12    | Aug. 18
                              | Sept. 6    | Sept. 12
Netherlands                   | Aug. 23    | Aug. 26
Nicaragua                     |     do     |    Do.
Porto Rico                    | Aug. 26    | Aug. 30
Portugal                      | Aug. 24    | Aug. 22
Russia                        | Aug. 31    | Sept. 1
Sweden                        | Aug. 12    | Aug. 19
                              | Sept. 3    | Sept. 13
Siam                          | Aug. 12    | Aug. 18
Venezuela                     | Aug. 16    |    Do.
                              | Sept. 1    | Sept. 2

    On the morning of October 3 thirteen letters of transmittal
    signed by you, bearing dates between August 31 and September 27,
    were delivered to the Commission, inclosing twenty nominations
    to fill vacancies in group juries, and on October 6 the
    secretary of the superior jury delivered to the Commission what
    purported to be a corrected list of group jurors who had
    actually served. Thereafter, in your letters of October 17, 22,
    and 24, delivered to the Commission on October 27, you
    transmitted what you assume to be "a roster of those who served
    as group jurors in the various departments of the exposition."

    This last series of names transmitted by you does not agree with
    the list delivered by the secretary of the superior jury on
    October 6, but by checking and comparison we find that the
    several lists delivered to the Commission between October 3 and
    October 27 show the names of over sixty persons who served as
    group jurors without having been submitted to the Commission for
    approval, and these have not been approved. Other names appear
    on the lists referred to which were originally approved by the
    Commission for service in one group who were, without notice to
    the Commission, assigned to service in other groups. Upon this
    point it is believed by the Commission that the names should
    have been resubmitted for approval in order to make the
    appointments valid, it being evident that the Commission might
    regard a person as a competent judge of live stock, but
    incompetent to pass upon the merits of a mineral exhibit or of
    electrical appliances.

    It is obvious from the foregoing record that the rules were not
    observed by the Exposition Company in the nomination of jurors,
    and it is further clear that through the failure of the company
    to observe the rules the Commission was in all instances
    deprived of opportunity to give notice or to take reasonable
    time to make proper investigation as to the fitness of nominees,
    and their willingness to serve, and in many cases no opportunity
    whatever was allowed for the purposes indicated, and, finally,
    as to a large number of the jurors, the Commission was not
    advised of their selection until they had exercised their
    functions and departed from the grounds.

    Disregard of the rules and regulations in this behalf not only
    defeated the purpose of the law in providing for the exercise of
    the powers of approval or disapproval on the part of the
    Commission, but left insufficient time for notice to the persons
    appointed to enable them to appear and discharge their duties
    within the allotted period, and in consequence a large number of
    those approved by the Commission on short notice, being unable
    to appear within the time stated, were set aside by the company
    and substitutes named, of whose competency the company could
    not, in the nature of things, be advised, and of whom the
    Commission had no knowledge whatever.

    Notwithstanding the violation of the rules, and manifest
    irregularity in the formation of the group juries, we understand
    you to inform us that the power of approval or disapproval of
    awards vested in the National Commission by section 6 of the act
    of Congress shall not be exercised as to any award made in
    connection with the exposition. To the end that there may be no
    misunderstanding upon this point, the following quotation from
    your letter to the acting president of the Commission under date
    of November 8 is incorporated:

    "I desire to state emphatically that at no time have I ever told
    you, or said anything that would justify you in believing, that
    the Exposition Company accept the contention that the National
    Commission has the right to approve or disapprove the awards of
    the superior jury before they are final. * * * That neither the
    Exposition Company nor the National Commission had the right to
    review the awards or overturn them."

    The Commission understands your contention to be that the
    judgment of the superior jury is not only final but conclusive,
    and that the rule under which this contention is made operates
    to nullify the language of the act of Congress, which provides
    that "The awarding of premiums, if any, shall be done and
    performed by said Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company, subject
    to the approval of the Commission created by this act." Even if
    such construction could be accepted as plausibly tenable, which
    the Commission denies, it could only be so regarded by virtue of
    previous conformity to the rules providing for the nomination of
    jurors by the company and their approval by the Commission. To
    commit the Commission to the approval of the conclusions reached
    by jurors, with whose selection they had nothing whatever to do,
    can not be accepted as even a colorable compliance with the law.
    The Commission holds that the judgment of the superior jury is
    final in so far as the juries are concerned, but that above and
    beyond the superior jury the Exposition Company and the National
    Commission have certain statutory duties to perform which they
    could neither delegate nor ignore.

    The files of the National Commission are to-day encumbered with
    complaints and affidavits which amply vindicate the wisdom of
    the law in providing for final approval of awards before their
    promulgation. It is not the intention to here assume that any
    charge of fraud or misconduct on the part of any person
    connected with the awarding of premiums has been established,
    but the fact must be stated that reputable persons have filed
    charges with the Commission in the form of affidavits and
    otherwise, alleging such grave misconduct on the part of certain
    persons who acted in connection with the awards as to bring
    about an unavoidable necessity for a reasonable investigation
    before final approval is given to the acts of the persons
    charged with fraud and misconduct.

    The value of each award is dependent upon the credit to which
    the action of the juries, the company, and the Commission may be
    entitled at every step from the beginning of the examination to
    the final approval of the award.

    At an informal conference in the course of an attempt to reach a
    basis for action, three members of the Commission suggested to
    your executive board the propriety of submitting for the
    approval of the board of arbitration the following:

    First. The awards, as made by the superior jury, are final and
    binding upon the Exposition Company and the National Commission,
    unless the same are impeached for fraud, or unless misconduct,
    amounting to fraud, is proved.

    Second. The lists of awards, as made by the superior jury, are
    to be transmitted to the Exposition Company, and certificates of
    award shall be authorized by said company; and thereafter said
    lists are to be transmitted to the National Commission and
    certificates of award authorized by said Commission, all without
    further question or investigation, unless the said awards are
    impeached for fraud or misconduct, as hereinbefore stated.

    Third. No complaint or protest as to any of said awards will be
    received or considered either by the Exposition Company or the
    National Commission unless the same is made in writing over the
    signature of some competing exhibitor and substantiated by
    affidavits or other sworn testimony establishing a prima facie
    case of such fraud or misconduct in procuring or making of said

    Your representative did not entertain the proposition for
    arbitration, according to the suggestions submitted, but
    proposed to change the first clause so as to confine the
    impeachment of an award or awards to fraudulent conduct on the
    part of the superior jury, and thus to exclude inquiries
    concerning fraud, if any, practiced on any jury by successful
    competitors, or misconduct on the part of individual jurors, or
    misconduct on the part of any officer or representative of the
    Exposition Company, amounting to fraudulent influence and
    affecting the character of an award, or the course of procedure
    in reference thereto. The representatives of the Exposition
    Company declined to consider the third clause suggested.

    A communication was received from Mr. Knapp, a member of your
    arbitration board, under date of November 11, submitting
    amendments to the suggestions transmitted by the Commission
    under the same date, as follows:

    (1) Change in the first clause so as to read as follows:

    "The awards as made by the superior jury are final and binding
    upon the Exposition Company and the National Commission, except
    as to any award or awards which are impeached by said company or
    Commission for fraudulent conduct on the part of said jury in
    making the award."

    (2) Omit entirely the third clause.

    The restrictions thus sought to be placed upon the investigation
    of charges of fraud or misconduct as proposed by the amendment
    were unsatisfactory.

    First. Because the impeachment of an award, as construed by your
    Mr. Knapp's letter, was to be confined exclusively to the
    company and the Commission, whereas in the judgment of the
    Commission any party feeling aggrieved, and having knowledge of
    the fraud or misconduct complained of, should be permitted to
    come forward with the charges and proofs.

    Second. In confining the investigation of alleged fraudulent
    conduct to the superior jury alone, the proposed amendment would
    obviously operate to preclude any inquiry into any charge of
    fraud or misconduct on the part of any group or department jury
    or jurors, or any person or persons not connected with the
    juries, who might, through fraud, bribery, or misrepresentation
    have illegally or wrongfully influenced or procured an award,
    the facts concerning which may not have been brought to the
    attention of the superior jury for investigation.

    Third. In confining the investigation to the action of the
    superior jury your proposed amendment practically precluded the
    possibility of any investigation, for the reason that the good
    faith of the superior jury is not regarded by the Commission as
    open to question, nor has the Commission contemplated as
    possible any necessity to question the findings of the superior
    jury on any subject properly and fully presented to, and decided
    by, that body on the merits.

    It has been, and is, the contention of the Commission that fraud
    or corruption at any stage of the proceedings, whether
    discovered before or after action by the superior jury, if not
    investigated and adjudicated by that jury on the merits, should
    be open to the freest and fullest investigation by the Company
    and the Commission before final approval of the award.

    In conclusion we briefly recapitulate the following points of
    law and fact, which we hold to be beyond dispute:

    First. The law provides that the appointment of all judges and
    examiners for the exposition shall be approved by the

    Second. The rules provide that all nominations of group jurors
    shall be made not later than August 1, 1904, except that
    nominations made to fill vacancies may be made at any subsequent

    Third. That the nominations of jurors were not made to the
    Commission prior to August 1, as required by the rules.

    Fourth. That no appointment of a juror could be legal or
    effective until approved by the Commission.

    Fifth. That a large number of jurors were not nominated to the
    Commission until after they had performed their functions and
    repaired to their homes.

    Sixth. That nominations of jurors were not made to the
    Commission in time to permit of any reasonable notice or
    investigation as to their fitness or willingness to serve.

    Seventh. That in contemplation of law the Commission in
    approving or disapproving of an award would be called upon to
    exercise a quasi-judicial rather than a mere ministerial
    function, or, in other words, that the approval was not
    contemplated as a perfunctory act, and that, therefore, under no
    theory of construction can it be held that the Commission, not
    having been consulted in the appointment of jurors, as provided
    by the rules, is estopped from investigating charges of fraud or
    misconduct in procuring or making the awards.

    Eighth. That before approval, it is the right, and is,
    therefore, the duty of the Commission, under the law, where the
    charges are of a character sufficiently grave and adequately
    sustained by affidavits, or otherwise, to investigate any charge
    of fraud made at any stage of the proceedings, either in the
    selection of the jurors or in procuring or making the awards.

    Ninth. That under special rule No. 27 neither the superior jury
    nor the Exposition Company has the right to issue or promulgate
    any diploma, certificate, or other evidence of award for
    exhibitors without the signature of the president of the
    Louisiana Purchase Exposition Commission having been previously
    attached thereto by authority of the Commission.

    Holding these views and representing the Government of the
    United States in these important transactions, the Commission
    can not permit the use of its name, nor the name of any of its
    officers or members, in connection with any diploma,
    certificate, or other evidence of award while any part of the
    proceedings rest under adequately supported and uninvestigated
    charges of bribery, attempted bribery, corruption, fraud, or
    misconduct amounting to fraud.

    In view of the position of your company, as announced in your
    letter of November 8, from which quotations are herein made, by
    direction of the Commission, I hereby notify you to refrain from
    using the name of the Commission or of any of its officers or
    members in or connected with any diploma, certificate, or other
    evidence of award for any exhibit or under special rule No. 27,
    until such time as the proposed award shall have been by you
    submitted to the Commission for approval, as provided in section
    6 of the act of Congress and rule 6 of Article XXII of the
    general rules and regulations, which rules we hold to have the
    effect of law until modified or repealed by the consent of the


    Hon. D.R. FRANCIS,
    _President Exposition Company_.

A formal acknowledgment of the receipt of the foregoing communication
was received from the Exposition Company on November 30, 1904.

No reply has ever been made to the letter or the subject-matter thereof
on the merits. The allegations therein contained of flagrant violation
of the rules and regulations in the selection and organization of the
juries are strongly supported by the records and the silence of the
officials of the Exposition Company. The charges of fraud and corruption
in connection with certain awards, referred to in the letter, have never
been denied nor explained.

The fact that there was a disagreement between the National Commission
and the Exposition Company regarding awards became known through the
public press, and thereupon the files of the Commission were quickly
supplied with letters from exhibitors charging fraud and favoritism, and
asking for information as to the status of the awards in the event of
certificates of award being issued without the approval of the

The situation was aggravated by the fact that a concern known as "The
Official Ribbon Company," acting under a concession from the Exposition
Company, was disposing of ribbons certifying over the signatures of the
president and the director of exhibits of the Exposition Company that
awards had been made to the holders for the specific exhibits therein

Judging from the letters received by the Commission, these ribbons were
disposed of indiscriminately and regardless of the fact as to whether or
not the purchaser was entitled to the award set forth on the ribbon.
Thus exhibitors who had been awarded silver medals by the jurors could
and (the Commission is informed in some cases) did buy and display for
advertising purposes ribbons certifying that they had received higher

The relations of the Official Ribbon Company to the Exposition Company
were based upon a contract, under the provisions of which the Exposition
Company received 60 per cent of all moneys paid by the purchasers of the
said ribbons.

The Official Ribbon Company carried on its correspondence under the
letter heads of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company, bearing the
names of the president and other officers of said company.

Notwithstanding these communications, the ribbons continued to be
advertised and sold, and, at the date of writing this report, they are
prominently displayed in the place of business of a director of the
Exposition Company, who was an exhibitor at the exposition.

The ribbons were sold to a large number of exhibitors before any awards
were legally made, and bore notice that the holder thereof had received
the award shown thereon.

Litigation has arisen between the Exposition Company and various
exhibitors, seeking redress of wrongs or investigation of alleged fraud,
which is now pending in the courts.

Within a few days of the time for filing this report under the
provisions of the law, a director of the Exposition Company requested
the Commission to specify the awards it would approve without
investigation, to the end, presumably, that unchallenged awards might be
submitted for approval. The Commission declined to enter upon the matter
in this form for four reasons:

First. Because in its judgment every award should be subject to
challenge on account of fraud, or misconduct amounting to fraud, at any
time before the approval thereof.

Second. Because, through the means suggested, awards made by the company
which were under charges of fraud and corruption would escape
investigation, and the guilty parties would thereby be relieved from
probable prosecution on account of criminal connection therewith, should
the subject to be investigated disclose criminal action.

Third. The proposal did not come officially from the Exposition Company.

Fourth. That the proposition was made at so late a day as to preclude
the possibility of investigation during the life of the Commission.

Thus it unhappily occurs that the awards must be made, if made at all,
without the approval necessary to give them legal effect. This approval
the Commission could not give without investigation, in the presence of
unexplained charges of irregularity and fraud in certain cases.

By means of procrastination and evasion in the preparation of the
subject-matter, in disagreement for arbitration, and finally by the
issuance by authority of the company of official ribbons for a money
consideration without the knowledge or approval of the Commission, the
whole subject of the awarding of premiums is left without final action
by the Commission at the date of the termination of its existence.

No list of the awards made has been submitted by the company to the
Commission for approval, nor has the Commission ever been advised of the
reasons for the persistent refusal of the company to submit the awards
for its examination, save and except as set forth in the correspondence
on the subject embodied in this report.

The whole matter turns upon the insistence of the Commission to
investigate the charges of fraud made and fortified by affidavits in
certain cases.

The company was notified that the Commission would accept the findings
of the superior jury as conclusive in all cases excepting those in which
fraud or misconduct amounting to fraud was charged. Under these
circumstances, for the apparent purpose of avoiding such investigation
and for no other reason known to the Commission, the company elected to
decline agreement upon the matter to be arbitrated and to withhold all
of the awards from the Commission. At the time of writing this report
the Commission is not advised of any award made by the superior jury,
nor does any award seem to have been promulgated, except through the
Official Ribbon Company herein referred to, whose operations and whose
relations to the Exposition Company should be inquired into by some
competent authority.

At midnight on December 1, 1904, the Louisiana Purchase Exposition
closed, and thereafter the disposition of the salvage was called the
attention of the Commission by a communication from an attorney in St.
Louis, which set forth charges of irregularity and discrimination on the
part of the company in awarding a contract for the wrecking of the
exposition buildings and the sale of the salvage. The attention of the
Commission was called to statements from various contractors who had bid
on the salvage of the exposition, that their bids had been ignored, and
that favoritism had been shown to the wrecking concern which eventually
obtained the salvage contract. The Commission decided that in view of
the seriousness of the charges the subject required attention, and that
statements supported by affidavits should be received setting forth all
the facts in connection with the transaction. Prior to taking this step,
however, the president of the Commission addressed the following
communication to the president of the Exposition Company:

    WASHINGTON, D.C., _February 28, 1905_.

    SIR: I am directed to advise you that in the judgment of the
    National Commission the interest of the United States in the
    disposition of the property of the Exposition Company is
    manifest from a perusal of section 20 of the act of Congress
    approved March 3, 1901, making an appropriation for the
    exposition and for other purposes.

    In the proceeds of the sale and disposition of the property
    purchased with the funds supplied by the General Government, the
    city of St. Louis, and the Louisiana Purchase Exposition
    Company, the United States is interested to the extent of
    one-third. Believing that this view of the law is correct, the
    Commission feels called upon not only to report the amount
    received from the sale or sales of the property of the
    exposition, but likewise where the bona fides of transactions is
    called in question to ascertain and report to the President of
    the United States the facts and circumstances therewith

    These suggestions are called forth by certain statements
    presented to the Commission, which, if true, affect the
    interests of the United States as defined by section 20 of the
    aforesaid act of Congress. These statements relate to the
    specifications and instructions dated October 1, 1904, signed by
    Mr. Isaac S. Taylor, director of works, under which bids were to
    be received for wrecking buildings and structures on the
    exposition grounds, together with a certain contract bearing
    date November 30, 1904, between the Louisiana Purchase
    Exposition Company and the Chicago House Wrecking Company, said
    to be of record in the office of recorder of deeds in the city
    of St. Louis, book 1811, page 195 and following pages.

    There is obviously a marked variance between the property
    referred to in the specifications and instructions and the
    property enumerated in the recorded contract. The specifications
    seemed to require that 50 per cent of the amount of the bid
    should accompany the same in the form of a check certified by
    some banking institution in the city of St. Louis, and that the
    remainder of the amount bid should be paid upon the execution of
    the contract.

    Further, the specifications required that a bond should be filed
    with the Exposition Company in an amount equal to the bid to
    guarantee faithful execution of the terms of the contract by the
    bidder. The specifications expressly reserved copper wire, the
    intramural railway, the railroad tracks in the buildings, all
    machinery, etc., whereas the contract executed on November 30
    seems to include all the items referred to and many other pieces
    of property not mentioned in the specifications.

    The contract as executed seems to call for the payment of
    $450,000, of which only the sum of $100,000 was to be paid in
    cash and the remainder at stated periods in the future. Instead
    of requiring a bond equal to the amount of the bid the bond
    called for in the contract is less than 10 per cent of the
    amount of the bid.

    It is alleged:

    First. That secrecy was observed in handling the bids for the
    wrecking of buildings.

    Second. That the Chicago House Wrecking Company was favored from
    the beginning.

    Third. That the exposition officials rejected higher bids than
    that of the Chicago House Wrecking Company, so that the latter
    might have further opportunity to raise its figures.

    Fourth. That only a partial list of the property, which did not
    include many valuable articles, was submitted to bidders outside
    of the Chicago House Wrecking Company, and that a complete list
    was refused other bidders.

    Fifth. That a written offer of $400,000 cash, and more if lists
    could be secured, was ignored.

    Sixth. That a bid of $450,000, half cash, was presented to the
    Exposition Company after the announcement of the sale of the
    salvage to the Chicago House Wrecking Company for $386,000.

    Seventh. That the contract was eventually given to the Chicago
    House Wrecking Company for $450,000, with contract provisions
    inferior to the former $450,000 bid made by a party outside the
    Chicago House Wrecking Company.

    Eighth. That the contract with the Chicago House Wrecking
    Company does not adequately protect the Government, the city of
    St. Louis, and the stockholders, the $40,000 bond being out of
    all proportion to the size of the sale.

    Ninth. That the sale of the salvage to the Chicago House
    Wrecking Company was consummated over the protests of some of
    the directors of the Exposition Company.

    Tenth. That the specifications were misleading, in that one item
    of copper wire, valued at $650,000, was omitted; also 5,000
    electric lights, 5,000 tons of iron piping, 3,500 tons of other
    piping, the railway system on the exposition grounds, the fire
    apparatus, etc., were omitted.

    Eleventh. That, according to an estimate made by several
    reputable contractors, the property sold was of the reasonable
    value of $1,955,000.

    Twelfth. That the Chicago House Wrecking Company, through undue
    advantage, obtained inside information as to the extent and
    value of the property to be sold, and thereby, to the material
    injury of the United States, secured a contract with the
    Exposition Company insuring a profit of more than $1,000,000.

    The above matters have been called to the attention of the
    Commission by Mr. Frank E. Richey, attorney and counselor at
    law, Oriol Building, Sixth and Locust streets, St. Louis, Mo.,
    who accompanies his statements with copies of the contract and
    specifications referred to and many statements which he believes
    corroborate the charges he presents.

    As the Commission may feel called upon to refer to this
    important transaction in its final report, it desires to afford
    the Exposition Company an opportunity to submit such statement
    or to take such action as it may deem proper in the premises.



    _President Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company,
    St. Louis, Mo._

To the foregoing communication the secretary of the Exposition Company
made the following reply:

    ST. LOUIS, U.S.A., _March 7, 1905._

    SIR: At a meeting of the executive committee of the Louisiana
    Purchase Exposition Company held this day the secretary, in the
    absence of the president, was instructed to prepare and to
    forward at once a response to the inquiries embodied in the
    letter of the National Commission bearing date of February 28,
    as regards the disposition of the salvage of the exposition.

    At a meeting of the board of directors of the Exposition Company
    held September 13, 1904, on the recommendation of the executive
    committee a special committee on disposition of salvage was
    provided for "to consider and report at a date as early as
    practicable a plan for disposing of the property of the
    Exposition Company." Records and correspondence of the
    Exposition Company upon the disposal of the property are
    voluminous and definite. They show frequent meetings of the
    salvage committee, together with progress reports,
    consideration, and action by the executive committee and by the
    board of directors at almost every meeting, until, on the 13th
    of December, the salvage committee reported its recommendation,
    with the approval of the executive committee, to the board of
    directors that the property, with certain exceptions, be sold to
    the Chicago House Wrecking Company for $450,000. From this sale
    were excepted the intramural cars and equipments, the property
    of the General Service Company, and certain other items, which
    are specified in the contract of sale.

    For the cars and equipments the Exposition Company, as shown by
    the report of the auditor forwarded monthly to the National
    Commission, has received about $150,000. The property of the
    General Service Company, including buildings, horses, vehicles,
    and other physical property, is still in the possession of the
    Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company.

    At the meeting of the board of directors held December 13,
    fifty-four members of the board being present, the
    recommendation of the committee on salvage, approved by the
    executive committee, that the physical property be sold to the
    Chicago House Wrecking Company for $450,000, was approved. Not
    only was the vote unanimous, but the terms of the sale were made
    the subject of much congratulation by directors. No word of
    protest or of adverse criticism by any director of the
    Exposition Company is of record in the proceedings of the board
    and of the several committees or has come to the knowledge of
    the officers of the Exposition Company.

    The salvage committee, before arriving at terms of sale, as the
    records show, held many meetings and resorted to various methods
    to elicit proposals for the property. Early in October sealed
    bids were invited for the wrecking and removal of the exhibit
    buildings. These advertisements were published in daily papers
    and in technical journals not confined to St. Louis. In addition
    to the advertising, circular letters were sent out to a long
    list of addresses of persons who had from time to time addressed
    letters on the subject of the salvage or parts of it to the
    exposition. Correspondence was taken up by the director of works
    with persons and firms in various parts of the country who were
    known to be in the wrecking business. Specifications were
    prepared and furnished to all who desired them.

    On the 10th of November bids were opened by the committee on
    salvage. They were of very unsatisfactory character. Most of the
    bidders selected single exhibit buildings or small groups of
    minor buildings. The highest bid for all of the exhibit
    buildings opened that date was $50,000. One bid of $325,000 was
    made for "buildings, structures, salvage of all kinds, and all
    property owned by the Exposition Company." On the 12th of
    November the salvage committee rejected all bids. During the
    following two weeks the salvage committee held frequent
    meetings. Hearings were given by officers of the exposition to
    all persons desiring to negotiate for salvage. By wire and by
    mail persons and firms who might be interested were advised that
    the property was being offered for sale. Proposals were invited
    for all physical property of the company, except the intramural
    cars and equipments and the general service outfit.

    The salvage committee waited for proposals in response to this
    invitation, covering the physical property generally, until
    nearly the end of November. Three bids were received. The
    highest was $420,000; the next highest was $300,000. After
    careful consideration and much negotiation with the various
    bidders, the salvage committee proposed to the highest bidder,
    namely, the Chicago House Wrecking Company, which had bid
    $420,000, to recommend the sale of the physical property to the
    board of directors, with the exceptions mentioned, for $450,000.
    This, after some delay, was accepted by the Chicago House
    Wrecking Company on the 30th of November, and was reported to
    the board of directors on the 13th of December, and was ratified

    The records and correspondence showing the proceedings
    throughout are on file in the office of the secretary, and are
    ready for inspection and investigation.

    The allegations set forth in the letter of the National
    Commission as having been made to that body and the answers to
    be given to such allegations are:

    First. That secrecy was observed in handling the bids for the
    wrecking of buildings.

    Answer. It was the judgment of the salvage committee that better
    results could be obtained if secrecy was observed, in so far
    that the amounts of bids were not made public until the sale was
    accomplished. The wisdom of this judgment was vindicated in the
    amount realized for the salvage when compared with the lower

    Second. That the Chicago House Wrecking Company was favored from
    the beginning.

    Answer. This is utterly false.

    Third. That the exposition officials rejected higher bids than
    that of the Chicago House Wrecking Company, so that the latter
    might have further opportunity to raise its figures.

    Answer. No higher bid was received either before or after the
    sum of $450,000 had been agreed upon to be recommended by the
    committee on salvage.

    Fourth. That only a partial list of the property, which did not
    include many valuable articles, was submitted to bidders outside
    of the Chicago House Wrecking Company, and that a complete list
    was refused other bidders.

    Answer. No complete list was submitted to the Chicago House
    Wrecking Company or to any other bidder. The Exposition Company,
    through the salvage committee and the executive committee, with
    deliberate intent refused to furnish any list purporting to be

    Fifth. That a written offer of $400,000 cash, and more, if lists
    could be secured, was ignored.

    Answer. No such offer was received.

    Sixth. That a bid of $450,000, half cash, was presented to the
    Exposition Company after the announcement of the sale of the
    salvage to the Chicago House Wrecking Company for $386,000.

    Answer. No such bid of $450,000 was received; the Chicago House
    Wrecking Company did not make a bid for $386,000.

    Seventh. That the contract was eventually given to the Chicago
    House Wrecking Company for $450,000, with contract provisions
    inferior to the former $450,000 bid made by a party outside the
    Chicago House Wrecking Company.

    Answer. This statement is not true. There had been no bid of
    $450,000 on any terms when the sale was closed. The contract
    provisions were superior to any made in the bids.

    Eighth. That the contract with the Chicago House Wrecking
    Company does not adequately protect the Government, the city of
    St. Louis, and the stockholders, the $40,000 bond being out of
    all proportion to the size of the sale.

    Answer. The bond of $40,000 was not taken to secure the payment
    of the $450,000, or any part of it. The first payment of
    $100,000 was made on the signing of the contract of sale. The
    remaining $350,000 was secured adequately by a mortgage on the
    property covered by the bill of sale. The $40,000 bond was
    required to enforce other conditions of the contract, namely,
    those relative to the wrecking and removal of the property under
    conditions of leases upon which the property stood. A part of
    the contract required that property be kept insured for the
    benefit of the Exposition Company until all payments were made.
    The bond covered these provisions. The Chicago House Wrecking
    Company made its second payment of $100,000 on February 1. The
    third payment will be due March 15. The company holds a mortgage
    on the property to secure the remaining payments, and only
    releases the property to the Chicago House Wrecking Company as
    the payments are made.

    Ninth. That the sale of the salvage to the Chicago House
    Wrecking Company was consummated over the protests of some of
    the directors of the Exposition Company.

    Answer. On the contrary, as the records show, the board was
    unanimous in approval of the contract of the sale and, as
    stated, there is no record anywhere of objection on the part of
    any director.

    Tenth. That the specifications were misleading, in that one item
    of copper wire, valued at $650,000, was omitted; also 5,000
    electric lights, 5,000 tons of iron piping, 3,500 tons of other
    piping, the railway system on the exposition grounds, the fire
    apparatus, etc., were omitted.

    Answer. The first specifications, probably those referred to in
    this paragraph, related only to exhibit buildings. Subsequently
    the salvage committee informed bidders when bids were taken on
    all of the physical property that the intramural cars and
    equipments were to be excepted, and also the property of the
    General Service Company, which was owned by the Exposition
    Company. Quantities of wire had been purchased under the
    contracts permitting return on a percentage of the price paid.
    As regards the iron piping, bidders were informed of the clause
    in the ordinance authorizing the use of Forest Park which
    declared that "sewers, drains, conduits, pipes, and fixtures
    shall become and be the property of the city." By reference to
    the contract of sale to the Chicago House Wrecking Company it
    will be observed that the company sells "subject to whatever
    rights the city of St. Louis may be entitled to in certain
    underground pipes, sewers, and conduits in Forest Park." Some of
    the fire apparatus was loaned or rented to the Exposition
    Company, and was not owned by it. Many things used by the
    Exposition Company were sold to it with the privilege of return,
    or with a contract to return at stipulated amounts or
    percentages. The exposition officers and the salvage committee
    answered inquiries, as far as were in their power, made by
    bidders regarding the property, but from first to last refused
    to furnish an itemized list. By reference to the contract of
    sale it will be observed that no list is contained therein, but
    that the company sells and transfers "the interest, or right, or
    ownership in or to any and all physical property purchased,
    constructed, or acquired by the said Exposition Company,
    excepting as hereinafter mentioned."

    Eleventh. That according to an estimate made by several
    reputable contractors the property sold was of the reasonable
    value of $1,955,000.

    Answer. The Exposition Company has no knowledge of such
    estimates. If contractors did place such estimates upon the
    value of the physical property they were singularly lacking in
    enterprise when they did not come forward with higher bids. The
    amount realized was the highest bid made for the property.

    Twelfth. That the Chicago House Wrecking Company, through undue
    advantage, obtained inside information as to the extent and
    value of the property to be sold, and thereby to the material
    injury of the United States secured a contract with the
    Exposition Company insuring a profit of more than $1,000,000.

    Answer. The Chicago House Wrecking Company obtained no
    information that was not accessible to and obtainable by any
    other bidder.

    Very respectfully,

    _President National Commission,
    _Louisiana Purchase Exposition_.

    ST. LOUIS, _March 7, 1905_.

    MY DEAR SENATOR: I send herewith, by direction of the executive
    committee, a reply to the letter from the Commission of February
    28. President Francis is absent from the city, having gone last
    week to New Orleans. I think I should add something from my
    personal knowledge. Mr. Richey is well known to me, and has been
    for years. He must have been badly misinformed to have made such
    allegations as are contained in the letter. I have all of the
    minutes of the various meetings and a collection of
    correspondence which go to show that many of these allegations
    are without foundation. Some of them, I can see, are inferences
    drawn from misstatements of the facts and from misunderstandings
    of the real situation.

    I have never so much as heard an intimation that any director of
    the company, or anyone else who knew of the transactions,
    protested against the sale or adversely criticised the amount
    realized. On the other hand, the general impression among
    directors and on the part of the public seems to be that the
    Exposition Company realized more than was to be expected. The
    salvage of the World's Fair in Chicago sold for $80,000, that of
    Omaha for $37,500, and that of Buffalo for $67,000.

    Before the exposition closed the management had begun to dispose
    of salvage in a small way, but the results were very
    discouraging. It looked much as if the property of this
    exposition would go as had that of previous expositions, for a
    very small fraction of the cost. At one time the directors of
    the company thought it might be necessary to organize a company
    and carry the salvage through a series of years in order to
    realize on it. But the best that could be figured from such a
    course was from $300,000 to $350,000 for the same property sold
    to the Chicago House Wrecking Company for $450,000.

    The only persons who raised any question about the sale and the
    amount realized were two disappointed bidders. These bidders
    were given all of the time they asked. They were furnished
    information in reply to their inquiries. They could not be given
    lists of the property of the exposition because, after careful
    consideration of such lists, it was deemed inadvisable by the
    exposition to attempt a sale on that basis. It was the
    conclusion that more could be realized by selling all right and
    title to the physical property of the exposition. I believe that
    more was realized than would have been obtained on bids if an
    inventory had been furnished.

    The Chicago House Wrecking Company was doing business on the
    grounds during the exposition and previous thereto. The officers
    of that company have been in the wrecking business for years.
    Looking forward to the time, they saved, as I happened to learn,
    clippings from the newspapers showing contracts let by the
    exposition; also clippings showing purchases of various kinds.
    In fact, for months they were gathering through outside sources
    all the information they could as to the character of the
    company's property. In this way they obtained their information
    as to this property. They were given no list from the company.
    They were given no advantage over other bidders. I know it to be
    a fact that the Exposition Company did all in its power to
    induce other bidders to come from other cities, and stimulated
    competition. The correspondence and telegrams passing through my
    hands show this. There was a great deal of property that the
    exposition had the use of and did not own. This applied to fire
    apparatus, to electric switch boards, to machinery, to street
    sweepers, to watering carts, and to a great variety of things
    that were of utility and were loaned by the manufacturers or
    dealers, who wished to have them in service for the advertising
    to be gained thereby.

    The city is claiming, under the ordinance from which I have
    quoted in the other letter, the piping on that part of the
    ground included in Forest Park, and only to-day wrote asking to
    know when this pipe could be taken up by the city.

    It will afford me pleasure to answer any inquiry or to forward
    to you any document relating to this salvage matter which you
    may desire to see.

    Can you advise me how long you expect to remain in Washington?

    Very truly, yours,

    _President National Commission,
    Louisiana Purchase Exposition_.

Having been elected a Senator of the United States from the State of
Montana, Mr. Thomas H. Carter, president of the Commission, resigned his
office as member of the Commission on March 9, 1905. At a meeting of the
Commission held on March 20, 1905, the following letter was received
from Mr. Carter, and his resignation as president of the Commission was
duly accepted:

    WASHINGTON, D.C., _March 9, 1905_.

    GENTLEMEN: Finding that my duties as United States Senator,
    assumed on the 4th of this month, will so far require my
    attention as to render it difficult to longer continue a member
    of the Commission, I have determined to hand my resignation to
    the president, and preliminary thereto I respectfully resign the
    position of president of the Commission.

    In tendering my resignation I can not refrain from expressing to
    the Commission jointly, and to the members separately, my
    grateful appreciation of the unfailing confidence and cordial
    support with which I have been favored at all times by the
    members of the Commission, without exception.

    It is questionable whether any like body of men, selected from
    the country at large, has ever acted more harmoniously in the
    discharge of any public duty.

    With deep regret, and only from a sense of duty, I sever my
    relations with the Commission, and in doing so wish each of my
    associates on the Commission long life and prosperity.

    Respectfully submitted.

    _Washington, D.C._

Mr. Carter also addressed a letter to the President of the United
States, tendering his resignation as a member of the Commission, which
reads as follows:

    WASHINGTON, D.C., _March 9, 1905_.

    SIR: My election to the Senate of the United States from the
    State of Montana imposes upon me duties which render it quite
    impracticable for me to devote the time and attention necessary
    to a proper discharge of my duties as a member of the Louisiana
    Purchase Exposition Commission. I therefore respectfully tender
    you my resignation as a member of the Commission, and in doing
    so I thank you sincerely for the cordial and unfailing support
    and consideration you have always extended to me as a member of
    that body.

    Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

    _Washington, D.C._

Mr. John M. Thurston was thereupon unanimously elected to succeed Mr.
Carter as president of the Commission.

At this meeting Mr. John D. Waite, of Lewistown, Mont., recently
appointed by President Roosevelt as a member of the Commission to fill
the vacancy caused by the resignation of Mr. Carter, appeared and took
his place on the Commission.

At the same meeting the secretary of the Exposition Company requested
the privilege of making a personal explanation with reference to the
disposition of the salvage.

From his statement it appears that he was not connected personally with
the transaction, which was conducted by a committee, of which the
president of the Exposition Company was chairman. The secretary did not
leave any written statement or explanation, but in general terms said
the exposition officials were entirely satisfied with the amount of
money received for the salvage; that it was more than they expected, and
that they thought the result of the sale was a subject for

Upon the suggestion of the Commission the secretary of the Exposition
Company on March 23 addressed a communication to the Commission on this
subject, of which the following is a copy:

    MARCH 23, 1905.

    DEAR SIR: By way of supplement to the letter forwarded to the
    National Commission March 7, and in accordance with suggestion
    made verbally by the Commission at the meeting Monday, March 20,
    I submit this statement relevant to the tenth allegation on page
    3 of the letter from President Carter, dated February 28, 1905.

    Tenth. That the specifications were misleading, in that one item
    of copper wire, valued at $650,000, was omitted; also 5,000
    (500,000) electric lights, 5,000 tons of iron piping, 3,500 tons
    of other piping, the railway system on the exposition grounds,
    the fire apparatus, etc., were omitted.

    Answer. The Exposition Company purchased under contract with the
    American Steel and Wire Company, dated April 3, 1902, copper
    wire to the amount of $320,160.33. The estimated salvage under
    this contract as furnished by the electrical engineer of the
    Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company on or about November 14,
    1904, was $121,753.68. Of this estimated salvage the sum of
    $46,700 was based on the presumption that the Exposition Company
    could sell in the open market the copper wire in its storehouse
    that had never been used. The contract with the American Steel
    and Wire Company, as read to the National Commission, provided
    that wire in good condition should be taken back by the American
    Steel and Wire Company at 55 per cent of its original cost.
    Owing to changes in the head of the electrical department, Mr.
    Rustin being compelled to give up his position on account of
    sickness, and owing to changes made in the plans for electric
    lighting, the Exposition Company at the opening was in
    possession of this quantity of unused wire, estimated in the
    salvage to be worth $46,700, if sold at the market value, but
    worth to the Exposition Company $23,860 if it was returned to
    the American Steel and Wire Company under its contract at 55 per
    cent of the original cost. The Exposition Company claimed that
    this unused and unpacked wire should not be returned under the
    contract and endeavored to sell it. The company was prevented
    from making sale by an injunction taken out by the Chicago House
    Wrecking Company. The Wrecking Company had purchased the Steel
    and Wire Company's rights of salvage under the contract of April
    3, 1903. This injunction was pending in court at the time the
    sale of salvage was negotiated in November. If the contention of
    the Chicago House Wrecking Company was sustained it would have
    reduced the estimated salvage on the copper wire to $97,893.68.
    The purchase of the general salvage by the Chicago House
    Wrecking Company ended the injunction proceedings. Copies of the
    contract with the American Steel and Wire Company and of the
    contract between the American Steel and Wire Company and the
    Chicago House Wrecking Company, which are of record in the
    office of the recorder of St. Louis City and in the office of
    the county clerk of St. Louis County, will be forwarded to the
    National Commission if desired. The reason that the copper wire
    could not be included in the original specifications was the
    pending injunction proceedings.

    The Exposition Company purchased electric light bulbs referred
    to in the tenth allegation, of different sizes and under
    different contracts, to the amount of $65,688. The estimated
    value of lamps not used at the time of the close of the fair was

    As regards the fire-fighting apparatus it may be explained that
    most of this material was procured by the exposition on a rental
    or loan basis. The Exposition Company owned one second-hand La
    France fire engine, one second-hand Silsby fire engine, one fuel
    wagon, and four combination chemical hose wagons. The total cost
    of this apparatus to the Exposition Company was $5,325.

    As regards the piping it can be stated that the Exposition
    Company had no unused piping; the company did not buy pipe and
    carry it in stock, but paid under contract for the pipe of
    various sizes after it was laid in the ground at so much per
    foot. This was the general practice by the company as regards
    the piping. By reference to the letter of March 7, it will be
    observed that the answer to the tenth allegation explains why
    the company could only sell the piping "subject to whatever
    rights the city of St. Louis may be entitled to in certain
    underground pipes, sewers, and conduits in Forest Park." It can
    be stated that this complication of title to the piping applied
    to two-thirds if not three-fourths of all of the piping which
    had been laid at the expense of the Exposition Company.

    Because the copper wire was involved in the injunction
    proceedings, because the electric lights constituted a minor
    item as shown by the figures given above, because the piping was
    involved in the construction of the city ordinance, because the
    greater part of the fire apparatus was not owned by the
    Exposition Company these items were not mentioned in the
    original specifications.

    As stated in the former letter, the intramural cars and
    equipments were excepted from all offers of sale because the
    company had already contracted for the sale of them.

    After the first bids received under the specifications referred
    to in the tenth allegation had been rejected because they were
    in the opinion of the salvage committee wholly insufficient, new
    bids were asked for all of the salvage of the company including
    such right and title as it might have in the copper wire, in the
    electric lights, in the iron piping, in the fire apparatus,
    etc., with the exceptions of the intramural cars and equipments
    and the property of the General Service Company. From that time
    to the acceptance of the proposition to sell the Chicago House
    Wrecking Company the negotiations proceeded on the plan that the
    Exposition Company would sell all right, title, and interest to
    its property with the exceptions of the cars and equipments and
    property of the General Service Company.

    Under the original specifications a certified check for one-half
    of the amount of the bid was required and the terms were half
    cash, but this requirement and these terms did not enter into
    the negotiations following the rejection of the first bids. All
    bidders showing a disposition to bid for right, title, and
    interest of the Exposition Company to all salvage except as
    stated were treated alike. Certified checks were not required on
    these later bids. The negotiations were carried on verbally with
    the bidders in turn, it being understood that the company would
    insist upon what it deemed to be an adequate cash payment when
    the contract of sale was concluded.

    The secretary of the company is authorized to say that the
    executive committee courts the fullest investigation of all
    circumstances connected with the sale of the salvage and that if
    the National Commission shall deem it necessary to include in
    its report mention of the allegations contained in the letter of
    the president of the Commission, dated February 28, the
    committee asks that in justice to the Exposition Company such
    investigation shall be made and the conclusions of the
    Commission shall be given.

    Very respectfully,

    _Secretary National Commission, Washington, D.C._

Another communication bearing on the disposition of the salvage was
received from Mr. Stevens, as follows:

    MARCH 23, 1905.

    DEAR SIR: At a meeting of the National Commission on the 20th
    the suggestion was made by a member of the Commission that the
    answer to allegation third did not fully cover the ground. The
    allegation and the answer were:

    That the exposition officials rejected higher bids than that of
    the Chicago House Wrecking Company, so that the latter might
    have further opportunity to raise its figures.

    Answer. No higher bid was received either before or after the
    sum of $450,000 had been agreed upon to be recommended by the
    committee on salvage.

    The purpose was to answer that no higher bid than that made by
    the Chicago House Wrecking Company was received either before;
    at the time, or after the sum of $450,000 had been agreed upon
    to be recommended by the committee on salvage.

    On the 30th of November, early in the day, the Chicago House
    Wrecking Company made a bid for $420,000. Up to that time and
    during that day the next highest bid was under $400,000. Late in
    the day, the 30th of November, the salvage committee, after
    conference with all bidders who presented themselves, made the
    proposition to the Chicago House Wrecking Company that if it
    would raise its bid from $420,000 to $450,000 the committee
    would recommend acceptance by the executive committee.


    _Secretary National Commission, Washington, D.C._

As a result of the inquiry instituted by the Commission into the
disposal of the salvage, statements supported by affidavits were
received and the same are appended to this report and marked "Appendix
No. 2."

Under the act of Congress the Commission had no power to undertake a
more thorough investigation of the charges and allegations made in
respect to the manner in which the salvage of the exposition had been
disposed of.

Without authority to send for persons and papers, to administer oaths,
or to compel witnesses to testify, any further attempt upon the part of
the Commission to inquire into the salvage matter would have been futile
and ineffective. If any further action is to be taken to ascertain
whether or not the financial interest of the United States has been
sacrificed by the manner in which the salvage was disposed of, the
inquiry must be conducted by some committee or official having these
powers, which the Commission did not possess.

A careful perusal of the law under which the Commission was appointed
will show the narrow limits of its legal authority, and the records
disclose the policy of the Exposition Company not only to confine the
Commission strictly within the narrowest limits of the law, but also to
question and resist the exercise of its authority in many instances
where the law seemed to place such authority beyond question.

From the very beginning the Commission sought to establish harmonious
relations with the company, and at all times refrained from contention
with its officials as to all matters not vitally affecting the interest
of the Government, and endeavored in every possible way to cooperate
with the company in promoting the exposition and insuring its success.

It is pleasant to turn from disagreements to achievements. From the
scientific, the artistic, and the industrial points of view the
exposition was a pronounced success. The munificent and unfailing
support given the enterprise by the Government of the United States
guaranteed that it would be a great exposition.

Considering the primary appropriation of $5,000,000, the loan of
$4,600,000, and the contributions by the direct appropriations and by
indirect means through the assignment of officers paid from other
appropriations, together with the exhibits from Districts, Territories,
and dependencies of the United States, and for the Government exhibit,
the aggregate contributions, direct and indirect, to the success of the
fair approximated substantially $15,000,000 on the day the gates were
opened to the public.

In addition to this proclamations were twice issued by the President
inviting foreign nations to participate in the exposition; the consular
and diplomatic representatives of the Government were inspired to aid
the exposition to the extent of their ability, within the limits of
official propriety; the army transports and the vessels of the Navy were
generously employed in furtherance of the project, where such employment
was found consistent with duty. Never in history has any Government done
so much in aid of any like enterprise. With such support from the
Government failure was impossible under any rational management.

[Transcriber's note: The easiest way to explain the garbled nature of
the following paragraph, is that the first line beginning with St. Louis
is a misplaced duplicate of the third line below it, replacing some
other typeslug.]

Fortunately the construction of the main exhibit buildings was
placed by the directors of the Exposition Company in charge of two
gentlemen deserving of special mention on account of the devotion
and exceptional ability displayed by each. As chairman of the
committee on grounds and buildings, Mr. William H. Thompson, of
St. Louis, discharged the duty of director of works. To the united
ous devotion to the task assigned him. With rare ability and commendable
persistence Mr. Isaac S. Taylor, the talented architect of
St. Louis, discharged the duty of director of works. To the united
efforts of these gentlemen the exposition and the country are indebted
for the magnificent architectural creations which adorned the
exposition grounds. Their relations to the work of construction
and to the affairs of the company enabled them to act with a necessary
degree of self-reliance and independence on their own initiative.

Among the many contributions made by the Government of the United States
to the success of the exposition, the exhibit from the Philippine
Islands deserves marked attention. This exhibit was so extensive,
interesting, and unique that it became the center of predominating
interest. Through its various departments a most valuable and accurate
knowledge of the Philippine Archipelago was diffused, not only
throughout the United States, but throughout the world.

By a fortunate coincidence it occurred that the Secretary of War, who
had most to do with the marshaling of this exhibit, had been prepared
for the work by his experience as governor of the Philippine Islands.
Hon. William H. Taft, as president of the Philippine Commission, and
subsequently as governor of the Philippine Islands, manifested a
sympathetic interest in the condition of the people, the resources of
the islands, and in the proper adjustment of both to their new
relationship with the United States. About the time the exposition was
projected Governor Taft, whose long and faithful service in the
Philippines had endeared him to the inhabitants, was called by the
President to accept the portfolio of war. His familiarity with the
people and the resources of the islands proved of inestimable value in
the preparation of the representation and exhibits at the exposition.
Through his efficient Chief of the Insular Bureau, Col. Clarence R.
Edwards, the Secretary, with great zeal and effectiveness, addressed
himself to the task of securing appropriate representation for the
Philippine people.

The administrative work was placed in charge of Dr. W.P. Wilson, of the
Philadelphia Museum. A more appropriate selection of an executive
officer could not have been made. Industrious, painstaking, and devoted,
Doctor Wilson threw all his energy and superior ability into the task
assigned him.

In Dr. Gustavo Neiderlein and Mr. Edmund A. Felder, Doctor Wilson had
able and faithful lieutenants. Through the combined efforts of such
competent and devoted men the Philippine exposition was developed into a
revelation of world-wide interest.

The extremes of civilization found in the Philippine Islands were
exhibited upon the grounds. The industrial conditions existing in the
islands in their various stages of progress were clearly set forth. The
millions of visitors who were interested and instructed by this
remarkable exhibit must have been deeply impressed with the importance
and extent of our new possessions in the Orient.

It is quite impossible to compute the value to the American people of
this Philippine exhibit. In giving to the country the basis upon which
to form a just conception of the character and possibilities of our new
possessions the Philippine department alone fully justified the interest
of the nation in the Louisiana Purchase Exposition.

The official report of the Philippine exhibit, filed with the records of
the Commission, is replete with interest and will justify careful


The response of foreign governments and peoples to the invitation of the
President of the United States was in every way most gratifying. For an
adequate description of the manner and extent of foreign participation
in the exposition, reference must be made to the reports of the
respective commissioners to their governments, copies of which are filed
with this report.

The Commission, desiring to tersely review the exhibits of the various
countries, called upon their several representatives for a brief
statement of the nature and extent of their exhibits. The responses
received convey but a meager idea of the great display made, but a
perusal of the epitomized reports will serve to convey an outline of the
exhibits made and the buildings constructed.

Condensed summaries of these reports have been prepared and are
submitted as a part of this report, marked "Appendix No. 3."


Inspired by the example of the General Government, and stimulated by the
extent of foreign participation, in response to the invitation of the
President, the several States, Territories, and Districts of the United
States contributed to the success of this exposition in a far greater
degree than on former occasions of like character.

As in the case of foreign countries, the Commission called upon the
representatives of the various States, Territories, and Districts for a
brief statement of the extent and character of the exhibits made by
them. The reports of the representatives to the authorities by which
they were appointed have been collected as far as practicable and are
filed with this report.

Condensed summaries of these reports have been prepared and are
submitted as a part of this report, marked "Appendix No. 4."


The board of lady managers appointed by the Commission proved themselves
eminently qualified to perform the exacting and comprehensive duties
assigned them. Their organization was one of the most popular and
successful instrumentalities of the exposition.

These distinguished and representative women of our country were quickly
recognized as organizers and leaders of the many public and semiofficial
entertainments and functions, which all must agree were so necessary and
contributed so greatly to the success of the exposition.

It is undoubtedly true that their efforts in enlisting the sympathy and
support of the women of the United States not only made possible an
adequate presentation and exploitation of woman's work and woman's
sphere, but also secured the attendance of thousands upon thousands of
the best people of the land who otherwise would have remained away.

It is not too much to say that the money appropriated for and expended
by the board of lady managers was, from the standpoint both of national
interest and financial success, one of the wisest expenditures made in
connection with the exposition.

This board of lady managers was fortunate in the selection of Mrs.
Daniel Manning as its president. Mrs. Manning, in addition to her
experience in public life and affairs, and her well deserved general
popularity, proved herself possessed of rare executive ability, and the
management of those features of the exposition coming under the
supervision and direction of the board won the respect and admiration of
the exposition officials and of all the representatives of our own and
other governments having connection with or participating in the

It is but fair to say that this tribute of the Commission to the
efficiency of the board of lady managers is given not in compliment, but
in justice.

The vast amount of work performed by the lady managers and the delay in
the completion by the company of authoritative reports necessary to
enable the board to complete their final report to this Commission have
delayed the closing and presentation of this report by the Commission
beyond the period of six months from the close of the exposition.

The final report of the board of lady managers is now presented in
connection with the report of the Commission, and is herewith filed,
marked "Appendix No. 5."

The Commission calls particular attention to the excellence and the
interesting features of the report of the board of lady managers, and
suggests that its publication and distribution as a document is
especially to be desired.


The exhibit made by the Government of the United States will long stand
as monumental in the history of Government exhibits. Not content with
the exhibition of special features of governmental activity in the
various departments of the exposition, Congress provided for the
erection of a Government exhibition palace, which was confessedly the
most striking and successful architectural triumph upon the exposition

The Government Building was located on an eminence at the eastern
termination of "Louisiana Way," the principal avenue on the exposition
grounds. From its commanding position all portions of the exposition
grounds could be seen. Within the building every department of the
Government was represented by an appropriate exhibit upon a liberal

This great Government exhibit was under the direction and control of a
board, consisting of the following-named gentlemen:

_Members United States Government Board_.--Mr. Wallace H. Hills,
Treasury Department, chairman; Mr. William H. Michael, Department of
State; Mr. John C. Scofield, War Department; Mr. Cecil Clay, Department
of Justice; Mr. John B. Brownlow, Post-Office Department; Mr. B.F.
Peters, Navy Department; Mr. Edward M. Dawson, Department of the
Interior; Mr. S.R. Burch, Department of Agriculture; Mr. Carroll D.
Wright, Department of Commerce and Labor; Dr. F.W. True, Smithsonian
Institution and National Museum; Mr. W. de C. Ravenel, Bureau of
Fisheries; Mr. G.W.W. Hanger, Department of Labor; Mr. Williams C. Fox,
Bureau of the American Republics; Mr. Roland P. Falkner, Library of
Congress; Dr. A.C. True, Agricultural Colleges; Mr. William V. Cox,
secretary; Mr. William M. Geddes, disbursing officer; Mr. C.S. Goshert,
clerk of board.

The members of this board cooperated in a united effort to install a
Government exhibit in every way representative and creditable. To their
success the millions of visitors bore cheerful witness in expressions of
unbounded satisfaction. The board was at all times harmonious within
itself, and it is pleasing to note that its relations with the National
Commission were always of the most cordial character. From the report of
the Government board a fair but an inadequate estimate may be formed of
the extent and brilliant success of this feature of the exposition.

Under the law the life of this Commission expires on the 1st day of
July, 1905. The Commission has delayed closing its final report to the
last day of its existence in the hope that before that time a full and
final report might be received from the Exposition Company.
Unfortunately, however, no such report has been received, and therefore
the Commission is unable to submit the same to the President.

The monthly financial reports of the Exposition Company have been
received up to and including the month of April, 1905, and have been
transmitted as received to the President in accordance with the act of

After repeated and urgent requests for a complete report from the
Exposition Company the following final answer was received:


    St. Louis, _June 17, 1905._
    Hon. John M. THURSTON,
    _President National Commission,_
    _Portland, Oreg.:_

    Think it will be several weeks before report of two divisions
    can be completed, and several months before president's report
    will be ready. Impossible to close up as rapidly as desired.


It will at least be seen that the Commission has exhausted all its
powers and made every effort possible to comply with the act of Congress
in the making and transmission of this, its final report, and the
failure to accompany this report by full and complete reports from the
Exposition Company is in no wise due to any lack of endeavor on the part
of the Commission.

According to section 3 of the act of Congress approved March 3, 1901,
the National Commission was allowed the sum of "ten thousand dollars per
annum, or so much thereof as may be necessary," for the purpose of
defraying the clerical, office, and other necessary expenses of the
Commission. Including the year 1901 the amounts thus allowed aggregate
the sum of $41,923.36. The expenditures for the entire term of the
Commission's existence amount to $32,763.22. This includes an investment
of $952.16 in furniture, which has been delivered to the Secretary of
the Treasury.

Total unexpended balance reverting to credit of Exposition Company,

The expenditures made by the Commission from April 23, 1901, to June 30,
1905, are set forth in a statement, submitted herewith as Appendix No.

This report can not fairly be concluded without commendatory reference
to the zeal and devotion of the people of the city of St. Louis toward
this great enterprise. With great generosity and hospitality their
beautiful homes were thrown open to visitors; constant and delightful
entertainment was provided, and there can be no doubt that the millions
who came to see the exposition took away with them abiding and
affectionate remembrance of the universal consideration and courtesy
shown them.

The directors of the Exposition Company, comprising ninety-odd
representative business men of the city, devoted time and attention to
the affairs of the exposition with unfailing interest and fidelity. They
not only contributed as subscribers to the stock of the Exposition
Company, but in cases of emergency volunteered advances from their
private fortunes and freely loaned their credit to the exposition.

The daily newspapers and other publications of the city were tireless in
their efforts to sustain the enterprise, and to set forth its unusual

The residents of the Louisiana Purchase in particular, and the people of
the whole country in general, are indebted to the people of St. Louis
and the press of that city for the commendable and stupendous efforts
made in behalf of the exposition.

As a landmark in the world's progress the Louisiana Purchase Exposition
well deserves and will doubtless be accorded a conspicuous place in
exposition history.

Portland, Oreg., June 30, 1905.

By JOHN M. THURSTON, _President._





The following is a copy of letter received from the firm of Messrs.
Jones, Caesar, Dickinson, Wilmot & Co.:

    St. Louis, June 5, 1905.

    DEAR SIR: We are duly in receipt of your telegram, reading as
    follows: "Send statement liabilities Exposition Company to June
    1, showing cost of restoring grounds and approximate cost of
    matters in litigation," and beg to send you herewith a statement
    of the estimated financial position of the Louisiana Purchase
    Exposition Company, made up as at May 3, 1905, which we have
    just received and which we understand has been approved by the
    president of the Exposition Company. In his statement are
    included the estimated future liabilities of the company,
    including $200,000 for the restoration of Forest Park, and after
    providing therefor there appears an estimated surplus of assets
    of $467,211.45, subject, however, to possible liabilities on
    suits and claims pending against the Exposition Company.

    With regard to the estimate of $200,000 for the restoration of
    Forest Park, it may be well to mention that the company is under
    obligation to restore the park without any limit as to cost.
    Moreover, the company has given the city of St. Louis two bonds
    aggregating $650,000, which we understand is the amount of an
    estimate made on behalf of the city of the probable cost of
    restoration. Of the bonds given, one is for $100,000, secured by
    guarantee of certain directors of the Exposition Company, and
    the second for $550,000, secured as to $100,000 by personal
    guarantees, and as to the balance by a mortgage on the Art
    Building. We understand that an effort is now being made to
    effect a settlement of the company's liability to the city, but
    we are of course unable to say whether the estimate of $200,000
    now taken into account will eventually prove sufficient or, if
    not, by how much the estimate will be exceeded.

    With regard to the suits now pending against the Exposition
    Company, it is of course impossible to make any estimate of the
    eventual liability to fall on the company.

    We would call your attention to the note made in the statement
    as regards the cash in trustees' funds and would point out that,
    as the liability of the company as principal under the various
    bonds is included in the statement of liabilities, this cash may
    practically be regarded as an available asset. In other words,
    if the cash is excluded from the assets, the liability falling
    on the company under the various bonds should be correspondingly

    We should be glad to be advised whether there are any further
    points in connection with this statement with which you would
    desire us to deal, either by letter or in our final report, and
    would add that, on hearing from you, we are prepared to send in
    the signed report.

    We are sending a copy of this letter to the secretary of the
    Commission, in case it should not reach you at Portland.

    Yours, faithfully,


    Hon. J.M. Thurston
    President Louisiana Purchase Exposition Commission,
    Portland, Oreg.

    St. Louis, June 8, 1905.

    GENTLEMEN: We beg to inclose herewith statement of receipts and
    disbursements of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company from
    the date of its incorporation to April 30, 1905, and to report
    as follows on the audits which we have from time to time made,
    and which together cover the whole of the period above
    mentioned. For your convenience we propose to deal in this
    report with the accounts for the whole period, and therefore to
    repeat some of the comments contained in our previous reports.


    Collections on account of sales of capital stock:
      The total subscriptions to capital stock, as shown by the
         treasurer's record, amount to ................ $5,294,490.00
      Of this sum there had been collected, in cash,
        to April 30, 1905 ................ $4,821,456.11

      In a number of cases where the liability on
        subscriptions was disputed, compromises
        were effected, and under these compromises
        the company waived claims amounting to 48,952.09

      Which would leave a balance uncollected on
        April 30, 1905 of .............................    424,081.80

    We have been furnished with detailed statements of claims in the
    hands of attorneys for collection, amounting in the aggregate to
    about $25,000 more than the balance shown above as outstanding.
    We are informed that this difference represents principally
    receipts by the company which were credited as capital stock
    collections, but in respect of which no certificates were ever
    issued, though it is also due to some extent to clerical errors
    in the treasurer's books, which have not yet been located and

    The greater part of the balance now outstanding is expected to
    prove irrecoverable, owing to deaths, removals, etc., of
    subscribers, and to repudiations of liability in some cases. In
    this connection, it may be mentioned that the number of
    subscribers exceeded 20,000.

    It should be added that it is not yet possible for the
    treasurer's department to prepare any final report and
    adjustment of the capital stock accounts, and that such a report
    will necessarily be deferred until the whole, or at any rate the
    greater part, of the suits now pending can be disposed of.

    Proceeds of Sale of City of St. Louis Bonds.

    In accordance with an amendment of the charter of the city of
    St. Louis, approved at a general election held on November 6,
    1900, the city sold, in the month of June, 1902, its 3-1/4 per
    cent bonds to a par value of $5,000,000. The price realized for
    these bonds was $1,000.01 for each $1,000 bond, and the proceeds
    were turned over to the treasurer of the company on the
    following dates:

    June 26, 1902 ............................... $1,800,018.00
    July 2, 1902 ................................  3,200,032.00

    A question arose whether the sale price included accrued
    interest on the bonds to the date of sale, and as the city
    officers and the purchasers of the bonds were unable to agree on
    this point, the company, in order to avoid the delay and loss
    that would have resulted from a second offering of the bonds,
    decided to pay the accrued interest, amounting to $35,901.34.
    The net realization to the company from the issue of the bonds
    was therefore--

    5,000 bonds, at $1,000.01 ................... $5,000,050.00
    Less accrued interest paid ..................     35,901.34

    United States Government Aid.

    Of the total sum of $5,000,000 appropriated by act of Congress
    approved March 3, 1901, there has been received by the company
    the sum of $4,752,968.45, of which sum $250,000 was in the form
    of souvenir gold coin. We understand, however, that amounts have
    also been paid by the United States Treasury out of this
    appropriation which have not been reported to, or included in
    the accounts of, the company.

    United States Government Loan.

    Pursuant to an act of Congress approved February 18, 1904, there
    was advanced to the company from the United States Treasury, by
    way of loan, the sum of $4,600,000, repayable by semimonthly
    installments, commencing June 15, 1904, and equivalent to 40 per
    cent of the receipts from admissions and concessions during the
    half month immediately preceding the date of payment, it being
    provided that each installment after July 1 should amount to not
    less than $500,000. The whole of this loan was duly repaid on
    the following dates:

          June 16 ................................. $195,057.04
          July 1 ..................................  213,092.15
          July 15 .................................  500,000.00
          August 1 ................................  500,000.00
          August 15 ...............................  500,000.00
          August 31 ...............................  500,000.00
          September 14 ............................  500,000.00
          October 1 ...............................  500,000.00
          October 15 ..............................  500,000.00
          October 31 ..............................  500,000.00
          November 15 .............................  191,850.81

    Loan on Security of Capital Stock Subscriptions and Premium on
      Souvenir Coins.

    On August 22, 1903, the company entered into a contract with the
    Mississippi Valley Trust Company, the Lincoln Trust Company, the
    Mercantile Trust Company, and the St. Louis Union Trust Company,
    as trustees, under which it assigned all subscriptions which
    were at that date wholly or partly unpaid, together with all
    further subscriptions which might be received, and the premium
    to be received on the sale of $239,000 souvenir gold coin, in
    consideration of the sum of $600,000, with a provision that when
    the trustees should have received the full sum of $600,000,
    together with interest at the rate of 6 per cent per annum and
    expenses of collection and management, they would reassign the
    subscriptions and rights to the company.

    Prior to the completion of the loan there was received by the
    company from the sources assigned upwards of $162,000, and this
    amount was deducted from the loan, making the net amount
    received by the company $438,000. Payments were subsequently
    made on account of this loan out of the receipts from the
    above-mentioned sources, and on March 15, 1904, the balance then
    outstanding of $92,515.25 was paid out of the general funds of
    the company, in anticipation of receipts from the sources
    assigned and with a view to effecting a saving of interest

    It should be added that the subsequent receipts from capital
    stock subscriptions have amounted to more than the amount
    temporarily advanced out of the general funds of the company.


    We have agreed the figures of receipts shown by the books of the
    auditor and the treasurer with those of the admissions

    We have agreed the receipts from sales of tickets with the
    ticket custodian's record, and have verified the tickets
    appearing on that record as unsold. We have also satisfied
    ourselves that the system in the admissions department was such
    as to provide adequate safeguards for the collection by the
    company of the admissions receipts derived from other sources.

    It would appear that the total loss of the company in this
    department through shortages of employees, counterfeit and
    mutilated coins, etc., amounted to about $1,250, about one-third
    of which is probably recoverable from the bonding company, so
    that the final loss to the exposition will be very small.

    The total receipts for admissions are distributed as follows:

    Exposition period:
       Admissions of individuals ................ $6,042,746.65
       Vehicles .................................      5,671.50
    Pre-exposition period .....................................
    Post-exposition period ....................................



    The details of the attendance and revenue during the exposition
    period are as follows:

                                      | Number.   |  Receipts.    |Cents per
                                      |           |               |admission
Adults:                               |           |               |
 General admission .................. | 11,180,996| $5,589,715.50 |    50.00
 Season and other commutation tickets |    961,175|    291,827.00 |    30.32
Children:                             +-----------+---------------+---------
 General admission .................. |    621,640|    155,634.25 |    25.04
 Season and other commutation tickets |     40,805|      5,569.90 |    13.65
Total paid attendance ............... | 12,804,616|  6,042.746.65 |    47.19
Free:                                 |           |               |
 Adults ............................. | 6,480,267 | ............. | ........
 Children ........................... |   409,972 | ............. | ........
    Total exposition days ........... | 19,694,855| ............. | ........
Sundays (free) ...................... |    371,682| ............. | ........
    Grand total ..................... | 20,066,537| ............. | ........

    It may be of interest to add that the attendance by months was
    as follows:

                               |     Exposition days.   |         |
              Date.            +------------------------+ Sundays |   Total.
                               |   Paid.    |   Free.   | (free). |
April 30 and May ............. |    667,772 | 1,102,656 |  70,847 |  1,841,275
June ......................... |  1,382,865 | 1,016,281 |  49,373 |  2,448,519
July ......................... |  1,514,743 |   928,224 |  55,298 |  2,498,265
August ....................... |  1,992,248 | 1,096,498 |  45,477 |  3,134,223
September .................... |  2,683,511 |   968,262 |  52,182 |  3,703,955
October ...................... |  2,758,149 |   864,180 |  64,107 |  3,686,436
November and December 1 ...... |  1,805,328 |   914,138 |  34,398 |  2,753,864
    Total .................... | 12,804,616 | 6,890,239 | 371,682 | 20,066,537


    We have agreed the amount of collections reported by the
    treasurer, together with the amount of bills still outstanding,
    with the amount of bills rendered (after deducting allowances
    and rebates), as reported by the concessions department.
    Inasmuch as all bills originated in the concessions department
    and the collections were made by the treasurer, we think this
    reconciliation affords a satisfactory check on the receipts
    reported by the treasurer.

    We have also looked into the system in this department, and
    believe that it was well calculated to secure, as far as
    possible, the proper collection of revenues accruing due to the

    The net receipts of this department, as shown by its records,
    are as follows:

    Pike rentals .................................. $218,187.50

    Concessions revenue:
    Exposition period ............................ 2,812,995.59
    Pre-exposition period .........................   32,366.06
    Post-exposition period ........................    1,855.54

    The difference between this figure and the total of
    $3,076,958.69, shown in the inclosed accounts, consists of
    refunds of $15,554, which are treated in the statement as
    disbursements, less $4,000 rents collected by the concessions
    department, credited in the statement against the rent paid by
    the company, as the latter practically acted only as agent in
    the transaction.

    Under the lease of the Catlin tract, on which the greater part
    of the concessions were built, sureties were required, and for
    the protection of these sureties and of sureties under other
    bonds it was arranged that all ground rentals received from
    concessions on the "Pike" should be paid into a special fund for
    the purpose of securing such sureties against loss in respect of
    the bonds given by them. Upon the books of the company,
    therefore, the above figure of "Pike rentals" has been credited
    to a separate fund account, together with an amount of $2,580.68
    interest allowed on this fund.

    There was withdrawn from this fund the sum of $100,000 on
    account of payment of rentals of the tract, and the fund now
    amounts to $120,768.18, as shown among the cash balances in the
    inclosed statement.

    The total earnings accruing due to the company
      under concession contracts amounted to ...................
    Of this total there has been collected
      (as above) the sum of ..................... $3,065,404.69
    There was waived by the company under various
      compromises the sum of ....................    434,204.36
    And there still remain uncollected bills
      amounting to ..............................    304,115.48

    We have seen authorizations from the executive or concessions
    committee for all the important compromises effected.

    Intramural Railway.

    We have agreed the receipts shown by the general books of the
    company with the report of the manager of the railway. The
    number of passengers carried and the amount of revenue
    therefrom, by months, were as follows:

               Date.                            Passengers  Revenue.

    April 30 and May ..........................   295,152   $29,515.20
    June ......................................   861,409    86,140.90
    July ......................................   815,034    81,503.40
    August .................................... 1,018,195   101,819.50
    September ................................. 1,394,444   139,444.40
    October ................................... 1,273,207   127,320.70
    November and December 1 ...................   617,297    61,729.70

    Total ..................................... 6,274,738   627,473.80

    It is not possible to arrive at the cost of operating the
    railway, as the power was furnished from the general power
    plant, and the cost thereof can not be ascertained separately.

    Service, Power, Light and Water, Transportation.

    We have agreed the collections from these sources with the books
    of the treasurer, and as regards the principal items we have
    also agreed the accounts shown on the general books with those
    of the departments in which the charges originated, subject to
    some inconsiderable differences which are now being investigated
    and will be adjusted by the company as soon as possible.

