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Title: Contemporary American Literature - Bibliographies and Study Outlines
Author: Manly, John Matthews, 1865-1940, Rickert, Edith, 1871-1938
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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Transcriber's Note: A number of typographical errors and inconsistencies
found in the original book have been maintained in this version. A
complete list is found at the end of the text.




            EDITH RICKERT

               NEW YORK


Printed in the U.S.A.



HOW TO USE THIS BOOK                                           v

INDEXES AND CRITICAL PERIODICALS                              ix

GENERAL WORKS OF REFERENCE                                    xi

ANTHOLOGIES                                                   xv

COLLECTIONS OF PLAYS                                         xvi

COLLECTIONS OF SHORT STORIES                               xviii

COLLECTIONS OF ESSAYS                                      xviii

BIBLIOGRAPHIES                                               xix


INDEXES OF AUTHORS ACCORDING TO FORM                         167


  COLOR                                                      181


This book is intended as a companion volume to _Contemporary British
Literature_; but the differences between conditions in America and in
England have made it necessary to alter somewhat the original plan.

In America today we have a few excellent writers who challenge comparison
with the best of present-day England. We have many more who have been
widely successful in the business of making novels, poems, plays, which
cannot rank as literature at all. In choosing from such a large number a
list for study, it is our hope that we have not omitted the name of any
author who counts as a force in our developing literature; but, on the
other hand, it is undoubtedly true that we have excluded many writers
whose work compares favorably with that of some on the list. Our choice
has been governed by two principles: (1) To include experimental
work--work dealing with fresh materials or attempting new methods--rather
than better work on familiar patterns; and (2) to represent varying
tendencies in the literary effort of our country today rather than work
that ranks high in popular taste. The task of doing justice to every
writer is impossible; but we have been primarily concerned not with
writers but with readers--those who wish guidance to the best that there
is in our literature and to the signs that point to the future.

The word _contemporary_ we have interpreted arbitrarily to mean since the
beginning of the War, excluding writers who died before August, 1914, and
living authors who have produced no work since then. Space limitations
made it impossible to go back to the beginning of the century, and no
other date since then is so significant as 1914.

The biographical material is limited to information of interest for the
interpretation of work. The bibliographies are selective except in the
case of the more important authors, for whom they are, for the student's
purpose, complete. The following items have usually been omitted: (1)
books privately printed; (2) separate editions of works included in
larger volumes; (3) unimportant or inaccessible works; (4) works not of a
literary character; (5) English reprints; (6) editions other than the
first. Exceptions to this plan explain themselves.

The stars (*) are merely guides to the reader in long bibliographies and
bibliographies containing works of very unequal merit.

The Suggestions for Reading given in the case of the more important
authors are intended for students who need and desire guidance. It is our
hope that these hints and questions may lead to discussion and
differences of opinion, for dissent is the guidepost to truth. As far as
possible, we have avoided statement of our own opinions.

The Studies and Reviews are the meagre result of long search in
periodical literature. The fact that the photograph and the personal note
bulk far more largely than criticism in America needs no comment here.

Supplementary to the alphabetical list of authors with material for
study, which constitutes the body of the book, are the classified
indexes. These are intended for use in planning courses of study. The
classification according to form suggests the limitation of work to
poets, dramatists, novelists, short-story writers, essayists, critics,
writers on country life, travel, and Nature, humorists, "columnists," and
writers of biography and autobiography. In this connection should be
noted the supplementary list of poets whose names have not been included
in our list but whose work can be studied in one or more of the
anthologies indicated.

The classification according to birthplace (in some cases information
could not be obtained) furnishes material for the study of local groups
of writers.

The classification according to subject matter (including the use of
local color and background), although it is necessarily incomplete,
will, it is hoped, suggest courses of reading on these bases.

Preceding the alphabetical list of authors are bibliographies of
different types, which should be of use in the finding of material: lists
of indexes and critical periodicals; of general works of reference
discussing the period; of collections of poems, plays, short-stories, and
essays; and of bibliographies of short plays and short stories.

       *       *       *       *       *

Our thanks for criticisms and suggestions are due to Professors Robert
Herrick, Robert Morss Lovett, and Percy Holmes Boynton.

To Mr. G. Teyen, of the Chicago Public Library, we are indebted for
continual help in procuring books, verifying references, and, in general,
for putting the resources of the library at our disposal.



American Library Association Index, (to 1900)             A.L.A.I.
  Supplement, 1901-1910                                   A.L.A. Supp.

Annual Literary Index (1892-1904)                         A.L.I.
  Continued as Annual Library Index, 1905-1910            A.L.I.

Dramatic Index, 1909-                                     D.I.
  Published with Annual Magazine Subject Index.

