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´╗┐Title: Sequential Problem Solving - A Student Handbook with Checklists for Successful Critical Thinking
Author: Lozo, Fredric
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Sequential Problem Solving - A Student Handbook with Checklists for Successful Critical Thinking" ***

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Copyright (C) 1998 by F. B. Lozo



Introductory Note:

Sequential Problem Solving is written for those with a whole brain
thinking style. It is for those who seek to validate the propriety of
when and under what circumstances they utilize each aspect of their
intellect. Sequential Problem Solving helps those with a logical
nature to develop creative right brain intuitive processes in a way
that can be efficiently utilized by the orderly left brain to develop
new solutions to both old and everyday problems. Included are basic
study skills for high school and college students.


 * * * * *


Sequential Problem Solving:

A STUDENT HANDBOOK

With

Checklists for Successful Critical Thinking.


By

Fredric B. Lozo

Mathis, Texas



Copyright 1998 F.B. Lozo

ISBN 0-9674166-2-0



TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION
   Problem solving checklist flowchart


RESEARCH SKILLS
   Rapid Reading
   Memorization
PRACTICAL PROBLEM SOLVING
   Learning
   Stream Of Consciousness
PROBLEM SOLVING STEPS
   Problem Identification as the first step of problem solving
   Fact Gathering in problem solving
      Logic Fallacies
      Emotional Fallacies
      Credibility Fallacies
      Fact And Opinion
      Deductive Reasoning
   Developing a Solution
      Time
      Material
      Manpower
   Trying the Solution
      Manpower Management
         Leadership Styles
         Dealing With Interpersonal Conflict
INTERPERSONAL PROBLEM SOLVING
   External Conflicts
   Internal Conflicts
   Dealing with the "Unattached" Person
   Interpersonal relationships -- Values
PROBLEM SOLVING EVASIONS
APPENDIX 1 -- OUTLINE STYLES
APPENDIX 2 -- PERSUASIVE ARGUMENT FORM
APPENDIX 3 -- ARGUMENTATIVE FALLACIES
REFERENCES
BIBLIOGRAPHY
INDEX


Introduction


We are constantly trying to make some sense of our world and the way
people treat each other. The purpose of this book is to provide a
systematic way of analyzing situations and planning actions.

Sequential Problem Solving is written for those who want to reassure
themselves that their thinking is logically correct rather than
emotionally or impulsively misguided. It provides step by step
procedures for applying computer-like decision making to daily living.
Many ordinary problems involve not only physical, concrete parts but
also interpersonal elements. Thus problem solving involves both the
physical world and the interpersonal world. For instance, when
solutions to physical problems are implemented, the job manager must
decide which of several leadership-managerial styles is appropriate.
Are the workers mature enough and knowledgeable enough to work
together as a team without supervision, or are the workers so immature
and unruly that an authoritarian task master leadership style will be
required, or will the workers need a teacher-leader for some period of
time before they become a team?

The underlying principle, throughout Sequential Problem Solving, is an
obligation to help each other as citizens of a world community, and an
acknowledgement that our real enemy is often ourselves. Our common
problem is understanding ourselves in order to be a friend to others.
Sequential Problem Solving provides us with a way of checking for the
kindness factor in problem solving, with the goal of helping others
and being a good citizen in the world community.

A separate section, Dealing with Unattached People, is devoted to
the problem of neighbors in the world community who are untrustworthy
for some period of time, from the view point that today's enemies are
tomorrow's friends.

Some neighbors in the world community are, from time to time,
untrustworthy. Since opportunities for misunderstanding are greater in
a climate of mistrust,  later sections are included that deal with
mistrust and ways that we can gauge interpersonal situations and
select an appropriate leadership style to match it.

Sequential Problem Solving begins with the mechanics of learning and
the role of memorization in learning. The techniques of effective
memorization follow, as well as other important learning skills.

This book contains many step by step checklists, much like pilots use
to make certain that things of importance are not overlooked. These
individual checklists are tied together in a broad flowchart that
provides a sequential decision making pathway. The contents of the
checklists are things that many adults utilize instinctively, without
conscious thought. However these checklist can provide adults with a
more positive way of checking their own thinking, in times of stress,
and a way for students to become instinctive users of sound logic
practices. Teachers may find that students instantaneously begin to
act more mature  because of the realization that their peers have a
common body of knowledge about values and character traits and
checklists to evaluate  the behavior of others. For teachers, the
sequence of presentation here can be readily altered to suit the
teachable moment, that moment when a unique, high interest situation
arises that lends itself to discussion of a particular topic. The
sequence presented here is merely one way in which the various
interlocking subjects can be presented.

This presentation is intentionally concise to provide the reader with
a composite picture of the use of checklists in logical thinking,
without burdening the reader with statistical findings or repetitious
historical background information.

The ideas presented here are referenced to credible academic research
wherever possible. Endnotes are used extensively to direct the reader
to in-depth authoritative resources, and additional references are
provided for each section at the back of the book.

In this book I have used the pronoun "he" for humanity in general,
rather than using he/she or similar conventions. This usage was
selected to enhance the flow of the written word and should not be
taken literally. The word "he" is used here to include both women and
men and applies to them with equality.

Solving problems is a daily, if not hourly, part of our lives. It is
therefore useful to put the mechanics of problem solving and human
interpersonal relationships into flowchart form, so that when stress
is intense we have some way of making more certain that we are
thinking flawlessly. (A comprehensive flowchart is included in the
HTML version.)


 * * * * *

Research Skills.

Rapid Reading.

Effective learners use certain reading techniques[1] that greatly
increase both their comprehension and the time required to learn new
subjects.

One useful method of reducing new material learning time is the SQ3R
method[2]:

   Scan.
   Question.
   Read.
   Review.
   Recite.

Scanning provides a rapid overview. Many well written books follow
logical outlines that can orient the reader to the subject matter.
The outline might follow this pattern:

Title.
Table of Contents.
Main Introduction and conclusion.
Chapter 1.
   Introduction.
   Conclusion.
Chapter 2.
Chapter 3.
Conclusion.
Definitions.

Questioning is a natural, instinctive, second step that most learners
follow. In the scanning process, certain questions naturally arise.
These should be noted in a short list of questions to be answered
through reading. The questioning procedure helps the reader stay
focused.

Reading occurs very rapidly if a systematic plan is followed:

First, determine the main idea from the title, the first paragraph,
and the last paragraph.

Second, determine if a large subject is divided into smaller subjects
with some outlining scheme.

Next, follow the title, introduction, body, conclusion rule to find
the main idea of each smaller section. Each smaller section can then
be scanned for keywords. Keyword recognition signals the reader to pay
closer attention for critical definitions and ideas that follow.

Finally, review as often as necessary to keep focused. Outlining and
note taking often help.

Reviewing new material on a strict schedule is necessary to solidify
new material in the memory, and to transfer it from short term memory
to long term memory.

Forgetfulness is a matter of periodic review. Memorization through
repetition and forgetfulness follow a similar pattern. Each is gained
or lost by halves for the same time period. The following graph
illustrates the phenomenon.

The memory loss/recall increase with review phenomenon has been
verified many times.[3]

Generally memory is lost by one-half for each doubled time increment.
One day after first learning one-half is lost. By day two, one-half of
that remaining memory is lost, and by day four, one-half again is
lost. By day four, only one-sixteenth of the original memory is
intact.

At a similar rate, with review after one day only one-half of the
material that was reviewed will be lost. If reviewed again on day two,
the amount lost is again divided by two. If reviewed six  times in a
thirty-two day period, the about retained will be more than
ninety-eight percent and the amount lost will only be about two
per-cent in the next thirty-two days versus fifty per-cent in one day.


 * * * * *

Memorization

Three common ways of remembering are: repetition, association, and
exaggeration. [4] An similar skill is outlining, and samples of
various outlining styles can be found in Appendix 1.

Repetition is the key to long term memory. Physiologically, when brain
cells are activated by the memory process, the nerve cell coating,
known as the glial sheath, increases in thickness and becomes thicker
and thicker with each repetition, strengthening the electrical pathway
in brain that constitutes memory. In addition, when associations
between parts of a thing remembered are formed, the nerve cell body
sends out axon runners to other associated memory cells. These axon
runners from one cell connect through synapses to dendrite runners on
other cells. As the axon-dendrite pathway is used repetitiously, the
surrounding glial cells become larger and more tightly wrapped around
the electrically conductive axon-dendrite pathways, thereby
transforming the memory from a short-term memory to a long-term
memory.[5]

Memories of similar objects reside in nearby regions of the brain,
while memories of exotic or exaggerated objects are farther away. By
forming memories with creative and unusual associations, many  more
pathways are established, much like a spider weaving a bigger and
bigger web, in which each part leads to the center by many
interconnected pathways.

Memory links are also established when a variety of sensations and
muscular activity are engaged. Indeed, some people seem to be more
proficient at learning by either seeing, hearing or writing, but no
one method can provide the more numerous pathways provided by all
three in combination.