    Music Department.

    We have agreed the receipts shown by the auditor with the report
    of the bureau of music.

    The total receipts are made up as follows:

    Music furnished German Tyrolean Alps Company .......... $67,220.25
    Music furnished other parties .........................     300.00
    Receipts from admissions to Festival Hall and sales of
      reserved seats ......................................  77,078.23
      Total earnings ...................................... 144,598.48
    Add refund on expenses credited this account ..........   1,940.00
      Total as per statement .............................. 146,538.48

    We have verified the receipts from the German Tyrolean Alps
    Company with the contract.

    Premium on Souvenir Gold Coin, less Expense.

    This total represents the premium of $2 per coin on   $67,176.00
      33,588 coins sold
    Less expenses .......................................  13,506.67
      Total .............................................  53,669.33

    We have agreed the number of coins sold with the difference
    between the number originally received and the number now
    certified to be on hand.

    Photo-Pass Receipts.

    The system in regard to the collections in this department
    appeared to be such as to insure the full amount of collections
    being received by the company.

    Photographic passes were charged in some cases at $1 and in
    others at $2, and many were issued without charge, and it is not
    therefore possible, without a very great amount of work, to
    check the collections against the number of passes issued.

    Interest on Deposits.

    This total represents the amount of interest received on
    balances from time to time remaining on hand in the company's
    bank. We have included therein the amount of $2,580.68 received
    In respect of the Pike rental fund and credited on the books of
    the company to that fund.

    Miscellaneous Collections.

    This total is made up as follows:

    Insurance premiums refunded .................... $63,983.17
    Refrigerating plant receipts ...................  20,178.99
    Garbage coupon books ...........................  11,506.80
    Miscellaneous revenues .........................  31,230.52
    Refund account, overpayments ...................   4,715.96
    Personal damage account, receipts ..............   2,572.50
    Uniform special fund ...........................   2,514.89
    Damage to property, receipts ...................      72.50
      Total ........................................ 136,775.33

    We have checked the insurance receipts with the report of the
    agents of the policies canceled and of the amount of return
    premiums due the company thereon.

    We have agreed the receipts from the refrigerating plant, which
    represent the company's proportion of the profits on the
    operation thereof, with the report of the manager. A final audit
    of the books of the plant is now being made by the Exposition
    Company, and it is possible that a small further sum will be
    received on this account.

    We counted the garbage books remaining on hand and satisfied
    ourselves that the number thereof, together with the number
    reported as sold, made up the total number originally received.

    The remainder of the receipts included under this head consists
    of various incidental receipts which it is not possible to
    verify completely.


    This amount is made up as follows:

    Contract price for salvage sold to Chicago House
      Wrecking Company ............................ $450,000.00
    Less amount not yet due or paid ...............  150,000.00
    Resale of cars and motors under original
      purchase contract with St. Louis Car Company   158,667.25
    Miscellaneous sales ...........................    4,198.03
      Total .......................................  462,865.28

    We have verified the two large items with the original

    Special Fund.

    We have not been able to obtain a detailed statement of the
    badge fund, which represents deposits made by employees in
    respect of badges issued to them, and it is probable that the
    greater part of this sum has been refunded and charged through
    various departments to other accounts.

    The pay-roll fund represents unclaimed wages and has been agreed
    with a detailed list submitted to us.


    Properly approved vouchers have been produced to us for all
    disbursements  except as regards two payments aggregating
    $252.45, the vouchers for which have, we understand, been

    The only items calling for special comment are, we think, the

    Special Installation of Exhibits.

    This sum represents the purchase price of the whole of the
    capital stock of the General Service Company, which held a
    concession for hauling and storage. From a balance sheet of that
    company, recently prepared, it would appear that the amount to
    be realized by the Exposition Company in respect of this
    investment will be about $104,000. We are advised by the
    president that in spite of the apparent loss of $21,000
    involved, this transaction is regarded by the Exposition Company
    as an advantageous one, inasmuch as, at the time it was
    effected, there were serious controversies and substantial
    claims in question between the two companies, and by the
    purchase these claims were, of course, completely disposed of;
    and, moreover, the installation of exhibits was much expedited
    and serious inconvenience to exhibitors avoided.

    Money Advanced.

    The principal item included under this head is an amount of
    $152,000 advanced to the emergency exploitation committee from
    time to time to meet the expenses incurred by that committee.
    Practically the whole of this amount has been expended, but up
    to the date of our audit vouchers for the expenditures had not
    been turned in by the committee or put through the general books
    of the company. We understand that this is now being done.

    Board of Lady Managers.

    Included under this head is the full amount of $100,000
    appropriated for the board out of the Government loan of
    $4,600,000. This sum was paid by the company into a special
    account, subject to the order of the board, and no details as to
    the disbursement thereof appear on the books, owing, as we are
    informed, to the fact that no report of such disbursements has
    yet been made by the board to the Exposition Company.

    Cash Balances.

    Certificates of deposit have been produced to us, and we have
    been furnished with a certificate from the bank as to the
    balance on current account.

    The cash immediately available for the general purposes of the
    company amounts to $668,754.36, the remaining $182,846.41 being
    deposited in a special account to secure the sureties under
    various bonds given on behalf of the company.

    Of this total of $182,846.41, the sum of $120,768.18 is derived
    from Pike rentals, as hereinbefore explained. The balance of
    $62,078.23 consists of receipts of the music bureau, which were
    originally paid into a separate fund because of a difference
    between the bureau of music and the division of concessions as
    to the policy in operating Festival Hall. Subsequently the
    president recommended that this fund be added to the fund held
    for the protection of the sureties, in accordance with the
    authority granted to the executive committee by the board of
    directors to make such provision as might be deemed advisable to
    protect these sureties, and the president informs us that this
    suggestion was approved by the executive committee.

    It will of course be understood that the maintenance of the
    separate funds would become a matter of practical importance
    only in the event of the funds of the company proving
    insufficient to meet its liabilities, a condition which is not
    now deemed likely to arise.

    General Financial Condition of the Company.

    We have been furnished by the president of the Exposition
    Company with a statement of the estimated assets and liabilities
    of the company on May 3, 1905, a copy of which we append hereto.
    From this statement it will be seen that, subject to whatever
    liability may eventually result in respect of suits and disputed
    claims now pending against the company, it is estimated that the
    assets will exceed the liabilities by $467,211.45.

    In arriving at this figure, the liability of the company in
    respect of the restoration of Forest Park is estimated at
    $200,000. In this connection it may be well to point out that
    the company is under obligation to restore the park without any
    limit as to cost, and has, moreover, given the city of St. Louis
    two bonds aggregating $650,000, being the amount of an estimate
    made on behalf of the city of the probable cost of restoration.
    Of the bonds given, one is for $100,000, secured by guarantee of
    certain directors of the Exposition Company, and the second for
    $550,000, secured as to $100,000 by personal guarantees and as
    to the balance by a mortgage on the Art Building.

    Legislation is now pending looking to the acceptance by the city
    of a fixed sum in settlement of the company's liability and the
    carrying out of the work of restoration by the city itself, but
    it is not, of course, possible to say at the present time
    whether the estimate of $200,000 now taken into account will
    eventually prove sufficient.

    It is not at present possible to estimate the liability on suits
    and claims pending.

    In conclusion, we would state that every facility was extended
    to us by the officials of the company in the course of our

    Yours, faithfully, Jones, Caesar, DICKINSON, WILMOT & Co.


_Statement of receipts and disbursements from the incorporation of the
company to April 30, 1906 (inclusive)._


Capital liabilities:
  Collections on account of sales of
    capital stock ........................... $4,821,456.11
  Proceeds of sale of city of St. Louis
    bonds .................................... 5,000,050.00
  United States Government aid ............... 4,752,968.45
                                               ------------ $14,574,474.56

Loans contracted:
  United States Government ................... 4,600,000.00
  Loan on security of capital stock
    subscriptions, etc .......................   438,000.00
                                               ------------   5,038,000.00
  Admissions collections (Exhibit A) ......... 6,240,480.90
  Concessions collections (Exhibit B) ........ 3,076,958.69
  Intramural railway receipts ................   627,473.84
  Service, power, light, and water receipts
    (Exhibit C) ..............................   655,684.00
  Transportation collections (Exhibit D) .....   218,207.20
  Music Department collections ...............   146,538.48
  Premium on souvenir gold coin
    (less expenses) ..........................    53,669.33
  Photo pass receipts ........................    51,469.00
  Interest on deposits (Exhibit E) ...........   131,407.83
  Miscellaneous collections (Exhibit F) ......   136,775.33
  Salvage ....................................   462,865.28
                                               ------------  11,801,529.88
Special funds
  Badge ......................................     6,830.00
  Pay roll ...................................     5,769.04
                                                -----------      12,599.04


Preliminary expenses ......................................     $37,418.78
Construction (Exhibit G) ..................................  16,729,755.48
Rent of grounds and buildings (Exhibit H) .................   1,240,113.80
Maintenance and operating (Exhibit I) .....................   1,070,537.51
Special installation of exhibits ..........................     125,000.00
Exhibits division (Exhibit J) .............................   2,189,125.93
Exploitation division (Exhibit K) .........................   1,327,337.11
Protection--Fire, police, insurance, etc. (Exhibit L) .....   1,089.992.35
Concessions and admissions division (Exhibit M) ...........     564,112.28
Executive and administrative division (Exhibit N) .........     440,874.46
Transportation bureau (Exhibit O) .........................     321,074.58
Money advanced (Exhibit P) ................................     167,350.14
Sundry disbursements (Exhibit Q) ..........................     114,920.78
Board of lady managers:
  Government appropriation .................... $100,000.00
  Miscellaneous disbursements .................   16,831.20
  Furnishing rooms ............................    2,558.31
                                                -----------     119,389.51
Loans repaid ..............................................   5,038,000.00
Cash balances:
  Cash in bank, general fund ..................    5,067.22
  Local treasurer's cash ......................       24.58
  Certificates of deposit .....................  663,662.56
  Certificates of deposit, D.R. Francis and
    W.H. Thompson, trustees (Exposition
    Company sureties) .........................  182,846.41
                                                -----------     851,600.77

    We have examined the above statement of receipts and
    disbursements, with the books of the Louisiana Purchase
    Exposition Company, and certify the same to be correct.
    Satisfactory evidence has been produced to us as to all
    payments made, and proper certificates have been furnished
    as to the balance of cash in bank, on deposit, and on current

    _Certified Public Accountants_.

    St. Louis, _June 9, 1905_.

    Estimate of current assets and liabilities at close of business,
    May 3, 1905.


Cash on hand with treasurer ...............................    $199,888.36
Cash on hand with local treasurer .........................         508.33
Cash on hand with paymaster ...............................       1,500.00
Cash on hand with police court ............................         300.00
Bills receivable, S.W. Bolles .............................        153.10
Due from Alexander on account of insurance ................       2,040.80
Due from bonding company on account of gatemen ............         335.20
Estimated revenue from admissions, three months ...........       3,750.00
Estimated collections from concessions,
  balance due ................................. $281,252.98
Estimated collections from Pike rentals,
  balance due .................................   23,862.00
                                               ------------      20,000.00
Estimated collections from service bills,
  balance due .................................  109,211.01      10,000.00
Estimated collections from capital stock,
  balance due .................................  473,741.69      20,000.00
Estimated collections from other sources ..................       5,000.00
Salvage, per certificates of deposit             463,662.56
Salvage, per bills receivable                    150,000.00
                                               ------------     613,662.56
Assets of General Service Company
  (excluding bills against Louisiana
  Purchase Exposition Company) ............................      40,000.00
Cash in hands of trustees, on account of
  ground rent .................................. 120,768.18
Cash in hands of trustees, on account of
  music ........................................  62,078.23
                                                -----------     182,846.41

  (See note.)


Warrants unpaid ................................ $43,863.60
Less warrants payable to General Service
  Company ......................................  13,706.33
                                                -----------      30,157.27
Special and trust fund ....................................      12,599.04
Vouchered accounts, no warrants drawn ..........  56,664.66
Less General Service Company vouchers ..........  26,255.93
                                                -----------      30,408.73
Ground rent ...............................................       9,500.00
Tesson heirs' claim .......................................       5,300.00
Unvouchered accounts:
  Division of works--
    Electrical department ...................... $31,257.10
    Mechanical department ......................  12,702.44
    Civil engineering ..........................   7,723.56
    Director's office ..........................   2,994.24
                                                -----------      54,677.34
  Concessions and admissions--
    Woodward & Tiernan .........................   2,945.15
    J.E. Allison ...............................      39.28
    David L. Grey ..............................     456.00
                                                -----------       3.440.43
  Division of exhibits--
    Director's office ..........................   2,140.50
    Awards .....................................   1,784.50
    Art ........................................     262.87
    Live stock .................................      59.25
    Electricity ................................      30.25
    Education ..................................       4.10
    Manufactures ...............................        .25
    Physical culture ...........................     $30.70
    Anthropology ...............................     387.40
    Machinery ..................................      76.00
    Mines and metallurgy .......................     200.00
    Model street ...............................      30.70
    Salary, three days in May ..................     107.46
                                                -----------      $5,113.98
Park restoration, three days' salaries and wages ..........         448.41
Park restoration, Art Museum, salaries and wages ..........         117.17
Transportation, salaries and wages ........................          29.04
Legal department, salaries and wages ......................         112.11
Secretary's office, salaries and wages ....................         426.20
Auditor's office, salaries and wages ......................         128.61
Collector and local treasurer, salaries and wages .........          54.40
Treasurer's office, salaries and wages ....................          27.76
Care of buildings (janitors), salaries and wages ..........          17.91
Report of Congress of Arts and Sciences ...................       4,213.91
Diplomas ..................................................      44,000.00
Unmatured liabilities:
  Administration expenses during liquidation of
    Exposition Company (estimated) ........................     100,000.00
  Publication of president's report .......................      10,000.00
  Publication reports Congress of Arts and
    Sciences ..............................................      18,000.00
  Publication of physical-culture reports .................       5,000.00
  Restoration of Forest Park (estimated) ..................     200,000.00
  Restoration of leased tracts and additional
    rental thereon (estimated) ............................      50,000.00
  Taxes for three years on leased tracts, in litigation
    (estimated) ...........................................      25,000.00
  Contingent fund .........................................      20,000.00
  Administration expenses of superior jury ................       4,000.00
Excess of current assets over current liabilities,
  which is exclusive of contingent liabilities in the
  shape of suits pending versus Louisiana Purchase
  Exposition Company, and other items as per memorandum
  below ...................................................     467,211.45


Suits pending against Exposition Company:
  Exposition Water Company ................................      63,000.00
  Fraternal Identification Company ........................      50,000.00
  Charles Holloway ........................................       2,000.00
  Star Bottling Company ...................................     235,449.79
    Do ....................................................      30,600.00
  Gardner T. Voorhees .....................................      25,000.00
  Exposition Water Company ................................      63,000.00
  Bessie M. Liggett (two suits), action for rent
    of New York office ....................................       1,500.00
  Willis ..................................................      15,000.00
  John Culligan ...........................................         100.00

    (In addition to the above there are a number of claims made by
    concessionaires, aggregating a large amount, which have not yet
    been put in suit.)


There may be an appropriation made at next session of Congress
  to pay amount due Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company on
  account of Philippine exhibit, which amounts to ............ $100,000.00

(This is so uncertain that it can not be counted as a probable asset.)

    NOTE.--In the assets is listed trustees' fund, $182,846.41. This
    amount is not at present an available asset, for the reason that
    it is a trust fund placed to secure bondsmen for ground rent and
    other purposes, and may be partially or totally absorbed for the
    reimbursement of bondsmen who may be defendants in suits that may
    be instituted.

      *       *       *       *       *


EXHIBIT A.--_Admissions collections, April 30, 1905_.

Admissions collections:
  Preexposition ...........................................    $175,906.25
  Exposition ..............................................   5,704,846.15
  Postexposition  .........................................      16,156.50
Chicago day tickets .......................................         270.00
National Commission season tickets ........................      28,637.50
November tickets ..........................................       4,870.00
St. Louis day admissions ..................................      39,536.00
Season tickets ............................................      94,030.00
Single admission tickets ..................................      14,651.00
Special August tickets ....................................       1,410.00
Stockholders' tickets .....................................     160,167.50
    Total .................................................   6,240,480.90

EXHIBIT B.--_Concessions collections, April 30, 1905_.

Concessions revenue:
  Preexposition ...........................................     $32,366.06
  Exposition ..............................................   2,808,995.59
  Postexposition ..........................................       1,855.54
Concessions receipts, subsequently refunded (contra) ......      15,554.00
Catlin tract Pike rentals .................................     218,187.50
    Total .................................................   3,076,958.69

EXHIBIT C.--_Receipts account of service, power, light, and
water bills, etc., April 30, 1905_.

Miscellaneous, prior to September 3, 1902 .................        $434.45
Animals, care of ..........................................          55.00
Bags ......................................................       1,971.30
Blacksmith shop ...........................................         121.35
Building permits ..........................................       1,015.58
Cinders ...................................................         142.50
Coal sold .................................................       1,040.70
Cleaning closets ..........................................         263.50
Cord wood .................................................       3,020.94
Cremating animals .........................................         141.30
Damages ...................................................          11.41
Dam in Arrowhead ..........................................       3,068.93
Draft returned ............................................       1,000.00
Electric connections, various service .....................         686.00
Electric power service ....................................       7,609.09
Force account .............................................      21,798.14
Freight charges ...........................................         119.11
Garbage cans ..............................................         465.00
Gas connections and inspections ...........................         530.00
Hauling garbage, etc ......................................         871.54
Light service .............................................       7,639.57
Miscellaneous .............................................       5,264.41
Miscellaneous hauling .....................................          22.75
Paving ....................................................         138.60
Permits other than buildings ..............................        $830.59
Piling ....................................................         589.10
Rebates on collections ....................................      15,011.58
Removing garbage ..........................................       1,767.85
Removing rubbish ..........................................         435.60
Rent of cross arms ........................................         438.95
Rent of conduits ..........................................       1,108.04
Repairs ...................................................          24.12
Salvage ...................................................          87.26
Sawmill ...................................................         950.42
Alternating currents ......................................          26.26
Amperes oven service ......................................          41.25
Compressed air service ....................................       1,310.50
Electric heater service ...................................         533.31
Fan power service .........................................       1,948.36
Furnace service ...........................................           5.71
Gaslight service ..........................................       5,799.75
Arc light service .........................................      13,112.32
Incandescent service ......................................     243,578.64
Miscellaneous service .....................................      17,246.36
Changing electric service .................................         150.00
Miscellaneous electric service ............................      81,425.68
Miscellaneous light service ...............................       3,907.45
Picture machine service ...................................          27.50
Searchlight service .......................................         202.20
Motor service ............................................       82,597.25
Steam service .............................................       1,661.02
Telephone service .........................................         540.56
Water service .............................................      68,023.74
Water applications and inspections ........................      14,672.50
Sewer applications and inspections ........................       6,240.00
Plumbing applications and inspections .....................       5,436.00
Compressed air connections ................................          35.00
Electric heater connections ...............................          40.00
Fan power applications and connections ....................         150.00
Gas connections ...........................................       1.059.40
Gas inspections ...........................................         211.00
Arc light connections .....................................         170.64
Incandescent light connections ............................       5,780.32
Miscellaneous electric connections ........................         116.85
Miscellaneous light connections ...........................         210.00
Light applications, etc. ..................................         413.00
Miscellaneous connections .................................          60.64
Miscellaneous inspections .................................           6.50
Motor applications and connections ........................       2,556.43
Picture machine connections ...............................           5.00
Plumbing applications .....................................       1,202.75
Plumbing inspections ......................................       1,055.50
Sewer applications ........................................         647.00
Sewer inspections .........................................         420.00
Sanitary sewer applications ...............................       1,820.00
Sanitary sewer inspections ................................       1,530.00
Steam pipe connections ....................................           7.50
Steam sewer connections ...................................         191.35
Water applications ........................................       2,702.35
Water inspections .........................................       1,605.00
High pressure applications ................................       3,125.00
High pressure inspections .................................       1,047.50
Various direct currents ...................................          26.00
Force account, post-exposition ............................          78.33
Arc light service, post-exposition ........................         591.41
Gas connections, post-exposition ..........................          10.00
Gaslight service, post-exposition .........................          92.16
Crane service, post-exposition ............................          19.50
Incandescent light service, post-exposition ...............         112.93
Miscellaneous service, post-exposition ....................          89.98
Water service, post-exposition ............................      $1,333.02
Removing garbage, post-exposition .........................            .40
Gas inspections ...........................................            .50
  Total ...................................................     655,684.00

EXHIBIT D.--_Transportation collections, April 30, 1905._

  Exposition period .......................................    $135,087.12
Postexposition period .....................................      71,169.34
Car service ...............................................       5,148.30
Parking private cars ......................................       2,506.00
Drayage ...................................................           5.32
Miscellaneous .............................................       4,291.12
  Total ...................................................     218,207.20

EXHIBIT E.--_Interest receipts, April 30, 1905._

Interest on deposits ......................................    $116,356.03
Interest on Government loan ...............................       3,926.63
Washington University, special fund .......................       8,544.49
Pike rental, special fund .................................       2,580.68
  Total ...................................................     131,407.83

EXHIBIT F.--_Miscellaneous collections, April 30, 1905._

Refunds prior to September 3, 1902 ........................      $4,870.46
Admissions, exposition ....................................         201.61
Admissions department .....................................         102.66
Ceremonies, dedication ....................................          22.40
Conscience fund ...........................................          31.25
Drafts returned ...........................................         186.00
Freight charges refunded ..................................         367.70
Miscellaneous collections .................................       2,411.98
Interest on stock notes ...................................       1,260.04
Interest on stock of estate ...............................           3.90
Interest and costs, delinquent subscriptions ..............         111.52
Janitor service ...........................................       1,650.62
Lost property .............................................            .50
Miscellaneous sales .......................................       9,516.84
Percentages, Bell Telephone Company pay stations ..........       1,363.51
Postage ...................................................           5.39
Redemption of horses and vehicles .........................          86.00
Rent ......................................................          13.00
Sale of buildings .........................................          50.00
Sale of property ..........................................       3,248.78
Geo. F. Parker, resident representative, London ...........         145.03
Intramural railway maintenance ............................         180.55
Concessions department, ticket account ....................          47.50
Concessions ...............................................          10.50
Ticket sellers, change account ............................          40.00
Impounding vehicles .......................................           1.00
Force account, postexposition .............................         228.00
Miscellaneous, postexposition .............................          75.62
Postage, postexposition ...................................           2.85
Physical-culture fund .....................................       3,495.31
Aeronautics entry fees ....................................       1,500.00
Insurance premiums refunded ...............................      63,983.17
Refrigerating plant receipts ..............................      20,178.99
Garbage coupon books ......................................      11,506.80
Refund account, overpayments ..............................       4,715.96
Personal damage receipts ..................................       2,572.50
Property damage receipts ..................................          72.50
Uniform account, special fund .............................       2,514.89
  Total ...................................................     136,775.33

EXHIBIT G.--_Construction, April 30, 1905._

Architecture, department of ...............................    $138,395.61
Architects' commissions ...................................      81,000.00
Architects' fees and expense ..............................      94,019.88
Agriculture Building ......................................     524,185.51
Approaches to Government Building .........................      34,585.90
Art Building ..............................................     945,849.45
Athletic field ............................................      16,000.00
Band stands ...............................................      25,793.00
Barracks buildings ........................................      26,925.75
Bridges, permanent ........................................     102,785.07
Bridges, temporary ........................................       1,666.78
Building, engineers .......................................      11,578.85
Cascades and terraces, excavating .........................     142,629.08
Civil engineers ...........................................     308,031.74
Dairy barn building .......................................      27,570.08
Day nursery building ......................................       6,035.82
Drainage ..................................................     100,813.86
Drinking fountains ........................................         898.00
Director's office .........................................     224,008.48
Electricity and Machinery .................................     444,553.70
Electricity and machinery department ......................     122,589.49
Electric and power plant ..................................   2,868,047.38
Electrical subway .........................................      23,494.33
Emergency installation ....................................      13,746.91
Engine house ..............................................      41,152.18
Exhibitors' exposition power plant ........................     201,099.93
Exhibitors' pre-exposition power plant ....................      16,989.63
Entrances .................................................      31,736.00
Finish on bridges, lagoons, and cascades ..................     155,488.72
Festival Hall .............................................     221,999.45
Fire department, temporary building .......................         220.71
Fire plant ................................................     370,622.09
Forestry, Fish, and Game Building .........................     174,317.38
Fences ....................................................      37,325.16
Filtration plant ..........................................      11,689.20
Freight platforms .........................................      14,298.51
Furniture and fixtures ....................................      19,727.83
Garbage crematory .........................................       8,746.90
Grading ...................................................     269,454.94
Gas piping ................................................      44,665.62
Horticulture Building .....................................     225,408.27
Horses, harness, and vehicles .............................       7,069.30
Hospital building .........................................      20,508.38
Hauling and piling up soil ................................       1,720.80
Implements and tools ......................................       9,271.02
Intramural railway ........................................     498,393.90
Landscape gardening .......................................     500,566.59
Louisiana Purchase Monument ...............................       7,593.93
Liberal Arts Building .....................................     475,370.95
Live stock exhibit buildings ..............................     147,464.55
Machinery Building ........................................     497,408.35
Manufactures Building .....................................     710,284.49
Mines and Metallurgy Building .............................     491,802.41
Mural decorations .........................................      41,467.88
Philippine Commission .....................................     198,442.15
Police station ............................................       6,646.17
Preparing grounds .........................................     738,508.51
Press building ............................................       4,899.32
Pump well, pavilion, and conduit ..........................      37,845.24
Plumbing ..................................................     129,834.02
Refrigerating and ice plants ..............................      37,177.84
Restaurants and colonades .................................     174,106.80
Reservoirs ................................................       3,013.53
Roadways ..................................................     441,676.12
Sculpture .................................................     518,039.87
Sculpture Hall Building ...................................     $39,388.99
Service building ..........................................      41,743.81
Shelter houses ............................................       4,924.35
Stables ...................................................       6,167.01
Sewers ....................................................      62,700.14
Sawmill ...................................................       6,781.24
Street railway, private right of way ......................      12,788.98
Supplies, miscellaneous ...................................       9,053.73
Temporary boiler house ....................................       1,808.50
Textiles Building .........................................     381,446.85
Ticket booths .............................................       6,940.00
Turnstiles ................................................      25,416.15
Town Hall Building ........................................      15,398.34
Transportation Building ...................................     675,586.39
Triumphal causeway ........................................       7,885.00
Uniforms ..................................................       1,054.42
United States life-saving exhibit .........................         925.25
Varied Industries Building ................................     733,831.21
Warehouse Building ........................................      24,446.87
Water mains ...............................................     159,650.94
Waterways .................................................      34,643.38
Water rent ................................................      72,207.50
West pavilion .............................................       5,722.50
Widening and straightening river Des Peres ................     115,159.78
World's fair terminals ....................................     454,824.81
  Total  ..................................................  16,729,755.48

EXHIBIT H.--_Rent of grounds and buildings, April 30, 1905._

Washington University tract ...............................    $750,000.00
Other tracts west of Skinker road .........................     230,250.00
Catlin tract ..............................................     200,000.00
Sundry ground rents .......................................      25,403.36
Coliseum ..................................................      18,666.66
Offices ...................................................      15,793.78
  Total ...................................................   1,240,113.80

EXHIBIT I.--_Maintenance and operating, April 30, 1905._

Care of buildings .........................................     $89,251.97
Electric and power plant ..................................     675,462.29
Electric power rentals ....................................      28,438.91
Fuel not yet distributed ..................................       2,299.43
Gas-light buildings .......................................       1,474.16
Garbage cremation .........................................       5,083.08
Maintenance of--
  Grounds .................................................      77,902.63
  Roads ...................................................      20,228.49
  Lagoons, cascades, and basins ...........................       2,408.33
  Fire plant ..............................................       3,499.69
Operating expenses:
  Buildings ...............................................      11,914.50
  Landscape gardening .....................................      24,365.86
  Lavatories ..............................................         583.83
  Waterways ...............................................       1,405.87
  Miscellaneous ...........................................       5,308.30
Repairing buildings .......................................      46,672.38
Refrigeration .............................................      14,735.53
Removal of garbage and rubbish ............................      21,227.60
Sewers, water supply system ...............................       1,824.17
Special police ............................................       7,034.94
Telephone rentals .........................................      29,102.97
United States Life-saving station .........................         312.52

  Total ...................................................   1,070,537.51

EXHIBIT J.--_Exhibits division, April 30, 1905._

Aeronautics ...............................................     $42,405.98
Agriculture ...............................................      77,382.24
Agriculture, live-stock section ...........................     281,275.37
Anthropology ..............................................      76,443.95
Art .......................................................     131,138.89
Director's office .........................................     145,899.05
Education .................................................      49.684.59
Electricity ...............................................      52,934.65
Fish and game .............................................      27,664.88
Forestry ..................................................      13,409.84
Horticulture ..............................................      91,174.48
International congresses ..................................     131,842.43
International jury of awards ..............................     109,882.62
Liberal arts ..............................................      45,094.44
Machinery .................................................      61,686.62
Manufactures ..............................................      86,487.23
Mines and metallurgy ......................................      85,042.23
Music .....................................................     494,984.48
Physical culture ..........................................      87,876.53
Social economy ............................................      42,376.81
Transportation ............................................      54,438.62
  Total ...................................................   2,189,125.93

EXHIBIT K.--_Exploitation division, April 30, 1905._

Argentina .................................................     $29,958.08
Australia .................................................       4,452.20
Alabama ...................................................          22.30
Arkansas ..................................................          98.41
Bureau of information .....................................       9,728.37
Brazil ....................................................      16,789.30
Central American States ...................................      12,643.84
Cuba ......................................................       5,503.48
California ................................................         600.20
Colorado ..................................................          61.91
Connecticut ...............................................         689.77
Director's office .........................................      22,865.10
Domestic office ...........................................      36,415.86
Domestic incidentals ......................................      32,722.72
Delaware ..................................................         125.43
Dutch manufacturers in Holland ............................       1,012.33
Egypt .....................................................       5,432.26
Europe ....................................................      43,773.46
Eastern headquarters ......................................       9,310.59
Emblem account ............................................       1,035.38
Emergency exploitation ....................................         872.27
Fourth of July celebration ................................       8,561.24
Florida ...................................................       1,019.40
Germany ...................................................      10,724.77
Georgia ...................................................         191.61
Foreign incidentals .......................................      18,232.25
India .....................................................       4,949.36
Italy .....................................................      11,011.31
Idaho .....................................................          80.60
Illinois ..................................................          22.05
Incidentals, various States ...............................       3,696.96
Indiana ...................................................          35.75
Indian Territory ..........................................         755.43
Iowa ......................................................         164.03
Kansas ....................................................          15.00
Kentucky ..................................................       1,524.99
London  ...................................................      17,807.78
Maine .....................................................         $94.25
Maryland ..................................................         671.66
Massachusetts .............................................         264.14
Michigan ..................................................       1,339.55
Minnesota .................................................         959.58
Mississippi ...............................................         193.05
Municipal exhibits ........................................          52.55
Nebraska ..................................................         417.41
New England States ........................................          78.00
New York ..................................................         657.19
New York, New Jersey, and Rhode Island ....................         455.90
North Carolina ............................................       1,499.92
New Hampshire .............................................         150.25
North Dakota ..............................................         317.96
Netherlands ...............................................          45.00
Oriental countries ........................................      46,388.68
Ohio ......................................................         429.80
Paris .....................................................      11,229.17
Portugal ..................................................       1,384.62
Press representative to Europe ............................      14,144.79
Pan-American Exposition Building ..........................      15,826.09
Press and publicity .......................................     435,118.82
Pennsylvania ..............................................         241.10
Peru, Ecuador, and Venezuela ..............................      17,652.97
Rhode Island ..............................................         965.80
Russia ....................................................         600.00
South Carolina ............................................       1,826.18
Southern States ...........................................       3,737.28
South Dakota ..............................................         123.85
South Africa ..............................................         945.33
Spain .....................................................       2,261.23
Special Commissioner Buchanan .............................      25,070.45
New York and Massachusetts ................................         159.50
Special Commissioner Hayward ..............................       3,000.73
Sweden and Norway .........................................      12,318.15
South Carolina and Interstate and West Indian Exposition ..      11,948.82
Saengerfest subscription ..................................       5,000.00
Tennessee  ................................................         697.51
Texas .....................................................         159.00
Transportation day ........................................       7,908.22
Vermont ...................................................          10.00
Virginia ..................................................       1,122.80
Windward Islands and Trinidad .............................       1,200.00
World's Fair Fraternal Association ........................       2,945.00
Dedication ceremonies .....................................     233,341.16
Ceremonies ................................................       2,744.13
Bureau of ceremonies ......................................      39,693.86
Entertainments ............................................      70,583.36
Receptions and entertainments .............................       8,736.73
Competitive drills ........................................       7,500.00
Pike day expenses .........................................       9,190.57
Promotion .................................................       5,928.26
Firemen's convention and tournament .......................       2,814.60
Good roads conventions ....................................       2,286.35
  Total ...................................................   1,327,337.11

Exhibit L.--_Protection, April 30, 1905._

Fire department ...........................................    $162,471.26
Medical department ........................................      37,559.01
Jefferson Guards ..........................................     471,245.74
Custodian of buildings ....................................       2,354.07
Fire-fighting exhibit:
  Preexposition ...........................................      16,500.00
  Exposition ..............................................      25,000.00
  Accident ................................................     $86,174.33
  Boilers .................................................         541.28
  Buildings ...............................................     260,172.35
  Contents of buildings ...................................      24,607.07
  Miscellaneous ...........................................       1,404.90
Premium on Fidelity bonds .................................       1,962.34
  Total ...................................................   1,089,992.35

EXHIBIT M.--_Concessions and admissions division, April 30, 1905._

Advance payments, concessions .............................         $27.00
Admissions department .....................................     280,337.55
Concessions department ....................................     222,664.57
Collector's office ........................................      36,756.99
Ticket account ............................................         138.00
  Total ...................................................     564,112.28

EXHIBIT N.--_Executive and administrative division, April 30, 1905._

Auditor's office ..........................................     $61,025.11
Collector's office ........................................      36,756.99
Incidental expenses .......................................      24,341.83
Legal department ..........................................      87,598.15
Local treasurer's office ..................................      12,703.22
President's office ........................................       9,963.17
President's contingent fund ...............................       1,413.63
Secretary's office ........................................     155,687.16
Supply department .........................................      21,430.07
Treasurer's office ........................................      29,954.53
  Total ...................................................     440,874.46

EXHIBIT O.--_Transportation bureau, April 30, 1905._

Director's office .........................................     $12,003.04
Equipment .................................................         805.00
Intramural Railway:
  Operating ...............................................      59,578.81
  Maintenance .............................................       5,694.39
Operating department ......................................     210,976.38
Traffic manager ...........................................      15,449.05
World's Fair terminal, maintenance ........................      16,567.91
  Total ...................................................     321,074.58

EXHIBIT P.--_Money advanced, April 30, 1905._

Board of lady managers ....................................      $3,000.00
Bolles, S. W ..............................................         153.10
Buchanan W. I .............................................          71.02
Chase, C.A., paymaster ....................................       1,500.00
Emergency exploitation committee ..........................     152,986.49
Kurtz & Watrous ...........................................       8,000.00
Money changers at entrances ...............................         665.20
Moore, Thomas M ...........................................       1,100.37
Thompson, J.C., jr ........................................          16.00
  Total ...................................................     167,350.14

EXHIBIT Q.--_Miscellaneous, April 30, 1905._

Accrued interest, city of St. Louis bonds .................     $35,901.34
Band contests .............................................         500.00
Bond for rent of land .....................................         540.00
Disbursement agent, United States Government ..............      $8,500.38
Interest on bills payable and advances on capital stock ...      15,625.55
Inside Inn ................................................         147.49
National Civic Federation .................................          73.13
Operating expenses, sanitation ............................         400.44
Press parliament ..........................................       1,132.90
Personal damages ..........................................       6,171.70
Postage ...................................................          21.64
  Admissions ..............................................         405.20
  Concessions collections .................................      15,554.00
  Grounds and buildings collections .......................       1,656.97
  Photo pass account ......................................       1,154.00
  Transportation collections ..............................         502.53
Sanitation ................................................         430.90
Supervision of sanitation .................................         382.19
Telegrams .................................................       2,254.46
Refund, overpayment of capital stock ......................       1,816.33
Ways and means committee ..................................          65.26
Million Population Club ...................................          20.00
Park restoration ..........................................       9,527.35
Park restoration, Art Museum ..............................       1,043.39
Salvage expense ...........................................         240.31
Damage to property ........................................       5,269.00
Refund, season tickets ....................................          75.00
Special exhibit, Agricultural Hall ........................       5,509.32
Total .....................................................     114,920.78

Condensed statement showing estimated financial result of the exposition.


Subscribed funds:
  United States Government ................................. $4,752,968.45
  City of St Louis .........................................  4,964.148.66
  Individual subscriptions .................................  4,839,867.28
                                                            -------------- $14,556,984.39
  United States Government .................................  4,600,000.00
  Loan on stock subscriptions, etc. ........................    438,000.00
  Less repaid ..............................................  5,038,000.00
  Admissions ...............................................  6,244,544.65
  Concessions ..............................................  3,081,406.78
  All other sources ........................................  1,931,571.35


  Construction .............................................$16,729,755.49
  Less salvage                                                  625,680.90
  Rents of grounds and buildings ...........................  1,279,913.80
  All other expenses .......................................  7,713,307.34
  Estimated liability for restoration of site ..............    250,000.00
Surplus, subject to liability on pending suits and claims       467,211.45

    The above condensed statement has been prepared from the
    accounts of the company to May 3, 1905, and from an estimate of
    future receipts and expenditures furnished us by the president
    of the Exposition Company.


    ST. Louis, _June 12, 1905_.



State of Missouri, _City of St. Louis_, ss:

Before me, this the 16th day of March, 1905, personally appeared H.S.
Albrecht, who, being duly sworn, on his oath says:

My name is H.S. Albrecht. I reside in St. Louis. Have lived here the
past twenty-five years. I am engaged in business in St. Louis. In regard
to the sale of the salvage of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company
I herewith make the following statement:

When I saw by the papers that bids were requested for the wrecking and
removal of certain exhibit buildings now on the World's Fair grounds I
decided that I would make a bid on same. I submitted a bid on that part
of the salvage to be disposed of as shown in the specifications prepared
by Director of Works Taylor and on following buildings:

Mines and Metallurgy; Liberal Arts; Education and Social Economy;
Manufactures; Electricity; Varied Industries; Machinery; Transportation;
Forestry, Fish, and Game; Agricultural; Horticulture; four dairy barns,
octagonal; live-stock forum; Live-Stock Congress Hall; stock barns;
Steam, Gas, and Fuel Building, and cooling towers; Festival Hall;
terrace of States, including pedestals and statuary; two pagoda
restaurant buildings on Art Hill; four fire-engine houses; five
toilet-room buildings; five band stands.

The time limit set for the removal of the buildings and debris was
short--namely, three months--and no one could make a reasonable bid. I
made my bid in the sum of only $50,000 for that reason, and accompanied
same by a certified check for $25,000, as required by the Exposition

The bids were to be opened at 12 o'clock noon of November 10. I, with a
number of other bidders, was present in an anteroom adjoining the office
of Mr. Isaac S. Taylor, director of works. The bids were not opened at
the appointed hour, and we waited there for three hours and until 3
o'clock. We expected the bids to be opened in public, as is done by the
United States Government and the city when they dispose of large
properties. We were called into Mr. Taylor's office and were informed by
President D.R. Francis that the bids would not be opened in public, but
in private. I immediately arose and offered an objection to this mode of
procedure, as I did not think it was the proper way to handle the
matter. I told them what I thought of the whole proposition. My protest
was a vigorous one. A Mr. Harris, a representative of the Chicago House
Wrecking Company, immediately arose and stated that he desired to have
his bid kept secret. Mr. Francis overruled my objection and sustained
Mr. Harris. Mr. Francis asked the other bidders present what they
desired as to the manner of handling the bids, and they all stated that
the bids should be opened in public and not in private. Not only as a
contractor, but as a stockholder of the Exposition Company, I demanded
that the bids be opened publicly, in a straightforward manner. We were
instructed to go out into the anteroom and remain until called for.
About fifteen minutes later I was recalled alone to the meeting room of
the salvage committee, where President Francis questioned me in regard
to the $50,000 bid, and asked whether I could remove the property in the
time limit set. I informed the gentlemen that I could make my bid
considerably higher if I was granted more time in which to remove the
debris. President Francis asked me how much more I could bid, and I told
him I could not state offhand. The conditions as to the removal of the
wreckage in the specified time, namely, three months, were somewhat
prohibitive, as it would be impossible to fulfill the requirements
without an enormous expense. It would be well-nigh impossible to get
sufficient men and teams on the work to complete the same in the
specified time. President Francis stated to me that it was probable that
all the bids would be rejected. I requested him to ask for new bids,
which were to be opened in public, or that the property be sold at
public auction. I saw by the newspapers a few days later that all bids
had been rejected, and my check for $25,000 was returned to me. I later
saw by the papers that the Exposition Company contemplated forming a
company among the directors and wreck the buildings themselves and
dispose of the salvage. Later on I saw in the papers that the Chicago
House Wrecking Company was figuring to buy all the World's Fair
property, and was about to close a deal for the purchase of the salvage
in the sum of $386,000.

No further information as to the sale of the salvage was ever furnished
me, nor was any notice given me that further or additional bids would be

I had never at any time been furnished a list of the property for sale,
and made my bid on the buildings as shown by the specifications prepared
by Mr. Taylor, director of works. I requested a list of the property for
sale, but was never able to get one.

As soon as I heard that the property of the exposition was to be sold to
the Chicago House Wrecking Company for the sum of $386,000 I wrote a
letter to President Francis as follows:

    DECEMBER 5, 1905.

    GENTLEMEN: Noticing in the daily papers that you will sell the
    entire property owned by the Louisiana Purchase Exposition,
    including railway tracks, exhibit and other buildings, fencing,
    furniture, wiring, lamps, piping, plumbing, machinery, etc.--in
    fact, everything owned by the company. If this is the fact we
    can pay you about $400,000 and perhaps more. Will you kindly
    furnish us a complete list of everything that you have for sale
    and specified time of removal, so we can give you an intelligent
    bid or proposition?

    Very respectfully,
    Per H.S. ALBRECHT, _President_.

    President D.R. FRANCIS and
    _Louisiana Purchase Exposition, St. Louis._

I failed to receive a reply to the above letter or to receive a list of
the property to be sold, and was not notified that further bids would be
received therefor. As far as I know, none of the former bidders, nor any
one else, for that matter, were given the slightest opportunity to bid
on the whole property, except the Chicago House Wrecking Company.

There seemed to be a disposition on the part of the salvage committee to
observe the greatest secrecy in procuring the bids and the awarding of
the contract. The property was not properly advertised and lists were
not furnished to bidders, as is customary in public sales, where large
amounts of valuable property is to be sold.

From the contract between the Exposition Company and the Chicago House
Wrecking Company, now a matter of record here, I have noticed the nature
of the material and property sold to the Chicago House Wrecking Company,
and had I been furnished a list of that property I would have bid
$750,000, all cash, and would have made a great profit on it at that
price. If the property had been properly listed and widely advertised,
much higher bids would have been made. If the property had been properly
advertised and had been sold at public auction, in detail, I am safe in
saying that the Exposition Company would have realized more than
$1,000,000 out of the salvage. In my opinion the property delivered to
the Chicago House Wrecking Company was of the market value of fully


Subscribed and sworn to before me this 16th day of March, 1905. My
commission expires on the 22d day of July, 1909.

[SEAL.]         IRA C. MONEY,
_Notary Public, City of St. Louis, Mo._

STATE OF MISSOURI, _City of St. Louis, ss:_

Before me, this the 16th day of March, 1905, personally appeared Charles
L. McDonald, who, being duly sworn, on his oath says:

My name is Charles L. McDonald. I reside in the city of St. Louis. Am
connected with the St. Louis Steam Forge and Iron works. I saw by the
St. Louis Globe-Democrat of October 17, 1904, that Mr. Isaac S. Taylor,
director of works of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, had requested
sealed proposals addressed to the "Committee on Salvage and Sale of
Buildings," for the wrecking and removal of certain exhibit buildings
now on the World's Fair grounds, and that specifications and
instructions for the above-mentioned work and drawings and
specifications of the buildings to be wrecked could be seen at the
office of Mr. Taylor. All bids were to be in Mr. Taylor's office by 12
o'clock noon of Thursday, November 10, 1904.

The specifications and instructions as prepared by Mr. Taylor for the
wrecking of the buildings, and for which sealed proposals were
requested, only applied to the following buildings: Mines and
Metallurgy; Liberal Arts; Education and Social Economy; Manufactures;
Electricity; Varied Industries; Machinery; Transportation; Forestry,
Fish, and Game; Agriculture; Horticulture; four dairy barns, octagonal;
live stock forum; Live Stock Congress Hall; stock barns; steam, gas, and
fuel buildings and cooling towers; Festival Hall; terrace of States,
including pedestals and statuary; two pagoda restaurant buildings on Art
Hill; four fire-engine houses; five toilet-room buildings; five band
stands; and excluded, or rather did not include, all electrical wiring,
piping, plumbing, roadmaking machinery, fire hose in the various
buildings, two hospitals complete, Jefferson Guards' uniforms and
accouterments, railroad tracks in the various buildings, the Intramural
Railway, which included all the equipment (except the cars), hothouses,
horses, wagons, and vehicles of all kinds, and many other valuable

I submitted a bid on one of the buildings only. However, I was
associated with Mr. Albrecht and others when he submitted a bid on all
the buildings as shown by the printed list, and was also concerned with
him in his proposition of December 5, wherein he offered $400,000 cash
for the property, and more if a list of all the property could be

The conditions embodied in the specifications and contract, with
reference to the time limit for the removal of all the debris from day
to day as the work progressed were too exacting, in that they did not
allow sufficient time, and if the same were strictly enforced by
Director of Works Taylor would materially add to the expense of the
contractor. The time was too short for the amount of work to be done.

On November 10, at the hour called for the opening of the bids, I was
present and appeared with other bidders before the committee on salvage.
I, with a number of other bidders, waited until after 3 o'clock for the
committee to get together and open the bids, and was very much surprised
when President Francis announced that all bids would be opened in secret
by the committee. This procedure was not in accordance with the custom
of the Government and city in the handling of its property when same is
for sale under bids. Mr. Albrecht objected to the bids being opened in
secret session and demanded that they be opened before the bidders.
President Francis asked me what I had to say about the way in which the
bids were to be handled, and I answered that I could do nothing more
than emphasize the protests of Mr. Albrecht.

I have been a bidder at many sales of both Government and city,
property, and the method employed at such sales provided for the opening
of bids in public in the presence of such bidders as desired to be

A few days later I saw by the papers that the Exposition Company had
rejected all bids. After the rejection of our first sealed bids, I
learned through another bidder, with whom I was interested, that the
World's Fair officials had announced that it was probable that they
would wreck the exposition buildings themselves. Upon this information I
dropped the matter and heard nothing further about the bidding until it
was announced that the Chicago House Wrecking Company had secured the
contract. When I heard that the Fair Company proposed to do its own
wrecking I thought it a good plan.

The carrying on of the bidding through private negotiations, as
President Francis terms it, was not, I contend, the most advantageous to
the Exposition Company and its stockholders. If they had given all the
bidders an equal show in the matter, and had furnished a list of the
property to be sold, much higher bids would have been obtained.

The secrecy with which the contracts were handled did not give the
bidders a fair opportunity, and was, I believe, an injustice to the
thousands of stockholders of the exposition. The United States
Government, the city of St. Louis, and the stockholders were partners in
the exposition, which made the fair unquestionably a public institution.
Why, then, were not the bids opened in public, thus securing the largest
amount for the exposition and for the stockholders? This was not done.
If it had been the bidding would have been greatly stimulated, bringing
results quite different. The salvage committee refused to allow the bids
to be opened publicly before the contractors, but held them for their
eyes only. This is not in accordance with the manner of handling bids on
big public works. When the partial list of property was given out the
requirements in the specifications almost made the bidding prohibitive.
The Exposition Company demanded a check for half of the amount of the
bid. In all my experience I have never before been asked to meet such a
requirement. In itself that was almost enough to drive off the bidders.
The Chicago House Wrecking Company put up less than one-fourth of the
price to be paid, or $100,000.

I am of the opinion that had the Exposition Company properly prepared a
list of its properties and holdings and furnished the prospective
bidders with such lists and an opportunity for the examination of the
articles mentioned therein, together with a reasonable period of time
for removal of the buildings and debris, they could easily have obtained

I have obtained a more comprehensive knowledge of the amount and
character of the material and property since put into the hands of the
Chicago House Wrecking Company, and am of the opinion that at the time
the contract was made with the Chicago House Wrecking Company the
property sold represented a value in excess of $1,000,000.

There was present in the office of Mr. Taylor, director of works, at the
time the bids were to be opened the following members of the salvage
committee: President Francis, Director of Works Taylor, John A. Holmes,
Mr. Samuel Kennard, and Mr. John Scullin.

Had I been furnished with a list of all the properties that I have since
learned was acquired by the Chicago House Wrecking Company I would have
gladly submitted a bid in the amount of $500,000.


Subscribed and sworn to before me this 16th day of March, 1905. My
commission expires on the 22d day of January, 1909.
[SEAL.]             IRA C. MONEY,
_Notary Public, City of St. Louis, Mo._

STATE OF ILLINOIS, _County of Cook, ss_:

Before me this the 28th day of March, 1905, personally appeared Mr. S.
Krug, who, being duly sworn, on his oath says:

My name is S. Krug. I am a resident of Chicago. Have resided here for
the past thirty-seven years. For the past twenty-seven years I have been
engaged in the excavating and sand business. During this time I have
also been engaged on contracts for wrecking large buildings. I wrecked
the First National Bank Building, the Metropolitan Building, the Montauk
Block; Hibbard, Spencer & Bartlett store, and numerous other large
buildings in Chicago.

In regard to the sale of the World's Fair salvage at St. Louis I will
make the following statement:

I was told by a friend of mine that bids had been requested for wrecking
and removal of certain World's Fair buildings at St. Louis, and that
specifications and instructions could be obtained from Mr. Isaac S.
Taylor, director of works. For business reasons I did not wish the
Exposition Company to know that I wanted to figure on the contract. I
asked a friend of mine to procure a copy of the specifications for me.
It was necessary for him to deposit $10 for the specifications. He sent
the specifications to me. Mr. John M. Dunphy, who is in my employ, and I
went over the specifications at length and studied them pretty
thoroughly. The specifications only referred to exhibit buildings, band
stands, fire-department houses, live-stock barns, dairy barns, Festival
Hall, fuel building, terrace of States, and toilet-room buildings. On
October 24, 1904, some ten days after we read over the specifications
and instructions, Mr. Dunphy, Mr. Powers, and myself went to St. Louis
to look over the plans to see the nature of the material and the
construction of the various buildings. We went to Mr. Taylor's office
and were informed that Mr. Taylor was busy and could not see us. Mr.
Taylor's secretary, Mr. Carl Hoblitzelle, took us into an adjoining
room. He did not ask our names, and we did not tell him who we were.
While we were waiting in this room--I presume we were there about five
minutes--Mr. Frank Harris, a member of the Chicago House Wrecking
Company, came into the room. It looked to me as if he had been posted as
to our, being there and came to see who we were. Mr. Harris remained
there three or four minutes and then left. We asked the clerk in charge
of the office there for the plans of the various buildings to be
wrecked. He handed us two sets of plans--one for the Agricultural and
one for the Horticultural Building. We requested more plans of him, but
he said he was too busy to take them down and immediately left the room
and remained out all the time we were in there. We went to the shelves
and took out the plans ourselves and looked them over. After we had
looked over the plans for a couple of hours we went out on the
exposition grounds, and spent the rest of that day and the next on the
grounds, and on the following day we returned to Chicago. The bids were
to be in Mr. Taylor's office by 12 o'clock noon Thursday, November 10,
1904. Mr. Schmitt, my bookkeeper, and myself went to St. Louis on
November 9 and were present at Mr. Taylor's office in the Administration
Building before the hour of 12 o'clock noon, November 10. I had prepared
my bid. At this time I only bid on the stock barns, live-stock forum,
Congress Hall, Agricultural and Horticultural buildings. I also had a
separate bid prepared for the Transportation Building, which I
submitted. I took my bids and handed them to Mr. Carl Hoblitzelle, Mr.
Taylor's private secretary. He placed them in his desk and said he would
bring them to the attention of the committee when the time came to open
the bids. Mr. Schmitt and I then went into an anteroom, where the other
bidders were gathered. There were present at the time Mr. H.S. Albrecht,
of the firm of Schoellhorn & Albrecht, St. Louis; Mr. Charles McDonald,
of the St. Louis Steam Forge Company, St. Louis; Mr. W. Ware, of the
Columbia Wrecking Company, St. Louis; a Mr. Schaeffer and son, of St.
Louis, and Mr. Frank and Abraham Harris, who represented the Chicago
House Wrecking Company. There were one or two other gentlemen present,
but I can not now recall their names. Some middle-aged man came in with
the Harris Brothers. He seemed to have free access to the room where the
salvage committee was in session, and ran back and forth two or three
times and held a conversation with the Harris Brothers in the hall. We
expected the bids to be opened at 1 o'clock. It was now some time after
1 o'clock. We were all waiting there when President Francis came in and
announced that they were going to lunch, and for us to come back later
on. We all left the room and I with several other gentlemen went to get
a little lunch. We were back in the anteroom of Mr. Taylor's office by
2.30 p. in. We waited there until 4 o'clock when Mr. Taylor's secretary
came into the room and requested all the bidders to go into the room
where the salvage committee was in session. The committee met in Mr.
Taylor's office. President Francis, Mr. Taylor, Samuel Kennard, Mr.
Holmes, and some other gentleman, I can not call his name now. President
Francis arose and said: "Gentlemen, the bids are all there on the table
and we will open them shortly." He asked how we wished the bids
handled--that is, whether we wanted them opened in our presence or in a
secret session of the Committee. Mr. H.S. Albrecht, of St. Louis,
immediately arose and stated that he wanted the bids opened in the
presence of the bidders present, as he wanted everything to be open and
above board. All the other bidders present requested that the bids be
opened in their presence, except Mr. Abraham Harris, president of the
Chicago House Wrecking Company, who arose and offered an objection to
the bids being opened in public, and stated that he did not want his bid
to be opened in public, but wanted it opened in private, for the reason
that he did not want everybody to know what his bid was; that if he was
the successful bidder his bid would be published and everybody would
know what it was, but if he was not the successful bidder he did not
want it known what amount he bid. President Francis held a whispered
conversation with several members of the committee and then turned to
the bidders and said: "Gentlemen, we have decided to open the bids in
secret session." He thus favored Mr. Harris and ignored the demand of
the other bidders. Mr. Albrecht again demanded that the bids be opened
in our presence. We were then told to repair to the anteroom and wait
until called for. While we were waiting in the anteroom Mr. Taylor's
secretary called Mr. Abe Harris into the committee room, where the
salvage committee was opening the bids. He remained in there some little
time. As soon as Mr. Harris came out Mr. H.S. Albrecht was called in. He
told me when he came out that he had entered a vigorous protest as to
the way the bids were being handled, and that he as a stockholder and a
bidder had again demanded that the bids be opened in the presence of the
bidders. Mr. Schmitt and myself were next called into the room where the
salvage committee was in session. Mr. Taylor asked me if I knew a Mr.
Schluetter, of Chicago. I told him that I was well acquainted with the
gentleman, that I had done considerable work for him in Chicago, and
that he had always paid me for it. When I made this remark President
Francis looked at Mr. Taylor and laughed in rather a sneering way. I
presumed from his actions that the Exposition Company had had some
trouble with Mr. Schluetter. President Francis said to me, "Mr. Krug,
you have some excellent recommendations here from prominent people and
banks of Chicago." I told him that I was well able to carry out any
contract I undertook, as I had good financial backing and understood my
business. He said to me, "Mr. Krug, your bid is very satisfactory, but
why have you not submitted a bid on all the buildings shown in the
specifications?" I told him I had taken into consideration the insurance
on the various buildings and that I was afraid I might have trouble in
getting insurance on all the buildings, and therefore submitted a bid on
buildings that were quite a distance apart and less liable to fire. I
told President Francis at this time that I was willing to submit a bid
for $76,600 on all the buildings shown in the specifications prepared by
Mr. Taylor. My first bid did not include all the buildings shown in the
specifications. I made this offer offhand. He asked me if I wanted to
figure on wrecking the buildings for the Exposition Company on a
percentage basis, they to own all the material and sell it and I to get
a per cent for doing the work. I told him I would take it by contract
for an agreed figure or would do the work for him on a percentage basis,
and that I would be glad to do anything for him I could. President
Francis said to me, "Mr. Krug, you put in your bid for $76,600 in
writing and have it in this office to-morrow morning." We were then
asked to wait out in the anteroom. We waited there until about 6
o'clock. At about 6 o'clock Mr. Taylor's secretary came in and announced
that the meeting had adjourned until the next day. We all left the room
then. At 10 o'clock the next morning, November 11, 1904, Mr. Schmitt and
myself went to Mr. Taylor's office, where I filed my bid in writing for
$76,600 to cover all the buildings shown in the specifications. We
waited there until about 4 o'clock, expecting some decision from the
salvage committee. About 4 o'clock Mr. Taylor's secretary came in and
announced that the meeting of the salvage committee had adjourned until
the following Monday.

The conditions embodied in the specifications as to the time allowed for
removal of the wreckage were so prohibitive as to render it almost
impossible to carry them out. The time limit--namely, three months--was
too short. It would entail an enormous expense and waste of material to
try to comply with the time conditions stated in the specifications.

The amount required by the specifications to be deposited in the form of
a certified check, payable to the Exposition Company, viz, 50 per cent
of the amount of bid, was very exorbitant. This check was to be
forfeited to the Exposition Company in the event the successful bidder
failed to enter into a contract with the salvage committee within five
days after they accepted the bid. I consider the amount demanded, 50 per
cent, very excessive, and it had the effect of frightening bidders away.
A 5 to 10 per cent deposit is usually the amount required by the
Government and the city.

The specifications also stipulated that the full amount of the contract,
less the amount of the certified check, held and to be appropriated by
the Exposition Company, must be paid to the Exposition Company at the
time the contract is signed. I consider this out of all reason, and in
itself would have a tendency to prohibit bidding.

The time-limit clause, namely, three months, from March 1 to June 1,
1905, in which all the buildings must be torn down and the grounds
cleared, was entirely too short a time, and out of all reason, as it
would be physically impossible for any contractor to do the work in the
time specified, and no contractor would attempt it under the terms of
the specifications unless he knew he would be favored with an extension
of time later on.

The specifications appear to me to have been drawn up with the intent
and purpose of discouraging bidders. In all my experience I have never
encountered such requirements as set forth in those specifications.

I told Mr. Taylor and President Francis that the time limit was too
short, and that I would be glad to make a much higher bid if they would
extend the time. They said, "We cannot extend the time one day--the
grounds must be cleared by June 1, 1905."

On the following Monday, November 14, 1904, I went to Mr. Taylor's
office at 10 a.m. I was informed by Mr. Taylor's private secretary that
all bids had been rejected, and that I would be notified if further bids
would be requested. I returned to Chicago that night, and awaited some
advice from the Exposition Company as to what disposition was to be made
of the property, and if new bids would be requested. For fear that
something might happen that I would get slipped up on, and the contract
be given to some one else, I sent my agent, Mr. John M. Dunphy, to St.
Louis, so that he would be on the ground and be in touch with what was
going on, and told him to watch the papers to see if new bids were
requested. Mr. Dunphy was in St. Louis from November 20 to 26,
inclusive, and he informed me that during all this time he was unable to
get any information as to what the Exposition Company was going to do
with the property or whether new bids would be asked for. Mr. Dunphy was
compelled to return to Chicago on the night of November 26. He asked a
friend of his, a Mr. William H. Ranstead, who lives in St. Louis, to
look out for news in regard to the wrecking of the World's Fair
buildings, and if new bids were requested to notify him immediately by
telephone or by telegraph. On November 28 I received a telegram from Mr.
Ranstead, as follows:

    ST. Louis, _November 28._
    S. KRUG and John Dunphy,
    _167 Dearborn street, Chicago, Ill._:

    Salvage committee met at 2 p. m. At the adjournment Mr. Taylor
    and President Francis called me in and wished me to wire you to
    come on first train. Everything looks well. Meet me at the
    Lindell Hotel before you go to the grounds. Also wire me in care
    Lindell Hotel when you leave.


This message was received by me at about 8.40 a. m. November 29. Mr.
Dunphy and I took the first train out to St. Louis. We left here at
11.03 a. m. and arrived St. Louis at 6 p. m. November 29. We met Mr.
Ranstead at the hotel and talked matters over. The next day, November
30, Mr. Ranstead, Mr. Dunphy, and myself went to the fair grounds and
called at office of Mr. Stevens, secretary of the Exposition Company.
This was about 10.30 a. m. At about 11 a. m. Mr. Stevens took us to the
room where the salvage committee was holding a meeting. Mr. Stevens did
not remain in the room during the meeting. There were present President
Francis, Mr. Taylor, Mr. Kennard, and Mr. Holmes, members of the salvage
committee. After a short preliminary talk, we were told by Mr. Francis
that we would have to put in our bid for all the buildings shown in the
specifications, including copper wire and railroad iron, and that we
would have to have the bid in by 4 o'clock that afternoon. It was then
about: 12 o'clock. We protested against such short time for figuring on
all the property shown by the specifications. I requested more time and
told them I would be able to make an intelligent bid if granted more
time. I asked President Francis to give me the figures on the steel
rails and the copper wire, and stated that he should have the figures
showing the amount on hand, as it was all bought by weight; that if I
could get an idea of the amount of wire and rail I could get my bid in
all right in time. He stated he could not give me the figures on the
rail and the wire. Mr. Kennard then stated that I could put in a bid for
the buildings that were shown in the specifications, including the
intramural stations, the fences, and the bridges by 4 o'clock that day,
and that I could have until Friday, December 2, to put in my bid on the
railroad iron and the copper wire. I asked if it would be possible for
me to get an extension of time in which to do the work, providing I
secured the contract. President Francis stated that the time could not
be extended one day. I then asked for a list of the property so I could
figure on all of it. President Francis stated that they did not have any
lists and that it would be necessary for us to go over the ground and
get our own data. He stated to me then that there were 2,000 tons of
steel rails. We then left the office and walked over the grounds and
looked at the buildings, the intramural stations, the fences, and
bridges, on which we were asked to submit a bid that afternoon. We did
not look over the rail and the wire, as we thought we would have more
time the following day for that. We went back to Mr. Taylor's office at
4 o'clock p. in. We waited there in the anteroom until about 5.30 p. in.
While we were waiting in the anteroom Mr. Frank and Mr. Abe Harris, of
the Chicago House Wrecking Company were closeted with the salvage
committee in Mr. Taylor's office. While we were waiting there they came
out of Mr. Taylor's office without their overcoats or hats on. They had
left them in the room where the salvage committee was in session. Mr.
Dunphy, Mr. Ranstead, and myself were then requested to enter the room
where the salvage committee was in session. Mr. Frank and Abe Harris
waited outside until we got through. The same members of the salvage
committee present at the morning session were present at this meeting,
including Mr. John Scullin, but Mr. Scullin only remained a few minutes
after we entered the room. There was another gentleman present, but I do
not know who he was. President Francis told me later that he was an
insurance agent and that he held insurance on all the buildings then. I
handed the bid, or rather Mr. Dunphy handed the bid to President
Francis, who in turn handed it to Mr. Kennard, who opened it and read it
aloud. The bid was for $101,000 for the buildings mentioned in the
specifications, the intramural stations, the fence around the grounds
(except the stadium fence), and the bridges. Mr. Francis held a
whispered conversation with Mr. Taylor, and then turned to us and said
that the committee had decided to let the contract that day, and that
they would not wait until Friday for the bid on the other material, that
is the rails and the copper wire, and that it would be necessary for me
to put in my bid that night, as they would be in session until 11 p. m.
I stated that I could not make an intelligent bid on such short notice,
unless I was furnished with figures showing amount of rail and wire
purchased by them. Mr. Taylor spoke up and asked me if I knew a man by
the name of Evans, of Chicago, who was in the wrecking business, I told
him that I did not know a Mr. Evans, of Chicago, who was engaged in the
wrecking business, and that I was well acquainted with all the prominent
wrecking concerns and contractors in Chicago but had never heard of or
met Mr. Evans, the gentleman referred to. Mr. Taylor asked me why I
could not get in a bid in the same time that Mr. Evans got his in, and
stated that Mr. Evans had submitted a bid on all the property from
Chicago by wire in three hours. I stood up then and spoke to President
Francis and said, "President Francis, how do you know but that this bid
of Mr. Evans may be a dummy?" President Francis arose from the table and
stood opposite me, and, scratching his head, said: "Well, Mr. Drug, you
have got me a guessing. There may be something in that."

President Francis said to me, "Mr. Drug, I made a mistake this morning
in giving you the number of tons of steel rail; there are 4,000 tons
instead of 2,000 tons of rail." I then told him that it would be
impossible for me to give him any kind of an intelligent bid without
some kind of a list of the property to figure on. President Francis
stated that the matter would be settled that night and that I had until
11 p. m. to bring in my figures on all the property to be disposed of as
shown by the specifications, and including the intramural stations, the
bridges, the fence around the grounds, the copper wire, and the railroad
rails. We then left the room, and as we were passing out President
Francis asked our names and where we were stopping as they would call us
up later on that day.

As soon as we walked out of the room Mr. Frank and Abe Harris of the
Chicago House Wrecking Company went in.

We left the fair grounds immediately and went to the Lindell Hotel,
where we prepared a new bid. About 7.30 p. m. we decided to put in our
bid by telephone. Mr. Dunphy called up Mr. Taylor's office and was
informed by the party who answered the telephone that the salvage
committee had adjourned at 7 o'clock p.m. Mr. Dunphy told me that the
salvage committee had adjourned, and I supposed they had adjourned to
get something to eat and would be back shortly. I told him to call up
again. About 8.30 p. in. Mr. Dunphy called up Mr. Taylor's office and
was told that the salvage committee had adjourned at 7 p. m. and would
not be back that night. About 10 p.m. he called up President Francis's
residence and was inform that President Francis was not at home, and
also received the same reply when he called up Mr. Taylor's house, and
when he called up Mr. Holmes's residence he was informed that Mr. Holmes
had gone to bed. We were unable to reach any of the salvage committee.
were not called up that evening, nor did we hear anything from the
salvage committee that evening, although we waited in the corridor of
the Lindell Hotel until after 12 o'clock midnight.

During our conversation with the committee nothing was said about fire
engines, office furniture and furnishings, hose carriages, fire hose,
horses, buggies, wagons, steam rollers, roadmaking machinery, three
steel greenhouses, with plants of every description, surveying
instruments, engineering tools, two hospitals complete, 2,000 folding
cots, 2,500 opera chairs, 400 revolving chairs, 25,000 kitchen chairs,
200 roller-top desks, 300 flat-top desks, 200 typewriter desks, the
brick in the roadways, and the various buildings, or numerous other
valuable articles and pieces of property.

About 8.30 a. m. Thursday, December 1, Mr. Dunphy, my agent, called up
Mr. Holmes's residence to find out what Mr. Holmes knew about the
disposition of the bids. He was told by some lady who answered the
telephone that Mr. Holmes was on his way to his office. He came and told
me that Mr. Holmes was on his way to his office. I requested Mr. Dunphy
to go to Mr. Holmes's office and try and ascertain what the committee
had done about the bids. Later in the day Mr. Dunphy came to me and told
me that Mr. Holmes had told him that the contract had been awarded to
the Chicago House Wrecking Company between the hours of 6 and 7 p. m. of
November 30.

On December 3, 1904, I addressed a letter to President Francis in which
I offered him $199,000 for all railroad iron and ties and all wire in
and about the exposition grounds. I also, in the same letter, offered to
pay him $101,000 for the buildings, fences, bridges, and intramural
stations on the exposition grounds, which would total $300,000.

On December 5 I addressed a letter to President Francis as follows:

    St. Louis, _December 5, 1904._

    Dear Sir: Since I have made an examination of the property
    belonging to the Exposition Company I find a great deal more
    property than was stated to me at your meeting last Wednesday.
    If you will furnish me with a correct list of the property I
    think now that I can make you a bid of from $400,000 to $450,000
    for same, half cash, balance to be paid when property is turned
    over. I am prepared to make my bid in three hours after I
    receive a list of the property. Should my proposition meet with
    your consideration call me up at the Lindell Hotel and I will
    call for the copy at once.

    Yours, truly,
    S. Krug.

    Hon. D.R. Francis,
    _President Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company,
    St. Louis, Mo._

I never received a reply to either of the letters referred to.

In the specifications as prepared by Mr. Taylor it was stipulated that a
charge of $6 per car would be made for switching empty cars into the
exposition grounds, while I notice the contract between the Chicago
House Wrecking Company provides that only $3 per car shall be charged
for this service.