Magazine Subject Index: Boston, 1908                      M.S.I.
  Continued by Annual Magazine Subject Index, 1909-       A.S.I.

Poole's Index to Periodical Literature, 1802-1881         Poole
  Supplements, 1882-1906; 1907-1908                       Poole Supp.

Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature, 1900-            R.G.
  Supplement, 1907-1915, 1916-1919                        R.G. Supp.
  Continued as International Index to Periodicals, 1921-  I.I.P.


(The initials following the abbreviated titles of the periodicals refer
to the indexes in which they are listed.)

The _Book Review Digest_, 1905- ----, contains summaries of important
reviews in periodicals and newspapers.

Academy: London (ceased 1916)--Acad.

American Catholic Quarterly Review: Philadelphia--Amer. Cath. Quar.

Athenæum: London--Ath.--A.L.I. Combined with Nation (London), Feb. 19,

Atlantic Monthly: Boston--Atlan.--R.G.; A.S.I.

Bellman: Minneapolis, Minn. (ceased 1919).

Booklist (A.L.A.): Chicago.

Bookman: New York--Bookm.--R.G.

Bookman: London--Bookm. (Lond.)--D.I.; A.S.I.

Book News: Philadelphia (ceased 1918).

Boston Transcript: Boston--Bost. Trans.

Catholic World: New York--Cath. World.

Century: New York--Cent.--R.G.

Chapbook (a Monthly Miscellany): London.

Columbia University Quarterly: New York--Columbia Univ. Quar.

Contemporary Review: London and New York--Contemp.--R.G.; A.S.I.

Craftsman: New York. Includes some literary studies.

Critic: New York (ceased 1906)--R.G.

Current Literature: New York (name changed to Current Opinion,
    1913)--Cur. Lit.--R.G.

Current Opinion: New York--Cur. Op.--R.G.

Dial: New York--Dial--R.G.

Double-Dealer: New Orleans (1921- ----).

Drama: Washington--Drama--R.G.S.

Dublin Review: London--Dub. R.--D.I.; A.S.I.; R.G.S.

Edinburgh Review: Edinburgh--Edin. R.

Egoist: London (1914-19). Includes art, music, literature, emphasizing
    especially new movements.

English Review: London (1908- ----)--Eng. Rev.--R.G.S.; D.I.; A.S.I.

Fortnightly Review: London and New York--Fortn.--R.G.; A.S.I.

Forum: New York--R.G.; A.S.I.

Freeman: New York (ceased 1924).

Harper's Magazine: New York--Harp.

Independent: New York--Ind.--R.G.

Literary Digest: New York--Lit. Digest--R.G.

Literary Review of the New York Evening Post: New York (1921- ----).--Lit.

Little Review: Chicago.

Littell's Living Age: Boston--Liv. Age--R.G. Reprints from the best

London Mercury: London (1919- ----)--Lond. Merc. Critical review,
    established in 1919, edited by J.C. Squire.

London Times Literary Supplement: London--Lond. Times--A.S.I.

Manchester Guardian: Manchester, England--The best English provincial
    paper for reviews.

Nation: London--Nation (Lond.)--A.S.I. See Athenæum.

Nation: New York--Nation--R.G.

New Republic: New York (1914- )--New Repub.--R.G.

New Statesman: London (1913- )--New Statesman--R.G.S.; A.S.I.

New York Eve. Post. See Literary Review.

New York Times Review of Books: New York--N.Y. Times.

Nineteenth Century and After: London and New York--19th Cent.--R.G.;

North American Review: New York--No. Am.--R.G.; A.S.I.

Outlook: New York.

Poet Lore: Boston--Poet Lore--R.G.S.

Poetry: Chicago--Poetry--R.G.

Quarterly Review: London and New York--Quar.--R.G.; A.S.I.

The Review: New York--a weekly journal of political and general
    discussion: Began 1919; changed its name, June, 1920, to Weekly
    Review; consolidated with Independent, October, 1921.

Review of Reviews: New York--R. of Rs.--R.G.

Saturday Review: London--Sat. Rev.--A.S.I.

Sewanee Review: Sewanee, Tennessee.

Spectator: London--Spec.--R.G.S.; A.S.I.

Springfield Republican, Springfield, Mass.--Springfield Repub.

Touchstone: New York.

Unpopular Review--New York. 1915-19. Continued as Unpartizan Review to

Westminster Review--London--Westm. R. (ceased 1914).

World Today: New York (ceased 1912).

Yale Review: New Haven, Conn.--R.G.S.

Popular magazines, referred to on occasion, are not listed above.


(Referred to in the book by the first word usually)


Boynton, Percy Holmes. A History of American Literature. 1919.

