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Title: A General Plan for a Mail Communication by Steam, Between Great Britain and the Eastern and Western Parts of the World
Author: MacQueen, James
Language: English
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project.)



                              A GENERAL PLAN

                                   FOR

                                  A MAIL

                          COMMUNICATION BY STEAM,

                                 BETWEEN

                              GREAT BRITAIN

                                 AND THE

                   EASTERN AND WESTERN PARTS OF THE WORLD;

                                 ALSO, TO

                 CANTON AND SYDNEY, WESTWARD BY THE PACIFIC;

                             TO WHICH ARE ADDED,

                            GEOGRAPHICAL NOTICES

                  OF THE ISTHMUS OF PANAMA, NICARAGUA, &c.

                               With Charts.



                          By JAMES M'QUEEN, Esq.


                                 LONDON;
                      B. FELLOWES, LUDGATE STREET.
                                  1838.



Startling as the subject of connecting China and New South Wales    (p. vi)
with Great Britain, through the West Indies, may at first sight
appear, both as regards time and expense, still few things are more
practicable. The labour and expense of crossing the Isthmus of
America, either by Panama or by Lake Nicaragua, by a land conveyance,
is trifling. With eight steam-boats, ONLY FOUR ADDITIONAL to the
number already in the West Indies, added to the present sailing-packet
establishment, the whole Plan for the Western World, extending it
westward to China and New South Wales, can, in the mean time, as the
following pages will show you, be put into execution to the fullest
extent, with a very great saving in time, and with very great
regularity. A water communication moreover will, I feel convinced, and
at no distant day, be carried through the American Isthmus--say by
Lake Nicaragua--when the sailing packets for the Pacific may run
direct between Jamaica and Sydney, New South Wales, and Canton-China.

In the estimate for the cost of steam-boats to be employed in the
service proposed, I have been chiefly guided by, and adhere to, the
statement made by that able and practical engineer Mr. Napier, of
Glasgow, in his evidence to the Post-office Commissioners in 1836,
that steam-boats of 240-horse power, and 620 tons burthen, could be
furnished at from 24,000_l._ to 25,000_l._ At this rate the total
yearly cost of mail communications by the aid of steam, to every
quarter which has been adverted to in the subsequent pages, will   (p. vii)
be as stated in the following brief summary. Reference No. 1, shows
the expenditure, keeping the Red Sea route confined to India only, and
extending the communication to China and Sydney by the Pacific, from
Panama or Rialejo. No. 2, the expense, confining the communication by
the Cape of Good Hope to India only, and extending the communication
to Canton, &c. across the Pacific as before. No. 3, shows the
expenditure for the Western World, the work performed by steam in the
West Indies, and steam from Falmouth to Fayal, with sailing-packets
for the remainder of the work; and the whole expense, by extending
sailing-packets to China and Sydney westward across the Pacific, but
limiting the communication by the Red Sea to India only. Lastly, No.
4, shows the expenditure of the communications made in a way similar
to No. 3, limiting the conveyance by the Cape of Good Hope to India
only: (see also Appendix No. 2, p. 128.)

                       No. 1.       No. 2.       No. 3.       No. 4.
  Western World       £279,250     £279,250     £161,615     £161,615
  East Indies, &c.     128,850      187,978      128,850      187,978
  Pacific               63,000       63,000       63,000       63,000
                      --------     --------     --------     --------
                      £471,100     £530,228     £353,465     £412,593
                      --------     --------     --------     --------

It is, however, to that portion connected with the Western World that
the immediate and particular attention of yourself and the other
members of Her Majesty's Government is particularly requested. The
other parts, above alluded to, may hereafter not be deemed        (p. viii)
unworthy of your consideration, and the consideration of the Public.
Carried into effect in a decided manner, and as speedily as the nature
and extent of the machinery required will admit, it would produce
great and lasting advantages to the British empire, and confer great
honour upon the British Government and the splendid Post-office
establishment of this country.

Permit me to observe, that the speedy conveyance of mails outwards, to
any place, is but a _minor_ point gained, unless the returns are made
regular and equally rapid, and so combined, that while every place
possible can be embraced in the line, no place shall obtain any undue
advantage over another. These points can never be lost sight of in
planning or arranging any mail communication, but more especially a
communication like that at present proposed.

No narrow or parsimonious views on the part of this great country
ought to throw aside the plan particularly alluded to, or leave it to
be taken up and split into divisions by parties, perhaps foreigners,
who will then not only command the channels of British intelligence,
but be enabled to demand what price they please for carrying a large
and important portion of the commercial correspondence of this
country. The Public, moreover, can only repose implicit confidence in
a mail conveyance under the direction and the responsibility of
Government. Further, it is scarcely necessary to point out, or to   (p. ix)
advert to, the immense advantages which the Government of Great
Britain would possess, in the event of hostilities, by having the
command and the direction of such a mighty and extensive steam power
and communication, which would enable them to forward, to any point
within its vast range, despatches, troops, and warlike stores. From
Falmouth, letters might be at Sydney, New South Wales, in
seventy-five, and at Canton-China in seventy-eight days, by employing
sailing packets only, to cross the Pacific from the Isthmus of
America. Letters from Falmouth, by way of Barbadoes, Jamaica, and
Chagre, could be at Lima in thirty-five days.

To give greater security to the mails, and comfort and accommodation
to passengers, &c. a class of sailing-vessels rather larger than the
generality of those at present employed in the West Indies, ought to
be engaged; and for this purpose, a larger sum annually must be
allowed to defray the expense. Some of those at present employed, such
as the Charib, may do, but sloops are too small for the service.

It is only within these few months that a mail communication, and that
very uncertain and irregular, has been commenced with the British
Empire in Hindostan, containing 100,000,000 of people. With the
rapidly rising colonies in British America, containing 1,700,000
enterprising inhabitants, there is still but one ill-regulated mail
conveyance, by a sailing-packet, each month. Such a state of things  (p. x)
is neither creditable nor safe to a country like Great Britain.
The population of these colonies must be left far behind their
neighbours in the United States in all commercial intelligence, and
the interests of the former must consequently suffer greatly.

The steam-boats to be employed in the service contemplated, although
of the high power mentioned, need not be of the same tonnage as
vessels of an equal power which are built for the sole purpose of
carrying goods. Consequently, a considerable expense in building the
former will be saved. Mails never can be carried either with
regularity or certainty in vessels, the chief object and dependence of
which is to carry merchandize. The time which such vessels would
require to procure, take in, and discharge cargoes, would render
punctuality and regularity, two things indispensably necessary in all
mail communications, quite impracticable. Any attempt to resort to
such a system, more especially in a quarter where steamers would have
so many places to call at as these will have in the West Indies, would
throw every thing into inextricable confusion. Steam-boats carrying
mails and passengers should be the mail-coaches of the ocean, limited
as mail-coaches on land are to cargoes, and as near as possible to the
tonnage pointed out in the following pages. The steamers to be
employed in the service contemplated should also be built broad in the
beam, of a light draught of water, and in speed, accommodation, and (p. xi)
security, must be such that no others of equal powers can surpass them.

The liberality of MR. JOHN ARROWSMITH, so well known for his
geographical knowledge and geographical accuracy, has enabled me,
without the labour of constructing it, to present to you and to the
public the Chart of the World, between 70° N. lat. and 60° S. lat., on
Mercator's projection, which accompanies the present sheets. On it I
have laid down all the routes of both steamers and sailing-packets, to
every quarter of the world that has been adverted to; and further
added a Chart of the West Indies, and of the Isthmus of America, drawn
by myself, and corrected by the latest authorities.

The timid and the interested will throw every doubt upon the success
of such an undertaking. What is going on in the world is the best
answer to doubts and fears on this subject. What takes place in other
quarters will take place in the quarters alluded to, namely, success
where failure was anticipated.

In a vast undertaking like the plan proposed, the interests of the
Government and the general interests of the public must be specially
kept in view and particularly attended to. By attending closely to
these interests, the Government will find that it best and most
effectually consults the interests of individuals, places and
communities. No partial or local interest or opposition (such may  (p. xii)
in this, as in most other concerns, appear) ought to be listened to.
Any such opposition can only proceed from prejudice, or ignorance, or
self-interest; and a little experience will satisfy the public, and
convince even such opposition, that the fact is so; and, moreover,
that in the arrangements proposed, no interest in any quarter has been
neglected.

  I have the honour to be,
         Sir,
    Your most obedient humble servant,

                       JAMES M'QUEEN.

  London, 14th Feb. 1838.



A GENERAL PLAN FOR CONVEYANCE OF MAILS BY STEAM, &c. &c.           (p. 001)



INTRODUCTION.


The conveyance of mails and despatches from one place to another is of
the utmost possible importance to individuals, and to a country. The
rapidity and regularity with which such communications can be made,
gives to every nation an influence, a command, and advantages such as
scarcely any thing else can give, and frequently extends even beyond
the sphere of that influence and that command which the direct
application of mere physical power can obtain to any government or
people.

Much as Great Britain has already done, in this respect, to connect
and to communicate with her very extensive, valuable, and important
foreign dependencies, still much more remains to be done, to give her
those advantages, and that influence, and that command which she might
have, which she ought to have, which all her great interests require
she should have; and which the power of steam, together with the late
great improvements in machinery, can and ought, in a special manner,
to secure unto her, her commerce, her power, and her people.

In no quarters of the world could the application of the power and the
improvements alluded to prove so advantageous to the commercial    (p. 002)
and the political interests of Great Britain as in the East Indies, in
the West Indies, and in those places connected with these quarters;
and also in all those countries and places which afford the safest and
the speediest means of connecting the chain closely which tends to
enable her to communicate more frequently, more rapidly, and more
regularly with these places; and, at the same time, all these
quarters, and her own possessions, with the parent State.

The object being a national one, it ought to be carried into effect by
the nation, without reference to the mere question of pounds shillings
and pence; that is, whether it is to become a directly remunerating
concern or not. While the important subject ought to be taken up in
this manner by the Government of Great Britain, it may be observed
that the plan requisite, carried into effect in the most extensive
manner, will certainly remunerate fully the Government or the
individuals who may undertake the work, either on the general or on
the more limited scale; but the higher, the more the scale is
extended.

In fact, unless the plan is carried into effect on an extensive scale,
it will not prove a concern so remunerating as it would otherwise be,
because it is only by connecting different places in the line, or
within the sphere of communication, that a greater number, or rather a
sufficient number, of letters and passengers can be obtained; and
unless the communications are sufficiently frequent and regular, both
letters and travellers will continue to find private traders and ships
in general the quickest mode of proceeding on and getting to the end
of their journey, or the place of their destination.

The position of the United States, in the western world, and the very
extensive trade which these States carry on with every part of that
quarter of the world, and indeed with every quarter of the world,
gives the merchants of these States, constituted as the packet
arrangements and communications of Great Britain with foreign parts
now are, an opportunity of receiving earlier intelligence regarding
the state of many important foreign markets than British merchants in
general enjoy, except such as are immediately connected with
establishments in the United States, and by which means both obtain
decided advantages over the rest of the commercial community.      (p. 003)
This ought not to be the case in a great commercial country like Great
Britain. It is a fact quite notorious, that from almost every quarter
of the western world the earliest intelligence is almost uniformly
received through the United States. The whole correspondence of the
important British Provinces, the Canadas, comes through these States.
It is also notorious, that, by means of our own commercial marine,
intelligence is generally received from many foreign countries earlier
than by Government Packets. Indeed, it is not uncommon among merchants
to return, unopened, to the Post-office many letters in originals,
they having previously received the duplicates by private merchant
ships. Besides, it is well known that vast numbers of letters from
Great Britain to Foreign States are sent through the United States,
because these go earlier to their place of destination. In these
various ways a great Post-office revenue is cut off, while the
mercantile world are put to a great inconvenience and uncertainty. It
is not befitting that the first commercial country in the world should
remain dependent upon the private ships of another commercial and
rival state for the transmission of commercial correspondence. If such
a deficient system is persevered in, the result will most infallibly
be, that that country which obtains, and which can obtain, the
earliest commercial information, will, in time, become the greatest
and most prosperous commercial country.

It is, in fact, quite impossible that the commercial interests of any
country can ever compete with the commercial interests of another
country, unless the one have equally rapid, frequent, and regular
opportunities and means of correspondence and conveyance with the
other. If the merchants of other countries have quicker and more
frequent communications with any particular quarter of the world, than
the merchants of the United Kingdom have, it is obvious that the
former will obtain a decided advantage over the latter, in regulating
and directing all commercial transactions.

The foreign trade of Great Britain, besides forming an immense moving
power for giving activity to every branch of internal industry, trade,
and commerce, becomes also, from the correspondence to which it    (p. 004)
gives rise, and by which it can alone be carried on, an immense and
direct source of Post-office revenue: but the direct postage derived
from the correspondence required in the foreign trade, great as it is,
is small when compared to the addition which the correspondence in the
foreign trade directly and immediately gives to the internal postages
of the kingdom. If it is examined narrowly, it will, it is not
doubted, be found that almost every letter of the moiety of those
which come from the British transmarine possessions, and from other
foreign parts, whether by packets or by merchant ships, (of the
latter, it may be said, a number equal to the whole which pay postage
do, because the very great number of letters directed to consignees
come free,) produces, perhaps, _ten letters_, on which the largest
single internal postages are charged and paid. This arises from orders
sent to different places to tradesmen, mechanical and manufacturing
establishments for goods; orders for insurance; invoices sent;
payments, in consequence, by bills or orders, and in bills transmitted
for acceptances, &c. &c.

In all mail communications, such as those which are about to be
considered, the point to be kept steadily in view, and one which is
absolutely indispensable, is to connect and to bring the return mails
and the outward together, in such a manner as that every intermediate
place shall have the full benefit of both, without trenching upon the
general interests, or occasioning any unnecessary detention or delay.
This great and essential point is more particularly necessary to be
attended to in the conveyance of mails by sea to distant parts,
especially if conveyed by steam. In the quarters about to be noticed,
the point alluded to will be shown to be more than in any other
quarter necessary. Without this is effected, nothing beneficial is, in
fact, effected; and to secure the object, a commanding power is
obviously and indispensably necessary. For various reasons, which it
is considered unnecessary here to state, steamers of 250-horse power
each, will be found to be the best and most economical class of
vessels to employ in the service contemplated.

The next and a still more important point to attend to, and to     (p. 005)
keep in mind, is to have always in readiness, and at well-selected
stations, a sufficient quantity of coals to supply each boat: without
such are at command, no movement can take place; and unless the supply
is ample, and always at hand, no regular communication can ever be
carried on. Wood, indeed, may be procured in some stations in the West
Indies, but not in all; while even where it can be obtained, it will
be found to be dearer than coal. The quantity also necessary for a
vessel of large power, and for a voyage of any considerable length,
would far exceed the room that could be afforded, in a vessel of
properly regulated tonnage. A supply of coals, moreover, could be had
at all the places to be brought into notice by care, and foresight, at
moderate rates, and at the rates taken in the subsequent calculations.
Merchant vessels, bound to all quarters, so soon as they perceived
that they were sure of a market, would take a proportion of coals as
ballast; and others would be glad to take a portion even beyond that,
to aid them in completing their cargoes, instead of remaining, as
vessels both at Liverpool, Glasgow, &c. frequently do, some time, till
they can obtain a sufficient quantity of goods to enable them to do
so: while such vessels could at all times furnish in this way a
sufficient supply of coals, at moderate rates, and still afford to
them a fair profit; such assistance in loading, by enabling vessels to
sail at short and regularly stated periods, would become of the most
essential service to the commercial interests of this country.

The time hitherto occupied by steamers in taking in coals, in almost
every place, has constituted of itself a considerable drawback on
steam navigation: it may, to a great extent, be avoided. Let
carriages, such as are used on the railroads for carrying coals at
Newcastle, &c. be constructed with iron handles. These may be made to
hold one and a half, or two tons of coals (either of these weights, it
is supposed, might be hoisted into a vessel without difficulty), and
be all filled and placed on a raft or punt ready at each depôt, thirty
to sixty in number, according to its importance, awaiting the arrival
of the packet steamer. The moment she comes into port, the punt will
be alongside, and the whole will be hoisted in in a few hours, the
place for receiving them being always, and during the voyage,      (p. 006)
prepared for them. In this way 120 tons of coals may be taken in
within a very short space of time; the buckets first emptied,
refilled, and emptied again, to a considerable extent, in a period of
no great additional time. At smaller depôts and ports, the steamer
might hoist in thirty or forty tons of coals during her shorter time
of stoppage; and thus steamers, without any material delay, would
always have a sufficient and certain supply of fuel. The coals at all
the depôts should be well covered and protected from the sun.

Further, on this head, most of the small coal (the best) which goes to
waste at the depôts, may be saved by the following simple
process:--Let it be mixed with a little clay, considerably diluted,
then made into small balls, and afterwards dried in the sun (a rapid
process within the tropics), and then taken on board with the others
when wanted. It burns with great force. It is so used on estates in
the West Indies for Stills. The saving is great, and the labour of
making it up exceedingly light. A child may almost perform it.

It is necessary to observe, that steam-boats for the torrid zone must
be fitted up and out in a manner considerably different, more
especially in their hatches, from the best and most splendid boats in
this country. For the convenience and health of both the passengers
and crews, those for the torrid zone must, in every part, be more
roomy and airy, yet so constructed as to be closed in the speediest
and securest manner in the event of a hurricane; consequently they
will require less expense in building, and fitting up of cabins, &c.
than the crack boats in this country, in order to make them so.

In all the distances stated, there are, be it observed, included in
the time allowed, three or four hours to land and take in mails and
passengers at every place where the steamers may have to touch; and at
the more important stations, at least six hours beyond the longer
periods allowed for stoppages for coals and mails, &c. It will be
necessary to give six or eight hours at Barbadoes before the departure
of the steamer, that Government despatches may be forwarded. In fact,
the steamer should always, and only leave that island at sun-rise on
the day following that whereon the packet arrived from England,    (p. 007)
because by doing so, it would reach St. Thomas at daybreak on the
second morning (the navigation at that island is rather dangerous
during the night), clear it, and reach St. John's, Porto Rico, with
daylight, and in consequence Cape Nichola in daylight also, on the
second day thereafter.

The old _Galatea_ frigate might be carried up from Jamaica and moored
at Cape Nichola Mole, on board of which those mails and specie may be
deposited, that require to be disembarked from such steamers, &c., as
cannot be detained till the packet arrives to receive them. This,
however, will seldom be the case, nor to any great extent; as the
homeward-bound packet, whether steamer or sailing-vessel, will almost
always be at Cape Nichola before the steamer gets up from the leeward.
She may also be used to hold coals for a supply for the steamer to a
certain extent.

Let the fact be urged in the strongest manner, that a communication
once a month, to any given place, will never pay, nor answer any great
or good purpose. Mails, or rather letters and passengers, will not
wait for such a length of time, especially when these could, as for
example from the Havannah, almost be in England, by way of New York,
in the interval that would elapse between the departure of one packet
and another, when there was only one packet in the month; but give two
each month, and neither could ever be so.

The arrangements, and the extent of the internal Post-office
establishments of Great Britain, are upon the most splendid and
efficient footing. There is nothing of a similar kind in any other
country, either in management, or combination, or regularity, that can
equal or even be compared to them. It is, however, much otherwise with
all her transmarine mail communications. They are all particularly
deficient in combination, limited in their operations, and inefficient
as regards the machinery employed to carry the mails. This, in a more
particular manner, is the case with the West Indies: the small sailing
vessels there employed are generally very unfit for such a service,
and the steamers sent out to work them, with the exception of the _Flamer_,
being only of 100-horse power, and besides badly constructed, are  (p. 008)
wholly unfit for the service in any way; and even the vessel named,
which is 140-horse power, though much superior to any of the other
three, the _Carron_, the _Echo_, and the _Albyn_, is still too small
to perform her work in proper and reasonable time, or to stem the
currents and trade winds, to say nothing of tempests, which, as
regards the two former, constantly prevail in the seas in that quarter
of the world.

It may also be remarked, that to extend or to add to the number of
post communications, does not add proportionally to the machinery
necessary for the conveyance of these: in other words, if the
communications are doubled in number, the machinery used for
conveyance is not necessarily doubled, nor the expense consequently
doubled. Take, for example, the station between Barbadoes and Jamaica:
with two mails each month, this could not be effected with fewer than
three steam-boats; but the same number of steamers will, without
inconvenience, extend the communication to Havannah, and take in, at
the same time, several important places extra. A judicious and proper
combination and regularity in all movements can, with the same
machinery, and with but little additional expense, perform, in some
instances double, and in many instances nearly double work.

The objects for making Fayal, in the Western Islands, a central point
of communication, are as follow:--First, it is directly in the course
for the West Indies; so nearly so for Rio de Janeiro in the outward
voyage (in the homeward it is the best course), that if not actually
the best course, as it is believed it really is, the deviation, as
will afterwards more clearly appear, is not worth taking into account.
It is also the proper course for New York, and even not much out of
the way from the direct line to Halifax; while, considering the winds
and currents, the Gulf stream, for example, which prevail in the
Atlantic, steamers or sailing packets will make the voyage from
Falmouth to Halifax by this route as speedily, on an average, as if
they were to take the direct course. It is well known, that vessels
bound to the northern ports of the United States, go much to the southward
of the Western Islands. Secondly, it will save two steam-boats on  (p. 009)
the North American line, and two more on the South American line, for
that distance (not fewer than two would do for each line); which, with
coals, yearly, would cost 41,600_l._ This, alone, ought to determine
the point.

These steam-packets should be allowed to carry parcels, packages, and
light and fine goods, which could afford to pay a considerable
freight. This ought to be limited, however, not to exceed forty tons
in each vessel on each of the great lines (except Falmouth to Fayal,
which may be 120); and the small sailing vessels in proportion. These
things, without retarding the speed materially, would produce a
considerable return, but from which must come port charges, &c. If the
steamers are allowed to become mere vessels of freight, or for
carriage of goods, no regularity in their voyages could be expected.
To avoid delay, these articles could be landed and taken to the
Custom-house in every island and place, and delivered thence, under
the Revenue laws, to each owner.

The greater extent to which combination can be carried on in the mail
circle, and the wider that that circle can be extended, so much
cheaper the labour of conveyance becomes, and the greater the returns
therefrom. Further, not merely the greatest possible speed, but the
greatest possible regularity, is the desiderata in the conveyance of
mails in any country: the latter, in particular, is more essentially
necessary than the former, and is, in fact, the life-spring of all
commercial communication.

The work to be performed, in every quarter, must not only be well
done, but done within a limited time, in order to render it beneficial
and effective. Powerful boats, that can overcome the distance and the
natural obstacles that present themselves, can alone do this.
Small-power boats can never accomplish the work. Numbers will not
overcome the difficulties, nor come, as regards time, within the
limits required.

Each packet steamer on each of the great lines, could and should return
unto Falmouth alternately, and the boats from Falmouth be prepared
to take the longer voyage in their stead. The time each will have
to stop at Falmouth will always allow of time for any material     (p. 010)
examination and the repairs that may be necessary.

Without actual experience it is impossible to place before the public,
in a correct point of view, the whole appearance and state of steamers
employed in the West Indian mail service, as seen last year--when the
whole extent of their voyages was travelled over in more than one of
them:--imagine a small ill-contrived boat, an old 10-gun brig, as the
_Carron_ is, for example, of 100-horse power, and thirty to forty tons
of coals on her deck; with a cabin about thirteen feet by ten, and an
after-cabin still smaller, both without any means of ventilation,
except what two ill-planned, narrow and miserable hatches, when open,
afford. Imagine a vessel like this starting from Jamaica, with ten or
fifteen passengers, and a crew of thirty-seven people, still more
miserably provided with room and quarters, to stem the currents, the
trade winds--(not to speak of storms,)--which blow, and the heavy seas
which roll, between that island and St. Thomas, especially in the
channel between the former and St. Domingo, and indeed in all the West
Indies: having the boiler immediately adjoining the cabin and sleeping
berths, and without any place to stow the luggage belonging to the
passengers,--and with the numerous mail bags crammed into the small
sleeping berths, or under the table,--and the public will have a faint
idea of a Government steam-boat; wherein, under a tropical sun and a
tropical rain, the passengers and crews are, with the hatches closed,
reduced to the choice, while choked with coal-dust, of being broiled
or suffocated. No human constitution can long stand this. Without
meaning any offence, truth must declare, that such a state of things
is a disgrace to England.

The most urgent haste and necessity can alone bring individuals to
travel by such conveyances, and none will do so whose time will allow
them to look for other modes of conveyance and transport. Female
passengers, in particular, without female attendants, or room for
them, will never willingly undertake, certainly never repeat, a voyage
under such circumstances. It would seem that, in this respect, the
vessels belonging to the most powerful, enlightened, and civilized
Government in the world, are to be placed far below the level of   (p. 011)
vessels belonging to their own subjects, and those of other nations;
although such vessels are expressly appointed to convey passengers.

With these preliminary observations, it is proposed to consider the
details of a plan for the more extended conveyance of mails by
steam-boats, first to the WESTERN WORLD, under the separate heads into
which such a plan, necessarily and properly divides itself. In doing
this, it will satisfactorily appear that the more the plan is
extended, the less in proportion will the expenses attending the same
be, and the greater the returns be therefrom.


I.                                                                 (p. 012)

_Falmouth and Madeira, or one of the Western Islands, Department._

Either of the islands just named may be made central points of the
greatest importance for connecting the mail communications between
Great Britain and all the Western World. The Western Islands, however,
become a central point, more direct and convenient than Madeira, for
all the outward and homeward West Indian packets, and still more so
for all those which may be bound for New York and British North
America. In short, the packets for neither of the latter places could
go or come by Madeira without great inconvenience and loss of time;
whereas, neither would take place if Fayal is made the point of
arrival at and departure from. The latter island is directly in the
course of both the West Indian and homeward-bound South American
packets; and it may be said with equal accuracy, in the outward direct
course of these packets also. Although a little further removed into
the variable winds than Madeira, still it is well known that Fayal
once made, the greatest difficulties in the voyages of the
outward-bound packets are overcome. The distance, also, from Falmouth
to either of these islands is not materially different: from Falmouth
to Madeira direct, is 1170 geographical miles; and from Falmouth to
Fayal direct, 1230 miles. In the outward voyage Fayal is 300 miles
nearer Barbadoes than Madeira; and in the homeward, from Cape Nichola
Mole, 300 also. The distance between Madeira and Rio de Janeiro, and
between the latter and Fayal, is not greatly different, being (taking
in Bahia and Pernambuco) for the latter 3900 miles, and for the former
3800; but from the course which the homeward packet must take through
the trades, the distance to Madeira, as compared with the distance (p. 013)
and course to Fayal, would be increased by 250 miles. On the whole,
considering the advantages and disadvantages to arise from making
either of these islands, viz., Madeira and Fayal, the central points,
it would appear that the balance would considerably incline to be in
favour of any one of the central Azores, say Falmouth and Terceira or
Fayal. Fayal being taken as the central point to which and from which
the packets for the western world are to converge and to diverge, the
arrangements will run as follow:--

The steam-boats from Falmouth to Fayal would carry out all the mails
from Great Britain to the Western World; viz.: for British North
America, for New York, for the British West Indies and all the Gulf of
Mexico, and for the Brazils and Buenos Ayres, as also for Madeira and
Teneriffe. From Falmouth to Fayal is, course S. 55° W. distance 1230
geographical miles. Two steam-boats of 240-horse power each would
perform this work out and home, giving two mails each month, each boat
returning with the mails for Great Britain from all the places
mentioned, to be brought to that island in a manner which will shortly
and more particularly be pointed out. In fine weather each boat would
make the voyage within six days, and in rough weather in seven
days,--but say seven days at an average. Each boat would be at sea 14
days each voyage = 28 days monthly = 336 days yearly; 25 tons of coal
per day = 8400 tons yearly; which, at 20_s._ per ton, is 8400_l._
annually. The yearly cost of the two boats for this station would
therefore be: (prime cost of two, 48,000_l._)--

  Two boats' wages and provisions, &c., at £6200.     12,400
  Coals for do., yearly                                8,400
                                                     -------
                                              Total  £20,800
                                                     -------

The stoppage at Fayal would depend upon the arrival of the packets
with the mails from the Brazils, the West Indies, &c. &c., but the
arrangements for all these will be such as will bring the stoppage not
to exceed one or two days, and which will prove no more than sufficient
to take in coals, water, &c. &c. Despatched from London on the 1st and
15th day of each month, the steamers from Falmouth, with all the   (p. 014)
mails, would reach Fayal on the 10th and 25th of each month, from
whence they would immediately be despatched to their ulterior
destinations. By this arrangement Government would save at least three
West Indian or Barbadoes packets, one Halifax and one Rio de Janeiro
packet (exclusive of six Mexican packets saved, but included in the
West Indian department), after giving to the two quarters of America
last mentioned two mails instead of one each month, and which saving
would, at least, be 21,000_l._ yearly. The voyages also from England
to every quarter connected with this arrangement would be greatly
shortened, even were the communications by steam to be carried no
farther; as every nautical man knows well that it is between the
Western Islands and the English Channel, whether outwards or inwards,
that the greatest detention in every voyage, whether it regards
packets or any other vessels, takes place. In a particular manner the
arrival of the outward packets at Barbadoes would be more regular,
almost quite regular; and thus _extra_ steam-boats in that quarter, on
account of the irregularities in the arrivals as under the present
system, would be rendered unnecessary; and the same thing may be said
of every other quarter to which the plan and the chain of
communication is intended to extend.


_Fayal._[1]

                   [Footnote 1: The Island of Fayal is chosen as the
                   point of communication in preference to Terceira,
                   &c. because during the few months when one side is
                   exposed to storms, the other side is well
                   sheltered, and the distance is very short from the
                   one side to the anchorage on the other. As each of
                   the steamers from the westward and southward will
                   proceed to Falmouth in her turn, so if all the
                   mails are up at Fayal before the outward steamer
                   arrives from Falmouth, the steamer whose turn it is
                   to proceed on to Falmouth, will go forward with the
                   mails without any delay, except to take in coals.]