Memory is enhanced not only by repetition, but also by association and
exaggeration of certain features of the object. Many memories are
recalled as series of objects. For instance, a memory device to
remember four common logical fallacies is a picture of the Earth, with
the green continents and blue oceans, viewed from outer space with a
flight of white geese circling around it. This image is used to recall
the statement "geese circle every continent." The first letters of
that statement (gcec) stand for the logic fallacies of generalization,
circularities, either/or, and cause and effect. (These fallacies are
discussed in detail in a later chapter.)

Size, also, seems to play a role in memorization. During the Middle
Ages, memory contests were held annually. In one, the winner
remembered one hundred thousand sequential items. [6]  A time-proven
memory method from the Middle Ages is association of abstract ideas to
large objects. The objects used for trigger recall seem to need to be
about the size of a human, so that, if we were blind, we could
identify the object by touch. Large objects in the memory seem to
engage muscular memory areas as well as sight memory areas in the
brain and expand the memory web. For instance, remembering the points
of a speech about a military battle might involving walking from one
room to another in a familiar house. In the first room a ship's anchor
is propped up in a corner, in the next room is a cannon, in the third
room is a large telescope, and the in the fourth room is a horse. This
sequence of anchor, cannon, telescope, horse might remind the speaker
that the speech is about a ship being bombarded from the shore by a
cannon; and that the cannon was captured when a scouting party saw the
cannon through a telescope and sent for the cavalry.

Imagining numbers as objects in three-dimensional space is a very
powerful way of remembering a series of numbers. This also seems to
engage muscular memory. For instance, we might imagine  block numbers
for Pi, 3.1416. These numbered blocks should be about four inches high
and one inch thick and should be imagined rotating in space about two
feet to the front and about six inches above eye level. We can imagine
them rotating slowly in a circle through an entire revolution. As they
turn, we can mentally reach out and feel them with our fingers on
every side. Such exercises, involving three-dimensional objects in
space and muscles,  allow the associated memory cells to form many,
many more links than just a single glance at written numbers will
form. Additional associations not only form more axon-dendrite
connections, but also cause an increase in the surrounding glial
sheath of the brain cell.


 * * * * *

Research Skills.

1. Mindil, Phyllis. _Power Reading_. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice
Hall, 1993.


2. Robinson, Francis P. . _Effective Studying_. 4th ed. New York: Harper
and Row, 1970.


3. Spitzer, Herbert F. "Studies in Retention". _Journal of Educational
Psychology_. Vol. XXX (Dec. 1930) No. 9.


4. Minninger, Joan. _Total Recall -- How to Boost Your Memory Power_.
Emmaus, Pa: Rodale Press, 1984.


5. _Neural mechanisms of learning and memory_. Mark R. Rosenzweig and
Edward L. Bennett, eds. Cambridge, Mass. MIT Press, c1976.


6. Spense, Jonathan D. _The Memory Palace of Matteo Ricci_. New York:
Penquin Books, 1984.

================================

Practical Problem Solving

Sequential Problem Solving is a labor of love for all students who
seek success and for the parents and teachers who guide them.
Sequential Problem Solving also provides the lifelong-learner with the
satisfaction of being able to measure his performance.

The goal of Sequential Problem Solving is to provide learners with a
road map for successfully making decisions. Students can began their
adult lives with a framework that will help them pick noble goals,
know themselves, and be prepared for dealing with life's villains.
They can thus achieve peace and joy, and can be prepared for making
life's hard decisions as well.

Young people often dream of a loving spouse and joyful children. Older
people dream of success in business. Still others dream of securing  a
suitable retirement. Whatever the age or the dream, the problems, of
making dreams come true, share some similarities.

People solving problems share certain common steps in resolving those
problems and face certain common difficulties. How do we develop
solutions? Where do we get information to work with? Who should we
trust for advise? At what point should we make a decision? What are
the alternatives?

Study leads to success, and organization builds bridges to the future.
Organized systematic thinking requires effort, and the effort is
justified by predictable success. This is contrasted to happenstance
decision making based on impulsiveness and wishful thinking.
Sequential Problem Solving is about organized thinking, and justifying
decisions based on solid facts, rather than on impulsiveness or
emotional indulgence. Growing to maturity is about planning rather
than acting on impulses or instant gratification. Instant
gratification often has costly consequences that forethought might
have averted. Sequential Problem Solving is about making dreams come
true while minimizing the hidden costs.

I remember well the magic of that first romantic glance across a
crowded ballroom, the guileless smile and downcast eyes that
instantaneously made my heart skip a beat. I remember the soul
stirring melody of  _Band of Gold_ and the lingering smell of peaches
and the gentle winds against my ears on a pleasant summer night.
Sequential Problem Solving is about memories and dreams, making them
come true, and keeping them alive.

Sequential Problem Solving is about becoming both a success and a
lifelong-learner. Problem solving has two aspects: physical problems
in a scientific environment and personal problems in a spiritual inner
world. This book uses well known classical literary selections as
models for personal decision making and character development. These
works were chosen primarily due to their ready availability.

Part of the fun of sequential problem solving is mentally rewriting
stories to have  more favorable outcomes. We imagine favorable
outcomes naturally, but successful people do so in a more systematic
fashion, that makes logical outcomes more certain. Using realistic
logic rather than wishful emotion requires that we know ourselves,
know our values and where they came from, and know clearly what our
basic goals are in life. Sequential Problem Solving systematically
outlines those aspects of our spiritual inner selves that play a part
in our decision making and, largely, determine our success.

Sequential Problem Solving explores the nature of personal internal
conflict and how literary characters change in the course of stories
to overcome personal weaknesses. Successful learners learn to
recognize their own internal conflicts and learn that courage is a
skill anyone can learn to re-direct their own destiny.

The first step in the adventure of becoming courageous is to write
down a philosophy of life: what we want to achieve and how we plan to
treat other people. A few words will do: I want to be happy, healthy,
wealthy, have a loving companion, help others, etc.

Everyone should develop, write down, and periodically review their
philosophy of life. If we are going to be successful, we need to have
a systematic way of going about it. What do we know today about
effective ways of becoming educated and successful?

At this point in time, my own philosophy for education has 11 parts.

First, learning has three basic components: specialized knowledge,
basic thinking skills, and mature thinking skills.[1] In the study of
Dickens' _Great Expectations_, "specialized knowledge" includes Pip's
turbulent relationship to his sister and to her husband Joe. "Basic
thinking skills" include the student's memorization of the various
characters and the sequence of the plot in the story. "Mature thinking
skills" include the student's analysis of Pip's internal conflict and
how Pip overcomes his internal weaknesses. Mature skills  might also
include the creation of an alternative ending of how the story could
have achieved an even more satisfactory ending. This story is unique
in that there are two published endings: one, the author's original
ending, and the second written at the insistence of the author's
newspaper editor. These alternative endings illustrate how we can
create an alternative environment and make our dreams come true.
Sequential Problem Solving is about finding alternative solutions to
problems and executing well researched plans.

Second, students learn to trust their own ability through success, and
the teacher can help to insure that success. Success can be assured by
tailoring the curriculum to the student. The student with severe prior
knowledge deficits can usually be rapidly remediated by learning basic
thinking skills first: for instance, the basic memorization
techniques, note taking, outlining, and free association recall
techniques. (These are discussed in detail elsewhere.)

Students should be aware of  what they learn and feel pride of
accomplishment. They should recognize for themselves when  they
achieve success in learning. They should learn to constantly monitor
their own performance and the success of their strategies.

Learning occurs in well ordered ways:[2]  first, the student gains
understanding of what is read or the teacher explains, then memorizes
the facts of the subject in order to analysis the information later
through comparing and contrasting. Next the student may use the
information to create something new, and finally he should use the
memorized information to evaluate his own performance. This sequence
is known to teachers as Bloom's taxonomy. [3]

Students need guidelines for making decisions. Those decisions may
involve physical, scientific problems, or they may involve
interpersonal problems, social values and moral decisions. Students
should learn a systematic workable framework for making decisions. All
students should develop the ability to evaluate their thought
processes as a learned skill. The mature learner should be able to
recall the steps of scientific problem solving, recognize specific
personal values and character traits,  and remember the tests for
sequential steps in moral decision making. Students should then be
able to use apply those mature thinking skills to first literary
scenarios and then to real life problems. Studies of literature enable
the student to extend the analysis to television drama and ultimately
to real life and to subsequently imagine a variety of suitable
alternative outcomes.

Students should learn to recognize and control certain biological
feelings. A student should know how the human brain is organized and
recognize those times when animal-like impulses jeopardize more
mature, rational thought. A student should also be able to recall and
use basic information about basic nutrition, rest, and exercise, in
order to minimize the danger of thoughtless impulsiveness.

Students should develop a sense of belonging to a caring, helpful
humanity, and develop their own short and long term goals in achieving
peace and joy through helping others in a responsible manner.

Students should learn the dynamics of basic childcare and the
importance of continuous parental attachment in the first two years of
a baby's life. Students should be aware of how "unattached" children
are set up for failure and antisocial behavior disorders, by poor
bonding with the parent in the first few months and years of life.

Students should be prepared to deal with manipulative people. Students
should learn how to recognize people without a conscience. Students
should have strategies for managing interpersonal relationships, both
good and bad.