Cambridge History of American Literature. 1917-21. By W.P. Trent, John
    Erskine, Stuart P. Sherman, and Carl Van Doren. (Vols. III, IV.)

Macy, J.A. The Spirit of American Literature. 1913.

Pattee, Fred Lewis. A History of American Literature since 1870. 1915.

Perry, Bliss. The American Spirit in Literature. 1918.

Stearns, Harold E. America and the Young Intellectual. 1921.

---- ---- Civilization in the United States. 1922. (Special chapters.)


Canby, H.S., Benét, W.R., and Loveman, Amy, Saturday Papers. 1921.

Hackett, Francis. Horizons: a Book of Criticism. 1918.

---- ---- Editor. On American Books. 1920. (Symposium by Joel D.
    Spingarn, Padraic Colum, H.L. Mencken, Morris R. Cohen, and Francis

Littell, Philip, Books and Things. 1919.

Mencken, H.L. Prefaces. 1917.

---- ---- Prejudices, First and Second Series. 1919-20.

Underwood, John Curtis, Literature and Insurgency. 1914.


Andrews, Charlton. The Drama Today. 1913.

Baker, George Pierce. Dramatic Technique. 1912.

Beegle, Mary Porter, and Crawford, Jack R. Community Drama and Pageantry.

Burleigh, Louise. The Community Theatre in Theory and in Practice. 1917.

Chandler, F.W. Aspects of Modern Drama. 1914.

Cheney, Sheldon. The Art Theatre. 1917.

---- ---- The New Movement in the Theatre. 1914.

---- ---- The Out-Of-Door Theatre. 1918.

Clark, Barrett H. The British and American Drama of Today. 1915, 1921.

Dickinson, Thomas H. The Case of American Drama. 1915.

---- ---- The Insurgent Theatre. 1917.

Eaton, Walter Prichard. At the New Theatre and Others. 1910.

---- ---- Plays and Players: Leaves from a Critic's Notebook. 1916.

Goldman, Emma. The Social Significance of the Modern Drama. 1914.

Grau, Robert. The Theatre of Science. 1914.

Hamilton, Clayton. Studies in Stagecraft. 1914.

Henderson, Archibald. The Changing Drama. 1914.

Lewis, B. Roland. The Technique of the One-Act Play. 1918.

Lewisohn, Ludwig. The Modern Drama. 1915.

Mackay, Constance D'Arcy. The Little Theatre in the United States. 1917.

Mackaye, Percy. The Civic Theatre. 1912.

---- ---- Community Drama. 1917.

---- ---- The Playhouse and the Play. 1909.

Macgowan, K. The Theatre of Tomorrow. 1921.

Matthews, Brander. A Book about the Theatre. 1916.

Moderwell, Hiram Kelly. The Theatre of Today. 1914.

Moses, Montrose J. The American Dramatist. 1917.

Nathan, George Jean. Another Book on the Theatre. 1915.

Phelps, William Lyon. The Twentieth Century Theatre. 1918.


Cooper, Frederic Taber. Some American Story-Tellers. 1911.

Gordon, G. The Men Who Make our Novels. 1919.

Overton, Grant. The Women Who Make our Novels. 1918.

Phelps, William Lyon. The Advance of the English Novel. 1916.

Van Doren, Carl. The American Novel. 1921.

Wilkinson, H. Social Thought in American Fiction (1910-17). 1919.


Aiken, Conrad, Scepticisms. Notes on Contemporary Poetry. 1919.

Caswell, E.S. Canadian Singers and Their Songs. 1920.

Cook, H.W. Our Poets of Today. 1918.

Lowell, Amy. Tendencies in Modern American Poetry. 1917.

Lowes, John Livingston. Convention and Revolt in Poetry. 1919.

Peckham, E.H. Present-Day American Poetry. 1917.

Phelps, William Lyon. The Advance of English Poetry in the Twentieth
    Century. 1918.

Rittenhouse, Jessie B. The Younger American Poets. 1904.

Untermeyer, Louis. The New Era in American Poetry. 1919.

Wilkinson, Marguerite. New Voices. 1919.


Halsey, F.W. American Authors and Their Homes. Personal Descriptions and
    Interviews (Illustrated). 1901.

---- ---- Women Authors of our Day in their Homes (Illustrated.) 1903.

Harkins, E.F. Famous Authors. (Men.) 1901.

---- ---- Famous Authors. (Women.) 1901.


Andrews, C.E. From the Front; Trench Poetry. Appleton, 1918.

Anthology of American Humor in Verse. Duffield, 1917.

American and British from the Yale Review. (Foreword by J.G. Fletcher.)

Armstrong, H.F. Book of New York Verse. Putnam, 1917.