All the outward mails from Great Britain to the western world, having
reached Fayal, they would be despatched from thence and return back to
it, under the following arrangements and regulations. Take them in
order as follow:--


II.                                                                (p. 015)

_Fayal and North America._

The rising importance of British America renders it highly desirable,
nay, absolutely necessary, that a more frequent and regular post
communication should be established with it. This might be done so as
to secure all the Post-office revenue derivable from the letters to
and from that quarter of the empire with Great Britain; and not only
so, but to draw from the United States unto England some of that
postage and some of those passengers which belong specifically to
those States. To carry this into effect, it must be done by
steam-boats, and Fayal made the point of communication from which the
mails are to diverge, and to which they are again to return. The point
of communication with Fayal should be either by Halifax to New York,
or to Halifax alone; from which place the steamer to run to the West
Indies could carry the European mails to and from New York. In each
way the details will be as follow:--


_Fayal to New York, by Halifax._

From Fayal to New York direct is 2020 miles; and from Fayal to New
York, by Halifax, is 2160 miles. If this course is adopted, there
would be no need for any stoppages at Halifax, except to land the
outward mails, &c., and pick up the inward, or homeward-bound European
mails, &c. The steamers, with the outward mails on board, would
proceed from Fayal on the 10th and 25th of each month, and reach New
York, by Halifax, on the 7th and 23d of each month, or in thirteen
days. Leaving New York on the evening of the 9th or 10th, and the 25th
or 26th of the month, with the return mails from the States, and
calling at Halifax for all those from British America, the steamer
would reach Fayal in thirteen days, or on the 8th and 23d of each
month, exactly in time, as will by-and-by be shown, for the
homeward-bound West Indian and Brazil mails coming up to the same
place; and two days previous to the arrival of the outward packet  (p. 016)
from Falmouth, after allowing two days to stop at New York, and having
one day to spare, in the event of severe weather on the voyage. The
course and time will be:--

                                    Geo. Miles.  Days.

  Fayal to Halifax                      1640    10
  Halifax to New York                    520     3
  Stop at New York                        "      2
  New York to Fayal, by Halifax         2160    13
                                        ----------
                                Totals  4320    28
                                        ----------

Two steam-boats would perform this work, giving two mails each month,
prime cost 48,000_l._; wages, provisions, &c. &c. 6200_l._ each,
12,400_l._ Each boat would be at sea 26 and 26 = 52 days, monthly =
624 yearly; 25 tons of coals daily = 15,000 yearly, at 25_s._ per ton,
19,500_l._

This would, however, be close work for two boats, in the event of
accidents; and therefore a spare boat would be required, at an
additional expense of 24,000_l._ capital, and 6200_l._ yearly charges.
But two may be rendered quite sufficient by making Halifax, instead of
New York, the point of communication between Fayal and British North
America; the communication with New York to be taken up, and carried
on, by the steamers proposed to run between North America and the West
Indies, as explained and stated under the next head. Fixing the
communications in this way, the details, or the course and time, would
be:--

                                    Geo. Miles.  Days.

  Fayal to Halifax                      1640     10
  Rest there, say                         "       8
  Halifax to Fayal                      1640     10
                                        -----------
                             Totals     3280     28
                                        -----------

Two boats would be quite sufficient to perform this service, and the
advantage would be gained of having a British port as the port for
trans-shipment. Each boat would be at sea 10 and 10 = 20 days each
voyage = 40 monthly = 480 yearly; coals, 25 tons daily = 12,000    (p. 017)
tons yearly, at 25_s._ = 15,000_l._ The periods for the arrivals and
departures of these Halifax and Fayal steamers will be found to agree
well with the arrivals and departures of the steamers to run between
Halifax and the West Indies, by way of New York, as minutely
particularized under the next head.

Halifax ought to be made the point from which, and to which, all the
British North American, foreign, that is, transmarine correspondence,
ought to converge and diverge. It can be made to do so readily, and
with advantage, as the following distances will show:--

                                          Distance.  Geo. Miles.

  New York to Quebec                   N. 19° East.      390
  New York to Montreal                 N.  4° E.         305
  Halifax to St. John's, by Annapolis  N. 71° W.         111
  St. John's to Quebec                 N. 66° W.         230
  Quebec to Montreal                   S. 58° W.         116

Thus it is obvious that Halifax is nearer England three and a half
days each way than New York; that much time would, by the above course
of post, between the mother country and all her North American
possessions, be saved, while all the advantages of carrying these
mails and passengers, &c. would be gained by British shipping and
British subjects.

The communications could be carried on between Fayal and Halifax, &c.
by sailing packets instead of steam vessels; but then these sailing
packets, on account of the number of passengers which it is almost
certain would travel by them, would require to be packets of the
largest size, or first class. Their average voyages may be taken at
sixteen days each, with six or eight to stop at Halifax, which would
bring the full voyage to forty days. This would throw the return
letters always one mail, or fifteen days, later for Europe, than if
steamers were employed; but, at the same time, it would bring their
arrival at Fayal to be regular, and in sufficient time for the
succeeding homeward packet from Fayal; for, if they go beyond thirty
days, their return within forty-five days, _in this or in any other
station_, would meet the central point at Fayal equally well, as to
dates; but such a detention would not only occasion so much loss   (p. 018)
of time to the course of correspondence, but give letters a chance of
reaching Europe sooner from New York direct. Two sailing packets would
perform this work in the unavoidably extended time mentioned, giving
two mails each month; first cost 9,500_l._ = 19,000_l._; yearly
charges 4200_l._ each = 8400_l._


III.

_North America and West Indies._

The intercourse between these quarters of the world, and also of each
of these with the United States, is already of great importance, and
will daily become more and more important, while there is, at present,
no mail communication between them. A regular, and frequent mail
communication in that quarter has become indispensably necessary.
While this fact must be admitted, it is of great importance to have as
many of the points of combination under the British flag as possible.
Keeping this desirable point in view, it is necessary to observe, that
this must be done, taking Havannah into the line; because, if it is
not included in the British line, it will be forthwith occupied by
parties from the United States, and letters, passengers, &c. both for
all North America and for Europe, from the West Indies, will go by
these States, New York for example. The arrivals and departures of the
steam packets on this line must also be calculated, and fixed so as to
agree with the arrivals and departures of the outward and
homeward-bound mails by Fayal, for North America, and also for all the
West Indies, southwards to Havannah and Mexico.

The desirable object of bringing the most important central and
trans-shipping points under the British flag, can only be gained by
making in this case the run of the steamers to be from Halifax, by New
York, to the Havannah; or from New York, by Havannah, to Jamaica.
While the various ways by which this latter could be effected are  (p. 019)
here stated, still the former will be found to be the most economical,
certainly not the most inconvenient, and, on many accounts, the
preferable mode. At Havannah the North American steamer would meet in
the most regular manner, and to a day, the steamers from Havannah to
Vera Cruz; and from Havannah to Jamaica, Barbadoes, &c. &c. The route
and time of these boats would be as follows:--

                                  Geo. Miles.  Days.

  Halifax to New York                  520     3-1/2
  New York to Havannah                1140     6-1/2
  Stop at Havannah, say                        2
  Havannah to Halifax, by New York.   1660    10
                                      ----    ------
                      Totals          3320    22

Two powerful boats would be perfectly sufficient to perform this work,
giving two mails each month; first cost 48,000_l._, yearly charges
12,400_l._ Each boat would be at sea 20 days each voyage = 40 monthly
= 480 yearly; coals daily, 25 tons = 12,000 tons yearly, at 25_s._ =
15,000_l._

The outward European mails would arrive at Halifax on the 20th and the
4th or 5th of every month, and at Havannah on the 31st or 1st, and
15th or 16th of each month. Leaving Halifax on the days above
mentioned, the steamers, by way of New York, would reach Havannah on
the 30th and 15th of each month, and, allowing two days at Havannah,
return to Halifax by way of New York, on the 14th and 29th, eight days
before the arrival there of the outward European packet, giving
abundance of time to rest. This steamer will bring back from New York
the answers to the letters received from Europe for the return packet
from Halifax to Fayal. These letters would reach New York on the 23d
and 8th of each month. The stoppage at New York by this steamer
returning northward could not be beyond one or two days. To meet the
West Indian and South American packets returning to the central point,
Fayal, the steamer, with all the North American correspondence, must
leave Halifax on the 29th or 30th, and the 13th or 14th of each month.
Considering attentively the calculations here made, it will be     (p. 020)
found that they correspond accurately, and that in practice these
will work admirably, and without confusion or delay--points, in an
affair of this kind, of the greatest importance.

The other plan, by which the communication between North America and
the West Indies can be opened up and carried on, is between New York
and Jamaica, by the Havannah. After considering it, in all its
bearings and details, the former will appear to be the most economical
and eligible. Calculating the whole of the General Plan to be carried
into effect, and by steam, the outward mails from Europe, _via_ Fayal
and Halifax, would arrive at New York on the 7th or 22d, or the 8th
and 23d, of each month; and those for the West Indies, _via_ Fayal and
Barbadoes, at Cape Nichola Mole, Hayti, on the 11th and 27th, or 12th
and 27th, and at Jamaica on the 13th and 28th of each month. The mails
from the westward and southward of, and for Jamaica, would
consequently return to that island on the 7th and 22d of each month.
The distances and time taken in three ways between Jamaica and New
York, by Havannah, would be--

  (No. 1.)

                                            Geo. Miles. Days.

  New York to Havannah                         1140    6-1/2
  Havannah by Matanzas, to St. Jago de Cuba     630    4
  St. Jago de Cuba to Kingston, Jamaica         170    1
  Jamaica                                        "     2
  Jamaica to Cape Nichola Mole, by St. Jago     305    2
  Cape Nichola to Havannah, by Matanzas         540    3
  Havannah, Coals, &c.                           "     1
  Havannah to New York                         1140    6-1/2
                                              -----   ------
                                       Totals  3925   26

  (No. 2.)

                                            Geo. Miles. Days.

  New York to Havannah, by Matanzas            1140   6-1/2
  Havannah, Coals                                "    1
  Havannah to Jamaica, round Cape Antonio       685   4
  Jamaica, Coals, Mails, &c.                     "    2
  Jamaica to Havannah, by Cape Antonio          685   3            (p. 021)
  Havannah, Coals                                "    1
  Havannah to New York, by Matanzas             1140   6-1/2
                                                ----  -------
                                    Totals      3650  24
                                                ----  -------
  (No. 3.)

                                            Geo. Miles.  Days.

  New York to Havannah, by Matanzas            1140   6-1/2
  Havannah, Coals                                "    1
  Havannah to Jamaica, round Cape Antonio       685   4
  Jamaica, Coals, Mails, &c.                     "    2
  Jamaica to Cape Nichola Mole, by St. Jago     305   2
  Cape Nichola Mole to Havannah, by Matanzas    540   3
  Havannah, Coals                                "    1
  Havannah to New York                         1140   6-1/2
                                               ----  ------
                                    Totals     3810  26
                                               ----  ------

The latter route (No. 3,) will, for various reasons, be the preferable
course. First, because while it embraces Havannah in the line, it
renders it unnecessary for the steamers to run twice over the same
ground that others do. Secondly, the steamer from Jamaica for the
eastward being able to leave that island, with all the return Colonial
mails from the westward and southward for North America, &c., at the
times, or in the space of time, mentioned, would reach Cape Nichola
Mole just in time to meet the downward steamer from Barbadoes, with
all the Colonial mails to the eastward of that place for North
America; and, consequently, could take in and proceed with these mails
without delay; and it might, at the same time, take in not only the
eastern Colonial mails for Matanzas and Havannah, but the outward
European mails for these places also, by which means these towns would
receive these two or three days earlier than they could by Jamaica.
The Mexican mails might also be forwarded in the same way; but to do
so would be of little use, inasmuch as the steamer for Vera Cruz could
not leave Havannah until the steamer from Jamaica arrived.

Taking route No. 3 as the lines of communication between Jamaica   (p. 022)
and North America, then the arrivals at Jamaica would be on the 5th
and the 20th of each month; and, allowing two days to stop at Havannah
outwards instead of _one_ day, and _three_ days at Jamaica instead of
two, the return steamers would leave Jamaica on the 8th and 23d of
each month, and reach Cape Nichola Mole on the 25th and 10th, which
place the steamer from Barbadoes reaches on the 11th and 27th, and the
Havannah and Chagres steamers return to Jamaica on the 7th and 22d of
each month; thus combining every movement requisite in a very clear
and satisfactory manner.

The steamers on this route or station would be each 22 and 22 = 44
days each month = 528 days yearly at sea; coals, at 25 tons daily =
13,200 tons, at 25_s._ per ton = 16,500_l._; which is 1500_l._ more
than the other. Moreover, the steamers (two) would be so closely
pressed for time as not to have the necessary rest for examination and
repairs, and consequently a third would be requisite, which would
increase the capital 24,000_l._, and yearly charges 6200_l._ above the
other plan.

The mails on this station may, moreover, be carried by sailing
packets. By this mode of conveyance, however, the mails would be
longer on their voyages; those to and from Halifax, &c., being always
thrown behind one return mail for the steamer to and from Fayal with
the mail for Great Britain, and consequently be obliged to wait at
Halifax or New York for a succeeding one--but for which, however, they
would always be in ample time. The course and time by sailing packets
would be--

                                  Geo. Miles.  Days.

  Halifax to New York                 520      5-1/2
  New York to Havannah               1140     10
    Stop at Havannah, say                      2
  Havannah to Halifax, by New York   1660     15-1/2
                                     ----     ------
  Totals                             3320     33
                                     ----     ------

which will allow abundance of time to stop at New York, going and
returning, and for meeting every possible contingency which may occur
in the voyage; as, if within forty-five days, it would be in time  (p. 023)
to meet the corresponding packets to and from Europe. Two sailing
packets would be sufficient to perform this work, giving two mails
each month; prime cost, 9500_l._ each = 19,000_l._ and yearly charges
4200_l._ each, or 8400_l._ It may here be observed, that if all the
mails were carried by sailing packets on the four great lines, that
the times of their arrivals and departures would still connect and
combine properly, but, as has already been remarked, be always fifteen
days later in the course of the mails between the places mentioned
than if these were carried wholly and everywhere by steam.


IV.

_Fayal and Brazil Department._

From Fayal steamers would proceed direct to Rio de Janeiro, calling at
Pernambuco and Bahia, and landing at the former place the mail for
Maranham, to be carried forward to that place, and brought back to
Pernambuco, to meet the steamer on her return to the northward, by a
good sailing vessel. The distance is 670 miles, which could be
performed in four days and six days, backwards and forwards. At Rio de
Janeiro the steamer will land the mails for Buenos Ayres and
Montevideo, which will be carried forward by sailing vessels to the
former place (distance 1060 geographical miles), and return from
Buenos Ayres, by Montevideo, to Rio de Janeiro, the same distance, say
in seventeen days, and in time to catch the following homeward-bound
packet. One sailing vessel would be sufficient for the Pernambuco and
Maranham station, and two of a superior class as at present for the
Rio de Janeiro and Buenos Ayres department; for, at the outset, steam
would be too expensive on the latter station, while it would take the
homeward-bound packet too far out of her way to make her call at
Maranham.

From Rio de Janeiro the steamer will proceed for Fayal, calling at
Bahia and Pernambuco (distant from Rio 1000 miles), taking in the  (p. 024)
Maranham mail at the latter place, stopping one day there for a supply
of coals, and then proceeding, reach Fayal in twenty days--including
stoppages, forty-five days forwards and backwards--and which,
accordingly, would bring the Brazil mails to Fayal to correspond with
the arrival there of the steamers from both the West Indies and
Halifax. The mails from the Brazils would, in this way, reach Fayal on
the 10th and 25th of the month. The route and time of these steamers
would be as follows:--

                                        Miles.  Days.

  Fayal to Rio Janeiro                  3900    19
  Rio de Janeiro to Fayal               3900    20
    Stop at Rio                           "      2
    Do. at Pernambuco, &c., twice         "      4
                                        ----    --
                               Totals   7800    45
                                        ----    --

Three steamers would perform this work in the time specified, giving
two mails each month. Each boat would be actively employed, or at sea,
39 days each voyage = 78 monthly = 936 yearly; coals, at 25 tons daily
= 23,400 tons yearly--which, at _25s_. per ton, will amount to
29,250_l._ Other charges, 18,600_l._

The mails on this station might also be carried by sailing packets,
and at much less expense, but the time occupied would be considerably
lengthened. Such sailing packets from Fayal to Rio de Janeiro would,
both in going and returning, pursue the same course that the present
packets do. The distance each way would be the same, and not
materially different from the course which the steamers would take.
The time occupied would be, twenty-seven days out, twenty-nine days
back, and four days to stop at Rio, &c.; in all sixty days. Four
packets would perform this service, giving two mails each month. The
cost of these packets would be 38,000_l._, and their annual charges at
4200_l._ each = 16,800_l._ In the event of accidents, however, either
on this or on the West Indian station, one spare packet would be
necessary, and require to be stationed at Fayal: this would increase
the capital laid out to 47,500_l._, and the yearly charge to 21,000_l._
Four packets on this station would, in fact, under this            (p. 025)
arrangement, give two mails each month; whereas, under the existing
arrangements, it requires five or six to give one mail each month. In
a few days, after leaving Fayal, it is well known that both the Brazil
and West Indian packets would be into the trade winds when
outward-bound; after which, the voyage is certain and secure. In like
manner in returning, after getting clear of the trade winds, the
Brazil, in about long. 38°, and the West Indian, from Cape Nichola
Mole, in about long. 70° W., each could steer to the eastward for
Fayal, with almost certainly southerly winds, and at all seasons of
the year, in weather comparatively mild to that which is met with in
more northern parallels.

By steam-boats the course of communication between Great Britain and
Rio de Janeiro would be reduced to sixty days, and by sailing vessels,
from Fayal to that place, to seventy-five days, making fifteen days
more by the latter than by the former; but it may, however, here be
observed, that arriving so much later at Fayal, would still equally
correspond with the arrival of the West Indian and North American
sailing packets at that place.


V.

_Fayal and Madeira, &c. Station._

Under the proposed general arrangement, the mails for Madeira and
Teneriffe could be sent twice each month from Fayal. Madeira and
Teneriffe, but more especially the former, have a good deal of
correspondence with the West Indies; all of which would be thrown into
a more tedious and circuitous route if the communications with Madeira
did not go and come by the Azores. The distance from Fayal to Madeira
is 630 miles, and from Madeira to Teneriffe 240 miles. One superior
sailing vessel would be sufficient to perform this work, giving two
mails each month. It is well known that from the winds which
generally prevail in those parts of the Atlantic, that a swift     (p. 026)
sailing vessel would almost always make quick and certain passages.
The cost of such might be 1500_l._, and the yearly expense, say
800_l._ The expense for sailing vessels on this and the South American
station may be taken as follows:--

                                        Capital.  Yearly Charge.

  Fayal and Madeira, one                £1500         £800
  Pernambuco and Maranham, one           1500          800
  Rio de Janeiro and Buenos Ayres, two   4000         2000
                                        -----        -----
                 Totals                 £7000        £3600
                                        -----        -----

From Fayal to Teneriffe, by Madeira, and back, a sailing vessel could
complete the passage in fourteen days, and thus be always in time for
the next return steamer from Fayal to Falmouth.


VI.

_Fayal and Barbadoes Station._

On the arrival of the steamer from Falmouth at Fayal, another steamer
would start for Barbadoes, carrying with it all the mails for every
place in the western Tropical World, from Demerara to Vera Cruz
inclusive, and also for Panama, and other places on the coasts of the
Pacific Ocean. The route from Fayal to Barbadoes is, course S. 47-1/2°
W.; distance, 2265 geographical miles. A steam-boat would perform
this, going chiefly through the trade winds, in twelve days. The
period of her return to Fayal must be regulated by the time which she
has to stop in the West Indies, and which will be more specifically
shown when that department is taken into consideration; but it cannot
be less, from Fayal to Fayal again, than forty-five days, of which
this boat will be at sea each voyage thirty-seven days. Four steamers
would do this work, having one, in fact, to spare, in the event of
accidents, either on this or on the Brazil station, and to relieve
alternately the steamers on either station; and this spare boat    (p. 027)
would probably be best stationed at Fayal, or perhaps Barbadoes. Three
boats would, therefore, be actively engaged in performing the work
alluded to on this station; each would be at sea 37 days each
voyage--74 monthly, 888 yearly, which, at 25 tons of coals daily, will
require 22,200 tons annually--at 25_s._ per ton, will amount to
27,750_l._

The time and course of these boats will be more specifically stated
under the West Indian head.

The cost would be thus:--

                                        Capital.  Yearly Charge.

  Four Steamers                         £96,000       £24,800
  Coals                                                27,750
                                                      -------
  Yearly charges                                      £52,550
                                                      -------

The mails, also, on this station, might be carried by sailing packets,
and which would require to be of the very first class. Their time from
Fayal to Fayal again, would be, say nineteen days to Barbadoes;
seventeen days to stop in the Colonies; and twenty-four days from Cape
Nichola Mole to Fayal (2600 miles), together sixty days; and which
brings the return of this sailing vessel to Fayal to correspond with
the arrival of the packets from Falmouth, and of the mails from South
America, and from North America, at that place. Four packets would be
sufficient for this station, giving two mails each month. Their cost
would be 38,000_l._, and their yearly expenses at 4,200_l._ each,
16,800_l._--considerably cheaper than steam, but lengthening, as has
been seen, the communication between Great Britain and that quarter of
the world, _fifteen_ days. A spare packet might be necessary, but the
cost of that has been included, and stated under the South American
head.


VII.                                                               (p. 028)

_The West Indian Station._

This station is one of the most important, and extensive, and
complicated of the whole, and one where steam-vessels can be employed
with the most beneficial effects. The prevailing winds and currents,
however, render it necessary that the vessels employed should be of
high power, in order to enable them to stem those winds and currents.
Into the Gulf of Mexico, through the Windward islands, sets; first,
the equatorial current; secondly, the prodigious current occasioned by
the influx of the waters of the great river Maranon, and of the
several rivers which flow through British, Dutch, and French Guiana;
thirdly, the current occasioned by the influx of the waters of the
great river Oronoque, through the Gulf of Paria, between the island of
Trinidad and the mainland of South America. These united waters,
directed by the trade winds, blowing always from the eastward,
occasion a current of such force, running westward from the Windward
Islands to the shores of Mexico, that it is frequently impossible for
the best sailing vessels to make their way through it. Steam-boats,
therefore, of at least 240-horse power, are indispensably necessary,
in order that they may not only be able to stem these winds and
currents, and carry a sufficient quantity of coals, but also to afford
spacious and well-ventilated accommodation, both for the crews
attached to them, and also the passengers which may travel by them.
Without such, neither the one nor the other could ever enjoy health,
nor could the despatches of Government, and the correspondence of
individuals, be conveyed with that celerity and regularity which these
could otherwise be, and which it is necessary that they should be.

In carrying a more general plan into effect, no reasonable or
necessary expense ought to be spared by the country. In such a general
plan it will be seen by the subsequent details, that the           (p. 029)
steam-boats of the power mentioned, assisted by nine sailing schooners
(at present ten, are employed in less than half the work,) would be
sufficient to convey the mails from Barbadoes to every place of
importance in the western Tropical Archipelago, or connected with it.
This force would give two mails each month to every island and colony
from Demerara to Vera Cruz; taking in Laguayra, Carthagena, Chagres,
Honduras, the principal parts of Cuba and Porto Rico. From Demerara to
Havannah and Chagres, &c. inclusive, every colony and place would be
able to reply to the letters received from Europe, or the Colonies, by
the same packet which brought them; and still that packet remain in
the West Indies a shorter period than the packets now do.

In this department there are two stations, however, of such vital
importance, that the considerable additional expense which will be
required to place steam-boats on them from the outset, ought not to be
taken into consideration. These are, first, the station between
Jamaica and Chagres; and, secondly, the station between Jamaica, Cuba,
and Vera Cruz. The first goes to connect the Great Pacific Ocean, and
the coasts thereof, with Europe and the eastern coasts of America, and
on which former coasts a steam mail communication has been already
concerted. Through the channel from Panama to Chagres will be
concentrated, as it were, into a funnel the whole movements,
travelling and mail communications and money transactions of the
western coasts of America, from California on the north, to Valparaiso
on the south, the whole of which again must converge to and diverge
from Jamaica.[2] The second station, or that from Cuba to Vera     (p. 030)
Cruz, is little inferior in importance to the other, that town and
Tampico being the great outlets of the trade and the commerce, but
more especially the outlets of specie from the kingdom or empire of
Mexico. A steamer on this station becomes indispensable, in order to
secure the safe conveyance of specie, because small sailing vessels
would be liable to be attacked and plundered by pirates. With steamers
all would be safe.

                   [Footnote 2: Should the Colombian Government
                   obstinately and ignorantly oppose the transmission
                   of mails across the isthmus from Chagres to Panama,
                   or propose to shackle this point of communication
                   with unreasonable and inadmissible restrictions,
                   then in that case there remains a point, it is
                   believed, more practicable, safer, and more
                   eligible, where the communication could be
                   effected, namely, in the State of Guatemala, or
                   Central America, by the River St. Juan's and Lake
                   Nicaragua, both of which are navigable for vessels
                   of any size. The south-west shores of the lake in
                   question approach to within fourteen or fifteen
                   miles of the Pacific, and this distance, in one
                   place, through a valley nearly level throughout,
                   and at but little elevation above the level of the
                   sea. From Lake Managua, or Leon, the distance to
                   the sea is still shorter, being, in one place,
                   according to good maps, not more than eight to ten
                   miles. From this lake also, and the capital, Leon,
                   the distance north-west to Rialejo, a fine port on
                   the Pacific, is twenty-three miles, and through an
                   accessible, if not very easy country. The
                   Government of the Republic of Guatemala, or Central
                   America, would doubtless be ready to afford every
                   facility to open such a communication, which would
                   prove the greatest and most certain means of
                   improving their country. Moreover, if a ready
                   communication is once afforded, from any point on
                   the east coast of America, in the places alluded
                   to, it would speedily become the object and the
                   interest of the Chilian, the Peruvian, and the
                   Mexican Governments to watch and to see that the
                   communication with the world to the eastward should
                   not only be rendered secure, but be maintained.
                   Also, with a communication opened in this quarter,
                   such as it is believed can be opened, the commerce
                   and communications between North America and
                   Europe, and New South Wales, China, and all Eastern
                   Asia, would most certainly, as it could most
                   advantageously and expeditiously, be carried on by
                   it.]

Two powerful steamers would be sufficient for both stations, in order
to carry two mails each month. That steamer to run between Cuba and
Vera Cruz, would always be in time with the return mails for the
following packet from Europe; while that boat which runs between
Jamaica and Chagres would, by returning immediately by the route
afterwards pointed out, always be in time for the same packet at
Jamaica. To stop at Chagres for the mails from the Pacific would not
be advisable or proper, because the arrival of these mails at Chagres
could not be calculated upon with any certainty. If at Chagres when
the outward mail arrives, good and well, they would be immediately
taken up and carried forward; but if not, then they would be brought
forward by it on the next voyage, and in time for the following
European packet.

The mails for Honduras will be most conveniently forwarded from
Montego Bay, Jamaica. With the mails for the western parts of that
island they could be landed at Savannah la Mar, and thence carried by
land with the others, about twenty-five miles, to Montego Bay. From
thence a good schooner would proceed with those for Honduras and   (p. 031)
Trinidad de Cuba; and having readied Honduras, return to Montego Bay
by Trinidad de Cuba. By this arrangement, Honduras rather gains more
than by the plan first proposed, to go from Batavano; and the letters
from thence will still and always be in excellent time for the
following packet, making every allowance for casualties during the
voyage. The steamer could then proceed direct from Jamaica to
Havannah, which would save one day each voyage, besides avoiding the
difficult navigation about Batavano. The coals saved yearly would be
1100 tons, 1475_l._, which would do more than pay the expenses for an
additional schooner for the Honduras communication; for, by this
arrangement, two schooners, instead of one, will be necessary. Their
route and time would be--Montego Bay to Trinidad de Cuba, 172 miles,
1-1/2 day; Trinidad de Cuba to Honduras, 520 miles, 3-1/2 days; back
to Montego Bay by Trinidad de Cuba, 692 miles, 10 days; stop at
Honduras 3 days; in all 18 days.

Bermuda being a great naval depôt, a ready communication between it
and every part of the West Indies becomes an object of the greatest
importance. Under the general arrangement proposed, this communication
can be best effected from and with Cape Nichola Mole, Hayti; because
the downward steamer from Barbadoes, with the European and other
mails, will have passed St. Thomas before the steamer returning from
Jamaica, &c., comes up; by which means all the letters from Jamaica,
and every other place to the westward, would, were St. Thomas made the
starting point, be obliged to remain at that island till the arrival
of a following packet; whereas, starting from Cape Nichola Mole, the
mails, both from the eastward and the westward, and also those brought
from Europe, would go forward to a day. Moreover, owing to the winds
which prevail in those seas, vessels running between Cape Nichola Mole
and Bermuda would make passages equally quick, if not quicker, than
vessels running between St. Thomas and Bermuda could generally do. The
courses and distances stand thus:--
                                                                   (p. 032)
                                         Geo. Miles.   Days.
  St. Thomas to Bermuda.   Nearly due N.      840       9
  Cape Nichola Mole to do.     N. 32° E.      890      10
  Nassau to Bermuda            N. 57° E.      800       7
  Crooked Island to Bermuda                   740       7
  Ditto to Cape Nichola Mole   S. 19° W.      146       1
  Ditto to Nassau                             270       1-1/2
  Cape Nichola Mole to do.     N. 56° W.      380       2-1/2

The communication might still, however, be from St. Thomas, the boat
destined for Bermuda stopping at that island, when this was necessary,
one day, until the boat from Jamaica came up; taking particular care
always to be back at St. Thomas, from Bermuda, before the steamers
with the outward mails from Europe came down from Barbadoes, in order
that the letters from Bermuda for Jamaica, and all places to the
westward of St. Thomas, may go forward by the steamer in question.
This department, however, for Bermuda may, it is conceived, be best
amalgamated and interwoven with the Cape Nichola Mole, Nassau, and
Crooked Island (_the Bermuda mail vessels going and returning by
Crooked Island_) department; as the practical working of the whole
scheme may point out to be most advisable.

In the event of packets arriving from England at Barbadoes within a
day or two of each other, as is sometimes the case under the existing
arrangements, then on the Barbadoes and Demerara stations, let a good
sailing vessel, on the arrival of such packet, take the place of the
steamer for the voyage. Unless, in case of calm weather, this sailing
vessel could do the work thus:--Barbadoes to Demerara, four days; stop
there two days, forwarding the mails for Berbice by land; thence with
the return mails proceed on by Tobago and St. Vincents in five days,
to the packet at Grenada, found, in such a case, either waiting one
day longer at Grenada, or else beating up to St. Vincents, there to
meet the Guiana and the Tobago mails, and which the packet has time to
do. This would occasion little irregularity or delay, because the
cause of the detention, should detention occur, would always be known.
Moreover, the season of the year when the outward packets arrive at
Barbadoes the most irregularly, is during the winter months, from  (p. 033)
November to March, and in which period the calms--the greatest
obstructions, in many cases, to sailing vessels amongst the Windward
Islands--are almost unknown.

