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Title: Wage Earning and Education
Author: Lutz, Rufus Rolla, 1873-
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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Charles E. Adams, Chairman
Thomas G. Fitzsimons
Myrta L. Jones
Bascom Little
Victor W. Sincere

Arthur D. Baldwin, Secretary
James R. Garfield, Counsel
Allen T. Burns, Director


Leonard P. Ayres, Director









This summary volume, entitled "Wage Earning and Education," is one of
the 25 sections of the report of the Education Survey of Cleveland
conducted by the Survey Committee of the Cleveland Foundation in 1915
and 1916. Copies of all the publications may be obtained from the
Cleveland Foundation. They may also be obtained from the Division of
Education of the Russell Sage Foundation, New York City. A complete
list will be found in the back of this volume, together with prices.


Foreword                                                        5
List of Tables                                                 10
List of Diagrams                                               12

    I. THE INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION SURVEY                         13
       Types of occupations studied                            13
       The Survey staff and methods of work                    14

   II. FORECASTING FUTURE PROBABILITIES                        18
       The popular concept of industrial education             19
       The importance of relative numbers                      20
       A constructive program must fit the facts               23
       An actuarial basis for industrial education             24

  III. THE WAGE EARNERS OF CLEVELAND                           25

       The public schools                                      29
       Ages of pupils                                          32
       Education at the time of leaving school                 34

       What the boys in school will do                         40
       Organization and costs                                  44
       What the elementary schools can do                      45

   VI. THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL                                  47
       Specialized training not practicable                    48
       A general industrial course                             49
       Industrial mathematics                                  52
       Mechanical Drawing                                      54
       Industrial science                                      55
       Shop work                                               56
       Vocational information                                  58

       The technical high schools                              62
       A two-year trade course                                 66

           FOR BOYS AND MEN AT WORK                            69
       Continuation training from 15 to 18                     74
       The technical night schools                             76
       A combined program of continuation and trade-extension
           training                                            80

   IX. VOCATIONAL TRAINING FOR GIRLS                           83
       Differentiation in the junior high school               86
       Specialized training for the sewing trades              88
       Other occupations                                       90

    X. VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE                                     92
       The work of the vocational counselor                    92
       The Girls' Vocation Bureau                              94

   XI. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS                         97


  XII. BOYS AND GIRLS IN COMMERCIAL WORK                      101
      A general view of commercial work                       106
      Bookkeeping                                             108
      Stenography                                             108
      Clerks' positions                                       109
      Wages and regularity of employment                      110
      The problem of training                                 111

 XIII. DEPARTMENT STORE OCCUPATIONS                           115
       Department stores                                      115
       Neighborhood stores                                    116
       Five and ten cent stores                               117
       Wages                                                  118
       Regularity of employment                               122
       Opportunities for advancement                          123
       The problem of training                                124
       Character of the instruction                           129

  XIV. THE GARMENT TRADES                                     131
       Characteristics of the working force                   132
       Earnings                                               135
       Regularity of employment                               139
       Training and promotion                                 140
       Educational needs                                      143
       Sewing courses in the public schools                   145
       Elective sewing courses in the junior high school      147
       A one year trade course for girls                      148
       Trade extension training                               149

   XV. DRESSMAKING AND MILLINERY                              151
       Dressmaking                                            151
       Millinery                                              153
       The problem of training                                156

  XVI. THE METAL TRADES                                       158
       Foundry and machine shop products                      159
       Automobile manufacturing                               169
       Steel works, rolling mills, and related industries     170

 XVII. THE BUILDING TRADES                                    173
       Sources of labor supply                                173
       Apprenticeship                                         174
       Union organization                                     176
       Earnings                                               176
       Hours                                                  178
       Regularity of employment                               179
       Health conditions                                      179
       Opportunities for advancement                          180
       The problem of training                                181

       Railroad transportation                                187
       Motor and wagon transportation                         192
       Street railroad transportation                         193

  XIX. THE PRINTING TRADES                                    195
       The composing room                                     198
       The pressroom                                          201
       The bindery                                            203
       Other occupations                                      204
       The problem of training                                206


TABLE                                                         PAGE
 1. Occupational distribution of the working population
      of Cleveland                                             26

 2. Nativity of the working population in Cleveland            27

 3. Pupils enrolled in the different grades of the public
      day schools in June, 1915                                30

 4. Enrollment of high school pupils, second semester,
      1914-15                                                  31

 5. Ages of pupils enrolled in public elementary, high,
      and normal schools in June, 1915                         33

 6. Educational equipment of the children who drop out
      of the public schools each year, as indicated by
      the grades from which they leave                         35

 7. Per cent of total male working population engaged in
      specified occupations, 1900 and 1910                     40

 8. Distribution of native born men between the ages of
      21 and 45 in the principal occupational groups           41

 9. Distribution of third and fourth year students in
      trade courses in the Cleveland technical high
      schools, first semester, 1915-16                         63

10. Distribution by occupations of Cleveland's technical
      school graduates                                         64

11. Time allotment in the apprentice course given by the
      Warner and Swasey Company, Cleveland                     70

12. Course and number enrolled in the technical night
      schools, January, 1915                                   77

13. Per cent of total population engaged in gainful
      occupations during three different age periods           84

14. Number employed in the principal wage earning
      occupations among each 1,000 women from 16 to 21
      years of age                                             85

15. Per cent of women employees over 18 years of age
      earning $12 a week and over                             120

16. Wages for full-time working week, women's clothing,
      Cleveland, 1915                                         139

17. Average wages for full-time working week for similar
      workers, in men's and women's clothing, Cleveland,
      1915                                                    139

18. Proportions and estimated numbers employed in machine
      tool occupations, 1915                                  161

19. Average, highest, and lowest earnings, in cents per
      hour, and per cent employed on piece work and day
      work, 1915                                              162

20. Estimated time required to learn machine tool work        164

21. Average earnings per hour in pattern making, molding,
      core making, blacksmithing, and boiler making           166

22. Estimated number of men engaged in building trades,
      1915                                                    174

23. Union regulations as to entering age of apprentice        175

24. Union regulations as to length of apprenticeship
      period                                                  175

25. Union scale of wages in cents per hour, May 1, 1915       177

26. Usual weekly wages of apprentices in three building
      trades                                                  178

27. Average daily earnings of job and newspaper composing
      room workers, 1915                                      199

28. Average daily earnings of pressroom workers, 1915         202

29. Average daily earnings of bindery workers, 1915           203

30. Average daily earnings in photoengraving, stereotyping,
      electrotyping, and lithographing occupations, 1915      205


DIAGRAM                                                       PAGE
 1. Boys and girls under 18 years of age in office work       103

 2. Men and women 18 years of age and over in clerical
      and administrative work in offices                      104

 3. Per cent of women earning each class of weekly wages
      in each of six occupations                              119

 4. Per cent of salesmen and of men clerical workers in
      stores, receiving each class of weekly wage             121

 5. Per cent of male workers in non-clerical positions in
      six industries earning $18 per week and over            122

 6. Per cent that the average number of women employed
      during the year is of the highest number employed
      in each of six industries                               123

 7. Distribution of 8,337 clothing workers by sex in the
      principal occupations in the garment industry           134

 8. Percentage of women in men's and women's clothing and
      seven other important women employing industries
      receiving under $8, $8 to $12, and $12 and over
      per week                                                136

 9. Percentage of men in men's and women's clothing and
      seven other manufacturing industries receiving
      under $18, $18 to $25, and $25 and over per week        138

10. Average number of unemployed among each 100 workers,
      men's clothing, women's clothing, and fifteen
      other specified industries                              141

11. Percentages of unemployment in each of nine building
      industries                                              180

12. Number of men in each 100 in printing and five other
      industries earning each class of weekly wage            196

13. Number of women in each 100 in printing and six other
      industries earning each class of weekly wage            198




The education survey of Cleveland was undertaken in April, 1915, at
the invitation of the Cleveland Board of Education and the Survey
Committee of the Cleveland Foundation, and continued until June, 1916.
As a part of the work detailed studies were made of the leading
industries of the city for the purpose of determining what measures
should be taken by the public school system to prepare young people
for wage-earning occupations and to provide supplementary trade
instruction for those already in employment. The studies also dealt
with all forms of vocational education conducted at that time under
public school auspices.


Separate studies were made of the metal industry, building and
construction, printing and publishing, railroad and street
transportation, clothing manufacture, department store work, and
clerical occupations. The wage-earners in these fields of employment
constitute nearly 60 per cent of the total number of persons engaged
in gainful occupations and include 95 per cent of the skilled workmen
in the city. The survey also gave considerable attention to the
various types of semi-skilled work found in the principal industries.

Each separate study was assigned to a particular member of the Survey
Staff who personally carried on the field investigations and later
submitted a report to the director of the survey. Each report was also
subjected to careful analysis and criticism from other members of the
Survey Staff before it was finally passed upon by the Survey
Committee. Mimeographed copies were sent to representatives of the
industry and to the superintendent of schools and members of the
school board and their criticisms and suggestions were given careful
consideration before the Committee and the director of the survey gave
their final approval to the publication of the report. The value of
the work was greatly enhanced through the ample discussion of the
different studies from widely diverse points of view secured in this
way. The industrial studies were carried through under the direction
of the author of this summary volume.


The reports of the studies relating to vocational education were
published in a series of eight separate monograph volumes. The names
of the reports and the previous experience in educational and
investigational work of each member of the Survey Staff are as

  "Boys and Girls in Commercial Work"--Bertha M. Stevens; teacher
  in elementary and secondary schools; agent of Associated
  Charities; secretary of Consumers' League of Ohio; director of
  Girls' Bureau of Cleveland; author of "Women's Work in
  Cleveland"; co-author of "Commercial Work and Training for

  "Department Store Occupations"--Iris P. O'Leary; head of manual
  training department, First Pennsylvania Normal School; head of
  vocational work for girls and women, New Bedford Industrial
  School; head of girls' department, Boardman Apprentice Shops, New
  Haven, Conn.; special investigator of department stores for New
  York State Factory Investigating Commission; three years' trade
  experience as employer and employee; author of books on household
  arts and department stores; Special Assistant for Vocational
  Education, State Department of Public Instruction, New Jersey.

  "The Garment Trades" and "Dressmaking and Millinery"--Edna Bryner;
  teacher in grades, high school, and state normal college; eugenic
  research worker New Jersey State Hospital; statistical expert in
  United States Bureau of Labor Investigation of women and child
  labor; statistical agent United States Post Office Department;
  Special Agent Russell Sage Foundation.

  "The Building Trades," and "The Printing Trades"--Frank L. Shaw;
  teacher in grades and high school; principal of high school;
  assistant superintendent of schools; superintendent of schools;
  special agent United States Immigration Commission; special agent
  United States Census; industrial secretary North American Civic
  League for Immigrants; author of reports on immigration

  "The Metal Trades"--R.R. Lutz; teacher in rural and graded
  schools; superintendent of schools; secretary of Department of
  Education of Porto Rico; took part in school surveys of Greenwich,
  Conn., Bridgeport, Conn., Springfield, Ill., Richmond, Va.;
  Special Agent Division of Education, Russell Sage Foundation.

  "Railroad and Street Transportation"--Ralph D. Fleming; special
  agent and investigator for United States Immigration Commission,
  the Federal Census of Manufacturers, the United States Tariff
  Board, the Minimum Wage Commission of Massachusetts, the National
  Civic Federation, and the United States Commission on Industrial

The work began in April, 1915, and ended in the same month of the
following year. Two members of the staff, with one stenographer and a
clerk, were employed during the entire period. One member of the staff
was employed 11 months, one nine months, one approximately five
months, and one two months.

The field investigations consisted largely of visits to industrial
establishments for the purpose of securing first-hand information as
to industrial conditions and the nature and educational content of
particular occupations. Over 400 visits of this kind were made by
members of the Survey Staff. Many conferences were held with employers
and employees with the object of securing their views as to the needs
and possibilities of industrial training.

The task of tabulating and classifying the data obtained by the
individual investigators in their visits to the local industrial
establishments involved much time and labor. Although it was not found
practicable to maintain complete uniformity in the different
inquiries, the members of the staff kept in close touch with each
other, so that with respect to the points of principal importance, the
results of their investigations are comparable. Practically every
recommendation made in the reports was discussed in conferences with
school principals and with other members of the teaching force engaged
in the teaching of vocational subjects.

Throughout the survey the objective held constantly in mind was the
formulation of a constructive program of vocational training in the
public schools. In outlining the field of inquiry a clear distinction
was drawn between those kinds of general education which have a more
or less indirect vocational significance, and vocational training for
specific occupations in which the controlling purpose is direct
preparation for wage-earning. The studies were purposely limited to
this latter type of vocational training. The survey did not concern
itself with manual training conducted for general educational ends,
with the art work of the schools, or with courses in domestic science
and household arts. These subjects in the curriculum were dealt with
in different sections of the education survey, but were considered as
being outside the legitimate field of the vocational survey.



The industrial education survey of Cleveland differs from other
studies conducted elsewhere in that it bases its educational program
on a careful study of the probable future occupational distribution of
the young people now in school. It does not claim to foretell the
specific positions that individual boys and girls will hold when they
are adults but it does claim very definitely that our safest guide in
foretelling their future vocational distribution is to be found in the
official figures of the present occupational census of the city.

One of the most familiar and time-worn platitudes of educational
speakers and writers is that "The children of today are the citizens
of tomorrow." In the field of industrial education it is quite as true
that the school children of today are the workers of tomorrow.
Moreover, since occupational distributions change but slowly even in
these modern times, it is unquestionably true that the boys and girls
now studying in the public schools will soon be scattered among the
different gainful occupations of Cleveland's industrial, commercial,
and professional life in just about the same proportions as their
fathers and mothers and brothers and sisters are now distributed.

The plan of the survey in advocating types of present preparation
based on studies of future prospects seems at first sight so obvious a
mode of procedure as hardly to warrant extended explanation. This is
far from being the case. The reader who proposes to follow the
working-out of the principle and to scrutinize the evidence underlying
it must be prepared to scan many a detailed table of statistics and to
arrive at most unforeseen conclusions.


For many years past the public has given respectful attention to the
arguments of the champions of industrial education. There has been
general assent to the proposition that the schools should train for
and not away from the industrial age in which we live. We have come to
think of the carpenter shop, the machine shop, the forge shop, and the
cooking room as necessary and desirable adjuncts of the modern school
and to our minds these shops have typified industrial education. All
of these have come to be almost synonymous with progressive thought
and action in public education. Very generally it has been felt that
the problems of industrial education were to be solved through the
wider extension of these shop facilities in our public schools.

When these familiar generalizations are submitted to careful analysis
their whole structure begins to totter. In Cleveland about 3,700 boys
leave school each year and go to work. They represent various stages
of advancement from the 4th grade of the elementary school to the 4th
year of the high school. They are scattered through more than 100
school buildings. The problem of industrial education is to give these
boys with their differing ages, their widely varied school
preparation, and their scattered geographical distribution, the best
possible preparation for taking their places in the work-a-day world.
They represent every grade of intelligence, every stratum of social
and economic life, and it is extremely difficult to bring them
together for instructional purposes. They are scattered in little
groups through more than a thousand classrooms.


Now it is possible to foretell with some certainty what these young
people will be doing a few years from now. Almost all of them are of
American birth and it is certain that in a few years they will be
engaged in doing just about the same sorts of work as are now done in
the city of Cleveland by adults of American birth. The data of the
United States Census of Occupations show us that among every 100
American born men in Cleveland there are eight who are clerks, seven
who are machinists, four who are salesmen, and so on through the list
of hundreds of occupations. The number of American born men in each
100 engaged in each of the 10 leading sorts of occupations is
approximately as follows:

      Clerks                           8
      Machinists                       7
      Salesmen                         4
      Laborers and porters             4
      Retail dealers                   4
      Draymen, teamsters, etc.         4
      Bookkeepers                      3
      Carpenters                       3
      Commercial travelers             2
      Manufacturers                    2

This simple list at once calls into question all the standard
assumptions about the extension of industrial education depending on
greatly increasing the number of carpenter shops and machine shops in
the public schools. The figures show that among each 100 American born
men in Cleveland only seven are machinists and only three are
carpenters. Clearly we should not be justified in training all the
boys in our public schools to enter the machinist's trade or the
carpenter's trade when nine out of each 10 will in all probability
engage in entirely different sorts of future work. The more the
figures of the little table given above are studied, the clearer it
appears that our conventional ideas about industrial education need
critical scrutiny and careful challenge. These 10 leading occupations
include only 41 out of each 100 American born men. Moreover, more than
half of these 41 are engaged in mental work rather than in manual

From these considerations one definite conclusion inevitably emerges.
It is that the safest guide for thinking and planning for industrial
education is to be found in a study of the occupational distribution
of the present adults. From the very outset such a study indicates
that the most difficult and important problems which must be met and
coped with are not those relating to methods of instruction but rather
those of organization and administration. The future carpenters and
machinists cannot be taught until we can get them together in fair
sized classes. They represent the most numerous of the industrial
groups and yet their numbers are relatively so few that the average
Cleveland school sends out into the world each year only two or three
future machinists and perhaps one future carpenter.

The trouble with present thinking about this matter has been that we
have noted the very large numbers of machinists and carpenters in the
population and have failed to realize that while these groups are
numerous in the aggregate they are after all quite small when
relatively considered and compared with the total number of workers.

Another important fact that has been almost invariably overlooked is
that many of the present carpenters and machinists are foreigners by
birth and that there is every prospect that this same condition will
maintain in the future. Hence these trades and most other industrial
occupations are not recruited from our public schools to anything like
the degree that has been assumed.


The simple principle which underlies the method employed by the survey
is the same on which all large business undertakings are conducted.
The results of its application in the field of industrial education
are, however, fundamentally different from those commonly arrived at
on the assumption that nine-tenths of the rising generation will earn
their living in industrial pursuits. The fact is that no such
proportion of the children in school will become industrial workers.
All the native born labor now employed in manufacturing and mechanical
industries constitutes only 44 per cent of the total number of native
born workers in the city. Moreover, nearly half of the industrial
workers are employed in unskilled and semi-skilled occupations for
which no training is required beyond a few days' or weeks' practice on
the job. Such training calls for a mechanical equipment far more
extensive than the resources of the school system can provide, and can
be given by the factory more effectively and much more cheaply than by
the schools.

In the final analysis, the problem of industrial training narrows down
to the skilled industrial trades. Approximately 22 per cent of the
total number of American workers in the city are employed in skilled
manual occupations. This does not mean that a constructive program of
industrial education would affect 22 per cent of the present school
enrollment. All the weight of educational opinion and experience is on
the side of excluding the children of the lower and middle age groups
as too young to profit by any sort of industrial training, while the
evidence collected by the survey goes to show that of the remainder
less than one-fifth of the girls and one-fourth of the boys are likely
to become skilled industrial workers.


Considerations like the foregoing have determined the fundamental
method of the Cleveland Industrial Survey. Plans for the present
generation have been formulated on the basis of future prospects as
foretold by state and federal census data. The methods used were
characterized by a member of the Cleveland Foundation Survey Committee
as "the actuarial basis of vocational education." This is accurately
descriptive, because the method of forecasting the number of men the
community will need for each wage-earning occupation closely resembles
that employed by life insurance actuaries in foretelling how long men
of different ages are likely to live. Such methods are similar to
those commonly used in commerce and industry. They deal with mass data
rather than with individual figures, and with relative values rather
than with absolute ones.



In 1910 Cleveland ranked sixth among the cities of the United States
as to number of inhabitants, with a population of approximately
561,000. The city is growing rapidly. From 1900 to 1910 the increase
in the total number of inhabitants was over 46 per cent. The Census
Bureau estimate of the population in 1914 is approximately 639,000.

Of the 10 largest cities in the country only one--Detroit--had in 1910
a greater proportion of its wage earners engaged in industrial
employment than Cleveland. Relatively Cleveland has one and one-fourth
times as many industrial workers as New York, Chicago, St. Louis, or
Baltimore, and one and two-fifths times as many as Boston. On the
other hand a smaller proportion of the adult workers of the city earn
their living in professional, clerical, and commercial work, or in
domestic and personal service employments than in most large cities.

Table 1 shows by large occupational groups the distribution in 1910 of
the working population in Cleveland. The classification is that
adopted by the federal census. More than 56 per cent of the male
workers of the city and about 33 per cent of the women workers were
engaged in manufacturing and mechanical occupations. The trade group
ranks next, about 14 per cent of the men and approximately 11 per cent
of the women being engaged in commercial occupations. Of each 100
women in employment 30 are servants, laundresses, housekeepers, or are
engaged in some other form of personal service, while only five men of
each 100 earn their living in this kind of work. Railroad and street
transportation, with the telegraph and telephone and mail systems of
communication, requires the services of 11 per cent of the male
working population, but uses very few women. About seven per cent of
the men and 15 per cent of the women are employed in clerical work. A
slightly larger ratio of women to men is found in the professional
occupations, due mainly to the large number of women in the teaching
profession. The whole professional group constitutes less than five
per cent of the total working population.


Occupational group                      |   Men   | Women  |  Total
Manufacturing and mechanical industries | 109,644 | 18,201 | 127,845
Trade                                   |  27,229 |  5,942 |  33,171
Domestic and personal service           |   9,546 | 16,467 |  26,063
Transportation                          |  21,530 |  1,110 |  22,640
Clerical occupations                    |  14,047 |  8,100 |  22,147
Professional service                    |   7,204 |  4,869 |  12,073
Public service                          |   3,461 |     39 |   3,500
Agricultural and extraction of minerals |   1,367 |     80 |   1,447
Total                                   | 194,078 | 54,808 | 248,886

From the standpoint of vocational training one of the most striking
facts about Cleveland wage-earners is that a large majority of them
are not Clevelanders. Almost exactly half of the men in gainful
employment were born outside the United States and, due to the rapid
growth of the city, there has been a considerable influx of workers
from the surrounding country in recent years, so that a large
proportion even of the American working population was born, brought
up, and educated in some other place. The number and per cent of
foreign born, of foreign or mixed parentage but born in this country,
and of native parentage is shown in Table 2.

CENSUS, 1910

                            |       Men         |      Women
Nativity                    | Number | Per cent | Number |Per cent
Foreign born                | 96,291 |    50    | 16,673 |   31
Foreign or mixed parentage  | 55,074 |    28    | 24,275 |   44
Native parentage            | 42,713 |    22    | 13,860 |   25
Total                       |194,078 |   100    | 54,808 |  100

More than three-fourths are foreign or of foreign or mixed parentage.
The proportion of those born in this country of American parentage is
approximately the same for both sexes, but the number of women workers
of mixed parentage is relatively much larger than among the men.
Roughly, of each 10 men employed in gainful occupations, five, and of
each 10 working women, three, were born abroad.

The large proportion of foreigners in the trades has an important
bearing on the problem of vocational training. Some of the skilled
occupations are monopolized by foreign labor to such an extent that
they offer a very limited field of employment for native workmen.
Cabinet making, tailoring, molding, blacksmithing, baking, and shoe
making, are examples. Some of these trades have practically ceased to
recruit from American labor. This condition has to be constantly borne
in mind in planning training courses to prepare boys for the skilled
trades, because of the marked disparity which often exists between the
size of a trade and the field of opportunity it presents for boys of
native birth.



In 1915 there were in Cleveland approximately 50,000 boys between the
ages of six and 15, and 56,000 girls between the ages of six and 16,
the age period during which school attendance is required by law. Of
these 106,000 children approximately 37,000 boys and 38,000 girls were
enrolled in the public schools. Exact data as to those attending
private and parochial schools are not available. The total enrollment
in such schools has been variously estimated as between 25,000 and


The public school system in 1915 enrolled approximately 82,000
children of all ages, of whom about half were boys and half girls.
They are taught in 98 elementary schools and 10 high schools. The
elementary course comprises eight grades. At the beginning of the
school year 1915-16 two junior high schools were opened for pupils of
the seventh and eighth grades. It is to be expected that this plan
will soon be extended throughout the city, so that the enrollment in
elementary schools will be made up of pupils of the first six grades
only. The distribution by grade is given in Table 3. The kindergarten
grades and the special ungraded classes are omitted.


        Grade      |        Pupils
          1        |        13,108
          2        |        10,857
          3        |        10,562
          4        |         9,323
          5        |         8,902
          6        |         7,259
          7        |         6,429
          8        |         4,903
          I        |         3,122
         II        |         2,100
        III        |         1,534
         IV        |         1,399

About 77 per cent of the children are enrolled in the grades below the
seventh, about 13 per cent in the seventh and eighth grades, a little
over six per cent in the first two years of the high school, and less
than three and one-half per cent in the third and fourth.