The specifications as prepared by Mr. Isaac S. Taylor, director of
works, provides that--

    All bids must be made out upon blanks furnished by the director
    of works, and with each bid there shall be deposited a certified
    check, payable to the exposition, upon a responsible bank doing
    business in St. Louis, for the amount of 50 per cent of the
    amount of bid submitted, the sum indicated in said check to be
    forfeited to the Exposition Company in case the party or parties
    to whom award is made does not enter into contract with the
    Exposition Company within five days from date of said award for
    the work called for in these specifications and instructions--

while I see by the contract between the Exposition Company and the
Chicago House Wrecking Company, which is of record in office of recorder
of deeds, city of St. Louis, in book 1811, page 195 and following pages,
that the bid of the Chicago House Wrecking Company was accompanied by a
check for $100,000, which amount represented less than 25 per cent of
the amount of their bid, viz, $450,000.

The specifications further stipulate that "A contract will be written by
the Exposition Company for the faithful performance of this work, and
upon the signing of same by the parties thereto, the full amount of said
contract, less the amount of the certified check held and to be
appropriated by the exposition Company, must be paid to the said
Exposition Company by the contractor," while the contract between the
Chicago House Wrecking Company and the Exposition Company, which is of
record, provides that the Chicago House Wrecking Company shall execute
and deliver to the said Exposition Company at the time the contract is
signed four promissory notes three for $100,000 each, and one for
$50,000, making a total, all told including the certified check, of
$450,000, and allows them six months in which to make the payments.

The specifications further required--

    That a surety company's bond for an amount equal to the amount
    of contract must also be given to the Exposition Company by the
    said contractor to protect the said Exposition Company from loss
    during the execution of the work and for faithful performance

while the contract referred to shows that the Chicago House Wrecking
Company furnished a bond in the small sum of $40,000, or less than
one-tenth the amount required by the specifications.

From the above it is my belief that the Chicago House Wrecking Company
was shown favoritism and that they were favored from the beginning of
the deal.

I was never furnished a full list of the property to be disposed of by
the Exposition Company. I personally requested a list two or three
times, as did Mr. Dunphy, but we were unable to get one. Had I been
furnished a list of the property that I learn has since been turned over
to the Chicago House Wrecking Company under their contract I would have
gladly bid $800,000, and would have made a very handsome profit on the
deal at that price.

I consider the value of all the property turned over to the Chicago
House Wrecking Company on November 30 was more than $1,000,000.

I consider the manner in which the bids were handled was very irregular
and not the usual custom in that the bids were opened in secret and not
in the presence of the bidders, as requested by a majority of the
bidders present, but as requested by Mr. Abraham Harris, who represented
the Chicago House Wrecking Company. This is not the customary procedure
when bids are called for by the city or the Government.

From what I saw there in the anteroom and in the presence of the salvage
committee the several times we were there I am convinced that the
Chicago House Wrecking Company was furnished inside information and that
they were shown favoritism.

Mr. W.B. Stevens, the secretary of the Exposition Company, was not
present in the committee room at any time while I was there talking over
the bids and he does not know what was going on in there, except what
has been told him and what he has gained from the papers he handled.

The contract between the Exposition Company and the Chicago House
Wrecking Company, which is of record in St. Louis, bears date of
November 30, 1904, while I note by a letter dated March 7 and signed by
Mr. W.B. Stevens, he states the contract was not closed until December
13, 1904, on which date the board of directors of the exposition met.
This was eight days after my letter of December 5 was delivered to Mr.
Stevens in person by Mr. Ranstead.

If the sale of the exposition buildings and the property to be disposed
of had been properly advertised there would have been much more
competition in the bidding. If a list of all the property to be disposed
of had been furnished the bidders much higher bids would have been made.
If the property had been sold at public auction, building for building,
and other property in detail, so anyone could have bought what he wanted
and had use for, I am confident that the Exposition Company would have
received more than a million and a half dollars.

I consider the manner in which the salvage committee handled the bids
very irregular in that great secrecy was observed, and will state that
the awarding of the contract to the Chicago House Wrecking Company for
the sum of $450,000 was unjust to other bidders, and detrimental to the
interests of the United States, the city of St. Louis, and the
stockholders of the Exposition Company.


Subscribed and sworn to before me this 28th day of March, 1905. My
commission expires on the 15th day of October, 1905.
[SEAL]            HARRIET A. Dumas,
_Notary Public._

STATE OF ILLINOIS, _County of Cook, ss_:

Before me, this, the 28th day of March, 1905, personally appeared Mr.
George J. Schmitt, who, being duly sworn on his oath, says:

My name is George J. Schmitt. I reside in Chicago, Ill.; have resided
here for the past thirty-five years. Am employed as clerk and bookkeeper
in office of Mr. S. Krug, contractor, of Chicago. I have been in Mr.
Krug's employ for the past eight years. On November 9 I left Chicago for
St. Louis with Mr. Krug, to look after his bids and do any clerical work
that he might want done. We arrived St. Louis on morning of November 10,
1904. Mr. Krug had his bid made up, and upon arrival at St. Louis we
immediately went to the National Bank of Commerce, where Mr. Krug wanted
to have his draft cashed and his check certified. We then went to the
Administration Building  and called at the office of Mr. Isaac S.
Taylor, director of works, where Mr. Krug handed his bid to Mr. Taylor's
clerk. This was about 12 o'clock noon on November 10. We were requested
to go into the anteroom and wait until called for. There were present in
the anteroom at the time Mr. Albrecht, Mr. McDonald, Mr. Schaeffer and
son, Mr. Ware, of the Columbia Wrecking Company. One or two other
gentlemen were present. I do not now recall their names. After we had
been there some little time, Messrs. Frank and Abraham Harris, of the
Chicago House Wrecking Company, came in. We all waited there until about
2 p. m. About this time President Francis passed through the room and
went into Mr. Taylor's office. He came back shortly and said to us to
come back in about an hour, as the salvage committee was going to lunch
then. We went back again about 3 p. m. The same crowd of bidders present
in the room. There, was some gray-haired gentleman who came in with the
Harris brothers. When I first saw him I thought he was a member of the
salvage committee, on account of his running back and forth into the
room where the salvage committee was in session. I learned from Mr.
Albrecht later on that the gentleman referred to was working for the
Harris brothers. While we were waiting there to be called in he made two
trips into the room where the salvage committee was in session, and came
back each time and went and held a whispered conversation with the
Harris brothers in the hall.

We waited in the room there until 4 o'clock, when Mr. Taylor's private
secretary requested all the bidders to go into Mr. Taylor's office,
where the salvage committee was in session. We all went in there.
President Francis asked the bidders how they wanted the bids handled,
whether opened in their presence or opened in secret session of the
salvage committee. All the bidders present requested that the bids be
opened in their presence, except Mr. Abe Harris, who got up and told
President Francis that he did not want his bid opened in the presence of
the bidders, as he did not want everybody to know what he had bid, and
that if he was the successful bidder we would all know later on what he
had bid, and if he was not the successful bidder he did not want his bid
to be known. Mr. Albrecht got up and stated that he wanted his bid to be
opened in the presence of the bidders, as he wanted everything to be
open and aboveboard. President Francis then held a whispered
conversation with Mr. Taylor and some other gentleman there, and then in
a few minutes turned to the bidders and said, "Gentlemen, we have
decided to open these bids in secret session of the salvage committee."
and requested us to go into the anteroom and wait until called for. We
all went back into the anteroom. In a few minutes President Francis
requested the Harris brothers to come in the room where they were
holding the meeting. They did so, and remained in there about ten or
fifteen minutes. As soon as they came out Mr. Albrecht went in, and when
Mr. Albrecht came out Mr. Krug and myself went in. President Francis
spoke to Mr. Krug and said, "Mr. Krug, you seem to have some very good
letters of recommendation here, and from the letters I judge you have
done considerable work." Mr. Taylor asked Mr. Krug if he knew a Mr.
Schluetter, of Chicago. Mr. Krug said that he was acquainted with Mr.
Schluetter, had done considerable work for him, and had always been paid
his money. I inferred from their actions that they had had some trouble
with Mr. Schluetter. President Francis said, "Mr. Krug, your bid is very
satisfactory." Mr. Krug had only submitted a bid on part of the
buildings, as shown by the specifications. President Francis asked Mr.
Krug if he could not put in a bid on all the buildings, and why he had
not done so. Mr. Krug said that he was afraid he would have some trouble
getting insurance on all the buildings, and for that reason only
submitted a bid on buildings that were more isolated and less liable to
fire. President Francis told him it would be an easy matter for him to
get insurance, and he asked Mr. Krug what he would bid on all the
buildings, according to the specifications. Mr. Krug said that he would
be willing to bid $76,600 on all the buildings as shown in the
specifications. President Francis asked Mr. Krug what he would wreck the
buildings for on a percentage basis, or if he would take the work on a
contract at a figure to be agreed upon, and they to own and dispose of
all the material themselves. Mr. Krug studied awhile and said that he
would be willing to do the work for President Francis, but it would take
him some time to figure on the proposition so as to submit an
intelligent figure. President Francis said that if they decided to wreck
the buildings themselves on a contract that he would let him know when
his bid would be wanted. At this time President Francis requested Mr.
Krug to submit in writing his bid for $76,600 and have it in by 10
o'clock the next morning. We then left the room, and they requested us
to remain in the anteroom. We were there until about 6 o'clock. During
that time they called in other bidders. About 6 o'clock Mr. Taylor's
secretary came into the room and announced that the salvage committee
had adjourned until the next day at 2 p. m. We then left the grounds and
went to the Lindell Hotel. When we reached the hotel that night we made
up a revised bid. The next day we went to Mr. Taylor's office about 10
a. m. and gave to Mr. Taylor's clerk the bid in writing for $76,600, and
he said he would bring it to the attention of the committee when they
met. We waited there from 10 a. m. until 2 p. m. In the meantime Mr.
Krug sent in his card to Mr. Taylor's office and asked if any action
would be taken on the bids that afternoon. We were informed that nothing
would be done with the bids that day, and that the salvage committee had
adjourned until the following Monday. I left St. Louis that night for
Chicago. I returned to St. Louis on Monday, November 14, 1904, arriving
there at 10 a. m. Mr. Krug remained in St. Louis all the time. When I
returned to St. Louis Mr. Krug and I went to Mr. Taylor's office. We
reached there about 10 a. m., Monday, November 14. We waited there until
about 2.30 or 3 p. m. While we were waiting in the anteroom Mr. Taylor's
private secretary came in and told us that all bids had been rejected.
We then left the grounds, and Mr. Krug and I returned to Chicago that

I never saw by the papers or otherwise where new bids were requested
after the announcement that the first bids had been rejected. I watched
the papers very closely, as we were desirous of submitting a new bid
when called for.

From what I saw while I was in the anteroom and in the committee room I
am fully convinced that the Chicago House Wrecking Company was given
inside information as to what property was to be sold, and I consider
that they were given privileges and favored from the beginning of the
deal, in view of the fact that a majority of the bidders desired their
bids opened in public, while the Harris brothers protested against such
procedure, and they were sustained in their protest by the salvage

I have had considerable experience in handling bids and being present
when bids are opened, and I never before saw such proceedings as took
place in the meeting room of the salvage committee on November 10, 1904.

I am sure that had the Exposition Company properly advertised the sale
and furnished a list of the property to be disposed of, which I have
since seen published in a catalogue gotten out by the Chicago House
Wrecking Company and listed in the contract between the Exposition
Company and the Wrecking Company, was turned over to the Chicago House
Wrecking Company, that much higher bids would have been made, and
considerably more money realized from the sale than they received from
the Chicago House Wrecking Company.

Between the 15th and 20th of December, 1904, I came in possession of one
of the catalogues that the Chicago House Wrecking Company sent out,
showing all the property they had for disposal. It contained cuts and
descriptions and computations that would take at least one month or more
to compile and print. I have had considerable experience in getting up
catalogues of material and property, and am confident that they could
not have compiled all the figures, secured all the cuts and
descriptions, and had the catalogue printed and on the market in a
month's time.

I consider the manner in which the bids were handled very irregular, and
that the awarding of the contract to the Chicago House Wrecking Company
for $450,000, in view of the amount and value of the property turned
over to them, as shown by their catalogue and their contract, to have
been detrimental to the interests of the United States, the city of St.
Louis, and the stockholders of the Exposition Company.


Subscribed and sworn to before me this 28th day of March, 1905. My
commission expires on the 9th day of November, 1908.

[SEAL.]      S.E. KELLOGG.

STATE OF ILLINOIS, _County of Cook, 88_:

Personally appeared before me this 28th day of March, 1905, Mr. John M.
Dunphy, who, being duly sworn, on his oath says:

My name is John M. Dunphy; I reside in the city of Chicago; I have
resided here for the past forty-seven years. I was city treasurer of
Chicago for one term; was commissioner of buildings for one term in this
city; I have been engaged in the contracting business for the past forty
years; I have been in the employ of Mr. S. Krug, contractor, of Chicago,
for the past three years; I am very familiar with construction and
wrecking work.

In regard to the sale of the salvage of the St. Louis Exposition I
desire to make the following statement:

Through a friend, Mr. Krug received specifications and instructions for
the wrecking and removal of certain buildings at the St. Louis
Exposition. These specifications were obtained from Mr. Isaac S. Taylor,
director of works of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. After we had
looked over the specifications Mr. Krug suggested that we go to St.
Louis and look over the plans and the buildings, with a view of
submitting a bid on the work. Mr. Krug, Mr. Powers, and myself arrived
in St. Louis on October 24, 1904. We called at Mr. Taylor's office that
day. I asked for Mr. Taylor, but was informed by some clerk there that
Mr. Taylor was too busy and could not see us. I talked with his
secretary, Mr. Carl Hoblitzelle, in the presence of Mr. Krug and Mr.
Powers. He told us he could answer all questions. I told him I wanted to
look at the plans, as we desired to figure on some of the buildings that
were to be disposed of. He took us into another room where the plans
were stored and introduced us to some gentleman in charge there. I
requested the plans from this gentleman. I asked for the plans for the
Agricultural and Horticultural buildings. After we had finished looking
these two plans over I looked around for the young man to ask for more
plans, but could not find him, and we went to the shelves and got down
the plans ourselves.

While we were there looking over the plans some gentleman came into the
room and spoke to Mr. Krug. Later on I asked Mr. Krug who the gentleman
was, and he told me it was a Mr. Frank Harris, of the Chicago House
Wrecking Company. Mr. Krug further stated that Mr. Harris was a resident
of Chicago, but was then interested in the Ferris Wheel at the
exposition. We remained in St. Louis for two days longer looking over
the plans and buildings, and then returned to Chicago. I never saw any
notice in the newspaper requesting sealed proposals for the wrecking and
removal of the exposition buildings. The first I knew about it was when
Mr. Krug received the specifications from his friend. We talked over the
matter of submitting bids on the work. On the 9th of November, 1904; Mr.
Krug and Mr. Schmitt, a bookkeeper for Mr. Krug, went to St. Louis to
submit a bid on the work, according to the specifications and
instructions prepared by Mr. Taylor, director of works. The bids were to
be in Mr. Taylor's office by 12 o'clock noon Thursday, November 1 1904.
Mr. Schmitt returned to Chicago on Friday night. Mr. Krug remained in
St. Louis. Mr. Schmitt went to St. Louis again on Monday, November 14.
On Tuesday, November 15, Mr. Krug and Mr. Schmitt returned to Chicago
and told me that all the bids had been rejected. Mr. Krug desired that
some one be on the ground to look after his interests, and suggested
that I go to St. Louis and keep in touch with affairs there and try and
ascertain what was going on. I left Chicago for St. Louis on Sunday,
November 20, 1904, and arrived at St. Louis morning of November 21.
After I was informed that all bids had been rejected I did not see any
published notice requesting additional or new bids, although I watched
the papers pretty close and tried to keep in touch with what was going
on. I went to Mr. Taylor's office several times while I was there and
sent in my card, as agent for Mr. Krug. I was informed each time by some
clerk in the office that Mr. Taylor was busy and could not see me. I
remained in St. Louis until the evening of November 26, when I was
compelled to return to Chicago. I requested Mr. Wm. H. Ranstead, a
friend of mine who lives in St. Louis and who was in pretty close touch
with what was going on, to look after matters there for me during my
absence, and to keep me advised of what went on, and if new bids were
requested to telephone or telegraph me. On the morning of Tuesday,
November 29, 1904, I received a telegram from Mr. Ranstead requesting
Mr. Krug and myself to go to St. Louis at once, as Mr. Taylor and
President Francis desired to have a talk with us. We left Chicago for
St. Louis on the first train out--11.03 a. m.--and arrived St. Louis at
6 p. in. November 29. We met Mr. Ranstead at the Lindell Hotel. We
talked over matters that evening. The next morning, November 30, Mr.
Krug, Mr. Ranstead, and myself went to the office of Mr. W.B. Stevens,
secretary of the Exposition Company. We waited in Mr. Stevens's office
some time. After a while Mr. Stevens took us to Mr. Taylor's office. The
salvage committee was in session in Mr. Taylor's office. There were
present at the time President Francis, Mr. Taylor, Mr. Samuel Kennard,
and Mr. J.A. Holmes. We talked with the salvage committee, and asked
them how they wanted us to submit a bid, and what they had to sell that
they wanted us to bid on. President Francis said that he wanted us to
bid on all the buildings shown in the specifications, and to include the
intramural stations, the bridges, and the fence around the grounds; also
the railroad rails and the copper wire. President Francis said that the
bid must be in by 4 o'clock that afternoon. It was then about 12 o'clock
noon. Mr. Krug said that he could not make an intelligent bid on such
short notice and asked for more time. Mr. Kennard then spoke up and
said: "Mr. Krug, you can give us a bid on the buildings, including the
intramural stations, the bridges, and the fence this afternoon, and have
it in by 4 o'clock, and we will give you until Friday, December 2, to
put in your bid on the rail and the copper wire." President Francis then
stated, "Mr. Krug, there are 2,000 tons of steel rail to be disposed
of." Mr. Krug asked for a statement showing the amount of rail and
copper wire, and stated he would be able to put his bid in before Friday
if he was furnished the statement. President Francis stated they could
not furnish such a statement. We then left the office and walked around
the grounds looking over the stations, the bridges, and the fences. We
did not look over the rail and wire that afternoon, as we thought we
would have more time for that the following day. After we had gone over
the ground we went and figured out a new bid and returned to the office
of Mr. Taylor about 4 o'clock. The salvage committee was in session at
the time. Mr. Frank and Mr. Abraham Harris, of the Chicago House
Wrecking Company, were holding a conference with the committee at the
time. About 5.30 p.m. the Harris brothers came out of the committee room
without their overcoats and hats on. They had left them in the room
where the committee was meeting. As soon as they came out we went in. We
were asked if we had prepared our bid. I handed the bid to Mr. Francis,
who in turn handed it to Mr. Kennard, who opened it and read it aloud.
The bid was for $101,000. This was only for the buildings, as shown by
the specifications, and on the intramural stations, bridges, and fences,
it being agreed during the talk in the morning that these latter items
should be included. President Francis then told Mr. Krug that he could
not wait until Friday for the bid on the railroad steel and the copper
wire; that it would have to be in by 11 p.m. that night, and that the
salvage committee would be in session until that hour. He said,
"To-morrow is the closing day of the Fair--Francis Day--and I will be
very busy." During our talk there then, President Francis told Mr. Krug
that he had made a mistake that morning in saying there were 2,000 tons
of steel rail; that there were 4,000 tons. Mr. Krug then asked for a
list of the rails and wire, or rather for a statement of the amount they
had purchased, so he could figure on it, but he was unable to get same.
We then left the fair grounds and went to the Lindell Hotel. As we were
leaving the room President Francis asked our names and where we were
stopping, and stated they would call us up over the telephone during the
evening. When we arrived at the hotel we held a conference and agreed on
a new bid. I went to the telephone at about 7.30 p.m. and called up Mr.
Taylor's office. I was informed by the party who answered the telephone
that the salvage committee had adjourned at 7 o'clock. I presumed they
had adjourned to get something to eat and would return shortly. About
8.30 p.m. I again called up Mr. Taylor's office and was informed that,
the salvage committee had adjourned at 7 p.m. and would not be back that
night. Shortly after this I called up President Francis's house and was
informed that he was not at home. I then called up Mr. Taylor's house
and was told that he was not at home. About 10 p.m. I called up Mr.
Holmes's residence and was informed that Mr. Holmes had gone to bed. I
tried every way I could to reach some member of the salvage committee,
but could not. The next morning, December 1, about 8.30 a.m., I called
up Mr. Holmes's house and was informed that Mr. Holmes was then on his
way to his office. I told Mr. Krug this, and he suggested that I go to
Mr. Holmes's office and see him. I went to the office of Mr. Holmes and
waited there some time. I think I was there about thirty minutes before
he came in. When he came he invited me into his private office. I asked
him what the salvage committee had done about the bids. He asked, "Did
they not call you up?" I said "No; nobody called us up." He said, "Why,
that is singular; it was understood that they would call you up before
doing anything." I told him that I had telephoned the office of Mr.
Taylor the night before, and was informed that the salvage committee had
adjourned at 7 o'clock. I asked him if the contract had been awarded,
and he told me that it had been given to the Chicago House Wrecking
Company before they adjourned at 7 o'clock on the evening of November
30. I went back to the hotel and told Mr. Krug and Mr. Ranstead that the
deal had been closed and that the contract had been given to the Chicago
House Wrecking Company. I asked him for what amount the contract was
closed and he refused to tell me. I came back to Chicago the next day,
December 2.

While we were in the salvage committee room talking about the bids I
asked President Francis for a list of all the property to be disposed
of, so that we would know what to figure on and make an intelligent bid.
He said that they were not furnishing lists to anyone; that they were
only giving out the specifications, and that we could go out on the
grounds and gather our own data. I never saw, by the papers or
otherwise, that new bids were requested after I was informed that the
first bids had been rejected.

I consider the manner in which the bids were handled very irregular, in
that the bids were opened in secret, and not in public, as demanded by a
majority of the bidders, and as is customary on large contracts. The
manner in which the bids were handled was not in accord with the way the
Government and the city handle bids.

I have had a great deal of experience in the past thirty years in
figuring on specifications for the construction and wrecking of
buildings, and never before saw specifications drawn up in the manner in
which these specifications were drawn up. They required such a large
deposit to accompany the bid and made the time limit too short, namely,
three months. The usual amount required to be deposited with a bid runs
from 5 to 10 per cent of the amount bid.

I have seen a list of the property acquired by the Chicago House
Wrecking Company under the terms of the contract, and will say that I
consider the market value of all the property at the time it was turned
over to the Chicago House Wrecking Company, on November 30, 1904, to
have been at least $1,000,000.

I will say further, that had the Exposition Company properly advertised
the sale of the property, and had disposed of same in piece lots, they
would have realized at least $1,200,000.

It was very apparent to me that the Chicago House Wrecking Company was
being furnished inside information, and it was also evident that they
were being favored in the deal.

I consider the awarding of the contract to the Chicago House Wrecking
Company for the sum of $450,000 was detrimental to the interests of the
United States, the city of St. Louis, and the stock-holders of the


Subscribed and sworn to before me this 28th day of March, 1905. My
commission expires on the 15th day of October, 1905.
[SEAL.]          HARRIET A. DUMAS,
_Notary Public_.




In November, 1903, the organization commission was appointed by the
President as follows: Señor Francisco Sequi, president; Señor Ricardo
Pillado, secretary; Señor Luis Suberbuhler; Señor Antonio Lanusse; Señor
Francisco de Souza Martinez; Señor Manuel G. Llamazares.

Dr. Jose V. Fernandez, commissioner-general; Señor Eduardo Schiaffino,
commissioner of fine arts; Señor Horacio Anasagasti, commissioner of
liberal arts and mines; Señor Guillermo A. Puente, commissioner of
manufacture and electricity; Dr. Damian Lan, commissioner of live stock;
Señor Ernesto Nelson, commissioner of education; Señor Enrique M.
Nelson, commissioner of agriculture and forestry; Señor Jose de
Olivares, commissioner of press and propaganda; Miss Ernestina A. Lopez,
Ph.D., delegate of the National Board of Education; Mrs. Sara C. de
Eccleston, delegate to the Women's Congress; Dr. B. del Castillo,
delegate of the Argentine Press Association; Dr. Luis A. Sauze, honorary
commissioner; Dr. Vicente Casares, jr., honorary attaché; Señor Ricardo
Fernandez Guerrico, honorary attaché; Señor Jorge Newbery, delegate of
the municipality of Buenos Aires to the Congress of Electricity.

In the extent and importance of its participation the Argentine Republic
ranked among the greatest foreign exhibitors at the International
Exposition of 1904. The total amount of money expended, including the
national appropriation by Congress, the contributions of the various
ministries of the Government and of the art, industrial, and scientific
institutions of the country, represented more than $300,000 gold. The
total space covered by the Argentine exhibit sections, independent of
the site occupied by the national pavilion, was about 20,000 square

The Argentine commission constructed an elegant pavilion at the northern
extremity of the grounds in the renaissance style, which was a copy,
although reduced in dimensions, of the two higher stories of the central
part of the "Casa Rosador," or "Pink Palace," the principal Government
building in Buenos Aires. In the pavilion was installed the offices of
the Commission, a reception and a reading room. On the second floor was
exhibited an excellent archaeological collection.

Numerous photographs distributed on the walls, in albums, and in
stereoscopic apparatus almost equaled a visit to the principal cities of
the country. The principal exhibits of the Argentine Republic were found
in the palaces of Agriculture, Mines, Liberal Arts, Manufactures, Fine
Arts, Education, and Electricity. The art façades constructed about each
of the exhibit spaces in the greater palaces of the exposition were
universally admired.

The Argentine Republic, being a country essentially agricultural, its
section in the Agriculture Building revealed the productiveness of the
country and its vast agricultural resources. Wool was displayed in
numerous samples. That obtained from the Merino and Lincoln sheep was
noticeable. The first species was of a short and exceedingly fine
thread; the other, longer, coarser, and adapted for the manufacture of

The Argentine Republic is reputed to be the greatest producer of wool in
the world, having outrivaled Australia in its annual output. It is said
to have 120,000,000 sheep, or as many as Australia and the United States
combined. Besides wool, there was a magnificent display of sheepskins
and hides. The industry of footwear and harness was excellently

The Argentine section in the Palace of Agriculture showed the enormous
development of the dairy industry, including the manufacture of butter
and cheese. Two large Argentine establishments exhibited natural milk,
pasteurized, sterilized, and maternized. Both of these companies each
day produced 6,000 gallons of milk, for which 5,000 cows are milked
daily. In eight years the export of butter has multiplied twelve times.
The product exhibited was excellent, having been tested by examination
and analysis made in various colleges of agriculture in the United

Numerous samples of wheat, corn, and cotton were shown also. There were
samples of wheat weighing 67 pounds to the bushel. Statistics show that
the annual harvest of wheat reaches 120,000,000 bushels. Argentine
linseed also deserves consideration in this description, the Republic
producing almost one-third of the linseed consumed in the world. Flax in
abundance indicated the existence of an important textile industry in
connection with the enormous production of linseed.

There were exhibited also various fibers extracted from native plants,
and excellent samples of cordage showed what industry can get out of the
rich Argentine textile material.

The Argentine section of the manufactures offered many interesting
exhibits, among which figured a large variety of tanned leathers. In the
same section was exhibited foundry work executed in the Arsenal de
Guerra, of the city of Buenos Aires. There were also artistic medals,
ornamental shields, and munitions of war. One of the industries of
Buenos Aires is the manufacture of wax matches. The exhibit in the
section of manufactures spoke eloquently in favor of the position
reached by the industry in Buenos Aires. Exhibits of this industry
showed that Argentina is rapidly passing into the rank of industrial
nations. This suggestion was confirmed by the display of the other
manufactures exhibited in the Argentine section, which consisted of
furniture, textiles, hats, footwear, etc. The Republic also displayed an
interesting collection of minerals, which generally are shown in the
Departments Nacional de Minas Geologia, in the city of Buenos Aires.
There were samples of gold, silver, and copper on exhibition; also an
excellent display of coal.

Another Argentine section of great interest was that in the Liberal Arts
Palace, where an extensive collection of plans and relief models were
displayed, showing notable works undertaken by the Argentine Republic to
facilitate river as well as ocean navigation. One of the models showed
the harbor of Buenos Aires, which now occupies the second place in the
South American continent.

An interesting exhibit representative of the Argentine Republic was that
of the national press, which in the number of publications presented and
extent of space covered was one of the most important displays of the
kind in the exposition.

In consequence of the size and importance of the exhibit, it was found
necessary to install it in a special section. The credit for the
collection of the press exhibit was due principally to the Circule de la
Prensa, or National Press Association of the Argentine Republic, one of
the principal literary and journalistic institutions in the southern
continent. Models of dams, as constructed in the interior of the country
to facilitate irrigation, were also shown. The same section contained
excellent lithographic and engraving work.

The Argentine Republic had two rooms in the west wing of the Palace of
Fine Arts. The Argentine paintings received as many awards in this
department as any other country in proportion to the number of

The intellectual development of the country revealed itself in the
Palace of Education. A graphic statistical exhibit in the Argentine
section showed that that country spends as much money per capita in
public education as any other nation in the world. Another statistical
display demonstrated the number of teachers employed. A diagram showed
that the Argentine Republic comes next to France and among the Latin
countries in respect to the number of students attending schools. The
scholastic works, especially the needlework, ranked well with that in
many of the advanced schools of the United States.


_Austrian commission._--Mr. Adalbert R. Von Stibral,
commissioner-general; Mr. Victor Pillwax, assistant commissioner; Mr.
Dominik Fetz, secretary; Mr. Emil S. Fischer, commercial secretary.

_Austrian commercial commission._--Count Johann Harrach, president; Mr.
Oskar Edler Von Hoefft, first vice-president; Mr. Franz Hiess, second
vice-president; Mr. Charles M. Rosenthal, executive commissioner; Mr.
Johann Peterka, commercial director; Mr. Adolph Taussig, commercial
representative and assistant commissioner.

One of the most interesting and, as far as the interior scheme of
decoration is concerned, the most artistic of the various foreign
buildings in the World's Fair grounds, was that of the Austrian Empire.
It was most prominently situated at the western end of Administration
avenue, immediately opposite the Administration Building of the World's
Fair. The garden at the west end of the pavilion, though small,
attracted a great deal of attention on account of its artistic beauty.
Morning-glory and other vines had been planted around the building, and
before the close of the fair had covered the walls and added much to the
beauty of the structure.

The Austrian Government Building was of impressionistic architecture. It
was 60 meters long, 35 meters wide, and built in the form of a T. From
the transepts a middle aisle, 24 meters broad, extended to the building
line. On either side of the aisle exits led to the loggias and to the
lawns. The pavilion was built of wood and all the rooms had skylights.
The style of architecture and decoration was modern, with a classical
toning. The exterior of the building was faced with a grayish,
yellow-colored gypsum, shaded with gold, dark blue, and light green. Two
groups of figures, above life size, adorned the main porch of the
central building. The imperial coat of arms, with a crown surrounded by
a large wreath, was raised above the center of the pavilion, and to the
right and left two sphinxes crowned the gables. The center building
(garden front) was finished with two enormous square pylons, with
festoons and masks and decorated with all the coats of arms of the
Austrian crown lands. Four stela-bearing gilded busts were symmetrically
placed along the front of the flower beds, in which monumental fountains
had been erected. The interior of the building was divided into fifteen
rooms. To the left and right of the entrance hall, which was adorned
with a marble bust of the Emperor, were the official apartments, one of
which was meant as a library and reading room and the other as a
reception room. Beyond the entrance hall was the technical exhibition of
the ministry of railways, which likewise occupied the room on the
left-hand side for an exhibition, "Sceneries and People of Austria." The
hall to the right was devoted to the department of the ministry of
commerce for the building of waterways. At the back part of the middle
aisle a large hall was devoted to the exhibits of the professional art
schools, and two smaller ones showed interiors executed by the schools
for arts and crafts in Vienna and Prague. The fine-arts exhibits of the
Vienna Artists' Association and of the association called "Hagenbund"
were on the right of the transepts; pictures by Bohemian and Polish
artists on the opposite side.

The artists and artisans who took part in building and decorating the
Austrian Government pavilion were as follows: The plans of the whole
building, the entrance hall, the two halls of the ministry of railways,
and the hall containing the exhibition of waterways were designed by the
chief architect, Oberbaurat Ludwig Bauman, Josef Meissner substituting
him in the superintendence of the works; contractor J. Lecoeur.

The library was designed by Leopold Bauer, architect, and the architect
Joseph Pleonik designed the reception room.

The plastic on the outside of the building was delivered by the sculptor
Othmar Schimkowitz. The figurate frieze in the library was the work of
the painter Josef Engerhart. The painter Ferdinand Andri executed the
frescoes on the facade and Meinrich Tomec those in the department for
waterways. The Emperor's bust, which was made of Lassar marble and which
had been executed in the workshop of the Tyrol Marble and Porphyry
Company (Fritz Zeller), Laas (Tyrol), was a copy of Professor Strasser's

The relief "Empress Elizabeth" (allegory) in the reception room was by
the late Rudolf Weigl, sculptor.

Sandor Jaray had been intrusted with the interior decorations and
fittings. The carpets were delivered by J. Ginskey, Maffendorf, and the
ornamental locksmith work by Alexander Nehr.

The mosaic and artistic work was done by Max Freiherr von Spann and
Johann Kappner; the fancy needlework by Carl Giani; the inlaid work
(intarsia) by Michael Kehl, Josef Duchoslav, and Franz Makienec, and the
bronze works by Johann Hastach, Carl Kratky, J. Schubert, and A.T.
Lange. On account of the beauty of its furnishings and the harmonious
color schemes of the interior the pavilion was especially attractive to
women visitors to the fair.

Austria is the home of the European alpine railways. The oldest, the
Semmering Railway, constructed in 1848-1854, lies on the South Railway
main line from Vienna to Trieste and is the first mountain railway
conducted exclusively on the adhesive principle. Then followed the
Brenner Railway (1864-1867), the shortest railway communication between
central Germany via Tyrol to Italy (Verona), and the Arlberg Railway
(1880-1884), which opened up the route via Tyrol and Vorarlberg to the
west (Switzerland and France). Four great panoramas in the exhibition
showing the above-mentioned alpine railways were witness to Austria's
prominence in this special field of railway technique. One room in the
pavilion was devoted to the models of alpine railways. There were also
plans of the lines, photographic views of buildings and of the tracks of
the first three mentioned lines, which are in full working order. The
lines in course of construction were further illustrated by models of
tunnels, scaffoldings, foundations of arched bridge (with span of 80
meters) over the Isonzo (littoral lands of Austria), with statistical
calculations and charts of the largest vaulted bridges ever built, and
photographic views of the working in the Karawanken and Wocheiner
tunnels. Among the other exhibits in this department may be mentioned a
model of the groundwork of the Austrian State railways for express
trains, photos of the imperial court train and of the newest locomotives
and passenger carriages of the Austrian State railways, as well as plans
for iron bridges, groundwork, locomotives, and passenger carriages of
the State railways. The work published for the Emperor's jubilee,
"History of the Railways of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy," together
with a number of other publications on the statistics, pedagogy, and
technique of railways, were exhibited. Finally, there was a chart of the
railways of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy on a scale of 1:1000000.

For a long time the Austrian ministry of railways set itself the task of
drawing the attention of the traveling public to the beauties of the
scenery and the ethnographical charms in which Austria abounds, and thus
inducing them to visit the country. To gain this end the ministry issued
various publications, opened inquiry offices, and arranged exhibitions.
The exhibition "Sceneries and People of Austria" in the Government
pavilion was arranged, with the cooperation of several artists, for the
same object. The exhibit principally consisted of a collection of views
of the most beautiful parts of Austria, especially the Austrian Alps,
and pictures of Austrian national life. Photographs taken by the best
photographers, as well as a number of artistic amateur photos,
representing important traveling districts in Austria (99 in all), were
enlarged and reproduced as pigment prints or linographs. Two series of
photographic prints were exhibited also, one consisting of Austrian
castles and strongholds and the other of various favorite alpine
resorts. Further, a selection of alpine and traveling works in luxurious
editions were shown.

The whole exhibition was finished off with a collection of 14 pictures
of costumes and sport, arranged like a frieze and illustrating special
Austrian national scenes. Four bronze statuettes, viz, "Chamois-hunter,"
"Alpine tourist," "Ski sportsman," "Alpine dairy woman," had been placed
in the room as decorations.

The exhibition of models, plans, and photographs of the existing and
projected canal for deep-draft ships, arranged by the department of the
ministry of commerce for the building of waterways, offered a general
view of the whole network of the Austrian waterways, comprising those of
the Danube, Moldau, and Elbe rivers, together with the system of canals.

The beautiful landscape of the river sides was shown by means of views
of the Danube, contained in an album, while the plans, photographs, and
models exhibited by the Danube Regulation Commission showed the river
courses, the harbor in lower Austria and Vienna, as well as the
construction for regulating the water level in the Vienna-Danube Canal.
A map of Prague showed the harbor and canal construction works, some
finished and others projected, in the precincts of the town. The
drawings and photos exhibited in a corner of the hall by the
Aussig-Teplitz Railway Company illustrated the position and traffic of
the harbor of Aussig, the most important inland harbor of Austria. The
charts, in addition to giving a view of the position of the canals and
rivers, with canals projected, showed also longitudinal sections of the
Danube-Oder Canal.

The exhibitions of the State professional art schools, arranged by the
imperial royal ministry of public instruction, Vienna, gave an idea of
the work done by these institutions. The exhibition was arranged in
three divisions, the first two containing the exhibits of the schools
for arts and crafts in Vienna and Prague (the largest of their kind in
Austria) and the third the work of the other professional art schools.

The decoration of the two interiors of the schools for arts and crafts,
Vienna (Director Felizian Freiherr von Myrbach) and Prague (Director
Georg Stibral), as well as all the objects exhibited in these divisions,
were designed at the above institutions and executed by the pupils. The
organization of the "collective exhibition" of the other professional
art schools was intrusted to the inspector of these schools and Hofrat
Arthur von Scala, director of the Austrian Museum, Vienna. The interior
and the exhibits themselves were executed in the workshops of 46
different professional art schools, with the cooperation of the pupils.

The amount of money appropriated by the Austrian Government for the
participation of the Austrian Empire at the exposition was 1,100,000
crowns (about $220,000). The appropriation, however, was almost
exclusively made for the display of Austria in connection with the
Austrian Government Pavilion. The appropriated amount had to cover the
expense for the erection of the pavilion and its installation, as well
as the installation of two rooms in the Fine Arts Building, where the
Vienna Artists' Association had an additional display. The appropriated
amount had also to cover the transportation of the Austrian Government
exhibits as well as the expense of the reshipment of same. The
Government provided the 1,100,000 crowns not only for the erection of
the pavilion and its sculptural works, but for the expenses of
installation, transportation, etc. Part of this money was used by the
various Government participants, viz:

(1) The imperial royal railroad ministry.

(2) The imperial royal department of waterways of Austria.

(3) The imperial royal ministry of education.

(4) And finally by four fine art associations. These fine art
associations were: (1) the Vienna Artists' Association, (2) the
"Hagenbund" Artists' Association of Vienna, (3) the Bohemian artists,
and (4) the Polish Artists.

The fine art associations had their display each in one room of the
thirteen contained in the Austrian Government Pavilion. The Vienna
Artists' Association had also two rooms covering the Austrian section in
the Fine Arts Building.

In reference to the commercial exhibit, a number of prominent
individuals of Austria organized an exhibition of the manufacturers of
Austria. They secured a number of participants, mostly glass and
porcelain manufacturers as well as leather and jewelry merchants of
Austria. Their exhibits representing Austria were displayed in the
Manufactures Building, Varied Industries Building, Liberal Arts
Building, and in the Agricultural Building.


By decree No. 4897 of July 21, 1903, the President of the Republic of
Brazil sanctioned the act of Congress making an appropriation of
$600,000 giving the Government authorization for the representation of
Brazil at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition.

On the 27th of the same month the following commissioners were

Col. F.M. De Souza Aguiar, president; Maj. J. Da Cunha Pires, secretary
and commissioner; Mr. J. Da Motta, assistant commissioner; Mr. Antonio
Olyntho, commissioner; Mr. J.C. Alves de Lima, commissioner; Dr. A. Da
Graca Couto, commissioner; Commodore J.C. Do Carvalho, commissioner;
Commodore A. Correa, commissioner; Mr. J.A. Dos Santos, commissioner;
Mr. A.J. Da Costa Couto, commissioner; Mr. Ferreira Ramos, commissioner;
Capt. J. Cordeiro da Graca, commissioner; Mr. Eugenio Dahne, assistant
commissioner; Mr. E. Da Rocha Dias, aide; Air. Ricardo Mardock and Mr.
A.C. Lopes Goncalves, commissioners from State of Amazonas.

One of the most attractive exhibits at the World's Fair was offered by
Brazil. That country showed itself so rich and diversified in resources
as to astonish the public, and in keeping with its large exhibit erected
a building which soon became one of the features of the fair.

The Brazilian Building, which was designed and personally supervised by
the commissioner-general, Col. F.M. de Souza Aguiar, was located in the
southwestern part of the section occupied by the foreign governments,
having on its north the Belgian, Cuban, and Chinese buildings, and on
the east that of Nicaragua, on the south those of France and India, and
on the west the Forestry, Fish and Game, Italian, and Administration

In the center of the grounds, surrounded by lawns with flower beds and
wide gravel walks, stood the Brazilian Building in the French
renaissance style of architecture. The main cornice, 80 feet high, was
supported by eight groups of three columns each at the corners and sides
of the two entrances of the building, and by six single columns at each
loggia. These thirty-six columns were of the corinthian style of
architecture, without the fluting ordinarily used with this particular
column, and were ornamented only at the lower third of the shaft with
the Brazilian coat of arms between floral festoons. Projecting above the
roof of the building were three domes, two of which, on either loggia,
were spherical in form, being 44 feet in diameter, while the apex of the
central dome attained a height of 135 feet. The dome was octagonal in
shape, having at each corner an exterior buttress, adorned with a large
statue at its top. Encircling the same was a gallery from which could be
viewed the greater part of the exposition grounds and the surrounding
country. Above the cornice of the building was a balustrade decorated
with shields, showing the coats of arms of the twenty-one States of

The main floor was reached by means of a flight of nineteen granitoid
steps on either the north or south side of the building, which led
through two spacious porticoes. The second floor formed one large room
only, the ceiling of which was divided into rectangular panels,
supported by thirty-two Doric columns. The second floor was reached also
by a majestic double staircase, where a spacious reception room, two
apartments for ladies, and the offices of the commission were situated.
In the center of the reception room was a marble statue representing
"the Feast," mounted on a large pedestal and encircled by an upholstered
settee. Above this statue the large central dome opened, supported by
eight columns, which formed an interior gallery.

In simplicity, stateliness, and beauty of outline the Brazilian Pavilion
was equal to any of the foreign buildings on the grounds. Its dome rose
90 feet above the main structure, which covered 191 by 132 feet, and it
soon became known as a landmark in the foreign government section of the

The interior decorations of the building were entirely in keeping with
the magnificent exterior. The apartments were sumptuously furnished and
decorated with rare statues. The colored glass which ornamented the
central dome gave a soft tint to the furnishings beneath. On the walls
were hung interesting photographs and charts illustrating the chief
industry of the country-coffee culture. This industry was further
demonstrated by machinery of the most improved pattern, showing the
process of preparing coffee for the market. In sacks, in glass jars, and
cases, coffee beans ranging in size from furled grains as small as peas
to flat beans as large as cocoa beans were displayed. To illustrate the
abundance of the product Brazil had built here a fountain which poured
forth coffee beans instead of water. At night rows of electric lights,
outlining the same, took the place of the Brazilian and American flags,
which ornamented it by day. There were fifteen hundred of these lights
distributed throughout the building, some clustered in rich chandeliers
from the center of the reception halls and loggias, others placed in
rows to outline galleries and dome.

In addition to the appropriation of $600,000 made by the Federal
Government, many of the States contributed all the expenses toward
propaganda, collection and transportation of exhibits from their own
individual territories. The installations and booths (ten in all) in the
exposition building were made at the expense of the Brazilian Government
at a cost of $70,000. The cost of the main building, complete with its
furnishings and improvement of grounds, was $135,000. The cost of
transportation of exhibits from Brazil to St. Louis was $30,000. In all,
Brazil had 2,400 exhibitors in 14 departments out of 16.


The government of the Dominion of Canada was represented at the World's
Fair by the exhibition branch of the department of agriculture of
Canada. This branch was organized some years ago for the purpose of
collecting, installing, and maintaining exhibits at expositions where
the government of Canada was officially represented. The personnel of
the exhibition branch is as follows: Hon. Sidney A. Fisher, minister of
agriculture; William Hutchinson, exhibition commissioner; W.A. Burns,
secretary and assistant to the commissioner; W.H. Hay, decorator; S.
Anderson, superintendent of installation.

The government and products of Canada were represented at the fair in
several exhibits, viz, an official building or pavilion; a collection of
minerals and mining products in the Palace of Mines and Metallurgy; a
display of the grains, grasses, and the agricultural products in the
Palace of Agriculture; an exhibit of all the various fruits grown in the
Dominion in the Palace of Horticulture; a special exhibit of the forest
products of Canada showing the great variety of timber, bark, pulp wood,
etc., in a building erected especially for the purpose; also a varied
collection of the larger and smaller game, fish, etc., together with
specimens of all the numerous varieties of wood produced in the forests
and inland waters of the Dominion, exhibited in the Forestry, Fish, and
Game Building, and in a special exhibit of live beaver in the same

As an appropriation for the installation of these exhibits the
government of Canada made a preliminary grant of $150,000, which was
supplemented by further appropriations for maintenance aggregating
$175,000, making a total of $325,000.

The official pavilion was a structure built after the fashion of a
clubhouse, located near the north entrance to the Palace of Agriculture,
costing, with forestry building in rear, about $35,000. This building
was furnished throughout with the products of Canadian factories and
decorated with the work of Canadian artists, all suggestive of the
natural wealth, progress, and enterprise of the country.

The mining exhibit occupied a space of 10,000 square feet, and comprised
large quantities of coal and all the coarser metal ores, together with
an extensive collection of all the finer metals minerals, building
stones, and every product of the mines known to science and commerce.

The agricultural exhibit occupied a space of 12,000 square feet, and
consisted of a large central figure in the form of an octagonal trophy
rising to a height of 60 feet, in which were artistically worked over
three hundred grasses, grains, and plants, all grown in Canada, and
decorated with landscape views of the various breeds of cattle raised in
the Dominion. On either side of this central figure was a pedestal of
maple sugar and honey, respectively, and in the rear other products of
tobacco, grain, flour, breadstuffs, etc.

The horticultural display consisted of a varied collection of all the
fruits grown in Canada, comprising ninety-four varieties of apples in
their natural state, taken from cold storage, and a large collection of
pears, peaches, plums, grapes, currants, gooseberries, strawberries,
cranberries, raspberries, and everything included in horticulture,
presented in glass jars as well as in their natural state throughout
their respective seasons.

The special exhibit of forest products consisted of sections of the
great fir trees, pines, cedars, oaks, hemlocks, birch, ash, walnut,
cherry, etc., and specimens of rough and polished lumber from every
variety of wood grown in the Dominion, together with a large pyramid of
pulp wood, of which Canada possesses millions of acres, railway ties,
tan bark, etc.

In the Forestry, Fish, and Game Building the exhibit consisted of an
unique arch or bridge structure with a double span covering 80 feet, and
on this structure and under it were numerous specimens of moose, deer,
elk, buffalo, mountain goat, polar, grizzly, and brown bears, and every
fur-bearing animal to be found in America. There was also a fine
collection of game birds and water fowls, fish, etc. In this bridge
structure was worked over three thousand varieties of wood, all grown in
Canada. In another section of the building was shown a pool containing a
family of live beaver, an interesting animal common to the streams and
lakes of Canada.

Besides those already enumerated, Canada made a very creditable display
of figure and landscape paintings in the Palace of Fine Arts, as well as
a collection of various subjects in water colors.

Later in the season Canada made a very successful exhibit in the
live-stock department. Her display was especially large in sheep and
swine classes and almost equally good in poultry and pet stock.

In addition to those enumerated in the foregoing list, Canada is
entitled to credit for a number of individual exhibits of various kinds
scattered over the exposition grounds; for example, in the Building of
Mines and Metallurgy there was an exhibit of natural and wrought nickel,
every pound of the raw material coming from the Sudbury mines, in the
Province of Ontario. The exhibit occupied a large space in the Mining
Building and consisted of a varied and comprehensive display of nickel
and nickel goods, from the natural ore to the finest and most polished
culinary and domestic utensils. Every pound of raw material used in this
display was from the mines situated in Denison Township, Sudbury
District, Ontario, Canada.

In Machinery Hall there was an exhibit comprising a great variety of
corundum products, every pound of whose raw material came from Canada.
The exhibit showed corundum in bulk, in large wheels, small wheels,
hones, and every variety of grinding and sharpening specialties. The
amount of raw corundum used annually by the company reaches nearly 1,000
tons. In the Machinery Building, also, was an exhibit of asbestos and
its products, the raw material of which came from Canada. The display
consisted of steam-pipe coverings, mattings, packings, and everything of
that nature required in heating and steam machinery; also asbestos
mattings and fire screens, heavy papering and cardboards, and other
things that asbestos can be worked into. All the asbestos came from the
Shedford and Black Lake mines, in the Province of Quebec.

In the Manufactures Building was a very fine assortment of stones, etc.,
from different parts of Canada. Among the assortment were garnets from
the Stikine River and also from the Province of Quebec; amethysts from
Thunder Bay; labradorite, finest in the world, from the Isle of St.
Paul; spinel from Ottawa County, Quebec; sodalite from British Columbia;
pitanite, Litchfield, Quebec; lercon and perthite from Quebec; sunstone
and lebra stone from Perth, Ontario, and crown sunstone from Renfrew
County, Ontario.

Besides the exhibits mentioned there were in the Mines Building an
exhibit of mineral water from Abenakis Springs, Quebec; in the
Philadelphia exhibit in the educational department a fine display of
asbestos and pulp.


Consequent on the visit to Ceylon of Hon. John Barrett, commissioner of
the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, in the latter part of 1902, Hon. W.H.
Figg was dispatched as advance commissioner to St. Louis to investigate
the conditions of the proposed World's Fair of 1904 and to make
preliminary arrangements for the representation of the colony thereat.
Mr. Figg's report, dated New York, February, 1903, was followed by the
appointment of a commission composed of the following members:

Hon. Stanley Bois, commissioner-general; Mr. R. Huyshe Eliot, assistant
commissioner; Mr. P.E. Pieris, assistant commissioner; Mr. Russell
Stanhope, assistant commissioner; Mr. Peter De Abrew, commercial agent;
Hon. J. Ferguson, C.M.G., Mr. F.C. Roles, Mr. H. Van Cuylenberg, and Mr.
D. Obeyesekeri, official visitors.

By vote $150,000 was placed at the disposal of this commission, and a
further sum of $10,000 was contributed by the Planters' Association.

The scheme finally adopted for the exploitation of the products of
Ceylon at the World's Fair was that all articles of artistic interest
should be displayed in a special court and those of commercial
importance in the various palaces. It was agreed that the practical
demonstration of the use of tea should be carried on in the court and
made as attractive as possible to the American public. A concession was
accordingly obtained from the Exposition Company for the sale of tea in
the cup at a nominal price, and an excellent site was allotted to the
Government of Ceylon immediately west of and adjoining the lake, where
the United States Life-Saving Service had its daily display and facing
the north end of the Palace of Agriculture. The building (which was
designed in Ceylon by Mr. Skinner) was rectangular in form, 120 feet
long and 60 feet wide, and two stories in height.

Broad verandas, so characteristic a feature of oriental houses, ran
round each floor, and there tea was served daily by 20 Cingalese
servants. These tea servers dressed in spotless white, and with long
hair fastened with big tortoise shell combs, made a most picturesque
appearance and gave a touch of reality to the Cingalese pavilion.

From the center of the building sprang an octagon 75 feet high,
reproducing the building where the kings of Ceylon used to show
themselves to their subjects at their ancient capital of Kandy. Smaller
octagons rose from the four corners. The ornamentation was
characteristically Cingalese. Broad friezes painted by native artists
represented the various birth stories of the Buddha. The door panels and
quaint capitals were such as may be seen at many a temple in Ceylon and
formed an appropriate setting for the impassive images of the Buddha.
The building was constructed by Messrs. Broderick & Wind, contractors of
New York, under the general supervision of Mr. Russell Stanhope,
representative at St. Louis of the commissioner-general, at a total cost
of $30,000.

Downstairs were the offices of the commission, while on the upper floor
the greater portion of the fine art exhibit of Ceylon was situated. The
native artist was seen at his best in the magnificent jeweled caskets of
carved ivory and the exquisite reprousse work in silver, representing an
art which has been handed down from father to son for twenty-five
centuries in the caste of Cingalese silversmiths.

The department of manufactures was represented by massive furniture in
calamander, ebony, and satinwood, carved with the most elaborate
devices, dainty laces made by the nimble fingers of village women,
beautiful productions on tortoise shell and gold, heavily embroidered
cloths of gold, and a large collection of the various curios for which
the East is famous, besides a display of tanned hides and jewelry of
exceptional merit. There was a further display of art work in the
international room of the Palace of Fine Arts. More than 100 exhibitors
were represented in this building, the total value of their exhibits
exceeding $50,000. Outside on the lake was an outrigger canoe of full
size, such as is still in use among the fishermen of Ceylon.

The chief commercial exhibit of the country was to be found in the
Palace of Agriculture, where a space of 2,000 square feet had been
allotted to it. First and foremost was the great industry of tea
cultivation. Thirty years ago the island exported a million tons of
coffee annually, and tea was an unknown article; last year the quantity
of the leaf which was exported to all parts of the world exceeded
150,000,000 pounds (of which 18,000,000 was sent to the United States),
while coffee hardly figures on the customs returns The industry is
almost exclusively in the hands of Europeans. All the chief producers
were represented at the exposition, their interests forming the special
province of an assistant commissioner.

The cocoanut palm and its cultivation was fully represented. The nut
itself, the various fibers, matting and ropes made from its husk, the
copra or dried kernel, from which is extracted the oil now so largely
used in the manufacture of best soaps and hair oils; the desiccated and
"shredded" cocoanut, the demand for which among confectioners is rapidly
increasing; cocoanut butter, an excellent emollient and substitute for
lard; the arrack, distilled from the "toddy" extracted from the flower,
a valuable liquor after a few years in cask; the vinegar and "jaggery,"
or molasses; down to the brooms, made from the "ekels" or midrib of the
leaves, were shown in infinite variety.

Rice, the staple food of the country, was represented in a few of its
350 varieties, and cinnamon in bark or oil, cloves, nutmegs, mace,
cardamoms, pepper, vanilla, and citronella oil, cocoa and coffee,
rubber, cinchona bark, from which quinine is prepared, croton seed, and
annotto dye might also be seen. The fibers included those of the Kitul
and Palmyra palms and the silky niyande (sansevier zeylanical). One
hundred and twenty exhibitors were represented, and the value of the
collective exhibit was $5,000.

The educational exhibit, which had been prepared under the direct
supervision of the director of public instruction in Ceylon, illustrated
the procedure adopted by the British Government in dealing with races
with an advanced literature of their own, to whom a certain knowledge of
English is a necessity. The present conditions of education--elementary,
advanced, and technical--were well depicted, and the exhibit contained
in addition a collection of the various scientific journals issued by
the Colombo Museum and the department of the botanical gardens in

Graphite, locally known as plumbago, the only commercial mineral of the
country, might be seen in the Palace of Mines and Metallurgy. More than
600,000 hundredweights of this valuable commodity were exported in 1899,
the greatest demand being in the United States, where the article is
employed in the manufacture of crucibles, for stove polish, and for
lubricating purposes. A few of the choice rubies and sapphires, for
which the island is so famous, were on view in the Ceylon court. Thirty
firms and private individuals were represented in this department, the
exhibits exceeding $12,000 in value.

In Liberal Arts the government of Ceylon snowed the admirable work
turned out by its printing offices, and various private firms of
printers and photographers were represented. The large model of the
artificial harbor of Colombo was of particular interest as illustrating
the position of the city as the tenth port in the world for tonnage
entering and clearing. There was also a good private collection of coins
found in Ceylon and covering a period of nearly two thousand years. The
space occupied in the Palace of Liberal Arts was 600 square feet, and
the value of the total exhibit was $1,000.

The musical instruments of the country, chiefly consisting of drums and
the varied equipment of the "devil dancers," were shown in the Ceylon

In the Palace of Forestry a space or 600 square feet was occupied by
Ceylon. The chief exhibit there consisted of the massive trunk of a
satinwood tree, hollowed out so as to form a receptacle for "books,"
which consisted of blocks of all the various trade timbers of the
country. An exhibit prepared by the marine biologist illustrated
everything connected with fishing in the Ceylon waters, from the crude
fish trap of the villager to the latest addition to knowledge regarding
the origin of the lustrous oriental pearl. Models of the various kinds
of boats employed in the country were also shown. The wild animals of
the country, its beautiful birds (including the swift, which builds the
edible nest), and gorgeous butterflies, were well shown. The exhibit
represented a value of $3,000.

Finally, in the department of anthropology there were shown, in the
Ceylon Building, types of the various races found in Ceylon,
illustrations of their pre-Christian civilization, the utensils of brass
and wood still used in their houses, and all the accompaniments of their
philosophic religions.

A special handbook was prepared by a subcommittee in Colombo containing
information for the use of the American people regarding the trade and
resources of the country.


The participation of China at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition was
authorized by an imperial decree issued in January, 1903. The same
decree appointed an imperial commission, as follows:

His Royal Highness Prince Pu Lun, imperial high commissioner; Sir Robert
Hart, Bart., G.C.M.G. (inspector-general of customs), president
ex-officio; Mr. Wong Kai-Pah, imperial vice-commissioner; Mr. Francis A.
Carl, imperial vice-commissioner; Mr. D. Percebois, secretary of Chinese
imperial commission; Mr. J.A. Berthet, assistant to secretary of Chinese
imperial commission.

The amount set apart by the Chinese Government to meet the expenses
connected with China's participation in the Louisiana Purchase
Exposition was 750,000 taels, or, roughly speaking, $500,000 gold. As
with all previous expositions in which China has taken part, the
collecting of exhibits was intrusted to the imperial Chinese maritime
customs service, under the control of Sir Robert Hart, Bart., G.C.M.G.,
inspector-general of customs. This service, with its numerous branches
and ramifications throughout the Empire and an experienced staff
acquainted with both native and foreign tastes was in an exceptional
position to succeed in making a representative collection of the best in
Chinese arts, manufactures, and products. The commissioners of customs
at the principal trading centers took the work in hand, selecting such
exhibits as were suitable when offered by merchants, and purchasing
outright such articles as could not be procured otherwise. The
collections were made at the following treaty ports: Newchang, Tientsin,
Chefoo, Chungking, Hankow, Kiukiang, Wuhu, Nanking, Chinkiang, Shanghai,
Hangchow, Ningpo, Wenchow, Foochow, Amoy, Swatow, Canton, Pakhoi,
Kiungchow, Mengtse, Lungchow, and Szemao.

Besides the Government exhibits from the foregoing-mentioned places, the
provincial authorities of Hupeh, Hunan, Kiangaan, and Fukien also made
collections. This is noteworthy, as it was the first time on record that
the regular Chinese officials have taken any interest in a foreign
exhibition. In addition to the Government participation, fifty-three
firms and private individuals sent their quota of exhibits. The
following table gives the kind, class, and approximate value of exhibits
installed by each:

Porcelain curios, cloisonne, carpets, art work in metal,
 tapestries, furniture, silks, ivory, fans, and jade ......    $510,200
Furs and skins ............................................       6,500
Cement and fire bricks ....................................       1,000
Fancy articles, wood carvings, paintings, and drawings, etc      11,600
Collections of butterflies ................................         100
Preserved meats, fish, vegetables, and fruit ..............         100
Chinese postal stamps and coins ...........................       5,000
Silverware and lanterns ...................................       2,750
  Total ...................................................     537,250
Government exhibits .......................................      40,000
Provincial ................................................      61,000
  Grand total .............................................     638,250

The collection made by the twenty-two treaty ports comprised such
articles as were not offered by the mercantile class. In nearly every
case the ports' collection included samples of products and manufactures
typical to the district, models of the prevailing architecture and of
any special costume worn by the people, models of the types of boats in
use, carriages and wheelwrights' work, agricultural implements and farm
machinery, appliances and methods used in agricultural industries,
agricultural seeds, equipment and method employed in the preparation of
foods, minerals and stones and their utilization, musical instruments,
chemical and pharmaceutical arts, gold and silver ware, weights and
measures, coins and medals, and photographs of the port. The collections
made by the provincial authorities comprised art work in jade, crystal,
porcelain and bronze, Chinese books and publications, lacquered ware and
fancy articles.

The total approximate value as given above was $638,250, but this sum
included the cost of transportation and installation. It represents in
fact the market value in the United States. There was in the
neighborhood of 2,000 tons of shipments from China to St. Louis--800
tons from the south of China, and 1,200 from the north of China. The
rate from the south of China, i.e., Hongkong, was $8 per ton, while from
the north of China, i.e., Shanghai, or nearly 900 miles shorter trip,
the rate was $14 per ton. The amount paid for transportation was more
than $20,000, to which must be added some $2,000 for terminal and
switching charges. The cost of installation for the entire exhibit was
about $7,500. The exorbitant wages necessary for all work done at the
exposition accounts for this heavy expenditure. Another large item of
expense, according to the Chinese commissioner, was the 5 per cent rate
charged in this country for fire insurance. Most of the foreign
countries taking part in the exposition effected insurance in home
companies at about half the above rate.

The total cost of the Chinese Government Pavilion amounted to $75,000.
It was partly a reproduction of a portion of Prince Pu Lun's palace at
Peking. Models were sent from China and copied in this country, the
large arch at the entrance being a "Pai-Lou," or memorial arch, common
in China as entrances to palaces, temples, and tombs. A small octagonal
pavilion or tea house was shown. They are always at some beautiful spot
in the gardens of the wealthy. Two flagstaffs outside were also copies
of Chinese models. The wood carvings were very expensive, and good
examples of what the Chinese workman can do in that line. Special men
from China were imported to carry out the designs of the building and to
do the painting in the Chinese style.

The space occupied by the Chinese in the Liberal Arts Palace was 28,000
square feet, and, with the exception of another 1,500 square feet in the
Educational Department, China was not represented in other buildings of
the exposition. The small exhibit in the Educational Palace was not an
attempt to illustrate the Chinese system of education. It was intended
simply to give the world an idea of the work being done by foreign
societies--missionary and otherwise--in the educational line in China.

The maintenance of the staff looking after exhibits was about $30,000.
The expense connected with the repacking and return of freight and
unsold exhibits was about $15,000.


On July 20, 1903, the Cuban Congress passed the following resolutions
authorizing the participation of that country at the Louisiana Purchase

    The Executive is hereby authorized to dispose of $80,000 from
    the public treasury to meet the expenses which the
    representation of the Republic of Cuba will incur at the
    Louisiana Purchase Exposition which will take place at St.
    Louis, Mo., in the year 1904.

    Of this amount $30,000 shall be set aside to meet the expenses
    of a special commission whose object is to study the advancement
    which may have been realized in agriculture, chemistry, and
    mechanical industries applicable to the industries of Cuba, also
    public instruction in hygiene.

    The commission will report the results of their investigation to
    the Executive, which reports will be duly published.

    The expenses incurred in the publication of the reports will be
    met by the public treasury and will not be included in the above
    allowed sum.

On the 15th of July, 1904, the Congress voted $50,000 as an additional
sum for the same purpose.

The Cuban Pavilion at the exposition was constructed on a lot 140 by 170
feet. The building was 100 feet by 80 feet surrounded by a garden
containing more than five hundred native plants. It was one story high.
At its front was a beautiful terrace, and there were extensive porticoes
on the sides. Access to the building was gained by a 32-foot stair on
the front, and by lateral stairs of smaller size.

Five rooms surrounding a central court. Access to the roof was obtained
by a winding stair placed on a tower. The style of architecture on the
building in its exterior court and entrances was Florentine-Renaissance,
from the last half of the fourteenth century. The other salons were
decorated in the modern style, called "New Art." The building was
lighted by more than four hundred incandescent lamps, arranged in such a
manner that they formed part of the decorations. The cost of erecting
the building was $31,050.

The members of the Cuban commission were as follows:

Mr. Gonzalo de Quesada, honorary president; Mr. Esteban Duque Estrada,
commissioner-general; Mr. Antonio Carillo, secretary of the Cuban
commission; Mr. Eduardo Morales de los Rios, commissioner of education;
Mr. Sixto Lopez Miranda, technical commissioner of education for Cuba;
Dr. J.J. Luis, commissioner of social economy; Mr. Enrique B. Barnet,
sanitary commissioner; Mr. J.W. Flanagan, honorary commissioner; Mr.
J.E. Bernal, Mr. Fernando Mesa, Mr. Francisco de Armas, assistant
commissioners; Mr. Antonio E. Trujillo, disbursing officer; Mr. John R.
Taylor, assistant sanitary commissioner. Technical commission: Dr.
Enrique Jose Varona, doctor in philosophy and letters; Dr. Carlos de la
Torre, doctor of natural sciences; Señor Carlos Theye, chemical
engineer; Señor Manuel D. Diaz, civil engineer; Señor Ramon Jimenez
Alfonso, agronomical engineer; Dr. Gaston Alfonso Cuadrado, doctor of
sciences and pharmacy.

The exhibit of Cuba in the Department of Education comprised the whole
educational system from the kindergarten to the university. For the
organization of this exhibit the secretary of public instruction, Dr.
Leopolds Cancio, appointed a committee of seven. The committee issued
several circulars inviting the teachers to contribute to the educational

Toward the beginning of March the first contributions began to arrive,
and in the early days of April the first shipment was made. This was
followed by others, and by the 25th of April all the educational
exhibits were in the various booths and ready for display.

This exhibit was classified in groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8, which left
the only two groups, 5 and 7, in which it was not represented.

In group 1 it was represented by the normal school of kindergarten of
Habana, and by kindergarten public schools of Habana, Guanabacoa,
Matanzas, Gardenas, Sagua la Grande, and Cienfuegos, by elementary
public and private schools from most of the school districts of the
country, by a teachers' academy, and by training and correctional
schools for boys and girls.

In group 2 the six public secondary schools of the country were
represented by photographs, reports, collections of shells and
butterflies, pupils' work and reports.

The "San Alijandro" School of Painting and Sculpture of Habana appeared
with a report and photographs in group 4.

In group 6 the School of Arts and Trades of Habana had a very good
display of manual training and photographs.

Correspondence schools, the Academy of Science, meteorological and
magnetical observations of the Belen Observatory, geological
collections, text-books, school appliances, and a collection of the
text-books used at the present and of those used under the Spanish
Government in the public schools were all classified in group 8.

One of the most important features of the exhibit was the display of
photographs showing over 500 views of schoolrooms, school buildings,
groups of teachers and children, institutions of secondary education,
institutions of special education, and the university.

In these photographs the department showed the best schools, such as
"Luz y Caballero," of Habana, and the "Eseulen Modelo," of Santiago de
Cuba, and the least advanced rural schools located in thatched-roof huts
20 or more miles from the nearest town.

The exhibit showed not only the great increase in the last few years in
the number of schools and in the school expenditures, both of which have
increased about tenfold, but the great change undergone in the methods
of teaching, which at present accord with the most modern standards, the
old methods having been entirely abolished from the public schools.

The superior board of health of Cuba was represented at the exposition
by Dr. Federico Torralbas, as medical inspector of the sanitary
department of Habana; Dr. Emilo Martines, as assistant professor of
pathology of the National University, and member of the commission for
infectious diseases of the sanitary department of Habana; Dr. Juan H.
Davalos, as chief of the section of bacteriology of the laboratory of
the island of Cuba, who is considered the leading authority on
bacteriological subjects in Cuba; Dr. Enriqui B. Barnet, as the
executive officer of the sanitary department of Habana and acting
secretary of the superior board of health of Cuba; Mr. John R. Taylor,
as preparator of the laboratory of Las Animas Hospital, of Habana,
having a thorough knowledge of the transmission of diseases by the
medium of the mosquito. He was one of those who voluntarily allowed
himself to be bitten with infected mosquitoes known to be capable of
transmitting yellow fever, recovering after a severe attack of the

In the Department of Mines and Metallurgy, Cuba's exhibition consisted
of Portland cement and its products, asphaltum (crude and refined),
iron, manganese, copper, zinc, tin, gold, and silver ores, and a
collection of marbles of the Isle of Pines.

In Liberal Arts Cuba's exhibition consisted of photographs, engravings,
periodicals, perfumes, soaps, and other manufactured articles.

In the Department of Art Cuba had a room where about one hundred and
fifty pictures were hung, consisting of oil paintings and water colors.

In the Department of Agriculture Cuba's exhibit consisted of
manufactured cigars, chocolate, jellies, beer, preserved fruits of all
descriptions, cotton, hemp, coffee, sugar, and various other
agricultural products of Cuba.

In the Department of Forestry, Fish, and Game Cuba's exhibition
consisted of samples of woods used in construction and for furniture,
house decorations, etc. The collection of woods at the Forestry Building
was given to the Yale University Forestry Schools at the close of the
fair. The mineral collection at the Mines Building was subsequently
donated to the United States National Museum, at Washington, D.C.


The Government of Denmark, while making no appropriation for a
participation at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, appointed William
Arup as commissioner-general to look after the interests of the Danish
exhibitors. At the same time the Government appointed a committee,
consisting of the following-named persons, to assist him in his work:
Charles Ambte, director of State railways; Mr. N. Anderson, councilor of
state, P.D.; Arnold Krog, professor in arts, P.D.; Admiral Richeleu St.
Kors, of D.; Philip Schon, councilor of state. Of these gentlemen only
Admiral Richeleu visited the fair.