The same temporary substitute could be applied, under similar
circumstances, on the stations between Jamaica and Chagres, and
between Cuba and Vera Cruz. Even if these places were once or twice in
the year to miss a return mail to Europe, it would not be of such
great importance, because each place having then two mails every
month, the detained mail would go forward by the next opportunity,
while it would save to Government, or to a contracting company, a very
serious expense, which would otherwise be incurred if they were
obliged to have additional steamers for this _probable_ part of the
service.

Further, in the event of any accident happening to any steam-boat on
the great line from Barbadoes to Jamaica, &c., a sailing vessel could
always carry the outward mails westward, when breezes hold, with
almost the same rapidity as steamers; and in her course westward, such
a sailing vessel could scarcely fail to meet a return or a spare
steamer at some of the stations, to relieve it from proceeding
further.

Moreover, it may be observed here, once for all, that by the
conveyance of the mails from Falmouth to Barbadoes by steam, or even
only so far as from Falmouth to Fayal by this power, the irregularity
of the arrival of the mails at Barbadoes, which at present takes
place, would be nearly done away, and consequently no such assistance
as that alluded to would be necessary. Hence, the advantages either
way over the present system are clear and obvious.

Before entering upon the particular details of the West Indian
department, it is proper to observe here, that the point of
communication for the return mails from the West Indies for Europe, so
long as sailing packets are employed to the West Indies, cannot be
altered or removed from Cape Nichola Mole, because, by the general
plan, the outward mails from Great Britain, by steamers, would reach
Fayal on the 10th and 25th of each month, and the return mails to that
place would reach, from Rio de Janeiro, on the 9th and 24th; from New
York and Halifax on the 7th or 8th, or 22d or 23d; and from Barbadoes,
&c., allowing only sixteen days in the Colonies, on the 10th and   (p. 034)
25th (App. No. 1.); if brought by sailing packets on dates to
correspond; so that there is not time to spare, the West Indian mail
being the last to reach the central point, and it would be very
detrimental to have any detention of the general mails at this point.
To make Jamaica the central point for the European mails, would
require several days additional; for once at Jamaica the packet would
take eight or ten days to get up and through the windward passage,
which to a sailing packet, notwithstanding this difficulty, is still
the best. In fact, if the mails from Havannah to Demerara are detained
in the West Indies more than sixteen, or at most seventeen days,
beyond the time that these could, by care and exertion, be easily
despatched from thence, the transmission of letters by private ships
to every quarter will most unquestionably be resorted to; and thus the
Post-office revenue suffer severely.

The capital and expenditure in the West Indian department under the
combination and regulations just mentioned will be:--

                                             Capital. Yearly Charges.

  Six Steamers, at 24,000_l._                 £144,000      £37,200
  Nine Sailing Schooners, at 1500_l._           13,500        7,200
  Coals for Steamers, 30,000 tons, at 25_s._                 37,500
                                               -------       ------
                                              £157,500       81,900
                                               -------       ------

It is necessary here to observe, that the calculation taken for the
consumption of coals is founded upon the basis that the coals are of
the very best quality, and also that the machinery is of the best and
most economical description and construction, and for a vessel of
240-horse power. The time that the steamers are considered to be
engaged in actual work is calculated to include the time passed in
getting up the steam in each voyage, and also to cover all temporary
stoppages. The time allowed on every route and station is, on the
average, more than will be required. Steamers of the force mentioned
will, in good weather and light breezes and seas, even when contrary,
run ten geographical miles per hour; and, within the tropics, with
trade-winds and currents in their favour, at a still greater
speed: but the average performance may be fairly taken at 200      (p. 035)
geographical miles each twenty-four hours, although in all the
climates within the variable winds, and in the tropics when going
against the winds and currents, the speed made good will be, and is
taken at, much less. Moreover it is proper to observe, on the point of
outlay for coals, that the work is everywhere, as regards the quantity
to be used, calculated as if wholly done by steam, while it is obvious
that the assistance of sails may be had recourse to with advantage.
For this purpose, those steamers which have to go into the torrid zone
ought to be provided with large square fore-sails. The assistance to
be obtained by the use of sails would save a considerable quantity of
coals; or what is the same thing, using them would expedite the
steamer proportionally more on her voyage, and bring it so much sooner
to a close. Sails may fairly be calculated to impel a vessel at the
rate of 2-1/2 miles per hour on a voyage, and which will save either
directly _one-fourth_ the quantity of coals, or impel the steamer so
much sooner to the end of her journey than the time calculated, where
time is taken as if it were impelled by steam alone, and thereby a
proportional saving of fuel will be effected. The saving effected on
this ratio will, on the General Plan, be 27,000 tons, 33,250_l._; on
the West Indian portion thereof 7500 tons, 9375_l._; and on the West
Indian and the Falmouth and Fayal department, 9600 tons, 11,475_l._;
subject to 10 per cent. deduction, being allowance for wastage.

As regards the calculations made concerning the progress of steamers
in the voyages to be made, it is satisfactory to find, from
intelligence lately received, that the _Berenice_ steamer, of
230-horse power, made the passage from Falmouth, by the Cape Verdes,
Fernando Po, the Cape of Good Hope, and the Mauritius, to Bombay, in
eighty-eight days; _sixty-three at sea_. The course taken, and
distance run, is about 12,200 geographical miles, or at the average
rate of 194 geographical miles per day. Her average consumption of
coals was fifteen tons per day. The _Atalanta_ of 210-horse power, ran
the same distance in 106 days; sixty-eight of which at sea, under
steam. Consumption of coals, seventeen tons per day. The _Flamer_
steamer, of 140-horse power, now in the West Indies, two voyages   (p. 036)
in succession, last autumn, made the voyage from Barbadoes to Jamaica,
by Jacmel, Hayti, in five days; which is fully nine geographical miles
per hour; and in returning she ran in one voyage from St. Lucia to
Barbadoes in twelve hours, distance 100 geographical miles, with winds
and current unfavourable. Adverting to these facts, it is obvious that
sufficient time is allowed for the progress of the steam-boats, in
every station, under the General Plan now recommended to be adopted,
in order to communicate with the different places in the Western
World. The _Berenice's_ greatest run was 256 miles in twenty-four
hours.[3]

                   [Footnote 3: See also Appendix, No. 1.]


_West Indian Station._--_Details._

This is a complicated and important department, and the working
details thereof must be planned as follows:--


1.--_First Packet for the Month_.

Immediately on the arrival of this packet at Barbadoes, a steamer of
240-horse power should start for St. Thomas direct (430 miles), with
the mails from England, &c. for that island, Santa Cruz and Tortola,
and for Porto Rico, St. Domingo, the Bahamas, All Cuba, Jamaica,
Carthagena, Chagres, Panama, Honduras, Vera Cruz, and Tampico. This
boat could reach and clear St. Thomas in two days.

The steamer alluded to having landed the mails for St. Thomas, St.
Cruz, and Tortola, should then proceed to St. John's, Porto Rico, and
there land the British and Colonial mails; to Cape Nichola Mole
(Hayti), and there land the British, the Colonial, and the Bahama
mails; to St. Jago de Cuba, and there land the British and Colonial
mails; to Kingston, Jamaica, and there land the British, the Colonial,
the Chagres and Carthagena mails; to Savannah la Mar, Jamaica, and
there land the British and Colonial mails for all the western parts
of Jamaica,[4] for Trinidad de Cuba and Honduras; and thence to    (p. 037)
Havannah, with the mails for that place, and Vera Cruz, &c.

                   [Footnote 4: To touch at Savannah la Mar would
                   scarcely take up one hour, while doing so would be
                   a very great accommodation to the western part of
                   Jamaica.]

At the end of the second day this steamer may start on her return,
with the return mails from the Havannah, and the return mails from the
preceding packet from Vera Cruz and Tampico, forwarded and brought up
as after mentioned, and, proceeding, call at Savannah la Mar for the
same, from the western parts of Jamaica, Trinidad de Cuba, and
Honduras; at Kingston for the general Jamaica mails, and those from
Santa Martha, Carthagena, and Chagres from the same packet, and from
Panama, &c. from the preceding packet; at St. Jago de Cuba for the
return mails, and thence to Cape Nichola Mole, where it will deliver
the whole European mails to the packet arrived there, as will
presently be pointed out; from Cape Nichola Mole the steamer will
proceed to St. Thomas, calling at St. John's, Porto Rico, with and for
Colonial mails, and thence to Barbadoes (calling at all the Islands
going up, and carrying up the British mail for Tortola from St.
Thomas, left by the downward steamer) to wait to receive a following
mail from Great Britain.

On the arrival of the downward steamer at Cape Nichola Mole, from St.
Thomas, a fast-sailing schooner to be despatched to Nassau with the
Bahama mails, calling, in going and returning, at Crooked Island. This
schooner, it is calculated, could be back at Cape Nichola Mole in time
to meet the packet at her departure for England with the return mails;
if it could not, then the packet could take Crooked Island in her way,
and there pick up the Bahama return mails for Great Britain.

Two schooners would be sufficient for this station for the Bahama
service, should it be desirable that these islands should have mails
twice each month.

On the arrival of the steamer at Kingston, Jamaica, with the outward
mails, another steamer to be despatched with the mails for Santa
Martha, Carthagena, Chagres, and Panama, calling at Chagres first, (p. 038)
and with the return mails from Panama, the South Sea, and Chagres,
return to Kingston by Carthagena and Santa Martha. One powerful
steam-boat would be in time for the same packet; thus:--to Chagres,
550 miles, two and a half days; to Carthagena, 290 miles, one and a
half day; stop there one day; to Santa Martha, ninety miles, one day;
to Jamaica, 420 miles, three days; in all, nine days.

The mails for Honduras and Trinidad de Cuba by the outward packet
having been brought up to Montego Bay, Jamaica, as has been already
stated, a good schooner should proceed thence to Trinidad de Cuba, 172
miles, one and a half days; thence to Honduras, 520 miles, three and a
half days; stop three or more days; back to Montego Bay, by Trinidad
de Cuba, 692 miles, ten days; in all, eighteen days. Two schooners
will perform this work, giving two mails each month.

On the arrival of the steamer at Havannah another steamer should be
despatched with the outward mails for Tampico and Vera Cruz, and from
thence return to Havannah with the return British and Colonial mails.
The course of this boat would be,--to Vera Cruz, 800 miles, three and
a half days; to Tampico and back, 360 miles, stopping two days, four
days; Vera Cruz, back to Havannah, five and a half days; in all,
thirteen days.

The route of the mail conveyance from Barbadoes to Jamaica, &c., by
steamers, would therefore be:--

                                                   Geo. Miles.  Days.
  Barbadoes to St. Thomas                              430       2
  St. Thomas to Jamaica, by Porto Rico, Cape Nichola,
       and St. Jago de Cuba                            780       3-1/2
  Jamaica to Havannah, by Cape Antonio                 685       3
    Stop at Havannah                                             2
  Havannah to Jamaica, by Cape Antonio                 685       4
    Jamaica, Coals                                               1
  Kingston to Cape Nichola Mole, by St. Jago           305       2
  Cape Nichola Mole to St. Thomas, by P. Rico          480       3
    St. Thomas, Coals                                            1
  St. Thomas to Barbadoes, calling at all Islands      500       4
                                                      ----      ------
                                  Totals              3865      25-1/2
                                                      ----      ------

Each steam-boat being thus twenty-two days, each trip, at sea.     (p. 039)

Two powerful boats (240 or 250-horse power each), actively employed,
carrying passengers, parcels, and packages, would do this work twice
each month, with the addition of one spare one stationed at Barbadoes,
or Jamaica; perhaps the former.


2.--_Windward Station._

One powerful steam-boat (240-horse power) to leave Barbadoes
immediately on the arrival of the outward British packet, for Demerara
and Berbice, with the British and Colonial mails, and from the latter
return to Barbadoes, having first carried the return mails to the
packet at Grenada; thus:--Barbadoes to Berbice, 450 miles, landing
mail at Demerara, three days; (the mail for Berbice might be forwarded
from George Town, Demerara, by land;) stop at Berbice two days; to
Grenada, calling at Demerara, Tobago, and St. Vincent's, for return
mail, 490 miles, four days; back to Barbadoes, 150 miles, two days; in
all, eleven days: taking with her the return mails from the Colonies
at which she had called for Barbadoes, and having delivered the return
European mails, and others, to the packet at Grenada.

On the arrival of the British packet at Barbadoes, a fast-sailing
schooner to be despatched with the outward mails for Laguayra
(dropping at St. Vincent's and Grenada the outward mails for these
islands, which would be little trouble to it), and from Laguayra to
proceed to St. Thomas, with the return mails for the packet, as at
present, and thence return to Barbadoes direct. The route of this boat
would be,--Barbadoes to Laguayra, calling first at St. Vincent's and
Grenada, 510 miles, four days; stop there three days; and to St.
Thomas, 490 miles, six days; to Barbadoes, eight days; in all,
twenty-one days. Two schooners would do this work, giving two mails
each month.

On the arrival of the British packet at Barbadoes, a fast-sailing
schooner should be despatched, as at present, with the outward     (p. 040)
mails from Great Britain for St. Lucia, Martinique, Dominica,
Guadaloupe, Antigua, Montserrat, Nevis, and St. Kitts. The boat need
proceed no further westward than St. Kitts, because the steamer from
Barbadoes had carried forward the Tortola mails. From St. Kitts it
will return to Barbadoes, calling at all the islands just enumerated,
for the return Colonial mails. The route of this boat would
be,--Barbadoes to St. Kitts, calling at the places mentioned, 370
miles, four days; and back to Barbadoes, six days; together, ten days.

On the eighth day after the arrival of the packet at Barbadoes (the
despatch of this boat must always be so as to secure its arrival at
St. Kitts _before_ the packet), a schooner to be despatched with the
return mails and passengers from that island, to pick up for the
homeward-bound packet mails and passengers at St. Lucia, Martinique,
Dominica, Guadaloupe, Antigua, Montserrat, and Nevis, and give to or
leave these for the packet at St. Kitts. From St. Kitts this boat
returns to Barbadoes, calling at all the islands enumerated for the
return Colonial mails. This boat will be the same time out as the one
which carried the outward mails, namely, ten days.[5]

                   [Footnote 5: If the packet is a steamer, these
                   boats will be saved, because the steamer would save
                   so much time as to enable it to call at all the
                   islands northwards, to pick up the return mails.]

Two schooners will do the work on both the courses here pointed out as
necessary, with two spare ones at Barbadoes, in case of the arrival of
sailing packets on the heels of each other from Britain, to forward
the mails for all the places mentioned, and for Laguayra, making in
all eight schooners for this station. There are at present ten, or
more.

Instead of remaining at Barbadoes nine days, as at present, doing
nothing, the packet herself (whether steamer or sailing vessel)
should, on the day after her arrival at that island, proceed with the
outward mails to Tobago and Trinidad, delivering those for the former
island, and proceeding thence direct to Trinidad, in two days, 230
miles. At Trinidad remain six days, thence with the return mails from
it proceed to Grenada, where she will meet the return mails for
Europe, brought there by the steamer from British Guiana, Tobago, and
St Vincent's. With these collected, proceed on the tenth day from  (p. 041)
Grenada to St. Kitts, 330 miles, two and a half days. At that island
pick up the European mails from the islands formerly enumerated, and
thence with the whole proceed to St. Thomas, by Tortola, 140 miles,
one and a half day more; in all, fourteen days from her arrival at
Barbadoes to St. Thomas.

At St. Thomas, having all the mails from the Windward and Leeward
Islands on board, and having there got the European mail from
Laguayra, &c., the packet will proceed, on the fourteenth day, to the
westward, calling at St John's, Porto Rico, for the return mail, and
thence go on to Cape Nichola Mole, Hayti, 480 miles, three days. At
this latter place receive all the European mails from the Bahamas,
from Jamaica, Cuba, &c. &c., and thence, with the whole, on the
seventeenth day, proceed direct, according as may be determined, to
Fayal or to Falmouth, calling at Crooked Island to pick up the return
mails from the Bahamas, if it shall be found that those cannot be got
up in time by the sailing schooners to Cape Nichola Mole.[6]

                   [Footnote 6: Whenever steamers are appointed to
                   carry the mails from Falmouth to Barbadoes, the
                   arrival of the packet at that island will be so
                   regular, that Jamaica _might_ be made (should this
                   be considered advantageous) the headquarters, as it
                   were, for the steamers in that quarter of the
                   world. Four would then be sufficient for the work
                   between Barbadoes and Vera Cruz; two to run between
                   Jamaica and Vera Cruz, by the Havannah, and two
                   between Jamaica and Barbadoes, by St. Thomas. The
                   latter two would be each fifteen days at sea
                   monthly, and the former two seventeen days,
                   exclusive of partial stoppages; so that there would
                   be abundance of time for rest and repairs. Further,
                   under such circumstances, the packet with the
                   European return mails would have time to run
                   through the islands and pick up all the mails;
                   meeting, on the second day after her departure from
                   Trinidad, and on the ninth after reaching
                   Barbadoes, at St. Lucia, the steamer from Guiana,
                   with the Guiana, Tobago, and Barbadoes return
                   mails; and proceeding onward through all the
                   islands, to the northward and westward, St. Thomas
                   and Porto Rico included, pass from that island
                   through the Mona Passage, and call at Jacmel for a
                   mail, reaching Jamaica in fourteen days. From
                   thence starting without delay, and going by St.
                   Jago de Cuba and Cape Nichola, leave the latter
                   place on the seventeenth day for Fayal, exactly in
                   the same time that it is calculated it could do
                   under the other arrangement. But such an
                   arrangement would render it difficult, perhaps
                   impracticable, to get up the Laguayra mail to St.
                   Thomas in time, it having only ten days for that
                   purpose; and at the same time an additional expense
                   for coals, at least for three days each packet or
                   voyage (1800 tons, 2250_l._ yearly) would be
                   required, being the time taken between Jamaica and
                   Cape Nichola Mole.]

THE SECOND PACKET of the month, and all the steamers and schooners, to
proceed exactly in a similar manner.

According to the proposed arrangement, these steam-boats would be
actively employed thus:--

          1008 days, yearly--Jamaica station
           192  "      "     Demerara ditto.
          ----
  In all  1200 days, yearly.    Coals, 30,000 tons.


_Advantages._                                                      (p. 042)

I. There would, by these arrangements, be two mails each month to
Great Britain from all places in the western Tropical Archipelago, or
connected with it, which at present there are not.

II. Jamaica, with the requisite alterations in her internal mail
communications, would have in all her western division seven and eight
days, and in all her eastern division eight and nine days, to return
answers by the packet with which she receives her European, &c.
correspondence, of which she at present is deprived; Kingston and
Spanish Town alone being able, under the present regulations, to do
so.

III. Porto Rico, All Cuba, the more important parts of Hayti, and all
the western coasts of South America, would, by these arrangements, be
brought immediately and completely within the range of the British
Post-office, most of which places at present are not.

IV. By this arrangement all British Guiana would be enabled to reply
to all its European and Colonial correspondence by the same packet,
but which at present they have it not in their power to do.

V. The inhabitants of Trinidad would get sufficient time to receive
and to reply to their letters by the same packet. From the Naparima
and other distant quarters they cannot at present do so.

VI. The whole of the British Windward and Leeward Island Colonies  (p. 043)
would have regularly, and nearly every week, post communications with
each other and with Barbadoes, instead of being, as at present, weeks
together without such communications.

VII. This arrangement would be more agreeable, convenient, and
advantageous to passengers from Demerara, &c. for the packet for
England, and also amongst the Colonies, and consequently more
advantageous to all interested in the packets.

VIII. The same may be said with regard to passengers in every part of
the Western Archipelago. The frequency and regularity of the
conveyances would greatly add to the number of travellers, and also
greatly increase the number of letters sent and received, and
consequently augment the Post-office revenue to an amount greatly
beyond what it now is.

IX. By this arrangement the packet itself would always be out of any
danger, which, it is well known, she incurs by laying at Barbadoes, an
unsheltered place at all times, but peculiarly dangerous in the
hurricane months. In the route pointed out she would be nearly free
from the sphere of all such dangers and tempests.

X. By this arrangement the communications, both to the Government and
to individuals, would be more safe, and regular, and frequent than
they now are with every quarter of the Western World; an object of
great importance to all, but more especially to the British
Government.

XI. By this arrangement six Mexican packets, which cost Government,
say 4200_l._ each (25,200_l._ per annum), would be wholly saved.

XII. Departing from Cape Nichola Mole, instead of St. Thomas, for
Falmouth, does not increase the distance in the voyage to England
above 310 miles,--about two days' sail; moreover, it may be remarked,
the packet at present scarcely ever leaves St. Thomas for England
earlier than on the nineteenth day, and sometimes even longer.
Thus,--Steam-boat to Jamaica, eight days, four days there, and seven
to St. Thomas even in favourable voyages.

XIII. Great Britain, by thus possessing all the channels of
communication in the Western Archipelago, would thereby secure the
principal political influence therein; but which will otherwise, and
in a very short period hence, go into the hands of the United States,
now earnestly looking about and proceeding to acquire and to       (p. 044)
extend the same in that quarter of the world.

XIV. The expenses as regards this plan, would, for the West Indies,
not be greater than for the present establishment in that quarter, the
Mexican packets included; while the communications with several places
would be doubled.

XV. The whole correspondence of the United States, with every quarter
of America, to the south of these States, would be brought by the
General Plan within the range of the Post Office of Great Britain.
There would, moreover, be two mails each month between Great Britain
and the eastern coast of South America.

XVI. A great and useful commercial correspondence, between the United
States, British North America, and all the West Indies, would be
opened up, but which at present does not exist.



RECAPITULATION.


In order to obtain a view of the Plan, brought into the narrowest
possible compass, without wading through the minute and multifarious
details, it is necessary to particularize the different stations and
departments, to which the numbers affixed immediately and only relate,
thus:--

  No. 1. Falmouth to Terceira or Fayal.
      2. Fayal to Halifax.
      3. Halifax by New York to Havannah.
      4. Fayal to Rio de Janeiro by Pernambuco, &c.
      5. Fayal to Madeira and Teneriffe.
      6. Fayal to Barbadoes.
      7. West India Department, from Demerara to Vera Cruz,
           including Chagres, &c.
      8. Expenses, depôts for coals, and repair boats.

  _Cost of Plan by Steam._                                         (p. 045)

  --------+-------+-------+-------+--------+-------+--------+------+-------
          |       |Provi- |       |        |       |        |      |Number
   Number | Fixed | sions |Tons of|Price of|Cost of| Total  |Number|  of
     of   |Capital|Wages, | Coals | Coals  | Coals |Expendi-|  of  |Sailing
  Station.|  re-  |  &c.  |Yearly.|per ton.|Yearly.|  ture  |Steam-| Ves-
          |quired.|Yearly.|       |        |       | Yearly.| ers. | sels.
  --------+-------+-------+-------+--------+-------+--------+------+-------
          |   £   |   £   |       |  _s._  |   £   |   £    |      |
     1    | 48,000| 12,400|  8,400|   20   |  8,400| 20,800 |   2  |   "
     2    | 48,000| 12,400| 12,000|   25   | 15,000| 27,400 |   2  |   "
     3    | 48,000| 12,400| 12,000|   "    | 15,000| 27,400 |   2  |   "
     4    | 72,000| 18,600| 23,400|   "    | 29,250| 47,850 |   3  |   "
     5    |  7,000|  3,600|   "   |   "    |   "   |  3,600 |   "  |   4
     6    | 96,000| 24,800| 22,200|   "    | 27,750| 52,550 |   4  |   "
     7    |157,500| 44,400| 30,000|   "    | 37,500| 81,900 |   6  |   9
     8    |   "   |   "   |   "   |   "    |   "   | 11,350 |   "  |   "
          |-------+-------+-------|        |-------+--------+------+-------
    [7]   |476,500|128,600|108,000|        |132,900|272,850 |  19  |  13
    Sub.  |335,500|115,000| 38,400|        | 45,900|168,500 |   8  |  26
          |-------+-------+-------|        |-------+--------+------+-------
   Diff.  |141,000| 13,600| 69,600|        | 87,000|104,350 |  11  |  13
  --------+-------+-------+-------+--------+-------+--------+------+-------

N.B.--The latter sum shows the difference of capital and expenditure
betwixt the work done by steam, and partly by steam and partly by
sailing packets. The reduction in coals by the preceding estimate will
be 33,250_l._; and, allowing 10 per cent. wastage on the _whole
quantity_, the real reduction in the expenditure will be 20,000_l._

                   [Footnote 7: The cost of these steamers will, to a
                   considerable degree, depend on the tonnage which it
                   is considered most proper to adopt. The utmost
                   quantity of coals which any of them will require to
                   carry, will be (Fayal to Barbadoes, and Fayal to
                   Pernambuco) 300 tons. Airy accommodation for from
                   fifty to sixty cabin passengers, and twenty-five to
                   thirty steerage ditto, with the crew, will be all
                   that is requisite, leaving a room for specie and
                   the mails, and space for from forty to one hundred
                   tons of goods. Since the present calculation was
                   made, the price of machinery has risen
                   considerably. Boats of the size necessary may now,
                   perhaps, cost 28,000_l._ to 29,000_l._ In the
                   latter case, 750_l._ per annum (five per cent.
                   insurance, five per cent. interest, and five per
                   cent. ordinary tear and wear) must be added to the
                   yearly outlay, as here stated. The wages and
                   provisions will remain the same. Iron boats can be
                   had _one-fourth_ cheaper than those built of wood;
                   moreover, engines now made on the EXPANSIVE system,
                   require fully one-third fewer coals, by which so
                   much expense will be saved.]

  _Cost, partly by Steamers and partly by Sailing Packets_.        (p. 046)

  --------+-------+-------+-------+--------+-------+--------+------+-------
          |       |Provi- |       |        |       |        |      |Number
   Number | Fixed | sions |Tons of|Price of|Cost of| Total  |Number|  of
     of   |Capital|Wages, | Coals | Coals  | Coals |Expendi-|  of  |Sailing
  Station.|  re-  |  &c.  |Yearly.|per ton.|Yearly.|  ture  |Steam-| Pack-
          |quired.|Yearly.|       |        |       | Yearly.| ers. | ets.
  --------+-------+-------+-------+--------+-------+--------+------+-------
          |   £   |   £   |       |  _s._  |   £   |    £   |      |
      1   | 48,000| 12,400|  8,400|   20   |  8,400|  20,800|   2  |   "
      2   | 19,000|  8,400|   "   |   "    |   "   |   8,400|   "  |   2
      3   | 19,000|  8,400|   "   |   "    |   "   |   8,400|   "  |   2
      4   | 47,500| 21,000|   "   |   "    |   "   |  21,000|   "  |   5
      5   |  7,000|  3,600|   "   |   "    |   "   |   3,600|   "  |   4
      6   | 38,000| 16,800|   "   |   "    |   "   |  16,800|   "  |   4
      7   |157,000| 44,400| 30,000|   25   | 37,500|  81,900|   6  |   9
      8   |   "   |   "   |   "   |   "    |   "   |   7,600|   "  |   "
          |-------+-------+-------|        |-------+--------+------+-------
          |335,500|115,000| 38,400|        | 45,900| 168,500|   8  |  26
  --------+-------+-------+-------+--------+-------+--------+------+-------

Subject on the total expenditure to reduction in coals to the amount
of 11,475_l._; less, however, 10 percent, or 4,590_l._ for wastage;
giving the real reduction to be 6,885_l._



GENERAL REMARKS.


The mails conveyed from Great Britain by steam to the quarters
mentioned would in their courses be due:--

     London to Halifax, Quebec, and New York, forty-six days; from
     Halifax to West Indies, according to the distance of the island
     or place; Havannah, twenty-two days; Jamaica, thirty-one days;
     Barbadoes, fifty days, &c., &c. London to Rio de Janeiro,
     sixty-five days, and Buenos Ayres, fifteen days more; London to
     Madeira and Teneriffe, thirty-four days; London to Barbadoes, and
     all the West Indies, from Demerara to Havannah, and Chagres
     inclusive, sixty-five days, and to Honduras, Vera Cruz, and
     Tampico, fifteen days more. If the mails are conveyed by sailing
     packets on the four great lines from Fayal, then the time for all
     would be fifteen days additional.

Large as the above-mentioned sums are, still the revenues of Great Britain
and Ireland, and their Colonial dependencies in the Western World  (p. 047)
(say 55,000,000_l._ yearly), ought to defray the cost without feeling
any embarrassment. The cost, however, is nothing, when compared to the
benefits and the advantages which the nation and individuals would
derive from it. Time saved and actively employed is every thing. It is
capital, which, if not employed at the moment, can never be again
employed--a capital which, if suffered or forced to remain unemployed,
or to escape unemployed, can never again be found or replaced. The
exports of Great Britain amount at the declared value, and including
freights and charges, to 75,000,000_l._ per annum. By employing
steam-packets on even a portion of the present work, instead of
sailing-packets, _fifteen_ days would be gained in every line of
communication. Remittances arriving fifteen days earlier would be a
profit to the commercial interests of the country of 167,793_l._,
independent of the additional advantages which every merchant would
gain when, instead of his funds wandering on the Atlantic, or lying
idle and unproductive on the other side of it, he had these in hand,
to lay out to good account as opportunity might offer. Even Government
itself, from the want of regularity and frequency of transmission,
lose, in their money transactions in the West Indies, above 8000_l._
yearly, and much more in not being able to learn quickly and regularly
the state of the exchanges in the great money marts in the Western
World.

Moreover, the Plan above recommended, conducted judiciously, and
carried into effect to the extent pointed out, would amply repay
either the Government or the individuals who may undertake it.
Travelling would be prodigiously increased. Some of the wealth of
foreign countries would be drawn by it to this country and her
dependencies. Everywhere activity and industry would be encouraged
and increased. The Post-office revenue would be greatly
augmented,--perhaps doubled. The expenditure also would all be on
British materials and labour.


_Cost of the New System and the Present System._

In order to understand the subject fairly, it becomes necessary
to contrast the capital and the expenditure required under the     (p. 048)
NEW PLAN with the capital and the expenditure required for the
_Present System_; and also, from data, which, though these in some
points may not be perfectly accurate, are at any rate sufficiently so,
to show the income which may reasonably be expected under the working
of the Plan recommended. Every one practically acquainted with the
subject, with the countries and combinations, with the objects alluded
to and brought forward, will acknowledge the general accuracy of the
data, and the great superiority and advantages in every way, and in
every thing, of the new plan over the present system.


I.

The portion relating to the West Indian Department, shall separately
and first be taken as a comparison.

  Yearly cost by the proposed plan                £81,900
  Yearly cost by present system:--
    Six Mexican packets at £4,200[8]     £25,200
    Four steamers and coals, say          39,000
    Hire ten mail-boats, West Indies       6,000
    Ditto mail-vessels, Nassau, Chagres,
      &c., say                             4,000
    Assistance navy,[9] equal to, say      3,000
                                          -------  77,200
                                                   ------
                        Apparent increase          £4,700

  But against this there is to be placed, the proportion
  of saving in coals                                5,635
                                                  -------
                        Difference _gained_          £935
                                                  -------

                   [Footnote 8: See Appendix No. 1., Calculation of
                   Expenses of Steamers and Sailing Packets.]