There are eight academic high schools, two technical high schools, and
two commercial high schools. The technical high schools are steadily
growing in favor. The registration of boys in these schools increased
about 33 per cent from 1913 to 1915, and of girls about 77 per cent.
During the same period the registration of boys in the academic high
schools decreased slightly, while the increase of girl students was
only eight per cent; in the commercial high schools the number of
girl students increased 20 per cent, while the enrollment of boys fell
off more than 10 per cent. The enrollment by individual schools is
shown in Table 4.


                                  |         Enrollment          |
 Schools                          +---------+---------+---------+
                                  |   Boys  |  Girls  |  Total  |
                                  |         |         |         |
 Academic high schools            |         |         |         |
   Central                        |   804   |   711   |  1,515  |
   East                           |   607   |   688   |  1,295  |
   Glenville                      |   405   |   611   |  1,016  |
   West                           |   246   |   377   |    623  |
   Lincoln                        |   277   |   329   |    606  |
   South                          |   213   |   238   |    451  |
                                  |         |         |         |
   Total                          | 2,552   | 2,954   |  5,506  |
                                  |         |         |         |
 Technical high schools           |         |         |         |
   East Technical                 |  1,161  |   548   |  1,709  |
   West Technical                 |    515  |   242   |    757  |
                                  |         |         |         |
   Total                          |  1,676  |   790   |  2,466  |
                                  |         |         |         |
 Commercial high schools          |         |         |         |
   West Commercial                |    249  |   528   |    777  |
   East Commercial                |     49  |    96   |    145  |
                                  |         |         |         |
   Total                          |    298  |   624   |    922  |
                                  |         |         |         |
 All high schools                 |  4,526  | 4,368   |  8,894  |
                                  |         |         |         |

About three-eighths of the high school pupils of the city are in the
technical and commercial schools. Of the boys 56 per cent are enrolled
in the academic high schools, 37 per cent in the technical schools,
and seven per cent in the commercial schools. Of the girls 68 per
cent attend the academic high schools, 18 per cent the technical
schools, and 14 per cent the commercial schools. In the commercial
high school approximately two-thirds of the enrollment is made up of
girls. In the technical high schools the opposite condition prevails,
the girls constituting less than one-third of the total enrollment,
while in the academic high schools the girls outnumber the boys by
nearly one-sixth.


The distribution as to ages is shown in Table 5. The largest group is
made up of children seven years old. Between 14 and 15 over 30 per
cent leave school. The loss from 16 to 17 is approximately 43 per
cent, from 17 to 18 about 44 per cent, and from 18 to 19 nearly 62 per

The compulsory attendance law requires boys to attend school until
they are 15 and girls until they are 16. That the law is not
adequately enforced is demonstrated by the heavy loss between the ages
of 14 and 15, and the fact that the loss between 15 and 16 is
approximately the same for both boys and girls, although girls are
required to attend one year longer than boys. Additional evidence as
to the laxity in the enforcement of the compulsory law is found in the
results of an inquiry conducted by the Consumers' League of Cleveland
in the spring of 1916, in cooperation with the survey.


    Age      |   Boys    |   Girls   |   Total
     6       |   4,255   |   4,180   |   8,435
     7       |   5,012   |   4,815   |   9,827
     8       |   4,496   |   4,407   |   8,903
     9       |   4,268   |   4,103   |   8,371
    10       |   4,093   |   3,951   |   8,044
             |           |           |
    11       |   3,747   |   3,593   |   7,340
    12       |   3,700   |   3,646   |   7,346
    13       |   3,676   |   3,631   |   7,307
    14       |   3,445   |   3,271   |   6,716
    15       |   2,358   |   2,291   |   4,649
             |           |           |
    16       |   1,190   |   1,163   |   2,353
    17       |     672   |     680   |   1,352
    18       |     403   |     358   |     761
    19       |     135   |     156   |     291
    20       |      41   |      52   |      93
             |           |           |
   Over 20   |     ...   |      22   |      22
    Total    |  41,491   |  40,319   |  81,810

An attempt was made to follow up the cases of all the children who had
left one public elementary school during the period of one year
preceding the study. The work was done by the case method and the
homes of the children were visited. The total number of cases studied
was 117, of whom 89 were girls. It was found that one-third of these
children had graduated and gone on to high school. Another third had
gone to work, and of these, 40 per cent had done so without
graduating. The children constituting the remaining third were staying
at home, and among these a majority had dropped out without

Of the eighth grade graduates one-half were found to be illegally
employed, as they were less than 16 years of age. Among those who
dropped out and went to work before completing the course 80 per cent
were illegally employed.

The fact that many girls drop out without graduating and before the
end of the legal attendance period and remain at home indicates that
most of them do not leave on account of financial necessity. This
conclusion is substantiated by the testimony of the girls and their
parents, many of whom say that the girls left simply because they grew
tired of attending and did not see the value of remaining.

These facts point to the necessity for much more effective work in
enforcing the compulsory attendance laws, for far better inspection of
shops and factories to detect violations of the child labor laws, and
above all to such a reform of the schooling opportunities provided for
older girls as will make them and their parents see the value of
securing the advantages of the training provided.


About 3,700 boys and an approximately equal number of girls drop out
of the public schools each year. Most of the boys and a considerable
number of the girls enter wage-earning at once. Their educational
equipment at the time of leaving school is indicated in Table 6.


     Grade    |    Number leaving
       4      |           70
       5      |          440
       6      |          960
       7      |         1260
       8      |         1630
       I      |          890
      II      |          590
     III      |          150
      IV      |         1410
     Total    |         7400

Slightly less than one-fifth finish the high school course. Nearly
three-fifths drop out before entering the high school, and
approximately three-eighths before reaching the eighth grade.

Under the present compulsory attendance law a boy who enters school at
the age of six and afterwards advances at the rate of one grade per
year until the end of the compulsory attendance period should cover
nine grades--eight in the elementary school and one in high school--by
the time he is 15 years old. In actual fact, however, only about
two-fifths get any high school training. Nearly all of the rest take
the eight to nine years' attendance required by law to complete eight,
seven, six, or even a smaller number of grades.

It is from this body of pupils that most of the wage-earners are
recruited. In the course of the survey several investigations were
made for the purpose of finding out what educational preparation
workers in various industries had received. One of the most extensive
of these was conducted in connection with the study of the printing
industry. Educationally the printing trades rank higher than most
other factory occupations, yet the average journeyman printer
possesses less than a complete elementary education. Composing-room
employees, such as compositors, linotypers, stonemen, proof-readers,
etc., undoubtedly stand at the head of the skilled trades as to
educational training, but it was found that only eight per cent were
high school graduates. Six per cent had left school before reaching
the seventh grade, and 16 per cent before reaching the eighth grade.
The other departments of the printing industry made a much less
favorable showing.

An investigation conducted by the Survey in the spring of 1915,
covering 5,000 young people at work under 21 years of age, indicated
that only about 13 per cent of these young workers had received any
high school training and that less than four per cent had completed a
high school course. Over one-fifth reported the sixth grade as the
last completed before leaving school, and nearly half had dropped out
before completing the elementary course. Less than seven per cent of
the boys engaged in industrial pursuits had received any high school
training and only 42 per cent had got beyond the seventh grade. The
educational preparation of the boys engaged in commercial and
clerical occupations was somewhat better, nearly 22 per cent having
attended high school one year or more; about one-half had left school
after completing the eighth grade and nearly one-third had not
completed the elementary course.

These facts have a vital relation to the problem of vocational
training. If the great majority of the children who will later enter
wage-earning occupations do not remain in school beyond the end of the
compulsory attendance period, and in addition over half fail to
complete even the elementary course, vocational training, to reach
them at all, must begin not later than the seventh grade, and if
possible, before the pupils reach the age of 14.



In Chapter III the distribution of the wage-earners of the city was
outlined, mainly for the purpose of establishing a basis on which to
make a forecast of the future occupations of the children in the
public schools. Such a forecast is essential as the preliminary step
in any plan of vocational training to be carried out during the school
period, for the reason that without it a clear understanding of the
principal factors of the problem is impossible. The kinds of
vocational training needed by children in school, and how and where
such training should be given, must always depend in the first
instance on what they are going to do when they grow up.

The average elementary school in Cleveland enrolls between 350 and 400
boys. When they leave school these boys will scatter into many
different kinds of work. With respect to the future vocations of the
pupils, the average school represents in a sense a cross section of
the occupational activities of the city. It contains a certain number
of recruits for each of the principal types of wage-earning pursuits.
A few of the boys will later enter professional life; many will take
up some sort of clerical work; a still larger number will be employed
in commercial occupations; and the largest group of all will become
wage-earners in manufacturing and mechanical pursuits.

The future occupation cannot be foretold accurately with respect to
any particular boy, but we do know that, whatever their individual
tastes and abilities, the boys must finally engage in activities
similar to those in which the adult born native male population is
engaged, and in approximately the same proportions. We do not know,
for example, whether Johnny Jones will become a doctor or a carpenter,
but we do know that of each 1,000 boys in the public schools about
seven will become doctors and about 25 will become carpenters, because
for many years about those proportions of the boys of native birth in
Cleveland have become doctors and carpenters.

One of the most impressive facts which comes to light in the study of
occupational statistics is the constancy in these proportions. The
business of any community requires certain kinds of work to be
performed and the relative amount of work required and consequently
the relative number of workers vary but slightly over a long period of
time. This principle is illustrated in a striking way by the list of
occupations selected at random presented in Table 7, showing the
number of persons engaged in the occupations specified among each 100
male workers at two successive census years.


                            |  Per cent of total
   Occupation               |  working population
                            |   1900   |   1910
Machinists                  |    4.7   |    5.8
Saloon keepers              |    1.1   |     .7
Tailors                     |    2.1   |    1.7
Commercial travelers        |     .8   |    1.1
Lawyers                     |     .5   |     .4
Barbers                     |     .8   |     .7
Bakers                      |     .6   |     .5
Physicians                  |     .6   |     .5
Carpenters                  |    3.4   |    3.3
Cabinet makers              |     .5   |     .4
Plumbers                    |     .9   |     .9
Stenographers and typists   |     .3   |     .3

With the exception of plumbers and stenographers there was either an
increase or a decrease from 1900 to 1910 in the relative number
employed in each of these occupations. In only one occupation,
however, that of machinist, did the change amount to as much as one
per cent. In all the others the shift during the decade was less than
one-half of one per cent, and in more than three-fifths of them it did
not exceed one-tenth of one per cent of the total number of male


The figures in this table, presented for illustrative purposes, do not
accurately represent the proportions of boys now attending the public
schools who are likely to enter the occupations named, because they
do not take into account the fact that a considerable number of the
workers in Cleveland came to this country after they reached adult
manhood and that a disproportionate number of these foreign born
workers enter the industrial occupations. For this reason the total
adult working population is not strictly comparable with the school
enrollment, which is approximately nine-tenths native born. When the
boys in the public schools grow up they will be distributed among the
different trades, professions, and industries in about the same
proportions as are the American born men in the city at the present
time. This distribution is shown for the different occupational groups
in Table 8.


  Occupational group                          per cent

Manufacturing and mechanical occupations         44
Commercial occupations                           20
Clerical occupations                             16
Transportation occupations                       11
Domestic and personal service occupations         5
Professional occupations                          3
Public service occupations                        1
  Total                                         100

The figures in the column at the right of the table represent the
number of native born men between the ages of 21 and 45 among each
hundred native born male inhabitants engaged in the occupations
comprehended in the various groups. In the case of the industrial
group the figure is too high, as the census data relative to the
distribution of foreign and native born include all ages, and there is
a smaller proportion of American born adult men employed in industry
than is found in the lower age groups. Extensive computations have
shown, however, that the inaccuracies due to this cause are not
serious enough to affect the use of the figures for our purpose.

Let us now consider what these proportions mean in establishing
vocational courses to prepare boys for wage-earning pursuits. The
future expectations of the boys in a large elementary school enrolling
say 1,000 pupils of both sexes would be about as follows:

_Number of boys who will enter_
    Manufacturing and mechanical occupations             220
    Commercial occupations                               100
    Clerical occupations                                  80
    Transportation occupations                            55
    Domestic and personal service occupations             25
    Professional occupations                              15
    Public service occupations                             5
        Total                                            500

This distribution includes all pupils, from the beginners in the first
grade to the older boys in the seventh and eighth grades. It is
certain, however, that differentiated instruction for vocational
purposes is not possible or advisable for the younger children.
According to the commonly accepted view among educators, vocational
training should not be undertaken before the age of 12 years, and many
believe that this is too early. In an elementary school of 1,000
pupils there would be about 80 boys 12 years old and over. Applying
to this number the ratios given in the previous table we obtain the

_Number of boys who will enter_
    Manufacturing and mechanical occupations              35
    Commercial occupations                                16
    Clerical occupations                                  13
    Transportation occupations                             9
    Domestic and personal service occupations              4
    Professional occupations                               2
    Public service occupations                             1
        Total                                             80

The industrial group includes all of the skilled trades and most of
the semi-skilled and unskilled manual occupations. The skilled trades
are usually grouped in four main classifications: metal trades,
building trades, printing trades, and "other" trades, these last
comprising a number of small trades in each of which relatively few
men are employed. With respect to their future occupations the 35 boys
in the industrial group are likely to be distributed about as follows:

_Number of boys who will enter_
   Metal trades                                            8
   Building trades                                         7
   Printing trades                                         1
   Other trades                                            2
   Semi-skilled and unskilled industrial occupations      17

The analysis can be carried still further, for these trade groups are
by no means homogeneous. The building trades, for example, include
over 20 distinct trades, a number of which have little in common with
the others as to methods of work and technical content.


At this point it becomes necessary to take cognizance of certain
administrative factors which have a marked bearing on the problem.
They relate to the organization of classes in elementary schools and
the cost of teaching. In a school of 1,000 pupils there would be at
least five separate classes for the seventh and eighth grades. The 35
boys who need industrial training are not all found in a single class,
but are distributed more or less evenly throughout the five
classrooms, that is, there are approximately seven in each class. A
differentiated course under these conditions is difficult if not
impossible. In a few of the Cleveland elementary schools the
departmental system of teaching is in use. Under this plan something
might be done, were it not that the total number of pupils requiring
instruction relating specifically to the industrial trades is too
small to justify the expense necessary for equipment, material, and
special instruction required for such training. This is true as
regards even an industrial course of the most general kind, while
provision for particular trades is entirely out of the question. The
machinist's trade employs more men than any other occupation in the
city, yet the number of seventh and eighth grade boys in the average
elementary school who will probably become machinists does not exceed
five or six. Not over two boys are likely to enter employment in the
printing industry. The smaller trades, such as pattern making, cabinet
making, molding, and blacksmithing are represented by not more than
one boy each.

A possible alternative is the plan now followed in the teaching of
manual training whereby the boys of the upper grades in various
elementary schools are sent to one centrally located for a short
period of instruction each week. The principal objection to this plan
is that the amount of time now given is insufficient to accomplish
much in an industrial course, nor can it be materially increased
without seriously interfering with the work in other subjects.

The first condition for successful industrial training is the
concentration of a large number of pupils old enough to benefit by
such training in a single school plant. Only in this way is it
possible to bring the cost of teaching, equipment, and material within
reasonable limits and provide facilities for differentiating the work
on the basis of the vocational needs of the pupils. The fact that this
condition cannot be met in elementary schools is one of the strongest
arguments in favor of conducting the seventh and eighth grade work
under the junior high school form of organization.


The most important contribution to vocational education the elementary
school can make consists in getting the children through the lower
grades fast enough so that they will reach the junior high school by
the time they are 13 years old, in order that before the end of the
compulsory attendance period they may spend at least two years in a
school where some kind of industrial training is possible. That this
is not being done at the present time the data presented in Chapter IV
amply demonstrate. In recent years there has been a tendency to regard
vocational training as a remedy for retardation. The fact is that the
cure of retardation is not a subsequent but a preliminary condition to
successful training for wage-earning. Vocational training is not a
means for the prevention of retardation, but retardation is a most
effective means for the prevention of vocational training.



In 1915 the Board of Education authorized the establishment of a
system of junior high schools in the city, and at the beginning of the
school year of 1915-16 the new plan was inaugurated in two schools.
The Empire Junior High School, situated in the eastern part of the
city, had an enrollment of about 700 children made up of seventh and
eighth grade pupils formerly accommodated in the elementary schools of
that section. The Detroit Junior High School on the west side had an
enrollment of about 400 pupils. No decision has yet been reached as to
whether the course shall include only two years' work, or three years,
as in other cities of the country where the junior high school plan
has been adopted.

A comparison of the course with that for corresponding grades of the
elementary schools shows some marked differences. Less time is devoted
to English in the junior high school and considerably more to
arithmetic, geography, and history. Mechanical drawing, not taught in
the elementary schools except incidentally in the manual training
classes, is given an hour each week. All boys receive one hour of
manual training a week against slightly less than one and one-half
hours in the seventh and eighth elementary grades, but they may elect
an additional two and one-half hours a week in this subject, together
with applied arithmetic during the first year, or with bookkeeping
during the second. Girls may elect an additional two and one-half
hours a week of domestic science, with bookkeeping. The manual
training for boys comprises woodwork and bookbinding.


In the junior high school, as in the elementary school, the greatest
difficulty in the way of trade training for specific occupations lies
in the small number of pupils who can be expected, within the bounds
of reasonable probability, to enter a single trade. Hand and machine
composition, the largest of the printing trades, will serve as an
example. In a junior high school of 1,000 pupils, boys and girls, the
number of boys who are likely to become compositors is about five. But
to teach this trade printing equipment occupying considerable space is
necessary, together with a teacher who has had some experience or
training as a printer. The expense per pupil for equipment, for the
space it occupies, and for instruction renders special training for
such small classes impracticable. All of the skilled occupations, with
the exception perhaps of the machinist's trade, are in the same case.
An attempt to form separate classes for each of the eight largest
trades in the city would result in two classes of not over five
pupils, three classes of not over 10 pupils, and only one of over 13
pupils. The following table shows the number of boys, in a school of
this size, who are likely to enter each of these trades.

_Number of boys who will probably become:_
    Machinists                                            36
    Carpenters                                            13
    Steam engineers                                       11
    Painters                                              10
    Electricians                                           9
    Plumbers                                               7
    Compositors                                            5
    Molders                                                5


The members of the Survey Staff were, however, of the opinion that
through the system of electives in the junior high school, industrial
training of a more general type, made up chiefly of instruction in the
applications of mathematics, drawing, physics, and chemistry to the
commoner industrial processes, would be of considerable benefit to
those boys who, on the basis of their own selection or that of their
parents, are likely to enter industrial pursuits. A course of this
kind is outlined in following sections of this chapter.

The objections which may be brought against this plan are frankly
recognized. It takes into account only the interests of the industrial
group, comprising less than one-half of the boys in the school.
Unquestionably it would tend to vitalize the teaching of mathematics,
drawing, and science for the boys who enroll in the industrial course,
but it leaves unsolved the question of method and content of
instruction in these subjects for the boys in the non-industrial or
so-called academic course. Very possibly future experience may
demonstrate that the plan recommended for the general industrial
course affords the best medium for teaching science and mathematics at
this period to all pupils, in which case a differentiated course would
be unnecessary.

The organization of vocational training in junior high school grades
presents many difficulties which cannot be solved by a more or less
abstract study of educational and industrial needs. Experimentation on
an extensive scale, covering a considerable period of time, is
necessary before definite conclusions can be drawn as to the
limitations and possibilities of such work. It is with a full
appreciation of this fact that the following suggestive outline is

The purpose of the general industrial course is to afford to boys who
wish to enter industrial occupations the opportunity to secure
knowledge and training that will be of direct or indirect value to
them in industrial employment. It is not expected that by this means
they can be given much practical training in hand work for any
particular trade. The most the school can do for the boy at this
period is to bridge over for him the gap that exists between the
knowledge he obtains from books and the rôle which this knowledge
plays in the working world. It must not be assumed that the transition
can be effected merely by the introduction of shop work, even if it
were possible to provide the wide variety of manual training necessary
to make up a fair representation of the principal occupations into
which the boys will enter when they leave school. It is doubtful
whether, so far as its vocational value is concerned, shop work
isolated from other subjects of the curriculum is worth any more per
unit of time devoted to it than several of the so-called academic
subjects. This is particularly true of the two most common types of
manual training--cabinet making and forge work. Both represent dying
trades. During the decade 1900-1910 the increase in the number of
cabinet makers in Cleveland fell far below the general increase in
population. The blacksmiths made a still poorer showing. Both trades
are recruited mainly from abroad and the relative number of Americans
employed in them is steadily declining.

In the opinion of the Survey Staff a general industrial course should
cover instruction in at least the following five subjects: Industrial
mathematics, mechanical drawing, industrial science, shop work, and
the study of economic and working conditions in wage earning pursuits.
These may be offered as independent electives or they may be required
of all pupils who elect the industrial course. The details of
organization must, of course, be worked out by trial and experiment.
They will probably vary in different schools and from year to year.


Of the hundreds of employers who were interviewed by members of the
Survey Staff as to the technical equipment needed by beginners in the
various trades, nearly all emphasized the ability to apply the
principles of simple arithmetic quickly, correctly, and accurately to
industrial problems. Many employers criticized the present methods of
teaching this subject in the public schools. In the main their
criticisms were to the effect that the teaching was not "practical."
"The boys I get may know arithmetic," said one, "but they haven't any
mathematical sense." Another cited his experience with an apprentice
who was told to cut a bar eight and one-half feet long into five
pieces of equal length. He was not told the length of the bar, but was
given the direct order: "Cut that bar into five pieces all of the same
size." The boy was unable to lay out the work, although when asked by
the foreman, "Don't you know how to divide 81/2 by 5?", he performed the
arithmetical operation without difficulty. The employer gave this
instance as an illustration of what to his mind constituted one of the
principal defects of public school teaching. "Mere knowledge of
mathematical principles and the ability to solve abstract problems is
not enough," he said. "What the boys get in the schools is
mathematical skill, but what they need in their work is mathematical
intelligence. The first does not necessarily imply the second."

This mathematical intelligence can be developed only through practice
in the solution of practical problems, that is, problems which are
stated in the every day terms of the working world and which require
the student to go through the successive mental steps in the same way
that he would if he were working in a shop. The problem referred to
above is one of division of fractions. If we state it thus: "81/2÷5,"
the pupil takes pencil and paper, performs the operation and announces
the result. If we say, "A bar 81/2 feet long is to be cut into five
pieces of equal length; how long should each piece be?", the problem
calls for the exercise of greater intelligence, as the pupil must
determine which process to use in order to obtain the correct result.
It becomes still more difficult if we merely show him the bar and say:
"This bar must be cut into five pieces of equal length; how long will
each piece be?" Several additional preliminary steps are required,
none of which was involved in the problem in its original form. Before
the length of the pieces can be computed he must find out the length
of the bar. He must know what to measure it with, and in what terms,
whether feet or inches, the problem should be stated. Again, if we
say: "Lay this bar out to be cut in five equal lengths," another
step--the measurement and marking for each cut--is added. Many
variations might be introduced, each involving additional
opportunities for the exercise of thought.

It is through practice in solving problems of this kind that the pupil
acquires what the employer called mathematical intelligence. It
consists in the ability to note what elements are involved in the
problems and to decide which process of arithmetic should be used in
dealing with them. Once these decisions are made the succeeding
arithmetical calculations are simple and easy. In technical terms the
ability that is needed is the ability to generalize one's experiences.
In every-day terms it is the ability to use what one knows.

The work in applied mathematics should cover a wide range of problems
worded in the language of the trades and constantly varied in order to
establish as many points of contact as possible between the pupil's
knowledge of mathematics and the use of mathematics in industrial
life. Practical shop work is one of the best means to this end. The
trouble with much of the shop work given in the schools is that it
runs to hand craftmanship in which the object is to "make something"
by methods long ago discarded in the industrial world, rather than to
give the pupil exercise in the sort of thinking he will need to do
after he goes to work. Successful teaching does not depend so much on
the use of tools and materials as on the teacher's knowledge of the
conditions surrounding industrial work and his ability to originate
methods for vitalizing the instruction in its relation to industrial


At the present time the junior high school course provides for one
hour a week of mechanical drawing. All the boys who may be expected
to elect the industrial course can well afford to devote more time to
drawing. For such boys no other subject in the curriculum, except
perhaps applied mathematics, is of greater importance. In many of the
trades the ability to work from drawings is indispensable and the man
who does not possess it is not likely to rise above purely routine

In a drawing course for future industrial workers the emphasis should
be placed on giving the pupil an understanding of the uses of drawing
for industrial purposes, rather than on fine workmanship in making
drawings. Seventh grade boys can't be made into draftsmen in three
years and if they leave school at 15 they are not likely to become
draftsmen. The ordinary skilled workman seldom has any need to make
drawings or designs, beyond an occasional rough sketch, but he often
has to work from drawings. To put it in another way, drawing to the
average workman is like an additional language of which he needs a
reading but not a writing knowledge. No doubt it would be well to
teach him to write and read with equal skill, but in the two or three
years most of these boys will remain in school there is not time
enough to do both.