Commissioner-General Arup personally bore the total expenses of
transportation and installation, which amounted approximately to

Denmark had no official building on the grounds but confined her space
to the principal exhibition palaces. Her principal displays were
installed in the Palace of Varied Industries, where she occupied about
5,000 square feet of space.

Twenty exhibitors displayed goods in the Palace of Varied Industries.
Their displays consisted principally of porcelain, silverware, art
pottery, cabinet works, embroideries, photography, ship models, and a
ship model of the free port of Copenhagen. The last-mentioned model was
subsequently donated to the Chicago Municipal Museum.

In the Palace of Electricity, the Agricultural Building, and the Palace
of Fine Arts Denmark occupied smaller spaces, but her exhibits attracted
general attention on account of their universal excellence.


The amount of Government appropriation for Egypt's participation at the
Louisiana Purchase Exposition was approximately $50,000. The principal
exhibit made by the Government of Egypt consisted of a representation of
antiquities in the Anthropology Building; an exhibit by the Sudan
Government in the foreign section, comprising ivory, gum, rubber,
various cereals, and a variety of ancient weapons and curious articles
in use by the natives of Sudan. In the same section were exhibited some
heads of wild animals including hippopotamus and the buffalo. In the
Liberal Arts section was displayed a large relief map showing the system
of irrigation in use in Egypt with the canals clearly marked. This
exhibit was made by the administration of the Daira Sanich, which forms
part of the Government, and in the same section the public works
department of the Government exhibited various models of the Delta
Barrage and other irrigation works existing in various parts of Egypt.

In the Agricultural Building, through the Khedivial Agriculture Society
and the Produce Association of Alexandria, a complete collection of
cotton and cereals and every kind of agricultural product grown in Egypt
were shown, in addition to which the Campagnie des Sucreries of Egypt
had a very fine display of sugar, and the Port Said Salt Association
sent samples of various kinds of salt.

The commissioners appointed by the Egyptian Government were Herman E.
Lawford and Abdel Hamid Abazza. The latter was in charge of the
agricultural section. He is connected with the Khedivial Agriculture
Society of Egypt, and was requested by the Government of Egypt to make a
report on the cotton industry in this country, particularly with regard
to diseases of the cotton plant. Mr. Lawford has resided in Egypt for
several years and has been connected with various land and industrial
companies. Mr. Quibell, who was attached to the commission, is an
inspector of antiquities in the employ of the museum at Cairo, and has
been in Egypt for a number of years, his time being devoted to
scientific researches.


The French Government, at the time when the general commission to the
Louisiana Purchase Exposition was appointed, appropriated a sum of
600,000 francs for its expenses and a sum of 600,000 francs for the
participation of the fine arts. Later on an appropriation of 350,000
francs was made for the educational exhibit and several other exhibits
over which the Government had immediate and direct control. The entire
charge of putting up the French commercial exhibits in the various
palaces, except Fine Arts and Education and National Pavilion, had been
granted, in April, 1902, to a permanent committee on foreign
expositions, which worked under the supervision of the French general
commission. The committee raised from private sources a sum of 5,000,000

Aside from the above sums, an appropriation of 100,000 francs was made
by the department of the colonies for the participation of the different
colonies at the exposition.

Another appropriation of the same amount was made for the social economy

The approximate amount of money spent by France for its participation in
the Louisiana Purchase Exposition was 7,750,000 francs. The contract for
building the French Government Pavilion was let to a general contractor
in Paris, who undertook to build it for the sum of 500,000 francs.

In addition to the above sum, an appropriation of 100,000 francs was
made for the painting of the building; 10,000 francs for the statuary
over the roof. An appropriation of 150,000 was made for the gardens.

The commission appointed by the Government of France was as follows:

Mr. Alfred Picard, special envoy of the French Republic; Mr. Georges
Gerald, commissioner-general; Mr. Jules Boeufvé, assistant
commissioner-general; Mr. Felix Lamy, secretary of the French
commission; Mr. Robert Delaunay-Belleville, private secretary to the
special envoy; Mr. Max Ferlaud, private secretary to the
commissioner-general; Mr. Emile Heurteau, private secretary to the
special envoy; Mr. Marcel Estieu, attaché; Mr. André Artoine, attaché.
French commercial section: Mr. Ancelot, president; Mr. Gustav Kester,
vice-president; Mr. Perdoux; Mr. Maurice Estieu, treasurer. Fine arts
section: Mr. André Saglio, commissioner; Mr. Horteloup; Mr. Delestre,

The National Palace of France, as erected at the St. Louis World's Fair,
was a reproduction of the Grand Trianon, at Versailles. It was located
at the west end of the Louisiana way, one of the main avenues on the
fair grounds; at the other end of the avenue was located the United
States Government Building.

The French Pavilion consisted of three rectangular buildings bordering
on a main state court. Large pilasters of white and pink marble were
arranged as the frame work for high windows, topped with decorative
arches. An outside flight of stairs and porphyrolite sills of imitation
marble gave that impression of luxury and good taste which is
characteristic of all productions of the Louis XIV period.

Two large wrought-iron brackets supported lanterns in the same style and
gave a more animated appearance to the main entrance at the end of the
court. Part of the arch decorations were reserved for the entrances; the
balance of the arches used in the arrangement of windows with balcony
were fitted with wrought-iron balustrade railings, in the general style
of the palace.

Only one change was made in the otherwise exact reproduction of the
Grand Trianon. According to documents published in the seventeenth
century, and especially to the tentative drawings made by Lepautri
himself, the Grand Trianon architect, that monument was originally to be
decorated over its high balustrade railings with some artistic devices
and groups of children, each to be found in the present French monument.
The architects of the St. Louis Palace, Messrs. Gustave Umbdenstock and
Roger Bouvard, conceived the happy thought of making that restoration
complete, and thus contributing a more lifelike appearance to the whole

On the other hand, a large allegorical medallion was arranged over the
central decorative device, which was indicative of the national
character. The medallion bore the coat of arms of the French Republic
topped with the "Phrygian" cap, being flanked on either side by two
allegorical female figures, one of which was symbolic of the Armed Peace
protecting herself with a sword, and the other was intended to represent
French trade. Over the allegorical medallion was the mainmast used to
display the French flag. Owing to the arrangement of the palace itself
the flag was thus displayed in the continuation of the center of the
main monumental avenue of the fair.

From the entrance to the French Concession, which covered an area of
about 150 meters in width by 250 meters in depth, a large monumental
grill in the style of Louis XIV covered the entire front of the grounds
separating the garden from the avenue which bounded it at the right
corner. The grill included three large gates supported by four metal
towers which were topped by lanterns and decorated with allegorical
panels, producing the finest effect. The grills were devised on the same
lines as those exhibited at Versailles and on the Place Stanislas, at

A large garden, laid out in French style, was arranged in a border on
the central path leading to the palace. The latter, with flower beds in
the border, was ornamented with vases and statuary on pedestals.

The interior arrangement of the palace was such that the public would
visit it regularly in its entirety without the necessity of passing
twice through the same rooms. Double doors were provided so as to permit
a continuous circulation for entrance and egress.

The building at the farthest side of the state court was devoted to the
large state room, the decoration of which was intrusted to the National
"Garde-Meuble," or "Historical Furniture Depot." The size of the room
was 30 meters in length by 9 meters in width, and it was lighted by
seven large windows; its height was 7 meters to the ceiling. The
entrance stairs on the outside and the entrance hall were paved with
imitation marble of pink and white. The carved ceiling was arranged as a
framing for three large decorative paintings executed by Mr. George G.
Roussel. The subject selected by the artist was Liberty, Equality,
Fraternity. The Liberty allegory represented France placing her sword in
1772 at the service of America for the conquest of the latter's

In "Equality" the figures were personifications of the commerce and
industry of both nations.

"Fraternity" represented America receiving the France of 1904 in a
symbolic group.

In the corner of the ceiling were a child uniting the flags of both
nations and goddesses personifying Fame hovering over a globe
representing Earth in glorification of that cordial understanding.

The large state room contained fine Gobelin tapestries reproducing
scenes of the reign of Louis XIV, as follows:

(1) Audience of Cardinal Chigi (July 29, 1664). This was a tapestry
woven of wool and silk set off with gold manufactured at the Gobelin
factory in the seventeenth century. It was one of a series illustrating
the history of King Louis from Van der Meulen et de Charles Le Brun. It
had a very rich border by Yvart.

(2) Entrance of the King into Dunkerque (December 2, 1662). A wool and
silk woven tapestry set off with gold, made at the Gobelin factory in
the seventeenth century; one of the series of the history of King Louis
XIV from Van der Meulen et de Charles Le Brun drawing. A rich border by

(3) The Siege of the City of Douai (July, 1667). A wool and silk woven
tapestry with gold, made at the Gobelin factory in the seventeenth
century; one of the series of the history of King Louis XIV from Van der
Meulen et de Charles Le Brun drawing. A rich border by Yvart.

(4) A piece of tapestry. This was woven from wool and silk and made at
the Gobelin factory in the seventeenth century; one of the series of
hangings (portieres) of the Triumphal Chariot and bearing the coat of
arms of France and Navarre; made from the drawings of Charles Le Brun
(the final drawings).

The right wing of the palace was used first by the National Factory of
Sevre, with a room 12 meters by 8 meters and a hall in front which
measures 8 meters by 3.50 meters.

The decoration of this room was subdued to enhance the appearance of the
vases and bisques exhibited. The walls were hung with watered silk to a
height of 4.50 meters, the tone of the silk being well adapted to set
off the whiteness of the china. Above this hanging a painted frieze was
decorated with gray and blue leaves set off with medallions of
crystallized pink stone work. The application of ceramics to decorative
purposes was again found in the trimmings of the portieres in the shape
of pendentives.

The objects exhibited in these rooms were especially selected with due
consideration to the place they were to occupy and with a view to making
up a complete decorative whole.

In the main room the place in the center of the longest sides were
occupied by Houdon's bust of Lafayette, with a small statue of Liberty
by Aube in front, and by a Puech's bust of President Loubet, with a
small statue of De la Paix by G. Michel in front.

On either side of these busts were seen four pink vases of the so-
called "Cleremont" class and four vases of the "Chelles" class
representative of the four seasons in floral decorations.

At the corners of the main room in niches especially provided for them
were four Blois vases, decorated with hollyhocks, Chinese lilies, and
magnolias. On either side of the window were two d'Auxerre "Flambets"
(signed) vases.

The city of Paris occupied three rooms in the right wing of the National

There were in the exhibit many statues, pictures, objects of the Paris
municipal council and of the council-general of the Department of Seine,
the insignia of councils, engravings, reproducing the most important
decorative works in the Paris Hotel de Ville (city hall); also work done
by pupils of the professional and industrial art schools, such as the
Germain Pilon, Bernard, Palissy, Dorian, Diderot, Estienne, Boulle,
etc.; such work includes ceramic pieces, modeling, bookbinding,
furniture, chasing work, pottery, etc. The architectural service was
represented by plans and drawings illustrating some types of the main
edifices in Paris, such as the Sorbonne, Palais des Beaux Arts de la
Ville de Paris, the barracks, mayoralty buildings, professional schools,
primary schools, etc.

The departments of public highways, public lighting, water and health
exhibited some graphical and statistical information in reference to
their undertakings.

The Metropolitan Underground Railway sent most complete information
covering its most interesting work.

The department of public charity exhibited water colors which gave
useful information in reference to its various branches and modes of

The department of historical work and the committee of ancient Paris
showed a collection of publications covering the history of the city and
of its several transformations. The general decorations included views
of Paris, public gardens, and two large panels by de Grinberg, showing
the Notre Dame Cathedral and the Pavilion de Fiore, in the Tuilleries.

There were also frontispieces and escutcheons by the master decorator
Jambon. Elaborate middle pieces and a beautiful chandelier in the middle
of the main room attracted considerable attention.

There was a small horizontal show case containing a collection of
objects employed by the teacher in lecturing on civic instruction. These
objects included various kinds of tickets, stamps, tax bills, receipts,
official postals, etc.

Agricultural education occupied an extensive area, showing the
importance attached in France to that department. A very remarkable
collection, filling seven volumes, showed the really wonderful result
that an inspector of the Brittany region was able to obtain in a
district consisting of some hundred townships. There was also an
"experiment case," which was to be found again in the normal school
graduate's outfit, and a set of small instruments made by the country

The series, drawings, samples of manual work, of sewing, etc., showed
how republican schools in France care for the workman's interests.

Other superior schools were represented in adequate manner through the
aggregate exhibits. That at Onzain showed a few peculiarities of the
rural type.

Superior primary schools for girls only showed a few specimens of
several collections of work. The department of technical education, as
represented by practical, industrial, and commercial schools, gave a
fair idea of what is done in France in that branch.

The aggregate display gave a fair idea of what is going on in France in
the normal schools, where teachers of both sexes are being prepared for
their work.

Attention was particularly directed to manual work, especially to the
scientific training that the girls of the normal school receive on
leaving school.

A show case in one of the compartments contained a complete collection
of documents relating to primary education in France. Several displays
of that kind were attached to the walls, such as the six graphical
tables made by Levasseur, which are summaries of statistical documents.

The Museum of Pedagogy had collected in similar summary form the most
important results obtained for the past twelve years in the work done in
promoting special work as a complement to school education.

Enlarged photographs representing scenes of school life were placed
practically everywhere throughout the exhibit of French primary schools.
They were prepared by the school administration as a reproduction, on a
smaller scale, of the exhibit which proved such a success at the Paris
Exhibition Fair in 1900.

The exhibit of higher education included displays from universities and
scientific institutions, the leading ones being the College of France,
the Museum of Natural History, the Practical of Highest Studies, the
School of Charters, the School of Living Oriental Languages.

An inquiry was instituted in 1883 in academic councils and faculties in
reference to drafting a plan for the constitution of universities that
should administer and manage themselves under the supervision of the

Many had been impressed with the inconvenience caused by a lack of
cohesion in the work. Attention was called to those many common
interests of which the faculties should have been the guardian, but of
which they could not take care on account of their isolation. Inquiry,
begun in 1883, made the necessity of a reform obvious. It ended in the
rendering of the decrees of July 25 and December 28, 1885. These decrees
may be divided into two distinct parts--one covering the interior life
of faculties, the other providing for a grouping of faculties
established in each academic center and the general council of faculties
to be the representative organ and executive power of the new faculty
life created.

Appreciable results were derived from these reforms. However they were
incomplete, and it was thought, in consequence, that genuine unity
should be given to a superior education. The establishment of the new
universities had been a legal consequence of that express wish.

The law of July 10, 1896, gave the name of university to each body of
faculties, substituting the university council for the general council
of faculties, the duties and powers of such university council being
regulated by the decree of July 21, 1897. The rector of the university
is president of that council by right, and is the legal representative
of the university before the courts.

In the Department of Machinery the French exhibit included according to
the general classification groups, steam engines, various motors and
engines, sundry general machinery, machine tools, and shipyard
machinery. All of these several groups and classes were united in order
to form a collective exposition for the whole department.

To the above groups there were added the following: Spinning and
rope-making machinery and weaving machinery and materials. The latter
groups included machinery that could also have been placed in the
department of general machinery.

In compliance with a suggestion made by the head of the engineering
service at the fair, all machines and mechanical appliances exhibited in
the Palace of Machinery were distributed, not in accordance with the
nationality of exhibitors, but in accordance with the character and
nature of the machinery.

French manufacturers had nothing to fear from the fact of their
machinery having been placed in the immediate vicinity of other similar
machines made by foreign manufacturers. On the contrary, a closer
contact only resulted in setting off in a better light those particular
qualities that have made France so successful in that branch of industry
on previous occasions.

Outside of the Palace of Machinery there were exhibited in the boiler
buildings five steam generators made by French manufacturers. These
boilers contributed to the generation of the steam required for the
power houses of the fair.

The distribution of exhibits all over the Palace of Machinery has made
it impossible to arrange any decorative devices for the whole group of
French exhibitors.

Another manifestation of the French mechanical industry was found in a
pavilion which was built on ground between two of the main gates leading
to the main entrance to the Hall of Machinery.

The French department of electricity was located on the left of the main
entrance to the Palace of Electricity, occupying an area exceeding 2,000
square meters. In the center of the exhibit there was a space 350 square
meters in area, used as a resting room for visitors. There were to be
seen in a circular arrangement the show cases that made up the
retrospective and modern exhibits sent by the French department of
commerce, industry, post, and telegraph.

The decorative frieze arranged around the room bore, between laurel
wreaths, the name of the most illustrious French physicians or
electricians from the eighteenth century to this date.

The French exhibit in the Palace of Agriculture occupied an area of
nearly 2,800 square meters. It was located in the northern corner and
next to one of the main gates, fronting the French National Palace.

The French exhibit extended along the front of the palace on the
northern and eastern sides.

The French exhibit of social economy occupied an area of 700 square
meters in the Palace of Education. The main entrance formed one of the
largest avenues in that palace, giving access to a main hall 50 meters
in length by 12 meters in width, both front sides of which were
subdivided into a score of small rooms 3 by 5 meters. The front sides of
these small rooms were made up of partitions 4 meters high, decorated
with mural paintings, and topped with a decorative frieze that bore the
titles and subtitles belonging to the group of exhibits represented in
the room. A shelf 0.50 meter wide, with a ledge, was arranged all along
the rooms at the height of 1 meter from the ground, and supported all
pamphlets, books, and other documents that supplemented the information
supplied by the exhibits on the walls.

A show case and bookcase were put in the center of each room, containing
the documents placed in view by the several exhibitors who were
represented through publications only.

The individuality of each of the several groups was evident by titles or
medallions of a decorative character, which also included a subtitle and
index, arranged with as many particulars and in as methodical manner as
possible, of all exhibitors, in order that the visitor might be saved as
much labor as possible in his inquiries.


_Members of commission._--Dr. Theodor Lewald (privy councilor), imperial
German commissioner-general; Dr. Eugene Wagner (superior Government
councilor), vice-commissioner; Mr. Otto Zippel (imperial councilor),
treasurer; Mr. Heinrich Albert, assistant commissioner; Mr. Paul A.
Zilling, commercial attaché, department of arts and crafts; Dr. Fritz
Kestner, attaché; Dr. Hugo Hardy, attaché; Fritz Von Bardeleben,
attaché; Dr. F.C. Rieloff, imperial consul; Baron von Reden, imperial
vice-consul; Count Limburg-Stirum, general commissioner education
department; Dr. Leopold Bahlsen (professor), substitute to the general
commissioner education department; Mr. Herman Albert, commissioner
mining department; Mr. Alard Scheck, commissioner of forestry
department; Dr. Ludwig Wittmark (privy councilor), agricultural
department; Dr. Hugo Kruss, scientific instruments; Dr. Johannes Breger,
hygienic department; Dr. Otto Zwingenberger, chemical exhibits.

By order of the German Emperor, the German House (das Deutsche Haus) was
erected on a prominence in the center of the World's Fair near the
Cascades. It was a replica of one of the German castles most celebrated
in history and art, and the most prominent German architects reproduced
it in St. Louis and equipped it with the best products of modern art

In the year 1902 the great question arose as to what kind of style and
which building should be erected in America as a symbol of Germany. The
Emperor decided that Charlottenburg Castle should be used for this
purpose, as one of the most aristocratic and characteristic monuments of
the first epoch of the Prussian Kingdom. The location of the German
House on a towering hill and its purpose called for a different
architecture from that of the Charlottenburg Castle, which is situated
in a plain and which at the same time serves as a dwelling house. So the
two wings of the Charlottenburg Castle were omitted, one of them to give
room to the Pergola and the German Wine Restaurant. The place of a court
of honor was here taken by the massive stairway and there were new ideas
produced in the cupola, the exterior ornamentation, and in some of the
interior apartments. The erection of the building was awarded to Prof.
Bruno Schmitz, of Berlin, who in Germany has built some great monuments,
and who is no stranger to the American public.

The equipment of the interior rooms was awarded to a number of the first
German manufactories in the line of art furniture, the art of weaving
and illuminating, and was finished by the most skillful artisans. The
German House was on the same level as the Palace of Fine Arts and
Festival Hall. Its base was 47 feet higher than the Mining Building.
From the State buildings in the southern divisions of the World's Fair a
wide path led through artistic garden spots to the rear entrance of the
German House and from the Mining Building large stairs led up to the
German Restaurant. Ascending the hill of the German House, the first
impression was that of a castle front. The dimensions of the castle
were: Length, 150 feet; depth, 69 feet; the height of the building to
the apex of the cupola was 160 feet; it covered an area of 10,000 square
feet, while the complete site with the terraces amounted to 174,931
square feet.

The castle consisted of a two-story gable, the front of which was almost
exclusively occupied by the high windows and two by-parts with four
axes, each with three-quarter Corinthian columns. Of the three stories,
the uppermost--the mezzanine story--served only as a storeroom. The
gable above the center part bore in large letters the inscription "Das
Deutsche Haus." Groups at the corners of the gable represented Power and
Wisdom. The capitals of the columns were molded from the original and
the balustrades of the cornices were made from designs. The roof of the
house was a platform like the original in Charlottenburg, surrounded by
a cast-iron balustrade.

As at the prototype, in front of the German House the two Borghesian
gladiators with sword and shield kept guard. The death masks on the
sentry houses were Schluter's work and were erected after models taken
in Charlottenburg. The dark color of the building and the patina of the
roof accentuated the historical character of the building.

Around the building on the broad terraces, surrounded by a balustrade in
modern Baroque, were long rows of laurel trees and rhododendrons which
were brought over from Germany.

In the lower story was a circular center hall, the flat ceiling of which
was supported by 8 columns, a true copy of the entrance hall of the
Charlottenburg Castle. In the two wall niches, between high laurel
trees, were placed busts of the Emperor and Empress. The pedestals were
done in gray, specially prepared oak wood. Behind the busts were two
stucco reliefs molded from the originals in Charlottenburg, representing
scenes from Roman history.

A room with modern escritoire equipment served as reading and writing
room for the members of the German press.

Off the center hall and facing the front was the extensive reading hall,
likewise a copy of the room of the Charlottenburg Castle.

Noticeable in the room was a picture of the capital of the German
Empire, Berlin, showing the bridge across the Spree, with the renowned
statue of the Great Elector; behind this the great Royal Palace; also a
picture of the "Hohkonigsberg," in olden times a mighty castle in German
Alsatia, which for centuries has been a desolate ruin, but now is built
anew in its old pomp and splendor. The series of pictures was concluded
by a view of a plaza in the Hansa Town Lubeck.

In addition to these views, around the hall were the busts of eminent
scholars, artists, poets, musicians. Besides other pieces of ornament,
the reading room contained choice pieces of the royal porcelain
manufactory, as well as a series of artistically finished groups
representing the different countries of culture. Finally, to symbolize
the character of the reading room, on the right table a bronze figure
was placed showing the greatest German historian of all times, Theodore
Mommsen, who only a short time ago died in extreme old age.

In the rear of the reading hall a broad terrace led down to the garden
plots, embellished by the group by Professor von Uechtritz, Berlin, "The
Crown is the safeguard of peace."

At both sides of the reading hall the office rooms were situated; to the
right a large office room of the imperial commissioner or his
representative, very tastefully equipped in modern style. The walls were
wainscoted in oak and had capacious book shelves. From the ceiling, the
beams of which were ornamented, numerous lamps and large candelabra were
suspended. The room was completed by a comfortable fireplace, and to the
left side of the room, or reading hall, were office rooms.

The upper center hall, with its eight columns, was a copy of the center
hall of the Charlottenburg Palace, and in its quiet dignity highly
characteristic of the Prussian development of the art of the Baroque.

In front of the nether window, between two columns, was placed the bust
of the German Emperor in the uniform of the Gardes du Corps, with the
eagle helmet, from the royal porcelain manufacturer in Berlin.

Another interesting feature of the German Building was the Gobelin hall.
The rich ceiling in its pure plastic was modeled after the Elizabeth
hall in the royal palace of Berlin, the stucco figures, as well as the
decorations of the ceiling, likewise the golden medallions at the four
corners, representing a procession of bacchantes, while the rich door
panelings were modeled in the royal palace and placed here. The walls
all around were wainscoted with palisander. But the main interest in
this room centered in the four mighty gobelins. These gobelins were, by
the charm of their colors and the delicacy of the composition, a source
of enjoyment to every lover of art.

The Gobelin hall was laid out with a gorgeous modern carpet from the
carpet works at Barmen. Of surprising delicacy were the curtains and the
golden hangings above the windows, all masterpieces of the modern art of
weaving, as were those all over the house made by the concern Hertzog in
Berlin. The great candelabra of bronze and mountain crystal were lighted
by wax candles.

Off the Gobelin hall was one of the richest rooms of the castle, the
Bradenburg chamber. This red-velvet chamber was used for one of the most
brilliant ceremonies in the royal palace, the solemn decoration of the
Knights of the Order of the Black Eagle.

Adjacent to this rich room was the main hall of the Deutsche Haus, the
famous oak gallery, 115 feet long and 20 feet broad. The oak gallery
forms in Charlottenburg the most important apartment of the castle and
is characteristically German. The combination of the simple oak wood
with the delicate gold carving produced a most original and most restful
effect. The wonderful dimensions, the beautiful material, the harmony of
colors, and perfection of artistic details all combined to impress the
observer. The entire length of the long wall was divided into niches by
pilasters. Each niche contained a mirror and over that a picture from
the ancient classics. Along the walls of the hall were placed on marble
pedestals the busts of former Prussian rulers.

The series of state rooms was concluded by one of the very finest rooms,
the Tressen Saal (galloon room), also a copy from the Charlottenburg
Castle. In contrast to the substantial splendor of the oak gallery, this
apartment showed the whole delicacy and refinement of the Baroque. The
name "Tressen Saal" was given to this room in consideration of the gold
interwoven bands (tresses) which were sewn on to the red damask.

The harmony of the oak carvings, of the gilt stucco, the red damask, and
the gold galloon composed one of the most delicate decorations of
Prussian castles. This was finished by the ceiling, where were seen
allegories painted and mounted on linen in imitation of the Tressen Saal
in Charlottenburg Castle.

There was no special act authorizing the German exposition. In
accordance with the general principles of the German constitution, the
sum required for this purpose was entered in the budget. After an
approval of the budget by the Bundesrath and the Reichstag the
participation of Germany became a law. The fire insurance of the
combined German exhibits covered $4,000,000, and this sum may be
regarded as the approximate value of the exhibits. The aggregate cost of
the organization, installation, and transportation paid by the
Government was $1,300,000, of which the Imperial Government paid
$900,000, the Prussian government $250,000, and the other Federal States


_Members of commission_.--His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, K.G.,
president of the royal commission; the Right Honorable Viscount Peel,
chairman of the royal commission; Col. Charles M. Watson, R.E., C.B.,
C.M.G., commissioner-general and secretary of the royal commission; Mr.
J.H. Cundall, general superintendent; Mr. Edmund H. Lloyd, general
superintendent; Mr. Lucien Serraillier, secretary to the
commissioner-general and for juries; Mr. C.D. Barrett, accountant; Mr.
Herbert Langridge, in charge of correspondence and catalogue. Clerical
assistants: Mr. R. Grant Dalton, Mr. S.G. Hutchinson, Mr. J. Perrin
Harris. Department of education: Capt. P.H. Atkin, representative of the
education committee; Mr. C.E. Down, assistant superintendent.
Department of art: Mr. R.S. Hunt, representative of the art committee;
Mr. Alfred A. Longdon, representative of the applied art committee.
Department of liberal arts: Mr. J.E. Petavel, scientific manager of low
temperature exhibit; Mr. H. Payne, assistant. Assistant superintendents
of exhibits: Mr. J.F. Barrett, mines and metallurgy; Mr. John E.
Blacknell, manufactures; Mr. J.T. Christie, liberal arts; Mr. Harold
Darby, transportation; Mr. Joseph Devlin, agriculture, fish, and game;
Mr. Edward Dixon, electricity; Mr. H. Werninck, liberal arts; Mr. W.C.
Forster, Queen Victoria's jubilee presents; Mr. W. Brown, in charge of
the British Pavilion garden; Mr. Arthur Smith, general foreman.

On April 23, 1903, the royal commission of King Edward VII was issued at
Whitehall under His Majesty's royal sign, appointing the following
commissioners to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition:

The Prince of Wales; Arthur Wellesley, Viscount Peel; Victor Albert
George, Earl of Jersey; Richard George Penn, Earl Howe; Bernard Edward
Barnaby, Baron Castletown; George Arbuthnot, Baron Inverclyde; Richard
Barnaby, Baron Alverstone; John, Baron Avebury; Horace Cruzon Plunkett;
Charles Napier Lawrence; Sir Charles William Fremantle; Sir George
Hayter Chubb; Sir Edward John Poynter; Sir Charles Rivers Wilson; Sir
Edward Maunde Thompson; Sir William Henry Preece; Sir William Turner
Thiselton-Deyer; Sir Herbert Jekyll; Sir Lawrence Alma Tadema; Sir
Caspar Purdon Clarke; Sir George Thomas Livesey; Henry Hardinge; Samuel
Cunyghame; Edward Austin Abbey; Charles Vernon Boys; Thomas Brock;
George Donaldson; Clement Le Neve Foster; John Clarke Hawkshaw; Thomas
Graham Jackson; William Henry Maw; Francis Grant Ogilvie; William
Quiller Orchardson; Boverton Redwood; Alfred Gordon Salamon; Joseph
Wilson Swan; Jethro Justinian Harris; Teall, and Francis William Webb.

Col. Charles Moore Watson was appointed secretary to the commission.
Subsequently, on the 6th of June, 1903, Sir John Benjamin Stone, M.P.,
was appointed additional commissioner.

At the first meeting of the royal commission, held at Marlborough House
on the 28th of April, 1903, His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, K.
G., made a speech showing the interest that was felt in the exposition
generally throughout Great Britain.

The interest taken in the exposition by Great Britain was exemplified
strikingly in the amount of space which she occupied in the various
exhibition buildings, amounting in the aggregate to no less than 206,642
superficial feet, of which only 8,000 feet was occupied by the Royal
Pavilion. An idea of the vast scope of the exhibit may be learned from
the following table, which gives the amount of space in each of the
various exhibit palaces occupied by Great Britain's display:

                               Superficial feet.
Education ......................   6,500
Social economy .................     810
                                 -------   7,310
Art ....................................  20,872
Liberal arts ...........................  35,500
Manufactures ...........................  58,000
Electricity ............................   5,960
Transportation .........................  33,500
Agriculture ............................  20,400
Horticulture ...........................     500
Forestry, Fish, and Game ...............   3,900
Mines and Metallurgy ...................  11,700
Physical Culture .......................   1,000

In making choice of an interesting type to be followed in the British
Royal Pavilion at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, it was felt that
the Orangery of the Royal Palace of Kensington would be representative
of English domestic building at one of its happiest periods, and a
tribute also to the memory of the great architect, Sir Christopher Wren.
In the Orangery of Kensington was found a building that could be
strictly reproduced to its real size. The Orangery was 170 feet long
and had a range of sash windows uninterrupted by doorways, the central
and end windows having stall boards under them, making the entrances.
The long line of roof was broken only by the three brick parapets or
pediments, the center one being carried on half-round columns and
pilasters of gauged brickwork. The walls were of red brick and stock
brick spaced out with design, imitation white stone being sparingly
introduced in cornices or keystones to give a note of white in the
color scheme. The long hall ended in circular anterooms. In the
replica, at St. Louis, of Wren's building, the only departure from the
original was the introduction of an enriched plaster ceiling, such as
would be found in a house of the period; the real Orangery was left
bare and whitewashed.

The architects used the Orangery as the principal front to a
quadrangular building, the necessary offices and accommodation for royal
commissioners and executive staff being provided in wings that led from
the two circular anterooms. The fourth side of the open court was made
by a colonnade, the royal arms being above the central opening. The
character and details of the Orangery were carried through as far as
possible, so that harmony and unity was given to this pleasant

In the garden surrounding the pavilion an attempt was made to reproduce
on a small scale the style of garden that was generally attached to the
mansion residences in England during the reign of William III and Mary,
in the latter part of the seventeenth century, and at the time of Queen
Anne, in the early part of the eighteenth century. The old-fashioned
garden with characteristic features of shady terraces of "peached
alleys," as they would be called, inclosed by hedges clipped into shapes
and embellished with topiary work with the forms of animals and birds
cut out of yews and boxes attracted much attention. The garden was
filled with old-fashioned flowers. A water basin and fountain, typical
of the old English gardens, were there, as also were stone statues and
lead urns and vases. The garden became one of the sights of the
exposition and was usually crowded with interested and delighted

His Majesty King Edward VII was graciously pleased to lend the Queen
Victoria jubilee presents to the exposition. The valuable and unique
collection was placed in the upper story of the Hall of Congresses, one
of the permanent stone buildings, now a part of the Washington
University, and, according to the terms of loan, admission was free to
the public. The royal presents included in the collection chiefly
consisted of gifts made to Her Majesty the late Queen Victoria on the
occasion of the jubilee celebrations of 1887 and 1897. Of these, the
greater number came from India, where native princes of all grades and
representatives of all nationalities and religions vied with each other
in offering to her majesty the splendid tribute of her Indian Empire.

These Indian presents were of great interest, not merely on account of
the precious metals and rare woods in which they were worked, but as
showing how in recent years European ideas have influenced native Indian
art, which, in many instances, was represented in its most
characteristic and unaffected form.

The remainder of the collection included gifts offered by the
representatives of the British colonies, many of them richly illuminated
addresses, inclosed in caskets handsomely worked in metal or in native
woods, or, as in the case of Cape Colony, which was represented by a
magnificent screen of ostrich feathers, by objects recalling an
important industry of the colony. These presents formed only a small
proportion of the thousands sent from every part of the British Empire.

The presents were guarded night and day by members of the constabulary
force of the city of London. Policemen from the same body patrolled the
British Pavilion and grounds. The uniform courtesy of these men and
their patience in answering the many questions put to them by a curious
public spoke well for the corps which they represented.

The grant voted by the British Government for participation at the
Louisiana Purchase Exposition was £150,000. Private exhibitors bore all
the expense connected with the collection, installation, and maintenance
of their exhibits.


The small but artistic pavilion erected by the Government of Guatemala
was situated at the extreme northern end of the World's Fair grounds,
just east of the Administration Building and beside the pavilion of the
Argentine Republic. It was intended as an exhibit palace, with the
object of installing all the Guatemalan exhibits, as well as being a
bureau of information.

In its exterior facade appeared an extensive, semicircular peristyle,
sustained by columns of the renaissance style, and in front two doors
leading to the two rooms into which the building was divided. In the
upper part of the middle of the doors was placed the national shield,
with the American flag on the right and the Guatemalan ensign on the
left, both surrounding the bust of Extrada Cabrera, the present
President of this wealthy and prosperous section of Central America.

The salon to the left was decorated with pictures by Guatemalan artists
and had other artistic features, such as native pottery, statuettes,
etc. Here every afternoon the coffee for which Guatemala is so justly
famous was served to visitors. In the same room also were placed an
extensive collection of newspapers and a series of literary works,
scientific and didactic, by Guatemalan authors.

In the department to the right, arranged very tastefully and skillfully,
were samples of valuable products, demonstrating the agricultural and
mineral wealth of Guatemala. Among the exhibits was a collection of
specimens of all classes of coffee, arranged in 160 receptacles and two
small crystal columns. A magnificent collection of 186 specimens of
cabinet work wood, beautiful in construction and coloring, attracted
much attention by its wonderful variety.

The mineralogical section was not so extensive as that devoted to wood,
but it showed magnificent specimens from the gold mines, also samples of
silver, copper, lead, isinglass, coal, marble, kaolin, etc. Another
installation showed some samples of native beer of excellent quality.
There were also samples of rum and brandies, distilled from sugar cane
and native fruits, among these products being the "banana whisky," a
delicious liquor, exhibited for the first time to the public. The
manufacture of this whisky is a new industry, and promises an excellent

The cereal and grain section was notable for the great variety of corn,
frejols, wheat, barley, etc. The famous cocoas known by the name of
"Socomusco," and which since the earliest time have been recognized as
among the best produced on the continent, were also represented in this
section, as well as sugar, which is being produced in the country in
respectable quantities. The attention of visitors was attracted by the
silk (or "ceiba") cotton, installed in the same section. It is
remarkable for fineness, softness, and special color. It is locally
known as "Algodon de Cajeta."

The extensive and variegated collection of roots, barks, and medicinal
plants constituted a special section. Among them were different kinds of
quinine, sarsaparilla, ipecacuana, and other herbs. Elastic or "india
rubber," stearin, gums, vanilla, etc., made up an interesting exhibition
of native products. Tobacco, similar to the kind grown in Cuba, which is
produced in great abundance in Guatemala, was presented in its various
processes of development, from the native leaf to the finished cigar or
cigarette. Samples of fibers, grasses, flowers, roots, and palms were
shown in abundance. From the palms of Guatemala are manufactured the
so-called "Panama hats." Visitors were much interested in their extreme
lightness and the uniformity of tissue of the Guatemalan hand-made straw

The building was erected at a cost of $10,000. This sum included
ornamentation and the landscape gardening. The cost of the exhibits,
freight, and installation was approximately $10,000, and the expenses of
the commission extant during the exposition was estimated at $5,000.
This brought up the expenditure to the amount appropriated by the
Guatemalan Government for the expenses of the exhibit.

The exhibit was authorized by a decree issued by the President of
Guatemala appointing the commission to represent the Government at the
St. Louis Universal Exposition, dated the 7th of April, 1904, which
reads as follows:

The constitutional President of the Republic has resolved that the
official representation of Guatemala at the Universal Exposition of St.
Louis shall be in charge of the legation of this Republic at Washington,
D.C., and designates Mr. Carlos F. Irigoyen as special commissioner to
be in charge of the exhibition, and appoints Mr. Manuel M. Jiron as
attendant to the commission and to have charge of the degustation of our
coffee. Mr. Jiron shall receive orders from the special commissioner,
who in turn shall receive his instructions from the minister of fomento.


_Members of Haiti commission._--Mr. J.N. Léger, president; Mr. Edmond
Roumain, commissioner-general; Mr. Joseph Duque, commissioner; Mr. Price
Mars, commissioner.

The participation of the Government of Haiti in the Louisiana Purchase
Exposition was decided by the deliberation of the ministerial council,
presided over by the President of the country. The decision was taken
previously in 1901, under the former government of Gen. Tiresias Simon
Sam, and maintained by the actual government of Gen. Nord Alexis, in
February and March of this year. The amount of the appropriation by the
Haitian Government spent in its exhibit was $50,000.

Haiti unfortunately arrived too late at the fair to construct a special
building, but installed excellent exhibits in the Forestry, Fish, and
Game Building and in the Palace of Mines and Metallurgy.

The Haitian exhibit at the World's Fair was located in the southwestern
section of the Forestry, Fish, and Game Building, next the California
exhibit, and covered a space of 30 by 75 feet. In the center was a
beautiful pavilion in which the following species of native woods were
represented: Mahogany, Santa Maria, tacha, rosewood, and tavernon. The
woods most used in the construction were mahogany and Santa Maria. Most
of the panels and all of the columns were made of these two woods, and
they blended in such a manner that they looked as if they were one and
the same wood. The other varieties were used in the smaller decorations.
The object in making the pavilion was to show the native cabinet woods
of Haiti, especially that of Santa Maria, a wood which very much
resembles mahogany. Four columns of the pavilion were made of Santa
Maria, one of mahogany, and one partly of each. In the pavilion were
served coffee and cocoa, native products.

Just at the rear of the pavilion was a display of imported liquors and
sirups from the land of Haiti, including anisette, maraschuino, repikes,
creme de menthe, sirup d'orfeat, sirup de granadine, and crême de cocoa;
also triple-distilled bay rum and rum of good quality from four
distilleries in Haiti. On either side were glass cases in which were
shown other interesting exhibits. First a collection of cigars and of
beeswax in molds. Next a sectional case containing, samples of cotton
mapon, used for the filling of mattresses and pillows. Then the cocoa
bean; also coffee taken from the cherry, peanuts, sugar from the sugar
cane, and bottled honey. In the next case were hides, leather, and a
collection of fine shoes made in Haiti. Next to this case was a display
of coffee beans and an interesting exhibit of hats made from palm leaves
and corn husks. The chairs were made from the osier, or water willow. In
the rear was a cabin made from the natural woods imported from Haiti.
The roof was covered with palm leaves. The entrance was draped with an
American flag on the, left and the red and blue flag of Haiti on the
right. This Haitian; flag was made entirely by hand. In the interior was
a fine collection of hand-carved vases, pedestals, mortar and pestles,
bowls, urns, and tobacco boxes.


_Members of Honduras commission_.--Mr. Salvador Cordova,
commissioner-general; Mr. Howard S. Reed, executive commissioner; Mr.
Alejandro Bauer, assistant commissioner.

In the Palace of Agriculture, surrounded by a tropical bower of graceful
palms and thousands of yards of long gray Spanish moss, was shown a
collective exhibit of the wondrous and little known country of Honduras,
Central America. Upon all sides the visitor was confronted by most
curious and interesting samples of its varied resources. Crowds were
constantly gathered about the rubber tree with its white, milk-like sap,
and everyone seemed interested in the great bales of dried raw rubber,
while questions, opinions, and discussions were many regarding this
little known raw product. Even the great scarlet and blue macaw, from
his high perch overhead, joined in with wild screeches when the crowds
got too noisy.

Curious bales of sarsaparilla wrapped in white cowhide, great clusters
of cocoanuts in their thick hulls, long tables with hundreds of
specimens of dug plants and medicinal barks and roots, attracted curious
crowds. The banana bulbs and stalks, 20 feet high, eleven months'
growth, with the fruit which they had produced, gave the visitor an idea
of what is possible by systematic culture, as a banana plantation with
the proper care will produce fifty-two crops a year, which means a
cutting every week. The consumption of the banana has increased with
greater rapidity than any other fruit, and it occupies a position second
to none as a food and fruit. The sarsaparilla in its original packing
case was unique, and it represented its share in the country's
exportations. Honduras sarsaparilla has taken the highest award at the
last five expositions.

The cocoanut in its fibrous hull was a surprise to many, as the market
shows them only clear of the hull. It is said that each cocoanut tree in
Honduras averages about 365 nuts a year, or a nut each day. Brazil nuts
were shown, with their hard outside shell, in which some 15 to 20 of the
nuts are closely packed.

Of the 400 specimens of cabinet woods which were displayed, only about
100 are known to commercial uses; the rest are awaiting development. In
this exhibit were the woods which neither burn nor float. Lignum-vitae,
which is one of the heaviest woods known to science, and used
extensively in the manufacture of mallets, etc., was displayed; also the
San Juan wood, which has lately been discovered, and is found
extensively on the coast. This wood is practically non-combustible, and
is said to be the coming wood for car building, furniture, and interior
finishing, being susceptible of a high polish. The mahogany, for which
Honduras is noted, was shown in many varieties, as were rosewood,
redwood, hard pine, cedar, etc.

The exhibit of native drug plants received special recognition. Among
other herbs were the Peruvian and cinchona-bark quinine, rhubarb,
vegetable wax, and many others unknown to science. Sugar planters were
astounded at the cane only three months old and 12 feet high, grown
without cultivation, and stalks were exhibited 24 feet high of twelve
months' growth. At present there is not a sugar refinery in the country.

The ores exhibited were many specimens of quartz and placer gold,
silver, lead, copper, and magnetic iron, of which there is practically
an inexhaustible supply. The work of the natives was shown in hats,
baskets, hammocks, etc., being of a high order of perfection. Many of
the finest panama hats are made by the Indians in Honduras. The
different kinds of sisal and hemp shown were pronounced by manufacturers
to be of the very highest grade.

Many people, when the name Honduras, Central America, is mentioned,
think of a far-away land untrodden by man. As a matter of fact, it was
pointed out that it is not as far from New Orleans to Honduras as it is
from St. Louis to either New York or Boston.


Several causes prevented an appropriation by Parliament for Hungary's
participation at the Universal Exposition held in St. Louis;
consequently the royal Hungarian minister of commerce, anxious that
Hungary should be represented at the Congress of Nations in St. Louis,
decided to furnish a sufficient sum out of funds at his disposal to make
this participation possible.

Acting upon this decision, he appointed George de Szogyeny, LL.D., at
that time commissioner of commerce, and accredited to the State
Department in Washington, D.C., as commissioner-general, and
commissioned the Hungarian Society of Fine Arts and the Hungarian
Society of Applied Arts to arrange the exhibits in the Fine Arts
Building and to arrange for the exhibit of applied arts.

The Hungarian Society of Applied Arts sent Paul Horti as its
representative. Mr. Paul Horti is a well known art critic of Hungary.
Mr. R.E. Rombauer was also a member of the commission.

The cost of Hungary's participation was approximately 200,000 crowns.
The value of exhibits was as follows:

Fine arts, 150,000 crowns; applied arts in the Manufactures Building,
600,000 crowns. There were other individual exhibits scattered through
the palaces of Agriculture, Mines and Metallurgy, and Education, but
they represented only a small value.


The government of India and the provincial governments of Bengal, Assam,
and Mysore jointly contributed the sum of 105,000 rupees (equivalent to
about $35,000), and the Indian Tea Association, Indian Tea Cess
Committee, and the United Planters' Association of southern India,
contributed 90,000 rupees (equal to about $30,000) for the erection of a
building and expenses attendant on the work of the exhibition proper,
which was designed to promote and encourage the use of India tea and
coffee in America. When it was decided that India should take part in
the exhibition, exhibitors of Indian manufactures, for whom no space had
been reserved in the exhibition palaces, were referred by the government
of India, the exhibition authorities, and by the British royal
commission to the commissioners in charge, and their exhibits, together
with those made of tea, coffee, cardamoms, and pepper, were installed in
the government building and formed practically the entire exhibit from

Mr. R. Blechynden was the only executive officer appointed for East
India. F.C. Williams, of New York, was subsequently appointed as
honorary assistant commissioner.

The exhibit would not have been made but for the urgent request of those
representing the tea interests, through the Bengal Chamber of Commerce,
and it was intended primarily and mainly for the exploitation of Indian
teas in America, thus finding a wider market for their use. In addition
to the erection of a building and the serving of tea in liquid form to
the visitors at a nominal charge, a considerable fund was set apart for
advertising the merits of these teas in the Middle West. Part of this
sum was expended during the continuance of the exhibition, and the work
was all coordinated and in the hands of the commissioner. The
exploitation may continue for several years. Advertisements have
appeared in newspapers in St. Louis, Omaha, Chicago, Columbus,
Indianapolis, Cincinnati, Louisville, and many other smaller towns. The
aggregate of expenditure in the next few years will be much more than
set apart for the exhibition.

All of the East India exhibits were contributed by individuals and were
confined to the East India Building, but were grouped under the heads of
art, liberal arts, manufactures, and agriculture.


_Members of Italian commission_.--His Excellency Baron E. Mayor des
Planches, honorary commissioner-general; Mr. Giovanni Branchi,
commissioner-general; Mr. Adolfo Appoloni, commissioner of fine arts;
Chev. Vittorio Zeggio; Mr. Guido Pantaleoni; Mr. Alberto Alfani, Mr.
Tullio Giordana, Mr. Cesare Della Chiesa, Mr. Jerome Zeggio,
secretaries; Mr. Giuseppe Sommarauga, architect of the pavilion.

The Italian pavilion was one of the most artistic and beautiful, if not
one of the smallest, foreign buildings on the World's Fair grounds. It
was a construction of Roman travertine stone, ornamented with bronze and
marble sculptures. It was an architectonic fancy, Graeco-Roman, on the
style of the ancient villas of the emperors of the Caesarian age, with
garden and fountains.

The front colonnade ended in two stout lateral "pillars," crowned by two
"victories" of gilded bronze (a work by Bialetti, of Milan), one of
which bore the Italian laurel and the others the olive branch, as a
token of peace and welfare.

After ascending the first stairs, about 90 feet wide, and passing
through all the colonnade of ionic style, was the garden where the
ancient Romans used to grow their laurel, an image of glory.

The building was erected on a strong base more than 15 feet high, with
another flight of stairs more than 45 feet wide.

The front was formed by a central body of the Corinthian style of the
best epoch, flanked by two lower parts ornamented by marble and bronze
works. The caryatides of the three latticed windows were authentic
copies of the ancient caryatides of Greek origin now in the Castle of
Abano, near Rome.

In the hall, together with cases and various ancient works, there was a
faithful copy of the famous Etruscan vase called "Of François,"
belonging to the gallery of Florence, and a good copy in marble of the
Roman group of wrestlers. Also in the same halls, in the cavities at the
end under the frieze, with the inscription in Roman characters, "Italia
lux alma preevit," were two great oil paintings of their Royal Majesties
the King and Queen of Italy.

This monument of art was the work of Giuseppe Sommarauga, architect, of
Milan, who had also the task of originating and directing all the
principal decorations made and shipped from Italy.

The participation of Italy at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition was
authorized by a law of the Italian Parliament dated December 27, 1903.
The participation was prepared by the department of agriculture,
industry, and commerce, under the direct supervision of the minister,
Hon. Luigi Rava. A special committee was appointed for that purpose by
the King, and the Hon. Angelo Pavis, a prominent member of the Italian
Parliament, was elected chairman of the committee. The Italian
ambassador to the United States, the Baron Edmondo Mayor des Planches,
who advised the Italian Government to let Italy appear officially at the
exposition, was appointed honorary commissioner-general, and Hon.
Giovanni Branchi, the Italian consul-general in New York, was appointed
commissioner-general. Adolfo Appoloni, one of the members of the royal
commission in Rome, was appointed special commissioner for fine arts,
and Mr. Branchi chose as members of the commission Guido Pantaleoni,
electrical engineer, of St. Louis, and Chev. Vittorio Zeggio, who was
special delegate from the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, to promote the
participation of Italy to the World's Fair. Besides these members of the
commission four secretaries and several assistants helped the commission
in the work of arranging and distributing the different exhibits.

The appropriation of the Italian Government for the exposition was
650,000 lire ($130,000), but this appropriation was raised in progress
to 800,000 lire ($170,000). A small fee of $4 per square meter was
assessed to the exhibitors, but the artists and the schools had nothing
to pay. No private contributions were accepted by the Government. The
Government paid the cost of transporting and maintenance of exhibits,
which amounted to about $30,000. The number of exhibitors was about
1,100. Many more firms would have sent their products to this exposition
had they had time to arrange a fitting display. For this reason the
Italian display was not a full demonstration of what Italy produces.

The largest Italian displays were in the Fine Arts, the Manufactures,
and the Agriculture buildings. The paintings and the sculptures
exhibited were sufficient to give an idea of the modern art in Italy.
They were all quite recent, with the exception of some pictures
exhibited as loan, which were painted before the Chicago Exposition. The
largest and most important art societies of Italy took a great interest
in the exposition, but lack of time prevented the artists from preparing
special works to be exhibited. The spirit of modern Italian art was
individual, all working for the development of a national art. Among the
sculptures were Monteverde, Fontana, Origo, and Romanelli. Among the
painters, Previati, Rizzi, Mancini, Gioli, Morbelli, Dall'Oca Bianca
Laurenti, Ciardi, Fattori de Karolis, Nomellini, Gelli, etc.

In the Manufactures Building the exhibits of carved wood furniture was
displayed, together with ceramics, pottery, marble, bronzes, silks,
textiles, laces, embroideries, paving bricks, and many other exhibits of
great importance. Among the show cases was a large and artistic one, in
which was exhibited the silk factories' display.

In the Agriculture Building Italy had a large display of samples of the
many kinds of wines and olive oils it produces, and there was a large
display of seeds sent by the department of agriculture.

In the Mines Building a beautiful collection of marbles and sulphur
showed the wealth of the under-soil resources of Italy.

The photographs, the plans, and the maps of the electrical power houses
and diverting works for the production of electricity in the Electricity
Building attracted many visitors.

In the Transportation Building the Rete Mediterranes, one of the
railroads that operates in Italy, exhibited the electrical system used
on some of its lines.

One of the best and most important Italian exhibits was in the
Educational and Social Economy Building. In both these lines Italy stood
among the most progressive nations in the world. The results of the
schools, the people's banks and savings banks, and the mutual help
societies were an excellent demonstration.

In the Liberal Arts were to be seen musical instruments, books, and
products of the paper factories.

Corals, cameos, and mosaics were exhibited in the Varied Industries
Building, and some of them were remarkable works of art.


On July 10, 1903, an imperial ordinance for the organization of the
imperial Japanese commission to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition was
issued by the Mikado to the effect that the imperial commission to the
Louisiana Purchase Exposition should be under the supervision of the
minister of state for agriculture and commerce, and should deal with all
the matters relating to the participation of the Japanese Empire in the
Louisiana Purchase Exposition; that the imperial commission should
consist of the following:

Nonresident: Baron Keigo Kiyoura, president; Baron Masanao Matsudaira,
vice-president. Resident: Mr. Seiichi Tegima, commissioner-general; Mr.
Hiromichi Shugio; Mr. Ushitaro Beppu; Mr. Naozo Kanzaki. Nonresident
commissioners: Mr. Hajime Ota, Mr. Haruke Yamawaki, Mr. Masanao
Hanihara, Mr. M. Isobe, Mr. J. Koyama, Mr. M. Oka, Mr. Okamoto.
Resident: Mr. Keisuke Niwa, director of works; Mr. Yukio Itchikawa,
landscape architect; Mr. Saizo Tajima; Prof. Yoshitaro Wantanabe; Mr.
Mosuke Matsumura, secretary education department; Mr. Kannosuke
Miyashima, expert home department. Secretaries (resident): Mr. Harukazu
Miyabe, Mr. Michio Hattori, Mr. Toyozo Kobayashi. Attachés (resident):
Mr. Shun Suzuki, Mr. Kiro Harada, Mr. Teiichiro Gejyo, Mr. Risaburo Ota.

Beginning with the international exposition held at Vienna in 1873, and
including the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, Japan has participated in
twenty-seven world's fairs. Her participation in the exposition at St.
Louis was more memorable in many respects than at any preceding
exposition. In the first place, the exhibits never before occupied such
an extensive area. It was three times as large as that occupied by Japan
at the Chicago World's Fair of 1893 and the Paris Exposition of 1900,
respectively. In each department where Japan took any part at the fair
her location was excellent. The enthusiasm of Japanese manufacturers and
traders in their desire to participate in the exposition was so intense
that despite the effort of the Government to discriminate between
numerous applicants the quantity of exhibits was swelled to such an
extent that it was a matter of no small difficulty to find places for
all the articles sent in for exhibition. Notwithstanding the fact that
there was only a short period of nine months between Japan's decision to
participate and the opening of the fair, and that in the course of that
comparatively short period the rupture of friendly relations between
Russia and Japan greatly handicapped the latter's endeavors concerning
the exposition, the officials and exhibitors pursued their preconceived
plan without an interruption. In view of such disadvantages, the
promptness and accuracy with which articles were brought into their
destination, arranged, and displayed seasonably in proper form may well
be regarded as remarkable. By the time the gates of the fair were thrown
open to the public the display had been well-nigh completed, to the
gratification of the Exposition Company and the Japanese exhibitors.

When Japan was first invited to take part in the exposition she was
busily engaged in preparing for the Fifth National Exhibition held in
the city of Osaka. For that reason she declined reluctantly to accept
the invitation; but as the inauguration of the Louisiana Purchase
Exposition was consequently postponed until the 1st day of May, 1904,
Japan was later enabled to accept the invitation.

Early in the year 1904 the imperial Government sent a corps of officials
to St. Louis to select a suitable location for the Government buildings,
and to apply for space in the various departments of the exposition. Due
to the prompt attention of the Japanese Government and the courtesy of
the managers of the exposition, the desired arrangements were
accomplished without the slightest difficulty. A bill appropriating
$400,000 to be expended for the exposition was passed by both houses of
the legislature, and in July, 1903, the Government formally notified the
Exposition Company at St. Louis that Japan would be represented at the

The Japanese commission for the exposition took great care not to accept
for exhibition any articles which had mere virtue of novelty, without
practical value, or any articles not produced in large volume. The idea
of the Government in employing such discrimination was to so plan the
exhibition that it would leave some lasting effects after the exposition
upon the world's trade and commerce. The exhibition of matters relating
to education was executed under the direct supervision of the department
of education, and was so planned as to make it represent a complete
system of the education now in vogue in Japan. In regard to the
exhibitions of mines, fish, forestry, agriculture, and horticulture, the
department of agriculture and commerce exercised the authority of
deciding what articles should be displayed. The arrangement of articles
exhibited in various departments of the exposition was made so that
those independent of the Japan Exhibits Association were arranged by
individual exhibitors under the supervision of the Japanese commission,
while others were set out in proper order by the association.

There was no department or palace in which Japan did not exhibit.
Displays on an especially elaborate scale, however, could be found in
the following eleven palaces, namely: Palaces of Education and Social
Economy, Fine Arts, Liberal Arts, Manufactures, Varied Industries,
Transportation, Mines, Forestry, Fish, and Game, Electricity, and
Agriculture. The total area of space of the Japanese sections in these
departments was distributed among different sections as follows:

                                                    Square feet.
Palace of Education ...............................   6,299
Palace of Fine Arts ...............................   6,825
Palace of Liberal Arts ............................     400
Palace of Industry ................................  27,384
Palace of Manufactures ............................  54,737
Palace of Transportation ..........................  14,160
Palace of Electricity .............................   1,100
Palace of Mines ...................................   6,903
Palace of Forestry, Fish, and Game ................   2,982
Palace of Agriculture .............................   8,667
       Total ...................................... 129,457

Besides the above areas in the various departments, a garden of a
genuine Japanese style covered an extensive space of ground, in which
stood the Government building. Attached to it was a reception hall and
several artistic mansions. Displays of Japanese garden and floricultural
arts were exhibited in the garden. In the reception hall were exhibited
various data showing the growth and present status of the Red Cross
Society of Japan. Altogether, the dimension of space taken by Japan for
the garden aggregated approximately 148,361 square feet. Artistically
distributed within the precincts of the garden were the reception hall,
the office building, the Formosa tea house, the Kinkaku tea house, and
several cottages and a bazaar. Hills and waterfalls, ponds and bridges
were presented in miniature scale. In the verdant lawns flowers of
different colors were all harmonized into an artistic unit in unique
landscape gardening. Beautifully trained dwarf trees, centuries old,
were brought from Japan for the special purpose of ornamenting the
garden. There were also the drooping wisteria and gay peony, the scented
lily and blushing maple.

The building materials for the reception hall, the office building, and
resting cottages were brought from Japan. The reception hall was built
entirely by native carpenters, after the style of a daimyo's goten
(palace of feudal lord) of some six hundred years ago. The architectural
style of the building was what is termed Heike, a style prevailing at
the time when a military family called Heike held a paramount power. The
artistically curved roofs, projecting one upon another, were a modest
representation of architectural accomplishment already attained in Japan
several centuries ago. Hanging on the inner wall of the hall was the
portrait of Her Majesty the Empress of Japan, and occupying a section of
the room were the exhibits of the Red Cross Society of Japan, in which
the Empress takes a keen interest. The resting cottage was modeled after
a cottage in a shogun's (military magistrate) garden, two or three
centuries ago. Close to the south bank of the lake was a small
reproduction of Kinkaku Temple. Close to the right of the front gate of
the garden stood the Formosa mansion, a fair representation of
characteristic native dwellings. The Kinkaku Temple was built under the
auspices of the Japan Tea Traders' Association, and the Formosa mansion
by the initiative of the Formosa government.


_Members of Mexico commission_.--Engineer Albino R. Nuncio,
commissioner-general; Mr. Benito Navarro, assistant to the
commissioner-general; Mr. Juan Renteria, assistant to the commissioners
general; Engineer Lauro Viadas, chief department of agriculture; Mr.
Daniel R. De la Vega, assistant to the chief; Mr. Isidoro Aldasoro,
chief department of art and ethnology; Mr. Leopoldo Tell and Mr. Octavio
Andrade, assistants to the chief; Mr. Maximiliano M. Chabert, chief
department of liberal arts; Mr. Alberto Ocampo, assistant to the chief;
Mr. Julio Poulat, chief department of education; Mr. Manuel Costa,
assistant to the chief; Mr. Enrique Garibay, chief department of
forestry, fish, and game; Mr. Jorge Salazar, assistant to the chief;
Mr. J. Alberto MacDowell, chief department of horticulture; Mr. J.M.
Nuncio, chief department of manufactures; Mr. Antonio Sierra Cruz,
assistant to the chief; Engineer Eduardo Mantinez Baca, chief department
of mines and metallurgy; Mr. Miguel Peinado, assistant to the chief;
Maj. S. Garcia Cuellar, chief department of transportation; Lieut.
Manuel Garcia Lugo and Lieut. Jose Ortiz Monasterio, assistants to the
chief; Mrs. Laura M. De Cuenca, Dr. Plutarco Ornelas, Prof Teofilo
Frezieres, Mr. E.H. Talbot, Mr. Jose M. Trigo De Claver, Mr. Roberto
Garcia, Mr. Jose A. Bonilla.

The amounts voted by the Mexican Congress, according to dates since the
organization of the work, for the participation of Mexico at the
Universal Exposition of St. Louis, were as follows:

October 22, 1901 ............................... $50,000
July 1, 1902 ...................................  70,000
November 23, 1902 ..............................  15,000
July 1, 1903 ...................................  90,000
December 3, 1903 ............................... 250,000
July 1, 1904 ................................... 100,000
November, 1904 ................................. 300,000
   Total ....................................... 875,000

The Mexican exhibit in the department of education, as a whole,
demonstrated the remarkable development of public instruction from
primary to scientific, and at the same time the progress made by
adopting new plans and systems. The exhibit as a whole could also be
studied in detail by looking over the regulations, plans of study,
statistics, texts, etc., which were displayed there.

The Gallery No. 94 of the west pavilion of the Fine Arts Building was
the one assigned by the Exposition Company to the exhibition of fine
arts from the Republic of Mexico. This small gallery contained 38 oil
paintings, 2 pen drawings, and 2 sculptures. The paintings belonged to
11 exhibitors.

The importance of the exhibition as relates to the art cultivated in
Mexico was represented by the famous works of the Artist Fabres, which
attracted a great deal of attention.

In the Palace of Liberal Arts Mexico exhibited technical works and
diversified industrial products. Among the most important were those of
official character, such as geographical maps, the system used for the
illumination of the seashores, the construction of buildings for special
works, etc. Also plans and constructions of architectural character
from' prominent architects of Mexico.

Displayed here were exhibits from the manufactures of drugs and chemical
products, perfumes, paper, printing and binding companies, and many
others comprised in the extensive official classification. One most
important exhibit was that of chemical products and pharmacy.

Another very important branch of liberal arts, and very well developed,
was that of photography. Very remarkable works of the most expert
photographers of the country were exhibited.

In the Department of Manufactures the industrial concerns from Mexico
were represented as follows: The cotton and woolen mills, which have
greatly developed in the Republic; the leather and shoe industry was
well demonstrated by a number of factories which exhibited their
products; there were also shown a number of samples from the manufacture
of furniture and decorating fixtures for buildings and residences.

Full information about the railroad lines, general railroad map, and
great number of photographs of the most important points on the lines,
plaster models of the Tehuantepec Railroad connecting the two oceans,
and statistical information of the railroad development were exhibited
in the Transportation Building. Models of light-houses and original
light-houses that will be used in the Vera Cruz Harbor were displayed
also, as well as models of the harbors of Mazanillo, Salina, Curz,
Coatzacoalcos, and Tampico. Tools, bags, scales, etc., used in the mail
service, and statistical information of the development of the service
were shown, as were carriages, harness, saddles, and all kinds of
implements used for driving and riding.

The war department had a general display of educational methods used in
the military and naval academies, and maps, military library,
improvements invented by some member of the army and samples of
materials made by its factories.

In the Electricity Building were maps and reports of the most important
electrical installations of the country.

In the Machinery Hall were displayed machines made in the factories of
the army for the manufacture of cartridges, and antiscaling substance.

Among the Mexican exhibits at St. Louis, the largest number was in the
Agricultural Building, where the display occupied over 900 square feet
of space. The exhibits made by the three leading breweries of Mexico was
noticeable as to elegance and artistic good taste. Great importance was
attached to the exhibits of leaf and manufactured tobacco. The coffee
exhibit attracted general attention.

The exhibit of fibers, especially that of Henequen, from Yucatan, was
very important and complete, the last named being the cause of
flourishing trade with the United States. The exhibit of sugar showed
the great resources of Mexico in this product. A splendid exhibit of
Mexican vanila attracted the attention of all visitors. The exhibit of
agronomical maps by the Mexican Commission was of much scientific value,
and the collection of insects and injurious parasitical plants was also
worthy of attention.

The Mexican exhibit in the Department of Forestry, Fish and Game
consisted of 600 specimens, arranged and classified by the Medical and
National Institute of Mexico, and attracted considerable attention. The
magnificent exhibit of animals and stuffed birds was also admired. The
exhibit was arranged and presented by the Geographical Commission of
Mexico. The collection of woods presented by the governments of the
States of Colima, Durahgo, Mexico, Puebla, San Luis Potosi, Michoacan,
Yucatan, and the department of fomento was noticeable for the diversity
of kinds of woods forming the collection, amounting to 800. The exhibit
of broom root from Mexico was the only one of its kind in all the
Department of Forestry, and concerning which the largest number of
inquiries was made.

In the Palace of Mines and Metallurgy Mexico occupied 13,000 square feet
of space. A great variety of ores and minerals was displayed, viz, gold,
silver, lead, iron, copper, antimony, zinc, etc. The number of
exhibitors amounted to 330. The Geological Institute of Mexico presented
maps, geological plans, mineral rocks, publications, etc. Among the
latter a very interesting study of the veins of the mines of Pachuca and
Real de Monte, also another of the Rhyolitas of Mexico.

The social and economical conditions of the Republic of Mexico were
splendidly represented in the Department of Social Economy by numerous
official and private publications and photographs. The wise steps taken
by the Government, which have changed the economical conditions of the
country, constituting an intellectual, material, and positive
development, were logically collected according to the department of
state to which they belong. The exhibit was completed by a numerous
collection of photographs of cities, ports, public buildings, monuments,
residences, etc., showing how Mexican cities have been improved and
beautified and how the Republic of the south has progressed from a
material and artistical standpoint.


_Members of commission_.--Mr. T.E. Donne, representative; Mr. Frederick
Moorhouse and Mr. Thomas Clarkson, attachés.

When the New Zealand government received the invitation of the Louisiana
Purchase Exposition executive to be represented at the World's Fair the
colonial parliament gave the utmost publicity to the proposal and
offered to allow any of its business firms a share of the space that was
to be placed at its disposal. The tariffs of the United States, however,
proved a serious obstacle, as the chief business houses of the young
nation failed to see how their interests would be served by advertising
in a country which placed a heavy tariff on their goods. However, the
executive of the government, recognizing the cordiality of the
invitation and with a desire to emphasize its wishes for the closest
relationship with the American people, decided to be represented
directly by one of its own departments--the department of tourist and
health resorts. The chief of that branch of the public service, Mr. T.
E. Donne, was therefore authorized to prepare an exhibit setting forth
the attractions of New Zealand to tourists and the work the department
is doing in that connection. When compiling the exhibit Commissioner
Donne represented to his government that it would be advisable also to
include a few of the country's general products, and it therefore
extended the original idea in this direction.

In the Department of Forestry, Fish, and Game New Zealand had a unique
and tastefully arranged display that attracted keenest interest. A
collection of Scotch red deer and fallow deer heads testified to the
magnificent hunting that is obtained among the virgin forests of New
Zealand, and specimens of trout--rainbow, salmon, fario, and
fontinalis--taken from the mountain-fed streams that intersect the
country from one end to the other appealed to the fishing enthusiast.

Pictures and paintings around the walls were fascinating in that they
served to indicate to visitors the character of a country which nature
has blessed, when judged from a point of view of the beautiful and
picturesque. Mount Cook, majestically rising to a height of nearly
13,000 feet, was shown in paintings and photographs. Lakes Taupo, Te
Anau, Wakatipu, Manawapouri, Waikaremona, and others, whose clear,
glassy waters, surrounded by verdure-covered hills, gave some idea of
the loveliness of New Zealand lakes. The Wanganui River, Milford Sound,
one of the world's wonderful fiords, and the canyons known as the Otira
and Buller gorges were some of the features that interested the

The thermal districts were chiefly represented by the great Waimangu
geyser and its crater, 21/2 acres in extent, which throws up boiling
water, mud, and stones to a height of 1,500 feet, claiming a place as
one of the "wonders of the world."

Forestry was represented by beautifully finished ornamental wood and a
splendid exhibit of the famous Kauri gum. This gum, which is used
principally in the manufacture of varnish, takes an important place
among New Zealand products, no less than five million dollars worth
being exported last year. Of special interest to ornithologists were the
native wingless birds of New Zealand.

The ancient habits of that interesting and progressive race, the Maori,
who preceded white people in New Zealand, were shown in some remarkably
realistic and unique carvings and paintings. The Maori has long since
passed the savage state and has shown his ability to attain the highest
stages of modern civilization. The contrast between the position of the
Maori in 1840 and in 1904 constitutes a remarkable progress in racial
development. Formerly the Maori was a savage, clever and enterprising,
but ferocious, cruel, and a cannibal. To-day he tills the soil, speaks
English, and sends his children to school and college, where they study
for the highest professions, such as medicine, law, teaching, etc.
Contact with a highly civilized community has diverted the natural
intelligence of the Maori to useful channels, while Christianity has
developed the best instincts of a fine race of people. In the to-day the
Maori stands side by side with the white man, a welcome comrade in the
building of a new nation. Six Maoris occupy positions in the New Zealand
legislature, and one is a cabinet minister.