                   [Footnote 9: Men-of-war frequently carry the mails
                   from Barbadoes to Jamaica; also in other places.]

_Capital._                                                         (p. 049)

  Capital required by new plan                   £157,000
  By present system:--
    Six Mexican packets, at £9500        £57,000
    Four steamers, _above_ £20,000, say   86,000
    Ten mail-vessels, Windward Islands,
      £1500                               15,000
    Mail-vessels, Nassau, St. Martha, &c.  5,000
    Aid men-of-war,[10] equal to           7,500
                                         -------  170,500
                                                  -------
                   Difference: decrease           £13,500
                                                  -------

                   [Footnote 10: This assistance is worth more in
                   capital than this sum.]

Under the present system, all Demerara, Jamaica (Kingston and Spanish
Town excepted), and a large portion of Trinidad, cannot reply to their
letters by the same packet by which they receive them. Also Nassau,
Havannah, Tampico, Vera Cruz, Honduras, Chagres, Carthagena, Santa
Martha, and Laguayra, have only ONE mail each month; while all Porto
Rico, all the north side (the most important part) of Hayti, and all
the south side of Cuba, are wholly left out; while in all parts the
system is imperfect, irregular, and uncertain.

By the new plan, Nassau, Havannah, Tampico, Vera Cruz, Honduras,
Chagres, Santa Martha, and Laguayra, would have two mails each month;
all Porto Rico, the north side of Hayti, and the south side of Cuba,
would be included, and have two mails each month also; and all
Jamaica, Trinidad, and Demerara, would have time to reply to their
letters by the same packet which brought them. Time would everywhere
be saved, and the whole system would be regular and certain, and
properly combined.


II.                                                                (p. 050)

The General Plan for the Western World:--

  Capital required by new plan                        £476,500
  By present system:--
    28 sailing-packets,[11] at £9500        £266,000
    2 do. vessels, S. America, £5,000         10,000
    4 steamers, _above_ £20,000               86,000
    10 mail-vessels, Barbadoes, £1500         15,000
    Mail vessels, other stations, at least     8,000
    Aid navy, as already stated                7,500
                                            --------   392,500
                                                      --------
                 Difference: increase                  £84,000
                                                      --------

  Cost yearly by new plan                             £272,850
  By present system:--
    28 sailing-packets, at £4200            £126,000
    4 steamers, and coals                     39,000
    2 vessels, Rio de Janeiro, &c.             4,500
    10 mail vessels, Barbadoes station         6,000
    Bermuda, Halifax, Nassau, &c. &c.
      say                                      5,500
    Aid navy, equal to                         3,000
                                            --------   184,000
                                                      --------
              Apparent increase                        £88,850

  But against this is to be placed, first, the coals saved
    by the use of sails, 20,000_l._; secondly, the sum
    of 11,350_l._ allowed in new plan (not taken into
    account in the present) for the expense of coal
    depôts, and places for repairs; together            31,350
                                                      --------
                Real increase                          £57,550
                                                      --------

                   [Footnote 11: According to Parl. Pap. No. 251, of
                   1835, the following are the names and the number of
                   the packets:--

                     Eclipse     Lyra         Tyrian          Stanmer
                     Plover      Renard       Seagull         Nautilus
                     Swallow     Brisei       Cockatrice      Scorpion
                     Goldfinch   Reindeer     Hornet          Espoir
                     Mutine      Nightingale  Camden          Pike
                     Lapwing     Skylark      Duke of York    Sheldrake
                     Pigeon      Spey         Lady Mary Pelham
                     Opossum     Pandora      Lord Melville

                   Astrea, stationary ship at Falmouth, 956 tons. The
                   Express, the Star, the Alert, NEW, have since
                   replaced some of the above.]


_Remarks._                                                         (p. 051)

By the present system, there is no direct mail communication with New
York; no communication between North America and the West Indies, no
mail communication with the north side of Hayti, the south side of
Cuba, nor with Porto Rico; Havannah, Vera Cruz, Tampico, Honduras,
Nassau, Bermuda, Chagres, Carthagena, Santa Martha, Laguayra, Rio de
Janeiro, Buenos Ayres, &c. &c. have only _one_ mail in each month;
while all Demerara, most part of Trinidad, and all Jamaica (Kingston
and Spanish Town excepted), cannot reply to their letters by the same
packet by which they received them. Further, every thing is imperfect,
irregular, and uncertain; and, moreover, the four steamers in the West
Indies last spring are so utterly inefficient and worthless, that they
must forthwith be replaced by at least _three_ good new ones, to do
the same limited work.

By the new plan there will be _two mail_ communications with New York
and Halifax monthly; two ditto between all the West Indies and all
North America; there will be a mail communication twice each month
with Porto Rico, with the north side of Hayti, and the south side of
Cuba. There will be mail communications twice each month with Bermuda,
Nassau, Havannah, Tampico, Vera Cruz, Honduras, Chagres, Panama,
Carthagena, Santa Martha, Laguayra, Rio de Janeiro, Buenos Ayres,
Madeira, and Teneriffe; and all Demerara, Jamaica, and Trinidad will
be able to reply to their letters by the same packet by which they
receive them. The work everywhere will be well done, and every thing
will be regular and certain.


III.                                                               (p. 052)

If Steam is employed between Falmouth and Fayal, and in all the West
Indian department, and supposing that all the remainder of the general
plan for the western world is performed by sailing packets, then the
results will be:--

  Capital required by new plan this way               £335,500
  Ditto employed under the present system              392,500
                                                      --------
                  Difference LESS                      £57,000
                                                      --------
  Yearly cost by present system                       £184,000
  Ditto       by new plan                              168,500
                                                      --------
                  Difference LESS                      £15,500

  But to this difference ought to be added the
  sum of 6885_l._ saved in coals by using sails,
  and the sum of 7600_l._ allowed in new plan
  but not taken into account in the present,
  for the expense of coal depôts, and places
  for repairs, 7600_l._ together                        14,485
                                                      --------
                  True difference LESS                 £29,985


IV.--_Income._

  Profit on passengers in all quarters (see
    Appendix, No. 1.)                                 £132,274
  Freights, parcels, packages, fine goods (see do.)    117,440
  Ditto specie, 24,000,000 dollars, at 1 per cent.
    dollar 4_s._ 2_d._                                  51,125
  [12]Transport troops, stores, &c. for Government, say 30,705
  Saving coals, as before, by use of sails              20,000
                                                      --------
                  Total                               £351,544

  Yearly charges of whole done by Steam       £252,850             (p. 053)
  [13]10 per cent. yearly to replace capital,
    or                                          50,000
  Port charges, say foreign ports, &c.          15,000
  Sundry small charges for Steamers, at
    600_l._ yearly                              11,400
                                              -------- 329,250
                                                      --------
  Gain besides clear post-office revenue               £22,294
                                                      --------

                   [Footnote 12: Cost transport troops to Government
                   yearly--

                     Jamaica command                £4,314   4   5
                     Windward and Leeward Islands   14,149  17   9
                     Bermuda command                 3,982  18  10
                     British North America           6,259  13   8
                     Army vessels West Indies        1,998  13  10
                                                    --------------
                                                    30,705   8   1

                   _Parliamentary Papers_, No. 598 of 1836.]

                   [Footnote 13: In order to replace the original
                   capital, 10 per cent. or 50,000_l._ yearly laid
                   aside as a sinking fund, is quite sufficient,
                   thus:--
                                       Principal.         Interest.

                     1st year        £50,000   0   0
                     2d do.           50,000   0   0    £2,500   0  0
                     3d do.           50,000   0   0     5,125   0  0
                     4th do.          50,000   0   0     7,881   5  0
                     5th do.          50,000   0   0    10,775   6  0
                     6th do.          50,000   0   0    13,814   0  6
                     7th do.          50,000   0   0    17,004  19  0
                     8th do.          50,000   0   0    20,335   0  6
                     9th do.          50,000   0   0    23,872  15  6
                    10th do.          50,000   0   0    27,566   8  7
                                     ---------------   --------------
                          Capital    500,000   0   0   128,888  14  9
                          Interest   128,888  14   9
                                    ----------------
                          Total     £628,888  14   9
                                    ----------------

                   A similar sum (see Appendix, No. 1.) of at least
                   600_l._ per annum, each, ought to be charged as the
                   capital necessary to replace the sailing-packets.]

As regards the Post-office revenue, it is impossible, in the absence
of full official returns, to state its present exact amount, and,
consequently, the probable future increase. The revenue from the
outward postages to the British West Indian Colonies, Honduras
excepted, is inserted in the Appendix from official authority. Judging
from it, and other data, also adduced from official authority, the
present amount there stated cannot be far wrong; and the calculated
increase under the arrangements proposed, every circumstance
considered, is fair and reasonable. Besides the certain great increase
in all the external postages in these countries and colonies and
places, the internal and coasting postages in these places will be
augmented to a very great extent. Taking the outward postages at
present to be, to all the places mentioned, 100,000_l._--inwards as
much, 200,000_l._--there may be added, Additions 100,000_l._;      (p. 054)
Increase 70,000_l._; total 370,000_l._; viz., outwards 185,000_l._,
and inwards as much; giving at the average postage of 2_s._ 5_d._ the
number of letters each way to be 1,531,465.

As regards the Harbour-charges, in the British Colonies, these may be
given up, or reduced to a small sum for the trouble which the Custom
Houses may be put to; and in foreign ports it should be arranged by
compacts with the respective governments, that the port dues should be
reduced to a small sum, for two reasons,--because the vessels carry
the mails, and because they are on that account restricted to a small
portion of the whole cargo, which they could otherwise take. The
charges might be made proportionate: there could not be much
difficulty in arranging these points. In some of the minor ports
(foreign), the steamers would not even come to anchor.


WEST INDIES.--INTERNAL POST OFFICES.

The internal communications in the West Indies by post are very
inefficient, even where they exist, but in most colonies these are
altogether wanting.

Communication in the West Indies on business, and in the affairs of
public and private life, is principally carried on by correspondence;
and from the particular circumstances of these colonies, more so in
proportion than in other countries.

The way in which this extensive and general communication is carried
on is by letter sent by servants or hired messengers. These servants
or messengers take days in a particular service, according to the
distance. The latter mode is particularly expensive. The other, the
most general, is scarcely less so, except that from the construction
of West Indian society, there was beforetime felt no immediate outlay
for the service required.

Important supplies are required upon an estate for various purposes.
This is of very frequent occurrence. A special messenger from that
estate must be despatched with a letter ordering the same, to a    (p. 055)
distance of twenty or thirty miles, or more. Two or three days'
labour are lost, an expense of 4_s._ or 5_s._ incurred, while 1_s._
for letters by post, if there was a post, would accomplish the object.
This is merely one point brought forward in proof of the necessity of
internal post conveyances in the British West Indian colonies, as in
this country, out of the multitudes that could be adduced for a
similar purpose.

The state of society in the West Indies is now on the eve of being
completely changed, and assimilated to the society in this country;
and consequently the duty of the Government of this country ought to
bestow on the population of the colonies the same facilities of
communication which the population of the mother country enjoy.

When the Negro apprenticeship comes to an end, either partially or
totally, the expense to estates and individuals for servants or
messengers to carry the correspondence absolutely necessary, will be
exceedingly great, and a most serious burden; and yet it must be
borne,--or otherwise, without internal post communications, neither
cultivation nor commerce can be carried on.

It is absolutely necessary for the future well-being of these
colonies, that internal post communications should be extended to, and
established in each of them.

Jamaica (and perhaps it stands single in this respect) has an internal
post communication once a week, to and from Kingston, and other
quarters of the island (daily only with Spanish Town, the capital);
still this weekly post is greatly inadequate to its present wants, and
will be much more so after August 1838, and August 1840. In
consequence of this restricted communication, no other part of the
island, Spanish Town excepted, knows of a packet's arrival until it is
gone, or till it is too late to write by it. This important colony
ought not only to have mails from Kingston at least three times a
week, but the various post-offices throughout the island should have
auxiliary post-offices, after the manner of penny or twopenny
post-offices in this country. Every one will be glad to pay a regular
and reasonable postage, rather than be at the very heavy expense,
after 1840, of taking a labourer to convey the communications. Knowing
the stated day for receiving and transmitting letters, no one in   (p. 056)
the most distant parts could ever be at a loss; and every one, more
especially on estates, would benefit and save exceedingly thereby.

In like manner, the smaller colonies ought to have posts twice or
thrice a week from the capital; the country offices placed at the most
important villages, and the auxiliary ones at hamlets the best
situated for the purpose. Smaller merchants and shopkeepers in these
places would be glad to do the duty at a moderate rate, because it
would otherwise serve them, by drawing customers and correspondents to
their places of business.

Even in the smallest colonies such internal establishments would pay,
and, in most of them, more than pay, the expenses they occasion; while
it is clear that such internal facilities would most materially add to
the external or packet postage.

Where the roads are good, the mails, travelling at the rate of five or
six miles per hour, may be carried in gigs, as in this country, drawn
by horses or mules; and where rugged or hilly, on the backs of mules,
in proper portmanteaus.

It is worthy the attention, and is in fact the duty, of Her Majesty's
General Post-office, to direct some person locally acquainted to
proceed through the colonies, to examine into situations, and to
establish such internal post conveyances. In the smaller islands, as
has been stated, they would defray, and more than defray, the expenses
incurred; while in the larger and more opulent colonies, they would
yield a fair revenue; while the good they would do to every community
will be incalculably great. The West Indies everywhere want a little
European energy and regularity infused into them,--and this is one
efficient, perhaps the simplest and most efficient way to do it.



PACIFIC DEPARTMENT.                                                (p. 057)


It has been already stated that a steam communication for the west
coasts of America, on the Pacific, has already been arranged, and is
about to be set on foot. This important object has been concerted and
arranged by that enterprising gentleman, WILLIAM WHEELWRIGHT, Esq., of
Valparaiso, after almost incredible perseverance and labour, and great
expense; and has obtained the official sanction and support of both
the Chilian and Peruvian Governments. It will extend from Panama to
Valparaiso on the south, and to Acapulco on the north; and will, as a
matter of course, for the interest of those concerned in carrying the
plan into execution, be so timed and arranged in the working machinery
thereof, as to correspond with the arrivals at, and departures from,
Chagres on the north, or the Atlantic side of the Isthmus.[14] A road
is about to be commenced between Panama and the Chagres, which     (p. 058)
when completed, the communication from sea to sea may be made in half
a day. This point, as regards the western coasts of America, being
thus arranged, it becomes of vast importance to the whole plan
proposed, to extend from Great Britain to the eastern coasts of the
western world; and it now becomes of great consequence to show how
readily and advantageously the West Indian department can be made to
connect itself outwards and inwards across the Isthmus alluded to,
with Sydney, New South Wales; Canton, China, &c.

                   [Footnote 14: The following are the distances from
                   Panama to the different places alluded to:--

                                     SOUTH.

                     Panama
                       to Guayaquil  S.  0°. 31' W.  Dist. 670 Geo. Miles.
                     Guayaquil
                       to Lima       S. 15°. E.        "   610
                     Lima
                       to Arica      S. 45°. E.        "   570
                     Arica
                       to Coquimbo   S.  5°. W.        "   690
                     Coquimbo
                       to Valparaiso S.  5°. W.        "   190
                     Valparaiso
                       to Fort Carlos,
                       Chiloe        S. 16°. W.        "   555

                   From Panama to Valparaiso and back could be thirty
                   days, including three days for stoppages.

                                     NORTH.

                     Panama
                       to Point Mala S. 15°. W.      Dist.  95 Geo. Miles.
                     Point Mala
                       to Port Damas,
                       Quibo         S. 89°. W.        "    97
                     Port Damas
                       to Rialejo    N. 48°. W.        "   450
                     Rialejo to
                       Acapulco      N. 62-1/2°. W.    "  1180
                     Acapulco to
                       St. Blas      N. 48°. W.        "   420
                     St Blas to
                       Cape Lucas,
                       California    N. 73°. W.        "   274

                   From Panama to St. Blas and back could be
                   twenty-seven days, including four days for
                   stoppages.]

This connexion may be made either by Chagres and Panama, or by the
river St. Juan's, through the Lake Nicaragua, to Rialejo, on the
Pacific. The distances and courses by either are not materially
different: but there is the best reason to believe that the
communication by the route last mentioned is the best; and that, in
fact, it may, without a very great expense, be effected by water. To
carry on the communication across the Pacific, from and to the places
mentioned, by steam, would be unprofitable, unadvisable, and
unnecessary. To give two mails each month to the places specifically
mentioned, would require, even fixing a central point in the Pacific
as in the Atlantic, thirteen steamers, at a cost of 223,000_l._; while
no more than fifteen days could be gained, compared to the time that
the work could be performed by sailing packets. These results have
been obtained after calculations carefully made upon the same
principles as the calculations for a similar purpose have been made in
the preceding pages. The whole can be proved by considering the winds
which prevail in the quarters of the Pacific alluded to (elsewhere
particularly noticed), and by examining the bearings and distances
inserted in Appendix No. III. These matters being considered, it
follows, that not only no additional expense will be required on
account of the mails which are to cross the Isthmus to the Pacific,
until their arrival at Panama or Rialejo; but that resources from  (p. 059)
the latter, such as parcels, packages, and passengers, will be drawn
from the Pacific department, to increase the returns in the Atlantic
department. With these observations, it is now proper to advert to the
courses and distances which must be taken, and the expenses which will
be required in this, which shall be denominated the Pacific
Department; the work to be performed by first-class sailing packets.

Owing to the winds which prevail in the Pacific, the passage outwards
to both Sydney and Canton would be easy and rapid; but in order to
make the return mails from these places meet at a central
point--thereby, as in the plan for crossing the Atlantic, to save
packets--which point should be so placed, as that taking it in would
not retard the progress of the mails, or that only in the slightest
degree possible--is now the point to consider. Beyond the parallel
where the variable winds commence, there is no island of importance in
any position that would be an eligible and safe point for the return
mails from Sydney and Canton to meet in their way to Rialejo or
Panama. To carry the outward mails from either of the latter places by
Otaheite, the Canton packet branching off there would be to bring it,
upon its return, a vast distance out of its way (to Otaheite it must
return in order to get the next outward mail for Canton); especially
when the return mail from Sydney must stand north through the trades
to get into the northern variables. It would be desirable that a good
point should be found, as much to the westward as possible, and
convenient to proceed to Canton; at the same time, sufficiently to the
eastward, or, as it may be called, to the windward, of New South
Wales. Owhyhee may be considered as taking the Sydney outward mails
considerably out of their course, although by making that the point,
the time in both lines westward from it would be pretty equally
divided. The difference, however, and the delay it would occasion,
would not be so much as at first sight may be imagined; while the
short distance that this island is within the northern trade winds,
would render it neither difficult nor tedious for the return packet
from Canton to run down upon it, and there meet the return packet from
Sydney. Christmas Isle, a little to the north of the equator,      (p. 060)
might be made the central point at which the packets would separate,
and to which they would return; the Canton packets dropping at Owhyhee
the return mails, to be picked up by the packet returning from Sydney
to Rialejo. This would bring the Canton packet 1000 miles into the
trade winds to Christmas Isle. From thence, with the outward mails, it
could run rapidly westward to Canton, calling at Manilla in the
voyage. There are no other places in the North Pacific where packets
could touch, unite, and command, with the least inconvenience to the
service, the navigation to and from both places. Separate
establishments for each line from the west coast of America may be
considered too expensive, if, by concentration and combination, the
same work could be performed at less expense; and then, by that
combination, whatever letters, passengers, &c. there might be from
Sydney to Canton, or from Canton to Sydney, would meet at either of
the places mentioned, and be forwarded in the quickest manner to their
respective destinations. The question is, Which of the places and
plans mentioned is the best fitted for the objects had in view? To
determine this, it will be best to consider the communication, each of
the three ways in which it may be taken, thus:--

Making Owhyhee the central point of communication, the routes,
distances, and periods, and expenses, would be--

                                        Geo. Miles.  Days
  Rialejo to Owhyhee                       4,100      22
  Owhyhee to Canton                        5,200      28
    Stop at Canton                           "         2
  Canton to Owhyhee (circuitous)           5,900      39
  Owhyhee to Rialejo     do.               4,700      29
                                          ------     ---
                         Totals           19,900     120
                                          ------     ---

Eight boats would perform this work, giving two mails each month:
cost, 76,000_l._; yearly charges, 33,600_l._

  _Owhyhee to Sydney._                                             (p. 061)

                                        Geo. Miles.  Days.
  Owhyhee to Sydney, N. S. Wales           4,600      24
    Stop at Sydney                           "         3
  Sydney to Otaheite, say                  3,900      25
  Otaheite to Owhyhee                      2,250      13
                                          ------      --
                          Totals          10,750      65
                                          ------      --

Six packets (one to spare) would perform this work between Owhyhee and
Sydney, giving two mails each month: cost, 57,000_l._; yearly charges,
25,200_l._ Admitting that the packets on the Owhyhee and Sydney line
take longer time than is here stated, they would still be in time to
reach Owhyhee by the time that the Canton mail came up; which in its
course with Owhyhee is calculated to be 91 days. In fact, there is
thus time sufficient to allow the Owhyhee and Sydney packet time to
communicate with Hobart Town, and to call at Otaheite in her outward
voyage; as she will do, and, in fact, from the course which she must
take, she may and can do, in her return voyage, without any
inconvenience or delay whatever.

The next plan is, to consider the communications alluded to as to be
carried on by making Christmas Island the central point of
arrangement; thus:--

  _Rialejo to Christmas Isle._

                                         Geo. Miles. Days.
  Rialejo to Christmas Isle                 4000      21
  Christmas Isle to Sydney, N. S. Wales     3650      20
    Stop at Sydney                           "         3
  Sydney to Christmas Isle, by Otaheite     5100      35
  Christmas Isle to Rialejo, by Owhyhee     5800      35
                                          ------     ---
                                 Totals   15,500     114
                                          ------     ---

Eight packets would perform this work, giving two mails each month:
cost, 76,000_l._; yearly charges, 35,600_l._

  _Christmas Isle to Canton._                                      (p. 062)

                                         Geo. Miles.  Days.
  Christmas Isle to Canton                  5250      26
    Stop at Canton                           "         3
  Canton to Christmas Isle, by Owhyhee
      route                                 6900      46
                                          ------      --
                                 Totals   12,150      75

Eight packets would perform this work, giving two mails each month:
cost 76,000_l._; yearly charges, 33,600_l._; which shows that it takes
one packet more by this arrangement than would be required by the
other.

Keeping the stations altogether separate, the following would be the
periods and number of packets required, premising that the packets
would return to the point of departure on the west coast of America,
nearly in the dotted lines which are laid down on the accompanying
Chart:--

  _Rialejo to Canton._

                                        Geo. Miles.  Days.
  Rialejo to Owhyhee                        4100      22
  Owhyhee to Canton                         5200      27
    Stop at Canton                           "         2
  Canton to Rialejo (circuitous)          10,000      59
                                          ------     ---
                   Totals                 19,300     110

Eight packets would perform this work, giving two mails each month;
first cost, 76,000_l._; yearly charges, 33,600_l._

  _Rialejo to Sydney, New South Wales._

                                        Geo. Miles.  Days.
  Rialejo to Otaheite                       4100      22
  Otaheite to Sydney                        3400      19
    Stop at Sydney                           "         3
  Sydney to Rialejo, by N. Point, New
    Zealand                                 8500      51
                                          ------      --
                     Totals               16,000      95

Examining attentively the three preceding routes of communication, (p. 063)
it is plain that, in point of expense, the last, namely, that which
gives two establishments, is not more than the most eligible of the
other two, while in point of time it is considerably the quickest. The
packets going out and returning twice each month, or every _fifteen_
days, it follows that, on every route, their voyages divide into
periods of that duration. In the more distant, such as the routes at
present under consideration, their voyages, in order to coincide and
to meet with the return mails at any given point, will run, say, 90
days, 105 days, 120 days, &c.; and within the latter-mentioned number
the mail from Canton must return to Jamaica, to secure, without extra
loss of time, a packet bound to England.

Seven packets would perform this work, giving two mails each month;
first cost, 66,500_l._; yearly charges, 29,200_l._; which is one
packet more than the Owhyhee plan requires; but that station would
require one spare packet, making _fifteen_ for the whole, which thus
makes both stations equal, but without the combination which the
Owhyhee station gives.

This arrangement for the Pacific would, in whichever way it may be
taken, save the whole proposed steam communication from Ceylon
eastward to Canton and New South Wales; which saving, either on the
Mediterranean or Cape of Good Hope lines, would be, eight steamers and
one sailing vessel--capital, 199,500_l._, and yearly charges about
130,000_l._; thus reducing very greatly indeed the cost of the
subsequent plan projected for the Eastern world. Even at the outset,
the mails, parcels, and passengers on the Pacific station, would, it
is believed, pay the expenses as here stated:--

                            Fixed Capital.  Yearly Charges.
  Pacific Departments         £142,500         £63,000



THE MEDITERRANEAN, EAST INDIES, &c. &c.                            (p. 064)

I. _Falmouth and the Mediterranean._


To extend the mail communications between Great Britain and all places
in the Mediterranean, and more especially with the more distant parts
of that sea, which will go to connect more closely British
communications with the East Indies and countries situated still more
to the eastward, is now, more than ever, become a national object,
and, it may be added, a national duty. France seems to be actively
extending mail communications, in that sea, to all places, as well to
those under her immediate sway as to others; and if allowed to do so
without any rival, it becomes obvious that, with the command of all
the channels of communication, she will obtain such a monopoly of
political influence as will give her the monopoly of political power
also in that quarter of the world. Such a result cannot fail to prove
highly injurious to all the great commercial and political interests
of Great Britain; and this result ought to be guarded against and
prevented even at a considerable sacrifice, if a sacrifice were
necessary, but which it is not.

Two mails each month between Great Britain and the Mediterranean are
indispensably necessary, otherwise the conveyance of both letters and
despatches, and passengers, will generally be quicker by private ships
and other similar conveyances which may offer. The route can be from
Falmouth to Alexandria direct, by Lisbon, Cadiz, Gibraltar, Palermo,
and Malta; at the latter place dropping the outward mails for the
Ionian Islands, Athens, and Constantinople; to be forwarded immediately
by a branch steam-boat, which will return to Malta from            (p. 065)
Constantinople, &c. with the return mails for England, &c. &c. to be
forwarded by the Alexandria and Falmouth steamers, returning by way of
Malta, Palermo, Gibraltar, Cadiz, and Lisbon; a good sailing vessel
being employed to convey the outward and the inward mails to and from
Zante to the other Ionian Islands. It would take the Constantinople
steamer from Malta too much out of her way to call at any other of
these islands but the one mentioned.

As the Falmouth and Mediterranean department is in every point of view
a most important station, so it may be rendered a profitable one;
because it will connect itself with the East Indian communication, and
consequently a very great additional number of passengers, letters,
parcels, &c. will be obtained. Calling at Lisbon, Cadiz, Gibraltar,
Palermo, and Malta in the way out to, and in the way home from
Alexandria, steam-boats sufficiently powerful (240-horse power) would
complete the voyage in 45 days from London to London, including all
necessary stoppages.

Three powerful steamers would do this work, giving two mails each
month. The capital necessary to purchase these would be 72,000_l._ The
annual expenditure for these three boats, on this station, would
be--Wages, provisions, tear and wear, &c. 6,200_l._ each, or
18,600_l._; and for coals, 20,400 tons, 25,600_l._; together,
44,200_l._ Thus each boat on this station would be actively employed
34 days each voyage = 74 monthly, 816 yearly: coals, 25 tons daily =
20,400 tons at 25_s._, 25,600_l._

The route, course, and time, from Alexandria, would be thus:--

                                                Geo. Miles.  Days.
  Falmouth to Alexandria, by Lisbon, &c. &c.       2985       19
  Alexandria to Falmouth, by Malta, &c. &c.        2985       19
    Stop at Alexandria                                         2
  London and Falmouth, including day of departure   552        5
                                                   ----       --
                                                   6522       45
                                                   ----       --

N.B. Seventeen days, at 180 geographical miles per day, gives 3060
miles--the real distance is 2985.


2. _Malta and Constantinople._                                     (p. 066)

From Malta a branch steam-boat may proceed with the mails for the
Ionian Islands, and touching at Zante to land these, proceed thence to
Athens, and thence to Constantinople with the outward mails. From
Constantinople this boat will return, by Athens and Zante, to Malta,
with the return mails for the Alexandria and Falmouth packets. The
distance from Malta to Alexandria and back is 1650 miles, and by the
course already pointed out, the distance from Malta to Constantinople
and back is not materially different. Consequently, one good steamer
would perform the work in the same time as is requisite to go to
Alexandria and return. This boat would be, each voyage, ten days at
sea; stopping two days at Constantinople: which is 20 days monthly;
240 days yearly; requiring 5000 tons of coals, 6250_l._, and 6200_l._
more for wages, provisions, insurance, tear and wear; together
12,450_l._ per annum.


EAST-INDIAN DEPARTMENT.

3. _Alexandria and Suez._

The distance from the former to the latter place is 170 geographical
miles. This might, under prompt and proper regulations, be performed
in two days. The first portion of the distance is from Alexandria to
Cairo, about 100 miles by water, and the second is from Cairo to Suez
across the desert, about 70 miles. What the expense of transporting
mails, passengers, &c. over this distance would be, it is difficult to
state, but let it be taken as an approximation at 5000_l._ per annum.


4. _Suez to Bombay._                                               (p. 067)

The mail communications by steam might readily and with great
advantage be extended to this quarter of the world, and to this
important portion of the British empire. Nor need the channel of
communication stop at the East Indies, but proceed on until it
includes within its range Batavia, China, and New South Wales. The
further the line is extended, and the more its ramifications are
combined and connected, the greater will the advantages, and the more
ample the remuneration, be to whoever undertakes the work. The
commercial and political concerns and interests connected with these
vast portions of the globe, are well known to be immense, and of the
first-rate importance, while no European power is so much interested
in these as Great Britain. With these remarks the manner in which the
communications alluded to can be effected and carried on remains to be
pointed out. The route, periods, and distances from Alexandria, would
be as follows, premising that the price of coals in all these Eastern
stations will be considerably higher than in the stations in the
Western World, as these coals may have to be carried to the different
places by the circuitous navigation of the Cape of Good Hope. Still,
calculating the whole to be brought from Europe, these may be obtained
at the average price of 40_s._ per ton; while 10 per cent. additional,
for all supplies and wages, may be added to the sum taken for
expenditure in the stations in the western hemisphere, as required in
every place to the eastward of the Cape of Good Hope. And at these
rates all the subsequent estimates are formed.