Students should have a knowledge of the religions of the world and
develop a toleration for other people.

Finally, students should become citizens of the world, dedicated to
helping others while making their own dreams come true.

Developing and maintaining a systematic philosophy of life entails
becoming a lifelong learner.


 * * * * *

Learning.


Learning has three basic components: specialized knowledge, basic
thinking skills, and mature thinking skills.

Specialized knowledge is that part of  a study that must be memorized.
This "disciplinary based knowledge" contains unique terms and
definitions. Language studies have their unique terms: nominative,
comma, plot;  mathematics has its: tangent, sum, parabola, etc. These
are terms that must be memorized in order to understand and use the
subject matter.

Basic thinking skills include memorization techniques, the stream of
consciousness technique, outlining, note taking, rapid reading,
scanning for main ideas and keywords, questioning, and reorganizing.

Mature thinking skills include procedures that require specialized
knowledge and basic thinking skills, like applying the sequential
steps of problem solving and following the sequential tests for moral
decision making.


 * * * * *

STREAM OF CONSCIOUSNESS


The stream of consciousness technique is a "basic" thinking skill,
along side outlining, note taking, rapid reading. The stream of
consciousness skill is also known as the free-association recall
technique.

Both creative writers, artists and scientific problem solvers use the
stream of consciousness or free-association skill. This skill is also
known as gestation, mulling things over, and getting a handle on
things. The process begins by letting our thoughts flow freely and
then sorting out the ones useful to our problem from the many that
came to mind. Often many of the random thoughts that come to mind have
no apparent connection to the problem; they are merely connected like
circular links in a spider's web to threads that interconnect with
others and run toward the center of the problem. The free association
technique begins by trying to think about nothing in a relaxed,
tension-free environment. Try as we might, something always intrudes
on our consciousness. It may  a line running toward the center of the
web or it may be a seemingly  meaningless, circular line. Every
thought should be written down as it comes to mind, and the task of
thinking about nothing begun anew. After ten or fifteen minutes, the
train of intrusive thoughts usually begins to slow down, and we can
then take the list of seemingly unrelated thoughts and sort out the
ones that relate to the problem. The next step of brainstorming is to
take the free association / stream of consciousness list and circle
the words that pertain to the problem, and connect them with "web"
lines into "clusters." These crude webs and clusters can then be
reconstructed into a more legible outline. (Several styles of
outlining are illustrated in the Appendix 2.) This outline can then be
used in the subsequent steps of problem solving. The subsequent steps
of the problem solving procedure involve hypothetico-deductive
reasoning and is a part of  the scientific method.[4]


 * * * * *

Problem Solving Steps.

1. Identify the problem (state the hypothesis).

2. Gather facts: three ways in the order of most reliability.

   A. Research -- library, Internet.

   B. Ask someone knowledgeable.

   C. Brainstorm: free association / stream of consciousness, web and
      cluster, outline.

3. Develop several alternative solutions.

4. Pick a possible solution and try it.

5. Evaluate the outcome.

6. Try again if necessary


 * * * * *

_Problem Identification_ as the first step of problem solving

In life, personal problems are often complicated by outside
challenges. In literature, these forces are called external conflicts.
The external conflict may be man challenged by nature,  man embattled
by society,  or one man opposed by  another man. In science, problems
are often exclusively matters of a physical nature and the external
conflict is man being challenged by nature.

Internal conflicts have a personal nature. By comparing personal
internal conflicts to Aristotle's structure for dramas, these
conflicts can often be recognized. Aristotle's drama structure divided
the play into five acts with a hero, a villain, an external conflict
and climax, and an emotional cleansing involving an internal conflict.
Real life internal conflicts often involve character traits and values
that are easily identified by this method.[5]  (Character traits and
values are discussed in the section on interpersonal relationships.)


 * * * * *

_Fact Gathering_ in Problem Solving.

The preferred order for gather facts is based on the order of
reliability: library research, asking someone knowledgeable, and
brainstorming.

Facts should be tested for logic, emotional fallacies, and the
credibility of "expert" witnesses. Facts gained from research in a
library are easiest to verify, and other methods of gathering facts
must often be re-verified through library research.  Logical  and
emotional weaknesses of arguments can often be recognized by the use
of certain fallacy recognition checklists.[6]  The most widely used of
the fallacies is the over or under generalization: everyone (all,
without exception, none, never, no one) rode a bicycle when only two
years old.[7]


 * * * * *

The more common persuasive fallacies are:

Logic Fallacies.

1. Generalization -- It is raining everywhere. It has not rained
   anywhere. (The exception is discounted.)

2. Circular argument -- That team is the best because it is the
   greatest. (Similar adjectives describing each other.)

3. Either or fallacy -- Either the city will drill more wells or it
   will run out of water. (This ignores the possibility of water
   pipelines, river dams,  desalinization, etc.)

4. Cause and effect fallacies -- two kinds:

    A. Single cause fallacy -- The streets are wet, therefore it has
       been snowing. (This discounts other causes like rain.)

    B. Guilt by association -- He has a friend that is a Japanese,
       therefore he must be Japanese in his soul.


 * * * * *

Emotional Fallacies. (These are intended make a person fear loss of
friendship.)[8]

1. Generalization-Everyone is doing it.

2. Snob Appeal -- A special thing for a special group: Heroes
   wear only Hot Stuff clothes.

3. Loaded Language -- Emotionally connotative terms of derision: He is
   a "Mutt." (Not only a dog but also a worthless cur.)

4. Name Calling -- This is often used to discredit someone.
   It is also often a problem evasion rather than a problem solving
   strategy that uses:

       i. Sarcasm.

      ii. Cynicism.


 * * * * *

Credibility Fallacies.

Credibility fallacies are those in which uncertified people present
themselves as experts: the famous actor dressed as a doctor
recommending a certain medicine. The actor is not a trained
professional and has no professional credibility.

Fact And Opinion.

Certain keywords can be often be used to differentiate facts from
opinions.

1. Generalizations. All inclusive or all exclusive terms that usually
   have exceptions: everyone, everything, no one, never, always:

   It always rains in the summertime. (This does not take into account
   long droughts or geographic locations where rain rarely falls.)

   Everyone drives a Ford.

2. Statements about the future:

   We will never go there.

3. Statements of opinion:

   It seems to me.

   In my opinion.

4. Statements using the emphatic "to be" words. Is, are, was, were,
   etc. are often facts that can be proven either true or false, but are
   not necessarily as true as the "is" implies.

   He is a genius.

For the purpose of gathering information in problem solving, facts are
statements that can be readily  verified as true or false; opinions
cannot be quickly verified. In problem solving, the practical ability
to prove something true without a great deal of effort is the key to
practical truth. A statement that might merely hold the possibility of
being proven true is, for all practical purposes, an opinion until it
is proven true.


 * * * * *

Deductive Reasoning Errors

Deductive reasoning [9] is stating a series of valid relationships
with a conclusion about them:

When it rains the streets get wet. It is raining. Therefore the
streets are wet.

Several types of reasoning fallacies exist:  (1) formal deductive
fallacies, which occur because of an error in the form of the
argument, and (2) informal fallacies that contain false content.

The informal false content fallacies are listed in Appendix 4 and
include:

Logic errors.

* The "straw man" deception.

* The "false dilemma" deception.

* The "domino theory" deception.

* The "two wrongs make a right fallacies" deception.

Emotional errors.

* The "attack the speaker" diversion.

* The "commonly accepted practice" deception.

* The "appeal to pity" tactic.

* The "infallible truth or cliche" deception.


The emotional tactics often include cynicism or sarcasm and are
sometimes used to belittle another person. The effect is to make them
feel worthless and unloved. This is an emotional fallacy that attacks
a person's need for love and belonging.10 This is discussed in greater
detail in the section on Internal conflicts.

Sometimes debaters attempt to evade answering an argument using the
"red herring" diversion. This tactic was named for game poachers that
used a strong smelling fish to mask their scent from dogs used by
game wardens trying to apprehend them. This tactic introduces another
issue that diverts the discussion. It is often  logically unrelated to
the issue, and is often an emotional attack directed at the other
person.


 * * * * *

Practical Problem Solving

1. Beyer, Barry K. "Developing a Scope and Sequence for Thinking
Skills Instruction." _Educational Leadership_ 45(April 1988): 26-30.

2. A Committee of College and University Examiners. "Educational
Objectives and Curriculum Development." _Taxonomy of Educational
Objectives -- Handbook 1: The Cognitive Domain_.  Benjamin S. Bloom,
ed. New York: David McKay Company, Inc., 1956.

3. A Committee of College and University Examiners. "Educational
Objectives and Curriculum Development." _Taxonomy of Educational
Objectives -- Handbook 2: The Affective Domain_.  Benjamin S. Bloom,
ed. New York: David McKay Company, Inc., 1956.

4. "The Galileo Affair," Owen Gingerick, _American Scientific_,
August, 1982, #247, p.132-138.

5. Aristotle. _Rhetoric and the Poetics_. F. Solmsen, ed. New York:
The Modern Library, 1954

6. _Critical Thinking and Reasoning: a handbook for Teachers_. Albany:
SUNY, 1976.