In many of the trades an introductory knowledge of physics and
chemistry is of considerable advantage. Boys in the junior high school
cannot be expected to take formal courses in these subjects, but they
should not leave school without some acquaintance with them and a
knowledge of their relations to industrial processes. A fair equipment
should be provided for demonstrational and illustrative purposes. The
subject matter should be correlated as closely as possible with the
shop work, and the principal mechanical and chemical laws explained as
the shop problems furnish examples of their application.

In addition the boys should be taught the common technical terms used
in trade hand books. The man who expects to advance in his trade will
have to keep on learning after he leaves school. There are many
avenues of information open to him, and the school can perform no more
valuable service than to point the way to the sources of knowledge
represented by reference books, trade journals, and other technical
literature. Some of the popular magazines, such as "The Scientific
American," "The Illustrated World," and "Popular Mechanics" can be
used most effectively to bring home to the pupils the close connection
existing between the class work and the outside world of science and


It is difficult to determine the exact function of the manual training
shop work in cabinet making and bookbinding which figures in the
curriculum at present. That the work was not planned with vocational
training in mind seems clear from the action of the school board in
adding bookbinding to the course about the middle of the year. The
bookbinding trade is one of the smallest in the city, and there is
little probability that more than one boy among the total number
enrolled in both junior high schools will enter it after leaving

Fully three-fourths of the industrial group will later be employed in
occupations where most of the work is done with machines or machine
tools. Even in the hand tool trades, such as carpentry, sheet metal
work, cabinet making, and blacksmithing, the use of machines is
constantly increasing. It would seem, therefore, that some
acquaintance with different types of machines would be of considerable
value to the pupils who may later enter industrial employment. The
number of boys who are likely to become machinists is large enough to
warrant the installation of a small machine shop. Repairing,
assembling, and taking apart machines should occupy an important place
in the shop course. Most boys are intensely interested in getting at
the "insides" of a machine, and the processes of assembling, with
their attendant problems of adjustment and co-ordination of mechanical
movements, afford opportunities for the best kind of practical
instruction. One of the great advantages of this type of shop work
lies in the fact that it consumes little or no material and is
therefore inexpensive; another is that a fairly extensive equipment
can be easily obtained, as any machine, old or new, will serve the
purpose and may be used over and over again.

The extent and variety of shop equipment will depend largely on the
resources of the school system. The more the better, so long as the
money is expended on the principle of the greatest good to the
greatest number, which means that the kinds of tools and equipment
used in the large trades should be preferred to those used only in the
smaller trades.

In order that the time devoted to shop work may yield its greatest
results, it is necessary that every lesson center around knowledge and
ability that will be of real subsequent use to the pupils. It must not
run to "art" and it must not be mere tinkering. Its principal value as
vocational training, in the last analysis, lies in its use as an
objective medium for the teaching of industrial mathematics and


During the second and third years all the boys who elect the
industrial course or who expect to leave school at the end of the
compulsory attendance period should be required to devote some time
each week to the study of economic and working conditions in wage
earning industrial and commercial occupations. A clear understanding
of the comparative advantages of different kinds of employment is of
the highest importance at this period of the boy's life. It seems to
be generally assumed that an adequate basis of knowledge for the
selection of an industrial vocation is an acquaintance with materials
and processes. Such knowledge is valuable, but making a living is
mainly an economic problem. What an occupation means in terms of
income is more significant than what it means in terms of materials.
The most important facts about the cabinet making trade, for example,
are that it offers very few opportunities for employment to public
school boys, and that it is one of the lowest paid skilled trades. The
primary considerations in the intelligent selection of a vocation
relate to wages, steadiness of employment, health risks, opportunities
for advancement, apprenticeship conditions, union regulations, and the
number of chances there are for getting into it. These things are
fundamental, and any one of them may well take precedence over the
matter of whether the tastes of the future wage-earner run to wood,
brick, stone, or steel.



Between the end of the compulsory attendance period and the entering
age in most of the trades there exists a gap of from one to two years
which is not adequately covered by any of the present educational
agencies of the school system.

Two years ago the Ohio State legislature extended the compulsory
attendance period from 14 to 15 for boys and from 14 to 16 for girls.
The result has been to force into the first years of the high school
course a considerable number of pupils who have no intention of taking
the complete four year course, and who will leave as soon as they
reach the end of the compulsory period. That these pupils are probably
not getting all that they might out of the time they attend high
school is no argument against the present compulsory attendance age
limit, which should be raised rather than lowered.

The study of industrial conditions conducted during the survey left
every member of the Survey Staff firmly convinced that the industries
of Cleveland have little or nothing worth while to offer to boys
under 16. Very few of the skilled trades will accept an apprentice
below this age. The general opinion among manufacturers was
unfavorable to the employment of boys under 16. "They are more of a
nuisance than a help," said one; "they are not old enough to
understand the responsibilities of work." "They break more machinery
and spoil more material than they are worth," said another. In several
of the building trades apprentices must be 17 years old, as the law
forbids boys under this age to work on scaffoldings. The new workmen's
compensation law exerts a strong influence in favor of a higher
working age limit, owing to the greater risk of accident among young

The fact is that the law is still about one year behind the
requirements of industrial life. If a vote were taken among employers
who can offer boys the opportunity to learn a trade it would be found
that a large majority favor raising the working age to 16. Employment
before this time usually leads nowhere, and the pittance the boy earns
cannot be compared with the economic advantage he could derive from an
additional year in a good vocational school. The average boy who
leaves school at 15 spends a year or two loafing or working at odd
jobs before he can obtain employment that offers any promise of future
advancement. These years are often more than wasted, as he not only
learns nothing of value from such casual jobs, but misses the healthy
discipline of steady, orderly work, which is of so great importance
during these formative years of his life.


The two technical high schools, the East Technical and West Technical,
occupy an important place among the secondary schools of the city. At
the present time the two schools enroll nearly two-fifths of the boys
attending high school. The course comprises four years' work. In the
East Technical the shopwork includes joinery and wood-turning during
the first year, and pattern making and foundry work during the second
year. In the West Technical the first year course includes pattern
making and either forging or sheet metal work; and that of the second
year, forging, pipe-fitting, brazing, riveting, and cabinet making.
During the remaining two years of the course the student may elect a
particular trade, devoting about 10 hours a week to practice in the
shop during the last half of the third year, and from 11 to 15 hours
during the fourth year.

The proportion of pupils who graduate is small and the mortality
during the first two years is very heavy. This is due in part to the
fact that the type of pupil who leaves school early is more likely to
elect a technical course than an academic course. About 25 per cent of
each entering class drops out after attending one year, and 25 per
cent of the remainder by the end of the second year. By the time the
third year is reached the classes are greatly depleted and the
survivors as a rule are of the more intelligent and prosperous type.
Only a small proportion of them expect to enter skilled manual
occupations. Table 9 shows the distribution of the third and fourth
year students among the different trade courses during the first
semester of 1915-16.


      Trade courses                                 Students
    Electrical construction                            68
    Machine work                                       52
    Printing                                           28
    Cabinet making                                     22
    Pattern making                                     12
    Foundry work                                        1
      Total                                           183

That relatively few of these students will ultimately become
journeymen workmen is shown by the records of the boys graduated in
the past. The principal of the East Technical High School recently
sent a questionnaire to all the students graduated up to 1915, asking
for information as to their present occupations and their earnings
during the first four years after graduation. Of those who replied,
over 60 per cent either were attending college, or employed as
draftsmen or chemists. About 28 per cent were employed in the skilled
trades. The distribution in detail is shown in Table 10.

The data furnished by graduates as to their earnings during successive
years after leaving school supply still more convincing evidence to
the effect that the technical school graduate seldom remains in manual
work more than two or three years. The complete course gives them an
equipment of practical and theoretical knowledge that speedily takes
them out of the handwork class. The technical high schools are
primarily training schools for future civil, electrical, and
mechanical engineers. To the student who cannot afford a college
course they offer excellent preparation for rapid advancement to
supervisory and executive industrial positions, and for drafting and
office work in manufacturing plants.


      Occupation                                      Number
    Attending college                                   111
    Draftsmen                                            51
    Electricians                                         33
    Machinists                                           32
    Chemists                                              8
    Pattern makers                                        7
    Cabinet makers                                        6
    Printers                                              3
    Foundrymen                                            1
    Unclassified                                         32
      Total                                             284

The output of the schools falls into two main divisions: those who
leave at the end of the second year or earlier, and those who
graduate. The records show that most of the pupils who reach the third
year complete the course, but nearly half drop out during the first
and second years. The benefit they obtain from these two years'
attendance is problematical. The course was designed on the basis of
four years' attendance, and the work of the first two years is to a
considerable degree a preparation for that of the last two.

The principals of both schools are fully alive to the disadvantages of
the course for the large number of pupils who drop out within a year
or two, and admit that such students would derive greater benefit from
more practical instruction aimed directly toward preparation for the
industrial trades. Both believe that the only practicable solution is
a two-year trade course in a separate school, covering a much wider
range of shop activities than the present high school course.

To the only alternative--the institution of a short course within the
technical schools to be conducted either as a part of or
simultaneously with the four year course--they present objections of
considerable weight. They point out that a preparatory course for the
trades and a preparatory course with college as the goal differ not
only in length but in kind. The work in mathematics for the future
civil engineer, for example, must conform to college entrance
standards and involves an amount of study that is quite unnecessary
for the boy whose aim is to become a carpenter or machinist. The first
needs a thorough course in algebra, geometry, and trigonometry; the
second needs industrial arithmetic, with only such applications of
higher mathematics as may be of use to him in his trade. The same
principle holds with respect to other subjects.

What boys who expect to enter industrial occupations most need at this
period is instruction that will be of practical value to them for
future wage earning. It is doubtful whether high school courses which
have been formulated in the first instance to prepare pupils for a
college course can furnish such instruction and it is still more
doubtful whether the trade training required by the future mechanic
and the broader preparation required for the professions can be given
effectively in the same school.


It is the opinion of the Survey Staff that a separate school in which
direct training for the industrial trades is emphasized would result
in more profitable use of the pupils' time and probably induce many of
them to remain in school up to the apprentice entering age. Such a
school, with a curriculum embracing vocational training for all the
principal trades, would easily command an enrollment sufficient to
justify the installation of a good shop equipment and the employment
of a corps of teachers qualified by special training and experience
for this kind of work. Even if only one-half the number who enter the
skilled trades each year attended the school, the enrollment would
reach at least 800 boys.

A trade school of this kind would relieve the first and second year
classes of many pupils that the technical high schools do not want and
cannot adequately provide for. The minimum entering age should be not
less than 14, and no requirement other than age should be imposed.
This would draw part of the over-age pupils from the grades and take
from the junior high school a certain number of boys who could profit
by the greater amount of time given to shop work in the trade school.

A good many will stay only one year, and every effort should be made
at the time of entrance to learn the intentions of the pupil. If it
seems fairly certain that he will not remain longer than a year he may
well omit such studies as have no direct bearing on the trade he
wishes to learn. The courses should follow the lines laid down in the
general industrial course recommended for the junior high school, but
with a greater proportion of the time devoted to practical shopwork.
As the number of pupils for each trade class would be relatively
large, a closer correlation could be effected between the academic
subjects and the work in the shops than is possible in the junior high

Both general and special courses should be provided. Many of the
pupils will wish to specialize on a particular trade. Others who have
not yet reached a decision need a general course that will give them a
wide range of experience with materials and processes. The
organization of classes should be planned so as to permit transfers,
whenever desirable, from the general to the special courses, or

By the time the pupil has reached the second year he usually will
settle down to steady work on the trade he selects, although here
again the organization should be sufficiently elastic to allow
transfers when there seems to be good reason for making them. It is to
be expected, however, that nearly all the pupils will devote their
time during the second year to practice and study limited to single
trades. The success of the school in holding boys to the age of 16 or
17 will depend on its ability to convince them that the extra time in
school is a paying investment, and this cannot be done unless they
stick to one line of work.



Several forms of trade-preparatory and trade-extension training for
apprentices and journeymen workmen are carried on in the city.
Probably the most effective work done in the teaching of boys after
they have entered employment is found in manufacturing establishments
which maintain apprentice schools in connection with their shops.
There are two excellent examples of this type of instruction in
Cleveland--the apprentice schools conducted by the New York Central
Railroad and by the Warner and Swasey Company, manufacturers of
astronomical instruments and machine tools.

The Warner and Swasey Company school was established in 1911. The
course covers a total of 560 hours, extending over a period of four
years. The apprentices attend the school four hours a week for 35
weeks each year. The time allotment for the various subjects included
in the course is shown in Table 11.

In 1915 there were 65 apprentices enrolled in the school, most of them
from the machinist's trade. The sessions are held during working
hours in a room in the factory fitted up with drawing tables and
blackboards. No shop equipment is used. The purpose of the course is
to develop a body of trained workmen competent to take positions in
the factory as foremen or heads of departments. Less than one-tenth of
the total time of the course is devoted to the study of shop practice.
Standard textbooks are used in the teaching of mathematics.


   Subject                                                  Hours
  Arithmetic                                                   35
  English                                                      65
  Mechanical drawing                                           70
  Shop practice                                                40
  Algebra                                                      70
  Geometry                                                     40
  Trigonometry                                                 30
  Physics                                                      70
  Materials                                                    35
  Industrial history                                           35
  Mechanics, strength of materials, and mechanical design      70
      Total                                                   560

The enrollment in the school conducted by the New York Central
Railroad is about 140 boys, nearly all of whom are machinists'
apprentices. They are divided into three classes, the members of each
class attending the school four hours a week. About two-thirds of the
time is devoted to mechanical drawing and one-third to mathematics and
shop practice. The instruction in these two latter subjects is based
on a series of graded mimeographed or blue print lesson sheets,
containing a wide variety of shop problems, with a condensed and
simplified explanation of the mathematical principles involved. In the
main the work is limited to the application of simple arithmetic to
problems of shop practice. No textbooks are used, but the booklets on
machine shop practice published by the International Correspondence
Schools are studied in connection with the course.

In addition to the required classroom work in mechanical drawing, each
apprentice serves four or five months of his term in the regular
drafting rooms of the company. The classroom is equipped with models
of railway appliances and machinery, together with laboratory
apparatus for teaching the laws of mechanics. No machine tools or
other shop equipment are used in the classes. The course covers about
700 hours of instruction exclusive of the time spent in regular
drafting room work. About 20 apprentices finished the course in 1915.

Several of the building and printing trades' labor unions take an
active interest in the training of apprentices, and in at least two
instances the unions maintain evening classes for teaching trade
theory. The Electrical Workers' Union, made up principally of inside
wiremen, conducts apprentice classes taught by journeymen. The
International Typographical Union course for compositors and
compositors' apprentices is undoubtedly the best yet devised for
giving supplementary training in hand composition. It is taught by
journeymen in evening classes, under the supervision of the central
office of the Typographical Union Commission, to which all the work
must be submitted. In February, 1916, about 100 students were
enrolled, of whom approximately one-third were apprentices and
two-thirds journeymen. The course consists of 46 lessons in English,
lettering, design, color harmony, job composition, and imposition for
machine and hand folding. The classes are held at the headquarters of
the union. As the students' daily practice in the shop provides plenty
of opportunity for the acquisition of manual skill, no apparatus or
shop equipment is used in connection with the course.

The apprentice school conducted by the Y.M.C.A. represents another
type of apprentice training. The instruction is given during the day.
The apprentices are sent to the school by various firms in the city
under an arrangement whereby the boys attend four and one-half hours
each week during regular shop time. In February, 1916, the enrollment
consisted of 46 apprentices, practically all from the metal trades.
The employers pay the tuition fee, which amounts to $20 a year. The
course requires four years' work of 40 weeks each, a total of 720
hours. It comprises instruction in shop mathematics, drawing, English,
physics, and industrial hygiene. No shop equipment is used. Fifteen
boys were graduated from the course this year.

The factory apprentice school of the Warner and Swasey Company and New
York Central Railroad type possesses many advantages over any kind of
continuation instruction carried on outside of the plants where the
boys are employed. A better correlation between the class and shop
work is possible together with a more personal relation between
teacher and pupils than is usually found when the pupils are drawn
from a number of different establishments. It must be admitted,
however, that this method of training apprentices is not feasible
except in very large plants, as in small classes the teaching cost
becomes prohibitive. There is little probability that it will ever be
adopted by enough employers to take care of more than an insignificant
proportion of the boys who enter the skilled trades.

The results obtained, here and in other cities, through coöperative
schemes, such as the Y.M.C.A. continuation school, are in the main
disappointing. Their failure to reach more than a few of the boys who
need trade-extension training is due partly to the fact that they
operate under a condition that is fundamentally unjust. One employer
interviewed during the survey stated the case very clearly: "I can see
no good reason why I should make pecuniary sacrifices for the benefit
of my competitors. Very few of my apprentices remain until the end of
their term, because by the time they have completed their second year
other firms which make no effort to train their quota of skilled
workmen for the trade steal them away from me. Any plan for the
training of apprentices which does not apportion the burden among the
different establishments in direct proportion to the number of men
they have, simply penalizes those public-spirited employers who
participate in it."


The years between 15 and 18 are among the most important in the life
of the young worker. If left to his own devices during this period, he
is very likely to lose much of vocational value of his earlier
education, because he does not grasp the relation which the knowledge
he acquired in school bears to his daily work. As a result the problem
of supplementary instruction at a later age, when he wakes up to his
need for it, becomes much more difficult than if trade-extension
training had been taken up at once when he entered employment.

The vocational interests of young workers and the social interests of
the community are both opposed to the current practice of "graduating"
boys from the public schools at the ages of 15 or 16 and then losing
sight of them. The fact that the large number who go into industrial
occupations will not or cannot remain in school beyond these ages does
not absolve the school system from further responsibility for their
educational future. There should not be a complete severance between
the boy and the school until he has reached a relatively mature age.
In other words, the school system should maintain, as long as
possible, such a relation with him as will help to round out his
education and lead him to continue it after reaching manhood.

It is the opinion of the Survey Staff that the only practicable
solution of this problem lies in the day continuation school, backed
by a compulsory law which will bring every boy and girl at work under
the age of 18 into school for a certain number of hours per week. Only
through a comprehensive plan that will reach large numbers of young
workers can the difficulties inherent in the administration of small
classes be overcome. The night schools have never been successful in
holding boys long enough to make more than a beginning in
trade-extension training. It is certain that growing boys should not
be expected to add two hours of study to their nine or 10 hours of
unaccustomed labor in the shop. Both individual and community
interests demand that this problem be taken up in such a way as to
obviate the sharp cleavage between the boy's school life and his
working life. From every point of view it is unwise to permit him to
lose all contact with the educational agencies of the city during his
first years at work.

The compulsory continuation school avoids the difficulties which are
responsible for the common failure of those schemes which depend for
their success on the initiative of individuals or the voluntary
coöperation of employers and trade unions. One of its great advantages
is that the principle on which it is based makes for equal justice to
all. There can be no doubt that the decline of apprentice training in
the shops is due partly to the fact that employers find that much of
the time and money it costs goes toward providing a skilled labor
force for competitors who make no effort to train young workers. The
cooperation of employers on a comprehensive scale will be secured only
when the burden is equally shared.


Night classes are conducted in both of the technical high schools for
two terms a year of 10 weeks each, the pupils attending four hours a
week. A tuition fee of $5 a term is collected, of which $3.50 is
refunded to those who maintain an average attendance of 75 per cent.
No special provision is made for apprentices as distinct from
journeymen, and the trade classes are attended by a considerable
number of wage-earners employed in occupations unrelated to industrial
work. The list of courses offered during the past year, with the
number enrolled in each course at the beginning of the second term, is
shown in Table 12.

A glance at the list of courses shows at once that while the
vocational motive is given first importance, the schools also aim to
provide instruction in cultural subjects which have only an indirect
vocational application. Less than one-third of the students are
pursuing courses which are directly related to their daily work. The
remainder are enrolled in courses which have little or no connection
with their daily occupations. In but four of the courses--machine
shop, architectural drawing, printing, and sheet metal work--are more
than half of the students employed in directly related occupations.


    Course                                          enrolled

  Mechanical drawing                                   328
  Machine shop                                         222
  Electrical construction                              159
  Sewing                                               103
  Mathematics                                           89
  Architectural drawing                                 83
  Pattern making                                        73
  Woodworking                                           67
  Chemistry                                             59
  Sheet metal drawing                                   52
  Cooking                                               46
  Foundry work                                          36
  Agriculture                                           31
  Printing                                              27
  Sheet metal shop                                      23
  Business English                                      20
  Electric motors                                       19
  Arts and crafts                                       18
  Millinery                                             18
  Electricity and magnetism                             16
     Total                                           1,489

The policy of the schools is to form a class in any subject for which
a sufficient number of students make application. Only a small
proportion of the pupils attend more than one year, and the mortality
from term to term is very high, although the tuition fee plan insures
fairly good attendance during the term. The data collected by the
survey indicate that the average length of attendance is approximately
two terms--the equivalent in student hours of less than three weeks in
the ordinary day school.

Most of the men who enroll in night school classes need a course of at
least two or three years. All but a few, however, insist on having
their supplementary training in small doses. Frequently they want
only specific instruction about a specific thing, such as how to lay
out a certain piece of work or how to set up a particular machine
tool. They want to secure this knowledge in the shortest possible
time, and very few want the same thing. A course of two or three years
does not appeal to them. Another difficulty is that their previous
educational equipment varies widely, and some are not capable of
assimilating even the specialized bit of trade knowledge they need
without a preliminary course in arithmetic. As the personnel of the
classes changes to a marked degree from term to term, the courses
undergo frequent modifications. Apparently the teachers and principals
have made a sincere effort to adapt the instruction to the demands of
the men who attend the schools, but the fact is that the difficulties
inherent in such work make it impossible to organize the classes on
any basis except that of subject matter, which means fitting students
into courses, rather than adapting courses to the needs of particular
groups of workers.

The enrollment is far below what should be expected in a city of
nearly three-quarters of a million inhabitants. The total number of
journeymen, apprentices, and helpers from the skilled manual
occupations, receiving trade instruction in the night schools, is
considerably less than one per cent of the total number in the city.

A large enrollment is necessary for efficient administration. Success
in specializing courses in night schools, as in day schools, requires
a large administrative unit. The possible variety of courses is in
direct ratio to the number enrolled. In a class of 200 carpenters
there would probably be, for example, 10 or 15 men who need
specialized instruction in stair-building. On the basis of the present
enrollment of 40 or 50 carpenters the class would dwindle to three or
four, with the result that the per capita teaching cost becomes

The relatively small result now obtained is not the fault of the
schools, but is due principally to the fact that the great field of
evening vocational instruction is treated by the school system as a
mere side line of the technical high schools. The evening classes are
taught by teachers who have already given their best in the day
classes. The enrollment cannot be greatly increased so long as this
type of education is handled as one of the marginal activities of the
school system, manned by tired teachers and directed by tired
principals. It is a totally different kind of job from regular day
instruction and requires a different administrative organization, with
a responsible head vested with sufficient authority to meet quickly
and effectively the widely varying demands of its students. This will
require the speeding-up of administrative methods in the establishment
of courses and the employment of teachers, a freer hand for the
principals as regards both expenditures and policy, and most important
of all, the organization of all forms of continuation and night school
instruction under a separate department.


In considering the general conclusions of the survey as to what should
be done in the matter of trade preparatory and trade-extension
training in both day and night schools, it must be borne in mind that
these two types of vocational training are still in the experimental
stage. Their future development will probably involve a wide departure
from conventional school methods and the evolution of a special
technique through trial and experiment. At the present time we can
only formulate certain of the main conditions to which future advance
in these fields must conform.

First of all, it must be recognized that such work is a big job in
itself and cannot be successfully conducted as an appendix of the day
school. It is worth doing well, or it is not worth doing. It needs an
organization sufficiently elastic and adaptable to quickly make
adjustments to unusual and unexpected conditions. It needs the
supervision of a competent director who can devote to it all his time
and energy, and a corps of teachers who not only know how and what to
teach, but who possess a firm conviction of the value and utility of
this kind of instruction. In the hands of teachers who bring to it
only the margin of interest and energy remaining after a hard day's
work in the high school, or who are unable to comprehend the radical
difference between teaching a boy in the day school 35 hours a week
and teaching a boy four hours a week in the continuation school or
evening class, the full measure of success cannot be expected. The
employment of day teachers for night school work has never been other
than a makeshift, and the insignificant results attained in night
schools throughout the country have been due in great measure to this

Apart from the fact that the interests of adolescent workers
imperatively demand the establishment of day continuation schools, an
additional argument in favor of such schools is that they would
provide a means for making the night trade-extension work effective,
through the use of continuation day school teachers for night school
work. Such a plan would mean that teachers employed on this basis
would have charge of a day continuation class during one session of
four hours, and a night class of two hours, making a total of six
hours' work per day. A plan of this kind would make possible the
establishment of the fundamental conditions for successful
trade--preparatory and trade-extension training in the night schools.
The present system is unjust to both teachers and students;--to the
students because the man or boy who sacrifices his recreation time to
attend night school has a right to the best the schools can give; to
the teachers because no teacher can work a two-hour night shift in
addition to seven or eight hours in the technical high school without
seriously impairing his efficiency.