In the Agricultural Building a score of sacks containing wheat, oats,
peas, beans, clover, grass seed, etc., paid tribute to the climate and
soil of New Zealand. The extreme interest shown by all visitors
constituted a very high compliment to the country. The demand by farmers
for samples of wheat and oats was great. The attention bestowed by
farmers and grain merchants upon the New Zealand grain display had its
counterpart in the attitude of women visitors toward the exhibit of
woolen rugs and blankets. Its exceptional soil and climate enable the
New Zealand farmer to rear sheep with a grade of wool that can seldom be
obtained elsewhere. Factories that have been established in the
principal cities weave the wool into clothing, rugs, and blankets of an
excellent strength and quality. Fleeces, both scoured and greasy,
afforded wool experts an opportunity of closely examining the staple in
raw material. Other products shown in the Palace of Agriculture were
bales of hemp manufactured from New Zealand flax, a very fine sample of
hops grown in the Nelson district, rabbit skins packed and ready for
export, kegs of tallow, crude petroleum, etc. These served to indicate
partially the resources of a wonderfully rich and productive country.

A chief attraction of the New Zealand exhibit was the opportunity it
provided Americans for personally interrogating the New Zealand
representatives concerning the government of their country. Political
economists in America, as in other parts of the world, have in recent
years been pointing to New Zealand as a country where a government
fulfills its proper functions in caring for the welfare of the whole of
the people, where each man and woman takes a recognized and effective
part in the making of the laws which govern them, and where high ideals
of modern civilization are lived up to.


The Norwegian Storthing (Parliament) on the 20th of January, 1904,
failed to pass a bill appropriating funds for Norway's participation in
the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. The Government, however, being aware
that there would be some individual exhibitors, decided to accept the
invitation from the American authorities to have a commission appointed.

By resolution of the Crown Prince Regent on March 25, Frederick L.M.
Waage, vice-consul for Sweden and Norway to St. Louis, was appointed
commissioner-general for Norway. No Government appropriation and no
money was raised by private subscriptions.

Three individual exhibitors displayed goods:

David Andersen, Christiana, in the Varied Industries Building,
silverware and enamel. Cost of exhibit, $40,000; installation, $500,
transportation, $800.

Chr. Knag, Bergen, furniture of the old Norwegian style in the east wing
of the Fine Arts Building. Cost of exhibit, $3,000; transportation,

Nordenfjeldske Kunstindustrimuseum, Dortheim, tapestries, old and new
Norwegian patterns and designs by Gerhard Munthe. Cost of exhibit,
$10,000; transportation, $35.

Sweden's participation at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition was
authorized by the following decree addressed by King Oscar, of Sweden
and Norway, to A.R. Akerman, director-general and president of the
board of trade, which decree appointed Mr. Akerman commissioner-general
to the exposition. The decree gives fully an account of the Swedish
participation and was as follows:

Greetings, etc.

Since the President of the United States has invited the governments of
other states, including Sweden, to participate in a Universal Exposition
in St. Louis, originally intended to be held in 1903, but now being
decided to be open during the period from May 1 to December 1, 1904, and
we, through gracious proposition, of which a copy is herewith attached,
suggested to the Riksdag to appropriate, on an extra budget for 1904, an
amount of 120,000 kronor for Sweden's participation in the art and
educational exhibits of the exposition has the Riksdag in a
communication of May 22, 1903, with reference to the arrangements of
expenses of the State budget, eighth section, communicated the

    The Riksdag had considered the advisability that Sweden be
    officially represented at the Universal Exposition in St. Louis
    1904, especially as this could be supposed as being in line with
    the desire of the Swedes residing in the United States and
    serving to strengthen the ties that still unite them with their
    Fatherland, and in accordance with the expression of the chief
    of our ecclesiastic department in the minutes of our ministry
    had the Riksdag embraced the opinion that the official
    participation of Sweden should embrace the departments of art
    and education, in which sections our country seems to have
    especially good possibilities successfully to compete with the
    greater countries of culture.

    In a letter to the Academy of Fine Arts, incorporated in the
    minutes of our ministry, the three societies of artists had
    expressed the desire that from the collections of art belonging
    to the State works of art should be contributed that might be
    required in order that the exposition in question should give a
    complete illustration of the development of art in our country.
    In consequence of this, the Riksdag had considered it necessary
    to point out the fact that as it has occurred that works of art
    contributed from the collection of the States to be exhibited at
    other places at the return of the same were more or less
    damaged, and that as in consequence of the transport that would
    be necessary in this case absolute guarantee for the restitution
    of these works of art in an undamaged condition could hardly be
    had, doubts seemed to meet as to such a contribution as had been
    suggested by the societies of artists.

    Calling attention to what has just been pointed out, the Riksdag
    stated that the Riksdag, with consent to our proposition in
    question regarding the participation of Sweden in the art and
    educational departments of the Universal Exposition in St. Louis
    1904, had appropriated on an extra budget for the year 1904 the
    sum of 120,000 kronor.

    Having had this presented before us, we have, accepting on
    Sweden's behalf the above-mentioned invitation as far as
    concerns the art and the educational departments of the
    exposition, resolved to appoint a committee, who is hereby
    empowered to take all measures necessary for the participation
    of Sweden in these departments of the exposition and to transact
    all business belonging to the same which is not of a nature to
    be submitted to our gracious consideration; and we have
    appointed you as president of the committee and as members of
    the same selected the principal of the technical school of
    Stockholm, Bror Viktor Adler; the inspector of the common
    schools at Stockholm, Carl Gustaf Bergman; the vice-general
    consul, Bror Axel Fredrik Georgii; the assistant professor at
    Ostermalms public secondary school, Stockholm, Nols Gerhard,
    Eilhelm Lagerstedt, and the superintendent of the art section of
    the National Museum, Carl Ludvig Looström.

    We, intending to appoint in the future, on the recommendation of
    the committee, a commissioner for Sweden at the exposition,
    herewith empower the committee to appoint a secretary and
    necessary assistants and in as far as it is found necessary to
    secure the cooperation of persons whose insight and ability can
    secure for Sweden a successful and honorable representation at
    the exposition.

    Finally, we authorize the committee to collect after the
    beginning of 1904, at our exchequer department, the
    above-mentioned amount appropriated by the Riksdag to be used as
    demands require for the purpose intended, with the obligation to
    account for same and with the understanding that the committee
    assumes the responsibility that this amount under no
    circumstances is exceeded; and we have ordered the exchequer
    department to pay from moneys on hand in advance, on requisition
    and to be deducted from the mentioned appropriation, what is
    necessary to carry on the work of the committee during the year
    1903, not exceeding an amount of 20,000 kronor. Which we
    herewith communicate for your knowledge and abeyance as far as
    you are concerned, at the same time as a gracious letter is sent
    to the exchequer department.


For the representation of Peru at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, the
Peruvian Government appropriated approximately $100,000. The President
of Peru appointed Mr. Alexander Garland, a distinguished Peruvian
and noted writer of international and economical matters,
commissioner-general. Mr. Garland, it is said, has always been noted in
his country as a strong upholder of favorable trade relations with the
United States. Mr. Miguel Miro-Queseda, a newspaper man of Peru, was
appointed secretary to the commission. Subsequently Mr. Ernest H. Wands,
of New York, and Wilfred H. Schoff were appointed commissioners and Mr.
Manual C. Velarde secretary.

A variety of samples of cotton and woolen goods manufactured by
factories lately established in Peru, at La Victoria, Vitarte, La
Providencia, San Jacinto, Malastesta, etc., was displayed in the
Peruvian section of the Agriculture Building, together with abundant
samples of different qualities of Peruvian cotton. In the same building
were exhibited excellent samples of sugar cane from Grande, Cartavio,
Roma, and Chiquitoy. Samples of other products of the soil, as cotton,
coffee, cacao, cocoa, cocaine, rice, etc., which figure under the
exports of Peru, were also exhibited. In the same section were samples
of Peruvian maize, white, yellow, and red, at least double the size of
the corn raised in other parts of the world, as well as other specimens
of the agricultural products of Peru.

The mines section showed the mineral resources of the country. Gold,
silver, copper, lead, cinnabar, manganese, and all kinds of minerals
were represented by a large variety of rich samples. Large blocks of
lignite, anthracite, etc., gave an idea of the importance of the coal
fields of Peru. Mineral oils, mineral waters, sands from placers, and a
variety of salts samples were exhibited demonstrating that Peru is well
endowed in minerals. There was also a mineral map of Peru made under the
direction of the Sociedad Nacional de Mineria.

The Peruvian section in the Forestry, Fish, and Game Palace had samples
of rubber of the Peruvian varieties in large quantities. Samples of wood
gave an idea of the inexhaustible amount of raw materials that are
contained in the vast forests of Peru, valuable for civil and naval
construction and cabinetwork. Barks, resins, nuts, roots, seeds, and
leaves for medical use and dyeing and tanning purposes confirmed the
richness of Peruvian soil.


_Russian Commission._--Mr. Edward Grunwaldt, executive commissioner; Mr.
Jacob Godberg, Mr. Max Berkowitz, Mr. L.A. Robinson.

Russia was at different times invited to participate in the Louisiana
Purchase Exposition of 1904, but no definite acceptance was received
until Mr. Thomas H. Cridler, the foreign representative of the
Exposition Company, made a personal visit to the Emperor. His Majesty
was heartily in favor of the proposition, and in proof of his good
feeling toward the American people, ordered an appropriation of 450,000
rubles be set aside to meet the preliminary expense of the Russian

A commissioner-general was appointed. He was instructed to proceed to
St. Louis and secure the necessary space for exhibits and a site for
Russia's pavilion.

Committees were appointed for the purpose of collecting exhibits and to
look after the work of installation and maintenance.

On the outbreak of the Russia-Japan war it was deemed advisable to
withdraw the Government exhibit. This was a cause of considerable
concern to the Russian Emperor, who had been anxious to show his
appreciation of the friendship that existed between Russia and the
United States.

The commissioner-general then made a report that was unfavorable to
Russia's participation at the exposition, and he was then informed
through the minister of finance of the withdrawal of Russia as a
Government exhibitor.

The question of having Russia represented at the exposition by private
exhibitors was then considered. The minister of finance informed Mr.
Grunwaldt that the Government would offer no objection to individual

The Exposition Company allotted space to Mr. Grunwaldt in the various
buildings. Exhibits were installed in the Fine Arts, Liberal Arts,
Manufactures, Varied Industries, and Agricultural buildings. The
exhibits were very extensive in all the departments.

The entire cost of collecting, transportation, and installation of
exhibits, and the maintenance of same, was borne by Mr. Grunwaldt.


While making an extended tour of the United States in 1902, His Royal
Highness the Crown Prince of Siam visited St. Louis and was the guest of
the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company. His entertainment was so
generous and his reception throughout the entire country so cordial that
he decided to use his influence toward inducing His Siamese Majesty to
participate in the exposition of 1904. The plan, consequently, that
suggested itself as to the character of Siam's display was to send to
St. Louis the most interesting articles and the best examples of Siamese

The National Siamese Pavilion, a typical specimen of the architecture of
the country, was a reproduction of the Wat (or temple), Benchamabopit,
now in the course of erection at Bangkok. The plans were closely
followed, thus creating a type of Siamese architecture which in itself
was an exhibit of interest and instruction. The building cost $25,000.

Within the pavilion were placed many objects from the Royal, Museum,
notably a large collection of ancient weapons, drums, cymbals, temple
gongs, howdahs, some wonderful examples of mother-of-pearl work,
hammered silver of antique designs, old lacquer, enormous elephant
tusks, ancient theatrical costumes and properties, and portraits of
Their Majesties the King and the Queen and His Royal Highness the Crown

In the Agricultural Building were displayed models of farming implements
of all kinds and examples of the agricultural products of the land.
Especially noticeable was the large collection of rice, the most
important of Siam's exports.

The exhibit in forestry, fish, and game showed the great variety of
woods that grow in Siam, the appliances that are used for fishing, skins
of the many wild animals of the country, and a large collection of
forest products.

Teak, for which Siam is famous, was shown in a number of ways--cross
sections, longitudinal cuts, and portions of the outer surface.

In the Transportation Pavilion were shown models of boats, panniers, and
carts, howdahs, a buffalo cart, and a buggy in full size. The boat
models were especially interesting. Because of the many navigable rivers
and canals a greater part of transportation is by water; consequently a
large variety of boats has been evolved to meet the various conditions.

The collection of spinning and weaving appliances in the Manufacturers'
Building was large and instructive. Here, too, were many fine examples
of mother-of-pearl work, pottery, hammered silver, and lacquer; also a
collection of mats and textiles, both cotton and silk.

In the Mines and Metallurgy Building were displayed samples of the many
minerals that are found in the country and models of the appliances used
to secure them.

Altogether nearly six thousand individual articles were on exhibition
and represented more completely the industries and resources of Siam
than has any previous collection. In each State or Province of Siam a
local committee was appointed with instructions to gather and forward to
Bangkok at least one example of every article produced either for home
use or sale. From these consignments a selection was made by the
Commission and forwarded to St. Louis. In this way objects representing
every section and all the arts and industries were shown. The total cost
of the exhibition of the Government of Siam was approximately $120,000.

Although the trade of Siam has developed very rapidly during the past
few years, the exhibits sent did not have for their purpose the
extension of commerce with this country. The relations between the
United States and Siam are most cordial. The latter recently accredited
to the United States a minister, and Congress very promptly elevated the
rank of the United States representative to that of minister
plenipotentiary. Thus when the invitation to participate in the
exposition was accepted, prospects of commercial gain were not in
contemplation. The one idea was to contribute in every conceivable
manner to the attractiveness of the exposition and add to its
educational possibilities. The invitation was looked upon by the Siamese
Government as a compliment, and the unselfish manner in which its
acceptance was shown proved conclusively that the compliment was

On the occasion of the exposition there was published by the Commission
a richly illustrated book entitled "The Kingdom of Siam." This work was
presented to the educational institutions of this country, to public
libraries, and to all persons who were known to be interested in Siam.
The book, written by experts, will be an authority for years to come
upon Siam, its climate, resources, people, institutions, and industries,
and will doubtless supplant the writings of hurrying traveler and
transient visitor.

The commissioners appointed by the King of Siam were as follows: His
Royal Highness the Crown Prince, president. Vice-presidents: His Royal
Highness Prince Devawongse Varopakar, minister of foreign affairs; His
Royal Highness Prince Mahisra Rajaharudhai, minister of finance; His
Excellency Chow Phya Devesra Wongse Vivadhna, minister of agriculture;
Mr. A. Cecil Carter, M.A., department of education, secretary-general.
Members: His Royal Highness Prince Sanbasiddhi Prasong, His Royal
Highness Prince Marubongse Siribadhna, His Highness Prince Vadhana, His
Excellency Phya Vorasiddhi Sevivatra, His Excellency Phya Sukhum
Nayavinit, His Excellency Phya Amarindra Lujae, His Excellency Phya
Surasih Visisth Sakdi, His Excellency Phya Kamheng Songkram, His
Excellency Phya Sunthorn Buri, His Excellency Phya Rasda Nupradit, His
Excellency Phya Kraibej Ratana Raja Sonkram, His Excellency Phya
Vijayadibadi, Phra Phadung-Sulkrit. Prof. James H. Gore, Columbian
University, commissioner-general.


The only Spanish exhibits at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition were
shown in the Agricultural Building. There were but three displays, one
being of pure sherry brandy, another of wines, and another of olive oil.

D. Mauricio Mandil was the only exhibitor from Spain, and he had the
brandies, wines, and olive oil analyzed by well-known analytical
chemists. The brandy exhibit consisted of a pyramid of ten barrels, well
finished and varnished, placed on a fancy stand in the center of a
well-polished platform, in the corners and sides of which were piled up
polished pine cases of pure brandy distilled from sherry wine. On the
top box of each pile were pyramids of bottles of different fancy
packings artistically located.

The wine exhibit occupied a square 20 feet on each side. It represented
a vine in full growth, being 18 feet high. The four corners were the
trunks, on which were painted life-size figures of Spanish girls
surmounted by the vine, bearing grapes. This square was covered by a
silk awning made in the Spanish colors. In the center of the tent and on
a platform was located a pyramid 15 feet high, composed of barrels and
bottles artistically placed. The wines exhibited were mostly of old
vintages, dating as far back as 1809, and among these was a special
brand brought to America for the first time, and called Solera Lincoln,
it being of the vintage of 1865, the year of Lincoln's assassination.

The olive-oil exhibit was made by one of the largest exporters of olive
oil in the world.


The Imperial Government of Turkey with great regret decided, for
financial reasons, not to participate officially in the Louisiana
Purchase Exposition, and therefore no official pavilion was built. The
three functionaries appointed for the Turkish commission were instructed
to aid and to give advice to private exhibitors only who were Turkish
subjects and who could be accommodated in exhibit buildings.

The three officials appointed were Chékib Bey, envoy extraordinary and
minister plenipotentiary to the United States, commissioner-general; Dr.
Hermann Schoenfeld, consul-general in Washington, associate
commissioner-general; George Eli Hall, consul-general in San Francisco,
secretary-general of the commission.


The participation of Venezuela in the St. Louis Exposition was
authorized in the month of October, 1903, immediately after the end of
one of the most sanguinary civil wars known in the history of the
country. The following-named gentlemen were appointed as commissioners
of the Venezuela Government: Gen. Cipriano Castro, honorary president;
Eugenio M. Ambard, commissioner-general; Dr. H. Lameda, attaché; H.
Meinhard, secretary.

The amount of the Government appropriation was at first $25,000, but
this amount was soon exhausted and smaller amounts were subsequently
sanctioned for the maintenance, transportation, and installation of
exhibits. The total amount of appropriation was $30,000. There was
absolutely no private contribution in cash. The approximate value of the
exhibits was about $105,000.

Some of the most interesting features of the exhibition were:

First. A collection of over 200 varieties of fibers prepared under
different processes and taken from different altitudes. Nearly all were
prepared by a machine invented by Dr. J. Lameda, who collected and took
the greatest interest in the fiber exhibit. From the coarsest to the
finest were to be found among these fibers. The longest was of the musa
variety, a coarse fiber which grows to the length of 10 feet. The
_Annanassa sativa_, a fine fiber, grows to the length of 5 feet. This
was the only collection of the kind at the exposition or which has ever
been shown at any other exposition.

Second. The magnificent collection of hard woods from the Government
States of Carabobo, Zulia, and Guayana, each comprising over 600
specimens of native logs, woods for cabinetwork, for building
construction, lumber, staves, dyewoods, tanning, resinous, oil, rubber,
and fragrant woods.

Third. A most unique and complete collection of forest plants, roots,
herbs, leaves, barks, seeds, fruits, resins, gums, and dyeing and
flavoring materials used by herbalists and pharmacists. These were
collected, prepared, and classified by E.M. Ambard.

Fourth. A complete collection of all the minerals and precious stones
(uncut) found in South America, prepared, collected, classified, and
catalogued by Dr. Louis Plazard, who devoted nearly all his life to this

Fifth. A collection of cocoa beans from different regions, which is
considered to be one of the best and most nutritious cocoas in the
world, and has always obtained a far higher price than any other cocoa;
also a collection of coffee from different altitudes, considered by
authorities to be of very fine flavor and high grade.

The Venezuela Government had no special building. The exhibits were
shown in the various exhibit palaces on the grounds.


The Holy See having been requested to take part in the Louisiana
Purchase Exhibition, accepted the invitation and sent to St. Louis, Mo.,
as its commissioner, Mr. Francis Cagiati, of Rome.

The exhibits sent by the Vatican to the fair were phototypical
reproductions of the most valuable manuscripts existing in the Vatican
Library, as well as some excellent specimens of works in mosaic,
manufactured by the Studio del Mosaico Vaticano.

No special building was erected for the Vatican exhibit, but as the
special nature of the objects required, the entire exhibit was placed in
the Administration Building.

The exhibits sent by the Holy See to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition
were as follows:

Copies of valuable manuscripts, codes, and documents from the Vatican

The Roman Virgil (fifth century), the miniatures of the Greek Palatine
Balter (twelfth century), the famous Greek Vatican Bible (fourth
century), the Vatican Virgil (fifth century), the miniatures of the
Bible of the Patricins Leo (tenth century), selected pages from the
Papal Letter Book (eleventh century), Papal letters regarding Greenland
(ninth century), earliest Papal documents regarding America (sixteenth
century), the miniatures of the Ottobonian Pontifical (fifteenth
century), the Palmipsett manuscript of the (de republica) of Cicero
(fifth century), the ivories of the Christian, Museum of the Vatican

Many phototypical and photographical reproductions of the Borgia rooms,
Sistine Chapel, Raphael's Stanze.

Forty-one different pieces of mosaic work.

The death mask of Leo XIII.

Cast of the right hand of Leo XIII.




Committee on Birmingham district exhibit: Fred M. Jackson, president; J.
B. Gibson, secretary; J.A. MacKnight, special representative; Rufus N.
Rhodes, Culpepper Exum, F.H. Dixon, George H. Clark.

The legislature of Alabama failed to provide any funds for an exhibit of
the resources of that State. A commission which had been appointed by
the governor to attend to the business for the State was powerless to
act and gave up the undertaking. In consequence of this failure the
Commercial Club of Birmingham decided, when it was almost too late to
arrange for any kind of an exhibit, to make a display of the State's
mineral resources by means of a fund raised by popular subscription. The
actual amount of money raised was approximately $20,000.

After considerable discussion the Commercial Club decided, upon a
suggestion made by J.A. Mac Knight, to build a colossal statue of
Vulcan, god of fire and metals, in iron. F.M. Jackson, president of the
club, and J.B. Gibson, secretary, took a deep interest in the matter,
and as a result the work was commenced in October, 1903. Great
difficulty was met with in securing the services of a competent sculptor
who was willing to build the model for such a statue, which was to be of
a height of at least 50 feet. Mr. Mac Knight was appointed special
representative of the club to promote this work and finally secured the
services of Mr. G. Moretti, a sculptor residing in New York, who
undertook to perform the task and to complete it in time for the

The model of this colossal statue of Vulcan was first built in clay at
Passaic, N.J., where Mr. Moretti carried on the work under adverse
circumstances and through the zero weather of the winter of 1903-4. It
was then cast in plaster of Paris in sections, which were braced and
stayed with scantling on the inside of the shell, to be used as patterns
in the foundry. The entire model was shipped to Birmingham, Ala., on
seven flat cars, its bulk rendering it impossible to put it in box cars.
As soon as it reached Birmingham the work of casting the figure in iron
was begun in the foundry of the Birmingham Steel and Iron Company.

Mr. Moretti went to Birmingham to keep the patterns in condition during
the process of casting, and it was well that he did so, because the
extreme cold had frozen the plaster casts before they were dry,
rendering them so brittle that many of them were broken in handling, and
the head itself was crumbled into a hundred pieces and had to be
entirely remodeled.

Iron manufacturers from all parts of the world have said in regard to
this statue that it was the most remarkable piece of iron casting they
had ever seen. An agent of the Japanese Government was present at
Passaic to watch the building of the model, and followed the work to
Birmingham to make notes on the methods of casting it in iron. He also
went to St. Louis and remained during its erection in the Mines Palace,
and made an extended report to his Government on the subject.

The statue was successfully completed and set up in the exposition
within three weeks after the day of opening. At the close of the
exposition it was taken down and removed to Birmingham, where it is to
be set up in a public park. Its height is 56 feet, and its weight a
little more than 60 tons. The head was cast in one piece and weighed
over 17,000 pounds. There were 20 casts in all, including the anvil and
anvil block. The statue, which was intended to show forth the colossal
iron deposits of Alabama, representing primitive man at the time he
discovered the method of hardening iron into steel. Vulcan held aloft in
his right hand the finished spearhead as a result of his knowledge and
handicraft. It is the largest cast statue in the world, and it could not
be duplicated for less than $40,000.

The space occupied by the exhibit collected and installed by the
Commercial Club was 62 by 32 feet on the south side of the Mines
Building, and contained approximately 2,000 square feet. The statue of
Vulcan stood in the center of one side of the space facing the center of
the Mines Palace. It was placed on a platform built upon nine heavy
piles, which were driven to bedrock. The figure was perfectly poised
when set up, but as an additional safeguard anchor bars were run down
through the legs and through a heavy timber, which was bolted to the
piles. These passed through plates on the inside of the timber and were
screwed up tight. The rest of the space was occupied by a complete
exhibit of raw mineral products from all parts of Alabama and especially
iron and coal from the Birmingham district. The raw materials embraced
the following: Brown hematite iron ore, soft red ore, hard red ore,
bituminous coals, building stone, gray iron, limestone, dolomite,
kaolin, clays, cement rocks, gold ores, copper ore, lignite, and glass
sand, and a long list of other minerals which have not been developed.
The products of coal and iron were coke and pig iron. The finished
products were as follows: Open-hearth steel rails, bar and angle iron,
car wheels, bar steel, steel plate, sewer pipe, and vitrified brick.
This entire exhibit was displayed in an attractive manner and was the
object of a great deal of comment by visitors to the exposition and by
newspapers throughout the country and Europe.

A display of Alabama marble was made in the form of a head of Christ,
which was carved by Moretti, while he was at work on the Vulcan statue
at Birmingham. This marble is of exceedingly fineness and whiteness.
Moretti gave it as his opinion that this marble is equal to the best
Carara or Parian marbles, and it is believed that the making of this
exhibit will lead to the development of the marble deposits of Alabama,
which are believed to be very extensive and of superior quality. The raw
materials displayed offer to capital and enterprise a number of splendid
opportunities. The glass sands are probably destined to place Alabama in
the front rank in glass making in the future, while the following
resources were displayed in such abundance and were of such excellent
quality as to offer the greatest inducements to capital and skill:

An exhibit of porcelain clays and kaolins, which should lead to the
establishment of the manufacture of all kinds of crockery and pottery
ware near these deposits.

The cement rocks, which formed a principal part of the exhibit, have
already attracted capital, and Portland cement of the highest quality is
now being manufactured to a limited extent. Large industries in this
line are to be located near these deposits, which are among the finest
in the world and in inexhaustible quantity.

The beds of lignite, of which samples were on exhibition, are said to be
of very superior quality. No artificial binder is required to make this
material up into briquettes for fuel. It is understood that very
profitable enterprises in this line are to be built up near these

The marble deposits, gold and copper ores, and other mineral deposits
were sufficiently exhibited to warrant the assertion that they were
worthy of the fullest investigation. The large deposits of low-grade
gold ore in the eastern part of Alabama, according to exhibitors, will
undoubtedly prove immensely profitable to anyone who may establish a
system to extract the gold economically.

Owing to the failure of the State to make an exhibit, the authorities of
the exposition recognized the Birmingham committee as the State
commission of Alabama and extended to them the courtesies due to a State
commissioner. The exhibit was maintained through the period of the
exposition, and many thousands of souvenirs of the great statue of
Vulcan were sold at the exhibit. An electric picture machine was
installed, which gave a large series of moving pictures representing the
scenery and life of the Birmingham district. The business of the exhibit
was under the direction of J.A. MacKnight, of Birmingham, throughout
the exposition, and he had his office at the exhibit.


Members of the Alaska commission.--Thomas Ryan, First Assistant
Secretary of the Interior, chairman; Governor John F. Brady executive
commissioner; Joseph B. Marvin, resident representative; Mrs. Mary E.
Hart, hostess. Honorary commissioners: M.E. Martin, mayor of Ketchikan;
Peter Jensen, mayor of Wrangell; O.H. Adsit, mayor of Juneau; Frank
Bach, mayor of Douglas; John Goodell, mayor of Valdez; L.S. Keller,
mayor of Skagway; D.B. Miller, mayor of Eagle City; W.H. Bard, ex-mayor
of Nome; Anthony Tubbs, mayor of Treadwell; H.P. King, mayor of Nome.

The district of Alaska appeared at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition as
an exhibitor in a national exposition for the first time. The conception
of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition and its plans were presented for
the consideration of the Congress of the United States at a time when
the reports of the committees of Congress sent to Alaska to investigate
its resources and needs had aroused the Congress to the duty of enacting
legislation for the development of this great region. In appropriating
the large sum of $50,000 for an Alaska Building and an Alaska exhibit at
the Louisiana Purchase Exposition it was the purpose of Congress to
afford an object lesson as a means of education to the millions of
people who should attend the exposition as to the extent and resources
of this country or territory. The sequel showed that the money was
wisely expended, as the Alaska exhibit had the distinction of being
regarded by the thousand of its visitors as forming one of the most
interesting, instructive, an surprising exhibits shown at the great
World's Fair.

When the United States, thirty-seven years ago, paid to Russia the sum
of $7,200,000 for the almost unknown territory of Alaska, the purchase
was not generally approved; and even members of Congress denounced it,
regarding the acquisition as a region of icebergs and glaciers. Later,
when gold was discovered in Alaska, the region was regarded as being one
of ice and almost inaccessible gold, and few had the hardihood to
venture within its precincts, even with the possibility of finding gold
as an inducement for the venture.

Still later, after the reports of the Revenue-Cutter Service and the
recognizances of army officers and naval commanders, the United States
Geological Survey sent men into Alaska to investigate its resources. The
Department of Agriculture tested its capacity for agriculture, the
Bureau of Education established schools and introduced reindeer from
Siberia, the Signal Service began to build telegraph lines and to
inspect the country as to the availability of its rivers and harbors for
navigation, and it became known by the Government that Alaska was richer
in resources by far than had been supposed. This knowledge was not
common to the public, and emigration to that region was tardy.

The United States could hardly have done more for the furtherance of the
development of the great rich district of Alaska, with its untold wealth
in minerals and its great possibilities in agriculture, than it did by
securing to the people of Alaska an opportunity to display their
resources and products to the inspection of the millions who have
visited the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. The exhibits shown by them
excited the utmost wonder and surprise in the minds of many witnessing
them, who had been in ignorance of the resources of their country.
Thousands have been led to investigate and seek further information. The
effect of the Alaska exhibit will undoubtedly be far-reaching and
permanent; nor can it be doubted that Congress will supplement this
contribution to Alaska's welfare in the near future by legislation which
shall secure the one great need of Alaska--inland transportation.

An appropriation of $50,000 for the Alaskan exhibit at the Louisiana
Purchase Exposition was made by act of Congress March 3, 1903, as

    To enable the inhabitants of the district of Alaska to provide
    and maintain an appropriate and creditable exhibit of the
    products and resources of that district at the Louisiana
    Purchase Exposition in the city of St. Louis, Missouri, in
    nineteen hundred and four, and to erect and maintain on the site
    of said exposition a suitable building to be used for the
    purposes of exhibiting the products and resources of said
    district, the sum of fifty thousand dollars, to be subject to
    the order of the Secretary of the Interior, who is hereby
    authorized to expend the same in such manner as in his judgment
    will best promote the objects for which said sum is appropriated
    in accordance with the rules and regulations to be prescribed by

After the passage of the act of Congress which made appropriation for
the Alaska exhibit, providing that the sum appropriated should be
expended by the Secretary of the Interior in such manner as in his
judgment would promote the objects for which the sum was appropriated,
in accordance with rules and regulations prescribed by him, one of his
first acts was the appointment of Hon. Thomas Ryan, First Assistant
Secretary of the Interior, chairman of the Alaska commission, to have
immediate charge at the Department of the elaboration of the exhibit.
Later Governor John G. Brady was appointed executive commissioner, and
entered upon the task of gathering together and forwarding to the
exposition such collections of exhibits as would best represent and
illustrate the products and resources of Alaska.

Still later Mr. Joseph B. Marvin was appointed special agent of the
Alaska exhibit and was sent to St. Louis in December, 1903, to
superintend the construction of the Alaska Building, to attend to all
accounts with the Department, and to arrange for the installation of the
exhibits as they arrive.

Mrs. Mary E. Hart was employed January 1, 1904, to assist in the
securing of the exhibits in Alaska, especially in the Department of
Education, and upon the opening of the exposition Mrs. Hart was directed
to proceed to St. Louis, where she was designated as hostess and placed
in charge of the bureau of information in the Alaska Building. At the
same time attendants were selected, whose duty it was to explain the
exhibits to visitors.

The executive commissioner, the honorary commissioners, the hostess, all
of the attendants, and those employed in collecting exhibits in Alaska
were all Alaskans, the attendants being especially selected because of
their acquaintance with Alaska and its products.

It was the desire of the executive commissioner that the utmost
hospitality should be shown to all visitors at the Alaska Building, and
the commodious and homelike parlors on the second floor of the building
were free to the public, maids being employed for special attention to
the wants of ladies and children.

The principal exhibits in the Alaska Building related naturally to the
mining interest of the country.

One of the most impressive and significant exhibits was a gilded cube,
about 3 feet in diameter, representing the size of a block of gold worth
$7,200,000, which was the amount paid by the United States to Russia for
Alaska, and beside it, inclosed in a brass railing, a gilded pyramid of
blocks representing the amount of gold taken each year since 1882 from
the Treadwell mine in Alaska, aggregating $21,800,000, a sum which is
three times the amount paid for Alaska taken from one mine.

The ore exhibit, especially of gold and copper ores, was very large,
filling a glass case 75 feet long and 5 feet high. These ores were
collected by an expert mineralogist employed by the Alaska commission,
and included specimens from nearly all the mines in Alaska.

Following is a list of exhibits, showing the principal industries the
country, as displayed throughout the building: Marble, canned goods,
furs, coal, oils, guano, vegetables and fruit, Indian basketry and
curios, and mounted specimens of game and fish.

An interesting exhibit of Alaskan ethnology was made, twenty totem poles
and two native houses and one war canoe being located about the
building. The totem poles came from different places on Prince of Wales
Island and from two different tribes. At an old village called Tuxekan
four were obtained. These represented the totem or heraldic sign of each
family, and the back part of the totem was excavated to receive the
charred bones of friends and ancestors of the man who raised it. The
Thlingits were in the habit of burning their dead, but carefully
preserved all the charred embers from the funeral pile. These totem
poles were always erected on great occasions, and the bones were usually
carefully wrapped in a new blanket and incased in the back part of the

The Commission was fortunate in securing for the exhibit a fine
collection of samples of grains raised at the experiment stations at
Alaska, consisting of the grains in the straw and thrashed grains,
including wheat, rye, barley, and oats. These samples were handsomely
displayed, some of the grains and straw being tastefully arranged on the
walls, covering a space 10 by 40 feet, and the balance in a pyramid some
10 feet high and 8 feet in diameter. The thrashed grains were displayed
in glass jars. The grasses were shown in bales of hay. The display of
cereals and grasses was one of the most important, instructive, and
surprising to visitors of any display in the Alaska Building, for it
demonstrated the fact that agriculture is possible in Alaska, and
seekers of the treasures of the mines may always feel sure of


Arizona commission.--A.J. Doran, chairman; B.F. Packard, treasurer;
H.B. St. Claire, secretary; Mrs. J.A. Black, commissioner; R.N.
Leatherwood, superintendent of exhibits.

The Arizona Building stood near the southeast entrance of the grounds.
Its architecture was Spanish, belonging to the sixteenth century. It
contained seven rooms, elegantly furnished and decorated. The cost of
the building was approximately $5,000. During the exposition period a
large amount of literature descriptive of the Territory and its various
resources was distributed.

The exhibits in the Arizona State Building other than those placed
therein by the board of managers were a prehistoric collection loaned by
Mrs. M. Aguria, of Tucson, Ariz., valued at $5,000; an oil painting of a
mountain scene in southern Arizona, loaned by Mr. A.J. Scofield and
valued at $4,000; a collection of Indian baskets, rugs, and blankets
(Navaho), valued at $600; an exhibit of cactus picture frames, loaned by
F.E. White, of Florence, Ariz., valued at $250.

The Territory made exhibits in the departments of Mines and Metallurgy,
Education, Agriculture and Horticulture. The exhibit in the Palace of
Mines and Metallurgy occupied a space of 80 feet frontage by 20 feet in
depth. In all, nearly 300 mines were represented by characteristic ores
showing actual values rather than specimens, including in nearly every
exhibit the inclosing and country rocks in which the vein matter
occurred. These exhibits were arranged in two tiers, running the full
length of the space, each mine having its distinctive ore placed on
wooden mounts, appropriately labeled, giving the county, district,
owner, name and character of ore, and its value per ton in gold, silver,
copper, or lead. The exhibit also showed free gold, native silver,
native copper, copper bars, lead-silver bars, copper ingots, onyx (rough
and polished), marble (rough and polished) building stone of various
kinds, lithographic stone, petrified wood in rough and polish, meteoric
iron, etc.; also photographic views of many of the mines, mills,
reduction works, and localities from which the exhibits were taken. The
value of the exhibit was approximately $20,000 and the cost of
installation $1,900.

The educational exhibit in the Education and Social Economy Building
represented the school work of the Territory from the kindergarten to
the academic grade, showing the educational system and the progress made
in Arizona. The value of the exhibit was approximately $2,500 and the
cost of installation $750.

The agricultural exhibit in the Agricultural Building showed the various
products of the soil of the Territory. Wheat, oats, barley, corn, Kaffir
corn, sorghum, millet, alfalfa seed, alfalfa, hay, vegetables, olives,
olive oil, preserved fruits, dates, etc., were displayed The exhibit
cost approximately $875. The cost of installation was $1,500.

In the Horticultural Building there were maintained throughout the fair
from 130 to 160 plates on the table, which held the following: Valencia
late oranges, Washington navel oranges, Mediterranean sweets, lemons,
limes, grape fruit, citronella, tangarines, grapes, plums, quinces,
apricots, plum grabites, pears, cantaloupes, melons, olives, olive oil,
pickled olives, etc. The value of the exhibit was approximately $2,500
and the cost of installation $950.

The amount appropriated by the legislative act for the participation of
Arizona was $30,000 in bonds, which were sold for 7 per cent. premium,
thus making available from that source $32,000. No other funds from any
source came into the hands of the board of managers.


_Members of Arkansas commission_.--George R. Belding, president; J.C.
Rembert, secretary; Thomas W. Milan, manager; George T. Lake; John P.
Logan, superintendent horticultural department; A.H. Purdue,
superintendent mines; H.T. Bradford, agriculture department; Miss
Lizzie Cage, assistant lady manager.

In May, 1901, the legislature of the State of Arkansas enacted a bill
appropriating the sum of $30,000 for the erection and maintenance of a
State building at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, and for the
installation and maintenance of the exhibits of the State. Subsequently,
in 1903, the State legislature appropriated a further sum of $50,000 for
the purpose of the State exhibit. There were no private subscriptions,
the entire cost of the State building and maintenance thereof being
borne by the State appropriation.

The cost of the installation and transportation of the different
exhibits made by the commission was $18,102, besides the cost of
returning the exhibits.

The Arkansas Pavilion at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition was a fine
specimen of Georgian architecture, of the type so much used throughout
the South in antebellum times. The adaptation of the colonial features
to the purpose for which the building was used was most admirable. The
location, with its foreground of grass and forest trees, produced an
effect suggesting age and permanency that few buildings on the ground
possessed. In fact, on coming upon the building unexpectedly, one would
presume that it had occupied its site for two generations at least. The
building was arranged for the entertainment of the Arkansans visiting
the fair, and served the purpose of a clubhouse and general headquarters
for thousands of people.

The principal feature of the plan of the building was the large
reception hall in the center, connecting through wide openings two
reception rooms, one on either side, and an exhibit room in the rear. On
this floor there were also four smaller rooms used as commissioners'
headquarters, manager's office, post-office, and lady manager's
headquarters; also wide hallways at right angles to the principal axis
of the building.

The second story of the building contained the library, auditorium,
headquarters of the State Bankers' Association, and ladies' parlor, four
sleeping rooms, together with the general toilet rooms.

The three exterior porticos were connected with wide terraces, affording
over 3,000 square feet of floor space. The building was constructed
entirely of Arkansas timber, and was designed by Frank W. Gibb, A.I.A.
A., architect, Little Rock, Ark., and constructed at a cost of

At the conclusion of the fair the building was sold to a citizen of
Arkansas, where it is to be reerected as a residence.

In the building were exhibited many handsome pieces of art and
fancywork, burnt-wood plaques and panels, china work, a large silk map
of the United States, showing States, rivers, railroads, principal
towns, etc.; oil paintings, pictures, and portraits, and miscellaneous

In the main exhibit hall of the building was a composite exhibit made by
the land department of the Iron Mountain Railroad, consisting of a
collection of minerals found in the State, samples of the various woods
of the State, a wooden library of seventy-five volumes, each book being
made of a different kind of Arkansas wood, paintings and pictures of
Arkansas scenes, and a historic clock made in Germany in 1763 for the
Duke of Saxony, and samples of mineral waters of Montgomery County.

The Arkansas State commission maintained five exhibits in the exhibition
palaces, viz, Agriculture, approximate value, $7,500; Horticulture,
approximate value, $9,300; Forestry, approximate value, $3,500; Mines
and Metallurgy, approximate value, $6,500; Education, approximate value,
$3,600. In addition to these State exhibits, the city of Hot Springs
maintained in the Government Building a unique exhibit in the nature of
a cave or grotto made of quartz, crystals.


_Members of California commission_.--Frank Wiggins; J. A Filcher; George
A. Dennison, secretary; Lewis E. Auburg, chief department of mining;
George C. Roeding, chief department of horticulture; W.H. Mills, chief
department of forestry; Robert Furlong, chief department of education.

On March 25, 1903, the legislature of the State of California passed a
bill appropriating the sum of $130,000 for the purpose of adequately
exploiting California's resources and progress at the Louisiana Purchase
Exposition, and providing for two commissioners--one to have had one
year's residence in the southern half of the State; both to have had
experience in installing and managing exhibits at former, expositions.
In addition to this appropriation, there was about $120,000 raised by
the various counties of the State for exclusive county displays to be
installed in the Agricultural Building. These displays were intended to
set forth the possibilities of California in an agricultural and
horticultural way. The cost of installation of said features was about
$40,000. The transportation of all the exhibits, including those of the
counties, which were paid by the State, amounted to, approximately,

The California State Building was located on "The Trail" in the vicinity
of the buildings erected by Georgia and other Southern States, and was
always an object of interest to sightseers at the fair. The pavilion was
built after the Mission style of architecture, modeled after the houses
in which the old Spanish settlers in California used to live. The front
of the building was an exact copy in reduced proportions of the Mission
at Santa Barbara, which was erected by the Franciscan monks in 1786. The
pavilion contained no special exhibits, but its furnishings and
decorations were entirely of Californian material, manufactured by
Californian labor. The cost of the building complete was about $17,000,
the balance of the appropriation by the State being consumed in the
collection of the exhibit, its maintenance, and in general

In the Forestry Pavilion California showed altogether 73 varieties of
commercial and cabinet woods. A separate exhibit in the same place
displayed an exhibit of the fish and game of the State. Just outside of
the building there was an exhibit of forestry containing five logs, or
timbers, which were too heavy to be placed on the Exhibition Building

In the Agricultural Building the State made a distinctive feature of
wine, dried fruits, canned fruit, processed vegetables, honey, hay,
hops, canned fish, seeds and cereals, grasses and vegetable fibers, etc.
A façade was erected in this department and decorated most artistically.
The counties made separate displays. Altogether 23,300 feet of space was
occupied by the State in agriculture, exclusive of aisles.

In the Horticultural Building the State occupied 9,000 square feet of
space and made a strong showing of processed fruits, fresh fruits, nuts,
and a panoramic scene illustrating methods of orchard irrigation. There
was also shown a cabinet containing the insects that prey on California
orchards, and their parasites.

An operating mill and concentrators were displayed in the Mining Gulch,
and in the Palace of Mines the State occupied 5,200 feet of floor space
with an exhibit showing all the commercial minerals of California.
Altogether there were forty-odd varieties.

In education a strong showing of the university work was made in one of
the alcoves, 40 by 40 feet, and 2,000 feet of floor space was occupied
for the general artistic exhibit of school work from the kindergarten to
the high school. This was inclosed within a characteristic façade of
California redwood, finished in natural color.

A handsome display was a butter feature in the refrigeration department
of agriculture with a beautiful modeled goddess of California, draped in
fruits. Incubators were shown in the proper department, and on the
grounds and in the conservatory were exhibited about 600 rare plants and
shrubs and some tropical fruit trees.


The Colorado legislature of 1901 appropriated $50,000 for the purpose of
making a display of Colorado products and resources at the Louisiana
Purchase Exposition and provided for the appointment by the governor of
the State of a board of five commissioners, of which the governor should
be a member and ex officio president. In 1903 an additional $100,000 was
appropriated and the board was increased from five to seven members.

The following-named persons composed the Colorado commission:

Governor James H. Peabody, president; T.J. O'Donnell, vice-president;
Paul Wilson, commissioner in chief; I.N. Stevens, secretary; Harry
Cassady, treasurer; Mrs. Lionel Rose Anthony; William F. Sperry; John A.
Wayne, assistant to commissioner in chief; Maria W. Stewart, assistant

The appropriation by the legislature of 1903 unfortunately was placed in
the fifth-class appropriation, and not all of the sum was available for
the use of the board; but by arrangement of other departments of the
State government and with the State institutions of Colorado $80,000 of
the $100,000 was made available for the State's participation in the

The work of the board was divided into six departments, all under the
direction of Commissioner in Chief Paul Wilson, as follows:

Mining Department, Mr. I.N. Stevens, chairman; Horticultural
Department, Mr. Paul Wilson, chairman; Agricultural Department, Mr.
Harry Cassady, chairman; Educational Department, Mrs. I.R. Anthony,
chairman; Forestry, Fish, and Game Department, Mr. T.J. O'Donnell,
chairman; Fine Arts Department, Mr. W.F. Sperry chairman.

The exhibits of the resources of the State were collected from every
portion of the State in these various departments.

The value of the mining exhibit placed by the State of Colorado on
exhibition in St. Louis was $500,000; the value of the agricultural
exhibit, $10,000; horticultural exhibit, $8,000; educational exhibit,
$15,000; forestry, fish, and game exhibit, $7,500.

The approximate cost of installing and caring for these exhibits was as

Mining Department ........................ $25,000
Horticultural Department .................  10,000
Agricultural Department ..................  15,000
Educational Department ...................  12,000
Forestry, Fish, and Game Department ......  10,000


The legislature of Connecticut appropriated $100,000 for the
participation of that State at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. The
following commissioners were appointed by the governor of Connecticut,
according to an act of the legislature passed April 2, 1903:

Frank L. Wilcox, president: Charles Phelps, vice-president; J.A. Vail,
secretary-treasurer; Edgar J. Dolittle, Isaac W. Birdseye, Phelps
Montgomery, Mrs. Louis R. Cheney, Mrs. George H. Knight, Miss Anne H.
Chappell. National commissioners: Frederick Betts, Mrs. John M.
Holcombe. Resident commissioner, Hobart Brinsmade.

The Connecticut State Building was intended to represent colonial
design. In its main exterior features it was a replica of the Sigourney
mansion in Hartford, built about 1820 by Charles Sigourney, whose wife
Lydia Huntley Sigourney, was highly regarded as a poet in her time. In
later years it was the home of Lieut. Governor Julius Catlin. The
architect of the Connecticut building was Edward T. Hapgood, of
Hartford. The interior plan was designed to combine colonial ideas with
modern requirements, which were carried out to such extent as to make it
one of the most attractive and homelike structures on the exposition
grounds. It was erected by The H. Wales Lines Company, of Meriden,
Conn., at a cost of about $31,000, and official inspectors pronounced it
the best-built edifice at the exposition. The walls of the rooms on the
first floor and the upper hall were hung with five different designs of
exquisite silk tapestry, the gift of the Cheney Brothers, of South
Manchester. These added a "finishing touch" that found no comparison
elsewhere on the grounds. The furnishing of the building was in
excellent harmony with its colonial design. Highboys and lowboys,
Chippendale, Hepplewhite and Windsor chairs, Sheraton and
thousand-legged tables, flax wheels and warming pans were associated
with canopied high-post bedsteads, while corner cupboards revealed rare
copper-luster china of almost untold value. As a colonial exhibit it was
unique, and had it been entered in competition for reward would most
surely have been given the grand prize. The souvenir catalogue issued by
the Connecticut commission contains a list of 514 articles, most of them
loaned from various Connecticut homesteads. The catalogue also contains
a list of oil paintings and water colors, all by Connecticut artists,
which embellished the walls of the building, the selection being made by
Charles Noel Flagg, of Hartford, chosen by the commission for that

The collective exhibits of Connecticut were in the following-named
departments: Education, farm products, tobacco, dairy, horticulture
(including pomology), herbarium, public parks and residential grounds
(photographs), and shellfish. The grounds surrounding the Connecticut
Building form part of the State horticultural exhibit.

On account of the limited appropriation it was necessary to abandon the
live exhibit of Connecticut in the Fish and Game Building. With the
limited amount of stock which the oystermen had, owing to the lack of
"set" for a number of years, they considered it a detriment to
advertise, and it was only through a regard for the commission that any
of the larger cultivators would contribute to the exhibit.

The exhibit was advantageously placed in the center of the Forest, Fish,
and Game Building and attracted a great deal of attention from visitors
and will undoubtedly prove of material advantage to an immense State

On one side of the booth the strictly State exhibit was placed, showing
in the cases the oysters of all ages, their enemies, and various
curiosities in growth and development. Over the cases were maps of the
oyster grounds, with photographs showing the oyster houses, docks, and
steamers. On the opposite side were individual displays of several of
the larger cultivators.

Connecticut made a good display. Fifty-eight different specimens of nuts
attracted much attention, many of the varieties shown now growing in the
West and South, and being seen for the first time by many of the

Much interest was manifested in flint (Yankee) corn, as it was called by
people of the West and South, and many samples were given to people from
all parts of the United States and to some from foreign countries.

Samples of grass taken from a field yielding 121 tons to the acre far
surpassed any yield of alfalfa claimed from the rich soil of California
or any other Western State.

Exhibit of tobacco leaf and the continuous and frequent favorable
comment demonstrated clearly that its reputation as a State growing fine
quality of wrapper leaf is confined to no small area.

Connecticut has the credit of being the only New England State which
made any dairy exhibit, and in this exposition Connecticut did what she
has never before attempted. An entry was made for the permanent exhibit
as well as for the butter sent for scoring. The lower part of this space
was filled with packages of butter, both tubs and prints, handsomely
arranged so as to make an artistic display.

This was surmounted with a form like a large open book, on one page of
which was the coat of arms, and the other the Charter Oak, both made
from the butter from Connecticut and from true models.

The coat of arms and the Charter Oak were exact reproductions.

These spaces were kept at low temperature by refrigeration, and the
exhibit lasted until the end of the fair.

Connecticut was the first State to have her exhibit completed.

About 775 square feet was assigned to Connecticut in Horticultural
Building, and some time before the opening of the exposition, this space
was fitted with tables and other needed appliances. The space assigned
came within the section where only low installation was allowed. As a
result, those in charge were enabled to install the exhibit at much less
expense than anticipated, which accounts for much of the unexpended
portion of the appropriation set apart for this display. The location
was very desirable, being open, airy, and very accessible from all parts
of the hall.

The exhibit was opened the first day of the fair and was one of the very
few that had the tables fully occupied the opening day of the
exposition. The display, mostly of apples, but including pears and
cranberries, was kept up from stock in storage, using from 5 to 10
barrels per week until about July 15, when the first apples of 1904 and
some small fruits were available. Soon after that regular supplies were
sent forward, but not until September 15 was the storage stock fully
disposed of and the tables wholly filled with fruit of 1904 and kept in
that condition until the close of the exposition, making the exhibit of
great credit to the State, and the only one from New England.

During the season all cultivated fruits grown in the State, except
blackberries and raspberries, were shown, even the so-called tender or
perishable fruits being sent in large lots, and usually arriving in very
satisfactory condition. It was expected, at first, that apples and pears
would constitute the exhibit, but a trial shipment convinced the
committee that it was perfectly feasible to send the finer fruits, and
this was continued as long as they were to be obtained.

In horticulture, Connecticut, after careful consideration, decided to
make only so much of the exhibit of living plants as was needed for the
decoration of the grounds around the Connecticut Building. This was done
apparently to the satisfaction of those interested in the fair and to
the pleasure of people who visited the exposition, for uniformly it was
spoken of as being one of the best planted and decorated grounds around
any State building.

The collection of the herbarium was most successful. The botanists of
the State gave a great deal of gratuitous labor that it might be
completed. It was exhibited on revolving screens, the first attempt ever
made to so exhibit the flora of a State. It was so arranged that every
specimen was readily available for examination and study. This exhibit,
after the close of the fair, was presented to Trinity College, Hartford,
at the request of the college authorities, they paying all expenses of
its return and agreeing to give it suitable location for exhibition in
their Natural Science Building, where it can be seen and studied by all

The parks and public grounds of the State were well represented by
photographs, as were also the private grounds. These photographs have
been returned to Hartford and are now stored in the capitol, awaiting
final disposition.

In school-garden work Connecticut was a leader, having one of the best
equipped school gardens in the country. Believing that a knowledge of
what this State has done in this work should be known and recognized at
the fair, a committee was created to arrange for a school garden and
conduct the same during the World's Fair, and their work was most


_Members of Georgia commission_.--Governor J.M. Terrell, ex officio
chairman; O.B. Stevens, commissioner of agriculture; Col. Dudley M.
Hughes, commissioner-general; Glascock Barrett, assistant
commissioner-general; Hugh V. Washington, vice-commissioner-general; F.
B. Gordon, commissioner; H.H. Tift, commissioner. Advisory board: John
M. Egan, Col. P.A. Stovall, E.L. Rainey, I.P. Cocke, Dr. L.H.
Chappell, Harry Fisher, Oliver Porter, Dr. J.H. Turner, W.J. Kinkaid,
A.H. Shaver, W.J. Neal, Dr. T.H. Baker, McAlpine Thornton, James M.
Smith, Dr. J.F. Erwin, H.M. Franklin, E.B. Hook, Col. J.F. De Lacy,
W.S. Humphries, John A. Cobb, R.C. McIntosh, James B. Gaston.

Situated on one of the main avenues of the exposition, known as "The
Trail," and immediately north of Virginia and opposite Tennessee and
Ohio, was a replica of the home of the late Gen. John B. Gordon at
Kirkwood, near Atlanta, erected by the Georgia State commission as the
official headquarters of Georgia. The building was paid for by a fund
raised by public subscription, at an approximate cost of $16,000. The
house was furnished entirely with Georgian manufactures. The cost of
furnishing the building was approximately $3,000.

Although the appropriation made by the State of Georgia was only
$30,000, the amount was largely increased by popular subscription from
counties and cities. The $30,000 appropriated by the legislature was
designated as a basis for increasing the State's museum.

Owing to the lateness of the date that the work of preparing for the
exposition was begun--October, 1903--Georgia did not make so complete
and comprehensive an exhibit of her natural, educational, and
manufacturing advantages as she would otherwise have made.

In the Forestry, Fish, and Game, Georgia contributed a very fine
exhibit, at a cost of $3,500, of which much the larger part was composed
of Georgia pine. In this department there was a complete exhibit of
naval stores, beginning at the pine tree, showing in detail the
different methods of boxing, gathering the crude products, tools used,
distillation, turpentine, different grades of resin, and its different
by-products. This was donated by the Board of Trade of Savannah, Ga., at
an approximate cost of $2,000.

In the Agricultural Building, one of the most interesting exhibits
contributed by Georgia was that of the manufacture of the celebrated
Georgia cane sirup, which was demonstrated by two negro women serving
waffles and sirup from a miniature log cabin. Sirup and cabin and
expenses were donated by the Georgia Sirup Growers' Association, and
cost approximately $1,700. There was also a complete display of
sea-island cotton in bales and types, together with threads and the
various cloths manufactured from same, the cost of installation and
maintenance being $2,400.

Possibly the most interesting and complete exhibit made by Georgia at
the fair was the display of its cotton industry. This consisted of a
pyramid containing cotton-seed hulls, meal linters, crude oil,
surrounded by commercial packages of meal and hulls, refined oils and
lard compounds manufactured from cotton seed. The material and
maintenance cost $12,000. An exhibit of cotton products showing in
detail cotton seed, cotton on the stalk and in bales, cotton-seed oils,
crude and refined, and oil products, lard compounds, food cooked with
cotton-seed oils, and cotton-seed hulls and meals for cattle feeding
showed some of the many uses to which the cotton plant can be put. The
most interesting display in this connection was that of a fountain
flowing cotton-seed oil and surrounded by illuminated columns containing
manufactured products of oils, such as soaps, etc. This display cost

Georgia being to a certain extent a tobacco State, samples of the "weed"
indigenous to the State and said to be equal to the very best Cuba and
Sumatra tobaccos were shown in the raw leaf and in cases. The exhibit
cost approximately $2,900.

In the block immediately adjoining the cotton exhibit were displayed 86
commercial packages of forage grasses donated by farmers throughout the
State, valued at $500; an exhibit of the silk industry, valued at $400;
wheat, oats, field peas of seventy-odd varieties, rye, rice, barley,
flour, bran, peanuts, pecan nuts, corn meal, and all of the varied
agricultural exhibits. These were donated by farmers of Georgia. The
freight, installation, and care of them was provided by public
subscription. The cost of installation, freights, and care, including
the proper show cases and glass containers, which belonged to the State
museum, was estimated, in addition to the amounts enumerated above, at
$12,000. Besides the above items, nearly every city of importance made
appropriations to cover expenses of having prepared for distribution
books and pamphlets calling the attention of the public to the many
advantages of their several localities, at an estimated cost of $10,000.

Subsequently the Georgia commission to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition
donated the entire furnishings of the State building to the Georgia
Industrial Home at Macon, Ga., the only nonsectarian orphanage in the

The resolution creating the appropriation for the installation and
exhibit of Georgia products, which was approved August 17, 1903,

    That the sum of thirty thousand dollars should be appropriated,
    to be expended in collecting and permanently preserving
    specimens of minerals, granite, clays, kaolin, marble, iron, and
    such other minerals and precious stones as may abound in or are
    found within the State; to further collect specimens of the
    field and forest, mills and mines, orchards and vineyards of
    this State, and such other matters and things pertaining to the
    character and the productiveness of the soils of Georgia; that
    when the specimens aforesaid were collected they should be
    deposited in the State museum, there to be safely kept and
    displayed; and that the exhibit thus collected should be
    displayed at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition at St. Louis,


_Members of Idaho commission_.--Gov. J.T. Morrison; James E. Steele,
president; R.W. McBride, vice-president; Mrs. W.H. Mansfield, secretary;
Martin J. Wessels, Idaho section Forestry Building; Dr. Harold J. Read;
Clarence B. Hurtt, executive commissioner; Miss Anne Sonna; Miss
Genevieve Vollmer.

Idaho was represented by a State building and by exhibits in four of the
great exhibit palaces of the exposition. The building was situated upon
the elevated ground east of the Palace of Agriculture, and the
surroundings made it one of the most attractive spots of the exposition.
The Idaho Building was not big or imposing, but there were few State
buildings on the World's Fair grounds that excited more interest or
inquiry. The building was a bungalow with an open court, in which were
grass and bright flowers. The structure, which was 60 feet square, was
but 1 story high and contained ten rooms. The roof was of red tile and
the exterior of cream-colored staff. The interior finish served to show
the utility of Idaho woods for this particular use. Transparencies and
mounted photographs illustrated the vast forest resources of the State.
Around the court a row of heavy columns supported the overhanging roof,
and a wide cloister behind the columns, paved with brick, afforded a
charming resting place. At the close of the exposition the building was
sold to a citizen of Texas, who is to have it reerected on his ranch,
and it will still bear the name of "Idaho."

The exhibits of the State were shown in the departments of Education,
Mining, Agriculture, and Horticulture. The State appropriation for the
World's Fair was $25,000.

While not boasting a large acreage under cultivation, Idaho was a
competitor at the World's Fair with the best of her sisters in the
quality of her field products. The exhibit in the Palace of Agriculture
was impartially chosen and fairly represented all parts of the State
where agricultural interests have a foothold. In the exhibit were 47
varieties of wheat, 41 varieties of oats, 32 varieties of flax--the only
specimen of white flaxseed known to exist, from the farm of Alonzo
McWillis, of Rosetta, who received a gold medal for his exhibit. Wheat
was shown weighing 62 to 64 pounds to the bushel in comparison with the
standard of 60 pounds. Idaho barley weighs 53 to 54 pounds to the
bushel, while the standard is but 48. A bunch of alfalfa of the second
cutting was received early in October and was more than 6 feet high.
Displays of beans of many varieties, peas, corn, alfalfa, and clover
seed all indicated the resourcefulness of Idaho soil.

It was not practicable to show Idaho melons, strawberries, and small
fruits in fresh condition, but a display with a showy array of canned
fruits and dried fruits of favorite sorts attracted attention. Idaho
potatoes of the 5-pound class were a part of the exhibit, along with
turnips, carrots, parsnips, onions, and other vegetables. There was a
small showing also of popcorn, sweet corn, and the field varieties.

The effort to make a complete fruit exhibit on behalf of Idaho had its
justification in the wide advertising its fruit and agricultural lands
would receive from an effective presentation of the products of the many
fine orchards of the State. The exhibit contained many surprises, such
as the soft-shell almonds. Idaho's grape display was a surprise to many
of the States. In the exhibit were about a dozen varieties that are new
in this country, the vines of which were brought from Persia and other
eastern Mediterranean countries. Among these were the Hunisa, a dark
grape which is regarded as a distinct gain to the Pacific slope
grape-growing interests because of its fine flavor and sweetness and
good keeping qualities.

The educational exhibit was collected by Miss May Scott, State
superintendent of public instruction, installed at State expense, but
maintained at the personal expense of Mrs. S.M. Harris, of Silver City,
and Mrs. C.J. Johnson, of Pocatello. The Boise exhibit showed the work
of all grades, elementary, secondary, and high school pupils doing
themselves and the State credit in comparison with other States.
Lessons, drawings, photographs, and maps were displayed in 37 bound
volumes, besides 5 volumes of district school work and 33 card mounts of
lessons, embracing the 8 grades of the primary schools. Silver City
exhibited graded work from the first to eighth grades, inclusive, very
attractively mounted on cards. Credit is due the Weiser schools, also,
for all-around good work. The schools contributed to the general display
a fine collection of mounted cards in elementary work, and the
Industrial School sent a good display of the work in manual training,
including needlework and photographs of buildings. Moscow made a good
general display of school work, and particularly in composition and
writing. Every community was shown to be alive to the importance of
having good schools. A part of the space in the exhibit was devoted to
photographs of the University of Idaho, about which a great many
questions were asked. The work of the Mountainhouse School was
handsomely bound in a burnt-leather cover.

The Pocatello public school work was delayed and reached the exhibit so
late that it could not be judged. The display consisted of photographs
of the children and schoolhouses and the work of the schools from the
kindergarten to the high school. The Shoshone County exhibit was
displayed in 79 volumes, embracing the work from the first grade to the
high school work. A number of mounted cards of kindergarten work were
also shown. The Wallace schools were commended for several excellent
examples of map drawing contributed. Kendrick made a good display in 11
bound books. Coeur d'Alene sent a dozen volumes of bound work. Bonners
Ferry and Sandpoint contributed good work in a number of bound books and
photographs. Idaho County made a good display of raffia work and Indian
pictures, besides the school-work exhibit. The Albion State Normal
School made a large display of photographs showing the institution and
its equipment. Oro Fino sent a collection of drawings, and Council and
Harrison both made good displays of what their schools are doing to keep
up with the times. The work of the Lewiston schools, which would have
formed a conspicuous and very creditable part of the Idaho educational
display, was lost in transit.

The mineral exhibit of the State at the World's Fair at St. Louis
embraced specimens from every county and mining district. Hundreds of
mines contributed specimens of ore and they were all labeled and
displayed to the best advantage possible in the Idaho booth. The largest
specimens were huge nuggets of lead ore weighing several tons each,
almost pure lead, which occupied a central place in the exhibit and
served to draw attention to the vast collection of other mineral
specimens. Boise, the seat of government, was represented by specimens
of gold-bearing rhyolite from the granite slopes north of the city, as
well as by samples of fire clay of high quality; found partly within the
city limits. From the Black Hornet and Curlew Creek districts came
quartz specimens containing gold and silver. From Bear Creek were
cuttings from the dike formation of low-grade ores that may mean much to
Boise if they be profitably handled.

There were specimens of lead ores from Halley and Wood Rivet district,
where lead to the value of $20,000,000 has been taken out. These ores
run high in silver, and the revival of interest in the workings there is
a matter of comment. These specimens included some of the Minnie Moore
deposits, the most famous mine in Idaho's history, whose best ores show
70 per cent lead and 110 ounces of silver to the ton. A few specimens of
gold-bearing quartz from the Boise basin were shown, although these
deposits are but partly developed, more interest attaching to the placer
mining, which has produced a hundred million dollars' worth of gold in
the history of this region. The Pearl district contributed good
specimens of oxidized quartz and granite gangue, iron and arsenical
pyrites with zinc blend, and a showing of galena and copper sulphides.
Monaxite, a heavy yellow sand, the ore of thorium, is found here, and is
in considerable demand on account of the new discoveries in the radio
activity of certain minerals.

From the vicinity of Pocatello were fine specimens of copper and lead
ores having gold and silver veins, iron, and manganese oxide ores. These
came principally from the workings on Rabbit Creek, Pocatello Creek, and
the Hovey group. Coal specimens were shown from the vicinity of
Blackfoot and Idaho Falls. From Bear Lake County were ores carrying
copper, gold, and silver. Coal specimens were shown from the Goose Creek
Mountains and the ranges in the southern part of Cassia County. The
mines all about Silver City, the county seat and mining center, were
well represented. The South Mountain district, south of Silver City, was
represented by ores from some of the reopened mines which had been idle
for many years.

Ores from the Rocky Bar, Atlanta, Pine Grove, Black Warrior, Neal, Lime
Creek, and Dixie districts made a good representation for Elmore County,
which, on account of its nearness to Boise and railroad facilities, has
been better developed than many other parts of the State. The Yankee
Fork, Loon Creek, and Stanley basin districts of Custer County were all
contributors to the State exhibit of gold and silver ores. The
lead-silver ores of Custer County came from the Bayhorse, Squaw Creek,
Clayton, Poverty Flat, and Slate Creek districts. Copper ores from the
Big Lost River Valley were convincing proof of the richness of mines in
that newly developed part of the State. Fremont County sent specimens of
coal from the rich mines opened a year ago in the eastern part of the

Shoshone County was represented by huge nuggets of lead-silver ore. Gold
ores from Shoshone County showed the wide distribution of the yellow
metal, which appears in every county in the State. Copper ores from
Shoshone County were an indication of future possibilities in copper
production in the State.

It was the earnest endeavor of the Commission to make the most of the
opportunities and the means at their disposal to give Idaho and her
resources a thorough advertisement. The press of the country was
interested in Idaho's development, with the result that hundreds of
articles have been printed about the State's large showing at the
exposition in the newspapers of all States. The large number of gold,
silver, and bronze medals awarded to the exhibitors bore evidence of the
success of the work.


To Illinois belongs the distinction of having held the first and, until
the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, the greatest World's Fair. Naturally
the State of Illinois at that time had a more immediate pride in its
showing and spent a vastly greater sum to gather and shelter its
exhibits than it could afford for an exposition outside of its own
borders; but it is not the opinion of any that Illinois has been
outclassed in any respect at the World's Fair of 1904. With
comparatively a small appropriation, when the $800,000 appropriated by
Illinois in Chicago in 1893, or the $1,000,000 spent by Missouri, in St.
Louis is considered, Illinois has taken a leading part in the Louisiana
Purchase Exposition. It has not only furnished its large share of the
attractions, but it no doubt sent to the exposition the largest number
of visitors from any one State outside of Missouri.

Only exhibits of a public character were installed at the expense or
through the efforts of the commission. Private enterprises, many of
which took exhibits from this State, were not assisted at the expense of
the commission; but the State exhibits were gathered, prepared,
installed, and cared for wholly or in part at the expense of the State,
authorized by an act of the Forty-second general assembly in 1901, which
appropriated the sum of $250,000 for the purpose.

The law provided for the appointment of a commission of 15 members. The
members of this commission as originally appointed were:

Samuel Alschuler, C.F. Coleman, F.M. Blount, I.L. Ellwood, D.M. Funk,
Jos. P. Mahoney, J.N.C. Shumway, H.C. Beitler, C.C. Craig, H.M. Dunlap,
J.H. Farrell, J.H. Miller, P.T. Chapman, C.N. Travous, C.N. Rannals.

The commission organized by the election of officers, as follows:
President, H.M. Dunlap; vice-president, C.N. Travous; second
vice-president, J.P. Mahoney; treasurer, P.T. Chapman; secretary, John
J. Brown.

Of the members originally appointed the following afterwards resigned,
viz, I.L. Ellwood, P.T. Chapman, H.C. Beitler, C.N. Rannals, Samuel
Alschuler, F.M. Blount, and were succeeded by John H. Pierce, Albert
Campbell, Walter Warder, W.L. Mounts, T.K. Condit, William J. Moxley.

The advantage of nearness to the seat of the World's Fair which made
possible the great displays of Missouri was enjoyed and made use of
almost as fully by the sister State of Illinois. In every department of
the exposition the great resources of Illinois were shown.

The State House was, with possibly two exceptions, the most pretentious
of all the State buildings, and certainly its location was the most
commanding. From the intramural cars this great white structure, with
its generous verandas and its wealth of ornament, could be seen at
several points. It was not on the Plateau of States, but was the
important member of another State group on The Trail, directly west of
the Cascade Gardens. Across the way were the beautiful gardens of Japan,
and the Lincoln Museum was directly north.