7. "Classifying Fallacies Logically", Ludwig F. Schlecht, _Teaching
Philosophy_, March, 1991, 14:1, p.53-65

8. Maslow, A. H. _Motivation and Personality_. New York: Harper and
Row, 1954.

9. _Critical Thinking and Reasoning: A Handbook for Teachers_. Albany:
The University of the State of New York, 1976.

10. Maslow, A. H. Motivation and Personality. New York: Harper and
Row, 1954.

=============================


Developing a Solution.

Developing solutions should take into account time, material and
manpower. How much time is available to solve a problem? Are the
materials available? Is the manpower available?



Time.

How much time is available? Often problems are best solved by using
"Kentucky windage." Artillery gunners use the expression, "One over,
one under, one dead center." This refers to making gross adjustments
rather than walking a solution toward a problem one small step at a
time. This technique has also been called "Eliminating the extremes":
walking toward the center from either end, half way at a time. This
technique reduces the time required to solve a problem in a binary
fashion by halves, rather than in arithmetic progression one small
step at a time.

Often the first solutions tried don't work. We may learn more facts
about problems as we try to solve them. Many times a problem requires
re-defining and the entire nature of the solution changes from one
trial to the next. In science, every experiment is valuable because
what is disproven is as valuable as the final solution. A disproven
solution reduces the possibilities by providing answers about what is
not possible.

We need to take into account problems that will arise. It is useful to
double or triple the initial time estimate when beginning new
projects. It is prudent to plan on finishing the job in one-third to
one-half of the time we would like to finish the job. This is
particularly true with artistic projects; artists often want to add
one final touch, and one more touch ad infinitum (the "Michelangelo"
dilemma).

Timing for the various elements in a job can often be charted
beginning with the first thing needed to be done and ending with a
review of the project and future planning. Such charts are easily
constructed on spreadsheets with calendar dates in vertical columns
and tasks in horizontal rows. This form of time chart is a
marching calendar. Initially, the chart can also be used to back
schedule material purchase for future delivery.  As sequential tasks
are completed, the consecutive days are highlighted. This provides a
rapid visualization to the project planners of the status of the
project.

Project Calendar.

Task.

   Initial planning.

   Gather information.

   Pick team.

   Make  drawings.

   Assemble materials.

   Make prototype.

   Review prototype.

Manufacture actual product.

Evaluate project.

Plan follow up.


 * * * * *

Material.

Are the materials  available? Can we afford the cost of the materials?
Sometimes it is possible to make an "first piece" or  "practice piece"
out of inexpensive materials. Practice pieces are helpful to learn
practical manufacturing methods. Producing detailed drawings and
listing manufacturing steps often save time and material in the long
run. Practice pieces made of soft and easy to work material, like
balsam wood, also serve the purpose of providing an actual mock up
that can be quickly modified by cut and paste methods. The practice
piece usually does not have to be pretty, only functional. It provides
an idea of what changes need to be made before expensive or hard to
procure materials are used.


 * * * * *

Manpower.

Is sufficient manpower available to execute the plan? Are the talents
of the available manpower matched to the task?[1]  Are the available
people qualified to perform the tasks? Are the men being lead by the
best method? Several alternative methods exist for leading or managing
workers on a project. These will be discussed in the section on
leadership.


 * * * * *


Developing a Solution.

1. Gardner, Howard. Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple
Intelligences. New York: Basic Books, 1983.


 * * * * *

===================================

Trying the Solution.


Often complex or new tasks become learning projects, in themselves, to
try to more accurately identify the problem, and to gather sufficient
facts through failure in experimentation to make progress. Projects
should include ongoing evaluation and re-planning. Old World
craftsmen, the master craftsmen of yesteryear, had a guiding principle
that continues to have merit: "Any job worth doing is worth doing
well." Doing a job well often means making a final copy after revising
the rough draft.


 * * * * *

Manpower Management.

Leaders should remember that several approaches to leadership are
available. No one style is satisfactory for all situations.


 * * * * *

Leadership Styles.

Three basic leadership styles exist. They are the authoritarian model,
the teacher  model, and the team work model.[1]

The authoritarian model is useful for situations requiring immediate
compliance by a subordinate. Soldiers occasionally use the
authoritarian style to demand instant obedience. It is most useful in
dangerous situations where hesitation in complying might be
disastrous; for instance, when a child is daydreaming and in danger of
walking off of  a sidewalk curb into automobile traffic. In business
situations, this style is not often used because the authoritarian
leader is often destined to fail:  "micro-management" often has a
belittling effect on subordinates, who subsequently rebel, and failure
follows for three reasons: the authoritarian leader often doesn't have
the expertise, time, or enough energy  to do all of the jobs himself
job without other's help. The authoritarian leadership style is seldom
useful except in emergency situations.[2] (It has been said that a
raised voice with someone older than five is usually inappropriate.)

The teaching leadership model is more useful because the people doing
the job are contributors. The teacher offers advice and monitors
progress.[3]

The team work leadership model is sometimes the most useful. This
model works when the students become as knowledgeable as the teacher
and each can and will do the other's job. This model is often seen
when someone realizes a job needs doing, and does it without being
told to do it. These people are conscientious "self-starters."


 * * * * *

Leadership Styles.

1. Tannenbaum, Robert and Warren H. Schmidt. "How to Choose a
Leadership Pattern." Harvard Business Review 36(March-April 1958):
95-101.

2. Fiedler, Fred E. "The Trouble With Leadership Training Is That it
Doesn't Train Leaders." Psychology Today 6(February 1973): 23-30.

3. Goodall, H. Lloyd, Jr. Small Group Communications in Organizations.
2nd ed. Dubuque, IA: Wm. C. Brown, 1990.


=================================

Dealing With Interpersonal Conflict.

Western World values and ideas of dealing with interpersonal conflict
originate in the Code of Hammarabi and the Mosaic Code.

King Solomon in the Bible, following the Ten Commandments of Moses,
offers some practical suggestions for dealing with interpersonal
conflict.

In Solomon's Book of Proverbs, one of Solomon's main themes is drawing
a consistent distinction between the wise man and the foolish man.  He
characterizes a foolish man as someone who neither asks for advise nor
accepts it. He further characterizes the foolish man as someone who is
scornful, divisive, quarrelsome, and mocking of other's efforts with
cynicism and sarcasm.

Solomon's advise for dealing with scornful people has three steps. The
first step is to try counseling with them in private, one on one.
Failing that, the second step is to counsel with them again, but with
two people, together, advising the third. The final step is to cease
relations.

Solomon's three steps are seen today in practical statesmanship. We
should remember that today's enemy is tomorrow's friend. Member
nations of the United Nations generally apply this same three-step
plan that ends in economic sanctions being applied by the United
Nations as a whole. Sometimes even ceasing relations with another is
not enough and force of arms must be taken to protect weaker neighbors
from aggression.

Whether with neighbors or nations, armed conflict is ultimately
sorrowful. It is an admission that patient diplomacy and logic have
not been successful. It is premeditated violence to protect the weak.
Many people, still developing in religious maturity and understanding,
feel torment when violence is necessary, because their religious
understanding does not extend beyond helping "all" others. It is a
question of who is helped and why. Some people too choose to pass from
this life as martyrs. Others feel compelled to stay until the end and
protect the weak like a shepherd keeping predatory dogs away from the
helpless lambs. There may be a time for each course of action.

The confusion between religion and forcing our will on others is
caused by our understanding of what helping others means. If we help
others to hurt someone, we become harmful ourselves. We become
"Enablers" [1] to those hurting others. Without our consent, the
aggressor could not have taken advantage of his weaker neighbor.

The Eastern religions, particularly Zen Buddhism, which is intimately
associated with the Samurai warrior of Japan, take great care to teach
tranquility and self-control in the use of force. Anger is not a part
of thoughtful action.

Aikido, The Way of Harmony, teaches tranquility in the use of force,
and compares it to the calm in the eye of a hurricane.[2]

The great Christian pastor, Dietrich Bonhoffer, pointed out that "just
causes"  for anger  did not exist in the earliest accounts of Christ's
Sermon on the Mount.[3]


 * * * * *

Dealing with Interpersonal Conflict.

1. Miller, Angelyn. The Enabler. -- When Helping Harms the Ones You
Love. New York Ballentine Books, 1988.


2. Stevens, John. Abundant Peace -- the Biography of Morehei Ueshiba,
the founder of Aikido. Boston: Shambhala, 1987


3. Bobhoeffer, Dietrich. The Cost of Discipleship. New York:
Macmillan, 1963.


 * * * * *


==================================

Interpersonal Problem Solving:

Drama and literary analysis as a tool in personal problem solving.

The structure of Aristotle's Pentad [1] for five act plays is useful
as a framework for solving personal problems.


   1. Who is the hero? What are his weaknesses? How is he likely to
      fall?


   2. Who is the villain? Is the villain another person, nature or
      society?


   3. What external events lead to the climax with the villain?


   4. How does the climax with the villain turn out?


   5. What did the hero learn about his own internal weaknesses in the
      encounter with the villain?



This five part framework is useful in separating the external foes we
face from the internal conflicts that are our weaknesses.