The development of this plan would necessitate the establishment of
two centers, one located in the eastern and one in the western section
of the city. In these centers should be housed the day vocational
school, the day continuation classes, and the night vocational
classes. This would relieve the technical high schools of a task which
does not belong to them, and which by overloading the teachers
seriously interferes with the work they were originally employed to
do. At present a considerable number of the technical high school
teachers are devoting from one-fifth to one-fourth of their total
working day to elementary teaching, as most of the work in the night
schools is below high school grade.

By bringing together all the trade preparatory and trade-extension
work under one roof, it is possible to secure the highest efficiency
in the use of equipment. Expensive shops can be justified only on the
basis of constant use. If the suggestion for the establishment of a
vocational school is acted upon, such future contingencies as the
continuation school should be borne in mind in planning the buildings
and equipment, so as to permit of extensions as they may be required.
It is practically certain that universal continuation training for
young workers up to the age of 17 or 18 will be made compulsory in all
the progressive states of the country within the next decade. The Ohio
school authorities should get ready to handle the continuation school
problem before the example of other states and the overwhelming
pressure of public opinion forces it upon them.



The discussions in the preceding chapters have been limited
intentionally to a consideration of the needs and possibilities of
training for wage-earning pursuits in which men predominate. The
conditions which surround vocational training for girls are so
fundamentally unlike those encountered in the vocational training of
boys that a combined treatment leads to needless complexity and

Cleveland uses a relatively smaller amount of woman labor than most
other large cities. In only one of the 10 largest cities in the
country--Pittsburgh--is the proportion of women and girls at work
smaller as compared with the total number of persons in gainful
occupations than in Cleveland. In 1900, 20.4 per cent of the workers
in the city were women; by 1910 the proportion of women workers had
increased to 22 per cent, a shift of less than two per cent for the

A consideration of the occupational future of boys and girls shows at
once how widely their problems differ. The typical boy in Cleveland
attends school until he reaches the age of 15 or 16. About this period
he becomes a wage-earner and for the next 30 or 40 years devotes most
of his time and energy to making a living. The typical girl leaves
school about the same time, becomes a wage-earner for a few years,
then marries and spends the rest of her life keeping house and rearing
children. To the man wage-earning is the real business of life. To the
woman it is a means for filling in the gap between school and
marriage, a little journey into the world previous to settling down to
her main job.

The most radical and important difference between the two sexes with
respect to wage-earning is found in the length of the working life.
The transitory character of the wage-earning phase in the life of most
women is clearly seen in the contrasted age distribution shown in
Table 13.


   Age period         |    Women    |    Men     |
   16 to 21           |     60      |     85     |
   21 to 45           |     26      |     98     |
   45 and over        |     12      |     85     |

Approximately 85 per cent of the boys and slightly less than 60 per
cent of the girls between the ages of 16 and 21 are at work. In the
next age group--21 to 45--given by the census, 98 per cent of the men
are at work, but the proportion of women employed in gainful
occupations drops to 26 per cent, or about one in four; in the next
age group--45 and over--it falls to about 12 per cent, as compared
with 85 per cent of the men. Of the women still at work in the older
age group, over one-half are engaged in domestic and personal service
as servants, laundresses, housekeepers, etc.


Manufacturing and mechanical industries:
  Apprentices to dressmakers and milliners                 4
  Dressmakers and seamstresses (not in factory)           20
  Milliners and millinery dealers                         17
  Semi-skilled operatives:
    Candy factories                                        6
    Cigar and tobacco factories                           15
    Electrical supply factories                           10
    Knitting mills                                        11
    Printing and publishing                                8
    Woolen and worsted mills:
      Weavers                                              5
      Other occupations                                    7
  Sewers and sewing machine operators (factory)           53
  Tailoresses                                             25

  Telephone operators                                     19

  Clerks in stores                                        28
  Saleswomen (stores)                                     35

Professional service:
  Musicians and teachers of music                          6
  Teachers (school)                                        4

Domestic and personal service:
  Charwomen and cleaners                                   5
  Laundry operatives                                      13
  Servants                                                81
  Waitresses                                               9

Clerical occupations:
  Bookkeepers, cashiers, and accountants                  26
  Clerks (except clerks in stores)                        20
  Stenographers and typewriters                           62

The occupations in which the girls now in the public schools will
later engage can be determined with a relative degree of accuracy by
employing a method in general similar to that utilized in forecasting
the occupations of boys. It must be taken into account, however, that
the wage-earning period for women, except in the professional
occupations, usually begins before the age of 21. For this reason the
16 to 21 age group probably offers the best basis for determining the
future occupational distribution of girls in school. If all women at
work up to the age of 25 were included the figures would be more
nearly exact, but unfortunately data for the period between 21 and 25
are not available. The figures at the right of Table 14 show the
number engaged in each specified occupation among each thousand women
in the city between the ages of 16 and 21. The proportions given for
the professional occupations, particularly teaching, are too small,
because of the fact that few women enter the professions before the
age of 21.

Applying these proportions to the average elementary school unit, it
will be seen at once that the number of girls old enough to profit by
special training is too small in any single occupation to form a class
of workable size. In such a school there would be about 80 girls 12
years old and over. Of the skilled occupations listed in the table
stenography and typewriting offers the largest field of employment,
yet the number who are likely to take up this kind of work does not
exceed five or six.


The organization of the junior high school, where the enrollment is
made up entirely of older pupils, obviates this difficulty to some
extent. Instead of 80 girls there are from 300 to 500, with a
corresponding increase in the number who will enter any given
wage-earning occupation.

Not less than one-eighth and probably not more than one-fifth of these
girls will become needleworkers of some kind. They will need a more
practical and intensive training in the fundamentals of sewing than is
now provided by the household arts course. The skill required in trade
work cannot be obtained in the amount of time now devoted to this
subject. It should be made possible for a girl who expects to make a
living with her needle to elect a thoroughly practical course in
sewing in which the aim is to prepare for wage earning rather than
merely to teach the girl how to make and mend her own garments. As
proficiency in trade sewing requires first of all ample opportunity
for practice, provision should be made for extending the time now
given to sewing for those girls who wish to become needle workers.
This can easily be done through the system of electives now in use.
The establishment of classes in power machine operating during the
junior high school period appears to be impracticable, due to the
immaturity of the girls and the small number who could profit by such

A discussion of the present sewing courses in the public schools will
be found in Chapters XIV and XV, which summarize the special reports
on the Garment Trades and Dressmaking and Millinery. In the present
chapter the consideration of these occupations is limited to an
examination of the administrative questions connected with training
for the sewing trades.


The compulsory attendance law requires all girls to attend school
until they are 16 years old. This forces a considerable number into
the high schools for one or two years before they go to work. As a
rule the type of girl who is likely to enter the needle trades selects
the technical high school course, not because she has any idea of
finishing it, but because she believes it offers a less tiresome way
of getting through her last one or two years in school than the
academic course. The technical course requires three and three-quarter
hours a week of sewing during the first two years. The student may
elect trade dressmaking and millinery during the third and fourth

Very few girls who can afford to spend four years in high school ever
become dressmakers or factory operatives. If the school system is to
do anything of direct vocational value for them it will have to begin
further down. Most of them leave school before the age of 17 and the
years between 14 and 16 represent the last chance the school will have
to give them any direct aid towards preparation for immediate

For successful work in machine operating the class must be large
enough to warrant the purchase and operation of sufficient equipment
to give the pupils an opportunity for intensive practice. The only way
this condition can be secured is by concentrating in large groups the
girls who need such training. Little will be accomplished in training
for the sewing trades without specialization, and specialization in
small administrative units is impossible. The teaching and operating
cost in a school enrolling, say 200 girls, who want the same kind of
work, can be brought within reasonable bounds. In a school where the
total number who need specialized training does not exceed 10 or 15
the cost is prohibitive.

In the opinion of the Survey Staff a one or two year vocational course
in the sewing trades should be established. The entrance age should
not be less than 15. Courses should be provided for intensive work in
trade dressmaking, power machine operating, and trade millinery. A
conservative estimate of the number of girls who could be expected to
enroll for courses in these subjects is 500. A trade school might be
established where only this type of vocational training would be
carried on, or it might be conducted in the same building with the
trade courses for boys recommended in a previous chapter. In either
case the number of pupils would be sufficient to warrant up-to-date
equipment and a corps of specially trained teachers.

Training for the sewing trades consumes more material than any other
kind of vocational training. For this reason economical administration
requires some arrangement for marketing the product. During the latter
part of the course the school should be able to turn out first-class
work. The familiarity with trade standards the pupils obtain through
practice on garments which must meet the exacting demands of the
buying public has a distinct educational value. The Manhattan Trade
School for Girls in New York City and other successful schools in the
country operate on this basis. There is reason to believe that there
would be little difficulty in making arrangements with the clothing
manufacturers in Cleveland to furnish a good trade school as much
contract work as the classes could handle.


From one-fourth to one-fifth of the girls in the school will later
enter employment in commercial and clerical occupations, as
stenographers, typists, clerks, cashiers, bookkeepers, saleswomen, and
so on. Their needs will be considered in Chapters XII and XIII, in
which the findings of the special reports on Boys and Girls in
Commercial Work and Department Store Occupations are summarized.

A relatively small number will become semi-skilled operatives in
industrial establishments, such as job printing houses, knitting
mills, and factories making electrical supplies, metal products, and
so on. As a rule such work requires only a small amount of manual
skill or deftness. Not much training is needed and it can be given
quickly and effectively in the factories.

About one-ninth of the girls in the school will enter paid domestic or
personal service of some kind. The household arts courses probably
meet the needs of girls who may be employed in such occupations as far
as they can be met under present conditions. The woman domestic
servant occupies about the same social level as the male common
laborer, and a course which openly sets out to train girls to be
servants is not likely to prosper. The load of social stigma such work
carries is too heavy. At some time in the future it may be possible to
ignore the traditional and universal attitude of our public toward the
so-called menial occupations sufficiently to consider training
servants. At present such a possibility seems remote.



Very few of the army of young people who become wage earners each year
take up the occupations in which they engage as the result of any
conscious selection of their own or of their parents. They drift into
some job aimlessly and ignorantly, following the line of least
resistance, driven or led by the accidents and exigencies of gaining a
livelihood. They possess no accurate or comprehensive knowledge of the
advantages and disadvantages of different types of wage earning
occupations, and frequently take up work for which they are entirely
unfitted or which holds little future beyond a bare livelihood.


The plan now followed in the technical high schools of the city, by
which one teacher in the school specially qualified for such work is
charged with the duty of advising pupils who leave school and aiding
them in securing desirable employment, could be adapted to the junior
high school, where the need for service of this kind is even greater
than in the technical high schools. Such work requires men who have
had some contact with industrial conditions, and who possess sound
judgment, common sense, and a fairly comprehensive knowledge of the
local industries. If the curriculum embraces the course in "Industrial
Information" suggested in a previous chapter, the teacher of this
subject might well be designated as vocational counselor for the boys
in the school. A course similar in nature should be provided for the
girls and a woman teacher selected to advise them when they leave
school. Considerable difficulty probably will be experienced in
securing women teachers competent to assume this task, but any
wide-awake teacher who will devote some attention to published studies
of industrial conditions and get in touch with the local organizations
engaged in the investigation of wage earning employments, such as the
Consumers' League and the Girls' Vocation Bureau, can soon acquire a
fund of information that will enable her to offer valuable suggestions
and advice to girls who expect to become wage earners.

The vocational counselor must guard against conventional thinking and
the mass of "inspirational" nonsense which forms the main contribution
to the vocational guidance of youth provided in the average
schoolroom. The ideals of success usually held up before school
children seem to have been drawn from a mixture of Sunday school
literature and the prospectuses of efficiency bureaus. Boiled down the
rules prescribed for their attainment are two: first, "Be good;" and
second, "Get ahead." The pupils are told about well-known men who
became famous or rich, usually rich, by practicing these rules.
Occasionally there is some prattle about the "dignity of labor," as a
rule meaningless in the light of our current ideas of success. We do
not think of a well-paid artisan as "successful." His success begins
when he is promoted to office work, or becomes a foreman.

The inherent difficulty with ideals of success which demand that the
worker become a boss of somebody else is that the world of industry
needs only a relatively small number of bosses. Theoretically it is
possible for any individual to reach the eminence of boss-ship. In
real life less than one-tenth of the boys who enter industrial
employment can rise above the level of the journeyman artisan, at
least before later middle age, because only about that proportion of
bosses are needed.

The task of the vocational counselor will consist in putting the
pupil's feet on the first steps of the ladder rather than showing him
rosy pictures of the top of it. For the great majority the top means
no more than decent wages. This, after all, is a worthy ambition,
frequently requiring the worker's best efforts for its realization.


The Girls' Vocation Bureau, for the placement of girls and women in
wage-earning employment, has been in operation about six years. At
present it is under the general charge of the state and municipal
employment bureau, although part of the funds for the support of the
bureau is raised through private subscription. From July, 1914, to
July, 1915, the Bureau secured positions for nearly 11,000 girls and
women. Of these approximately 12 per cent were girls under 21. In many
instances only temporary employment is secured, although efforts are
made to place the girls in permanent positions. More girls are placed
in office positions than in any other line of work, but a considerable
proportion take employment in factories, domestic service,
restaurants, and stores.

A careful record is kept of each applicant's qualifications, home
conditions, the names of employers, etc. The Bureau endeavors to keep
in touch with the girls after they are placed through follow-up
reports and visits by members of the office staff or by volunteer

This spring every school in the city was visited by representatives of
the Bureau in the endeavor to interest principals in the work of
placement, and arrangements were made for sending to the Bureau lists
of the girls who were expected to leave school permanently. This
effort met with slight success, as only about 100 girls were reported
from all the schools in the city, although the number of girls leaving
school each year from the elementary grades alone is over 2,000. In
all cases the girls were visited by a representative of the Bureau and
urged to return to school, or if they were determined to seek
employment the advantages of registering in the Bureau were brought to
their attention.

It is to be hoped that more effective coöperation between the Bureau
and the schools can be established and that plans for a placement
bureau for boys similar in method and aim to the Girls' Bureau may be
realized. The matter of placement is the most difficult part of the
vocational counselor's duties, and an arrangement whereby the
vocational guidance departments of the various schools might serve as
feeders to a central placement bureau would probably in the long run
give the best results. Both guidance and placement are new things in
the public schools and efficient methods of administration can be
worked out only through trial and experiment.



1. The future occupations of the children in school will correspond
very closely to those of the native-born adult population. The
occupational distribution of the city's working population therefore
constitutes the best guide as to the kinds of industrial training
which can be undertaken profitably by the school system.

2. Industrial training in school has to do chiefly with preparation
for work in the skilled trades. Training for semi-skilled occupations
can be given more effectively and cheaply in the factories than in the

3. As a rule, industrial training is not practicable in elementary
schools, for the reason that the number of boys in the average
elementary school who are likely to enter the skilled trades and who
are also old enough to profit by industrial training is too small to
permit the organization of classes.

4. The most important contribution to vocational education the
elementary schools can make consists in getting the children through
the course fast enough so that two or three years before the end of
the compulsory attendance period they will enter an intermediate or
vocational school where some kind of industrial training is possible.

5. The survey recommends the establishment of a general industrial
course in the junior high school, made up chiefly of instruction in
the applications of mathematics, drawing, physics, and chemistry to
the commoner industrial processes. The course should also include the
study of economic and working conditions in the principal industrial

6. One or two vocational schools equipped to offer specialized trade
training for boys and girls between the ages of 14 and 17 are needed.
At present a gap of from one to two years exists between the end of
the compulsory attendance period and the entrance age in practically
all the skilled trades, which could well be employed in direct
preparation for trade work. Such schools would relieve the first and
second year classes of the technical high schools of many pupils these
schools do not want and cannot adequately provide for. General as well
as special courses should be offered, although pupils should be
encouraged to select a particular occupation and devote at least one
year to intensive preparation for it.

7. The survey favors the extension of the compulsory attendance period
for boys to the age of 16. The industries of Cleveland have little or
nothing worth while to offer boys below this age.

8. The best form of trade-extension training is that provided in a few
establishments which maintain apprentice schools in their plants. This
plan is feasible only in large establishments. It will never take
care of more than a small proportion of the young workers who need
supplementary technical training.

9. Plans for trade-extension training of apprentices depending on the
coöperation of employers have met with slight success. The principle
difficulty is that the sacrifices they involve are borne by a
relatively small number of employers while the benefits are reaped by
the industry in general. Either the industry as a whole or the
community should bear the cost of such training.

10. The vocational interests of young workers and the social interests
of the community demand the establishment of a system of continuation
training for all young people in employment, up to the age of 18
years. The classes should be held during working hours and attendance
should be compulsory.

11. The enrollment in the trade classes of the night schools is far
below what it should be in a city as large as Cleveland. The
relatively small result now obtained is not the fault of the schools,
but is due mainly to the fact that the field of vocational evening
instruction is treated by the school system as a mere side line of the
technical high schools.

12. The survey recommends the organization of all forms of
continuation, night vocational, and day vocational training under
centralized full-time leadership. Only in this way can there be
secured a type of organization and administration sufficiently elastic
and adaptable to meet the widely varying needs of the working classes.

13. Industrial training for girls will consist in the main of
preparation for the sewing trades. Practically no other industrial
occupations in which large numbers of women are employed possess
sufficient technical content to warrant the establishment of training
courses in the schools. The survey recommends a practical course of
needle instruction in the junior high school and the introduction in
the vocational schools of specialized courses in dressmaking, power
machine operating, and trade millinery for the older girls who wish to
enter these trades.

14. The present experiment in vocational guidance and placement should
be extended as rapidly as possible. Courses in vocational information
should be offered in the junior high school and vocational counsellors
appointed to advise pupils in the selection of their future vocations
and aid them in securing desirable employment when they leave school.
The full measure of success in this work demands better coöperation
with outside agencies on the part of teachers and principals than has
been secured up to the present time.



Particular attention is given throughout this report to the
differences which exist between boys and girls in commercial
employment with respect to the conditions which govern success and
advancement. The majority of boys begin as messengers or office boys
and subsequently become clerks or do bookkeeping work. As men they
remain in these latter positions or, in at least an equal number of
cases, pass on into the productive or administrative end of business.
The majority of girls are stenographers, or to a less extent,
assistants in bookkeeping or clerical work. Boys' work may be expected
to take on the characteristics of the business that employs them;
girls' work remains in essentials unchanged even in totally changed
surroundings. Boys' work within limits is progressive; girls' work in
its general type--with individual exceptions--is static. Boys as a
rule cannot stay at the same kind of work and advance; girls as a rule
stay at the same kind of work whether or not they advance. Boys in any
position are expected to be qualifying themselves for "the job ahead,"
but for girls that is not the case. Boys may expect to make a
readjustment with every step in advancement. Each new position brings
them to a new situation and into a new relation to the business. Girls
receive salary advancement for increasingly responsible work, but any
change in work is likely to be so gradual as to be almost
imperceptible if they remain in the same place of employment. If they
change to another place, those who are stenographers have a slight
readjustment to make in getting accustomed to new terms and to the
peculiarities of the new persons who dictate to them. Bookkeeping
assistants may encounter different systems, but their part of the work
will be so directed and planned that it cannot be said to necessitate
difficult adaptation on their part. The work of clerical assistants is
so simple and so nearly mechanical that the question of adjustment
does not enter. These girl workers do not find that the change of
position or firm brings them necessarily into a new relation to the

Even moderate success is denied to a boy if he has not adaptability
and the capacity to grasp business ideas and methods; but a
comparatively high degree of success could be attained by a girl who
possessed neither of these qualifications. A boy, however, who has no
specific training which he can apply directly and definitely at work
would be far more likely to obtain a good opening and promotion than a
girl without it would be.

The range of a boy's possible future occupations is as wide as the
field of business. He cannot at first be trained specifically as a
girl can be because he does not know what business will do with him
or what he wants to do with business. The girl's choice is limited by
custom. She can prepare herself definitely for stenography,
bookkeeping, and machine operating and be sure that she is preparing
for just the opportunity--and the whole opportunity--that business
offers to her. Her very limitation of opportunity makes preliminary
choice and training a definitely possible thing.

[Illustration: Diagram 1.--Boys and girls under 18 years of age in
office work in Cleveland. Data from report of Ohio Industrial
Commission, 1915]

The difference between boys and girls begins at the beginning. Boys
are given a larger share of the positions which the youngest worker
can fill. Diagram 1 illustrates this and the figures of the United
States Census for 1910 clearly corroborate it. Boys are taken for such
work and taken younger than girls, not merely because the law permits
them to go to work at an earlier age, but also because business
itself intends to round their training. Girls, on the contrary, are
expected to enter completely trained for definite positions. This fact
alone would in most cases compel them to be older. Furthermore,
because boys in first positions are looked upon as potential clerks,
miscellaneous jobs about the office have for them a two-fold value.
They give the employer a chance to weed out unpromising material; and
they give boys an opportunity to find themselves and to gather ideas
about the business and methods which they may be able to make use of
in later adjustments.

[Illustration: Diagram 2.--Men and women 18 years of age and over in
clerical and administrative work in offices in Cleveland. U.S. Census,

Diagram 2 shows that girls' training, if it is to meet the present
situation, must prepare for a future in specialized clerical work;
boys' future must apparently be thought of as in mostly the clerical
and administrative fields. The term "clerical" as here used, covers
bookkeepers, cashiers and accountants, stenographers and typists,
clerks and a miscellaneous group of younger workers such as
messengers, office boys, etc. "Administrative" covers proprietors,
officials, managers, supervisors, and agents, but it does not include

The usual commercial course gives impartially to boys and girls two
traditional "subjects" which they are to apply in wage earning
whatever part of the wage earning field they may enter. These are
stenography and bookkeeping. The evidence collected during the survey
shows that these are rarely found in combination except in small
offices. Of the men employed who are stenographers, the majority are
of two kinds: (1) those who use stenography incidentally with their
other and more important work as clerks, and (2) those for whom
stenography is but a stepping-stone to another kind of position. The
only firms which make a practice of offering ordinary stenographic
positions for boys are those which restrict themselves to male
employees for every kind of work.

Independent stenographic work of various kinds is of course open to
the sexes alike. In Cleveland there are a few women in court
stenography. The 10 public stenographers' offices were found upon
inquiry to include two men and 10 women. No figures regarding
convention reporters were obtainable. In the positions of the
bookkeeping group also there was some sex difference. The accountants,
bookkeepers, cashiers, pay-masters and other persons of responsibility
are, in large offices where both sexes work together, much more
likely to be men than women; the assistants who work with these may be
of either sex, but girls and women are likely to make up the greater
portion. Of the small office this is less generally true. Boys who do
machine operating are usually clerks whose machine work, as in the
case of stenography, is merely an adjunct to other work; with girls
machine operating is either the whole of the position or the most
important part of it.

The essential difference between the clerkship which boys for the most
part hold and the general clerical work which girls do is that the
boys' work is unified and is a definite, separate responsible part of
the business, usually in line for promotion to some other clerkship;
the girls' is a miscellany of more or less unrelated jobs and is not a
preparation for specific promotion.


All commercial occupations may be roughly divided into two classes:
those which have to do with administrative, merchandising, or
productive work, and those which carry on the clerical routine which
the others necessitate. The first class of occupations may be
designated by the term "administrative work" and the second by
"clerical work." A varying relation exists between the two which
depends chiefly upon the kind of business represented. In some kinds
clerical work is the stepping stone by which administrative work is
reached; in others employment in clerical work side-tracks away from
the administrative work.

There is, of course, a future of promotion within the limits of
clerical work without reference to its relation to administrative
work. The practical aspect of it is, in most kinds of business, that
the subordinate clerical positions far outnumber the chief ones.
Promotion of any sort depends largely upon individual capacity; but
this general distinction may be made between promotion in clerical
work and in administrative work; in the clerical field it tends to be
automatic but limited; in administrative work it comes more often
through a worker's initiative or individuality than through automatic
progression and it has no arbitrary limits.