The building was designed along the lines of the French renaissance, but
it was entirely modern in treatment. For instance, in the relief
ornament of frieze and cornice the fleur-de-lis was replaced by the ear
of corn motif. This was Illinois renaissance and was something more than
cut and dried ornament. It was symbolic of the State.

The two great statues that greeted the visitor were those of Lincoln and
Douglas. The grand central reception hall was done in tones of ivory,
green, and gold, with floor of tile. The medallion center of the tile
was the great seal of the State. At one side of the broad staircase was
a raised platform, on which stood a grand piano. The elevated apartment
served as a reception and music room.

Opening from the great hall were reading rooms, rest rooms, and the
office of the commission. On the floor above were the suites of
apartments for the governor, the commissioners, and the officers of the
building. The wives of the commissioners served as hostesses, each doing
the honors for a period of ten days at a time.

One of the most noteworthy features of the Illinois State Home was its
verandas. From these every part of the exposition grounds could be seen,
and the night view was especially glorious. The building was designed by
Illinois architects, erected by Illinois labor, and furnished, for the
most part, by Illinois firms. Hence it was really an expression of the
State it represented. Its cost was $90,000.

Aside from the State House, the most remarkable exhibits of the State
were those in the Palace of Mines and Metallurgy and the Palace of
Agriculture. In the former there was abundant evidence that Illinois is
primarily a mining State, while the latter wholly contradicted this
notion. As a matter of fact, Illinois ranks second to Pennsylvania in
the production of coal, and its quarries yield a fine quality of both
sand and lime stone. The booth in the Palace of Mines contained the
largest block of soft coal ever removed from a mine. It was 6 by 7 by 8
feet in size and was hoisted 335 feet from the shaft. In the coal
exhibit there were specimens of the product of over 50 mines, with
chemical analyses showing their respective heating elements.

There was a large display of the clay industry of the State, including
bricks, tile, and pottery. In addition there were shown splendid
specimens of fluorspar, lead, and zinc.

In the Palace of Horticulture there was an extensive table exhibit of
fresh fruit, especially of apples and the more ephemeral fruits, such as
berries and plums. However, the best display of all was in the Palace of
Agriculture. In the cold-storage case in the dairy section were two
exceptionally good pieces of butter sculpture. They were the busts of
those two great Illinoisans--Lincoln and Grant.

The most striking feature of the great corn pavilion was an enormous
broom, that was typical both of the production of broom corn and of the
State's broom industry. In the corners were small ornamental booths made
entirely of the native woods of the State. One of these was used as an
office by the secretary. There were several excellent pictures made of
various grains. Among the grain pictures were three that were worthy to
stand together. They were President Lincoln, Governor Yates, and the
great seal of the State.

By far the largest and most significant part of the exhibit was the
collection of samples of corn planted, cultivated, and harvested by
boys. The League of Corn Growers numbered 8,000 members, and there were
1,100 prizes each year, the first being $500. Each boy submitted 10 ears
of corn from his own patch, together with an account of his experiences
and method. The prize winners attached their photographs to the little
pyramids of 10 ears of fine corn. For the farming industry of the State
it was felt that nothing could possibly be better than this annual
contest. The boy is taught to look upon the scientific cultivation of
the soil as something worthy his best effort. That in which he takes a
personal pride ceases to be drudgery. As a result of this corn contest
much of the danger that all the farmer boys will seek the great cities
may be averted, and it was felt that the great exposition should
encourage the boys in their worthy enterprise.

There were installed by the Illinois commission 14 separate and distinct
exhibits, including that of live stock. Each exhibit was in charge of a
superintendent and a committee of the commission.

As soon as the Illinois commission had been appointed the members of the
Illinois State Historical Society felt that the society should make an
exhibit. As the appropriation of $2,000 was small and the time brief for
the preparation of the exhibit, the trustee decided that no better and
more appropriate exhibit could be made than a manuscript and pictorial
life of Abraham Lincoln, these manuscripts and pictures to be arranged
so plainly that they could be understood and appreciated by all.

The plan of the exhibit was to utilize all the space possible, and as
this was the only exhibit in the Illinois Building it was made as
handsome in appearance as possible. Accordingly 16 large wall frames
handsomely labeled in gold letters were prepared. The labels read as

(1) Ancestry of Lincoln.
(2) Youth of Lincoln.
(3) Lincoln at New Salem.
(4) Lincoln as a Surveyor.
(5) Lincoln in the Black Hawk War.
(6) Lincoln as a Lawyer (two cases).
(7) Lincoln in Congress.
(8) Domestic Life of Lincoln.
(9) Lincoln and Douglas.
(10) Lincoln and Douglas Debates.
(11) Lincoln and the Foundation of the Republican Party.
(12) The Campaign of 1860.
(13) Lincoln in Washington, The Cabinet.
(14) The War of Rebellion.
(15) Assassination and Death.

The titles indicate the character of the contents.

The agricultural committee was organized, and the scope and character of
the exhibit to be made by Illinois was carefully considered.

It was determined to devote entire attention to the exploitation of
those products which can be grown most successfully and profitably
within the limits of this State. While the interests of Illinois were,
of course, always given the first consideration, such an exhibit was of
just as much interest and value to adjoining States, or, in fact, to any
countries of the Temperate Zone where similar conditions of climate and
soil exist as in the State of Illinois.

Accordingly it was determined to exploit the principal crop of the
State, which surpasses all other in value--that of corn.

It was also planned to exhibit choice specimens of wheat, oats, rye,
millet, sorghum, Kaffir corn, clover, broom corn, and other grains and
grasses, and did exhibit those varieties that can best be raised in the
different sections of the State. The grains were shown both in the sheaf
and thrashed. There were collected over one hundred varieties of native
woods from different sections of the State.

The installation and exhibit was completed early in May, soon after the
fair opened, except the soil exhibit, which was not finished in all its
details until about a month later. A company of Chicago donated to the
committee an assortment of some thirty new by-products of corn, which
have been manufactured by them in the last few years, including
different varieties of glucose, starch, proteins, and different
varieties of sugar, rubber, dextrine, corn oils, sirups, etc., which
were exhibited in large jars arranged in the form of a pyramid. The
entire agricultural exhibit covered 10,000 square feet of space.

During the fair additions were made from time to time as the season
progressed, and specimens of grains and corn from the crop of 1904 were

The exhibit as completed showed the variety and character of Illinois
soil and also showed the elements which they contain and which they lack
in various portions of the State. The proper treatment, cultivation, and
fertilization necessary to bring each kind of soil to the standard and
keep it there; the products that could be raised to best advantage on
these soils; the method of raising them, and the appearance and
characteristics of these crops at various stages of their growth; the
best seed to plant, and, finally, the grown and ripened products and the
various articles manufactured therefrom, and the uses to which they
could most successfully and profitably be put. Attendants were engaged
who were able to fully explain the various features of the exhibit, and
as there were so many things that had never been exhibited or shown
anywhere before the exhibit appealed strongly to those interested in

And in this connection it might be stated that thousands of
schoolteachers from every State came to the Illinois section to study
corn in a more scientific manner than they had ever studied it before.
This was especially true of the teachers of the East and South.

There was no effort made to collect every known grain or grass or seed
that grows upon the farm, but to display such products as were
considered most valuable to the different sections of the State. Only
the leading standard varieties were installed and such valuable
varieties were exhibited in such proportion and in such profusion as to
demonstrate their value in different sections of the State. Large
displays of wheat, oats, grasses, and grains of all kinds, in sheaf and
thrashed, were exhibited, and it was intended to show both the growth of
the root and the stalk, as well as the grain. As an example, more than
thirty varieties of oats were exhibited, showing root growth, stalk
growth, size and length of head, and beside each variety was 1 peck of
the oats thrashed.

In one corner of our exhibit was erected a triangle of grain pictures,
three in number, each 8 by 10 feet, and made entirely of seeds. One
picture was that of Abraham Lincoln, another Governor Richard Yates, and
a third represented the State seal.

Upon seven large tables were displayed more than 500 glass bottles of
seeds, ranging from 8 ounces to 1 gallon each.

But the feature of the agricultural display that attracted more
attention than anything else was the immense display of corn grown by
the farmer boys of Illinois. The commission from the very start
determined to make this display by the farmer boys a strong feature of
the exhibit, and how well their efforts were rewarded is now known by
millions of people who visited the Agricultural Building. The
superintendent solicited special premiums to the amount of $3,500.
Circulars describing the farmers boys' corn contest were placed in the
hands of 120,000 farmer boys in Illinois. Eight thousand entered the

Above the two vast pyramids of white and yellow corn, each 20 by 30
feet, was a handsome banner inscribed "Grown by the farmer boys of

One of the most attractive and interesting sections of the dairy exhibit
was that installed by the Illinois commission. The statuary in this
exhibit consisted of a full-length ideal statue representing "Illinois,"
holding the shield of State with one hand, while the other grasps the
shaft holding the streamer reading "Illinois" in large, clear, golden
letters. On either side of this figure were large busts of Lincoln and
Grant. These busts and the full-length figure were made of pure Illinois
creamery butter.

The background for the statuary was arranged with the banner won by the
Illinois creameries and two large United States flags, which were in
keeping with the historical character of the two men represented.

At the sides and in front heavy draperies separated the statuary from
the commercial exhibits, which consisted of print butter from the Elgin
district and from the University of Illinois, arranged in various
designs; also samples of condensed milk, malted milk, and evaporated

There were also jars with samples showing the amounts of water, butter
fat, casein, albumen, and other ingredients entering into the
composition of a 30-pound tub of butter.

Tables showing the value of the great dairy industry of Illinois, the
production of butter and cheese in the Elgin district, the butter and
cheese market of Chicago, and large photographs portraying typical
Illinois dairy cows and Illinois creameries and the condensing plants
occupied prominent positions among the exhibits. Several bulletins from
the University of Illinois agricultural experiment station, showing the
importance of clean milk and pure butter and other information of value
to dairymen, were distributed from the superintendent's desk. The cheese
exhibited consisted of samples made by students at the University of
Illinois, and a large collection installed by M. Uhlmann & Co., of
Chicago, occupied a space in the cheese case directly opposite the
butter exhibit.

The refrigerator which contained these exhibits had a glass front formed
of three thicknesses of plate glass, with air spaces between. The
temperature inside the case was kept close to the freezing point by an
ice-making machine in constant operation.

The Illinois commission set apart $15,000 to make a duplication as far
as possible of premiums won by the breeders of live stock exhibited in
the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, less than $1,000 of which was
reserved to provide for the necessary expenses incident to printing,
allotting, and distributing the said prize fund.

The live stock from the State of Illinois won one-twentieth of the
entire premiums offered by the Louisiana Purchase Exposition.

Five thousand square feet of space was secured in the Palace of
Horticulture at the exposition for the exhibit and installation and
fixtures placed thereon prior to the opening of the exposition, May 1,
1904, upon which date the exhibit was put in place and maintained with
apples from storage of 1903 crop until the crop of 1904 began to mature
about June 1. From this latter date fruits of all kinds were supplied as
they matured during the period of the exposition. Among the most popular
varieties of apples exhibited were: For early apples--Yellow
Transparent, Red June, Benoni, Wealthy, Duchess, Maiden Blush. For fall
or early winter--Grimes Golden and Jonathan. Winter varieties--Wine Sap,
Willow Twig, Rome Beauty, Ben Davis. Peaches--Reeves, Elberta, Diamond.
Pears--Bartlett, Tyson, Sechel, Duchess.

_Mines and metallurgy exhibit._--The mines and metallurgy exhibit
covered a space 25 by 75 feet facing on two of the main aisles near the
southeast entrance to the Mines and Metallurgy Building.

The installation was uniform with that of the other exhibits of the
State. The object of the exhibit was to show particularly the mineral
and to some extent the mineral industries.

The most important branch of production, according to its value, was
that of coal. After this came the various materials used in the
manufacture of brick and ceramics.

The building stone, although limited to a few varieties of limestone and
sandstone, was of great importance, as was also some stone and gravel
used for road material, railroad ballast, concrete, and flux for iron

The exhibit of coal consisted of a series of large blocks intended to
show the character and thickness of the veins; the largest block,
weighing 15 tons, is the largest single piece ever hoisted from a mine.
There are 11 of these blocks from different mines, ranging from the
largest down to one block of 1 ton.

In clay products the importance of the industry could only be shown by
statistics, as common brick, which is made all over the State in such a
uniform character, are so well known that exhibits are not necessary.

Neither the geology nor topography offer many opportunities for the
development of stone quarries, but such stone as is extensively used was
displayed. The limestones of the Silurian series are the principal
sources of supply, the quarries about Joliet being among the largest in
the United States. The limestone is generally used in the form of rubble
or rock-faced ashler.

The exhibit at the United States Fish Commission Building was in the
large aquarium situated in the southeast corner of the building and the
two smaller aquaria immediately adjoining on the right and left.

In the large aquarium the commissioners decided to show the commercial
fishes of the State--that is, such fishes as were commonly used for
shipping and found in greatest abundance, namely, the carp, buffalo, the
coarser catfishes, and dogfish. The dogfish in the last few years has
become a very important factor in the food supply, having been
previously thrown away as worthless, but is now extensively used by a
class of people in the larger cities and sold alive under the name of
grass bass. In this aquarium has been carried, for a period of seven
months, perhaps the largest amount in weight ever carried in an aquarium
for that length of time with so small a percentage of loss.

In the smaller aquaria were shown the game fish of the State, a list of
which comprises the black bass, crappie, sunfishes, yellow perch, white
perch, warmouth bass, and the two varieties of striped bass.

These aquaria have attracted a great deal of attention, particularly
among those who were interested in the subject of fish propagation and
distribution, and gave people a better idea of what Illinois produced
than could have been obtained by any other method.

The exhibits of the common schools and the five State normal schools
were installed under the direction of the State superintendent of public
instruction. The material of the exhibits was furnished, except that
from the normal schools, by the school districts, without expense to the
commission, and in substantial conformity to the following suggestions,
sent to the schools about November 1, 1903:

_Classification of schools._--Group 1. Elementary education.--Class 1.
Country schools. Class 2. Semigraded schools. Class 3. Graded schools.
Group 2. Secondary education.--Class 4. High schools. Class 5. Normal

Under this classification it is desired to exhibit: (1) Legislation,
organization, general statistics; (2) buildings, photographs, plans,
models; (3) administrative methods; (4) results obtained by methods of

The educational exhibit of the university of Illinois occupied a space
30 by 45 feet, or an area of 1,290 square feet, open upon an aisle on
its long dimension. Against the back and the two side walls were
glass-inclosed cases 7 feet high, and above these were many enlarged
photographs in frames, showing the main buildings, views of the campus,
etc., together with numerous pictures from the department of art and
design, also a set of finely colored plates of the food and game fish of
Illinois. Other cases occupied a part of the central area of the space,
with room for seats and a writing table.

The exhibits were classified according to general subjects illustrative
of the equipment and work of the colleges of the university from which
they came. An attendant was on hand to supply published documents and
information to visitors.

The exhibit of the college of science contained diagrams and photographs
and a set of bound volumes of the contributions to science published by
the members of the college faculty, but was otherwise almost wholly
illustrative of the work of only one of its eight departments, that of
chemistry, and in this it was confined to the results of two line of
investigation, which have for some years been closely associated with
the work of the department; first, a study of the chemical composition
and heating value of the coals of the State, and, second, a sanitary
survey of Illinois waters. The importance of the first is emphasized by
the fact that Illinois ranks second among American States in tonnage
output, with a valuation in the aggregate of $35,000,000 annually.

The agricultural portion of the university exhibit was designed to show
the comparative produce of Illinois soils expressed in terms of both
crops and animal products. The yields shown were of corn, wheat, oats,
beans, potatoes, apples, tomatoes, milk, butter, cheese, port, mutton,
and beef.

The actual amount of corn, wheat, apples, and other crops shown was the
normal yield of one-hundredth of an acre of standard fertile soil of
Illinois. The milk shown was the amount that should be produced from the
same amount of land when growing crops suitable for milk production, and
the butter and cheese shown were such as could be made from this milk.

A mounted steer, which when living weighed 750 pounds, represented the
amount of beef that should be produced from an acre of soil in one year.
The same land would produce 10 such sheep as shown, weighing in all
1,100 pounds, or 100 pigs like the roaster shown, or their equivalent,
with a total weight of 1,400 pounds.

Incidentally the work in soil improvement was shown by a number of
yields from soils naturally deficient in fertility, taken both before
and after treatment, and thus showing the benefit of intelligent methods
of soil restoration.

The articles contributed by the College of Engineering were arranged in
an alcove, partly inclosed by cases of books and for folding frames, on
which were placed photographs and diagrams mounted on large cards. A
larger case contained the more bulky specimens of the work of students
in the engineering shops. Above these cases were placed on the walls
enlarged views and some original designs by architectural students.

A large series of good photographs arranged for convenient examination
presented views of all buildings occupied by the College of Engineering,
especially of their interiors, showing class and drawing-rooms, shops
and laboratories, incidentally illustrating much of the equipment of
machines and apparatus. A series of large diagrams and tables afforded
full information concerning the very remarkable increase in the number
of students in attendance during recent years.

The exhibit of the College of Medicine consisted of a large series of
normal and pathological specimens and dexterously executed dissections
of various portions of the human body. These were mounted so as to show
to best advantage the special peculiarities in each case and so as to
secure permanent preservation.

_Closing up_.--The closing up of the business of the commission, the
sale of the building, furniture, and exhibits involved considerable
work. The commission on two separate occasions advertised the building
and furniture for sale, advertisements to that effect appearing in the
St. Louis, Chicago, and Springfield papers. Opportunity was given for
the people to bid for the building and furnishings as a whole, for them
separately, or for any part. About sixty separate bids were received,
some for one article only, many for a few pieces of furniture, and a
very few for the building or furniture as a whole. Four bids were
received for the building, viz, $200, $500, $750, and $1,000, the bids
on the building including a provision that all debris from the wrecking
of same should be removed and the ground cleared and left as it was
originally, all of which involved considerable expense. The bid of the
Southern Illinois Construction Company, of East St. Louis, was the
highest, including building, furniture, and furnishings, and amounted to
$4,250. This bid was accepted. Articles in other exhibits not included
were afterwards disposed of and are included in the financial statement,
bringing the amount of salvage to over $5,000. This amount seemed small,
but was in line with the results of all expositions. At Chicago, with a
net appropriation of $662,000 and with a building and furnishings
costing $277,000, the total amount realized from the sale of buildings
and furnishings was $3,926.50. At Omaha and Buffalo the amounts realized
were less than $1,000.


On March 9, 1903, the legislature of the State of Indiana appropriated
the sum of $150,000 for the necessary expenses of the participation of
Indiana at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. At the same time the
governor of the State was authorized and directed to appoint a
commission of fifteen persons, not more than nine of whom were to be of
the same political party.

Newton W. Gilbert, president; Henry W. Marshall, vice-president; James
W. Cockrum, secretary; A.C. Alexander, assistant secretary; W.W.
Wicks, W.W. Stevens, W.H. O'Brien, Crawford Fairbanks, D.W. Kinsey,
N.A. Gladding, Frank C. Ball, C.C. Shirley, Fremont Goodwine, Joseph
B. Grass, Stephen B. Fleming, Melville W. Mix.

The State made altogether seventeen exhibits in the various exhibit
palaces, the total value of which was approximately $60,000. The
exhibits consisted of needlework and lace work in the Manufactures
Building, decorated china in the Varied Industries Building, coal and
stone exhibits in the Mines and Metallurgy Building, horticultural
exhibit in the Horticultural Building, special corn and dairy exhibits
in the Agriculture Building, and general educational, library, college,
State board of health, juvenile courts, department of inspection, school
for feeble-minded youths, and State board of charities exhibits in the
Educational Palace.

The Indiana Building at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition was located in
the center of the State group, on one of the most artistic spots within
the exposition grounds. It was designed in the spirit of the French
renaissance, and was intended to be a resting place for all visitors to
meet friends and enjoy social and musical entertainments.

The building was surrounded by a broad terrace, with balustrade
embellished with flowers and pedestals supporting vases with flowers and
vines. The approach was through a spacious portico, on either side of
which were candelabra of monumental character. A large lounging hall, 30
by 58, was furnished with heavy leather upholstered furniture. On either
side were men's and women's resting rooms, 19 by 37, back of which were
commodious toilet and retiring rooms. The toilet rooms had tile floors
and walls and partitions made of "novus" sanitary glass, manufactured at
Alexandria, Ind. The resting rooms were wainscoted 7 feet high with
paneled oak, and were luxuriously furnished with rugs, upholstered
furniture, and each was furnished with an upright piano.

In connection with the lounging hall were a secretary's office, a
post-office, check room, registry desk, and bureau of information. The
broad, spacious stairway in the center led to a landing with Corinthian
columns supporting an art-glass dome.

Midway was a large landing and on either side were wide stairs leading
to the floor above. This landing merged into a large music room, 25 by
50, superbly furnished with oriental rugs, Louis XIV furniture, and
containing two grand pianos.

The art-glass decorations throughout the building and in the dome
represented a material whose quality is said to be unexcelled in the

On the second floor was a large library, or reading room, in which were
kept on file all the State newspapers and magazines; also all the
principal daily papers and monthly magazines.

At one end of the building was the governor's reception room; at the
other, the commissioners' reception room and private office. In
connection with this latter was the art and literary department of the
State, which contained copies of books by prominent Indiana authors and
original manuscripts and drawings. The paintings which adorned the walls
of the building were the product of Indiana genius. Her artists were
lavish of their time and thought in contributing to the effect sought.
The color scheme of the building was the result of educated taste.

The electric lighting was a special feature. A multitude of
4-candlepower lamps were used, distributed on the ceiling in pleasant
form, that harmonized the decorative plaster panels. The woodwork
throughout the building was stained and finished in bog oak. Most of the
furniture was of the Mission style, stained to suit the interior finish.

The building was furnished and decorated luxuriously and in a quiet
character, making an interior that offered comfort and quiet environment
to the weary visitor. At the very beginning it was determined that this
building and the things associated with it and housed in it should speak
the culture and artistic development of Indiana life, and so it has
gathered within its walls the best offerings of literature and art--the
trophies of civilization.


_Members of Indian Territory commission_.--Thomas Ryan, chairman; F.C.
Hubbard, executive commissioner; H.B. Johnson, honorary commissioner;
A.J. Brown, honorary commissioner; W.L. McWilliams; H.B. Spaulding;
J.E. Campbell; J.J. McAlester; William Busby; Miss Olive Blentlinger,

A fund of $50,000 was expended for the Indian Territory participation in
the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. Of this amount, $25,000 was
appropriated by Congress and $25,000 was raised by popular subscription
in the Territory. The expenditure, according to the provisions of the
Congressional appropriation, was made under the direction of the
Secretary of the Interior. It was the purpose of the commission to make
the Indian Territory exhibit one that would primarily set forth the
actual condition that existed in the Territory and to advertise the
developments and resources of the same in a comprehensive manner. The
same general lines that were adopted by other States and Territories in
similar work were followed as closely as practicable.

Because of its limited funds the Territorial commission deemed it
advisable to make exhibits only in the following departments: In the
Mines and Metallurgy Building were displayed the coke and coal, marble,
granite, and oil exhibits. The corn and cotton exhibits were shown in
the Palace of Agriculture. In the Horticultural Building exhibits of the
orchards and gardens of Indian Territory were maintained, and all other
exhibits, such as educational, photographic, mineral specimens, etc.,
were installed in the Indian Territory Building.

The Indian Territory Building was completed and exhibits installed on
the opening day of the exposition, April 30, 1904. It was located on a
beautiful site in the Plateau of States, near the southeast entrance to
the grounds. The building was a two-story colonial structure, 109 by 72
feet. The first floor contained, besides the large lobby room, two
exhibit rooms. In one of these rooms was displayed the art and
educational exhibit; in the other the photographic exhibit. These two
exhibits--one setting forth the artistic, the other the commercial
development of the residents of the Indian Territory--went far toward
dispelling the somewhat prevalent idea that the Indian Territory is a
wilderness, where progress and civilization are unknown.

In the art and educational room were displayed many beautiful paintings,
studies, laces, fine needle and bead work, and industrial work, all the
products of Indian Territory students and residents. In the photographic
room were arranged 500 large photographs suitably framed and mounted,
taken from all parts of Indian Territory, and representing the actual
status and present commercial condition in the Indian Territory.

In the main lobby on the first floor of the Territory Building were
displayed the collections of old Indian pottery, beadwork, etc. These
collections belong to J.E. Campbell, of the Cherokee Nation; Mr. and
Mrs. J.S. Murrow, of the Choctaw Nation; Mr. Thomas P. Smith and Miss
Alice M. Robertson, of the Creek Nation, and were all especially fine
and very valuable, many of the articles being more than a hundred years
old and representing in the highest type the work of the old Indians.
The paintings of Jefferson and his descendants, the work of Mrs.
Narcissa Owen, of the Cherokee Nation, as well as the tapestries by the
same artist, were admired by the many thousands who visited the
Territory pavilion. Mention should be made also of the 100 wild flowers
of the Indian Territory, mounted and framed, the collection of Mr. J.B.
Bushyhead, of the Cherokee Nation.

The second floor of the Territory Building contained a large reception
hall, ladies' parlors and resting rooms, and the offices of the
executive commissioner. An especially attractive feature about the
pavilion were the large stair landing and the five big windows, two
transparencies being set in each and representing typical scenes from
the Territory.

The Indian Territory was also represented in three of the exhibit
palaces of the exposition, maintaining booths in the Palace of Mines and
Metallurgy, the Palace of Horticulture, and the Palace of Agriculture.

The coal fields of the Indian Territory, especially in the Choctaw
Nation, have for years been operated successfully, and within the past
two years the development of the coal industry has been immense.
Petroleum is also found in many parts of the Indian Territory. This
industry, though new, is developing into gigantic proportions. Hundreds
of wells are going down in both the Bartlesville and Muskogee fields,
and the majority of those already opened are good producers. The crude
oil in the Bartlesville field is in grade about the same as the Kansas
oil, while the grade of the Muskogee field is somewhat better.
Railroads, pipe lines, and refineries are being built for handling this
product, which promises to be in such abundant supply. In the Indian
Territory booth in the Mines and Metallurgy Building were shown many
samples of Indian Territory coals and oils. Beside the four large cubes
of the four separate grades of bituminous coal found in the Territory,
there were arranged cases of the finest samples of egg coal, nut coal,
and pea coal, and pyramids of coal and coke were erected. Samples of the
oil from 27 flowing wells, together with samples of the oil sands, were
arranged in glass and formed the background of the booth. Cubes of the
Chickasha granite and the Cherokee marble and many blocks of building
stone, filtering rock, colite, etc., were shown in this booth. A large
relief map, costing more than $2,000, of the Choctaw coal fields and
many pictures and plates of the top works of coal mines, oil wells, and
asphaltum works were attractively placed in this booth.

A comprehensive display of the corn and cotton products of the Indian
Territory was made in the two booths maintained in the Palace of
Agriculture. The Indian Territory is particularly a cotton country. No
finer staple is sold on the Liverpool market than that which grows in
the bottoms along the Arkansas, Verdigris, Canadian, Washita, and Red
rivers. Corn, wheat, oats, rye, and, in fact, all grains and products
that flourish in such States as Kansas, Iowa, and Illinois do equally
well in Indian Territory. With practically an unvarying temperature and
abundant rainfall the "Indian lands" will, within a few years, be
converted into agricultural domains rich and beautiful.

Though not the largest, one of the very prettiest displays in the Palace
of Horticulture was that of the Indian Territory. Occupying the very
center circular space in the building, this booth was kept constantly
supplied with Indian Territory products of the orchard and flower
gardens. Apples, peaches, pears, grapes, and plums seem to grow to
perfection in the Indian Territory, and the many thousands who saw the
fruit display at the exposition can attest the fact that wonderful are
the products from Indian Territory orchards and gardens.


The legislature of the State of Kansas in 1901 appropriated the sum of
$75,000 for the purpose of having the State represented at the Louisiana
Purchase Exposition. Subsequently, in March, 1903, a second
appropriation of $100,000 was made. There were no subscriptions of any
kind for this purpose.

In 1901 the governor of Kansas appointed the following-named gentlemen
as commissioners:

John C. Carpenter, president; J.C. Morrow, vice-president; R.T. Simons,
treasurer; C.H. Luling, secretary; W.P. Waggener, commissioner.

Kansas made exhibits in the Agriculture, Horticulture, Education, and
Social Economy buildings and in the Dairy Department. The State also
made large exhibits in live stock of horses, cattle, swine, sheep, and

In the Agricultural Palace the corn steer, corn eagles, corn Indian, and
several other striking features of installation, made exclusively of
agricultural products, were greatly admired and favorably commented
upon. In this department a grand prize was given to the State.

Although known principally as an agricultural State, the exhibit made by
Kansas in the Mines and Metallurgy palaces was such as to astonish all
who saw it. Besides its other large and varied resources and fine
installation of lead, zinc, coal, salt, gypsum, stone, shale for
manufacture of brick, cement, etc., Kansas is known as one of the
greatest oil and gas fields in the United States.

The floor space assigned to the Kansas educational exhibit in the
Educational Building was 45 by 30 feet. The walls were 15 feet high,
thus giving for display purposes a surface of 2,100 square feet in
addition to the floor space. All the wall space was used to show drawing
maps, charts, photographs, and work in manual training. Thirty cabinet
cases were used to exhibit miscellaneous work, mainly in drawing,
kindergarten, sewing, and in photographic representations of various

The total cost of the booth was about $1,230, and of the furnishings
about $600. The transportation of the educational exhibits cost
approximately $100. The total cost of the educational exhibit in the
Kansas booth was about $6,000.

In the Kansas school exhibits the work of the common schools was made
conspicuous. There were on the tables in the booths between three and
four hundred bound volumes of written work, comprising spelling,
writing, composition, arithmetic, geography, grammar, United States
history, map drawing, kindergarten. But while the work of the elementary
schools was given the most important place in the Kansas exhibit, higher
education was kept well in the foreground. The University of Kansas
effectively showed its work through 50 large framed photographs in which
all the buildings and many of the class rooms made the work of the
institution visible to all.

There was work of some kind from 104 cities and about 400 country
districts. The exhibits from many of the smaller cities did not appear
separately on the catalogues, because they were included in county

The Kansas Pavilion in the Agricultural Palace occupied a space 92 by 62
feet on the main aisle, near the center of the building. On each side
were pillars 16 feet high decorated with ears of corn and corn husks.
Upon each of these rested a Grecian vase made of corn husks and
festooned with rosettes and garlands of corn husks, the whole being very

Standing at the main entrance, between the two high corn columns, were
two eagles with wings spread for flight--one made of corn husks and
kernels of corn, the other made of wheat straw and kernels of corn. They
were the work of an artist.

One of the most striking features was the large center pyramid,
surmounted by a monster steer of the Hereford type, 7 feet in height,
fashioned of red and white shelled corn. At the top of this pyramid the
word "Kansas" was worked in corn.

At the north entrance stood a pyramid of native grasses, upon which was
a vase made of oat heads, 7 feet high. Directly opposite stood a pyramid
of tame grasses, upon which rested a vase made of the heads of grains
and grasses, 7 feet high.

The Kansas State Agricultural College, at Manhattan, exhibited alfalfa,
corn, cane, Kaffir corn, oats, buffalo grass, and big blue-stemmed
grass, showing the plant and root growth. Besides these there were 25
varieties of wheat sheaves, 10 varieties of cane 14 feet in length, 4
varieties of Kaffir corn, 3 of broom corn 15 feet, stalks of corn 16
feet, and millet 6 feet high.

The State Agricultural College Experiment Station, Hays, Kans., had a
collection of wheat, rye, barley, speltz, oats, and flax.

The total cost of the various installations of the agricultural exhibits
of Kansas was $17,750.

The Kansas exhibit in the Horticultural Department fully and completely
represented that branch of industry in the State and was highly
commented upon by the people generally from all sections of the country.
Kansas was given space covering 2,000 square feet. The commission
appropriated $9,000 for this exhibit, which covered all expenses.

The fruits, especially apples, placed Kansas high in rank as one of the
leading apple-growing States of the Union. Kansas also ranked close
along with the leading States in peaches, plums, grapes, and small
fruits and was the banner State in the production of cherries.

The Kansas commission secured an 8-foot square space in the butter
pavilion, Palace of Agriculture, at a cost of $500 for the season. The
cost of placing and maintenance was $2,500.

Kansas did very well in her live-stock exhibit, for which an
appropriation of $10,000 was used. More than two hundred entries won
prizes, aggregating $313,800.

In the art exhibit, in the Kansas Building, the total number of articles
entered and shown was 537. The total value of the same was $20,247,
classified as follows: Sculpture, paintings in oil, paintings in water
colors, pastels and other drawings, miniatures, etchings, etc.,
paintings on china, art needlework, embroideries, etc., tapestries, etc.


The legislature of 1902 refused to make an appropriation for a State
exhibit. The organization of the Kentucky Exhibit Association to raise a
fund by private subscription followed. For fourteen months an active
canvass was conducted, resulting in $30,000 and a sentiment so unanimous
for the State's representation at the fair that in January, 1904, the
general assembly supplemented this amount with $75,000. The Kentucky
Exhibit Association had several hundred members, with a board of 15
directors. Upon the passage of the appropriation act, Governor J.C.
Beckham, who signed the measure, appointed the following commissioners,
all to serve without compensation:

A.Y. Ford, president; Charles C. Spalding, vice-president; R.E. Hughes,
secretary; W.H. Cox, W.T. Ellis, Clarence Dallam, W.H. Newman, Sam P.
Jones, Samuel Grabfelder, M.H. Crump, J.B. Bowles, Charles E. Hoge, A.G.
Caruth, B.L.D. Guffy, Garrett S. Wall, Frank M. Fisher, Mrs. Bertha
Miller Smith, hostess.

Mr. Hughes, as secretary, was in charge of the building, and as director
of exhibits maintained supervision over Kentucky's entire representation
in the exhibit palaces. He was Kentucky's member of the Executive
Commissioners' Association of the fair. Mr. Hughes had a most capable
secretary in Mr. Frank Dunn, who was connected with the work from the
organization of the old Kentucky Exhibit Association. Mrs. Bertha Miller
Smith, of Richmond, Ky., held the position of hostess of the building.

Besides erecting a State Building, Kentucky collected, installed, and
maintained 16 different exhibits; a collective display of minerals, a
separate display of coal, a separate display of clays, in the Mines and
Metallurgy Building; a collective display from the schools and colleges
of the State and two separate displays in the blind section in the
Palace of Education and Social Economy; two collective displays--one
exterior, the other interior--of forestry in the department devoted to
Forestry, Fish, and Game; a collective display of general agricultural
products in the Palace of Agriculture; and displays of paintings and
sculptures by Kentucky artists and sculptors, of fancy needle and drawn
work by women, and of the works of Kentucky authors and composers in the
Kentucky Building.

The displays in the exhibit palaces occupied 15,000 square feet of
space, the tobacco display with 4,000 square feet having the largest
space assigned any one product. Four thousand square feet were devoted
to minerals, 1,200 to education, 3,000 to a general agricultural
exhibit, 1,200 to forestry and its manufactured products, and 1,200 to

In the Palace of Mines and Metallurgy the general display combined both
State and individual effort. Its 3,400 square feet of space faced on
three of the main aisles of the building. Facing on three aisles the
exhibit had three entrances, an arch of cannel coal, an arch of white
limestone, and an arch of terra cotta burned in St. Louis from clay
taken from Waco, Madison County. The arches were connected by a 3-foot
wall of minerals, forming an inclosure for the exhibit. In this wall
were shown, as approaches to the clay-entrance arch, building brick,
tiles, paving brick, fire brick, plain and decorated pottery, etc.; as
approaches to the cannel-coal arch, both bituminous and cannel coal, and
as approaches to the stone arch, building stones and cement building

Oil and its future development was found in a collective petroleum
exhibit from the several oil horizons. Large blocks of coal,
representing the different veins of Kentucky, several full lines of
broken coals, and a very complete display of coke were also displayed. A
very elaborate display of kaolin--plastic, vitrifying, and refractory
clays--was made.

In all, there were 114 different specimens of clay attractively
displayed in glass cases and in convenient corners; also plain and
decorated pottery, white and cream-colored wares, terra cotta,
earthen-ware, building brick, firebacks, coke-oven sundries, paving
brick, fire brick, tiles, etc. The Kentucky display contained also zinc
ore and sphalerite, lead ore and barite, lead and zinc ore, and fluarite
from the mines in Chittenden County; zinc and lead ores and metallic
zinc from "the Joplin district of Kentucky;" sphalerite and galena from
Marion, galena (in barite) from Lockport, Henry County, and large lumps
and ground fluorspar and lead concentrates from Marion, Crittenden
County. There were 138 samples of iron ore shown as a collective State
exhibit, and in addition to this there was ore from Edmonson County, ore
from Nelson County, ore from Allen County, ore from Carter County, and
ore from Hart County. One of the unique displays was a sample bottle of
oil from the old American oil well in Cumberland County. This well,
begun September 10, 1827, was the first oil well in America. Collective
State exhibits of oynx marble, paint earths, polished earths, sands,
silicious earths, road materials, fluorspars, barite calcite, cement
materials, salt, lithograph stone, lime, potash, marl, asphalt rock,
etc., were also to be found in Kentucky's general mineral exhibit.

The State made a fine display in forestry, fish, and game. The
collection embraced displays from all parts of Kentucky. The forestry
exhibit not only showed Kentucky's timbers in the rough and polished
state, but hundreds of samples of the manufactured products. One of the
exhibits was a full-sized log wagon, carrying three large logs 10 feet
long, one each of oak, poplar, and hickory. The idea of showing the
timber from which the product was made was carried out as far as
possible throughout the exhibit.

Kentucky's educational exhibit occupied 1,100 square feet, every foot of
which was utilized to advantage. The public schools, Catholic
institutions, commercial branches, and colleges were given due
prominence, while special attention was given to mountain school labors.
One part was devoted to public schools and another to Catholic
institutions. The school work of the totally blind pupils occupied six
display cabinets. These cases showed the entire course, from 8 years to
18. The display from the Kentucky School for the Deaf at Danville,
illustrating the work done in its manual-training department, was shown
also. This school was the pioneer in the manual-training movement in
Kentucky, and for over half a century every graduate has left its halls
equipped with a knowledge of some useful handicraft. More than a year
was consumed in the collection of Kentucky's educational exhibit.

Kentucky made a good showing agriculturally, and had a creditable and
attractive representation in the Palace of Agriculture. Raising more
than 90 per cent of the hemp of the United States, Kentucky made one of
the really distinctive exhibits of the Agricultural Building at the
exposition. The exhibit occupied more than 2,000 square feet. An
experiment station showed 50 varieties of grasses and 15 varieties of
wheat, both in the seed and in the sheaf Another interesting feature was
an entire case of insects injurious to fruit trees and staple products.
An interesting feature was an obelisk, 12 feet high, made of blue grass
from the experiment station The apex was of ripened blue grass; the
shades leading up to it, formed the base, beginning with the grass in
its green state. The bluish tint that gives the grass its name could be
seen. Various stages of hemp culture and harvest were shown also. These
include the seed, the stalk intact, broken and dressed hemp. Practically
100 different places were represented in this Kentucky exhibit. There
were in all 242 exhibitors. Fifty-two of these showed tobacco, 108 corn,
18 wheat, 6 oats, 8 seeds, 5 hemp, and the others miscellaneous.

The display of tobacco was conceded to be most instructive. Occupying an
entire block--4,628 square feet of space--it covered more floor area
than any other display in the 1,240 acres of the exposition devoted to a
single product. There was shown in miniature or by pictures tobacco in
every phase of its culture and manufacture. A box of plug tobacco 3 feet
square, the largest ever made, was shown here. To show to good advantage
the successive steps in the culture, harvesting, curing, and marketing
of the tobacco, two platforms, each 31 feet long by 8 feet wide, were
utilized. They were on opposite aisles of the space, running parallel
with the 89-foot sides. On one platform were shown the plant beds and
fields, on the other the curing barns and warehouses.

The State Pavilion was dedicated as the "New Kentucky Home." By a
careful study of the visitors' register with the total attendance at the
exposition it was found that 1 out of every 18 visitors to the fair
visited the "New Kentucky Home." The registers showed for one day alone
citizens from 35 States and 11 foreign countries. Its walls, hung with
more than $20,000 worth of the paintings of Kentucky artists, the most
important collection in the State Building; a score of glass cases
holding one of the exhibits of fancy needlework and a display of relics,
with a library of the works of Kentucky authors and an art-design piano
with Kentucky-written music, the "New Kentucky Home" was most
interesting. With four sides, and every side a front, its doors were
always wide open and no restriction was placed upon visitors. Its 582
lights at night spoke an invitation to all.


_Members of commission._--Governor Newton C. Blanchard, president; Dr.
W.C. Stubbs, State commissioner; Maj. J.G. Lee, secretary; Gen. J.B.
Levert; Col. Charles Schuler; H.L. Gueydan; Robert Glenk, assistant to
State commissioner; Charles K. Fuqua, assistant secretary.

The legislature of the State of Louisiana in 1902 passed an act
providing that a board of commissioners, to be known as "The Board of
Commissioners of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition," be created,
consisting of the governor, who should be ex officio president thereof,
and four other members to be appointed by the governor. The sum of
$100,000 was appropriated by the same act for Louisiana's participation
in the Louisiana Purchase Exposition.

In the city of New Orleans is an old Spanish building, erected in 1795,
used during the Spanish reign as a cabildo or court building. In this
building the actual transfer of the Louisiana purchase from Spain to
France and from France to the United States occurred, the first on
November 30 and the last on December 20, 1803.

The commission wisely determined to reproduce this building as it was at
that date on the exposition grounds at St. Louis and to use the same as
a State building. It was determined also to furnish it with furniture
and pictures of that date. On account of the prominence of the State of
Louisiana in the original purchase, she was accorded first choice in the
selection of a site for her State building. A beautiful spot overlooking
Government Hill and directly south of Missouri's handsome State Palace
was selected. The building was completed in October, 1903, at a cost of
$25,000. On account of its historic interest and rich antique
furnishings, the State building attracted much attention, and the
visitors that passed through its portals numbered perhaps nearly a

In front of the building was reproduced the "Place d'Armes" of the
French and Spanish regimes, now Jackson square, in the center of which
was erected an equestrian statue of Andrew Jackson, modeled upon the one
erected to the hero of Chalmette in the square in New Orleans by the
grateful citizens of Louisiana.

In the room known as Sala Capitular, in which the transfer occurred, was
exposed throughout the exposition a facsimile of the treaty signed by
Livingstone, Monroe, and Marbois. In the jails in the rear of the
Cabildo were placed the original stocks used by the Spanish in
punishment of their criminals.

Besides the Cabildo, which was a veritable museum of curios and
interesting relics, Louisiana had 15 exhibits in 10 buildings.

In the Agricultural Palace she had 8,500 feet of space, of which 2,000
was devoted to sugar, 2,000 to rice, 2,000 to cotton, and 2,500 to
general agriculture.

In the sugar exhibit was a field of cane made of wax, with negroes
cutting the same, and from this field there was a train of cars carrying
cane to the sugarhouse. On reaching the sugarhouse the cane was unloaded
by machinery and crushed by a complete sugar mill with crusher.
Surrounding the sugarhouse were 500 small barrels of sugar and 100
barrels of molasses; also in the same space were commercial samples of
plantation and refined sugars and a life-sized model of "Miss Louisiana"
made of sugar. Samples of 100 varieties of cane were shown and samples
of sugarhouse products were also, displayed. There were also to be seen
beautiful samples of paper Of all grades made from the cane.

In the rice exhibit were to be found, first, large shocks of each,
variety of rice in the sheaf. A field of growing rice, made of wax, with
a harvesting machine cutting and binding the same, was in evidence. All
stages of growing rice were represented, from the sprouting seed to the
fully matured grain. Samples of commercial rice were tastefully

In the cotton exhibit were to be found 15 commercial bales of cotton
specially prepared for the exhibit by patriotic citizens of Louisiana.
Over these bales was a platform, upon which was erected a "Carnival King"
in cotton. A roller and saw gin, a square and round bale cotton press,
and a complete cotton-seed oil mill made up the display of machinery in
the cotton exhibit. Nearly 100 varieties were shown in small, neat
bales, weighing 3 or 4 pounds each.

In the agricultural exhibit every crop growing in the field and the
garden was exhibited. Hay from the grasses and legumes, all kinds of
grain, both clean and in the straw; all kinds of fiber plants, in the
stock and in the fiber; all kinds of tobacco, yellow-leaf cigar leaf,
cigars, and the famous Perique were to be found. Vegetables of all
kinds, both fresh and in wax, were handsomely displayed.

In the Palace of Horticulture two exhibits were made. Pecans, oranges,
grapefruit, peaches, plums, pears, pomegranates, Japan persimmons, and
many other subtropical fruits were shown.

In the conservatory were two carloads of plants brought from New
Orleans. In it were 28 varieties of palms and many varieties of oranges,
pecans, figs, pineapples, bananas, pomegranates, etc.

In the Forestry Building there were two exhibits from Louisiana. In the
first were to be found timbers of valuable forests and their products.
In the same building were found the birds, fishes, and animals of

In the Educational Building there were also two exhibits from Louisiana.
One was the regular State exhibit, illustrating the work done in the
schools, colleges, and universities.

In the same building and in the exhibit from the experimental stations a
complete sugar laboratory made by the sugar experimental station at
Audubon Park, New Orleans, was shown.

In the Mines and Metallurgy Building were exhibits of sulphur and salt,
crude and refined petroleum, marble, and iron ore, all fresh from the
mines of Louisiana.

In the Liberal Arts Building were topographical maps showing the levees
of Louisiana, and showing also the city of New Orleans in 1803 and New
Orleans in 1903. There were also in this exhibit 200 maps of the Gulf
coast from 1500 up to the present time, some rare old books, a section
of the palisades that surrounded New Orleans in the year 1794, and
copies of all the books of the authors of the State.

In the Transportation Building was represented transportation on the
Mississippi River, past and present, beginning with the Indian canoe and
on through the evolution of transportation up to the monster ocean liner
of to-day.

In the Anthropology Building was a very fine collection of Indian
relics, including a number of baskets of rare and beautiful type.


The State of Maine erected one of the most noteworthy buildings of the
ground and one that attracted universal attention. The building
represented accurately the popular conception of what a sportsman's
clubhouse should be. The building was made entirely of Maine lumber and
was in the form of a log cabin, exaggerated in size and equipped with
all the comforts of a country clubhouse. In this connection it is
interesting to note that the Maine Pavilion was subsequently sold for
$2,000 for the purpose of a sportsman's clubhouse in the country. The
spacious, cool verandas and the odor from the fresh pine logs made the
log house of Maine a favorite rendezvous during the heated days of the
summer. The building was furnished throughout with furnishings from the
manufacturers of Maine. The walls were decorated with moose heads and
specimens of the game and fish to be found in Maine. The walls of the
building were hung with pictures of various scenes in the State. The
total cost of the building was $22,361.40, and the furnishings cost

The legislature of the State appropriated $40.000 for the purpose of
erecting the building and making the display. There was no money given
by individuals. The total cost of the exhibit was $1,893.19.

The commissioners appointed by the legislature were as follows:

Louis B. Goodall, Sanford, chairman; Lemuel Lane, Westbrook; Frank H.
Briggs, Auburn; Charles C. Burrill, Ellsworth; Henry W. Sargent,
Sargentville. Edward E. Philbrook was elected secretary.

The purpose of the commission was primarily to advertise they resources
of the State of Maine as a vacation and sporting State. The only exhibit
made by the State, beyond that described above, was a small display of
potatoes and apples.


In the legislature of the State of Maryland in 1902 an item of $25,000
was provided in the general appropriation bill "for the use of the
commissioners to the St. Louis Fair, hereby authorized to be appointed
by the governor." The amount of this appropriation was less than the
friends of the measure desired, but it enabled the work to be
inaugurated. Governor Smith appointed the following commissioners:

Gen. L. Victor Baughman, chairman; Francis E. Waters, vice-chairman;
Frederick P. Stieff, treasurer; Frank N. Hoen, William A. Marburg,
William H. Grafflin, Wesley M. Oler, Thomas H. Robinson, Jacob M.
Pearce, Orlando Harrison, Mrs. Frances E. Lord, Mrs. Parks Fisher, F.P.
Cator, H.J. McGrath; Samuel K. Dennis, secretary.

A further appropriation of $40,000 was made, giving the commission a
total of $65,000. Through the systematic, scientific work of the
Maryland geological survey the commission had at hand the basis of an
excellent exhibit for the Palace of Mines. After vicissitudes of various
kinds, chiefly those occasioned by the great fire in Baltimore, the
Maryland Building was finished and opened on June 8. The total cost of
the building was $18,402.70. It was of a modern classic design, very
boldly treated. In plan it was a parallelogram 100 feet long by 40 feet
wide, with a recess on the front 10 by 55 feet, forming a loggia, which
was richly decorated in color (the only such external color scheme on
the grounds), supported by six columns of the composite order 25 feet
high, carrying a cornice and balustrade above. The Maryland State arms
were the central feature over the main entrance. At either end there
were large semicircular porches, supported on Ionic columns, which made
the total length of the building over all 140 feet. The site was an
ideal one, close to the New York and other State buildings and on the
direct route from the Inside Inn to the center of the grounds. The
building was surrounded by a beautiful oak grove, and was on gently
rising ground. Inside the classic feeling was maintained. On entering
through the loggia one found an imposing hall 55 feet long by 25 feet
high. The color scheme of this room was golden brown, with a lighter
shade of the same for the vaulted ceiling. Portraits of great value,
taken from the statehouse at Annapolis, as well as one of his eminence
Cardinal Gibbons, lent an air of dignity. Other rooms on the ground
floor were: On the left a picture room, where a large number of framed
photographs of Maryland scenery, buildings, and objects of interest were
hung, and back of this a lunch room and pantry, for use on reception
days. At the other end of the building there was a drawing room, with a
room at the back which was used as a men's smoking room, with toilet
attached. A stairway led from this part of the building to the ladies'
boudoir, which also had toilet attached, and to a ladies' drawing-room.

The second story, at the other end of the building, had a good room
fitted up for the gentleman in charge of the building. Mr. Albert Jones,
of Baltimore, and Mrs. Parks Fisher, of Baltimore, dispensed hospitality
in true Maryland style, and made many friends for the State among the
many visitors who came daily to the building. Upon Mrs. Fisher devolved
much of the responsibility of making the building popular, and she was
careful to have a few representative ladies of old Maryland families
established in St. Louis to assist her in entertaining those who came.
To Mrs. Fisher is due much of the credit for the taste and judgment used
in furnishing the building.

The exhibit of Maryland's mineral resources in the Mines and Metallurgy
Building covered an area of nearly 3,000 square feet of floor space,
together with about 4,000 square feet of wall and window space. The
mineral products were as follows:

Coals, building and decorative stones, ores, clays and clay products
(including pottery, tile, terra cotta, fancy and common brick, fire
brick, enameled brick, retorts and stove linings), limestones, sands,
cement rocks, flints, feldspars, marls, tripoli, barites, soapstones,
etc. All of the leading operators and manufacturers in the State took
part in the display, some of them supplying large collections of
materials. In addition to the exhibit of mineral products there was an
extensive systematic collection representing the geology, mineralogy,
and paleontology of the State, displayed in a series of plate-glass,
cases on the walls. In this exhibit the numerous materials found at the
various geological horizons were displayed, the object of the exhibit
being to show the great variety of geological formations represented in

The Maryland agricultural exhibit occupied a space 90 by 20 feet. A
feature intended to illustrate the varied conditions, crops, and methods
found in the northern and southern sections of the State, quite foreign
to each other, were the two barn scenes, located at each end and on the
wall side of the block. The corn exhibit, consisting of samples of ten
ears each, was displayed in a handsome case 4 by 12 feet, protected by
plate glass. Each sample was tied with orange and black ribbon, with the
names and addresses of the growers attached. A second corn exhibit was
made in a special exhibit in the, middle aisle of this mammoth building.
Here were displayed the four staples--tobacco, sugar, cotton, and corn.

The tobacco exhibit was displayed in a case of like construction and
proportions to that occupied by the corn, and located at the opposite
end and in front of the "Southern Maryland Barn." It made an attractive
showing of the planters' tobacco from both southern Maryland and
Frederick County. A special tobacco exhibit was also made in the middle
aisle on a space 20 feet square. In the center stood a giant Indian on a
pedestal over 7 feet high, with a long-stemmed pipe in his mouth and a
horn of plenty on his left arm, from which the manufactured products of
the weed fell to the ground. The whole was apparently built of tobacco.

The canned-goods industry was in evidence in this section to the right
and left of the "Springhouse." Placed against the wall, which was
covered with black cloth, were three pyramids of cans of peas, corn, and


That Massachusetts might be creditably represented at the St. Louis
Exposition the Commonwealth appropriated $100,000.

Governor Bates appointed as the board of managers having the
appropriation in charge Dr. George Harris, of Amherst; Mrs. Sears and
Mrs. May Alden Ward, of Boston; Thomas B. Fitzpatrick, of Brookline, and
Hon. Wilson W. Fairbank, of Warren. Doctor Harris was elected president
of the board; Mrs. Sears, vice-president, and Mrs. Ward, recording
secretary. To Mr. Harris was assigned the department of education; to
Mrs. Sears, art; to Mrs. Ward, history, and to Messrs. Fitzpatrick and
Fairbank, finance. Mrs. Sears, Mrs. Ward, and Mr. Fairbank were chosen
to serve as the building committee. The board appointed James M.
Perkins, of Boston, secretary and George E. Gay, of Malden, educational

The State Building at St. Louis was designed by C. Howard Wattset., of
Boston, and the cost, including the furnishings and the grading of the
grounds, was about $32,000. The building was of colonial style,
embodying as many features as possible of the Bulfinch front of the
Massachusetts statehouse. The reception hall on the first floor
resembled in part the old senate chamber in the statehouse, and the room
above, the historical hall, was like the present senate chamber. Most of
the furniture in the building was secured from the statehouse by Senator
Fairbank, to whom a large part of Massachusetts's success at the fair
was due.

In the historical room of the building was a very fine collection of
historical relics. Mrs. Ward, who was assisted by Miss Helen A.
Whittier, of Lowell, had charge of this exhibit. There were no other
exhibits in the State Building, but Massachusetts was well represented
in the different exhibit palaces, and in the Educational Building had an
exhibit that cost $30,000.


The governor of the State of Michigan appointed the following named
persons as commissioners to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition:

Governor Aaron T. Bliss, ex officio member; Frederick B. Smith,
president; Austin Farrell, vice-president; Roy S. Barnhart, treasurer;
Hal H. Smith, secretary; William A. Hurst, assistant secretary; D. Aaron
R. Ingram, Charles P. Downey.

The act which authorized the governor to appoint the commission
authorized also the expenditure of $50,000 for the purpose of Michigan's
representation at the exposition.

The Michigan State Building was situated at the corner of Federal avenue
and Government terrace. The building occupied 80 by 130 feet, and was of
colonial renaissance architecture. It rose to the height of two stories
and was surrounded by wide porches and terraces. Immediately in front
and center four fluted stately columns supported the porch around the
entire building. French windows were used on both floors, and their
effect was emphasized and enhanced by the use of arches on the lower
porch. The whole was painted white and colonial cream.

The interior of the building was divided into a large reception hall,
which was flanked on either side by double parlors. The decorations were
of green and yellow in quiet tints. From the center of the main assembly
hall an imposing staircase was raised to a landing and then to the
second floor. The second floor was arranged in a large assembly room,
which was decorated with scenes in green and filled with light wicker
furniture. At the one side was a writing room, finished in weathered or
mission furniture, and decorated with scenes of the resort sections of
Michigan; on the other side were the private apartments of the

The hangings of the rooms were in quiet tones, harmonizing with the wall
tints. The floors were of hard maple throughout, and were covered with
attractive and beautiful rugs. The building was erected at a cost of
$14,000. The furniture and fittings cost approximately $5,000.

The agricultural exhibit comprised an extensive collection of samples of
different varieties of pease and beans; a large exhibit of seeds; an
exhibit of grains in stalk, tastefully arranged; an exhibit of grains
and corn; also a cabinet of pickled goods; a large exhibit of salt;
condensed-milk products; a complete exhibit in season of vegetables from
different counties of Michigan. The sugar-beet industry was represented
by samples of beets and of sugar in its various processes. The
maple-sirup industry of Michigan and the pepper industry were likewise
represented by cabinets containing samples of the products. This exhibit
was installed, complete, on a space 40 by 40 feet.

The horticultural exhibit comprised a space covering 2,500 square feet
of tables. For its first installation there were used 100 bushels of
apples grown in 1903, which had been kept in cold storage for this,
purpose. It comprised a collection of over 100 varieties of Michigan
fruit. With the coming of 1904 fruit, a complete exhibit of fresh apples
was installed from time to time, comprising over 150 varieties of
apples, requiring as many as 1,500 plates at one time, with many
varieties of grapes, peaches, plums, pears, quinces, and cherries. A.
large exhibit was also made of small fruit, raspberries, strawberries,
currants, and huckleberries. The exhibits were made by individuals, by
counties, and by local fair associations of the State.

The forestry exhibit was collected through the generosity and
contributions of a committee. It was a complete exhibit of Michigan
lumber, showing the rough log and the finished board, both in lumber and
in transverse sections. There were also displayed samples of the
different products which are manufactured from the log, such as
shoe-last blocks, wooden utensils, paper, paper pulp, etc., and there
was also an extensive collection of photographs of forestry scenes and
lumber camps, together with a complete collection of blueprints for the
construction of lumber mills. It was installed in a space 50 by 20 feet,
and was surrounded by natural cedar railings.

The mines and metallurgy exhibit comprised exhibits of the iron, copper,
and salt products, cement, manufactures of lime and sand, brick, and an
extensive collection of specimens of various minerals found in Michigan.
The copper mines were represented by samples of rock, minerals, and
tailings, models of shaft houses, and manufactured copper. The iron
industry was represented by upward of 100 samples of ore of various
ranges. These were classified and shown in the various ranges and stages
of their production from the rock to the finished product. The cement
industry was well represented. Coal of the Saginaw Valley was installed
in a 6-foot wall in the booth. An extensive and very valuable collection
of over 1,500 specimens were shown in cases. Three large geographical
maps showed the location of the different ranges, and photographs of
mining scenes supplemented the exhibit.

In the educational exhibit the University of Michigan was represented by
a main exhibit in the Education Building and by a small exhibit of the
physical-culture work of women in the Physical Science Building. In the
Educational Building a space 22 1/4 by 30 feet was assigned to the
university, having frontage on two aisles. On this space a booth was
erected, built of cypress and stained to resemble weathered oak. Within
the booth the floor was stained a dark color, and upon it were spread
carefully selected oriental rugs of strong coloring. The furniture was
of the "arts and crafts" style. It may be said that the chief motive of
the committee having charge of the exhibit was to provide a rest room or
social headquarters for the alumni and students of the university and
their friends.

There were placed upon exhibition several hundred volumes containing the
chief publications of members of the various faculties, also reprints of
scientific articles, these and a series of books showing the work of the
university bindery.

The engineering department was represented by numerous rolls of
large-scale blueprints, by an album of photographs specially prepared,
and by a large and attractive sample board of student shop-work. To
illustrate the equipment in marine engineering there were presented two
models of vessels and a model of the large marine tank which is now in
process of completion.

In the Educational Building could also be found cabinets showing the
method of collecting vital statistics of the department of the State of
Michigan and cabinets exhibiting the work of the School for the
Feeble-Minded, of Kalamazoo, and a cabinet of the School for the Deaf
and Dumb, of Flint.

A Michigan furniture company, interested in the exposition through the
efforts of the commission, expended over $25,000 in the installation of
a magnificent exhibit of furniture in the Department of Varied
Industries, making the most complete collection of furniture shown by
any American firm.


The matter of the participation of Minnesota at the Louisiana Purchase
Exposition was brought to the attention of the State legislature at a
special session in 1902, and it responded with an appropriation of
$50,000. This bill was chapter 87, and was approved March 11, 1902. In
January, 1903, Governor Samuel R. Van Sant appointed as the board of
three managers authorized by the law Mr. Conde Hamlin, of St. Paul, Mr.
Theo. L. Hays, of Minneapolis, and Mr. J.M. Underwood, of Lake City.

At the time of the appropriation it was expected that the exposition
would be held in 1903. It, however, grew in magnitude and scope far
beyond the original designs of its projectors. The board organized by
the election of Mr. Hamlin as president, Mr. Underwood as
vice-president, and Mr. Hays as secretary. Charles S. Mitchell, of
Alexandria, was elected superintendent and executive officer, to have
immediate charge of exhibits and to carry out the plans of the board.

A site for Minnesota's building was selected, and space was reserved in
the great exhibit palaces of Mines and Metallurgy, Education,
Agriculture, Horticulture, and Forestry, Game, and Fish.

Subsequently, on April 1, 1903, a further appropriation of $100,000 was
voted by the Minnesota legislature.

The style of the Minnesota State Building resembled the Byzantine. It
was designed for a southern climate. The entire lower floor could be
thrown open by means of large glass doors opening upon corridors and a
wide promenade, which was protected by awnings. A low wall surmounted
this promenade, broken at intervals by abutments, on which were placed
large vases of flowering plants. This added color, and with the beds of
cannas, which extended along the base of this wall, and large beds of
brilliant scarlet geraniums on the lawn, made a handsome setting for the
building. These plants were Minnesota grown. The cannas grew to huge
proportions, and at the height of the season there were few landscapes
on the Plateau of States more effective than that of Minnesota.

The building was ample for its uses. There was a reception room 30 by 50
feet in size, with reading tables, the files of the State papers, a
post-office, check room, and superintendent's office. A men's room and a
women's room, each 20 by 20 feet, opened from the reception room. Two
pianos were free for the use of guests, and were a much-appreciated
feature. Every possible convenience was afforded to visitors. That the
general public, as well as visitors from Minnesota, appreciated the
building was shown by the hundreds who visited it daily and the many who
came day after day to write letters, read the papers, or merely to rest
and enjoy its coolness. The location gave it added prominence, as it was
near the southeast entrance, one of the most convenient for visitors,
close to the Inside Inn, and with the Massachusetts, New York, Iowa, and
Kansas buildings as neighbors.

The financial statement shows that the construction of the building,
with furnishing, landscaping, maintenance, care, and salaries of
employees, cost a total of less than $29,000.

In the agricultural display, while wheat was not neglected, especial
stress was laid on Minnesota's grasses, both tame and wild, and its
general forage crops. It was conceded by experts that no State made a
better display in that line of products. Corn was also made prominent.
Two elaborate butter models were shown, one in this department and one
in the exposition refrigerator.

The State was fortunate in the location secured. It was on one of the
large central aisles and adjoining the great glass butter refrigerator,
where were shown all the competing fancy butter exhibits from the
various States. On the same aisle or near by were the most splendid
exhibits in this building, those of States that expended from $30,000 to
$100,000 in that department alone, the latter figure being the
expenditure of Missouri. That Minnesota was able with $10,000 to make a
showing that found credit and favor in comparison with these other much
more elaborate and costly displays was surely commendable.

The central feature of the booth was a splendid piece of statuary in
butter. On a platform was placed an eight-faced glass refrigerator; it
was 8 by 10 feet on the floor and 15 feet high. The statue in butter
filled this. The square pedestal had at the four corners figures
representing Agriculture, Education, Mining, and Dairying. On the front
face was the seal of Minnesota, and on the two side faces medallions of
Alexander Ramsey and Samuel R. Van Sant. The crowning figure was that of
a mother giving to her little boy, who stood at her side, a piece of
bread and butter. Nearly a ton of the best creamery butter made in
Minnesota was used in this model.

The butter refrigerator in the Agricultural Building was of triple-plate
glass, and was 90 feet long. Minnesota's space was 8 by 16 feet. The
subject chosen for its model was historical--a representation of Father
Hennepin discovering St. Anthonys Falls. The father, in his priestly
garb, was shown in the act of stepping from an Indian canoe to the
shore. An Indian was holding the canoe to the bank by grasping a small
bush, while the boat was steadied by a French voyageur with his paddle.
The three types--the aborigine, the priest, and the French
voyageur--were accurately reproduced in costume, expression, and
features, and were practically life-size. The swift-flowing river, with
a suggestion of the falls, completed the picture, in which nearly 1,500
pounds of butter were used.

In a space just east of the butter refrigerator was the exposition
refrigerator for displays of cheese. In this the board took a space 8 by
8 feet.

The horticulture exhibit was placed in the hands of experts from the
State Horticultural Society. Here were shown large and small fruits,
preserved in many handsome jars. Apples which had been preserved in cold
storage from the crop of 1903 kept that feature of the exhibit
replenished, while the smaller fruits were shown as they matured, being
shipped from the growers in the State almost daily.

In September, when the new apples became available, a second and larger
space was secured. Here was made a display which was one of the greatest
attractions in the building. It represented a Dutch windmill and tower,
done entirely in apples.

During the final months of the exposition, when the live stock displays
were made, the board arranged with the State live stock association for
an exhibit of cattle, horses, and swine. The board appropriated $4,000
to this department and paid it into the hands of representatives of the
association to be distributed to the exhibitors from the State in
proportion to the prizes awarded to them by the exposition. This plan
was very successful and resulted in a creditable exhibit of the State's
prize live stock. At this time also a very successful display of poultry
was made, and a great many prizes were won.

In the Department of Education it was determined that Minnesota, should
retain its rank among the States and, if possible, should win new glory.
It was therefore made a leading department. The exhibit was especially
strong in rural school and primary and elementary education, and much
more attention than ever before was given to the secondary schools of
the State at large. The State department of education was consulted, and
the State Teachers' Association, the request of the board, named a
committee to advise with the board.

This was the first exposition to devote a separate building and one of
the main group of exhibit palaces to education. The plan greatly
dignified the department. Minnesota was most fortunate in the location
assigned its display, as this exhibit had the first space at the
principal entrance and was the first seen on entering the building from
the main exposition thoroughfare. The space was 30 by 60 feet. The
booth, the cabinet, the furnishings, and the frames were of Mission
brown oak. The walls were covered by a deep-blue burlap. The mountings
of the wall and cabinet exhibits toned with these colors, as did the
hangings. The design, as a whole, was exceedingly simple, but in the
style, in harmony of tone, and general artistic merit it was given first
rank among all the exhibits in the building. Its prominent position
demanded this excellence, for it commanded the most critical dicta of
the visitors.

In the arrangement of material, repetition and duplication were avoided.
All the written work and much of the drawing, designing, and drafting
was mounted in cabinets or bound in books. The arrangement showed the
State system as a unit, and every article in the booth was the work of
the schools, including the furniture, pottery, bric-a-brac, and
hangings. It was especially strong in manual training. In dividing the
space the manual-training exhibits were united as far as possible. The
first alcove of cabinet exhibits was devoted to the rural schools, the
second to the semigraded schools. The third and fourth sets of cabinets
contained the work of the secondary high schools and the grades in their
respective towns. The fifth set was given to the normal schools, while
the last two alcoves were devoted to the schools of St. Paul and
Minneapolis, the wall space being also apportioned to them. One cabinet
was filled with photographs of the university, the curricula,
statistics, etc. On the rear wall was a frieze of excellent photographs
of the university buildings, and around the outside of the entire booth
was a painted frieze, 5 feet deep, giving a panoramic view of the campus
and buildings, both of the academic and of the agricultural department.

A cabinet was also devoted to statistics, which included the State
system of aid to rural, semigraded, graded, and high schools. This
cabinet also gave figures showing the State permanent school funds, the
special tax, and school apportionment based on attendance; school
attendance, value of school property, system of examination of teachers,
and State examination for pupils, etc. There were also very complete
sets of State examination papers.

In the State Building the large reception room and the women's and men's
rooms were furnished by the pupils of the manual training classes of the
Minneapolis high schools, and of the Mechanic Arts High School of St.

While the exhibits of mining and building materials were kept separate
financially, they were practically combined in one exhibit in the Palace
of Mines and Metallurgy. No scientific display was attempted, and the
plan of installation was severely simple.

Minnesota has but one mineral in such abundance as to be a great
financial asset, but in that one--iron--it produces over half the output
of the Lake Superior region, which alone of the United States iron
fields produces any considerable quantity of ore of a quality required
for manufacturing Bessemer steel. The analysis of the ores and names of
the mines were given on the samples, which were shown in nearly 100
large glass jars. A chart of the Mesaba range; a large map of the State,
showing the location of the mineral lands; two groups of photographic
views of working mines and mining methods, in frames 3 by 10 feet in
size, with statistical charts. These constituted the wall display. On
the floor was a model, 11 feet square, of the Fayal, the greatest
producing mine in the world. This showed all the mining processes and
every detail of shaft house, ore dumps, cars, tracks, steam shovels,
telegraph lines, etc., in and about the mines.

The stone exhibit was also a practical one. It showed the more
marketable varieties as they appear in actual use. There were five large
wall pieces of granite, one of Winona stone, one of pipestone, and one
of Frontenac stone. Inclosing two sides of the floor space, which was 36
by 54 feet, was a low wall of stone, with two entrances. The shorter
wall was of polished granite from the St. Cloud quarries, showing all
the more distinct varieties--gray, mottled, black, red, and brown. The
wall on the longer side, beginning with a corner post and extending to
the entrances, was of polished red granite, with a panel of Minnesota
marble. On either side of the side entrance, were high posts of Kettle
River sandstone, handsomely carved, and the rest of the wall was of this
stone combined in part with the Twin City brick.