External Conflicts.

External conflicts are usually found to involve either another man,
nature or society. In the man versus man conflict, another person is
the adversary. In the man versus nature conflict, the adversary might
be a hurricane, or the rigors involved in climbing a mountain. In the
man versus society conflict, the opponent might be industrial
organizations or lobby groups advocating nuclear waste disposal in the
ocean.

The man versus self conflict, such as a man facing a crisis of
courage, is an internal conflict.

Internal Conflicts.

Internal conflicts are man versus himself and man versus God
conflicts.

The man versus God occurs when a person violates his conscience and
does something that he knows to be wrong. Many religions advocate
resolving the man versus God conflict by admission of wrongdoing and
restitution to those harmed. There may be some people that have no
conscience, and the internal conflicts they face are not, as yet,
well understood.[2] Those people without a conscience are a continuing
source of grief for humanity and that problem is discussed in the
section on dealing with "unattached people."

The second type of internal conflict, the man versus self conflict
exhibit certain human character weaknesses that can be identified with
the acronym FALL: fear, arrogance, laziness, and loneliness.

Loneliness is often caused by a combination of several of the other
three common human weaknesses, for instance, fear and laziness: fear
of rejection while trying to find new friends and laziness in making
the attempt.

Fear is a very common weakness and is related to our needs. Abraham
Maslow[3] classified these needs as follows:


   1. Physical safety.


   2. Food and shelter.


   3. Love or belonging -- the need to love and be loved.


   4. Career -- the need to be successful at something.


   5. Self actualization -- the need some people feel to become who God
      wants them to be.

People must meet their immediate, basic needs for physical safety
before they can meet their wishful needs for love or fulfilling a
career. While we strive to behave as thinking people, with well
thought out plans, sometimes we act purely as animals by instinct
alone. If we are suddenly frightened by a snarling dog, we react by
running or fighting, instinctively, without conscious thought. Paul
MacLean describes what happens in our brains as a stepping down the
evolutionary ladder and using those parts of our "Triune" brain that
operates on instinct rather than thought.[4]

MacLean divides the Triune brain[5] into three parts that developed
over the evolutionary eons. The oldest, which he calls the reptilian
brain, controls aggression and passionate impulsiveness. The middle
region, the limbic system, controls docile, loving emotions. The outer
region, the neo-cortex controls thoughtful planning with an awareness
of consequences and cause-effect relationships. This phenomenon is
important because fear alone can inhibit successful higher level
thinking by keeping the brain at the lowest (reptilian) level
preparing to meet the threat. The educator Lev Vygotsky stressed the
importance of creating and maintaining a risk-free environment that
encourages higher level (neo-cortex) thought.[6]  The growing
recognition of the Triune Brain might very well have influenced world
politics in the replacement of the policy of "mutually assured
destruction" with a "kinder and gentler" statesmanship.

Maslow's need and MacLean's brain are both related to animal-like
behavioral weaknesses when we react impulsively rather than with
thought and planning, and we are more likely to act impulsively when
our physical safety or food and shelter needs are threatened.

When we do act like animals, we often are ashamed because we
momentarily set aside our conscience. Fear overpowers our desire to be
loving because it engages lower brain centers that are not controlled
by abstract thought centers in the higher levels of our brain.

How then can we act like we are created in the image of God instead of
selfish, impulsive animals? We can begin by analyzing what characters
in literature and drama do. We can recognize when fear, arrogance,
laziness, or loneliness drives the hero's actions, and imagine how the
hero might overcome his weaknesses. We can  project a responsible
resolution to the hero's internal conflicts. This exercise of
recognizing the source of another's actions is merely an intermediate
step in the learning process, however.[7] The final step is when we
face our own trails, and face the need to analyze our own reactions to
stress, as we have looked at those in dramas. Finally, we can plan our
own future and make it happen, just as we did with alternative endings
to conflicts in dramas.

Occasionally,  people face moral choices that seem to confusing to be
solved, and the thinking brain tries to step down a notch. It either
takes a passive emotional position with MacLean's limbic system, or an
impulsive aggressive position with the reptilian system. At these
times, a checklist for moral decision making can provide a framework
for keeping our actions in the realm of planned activity rather than
impulse.

The Steps of Moral Decision Making.

Moral decision making involves several growth steps in reaching
maturity.

Stanley Kohlberg[8] provided us with a framework for making moral
decisions:

Age     Test                     Question


 6    Punishment             Will I get caught?


10    Golden Rule            How would I like to treated?


13    Everyone Rule          What would the world be like if everyone
                             made this same decision?


15    Greater Good Rule      Will this decision produce the greatest
                             good for the greatest number?


Adult Higher Authority Rule  Is this what God wants me to do?



Religious people often experience great internal conflict when faced
Many religions advocate gentleness and helping others, as well as
protecting the weak from harm: a seeming contradiction. Does one have
priority over the other? Part of the answer may involve the Triune
brain and the absence of thought involved in impulsive aggression.
Sometimes helping others may involve protecting violent people from
themselves and that may require the use of force. Often gentle, kind
people find the use of force quite foreign, and are especially
vulnerable to harm from people that are termed "unattached."[9]

Dealing with the "Unattached" Person.

"Unattached" people refers to people that have a defective
conscience.[10] Their actions are motivated by a lifelong distrust of
others and a supreme belief in their own ability. They have no need
for other people. Their brains seem to function at a very low
evolutionary level, but at times they are superficially charming and
persuasive. These people are manipulative and often become sociopaths,
and their behavior is thought to have been molded before they were six
months of age by insufficiently attentive caretakers.

"Unattached" people, people who bonded inadequately with their
parents, are frequently very hard to convince with logical arguments
due to their deep distrust of other people and the pattern of control
battles continue throughout their lifetime. [11] This sad picture is
drawn from the experiences of those professionals who deal with them
on a regular basis. The sociopath's irreversible behavior patterns
seems to be founded, physiologically, in well established repetitive
memory pathways. Perhaps modern science will find ways to help such
unfortunate people, possibly through more effective chemical
intervention that makes a person feel less threatened, so that they
can learn more productive ways of treating other people.

Mercifully, some spiritually enlightened people are able to reach
older "Unattached" people and to help them to learn to trust others
and achieve that measure of "peace that surpasses all understanding"
spoken of by the Apostle Paul in his Letter to the Phillipians in
chapter 4, verse 7: "And the peace of God, which passeth all
understanding, shall keep your hearts and minds through Christ Jesus."

We are all saddened when others fail to respond to logic and the
use of force is necessary, but the periodic necessity of
using force to protect others is often unavoidable. Our own internal
conflicts of loneliness brought on by dealing with sociopaths is
perhaps brought on by our own fear of not being loved by others.
The realization of that phenomenon might help us to resolve our own
internal conflict in dealing with the manipulative sociopath.

One of the problems with dealing with unattached people or sociopaths
is the difficulty of recognition. At one time, they seem friendly,
intelligent, well adjusted, and exhibit apparent sincerity in wanting
to be a friend to others. At other times, their behavior seems to snap
over, instantaneously, to that of a selfish ten year old. In
Kohlberg's view of moral decision making, the age of ten is when a
person begins to use the Everyone Rule (what would the world be like
if everyone did the action in question). Sociopaths often do not
consider others, rather seek instantaneous gratification of their own
impulsive needs, much like a ten year old.

Sociopaths are often superficially charming, yet frequently exhibit
certain adverse character traits. They are:

   untrustworthy  vs     trustworthy
   disloyal       vs.    loyal
   selfish        vs.    helpful
   unfriendly     vs.    friendly
   discourteous   vs.    courteous  (polite)
   mean           vs.    kind
   rebellious     vs.    obedient  (a team player)
   wasteful       vs.    thrifty
   cowardly       vs.    brave
   dirty          vs.    clean
   profane        vs.    reverent

Other peculiar traits include speech pathologies, and primary process
(crazy) lying. Speech pathologies include "baby" talk by an older
person. Crazy lying includes the child caught with a stolen candy bar
in his hand who replies, "What candy."

While often charming, unattached people are basically self-centered
and lack values that guide their conduct with other people.

Interpersonal relationships -- values.

Sequential problem solving and dealing with interpersonal relations
involves weighing various values and determining what is appropriate
or inappropriate behavior. It is, therefore, desirable to have a firm
grasp of our own values. What does society expect of us? What do we
expect of others? What do we expect of ourselves?

The values of the English speaking countries came largely from Great
Britain. The English Common Law system and the Judeo-Christian values
expressed in it originated, in part, with King Arthur and the Knights
of the Roundtable.

King Arthur and his knights left us with some simple guidelines:

  The Knight's Motto -- Be always ready.

  The Knight's Code:
      On my honor I will do my best --
      To do my duty to God and my King;
      To obey the Knight's Laws;
      To  help other people at all times;
      To keep myself physically strong, mentally alert, and morally
         straight.