                                            Geo. Miles.  Days.
  Alexandria to Suez, by Cairo                 170         2
  Suez to Babelmandel, by Mocha               1205         6
    Stop at Mocha, coals                                   2
  Babelmandel to Bombay, by Aden or Socotora  1630         8
    Stop at Bombay                                         2
  Bombay to Alexandria, same route            3005        18
                                              ----        --
                         Totals               6010        38
                                              ----        --

Three powerful steamers would perform this work, giving two mails  (p. 068)
each month--at sea 42 days each voyage = 48 monthly = 1008 yearly;
coals at 25 tons daily, 25,200 tons, at 40_s._ 50,400_l._


5. _Aden or Socotora to Mauritius._

The steamer for Bombay could, without material difficulty, drop mails
for the Mauritius at Socotora. To do so at Aden, on the Arabian coast,
would add to the distance 500 miles, which is a material objection.
From Socotora to the Mauritius is 1850 geographical miles. Two good
sailing vessels (brigantine class) would be sufficient for the work of
carrying the Mauritius mails between Socotora and that island. The
time each way may be fairly taken at 15 days, and two days to stop at
Port Louis, gives 32 days for the voyage. The cost of these vessels
should be about 4000_l._ each, and their expenditure, say, 2000_l._
each, or 4000_l._ per annum. The time from London to the Mauritius by
this route would be 48 days, and the same time to return, making the
mail communication between the two places 105 days.


6. _Bombay to Calcutta, by Ceylon._

One steam-boat would carry all the mails for the East Indies, &c. from
Suez to Bombay; and from thence another steam-boat would proceed to
Calcutta by Trincomalee, calling at Mangalore, and other places in the
west coast of Hindostan, and dropping at Trincomalee the mails for all
places more to the eastward. Going by Bombay, instead of going direct
from Babelmandel to Ceylon, only increases the distance about 270
miles, while the vast expense of having additional and separate boats
is saved. From Trincomalee, the steamer, both in going to and
returning from Calcutta, could, without inconvenience or delay, call
at Pondicherry and Madras. Should the time occupied by the steamers
from Bombay to Calcutta by this route exceed the time occupied by the
post to travel from the former to the latter by land, then in that
case the European mails from Calcutta could be forwarded by land,  (p. 069)
while the passengers, parcels, &c. could go round by the steamer, the
difference, in point of time, being not above a day or two at most.

The route, time, and distance from Bombay to Calcutta, would be
thus:--

                                           Geo. miles.   Days.
  Bombay to Trincomalee                       1258         7
    Stop at Trincomalee                                    2
  Trincomalee to Calcutta, by Madras, &c.     1010         5
    Stop at Calcutta                                       2
  Calcutta to Bombay, same route              2268        12
                                              ----        --
                        Totals                4536        28
                                              ----        --

Two powerful boats would perform this work, giving two mails each
month. Each would be at sea 24 days each voyage = 48 monthly = 576
yearly: 25 tons coals daily = 14,400 tons yearly, 28,800_l._ Cost of
boats, 48,000_l._; yearly expenses, 6820_l._ each, 13,640_l._;
together with coals, 42,440_l._


7 & 8. _Trincomalee to Canton, by Batavia_.

At Trincomalee, a steamer would take up the mails for the remainder of
the Eastern World, both from Europe and from India, and proceed by
Batavia to Canton. At Batavia, this boat would deposit the mails for
New South Wales and Singapore; the former to be forwarded by other
steamers, and the latter by a good sailing schooner, which could
always accomplish her work so as to be in time for the return steamer,
and for the next outward mails; the distance from Batavia to Singapore
being 475 miles, thus:

Three, or even four days, out; three to stop, and four back; together
11 days. The nearest way to Canton from Trincomalee is by Nicobar and
Singapore, distance, 2880 miles; whereas the distance by Batavia is
3535 miles; but then it must be remembered, that Batavia is the most
important station, and 475 miles nearer New South Wales than
Singapore. Hence Batavia appears to be the most eligible point of  (p. 070)
communication for the steamers.

From Trincomalee to Canton, the route and time will be thus:--

                                           Geo. miles.   Days.
  Trincomalee to Batavia, by Straits of
       Sunda                                  1750         9
    Stop at Batavia, coals, &c.                            2
  Batavia to Canton                           1830         9
    Stop at Canton 2, Batavia 2                            4
  Canton to Trincomalee, by Batavia           3580        18
                                              ----        --
                             Totals           7160        42
                                              ----        --

Three boats would perform this work, giving two mails each month. Each
boat would be at sea 36 days each voyage = 72 monthly = 864 yearly: 25
tons coals daily, 21,600 tons yearly--43,200_l._ At Trincomalee, a
spare boat would require to be stationed, in case of accidents, which
would make four for the station; prime cost, 96,000_l._, and one
sailing-vessel, 2,000_l._ The yearly charges for provisions, wages,
&c. &c. will be 6820_l._ each, and 1000_l._ for the sailing-vessel is
28,280_l._, which, together with the expense of coals, amount to
71,480_l._


9. _Batavia to Sydney, New South Wales, by Swan River._

At Batavia, steamers could take up the European, the Indian, and the
Chinese mails, and proceed on to Sydney, New South Wales, by Swan
River and Hobart Town, &c. thus:

                                           Geo. miles.   Days.
  Batavia to Swan River                       1745         9
    Stop at ditto, coals                                   2
  Swan River to Hobart Town                   1770         9
    Stop at ditto                                          1
  Hobart Town to Sydney                        570         3
    Stop at Sydney, coals, &c.                             3
    Ditto at Hobart Town and Swan
       River, returning                                    3
  Sydney, by Hobart Town, &c. to Batavia      4085        21
                                              ----        --
                           Totals             8170        51
                                              ----        --

Three boats would perform this work, giving two mails each month;  (p. 071)
but in case of accidents, there would require to be one spare boat on
the station, to be stationed either at Batavia or Sydney. The cost of
the four would be 96,000_l._ Each boat actively employed would be at
sea 42 days each voyage = 84 monthly = 1008 yearly: 25 tons coals daily
is 25,200 tons yearly, at 40_s._, 50,400_l._ The yearly expenditure of
each boat besides would be 6820_l._; for four, 27,280_l._, together
with coals, 77,680_l._

It is unnecessary to dwell on the immense advantages which such a plan
of mail communications as this would give to the commercial world in
general, and to the commercial interests of the United Kingdom in
particular. These would be incalculably great, both to the governments
and to the people. To complete the scheme, it would be requisite to
have more than one station at which boats and machinery could be
repaired. These would require to be Malta, in the Mediterranean,
Bombay, Trincomalee, Batavia, and Sydney, in all five places; the
salaries, &c. for superintendents, rents, and rent coal depôts, could
not be less than 2000_l._ per annum at each, or 10,000_l._ The expense
for workmen and materials are included in the 5 per cent. allowed for
tear and wear in the annual expenditure for each boat.

The yearly expenditure for the whole Plan, in all its parts, would
consequently be as follows, and under the respective heads as here
enumerated.

  _Abstract._

  No. 1. Falmouth to Alexandria, by Lisbon, &c.
      2. Malta to Constantinople, by Zante, &c.
      3. Alexandria to Suez, by Cairo.
      4. Suez to Bombay, by Mocha.
      5. Socotora to Mauritius.
      6. Bombay to Calcutta, by Ceylon.
  7 & 8. Trincomalee to Canton, by Batavia, &c.
      9. Batavia to Sydney, New South Wales, by Swan River, &c.
     10. Coal depôts, and stations for repairs.

  _Expenditure by Steam Power, &c._                                (p. 072)

  --------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------+------+-------
          |       |Provi- |       |       |       |        |      |Number
   Number | Fixed | sions |Tons of| Price |Cost of| Total  |Number|  of
     of   |Capital|Wages, | Coals | Coals | Coals |Expendi-|  of  |Sailing
  Station.|  re-  |  &c.  |Yearly.|  per  |Yearly.|  ture  |Steam-| Ves-
          |quired.|Yearly.|       |  ton. |       | Yearly.| ers. | sels.
  --------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------+------+-------
          |   £   |   £   |       |   s.  |   £   |    £   |      |
      1   | 72,000| 18,600| 20,400|   25  | 25,600|  44,200|   3  |   "
      2   | 24,000|  6,200|  5,000|   "   |  6,250|  12,450|   1  |   "
      3   |   "   |  5,000|   "   |   "   |   "   |   5,000|   "  |   "
      4   | 72,000| 20,460| 25,200|   40  | 50,400|  70,860|   3  |   "
      5   |  8,000|  4,000|   "   |   "   |   "   |   4,000|   "  |   2
      6   | 48,000| 13,640| 14,400|   "   | 28,800|  42,240|   2  |   "
    7 & 8 | 98,000| 28,280| 21,600|   "   | 43,200|  71,480|   4  |   1
      9   | 96,000| 27,280| 25,200|   "   | 50,400|  77,680|   4  |   "
     10   |   "   | 10,000|       |   "   |   "   |  10,000|   "  |   "
          |-------+-------+-------|       |-------+--------+------+-------
          |418,000|133,460|111,800|       |204,650| 337,910|  17  |   3
          |       |       |       |       | 68,000|  68,000|      |
          |-------+-------+-------|       |-------+--------+------+-------
          |418,000|133,460|111,800|       |136,650| 269,910|  17  |   3
  --------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------+------+-------

The return boat from Alexandria ought not to leave that place until
the Eastern mails come up from Suez.

The course of post under this arrangement between London and
Alexandria, would be 45 days; between London and Constantinople, the
same; between London and Bombay, 90 days; London and Calcutta, 120
days; London and Canton, 150 days; London and Batavia, 120 days;
London and Swan River, 150 days; London and Sydney, New South Wales,
180 days, &c. &c.


II.

ANOTHER PLAN, BY WAY OF THE CAPE OF GOOD HOPE.

The above Plan is attended with considerable risk, inasmuch as
convulsions in Egypt, and on the shores of the Red Sea about Suez and
Mocha, and war in the Mediterranean, might cut off altogether      (p. 073)
the communications with the whole Eastern World, according to the
route which has been laid down. To prevent such a result is an object
of great importance, providing it can be effected without a serious
sacrifice as to time, or expenditure of money. To have such vitally
important communications as free from being disturbed by the march of
war as possible, is not only desirable, but indispensable, on the part
of Great Britain. This may be effected by going out by the Cape of
Good Hope.

Adopting this route would connect all the Eastern transmarine
possessions of Great Britain in one chain, with scarcely a link in the
line of communication being dependent upon foreigners, except one or
two, which the naval power of Great Britain could always command and
control in case of emergency. The course here alluded to would
lengthen the course of post to Bombay and Calcutta, &c. to a
considerable extent; but in every part of the proposed new line, coals
could always be procured more cheap and readily than in any quarter
near the Red Sea. The following details, however, will place the time
and expense in a clear point of view, and enable any one to contrast
at a glance the two routes, and the difference which in time and
expenditure will exist and remain between them.


1. _Falmouth to Cape Verde._

The steam-boat with all the Indian mails would go from Falmouth by
Madeira to Cape Verde, thus:--

                                           Geo. Miles.   Days.
  Falmouth to Madeira                         1170         6
    Stop at Madeira, coals                                 1
  Madeira to Cape Verde                       1130         6
    Stop at Cape Verde, coals                              2
  Cape Verde to Falmouth                      2300        12
    Stop at Madeira, returning, coals                      1
                                              ----        --
                                  Totals      4600        28
                                              ----        --

Two steam-boats, actively employed, would perform this work,       (p. 074)
giving two mails each month. Each boat would be at sea 24 days each
voyage = 48 monthly = 576 yearly:--coals, at 25 tons daily = 14,400
tons yearly, at 20_s._ 14,400_l._


2. _Cape Verde to the Cape of Good Hope._

The route and time from Cape Verde to the Cape of Good Hope will be--

                                          Geo. Miles.    Days.
  Cape Verde to Ascension                     1530         8
  Ascension to St. Helena                      655         3
  St. Helena to Cape of Good Hope             1720         9
    Stop at Ascension and St. Helena twice                 4
  Cape of Good Hope to Cape Verde             3905        20
                                              ----        --
                                              7810        44
                                              ----        --

Three boats, actively employed, would perform this work, giving two
mails each month; but in case of accidents, it would be advisable to
have one spare boat at St. Helena, or Cape Verde, making four at this
station, or six in all between Falmouth and the Cape of Good Hope. The
three boats actively employed would be at sea 40 days each voyage = 80
monthly = 960 yearly. Coals at 25 tons daily = 24,000 tons yearly, at
25_s._, 30,000_l._


3. _Cape of Good Hope to the Mauritius._

From the Cape, the steamers will proceed with all the mails to the
eastward, calling at Algoa Bay and Bourbon, and next to the Mauritius.
From the Mauritius it will proceed to Point de Galle, where it will
deposit the mails for Bombay, and afterwards proceed to Trincomalee,
from whence it will return by way of Point de Galle to the Mauritius,
with the return mails for Europe. It would take the Bombay mails
unreasonably out of the way to proceed from the Mauritius direct   (p. 075)
to Trincomalee. The route, time, and distance for this boat, would be
as under:--

                                           Geo. Miles.   Days.
  Cape of Good Hope to Mauritius              2280        12
    Stop at Mauritius                                      2
  Mauritius to Cape of Good Hope              2280        12
                                              ----        --
                     Totals                   4560        26
                                              ----        --

Two boats would perform this service, giving two mails each month;
each 24 days at sea each voyage = 48 monthly = 576 yearly. Coals, 25
tons daily, 14,300 tons yearly, at 40_s._ 28,600_l._; other charges,
13,640_l._ yearly; cost boats, 48,000_l._


4. _Mauritius, to Point de Galle and Trincomalee, Ceylon._

                                         Geo. Miles.   Days.
  Mauritius to Point de Galle               2080        11
  Point de Galle to Trincomalee              280         1-1/2
  Trincomalee to Mauritius, same route      2360        12-1/2
                                            ----        ------
                    Totals                  4720        25
                                            ----        ------

Two steam-boats, actively employed, would perform this work, giving
two mails each month; but in the event of accidents, there would
require to be a spare boat on this station, either at Trincomalee or
Point de Galle, as may seem advisable, and as assistance may be
required for the Mauritius, Bombay, &c. line. The two boats actively
engaged would be at sea each on each voyage, 27 days = 54 monthly =
648 yearly. Coals daily, 25 tons = 16,200 tons yearly, at 40_s._,
32,400_l._ Three boats yearly, other expenses, 20,640_l._ This station
will require three boats; and one for the Calcutta station--together
four.[15]

                   [Footnote 15: By making the four steamers on the
                   route between the Cape of Good Hope and Ceylon,
                   run--two from the Cape to Mauritius, and two from
                   Mauritius to Point de Galle, the boats on the
                   eastern side of the Mauritius would regularly have
                   eight days, and those on the western side six days
                   each month to rest; and furthermore, be always
                   prepared to start whenever a steamer from either
                   quarter with mails came up. In a similar manner,
                   the boats which are to run between Falmouth and the
                   Cape of Good Hope could be divided; by which means,
                   besides being always ready when wanted, they also
                   would have more time to rest. Two may run from
                   Falmouth to Cape Verde, 2300 miles; three from Cape
                   Verde to the Cape of Good Hope, 3850 miles; with
                   one, the fourth, to take by turns a voyage from
                   Cape Verde to the Cape of Good Hope, and a voyage
                   from Cape Verde to Falmouth, in order to relieve
                   the others. Sufficient time for rest would thus be
                   obtained. Moreover, by combining the East Indian
                   Department with the Plan for the Western World by
                   Fayal to Pernambuco, three steamers would be saved.
                   The Indian steamers to branch off at the latter
                   place for the Cape. The distance would, in this
                   way, be increased about 1000 miles; but considering
                   the winds and currents in the course which these
                   steamers would take, it would not make three days
                   more, if so much, in the outward voyage, and in the
                   homeward voyage probably not so much; while the
                   advantages would be considerable, and the saving
                   great.]


5. _Point de Galle to Bombay._                                     (p. 076)

A steamer would proceed from Point de Galle to Bombay, calling at
Mangalore, &c. and returning to Point de Galle by the same route with
all the return mails. The route and time would be--

                                           Geo. Miles.   Days.
  Point de Galle to Bombay, by Mangalore       880         4-1/2
    Stop at Bombay, &c.                                    3
  Bombay to Point de Galle                     880         4-1/2
                                             -----         -----
                      Totals                  1760        12
                                             -----        ----

One boat would do all this work, giving two mails each month. At
Sea each voyage 8 days = 16 monthly = 192 yearly. Coals 25 tons
daily = 4,800 tons yearly, at 40_s._, 9,600_l._ Other charges,
6,820_l._--together 16,400_l._


6. _Trincomalee to Calcutta._

A steamer would proceed from Trincomalee to Calcutta and back, calling
in going and returning at Pondicherry and Madras. The route and time
would be thus:--

                                           Geo. Miles.  Days.
  Trincomalee to Madras                        300       1-1/2
  Madras to Calcutta                           735       3-1/2
    Stop at Calcutta, Coals, &c.                         2
  Calcutta to Trincomalee, same route         1035       5
                                              ----      --
                        Totals                2070      12

One steam-boat would perform this work, giving two mails each      (p. 077)
month; at sea each voyage 12 days[16] = 24 monthly = 288 yearly.
Coals, 25 tons daily = 7200 tons yearly, at 40_s._, 14,400_l._ Other
charges, 6820_l._--together 21,220_l._ per annum.

                   [Footnote 16: The time here is only ten days; but
                   the calculation was made for a different division
                   of the mails, and it has not been thought necessary
                   to alter it.

                   The time in which the different distances may be
                   run has been here stated, but the necessary
                   arrangements for the arrivals and departures of the
                   mails will, in some instances, extend that time.
                   These arrangements resolve the periods into--say
                   45, 60, 75, 90, 105, 120, &c. &c. days. Thus, if
                   the mails between Alexandria and Bombay cannot be
                   back at Alexandria, as they really cannot be,
                   within 30 days, the object to come up with the
                   regular return Mediterranean mail for England is
                   equally attained if it is back at Alexandria within
                   45 days; and the same principle applies equally to
                   every other station.]

From Trincomalee eastward to Batavia, Canton, and New South Wales, the
routes, periods, distances, and expenses, would be exactly the same as
those which have already been pointed out in the plan of having the
communications by the Red Sea, under heads Nos. 7, 8, 9, and 10.
Bringing the whole into one table, the total amount is ascertained,
and the difference of expenditure in the one route over the other
becomes distinctly known.

In order, however, to bring the whole into a tabular form, it is
necessary to recapitulate and particularize the different heads,
thus:--

   1. Falmouth to Cape Verde.
   2. Cape Verde (Mayo) to Cape of Good Hope.
   3. Cape of Good Hope to Mauritius.
   4. Mauritius to Ceylon, Point de Galle.
   5. Ceylon, Point de Galle, to Bombay.
   6. Ceylon to Calcutta, by Madras.
   7. Trincomalee to Canton, by Batavia.
   8. Batavia to Singapore.
   9. Batavia to Sydney, New South Wales, by Swan River.
  10. Coal Depôts, and places to repair boats.

  _Expenditure by the Cape of Good Hope._                          (p. 078)

  |------|--------|-------|--------|------|-------|--------|------|-------|
  |      |        |       |        |      |       |        |      |       |
  |Number|Fixed   |Provi- |Tons of |Price |Cost of| Total  |Number|Number |
  |of    |Capital | sions,|Coals   |of    |Coals  |Expendi-|   of |   of  |
  |Sta-  |required|Wages  |Yearly. |Coals |Yearly.|  ture  |Stea- |Sailing|
  |tions.|        | &c.   |        |per   |       |Yearly. | mers |Ves-   |
  |      |        |Yearly.|        |Ton   |       |        |      |sels.  |
  |------|--------|-------|--------|------|-------|--------|------|-------|
  |      |   £    |    £  |        | _s._ |   £   |   £    |      |       |
  |  1   | 48,000 | 12,400| 14,400 |  20  | 14,400| 26,800 |   2  |   "   |
  |  2   | 96,000 | 24,800| 24,000 |  25  | 30,000| 54,800 |   4  |   "   |
  |  3   | 48,000 | 13,640| 14,300 |  40  | 28,600| 42,240 |   2  |   "   |
  |  4   | 72,000 | 20,640| 16,200 |  "   | 32,400| 53,040 |   3  |   "   |
  |  5   | 24,000 |  6,820|  4,800 |  "   |  9,600| 16,400 |   1  |   "   |
  |  6   | 48,000 | 13,640|  7,200 |  "   | 14,400| 28,040 |   2  |   "   |
  |7--10 |194,000 | 65,560| 46,800 |  "   | 93,600|159,160 |   8  |   1   |
  |      |--------|-------|--------|      |-------|--------|------|-------|
  |  [17]|530,000 |157,500|127,700 |      |223,000|380,480 |  22  |   1   |
  |      |        |       |        |      | 71,442| 71,442 |      |       |
  |      |--------|-------|--------|      |-------|--------|------|-------|
  |      |530,000 |157,500|127,700 |      |151,558|309,038 |  22  |   1   |
  |  Sub.|418,000 |133,400|111,800 |      |136,650|269,910 |  17  |   3   |
  |      |--------|-------|--------|      |-------|--------|------|-------|
  | Diff.|112,000 | 24,100| 15,900 |      | 14,908| 39,128 |   5  |   2   |
  |------|--------|-------|--------|------|-------|--------|------|-------|

                   [Footnote 17: The same remark regarding the cost of
                   steamers, will apply here, that has been made in
                   the Plan proposed for the Western World.]

The first deduction is the sum for the saving in quantity and price of
coals, as aftermentioned; the last sum shows the difference of cost
and expenditure of the route by the Red Sea, as compared with the
route by the Cape of Good Hope; bearing in mind, however, that the
expense of the establishment from Falmouth to Alexandria would still
remain, admitting that the route by the Cape of Good Hope was adopted.

In the preceding calculation of expenses, the amount is taken
calculating that the work is to be done wholly by steam, and at the
average rate of 200 geographical miles per day. The use of sails,
however, will propel a vessel at the average rate of 2-1/2 miles per
hour throughout a general voyage; consequently, _one-fourth_ should
be deducted from the quantity of coals used. This will amount to   (p. 079)
31,935 tons, value 44,587_l._, less 10 per cent. allowed for wastage
on the whole, is 12,770 tons, 17,795_l._, which leaves the net saving
of 26,792_l._ Next, the value of coals supplied to the eastward of the
Cape of Good Hope is calculated at 40_s._ per ton, as received from
Europe. But coals may be supplied in all places to the eastward of the
Cape of Good Hope at 30_s._ per ton, thus:--They can be purchased
excellent, and in abundance, at 9_s._ per ton at Sydney, New South
Wales. Ships coming from that place to ports in the East Indies, and
the Mauritius, for freight, would carry these coals, and be glad to
convey and to sell them at 30_s._ per ton, a profit of 21_s._, instead
of making nothing, as at present. A further deduction, therefore, of
10_s._ per ton, or one-fourth in value, on the quantity used to the
eastward of the Cape, is to be made, which will amount to 44,650_l._,
and which, together with the above balance of 26,792_l._, makes the
sum of 71,442_l._ to be deducted from the total amount of expenditure.

Next, as to the rate of speed--it is calculated throughout the voyage,
at the rate of 200 geographical miles per day. In running before the
wind, and with the monsoons, the vessels would make more, and in
working against them, less; still, on the whole voyage, or from the
Cape, for example, to Calcutta, and from Calcutta to the Cape again,
the time specified would be sufficient for the work and the distance;
while in taking a circuitous course to avoid the force of the
monsoons, the steamers would make up by increased speed for the
increased distance. The N. E. monsoon may, at anytime, be stemmed by a
steamer of large power, and such as is now recommended. The S. W.,
which is the most formidable, may be overcome by the boats on their
return,--if by the Red Sea, by making first a course to the southward,
and then standing N. W. with the monsoon on their beam. By the Cape of
Good Hope, the difficulty would be decreased in this respect, as the
boats running southward to gain the Mauritius from Ceylon, would, by
keeping to the southward, soon get out of their vortex; while the
steamers between Bombay and Ceylon have only to keep in shore to avoid
the greatest force of the monsoon either way, and from either quarter.
In crossing from the Red Sea to Bombay, the strength of the N. E.  (p. 080)
monsoon would be avoided by keeping in with the Arabian, and afterwards
with the eastern Asiatic coast.

Taking the line of communication, therefore, between Great Britain and
the Eastern World, by the Cape of Good Hope, the expense beyond that
which the line of communication by the Mediterranean and the Red Sea
would occasion, would be, in capital, 112,000_l._, and in yearly
expenditure, 39,128_l._ The point to consider is, will the advantages,
and the security to be obtained by taking the former in preference to
the latter route, prove a sufficient compensation for, and a warrant
to go to the additional and increased expense? The answer, minutely
considering every circumstance, will be, that they are. The
obstruction which the land barrier between Alexandria and Suez offers,
and must always offer, even when unobstructed by hostile force, to the
conveyance of parcels, packages, and goods, is a great drawback
indeed. The competition, also, by steamers belonging to other parties
and states, would, as regards all these, be a great drawback on this
line; and to which must be added, the increased difficulties and
drawbacks which would arise in the event of hostilities taking place
between any of the great powers connected with the affairs of the
Mediterranean. On the other hand, the free communication which would
be had,--free also as it would be, or nearly so, from any serious
competition by the Cape of Good Hope, the carriage of every thing
being in almost every point and place under the British flag and
revenue laws--would render this line much more profitable than the
line by Egypt and the Red Sea could ever be.

The coal depôts for the lines by the First Plan would be--Gibraltar,
Malta, Constantinople, Alexandria, Mocha or Socotora, Bombay,
Trincomalee, Calcutta, Batavia, Canton, Swan River, Hobart Town, and
Sydney: and for the lines by the second plan, Madeira, Cape Verde,
Ascension, St. Helena, Cape of Good Hope, Mauritius, Bombay, Point de
Galle or Trincomalee, Calcutta, Batavia, Canton, Swan River, Hobart
Town, and Sydney.

The course of post between London and the different places here
stated, taking the route by the Cape of Good Hope, would be--London
and Sydney, New South Wales, 195 days; London and Swan River, 165  (p. 081)
days; London and Canton, 165 days; London and Batavia, 135 days;
London and Calcutta, 135 days; London and Bombay, 135 days; London and
the Mauritius, 105 days; and London and the Cape of Good Hope, 75
days, &c. &c., but in working the scheme some stoppages may perhaps be
cut off.

  _Income by the Mediterranean._

  Passengers:--Falmouth to Alexandria, 48 voyages, at 50
      each, 30_l._                                           £72,000
  Malta to Constantinople, 48 ditto, at 15 each, 10_l._        7,200
  Suez to Bombay, 48 ditto, at 20 each, 55_l._                53,600
  Ditto to Calcutta and Madras, &c. 48 do. at 25 each, 65_l._ 78,000
  Ditto to Mauritius, 48 ditto, at 10 each, 55_l._            24,400
                                                            --------
                           Total                            £235,200
        Deduct finding ditto, one-third                       78,400
                                                            --------
                           Remain clear                     £156,800
  Freights--Parcels, Packages, and Goods, say                 57,600
  Freight--Specie, suppose                                    20,000
  Government Troops, Stores, &c.                              35,000
  Ditto, carrying all Mails and Despatches                    80,000
                                                            --------
                                                            £349,400
          Deduct expenditure                      £269,910
          Sinking Fund. 10 per cent.                41,400
                                                  --------   311,310
                                                            --------
                           Balance gain                      £38,090
                                                            --------

  _Income by Cape of Good Hope._                                   (p. 082)

  Passengers:--Falmouth to Bombay, 48 voyages, at 20
      each = 960, at 80_l._                                  £76,800
    Ditto to Calcutta and Madras, &c. 48 ditto, at 25 each
      = 1200, at 90_l._                                      108,800
    Mauritius to Calcutta & Madras, &c. 48 ditto, at 10
      each = 480, at 60_l._                                   28,800
    East Indies to Batavia, China, &c. 48 voyages, at 15
      each = 720, at 40_l._                                   28,800
    New South Wales and Falmouth, 48 voyages, at 10
      each = 480, at 120.                                     57,600
    Madeira, St. Helena, Cape of Good Hope, and Coasting
     voyages, India, 48 voyages, and 48 Ceylon and
     Calcutta, together, say yearly                           28,800
    New South Wales coastways, 48 voyages, at 10 each,
       average 12_l._                                          5,760
                                                            --------
                         Total                              £335,360
       Deduct for finding _one-third_                        111,786
                                                            --------
                         Balance gain                       £223,574
  Freights--Parcels, Packages, Fine Goods, 48 voyages,
    150 tons each, average at 15_l._ per ton of
        tonnage                             £108,000
  Freight--Specie, say                        35,000
  Government Troops, Stores, &c.              35,000
  Ditto Mails, Despatches                     90,000
                                             -------         268,000
                                                             -------
                          Total                              491,574
         Deduct expenditure                 £309,038
         Sinking Fund, to replace Capital, 10
           per cent                           52,900
         Sundries, Port Charges, &c.          20,000
                                             -------         381,938
                                                            --------
                           Balance gain                     £109,636
                                                            --------



GEOGRAPHICAL OBSERVATIONS ON THE ISTHMUS OF AMERICA,               (p. 083)

AND THE PRACTICABILITY OF

A COMMUNICATION WITH CHINA AND NEW SOUTH WALES WESTWARD THROUGH IT.


A ready and safe communication with these important places, and at the
same time with all the most eastern parts of Asia, with all the
Islands in the Pacific Ocean, and with all the western coasts of the
great continent of America, it will be readily allowed, is of the
utmost importance to Great Britain and to the whole civilized world.

Through the isthmus of central America only, a short, safe, and easy
passage from Europe to the eastern parts of Asia and the Pacific
Ocean, can be effected. That a passage over the Pole exists, is
extremely probable, nay, it may be said, is certain. This passage,
when found, will be obtained by standing north between Nova Zembla and
Spitzbergen, and thence over the Pole, inclining first eastward above
Europe, and thence westward for some distance, to Behring's Straits.
But admitting that there is a passage open by this route, it can only
be so from the end of May to the middle of September, and during this
period only comparatively safe; a period much too short to accomplish
a voyage out and back from China, and scarcely sufficient to perform
the voyage out and back between Great Britain and her territories on
the west coast of America situated to the north of Columbia River.
Moreover, even if a passage this way was open for a period sufficient
to enable the navigator to accomplish the voyage to either of the
quarters alluded to, still it will appear, when the distances come (p. 084)
to be noticed and contrasted, that, considering the winds and the
weather which ships would encounter in passing over the North Pole
into the Pacific, as contrasted with those which they would most
certainly meet with in sailing westward through tropical seas, by the
Isthmus of America; that the latter route would, upon the whole, be
the best, and in all respects preferable and most expeditious.