An elaborate game and fish display was determined upon in the Game and
Fisheries Building. Every inducement was held out by the company, and an
especial effort was made for this exhibit. It pledged, among other
things, that pure refrigerated water would be furnished for the fish.
The board consulted in this department the State game and fish chief,
Mr. Samuel Fullerton, who extended all the assistance possible.
Eighty-four feet of aquaria were put in, and it is indisputable that
they were the best built, most practical, and best arranged in the
building. At the close of the fair the Pacific Coast Association offered
$1,000 in cash for them where they were, or nearly one-third of their
cost. They were planned to show not only the State's trout and small
fish, but the large game fish that are found there. As it was, splendid
specimens were shipped to St. Louis in the fish car of the Pennsylvania
commission, loaned without charge for that purpose. The fish arrived on
Minnesota Day under the personal care of Mr. Fullerton and one of his
wardens and of three Pennsylvanians, expert in such work. The fish were
in splendid condition, and they included wall-eyed pike, pickerel,
muskellunge, bass of all varieties, and great northern pike that experts
said were larger than had ever before been sent anywhere for exhibition
purposes. There were also rare specimens of trout, including the white
trout that are a Minnesota specialty. The fish, except the trout, were
successfully transferred to the State's tank that evening. By morning
only three were alive, and these died during the day. The trout were not
tanked at all, but were turned over to the United States authorities,
who were glad to get them because of their rarity. The responsibility
for this failure rests with the Exposition Company. The water supplied
was not from wells, but was the muddy Missouri River water clarified by
the alum process, which is fatal to fish. It was also entirely too warm,
no attempt to keep the promise of refrigeration having been made. After
this disaster the board refused to bring more fish until the company
should fulfill its pledge, which it never did. Minnesota's experience
was shared by Pennsylvania and Missouri, the only other States prepared
to make large live fish displays.

The failure of the St. Louis Fair officials to provide proper water
caused a difference in the board finances of nearly $2,000. The board
had secured subscriptions from six different towns in the fishing
regions of the State toward the payment for the aquaria, the idea being
to stock the aquaria with fish from the lakes near the towns that
subscribed, and to give them proper individual credit. When the
possibility of keeping the fish alive was realized the board promptly
released them from their obligations, but it was too late to save the
appropriation made through reliance upon the plans and promises of the

The game exhibit had a large space adjoining that occupied by the
aquarium. It was at the principal entrance to the building. The larger
part of the space was covered by a realistic scene from the northern
woods--the State game region. A pine forest was shown with a rocky
embankment at the side, while opposite was a birch opening. Breaking
through this opening and represented as scenting danger were three
moose--two bucks and a cow--that were the finest specimens of the great
game animals in the building. Elsewhere in the scene was a family of
three red deer; also very handsome caribou, black bears, wolves, foxes,
porcupines, grouse, prairie chicken, owls, etc. The background of the
scene was a distant lake view, and with effective lighting it was
conceded to be among the most novel exhibits in the building. No other
scenic reproduction was more complete. Adjoining this scene was a
smaller space filled with moose and deer heads and mounted fish. The
walls were draped with fish nets, and a large map of the State showed
the railroads, summer resorts, and lakes.


In compliance with the very general demand of the press and people, the
legislature of Mississippi, in 1902, appropriated $50,000 for the
purpose of securing and installing the products, resources, industries,
and enterprises of the State at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. This
was the first appropriation ever made by Mississippi for a World's Fair.
The bill providing for the State exhibits created a State exposition
bureau of five members, specifying that the governor should be ex
officio president and name his four associates, the following being the
personnel of the bureau: J.K. Vardaman, ex officio chairman; Dr. O.B.
Quinn, chairman; Frank Burkitt, secretary; L.H. Enochs; V.P. Still.

At the first meeting of the bureau Col. R.H. Henry, of Jackson, was
elected executive commissioner, and was charged with the duty of
canvassing the State, with a view of procuring the exhibits. He visited
all parts of Mississippi, delivered exposition addresses in the
different counties, and urged upon the people the importance of making
the best exhibit possible at the exposition. He devoted two years to the

The legislature of 1904 made an additional appropriation of $10,000
under the administration of Governor James K. Vardaman, who succeeded
Governor Longino as president of the exposition bureau. Several counties
also made appropriations, as did some of the factories and mills of the
State, the total appropriation aggregating about $62,000.

The Mississippi State Building was a reproduction of the last home of
Jefferson Davis, known as "Beauvoir." This home is located near Biloxi,
Miss., is of old-style southern architecture, massive in construction
and imposing in appearance, and from its broad porches may be seen the
"whitecaps" of the Gulf of Mexico. The house was built by James Brown, a
rich cotton planter of Madison County, and by him used as a summer home
until the close of the civil war, when it was sold to Mrs. Sarah A.
Dorsey, from whom Mr. Davis secured it. It contained a large historic
collection pertaining to the Davis family, much of the family furniture,
the bed upon which Mr. Davis died, and the suit of clothes he wore when
captured by General Wilson, in Georgia, at the close of hostilities
between the North and the South; the object of the exhibit being to
disprove the report that Mr. Davis wore a woman's dress when arrested. A
statement of Capt. J.H. Parker, of General Wilson's staff was attached,
contradicting the falsehood. The building cost $15,000 without
furnishings or pictures. It was built entirely of Mississippi lumber,
the contractor being J.F. Barnes, of Greenville, Miss.

In the horticultural exhibit the State showed all varieties of sweet and
citrus fruits, pecans and edible nuts, together with a pecan horse.

In the Palace of Agriculture two exhibits were shown, the special cotton
exhibit, including the 35-foot statue of "King Cotton," and the
collective agricultural exhibit--cotton, corn, cereals, grains, hay,
grasses, potatoes, peas, beans, sirups, honey, wines, cordials,
preserves, pickles, jellies, canned goods, vegetables, oysters, shrimps,
crabs, fish, etc.

All the merchantable timbers of the State were displayed in the forestry
exhibit, which contained over 500 samples, highly polished and superbly
finished, one of the largest and best collections shown.

In the Department of Fish and Game were exhibited all varieties of
native fresh and salt water fish, birds, and wild animals.

In the Educational Building Mississippi showed the best work from the
colleges and high schools of the State. The Agricultural and Mechanical
College had a fine display in the general Agricultural and Mechanical
College section.

Other displays were the following: A varied and attractive collection of
building stone, cement material, clays, phosphates, mineral waters in
the Mineral Building; buggies and wagons made in the State in
Transportation Hall; engines, sawmills, and other heavy machinery in the
Machinery Building; a rare old double plate-glass electrical machine was
exhibited in the Electrical Building, the contribution of the State

Mississippi was awarded over 30 prizes for her various exhibits,
including 2 grand prizes on cotton and timbers; 6 gold medals and 3
silver medals on agriculture; a gold, silver, and bronze medal on fish
and game; 2 gold, 4 silver, and 5 bronze medals on education; 2 silver
and 3 bronze medals on minerals; a silver medal on wagons; a bronze
medal on machinery; a gold medal on fruits, and a gold medal on pecans.

Less than $47,000 of the $60,000 appropriated by the legislature was
spent on the State building and on the collection and installation of
the exhibits, and from $10,000 to $15,000 of the appropriation was
turned back into the State treasury. The expenditure proved of
incalculable benefit to Mississippi, and good results are already being

The executive commissioner, Col. R.H. Henry, is a native Mississippian.
He was born in Scott County, May 15, 1851, and received education in the
schools and academies of Mississippi. He engaged in journalism in early
life, has been an editor and publisher over thirty years, and is
regarded as the most successful journalist of his State. As the
executive commissioner and the State's only representative at the
exposition Mr. Henry designed and personally supervised the installation
of the different Mississippi exhibits, ten in number, and the award of
over 30 medals, including 2 grand prizes, abundantly attests and amply
proves the merit and value of the Mississippi products.


The largest appropriation for exposition purposes by any State was by
Missouri, namely, $1,000,000. In every exposition building where a State
could have an exhibit Missouri's exhibit was found. In every building
where only exhibits by individuals, business firms, or corporations were
permitted, Missourians made display of the products of their industry
and skill. The Missouri State Building was among the finest upon the
grounds. The displays of the State in the Agriculture, Horticulture,
Education, Mining, Forestry, Live Stock, Poultry, Dairying, Fish and
Game, and Woman's Work were noted for artistic beauty and

The exhibit made by Missouri at the World's Fair was the result of the
labors of the board of commissioners to the Louisiana Purchase
Exposition, appointed by Governor A.M. Dockery, under the direction of
which the $1,000,000 voted by the people of Missouri for an exhibit of
the State's resources were expended. At the general election in
November, 1900, the people adopted a constitutional amendment permitting
the legislature of this State to appropriate $1,000,000 for World's Fair
expenses. A bill appropriating the amount and providing for a commission
to direct its expenditure was passed by the next general assembly and
was signed by the governor April 17, 1901. The same bill was reenacted
in 1903 and was signed by the governor March 24, 1903. On the 28th of
May, 1901, Governor Dockery appointed as the board of commissioners:
M.T. Davis, of Springfield; F.J. Moss, of St. Joseph; B.H. Bonfey, of
Unionville; W.H. Marshall, of Morehouse; L.F. Parker, of St. Louis; D.P.
Stroup, of Norborne; N.H. Gentry, of Sedalia; J.O. Allison, of New
London, and H.C. McDougall, of Kansas City. Mr. McDougall resigned and
J.H. Hawthorne, of Kansas City, was appointed his successor. When the
law was reenacted in 1903 the board was reappointed. The board elected
M.T. Davis president, F.J. Moss vice-president, B.H. Bonfey secretary,
and W.H. Marshall treasurer. Later the ill health of Mr. Marshall caused
his temporary absence from the State, and J.H. Hawthorne succeeded him
as treasurer.

The Missouri State building was erected at a cost, including
furnishings, of $250,000. The keynotes of the Missouri building were
public comfort, culture, and social enjoyment. A golden dome surmounted
by an emblematic statue of "The Spirit of Missouri" crowned the
building. Over the main entrance was this inscription: "Embracing within
her confines all the elements of an empire devoted to all the arts and
sciences that advance civilization, Missouri, the central State of the
Louisiana Purchase Exposition, greets her sister States and welcomes the
world." Around the building were the names of great Missourians: Thomas
Hart Benton, Francis P. Blair, B. Gratz Brown, David R. Atchison, David
Barton, Meriwether Lewis, Edward Bates, Lewis F. Linn, Lewis V. Bogy,
Aylett H. Buckner, John S. Phelps, James S. Green. The building
contained rooms adapted for various purposes, two large halls in either
wing, a commodious auditorium or State hall, in which conventions were
held, a handsome rotunda with brilliant electric fountain, the suite of
Governor Dockery, men's parlors, women's parlors, press room, and
executive offices. On the second floor were rooms fittingly furnished.
The building was warmed by steam in cold weather and refrigerated by
cold air in warm weather. The approaches and elevations of the building
were adorned with statuary, heroic figures of Thomas Jefferson and
Napoleon Bonaparte being placed at the main entrance. In the west hall
were placed a collection of paintings by Missouri artists and the fine
bell presented by the citizens of the State to the battle ship
_Missouri_. The mural decorations in the rotunda consisted of four
pendentives illustrating the prehistoric savage, developing and
productive eras in the State's history. The decorations in the dome
embodied a historical allegory, tracing the epochs in the development of
the Middle West.

In the Palace of Horticulture the space allotted to Missouri was 6,600
square feet--larger than that awarded to any other State, and filled
with Missouri fruits. More than 430 varieties of fruits grown in the
State were shown from 84 counties.

In the Palace of Agriculture Missouri agricultural resources occupied
prominent position at the main entrance of the building and on the main
aisle. In the artistic facade, made, as all the decorative features of
the display, entirely of grain and grasses, was shown a series of thirty
pictures illustrating the marked contrast between the old and new
methods in agriculture. Corn was exhibited in many forms. A corn temple,
constructed of the great cereal, was in the main aisle, Missouri being
chosen by the exposition to represent the great corn States.

In the Palace of Mines and Metallurgy a display was made of the mining
resources of the State. Missouri's space was at the main entrance. The
exhibit consisted of typical products of Missouri mines and
quarries--coal, lead, zinc, iron, copper, tripoli, building and
ornamental stone, clay, sands--and mineral waters, crystals of all
types, mining machinery at work, laboratory specimens and equipment from
the School of Mines, and photographs of 1,200 mining views in a brief
comprehensive showing of all the mineral wealth of the State. Every
district was represented by adequate specimens. An outside mining
exhibit was made by Missouri in the Mining Gulch, where mining machinery
was shown at work and a Missouri mine. Special features were a zinc and
lead concentrating plant, model of shot tower, illustration of process
of making Babbitt metal and solder. A Scotch hearth furnace for smelting
lead ore was also in operation.

Missouri was represented in several places in the Palace of Education
and Social Economy. Here was made the general exhibit of Missouri
schools. The main school exhibit consisted of showings of grades of the
work done in the twelve regular grades of the public schools and in the
kindergarten, of the work of the colleges and normal schools, of the
schools for negroes, and of special schools. Aside from the high school
and grade exhibit, private institutions had separate displays. The
public school exhibit was intended to show the work of the entire system
of the State public schools, each grade being represented by photographs
of typical children and school scenes by representative work of the
pupils. Over 300 photographs were shown. Mutoscopes presented in moving
pictures scenes upon the school grounds. By means of cabinets, tables,
and winged frames the exhibits were presented in compact form. Every
kind of school--city, town, village, and rural--was represented in the
exhibit, and the work of more than 200,000 children was on exhibition.

The State University exhibit showed what that institution had been and
what it is doing. Bird's-eye views of the university at different
periods of its existence and a fine model of its present buildings and
grounds were shown. The various departments made exhibits of their work.

In social economy were shown the work of the Industrial Training School
at Boonville, the School for the Deaf and Dumb at Fulton, the School for
the Blind at St. Louis, together with photographs of the Colony for the
Feeble-Minded at Marshall, the St. Louis Hospital, the Hospital for the
Insane at St. Joseph, the work of the Missouri board of charities and
correction, and other eleemosynary institutions. The work of the
Industrial Manual School was shown by an exhibit of the products of the
school--wagons, clothing, shoes, bricks, and other results of the
industry of the boys. In addition to an exhibit along similar lines of
the School for the Blind and the School for the Deaf and Dumb, showing
the pupils' proficiency in industrial training, classes from these
schools were at different times shown actually at work in class rooms in
the building.

In live stock Missouri offered premiums supplementary to those offered
by the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company. The list of animals for
which prizes were offered included cattle, horses, asses, mules, hogs,
sheep, goats, and all domestic animals. The aggregate appropriation for
live stock was $93,000.

In poultry, prizes for Missouri poultry of all kinds were offered on the
same lines as for other live stock, the total of $7,000 being set aside
for the purpose.

The fish and game exhibit, located just outside of the Forestry, Fish,
and Game Building, was the only exhibit of live game at the exposition.
It was arranged in cages around a lake, the waters of which were stocked
with fish. A commodious hunter's lodge, furnished in rustic style with
the paraphernalia of the sportsman, was conspicuous upon the lake shore.
The exhibit showed live deer, wild cat, mountain lion or panther,
coyote, gray wolf, red fox, gray fox, opossum, raccoon, beaver, rabbit,
fox and gray squirrel, mink, wild turkey, wild geese, wild duck, quail,
black wolf, bald eagle, horned owl, and four varieties of pheasants, all
the varieties of game to be found in Missouri forests. As showing the
chief varieties of fish, were exhibited rainbow trout, lake trout, brook
trout, large-mouthed black bass, crappie, channel cat, buffalo, sunfish,
perch, eel, and carp.

In the Agriculture Building was shown a model of the St. Joseph stock
yards, setting out all the buildings and grounds of that section of St.
Joseph. A working model of one of the great packing establishments was
exhibited, displaying the actual process of preparing cattle for the

The woman's-work exhibit had booths in the Varied Industry Building and
the Manufactures Building. In the first were shown specimens of fancy
embroideries, laces, and needlework by Missouri women. In the second
were displayed china painting, pyrography, and paintings in oil, water
color, and pastel, all by Missouri women.

The forestry exhibit, located in the Forestry, Fish, and Game Building,
showed the woods of the State available for commercial use rather than a
mere botanical display. More than 60 varieties of Missouri woods were
shown. The forestry exhibit was shown in two booths--one devoted to gum,
the other to Missouri woods. The gum booth showed furniture of black,
red, and tupelo gum wood. In the booths were shown hand-carved mantels,
tables, and chairs.

The dairy interest of the State was represented in an exhibit in the
Palace of Agriculture. In this exhibit samples of the butter and cheese
products in Missouri were shown tastefully arranged.

The Kansas City Casino showed a municipal exhibit attractively arranged
in a commodious building erected for that purpose. The casino consisted
of two wings, each 24 by 58 feet, and connected by an open court 62 by
67 feet, and located on the model street of the exposition. In the
casino were a relief map showing Kansas City in detail, a map of the
United States showing Kansas City's location with reference to the great
productive region, railroad map, assembly room, rest rooms, and library.


On May 20, 1903, the governor of Montana, Joseph Toole, appointed the
following-named commissioners from the State of Montana at the Louisiana
Purchase Exposition: Lee Mantle, Butte; Martin Maginnis, Helena; Paul
McCormick, Billings; C.W. Hoffman, Bozeman; B.F. White, Dillon; William
Scallon, Butte; F.A. Heinze, Butte; D. McDonald, Butte; Conrad Kohrs,
Helena; J.H. Rice, Fort Benton; W.G. Conrad, Great Falls; T.L.
Greenough, Missoula; C.J. McNamara, Helena; D.R. Peeler, Kalispel; H.L.
Frank, Butte, and William C. Buskett, special representative.

The commission met and appointed the following officers:

Lee Mantle, president; Martin Maginnis, vice-president; Paul McCormick,
secretary; C.W. Hoffman, treasurer.

The legislature of the State appropriated the sum of $50,000 on May,
1903, and at the same time made appropriations of $7,300 and $14,290.99,
which could be utilized by the commissioners for the purpose of
Montana's participation in the exhibition at the World's Fair. Besides
the amount appropriated by the State, the sum of $20,000 was contributed
from private sources.

The State building was erected at a cost of $20,000, and was maintained
throughout the period of the exposition at a cost of $6,000, $1,000
additional being spent for entertainments.

The Montana State Building was of fancy Doric design, and was
universally admired by the exposition visitors. One of the prominent
features in the interior of the building was the famous painting by
Paxton of the Custer Massacre. An onyx mantle from Montana was also
greatly admired. The State shield, in gold, copper, silver, and Montana
sapphires, was one of the most interesting features of the interior

The commission appointed as hostess to look after the personal welfare
of the visitors from the State of Montana Mrs. Addie McDowell, who was
ably assisted by an auxiliary committee consisting of Mary A. Cruse,
Mrs. W.W. Cheely, and Mrs. T.R. Carson. State officials and some of the
most prominent residents of the State were entertained at various times
in the building.

Montana was represented in the following departments: Mines and
Metallurgy, Palace of Agriculture, Horticulture Pavilion, Forestry,
Fish, and Game Building, and the Educational Palace.

In the Mines Building the grand prize was awarded to Montana. In the
Agricultural Building the State received 209 medals, and the exhibits in
all the other exhibit palaces were remarkably good.


On April 8, 1903, the Nebraska State legislature voted for the
appointment of a State board of commissioners by the governor and for
the appropriation of $35,000.

The following-named commissioners were subsequently appointed by the

Gurdon W. Wattles, president; Peter Jansen, vice-president; Matt Miller,
treasurer; H.C. Shedd, secretary.

Although Nebraska had no State building on the grounds, it erected a
very large and commodious pavilion on the main aisle of the Palace of
Agriculture, where the State commissioners established their
headquarters. In the pavilion were reception rooms, reading and writing
tables, post-office, check room, lavatories, and all the articles and
conveniences found in the more elaborate State buildings on the grounds.
The pavilion covered nearly 8,000 square feet of space, and was
handsomely decorated with grains, grasses, and corn arranged in most
artistic form. In addition to the appropriation of $35,000 made by the
legislature to cover the cost of the exhibit, private subscriptions,
amounting in the aggregate to $25,000, contributed largely by
exhibitors, increased the amount expended by Nebraska at the fair to

The principal exhibit made by Nebraska was in the Agriculture
Department. There sheaf grain, grasses, corn, vine products, and all
agricultural products were shown, including all varieties of field,
sweet, flint, and pop corn.

In connection with the agricultural exhibit in the pavilion, the
commission maintained a small theater fitted up with opera chairs,
stage, electric fans, and all accessories of the modern playhouse. In
the theater a free stereopticon and moving-picture exhibition was given,
illustrating the resources and industries of the State. Another
attractive feature of the agricultural exhibit was the mounted steer
"Challenger," which won the first prize of the world at the
international stock show at Chicago, December, 1903.

In the horticultural exhibit a display of Nebraska's choicest fruits
attracted much attention.

The educational exhibit showed the work of the Nebraska schools from the
kindergarten through the colleges and universities. It also made a fine
display of the work of women's clubs in literary and musical lines.
Throughout the exhibit the fact that Nebraska ranked first in small
percentage of illiteracy was constantly emphasized.

In the mineral exhibit samples of Nebraska's best building stones,
bricks, cement, and similar products were displayed, and a complete
collection of soils from different parts of the State was shown. Cases
of fossils from the university museum, specimens from the geological
department of the university, and typical photographs of Nebraska added
attractiveness to the exhibit. There was also an exhibit showing
Nebraska's dairy and creamery resources.

Opposite the Nebraska Pavilion the State made its main corn display.
Nebraska had a larger exhibit of corn than any State making an
exhibition of cereals. There were more than 57 varieties, running from
the little "Tom Thumb" ears of popcorn to mammoth ears of field corn.
One species of corn which attracted particular attention was the result
of grafting experiments, whereby several varieties of corn of various
colors and shades were made to grow on one cob. This variety was known
as the "Evolution Species."

During the exposition live-stock shows the Nebraska commission
transported free from Nebraska to St. Louis the prize-winning stock and
poultry of the State fair at a cost of several thousand dollars. The
choice and exhibition of this kind of stock and poultry were in charge
of the Nebraska live-stock and poultry associations.


The New Hampshire Building was a reproduction of the birthplace of
Daniel Webster. The building was quaint and striking in appearance, with
high-pitched roof and an absence of eaves, small-paned, old-fashioned
windows, and weatherboarded sides, and an enormous chimney rising from
the center of the roof, exactly like the original at Franklin, N.H. In
every room was a wealth of old-fashioned furniture from New Hampshire
homes, much of it a hundred years old or more, as well as Webster
relics, davenports, massive polished-top mahogany tables and sideboards,
warming pans, antique sideboards, china closets, straight-backed
armchairs, grandfather clocks, china and pewter ware. The greater part
of the antique furnishings were from the very valuable collection of
Gen. William E. Spalding, of Nashua. The State Building was provided
with a lecture hall for stereopticon lectures, having a screen 16 feet

The State commission was composed of Gen. Charles S. Collins, president;
Arthur C. Jackson, vice-president and executive commissioner; Omar A.
Towne, secretary; Augustine R. Ayers, treasurer; J. Adam Graf; Orton B.
Brown; Mrs. Arthur C. Jackson, hostess. Mr. Brown contributed a carload
of lumber, and General Collins and Mr. Jackson individually bore all the
expense of construction and maintenance.

The most elaborate of New Hampshire's exhibits was that of the largest
cotton mills in the world, in the Manufactures Building, although the
State was represented by individual exhibitors in the various exhibition


_Members of New Jersey commission_.--Foster M. Vorhees, chief
commissioner; Elbert Rappleye, Edgar B. Ward, C.E. Breckenridge, Edward
R. Weiss, J.T. MacMurray, Ira W. Wood, W.H. Wiley, Johnston Cornish,
Harry Humphreys, R.W. Herbert; Lewis T. Bryant, secretary.

The object of the New Jersey commission for the Louisiana Purchase
Exposition was to provide visitors from the State with suitable and
homelike headquarters and to advertise the extensive resources of the
Commonwealth. The growth of the manufacturing interests of the State has
been so remarkable that from a purely agricultural center it has, within
a comparatively few years, obtained an indisputable position in the
forefront of the manufacturing States of the Union. The number and
character of individual exhibits compared favorably with other States
represented. They represented a variety of industries, and were among
the finest exhibits at the exposition.

The State Pavilion was a practical reproduction of the old Ford Tavern
at Morristown, N.J., which was used as Washington's headquarters during
the winter of 1779-80. Alexander Hamilton made his home there that
winter, and there met the daughter of General Schuyler, whom he
afterwards married. Among other famous men who have been beneath its
roof were Green, Knox, Lafayette, Steuben, Kosciusko, Schuyler, "Light
Horse" Harry Lee, Old Israel Putman, "Mad Anthony" Wayne, and Benedict

The location of the New Jersey Building was in the center of a grove of
trees, with an extensive lawn, and had every convenience for the comfort
of visitors. The furnishings were selected to harmonize in color as well
as with a view to comfort.

Owing to the expense required to make shipments of fresh articles such a
great distance, the commission found it would be impossible to make such
agricultural and horticultural displays as would do justice to the State
with the amount of the appropriation placed at their disposal.

The educational exhibit differed in some features from that of any other
State. For the display of books and various lines of work not readily
shown upon the walls or in the cabinets, drawers instead of shelves were
placed under the cabinets. This enabled the work to be put in convenient
form for inspection, and had the additional merit of keeping it clean.
Another feature entirely new and used for the first time at this
exposition was the index key. The exhibit was divided into sections
lettered from A to M, inclusive, and these were subdivided into units
numbered from 1 to 68, inclusive. Each unit consisted of a leaf cabinet
with six drawers directly underneath. The units from 15 to 21,
inclusive, served as an index to the entire New Jersey educational
exhibit. Unit No. 15 directed to first year's work. Unit No. 16 directed
to second and fourth year's work. Unit No. 17 directed to third and
fourth year's work, and so on.

To find work from a particular school, the card containing work from the
county or city in which said school is located was first taken. That
card directed to the section in which all work of the school, except
that placed upon the walls, could be found. Different lines of school
work were bound in different colored volumes, as shown by index cards.
Another unique feature of the exhibit was the manual-training work of
each school shown in connection with its academic work.

A combined exhibit of music and art was exceptionally fine and attracted
much attention. The work of a very large percentage of schools, both
rural and urban, was represented, and the Garden State ably maintained
the reputation won at former expositions.

In the section of social economy of the Educational Building the State
was represented by comprehensive exhibits from the following: The State
board of health, Trenton, N.J.; bureau of statistics of labor and
industries, Trenton, N.J.; New Jersey School for Deaf Mutes; New Jersey
State Institution for Feeble-Minded Women, Vineland, N.J.; New Jersey
Training School for Feeble-Minded Boys and Girls, Vineland, N.J.; New
Jersey Children's Home Society, Trenton, N.J.; Woodbine Settlement,
Woodbine, N.J.; State Custodial Asylum for Feeble-Minded Women, Newark,
N.J., and the School for Nervous and Backward Children.

The exhibit of the geological survey in the Mines and Metallurgy
Building was in many respects unique among the various exhibits in the
Mines Building. Geological surveys have been carried out under State
auspices for more than half a century, and, as a result, New Jersey was
in a position to illustrate to younger and less thoroughly studied
States how science and industry go hand in hand.

New Jersey is the best-mapped portion in America. Therefore a salient
feature of the exhibit was a large relief map of the State, models of
typical sections of the State, and files of the position and elevation
of every portion of the State. The building stones of the State formed a
pyramid in the center of the exhibit, and alongside of it was a
microscope, with 70 sections of New Jersey rocks, showing how they are
studied to estimate their value for construction purposes.

The New Jersey geological survey had two superb terra-cotta columns made
of New Jersey clay on enameled brick piers. Adjoining the entrance was
the New Jersey clay exhibit proper. In it were shown samples of all the
prominent clays, burned bricklets, which illustrated the way clay acts
when burned at various cones (temperatures), the air and fire shrinkage,
and various other properties and analyses of clays, all facts of
importance to the clay worker, as well as large photographs of the chief
clay banks and various steps in utilizing clay.

A collection of New Jersey bricks was tested to determine the breaking
and crushing strength. The results of these tests were shown, together
with samples of the bricks classified according to the method of
manufacture and geological occurrences of the clay. A model of a New
Jersey clay refinery was shown, illustrating the manner in which
high-grade clays are prepared for potteries.

The natural advantages found on the coast and mountains of New Jersey
have produced many fine and well-known resorts. In order to illustrate
some of the attractions there found, the exhibit in the Forestry, Fish,
and Game Building was prepared. It showed beautiful mounted specimens of
practically all the birds that frequent the State. In addition to the
mounted fresh and salt-water fishes there was displayed, in the largest
pool that has ever been constructed at an exposition, a number of the
live salt-water fish found along the coast. The oyster industry was
represented by an exhibit from the State bureau of shell fisheries. A
glass tank filled with salt water showed an oyster bed containing the
following variety of oysters, all of which are products of New Jersey:
Shrewsburys, Raritan, Barnegat, Maurice River coves, Absecon salts, and
the Cape May salts. The tank also contained a profusion of marine
vegetation, and a number of the varieties of clams and fish common to
the waters of the State. An interesting demonstration was made of each
stage of the progression from the spat to the prime oyster.

Another very instructive and important feature was the mosquito exhibit,
which was intended to illustrate the work which has been done by
authority of the State of New Jersey in studying the life, history, and
methods of dealing with the mosquito pest. The work was in charge of
Prof. John B. Smith, the State entomologist, and the exhibit was
prepared under his direction. It consisted of a series of table cases in
which were shown the common species of mosquitoes, with their larvae as
well as their natural enemies. Enlarged drawings gave the character of
each species so far as they were not obvious on ordinary examination.

At one end of the square was represented a marsh area divided into two
parts. One of these showed breeding pools, where the immense shore crop
develops. The other showed fiddler crabs and other creatures that
provide a natural drainage for the meadows inhabited by them. Areas
where fiddler crabs live are never mosquito breeders, and as a matter of
fact only a small percentage of the entire salt, marsh country is
dangerous. Illustrations showed drainage ditches, the methods of making
them, and also typical areas where the insects breed.

New Jersey had an exhibit also of road building in the Model City,
showing the manner of constructing and maintaining the excellent
highways of that State.

In the Palace of Liberal Arts interesting exhibits were displayed by
various business enterprises of the State. This included a variety of
printing presses, books, binding, and publications of different series,
musical instruments, philosophical and scientific apparatus, coins and
medals, as well as an exhibit of chemical and pharmaceutical arts, and
model plans and designs for public work.

In the Palace of Manufactures and Varied Industries New Jersey exhibits
attracted considerable attention. The display included hardware,
carpets, tapestries, fabrics for upholstery, wearing apparel, silks, and

In the Palace of Electricity New Jersey displays ranked among the best,
as was also the case in the Palace of Machinery.

In the Transportation Building and the Palace of Agriculture the
displays, while not large, were very commendable.


The legislature of the Territory of New Mexico in March ,1903,
appropriated the sum of $30,000 for the purpose of adequately
representing the resources and products of the Territory at the
Louisiana Purchase Exposition. Shortly after the passage of the act the
governor of New Mexico appointed the following commission, which
subsequently met and elected its officers:

Charles A. Spiess, president; Carl A. Dalies, vice-president; Arthur
Seligman, treasurer; W.B. Walton, secretary; Herbert J. Hagerman,
Eusebio Chacon, Fayette A. Jones, and H.W. Porterfield, managers; W.C.
Porterfield, assistant manager.

The ten or eleven years that have elapsed since the Columbian Exposition
at Chicago have brought great changes to New Mexico, and the marked
advancement and progress made along all lines were emphasized in a
comparison of her exhibits at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition with
those at Chicago. The Territory had large and excellent exhibits,
displayed in a most attractive and interesting manner and showing many
of the splendid products of that country, as well as the educational
facilities and other interesting features, and it was felt that the
chance for statehood had much advanced by the excellent impression made
at the fair.

Great irrigation enterprises within the last decade have reclaimed large
areas of fine agricultural land, providing happy homes for people in
that beautiful and delightful climate.

The superior products shown in New Mexico's agricultural and
horticultural exhibits were a revelation to visitors, and demonstrated
that the very best results and most perfect development in fruits and
farm products are obtained by irrigation and sunny skies. The fruits,
grains, vegetables, and other products of the soil shown had few equals.
The exhibits were larger and better than have ever been made by the
Territory at previous expositions.

New Mexico's exhibit in the Palace of Mines and Metallurgy ably
presented the status of one of her most important industries, showing
the production of a vastly greater number of producing mines than it was
possible to show ten years ago, or when the Territory made an exhibit at
Chicago, and it also included a far greater range of minerals,
anthracite and bituminous coal, iron, zinc, lead, mineralogical forms,
besides mica, gypsum, salt, sulphur, asbestos, marble, onyx, and
building stone. A unique and most important product of the mines of New
Mexico was the beautiful blue gem stone, the finest and most valuable
turquoise found in any part of the world. The Territory had the only
turquoise exhibits at the exhibition. One was in the mineral exhibit in
the Palace of Mines and Metallurgy, and a larger and perhaps the most
extensive exhibit of this stone ever shown was in the Varied Industries
Building. An exhibit of a turquoise mine and its products was shown in
the gulch, or outside mining exhibit, where a reproduction of the famous
turquoise mines of Porterfield, near Silver City, N. Mex., showed the
actual geological occurrence of the gem. This was accomplished by
bringing to the fair several tons of the rock from the mine with
turquoise embedded in it, just as it was when the chemical processes of
nature were preparing the beautiful jewels to delight the eye of man.

New Mexico's greatest pride was her educational exhibit, which showed
results of splendid schoolroom work and by photographs recorded the
grand and stately school buildings, demonstrating that New Mexico was,
in proportion to her population, in no way behind the older States in
her public school system. At Chicago the school exhibit represented only
a few institutions, and these in a limited way; while at St. Louis a
very large number of splendid graded schools and country schools were
represented by fine exhibits. Besides the work of the colleges of
agriculture and mechanical arts, the Military Institute, a university, a
school of mines, two normal schools, and a number of denominational
schools of higher order were displayed.

The beautifully arranged ethnological exhibit in the Department of
Anthropology consisted of a valuable collection, chief among which was
the wonderful Harvey collection, brought from Albuquerque.

Among the numerous beautiful buildings which adorned the Plateau of
States, many of which were reproductions of historic structures or homes
of some of the nation's famous citizens, stood the pretty structure
erected by New Mexico, a gem in point of architecture and interior
decoration, and one of the ornamental features of the exposition.


_New York commission_.--Edward H. Harriman, president; William Berri,
vice-president; Louis Stern, chairman of executive committee; Edward
Lyman Bill, treasurer; Lewis Nixon, Frank S. McGraw, Mrs. Norman E.
Mack, Frederick R. Green, John C. Woodbury, John K. Stewart, James H.
Callahan, John Young; Charles A. Ball, secretary and chief executive
officer; Mrs. Dore Lyon, assistant secretary.

New York State's participation in the Louisiana Purchase Exposition was
calculated to exploit fully the wonderful resources of the State, as
well as to set forth what the Empire State is accomplishing in the
various lines of humanitarian work. The New York State commission
started out with the idea of making exhibits only in lines where New
York was preeminently the leader. On this account and for the reason
that the appropriation was relatively limited, exhibits were planned to
cover seven distinct departments. It was intended at the outset to make
these exhibits strong in every detail, and the commission believes that
the close of the exposition has demonstrated the excellent judgment

The most conspicuous feature of New York's participation in the
exposition was her State Building. An excellent site was chosen for this
structure, and a handsome building was erected in a conspicuous place on
the plateau of the States on the exposition grounds. The building
occupied the most commanding site on the State plateau of any of the
State buildings. It also enjoyed the benefits of Forest Park, both in
front and rear, which made it one of the coolest buildings on the

The building was simple, but dignified, in design; of Italian
architecture in the colonial treatment. Martini's Quadriga flanked the
dome, representing the progress or art and commerce, and Lenz's dancing
group was placed around the columns at the entrances. A very large hall
ran through to the dome, the lower part of which was treated in the
Doric order, and the whole was scholarly, dignified, and beautiful in
design. Another interesting feature in the hall was the organ case,
which was designed particularly for this place. This hall was flanked on
the northern side by a large assembly hall with a barrel ceiling running
up to the second story, and the treatment of this room in old gold,
Antwerp blues, and siennas was beautiful. The draperies were in green
velvet, and the chairs were of leather, treated to represent the old
Spanish illuminated leather. The floors were carefully made. There were
rooms for banquets or functions of any kind. On the westerly side were
the waiting rooms for men and women, writing rooms, and also retiring
rooms and toilets.

The mural decorations of the large hall were done by Florian Peixotto,
and represented De Soto discovering the Mississippi, one showing the
French and Indian occupation of the land, and others showing New York in
1803 and New York in 1903. The pendentives, which supported the dome,
had four emblematic pictures representing the four States most benefited
by the purchase, the blue Mississippi in the background of each.

The second story was divided into apartments for the commissioners and
the offices of the secretary, which were perfect in appointments. The
suites were composed of parlor, bedroom, and baths.

A piano of great beauty, with inlays and paintings, was contributed by a
leading New York manufacturer, a picture of Niagara Falls being
particularly fine. A company of New York contributed the organ as an
exhibit, and concerts were given each afternoon of the fair.

The grounds received careful consideration, and there were many beds of
flowers and shrubbery, such as lily ponds, poppy beds, hydrangeas, and

The amount of money appropriated by the State of New York for
participation at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition was $390,000. There
were no private subscriptions of any sort, but many exhibits were loaned
to the commission from the various departments of the State to be
displayed. The cost of installing the various exhibits was $10,755. This
did not include the cost of labor in placing the exhibit, as the work
was done by men who were employed by the State in the various
departments. The cost of transportation of exhibits was $12,342. The
State building cost $88,275.23 to erect.

Upon the landscape gardening, which was one of the most admired features
of the exposition, was expended the sum of $4,465.75. The organ case
alone cost $3,500. Including that, the total amount expended for
furnishing the State building was $23,423.96.

New York displayed her products in six of the exhibit palaces, namely:
Agriculture, Horticulture, Education, Forest, Fish and Game, Fine Arts,
and Mines and Metallurgy. In addition to this there was a very fine
exhibit of live stock. New York State was the only successful exhibitor
of a forest nursery.

It is impossible to give an approximate value of the exhibits. In the
Fine Arts Department, New York had 1,112 out of a total of 3,524
exhibits. They were selected after very careful scrutiny by a jury
appointed by the National Academy of Design, and consisted of oil
paintings, mural paintings, water colors, miniatures, illustrations,
etchings, engravings, lithographs, wood engravings, sculpture,
architecture, and applied arts.

The commission made appropriations for the various exhibits as follows:

Agriculture and live stock .................... $25,000
Horticulture and floriculture .................  20,000
Forestry, fish, and game ......................  18,000
Fine arts .....................................  10,000
Scientific exhibit ............................   7,500
Education and social economy ..................  27,500

The education exhibit was composite in nature and was subdivided as
follows: Administration, kindergarten, elementary grades, high schools,
normal schools, training schools and classes, higher education,
industrial and trade schools, special schools, business colleges, Indian
schools, schools for defectives, summer schools, and extension schools.

There were exhibits from both the State department of public instruction
and the University of the State of New York. In the public schools
exhibit contributions were received from 24 cities and various villages.
There was also a comprehensive exhibit from the rural schools of the
State. In the normal school exhibit contributions were received from
every normal school. The training schools and classes of the State were
very generally represented. Exhibits were in place from Hobart College,
Geneva; Manhattan College, New York City; Colgate University, Hamilton,
and Syracuse University. In the schools for defectives there were
exhibits from the New York State School for the Blind, Batavia; New York
Institution for the Blind, New York City; Western New York Institution
for Deaf Mutes, Rochester; New York Institution for the Improved
Instruction of Deaf Mutes, New York City, and the New York Institution
for the Deaf and Dumb, New York City. The exhibit from the Indian
schools contained work from all of the seven reservations in the State,
and was arranged by the State inspector of Indian schools.

Owing to the plan of installation adopted by the exposition authorities,
the State exhibit in the Department of Social Economy was found in
several different places. The State commission in lunacy made an
interesting exhibit of the ancient and modern methods of caring for
insane patients. There was also a model showing the tent system for
treatment of tuberculosis. The State board of charities made a very
complete exhibit of the several State institutions under its
jurisdiction, first, by means of photography of exteriors and interiors,
and, second, by specimens of work carried on in the industrial
departments of the various institutions. They also made an elaborate
photographic exhibit of the almshouses in the State and of the
penitentiaries. The State labor bureau sent a series of 28 graphic
charts bearing on labor conditions in the State and comparisons between
New York and other States and countries. This was supplemented by a
series of the reports of the bureau. The State department of health
furnished an exhibit of the blanks generally used in the administration
of the department of health and graphically showed the work under its
jurisdiction. The State excise department furnished a series of graphic
charts upon the receipt and disbursement of the excise moneys of the

The New York agricultural exhibit differed from the other exhibits in
the Agricultural Building in that the object sought was educational
rather than spectacular. In wheat there were over 500 varieties and
about 1,000 samples; in corn, about 100 varieties and 300 samples;
beans, 75 varieties; peas, 50 varieties; oats, 20 varieties; barley, 8
varieties; buckwheat, 50 samples, and other grains in proportion. There
were also exhibits of tobacco, salt, canned fruits of every variety,
canned meats and fish, hops, flour, maple sirup and sugar, including
varieties of potatoes.

In the Cheese Department New York had over half of the exhibit. In the
Butter Department a facsimile of the Liberty Bell in butter, exact size,
with all the inscriptions.

New York had the largest exhibit in the Horticultural Palace and also
had more than twice the number of varieties of any other State. New York
was the only State showing pears and grapes.

In exhibiting the timber indigenous to the State in the Forestry, Fish,
and Game Building, two specimens of each species were shown in paneled
framework, showing both sides of the specimen.

In connection with the specimens of timber were exhibited a series of
photographs of trees of New York, eight in number. Each tree was shown
in leaf and also as it appears in winter. A life-size photograph of the
bark of each tree was shown, and in most instances specimens of the
leaves, flowers, and fruit. In this connection there were in small glass
jars seeds of all the important forest trees of New York, also
by-products of the forest, such as nuts, sugar, pulp, wood alcohol, and
many other commodities.

A collection of all the insects injurious to the trees of New York was
shown in an attractive manner in cases.

The outside exhibit of New York consisted of a nursery and plantation of
forest trees. As a part of the inside exhibit were shown specimens of
substantially all the food and game fishes of New York. No attempt was
made to show abnormally large specimens; the purpose was to show the
average fish, true to color and size. The collection included both fresh
and salt water specimens of the fishes of New York. Some interesting
specimens of oyster growth and of the enemies of the oyster were also

A part of the inside exhibit was a typical hunter camp. It was
constructed of spruce logs and roofed with spruce bark from the
Adirondack forest by Adirondack guides.

An outside exhibit of forestry consisted of a nursery and plantation of
forest trees, showing the method by which the forest, fish, and game
commission of New York is foresting the denuded, nonagricultural lands
of the State. The plot was 120 feet by 60 feet and contained 80,000

In the Mines Building were displayed ten geological maps of the State of
New York, besides a relief map of the State, a hypsometric map, a road
map, and publications on mineralogical works besides photographs. In
metallic products there were iron ores, lead and zinc, and pyrites. In
nonmetallic products there were displayed garnet, emery, millstones,
infusorial earth, mineral paints, graphite, talc, mica, salt, gypsum,
land plaster, and plaster of Paris. In building stones there were shown
granite, diabase, morite, sandstone, bluestone, limestone, marble,
slate, and marl.

A pavilion was erected in order to display the clay products of the
State. The collection was of type products rather than a great mass of
similar clays. New York State produces roofing tile, and several styles
were wrought into the roof of the pavilion. The brick were of several
styles and colors, from the classic roman dry-press brick to the rough
rock-face clinker which forms the base course of the structure.


_Members of North Carolina commission_.--H.H. Brimley,
commissioner-general; T.K. Bruner and J.A. Holmes, resident

In March, 1903, the legislature of North Carolina appropriated $10,000
for the participation of the State at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition.
Ten thousand dollars was also raised by subscriptions among citizens and
manufacturers of North Carolina, making a total of $20,000. The cost of
transportation, installation, and maintenance, and general expenses of
the State exhibit practically used up the total amount.

North Carolina had no State building.

The State had exhibits in the Departments of Mines and Metallurgy,
Agriculture, Horticulture, Forestry, Fish and Game. The total cost of
the State's participation in the exposition was about as follows:

Value of loan exhibits in the different departments .......  $9,000
Cost of new specimens and cases ...........................   8,000
Value of specimens and cases already on hand and withdrawn
  from the State museum ...................................  30,000
Installation and expenses .................................  12,000
       Total ..............................................  59,000

In mines and metallurgy the exhibit covered a floor space of about 2,200
square feet. It consisted of a full, systematic collection of the
minerals of the State, a representation of the ores of gold, copper,
silver, iron, nickel, and tin that are native to North Carolina, and a
very full exhibit of the economic minerals. Wherever possible, there
were shown specimens of the finished product alongside of the raw
material, and this feature added considerable value to the display. A
very beautiful and very comprehensive collection of cut gems and crude
gem material was perhaps the most attractive feature of the exhibit. The
collection of building and ornamental stones included a large variety of
granites, marbles, and sandstones, many of them of a very superior

In agriculture the chief features of the exhibit were the special
tobacco display and the collection of grains and seeds in the main
space. A good line of commercial cotton samples and of the best
varieties of cotton seed were shown and some cotton-oil and cotton-mill
machinery in connection therewith. The late date at which any money
became available prevented any show of sheaf grains or grasses and cut
short the exhibit in many ways.

In the Department of Horticulture the show was a small one, owing both
to the very poor fruit year and also, again, to the late date at which
the collecting had to be started. The space occupied was about 500
square feet in size, while in the four different spaces in the
Agricultural Building the total floor area occupied was nearly 4,000
square feet.

The combined forestry and fish and game exhibits were among the most
complete of any of the State exhibits. The total floor space occupied by
these was 2,400 square feet. The display of native timber specimens was
most complete and systematic, and the specimens were shown in a way to
impart the most information in a condensed form. The main collection
consisted of planks cut the full length and width of the trees, 4 feet
long by 4 inches thick, with the bark left attached. One-half of each
was dressed and sandpapered, but not varnished; the other half filled
and varnished and given an oil-rub finish to bring out the beauties of
the grain and to show the best finish the different kinds of wood would
take. Wherever possible, two sections were shown in the form of disks
cut across the log. These brought out the character of the end grain and
the annual growth rings, as well as the size of the trees from which
each specimen came. A variety of finished wood products and a collection
of forest seeds and of medicinal plants completed the exhibit.

In the Department of Fish and Game the State showed collections of
mounted food and game fishes, of oysters and clams, and of tools and
appliances used in their capture, including some very fine models of the
more typical of the fishing craft used in North Carolina waters. Fairly
complete collections of the game birds, wild fowl, and shore birds were
shown, as well as most of the prey-catching and fish-eating birds found
in the State. The game animals and those valuable for their furs were
also exhibited, and a very fine lot of furs, both raw and dressed,
occupied a case contiguous to that containing the fur-bearing animals.
Guns, traps, etc., were shown as well to illustrate the means used in
the capture of the different kinds. Collections of marine invertebrates,
of reptiles and batrachians, casts of fishes and cetaceans, an old
whaling outfit, and a lot of miscellaneous material completed the

Considering the amount of money used, the exhibits were large, varied,
full, and of good quality all through, and in some cases unlimited funds
could hardly have bettered them.


North Dakota had no State building on the grounds. The exhibits, which
comprised every variety of grain and species of grass grown in the
State, gathered from the very best samples obtained from the crop of
1903, were shown principally in the Agricultural Building, although
there was a very excellent exhibit in the Palace of Mines and
Metallurgy, showing the mineral resources of the State, and including
coal, clays, cement, building stones, etc.

The State legislature, on March 17, 1903, passed an act authorizing the
participation of the State at the World's Fair to be held in St. Louis
in 1904, and at the Lewis and Clark Centennial and Pacific Exposition
and Oriental Fair to be held at Portland, Oreg., in 1905, and creating a
commission composed of the governor, the State auditor, the
lieutenant-governor, the commissioner of agriculture, and Warren N.
Steele, of Rolette County. The governor was made the president of the
commission and the commissioner of agriculture the secretary.

This act appropriated the sum of $50,000 for the exhibits to be made at
the two expositions therein named.

The commissioners appointed by the legislature were as follows:

Governor Frank White, president; Commissioner of Agriculture R.J.
Turner, secretary; Lieut. Governor David Bartlett, executive
commissioner; Hon. H.L. Holmes, and Hon. Warren N. Steele.

There was absolutely no private contribution or subscription. The cost
of the installation, including transportation and freight charges, etc.,
was in the neighborhood of $25,000.


In an act of the general assembly of the State of Ohio a bill was passed
May 12, 1902, creating a commission to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition
and appropriating $75,000 for the erecting and maintaining of a State
building. The act provided as follows:

For the appointment of a commission to erect a building on the grounds
of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition and to take charge of the building
and exhibits that might be placed therein, the governor was authorized
to appoint within thirty days after the passage of the act, a commission
of seven residents of the State of Ohio and one executive commissioner,
who should be ex officio a member of the commission. No more than four
of the commission were to be of the same political party. It was the
duty of the commission to decide upon plans and specifications for an
Ohio Building to cost not exceeding $35,000. Members of the commission
were not entitled to receive any compensation for their services except
their actual expenses for transportation and for subsistence for the
time they were necessarily engaged on the business of the commission.
The salary of the executive commissioner was $2,500 per annum, and in
addition to this salary he was allowed his actual and necessary
expenses. That there should be appropriated the sum of $50,000, $25,000
to be available on and after the 15th day of February, 1903, for the
erection and equipment of the building and for other expenses provided
for in the act.

An extra appropriation of $12,500 for the completion of the State
building was provided for in an act passed March 25, 1904, making an
appropriation for an Ohio Building on the grounds of the Louisiana
Purchase Exposition in St. Louis, Mo.

The following commissioners were appointed:

William F. Burdell, president; L.E. Holden, vice-president; Stacey B.
Rankin, executive commissioner; D.H. Moore, Edwin Hagenbuch, M.K. Gantz,
Newell K. Kennon, and David Friedman.

As soon as the bill had been passed and the commissioners had been
appointed a meeting of the commission was held for the purpose of
deciding upon the plans for the State building. The building was erected
on the southeastern end of the fair grounds, on that part known as the
Terrace of States, at a cost of $35,000. The structure was designed
solely for the comfort and convenience of the people of the State, and
no effort was made to exhibit therein any of the resources of the State.
In an act of the general assembly of the State an additional bill was
passed March 24, 1904, appropriating $12,500 for completing and
furnishing the State building on the grounds of the Louisiana Purchase
Exposition. In this connection it may be of interest to mention that
President Francis especially complimented the commission for its
promptness in having the building erected, for on the opening day of the
exposition the Ohio Building was ready for occupancy and the president
himself was the first to register his name. At the close of the
exposition the commission advertised for the sale of the building and
disposed of it to the highest bidder.

While Ohio as a State maintained only one exhibit in the Mines and
Metallurgy Building, consisting chiefly of clay and its products, over
150 private individuals and corporations throughout the State added to
the prominence and magnitude of the exposition by installing costly
exhibits, which were maintained by them at very great expense. These
miscellaneous exhibits showed to very good advantage the natural
resources of the State and its diversified products. In the Palaces of
Electricity, Machinery, and Transportation the State was represented
remarkably well by these private exhibitors, and much credit is due to
them for their attractive and interesting display. In the Liberal Arts
Building it may be correctly intimated that the Ohio exhibitors were
predominant. In the Department of Anthropology, also, Ohio took the
grand prize over all competitors. The display consisted principally of
relics taken from the historical mounds of the State, which in
themselves were very interesting. Not only was the grand prize awarded
for the display, but a special gold medal was presented to Prof. W.C.
Mills, librarian and curator of the Ohio Archaeological and Historical
Society, for his untiring efforts in revealing to the public of to-day
the mode of livelihood and the characteristics of the oldest and most
historical race of this continent.


The Oklahoma World's Fair commission was appointed on April 19, 1901,
and organized ready for active work on May 1, 1901. Two days after it
was decided to hold the World's Fair in Forest Park, the Oklahoma
commission notified Secretary Stevens that Oklahoma was ready to select
her site for a building.

Oklahoma was among the very first to select a site on the World's Fair
grounds, was first to lay a corner stone for the Territorial building,
and the first to accept her building complete from the contractor and
dedicate the same.

By an act of the legislature of the Territory of Oklahoma, dated March
1, 1901, the sum of $20,000 was appropriated for the participation of
the Territory at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. Subsequently, on
March 14, 1903, the legislature of the Territory enacted a bill
appropriating $40,000 additional for the erection and equipment of the
building on the grounds of the exposition, and for the transportation
and installation of the exhibits of the Territory. The following were
appointed by the legislature as a commission in charge of Oklahoma

Joseph Meibergen, chairman; Otto A. Shuttee, treasurer; Edgar B.
Marchant, secretary.

The Oklahoma Building was of semi-Moorish architecture, size 71 by 72,
with balconies above, below, and in front, the full width of the
building. It contained reception halls, parlors, toilet rooms, and
commissioner's office, 14 rooms in all. The building was two stories
high, with basement, provided with rugs and carpets of Wilton velvet.

The total cost of the building, exclusive of furniture, including gas
and electric light fixtures, was approximately $15,500.

All the plaster, inside and out, used in the construction of the
building was manufactured from Oklahoma gypsum.

The educational exhibit was shown in the Palace of Education and
occupied 488 square feet. It contained representative work from the
kindergarten to the University of Oklahoma. All the seven colleges and
preparatory schools supported by the Territory were represented, and
many of the ten institutions of higher learning supported by
denominational and private enterprises. Work from the majority of the
2,192 district schools was shown in leaf cabinets, framed pictures, and
in other ways. Taxidermical work and modeling in Oklahoma plaster were
shown, together with specimens of the handiwork of the students in the
Agricultural and Mechanical College. There were more than 4,000 exhibits
contained in the collection, which was shown in cabinets and cases. The
total cost of collection, installation, and maintenance was $1,825.95.

The agricultural exhibit was shown in section 42 of the Palace of
Agriculture, and covered 3,600 square feet of floor space.

Specimens of all the agricultural products of the Territory were shown
in the exhibit and consisted of the following:

Thrashed grain:
  Wheat ................................... 160
  Oats ....................................  65
  Rye .....................................   5
  Barley ..................................  11
Corn, shelled .............................  19
Miscellaneous, consisting of alfalfa seed,
  timothy, speltz, castor beans, etc ......  31
Corn in the ear:
  1903 .................................... 159
  1904 .................................... 300
  Irish ......................... plates .. 150
  Sweet ........................... do ....  57
Broom corn ................................  20

The foregoing constituted the main body of the exhibit, which was
supplemented by corn in the stalk, wheat, oats, barley, and other grains
in exhibit bundles, native and tame grasses in profusion, water-melons,
the largest of which weighed 117 pounds; various field and garden
vegetables, cotton and cotton-seed products, flax, tobacco, etc. A
special feature was a loaf of bread baked from flour ground from wheat
of the 1904 crop. The total cost of collection, installation, and
maintenance was $4,072.80.

In the Horticultural Department the exhibit covered 1,100 square feet of
floor space. The exhibit consisted of 250 jars of preserved fruits of
the various kinds produced in Oklahoma, 200 bottles of Oklahoma grape
wine, and about 400 plates of fresh fruits of the various kinds in their
season. Four hundred and fifty bushels of the choicest apples were
placed in cold storage in the fall of 1903 to keep the exhibit fresh. On
the 15th of November the exhibit had 1,800 specimens of apples from the
crops of 1904. The total cost of collection, installation, and
maintenance was $4,892.48.

The mineral exhibit occupied 1,020 square feet in the Palace of Mines
and Metallurgy. Here were shown 186 exhibits of sandstone, limestone,
and other building stone, magnetite, brick (both burned and green),
transparent selenite, and various others from Oklahoma. It also
contained salt, oil, and glass sand testing 96 per cent pure. The
plaster resources of Oklahoma were shown from the raw material in a
solid block weighing 3,600 pounds, through the various evolutions of
plaster manufacture to the finished product in dainty statuettes. A
prominent feature of this exhibit was the relief map of the Territory,
made from Oklahoma plaster by Doctor Finney, of the University of
Oklahoma. The map weighed 1,600 pounds and showed every elevation and
depression, with the rivers, streams, lakes, gypsum deposits, and salt
reserves. The total cost of collection, installation, and maintenance
was $3,263.50.


_Members of commission_.--Jefferson Myers, president; W.E. Thomas,
vice-president; Edmond C. Giltner, secretary; W.H. Wehrung, special
commissioner and general superintendent; F.A. Spencer, David Rafferty,
J.C. Flanders, G.Y. Harry, J.H. Albert, Richard Scott, Frank
Williams, F.G. Young, George Conser; Layton Wisdom, private secretary
to general superintendent.

The legislature of the State of Oregon made an appropriation of $50,000
for the participation of Oregon at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition.
One of the main objects was to excite interest in the Lewis and Clark
Centennial Exposition to be held at Portland, Oreg., in 1905.

The Oregon State Building was built of logs and was a reproduction of
Fort Clatsop, the fort in which Lewis and Clark and their companions
resided during their stay in Oregon in the winter of 1805-6. Two square
wings stood diagonally from each front corner of the building like the
old fortress abutments used in the days when it was necessary for
pioneer settlers to maintain such defenses against the hostile Indians.

The cost of the erection and maintenance of the building was $9,000, of
which the Lewis and Clark Exposition Company contributed $3,500.

Not including the exhibits in the Oregon Building, the State made
exhibits in six exhibit palaces, as follows: Agricultural Pavilion,
Horticultural Pavilion, Educational Pavilion, Forestry Pavilion, Mining
Pavilion, and Fish and Game Pavilion.

In the Educational Department a very interesting display was made by the
State board of education and the public schools of approximately all the
towns in the State.

In the Forestry, Fish, and Game Building were exhibits by large lumber
corporations of the State and a very interesting display of mounted
specimens of fish and game, furs and rugs, also cannery displays from
the fish-canning concerns. The Oregon State experimental stations at
Corvallis and Union made very interesting exhibits of grains and grasses
in the Palace of Agriculture. The same classes of products were
exhibited by about 60 individual exhibitors, residents of the State of
Oregon. While grains and grasses formed the largest exhibit, there were
also interesting displays of wool, mohair, hops, milling stuffs,
evaporated cream, and vegetables and fruit, both evaporated and in jars.

In the Horticultural Building about 50 exhibitors displayed specimens of
the fruits of Oregon. Apples, pears, and prunes were shown in
interesting variety and unexcelled quality.

Four exhibitors made exhibits in the Live Stock Department.

In the Mines and Metallurgy Building there was a very unique and
interesting display of mineral specimens, many of which were loaned to
the State of Oregon for use at the exposition. Among the specimens there
were collections of gold quartz and nuggets from the various gold mines
of the State. Besides the gold, there were shown collections of polished
pebble, copper ores, native silver, including cobalt and antimony ores,
crystals, opals, marble, jasper, asbestos, limestone, kaolin, asphaltum,
and tellurium ores. There were also displayed Indian curios,
ethnological, geological, and other specimens, all found in the State of
Oregon. The total value of the exhibit in the Mines and Metallurgy
Building was estimated at $35,000.

The cost of installing and maintaining the exhibits in the several
palaces were as follows:

Agricultural Building ................. $7,117
Horticultural Building ................  6,148
Educational Building ..................  3,800
Forestry Building .....................  3,200
Mines and Metallurgy Building .........  5,000
Fish and Game Building ................  2,300

The cost of freight and transportation from Oregon to the Louisiana
Purchase Exposition was, approximately, $4,400. Altogether the State of
Oregon expended $45,803.34 out of its appropriation up to the close of
the exposition.


By a joint resolution of the legislature of Pennsylvania, on February 4,
1903, Governor Samuel W. Pennypacker appointed Lieutenant-Governor
William M. Brown, president of the senate; John M. Scott, speaker of the
house; Henry F. Walton, State treasurer; Frank G. Harris, auditor; Gen.
Edmund B. Hardenbergh, secretary of internal affairs, and Isaac B. Brown
as members of the Pennsylvania commission. Subsequently the governor
appointed the following additional members: William S. Harvey, Morris L.
Clothier, Joseph M. Gazzam, George H. Earle, Jr., Charles B. Penrose,
George T. Oliver, H.H. Gilkyson, Hiram Young, James Pollock, and James
McBrier. The president of the senate appointed John G. Brady, William C.
Sproul, William P. Snyder, J. Henry Cochran, Cyrus E. Woods, and the
speaker of the house appointed Theodore B. Stulb, John Hamilton, William
B. Kirker, William Wayne, John A.F. Hoy, Fred T. Ikeler, William H.
Ulrich, A.F. Cooper, Frank B. McClain, George J. Hartman.

The commission organized on April 24, 1903, and nominated James H.
Lambert, of Philadelphia, executive officer; Bromley Wharton, secretary
of the commission and created an executive committee of nine members,
with H. George J. Brennan as secretary; Thos. H. Garvin, superintendent
State Building; Philip H. Johnson, architect.

The State appropriation was $300,000. The only amount raised by private
subscription, which was used in the installation of State exhibits, was
$15,000, contributed by the anthracite coal corporations to make a
display of the process of mining and marketing anthracite coal. There
were no exhibits in the Pennsylvania State Building outside of the
portraits of distinguished Pennsylvanians, past and present, 42 of which
were displayed, and a collection of pictures loaned by the American Art
Society. Several mural paintings from the Women's School of Design, in
Philadelphia, and a series of nearly 100 photographs of the monuments
erected to Pennsylvania regiments on the field of Gettysburg.

The State mining exhibit represented an expenditure of $60,000.

The cost of the educational exhibit was $14,000; of the agricultural
exhibit $12,000; of the fish exhibit, $10,000.

In the Department of Social Economy Pennsylvania's charitable and penal
system was fully demonstrated in an exhibit which received a grand prize
and which was installed at an expenditure of $2,500. In addition to
this, Pennsylvania's interests were represented in every department of
the exposition--in Manufactures, Liberal Arts, Varied Industries,
Electricity, Transportation, and Machinery.

It was Pennsylvania-made machinery which furnished the power for the
electric light of the exposition, as well as for driving the machinery
and pumping the water for the Cascades.

The Pennsylvania State Building occupied a conspicuous position on
elevated ground and was one of the finest and most costly in the State
group. The most imposing figure was the magnificently proportioned
rotunda, the roof of which was supported by a colonnade of Ionic
capitaled columns, which supported an entablature of great dignity, this
in turn being surmounted by a series of 12 semicircular arches or
lunettes, in each of which was placed an allegorical painting,
suggestive and typically illustrative of the very important industries
of the State.

The principal color scheme of the architectural features was ivory
white, with the capitals and plinths of columns gilt, as also the
vaulted soffits above the paintings and the large Guilloche moldings on
ribs of the ceiling, and the other important details.

The walls above the low wainscoting were painted in a rich shade of
turquoise blue, with paneled ornamental stenciled work of a very rich
ecru tone.

The ceiling was finished in a rich yellow tint of a tone to harmonize
with the general surroundings. The general effect produced, aside from
the artistic result obtained, was Pennsylvania's State colors. The
ladies' room contained some beautiful furniture, consisting of some
large settees, tables, writing desks, and comfortably upholstered easy
chairs. The windows were draped with red silk curtains on which were
embroidered the coat of arms and other State emblems.

The men's room, across the large stair hall, was similarly treated as
regards furniture and draperies, but in more masculine, taste, the
furniture being covered in leather, the draperies of heavier material,
and the color scheme and design throughout being more suggestive of the

The second floor had three large, beautifully lighted and proportioned
rooms, known as "art rooms."

The various rooms throughout the building were decorated murally and
otherwise in such color tones, draperies, etc., as to make one
harmonious with the other. Each department, in addition to its other
features, had specially designed Smyrna rugs in color and design to

Pennsylvania, in the allotment of space for her education exhibit,
received one of the most desirable plots in the Educational Building.
The booth was one of the most attractive in the building, and was in
harmony with its purpose. The exhibit was almost entirely from the
public schools, including work from the kindergarten, the grades, and
the high school. The normal schools and the soldiers' orphans schools,
which are a part of the public school system in Pennsylvania, were also
well represented. The work of all the kindergartens appeared together,
likewise the first grade, and so on through the grades. The high school
and normal school products were arranged by subjects, the papers from
one branch appearing in a cabinet. The display was made on the inside
walls of the booth in leaf cabinets, base stands, and special show

In portfolios and on the walls were about 3,000 photographs of school
buildings, grounds, interiors with children at work and at play, manual
classes at sewing, basketry, weaving, in the shops and the gardens,
plans and drawings in full of model rural school buildings; evolution of
the schoolhouses, showing the first log building, its successors until
the modern school structure is reached, and noted places and buildings
in Pennsylvania history. The State soldiers' orphans schools had an
interesting and attractive exhibit of photographs of their buildings,
grounds, pupils, and shops with work going on. The industrial Indian
school at Carlisle had a number of most interesting photographs showing
the marvelous development in the pupils after they enter that school.
The normal schools of the State had about 300 photographs of buildings,
interiors, and students.

Haverford College and Lehigh University had exhibits of photographs of
the college buildings, interiors, course of study, and students. The
Philadelphia School of Design for Women, the Pennsylvania School of
Industrial Art, and the Spring Garden Institute had most interesting
exhibits showing the best handiwork in the lines for which these schools
were severally noted.

In the exhibit in the Mines and Metallurgy it was designed to make an
exposition of the mineral wealth of the State in the crude condition of
its occurrences, and of her industrial advancement in the arts and
sciences as shown by the finished product. There were aggregated in the
exhibit statistical data, photographic views, transparencies and prints,
relief maps, specimens of crude, partly worked, and finished material.

The central feature of the exhibit, an octagonal shaft about 30 feet in
height, surmounted by an ornamental frieze, dome, and golden eagle, bore
statistics relating to the most important mineral productions of the
State during the year 1903. Among the relief maps reproducing mining
regions one, 12 by 8 feet, covered the whole State of Pennsylvania, and
showed coal measures, including the Pottsville conglomerate,
oil-producing areas, and gas territory.

Among the crude materials exhibited, coal, the greatest mineral product
of the State, was given preeminence. A piece of anthracite coal weighing
11 tons, said to be the largest unbroken piece of this coal ever taken
from the ground, was surrounded by pyramidal glass cases in which were
displayed anthracite coals of various kinds, quantities, and qualities
in all the marketable sizes, from lump to culm. Adjoining this display
was a working breaker illustrating modern methods of breaking, cleaning,
and assorting anthracite coal. Next to this display was probably the
most perfect and comprehensive coal-mine model ever constructed. It was
about 16 feet by 9 feet, and was accurately proportioned to the scale of
5 feet to 1 inch. The background of the model showed the surface plan of
a large mine, including a miniature breaker near the head of the mine
shaft to the breaker, small cars bearing slate and culm away from the
breakers, and coal cars upon a track which ran under the breaker for
convenience in loading the marketable product for shipment; also upon
the left hand, the fan supplying ventilation to the mine, the carpenter
shop, and the boiler room, and on the right hand, the men at work on
strippings (coal lying on or near the surface) with steam shovels.

Mounted prints and transparencies showed interior and surface views of
mines, and a valuable collection of coal fossils completed the State
exhibit of anthracite coal.

The bituminous coal of the State of Pennsylvania was represented by
twelve cross-sectional cuttings from well-known veins occurring in
different parts of the State and by models and views. Pennsylvania's
interest in iron mining and manufactures was represented by the crude
product only.

In crude specimens, ores of manganese, zinc, copper, nickel, lead, etc.,
were displayed, as well as feldspar, corundum talc, asbestos, gypsum,
and mica. A pavilion built of old Bangor slate showed slabs of different
grades and varieties of finish.

A handsomely mounted exhibit of crude and refined oils in 200 flasks
conveyed a conception of the variety and extent of the oil industry of
the State. The whole exhibit, so far as space would permit, was designed
upon a scale significant of the size, importance, and value of the
mineral wealth it represented.

The general scheme of installation of Pennsylvania's agricultural
exhibit embraced an inclosing structure of show cases with plate-glass
tops. On either side of the four corners was a massive paneled port
surmounted by a glass sphere 6 inches in diameter and filled with some
farm products similar to that which was shown in the cases adjoining

Upon two of the keystones grains and seeds were displayed in glass jars,
while corn was shown in rows of ears. Upon another keystone were shown
fine specimens of fine tobacco, as also in the show cases adjoining the
pagoda. All the tobacco shown was grown in Lancaster County. Wool was
shown in the grease, or "unwashed," in small samples taken directly from
the sheep. These samples were arranged upon black velvet, which lined
the bottom of the cases in a large variety of beautiful forms, and
constituted one of the most attractive features of the exhibits.

In the remaining show cases was found an unusually large collection of
the manufactured products of the farmers' crops, including meals,
flours, "breakfast foods," oils, liquors, pipes, etc.

Pennsylvania's fish exhibit was divided into five groups, namely: Live
fish, mounted fish, birds and mammals, water colors and photographs of
fishery subjects, legally confiscated devices for catching fish and
angling materials.

Naturally, it was designed that the live-fish exhibit should be the
prominent feature. Thirty-five aquaria were placed on two sides of the
main aisle. Only prominent examples of various groups were displayed,
consisting of game fishes, food fishes, the principal interior fishes
commercially valuable as food, representatives of types which have no
value either for game or food purposes and which were distinctively
destructive, and also minnows.