Obviously one kind of person will be adapted to an administrative
career; another to a clerical one. Even a beginner in wage earning
might be able to classify himself on a basis like this; yet it is not
essential, for in many cases it is possible that his first positions
recognize this choice. He needs fundamental experience in business
methods whatever he is going to do; and for most administrative
positions he needs maturity. He can achieve both by serving an
apprenticeship in some form of clerical work. The important things for
him in the early part of his career are to understand the distinction
between the two classes of occupations; to sense the relation he holds
to the business as a whole; and to act intelligently in the matter of
making a change.


The bookkeeping which modern business, except in the small
establishment, demands of young workers is certainly not the journal
and ledger bookkeeping of the commercial schools. A modern office
organization may have in its bookkeeping department of 20 persons only
one "bookkeeper." This person is responsible for the system and he
supervises the keeping of records and the preparation of statements. A
minority of his assistants will need to be able to distinguish debits
from credits; the rest will be occupied in making simple entries or in
posting, in verifying and checking, or in finding totals with the aid
of machines. The bookkeeping systems employed show wide variation, not
only in different kinds of business, but in different establishments
in the same kinds of business. Many firms are using a loose-leaf
system; some use ledgers; and others have a system of record keeping
which calls for neither of these devices. Bookkeeping work, especially
in the positions held by girls, is frequently combined with
comptometer or adding machine work, with typing, billing, filing, or
statistical work; but rarely, except in the small office, are
bookkeeping and stenography--the Siamese Twins of traditional and
commercial training--found linked together.


Stenography is used throughout business chiefly in correspondence; to
a less extent for report and statement work, for legal work, and for
printer's copy. The stenographer in any business office, more than
other clerical workers, is supposed to look after a variety of
unorganized details including the use of office appliances, the filing
of letters, and sometimes dealing with patrons or visitors in the
absence of the employer. She is more important to the employer in his
personal business relations than any other employee, except in the
case of those few employers who have private secretaries.


In the case of large corporations, which are by far the largest
employers of clerks, this work has been standardized to a marked
degree. The organization of the office work of the telegraph,
telephone, and express companies, the railroads, and the occasional
large wholesale company in Cleveland is a nearly exact duplication of
that of other district or division offices controlled by these
companies in other cities. The same is true of the Civil Service.
Whatever effects standardization may have upon opportunity, it
obviously makes for definiteness in regard to training requirements.
All the positions are graded on the basis of experience and
responsibility and a logical line of promotion from one to another has
been worked out.

The report contains detailed studies of different kinds of clerical
work in the offices of transportation and public utility corporations,
retail and wholesale stores, manufacturing establishments, banks, the
civil service, and small offices employing relatively few people. In
each of these such matters as character of the work, opportunities for
advancement, kind of training needed and special qualifications are
taken up.


Stated briefly the conclusions of the report with respect to wages and
regularity of employment in office positions are as follows:

The wage opportunities for clerical workers, especially men, lie in
business positions outside the limits of clerical work. Men clerical
workers average about the same pay as salesmen and more pay than
industrial workers. Women clerical workers receive more than either
saleswomen or industrial workers. Employment is much more regular in
clerical work than it is in salesmanship or industrial work. For men
clerical workers the wage opportunity is better in manufacturing and
trade than in some kinds of transportation business. For women it is
better in manufacturing and transportation than it is in trade. Men's
wages tend to be higher than women's in all branches of clerical work.

Among the clerical positions, bookkeeping shows the highest wage
average for men; clerks' positions show the lowest. Stenography shows
the highest for women; machine work the lowest. Men bookkeepers show
their best wage average in the wholesale business, clerks in
transportation, and stenographers in manufacturing. The small office
gives better wage opportunity to women bookkeepers and men
stenographers; the large office favors women stenographers and men

For boys, there is some indication that advanced education and
commercial training, in their present status, are less closely related
to high wages than are personal qualities and experience. For girls,
the combination of high school education and business training is the
best preparation for wage advancement. A general high school education
and usually, business training, are essential to the assurance of even
a living wage. Business training based upon less than high school
education is almost futile.


Six chapters of the report are devoted to a consideration of the needs
and possibilities of training. The work now being done in the public
schools of the city is discussed in detail, with suggestions for a
better adaptation of the courses of study and methods and content of
instruction to the needs of boys and girls who wish to prepare
themselves to enter clerical occupations. The observations on training
for such work may be summarized as follows:

Commercial training should be open to all students whom commercial
subjects and methods can serve best; but graduation should depend upon
a high standard of efficiency.

Statistics show that commercial training is not to be looked upon, in
a wholesale way, as a successful means of taking care of backward
academic students.

Commercial students' need for cultural and other supplementary
education may be even greater than that of academic students.

The graduation rate of commercial students in public schools has been
increased since the organization of a separate commercial high school
and the number of students entering has been decreased.

Commercial high schools receive a grade of children who are about
medium in scholarship and normal in age.

Commercial and academic high school teachers are similar in scholastic
preparation and in the salaries they are paid.

The Cleveland Normal School does not prepare definitely for the
teaching of commercial subjects. Commercial teachers are nominally
supervised by the district superintendents.

Public schools receive 29 per cent of the city's day commercial
students. The private schools receive a few more than the sum of
public, parochial, and philanthropic schools.

Public schools receive 22 per cent of the city's night commercial
students. The private schools receive more than twice as many as the
public and philanthropic schools. There are no night commercial
classes in parochial schools.

The length of the day course in most private schools is eight months
or less; in public schools it is four years.

The public school, if it believes in longer preparation for commercial
work than most private schools give, should demonstrate the reason to
parents and children.

Training for boys and girls should be different in content and in

The usual course of study in commercial schools is suitable for girls
and unsuitable for boys.

A girl needs, chiefly, specific training in some one line of work. She
has a choice among stenography, bookkeeping, and machine operating.

A boy needs, chiefly, general education putting emphasis on writing,
figuring, and spelling; general information; and the development of
certain qualities and standards.

For students electing to go into commercial work, general education
may be taught more effectively through the medium of commercial
subjects than through academic ones.

Boys' training looks forward to both clerical work and business
administration; but as clerical work is a preparation for business and
is likely to occupy the first few years of wage earning, training
should aim especially to meet the needs of clerical positions.

Clerical positions for boys cover a variety of work which cannot be
definitely anticipated and cannot therefore be specifically trained
for. But certain fundamental needs are common to all.

Most of the specialized training for boys should be given in night
continuation classes.

Girl stenographers need a full high school course for its educational
value and for maturity. Girls going into other clerical positions can
qualify with a year or two less of education; but immaturity in any
case puts them at a disadvantage.

Boys' training, for those who cannot remain in school, should be
compressed into fewer than four years. Immaturity in the case of boys
is not a great disadvantage.

Bookkeeping has general value in the information it gives about
business methods and for its drill in accuracy. To some extent it may
aid in the development of reasoning.

Much of the bookkeeping in actual use in business consists in making
entries of one kind only and in checking and verifying. Understanding
of debit and credit, posting, and trial balance, is the maximum
practical need of the younger workers.

Penmanship demands compactness, legibility, neatness, and ease in
writing; also, the correct writing and placing of figures.

The chief demand of business in arithmetic is for fundamental
operations--adding and multiplying--also for ability to make
calculations and to verify results mentally.

Undergraduate experience in school or business offices may be a
valuable method of acquainting students with office practice and
routine and with business organization and business standards.



The field covered in this volume is limited to the business of retail
selling as carried on in the department stores and some other stores
of Cleveland. The retail stores considered can all be assigned to one
of the three following classes: (1) The department store of the first
rank which draws trade not only from the whole city and the suburbs
but also from the towns and smaller cities of a large surrounding
district; (2) the neighborhood store which does a smaller business
within narrower limits, drawing its trade, as the name indicates, from
the immediate neighborhood; (3) the five and ten cent store, well
known by syndicate names, where no merchandise which must be sold
above 10 cents is carried.


The five largest department stores in Cleveland employ about 5,800
people distributed among several mercantile departments, and in a
variety of occupations that find a place in the industry. Of these
5,800 people approximately seven-tenths are women and three-tenths
are men; 90 per cent are over 18 years of age and 10 per cent are
under 18.

The entire force of a store is sometimes arbitrarily divided by the
management into "productive," and "non-productive" help. From 40 to 60
per cent of the employees were reported as actually taking in money,
while the remainder, the "non-producers," were engaged in keeping the
business going and making it possible for the "producers" to sell

The greatest number of opportunities either for employment or
promotion are in the selling force. This is often spoken as being "on
the floor." Both boys and girls may find employment here, though a
large majority of the sales force is made up of them. Speaking in
general terms, men are only employed to sell men's furnishings,
sporting goods, bulky merchandise, such as rugs, furniture, blankets,
etc., and yard goods which are difficult to handle, such as household
linens and dress goods. Positions as buyers and buyer's assistants are
not restricted by sex and boys and girls may both consider them as a
possible goal.


A neighborhood store is that type of department store which draws its
trade from a comparatively limited area of which the store is the
center. The kind of goods carried are practically the same as in the
large department store and the variety of merchandise may be nearly as
great; but the selection is more limited because of the small stock.

Promotion to selling positions is more rapid in the neighborhood
stores than in regular department stores. One reason for this is that
a larger proportion of the force is "productive," _i.e._, selling.
This proportion may run as high as 80 or even 90 per cent, as compared
with the 40 to 60 per cent of "productive" help in large department

Employment in these stores is looked upon as desirable preliminary
training for service in larger department stores. This is the general
opinion held by those who hire the employees in the larger stores. The
selling experience gained in neighborhood stores is looked upon as
general, in that it gives an acquaintance with a variety of
merchandise rather than an extensive knowledge of any line of stock.
This experience makes the employee adaptable and resourceful. Another
advantage of neighborhood training for sales people is the fact that
they are brought into closer human relations with the customer and
thus learn the value of personality as a factor in making sales.


Cleveland had in the fall of 1915 six large stores where nothing
costing over 10 cents is sold. These belong to three syndicates or
chains. To show the extent to which this business has developed it may
be stated that the largest of these syndicates, which controls three
of the six Cleveland stores, has 747 branches in different parts of
the country.

The number of saleswomen in a single store ranges from 12 to 70. The
total number in the six stores was approximately 226. The shift in
this branch of retail trade is large, as there are continual changes
in the selling force. One store reported the number of new employees
hired in six months as being about equal to the average selling force.

The managers of the five and ten cent stores without exception stated
that they preferred to hire beginners who were without store
experience. The hours of work are longer and the conditions under
which the work is done are more trying than is usually the case in the
larger department stores.

The girl who expects her application for employment in the five and
ten cent store to be accepted must be 18 years old in order that she
may legally work after six o'clock. It is better for her to be without
previous selling experience (unless in other five and ten cent
stores), as employers in these stores prefer to train help according
to their own methods.


The wages paid beginners in the department stores are fair as compared
with other industries employing the same grade of help. Boys and girls
when they first enter employment receive from $3.50 to $7, depending
on the store where they get their first job. In addition to the salary
most department stores give bonuses or commissions through which the
members of the sales force may increase their compensation. The
Survey Staff worked out comparisons on the basis of data supplied by
the State Industrial Commission between the earnings of workers in
department store occupations and those in other industries. Diagram 3
shows graphically a comparison of the wages of women workers in six
different industries. An interesting point brought out by this graphic
comparison is that retail trade constitutes a much better field for
women's employment as compared with the great majority of positions
open to them in other lines than is commonly assumed to be the case.
This is brought out even more clearly in Table 15, which compares, on
a percentage basis, those who earn $12 a week and over, in all of the
industries of the city employing as many as 500 women in 1914.

[Illustration: Diagram 3.--Per cent of women earning each class of
weekly wages in each of six occupations]


  Office employees, in retail and wholesale stores              31.8
  Employees in women's clothing factories                       22.5
  Saleswomen in retail and wholesale stores                     21.0
  Employees in men's clothing factories                         13.3
  Employees in hosiery and knit goods factories                  7.9
  Employees in printing and publishing establishments            7.7
  Employees in telephone and telegraph offices                   6.3
  Employees in laundries and dry cleaning establishments         4.4
  Employees in cigar and tobacco factories                       3.9
  Employees in gas and electric fixtures concerns                3.2

If the data were for retail stores only and did not include wholesale
stores, then office work, which now stands at the head of the list,
would probably not make so good a showing, although the superiority
over the selling positions is, from the wage-earning standpoint, so
marked that there seems to be no escape from the conclusion that on
the whole women office workers are better paid than women in the sales
force. On the other hand the proportion of saleswomen earning $12 and
over is from nearly seven times as great to not far from twice as
great as it is in the factory industries, if we except the workers in
women's clothing factories, whose earnings per week are better than
those of the saleswomen.

With respect to the men employed on the sales force of the department
stores a somewhat different situation exists. In Diagram 4 a
comparison is made of the wages paid in sales positions with the wages
paid in clerical positions. Here it will be noted that men who sell
goods in retail and wholesale stores earn more on the average than men
occupying clerical positions, such as bookkeepers, stenographers, and
office clerks. This comparison does not include traveling salesmen. A
further comparison of the earnings of the men in stores with the
earnings of male workers (omitting office clerks) in the different
industries of the city employing the largest number of men is given in
Diagram 5, which shows the per cent in each industry earning $18 a
week and over.

[Illustration: Diagram 4.--Per cent of salesmen and of men clerical
workers in stores receiving each class of weekly wage]

In comparing wages in stores with those in the manufacturing
industries it must be not forgotten that the working day and week in
the larger stores is shorter than in most of the factories. Hence a
comparison of earnings on the basis of wage per hour would show a
still greater advantage in favor of both sales persons and clerical

[Illustration: Diagram 5.--Per cent of male workers in non-clerical
positions in six industries earning $18 per week and over]


In department store work and in nearly all branches of retail selling
there is a marked fluctuation in the number employed during the year.
Sales work in the department stores is seasonal in the sense that a
large number of extra sales women are taken on during the Christmas
season for a period of temporary employment, usually lasting from one
to two months. The proportion of the total working force for the whole
year employed in such transient jobs is approximately one-fourth. How
selling positions in retail and wholesale stores compare with other
fields of employment in this respect is seen in Diagram 6.

[Illustration: Diagram 6.--Per cent that the average number of women
employed during the year is of the highest number employed in each of
six industries]


In regard to promotion in department stores it should be noted that as
a rule the executives are made in the business and are not, as in some
industries, brought in from the outside because they must have some
special training which the organization itself does not provide. Not
only in Cleveland but in other cities where studies of the same kind
have been made it has been found that practically all the people
holding important floor positions have come up from the ranks. The
various lines of promotion through the different departments are
analyzed in detail in the report.


That vocational training for department store employees is both
desirable and possible is proved by the fact that most of the large
stores in Cleveland make some provision for the instruction of their
workers. Some of these classes are carefully organized and excellently
taught with every promise of increasing in usefulness. Others employ
methods of instruction which belong to the academic school of an
earlier decade and give evidence that the problem of vocational
training with which they are presumably concerned is not even

From the standpoint of the school there are two well recognized kinds
of training possible for department store employees: trade preparatory
and trade extension training. Eventually it may prove practicable to
organize instruction of both kinds, but it is the opinion of the
author of the report that under present conditions the surest results
can be expected from trade extension training. In trade extension
instruction the members of the group to be dealt with have already
secured their foothold in the industry; and having mastered at least
the rudiments of their job they have acquired a basis of experience
which may be utilized for purposes of instruction. These people are
responsive to teaching organized with regard to their needs, for daily
experience is demonstrating to them their deficiencies.

The success of the proposed training will largely depend upon the
employment of simple and direct methods that shall place this
knowledge in the hands and head of the person or group needing it. The
application of this instruction must be immediate and practical and
must not be dependent upon the working out of a complicated course or

The organization must be flexible enough to admit of bringing together
a group having a common need, although they may come from different
departments of the business. Since the unit of class organization is
not previous school experience or similar employment, it will be seen
that this class should be held only until the need is fully supplied
and should then give place to another organized on the same basis.

As in all vocational teaching, the size of the class should be
limited. To make this work really effective, the instructor should
come in sufficiently close contact with all pupils to enable him to
obtain a personal knowledge of their needs and capabilities. A further
necessity for small classes and individual instruction is found in the
fact that there is a constant shift of employees in the industry as
well as frequent accessions from the outside.

It readily can be seen that this is not a problem of the regular
school and that it cannot be met by ordinary classroom methods. Part
time or continuation classes, such as have already proved feasible for
other kinds of trade instruction, are the most practicable methods of
doing this work.

Classes for the instruction of employees are already maintained in the
majority of large stores. The extension of this plan of separate
responsibility is one way of meeting the problem. But this method has
certain obvious faults. The unequal opportunity which it affords to
department store employees as a body is a conspicuous drawback. The
value of the instruction so given, moreover, will always depend to a
large extent on the comprehension of the problem by the firm
maintaining the classes. The method involves much duplication of
effort, which is particularly wasteful when the instruction of small
groups is involved.

Another possible method would be for the several department stores to
get together and coöperate in providing instruction. There would seem
to be no reason why stores should not unite for this purpose as well
as for any other. The advantages of this method are economy of
maintenance and administration, the ability to command expert service,
and the possibility of securing and sharing the results of a great
variety of such experiences as does not consist of exclusive trade

The number of people whom it would be necessary to employ exclusively
for the purpose of conducting these classes would be small as
compared with the results accomplished. Collectively these stores now
have in their employ a body of highly paid experts in all lines of
merchandise. A large amount of the most accurate technical knowledge
covering the work of all departments is already available in the
several stores. These are valuable resources which should be utilized
by a coöperative school of this kind.

For the head of such a school, it would be desirable to secure a man
or woman of more than usual ability and discernment who, above all
else, could sense the business and routine of each contributing store
from the standpoint of the employee and of store organization. It
would be the business of this person to become familiar with the
available sources of knowledge in the different stores and then
arrange for the presentation of this knowledge to the various classes.
By coöperation with the floor men, heads of sections and departments,
as well as with the employees themselves, he should come into close
contact with the requirements of the workers and should gather from
the different stores those who, because of their common need, can be
made into a "school unit." It would also be necessary to employ
assistants of practical experience who would attend to the details of
routine teaching, and act as interpreters for those experts who have
the knowledge but not the ability to impart it even to a small class.

It is realized that a scheme of this kind would involve the overcoming
of many objections and difficulties of adjustment before it could be
put into actual operation. It would necessitate mutual concessions and
forbearance on the part of everybody concerned, but the results would
unquestionably justify the labor.

A third method, already in operation in Boston, New York, and Buffalo,
calls for the coöperation of the stores and the schools. This
partnership, it is claimed, makes certain that the needs of the pupil
are considered before the demands of the business. It insures equal
opportunity for all employees so far as instruction is concerned and
it divides the expense of maintenance between the industry and the
school. It is to be regretted that this scheme frequently results in
the employment of teachers who, although certificated for regular
school work, have no other qualifications, instead of persons of
practical experience. The employment of such teachers too often leads
to the following of ordinary school practices and academic traditions
rather than the methods and practice of business.

In some quarters it is maintained that this instruction should be
entirely taken over by the public schools, thus relieving the store of
any responsibility in the matter. It is probably not now advisable for
the school to assume full responsibility for such training. The heavy
expense involved and the physical limitations of the schools would
make it difficult, without the coöperation of the store, to reproduce
the trade atmosphere necessary for real vocational training. As a
result, the instruction would become abstract and theoretical, with
the major portion of the effort limited to a continuation of
elementary school subjects taught with reference to their application
to department store work.


The analysis of the industry shows that in each occupation or job
there is a definite amount of knowledge which must be acquired by the
efficient worker. A study of this analysis and of the examples of
technical knowledge needed by the worker at different points in the
industry will show that no such thing as a general course is possible.
In every case the character of the instruction should be such that it
will answer a definite need of the employee. What this instruction
should be in specific cases can be settled only, on the one hand, by a
thorough analysis of the occupation to determine what demands it makes
upon the workers, and on the other, by a careful study of the workers
themselves to ascertain how far they have been unable to meet these
demands without assistance. Lessons can then be organized dealing with
such subject matter as individuals or groups have failed to grasp, the
lack of which limits their efficiency or restricts their usefulness.
It can readily be seen that this instruction will cover a wide range
of subjects, from the use of fractions needed by checkers and
salesgirls in yard goods sections, to the special technical knowledge
of fine furs required by the salesperson who handles this

The method by which this instruction can best be given is in a series
of short unit courses. In every case the length of the course is to be
determined by the subject matter. For instance, two one-half hour
lessons may be a "course," when this time is sufficient for the
necessary teaching.

The group or class to which this instruction is given might be made up
of those who need the same technical knowledge, although they might
expect to make a different application of this instruction. For
instance, the unit course on silks might be given to a group composed
of salespeople from the silk section, the waists and gowns section,
and the section of men's neckwear.

The report gives detailed examples of the kinds of technical knowledge
needed in the different departments of the store. It maintains that
such instruction cannot be successfully given by regular school
teachers. As in other industries the teacher needs actual experience
in the occupation for which training is given. Academic training and
teaching experience are desirable and valuable, but among the
qualifications demanded of a teacher of this kind they are of
secondary importance.

The final chapter of the report contains valuable instructions for
young persons who desire to secure positions in retail trade. These
instructions cover such matters as work papers, methods of securing a
position, and requirements for employment in various kinds of
department store work.



The clothing industry in Cleveland has grown very rapidly in recent
years. During the 10 year period from 1900-10 the number of persons
employed in the industry increased approximately 100 per cent. This
increase was much greater than the increase throughout the country as
a whole and was more than twice as large as the increase in the
population of the city. There is every indication that this rapid
growth is still continuing. It is estimated that approximately 10,000
workers are employed in the industry at the present time.

The distribution of men and women in the industry is most interesting.
The making of men's garments has been more fully standardized and is
subject to fewer changes than the making of women's garments. In this
standardized and systematized branch of the industry the women now
outnumber the men. In the manufacture of women's garments, where the
styles change more frequently and the work is of a more varied
character, more men than women are employed.

The methods of work are of three general types: The old tailoring
system known as "team work," or a slight modification of it; piece
operating; and section work. Under the team system, used extensively
in the making of women's coats, a head tailor hires his own helpers
(operators and finishers), supervises them and pays them by the week
out of the lump sum he receives for the garments from the clothing
establishment. Under the piece operating system each operator sews up
all the seams on one "piece," or garment, and each finisher does all
the hand sewing on one garment. Each operator and each finisher is an
independent worker. The whole body of finishers keeps pace with the
whole body of operators. Piece operating is used almost entirely in
dress and skirt making, and to some extent in coat making. The section
system is based on the subdivision of processes into a number of minor
operations. The workers are divided into groups, each group making a
certain part of the garment. The various operations are divided into
as many minor operations as the number of workers and quantity and
kind of materials will warrant. Each of these minor operations is
performed by operators who do nothing else. This specialization has
been carried to a high degree in the manufacture of men's clothing,
and section work is increasingly used on women's coats.


One of the objects of the study was to find how many positions there
are for men and women in each occupation in the industry. Through the
coöperation of employers data were obtained from the records of 50
establishments employing a total of 8,337 garment workers,
approximately four-fifths of the total number in the city. The
distribution of workers by sex in the various occupations is shown in
Diagram 7. The apportioning of work to the two sexes seems to depend
partly upon the weight of materials and partly upon previous training.
The men are mostly foreign born tailors who have had the kind of
training necessary for the more complicated work. The women are
largely American born of foreign parentage, trained in American shops
and employed chiefly upon operations that may be learned in a
relatively short time. Cutting and pressing are practically
monopolized by men. Nearly all hand sewers are women, except for a few
basters on men's clothing. Most designers are men, although a few
women designers are found in dress and waist shops.

In the largest trade,--machine operating,--about two-thirds of the
workers are women. In no trade in which both sexes are employed is the
difference in their work more apparent. The weight of materials
decides to some extent the division of operating between men and
women. Some employers are of the opinion that garments made of such
thick materials as plush, corduroys, and cheviots are too heavy to be
manipulated under needle machinery by women and consequently employ
only men operators. Where light weight materials are used, as in the
manufacture of dresses and waists, delicacy in handling is required,
and nearly all the operators are women.

[Illustration: Diagram 7.--Distribution of 8,337 clothing workers by
sex in the principal occupations in the garment industry]

Four-fifths of the men and two-fifths of the women employed in the
industry are of foreign birth and the majority of the native born
workers are of foreign parentage. There is an increasing demand for
workers who understand English, due to the fact that they are able to
follow directions more intelligently.

There are relatively few workers under the age of 18. Many firms will
employ no one under this age because of various complications which
arise in connection with the age and schooling certification of girls
between the ages of 16 and 18. Of 25 women's clothing factories
visited during the Survey only nine had any workers under 18.
According to the report of the Industrial Commission of Ohio for 1914
only eight per cent of the workers employed in making men's clothing,
and less than two per cent of the workers employed in making women's
clothing were under 18 years of age.