A communication by the latter quarter may be advantageously and
speedily opened up, both for steamers and for sailing vessels; and in
the conveyance of mails, both or either may be employed, as shall
appear to be most eligible and most advisable. To lay open such a
communication as this would prove, is an object of the first
importance, worthy of the attention of any body of men, and of any
nation, but more especially of a nation like Great Britain, to support
and to patronize in every way. By this route, all vessels, mails, and
merchandise could reach the more distant and wealthy parts of Asia and
Australasia, sooner and safer, and through seas comparatively always
tranquil, borne by winds scarcely ever varying, and always favourable,
than these can do by any other course that is known, or that remains
to be discovered. In an especial manner, this would be the case as
regards all the western coasts of America, North and South, the
Islands in the Pacific, New South Wales and Van Dieman's Land, Japan,
China, Eastern Siberia, &c. The perpetual trade-winds would bear
vessels before them from Madeira to Canton, and almost to Sydney,
while in returning they would merely have to run through these
trade-winds, with a steady breeze on the beam, until they reached the
latitude of 30° to 32° north, when the steady and certain, and strong
westerly and south-west winds, would bear them in these parallels
first, to the west coast of America; from which point winds off the
land, and north-easterly trade-winds, would carry them, in the second
place, to the point of communication with the Atlantic, through the
Isthmus of central America; from which they, in the third place, would
run to the north, carried by the trade-winds and the Gulf stream, into
and through the Gulf of Florida, into the variable winds, which would
quickly bear them to all the eastern ports of North America, and   (p. 085)
to all the ports in Europe, or along the coasts of the Mediterranean.

By this channel, namely, through the Isthmus of central America, the
valuable, but almost unknown, British territory on the west coast of
North America, would be brought near, and cleared, and cultivated. So
also would the whole remaining western coast of America, from Nootka
Sound to the southern extremity of Chili, be brought near to the
civilized world, and become, in consequence, also peopled, cleared,
and cultivated. Without such a communication is opened up, these
coasts, and states upon them, can scarcely ever be brought to this
state, but to which it is most desirable for the general interests of
the world, and of the human race in it, that they should be brought.
Situated as they are, there is no produce of their soil which their
inhabitants can raise that can bear the expense of carriage to enable
it to come into competition in the general markets of the world, with
similar articles raised in other countries, which are all more
accessible and placed nearer markets; and unless the soil of the
western coasts of America and the islands in the Pacific are brought
into cultivation, and peopled by people more civilized and
industrious, it is obvious that these countries and the states and
population at present in them, must remain in the poor, ignorant,
miserable, and uncultivated state and condition in which they are, of
little service to themselves or to the remainder of the world.

The points where the communication between the Atlantic and the
Pacific are most feasible and practicable, is at one point on the
southern boundaries of the Republic of Mexico, and the others within
the territories of the Republics of Guatemala and Venezuela. The neck
of land, or isthmus, which connects North and South America together,
may be taken to extend from 8° N. lat., in the meridian of 77° W.
long., to the parallel of 18° or 19° N. lat. in the meridian of 100°
W. long. Narrow as the continent of America is in all this space, but
more especially in the southern portion of this space, recent surveys
have reduced it still more; and it is not improbable that, when the
late surveys of the west coasts within the tropics are published, that
it will be found to be still narrower, and more contracted than is (p. 086)
supposed, or than the late accurate surveys by Captain Owen, under the
orders also of the British Government, of the shores of the Gulf of
Mexico, have shown it to be; and consequently the communication
between the Atlantic and the Pacific will be found to be still shorter
and more easy than it has been, or is even now considered to be.

The first two points within the limits above mentioned, where
communications are most practicable, are the following:--_First_, in
the territory of Mexico, from the mouth of the river Guazacoalcos, on
the Gulf of Mexico, to the mouth of the Chimalapa, in the Gulf of
Tehuantepec, on the Pacific, between the parallels of 16-1/2° to
18-1/2° N. lat. The distance from sea to sea at this part is 92
geographical miles, in a south-west direction. The sources of the
streams which flow, the one eastward into the Gulf of Mexico, and the
other westward, into the Pacific, come within the short distance of 20
miles of each other. _Secondly_, The channel from the Gulf of Dolce,
which communicates with the Gulf of Mexico, to the southward of
Honduras or the Balize, to Trinidad, situate on a bay in the Pacific,
to the north of Point Remedios. The distance of the Gulf of Dolce to
the Pacific, at the point just mentioned, is 60 geographical miles,
with the advantages of the courses of rivers which bend their courses
to the opposite oceans. But if it is correct that the River Balize is,
as it has been stated to be, navigable upwards in its course to a
distance of 200 miles, then it must penetrate so deeply into the
continent, that its sources must approach to points still nearer to
the Pacific than the Gulf of Dolce, or its tributary streams. It is
doubtful, however, if any canals could be cut in either of the lines
mentioned, because the land rises very considerably, forming in the
central parts what is denominated Table Land, and is in general
studded with ridges and high volcanic mountains, while the ports on
either shore are neither very commodious nor of safe approach. There
has been of late years also a tolerable good road constructed in the
first-mentioned line, which will tend greatly to facilitate the
communication from sea to sea, so far as the interests of Mexico are
immediately concerned.

These points adverted to are the only probable channels of         (p. 087)
communication to the northward of the River St. Juan and Lake
Nicaragua, which, like the last-noticed line, are situated in the
territory of the Republic of central America, the capital of which is
San Salvador. For reasons which will subsequently be adduced, the
consideration of this important position is left until those points in
the Isthmus of Panama and Darien have been particularly noticed and
examined.

The first points to examine are those which are situated to the
southward and eastward of Panama, and which are immediately connected
with, and contiguous to, the Gulf of Darien. These are as follow:--In
the province of Choco, famous for its gold mines, there is a ravine
called Rapsadura, extending between a head branch of the River St.
Juan, which, after a course from N. E. by N. to S. W. by S., falls
into the Pacific in lat. 4°5' N.; and the river of Quito, one of the
head branches of the River Atrato, which flows in nearly a due north
course into the Gulf of Darien. Through the ravine just mentioned, the
parish priest of Novita dug a small canal in 1778, which was navigable
during the rainy season, and by which canoes, laden with coffee and
other produce, passed from one sea to another, a distance of 250
miles; as they found it requisite and convenient.

The next point, and more to the north beyond Cape St. Francisco de
Solano, in about 7°30' N. lat. is, from the mouth of the Cupica, or
Tupica, as it is denominated in some maps, along that stream, which
descends from the eastward into the Pacific, through a break in the
mountains to the head of the river Naipi, a distance of from 15 to 20
miles only. The latter river is deep and navigable, and flows through
a lake of considerable magnitude, nearly due east, into the River
Atrato, a little below the village of Zitara, about 60 miles from the
mouth of the latter stream, in the Gulf of Darien. The distance from
the Pacific to the Atrato, through the channels mentioned, is only 60
geographical miles. The Atrato springs (its farthest branch the Rio
Chame) in the rising ground, in 5°40' N. lat. and 75° 15' W. long.,
and runs almost due north, a distance of 200 miles, into the Gulf of
Darien. At this point, the western and secondary chain of the      (p. 088)
Andes is broken and interrupted, and there is good reason to believe
that they continue to be so in several places more to the northward:
in fact, that they cease, and are succeeded through all the Isthmus of
Darien and Panama, by a low range, broken into fragments in different
places. At the point under consideration, namely, by the Cupica and
the Naipi, the Spanish Government had it in contemplation, about forty
years ago, to open a communication from sea to sea, by means of a
canal; but the events in Europe, and the decay of their power,
prevented the important enterprise from being undertaken. The Gulf of
Darien, and the course of the Atrato, were rigidly guarded and
concealed by the Spanish Government, so much so, that by special
decrees the punishment of death was denounced against every one who
should either permit or attempt the exploration of the country in
these parts. This showed clearly that their practical knowledge gave
them to know, that a communication between the Atlantic and the
Pacific was easy and practicable in more places than one in this
quarter of their dominions.

The next point where the communication is practicable, either by water
or a short distance by land, where a canal could be cut, or a road
made, is between the Gulf of St. Miguel on the Pacific, to the bottom
of the Gulf of Darien, due east, and also to the Port de Escoces, or
_New Edinburgh_, more to the N. (N. E. by E. from St. Miguel) in the
upper part of the Gulf of Darien, on the Atlantic. The distance from
the head of the Gulf of St. Miguel to the latter point is 30 miles,
and to the former 45 to 50 miles, but with river communications to
within 16 miles of the latter, and 10 miles of the former. The Gulf of
St. Miguel opens to the Pacific from 8°8' to 8°17' N. lat., and runs
E. N. E. and N. E. by E., fully 22 miles into the country, its centre
crossing the meridian of 78° W. long. As has been shortly adverted to,
the rivers which seem to form the Gulf of St. Miguel run deeply into
the country, both to the S. E. and to the N. E., one particularly, the
Chuqunaque, with an extremely zigzag course between ridges of mountains,
is laid down to within 10 miles of New Edinburgh; which, by the last
Admiralty charts, drawn from the best Spanish authorities, is      (p. 089)
placed in 8° 55' N. lat. and 76° 45' W. long. To the S. E. the source
of streams which run into the Gulf of San Miguel spring within 15
miles of the mouth of the Atrato, while branches of each approach
within half that distance of each other. The land in this quarter is
clearly low, because, for a considerable distance from its mouth, the
Atrato runs through a very marshy and flooded country. New Edinburgh,
or Port de Escoces, is an excellent port, commodious, and well
sheltered, and is the celebrated spot where, in 1699 (one hundred and
thirty-eight years ago), the Scotch colony, under the direction of a
Scotch clergyman, named Paterson, a most intelligent and enterprising
man, was established, in order to open up a communication between both
seas, and which was afterwards so shamefully, disgracefully, stupidly,
and unguardedly abandoned by the then Government of Great Britain,
spurred on to the act by the miserable and contracted commercial
rivalry of England and Holland; and afterwards by the jealousies, the
fears, and the representations of the Government of Spain, which at
that time had really no right to the country, the natives thereof
being independent of, and at war with, Spain. The Gulf of Darien is of
easy entrance, and penetrates southward to a little beyond the 8° of
N. lat., and to the southward of the principal mouth of the Atrato;
the centre of the bottom of the Gulf being in the meridian of 76° 55'
W. longitude.

The next and last point to the southward and the eastward of Chagre is
by the river of Chopo, about 25 miles to the eastward of Panama.
Narrow as the land in this quarter has been held to be, still the
charts and maps lately published by individuals, and by the authority
of the Admiralty, show that it is much narrower than what has hitherto
been calculated upon; and in the particular point under consideration,
very narrow indeed. From the mouth of the River Chopo, opposite the
little island Chepillo in the Pacific, to the bottom of the Gulf of
St. Blas or Mandinga on the Atlantic, is only about 20 miles (some
maps make it still less). In this space, the mountains to the eastward
of the high chain S. of Point Manzanillo and Porto Bello, which give
rise to the Chagres, and its tributary streams, running first      (p. 090)
westward and then north-west into the Atlantic, are again, according
to Captain Lloyd, interrupted and broken, affording thereby a readier
communication between the two great oceans, the Atlantic, and the
Pacific. In an apparently good Spanish map of the Isthmus, upon a
large scale, the River Chopo or Bayano is represented as being formed
by two branches, one under the name of the Rio Canizas, springing to
the southward of the Pico de Carti, a hill only four miles from the
Atlantic, in the Bay of Mandinga; the whole course of the river to the
Pacific on a general south bearing, being only 22 miles. The source of
the Chagres comes within 15 miles of the lower course of the Chopo;
and some good maps lay down a river which joins the Chopo, near its
mouth, as coming from the N. E., its sources likewise being within a
very few miles of the Atlantic. Here, certainly, is a point from
which, and on which a communication could be opened up at any rate by
a good road, so as to afford a speedy conveyance for passengers,
mails, and goods, between the two seas; while it is also exceedingly
probable that, even in this short space, great facilities and
assistance could be obtained by canal navigation, and by the rivers
just mentioned.

The points, however, where a canal could be cut of sufficient depth to
admit the passage of large ships, and thus save the delay and the
expense which loading and unloading cargoes would occasion, where
roads of any description remain the only means of communication, and
where the approach on either coast is safe, and interior water
communication most abundant, are, certainly, the points which should
be fixed upon and selected, in order to effect the object so important
to the whole world. The two points hitherto the best known, and
considered to be the best adapted for the purpose, are, first, the
line from Chagre on the Atlantic, to Panama on the Pacific; and
secondly, the line, perhaps the best of the whole, from the mouth of
the River St. Juan on the Atlantic, by that river and Lake Nicaragua,
to Rialejo, or Gulf Papagayo, on the Pacific.

The Panama line comes most properly the first point for consideration.
Here the survey, by Lieutenant Lloyd, in 1829, gives some certain
data, and some curious and important information. He tells us      (p. 091)
pointedly, from actual observation, that which good Spanish maps
indicated, and what was more vaguely told by others. According to him,
on the eastern side of the province of Veragua, the Cordillera breaks
into detached mountains, their sides exhibiting only bare rock, almost
perpendicular. To these, as approaching nearer Panama, succeed
numerous conical mountains, arising out of savannahs and plains, and
seldom exceeding from 300 to 500 feet. "Finally," says he, "between
Chagre on the Atlantic side, and Chorera on the Pacific, these conical
mountains are not so numerous, having plains of great extent,
interspersed with occasional ranges of hills of inconsiderable
height."

Such is the Isthmus of Panama, where the distance from sea to sea is,
even according to the present charts, only 30 geographical miles, and
from the mouth of the Chagre to Panama, 33 miles.[18] Of this distance
the Chagre, which has a circuitous course, is navigable for 40 miles
to Cruces--distant from the sea in a direct line 21 miles, and from
Panama 14 miles. At its mouth the Chagre is one-fourth of a mile
broad, and at Cruces about 150 feet: in its middle course the depth is
24 feet. The current runs at the rate of from three to four miles per
hour. It is full of numerous, constantly shifting sand banks, and
sunken trees, which, with the current, render the navigation       (p. 092)
tedious, difficult, and even dangerous. At its mouth the coast is very
sickly, as indeed the country through its course also is; but when the
land is cleared, it will doubtless become more healthy. When the
current is very rapid, it requires four or five days to reach Cruces.
The height of the land which intervenes between Cruces and Panama, has
been accurately ascertained by Mr. Lloyd; and that portion of the
country which he passed over in his survey along the old road to
Panama, is certainly the most elevated of the whole, as is shown in
the following summary of his survey.

                   [Footnote 18: From the mouth of the Chorera to the
                   Bay Lemon, the distance is 27-1/2 geographical
                   miles. There is, however, reason to believe, that
                   the distance from sea to sea is still less. Ulloa,
                   who was an accurate and scientific observer,
                   places, and from actual observation, Chagres in 9°
                   18' 40" N. lat., and Panama in 8° 57' 41" N. lat.
                   Not being able to observe an eclipse of Jupiter's
                   satellites, owing to the obscuration of the
                   atmosphere, he was obliged to calculate the
                   longitude from bearings and distances. In these,
                   however, he could not be far wrong; and by these he
                   places Cruces 21' east of Chagre, and Panama 9'30"
                   east of Chagre, which, if he is correct, brings the
                   breadth of the land from the Castle of Chagre to
                   Panama, to be only 23 geographical miles!!

                   Since the preceding pages were written, Captain
                   Washington, secretary to the Royal Geographical
                   Society, has favoured me with the longitudes of the
                   places adverted to, as ascertained by Captain
                   Forster, and in February 1837 by Captain Belcher,
                   R.N. Porto Bello is in 79° 30' West long.; Chagre,
                   79° 55'; and Panama in 79° 29' 20". This gives the
                   distance from Chagre to Panama 33 geographical
                   miles. Porto Bello is in lat. 9° 32' North. From
                   thence to the Pacific, a little to the east of
                   Panama, is 30 miles. From Chagre to the mouth of
                   the Caymito will be 30 miles. Ulloa's calculations
                   of longitudes would thus appear to be wrong.]

This survey commenced from the eastern suburb of Panama, at high-water
mark, and ran along the old road to Porto Bello, unto the point where
it crossed the Rio Chagre,--a distance of 1828 chains, 22-3/4 miles.
The highest land passed over was the ridge Maria Henrique, 12-3/4
miles from Panama, and 10 from the Chagre. Its height is 633.32 feet.
The point where the road approaches the river, is 169.840 feet above
the level of high-water mark at Panama; and the bed of the river from
whence the survey commenced downwards, is 152.55 feet. Descending the
river 1545 chains, 19-1/2 miles, Mr. Lloyd came to the village of
Cruces, after a descent of 114.60 feet; thus making Cruces to be 37.96
feet above high-water mark at Panama. From Cruces to Gorgona 410
chains, 5-1/4 miles, the fall is 16.13 feet; and thence to a small
gravel bank, named "_Playa los Ingenieros_" distant from Cruces 1302
chains, 16-3/4 miles, the fall is 21.82 feet, precisely level with the
high-water mark at Panama. At 2682 chains, 33-1/2 miles below Cruces,
Mr. Lloyd first observed the effects of the tide from the Atlantic,
the level of the river at this point being 13.65 feet below the level
of high-water mark on the Pacific. At 507 chains, 12 miles, further
down, reached La Bruja, where the water became brackish; the level of
the surface of the river being 13.55 feet below the high-water mark at
Panama. From La Bruja there was no perceptible descent to the
Atlantic. The whole distance gone over in levelling from sea to sea,
was 82 miles.

The tide at the mouth of the Chagre rises only one foot, or 1.16 feet;
but at Panama the spring-tide in the Pacific rises in a mean level (p. 093)
to the height of 21.22 feet, though high winds and currents
occasionally raise them to the height of 27.44 feet. At low water the
sea sinks proportionally at Panama below the level of the Atlantic:
the reason for this difference is obvious. The current towards the
Gulf of Mexico, and which afterwards forms the famous gulf stream,
carries off rapidly the waters in the Atlantic; while, on the
contrary, the current which flows northward along the western coast of
South America, and the tide which flows into the bay of Panama, from
the south-west from the Pacific, heaps, as it were for a moment, the
waters into the bay and on the shores of Panama, and occasions the
tides alluded to, and differing so greatly from those which are seen
in the Atlantic at the short distance on the opposite coast.

From Maria Henrique to Cruces is only about nine miles. In the
intermediate spaces are several savannahs, and, according to the
Spanish maps, a very considerable river, called Rio de los Laxas,
which enters the Chagre a little above Cruces. This river flows
westward from Mount Maria Henrique; while the principal branches of
the Rio Grande, which flows south into the Pacific immediately to the
westward of Panama, spring from the south-west side of the mountain
already mentioned. The branches of this river and of the Chagre
approach very near each other; while savannahs, according to Lloyd's
map, fill up, as between the Rio Grande and the Obispo, the most of
the intervening space. In this short distance, and with the aid of
these rivers, a water communication, were the country properly
examined, it is conjectured, might be found. From Cruces the road, for
a short distance, ascends considerably; after which it runs along a
ridge, with a valley on each side; that on the south the deepest,
being about 300 feet, and descends until it comes to a plain, through
which it stretches and runs to the city of Panama. It is by quitting
the old Spanish track or road, and continuing along the savannahs and
levels, that it is believed the water communication adverted to could
be effected; and where the distance, taking into account the short
bends which may be necessary, is so short, probably not twenty miles!

These observations naturally call the attention to the consideration
of a line of communication which may be had from the River         (p. 094)
Trinidad to the Pacific, either at Panama or a little to the westward
of that town, in the bay of Chorera, at the mouth of the Rio Caymito.
The condition of the country in that portion of the Isthmus has
already been generally described, on the authority of Mr. Lloyd; and
from what he has stated, and which is in unison with other
information, not a doubt can remain that a water communication can be
opened up in this quarter from sea to sea. Lines for railroads have
already been chalked out in both places alluded to; and considered so
easy that the sum of 400,000 dollars is estimated as the whole expense
necessary to complete either. It is scarcely necessary to observe,
that wherever a rail-road can be constructed, a canal may be made. The
River Trinidad is a branch of the Chagre, which comes from the
westward and from the south-westward, and joins the latter at about
eight miles due S. W. from its mouth. The Trinidad is navigable to
Embracadero, and for some distance, from its mouth, is both broad and
deep. Its branches penetrate a considerable way into the country, and
approach closely to the branches of the Caymito, a considerable
stream, which flows through a country, in its lower course,
comparatively level; while between its upper course and the Trinidad
the distance is covered with savannahs and small conical hills, and in
some places marshy plains--a complete proof of the level nature of the
country. The streams which rise to the westward of the line alluded
to, namely, in the hills stretching to the province of Veragua, mostly
flow into the Chagre, another proof of the direction in which the
mountains in this quarter lay; and that there is no continued chain,
as has been stated, extending in the centre of the Isthmus throughout,
and joining together the Andes of North and South America. From the
junction of the Trinidad with the Chagre to Panama is only 26-1/2
miles, and to the mouth of the Chorera 23 miles!

Short, however, as the distances just mentioned are, they are
considerably reduced, when the navigation of the Trinidad on the one
side, and of the Caymito on the other, are taken into account. These
reduce the greater distance at least one-half; and in it, as well as
the lesser distance, the nature of the country, for a considerable (p. 095)
portion of the distance, if not throughout the whole distance,
overcomes almost every obstacle, or rather renders every obstacle that
may offer, possible to be overcome. From that portion of the River
Chagre, which is level with high-water mark at Panama, south-westward
to that city, the country is interspersed with savannahs, and
consequently level. Indeed, for "a few miles" inwards from Panama, the
_plains_ are below the level of the sea, thus rendering the formation
of a canal easy; while, on the north side of the most elevated spot,
the numerous streams which spring and flow to the Chagre would afford
an abundant supply of water for any canal that may be constructed,
however large that may be. The distance, therefore, where any serious
difficulty could occur, must be reduced to a mile or two; and in that
distance, should any of those conical mountains, from 300 to 500 feet
high, or insulated ridges of inconsiderable height, which Mr. Lloyd
tells us are here and there to be found in these places--should any
such intervene, they may be cut through without any great difficulty.
The excess in the rise of the tide in the Pacific, nearly 21 feet
above its rise in the Atlantic, would tend greatly to accelerate the
construction, in this part of America, of a water communication; which
water communication, however, be it observed, must be sufficient to
admit the passage through it of ships of the very highest tonnage, and
at all seasons; otherwise it will not answer the general purpose, nor
interests of the world. Less might indeed suit for the conveyance of
mails; but any thing less would occasion such an additional expense in
unloading, transporting, and again loading goods, as would render the
tedious navigation of Cape Horn preferable.


_Lake Nicaragua, &c._

The next to be considered, and perhaps the last and the best channel
by which a communication between the Atlantic and the Pacific could be
opened up, and safely carried on, is through central America, or the
Republic of Guatemala, by means of the River St. Juan and the Lakes
Nicaragua and Managua, or, as the latter is more generally called, (p. 096)
Leon. These lakes are connected with each other by a river, and are
navigable for ships; Nicaragua for ships of the line. The River St.
Juan forms the outlet of both into the Atlantic Ocean, and is,
according to Estella, navigable throughout its course for ships of
large burden. The mouth of the St. Juan, according to the late survey
by Capt. Owen, lays in 10°53' N. lat. and in 83°40' W. long. Leon, the
capital of the province in which Lake Managua is situated, and from
which the name of Leon is generally given to the latter, stands,
according to the best Spanish authorities, in 12°20' N. lat. and
86°45' W. long.; and its port, Rialejo, on the Pacific, in 12°29'50"
N. lat., and 87°6' W. long. From the mouth of the River St. Juan to
Rialejo, in a bearing of N. 66° W. the distance is 235 miles; and this
bearing runs nearly through the centre of the lakes and the course of
the River St. Juan. From the point where the River St. Juan issues
from the Lake Nicaragua to the point where the River Lapita, which
issues from Lake Managua, falls into the former, the distance, taken
on the best maps, is about 95 miles. Rialejo is situated on a river of
the same name, which is deep, and capable of holding in the harbour
200 sail of the largest ships. The harbour is well protected from the
force of the Pacific, and from storms, by an island stretching out
before it, with two channels between it and the main land; the one
opening to the south-east, and the other to the north-west. The
adjacent country is very fertile, but the place itself is reckoned
unhealthy, owing to some swamps in the vicinity and to the southward;
but which, it is believed, might be drained and cleared, which would
render the climate salubrious, or, at least, as much so as any
tropical climate can be to Europeans.

Lake Nicaragua, in its broadest part, is about 35 miles: it has
several considerable islands, some of them active volcanoes, and all
of them fertile. The country around its shores is stated to be very
healthy and very fertile, and studded with high peaks, mostly
volcanic, and many of them, on both sides, volcanoes in activity. At
the point on its north-east corner, where the River St. Juan issues
from it, there is (according to some of our best maps) erected the
castle of St. Carlos; and lower down, about 16 miles on the banks  (p. 097)
of the river, is placed the castle of St. Juan, which castle was taken
by the English in 1780. Alcedo says that this river is navigable for
ships of large size; but others add, that during the dry season, when
the river is low, in one or two places the navigation is obstructed by
sand banks, which, however, could easily be removed by a deepening
machine, such as that used for a similar purpose on the Clyde. Lake
Managua in its western shore approaches in its southern portion to
within 8 to 9 miles of the Pacific; and here the conical peak range
appears to be discontinued and broken. So also it is in the route from
Leon to Rialejo, a distance of 21 miles. The next nearest point of
communication is to the southward of the town of Grenada, situate on
the upper part of Lake Nicaragua, westward to the port of St. Juan,
which runs considerably into the country from the Pacific. Here the
distance from the lake to the sea is 10 miles. The next point of
communication is from the neighbourhood of the town of Nicaragua to
the bottom of the Gulf of Papagayo, the distance being about 15 miles.
The river Partido flows from the S. E. through a course of fully 60
miles, and enters the Pacific at the bottom of the Gulf of Papagayo.
At this point, also, the volcanic peaks and the ridge appear to be
interrupted, and very low, thereby rendering a passage more probable
and easy. On the neck of land, also, between the upper part of Lake
Nicaragua and the Pacific, there are situated in three different
places between the Pacific and the interior part, three lakes, which,
while it shows the low nature of the coast, tends also to shorten very
considerably in this otherwise very narrow neck (12 miles), the space
that intervenes between the lake and the ocean.

The American coast of the Pacific is, in fact, bordered with an
alluvial plain, varying in breadth, which tends still more to lessen
the breadth of the high lands in every quarter. Between the bottom of
the Gulf of Papagayo to Lake Nicaragua, the distance, the alluvial
strip included, is, (see Journal R. G. S. vol. vi.), only 29,880
English yards, nearly 15 geographical miles. The highest point of land
that intervenes, is only 133-1/2 Spanish feet (the Spanish foot is
0.9267 English) above the level of the sea, and only 19 feet above (p. 098)
the level of the lake. The lake is very deep, and at this point is
said to be 15 fathoms. The surface of the lake is thus 133-1/2 Spanish
feet above the level of both oceans. The tide in the Pacific in the
Gulf of Papagayo rises about 11 feet, decreasing in its rise towards
the north, and increasing its rise towards the south. When Mr. Canning
proclaimed that he had "_called a new world into existence_," he
ought, as he then might, to have kept these places, the key to both
worlds, in his power, and in the power of his country.

Some Spanish authorities state, that Lake Nicaragua has a
communication with the Pacific, but at what point does not appear, nor
is it probable. Others state that it has a tide in it like the ocean;
and if so, this certainly indicates a communication with it by some
low and level channel, where the tide from the sea drives back the
flow of waters from the lake. To ascertain these points are objects of
great importance, and well worthy the attention of the civilized
world; and the wonder is, that it has not before this time been
attempted. All the old and best Spanish writers, who wrote either from
access to the best materials, or from practical information regarding
the Spanish territories in South America, but more especially Estalla
and Alcedo, mention, in the most pointed manner, that, by the places
which have just been considered, the nearest and the safest channel
would be found, nay actually existed, whereby a communication could be
opened up between the Atlantic and the Pacific; and farther, that the
possession and the command of Fort St. Juan and the river St. Juan on
the one hand, and of the port of Rialejo on the other, gave the holder
and possessor of them the key to and the command of both oceans. Like
the Gulf of Darien, all entrance into or examination of this quarter
of America by foreigners, or travellers in general, was prohibited by
the Spanish government, under the punishment of death for a violation
of the law. The Spaniards were particularly averse to and jealous of
England, or Englishmen, becoming acquainted with this portion of
America.

In some one of the points mentioned, and most probably from Lake
Managua to Rialejo, or from Lake Nicaragua to the Gulf of Papagayo,
the best line for a communication between the Atlantic and the     (p. 099)
Pacific will be found. The shores of Lake Nicaragua are tolerably
well cultivated, and it has several harbours. Numerous streams flow
into it from all sides, but particularly from the north. The river St.
Juan is a considerable stream--as large, say the Spanish writers, as
the Guadalquiver in its lower course. In a distance so short, a canal,
fit to bear ships of the very largest tonnage, could be cut, at
certainly no very heavy expense; say, at the rate of 300,000_l._ for
10 miles. Even if the river St. Juan should not be found to be
navigable, and that it might be most advisable to cut a canal along
its banks, from the Atlantic to the lake, the distance is not very
great (45 or 50 miles), and the country presents no insuperable
obstacles to it; on the contrary, it is believed to be easy of access.
This distance might be cut for 675,000_l._--a small sum even joined to
the other, when the immense object to be attained is considered. The
choice of position, after considering attentively every point, will
remain between Chagre to Panama, and between St. Juan and Nicaragua to
Rialejo, as to which is the best line for a water communication; for
it is pretty clear that the lines to the eastward and to the southward
of Panama, narrow although the neck of land certainly is in these
parts, can only be looked to as points for a speedy road communication
in some, and for small craft in the others.