   The Knight's Laws: The Knight is to be:
      Trustworthy -- I will not lie, cheat, or steal.
      Loyal -- I will not tolerate those who lie, cheat, or steal.
      Helpful -- I will help other people at all times.
      Friendly
      Courteous
      Kind
      Obedient
      Thrifty
      Cheerful
      Brave
      Clean
      Reverent

The underlying values of Knighthood and the Bible were eventually
passed on to the Scouting movement for boys and girls by General Sir
Baden-Powell about 1908.[12] The priority expressed in the Knight's
Code is God, country, others, self -- the same sequence as in the Ten
Commandments of Moses:

   1. Thou shalt have no other gods before me.
   2. Thou shalt not make any graven images.
   3. Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord in vain.
   4. Thou shalt remember the Sabbath to keep it holy.
   5. Honor thy mother and father (that thy days may be long in the
      land which the Lord hath given thee).
   6. Thou shalt not murder.
   7. Thou not commit adultery.
   8. Thou shalt not steal.
   9. Thou shalt not lie.
  10. Thou shalt not covet.

The Ten Commandments and the underlying message of the Bible, of
helping one another, provide us with the framework for appropriate
interpersonal relationships. When the human factor in problem solving
is kept in mind through a list of values and a code of conduct,
personal problem solving becomes a matter of analyzing internal
conflict (fear, arrogance, laziness, or loneliness). When a problem
presents itself and action seems slow, it is helpful to recognize the
ways people evade problems.

Problem Solving Evasions.

1. SUBLIMATION -- sublimation is a compromise involving the gestation
phase of problem solving. This often includes hobbies or other
relaxation things that tend to disengage the left brain and allow the
right brain greater autonomy. These relaxation devices allow the right
brain to both synthesize new solutions and recall long unremembered
solutions, as well as create new things for the fun of it. This
activity occurs naturally. Sometimes sublimation activities are a
compulsion driven by feelings of abandonment, as are other compulsions
like substance abuse, gambling, and compulsive spending.

2. ANGER -- anger is often an immature reaction to frustration or
stress, and is not considered a part of higher neo-cortex thinking; it
is rather a reptilian reaction in MacLean's Triune Brain scheme.

Anger is also a step in the Grief Process described by Elisabeth
Kubler-Ross that progresses through denial, anger, bargaining,
depression, and finally acceptance.

3. REGRESSION -- a return to the "Good Ole" Days. This problem evasion
mechanism is farther from the problem solving pathway than anger. It
involves the return to behavior of an earlier age.

4. DISTORTION -- these problem evasion mechanisms pass even farther
from problem solving toward problem evasion.


     i. PROJECTION -- attributing unacceptable thoughts and feelings to
        someone else: "They don't like me."


    ii. REACTION FORMATION -- forming good feelings for a tyrant to
        minimize bullying: the terrorized victim reaction.


   iii. INTELLECTUALIZATION -- continuing research to find fool-proof
        solutions, rather than taking a chance at failure.


    iv. DISPLACEMENT -- prejudice, racism. Sarcasm and cynicism are
        frequently used in expressions of superiority over others.


5. REPRESSION -- This is the final evasion of problem solving and the
most severe. It is a denial mechanism that involves blocking from
consciousness that the problem ever existed.

Problem Solving Evasions.

   1. ANGER.
       i. Tears.
      ii. Rage.
   2. REGRESSION -- "If things were only just like the Good Ole Days."
   3. DISTORTION.
        i. PROJECTION -- Attributing one's own feelings to someone
           else: "He hates me."
       ii. REACTION FORMATION -- Adopting favorable emotions toward an
           abusive-domineering bully. "If I love the terrorist, maybe
           he won't hurt me."
      iii. INTELLECTUALIZATION -- "I'll wait until it is totally safe
           before I do anything. I'll continue to research the problem."
       iv. DISPLACEMENT -- racial prejudice, cynicism, sarcasm.
   4. REPRESSION -- "This is now not important enough to spend time on.
      I can't even remember why it was once important."


 * * * * *

Interpersonal Problem Solving.

1. Aristotle. _Rhetoric and the Poetics_. F. Solmsen, ed. New York:
The Modern Library, 1954.



2. Magid, Ken and Carole A. McKelvey. _High Risk: Children without a
Conscience_. New York: Bantam Books, 1987.



3. Maslow, A. H. _Motivation and Personality_. New York: Harper and
Row, 1954.



4. MacLean, Paul. _Triune Concept of the Brain and Behavior_. Toronto:
University of Toronto Press, 1973.



5. Sagen, Carl. _The Dragons of Eden_., New York: Ballantine Books,
1977.

6. Vygotsky, Lev. _Thought and Language_. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1962.



7. A Committee of College and University Examiners. "Educational
Objectives and Curriculum Development." _Taxonomy of Educational
Objectives -- Handbook 1: The Cognitive Domain_.  Benjamin S. Bloom,
ed. New York: David McKay Company, Inc., 1956.



8. Kohlberg, Lawrence. "Moral Education for a Moral Transition."
_Educational Leadership_ 32 (October 1975): 46-54.



9. Magid, Ken and Carole A. McKelvey. _High Risk: Children without a
Conscience_. New York: Bantam Books, 1987.



10. _Unmasking the Psychopath -- Antisocial Personality and Related
Syndromes_.  William H Reid, Darwin Dorr, John I. Walker, Jack W.
Bonner, eds. New York: W.W. Norton, 1986.



11. Cline, Foster. _Understanding and Treating the Severely Disturbed
Child_. Evergreen, CO: Evergreen Consultants in Human Behavior, 1979.



12. Handbook for Boys. New York: Doubleday-Page and Co., 1911.


 * * * * *


APPENDIX 1

Outline Styles

1.
   A.
       1.
          a.
          b.
       2.
   B.
2.
3.


I.
     i.
    ii.
   iii.
II.
III.
IV.


APPENDIX 2.

Persuasive Argument Form.


First establish topic, audience, and personal position. Then gather
information and organize the argument.

   1. Introduction.
      Establish friendly intentions with the audience by using a
         sincere complement.
      State the topic of the argument.
      State your personal position.
      State three points you intend to make in the argument. Arrange
         these points (A) second best point, (B) weakest point,
         (C) strongest point. This is known in the study of rhetoric
         as the Nestorian Order. It achieves interest at the beginning
         and finishes strong.

   2. The Body.
      A. The first point, but the second best argument.
         1. First example illustrating point A.
         2. Example 2.
         3. Example 3.
      B. The second point and the weakest point
         1. The first answer to the audience's anticipated question
            about some weak point.
         2. Answer 2
         3. Answer 3
      C. The third point and the strongest.
         1. First example illustrating point C
         2. Example 2
         3. Example 3

   3. The Conclusion:
         Restate your position to the topic.
         Restate your reasons in the same order as in the introduction
            and body: A, B, C.
         Introduce a fourth benefit from taking the position and make
            it a personal, human interest benefit to leave the audience
            in a good frame of mind.


APPENDIX 3

Argumentative Fallacies


Deductive reasoning is stating a series of valid relationships with a
reasonable conclusion.
When it rains the streets get wet.
It is raining.
Therefore the streets are wet.[1]

Several reasoning fallacies exist:  (1)formal deductive fallacies,
which occur because of an error in the form of the argument, and (2)
informal false content fallacies.

(1) A formal deductive fallacy might switch a premise with the
conclusion:

   The streets are wet.
   When it rains the streets get wet.
   Therefore it is raining.

This conclusion is fallacious because there are other reasons that
could have caused the street to be wet: snow melt, a street sweeper,
etc.

(2) Several informal false content fallacies are:
   Logic errors:

* The "straw man" deception.

This is deceptive attack on an opponents position using a similar but
different position.

"The President states that he is a 'Peace' president, but will help
those in need. No doubt he will withdraw the NATO peace keeping force
from Bosnia and send them to Somalia to assist with the famine
relief."

What the president meant to say was that he will seek all reasonable
diplomatic solutions to international aggression but will not abandon
international treaties and will assist other nations with military
forces.

* The "false dilemma" deception.

This deception often presents an argument so horrible that it is an
unacceptable alternative, and the speaker's argument is presented as
the only alternative.

"Ebola virus has been accidentally released in Merryman Corporation
research facility in Maryland. One way to destroy it is to drop a
nuclear bomb on the facility. Another alternative is to accept the
proposal of the Paladin Corporation to take over supervision of the
contract granted to the Merryman Corporation. Paladin estimates that
they can decontaminate it with lethal gas for a mere ten million
dollars."

* The "domino theory" deception.

The domino theory deception makes the claim that if one thing happens
another will invariably follow.

"If South Vietnam falls to the Communists, every other nation in
Southeast Asia will follow, including Australia."

* The "two wrongs make a right" deception.

"It is all right to execute prisoners because South Africa does it
too."

Emotional tactics.

* The "attack the speaker" diversion.

This fallacy is known as the Ad Hominem fallacy.

"The mayor proposes opening a day care center for city hall employees.
The mayor was once divorced. The mayor is not competent to make family
decisions."

The mayor's willingness to please his employees and his administrative
competence are diverted with a personal attack.

* The "commonly accepted practice" deception.

This deception often is designed to make an action seem biased or
prejudicial.

"It is common practice to replace computers in business every five
years. The military even has a policy to that effect ."