The still exhibit was one of great beauty. The mounted groups were
separated into two divisions, mounted fishes of the larger size and the
mounted specimens of the birds and animals which prey upon fishes.

The greatest interest was probably shown in the exhibit of legally
confiscated nets, draped in artistic fashion against a high board wall
stained to represent a natural fence. Among them were placed fish on
panels, which added materially to the effect. It was the only exhibit of
its kind in the World's Fair, and it apparently proved to be one of the
most attractive.

Pennsylvania responded enthusiastically to the invitation to participate
in the general educational display in the Art Palace. Fully conscious of
the ethical influence of art as a factor in the progress of the
Commonwealth, the commissioners set aside funds to assist the
Pennsylvania artists in displaying the best of their works produced
since the Columbian Exposition--eleven years ago--and in a manner worthy
of the State, which possesses the oldest art institute in the country
and which gave birth to Benjamin West, Sully, Nagel, Rothemmel, and

The State had important representation in all of the six groups in which
the department had classified its exhibits.

The following table will show the extent of the participation:

Paintings and drawings ...... 145
Etchings and engravings .....   7
Sculpture ...................  36
Architecture ................ 104
Loan ........................  14
Applied arts ................ 107
Total ....................... 313

Pennsylvania sculpture was a striking feature of the impressive
collection in the United States sculpture court of the Art Palace. The
late Edmund C. Stewartson's work, "The Bather," one of the best
productions of American sculpture, was installed here, and, among
others, important works were shown of Charles Grafly, to whom was
intrusted the designing of the official medal of awards for the
exposition; of Alexander Sterling Calder, and of Samuel Murray, who
exhibited many portrait busts of well-known Pennsylvanians. Architecture
had as its Pennsylvania representation many well-known individuals and

To the splendid collection of foreign masterpieces forming the loan
collection of the United States section, borrowed from individual
collectors and art institutions, Pennsylvania made sumptuous

The Pennsylvania display in the Department of Art was of the highest
importance, and a comparison with the contributions of other States
disclosed the fact that Pennsylvania stood second to only one other
State in point of numbers.


The Philippine exposition board was created by Act 514 of the Philippine
Commission, passed for the purpose of collecting and installing a
distinctively Philippine exhibit at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition of
1904 at St. Louis, Mo.

The original act carried an appropriation of $125,000, which was made
immediately available, and authorized the board to incur additional
obligations to the amount of $250,000 apart from such sum as might be
set aside by the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company in aid of the
Philippine exhibit. The amount of such aid was $200,000 from the
appropriation made by Congress.

Several amendments to Act 514 were made, notably Acts 765, 827, 1055,
and other acts carrying additional appropriations.

The exposition board, as originally appointed, consisted of Dr. W.P.
Wilson, director of the Philadelphia Commercial Museum; Dr. Gustavo
Niederlein, chief of the scientific department of the Philadelphia
museums, and Mr. Pedro A. Paterno, of Manila, as members, and Dr. Leon
M. Guerrero, also of Manila, secretary. Mr. Carson Taylor was appointed
disbursing officer.

Several changes in the authorized official organization have occurred.
Mr. Pedro A. Paterno, member, whose work had been confined to the
Philippine Islands, resigned in August, 1904, and was succeeded by Mr.
A.L. Lawshe, auditor for the Philippine Islands, who was appointed to
serve during a leave of absence from the Philippines. Dr. W.P. Wilson
resigned the chairmanship in October, 1904, the resignation to take
effect November 1 following. Mr. Lawshe was appointed to the
chairmanship to succeed Doctor Wilson, and Mr. Herbert S. Stone,
previously connected with the board as chief of publicity, was appointed
to the vacant membership on the board.

The task of collecting the material for the exhibit devolved on Doctor
Niederlein, who, as director of exhibits, was given sole charge of this
work. He arrived in the islands for the purpose in October, 1902.

Chairman Wilson made a brief visit to the islands in May, 1903, to
arrange plans for the work, and upon his return undertook the
construction of the buildings and the beautifying of the grounds.
Forty-seven acres of rolling country, lying for the most part on an
elevation of the southwestern section of the World's Fair grounds, were
assigned to the Philippine exhibit. The work of construction consisted
of building a miniature city, with streets and parks and complete
sewerage, water, and electric light, and fire-alarm systems. The ground
plan included a central park or plaza, the sides of the quadrangle being
occupied, respectively, by the cathedral or educational building, the
typical Manila house, the commerce building, and the government or
administration building, each of these beautiful structures being filled
with appropriate exhibits. In addition there were separate exhibit
buildings devoted to forestry, mines, and metallurgy, to agriculture and
horticulture, to fish and game, and to ethnology, all artistically
placed. A reproduction of the ancient walls of Manila commanded the main
approach to the Philippine grounds. After crossing a miniature
reproduction of the Bridge of Spain, which spans the Pasig River at
Manila, the visitors entered the Philippine reservation through the Real
gate. Villages typical of the Philippine life, from the lowest grade to
the better class, surrounded the main buildings, while on the south side
were the quarters, camps, and parade grounds of the Philippine
Constabulary and the Philippine Scouts. The Manila Observatory, with a
large outdoor relief map on the east and a hospital and office building
in a convenient space on the west part of the grounds, completed the

Each and every building constructed under Philippine auspices was
typical of the islands. Vast quantities of bamboo and nipa, brought from
the archipelago, were used in the construction of the native villages as
well as in the Forestry, Mines, Agriculture, and Fish and Game

While the expenditure for the exhibit far exceeded the amount originally
contemplated by the Philippine Commission, due to many causes and
conditions, it gave to the people of the United States a more intimate
knowledge of the resources and possibilities of the Philippine Islands
than they could acquire except by an actual and extended visit.

The exhibit was an honest one. There were the least civilized people in
the Negritos and the Igorrotes; the semicivilized in the Bagobos and the
Moros, and the civilized and cultured in the Visavans, as well as in the
constabulary and scout organizations. In all other respects the exhibit
was a faithful portrayal.

The official staff of the board was as follows:

Dr. William P. Wilson, chairman; Dr. Gustavo Niederlein, member and
director of exhibits; Mr. Pedro A. Paterno, member; Dr. Leon M.
Guerrero, secretary; Mr. Edmund A. Felder, executive officer; Mr. Carson
Taylor, disbursing officer; Mr. H.C. Lewis, cashier; Rev. Jose Algue,
S.J., director of the Philippine Weather Bureau and director of the
Philippine Exposition Observatory; Capt. M.C. Butler, U.S. Army,
director of supplies; Capt. Llewellyn P. Williamson, Medical Department,
U.S. Army, medical director; Mr. Charles L. Hall, chief department of
agriculture; Mr. Charles P. Fenner, chief department of commerce and
manufactures and representative of the American Chamber of Commerce of
Manila; Mr. A.R. Hager, chief department of education; Dr. Albert E.
Jenks, chief ethnological survey for the Philippine Islands and chief of
the department of ethnology, Philippine exposition; Mr. Roy Hopping,
chief department mines and metallurgy; Mr. Herbert S. Stone, chief
department of publicity; Mr. Alfred C. Newell, chief department of
exploitation; Mr. William N. Swarthout, editor of the Manila Times, on
special duty; Mr. George P. Linden, curator of exhibits, in charge of
forestry; Capt. F.E. Cofren, P.C., chief of war exhibit; Mr. Antonio G.
Escammilla, assistant secretary; Capt. George S. Clark, purchasing
agent; Mr. A.E. Anderson, architect; Mr. James D. Lalor, chief engineer;
Miss Pilar Zamora, superintendent of model school; Mr. Jose Quadras,
chief department of fish and game.

The forestry exhibit was installed in a handsome and characteristic
bamboo and nipa structure of the bungalow type. The interior of the
building was divided into four parts, of which two were utilized to show
the woods in the rough, planed, and polished states, a third being used
to display forestry by-products, while the last contained the finished
products made into furniture.

The total number of exhibitors in this department was 1,294. The
superior jury approved the following awards:

Grand prizes, 3; gold medals, 24; silver medals, 39; bronze medals, 32;
honorable mentions, 207; total number awards granted, 305.

In the commerce and manufactures was a commercial exhibit showing the
articles of importation, their cost, method of packing, etc. Exhibitors
of samples of imports in this department were awarded suitable medals
and diplomas for their collaboration and the wisdom of the scheme has
been fully demonstrated.

The commercial library, consisting of the Philippine tariff and customs
administrative act, public laws and resolutions passed by the civil
commission, and other books of interest, served excellently as works of

The department of liberal arts and fine arts was installed in the two
wings on the ground floor of the Government Building, while the fine-art
exhibit was placed in the art gallery formed by the rear wing of the
building. Taking advantage of the available facilities, they were
arranged so as to give unity to the whole, notwithstanding their
variety, thus making the general effect pleasing to the eye.

A collection of mollusks of great scientific value and a collection of
insects were placed, respectively, in the right and left wings of the

A large collection of books, pamphlets, newspapers, photographs, etc.,
relating to the Philippines, the maps and public and private house
models, and the different exhibits of the insular government bureaus
were exhibited in the palaces above mentioned. The needlework in silk
cloth, pina, and cotton, together with work in leather, silver, and
gold, and musical instruments, noteworthy on account of perfect
workmanship, were equally well displayed for public inspection.

The prizes awarded to this department were as follows:

Grand prizes, 14; gold medals, 55; silver medals, 64; bronze medals, 45;
honorable mentions, 123.

The main installation of fine arts was made in the reception hall of the
Government Building, both for paintings and sculpture. Of the first
mentioned there were 61, selected for special merit, and of the second,
28, notable for their artistic conception and execution. The remainder
were divided between the educational building and the Manila House,
there being 85 oil paintings aside from water colors and some drawings
in crayon; 35 pieces of sculpture, and 8 wood carvings. Among the pieces
of sculpture were included certain ancient pieces which, in some
respects, illustrate the history of this branch of fine arts cultivated
by the Filipinos, with special application to religious iconography.

In July the paintings and sculptures were examined, and the following
awards were unanimously made:

Grand prizes, 4; gold medals, 15; silver medals, 31; bronze medals, 38;
honorable mentions, 42.

The Manila observatory took a special interest in the St. Louis
Exposition and exhibited a model of a first-class meteorological seismic
station equipped with the very latest instruments. This model, unlike
others that were on exhibition at the World's Fair, was in working
order, and all the recording instruments were continually kept in motion
by the head mechanic of the Manila central observatory.

The work in the meteorological station consisted principally in taking
two daily observations of Green's mercurial barometer, of the maximum
and minimum temperature of the psychrometer, of the direction of the
winds and of the clouds and also the amount of rainfall.

The educational exhibit was installed in a large, well-lighted building
which was a diminished model of the Manila Cathedral. Central walls and
alcoves, covered with green burlap, were erected to give wall space, and
220 square meters of space were thus provided. In preparing the exhibit,
the first step was to enlist the cooperation of the American and
Filipino teachers in the Government schools, about 2,000 in number, and
as many as possible of the teachers of private schools. To this end,
circulars were sent to every American teacher, and visits were made to
the school divisions near Manila. Supplies of school materials, uniform
paper for written work, etc., were sent by the bureau of education,
which gave every assistance possible to schools that requested such
material. Letters were written to a number of educators in America
requesting personal expressions as to what they would find most
interesting in a Philippine educational exhibit. In response many
helpful suggestions were received.

The educational exhibit known as "Department A," of the Philippine
exposition board, contained collections sent by 438 exhibitors and
consisted of 8,542 exhibits.

Labels of various sizes were freely used to give visitors information
regarding collections and conditions of school work in the Philippines,
particularly where these conditions differed from those of the United

Written work was displayed in flat-top wall cases arranged according to
school divisions, some of the typical work being shown open under glass.
These cases were arranged so that they might have been opened without
disturbing the displayed work to give access to other written work of
the division.

The industrial exhibits and photographs filled 30 glazed show cases and
the wall space around these cases and were arranged by school divisions.
These show cases varied in size from one-half to 7 cubic meters. The
list of awards contained eight grand prizes, as follows:

The secretary of public instruction and the general superintendent of
education, on the exhibit as a whole; the Philippine Model School;
Laguna High School; Liceo de Manila Secondary School; the Philippine
Nautical School; the Philippine Normal School, and the University of
Santo Tomas.

Thirty gold medals, 71 silver medals, 110 bronze medals, and 323
honorable mentions were also awarded.

The Model School was in a typical nipa and bamboo schoolhouse especially
arranged for exhibition purposes. It was in charge of Miss Pilar Zamora,
a Tagalog, who is a teacher, in the Philippine Normal School. Two
sessions were held daily, to which visitors were admitted.

The exhibits in the agricultural building represented agriculture,
horticulture, and land transportation. The material on exhibition
consisted of all raw and manufactured products of the soil, together
with crude native instruments and implements employed in the cultivation
of the land, as well as native machinery for the preparation of such
products for the market, illustrating in as complete a manner as
possible the old process of raising the various crops of the island.

Among the cereals were large and interesting collections of rice, both
hulled and in the hull, representing hundreds of varieties and
subvarieties grown in the different islands of the archipelago. These
varieties were divided into two groups, namely, "palay de secano" or
mountain rice, which is cultivated without irrigation, and "palay de
regadio" or valley rice, which is cultivated in rice paddies and by
irrigation. There were also samples of wheat grown at some of the
experimental stations established by the insular bureau of agriculture.
Samples of corn or maize, millet, sorghum, pease, beans, and lentils
were also exhibited.

There was also a large collection of tropical and European vegetable
seeds, together with seeds of various kinds of pumpkins, squash,
calabash, and cucumbers grown in the islands. The collection of oil and
oil-producing seeds consisted of samples of sesame, peanut, castor,
pili, palo, maria, tangan-tangan, tuba-tuba, copra, or dried cocoanut,

The collection of wild and cultivated fruits, vegetables, and tubers
preserved in formaldehyde was a very interesting one, and undoubtedly
the first collection of its kind seen in America. Samples of unrefined
sugar of different grades, together with the preserved cane, were also
displayed, with the crude native machinery used in the extraction of the

Samples of alcohol, wines, and vinegar produced from the various palm
saps or grain and sugar were well represented. The collection of fibers
and textiles was very complete. It consisted of several varieties of
shrub cotton in white, yellow, and brown, together with the cloth made
of this cotton by the natives on crude hand looms, and the tree cotton
variety, which is principally used by the natives for filling pillows.
In the fiber exhibit were samples of hemp, maguey pina, and textile
barks of all kinds, together with samples of cloth and rope manufactured
from them.

A conservatory built in the center of the building on the south side
contained a very interesting collection of orchids, cycas, and some tree
ferns from the Philippines.

Exhibits were cared for in 93 show cases, 40 inches wide, 7 feet high,
and 1 foot deep; 4 show cases 6 feet wide, 7 feet high, and 6 feet deep.
Other exhibits too large to be placed in show cases were cared for on
420 feet of double shelving and on tables 80 feet long and 12 feet wide.

The exhibits in this building numbered over 20,000 individual pieces,
the duplicates being exhibited under the same number. The following
number of awards was granted in the department of agriculture:

Nine grand prizes, 4 gold medals, 179 silver medals, 145 bronze medals,
and 463 honorable mentions.

The Fish and Game Building was situated in the extreme northern part of
the exposition grounds and overlooked Arrowhead Lake. The structure was
in the shape of the letter "T," and had a floor space of 4,400 square
feet and represented a "camarian," or Philippine warehouse.

The building was divided into two sections; the first, containing a
floor space of 1,700 square feet, was devoted to the game exhibit, while
the second, containing a floor space of 3,200 square feet, was devoted
to fish, fishing apparatus, shells, etc.

At the entrance was a fine specimen of the Tamarao, a species of wild
buffalo (_Bubalus mindorensis_ Heude); to the left a complete collection
of birds, well mounted and scientifically labeled, and to the right a
fine collection of the enormous fruit bats and some of the skins of
these bats, which are of great commercial value. Large collections of
birds' eggs, attractively displayed; numerous specimens of stuffed wild
boars and deer were displayed. Fine specimens of python, 21 feet long
and 1 foot in diameter, and a collection of crocodiles, large iguanas,
and lizards were prominent features in the collection of reptiles.

A numerous collection of nets for fishing and hunting of deer and wild
boar, with some of the snares, game traps, bows, and arrows completely
covered and festooned the ceiling and walls.

There was also a collection of corals, gorgonias or sponge corals,
having a spread of about 5 feet.

The awards in this department, as approved by the superior jury, were as

Fish and game: Grand prizes, 2; gold medals, 5; silver medals, 10;
bronze medals, 38; honorable mentions, 201. Water transportation: Grand
prizes, 2; gold medals, 3; silver medals, 3; bronze medals, 2; honorable
mentions, 33.

A most interesting exhibit of the numerous mineral resources of the
archipelago was displayed for the inspection of the public in the mines
and mining exhibit.

The most important exhibits were, first, the cases of iron ores, those
from Bulacan, Luzon, receiving a grand prize, 3 silver medals, and 2
bronze medals. Second, a complete coal exhibit, that from Cebu and
Bataan Island each receiving a gold medal. Third, an exhibit of gold and
gold quartz, which filled five wall cases and two small table cases, and
which received three gold medals, six silver medals, and four bronze
medals. Gold medals were also given the exhibit of basalt for heavy
foundations and heavy construction, marble from Romblon Island, a
geological and mineralogical collection exhibited by the mining bureau
and Isuan mineral water from Los Banos, Laguna, Luzon.

The ethnological collection was displayed in the ethnology building,
constructed around three sides of a square open court; the building was
119 feet long and 88 feet wide. It consisted of two long halls, one 88
by 37, and one 88 by 39 feet long. Over one of these long halls were two
chambers about 30 feet square each. The building contained about 4,500
square feet of surface behind glass cases, and about 9,400 square feet
of open wall and ceiling space covered with museum specimens, or a total
of about 14,000 square feet, where about 1,800 specimens were displayed.

Some of the specimens exhibited were: Bontoc Igorrote head-axes, Bontoc
Igorotte basket work utensils used in the domestic and field activities;
Benguet and Banawi Igorrote carved wooden food bowls and spoons; Benguet
Igorrote baskets; wooden clay and metal pipes from northern Luzon; and a
collection of Benguet Igorrote copper pots and copper mining outfit.
Also Bontoc Igorotte spears, shields, and carved wooden human figures,
men's basket hats, women's headdress beads, men's boar tusk armlets, and
the earrings and ear plugs worn by both men and women.

The ceilings and walls of the hall in which the exhibits were located
were covered with bark and cotton clothing made by the various Igorrote
people, such clothing as women's skirts and jackets, men's breechcloths
and shirts, and the various burial garments used by both men and women.
There was also a very large collection of shields and spears of the
various Igorrote people, a very exhaustive collection of Negrito
materials, and some excellent Kalinga, Ibilao, Tinguian, and Mangiyan

One case contained a collection of Bagobo, Manobo, and Mandaya materials
and a collection of materials from the Tagakola, the Bilan, the Tiruray,
and the Subano.

A good collection of materials from the little-known Tagabanua people of
the island of Paragua was displayed.

The third hall contained, almost exclusively, materials from the various
Mohammedan people of the archipelago, commonly called "Moros," such as
Moro mats, saddles, and bridles made and used by the "Moros," crude
string and wind instruments gathered from many places in the
archipelago, and curious gongs used by the Moros as musical instruments
and for beating sound messages from place to place.

A typical manial house attracted much attention. The building
represented a house of the wealthy class, with shell windows. The
exhibit contained therein consisted in the main of handsome handwoven
fabrics and embroideries, prominent among which are the famed jusi and
pina cloths and sinamy fabrics. There were, besides, many pieces of
hand-carved furniture and works of art.

There were artificial flowers, cotton goods, fancy goods, embroidery,
jusi cloth, sinamay cloth, pina cloth, and silks.

Besides the above, the walls, ceilings, and show cases were decorated
with hats, baskets, mattings, and pottery. In the rooms were 50 pieces
of carved furniture. A number of paintings was also on exhibition here.

Following is the list of awards as approved by the superior jury:

Grand prizes, 1; gold medals, 16; silver medals, 62; bronze medals, 213;
honorable mention, 1,200; total number of awards 1,492.


In the Agricultural Building, not far from the main entrance, was found
the Porto Rico section. It was in the nature of a pagoda of two floors.
The lower one was dedicated to agriculture, mines, forestry, and a few
of the manufactures exhibits. On the second floor were the liberal arts
and manufactures exhibits and the offices of the commission; also the
needlework display, which was collected and exhibited by the Women's Aid
Society, San Juan, and the Benevolent Society, Ponce.

The commission that represented Porto Rico at the Louisiana Purchase
Exposition was composed of the following:

Mr. Jaime Annexy, president; Mr. Gutsavo Preston, commissioner; Mr.
Antonio Mariani, commissioner; Mr. L.A. Castro, assistant secretary;
Mrs. R.A. Miller, honorary commissioner; Mrs. Hortensia Y. de Annexy,
honorary commissioner; Miss Maria Stahl, representative Women's Aid
Society of San Juan; Mrs. David A. Skinner, representative of Benevolent
Society of Ponce; Miss Pearl Magehan, superintendent of education; Mr.
Nicolas Hernandez, attaché.

The president of the commission was for some months in personal charge
of everything concerning the exhibit. To his efforts the credit for the
Porto Rico exhibit is due. Mr. Annexy is an industrial engineer and
occupies a prominent position in his native country. Porto Rican coffee
was considered the most extensive exhibit and was awarded the highest
honors. The coffee produced in Porto Rico is almost all exported to
Europe. In the year 1902 to 1903 coffee was exported to European
countries to the value of $3,252,043, and the export to the United
States was only $718,531. The total exports of the same year to foreign
countries was $3,956,893 and to the United States $10,909,147. The
exhibition of coffee was the most important aim of the Porto Rico
commission, and it was distributed free in the Porto Rico Pagoda. It was
also given away green, roasted, and powdered, in bags of different

Sugar was the next most extensive display and was awarded a gold medal.
The export of sugar to the United States in the year 1902 to 1903 was
$376,757 and to foreign countries $2,543. Many millions of dollars have
been spent to import the latest machinery for the manufacture of sugar
and all modern improvements in transportation are rapidly being adopted.

Tobacco leaf and manufactured tobacco comprised an excellent display.
Different American concerns have undertaken in the last seven years the
introduction of Porto Rican cigars and cigarettes into the United
States, and there are few places in America where they can not be found.
Porto Rican cigars and cigarettes are said to rank with those of Cuba.

Porto Rican cotton was said to be of superior quality and attracted
attention. Cotton growers in Porto Rico are adopting the best machinery
that is made in the United States. The liquor exhibit also was
noticeable. Porto Rico received highest awards in straw hats,
needlework, rice, beans, pharmaceutical products, etc.

In the Educational Building was the Porto Rican public school exhibit.
The development of this branch of the Porto Rico administration in the
last seven years was remarkable. The total number of schools is more
than twice the number maintained under the Spanish Government, although
it is said that the public schools are able to accommodate less than
one-fourth of the pupils, in spite of the fact that more than 25 per
cent of the revenues of the island, both insular and municipal, are
expended for educational purposes. In addition to the elementary schools
there are now established four high schools. Teachers are both natives
and Americans.

An appropriation of $30,000 was made by the Porto Rican legislature for
the purpose of representation at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. The
Porto Rican Pagodo was designed by a native architect, Mr. Armando
Morales, and cost $5,000.


_Members of commission_.--Robert B. Treat, president; William F.
Gleason, vice-president; Edwin F. Penniman, treasurer; George E. Ball,
secretary; George N. Kingsbury, executive commissioner; Col. Patrick E.
Hayes, Frank L. Budlong, and George L. Shepley.

The Rhode Island and Providence Plantations Building was beautifully
situated on an eminence on Colonial avenue, facing north, and adjoining
Indiana and Nevada. The design for the building was selected in open
competition by Rhode Island architects. The building in its general form
was a reproduction of the Stephen H. Smith mansion in the town of
Lincoln--a model distinguished among types of colonial architecture in
old New England.

A distinctive feature of the design was the ogee gable, of which but one
other example is believed to exist in Rhode Island colonial
architecture. The Rhode Island Building imitated in cement the material
of which the old Smith mansion is constructed--seam-faced granite--taken
from the quarry on the estate. This material is curiously finished by
nature's handiwork in many colorings. The irregularity of the pieces and
the variety of the colorings in peculiar combinations gave a quaint
appearance to the building, and added much to its attractiveness.

From the broad front piazza through an entrance the visitor was
introduced to State hall. The hall was set with lofty columns in
colonial style. A writing room was on the east and a reading room on the
west; between, a broad stairway led to the upper stories. The suite was
in Doric detail. Opening from the southerly section of the hallway were
the ladies' parlor, the smoking room, and information bureau. The
stairway was a reproduction of a notably beautiful construction in old
Providence Bank Building and the Brown-Gammell house. A curious feature
of its design were the balusters, which were fashioned in nine different

The finish of the second floor was from excellent models of the Ionic
order found in old colonial mansions in Newport and Bristol. On either
side of the hall were the executive and commissioners' rooms. Prominent
among the features of the building was the stained-glass window at the
second-story landing of the stairway. The design for this window was the
result of a competition by the students of the Rhode Island School of
Design. On either side, suitably reproduced as to design and coloring,
were the seals of the State of Rhode Island and the city of Providence.

By an ingenious arrangement of the gable construction a roof garden was
provided, a broad stairway leading thereto from the second floor. A part
of the roof garden was set aside for a suite for servants' quarters,
breakfast room, kitchen, pantry, and storage. Apart from the sleeping
quarters the entire building was devoted to public use. The furnishings,
decoration, and equipment of the Rhode Island Building represented many
public-spirited contributions. The building cost $26,000, and the
furnishing and equipment, which were contributed, were estimated to have
cost $6,000. On July 4, 1904, the Rhode Island Building was purchased by
Mr. John Ringen, of St. Louis. It was the first building on the grounds
to be disposed of. Mr. Ringen transferred the building intact to his
country estate for a residence.

In April, 1903, the legislature of the State of Rhode Island and
Providence Plantations enacted a measure providing for a State exhibit,
and appropriated $35,000 for the purpose of the same. It was
subsequently found that the sum appropriated would not be sufficient for
the purpose, and in April, 1904, the legislature passed another bill
appropriating the sum of $30,000.

Besides the State appropriation of $65,000, the school committee of the
city of Providence subscribed $2,000 for an educational exhibit, making
the total amount available $67,000. There was absolutely no private
subscription or contribution.

The cost of installation, including cost of transportation, was as

Rhode Island State Building ......................... $26,000
Furnishing and equipment, contributed (valued at)....   6,000
Exhibit of inland fisheries .........................   2,500
Exhibit Department of Education .....................   3,000
Exhibit Department of Social Economy ................   3,000
Exhibit Department of Forestry, Fish, and Game ......   1,000
Exhibit Department of Agriculture and Horticulture ..   2,500

The State of Rhode Island was represented by exhibits in five of the
exhibition palaces as follows:

United States Fisheries Building: By the commission of inland fisheries.
Palace of Education: State board of education, Rhode Island State Normal
School, Providence High School, and demonstration by exhibit of various
schools of all grades in public school system of the city of Providence,
Rhode Island School of Design, public schools of the town of Warwick,
public schools of the town of Cranston, public schools of the town of
Bristol, Miss Mary C. Wheeler's Private School for Young Ladies,
Providence, R.I. Social Economy: Board of State charities and
corrections, Sockanosset School for Boys, Oaklawn School for Girls,
department of factory inspection, bureau of industrial statistics, State
Sanatorium for Consumptives, State board of health, State board of
soldiers' relief. Forestry, Fish, and Game: James W. Stainton, of
Providence, R.I., exhibit of game birds and fish of Rhode Island. Palace
of Agriculture: State board of agriculture, Rhode Island College of
Agriculture and Mechanic Arts.


Under an act of the legislature approved March 11, 1903, South Dakota
appropriated the sum of $35,000 for the purpose of exhibiting the
resources, the products, and the industrial, commercial, and social
progress and general development of the State of South Dakota at the
Louisiana Purchase Exposition. A commission was also constituted, which
consisted of three persons appointed by the governor, selected entirely
with regard to their familiarity with the resources, arts, and products
of the State, their business experience and executive skill, and all of
whom were residents of the State.

Shortly after the 1st day of July, 1903, when the law creating the
commission became operative, Gov. Charles N. Herreid, then acting
governor, appointed as commissioners, S.W. Russell, of Deadwood; L.T.
Boucher, of Eureka, and W.B. Saunders, of Milbank, who constituted the
commission throughout the entire period. S.W. Russell was elected
president; L.T. Boucher, vice-president; W.B. Saunders, treasurer, and
George R. Farmer, secretary.

The commission at its first session determined that the State should be
represented not only by a building or home for its citizens, but
likewise in the Departments of Agriculture, Horticulture, Dairy, Mining,
and Education. To that end application was at once made to the chiefs of
the various departments of the exposition for space in the respective
exhibit buildings. Tentative locations were at once assigned to our
State commission in all these departments, with the exception of that in
the Palace of Education.

Although one of the last of the States to procure ground for the
erection of our State building, the South Dakota Building was one of the
three State buildings ready to open its doors on the opening day of the

The State building was located at the top of Art Hill, a little to the
east of the colonnade of States and about 500 feet east of the Art

The South Dakota Building in its exterior and style of architecture was
unpretentious. The building was two stories in height, having two
commodious porches on the north and west sides; the outside walls were
covered with cement, finished in natural color. The building being
situated at the top of a small hill and entirely surrounded by large oak
trees presented a most inviting spot to the overheated, weary sightseer.

It was to the interior construction of the building that time, care, and
expense were chiefly devoted. Upon entering the front door the visitor
stood in a hall 12 feet wide by 21 feet in length; to the right was the
writing room and general business office, to the left the parlor, and at
the rear of the building were the ladies' retiring room, reading room,
lavatories, and storage room. The walls and ceilings of all the rooms
described were covered with metallic sheeting with embossed designs,
beautifully tinted in colorings, each room different from the others.
The furnishings of these rooms were simple, yet serviceable and neat,
and in harmony with the colorings of the walls.

It was "The Great Corn Room" that impressed the visitor with wonder at
its beautiful and fascinating designs, the interior walls being covered
with native grasses, straw, and grains, wrought in a hundred beautiful
and artistic designs. The word "Welcome," directly over the rostrum in
the center of the south wall, attracted the attention of the visitor
upon his first entrance to the building on account of the peculiar
shading, the letters, running from a pure white at the top to a dark
blue at the bottom, the shading being so gradual that it seemed
incredible that it was actual corn in its native coloring.

The arch in the ceiling presented a beautiful appearance, with large
stars in crosscuts of red, white, yellow, and blue corn, a fantastic
background with festoons of grains in the natural colors, wheat, oats,
rye, barley, and flax straw being mostly used. There were two panels,
lettered with oat straw, that glistened like burnished gold under the
electric lights of the arch, describing the various products of the
State, viz, cattle, swine, horses, wheat, oats, barley, corn, flax,
gold, and silver. On the east wall wrought in corn upon a green
background was the State's motto, "Under God the People Rule." This
motto contained every conceivable color that corn is known to take on.

The walls of the other rooms were adorned by a number of paintings in
oil and water colors. A number of enlarged colored photographs of
artesian wells, public buildings, and other scenes, were also displayed,
as well as pictures of prominent men of the State.

During the exposition forty-three South Dakota people received attention
and care on account of illness or indisposition or accidents, and
thousands came there to rest, meet friends, and attend to business
matters. A post-office was maintained in the building, where thousands
of letters were received and delivered.

The agricultural booth was similar in its construction to the "Corn
Hall" of the State building, although different in design. The place
assigned this exhibit in the Palace of Agriculture covered a space 35 by
45 feet 6 inches, with aisles on three sides. The façade fronted on the
three aisles and in its architectural lines presented a solidity
characteristic of the State's exhibits. Cane stalk and corn in red
colors were used to form the base of the façade, being put on in
transverse sections, which gave at a distance as well as by close
inspection a very pleasing effect. It was, however, to the interior
decoration and exhibit that great labor and skill were devoted in making
it especially attractive. Grains in the native straw, grasses, and
clover were worked out in many fantastic shapes and beautiful designs.
In the center of the booth, rising to a height of 15 feet, was a large
octagonal pyramid, used almost exclusively for the display of grain in
the straw; the bright yellow being in strong contrast with a red burlap
background, made it naturally attractive. On the south wall or side a
like exhibit of grains and grasses was shown; four large display tables,
also in pyramid shape, occupied the space surrounding the centerpiece
above described. On this table were several hundred glass jars, globes,
and bottles for the display of grains and seeds of every description
grown in South Dakota. It was, however, to the corn exhibits that
special care and attention were given. Twelve large show cases were used
for the display of this exhibit, besides a large quantity displayed in
bulk, both in the ear and shelled. Over 100 bushels of corn was used in
this exhibit alone.

The exhibit attracted much attention from the corn growers of other
States, and was conceded to be one of great merit considering the
newness of the State, and, as one Illinois farmer said, "It is better
corn by long odds than I raised when I first went to Illinois."

The display of horticultural products was in the Palace of Agriculture
instead of the Palace of Horticulture. Twenty-five barrels of apples of
some 15 different varieties were collected early in the fall of 1903 and
placed in cold storage at St. Louis, thus supplying a continual display
until the fruit season of 1904. The fact that 10 medals were awarded to
the horticultural display demonstrates the merit of this exhibit.

The State's representation in the dairy department was both unique and
so different from that of other States that it attracted much attention.
The space assigned for this exhibit in the refrigerator section of the
Agricultural Building was 8 by 8 feet. The artistic feature, aside from
the display of butter in bulk, was a profusion of flowers, buds, leaves
in the form of bouquets, wreaths, garlands, and festoons made out of
butter. They were artistically displayed on plates, baskets, and various
sized vases, some of which were made of butter and others of painted
chinaware. At the back of the exhibit the name of South Dakota appeared
in leaf-work letters, as well as statistics of the annual production of
butter, milk, and cream, all worked out in butter also.

About the 1st of June the educational exhibit was put in place. The
walls were covered with art work, maps, and industrial work. The
cabinets were filled with mounted specimens of written lessons, drawing,
music, maps, and industrial work. The bases of the cabinets contained
the remainder of the written work, neatly bound in volumes and labeled;
specimens of basketry and woodwork, and a collection of zoological and
botanical specimens. A number of the schools were represented by
photographs alone, others by written work, photographs, and industrial
work, and a few by written work alone. In subject-matter and original
thought, South Dakota's work compared favorably with that of other
schools of like age and conditions, especially in simplicity and

The arrangement of the mineral exhibit in the Mines and Metallurgy
Building was along practical commercial lines rather than on specimen,
spectacular, or on purely scientific lines, though rich specimens and
beautiful pictures were displayed, and the State School of Mines had a
most excellent scientific collection of ores, rocks, and fossils that
was awarded a gold medal.

The location obtained for the exhibit was most favorable, and by many
was considered one of the choicest in the building, having three full
fronts on main aisles, two 44 feet and one 52 feet long, and was
surrounded by the most attractive State exhibits in the building.

The installation was with stone walls 2 feet high, built of rough ashlar
and surmounted by a dressed coping. On the two 44-foot sides this was of
the celebrated Sioux Falls red jasper. The 52-foot wall was of Hot
Springs sandstone.

On the face of each lintel the name of the State had been cut and
gilded. In the center of the exhibit on tables were two relief maps of
the Black Hills, one of these showing the whole geological uplift 120
miles long north and south and 100 miles east and west, the other
showing the mineralized portion of the hills as now known, 55 miles
northwest and southeast and 25 miles wide. The larger was about 12 feet
long and 6 feet wide.

Across the exhibit from east to west and above the heads were displayed
a series of panoramic views and pictures, transparencies on glass, being
reproductions in color of the finest photographs obtainable, showing the
scenic beauty and material conditions of our Black Hills country. The
varied ores were exhibited in large piles.

_Financial statement._--Following is a brief review of the expenditures
made by this commission and a report of the disposition of its

Salary State commissioners ....................   $3,000.00
Total amount expended .........................   31,725.06
Unexpended balance ............................      274.94
    Total .....................................   35,000.00
Received from sale of State properties:
  State building ..............................      365.00
  Furniture ...................................      387.50
  Booths and fixtures .........................      225.50
    Total .....................................      978.00
Returned to the State treasurer unexpended
  balance, salvage ............................      978.00

The following properties have been turned over to the State Historical
Society, for the use of the same, or such purposes as the State may deem

Educational exhibit (cases and bases, glass and
  cards), value ...............................     $400.00
Exhibit glass jars, globes, and bottles .......      115.00
Exhibit ores and specimens ....................      200.00
    Total .....................................      715.00


_Members of commission._--Governor James B. Frazier, chairman; J.H.
Caldwell, Chas. A. Keffer, E. Watkins, John F. McNutt, J.M. Shoffner,
E.C. Lewis, John W. Fry, Hu. C. Anderson, Thomas W. Neal, I.F. Peters,
Mrs. J.P. Smartt, Mrs. Mary C. Dorris, Mrs. A.S. Buchanan; B.A. Enloe,
secretary and director of exhibits; D.F. Wallace, jr., assistant

The State of Tennessee made nine different exhibits at the World's Fair,
designated and located as follows:

(1) Tennessee State Building, a reproduction of "The Hermitage," the
home of Andrew Jackson, the seventh President of the United States. (2)
Collective agricultural exhibit, Palace of Agriculture. (3) Special
tobacco exhibit, Palace of Agriculture. (4) Palace of Horticulture. (5)
Palace of Forestry. (6) Palace of Education. (7) Palace of Mines and
Metallurgy. (8) Mining Gulch on Intramural Railway. (9) Administration
Building, section of anthropology.

The idea of raising a fund for the reproduction of "The Hermitage" as
the Tennessee State building originated with the commission appointed by
the governor of Tennessee to take charge of the participation of that
State. The secretary of the commission was directed by the commission to
inaugurate the movement. He began the agitation through the newspaper
press, and delivered addresses on the subject to the commercial bodies
of Chattanooga, Knoxville, Memphis, and Jackson and to the
representatives of the commercial organizations of Nashville.
Intelligent zeal and persistent energy carried the enterprise to a
successful conclusion. The entire expense of constructing the building
and maintaining it was defrayed by voluntary contributions. It was
Tennessee's greatest single advertisement at the Louisiana Purchase
Exposition. "The Hermitage" was appropriately furnished with furniture
of the period in which Andrew Jackson lived, and a great many articles
of the original furniture owned by Jackson were exhibited in the

In the Educational Building exhibit were displays from the city schools
of Bristol, Knoxville, Memphis, Chattanooga, and Jackson, and the public
schools of Knox, Hamilton, and Shelby counties were represented also.
The University of Tennessee, at Knoxville; Buford College, at Nashville;
Burritt College, at Spencer; Columbia Institute, at Columbia; Memphis,
at Memphis; Mrs. Forest Nixon, Centreville; Roger Williams University,
at Nashville; Southern School of Photography, at McMinnville, and
Tennessee Industrial School, at Nashville, were all represented by
highly creditable exhibits.

The entire forestry interests of the State were represented in the
forestry exhibit, which was collected from every portion of the State.

There were 94 different producers represented in the horticultural
exhibit. The display of horticultural products was collected from every
part of the State, and Tennessee was surpassed by few in the character
and quality of her products.

There were 266 contributors to the agricultural exhibit, representing
every strictly agricultural product, except tobacco, which was
represented in a special exhibit. There were 187 exhibitors represented
in the special tobacco exhibit, and these exhibits covered the tobacco
production and industry of every county in the State. The collective
exhibit in agriculture and the special tobacco exhibit were located in
and adjoining the central nave of the Palace of Agriculture.

In the mineral display in Mines and Metallurgy Building there were 168
different exhibits, representing every mineral in the State, and the
specimens were from the different localities where developments have
been made. This exhibit was one of the most beautiful in its
installation and general effect of the many splendid exhibits in the
Palace of Mines and Metallurgy. On account of the quantity of material
collected and the inadequacy of space inside the building it became
necessary to make a separate exhibit in the Mining Gulch, which was
confined to coal, iron, phosphate, copper, and marble.

There were 12 different exhibitors in the Live Stock and Poultry
Department, who made their exhibits under the auspices of the

The exhibit in the division of anthropology, Administration Building,
was one of the finest of its kind, and one which attracted the attention
of archaeologists from every part of the world. Gen. Gates P. Thurston,
of Nashville, collected and installed the exhibit, which was made up
from the private collection of General Thurston, the Hicks collection,
and the collection of the Tennessee Historical Society.

During the life of the exposition large quantities of advertising matter
were distributed from the State building and from the State spaces in
the exhibit palaces. This advertising matter was furnished in part by
the State, in part by the different cities and counties of the State,
and in part by the railroad companies of the State.


On January 9, 1902, a corporation known as "The Texas World's Fair
Commission" was chartered under the provisions of the laws of the State
of Texas on application of citizens of Texas, and appointed Texas
World's Fair Commissioners by Hon. Joseph D. Sayers, then the governor
of the State. It was believed by the commission that with State aid to
the extent of $200,000 added to sums that had already been guaranteed by
subscribers, the State could make a creditable showing at the World's
Fair in competition with other States and Territories. Accordingly the
commission memorialized the twenty-eighth legislature for an
appropriation of $200,000. The bill which sought to authorize the
appropriation was reported to the house and was opposed by the governor
of the State on two contentions: First, that the constitution did not
authorize such an appropriation, and, second, that the limited revenues
of the State would not justify it. When the commission failed in this
direction, a meeting was held to determine whether the commission should
attempt to go ahead with the work or abandon the enterprise. The
commission decided by an overwhelming vote that Texas could not afford
to deny herself participation in a universal exposition where all the
States and Territories of the United States would enter in friendly
competition, and the executive committee and the general manager were
instructed to proceed with the organization. The task of reorganizing
the work by counties was resumed, but with limited success. The plan was
to call upon the counties for a sum equal to 2 cents on the $100
property valuation, with which to create the Texas World's Fair
Commission fund. Out of 243 organized counties in the State the
following subscribed and paid the amounts set against them:

El Paso, Tom Green, Tarrant, Dallas, Harris, Jefferson, Galveston,
Smith, Nueces, and Comal.

Navarro, McLennan, Grayson, Travis, Harrison, Collin, Palo Pinto,
Fannin, Lamar, and Bexar counties endeavored to raise the assessments
set against them, but did not succeed in doing so, although their
subscriptions in the aggregate were generous. The subscriptions from the
counties mentioned amounted to $49,096.34.

The railroads of Texas subscribed approximately $25,000. Early in the
organization of the commission the Texas Bankers' Association passed a
resolution calling on its members to assess themselves for the Texas
World's Fair Commission fund at the rate of one-tenth of 1 per cent on
their capital stock. About one-half of the banks of the State subscribed
and paid on that basis an amount in the aggregate of $11,672.65. The
State Lumbermen's Association gave $3,133. The Texas Cattle Raisers'
Association subscribed $2,150.

The above sums, augmented by scattering amounts from different sources,
constituted a total fund to the commission of $126,780.14.

The Texas commission was composed of the following-named persons:

John H. Kirby, president; L.J. Polk, W.W. Seley, and Walter Tips,
vice-presidents; Royal A. Ferris, treasurer; Louis J. Wortham, secretary
and general manager; Paul Waples, chairman executive committee; A.W.
Houston, Barnett Gibbs, B.F. Hammett, Jesse Shain, E.P. Perkins, L.L.
Jester, Monta J. Moore; P.P. Paddock, executive commissioner; R.H.
Sexton, resident commissioner.

The members of the board of lady commissioners were: Mrs. L.S. Thorne;
Miss Kate Daffan, Ennis; Mrs. B.F. Hammett, El Paso; Mrs. O.T. Holt,
Houston; Mrs. W.R. Roberts, Brownwood; Mrs. Fannie Foote Emerson,
McKinney; Mrs. J.B. Wells, Brownsville; Mrs. W.F. Beers, Galveston; Mrs.
C.L. Potters, Gainesville; Mrs. E.P. Turner, Dallas; Mrs. William
Cameron, Waco; Mrs. William Christian, Houston; Mrs. W.F. Gill, Paris;
Mrs. W.E. Green, Tyler; Mrs. J.F. Wolters, Lagrange; Mrs. F. Hufsmith,
Palestine; Mrs. I.H. Evans, Austin; Mrs. J.C. Lea, Dallas; Mrs. W.F.
Robertson, Austin; Mrs. Bacon Saunders, Fort Worth; Mrs. T.V. Sessions,

The Texas commission installed and successfully maintained exhibits in
the palaces of Fine Arts, Education, Transportation, Mines and
Metallurgy, Forestry, Agriculture, and Horticulture. The cost of the
installation was as follows:

Fine Arts .................  $1,225.50
Education .................     948.00
Transportation ............     459.30
Mines and Metallurgy ......  10,577.85
Forestry ..................   4,477.05
Agriculture ...............   6,899.87
Horticulture ..............   6,099.14

The contract price for the Texas Building, which occupied one of the
most admirable sites on the exposition grounds, was $45,562.
Expenditures in furnishings and in ornamenting the grounds were $12,000.

The Texas Building contained exhibits of a character intended to
demonstrate the kinds of homes in which Texas people live, the kinds of
schools in which their children are educated, and the churches in which
they conduct their worship. These demonstrations were the conception and
work of the Texas Federation of Women Clubs.

The work which the Texas commission did for Texas in forcing a
recognition of the rights of breeders of pure-bred cattle below the
Federal quarantine line, and the rights of breeders and raisers of beef
cattle, on the attention of the exposition management was noticeable.
The original ruling of the Live-Stock Department of the exposition was
to the effect that pure-bred cattle from below the Federal quarantine
line should not be allowed to participate in the live-stock show at the
exposition, and that none but halter-broke cattle should be exhibited in
any event. The effect of this ruling, the commission claimed, was,
first, to shut out from participation the breeders of pure cattle from
below the quarantine line, and, second, to prevent a demonstration that
should show what the immense cattle ranges of the Northwest and
Southwest are capable of producing.

When the supplementary appropriation of $4,600,000 was under
consideration by Congress, the commission, through its general manager,
Louis J. Wortham, who acted also as the official representative of the
Texas Cattle Raisers' Association, succeeded in having a provision added
to the bill permitting an exhibition of pure-bred cattle from below the
quarantine line under such restrictions as the Secretary of Agriculture
might deem advisable, and, further, permitting the exhibition of range
cattle in carload lots.

As a result of this action, the exposition provided for an exhibit of
cattle from below the quarantine line and of range cattle in carload
lots in November, and set aside $19,000 in prizes to be divided among


By a legislative enactment the State of Utah, on the 12th day of March,
1903, appropriated the sum of $50,000 for the participation of Utah at
the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. Subsequently about $10,000 additional
was received from the legislature for the expenses of the State at the
exposition. The act making the appropriation appointed Governor Heber M.
Wells, of Salt Lake City, as chairman of the State commission. The
governor appointed as his assistants Hon. H.L. Shurtliff, Ogden; Hon.
Willis Johnson, Salt Lake City; and the board elected S.T. Whitaker, of
Salt Lake City, as director-general and John T. Cannon as secretary.

The Utah State Building was erected from designs of Director-General
Whitaker, and was a replica of a residence of the State of Utah. Mrs.
Inez Thomas was appointed hostess of the State building.

The State had exhibits in the Mines and Metallurgy Building, Educational
Palace, and the Agricultural Pavilion. It received 3 grand prizes, 140
gold medals, as well as several minor awards.


The United States Government Indian exhibit was opened June 1, and was
visited by hundreds of thousands of persons, who pronounced it one of
the most interesting and instructive exhibits at the World's Fair.

Authority to establish and conduct the Indian exhibit at the exposition
was granted in the following letter from the Secretary of the Interior
to Mr. Samuel M. McCowan, superintendent of the Chilocco Indian School
in Oklahoma:

    Sir: In connection with the Department letter of May 22 last,
    detailing you for duty as superintendent of the Indian exhibit
    at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, and on the recommendation
    of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, you are hereby detailed
    to erect the required building, perfect the details of the
    transfer of Indian families and pupils from their homes and
    schools to St. Louis, install and conduct the exhibit and supply
    the Indians with necessary food, shelter, and medical

    You are hereby authorized to disburse the funds appropriated by
    act of Congress approved June 28, 1902 (32 Stats., p. 445), so
    far as expenditures are required by your duties in connection
    with the exhibit.

    You are hereby also authorized to pay your actual necessary
    traveling expenses incurred in connection with the exhibit,
    including transportation and sleeping-car fare, payable out of
    $40,000 appropriation.

The exhibit occupied a reservation of about 10 acres in the northwest
corner of the fair grounds, and its location at the extreme end of the
anthropological exhibit typified the advancement of a primitive people
toward civilization. Around the border of the reservation were arranged
in a semicircle the native dwellings of the "blanket" or uncivilized
Indians, as follows: Beginning at the western end of the semicircle, a
Kickapoo bark house; the Maricopa-Pima group in two kees, one tent and
summer houses; Arapaho group, one stockaded tepee; Geronimo, the great
Apache medicine man, one (decorated) tepee; Pawnee group, ceremonial
earth lodge or residence temple; Wichita group, grass lodge, summer
house, and one tepee; Pueblo group, two tents and two summer sheds; Pomo
group, one tent; Apache group, two tepees. These habitations were
erected by the Indians themselves.

The Indians were grouped as follows: Six Pima, Arizona; 5 Maricopa,
Arizona; 23 Arapaho, 35 Cheyenne, 50 Pawnee, 35 Wichita, 5 Comanche, 9
San Carlos Apache, 20 Osage, all from Oklahoma; 29 Pueblo and 23 Navaho,
New Mexico; 35 Sioux, Rosebud, S. Dak.; 2 Pomos, California; 8 Jicarilla
Apache; 25 Chippewa, Minnesota; a total of 310.

The school building was a two-story structure of the old Mission style
of architecture, standing at the rear of the reservation and extending
the width of it. A hall ran the length of the building on either side of
which were the booths containing the exhibits. The idea was to show the
contrast between the civilized and uncivilized Indians, and to this end
the booths on the west side of the hall were occupied by the old Indians
working at their crude, primitive trades, and those of the east side by
the new Indians (pupils of the various Indian schools) pursuing the
up-to-date methods taught them by the white man.

The exhibits were as follows: On the west side, beginning at the south
end of the building, Chilocco School exhibit, showing work in
agriculture and stock husbandry, methods of instruction and results;
Pueblo, San Juan, N. Mex., expert potters and weavers with needle loom,
primitive millers, and bakers of wafer bread; Pomo, California, makers
of fine baskets, mats, stone tools, and musical instruments; Pima,
Arizona, makers of coiled baskets and pottery; Maricopa, Arizona, makers
of fancy pottery and basket workers; Navaho, Arizona, famous blanket
weavers, workers in silver, shell, and turquois; Sioux, South Dakota,
decorative artists with porcupine quills, beads of buckskin,
manufacturers of bows and arrows, and the calinite pipes, axes, and
hammers; Apache, Arizona, expert weavers of blankets and makers of
pottery; Apache, New Mexico, makers of coiled basketry of a peculiar
type; Navaho, Sante Fe, N. Mex., Indian School, modern blanket weavers;
Navaho, reservation, N. Mex., workers in silver, shell, and turquois;
Pueblo, New Mexico, makers of pottery, blanket weavers and silversmiths.

On the east side, beginning at the south end of the building; Chilocco
class in domestic science, model dining room, furnishings made by the
pupils of the Chilocco School, Chilocco, Okla. This class gave daily
demonstrations in cooking and serving food, Miss Peters in charge.
Laundry class from the Chilocco School, under the charge of Miss Peters.
Class in printing the Indian School Journal, printed daily by a class of
students from the Chilocco School, E.K. Miller in charge. Painting,
blacksmithing, and wheelwrighting  classes from Haskell Institute,
Lawrence, Kans., K.C. Kaufman in charge. Manual training, Haskell
Institute, C.F. Fitzgerald in charge. Domestic art class, students from
Haskell Institute, Miss Taylor in charge. Harness-making class from
Genoa, Nebr., School, J. McCallum in charge.

The halls were decorated with the work of the Indian pupils in
penmanship, literary composition, arithmetic, sewing, lace work, bead
work, and basketry. Every school in the service was represented in this
display, except Carlisle, Phoenix, and Riverside. The exhibit was
remarkable for its beauty and extent. In the model dining room the
tables, dishes, napkins, rug, floor, chairs, wall paper, and general
furnishings were all manufactured by pupils of the Chilocco School.

In the rear-center of the building was the assembly hall, where were
held the daily classes, under the direction of Miss Harrison, and the
musical and literary programmes, under the direction of Miss Crawford.
There were in attendance at the school during the exhibit 150 boys and

The following daily programme was observed:

Reveille ................................................ 6.00
Flag salute ............................................. 6.45
Breakfast ............................................... 7.00
Band concert ................................... 9.30 to 11.30
Industrial work ................................ 9.00 to 11.30
Literary class work ............................ 9.00 to 11.00
Literary musical programme .................... 11.00 to 11.30
Dinner ................................................. 12.00
Band concert .................................... 1.00 to 3.30
Industrial work ................................. 1.00 to 4.00
Literary class work ............................. 1.00 to 3.00
Literary musical programme ...................... 4.00 to 5.00
Old Indian sports and ceremonies (on plaza in
  front of school building) ..................... 5.00 to 6.00
Flag salute and dress parade ...........................  6.00
Supper .................................................  6.20
Taps ................................................... 10.00

The band concerts, under the direction of Mr. Lem Wiley, were always
well attended and heartily applauded. The feature that attracted more
attention, probably, than any other was the musical-literary programme.
At these entertainments the hall was always crowded, and the audience
never failed to be interested. The following programme, chosen at
random, will give an idea of the character of the exhibitions:

1. Prelude --------------------------------------- Orchestra.

2. Vocal solo --------------------------------- Dolly, Dolly.
                      Mary Leeds, Pueblo.

3. Scarf drill ------------------------------ Kindergartners.

4. Recitation -------------------------------- My Tambourine.
                     Ida Prophet, Seneca.

5. Vocal Solo --------------------------- Hearts and Flowers.
                      Oscar Norton, Houp.

6. Oration -------------------------- The Old and New Indian.
                     Richard Lewis, Pima.

7. Vocal solo ------------------------------------ My Desire.
                 Bertha Johnson, Pottawatomi.

8. Recitation -------------------------- Flag of the Rainbow.
                   Esther Parker, Comanche.

9. Recitation ----------------------------- The Pawned Bible.
                    Stella Hall, Cherokee.

10. Vocal solo --------------- When the Birds go North Again.
                  James Arquette, Puyallup.

11. Recitation ------------- Why he Stole the Parson's Sheep.
                    Iva Miller, Shawnee.

12. Pole drill ------------------------------- Sixteen Girls.

13. Instrumental solo ----------------------------- Selected.
                 Gertrude Brewer, Puyallup.

The dress parade in the evening was another feature that drew large
crowds, and was thoroughly enjoyed by the spectators.

The average daily attendance was about 30,000. On some days it ran as
high as 50,000.

Praise of the exhibit has been universal. Distinguished men of nearly
every nationality and profession have eulogized it in the highest terms.
It is believed that the Government, by bringing this exhibit to St.
Louis, has given a strong impetus to the work of the Indian Service. The
people of the country have seen the progress made by the Indian in the
Government schools, and will no longer refuse to give the work their
substantial support. It has been said that the true value of the
Government Indian exhibit can not be estimated until the years have
revealed its fruits.


The Vermont Building, 50 by 100 feet, was a reproduction of what is
claimed to be the second most interesting historic structure in the
United States--the old Constitution House at Windsor, where in 1777 the
constitution of the State was formulated, a constitution of intense
interest from the fact that it was the first in all history to prohibit

As this State building was a reproduction of a famous old tavern, it was
peculiarly appropriate that it should maintain a dining room, and here
between one and two thousand people were daily entertained.

The minutes of the constitutional convention were for many years
supposed to have been lost, but were quite recently discovered in the
Congressional Library at Washington, and were elaborately reproduced in
facsimile by Senator Proctor.

Thanksgiving Day was the Vermont and Hew Hampshire day at the

The State commission was composed of the following:

Governor Charles J. Bell, ex officio chairman; W. Seward Webb,
president; Arthur C. Jackson, vice-president and executive commissioner;
Frederick G. Fleetwood, second vice-president; J.C. Enright, secretary
and counsel; F.W. Stanyan, treasurer; Miss Mary Evarts.

The legislature having failed to make an appropriation, Mr. Jackson, a
native of Waitsfield, personally raised all the money required for the
construction and maintenance of the State building.

Among the elaborate displays were those of private exhibitors in the
Machinery Building, marble in the Mines Building, and the granite
exhibit in the same building.


During the winter session of 1902 the Virginia legislature by enactment
provided $50,000 for an industrial exhibit at the Louisiana Purchase
Exposition, with the condition that no portion of the sum should be used
for a State building. The act provided for three commissioners and five
assistant commissioners, one of whom was named principal assistant, with
duties of superintendent and treasurer. The State commissioner of
agriculture was named as one of the commissioners, and the appointment
of two was left to the governor, with power vested in the commission to
appoint the assistant commissioners. Governor Montague appointed Col. A.
M. Bowman, of Salem, Va., and J.L. Patton, of Newport News, Va., as
commissioners. This commission, in February, 1903, elected Hon. G.W.
Koiner, president, and appointed Hon. George E. Murrell, of Fontella,
Va., superintendent, treasurer, and secretary; Hon. W.W. Baker,
alternate and second assistant, and later appointed O.W. Stone,
Martinsville, Va., B.C. Banks, Bland, Va., Lyman Babcock, of Bay Shore,
Va., and J.C. Mercer, of Williamsburg, to complete the executive force.
Mr. Murrell immediately took charge of the work and assisted by J.C.
Mercer as his secretary and stenographer, with the aid of Mr. Baker,
planned the scope and took steps toward the collection of exhibits.
Later, as the force was strengthened, Mr. Stone was given charge of
tobacco and peanuts, Mr. Banks of minerals and timber, and Mr. Babcock
of fish and game.

Exhibits were planned in agriculture, horticulture, forestry, fish and
game, mines, and education, and were executed as follows:

In agriculture, exhibits of corn on the stalk, in the ear, and shelled,
to the extent of 1,000 bushels; grain in sheaf and threshed; peanuts
shelled and unshelled, to the extent of 5,000 pounds; wine, pickles,
vegetables, cowpeas, transparencies illustrating agricultural scenes,
cotton in bales, etc., tobacco in leaf and manufactured products. A
pavilion erected in the Agricultural Building was of Moorish
architecture, consisting of one central and eight subsidiary pavilions,
connected with corn festoons. Corn, tobacco, peanuts, and sheaf grain
entered into the decorations on a blue ground, the effect being
harmonious. It was accorded the honor of obtaining one of the four grand
prizes awarded in State agricultural exhibits. Tobacco was also used as
a special exhibit, and was featured by an Indian maiden standing on a
pedestal 23 feet high and holding in her outstretched hand a bundle of
tobacco. A miniature log cabin advertised a special brand of tobacco.
The horticultural exhibit consisted of an open, three-towered elliptical
pavilion and a horn of plenty, apparently pouring apples on a pyramid of
natural fruit below. This was made primarily an apple exhibit, more than
800 barrels being used for the purpose. Peaches, melons, pears,
cranberries, and other fruits were shown in season.

The forestry, fish, and game exhibit was displayed by the use of
sectional disks and boards in the rough, dressed, and polished, and by
specimens of fish in natural skins and papier-mache, illustrating the
leading food fish of Virginia waters. Mounted animals and a very
complete collection of mounted water fowls and game birds were
displayed. There was also one of the largest collections of oyster
models ever made, illustrating by means of composition replicas in the
natural shell of all the leading types of the Virginia oyster.

Transparencies 28 by 30 were used to illustrate forest scenes, while in
manufactured goods an interesting display was made. The exhibit booth
consisted of a rear façade with brown color scheme, relieved by
ornamentation in shells, fish scales, and forest products, the whole
forming an immense picture of Hampton Roads executed in colors.

The installation for the mines and metallurgy exhibit was mediaeval in
architecture. A castellated gateway, veneered with copper ores, gypsum,
and slate was flanked by a balustrade of slate surmounted by onyx balls.
In the gateway appeared a coal exhibit, representing King Coal seated on
a throne and guarded on either side by gnomes. The windows in the rear
were screened with transparencies 28 by 34, illustrating scenery of the
State, while the floor space was occupied by pyramids of various ores.
The panels of the wall space were framed in coke, in which were
displayed, in colors, pictures of the upper works of the mines. Between
these panels were arranged upright cases containing ores of gold,
silver, lead, iron, asbestos, kaolin, mica, clays, zinc, manganese,
talc, etc., while exhibits of marble, rough and sculptured, together
with cubes of building stones and mineral waters were displayed. The
general color scheme was that of copper and iron pyrites. In these four
exhibits Virginia occupied a little less than 10,000 square feet of
floor, and her exhibits, both by award and public opinion, were adjudged
to be among the best. An award was won by every entry made. During the
spring of 1903 the Virginia assembly appropriated $10,000 to be expended
by the Commission in the erection of a State building. This sum was
augmented by private subscriptions of nearly an equal amount, and an
exact replica of Monticello, the home of Jefferson, was erected. In this
building, outside of the manual exhibit made in the Education and Social
Economy Building, by the Blind, Deaf and Dumb Institute of Stanton, all
of Virginia's educational exhibit was displayed It consisted of an
exhibit valued at over $10,000, made by the University of Virginia. A
comprehensive exhibit was made by the Randolph Macon system, and
exhibits were made by Roanoke College Hollins Institute, and a number of
other schools. The building, in addition to its social offerings,
provided an interesting historical study through its furnishings of
articles owned by Jefferson, and was classed among the most satisfactory
State buildings of the fair.


In March, 1903, Governor McBride, pursuant to the act of the
legislature, appointed the following-named gentlemen members of the
Washington State commission for the Louisiana Purchase Exposition:

A.L. Black, Bellingham; Edward C. Cheasty, Seattle; Thomas Harrington,
Buckley; M.E. Hay, Wilbur; G.L. Lindsley, Ridgefield; G.W.R.
Peaslee, Clarkston; R.P. Thomas, Anacortes; W.W. Tolman, Spokane.

At the first meeting of the commission, held in Tacoma April 2, 1903,
A.L. Black was elected president of the commission; G.W.R. Peaslee,
secretary; and Elmer E. Johnston, of Everett, executive commissioner.

The type of structure selected for the Washington State Building at the
St. Louis World's Fair was an unique and attractive one, designed
primarily to demonstrate the quality, character, and exceeding
dimensions of the State's forestry product. It consisted of eight pieces
of fir timber 24 inches square and 110 feet long, placed on end at the
points of an octagon 90 feet in diameter at the base, five stories in
height, the eight timbers surmounted by an observatory carrying a flag
pole 60 feet in length. All the material entering into the construction
of the State Building was shipped from the State of Washington, and was
donated to the State by the Northwest Lumber Manufacturers' Association.
The market value of said material in Washington would be, in round
numbers, $8,000. The freight on the material from Washington to St.
Louis and the construction of the building amounted to $18,823.10. The
unique design and unusual construction features of this building
constituted it at the start one of the features of the exposition

It was photographed by many thousand visitors, illustrated in railroad
guides as one of the attractions, featured by papers and magazines
everywhere, and will probably be distinctly remembered longer by a
greater number of people than any other building on the exposition
grounds. As a practical exhibit of the State's lumber products it was a
tremendous success, and together with its exhibit contents, representing
a composite collection of the State's natural products and resources,
was a colossal advertisement and demonstration of the State's natural

In addition to the State appropriation, heretofore mentioned, and the
donation of lumber material above referred to, various counties in the
State expended a total of $15,000 in the maintenance of individual

The State of Washington installed and maintained throughout the period,
in the various classified exhibit palaces, comprehensive exhibits of its
mines, forestry, fisheries, game, horticulture, agriculture, education,
climate, and scenery, and in addition, and supplemental thereto,
maintained a composite showing of all these resources in its State

    Horticulture: One thousand boxes of the best apples grown in the
    State in 1903 were carried over in St. Louis in cold storage. On
    May 1 the exhibit was opened with the 500 jars of miscellaneous
    fruits preserved for this exhibit; on May 15 we began the
    showing of fresh fruits, which showing was continued with all
    varieties and ample quantities (both in Horticultural Hall and
    in our State building) throughout the season, consuming four
    carloads of this material received by freight, and 150 boxes
    miscellaneous fruits in season expressed. Awards--Grand prize,
    for "collective exhibit of fruits." Gold medals, Yakima County,
    Chelan County, W.L. Wright, Geo. H. Farwell; silver medals,
    Chelan County Horticulture Association, Chelan County Fair
    Association, Clarkston Fruit Growers' Association, Orondo Fruit
    Farm, Yakima Horticulture Association, Washington Irrigation
    Company (Sunnyside), Wrightville Farm, to 38 individual
    exhibitors; bronze medals, to 27 individual exhibitors.

    Forestry: A comprehensive collection of commercial woods, large
    dimensions, rough, and a good variety of finish shown in our
    various booths, counters, tables, etc.; also, a sample
    collection of all our native woods, rough and finished,
    exceeding in quantity (exclusive of the exhibit features of our
    State building) the exhibit shown by any State.

    This exhibit was entered as "collection of commercial woods of
    best quality and largest dimensions; and the greatest
    educational exhibit of forestry shown at the Louisiana Purchase
    Exposition, in that it teaches the youth and uninformed adult
    more of the characteristics and extent of the wonderful forests
    of the Northwest, and conveys to the residents of the treeless
    areas of the North-Central States a better knowledge of the
    quality and duration of their future lumber supply than does any
    other forestry exhibit shown on the occasion."

    Awarded grand prize on "commercial woods." Collaborators--H.
    McCormick Lumber Company, the Larson Lumber Company, Grays
    Harbor Commercial Company, Pat McCoy Logging Company, St. Paul
    and Tacoma Lumber Company, Clarke-Nickerson Lumber Company, the
    Northwestern Lumber Company, the Northwestern Woodenware
    Company, Panel and Folding Box Company (Hoquiam), E.K. Lambert
    (Elma), and the American Portable House Company.

    Agriculture: In this department our space in Agriculture Hall
    and the lower floor of our State building was crowded with an
    exhibit of all cereals in straw and seed, forage grasses,
    vegetables, hops, wool, dairy products, etc.

    Awarded grand prize on "collection of cereals, forage grasses,
    and miscellaneous vegetables;" grand prize on "best one-farm
    exhibit;" gold medals on various county exhibits, seven in
    number; gold medals on various mill products, five in number;
    gold medal on dairy exhibit, by Hazelwood Company; gold medal on
    hops, wool, and flax; gold medal on beet sugar.

    Fisheries: Washington's exhibit in this department included
    every native leading variety of food fish and game fish,
    exceeding in numbers and quantity the showing of any other
    State. The installation was also the most practical undertaken
    here, considering the water and temperature, as all live
    exhibits were failures, and the collective exhibit was awarded
    first prize.

    Game: In this department was shown a comprehensive specimen
    collection, in whole mounts, of the fur-bearing animals, animals
    of prey, game animals, and game birds indigenous to the section;
    one carload. Awarded silver medal.

    Mines: In this department was shown the most complete collection
    of the State's minerals that has ever been made. Entered as "a
    collection of ores, gold, silver, copper; minerals, fossil
    collection, coal and coke; building materials, iron, lead,
    antimony arsenic; roadmaking and cement materials, clay and clay
    products, limestone and lime, soils, mineral waters,
    illustrations." Awarded gold medal on "collective exhibit of
    ores and minerals;" silver medals to various counties and
    individual exhibits.

    Climate and scenery: Over 400 paintings and photographs were
    shown in the State building. Not in competitive exhibit.

    Education: Photographic enlargements of all the State's normal
    schools colleges, and city school buildings; also shown in the
    State building.

    Literature: The "State Book" issued by the commission has been
    distributed at the rate of 500 per day throughout the period; in
    addition to which individual literature has been furnished by
    Seattle, Spokane, Yakima, Everett, Walla Walla, Oregon Railway
    and Navigation Company, Clarkston, Waitsburg, Tacoma,
    Bellingham, Wenatchee, Olympia, Great Northern Railway, Northern
    Pacific Railway Company, Chelan, Pullman, to the total number of
    800,000 pieces.

The total expenses on account of participation in the Exposition were
$69,135.47, leaving a balance unexpended of $8,245.


The board of managers for the State of Wisconsin was appointed under an
act of the State legislature, and an appropriation of $104,000 was also
made for exploiting the State's resources, its educational advantages,
and for providing a State building. Of this amount $100,000 was for
general exploitation and the State building, and the $4,000 was for use
exclusively in showing the work of the State University, which ranks
among the leading educational institutions of the United States.

The appropriation was apportioned by the board of managers as follows:

Agriculture ............................   $5,000
Dairying ...............................    6,000
Horticulture ...........................    5,000
Agricultural College ...................    1,500
Mines ..................................    5,000
Education ..............................    6,000
State building .........................   15,000
Furnishings and maintaining ............   10,000
Forestry ...............................    5,000
Live stock .............................   10,000
Special university appropriation .......    4,000

The results obtained from the exploitation are shown in the large number
of grand prizes, gold, silver, and bronze medals awarded to the State.
The State building received a gold medal. The Wisconsin building was
erected at a cost of only $14,750.

The Wisconsin State Building was located on Commonwealth avenue on the
brow of the hill above the United States bird exhibit. The building was
original in conception. The design of the building was what is known as
the "English cottage." It was a departure from the ordinary semiclassic
style of architecture prevalent in the exposition buildings. It gave the
impression that it was designed for the spot