The jealousy of the government of Spain formerly sealed up every
possible line of communication between the Atlantic and the Pacific,
in all the places mentioned, from the rest of the world; and it is
probable that the jealousy, and also the poverty and inability of the
new governments lately started up in these parts may continue to do
so, if they are allowed to do so, or if they remain unaided in the
enterprise by foreign capital, and not be impelled thereto by foreign,
but particularly European influence. A glance at the map of these
parts of America, and at a map of the world, and a moment's reflection
and consideration bestowed on the great interests that depend upon it,
that would be laid open and connected by such a communication, is
sufficient to show the prodigious benefits which would therefrom
flow to the human race, and especially to the governments and the  (p. 100)
people of North and South America, and those fine but comparatively
poor and miserable portions of this globe. The treasures and the
labours of nations would be well bestowed in completing such an
undertaking. Laying open such a communication would do more to people,
to cultivate, and to civilize the world, than any other effort--than
all other efforts made by the world at large, when combined and
brought together. No nation in the world is so deeply interested in
seeing a proper communication through the best of the channels pointed
out laid open, as Great Britain; and no other nation could so well
undertake it as she can. The immense empire which is rising under her
flag in New Holland; the large territory which she would thereby bring
within the sphere of cultivation and civilization on the west coast of
North America, to the north of Colombia River, where both the climate
and the soil are good; the vast and important trade which she has with
China, and may yet have with all the beautiful islands in the Pacific,
with Japan, and with all Eastern Siberia; and the very great trade
which she has, and would have with all the shores of America on the
Pacific,--all render the attainment of the object contemplated
peculiarly her interest, and peculiarly her province to undertake,
support, complete, and protect, in a way and on a scale worthy of the
intelligence, the enterprize, the strength, and the resources of her
government and her people. The number of people, and the traffic which
it would in time add to the present trade and population of the world,
exceed the powers of calculation.

Taking Lake Nicaragua as the point for the communication between the
two seas, the calculations which have been made as to periods and
distances connected with the conveyance of mails from Europe, in order
to cross the Pacific, will not be materially different from those
which would arise were Panama to be chosen as the point of
communication. Confining every thing to this route, it is necessary to
consider and to show what advantage trade and commerce would derive
from it; what extent of commerce would pass through this line of
communication;, and what revenue could reasonably, and with propriety,
be raised therefrom, in order to prove a remuneration for the      (p. 101)
expense of the undertaking.

The official records of British trade and commerce, and also the
official records of the trade and commerce of the United States, will
enable us to estimate these points just alluded to, for the present
period, with considerable accuracy. From both records, the following
extent and amount of imports and exports, and tonnage, engaged in
transporting these, are selected; premising that, as regards both
countries, the value of each is, without either freight or charges:
and as regards the former, viz. Great Britain, the value taken is what
is denominated, in the Customs return, "_the declared value_," and
which, exclusive of freight and charges, is considerably below the
real amount. The commerce of both states mentioned, with all the
countries about to be enumerated, would most certainly pass through
the channel already alluded to, besides a considerable portion more
from other countries, but which is uncertain.

                             _Great Britain with_
                             Exports.    Imports.     Tonnage      Tonnage
                              1834        1833        Inwards.    Outwards.

  China                       842,852   3,528,635      29,308        8,887
  New South Wales             716,014 }                12,400       29,567
  Java                        410,273 }                 2,435        4,289
  Philippine Islands           76,618 } 3,163,049       1,958          728
  Siam                         19,742 }                  "             337
  E. Indies & Ceylon, 1/2   1,289,284 }                37,731       45,416
  New Zealand                     936 }                   382        3,650
  Chili                       896,221 }                 7,415        6,532
  Peru                        229,235 } 1,240,358       2,768        2,176
  Mexico, 1/4                 114,902 }                 1,845        1,498
  Whale Fisheries, 1/3                    100,000      11,353       11,007
  Guatemala, 1/3               10,122      10,122         136
                           ----------   ---------    --------     --------
                           £4,606,199   8,042,164     107,731      114,087
                                                     --------
  Freight & charges, &c.      921,235                              107,731
  Foreign & Colonial 1/4    1,381,858                              -------
                           ----------   6,303,093  Total tonnage   221,818
                                      -----------                  -------
  Total British trade                 £14,345,257
                                      -----------

Exclusive of specie--the amount of which, from the western coasts  (p. 102)
of America, cannot be less than 10,000,000 dollars yearly to Great
Britain, and perhaps half as much to the United States. The value of
British imports from Western America is not given in the official
tables in any tangible shape, and therefore the imports are taken to
be the same as the exports. The amount of imports from China is taken
correctly from the tables; and the value of all the rest, as near as
possible, from the same tables, in proportion; the whole being entered
to all countries east of the Cape, China excepted; but in this amount
also the amount for freight and charges should, it is thought, be
added. The proportion of foreign and colonial produce, &c. to British
manufactures exported, is, according to the official tables, as near
as may be, the proportion taken. The value of the whole British trade
to the places specified, may therefore be fairly taken at
17,500,000_l._ exports and imports, and exclusive of the profits
thereon.

Next comes the trade which the United States have with all these
places. In this there are more precise data, as the value both of
exports and imports is given in their tables; but it may be observed,
that the amount, both as regards imports and exports, is given
exclusive of freights and charges, which in almost all the articles
carried is greater in proportion, as regards the American trade, than
in British produce and manufactures. It may also be observed, that the
whole trade which the United States have with all countries to the
eastward of the Mauritius, would pass through, and return through, the
communication made in central America, as the nearest and the best
route for them. The following was the trade and tonnage of the United
States with the places specified in 1835:--

                              _United States with_                 (p. 103)

                               Imports.     Exports.    Tonnage   Tonnage
                                                        Inwards. Outwards.
  British East Indies, dolls. 2,293,012     406,543      7,400     5,655
  Dutch ditto                   582,159     581,149      3,497     8,669
  Spanish ditto                 283,685      15,919      2,647       222
  Asia generally                377,842     434,037        479     2,593
  China                       7,892,327   1,010,483     15,550     8,123
  Mexico, 1/2                 4,033,034   5,265,053     18,225    15,768
  Chili                         787,409   1,476,355      2,535     9,191
  Peru                          618,412      58,863        493       685
  South Seas                     27,348      97,169     39,506       280
  N. W. Coast America              "        118,813     45,886
                             ----------  ----------   --------   -------
                             16,595,228   9,464,384    136,218    51,216
  1/4 freights, &c. &c.       4,123,807   2,388,093     51,216   -------
                             ----------  ----------   --------
                             20,719,035  11,852,477    187,434
                             11,852,477  ----------   --------
                             ----------
  Total United States        32,571,512
  Ditto specie                5,000,000
                            -----------
  Grand total, dollars       37,571,512--Sterling, £7,827,398 at 4_s._2_d._
                            -----------

  _General Trade and Tonnage._

                             Value Trade.     Extent Tonnage.
        British             £17,500,000        221,818
        United States         7,827,398        187,434
                            -----------        -------
                  Total     £25,327,398        409,252 tons.
                            -----------        -------

To the above should be added all the specie sent both by Great Britain
and the United States to the Eastern World, particularly to China, to
purchase cargoes, from the States alone about 7,000,000 dolls.; also
all the tonnage which goes, or would go, from one coast to another in
the three republics of Venezuela, Guatemala, and Mexico. To these
states, such a communication would prove of inestimable value, and
tend very greatly to add to the revenue to be obtained from the    (p. 104)
traffic by it. There are other nations, also, besides Great Britain
and the United States, which traffic with the quarters of the world
already specifically alluded to, particularly France, Spain, and
Holland; but no accurate account of such trade has hitherto come in
the writer's way; though, taken collectively, it must be to a
considerable amount. Moreover, the whole trade between Holland and
Java, and between Spain and the Philippine Islands, would pass by the
channel under consideration, and the trade which both nations has with
these places is well known to be very considerable.

Such as it has been described is the trade at this moment; a sure
foundation upon which the magnificent undertaking under consideration
would, at the outset, have to build. The increased and increasing
communications through the grand thoroughfare goes beyond calculation,
and would most certainly exceed every thing that ever has been seen,
or that ever can be witnessed, in any other portion of this globe. The
trade of mighty empires would sink into insignificance, when compared,
in all their present magnitude, with what it would become one hundred
years hence. Admitting that it cost 1,000,000_l._ to complete the
navigable communication, (and there are good grounds to believe that
it could be done for one-half of the sum,) the question or point next
to be considered is, what would the revenue be, which could be derived
from it? To exact a per centage on the value of the commerce which
passes through it would be uncertain, and liable to evasion, and
consequently give much trouble, and occasion much vexation; and
therefore it would be best to exact so much per ton, the exact extent
of which the register of each ship or vessel so passing through the
canal would at once and readily determine. The question is, What
should the sum so levied, or the toll, actually come to be? Ten
shillings per ton would certainly be a moderate sum; and taking it so
it will be shown how it will pay at the outset.

  _Cost and Revenue._                                              (p. 105)

  Revenue 410,000 tons yearly, at 10_s._                     £205,000
                                                             --------
  Capital 1,000,000_l._ interest 5 per cent        £50,000
  Dividend in Stock 10 per cent                    100,000
  Expenses, management, and repairs                 20,000
  Surplus fund                                      35,000
                                                   -------   £205,000
                                                             --------

Thus affording from the outset a fair and profitable return, and which
may reasonably be expected to be doubled in a very few years
afterwards.


_Conveyance Mails and Passengers._

Hitherto the matter has been considered entirely as relates to the
practicability and probable expenditure to be incurred in carrying the
Plan into effect, and the remuneration to be obtained from the Plan
when completed. It yet remains to show the advantages which will be
obtained in the courses and distances by this route, as compared with
other routes, and also with the route by the North Pole--even were
this latter practicable throughout the year, but which it almost
certainly is not. It has elsewhere been shown how a communication
across any part of this Isthmus, even by an ordinary road, can be made
to extend, and to accelerate the mail communications between Great
Britain and all the western coasts of America, and more especially
with the most eastern parts of the eastern world, and her own rising
empire in New Holland. Nothing calls forth the enterprize and the
energies of mankind, equal to the rapidity and regularity of
correspondence: and without this, no country can either improve or
advance in cultivation or civilization.

The comparative distances by the several lines of communication will
stand as follow:--

                                                       Geo. Miles.
  Falmouth, direct to Rialejo                     4650
  Rialejo to Colombia River                       3000
                                                  ----     7650
                                                           ----
  London to Icy Cape, over the North Pole         3870             (p. 106)
  Icy Cape to Colombia River, by Oonoolashka      2745
                                                  ----     6615
                                                           ----
  London to Icy Cape, over the Pole               3870
  Icy Cape to Canton                              4200
                                                  ----     8070
                                                           ----
  Falmouth direct to Gulf Papagayo                4650
  Papagayo to Canton, by Owhyhee                  9350
                                                  ----   14,000
                                                         ------
  London to Icy Cape, over the Pole               3870
  Icy Cape to Sydney, New South Wales             6600
                                                  ----   10,470
                                                         ------
  Falmouth to Rialejo, by Jamaica                 5530
  Rialejo direct to Sydney, New South Wales       7400
                                                  ----   12,930
                                                         ------
  Falmouth to Colombia River, by L. Nicaragua     8345
  Ditto           ditto          Cape Horn      13,100
                                                ------     4755 diff.
                                                         ------
  Falmouth to Sydney direct, westward                    12,400
  Ditto to ditto, by Cape of Good Hope           6,205
  Cape to Sydney direct                          6,470
                                                 -----   12,670
                                                         ------
  Falmouth to Cape Good Hope                      6205
  Cape Good Hope to Trincomalee                   4720
  Trincomalee to Batavia                          1750
  Batavia to Sydney, by Hobart Town               4085
                                                  ----   16,760
                                                         ------
  Falmouth to Rialejo, by Fayal, &c.              5530
  Rialejo to Canton, by Owhyhee                   9300
                                                  ----   14,830
                                                         ------
  Rialejo to Sydney, New South Wales, by
       Otaheite                                   7500
  Panama to Sydney                                7900
                                                  ----   15,400
                                                         ------
  Falmouth to Cape of Good Hope                   6205             (p. 107)
  Cape of Good Hope to Trincomalee                4640
  Trincomalee to Canton, by Batavia               3580
                                                  ----  14,425
                                                        ------
  Falmouth to Rialejo                             5530
  Rialejo to Pekin                                8000
                                                  ----  14,130
                                                        ------
  Falmouth to Cape of Good Hope                   6205
  Cape of Good Hope to Pekin, by Canton, &c.      9660
                                                  ----  15,865
                                                        ------
  Falmouth to Port Culebra, by Barbadoes, &c.     5530
  Port Culebra to Jeddo, Japan                    7250
                                                  ----  12,780
                                                        ------
  Falmouth to Cape of Good Hope, by Madeira       6205
  Cape of Good Hope by Batavia, &c. to Jeddo      8300
                                                  ----  14,505
                                                        ------
  Falmouth to Rialejo by Barbadoes, &c.           5530
  Rialejo to Manilla                              8860
                                                  ----  14,390
                                                        ------
  Falmouth to Cape of Good Hope, by Madeira       6205
  Cape of Good Hope to Manilla, by Batavia        6720
                                                  ----  12,925
                                                        ------
  Falmouth to Rialejo, by Barbadoes, &c.          5530
  Rialejo to Kamschatka                           6000
                                                  ----  11,530
                                                        ------
  Falmouth to Cape of Good Hope, by Madeira       6205
  Cape of Good Hope to Batavia                    5200
  Batavia to Kamschatka by Canton                 4530
                                                  ----  15,935
                                                        ------
  London to Icy Cape, over the Pole               3870
  Icy Cape to Kamschatka                          1280
                                                  ----   5,150
                                                        ------

Thus it is evident, that were the passage over the North Pole open (p. 108)
and practicable at all seasons, but which it is not, the route by
it would be so much shorter for every part from Europe to the ports in
Asia and in America, situated on the Northern Pacific, as to be vastly
preferable; but when it is recollected that this passage can only be
open for a very few months in the course of the year--and also
considering the winds and the weather which, during that brief space
of time, would certainly be met with in the northern route, and the
utter impossibility that there would be of procuring any assistance in
that route, should accidents occur,--it is clear, that vessels would
almost as speedily, and certainly much more safely, run over the
distances by the western route, even to the places more near; while,
as regards those which are more distant, there can and need be no
comparison drawn.

It will also from these references be observed, that the distances to
all the eastern parts of Asia, and the north-west coast of America,
are, with a very few exceptions (in these, too, the distances are
nearly equal), nearer than the distances would be, either taken by the
Cape of Good Hope or Cape Horn, the only routes always open; while,
considering the winds and the seas which are met with in either of
these routes, it is plain that ships would run over the distance by
the western route through central America, even to the most distant
parts in eastern Asia that have been adverted to, sooner and much
easier than they could do by either of the former. The saving of
insurance alone in the route by the mild tropical climates, and also
of wear and tear in ships by the same channel, compared to what all
these would amount to in the navigation by the other routes, to say
nothing of the saving of time in voyages, would be objects of great
importance to commercial and nautical men.



APPENDIX--No I                                                     (p. 109)


  Places                             Lat.            Long.

  Falmouth                          50°  8'     N.   5°  1'     W.
  Terceira, Azores                  38° 38' 23" --  27° 12' 48" --
  Halifax, Nova Scotia              44° 39'     --  63° 33'     --
  New York                          40° 42'     --  74°  2'     --
  Bermuda, Town                     32° 22'     --  64° 33'     --
  Madeira, Funchall                 32° 47' 42" --  16° 55' 30" --
  Teneriffe, St  Cruz               28° 28' 00" --  16° 15'     --
  Lisbon                            38° 24'     --   9° 13'     --
  Cadiz                             36° 31'     --   6° 18'     --
  Gibraltar                         36°  6' 20' --   5° 20' 53" --
  Nassau, New Providence            25°  5'     --  77° 18'     --
  Turk's Islands                    21°  6'         71° 15'
                                    20° 13'         69° 28'
  Crooked Island                    22° 44'     --  73° 54'     --
  Havannah                          23°  9' 26" --  82° 20'     --
  St. Jago, Cuba                    19° 57' 39" --  76°  2' 45" --
  Cape Nichola Mole                 19° 49' 20" --  73° 27' 30" --
  St. John's, Porto Rico            18° 29' 10" --  65° 39'     --
  St. Thomas                        18° 21'  5" --  64° 57' 50" --
  Kingston, Jamaica                 17° 57' 57" --  76° 46' 10" --
  Vera Cruz                         19° 12' 15" --  96°  7' 12" --
  Tampico                           22° 15' 56" --  97° 52'     --
  Honduras, Belize                  17° 29' 29" --  88° 11' 15" --
  Chagre                             9° 18' 40" --  79° 55'     --
  Panama                             8° 57' 30" --  79° 29' 20" --
  Carthagena                        10° 26'     --  75° 37'  5" --
  Laguayra                          10° 37'     --  67°  1' 35" --
  Demerara, George Town              6° 49'     --  58° 11'     --
  Barbadoes, Bridgetown             13°  5' 30" --  59° 43' 15" --
  Antigua, E. H.                    17°  3'     --  61° 50'     --
  Trinidad, Port of Spain           10° 38' 42" --  61° 59' 30" --
  Cape St Roque                      5° 28'     S.  35° 17'     --
  Maranham                           2° 28'     --  44° 16'     --
  Pernambuco                         8° 41'     --  34° 51'     --
  Bahia                             12° 55'     --  38° 30'     -- (p. 110)
  Rio de Janeiro                    22° 54' 15" --  43° 15' 50" --
  Monte Video                       34° 53' 30" --  56° 16'     --
  Buenos Ayres                      34° 16'     --  58° 24'     --
  Salt Key, middle, Turk's Island   21° 20'     --  71°  4'     --
  Crooked Island, Castle Island     22°  7' 30" --  74° 18' 45" --
  Trinidad de Cuba                  21° 43'     --  80°         --
  Cape Antonio                      21° 54'     --  84° 57'     --
  Montego Bay, Jamaica              18° 32'     --  78°  2'     --
  St. John's, Newfoundland          47° 34'     --  52° 38'     --
  St. John's, New Brunswick         45° 15'     --  66°  2' 19" --
  Quebec                            46° 47' 30" --  71° 10'     --
  Montreal                          45° 46'     --  70° 35'     --


  _Distances and Bearings of Places_.

           Places                              Geo. Miles.

  Falmouth to Lisbon                         S. 14°  W.   730
    Ditto     Gibraltar                      S.  4°  W.   820
    Ditto     Teneriffe                      S. 22°  W.  1410
    Ditto     Madeira                        S. 27°  W.  1170
    Ditto     Terceira                       S. 54°  W.  1180
    Ditto     New York                       S. 79-1/2° W.  3000
  Madeira to Barbadoes                       S. 63°  W.     2600
  Terceira to Barbadoes                      S. 49°  W.  2340
    Ditto     Antigua                        S. 54°  W.  2200
    Ditto     St. Thomas                     S. 59°  W.  2350
  Madeira to St. Thomas                      S. 72°  W.  2800
    Ditto    Cape Nichola Mole               S. 75°  W.  3000
  Terceira to Cape Nichola Mole              S. 65°  W.  2700
  Falmouth to Barbadoes                      S. 50°  W.  3500
    Ditto     St. Thomas                     S. 57°  W.  3500
    Ditto     Cape Nichola Mole              S. 61°  W.  3800
    Ditto     Fayal                          S. 55°  W.  1230
  Fayal to Barbadoes                         S. 47-1/2° W.  2255
    Ditto  Cape Nichola Mole                 S. 64-1/2° W.  2600
    Ditto  St. John's, Newfoundland          N. 63°  W.  1180
    Ditto  Port Praya, Cape Verde            S. 11°  E.  1545
  Cape Verde to Pernambuco                   S. 26°  W.  1530
    Ditto       Rio de Janeiro               S. 27°  W.  2550
  Fayal to New York                          N. 86-1/2° W.  2020   (p. 111)
  Terceira to Rio de Janeiro, by Bahia, &c.  S. 13°  W.  3900
  Ditto       Halifax                        N. 77°  W.  1730
  Halifax to New York                        S. 83°  W.   520
  New York to Nassau, N. P.                  S. 10°  W.   950
  Nassau to Cape Nichola Mole                S. 56°  E.   380
  Havannah to Vera Cruz                      S. 73°  W.   800
  New York to Havannah                       S. 22°  W.  1140
  Jamaica to Chagre, direct                  S. 21°  W.   550
  Chagre to Panama                           S. 50°  E.    33
  Kingston to River St. Juan                 S. 46°  W.   585
  River St. Juan to Rialejo                  N. 66°  W.   235
  Leon to Rialejo                            N. 66°  W.    21
  Madeira to Rio de Janeiro                  S. 24°  W.  3700
  Rio de Janeiro to Buenos Ayres             S. 47°  W.  1060
  St. Thomas, to Cape Nichola Mole           N. 80°  W.   470
  Ditto       to Crooked Island Castle       N. 67°  W.   580
  Ditto          Turk's Island               N. 62°  W.   380
  Turk's Island to Jamaica, direct           S. 58°  W.   380
  Ditto            Havannah                  N. 80°  W.   630
  Ditto    Jamaica, by St. Jago de Cuba                   820
  Crooked Island to Cape Nichola             S. 19°  W.   146
  Ditto             Jamaica                  S. 29°  W.   285
  Ditto             Havannah                 N. 82°  W.   445
  Barbadoes to 40 miles E. of Alto Vela      N. 68°  W.   700
  Forty miles E. of Alto Vela to
     Jamaica, direct                         N. 85°  W.   330
     Add by calling at Jacmel                              50
  Jamaica to Santa Martha                    S. 20°  E.   425
  Santa Martha to Carthagena                               90
  Carthagena to Chagre                                    290
  Montego Bay, Jamaica, to Trinidad de Cuba  N. 40-1/2° W.  172
  Trinidad de Cuba to Honduras               S. 61°  W.   520
  Kingston, Jamaica, to Cape Antonio         N. 63°  W.   520
  Cape Antonio to Havannah                   N. 63°  E.   164
  Falmouth to St. John's, Newfoundland       S. 86-1/2° W.  2040
  St John's, Newfoundland, to Halifax        S. 73°  W.   605
  Falmouth to Halifax                        S. 82-1/2° W.  2550
  Fayal to Halifax                           N. 77°  W.  1640
  Halifax to St. John's, New Brunswick       N. 71°  W.   111
  St. John's, New Brunswick, to Quebec       N. 66°  W.   230
  Quebec to Montreal                         S. 58°  W.   116
  New York to Quebec, direct                 N. 19°  E.   390
  Ditto       Montreal, direct               N.  4°  E.   305


  _Comparative Distances of Places._                               (p. 112)

                                                 Geo. Miles.
  Falmouth to Terceira                            1180
  Terceira to Barbadoes                           2340
                                                  ----  3520

  Falmouth to Madeira                             1170
  Madeira to Barbadoes                            2600
                                                  ----  3770

  Falmouth to Teneriffe, by Madeira               1410
  Teneriffe to Barbadoes                          2570
                                                  ----  3980

  Falmouth to Madeira, by Lisbon                  1260
  Madeira to Barbadoes                            2600
                                                  ----  3860

  Falmouth to Fayal                               1230
  Fayal to Barbadoes                              2255
                                                  ----  3485

  Falmouth to Fayal                               1230
  Fayal to Cape Nichola Mole                      2600
                                                  ----  3830

  Falmouth to Terceira                            1180
  Terceira to St. Thomas                          2350
                                                  ----  3530

  Falmouth to Terceira                            1180
  Terceira to Cape Nichola Mole                   2700
                                                  ----  3880

  Falmouth to Madeira                             1170
  Madeira to St. Thomas                           2800
                                                  ----  3970

  Falmouth to Madeira                             1170
  Madeira to Cape Nichola Mole                    3000
                                                  ----  4170

  Madeira to Rio de Janeiro                       3700
  Ditto, by Pernambuco and Bahia                   109
                                                  ----  3800

  Terceira to Rio de Janeiro, by Pernambuco
    and Bahia                                     3900
  Falmouth to Gibraltar, by Lisbon, &c.           1020
  Gibraltar to Alexandria, by Palermo and Malta   1955
                                                  ----  2975

  Falmouth to Gibraltar, by Lisbon and Cadiz      1050
  Gibraltar to Madeira                             600
  Madeira to Barbadoes                            2600
                                                  ----  4250



CALCULATION OF YEARLY COST OF SAILING PACKETS AND STEAM BOATS.     (p. 113)


I.--_Sailing Packets._

  First cost, 9500_l._--Interest, 5 per cent.             £475
  Repairs, ordinary tear and wear, at 7-1/2 per cent.      710
  Wages, say                                             1,270
  Provisions, say                                          730
  Insurance, 10 per cent.                                  950
                                                        ------
  Total                                                 £4,135

  Exclusive of yearly depreciation of capital--say, last seventeen years,
  is 558_l._ 16_s._ yearly.

  The per centage here taken for yearly supplies, is below the true
  outlay. The following sums, in full details, have been received from
  a very accurate and competent hand, of the outfits of a _new_ vessel
  of 230 tons, cost 4000_l._, for six successive voyages in the West
  Indian trade, during a period of 48 months. It is considered unnecessary
  to insert the details at length. The amount is given for
  each voyage:--

  1st Voyage     £96 11  5       4th Voyage      £646  3 11
  2d ditto       219 17  0       5th ditto        348 12  8
  3d ditto       301  1  4       6th ditto        266  8  2
                 _________                       __________
                £617  9  9                      £1261  4  9
                 _________                       __________
  Together     £1878 14  6              Average  £313  2  6

  Nearly EIGHT per cent, for each voyage, or _twenty-four_ per cent. per
  annum. The amount would also increase yearly with the age of the
  ship.


II.--_Steam Boats._                                                (p. 114)

  Value 24,000_l._, Interest at 5 per cent           £1,200
  Tear and wear, do. do.                              1,200
  Insurance, do. do.                                  1,200
                                                     ______
                                                     £3,600

  Crews, in all 40. Captain per annum      £400
  1st Mate                                  112
  2d do.                                     68
  Master                                    112
  1st Engineer                              173
  2d  do.                                   122
  3d  do.                                    88
  Engineer Extra                            173
  3 Engineer Boys, average                   39
  4 Apprentices, at 10s. per month           24
  4 Stewards and Boys, aver. 25s. do.        60
  21 Seamen, &c. &c. at 40s. per do.        504
  Provisions, at 30s. each, per do.         720
                                           ____
                                          2,595
                                          _____
                Total                    £6,195

By an Admiralty Order, dated August 1837, it is directed that the pay
of the following persons in steamers shall be as under, but increased
one-half of the sum when on service in the West Indies:--

  1st Engineer, per month           £9 12  0
  2d   do.         do.               6  6  0
  3d   do.         do.               4  4  0
  Engineer Boys: 1st class, per do.  1 14  0
        "        2d   do.    do.     1  6  0
        "        3d   do.    do.     1  3  0
        "        4th  do.    do.     0 14  6

And according to the Report of the Post-Office Commissioners, the pay
of the following officers on some of the Home Steam-boat Stations,
is:--

  1st Mate, per annum              £78  0  0
  2d do.      "                     45 10  0
  Master      "                     78  0  0
  Captains    "  from 400_l._ to 500_l._


III.--_Small Sailing Vessels._                                     (p. 115)

  Cost, say averages 2,000_l._--Interest at 5 per cent.      £100
  Insurance, 12 per cent.                                     240
  Tear and wear, at 5 per cent.                               100
  Crews, 10. Captain, per annum                          £100
      Mate                                                 70
      8 Men and Boys, average 30s. per
        month                                             144
      Provisions, at 30s. per do.                         180
                                                         ____
                                                              494
                                                             ____
                                    Total                    £934


POSTAGES, PROBABLE AMOUNT, INCREASE, &c.

In the General Post-office Accounts for 1836 (see Finance Accounts,
1837, p. 55), there is charged the sum of 9,406_l._ 7_s._ 5-1/4_d._,
as the sum paid for ship letters. For each letter received by a ship
not a regular packet, 2d. is paid by the Post Office at landing, and
which gives the number of such letters to be 1,128,764 yearly. Suppose
400,000 of these went by packets under the new arrangements, the
additional Post-office revenue therefrom would be 16,665_l._

The sum just mentioned as paid for ship letters may be stated as
principally attached to ship letters brought from all places in the
Western World. According to a return to the House of Commons (see East
India Steam Communication Report, 1837), the number of ship letters
from India for 1836, was 159,360. The New York packet ships alone
carry from 5000 to 6000 letters each. Twice each month the proposed
packets to and from England would bear an equal, perhaps even a
greater, number, under the proposed regular and prompt arrangement:
certainly all the Canadian correspondence will be very greatly
increased. This number, however, in four voyages each month, backwards
and forwards, gives at the rate, in round numbers, of 290,000 each
year. At 9_d._ each letter, the additional packet postage beyond the
ship-letter rate, would be 10,875_l._ gained to the British Post
Office.

In the Accounts above referred to, p. 54, there is entered 75,484_l._
10_s._ 8-1/4_d._, charged on the postmasters in the British West
Indies, and in British America. This sum is doubtless for the      (p. 116)
unpaid letters outwards, and perhaps some internal postage. The
return postage from these quarters will exceed this sum, because more
double and treble letters come inwards than are sent outwards. There
is also a considerable sum paid in this country for letters sent by
post to the British Colonies.

In the same accounts there is entered, p. 54, 83,610_l._ 10_s._ 5_d._
received by the window men, &c. at the Foreign Post Office. A portion
of this must be for the letters outwards to the Brazils, to St.
Thomas, to the French Islands, to Honduras, to Mexico, to Havannah,
and all places in central South America, for all of which places the
postage must be paid before the letter can be forwarded. How much of
the above sum is for the purpose alluded to, is not stated, but let it
be taken at 30,000_l._ yearly outwards, and an equal sum from the same
places inwards; together, 60,000_l._

Next, there would be the gain on the NEW LINE between Halifax, New
York, and the West Indies; or, more correctly speaking, between _all_
North America and _all_ the West Indies, from Demerara to Mexico
inclusive, and including also the shores of South America on the east,
and all its western coasts, from Valparaiso on the south, to Nootka
Sound on the north. The exports and imports to and from these
quarters, with all quarters of the world, amount, in goods, produce,
specie and bills, and freights, &c. to upwards of 80,000,000_l._ a
year. The letters to which this vast trade, especially as the whole of
it is carried on by means of correspondence, must give rise, will be
immense: and yet, with the exception of the scanty mail communication
afforded by Britain to a few places, there is none to be found. The
amount of the trade here stated, includes of course the trade with all
places in Europe. The portion which is exclusively Colonial and
American, and which would of course be attached to the new line
alluded to, cannot be less in exports and imports than 30,000,000_l._
yearly. The proportionate postage from this commerce, even at the
ratio of the present West Indian postage, to and from Great Britain
and her West Indian colonies, would be 110,000_l._ yearly; but
admitting that a sum equal to _one-half_ only of _this sum_ came from
the letters sent through the British Post Office, the sum gained on
this station yearly would be 55,000_l._

To all these sums must be added a considerable sum in postages, which
would be annually drawn from the correspondence between all parts  (p. 117)
of the United States, and Maranham, Pernambuco, Bahia, Rio de Janeiro,
Montevideo, Buenos Ayres, &c. which would go by the British packets
from all these places to Fayal, and thence on, without any delay, to
New York. What this will be, it is impossible to estimate; but taking
the trade of the United States with these places as a basis, it can
hardly be less than 10,000_l._, or more probably 12,000_l._ per annum.