* The "appeal to pity" tactic.

"If welfare recipients are required to work, many recipients will not
be able to watch television as much."

* The "infallible truth or cliche" deception.
   "This meal is not well seasoned.
   Too many cooks spoil the soup."

The emotional tactics often include cynicism or sarcasm and are used
to belittle the other person. The emotional tactics are often used to
make another person feel worthless and unloved.


 * * * * *

Argumentative Fallacies.

1. Critical Thinking and Reasoning: A Handbook for Teachers. Albany:
The University of the State of New York, 1976.


 * * * * *

REFERENCES.

Research Skills.

Edwards, Betty. _Drawing on The Right Side of The Brain_. Los Angeles:
Tarcher, Inc., 1979.

Lucas, Jerry and Harry Lorayne. _The Memory Book_. New York:
Ballantine Books, 1974.

Mindil, Phyllis. _Power Reading_. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentise Hall,
1993.

Minninger, Joan. _Total Recall -- How to Boost Your Memory Power_.
Emmaus, Pa: Rodale Press, 1984.

_Neural mechanisms of learning and memory_. Mark R. Rosenzweig and
Edward L. Bennett, eds. Cambridge, Mass. MIT Press, 1976.

Robinson, Francis P. _Effective Studying_. 4th ed. New York: Harper
and Row, 1970.

Spense, Jonathan D. _The Memory Palace of Matteo Ricci_. New
York: Penquin Books, 1984.

Spitzer, Herbert F. "Studies in Retention." _Journal of Educational
Psychology_. Vol. XXX (Dec. 1930) No. 9.


 * * * * *

Practical Problem Solving.

_Aristotle. Rhetoric and the Poetics_. F. Solmsen, ed. New York: The
Modern Library, 1954

Beyer, Barry K. "Developing a Scope and Sequence for Thinking Skills
Instruction." _Educational Leadership_ 45 (April 1988): 26-30.

"Classifying Fallacies Logically", Ludwig F. Schlecht, _Teaching
Philosophy_, March, 1991, 14:1, p.53-65

A Committee of College and University Examiners. "Educational
Objectives and Curriculum Development." _Taxonomy of Educational
Objectives -- Handbook 1: The Cognitive Domain_.  Benjamin S. Bloom,
ed. New York: David McKay Company, Inc., 1956.

A Committee of College and University Examiners. "Educational
Objectives and Curriculum Development." _Taxonomy of Educational
Objectives -- Handbook 2: The Affective Domain_.  Benjamin S. Bloom,
ed. New York: David McKay Company, Inc., 1956.

_Critical Thinking and Reasoning: A Handbook for Teachers_. Albany:
The University of the State of New York, 1976

Gingerick, Owen. "The Galileo Affair." _American Scientific_. August,
1982, #247, p.132-138.

Maslow, A. H. _Motivation and Personality_. New York: Harper and Row,
1954.


 * * * * *

Fallacies.

"Classifying Fallacies Logically", Ludwig F. Schlecht, _Teaching
Philosophy_, March, 1991, 14:1, p.53-65

Pospesel, Howard. _Argument -- Deductive Logic Exercises_. Englewood
Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1971.

Critical Thinking and Reasoning: a handbook for Teachers. Albany:
SUNY, 1976.


 * * * * *

Developing a Solution.

Gardner, Howard. _Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple
Intelligences_. New York: Basic Books, 1983.


 * * * * *

Leadership  Styles.

Fiedler, Fred E. "The Trouble With Leadership Training Is That it
Doesn't Train Leaders." _Psychology Today_ 6 (February 1973): 23-30.

Goodall, H. Lloyd, Jr. _Small Group Communications in Organizations_.
2nd ed. Dubuque, IA: Wm. C. Brown, 1990.

Schultz, Beatrice G. _Communicating in the Small Group -- Theory and
Practice_. New York: Harper and Row, 1989.

Tannenbaum, Robert and Warren H. Schmidt. "How to Choose an Leadership
Pattern." _Harvard Business Review_ 36 (March-April 1958): 95-101.

Wood, Julia T. "Leading in Purposive Discussions: A study of Adaptive
Behavior." _Communications Monographs_ 44(June 1977): 152-165.


 * * * * *

Interpersonal Problem Solving.

A Committee of College and University Examiners. "Educational
Objectives and Curriculum Development." _Taxonomy of Educational
Objectives -- Handbook 1: The Cognitive Domain_.  Benjamin S. Bloom,
ed. New York: David McKay Company, Inc., 1956.

Cline, Foster.  _Understanding and Treating the Severely Disturbed
Child. Evergreen_, CO: Evergreen Consultants in Human Behavior, 1979.

Cline, Foster.  _Learning Disorder and School Problems_. Evergreen,
CO: Evergreen Consultants in Human Behavior, 1979.

_Critical Thinking and Reasoning: A Handbook for Teachers_. Albany:
The University of the State of New York, 1976.

_Give Them Roots, The Let Them Fly: Understanding Attachment Therapy_.
Carole A. McKelvey, ed. Evergreen, Colorado: The Attachment Center at
Evergreen, Inc., 1995

Kohlberg, Lawrence. "Moral Education for a Moral Transition."
_Educational Leadership_ 32 (October 1975): 46-54.


MacLean, Paul. _Triune Concept of the Brain and Behavior_. Toronto
University of Toronto Press, 1973.

Magid, Ken and Carole A McKelvey. _High Risk: Children without a
Conscience_. New York: Bantam Books, 1987.

Maslow, A. H. _Motivation and Personality_. New York: Harper and Row,
1954.

Sagen, Carl. _The Dragons of Eden_. New York: Ballantine Books, 1977.

_Unmasking the Psychopath -- Antisocial Personality and Related
Syndromes_.  William H Reid, Darwin Dorr, John I. Walker, Jack W.
Bonner, eds. New York: W.W. Norton, 1986.

Vygotsky, Lev. _Thought and Language_. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1962.


 * * * * *

Dealing With Interpersonal Conflict.

Bobhoeffer, Dietrich. _The Cost of Discipleship_. New York: Macmillan,
1963.

_Handbook for Boys_. New York: Doubleday-Page and Co., 1911

Kubler-Ross, Elisabeth. _Death: The final stage of growth_. Englewood
Cliffs, N.J. Prentice-Hall, 1975.

Saotome, Mitsugi. _The Principles of Aikido_. Boston: Shambhala, 1989.

Stevens John. _Abundant Peace -- the Biography of Morehei Ueshiba, the
founder of Aikido_. Boston: Shambhala, 1987.

Stevens, John. _The Secrets of Aikido_. Boston: Shambhala, 1995

Turnbull, Stephen. _Samurai Warriors_. London: Blandford Press, 1987.


 * * * * *

Bibliography.

_Aristotle. Rhetoric and the Poetics_. F. Solmsen, ed. New York: The
Modern Library, 1954

Ashcroft, Leslie. "Defusing 'Empowering': The What and the Why."
_Language Arts_ 64 (February 1987): 142-156.

Barell, John. "You Asked The Wrong Questions!" _Educational
Leadership_ 42 (May 1985): 18-23.

Beyer, Barry K. "Improving Thinking Skills -- Practical Approaches."
_Phi Delta Kappan_ 65 (April 1984): 556-560.

Beyer, Barry K. "Developing a Scope and Sequence for Thinking Skills
Instruction." _Educational Leadership_ 45 (April 1988): 26-30.

Beyer, Barry K. _Developing A Thinking Skills Program_. Boston: Allyn
and Bacon, 1988.

Bobhoeffer, Dietrich. _The Cost of Discipleship_. New York: Macmillan,
1963.

Cierzniak, Suzanne Lipetska. _The Question of Critical Thinking: An
Annotated Bibliography_. Philadelphia: Franklin Institute, 1985. ERIC,
ED260 069.



Cline, Foster, MD.  _Understanding and Treating the Severely Disturbed
Child_. Evergreen, CO: Evergreen Consultants in Human Behavior, 1979

Cline, Foster.  _Learning Disorder and School Problems_. Evergreen,
CO: Evergreen Consultants in Human Behavior, 1979.

A Committee of College and University Examiners. "Educational
Objectives and Curriculum Development." _Taxonomy of Educational
Objectives -- Handbook 1: The Cognitive Domain_.  Benjamin S. Bloom,
ed. New York: David McKay Company, Inc., 1956.

A Committee of College and University Examiners. "Educational,
Objectives and Curriculum Development." _Taxonomy of Educational
Objectives -- Handbook 2: The Affective Domain_. Benjamin S. Bloom,
ed. New York: David McKay Company, Inc., 1956.

_Critical Thinking and Reasoning: A Handbook for Teachers_. Albany:
The University of the State of New York, 1976.

Dewey, John. _How We Think_. 2nd ed. Boston: D. C. Heath, 1933.

Edwards, Betty. _Drawing on The Right Side of The Brain_. Los Angeles:
Tarcher, Inc., 1979.

Ennis, Robert H. "A Concept of Critical Thinking." _Harvard
Educational Review_ 32 (Winter 1962): 81-110.