In general the wages paid in garment making compare favorably with
those of other manufacturing industries. This is particularly true
with respect to the earnings of women workers. A considerably larger
proportion of the women employed in the garment industry earn what may
be considered high wages for industrial workers than in any of the
larger factory industries of the city. This is clearly shown in
Diagram 8 which lists nine of the principal fields of industrial
employment for women. The proportions of women receiving under $8 a
week are lower in men's and women's clothing than in the other seven
industries. In the proportion of women receiving $12 and over, women's
clothing ranks first and men's clothing third.

[Illustration: Diagram 8.--Percentage of women in men's and women's
clothing and seven other important women employing industries
receiving under $8, $8 to $12, and $12 and over per week.]

The comparison of the wages paid men employees shown in Diagram 9 is
somewhat less favorable. Women's clothing ranks with printing and
publishing as to the proportion of male workers receiving the highest
specified earnings per week. Men's clothing ranks sixth among the
industries compared.

The various kinds of work do not command fixed wage rates, as do many
other types of industrial employment. Quantity of output as well as
quality of workmanship is an important factor in the determination of
wages. Men generally turn out a greater output than women on the same
kind of work and piece workers usually earn more than those paid by
the week. The lowest, average, and highest wages for each of the
principal occupations in the two branches of the industry are shown in
Tables 16 and 17.

One reason often given for the higher earnings received by workers on
women's garments is the greater irregularity of employment in this
branch of the industry. This, however, does not sufficiently account
for the difference. The most weighty reason is that a higher degree of
adaptability is required of workers than is the case in the
manufacture of men's clothing.

[Illustration: Diagram 9.--Percentage of men in men's and women's
clothing and seven other manufacturing industries receiving under $18,
$18 to $25, and $25 and over per week]


Workers                                | Lowest |  Average | Highest |
Assorters, women                       | $6.00  |   $8.75  |  $14.00 |
Hand sewers, women                     |  6.00  |   10.00  |   20.00 |
Trimming girls                         |  7.00  |   10.25  |   15.00 |
Operators,* women                      |  6.00  |   12.00  |   30.00 |
Sample makers, women                   | 10.00  |   12.75  |   15.00 |
Examiners, women                       |  8.00  |   13.50  |   18.00 |
Models, suit and cloak                 | 10.00  |   15.25  |   21.00 |
Forewomen                              |  9.00  |   16.25  |   25.00 |
Operators,* men                        |  7.00  |   17.75  |   50.00 |
Pressers, men                          |  9.00  |   18.25  |   35.00 |
Cutters,§ men                          |  8.00  |   19.25  |   30.00 |
Pattern graders, suit and cloak, men   | 13.00  |   22.00  |   27.50 |
Sample makers, men                     | 13.00  |   22.50  |   25.00 |
Examiners, men                         | 16.00  |   25.00  |   45.00 |
Head tailors, men                      | 18.00  |   25.00  |    ...  |
Foremen                                | 14.00  |   30.00  |   75.00 |
*: Includes piece and section operators and helpers to head tailors
§: Includes all cutters except foremen, apprentices, and pattern graders


Workers                                |     Men's    |   Women's    |
                                       |   clothing   |   clothing   |
Hand sewers, women                     |    $9.50     |   $10.00     |
Section operators, women               |     9.25     |    11.25     |
Examiners, women                       |     7.00     |    13.50     |
Section operators, men                 |    16.50     |    15.25     |
Pressers, under                        |    12.00     |    15.75     |
Forewomen                              |    11.00     |    16.25     |
Pressers, upper                        |    18.50     |    19.50     |
Cutters, cloth                         |    18.75     |    20.00     |
Examiners, men                         |    17.75     |    25.00     |
Foremen                                |    29.25     |    30.00     |


The making of women's clothing is seasonal, to meet a seasonal
purchasing demand. Most people purchase their summer clothes in April
and May, and their winter clothes in October and November. During the
months previous to these purchasing seasons a large number of workers
are needed, but after the height of the purchasing period employment
becomes less and less steady until the first demands of the new season
are felt. During the rush season a greater number of workers is
employed, or the output may be augmented by increasing the speed at
which the work is performed or the number of hours in the working day.
A combination of these methods is frequently used. During dull periods
the workers may be busy from a few hours a week to full working time;
while in rush periods they may work not only the regular working
hours, but in addition a good deal of over-time.

Compared with other manufacturing industries as regards regularity of
employment men's clothing makes an excellent showing while women's
clothing ranks low. In Diagram 10 the average number of unemployed
among each 100 workers is shown for men's and women's clothing and for
15 other large manufacturing industries in the city. Men's clothing
leads the list, with an average unemployment of four among each 100
workers, while women's clothing ranks 14th, with 15 among each 100.


Designers learn their work through apprenticeships to custom tailors
and cutters and by taking supplementary courses in drafting and
grading of patterns in a designing school. Most designers in
Cleveland have had training in designing schools in New York or

[Illustration: Diagram 10.--The black portions of the bars show the
average number of unemployed among each 100 workers in men's clothing,
women's clothing and 15 other specified industries]

With but few exceptions organized training for machine operating is
found only in the largest establishments. There is general agreement
among employers that it takes a girl who has never operated a machine
before about four weeks to learn an easy operation well enough to be
taken on at regular piece rates. A much longer time is required to
become a first class worker on a single operation, and to acquire
skill in a group of operations takes from one to two years.

Girls are not usually employed as hand sewers unless they know how to
do plain sewing. A girl who starts with this knowledge should be able
to learn factory sewing well enough to earn fair wages within from six
months to a year.

In cutting, which has a so-called apprenticeship lasting from two to
six years, there is no formal system of instruction. Boys must pick up
the trade from observation and practice. Beginners start as errand
boys, cloth boys, bundlers, or helpers.

Pressing is usually learned in cleaning and pressing shops. It takes
about eight weeks for a green hand to become a good seam presser. To
become a final presser on skirts and dresses requires from six months
to a year, and on jackets and cloaks from two to three years.

Examiners have usually had considerable previous experience as machine
operators or finishers. The length of experience depends on the kinds
of garments and ranges from three to eight years.

Trimmers and assorters learn their work as helpers to experienced
employees. A year or so of experience is required before they can be
entrusted with responsible work.

Foremen are selected from the working force or, in a few cases,
trained especially for their positions. Although there are few
opportunities each year for advancement to foremanship, employers
declare they cannot get enough persons of ability to fill vacancies. A
study of the previous experience of foremen and forewomen made by the
survey shows that they come from nearly every department of the
factory. The length of previous experience among the cases studied
ranged from three months to nine years.


The quality which proprietors of garment making establishments value
above all others in their employees is adaptability. The reason for
this is that the manufacturing of clothing differs from almost all
other kinds of industrial work in the frequency with which changes
take place in the size and shape of the product and in the range of
materials which must be handled by the same workers. There is an
annual change in the weight of cloth used for the different seasons,
from light to heavy and from heavy to light. The size and shape of the
pieces which compose the finished garment are determined by changes in
style which vary from the minor modifications occurring yearly in
men's clothing to the radical changes in the style of women's
clothing. A wide variety of fabrics is employed, ranging from thick to
thin, smooth to rough, closely woven to loosely woven and from plain
weave to fancy weave. In one season a single establishment will make
garments from as many as 200 different fabrics, and each operator is
likely to work upon 60 or more different kinds of cloth.

In view of the fact that many of the workers are foreigners or of
foreign parentage, and that the frequent changes in styles and
materials require the giving of detailed instructions by foremen,
instruction in English is of more importance in the garment trades
than in occupations where there is a larger proportion of native born
and where the products and processes are more uniformly standardized.

All clothing workers should have a practical knowledge of the
fundamental operations of arithmetic. Where the piece and section
systems are in operation it is important for the worker to keep
account of what she has accomplished and to know enough arithmetic to
check her own record with the tally kept by the foreman or payroll
girl. Some of the occupations, such as cutting, involve a considerable
amount of arithmetical computation.

As in other trades, all workers and prospective workers need a general
knowledge of industrial conditions. They would greatly benefit from a
better understanding of the supply of labor, factors affecting prices,
organization of workers, industrial legislation, the relative
importance of the field of employment in different industries, the
nature of important industrial processes, and the like. At the present
time there is little opportunity for gaining such information either
before entering any specific line of work or afterwards.

For certain small groups within the clothing industry there are needs
in the way of technical training that are important and at present
unsupplied. Training in applied mathematics, drafting and design would
be of benefit to a considerable number of employees who are occupying
or working towards advanced positions.

A large proportion of the women workers need skill in hand sewing.
Before girls enter the industry they should have careful and
systematic training in plain sewing stitches, sewing on buttons and
other fasteners, and button hole making.

Machine operating is the most important occupation in the industry,
and employs more women than any other occupation in the city, except
perhaps dressmaking. After a careful study of the characteristics of
this occupation and the various conditions affecting it, the survey
reached the conclusion that there should be established by the school
system a trade course for prospective power machine operators.


In the elementary schools manual training sewing is given in the fifth
and sixth grades. It consists of one hour a week of hand sewing taught
by a regular grade teacher or sometimes by teachers of domestic
science or other special subjects. The aim is to give the girls a
knowledge of practical sewing which may be of use to them in the home.
In five of the elementary schools hand and machine sewing is taught by
special sewing teachers. About four per cent of all the seventh and
eighth grade girls in the elementary schools receive this instruction.
In the technical high schools the sewing course covers four years
work. During the first two years all girls are required to take plain
hand and machine sewing three and three-quarter hours a week. In the
third and fourth years they may elect either millinery or dressmaking,
and special courses in these subjects are provided for girls who wish
to prepare for trade work. The aim of the sewing course as stated in
the outline of the East Technical High School is "(1) Preparation for
efficiency in the selection of the materials used in sewing and the
construction of articles relating to the home and family sewing: (2)
laying the foundation for courses in college, normal school, or
business school." A two year elective course in sewing is provided in
the academic high school as a part of the home economic course. The
aim of this sewing, which is called domestic art, is stated thus:
"Problem--my personal appearance is one of my chief assets. What can I
do to improve it?" Dressmaking and millinery classes are conducted in
the night technical high schools to teach girls how to make their own
clothes and hats.

The manual training sewing in the fifth and sixth grades cannot be
considered as furnishing any important contribution in the training of
those who will make their living in the sewing trades. Much the same
must be said of the work in the technical high schools. It is taught
not for the purpose of securing quick, accurate hand or machine
stitching, but to enable the girls to make a few garments for their
personal use. Due to the fact that very few of the girls who become
wage earners in these trades remain in school after the completion of
the elementary course it is doubtful whether the technical high school
offers a hopeful field for practical training. The work in the
elementary schools is so hampered by lack of equipment that the
results, from the standpoint of trade preparation, amount to very


The reduction of retardation all through the grades is of fundamental
importance to any plan of vocational training. The age of 15 is the
final compulsory attendance age for girls, and those who enter at six
and seven and make regular progress should be in the first or second
high school year by the time they reach this age. Last year there
were, however, 1,170 fifteen-year-old girls in the Cleveland schools
who were from one to seven grades below normal. Instead of being in
the high school, they were scattered from the second grade to the
eighth, and they constituted more than half of all the girls of that
age in the school system. It is clear that unless the schools can
carry them through more nearly on schedule time there is no hope of
providing industrial training for a large proportion of them, because
they reach the end of the compulsory period before entering the grades
in which industrial training can be given effectively and

The report recommends that during the junior high school period girls
who expect to enter the sewing trades should be given work in
mechanical drawing, elementary science, industrial conditions,
elementary mechanics and hand and machine sewing. The fundamentals of
sewing can be thoroughly taught in two years. The work during the
first year might well be limited to hand sewing. Machine sewing should
be taken up in the second year, and the girls given an opportunity
during the third year to specialize somewhat broadly in a trade school
on the kind of work in which they may wish to engage--power operating,
dressmaking, or millinery.


Specialized training must be conducted under conditions closely
resembling those found in the industry. This involves equipment
similar to that used in the factory, an ample supply of materials, and
a corps of teachers who have had practical experience. It might seem
that on the score of adequate equipment the factory itself would be
the place for such training. But the fact is that the main object of
the factory is to turn out as large a quantity as possible of
saleable product. In the school the main object should be to turn out
as large a quantity of saleable skill and knowledge as possible, with
the saleable product as a secondary, although necessary, feature.

The junior high school is not the place for specialized trade
training, since it is reasonably certain that there would not be a
sufficient number of girls in each junior high school desiring to
enter a single trade to warrant the provision of special equipment and
special teachers. For this reason the report favors a trade course in
a separate school plant where girls who wish to specialize in any of
the sewing trades can be taught in fairly large classes. The work done
during the past few years in such institutions as the Boston Trade
School for Girls and the Manhattan Trade School for Girls in New York
City gives evidence of the practicability of this plan.


The only instruction offered by the public school system at the
present time which can be considered as trade-extension training for
the garment industries is that given in the sewing classes in the
technical night schools. The enrollment in these classes during the
second term of 1915-16 was 229. Only a small proportion of the girls
and women enrolled in the night sewing classes make their living by
sewing. The students employed by day in clothing factories or in any
of the sewing trades constitute somewhat less than 15 per cent of the
total number enrolled. Nearly half of the enrollment is made up of
workers in commercial, clerical or professional pursuits and
approximately one-third are not employed in any gainful occupation.

In both technical night schools the emphasis is laid on training for
home sewing rather than on training for wage earning. The courses now
given are not planned for workers in the garment trades, but to help
women and girls who want to learn how to make, alter, and repair their
own garments.

If a trade school of the kind described in the previous section were
established it would be possible to give at night short unit courses
in machine or hand sewing to those workers who wish to extend their
experience and prepare themselves for advancement, utilizing in the
night classes the equipment of the day school. It is probable also
that special day classes could be organized during the dull season to
give beginners the opportunity to learn new processes and extend their
knowledge of trade theory.



At the time of the last census the total number of women in Cleveland
employed as milliners or dressmakers was approximately 5,000, of whom
about seven-tenths were dressmakers and about three-tenths milliners.
For the most part they were of native birth. The proportion of young
girls engaged in these occupations was relatively small, the age
distribution showing that only about one-third of the milliners and
less than one-fifth of the dressmakers were under 21 years of age.


Four distinctive lines of work are done by those who are classified by
the census as dressmakers and seamstresses: dressmaking proper,
usually carried on in shops; alteration work in stores; general sewing
done by seamstresses at home or in the homes of customers; and the
work of the so-called dressmaking "school," in which the dressmaker
helps her customers do their general sewing.

Shop dressmaking is in the main confined to the making of afternoon
and evening gowns and fancy blouses. Nearly uniform processes of work
are maintained and the workers in the different establishments need
about the same kinds of abilities and degrees of skill. There is a
strong and increasing tendency towards specialization of the work.

Among each 100 workers in dressmaking shops about 13 are head girls,
55 are finishers or makers, 16 are helpers, eight are apprentices, and
the rest are lining makers, cutters, embroiderers, errand girls,
shoppers, and stock girls.

Alteration work constitutes a separate sewing trade and consists of
the adjustment of ready-made garments to individual peculiarities. It
furnishes employment to several hundred workers in Cleveland.

The weekly wages most commonly paid to each class of workers in
dressmaking shops may be roughly stated as follows: apprentices, $2 to
$4; helpers $6 to $9; finishers or makers $10 to $12; and drapers $18
to $20. Lining making, done in most shops by apprentices or helpers,
pays from $4 to $6 a week. In one shop a specialist on linings
received $12. Women cutters, found in two shops, and doing supervisory
work similar to that done by drapers, earned from $15 to $25.
Hemstitchers earn $10 to $14 and a guimpe maker in one shop earned
$12. Errand girls were found at $3 and $6; stock girls at $8, $12, and
$13; and shoppers at from $3.50 to $10.

Beginners in alteration departments are started at from $5 to $7.
Regular alteration hands earn from $7 to $18, the average being $9 or
$10. Fitters earn about the same as drapers in dressmaking shops,
averaging from $15 to $18, with a range of from $10 to $25.

As a rule comparatively little time is lost through irregularity of
employment. Workers average from 10 to 11 months' work out of the
year. Establishments usually close during the month of August and for
one or two weeks in the spring. Workers in alteration department
average 11 months of work. Dress alteration work is steady, while suit
and coat alteration is irregular.

Apprenticeship in dressmaking comprehends a trying-out period of from
six months to a year. Most shops take apprentices, the proportion in
the trade being one to every 12 workers; and an effort is made to keep
these new workers if they are at all satisfactory. There is no
standardized apprenticeship wage. Girls may serve without pay for six
months, or may start at from 50 cents to $4 a week. At the end of six
months they may be earning from $1.50 to $6. The lack of any wage
standard in apprenticeship probably accounts for the fact that it is
difficult to get girls to enter this trade.


Millinery requires the handling of small pieces of the most varied
sorts of material, most of it perishable. The materials must be
measured, cut, turned, twisted, and draped into innumerable designs
and color combinations, and sewed with various kinds of stitching.
The main processes are making, trimming, and designing. Making
consists in fashioning a specified shape from wire or buckram and
covering it with such materials as straw or velvet. The covering may
be put on plain, or may be shirred or draped. Trimming consists in
placing and sewing on all sorts of decorative materials. A combination
of the two processes of making and trimming, known as copying,
consists in making a hat from the beginning exactly like a specified
model. Designing is the creation of original models.

The increase in the use of the factory-made hat has decreased the
number of workers in custom millinery, and has also had an effect in
diverting business from small retail shops to millinery departments in
stores. The number of millinery workers constantly fluctuates, not
only from season to season, but from year to year. According to a
close estimate not more than 2,000 workers were actually engaged in
millinery occupations during the busiest part of 1915. Between 1,200
and 1,400 were in retail shops; about 300 were in millinery
departments in stores; and about 300 more were in wholesale houses.

The data collected indicate that the wages of workers in retail shops
are lower in general than the wages of workers in millinery
departments in stores and in wholesale houses. Makers in retail shops
earn from $3 to $16 a week, the average being about $8. Trimmers earn
from $10 to $40, with an average of about $18. Out of 45 retail
shops, only 22 paid as high as $10 to any maker; 15 paid as high as
$12; six paid as high as $15; and only one paid over $15.

In millinery departments in stores, trimmers, who are generally
designers, earn from $15 to $50 a week or more. The rate most commonly
received is $25. Makers are started at from $4 to $6 and may advance
to $15, with an average of about $10.

In wholesale houses designers earn from $25 to $60, or more. Makers
start at about $5, and the usual range is from $10 to $15. Those
employed in straight copying may earn between $15 and $20. The 1914
report of the Industrial Commission of Ohio presents data showing that
of the women 18 years of age and over employed in wholesale houses 37
per cent receive under $8, about 22 per cent receive between $8 and
$12, while 41 per cent receive $12 and over. The girls under 18 years
of age were, with one exception, receiving less than $4 per week.

Employment in retail shops averages about 32 weeks during the year; in
the millinery departments of stores from 32 to 42 weeks; and in
wholesale houses about 40 weeks. The proportion of workers employed
the year round is very small. The majority of millinery workers are
faced with the problem of tiding themselves over two dull seasons,
aggregating from 12 to 28 weeks each year.

The millinery apprenticeship period lasts for two seasons of 12 weeks
each. Almost all retail shops take apprentices in large numbers, there
being one apprentice to every three or four workers in the trade. Few
apprentices are found in stores and wholesale houses. The
apprenticeship wage is extremely low. The usual rate is $1 a week
during the first season and from $1.50 to $2 during the second.


The needs of girls who are soon to leave school and go to work can
best be met by a modification of the junior high school course and by
the establishment of a one-year trade school for girls. Before a
re-organization of the junior high school work is made to meet the
needs of these girls an effort should be made to reduce retardation so
that more girls will reach the junior high school before the end of
the compulsory attendance period. The present courses should be
reorganized so as to give basic preparation for wage earning and
should be as concrete and real as a thorough understanding of the
requirements of the gainful occupations can make them. Thorough sewing
courses planned from the standpoint of the sewing trades should be
offered, extending over two years. The program suggested closely
resembles that recommended for the garment trades.

It is also recommended that a one-year trade school be established for
preparing girls to enter employment in dressmaking and millinery. The
history of trade schools for girls, both private and public, indicates
that such a school, if properly conducted, would be highly successful
in Cleveland.

The classes in sewing and millinery in the evening technical high
schools do not offer trade-extension training for workers and it is
not likely that they could be easily reorganized to furnish such
training. It is recommended that if a trade school is established in
Cleveland, short unit courses in sewing and related subjects, such as
design, be given in evening classes.



Approximately one-half of the total number of persons in Cleveland
engaged in manufacturing are found in the metal industries. When the
last federal census was taken nearly one-seventh of the entire male
population was employed in establishments engaged in the manufacture
of crude or finished metal products. Pittsburgh only, among the 10
largest cities in the country, has a higher proportion of its
industrial population working in such establishments. In relation to
its total population, Cleveland has twice as many people working in
these industries as Chicago, three times as many as Philadelphia, and
four times as many as New York. It is estimated that at the present
time the number of wage earners in the city engaged in this kind of
work is between 70,000 and 80,000.

The report deals with the three leading industries of the
city,--foundry and machine shop products, automobile manufacturing,
and steel works and rolling mills. The study of this last group also
includes several related industries, such as blast furnaces, wire
mills, nail mills, and bolt, nut, and rivet factories. About
three-fourths of the total number of wage earners in the city engaged
in the manufacture of metal products are found in these three

The field investigations consisted of personal visits to the
manufacturing establishments for the purpose of securing first hand
data as to industrial conditions, and conferences with employers,
superintendents, foremen, and workmen as to the need and possibilities
of training for metal working occupations. In all, 60 establishments,
employing approximately 35,000 men, were visited. The conclusions as
to vocational training were based on an analysis of educational needs
in the various metal industries, together with an extended study of
the social and economic factors which condition the training of all
workers. Particular attention was given to the administrative problems
involved in such training in public schools.


According to the United States Census, foundries and factories making
machine shop products gave employment in 1909 to nearly 18,000
Cleveland wage-earners. This industrial group ranks first in the city,
employing more than twice as many workers as the next largest
industry,--automobile manufacturing,--and approximately two-fifths of
the total working force in all metal industries. Its growth during the
previous five years, from the standpoint of number of workers
employed, showed an increase of about 33 per cent, and it is
estimated that the total number of wage-earners in 1914 was
approximately 25,000. At the present time, due to the impetus given to
this branch of manufacturing by the European war, the working force is
undoubtedly in excess of this figure.

The report gives extended consideration to the machinist's trade,
which constitutes by far the largest body of skilled workers in the
city. This trade has been affected more than any other by the progress
of invention and the modern tendency towards specialization. In many
establishments the all-round machinist, competent to do independent
work and operate the wide variety of machine tools now used in the
trade, had practically disappeared. In his place are found
"specialist" machine hands who have learned the operation of a single
machine tool, but have no general knowledge of the trade, and who if
called on to perform work requiring the use of a machine tool
different from the one on which they are employed are unable to do so.
There are hundreds of drill press hands who cannot operate a milling
machine, lathe hands who know nothing of planer work, and so on. The
subdivision of these occupations follows closely the advance in
invention, so that employers advertising for help frequently specify
not only the machine tool to be used but add the name of the firm
which manufactures that particular type of machine, with the result
that there are about as many kinds of machinists as there are
manufacturers of machine tools. Table 18 shows the estimated number
of men employed, with their distribution in the various branches of
the trade.


                                |            |  Estimated  |
Workers                         |  Per cent  |    number   |
Lathe hands                     |    18.8    |   3,384     |
Drill press operators           |    17.9    |   3,222     |
Bench hands                     |    13.4    |   2,412     |
Machinists                      |    12.7    |   2,286     |
Screw machine operators         |     9.4    |   1,692     |
Milling machine operators       |     8.6    |   1,548     |
Tool makers                     |     8.3    |   1,494     |
Grinding machine operators      |     6.2    |   1,116     |
Planer hands                    |     2.2    |     396     |
Turret lathe operators          |     1.8    |     324     |
Gear cutter operators           |      .7    |     126     |
Total                           |   100.0    |  18,000     |

Specialization has operated to lower standards of skill and keep down
wages. The average wage of the "all-round" machinist is very nearly
the lowest found among the skilled trades. The union scale is but 14
cents an hour above that paid unskilled labor, while the average
earnings of machine operators range from four to 12 cents above
laborers' wages. Only among the highly skilled tool makers do the
wages approach those received by skilled labor in most other
industries. Table 19 shows the average, highest, and lowest rates per
hour for all branches of the machine trades in the establishments from
which data were collected during the survey, with the per cent
employed on piece work and day work.