The postages derived at present from the packet intercourse with the
whole Western World is taken at 200,000_l._ outwards and inwards. It
is not too much to estimate, that under the new and extended
communications and arrangements, more regular and frequent, this sum
would be increased _one-third_, or 66,666_l._; together, 266,666_l._
yearly. To this there is to be added the additions, as are previously
noted; together 92,540_l._; making the sum total at least 359,206_l._
per annum. The estimated expenditure for conveying the whole of the
mails by steam, which are calculated to produce this yearly revenue,
is 252,850_l._, or a gain of 106,356_l._ The present revenue barely
pays the expenditure, if so much, of the establishment, consisting of
thirty sailing packets; four steamers in the West Indies; ten mail
boats (6000_l._ yearly) there; some sailing vessels at Halifax, and
very frequently, a considerable assistance from ships of war besides!

  _Postages and Salaries in West Indies, &c.--1834-5._

                    Postages received.    Salaries and Allowances.

  Jamaica                £17,203 18  5                  £562 10  0
  Bahama                     146  0  2                [19]22 19  6
  Barbadoes                 4798 13  7                   100  0  0
  Berbice and Demerara      1593 10  8                   150  0  0
  Bermuda                                                 50  0  0
  Dominica                   255  8  1                   100  0  0
  Grenada                    605 14  4                    80  0  0
  St. Vincents               632 19  3                    80  0  0
  Tobago                     395 14  5                [19]75 11  3
  Trinidad                   931 10  1                   150  0  0
  St. Lucia                  320 12  2                    50  0  0
  Antigua                    781  2  1                    80  0  0
  Montserrat                  80  3  6                [19]15  3 11

                   [Footnote 19: And 20 per cent. on neat proceeds.]

                    Postages received.    Salaries and Allowances. (p. 118)
  St. Christophers          £547  0  3                  £120  0  0
  Nevis                      146 16  8                    60  0  0
  Tortola                    109  8 10                    50  0  0
  British North America   42,094 17 10                   958 10  4

_Parl. Pap. 598 of 1836, and 6th Report of Post-office Commissioners_,
1836, p. 32, &c.

It has been stated (see p. 3) that many letters by packets from
foreign parts are returned unopened to the Post-Office, in order to
save the postages, because the originals or duplicates had previously
been received through private channels. It would be useful and
important to ascertain the number of these. In the Finance Accounts
for 1837, p. 54, there is entered in the Post-office deductions on
account of "RETURNED, refused, mis-sent, and redirected letters,
over-charges, and returns," the following sums:--

  England                                   £59,288   4   1
  Scotland                                   11,129  19  10
  West Indies and British N. America         15,337  15   9
  Window men, Foreign Office                    734  15  10-1/2
                                            -------------------
                                            £86,490  15   6-1/2
                                            -------------------

  _Postages.--Mediterranean, &c._

  Letters for India, year ending October 1836    £990  7  4
  Ditto Alexandria, ditto, ditto                 1285  1  1
                                               ------------
                                               £2,275  8  5
                                               ------------

Postages of letters passing through Falmouth by the Mediterranean
packet, years ending October[20]--

                      1834.          1835.              1836.
  To Cadiz         £820 11  5     £811 19  6-1/2     £703  8  3
     Gibraltar    1,114 17 11    1,603 18  0        1,527 14  8-1/2
     Malta          549 19  2      670  4 11-1/2      694  2  6-1/2
     Corfu          300  9  8      421 19 10          486  8 10
                 ------------   ----------------   ----------------
                 £2,785 18  2   £3,507 17  4       £3,411 14  4
                 ------------   ----------------   ----------------

                   [Footnote 20: Appendix, 196, Report Steam
                   Communication with India.]


ARRIVALS AND DEPARTURES OF PACKETS CALCULATED.                     (p. 119)

The arrivals at, departures from, and the returns to Fayal, of the
packets for all quarters, will correspond so well with the arrival
outwards of the steamers from Falmouth, that no material delay on the
part of the steamers bearing all the return mails to Falmouth will be
occasioned or required. But because February has only twenty-eight
days, the mails, to make all coincide more nearly, should be made up
in London, instead of the 1st and 15th of February, on the 30th of
January, and 13th of the former month. The following, however, taking
the despatch of the mails from London according to the days in each
month, will show the periods of the whole:--

  1.--_West Indies._

  Mail of     Arrival at Fayal.  Return to do.

  January   1   January   10     February  25
           15             25     March     13
  February  1   February  10               28
           15             25     April     12
  March     1   March     10               25
           15             25     May       10
  April     1   April     10               26
           15             25     June      10
  May       1   May       10               25
           15             25     July      10
  June      1   June      10               26
           15             25     August    10
  July      1   July      10               25
           15             25     September  9
  August    1   August    10               25
           15             25     October   10
  September 1   September 10               26
           15             25     November  10
  October   1   October   10               25
           15             25     December  10
  November  1   November  10               26
           15             25     January   10
  December  1   December  10               25
           15             25     February   9

Thus showing that, by the time the steamer was ready to return to  (p. 120)
Falmouth, the West Indian mails would be up at Fayal; and, as regards
the other quarters, the mails from thence would have some time to
spare for the voyages in case of accidents, and still be in time at
Fayal, thus:--

  2.--_Brazils._

  Mail of     Arrival at Fayal.  Return to do.

  March     1   March     10     April     24
           15             25     May        9
  April     1   April     10               25
           15             25     June       8
  May       1   May       10               24
           15             25     July       8
  June      1   June      10               25
           15             25     August     8
  July      1   July      10               24
           15             25     September  9
  August    1   August    10               24
           15             25     October    9
  September 1   September 10               25
           15             25     November   8
  October   1   October   10               24
           15             25     December   9
  November  1   November  10               25
           15             25     January    9
  Decembe   1   December  10               24
           15             25     February   8
  January   1   January   10               24
           15             25     March      9
  February  1   February  10               25
           15             25     April      9

  3.--_Fayal and Halifax Department._

  Mail of     Arrival at Fayal.  Return to do.

  March     1   March     10     April      7
           15             25               22
  April     1   April     10     May        8
           15             25               23
  May       1   May       10     June       7
           15             25               22
  June      1   June      10     July       8
           15             25               23
  July      1   July      10     August     7                      (p. 121)
           15             25               23
  August    1   August    10     September  7
           15             25               22
  September 1   September 10     October    8
           15             25               23
  October   1   October   10     November   7
           15             25               22
  November  1   November  10     December   8
           15             25               23
  December  1   December  10     January    7
           15             25               23
  January   1   January   10     February   7
           15             25               22
  February  1   February  10     March     10
           15             25               25


  4.--_North American and West Indian Department_.

  Mail of       At Barbadoes   At Cape Nichola   Return to do.

  March     1   March     22   March       27    April      24
           15   April      6   April       11    May         9
  April     1             22               27               25
           15   May        7   May         12    June        9
  May       1             22               27               24
           15   June       6   June        11    July        9
  June      1             22               27               25
           15   July       7   July        12    August      9
  July      1             22               27               24
           15   August     6   August      11    September   9
  August    1             22               27               24
           15   September  7   September   12    October    10
  September 1             22               27               25
           15   October    7   October     12    November    9
  October   1             22               27               24
           15   November   6   November    11    December    9
  November  1             22               27               25
           15   December   7   December    12    January     9
  December  1             22               27               24
           15   January    6   January     11    February    8
  January   1             22               27               24
           15   February   6   February    11    March      11
  February  1             22               27               27
           15   March      9   March       14    April      11

The following will be the periods of the steamers between Halifax  (p. 122)
and Havannah, from which it will appear how well the whole will work
as regards all North America and all the West Indies; and also how
regularly and pointedly the return steamer from the Havannah (bringing
the Havannah and Tampico mails, should any accident have happened to
the Jamaica steamer), will call at New York for the replies to the
letters by the packet from Europe, arrived at that city two days
before her; and carry these forward to Halifax (giving two days to
stop at New York) in time to get the steamer with the homeward British
mails from that place to Fayal.

  _Arrivals and Departures of the London Mails of the following dates_.

  Mail of      Arrive at     Leave        Arrive at     Return to
               Havannah      Halifax      Havannah      Halifax
  -----------\-------------\------------\-------------\-------------\
  January   1  January   31  January  20  January   30  February  13
           15  February  15  February  4  February  14            28
  February  1  March      3           20  March      2  March     16
           15            18  March     7            17  April      1
  March     1            31           20            30            13
           15  April     15  April     4  April     14            28
  April     1  May        1           20            30  May       13
           15            16  May       5  May       16            29
  May       1            31           20            30  June      13
           15  June      15  June      4  June      14            28
  June      1  July       1           20            30  July      14
           15            16  July      5  July      15            29
  July      1            31           20            30  August    13
           15  August    15  August    4  August    14            28
  August    1            31           20            30  September 13
           15  September 15  September 4  September 14            28
  September 1  October    1           20            30  October   14
           15            16  October   5  October   15            29
  October   1            31           20            30  November  13
           15  November  15  November  4  November  14            28
  November  1  December   1           20            30  December  14
           15            16  December  5  December  15            29
  December  1            31           20            30  January   13
           15  January   15  January   4  January   14            28

Sailing packets in these stations would depart and arrive at
corresponding periods, being able to be, if any thing, earlier forward
to Fayal; but always 15 days more on their respective voyages than the
steam-boats.

The steamer outwards from Barbadoes could land, and the homeward   (p. 123)
bound packet take up the Haytian mails at Cape Henry, when the return
packet goes by the north side; and the _return_ Haytian mails could be
picked up at Jacmel, if the packet, _when a steamer_, calls, as she
may do, at that place on her voyage to Jamaica, preparatory to her
return by way of St. Jago and Cape Nichola to Fayal or Falmouth.

The distance and time of communicating between Barbadoes and Halifax
with steamers, by Jamaica and Havannah, would be,--

                                       Geo. Miles. Days.

  Halifax to Havannah                     1110  6-1/2

  Havannah to Barbadoes by Jamaica, &c.   1965  13

  Stoppages   2

  Barbadoes to Halifax by Jamaica, &c.    3075  15-1/2
  Stoppages, suppose . . .   3
                                          ____  __
                                 Total    6150  40
                                          ____  __


_Speed, &c. of Steam Boats_.

In the Sixth Report of the Post-office Commissioners, p. 281, it is
stated that the Malta steamers average 7-1/2 miles per hour, and have
done so for a period of two years. The Dublin and Liverpool Steam
Post-office packets average also 7-1/2 miles per hour, or 180 miles
daily.

In the same Report, p. 265, Mr. Napier states, that he built the
steamers which run between Dundee and London; and that during a period
of eighteen months they have averaged 11-1/2 miles per hour. This, it
is believed, means British miles, or 10 geographical miles. At the
latter rate they run 240 miles per day. During the period above
mentioned, these boats have not cost their owners 18_l._ for repairs
to the machinery. A steam-boat of 240-horse power would at that time
(1836) cost 24,000_l._ to 25,000_l._, burden 620 tons. A contractor,
to keep them in repair, would require 1,000_l._ per annum.

According to accounts lately received from the East, the _Berenice_,
with only one engine, the other having been broken, ran from Socotora
to Suez, a distance of 1800 miles, in 9-1/2 days. The Leith and London
Steamers, such as the _Monarch_, of 200-horse power, run the distance,
415 geographical miles, in 45 hours,--the average of voyages during
the year; and frequently the distance is run in 40 hours, and even
less.

  _Estimates for Passengers on each Station._                      (p. 124)

  Demerara steamers, 48 voyages, 20 each, 960 per annum,
    at 30 dollars                                              28,800
  1st Leeward station--Barbadoes to Havannah, through
    all the islands, 48 voyages monthly, 50 each, is
    2400, at 70 dollars average                               168,000
  2d Leeward station--Havannah to Vera Cruz, and
    Jamaica to Chagre, Panama, &c. &c., 96 voyages,
    at 20 each, is 1920 yearly, at 40 dollars                  76,800
  Packets and sailing-vessels in all the points, 120
    voyages, average 10 each, is 1200, at 25 dollars           30,000
                                                              _______
                            Total dollars                     303,600
                                                              _______
                    At 4_s._ 2_d._ per dollar, is sterling    £63,250

  Falmouth to Barbadoes, 43 voyages, 20 each,
    at 40_l._                                         £38,000
  Falmouth to Rio de Janeiro, 48 voyages, 10
    each, at 55_l._                                    26,200
  Falmouth to Halifax, 48 voyages, 20 each,
    960 yearly, average 35_l._                         33,600
  Halifax to West Indies, by New York, 48 voyages,
    20 each, is 960, at 26_l._                         24,960
  Falmouth to Madeira and Teneriffe, 200 yearly,
    at 20_l._                                           4,000
  Rio do Janeiro to Buenos Ayres, 240 yearly,
    at 15_l._                                           3,600
  Pernambuco to Maranham, 120 yearly, at 12_l._         1,440
  West India Islands to Bermuda, Nassau, &c. &c.
    280 yearly, at 12_l._                               3,360
                                                      _______
                                                              135,160
                                                              _______
                            Total                            £198,410
                    Deduct expense, finding one-third          66,136
                                                              _______
                            Amount gained                    £132,274

The cost of finding passengers is here estimated at 4 dollars per day.
In the House of Commons Report about Steam Communications with India,
the cost of finding passengers to that quarter of the world is
estimated by experienced captains of ships at 10_s._ sterling per day.
The charge made in steamers in the West Indies for cabin passage
money, by orders of the Admiralty, is 17_l._ sterling, Barbadoes to
Jamaica; 10_l._ sterling, Jamaica to St. Thomas; and 10_l._ sterling,
St. Thomas to Barbadoes.

  _Income:--Parcels, Packages, and Fine Goods. Steamers to be      (p. 125)
  restricted to 40 tons Weight in all._

  240 voyages on the four great lines yearly, 20 tons each, at
     the rate of 10_l._ per ton over all                       £48,000
  Second Class Lines, Barbadoes to Havannah, Havannah
     to Vera Cruz; Jamaica to Chagre, &c; Barbadoes
     to Demerara, 192 voyages yearly, 20 tons each,
     average 10_l._                                             38,400
  Suppose Third Class Lines by Sailing-vessels everywhere--388
  voyages, average 8 tons                                       31,040
                                                               _______
                                             Total            £117,440
                                                              --------
         But Port Dues remain to be deducted--uncertain, say,   15,000_l._



APPENDIX, No. II.--EASTERN WORLD.


         Places.                  Latitudes.       Longitudes.

  Falmouth                        50°  8'     N.    5°  1'     W.
  Lisbon                          38° 24'     --    9° 12'     --
  Cadiz                           36° 31'     --    6° 18'     --
  Gibraltar                       36°  6' 20" --    5° 20' 53" --
  Malta                           35° 53'     --   14° 30'     E.
  Zante                           37° 47'     --   20° 54'     --
  Athens                          37° 57'     --   23° 43'     --
  Smyrna                          38° 25'     --   27°  6' 45" --
  Constantinople                  41° 12'     --   28° 59'     --
  Alexandria (light) Egypt        31° 12'     --   29° 52'     --
  Cairo                           30°  3'     --   31° 18'     --
  Suez                            30°  0'     --   32° 28'     --
  Mocha                           13° 20'     --   43° 20'     --
  Babelmandel, Isle               12° 38'     --   43° 20'     --
  Cape Guardafui                  11° 41'  4" --   51° 12' 24" --
  Socotora, Galanscea road        12° 43'     --   53° 18'     --
  Cape Aden                       12° 46'     --   45° 10' 30" --
  Bombay                          18° 55'     --   72° 54'     --
  Colombo, Ceylon                  6° 57'     --   79° 57'     --
  Point de Galle, Ceylon           6°  1'     --   80° 18'     --  (p. 126)
  Trincomalee, ditto               8° 33' 30" --   81° 20' 15" --
  Madras                          13°  4' 10" --   80° 21'     --
  Calcutta                        22° 34'     --   88° 26'     --
  Cape Comorin                     8°  4'     --   77° 41' 30" --
  Mauritius, Port Louis           20°  9'     S.   57° 28'     --
  Bourbon, St. Dennis             20° 52'     --   55° 26'     --
  Madagascar, Cape St. Mary       25° 38' 54" --   45°  1' 42" --
     Ditto    Tamatave, E. C.     18° 10'  6" --   19° 23' 18" --
  Amsterdam Isle                  37° 52'  0" --   77° 52'     --
  St. Paul's, ditto               34° 42'     --   77° 52'     --
  Great Nicobar Isle               6° 45'     --   94°  0'     --
  Singapore                        1° 12'     N.  103° 30'     --
  Batavia                          6°  0'     S.  106° 51' 45" --
  Canton                          23°  7' 10" N.  113° 14'     --
  Swan River                      32°  4' 31" S.  115° 6' 43"  --
  Hobart Town                     42° 53' 35" --  147° 28'     --
  Sydney                          33° 50' 40" --  151° 14'     --
  Madeira, Funchall               32° 47' 42" N.   16° 55' 30" W.
  Cape de Verde, Port Praya       14° 53' 40" --   23° 34'     --
  Ascension Isle                   7° 55' 56" S.   14° 23' 50" --
  St. Helena Isle                 15° 54' 48" --    5° 45' 20" --
  Cape of Good Hope               34° 22'     --   18° 24' 24" E.
  Rio de Janeiro                  22° 54' 15" --   43° 15' 50" W.
  Pernambuco                       8°  4'     --   34° 51'     --


  _Distances and Bearings of Places._

                                                          Geo. Miles.
  Falmouth to Gibraltar                   S.   4° W.         820
      Ditto  to Madeira                   S.  27° W.        1170
  Madeira to Cape Verde                   S.  19° W.        1130
  Gibraltar to Malta, direct              S.   1° E.         770
  Malta to Zante                          N.  69° E.         320
  Zante to Athens, round Cape                                260
  Athens to Constantinople                N.  51° E.         310
  Malta to Alexandria                     S.  70° E.         825
  Suez to Babelmandel                                       1205
  Babelmandel to Bombay                                     1630
  Cape Verde to Ascension                 S.  22° W.        1530
  Ascension to St. Helena                 S.  47° E.         655
  St. Helena to Cape of Good Hope         S.  50° E.        1720
  Rio de Janeiro to ditto ditto           S.  78° E.        3250
  Cape of Good Hope to Mauritius          N.  38° E.        2280
  Mauritius to Swan River                 S.  77° E.        3150
  Mauritius to Colombo, Ceylon            N.  38° E.        2100   (p. 127)
    Ditto   to Point de Galle             N.  49° E.        2080
  Point de Galle to Bombay                N.  29° W.         880
  Madras to Calcutta                      N.  39° E.         735
  Trincomalee to Car Nicobar              S.  82° E.         775
  Nicobar to Singapore                    S.  60° E.         665
  Singapore to Batavia                    S.  25° E.         475
  Singapore to Canton                     N.  24° E.        1440
  Batavia to Canton                       N.  18° E.        1830
  Trincomalee to Batavia                  S.  60° E.        1750
  Batavia to Swan River                   S.  18° E.        1745  1645/100
  Swan River to Hobart Town               S.  66-1/2° E.    1770  1620/150
  Hobart Town to Sydney                   N.  18° E.         570
  Cape of Good Hope to Hobart Town        S.  85° E.        6000
  Pernambuco to Cape of Good Hope         S.  62° E.        3300
  Fayal to Pernambuco                     S.   7° W.        2800
  Sydney to Canton                        N.  33° W.        4100
  Canton to Swan River, by E. Coast Borneo                  3300
  Fayal to Cape Verde, Port Praya         S.  11° E.        1545

There never having been heretofore any regular packet conveyance to
and from India, there are consequently no accurate returns of the
postage received, or letters that are conveyed backwards and forwards
between England and the vast countries to the eastward of the Cape of
Good Hope. The number, however, from the extent of the trade, must be
very great; and not a doubt can remain, that if regular and speedy
conveyances were established, the numbers would be very much
increased. In a communication from Col. Maberly, Secretary to the
General Post Office, printed by order of the House of Commons last
year, along with the Evidence taken before the Committee appointed to
consider the propriety of establishing a Steam Communication with
India, that gentleman gives the whole amount of postage outwards for
1836 to Cadiz, Gibraltar, Malta, and Corfu, at 3411_l._, and reckons
the amount inwards at the same sum. He estimates the whole postage
outwards and inwards, including sea postage between England, Ceylon,
India, and the Mediterranean, at 47,000_l._ Even this sum, which
certainly by no means includes every letter to and from the places
mentioned, would, under the arrangements proposed, be doubled,
independently of all the postages which would be obtained from the New
South Wales, China, and Batavia, &c. &c. trade. The coasting or
internal postages of Hindostan would certainly be greatly increased.

In the Finance Accounts of 1837, p. 55, there is charged the sum   (p. 128)
of 14,216_l._ 19_s._ 11_d._ for transit postage through foreign
countries. Much of this is doubtless from letters which come through
France, &c. from the Mediterranean, and countries near that sea. Under
the proposed regular and frequent packet arrangement, the letters from
which much of this sum is obtained would come directly through the
British Post Office.

The amount of postage to be obtained through the vast range of
countries which the New Plan proposes to embrace, can only be
conjectured by considering the immense trade which is carried on with
them and by them. As it is very great, so must the correspondence to
which it gives rise be.


_Mauritius and Socotora._

An error has been committed in stating the expense on this station
(see page 68.) Three sailing-vessels, instead of two, will be
required; thus adding 4000_l._ to the capital, and 2000_l._ to the
yearly expenditure.

       *       *       *       *       *

Including the Mediterranean, the yearly cost of the present Foreign
Packet conveyances, limited, uncertain, and irregular as the whole is,
cannot be less than 350,000_l._, exclusive of any sum set apart to
replace the capital engaged in it.

If the East Indian communication is amalgamated with the plan for the
Western World to Pernambuco by Fayal, as it may readily be, then a
considerable further reduction of expenditure in the former can be
made (including the sailing-vessels between Rio de Janeiro and Buenos
Ayres) in capital 106,000_l._ and in direct yearly charges 45,000_l._;
and nevertheless extend the steam conveyance to Buenos Ayres by Rio de
Janeiro from Pernambuco. This desirable object could be effected with
the saving mentioned, and without creating any additional delay in the
communication; because, if the communication by this route between
Falmouth and the Cape of Good Hope can be effected, as it may be,
within 75 days, then no delay in the course of the mails takes place,
while a considerable expense is saved, and important additional
accommodation is afforded to the public, and to the commercial world.
The distance from Falmouth to the Cape of Good Hope by Fayal and
Pernambuco, is 7330 geographical miles. This could be run in 75    (p. 129)
days: thus--36 days outwards, and 34 days inwards: 215 geographical
miles per day in the latter, and 203 geographical miles in the former.



APPENDIX, No. III.--PACIFIC OCEAN.


_Longitudes and Latitudes, Places, &c._

    Places.                       Lat.             Long.
  River St. Juan, mouth of      10° 53'      N.   83° 40'      W.
  Kingston, Jamaica             17° 57' 57"  --   76° 46' 10"  --
  Port Culebra                  10° 42'      --   85° 37'      --
  Leon                          12° 20'      --   86° 45'      --
  Rialejo                       12° 29' 50"  --   87°  6'      --
  Colombia River                46° 19'      --  123° 50'      --
  Port Illuluk Oonoolashka      53° 52'      --  166° 32'      --
  Nootka Sound                  49° 34'      --  126° 28' 30"  --
  Icy Cape                      70° 17'      --  161° 40'      --
  Christmas Isle, Pacific        1° 58'      --  157° 32'      --
  Owhyhee                       19° 43' 51"  --  155°  7' 10"  --
  Otaheite                      17° 29' 12"  S.  149° 28' 46"  --
  Melville Island, Port Dundas  12° 13'      --  136° 46'      E.
  Sydney, New South Wales       33° 50' 40"  --  151° 14' 10"  --
  Canton, China                 23°  7' 10"  N.  113° 14'      --
  Pekin                         39° 54'      --  116° 26'      --
  Jeddo, Japan                  35° 40'      --  139° 50'      --
  Kamschatka                    56° 15'      --  162°          --
  Manilla                       14° 36'      --  121°  2'      --
  Chagre                         9° 21'      --   80°  4' 5"   --
  Panama                         8° 57' 30"  --   79° 29' 20"  --
  Point Mala                     7° 25'      --   79° 54'      --
  Port Damas, Quibo              7° 26'      --   81° 31'      --
  Acapulco                      16° 50' 29"  --   99° 53' 47"  --
  St. Blas                      21° 32' 24"  --  105° 18' 27"  --
  Cape St. Lucas, California    22° 52' 28"  --  109° 50' 23"  --
  Guayaquil                      2° 12' 12"  S.   79° 39' 46"  --
  Lima                          12° 2' 34"   --   77°  8' 30"  --
  Callao                        12° 3' 45"   --   77° 14' 10"  --
  Arica                         18° 28' 35"  --   70° 16'      --
  Coquimbo                      29° 53' 43"  --   71° 18' 40"  --
  Valparaiso                    33° 1' 55"   --   71° 40' 25"  --
  Fort St. Carlos, Chiloe       41° 51' 50"  --   73° 53' 50"  --


  _Bearings and Distances of Places._                              (p. 130)

  Places.                                                   Miles

  Falmouth to Sydney, direct westward        S. 66°     W.  12,400
  London to Icy Cape 3,775, add circle 100   N. &       S.   3,875
  Icy Cape to Canton                         S. 48°     W.   4,200
    Ditto   to Sydney, New South Wales       S. 19°     W.   6,600
    Ditto   to Port Illuluk, Oonoolashka     S.  8°     W.     995
  Port Illuluk to Colombia River             S. 75°     E.   1,750
  Christmas Isle to Sydney, New South Wales  S. 54°     W.   3,650
    Ditto          to Canton                 N. 76°     W.   5,250
  Owhyhee to Otaheite                        S.  8-1/2° E.   2,250
  Falmouth to Panama direct                  S. 56°     W.   4,450
    Ditto      ditto by Barbadoes and
      Jamaica                                                5,285
  Port Culebra to Manilla                    N. 89-1/2° W.   9,022
  Cape of Good Hope to Batavia               N. 71°     E.   5,200
  Batavia to Canton                          N. 18°     E.   1,830
  Canton to Pekin                                            1,440
  Batavia to Manilla                         N. 35°     E.   1,510
  Canton to Kamschatka                       N. 47°     E.   2,900
    Ditto to Jeddo                           N. 62°     E.   1,610
  Kingston, Jamaica, to Port Culebra         S. 50°     W.     680
    Ditto             to River St. Juan      S. 44°     W.     585
  River St. Juan to Rialejo                  N. 66°     W.     235
  Falmouth to Port Culebra, direct           S. 60°     W.   4,650
    Ditto  to ditto by Barbadoes, Jamaica,
      &c.                                                    5,345
  Jamaica to Chagre                          S. 21°     W.     550
  Chagre to Panama                           S. 52°     E.      33
  Panama to Point Mala                       S. 15°     W.      95
  Point Mala to Port Damas, Quibo            S. 89°     W.      97
  Port Damas to Rialejo                      N. 48°     W.     450
  Rialejo to Acapulco                        N. 62°     W.   1,180
  Acapulco to St. Blas                       N. 48°     W.     420
  St. Blas to Cape St. Lucas                 N. 73°     W.     274
  Panama to Guayaquil                        S. 30°     W.     670
  Guayaquil to Lima                          S. 15°     E.     610
  Lima to Arica                              S. 45°     E.     570
  Arica to Coquimbo                          S.  5°     W.     690
  Coquimbo to Valparaiso                     S.  5°     W.     190
  Valparaiso to Fort Carlos, Chiloe          S. 16°     W.     555
  Rialejo, direct, to Sydney, New South
      Wales                                  S. 68°     W.   7,400
  Panama to Sydney                           S. 71°     W.   7,850
    Ditto to Canton                          N. 85°     W.   9,700
    Ditto to Owhyhee                         N. 82°     W.   4,650
    Ditto to Otaheite                        S. 69°     W.   4,450
  Rialejo to Canton                          N. 86°     W.   9,170 (p. 131)
    Ditto to Owhyhee                         N. 84°     W.   4,100
    Ditto to Otaheite                        S. 64-1/2° W.   4,150
    Ditto to Christmas Isle                  S. 81°     W.   4,000
  Christmas Isle to Otaheite                 S. 22°     E.   1,190
  Owhyhee to Canton                          N. 88°     W.   5,200
    Ditto to Sydney                          S. 46°     W.   4,500
  Otaheite to Sydney                         S. 79°     W.   3,400
  Rialejo to Manilla                         N. 89°     W.   8,860
    Ditto to St. Peter and St. Paul,
      Kamschatka                             N. 66°     W.   6,000
    Ditto to Pekin                           N. 79°     W.   8,600
    Ditto to Jeddo, Japan                    N. 79°     W.   7,300
  Colombia River to Canton                   S. 77°     W.   6,200
  Icy Cape to Kamschatka                     S. 49°     W.   1,280
  Rialejo to Port Illuluk, Oonoolashka       S. 57°     W.   4,550
  Rialejo to Colombia River                  S. 47°     W.   3,000
  Jeddo to Canton                            S. 62°     W.   1,610
  Manilla to Canton                          N. 41°     W.     680
  Batavia to Jeddo                           N. 53°     E.   3,100
  Cape of Good Hope to Hobart Town           S. 85°     E.   6,000

The course of mails from Falmouth to Canton, by Isthmus of America, by
Rialejo, will be 173 days; and to Sydney, by the same route, 158 days.


_Isthmus of America._

The appearance of the Isthmus of America, from Darien to the borders
of Mexico, indicates, in a very forcible manner, that this portion of
the earth is a fragment of a larger portion, which had, at some
important epoch, been to a great extent submerged around it, and that
the present Isthmus is the remains of a wider continental tract. In
several places within the limits mentioned, the ridges are broken, and
the country abounds--in fact, is studded--with high peaks, isolated,
yet greatly elevated. To the southward of Lake Nicaragua, between 9°
and 10° North latitude, about Cortago or Carthage, the land, or rather
ridge, is so elevated, that although within thirty miles of the
Pacific on the one hand, and forty miles of the Atlantic on the other
hand, yet during the winter months, from November to March, frost and
ice abound. The climate everywhere, in the interior parts, is
represented as being very healthy, and the country fruitful and
pleasant.

  _Chagre and Panama._                                             (p. 132)

                                                              Long.
  Chagre, according to Capt. Forster, from Greenwich,
    in time,                                               5h 19' 49.27"
  Observatory of Panama, East of Fort Lorenzo, Chagre,
     according to Capt. Belcher, in time                       1' 52.8"
  Gorgona, East of Chagre                                      1'  8.7"
  Panama, East of Gorgona                                         43.7"
  Porto Bello, according to Capt. Forster, from Greenwich,
     West, in time                                         5h 18'


THE END.





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