Fiedler, Fred E. "The Trouble With Leadership Training Is That it
Doesn't Train Leaders." _Psychology Today_ 6(February 1973): 23-30.

Gardner, Howard. _Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple
Intelligences_. New York: Basic Books, 1983.

_Give Them Roots, The Let Them Fly: Understanding Attachment Therapy_.
Carole A. McKelvey, ed. Evergreen, Colorado: The Attachment Center at
Evergreen, Inc., 1995

Goodall, H. Lloyd, Jr. _Small Group Communications in Organizations_.
2nd ed. Dubuque, IA: Wm. C. Brown, 1990.

Grice, George L. and M. Anway Jones. "Teaching Thinking Skills: State
Mandates and the K-12 Curriculum." _Clearing House_ 62 (April 1989):
337-341.

_Handbook for Boys_. New York: Doubleday-Page and Co., 1911

Jones, Beau Fly et al. _Teaching Thinking Skills_. Washington:
National Education Association, 1987.

King, Lean and Rita King. "Tactics for Thinking in Action."
_Educational Leadership_ 45 (April 1988): 42-44.

Kohlberg, Lawrence. "Moral Education for a Moral Transition."
_Educational Leadership_ 32 (October 1975): 46-54.

Kubler-Ross, Elisabeth. _Death: The final stage of growth_. Englewood
Cliffs, N.J. Prentice-Hall, 1975.

Lindsay, Crawford W., Jr. _Teaching Students to Teach Themselves_. New
York: Nichols Publishing, 1988.

Lozo, Fredric B. _Critical Thinking_. -- Master of Arts Thesis. Corpus
Christi, Texas: Corpus Christi State University, 1992.

Lucas, Jerry and Harry Lorayne. _The Memory Book_. New York:
Ballantine Books, 1974.

MacLean, Paul. _Triune Concept of the Brain and Behavior_. Toronto:
University of Toronto Press, 1973.

Magid,  Ken and Carole A McKelvey. _High Risk: Children without a
Conscience_. New York: Bantam Books, 1987.

Maslow, A. H. _Motivation and Personality_. New York: Harper and Row,
1954.

Miller, Angelyn. _The Enabler -- When Helping Harms the Ones You Love_.
New York Ballentine Books, 1988.

Mindil, Phyllis. _Power Reading_. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentise Hall,
1993.

Minninger, Joan. _Total Recall -- How to Boost Your Memory Power_.
Emmaus, Pa: Rodale Press, 1984.

Narode, Ronald et al. _Teaching Thinking Skills_: Science.
Philadelphia: Franklin Institute, 1987. ERIC ED320 755.

Nickerson, Raymond S. "Kinds of Thinking Taught in Current Programs."
_Educational Leadership_ 42 (September 1984): 26-36.

_Neural mechanisms of learning and memory_. Mark R. Rosenzweig and
Edward L., eds. Cambridge, Mass. MIT Press, 1976.


Paul, Richard W. "Critical Thinking: Fundamental to Education in a
Free Society." _Educational Leadership_ 42 (September 1984): 4-14.

Paul, Richard W. "Bloom's Taxonomy and Critical Thinking Instruction."
_Educational Leadership_ 42 (May 1985): 36-39.

Piaget, Jean. _Intelligence and Affectivity_: Their Relationship
during Child Development. T.A. Brown and C.E. Kaegi, eds. Palo Alto:
Annual Reviews Inc., 1981.

Presseisen, Barbara, et al. _Learning and Thinking Styles_.
Washington: National Education Association, 1990.

Presseisen, Barbara Z. _Thinking Skills_. Washington: National
Education Association, 1986.

Pospesel, Howard. _Argument -- Deductive Logic Exercises_. Englewood
Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1971.

Robinson, Francis P. _Effective Studying_. 4th ed. New York: Harper
and Row, 1970

Rose, Colin. Accelerated Learning. New York: Dell, 1985.

Rosenzweig, Mark R., Arnold L. Leiman, S. and Marc Breedlove.
_Biological psychology_. Sunderland, Mass. Sinauer Associates, 1996.

Sagen, Carl. _The Dragons of Eden_. New York: Ballantine Books, 1977.

Saotome, Mitsugi. _The Principles of Aikido_. Boston: Shambhala, 1989.

Schiever, Shirley W.  _A Comprehensive Approach to Teaching Thinking_.
Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1991.

Schlecht, Ludwig F. "Classifying Fallacies Logically." _Teaching
Philosophy_ 14 (March 1991): 53-65.

Schultz, Beatrice G. _Communicating in the Small Group -- Theory and
Practice_. new York: Harper and Row, 1989.

Spense, Jonathan D. _The Memory Palace of Matteo Ricci_. New York:
Penquin Books, 1984.

Spitzer, Herbert F. "Studies in Retention." _Journal of Educational
Psychology_. Vol. XXX (Dec. 1930) No. 9.

Sternberg, Robert J. "How Can We Teach Intelligence." _Educational
Leadership_ 42 (September 1984): 38-48.

Stevens, John.  _Abundant Peace -- the Biography of Morehei Ueshiba,
the founder of Aikido_. Boston: Shambhala, 1987

Stevens, John.  _The Secrets of Aikido_. Boston: Shambhala, 1995

Swartz, Robert J. and D.N. Perkins. _Teaching Thinking: Issues and
Approaches_. Pacific Grove, CA: Midwest Publications, 1990.

Tannenbaum, Robert and Warren H. Schmidt. "How to Choose a Leadership
Pattern." _Harvard Business Review_ 36(March-April 1958): 95-101.

_Teaching Thinking Skills: Theory and Practice_. Joan Boykoff Baron
and Robert J. Sternberg, eds. New York: W.H. Freeman, 1987.


_Thinking Skills Instruction: Concepts and techniques_. Marcia Heiman
and Joshua Sloianko, eds. Washington: National Education Association,
1987.

"Thought Prints in the Sand." _Economist_. Feb. 23, 1996: 85-86.

Turnbull, Stephen. _Samurai Warriors_. London: Blandford Press, 1987.

_Unmasking the Psychopath -- Antisocial Personality and Related
Syndromes_.  William H Reid, Darwin Dorr, John I. Walker, Jack W.
Bonner, eds. New York: W.W. Norton, 1986.

Wood, Julia T. "Leading in Purposive Discussions: A study of Adaptive
Behavior." _Communications Monographs_ 44 (June 1977): 152-165.

Vygotsky, Lev. _Thought and Language_. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1962.

Zdenek, Marilee. _The Right-Brain Experience_. New York: McGraw-Hill,
1985

Entire Periodical Issues Devoted To Critical Thinking:

_Educational Leadership_ 42 (September 1984).

_Educational Leadership_ 42 (May 1985).

_Educational Leadership_ 45 (April 1988).

_Educational Leadership_ 46 (September 1988).

_Journal of Teacher Education_ 40 (March-April 1989).

_Language Arts_ 64 (February 1987).

_Teaching Philosophy_ 14 (March 1991).


 * * * * *

Index

Ad hominem fallacy
Aggression
Aikido
Anger
Appeal to pity fallacies
Argument
Argumentative fallacies
Aristotle
Arrogance
Association
Authoritarian leadership style
Axon
Bible
Brain cells
Brainstorm
Cause and effect fallacies
Circular argument
Circularity fallacies
Commonly accepted practice fallacies
Compromise
Compulsion
Compulsive spending
Credibility fallacies
Cynicism
Decision making
Deductive fallacies
Deductive reasoning
Diplomacy
Displacement
Distortion
Domino theory fallacies
Either/or fallacies
Emotional fallacies
Emotional tactics
Enablers
Everyone rule
Exaggeration
Experimentation
External conflict
FALL
False content fallacies
False dilemma fallacies
Fear
Forgetfulness
Free association
Frustration
Gambling
Generalization fallacies
Gestation
Glial sheath
God
Grief process
Guilt by association fallacies
Hobbies
Hypothetico-deductive reasoning
Impulsiveness
Infallible truth fallacies
Intellectualization
Internal conflict
Interpersonal conflict
Interpersonal relationships
King Arthur
Knight's code
Knight's laws
Knight's motto
Kohlberg
Leadership
Left brain
Limbic system
Loaded language fallacies
Logic
Logic errors
Logic fallacies
Loneliness
Love
MacLean
Manpower
Maslow
Memorization
Memory
Memory loss
Middle Ages
Name calling fallacies
Neo-cortex
Nerve cell
Nestorian order
Outlining
Persuasive argument
Persuasive fallacies
Problem solving
Project calendar
Projection
Proverbs
Rapid reading
Reaction formation
Recall
Regression
Relaxation
Religion
Repetition
Repression
Reptilian brain
Retreat
Right brain
Samurai
Sarcasm
Self-starters
Single cause fallacies
Snob appeal fallacies
Sociopath
Soldiers
Solomon
SQ3R
Straw man fallacies
Stream of consciousness. See  brainstorm
Sublimation
Subordinate
Substance abuse
Synapses
Synthesis
Teacher
Teacher leadership style
Teamwork leadership style
Ten Commandments
Thinking skill
Triune brain
Two wrongs make a right fallacies
Unattached
Use of force
Values
Work ethic
Zen Buddhism





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