                           |       |       |       |Per cent|Per cent|
                           |       |       |       |on piece| on day |
 Workers                   |Lowest |Average|Highest| work   |  work  |
Tool makers                | 25.0  | 39.0  | 50.0  |   ..   |  100   |
Machinists                 | 25.0  | 33.2  | 50.0  |   ..   |  100   |
Planer hands               | 20.0  | 32.2  | 42.0  |   ..   |  100   |
Grinding machine operators | 20.0  | 32.0  | 50.0  |   70   |   30   |
Bench hands                | 17.5  | 29.6  | 45.0  |   48   |   52   |
Screw machine operators    | 17.5  | 29.5  | 63.8  |   79   |   21   |
Lathe hands                | 19.0  | 29.1  | 40.0  |   40   |   60   |
Turret lathe operators     | 25.0  | 29.0  | 47.5  |   80   |   20   |
Gear cutter operators      | 20.0  | 26.7  | 40.0  |   96   |    4   |
Milling machine operators  | 15.0  | 25.9  | 40.0  |   53   |   47   |
Drill press operators      | 15.0  | 23.5  | 35.0  |   35   |   65   |
Machinists' helpers        | 20.0  | 22.2  | 25.0  |   ..   |  100   |

On the basis of weekly or yearly earnings, the trade makes a better
showing. Work is steady throughout the year, and the time lost through
unemployment on account of seasonal changes is slight. Also, as the
usual working day is from nine to 10 hours, that is, from one to two
hours longer than in the higher paid building trades, the difference
in daily wages is really less marked than a comparison of hourly rates
would seem to indicate.

Little attempt has been made to adapt the apprentice system to modern
conditions. The term of service and rates of pay have changed but
slightly over a long period of years. As a result only a small
proportion of the boys who begin as apprentices finish the
apprenticeship term of three or four years. Employers attribute this
to the relatively high wages paid for machine operating, and the
slight advantage, from a wage standpoint, of the "all-round" man over
the machine operator. After a year or two the apprentice finds that he
can double his pay by taking a job as operator, and the inducement for
learning the trade thoroughly is too small to hold him. The report
gives a comparison of the earnings of an apprentice and a machine
operator, both starting at the same age, the first becoming a
journeyman machinist at the end of three years and the second
specializing on a particular machine. Assuming that both boys go to
work at the age of 16 their total earnings up to the age of 25 years
will be approximately equal. The lack of thoroughly trained workmen is
beginning to be felt, but the efforts made by industrial
establishments to meet it have small prospects of success unless the
economic factors of the problem are given greater consideration.

Inasmuch as no regular apprenticeship period is served for machine
operating, a special effort was made to secure data relating to the
time usually required for the worker to learn the operation of each
tool well enough to earn average wages. In this matter the individual
opinions of foremen and superintendents differed widely, but when the
reports from all the establishments visited were compared, a
sufficient degree of uniformity was found to serve as a basis for
estimating the amount of experience workers of average intelligence
would need, under normal shop conditions, in order to become fairly

There was practical unanimity in fixing the period at four years for
tool makers and three to four years for machinists. Higher estimates
were received from the superintendents of plants doing a jobbing
business or manufacturing high grade machine tools than from the
specialized shops making a single product. The superintendents of
automobile manufacturing plants, where the standard of quality in
production is necessarily high, gave the lowest estimates of all.
Table 20 shows the estimated time required to learn the various types
of machine work.


        Workers                     | Time required        |
Grinding machine operators          | 12 to 15 months      |
Lathe hands                         |  6 to 9 months       |
Planer hands                        |  6 months            |
Gear cutter operators               |  6 months            |
Turret lathe operators              |  4 to 6 months       |
Screw machine operators             |  3 to 6 months       |
Bench hands                         |  3 to 6 months       |
Milling machine operators           |  2 to 4 months       |
Drilling machine operators          |  2 weeks to 4 months |

The weakness of specialization, with its constant tendency towards the
substitution of semi-skilled operatives for trained workmen, lies in
its failure to provide a body of workers from whom to recruit the
large directive force needed in any scheme of production based on
semi-skilled labor. This condition is regarded by many employers with
grave concern, and in a few plants apprentice schools designed
primarily to train future foremen have been established.

Practically all the foremen in the shops visited had received an
all-round training as machinists, and there are few opportunities for
promotion open to men who have not a general knowledge of the trade.
On the other hand, such general knowledge is only one of the
requisites for advancement. Others are initiative, resourcefulness,
tact, self-control, ability to get along with men, and a disposition
to subordinate personal interests to the interests of the business. To
these should be added the quality of patience, for there must be
vacancies before there can be promotions, and vacancies among the
better positions are not frequent. Ten of the establishments visited,
employing a total working force of over 5,000 men, reported but eight
vacancies among foremen's positions over a period of one year. These
same establishments had in their employ a total of 618 all-round
machinists and tool makers. Assuming that only the machinists and tool
makers were eligible for promotion, the mathematical chance per man of
becoming a foreman during the year was about one in 77.

Other occupations studied in detail were pattern making, molding, core
making, blacksmithing, and boiler making. Pattern making offers the
most interesting work and the highest wages among the metal trades,
but the total number of American born pattern makers in the city does
not exceed seven or eight hundred, so the field of employment is
relatively limited. Molding and core making, in which between 4,000
and 5,000 men are engaged, have practically become foreign trades.
Less than 20 per cent of the molders in the city were born in this
country. These trades offer few opportunities for employment to boys
of native birth. Somewhat similar conditions exist in the
blacksmithing trade. Changed methods of production have largely done
away with the old-time blacksmith, who survives only in horse-shoeing
and repair shops. The proportion of native blacksmiths is steadily
declining, and it is unlikely that any considerable number of boys
from the public schools will enter the trade. The boiler making trade
employs relatively few men, the total number of native born boiler
makers at the time of the last census being less than 600. The trade
seems to be at a standstill. The increase during the previous decade
was less than five per cent against a total population increase of 46
per cent. The average earnings per hour for these trades in the
establishments visited by members of the Survey Staff are shown in
Table 21.


                                  Average earnings
    Workers                           Per Hour

  Pattern makers                        .44
  Skilled molders                       .39
  Semi-skilled molders                  .27
  Skilled core makers                   .39
  Semi-skilled core makers              .27
  Blacksmiths                           .33
  Boiler makers                         .32

The findings and recommendations as to training emphasize the fact
that the vast majority of boys who become workers in the metal trades
leave school by the time they are 15 with at most a common school
education, so that any vocational training before they go to work must
be given between the ages of 12 and 15 and before the end of the
eighth grade. The report points out the impossibility of effective
vocational instruction in elementary schools on account of the
prohibitive cost per pupil for both equipment and teaching, and
endorses the recently adopted junior high school plan. This form of
organization has the great advantage of concentrating in large groups
the boys who are old enough to make a beginning in prevocational
training, and through the departmental system of teaching offers
facilities for differentiation of courses to meet their varying needs.

Whatever their cultural value, the present manual training courses in
woodwork have little relation to the requirements of any metal working
trade, except pattern making, in which some of the same tools are
used. No manual training work in metal is offered in the elementary
and junior high schools.

The course recommended for the junior high school lays especial
emphasis on applied mathematics, mechanical drawings, practice in
assembling and taking apart machines, and the utilization of the shop
as a laboratory for teaching industrial science. The report maintains
that the object of such a course should be the development of
industrial intelligence through the application of mathematical and
mechanical principles to the solution of concrete problems, rather
than the teaching of specific operations and skill in the use of
tools. In mechanical drawing the ability to understand and interpret
drawings should be given more importance than the ability to make
drawings. Few workmen are ever called on to draw, while the ability to
read plans and sketches is always in demand. It is also recommended
that boys who do not expect to take a full high school course or who
intend to leave at the end of the compulsory period should devote at
least a period each week to the study of economic and working
conditions in industrial and commercial occupations.

With respect to the technical high schools the report holds that these
schools are primarily training schools for the higher positions of
industry. They undoubtedly offer the best instruction obtainable in
the city for the ambitious boy who wishes to prepare himself for
supervisory and managerial positions in industry or for a college
engineering course.

The establishment of a separate two-year vocational school, equipped
for giving instruction in all the larger industrial trades, is
recommended. The number of boys in the public schools between the ages
of 14 and 16 who are likely to enter the metal trades is between 700
and 800, of whom from 500 to 600 will become machinists or machine
tool operators. An enrollment of much less than this number is
sufficient to justify the installation of good shop equipment and the
employment of a corps of teachers who have had the special training
necessary for this kind of work. It should be possible to form a class
in pattern making and foundry work of from 80 to 100 boys, and one of
at least 30 in blacksmithing. Boiler making could be taught in
connection with sheet metal work.

Various changes are recommended in the present evening school classes
for machinists, molders, and pattern makers now given by the technical
high schools. It is claimed that the courses as now organized are not
elastic enough to meet the varying needs of the journeymen, helpers,
machine operators, and apprentices employed in these trades. The great
need is for short unit courses in which the instruction is limited to
a particular machine or a special branch of the trade. The long course
tends to discourage the student, especially when it embraces an amount
of theory out of all proportion to his working needs.


Due to the large number and specialized character of the occupations
in this industry, they are taken up in a more general way than the
"foundries and machine shop" group. The productive departments of the
automobile factories utilize in the main the same equipment as other
machinery manufacturing plants, but specialization has been carried to
a degree found in few other metal industries. The "all-round" workman
is a rara avis. The machine shops are manned by machine "specialists"
most of whom know how to operate a single machine tool or perform a
single operation made up of relatively simple elements. From one-half
to two-thirds of the working force is recruited from immigrant labor
which is "broken in" under skilful foremen within a period varying
from a few days to a few weeks. In the simpler assembling operations
the jobs are so subdivided that any man who is not actually
feebleminded can learn the work in a few days. Production is on a
large scale, permitting the maintenance of high-grade engineering and
experimental departments, where all of the work is planned to the last
detail. As a result the automobile manufacturers are turning out one
of the most complicated and most efficient machines known to modern
industry with a working force composed chiefly of semi-skilled labor.

For the machine shop workers the training suggested is similar to that
recommended for the same class of workmen in other machine shops. The
necessity of short unit courses adapted for teaching parts of the
trade rather than the whole trade is obvious, as most automobile
workers are employed on specialized operations. Short unit evening
courses for motor and transmission assemblers, and testers and
inspectors, are recommended.


A somewhat similar treatment is followed with respect to the iron and
steel group of industries--blast furnaces, steel mills, rolling mills,
wire mills, nail mills, and bolt, nut, and rivet factories. These
industries are characterized by a high proportion of common and
semi-skilled labor in the working force. Between 75 and 90 per cent of
the workers are of foreign birth. In the operating department of one
mill only two Americans were found among a total of 600 employees. As
a rule the native born workers are mechanics employed in the power and
maintenance departments.

With scarcely an exception the occupations are of a nature that
require the worker to learn through actual experience in the mills.
Theory and practice must be learned at the same time. Even the
supervisory and executive positions in which a technical education is
of considerable value require a long and arduous apprenticeship on the
job before the worker can compete with men who have started with the
scantiest educational equipment, but have picked up a knowledge of the
processes by experience and observation. Below these positions the
work rapidly grades off to various kinds of machine operating in which
not even the ability to read or understand English is required.

No plan of vocational training is presented, because at present the
mills recruit almost exclusively from foreign labor, and only a very
small number of boys from the public schools are likely to seek
employment in them. The technical content of the work which might
conceivably be given in evening classes, except in the case of the few
directive and supervisory positions, is so small that continuation
instruction offers but meager hopes of success. Under present
conditions the long working day and the necessity of changing from
the day to the night shift, or vice-versa every two weeks, constitutes
an insuperable obstacle to the organization of night classes.

The principal need of the rank and file is a speaking and reading
knowledge of the English language, so that the workers can be taught
to avoid and prevent accidents, and give themselves the necessary care
when they occur. Instruction in English with possibly courses in
accident prevention and personal hygiene represent about the only
training possible that can be said to have any real vocational



A careful estimate places the number of men engaged in building
construction in Cleveland at the present time at about 30,000,
comprising more than one-fifth of the total number employed in
manufacturing and mechanical occupations. About two-thirds of these
workmen are skilled artisans, distributed among some 20 different
trades. The estimated number in each trade is shown in Table 22.


The building trades get their workers from four principal sources:
immigration, native journeymen from outside the city, helpers, and
apprentices. Immigration contributes the largest proportion in both
skilled and unskilled work, practically monopolizing the latter. Over
four-fifths of all cabinet makers, more than two-thirds of all brick
and stone masons, and nearly two-thirds of all carpenters are foreign
born. Plumbers and steam-fitters show the smallest proportion of
foreign labor.


  Workers in trade                      |  Number employed |
Carpenters                              |     7,105        |
Painters, glaziers, varnishers          |     2,746        |
Plumbers, gas- and steam-fitters        |     2,014        |
Bricklayers                             |     1,800        |
Machine woodworkers                     |     1,198        |
Sheet metal workers or tinsmiths        |     1,069        |
Cabinet-makers                          |       895        |
Inside wiremen and fixture hangers      |       750        |
Plasterers                              |       638        |
Paperhangers                            |       379        |
Structural iron workers                 |       356        |
Roofers and slaters                     |       315        |
Stone-cutters                           |       292        |
Lathers                                 |       275        |
Stone masons and marble setters         |       250        |
Ornamental iron workers                 |       200        |
Cement finishers                        |       200        |
Hoisting engineers                      |       150        |
Elevator constructors                   |       100        |
Parquet floor layers                    |       100        |
Tile-layer                              |       100        |
Asbestos workers                        |        75        |
Wood carvers                            |        63        |
Helpers                                 |       926        |
Apprentices                             |       306        |
Total                                   |    22,302        |


The general decline of the apprenticeship system which began with the
invention of modern labor-saving machinery has affected the building
trades least of all. Here it survives in an active state and is
steadily gaining ground. It is in favor with many employers and with
all unions. The best apprenticeship systems are found in the strongly
organized trades.

It is true that in some of the trades apprenticeship is little more
than a name, meaning simply that permission has been granted to learn
the trade. The apprentice is left free to pick up what experience he
can between the odd jobs that are given him. What meager instruction
he receives comes from a journeyman worker who is none too eager to
give up what he considers the secrets of his trade.

The union regulations provide that boys shall not enter the trades as
apprentices or helpers below the age of 16. The limits set by the
various trades and the union regulations as to length of
apprenticeship are shown in Tables 23 and 24.


Asbestos workers                        | Enter at any age       |
Bricklayers                             | Between 16 and 23      |
Carpenters                              | Between 17 and 22      |
Cement finishers                        | Must be full grown     |
Elevator constructors                   | Must be full grown     |
Lathers                                 | Must be 18 years old   |
Inside wiremen                          | Between 16 and 21      |
Painters and paperhangers               | Before 21 years old    |
Plumbers and gas-fitters                | Must be 16 years old   |
Sheet metal workers                     | Must be over 16 years  |
Slate and tile roofers                  | Must enter before 25   |
Steam-fitters                           | Must be full grown     |
Structural and ornamental iron workers  | Between 18 and 25      |


_Trades in which indentures are usually signed_
    Bricklayer                                       4 years
    Plasterers                                       4 years
    Sheet metal workers                              4 years

_Trades in which indentures are seldom signed_
    Steam-fitters                                    5 years
    Carpenters                                       4 years
    Inside wiremen                                   4 years
    Plumbers and gas-fitter                          4 years
    Cement finishers                                 3 years
    Asbestos workers                                 3 years
    Painters and paperhangers                        3 years
    Slate and tile roofers                           3 years
    Lathers                                          2 years
    Structural and ornamental iron workers           11/2 years
    Elevator constructors                            varies

All obtainable information points to the conclusion that the number of
apprentices employed in the city is far below the maximum permitted by
the unions. Many large contractors have no apprentices and say they
will not bother with them. Others state that they have been unable to
get or keep good apprentices and have therefore given up the plan.


The building trades are among the most strongly organized in the city.
It is estimated that their unions at the present time include about 90
per cent of all the men engaged in building work. Practically all the
large contracting firms employ only union labor. The few non-union
workers are employed by small contractors.

Requirements for admission to the different unions vary to a marked
degree. If the union is strong and has a good control over the labor
supply, admission fees are higher and regulations as to apprentices
and helpers are more stringent than if the union is fighting to gain a


No industrial workers in the city are paid better wages than those
employed in the building trades. More than one-half of the skilled
workers are in trades that pay an hourly wage of 50 cents or over. The
hourly rate in each occupation is shown in Table 25.


_70 Cents_
    Bricklayers                                        70.00
    Hoisting engineers on boom derricks, etc.          70.00
    Stone masons                                       70.00
    Structural iron workers                            70.00

_From 60 to 70 Cents_
    Marble setters                                     68.75
    Inside wiremen                                     68.75
    Plasterers                                         68.75
    Slate and tile roofers                             67.50
    Parquet floor layers (carpenters)                  62.50
    Lathers, first class                               62.50
    Plumbers                                           62.50
    Steam-fitters                                      62.50
    Stone-cutters                                      62.50
    Hoisting engineers, brick hoists                   60.00
    Elevator constructors                              60.00

_From 50 to 60 Cents_
    Tile layers                                        59.38
    Lathers, second class                              56.25
    Carpenters                                         55.00
    Cement workers, finishers                          55.00
    Sheet metal workers                                50.00
    Painters                                           50.00
    Paperhangers                                       50.00

_From 40 to 50 Cents_
    Asbestos workers                                   47.50
    Composition roofers                                42.50

_Under 40 Cents_
    Cabinet-makers and bench hands                     37.50
    Machine woodworkers                                37.50
    Electrical fixture hangers                         37.50
    Hod-carriers                                       35.00

Union organization is a more powerful factor in determining wages in
these trades than technical knowledge and skill. A high degree of
skill in a given trade brings little advantage in the matter of wages.
By establishing a minimum scale below which no journeyman shall work,
the union secures practically a flat rate of pay for most of the men
in the trade. When there is much building work and good men are
scarce, contractors sometimes pay higher wages to highly skilled
workmen in order to secure their services. As a rule, however, their
reward comes in the form of steadier employment. The less skilled man
is the first to be laid off when business is slack, while the
first-class workman, for the reason that he is so hard to replace, is
the last to be discharged.

Many unions, among them those of the carpenters, bricklayers, and
painters, make no provision as to the wages of apprentices. Table 26
shows the wages in three of the building trades that have established
a uniform scale for apprentices. Sheet metal apprentices are paid a
bonus of $1 extra for each week served.


             |                |                | Sheet metal  |
    Year     | Inside wiremen |  Plasterers    |   workers    |
First year   |    $5.50       | $5.50 to $6.25 |   $5.00      |
Second year  |    13.20       |  8.25 to 11.02 | 5.50 to 6.00 |
Third year   |    17.60       | 13.75 to 16.00 | 6.50 to 7.00 |
Fourth year  |    22.00       |      19.25     | 8.00 to 9.00 |


The usual working day is eight hours. Many of the trades work only a
half day on Saturdays throughout the year; practically all have this
half holiday during the four summer months. For holiday or over-time
work the men receive either pay and a half or double pay.


Due to the seasonal character of building work, it is next to
impossible for a building contractor to keep a large force employed
all the year. One result of this situation is that the men change
employers more than any other workers in industry. Irregularity of
employment is greater in building construction than in any other of
the principal industries of the city. A comparison between the
different branches of building work as to regularity of employment is
presented in Diagram 11. The best showing is made by electrical
contracting, in which the average number employed is 93 per cent of
the maximum working force, and the poorest by plastering in which the
average is only 66 per cent of the maximum.


Nearly all of the building trades are open air occupations, much even
of the inside work being done before the buildings are closed in. For
the most part the materials used are not injurious to health if
reasonable precautions are taken and ordinary habits of cleanliness
observed. In general, health conditions are better than those found in
the factory industries.

[Illustration: Diagram 11.--Sections in outline represent percentage
of men employed, and sections in black percentage of men unemployed in
each of nine building industries at the time when each industry showed
the largest percentage of unemployment]


The building trades offer many opportunities for advancement. One
reason for this is the large number of supervisory positions made
necessary by the wide range of building activities. A foreman in
almost any of the trades must be able to read plans, as he must lay
out the work. It is not necessary for him to be the most skilled
mechanic in the force. Employers and superintendents say that in
selecting foremen they lay about equal weight on skill and on ability
to handle men.

As a rule, foremanship carries with it higher wages, although in some
cases the pay is the same as that of the regular journeymen. The
reward for the added responsibility comes in the form of steadier
employment. It is not uncommon for a foreman to be hired on a salary
basis and carried on the payroll throughout the entire year.

Small contracting offers another form of advancement. It requires but
little initial investment to make a modest beginning, because
individual workmen in the various building trades provide their own
tools and no expensive machines are required. Comparatively little
working capital is necessary, as provision is made in most contracts
for part payments as the work progresses.


The recommendations of the report relating to training for the
building trades may be summarized under five headings:

1. _Reduce retardation._ The first step in improving the educational
preparation of workers entering the building trades is to reduce
retardation or slow progress in the elementary grades. At present it
is approximately true of the men entering the building trades that
one-third drop out of school by the sixth grade, two-thirds by the
seventh grade, and three-thirds by the eighth grade. Now according to
law a boy cannot go to work until he is 16, and if he has made normal
progress he will have completed the eight grades of the elementary
course before he has reached that age. In point of fact, many of these
boys do not make normal progress through the grades and hence they
reach the age of 15 before completing the elementary course. As a
result they fall out of school without having had those portions of
the work in reading, drawing, mathematics, and elementary science
which would be of most direct use to them in their future work.

2. _General industrial courses in seventh, eighth, and ninth grades._
If retardation could be largely reduced in the elementary grades,
industrialized courses could be properly introduced in the seventh,
eighth, and ninth grades for boys intending to enter the building
trades. The specific changes recommended include as their most
important elements:

    a. Increased training in industrial arithmetic beginning in
       the seventh grade.

    b. Courses in industrial drawing.

    c. Courses in elementary science relating to industry.

    d. Courses in industrial information.

    e. General courses in industrial shop work.

These are general industrial courses and it is recommended that they
be introduced as prominent features of the work of the junior high
school. They are not intended to take the place of specialized courses
in the building trades, but they are proposed as courses valuable for
all future industrial workers and within which certain adaptations
should be made for those who are intending to enter the building

3. _A two year industrial trade school._ In addition to the general
industrial courses in junior high schools that have been recommended
in the previous section, there should be established a two year
industrial trade school for boys. It should receive boys 14 to 16
years of age who desire direct trade-preparatory training. There are
good reasons why the present elementary schools, the proposed junior
high schools, and the existing technical high schools cannot
satisfactorily take the place of a specialized two year course in
giving boys direct trade-preparatory education. Boys who go through
the technical high schools do not remain in the building trades as
artisans. This is shown by the fact that less than two per cent of the
graduates of these schools are working in the building trades.

The elementary schools and the junior high schools cannot conduct
satisfactory trade-preparatory courses for the building industry for
the reason that they do not bring together at any one point a
sufficient number of these future workers to make it possible to teach
them economically. This is a consideration which conditions every
plan for the organization of industrial education. It is a question of
the community's capacity to absorb workmen trained for any given
occupation. In Cleveland about 4,000 boys leave the public elementary
schools each year. Approximately 2,400 of them drop out of the
elementary schools or leave after graduating from them, while the
remaining 1,600 go on to high school. The future workers in the
building trades will be largely recruited from the 2,400 boys who
leave the elementary schools each year. Most of them range in age from
14 to 16 and in school advancement from the fifth to the eighth
grades. They represent a cross-section of a large part of the city's
adult manhood of a few years hence.

Now the census figures tell us that if present conditions maintain in
the future only about 100 of the 4,000 boys leaving school each year
will be carpenters. For the purposes of the present inquiry we may
assume that these 100 future carpenters are to be found among the
2,400 boys who do not go on to high school. But Cleveland has 108
elementary schools and these 100 future carpenters are widely
scattered among them. Even if we knew which boys were destined to
become carpenters, and even if we knew when they would leave school,
and even if we should decide to give them all trade preparatory
education for the last two years of their school life, we should still
have an average class in carpentry of only two boys in each elementary
school. This is administratively and educationally impossible. For
similar reasons specialized trade preparatory classes in junior high
schools would prove exceedingly difficult to organize.

The whole situation is changed, however, when we gather in a central
school all these future artisans who have decided that they wish to
prepare for specific trades. Under these conditions classes would be
sufficiently large so that specialized training could be given and
special equipment provided. This work would best be undertaken in a
school entirely devoted to the purpose, but such courses might be
organized in connection with the present technical high schools. This
arrangement would be less desirable and probably give inferior
results. The important point, however, is not so much the organization
or curriculum for these classes, it is the fundamental fact that trade
classes can be wisely organized only when a sufficiently large number
of pupils can be gathered in one place so as to make the work
efficient and economical.

The effectiveness of the trade-preparatory training recommended would
be greatly increased if the upper limit of the compulsory attendance
period for boys should be placed at 16 years instead of at 15 as it is

4. _Trade-Extension Classes for Apprentices._ At the present time the
technical high schools offer evening classes for apprentices in the
building trades. About one-seventh of the apprentices of the city are
enrolled in these classes. In the main they are full grown men. In
general they do not want shop work related to their own trades, but
prefer instead to enroll in courses in drawing.

The considerations already presented bear in minor degree on the
problem of providing evening instruction for trade apprentices. The
essential for efficient work is that a sufficient number of pupils be
brought together so as to make it possible to organize specialized
classes in different kinds of work that the pupils want and need. So
long as there are only 50 apprentices enrolled in the entire city, and
these represent a number of trades, many different stages of
advancement, and a variety of needs, truly efficient work will be
impossible. Better conditions can be brought about only through the
coöperation of the unions, the employers, and the school people.

5. _Trade-Extension Work for Journeymen._ The evening technical
schools now maintain shop classes and drawing classes for workers in
the building trades. Less than one per cent of the workers in these
trades are enrolled in these classes. There is little differentiation
in the school work offered to helpers, apprentices, and journeymen.
The result is that the work is much less efficient than it might well
be. It cannot be rendered much more efficient than it is until the
classes are increased in size and as a result the work differentiated
and specialized. This type of improvement will result only from
putting the night school work in the hands of skilful and well paid
directors and teachers who bring to it a degree of energy, enterprise,
ingenuity, and adaptability that it is unreasonable to expect and
impossible to get from day school teachers who have already given the
best that is in them to their regular classes and are giving a
fatigued margin of work and attention to their night school pupils.



The report on railroad and street transportation takes up a class of
wage earning occupations that give employment in Cleveland to
approximately 15,000 men. A much larger proportion than is found in
most other industrial manual occupations are natives of the city.
Although some of the work is relatively unskilled, all of the
different occupations have one common characteristic--the necessity
for a knowledge of the English language and some acquaintance with
local customs and conditions. For this reason comparatively few
foreigners are employed.

The report takes up separately three types of workers, those employed
in railroad train service, those engaged in wagon or automobile
transportation, and the car service employees of the street railroad.


The study covered only those railroad occupations that are directly
concerned with the actual operation of trains, such as those of
engineers, firemen, conductors, and trainmen. These occupations have
many points in common and bring into play many similar mental and
physical characteristics. The requirements for entrance are strict and
examinations for the higher positions are obligatory. In all of them
the hazards are great. Each occupation is firmly intrenched in trade
unionism. Differences with employers relating to such matters as
promotion, hours of labor, wages, and overtime are settled by
collective bargaining or, in case of failure to agree, by arbitration

The estimated number of men in Cleveland employed in these occupations
in 1915 is approximately 4,500. Of these about one-fourth are
switchmen and flagmen, one-fourth enginemen, one-fifth brakemen,
one-sixth conductors, and one-eighth firemen.

The requirements for entrance call for a high degree of physical
fitness. The applicant for employment must pass a severe examination
as to vision and hearing, and in addition furnish certain data as to
his family history, as it relates to insanity, tuberculosis, and
certain other diseases. The high standard maintained insures a type of
employees which for physical fitness, mental alertness, and ability to
handle difficult situations is unsurpassed in any industry.

Frequent examinations, which are compulsory, are the stepping stones
to the higher positions. In this way a brakeman qualifies for the
position of freight conductor, a freight conductor for that of
passenger conductor, and a fireman for a position as engineer.

Each of the two services, passenger and freight, has its advantages.
In the passenger service the working day is short, with little
overtime. Freight service requires a longer working day and a
considerable amount of overtime. Promotions in both services and from
one to the other are made on the basis of seniority.

Violation of the strict rules laid down for the operation of trains on
the part of employees may result in reprimand, suspension, or
dismissal, according to the gravity of the offense. The penalty of
suspension has practically superseded the others except in extreme
cases, such as drunkenness, theft, or other serious violations of the
rules, for which offenders are summarily dismissed. On some railroads,
a graded system of demerits is used. When an employee has received a
certain number of demerits he is dismissed from the service.

The railroad unions are among the strongest and most aggressive in the
country. The total union membership among train operating employees
alone in the country is approximately 350,000. The unions are all
modeled upon the same general plan. They are quite independent of each
other, keep strictly to their agreements and oppose the sympathetic
strike. They all maintain some form of life insurance. Four
organizations have underwritten over $500,000,000 of insurance and one
of them in a single year paid claims amounting to $1,135,000. The
influence of these unions has been particularly effective in securing
the passage of protective state and national legislation such as full
crew laws, standardization of train equipment, employers' liability
laws, car limit laws, etc.

The hazardous nature of the work is indicated by a statement made by a
prominent union official to the effect that the Trainmen's Brotherhood
paid a claim for death or disability every seven hours. A report to
the Interstate Commerce Commission states that there is one case of
injury in train or yard service every nine minutes. With the invention
of safety devices the risk of accident has been greatly lessened, but
railroading is still one of the most dangerous industrial occupations.

There is little chance of employment for applicants under the age of
21 years. In fact, many roads refuse to employ men below this age.
Physical or sense defects which often accompany advancing years, and
which would not disqualify a man in other occupations do so in
railroad work. The average length of the working life is a little over
12 years.

Railroad employees are among the best paid workers in the country. A
close estimate based on extensive wage investigations places the
annual earnings of engineers at from $1,200 to $2,400 a year, with an
average of $1,600. Conductors average about $1,350, firemen a little
over $900, and other trainmen about $950. The usual working day is 10
hours, although this is often exceeded. Overtime is paid on a regular
scale agreed upon by the companies and the union.

The educational requirements are not very exacting. A thorough
grounding in the "three R's" is usually all that is necessary. A large
amount of trade knowledge is obtained through contact and
participation after entering employment and can be gained in no other
way. The examinations for promotion are of a thorough-going character.
One of the roads in Cleveland requires an examination of its firemen
and trainmen six months after employment, as to vision, color-sense,
and hearing. They must also pass an oral examination on the
characteristics of their division and a written examination on certain
set questions furnished them in advance. Two years later they are
examined again, the fireman for engineman, and the brakeman for
conductor. The scope of these examinations covers the whole range of
train operating. Each of the five large railroads entering Cleveland
has air-brake cars equipped with various forms of air brakes, air
signals, pumps, valves, and injectors for the purpose of giving
instruction to trainmen. A competent instructor is put in charge of
these cars to explain the theory and practice of the apparatus and
also to give instruction in any new type of engine or train equipment.

The conclusions of the report are in the main negative with respect to
specialized vocational training in the public schools. There is no
doubt that the general industrial course recommended for the junior
high school period in previous chapters would be of some value to boys
who may enter this line of work. Problems of railroad transportation
might well be included as part of the work in applied mathematics.
What workers in these occupations need most, however, is a thorough
elementary education.


This section of the report takes up such occupations as those of
teamsters, chauffeurs, and repairmen. There are no reliable data as to
the number of men in the city employed in these occupations, but it is
certain that it does not fall below 9,000. Notwithstanding the great
increase in the use of automobiles and auto trucks in recent years the
number of teamsters at the present time is in excess of 4,000 men. A
very large proportion of the men employed in these occupations are of
American birth.

The general conditions of labor such as wages, hours of labor, and so
on, are the same for teamsters and chauffeurs. They earn about the
same wages, belong to the same union, and work about the same hours.
The wages range from 25 to 37 cents an hour. Earnings in the better
paid jobs compare favorably with those in several of the skilled
trades. Automobile repairmen earn from 30 to 45 cents an hour, and
work from nine to 10 hours a day. The working day for teamsters and
chauffeurs is somewhat longer, ranging from 10 to 12 hours. At the
present time these occupations are only partially organized in trade

The report recommends the establishment of a course in automobile
construction and operation in the technical high schools. In view of
the constantly increasing use of automobiles such a course would be of
value to many boys besides those who enter employment as chauffeurs
and truck drivers.


There are employed in Cleveland at present approximately 2,500
motormen and street car conductors. Almost all of them are of American
birth, and the majority are natives of the city.

As in railroad work each applicant for employment must pass an
examination, although the requirements are less exacting than those
demanded in railroad work. The preliminary training occupies about 10
days, during which the motorman is taught by actual car operation how
to operate the controller, how to apply and release the brakes, and
other duties connected with the careful running of the car through
crowded streets. The conductor is taught the names of the streets, how
and when to call them, where stops are to be made, when to turn lights
on and off, how to act in case of accidents, and the various duties
which deal with the sale, collection, and reporting of transfers and

No one is admitted into the service before the age of 21 or after 35.
Promotion usually comes in the form of better runs. The chances of
promotion to positions above the grade of conductor or motorman are
very slight. About 90 per cent of the men belong to the local union.
Union rates of pay for motormen and conductors are higher in Cleveland
than in most cities in the country, in spite of the fact that this is
the only large city in the country with a three cent street car fare.
The wages of both motormen and conductors are 29 cents an hour for the
first year and 32 in succeeding years. The hours of labor are very
irregular. The usual working day is from 10 to 12 hours.

The author of the report is of the opinion that no special instruction
for this type of workers can be given by the public schools.



A smaller proportion of the industrial population in Cleveland is
engaged in printing than in most large cities. The number of persons
employed in printing occupations in 1915 is estimated at approximately
3,900, made up chiefly of skilled workmen. Little common labor is used
in any department of the industry.

The business of printing is usually conducted in small establishments.
There are not more than six plants in the city which employ over 75
wage earners. Data collected from 44 local printing shops, showed an
average working force of only 36 persons. Due largely to this
characteristic printing affords an unusual number of opportunities for
advancement to the skilled workers in the industry. The smaller the
establishments are the greater is the proportion of proprietors,
superintendents, managers and foremen to the total number of wage
earners. Ten per cent of the total working force in the printing
industry is employed in supervisory and directive positions. In many
of the large manufacturing industries of the city the proportion in
such work is less than three per cent.

[Illustration: Diagram 12.--Number of men in each 100 in printing and
five other industries earning each class of weekly wage. Black
indicates less than $18, hatching, $18 to $25, and outline $25 and

No other manufacturing industry employs so large a proportion of
American born workers. In recent years many of the skilled industrial
trades have been recruited to a very large extent from foreign labor,
but in printing the American worker has so far held his own remarkably
well. This is due in part to the relatively high wages and desirable
working conditions and to the necessity in all branches of printing
for a working knowledge of English.

Practically all of the trades are thoroughly organized. The unions are
united in a body called the Council of the Allied Printing Trades.
Although only about half of the shops in the city employ union labor
exclusively, the union regulations as to wages and hours of labor are
observed in both open and closed shops.

Printing workers are among the best paid industrial wage earners in
the city. A comparison of the weekly earnings in the various
manufacturing industries is shown in Diagram 12. This comparison is
based upon the 1914 report of the Ohio Industrial Commission.

The comparison of the earnings of women in various industries, shown
in Diagram 13, is less favorable to printing. On the basis of the
proportion of women that earn $12 and over per week this industry
takes third place. It should be noted, however, that nearly all the
women employed are engaged in semi-skilled work in binderies,--a lower
grade of work than that done by most women workers in clothing
factories, where wages are higher. Compared with other occupations
that require about the same amount of experience and training, in
textile, tobacco, and confectionery manufacturing establishments, the
wages of women employed in the printing industry are relatively high.

Wage earners in printing establishments lose less time through
irregularity of employment than do those in most other factory
industries. The kind of work done by women is more seasonal than that
done by men, although less so than in other manufacturing industries
which employ large numbers of women.

[Illustration: Diagram 13.--Number of women in each 100 in printing
and six other industries earning each class of weekly wage. Black
indicates less than $8, hatching $8 to $12, and outline $12 and over]


Nearly all the workers in this department of the industry are hand or
machine compositors. Until about 30 years ago, before practical
type-setting machines were invented, all type was set by hand. Today
the hand compositor, except in very small shops, works only on jobs
requiring special type and special arrangement, such as
advertisements, title covers of books, letter heads, and so on.

In the city there are about 1,200 people employed in composing room
occupations, or about 30 per cent of the total number of workers in
the industry. This number includes some 50 women employed as
proof-readers and copy-holders. Nine-tenths of the composing room
workers are members of the International Typographical Union, although
the number of shops that employ union men exclusively, called closed
shops, approximates only one-half of the total number in the city. The
remainder, while employing union labor, observing union hours, and
paying union wages, reserve the right to hire non-union workmen.

Composing room workers are the best paid in the industry. A comparison
of average wages in newspaper and job establishments is shown in Table


                         |               |  Newspaper |
Workers in trade         |  Job offices  |   offices  |
Foremen                  |     $5.19     |   $6.65    |
Linotype machinists      |      4.66     |    4.84    |
Proof-readers            |      4.63     |    3.98    |
Monotype operators       |      4.57     |     ..     |
Linotypers               |      4.28     |    4.65    |
Monotype casters         |      3.96     |    4.30    |
Stonemen                 |      3.94     |    4.89    |
Hand-compositors         |      3.48     |    4.58    |
Copy-holders             |      2.30     |    2.93    |
Apprentices              |      1.64     |    1.30    |

Compositors suffer most from the diseases that are common to indoor
workers. The stooping position in which much of the work is done,
together with insufficient ventilation and the presence of gases from
the molten metal used in monotype and linotype machines, favors the
development of lung diseases. The number of deaths from consumption
among compositors is more than double that in most outdoor

The apprenticeship system has held its own in the compositor's trade
better than in most industrial occupations. In the establishments
visited by the Survey Staff there were approximately 15 apprentices to
each 100 hand and machine compositors. As a rule there is no real
system or method of instruction. The points principally insisted upon
by the union, which strongly favors the apprenticeship system, are
that the number of apprentices employed shall not exceed that
stipulated in the agreement between the employers and the union, and
that each apprentice shall be required to serve the full term of five

During the first and second years the apprentice is required to
perform general work in the composing room under the direction of the
foreman. In the third year he joins the union as an apprentice. The
apprenticeship agreement stipulates that during this year he must be
employed four hours each day at composition and distribution. In the
fourth and fifth years the number of hours per day on such work is
increased to six and seven respectively. During the last two years of
his term he must take the evening trade course given by the
International Typographical Union, the expense of tuition being met by
the local union. The agreement contains no stipulation as to wages for
the first and second years. The wage for the third year is $9 a week,
for the fourth year $12, and for the fifth, $15. Apprentices in
newspaper composing rooms are permitted to spend the last six months
of their period working on type-setting machines.


The pressroom occupations include platen and cylinder pressmen, web or
newspaper pressmen, platen and cylinder pressfeeders, plate printers,
cutters, flyboys and apprentices. Approximately 15 per cent of the men
employed are cylinder pressmen, about 10 per cent platen pressmen, and
less than three per cent web pressmen. Pressfeeders comprise over 40
per cent of the whole group. Nearly nine-tenths of all pressroom
workers are employed in job establishments. Five occupations--those of
cutters, floormen, flyboys, plate printers, and web pressmen--give
employment to fewer than 40 men each.

The average daily earnings of pressroom workers in the establishments
from which wage data were collected during the survey are shown in
Table 28.

The hourly rates of pay are high as compared with those in other
occupations requiring an equal or greater amount of skill and
knowledge. Cylinder pressmen earn more per hour than do tool and die
makers--the most highly skilled of the metal trades--and platen
pressmen in charge of five or more presses earn more than all-round
machinists and boiler makers. The rate for cylinder pressfeeders is
about three cents an hour higher than that received for specialized
machine work in the metal trades.


_Job pressroom workers_
  Foremen                                    $4.78
  Cylinder pressmen                           3.63
  Cutters                                     3.41
  Platen pressmen                             2.97
  Floormen                                    2.91
  Cylinder pressfeeders, men                  2.54
  Cylinder pressfeeders, women                1.77
  Platen pressfeeders, men                    1.83
  Platen pressfeeders, women                  1.70
  Flyboys                                     1.56

_Newspaper pressroom workers_
  Foremen                                     6.11
  Web pressmen                                4.33
  Web pressmen's assistants                   2.95

Formal apprenticeship is practically unknown. The boy begins as a
pressfeeder, usually on a platen press, and in the course of time gets
to be a platen pressman. A knowledge of platen presswork does not
qualify a man to run a cylinder press, and as a rule the platen
pressman who wants to change must serve some time as a cylinder
pressfeeder and cylinder pressman's assistant. There is no organized
system for training beginners. The boy who wants to become a pressman
must pick up the trade through experience and practice, the length of
time required depending chiefly on how frequently changes occur among
the force of pressmen employed in the shop.


The bindery is the only department of the industry in which any
considerable number of women are employed. Some of the occupations,
such as gathering, sewing, and stitching, are practically monopolized
by women. They are also employed extensively in hand and machine
folding. About one-fifth are gatherers and one-fifth sewers and
stitchers. The other three-fifths are distributed among a number of
occupations usually classed as general bindery work.

The occupations in which men predominate are forwarding, ruling, and
finishing, and cutting. The forwarders comprise more than one-fourth
of the total number of men engaged in bindery work. The other two
skilled trades--ruling and finishing--give employment to about 35 men

The average daily earnings in the various occupations, based on
returns from 44 establishments, were as shown in Table 29.


Workers in trade              |   Men     |  Women    |
Foremen                       |   $4.78   |  $2.05    |
Rulers                        |    3.56   |    ..     |
Finishers                     |    3.51   |    ..     |
Forwarders                    |    3.23   |    ..     |
Cutters                       |    3.21   |    ..     |
Machine-folders               |    2.81   |   1.49    |
Wire-stitchers                |     ..    |   1.57    |
Apprentices                   |    1.53   |    ..     |
Gatherers                     |     ..    |   1.52    |
Sewers                        |     ..    |   1.52    |
Other bindery operatives      |    1.40   |   1.51    |

On account of the seasonal character of the work considerable time is
lost through unemployment, particularly in those occupations in which
women predominate.

Beginners in these occupations in which the majority of the women are
employed, start on folding or pasting, and as opportunity presents,
gradually acquire practice in the higher grades of work, such as
gathering and machine operating. There are some traces of the
apprenticeship system in forwarding, ruling, and finishing, but these
trades are so small that all of them combined require only a very few
new workers each year.


Other departments of the printing industry are photoengraving,
stereotyping, electrotyping, and lithographing. They give employment
to approximately 700 workers, distributed among more than 20 distinct
trades, requiring the most diverse sorts of skill, knowledge, and
training. There are about 100 men in the city engaged in the different
processes of photoengraving. Nearly all of the stereotypers, numbering
from 60 to 70, are employed in newspaper offices. There are about 125
electrotypers and 400 lithographers. The labor conditions closely
approximate those found in other departments of the industry. Average
wages for the different occupations are shown in Table 30.


Workers in trade                    daily earnings

  Artists                                $6.32
  Photographers                           4.69
  Etchers                                 4.52
  Routers                                 4.25
  Finishers                               4.21
  Proofers                                3.69
  Strippers                               3.61
  Blockers                                2.36
  Apprentices                             1.49
  Art apprentices                         1.27

Stereotyping                              4.00

  Molders                                 4.41
  Finishers                               4.01
  Casters                                 3.18
  Routers                                 3.17
  Builders                                3.13
  Blockers                                2.05
  Batterymen                              1.97
  Case fillers                            1.59
  Apprentices                             1.10

  Lettermen                               6.63
  Artists                                 6.41
  Pressroom foremen                       5.80
  Grainers                                4.73
  Engravers                               4.35
  Pressmen                                3.91
  Transferers and proofers                3.41
  Pressroom apprentices                   2.80
  Tracers                                 2.63
  Stone polishers                         2.53
  Pressfeeders                            1.72
  Other apprentices                       1.59
  Artist apprentices                      1.23
  Flyboys                                 1.10

There is no well organized system for training apprentices in
photoengraving, stereotyping, and electrotyping, or in any of the
lithographic trades, except that of poster artist, in which an
efficient and strictly regulated system of apprenticeship is


The report maintains that up to the end of the compulsory attendance
period school training preparatory to entering the printing trades
must be of the most general sort, due to the fact that in the average
elementary school the number of boys who are likely to become printers
is too small to form special classes. For example, in an elementary
school of 1,000 pupils the number of boys 12 years old and over to
whom instruction in printing would be of value from the standpoint of
future vocational utility, would probably not exceed two. While
admitting the advantages of the junior high school for the purposes of
vocational training, the report points out that even in a school where
only pupils of the upper grades are admitted, the number who are
likely to become printers is still too small to warrant special
instruction. In a junior high school of 1,000 pupils not more than
nine boys are likely to become printers.

The report recommends a general industrial course during the junior
high school period. What the boys need at this time is practice in the
application of mathematics, drawing, and elementary science to
industrial problems. Shop equipment should be selected with this
object in mind. It is doubtful whether it should include a printing
shop, for while such a shop would be useful to the few boys who will
become printers, it would be of little value in training for other
industries. The report suggests as subjects which should be included
in the general industrial course practice in handling and assembling
machinery, the study of color harmony, and the principles of design in
connection with the work in drawing, the use of printing shop problems
in applied mathematics, and thorough instruction in spelling,
punctuation, and the division of words. It also recommends the course
of industrial information referred to in previous chapters.

The establishment of a two year printing course in a separate
vocational school is recommended to meet the need for specialized
instruction from the end of the compulsory period to the apprentice
entering age. The printing trades are relatively small and it is only
by concentrating in a single school plant all the boys who may wish to
enter them that specialized training can be made practicable. In this
way it would be possible to secure classes of from 60 to 100 boys each
for such trades as composition and presswork. The report emphasizes
the need for instruction in trade theory as against practice on
specific operations. It points out that the boys will have plenty of
opportunity after they go to work to acquire speed and manual skill,
while they have little chance, under modern shop conditions, to obtain
an understanding of the relation of drawing, physics, chemistry,
mathematics, and art to their work.

The only trade extension training offered by the public schools at the
present time is that given in the technical night schools. During the
second term of 1915-16 there were 28 persons enrolled in the technical
night school printing class. Of these 28 persons three were journeymen
printers, five described themselves as "helpers," 11 were apprentices,
one was employed in the office of a printing establishment, and eight
were engaged in occupations unrelated to printing. No special
provision is made for the apprentices. The course, which includes hand
composition, a little press work, and lectures on trade subjects, is
planned "to help broaden the shop training of those working at the
trade." That it does so to any considerable extent is doubtful. Too
much of the time is devoted to hand work and practice on operations
which the boys can easily learn in the shops. It is believed that the
plan followed in the evening apprentice course prescribed by the
International Typographical Union, in which no shop equipment or
apparatus is used, is better adapted to the needs of boys employed in
the trade. The course consists of 46 lessons in English, lettering,
design, color harmony, job composition, and imposition for machine,
and hand folding. The classes are taught by journeymen teachers. In
February 1916 about 100 students were enrolled, of whom approximately
one-third were apprentices and two-thirds journeymen.


These reports can be secured from the Survey Committee of the
Cleveland Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio. They will be sent postpaid for
25 cents per volume with the exception of "Measuring the Work of the
Public Schools" by Judd, "The Cleveland School Survey" by Ayres, and
"Wage Earning and Education" by Lutz. These three volumes will be sent
for 50 cents each. All of these reports may be secured at the same
rates from the Division of Education of the Russell Sage Foundation,
New York City.

  Child Accounting in the Public Schools--Ayres.
  Educational Extension--Perry.
  Education through Recreation--Johnson.
  Financing the Public Schools--Clark.
  Health Work in the Public Schools--Ayres.
  Household Arts and School Lunches--Boughton.
  Measuring the Work of the Public Schools--Judd.
  Overcrowded Schools and the Platoon Plan--Hartwell.
  School Buildings and Equipment--Ayres.
  Schools and Classes for Exceptional Children--Mitchell.
  School Organization and Administration--Ayres.
  The Public Library and the Public Schools--Ayres and McKinnie.
  The School and the Immigrant--Miller.
  The Teaching Staff--Jessup.
  What the Schools Teach and Might Teach--Bobbitt.
  The Cleveland School Survey (Summary)--Ayres.

         *       *       *       *       *

  Boys and Girls in Commercial Work--Stevens.
  Department Store Occupations--O'Leary.
  Dressmaking and Millinery--Bryner.
  Railroad and Street Transportation--Fleming.
  The Building Trades--Shaw.
  The Garment Trades--Bryner.
  The Metal Trades--Lutz.
  The Printing Trades--Shaw.
  Wage Earning and Education (Summary)--Lutz.

       *       *       *       *       *

Transcriber's Notes:

Typos Corrected In Text: Table 15 on page 120: establishments for
estabments page 194: "car fare" for "car far" page 15: employee for

       *       *       *       *       *

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