Blanden, C.G., and Mathison, M. Chicago Anthology. Roadside Press, 1916.

Braithwaite, W.S. Anthology of Magazine Verse and Yearbook of

American Poetry. Small, Maynard, 1914- ----.

---- ---- Golden Treasury of Magazine Verse. Small, Maynard, 1918.

Clarke, G.H. Treasury of War Poetry. Houghton Mifflin: First Series,
    1917; Second Series, 1919.

Cook, H.W. Our Poets of Today. Moffat, Yard, 1918.

Cronyn, George W. The Path on the Rainbow (North American Indian Songs
    and Chants.) Boni & Liveright, 1918.

Des Imagistes: 1914. Poetry Bookshop, London, 1914.

Edgar, W.C. The Bellman Book of Verse, 1906-19. Bellman Co., 1919.

Erskine, John. Contemporary Verse Anthology. (War poetry.) Dutton, 1920.

Kreymborg, Alfred. Others. Knopf, 1916, 1917, 1919.

Le Gallienne, Richard. Modern Book of American Verse. Boni & Liveright,

Miscellany of American Poetry, A. Harcourt, Brace, 1920.

Monroe, Harriet, and Henderson, Alice Corbin. The New Poetry. Macmillan,
    1917; revised edition, 1920.

O'Brien, Edward J. A Masque of Poets. Dodd, Mead, 1918.

Richards, G.M. High Tide; Songs of Joy and Vision. Houghton Mifflin,

---- ---- The Melody of Earth. (Nature and Garden Poems from Present-day
    Poets.) Houghton Mifflin, 1920.

---- ---- Star Points; Songs of Joy, Faith, and Promise. Houghton
    Mifflin, 1921.

Rittenhouse, Jessie B. The Little Book of Modern Verse. Houghton Mifflin,

---- ---- The Second Book of Modern Verse. Houghton Mifflin, 1919.

Some Imagist Poets: 1915, 1916, 1917. Constable.

Stork, Charles Wharton, Contemporary Verse Anthology. Favorite Poems
    Selected from the Magazine of Contemporary Verse. 1916-20. Dutton,

Untermeyer, Louis. Modern American Poetry. Harcourt, Brace, 1920;
    enlarged, 1921.


Baker, George Pierce. Harvard Plays. Brentano.
    I. 47 Workshop Plays. First Series. 1918. (Rachel L. Field, Hubert
        Osborne, Eugene Pillot, William L. Prosser.)

    II. Plays of the Harvard Dramatic Club. First Series. 1918. (Winifred
        Hawkridge, H. Brock, Rita C. Smith, K. Andrews.)

    III. Plays of the Harvard Dramatic Club. Second Series. 1919. (Louise
        W. Bray, E.W. Bates, F. Bishop, C. Kinkead.)

    IV. 47 Workshop Plays. Second Series, 1920. (Kenneth Raesback, Norman
        C. Lindau, Eleanor Holmes Hinkley, Doris F. Halnan.)

Baker, George Pierce. Modern American Plays. Harcourt, Brace, 1920.
    (Belasco, Sheldon, Thomas).

Cohen, Helen Louise. One-Act Plays by Modern Authors. Harcourt, Brace,
    1921. (Mackaye, Marks, Peabody, R.E. Rogers, Tarkington, Stark

---- ---- Longer Plays by Modern Authors. Harcourt, Brace, 1922. (Thomas,

Cook, G.C. and Shay, F. Provincetown Plays. Stewart Kidd.

---- ---- First Series (Louise Bryant, Dell, O'Neill), 1916.

---- ---- Second Series (Neith Boyce and Hutchins Hapgood, G.C. Cook and
    Susan Glaspell, John Reed), 1916.

---- ---- Third Series (Neith Boyce, Kreymborg, O'Neill), 1917. (Boyce
    and Hapgood, Cook and Glaspell, Dell, P. King, Millay, O'Neill,
    Oppenheim, Alice Rostetter, W.D. Steele, Wellman), 1921.

Dickinson, Thomas H. Chief Contemporary Dramatists. Houghton Mifflin,
    1915. (Mackaye, Thomas.)

---- ---- Second Series (G.C. Hazelton and Benrimo, Peabody, Walter).

Dickinson, Thomas H. Wisconsin Plays. Huebsch.

---- ---- First Series (Thomas H. Dickinson, Gale, William Ellery
    Leonard), 1914.

---- ---- Second Series (M. Ilsley, H.M. Jones, Laura Sherry), 1918.

47 Workshop, Plays of the. _See_ Baker.

Harvard Dramatic Club, Plays of the. _See_ Baker.

Knickerbocker, Edwin Van B. Plays for Classroom Interpretation. Holt,

Lewis, B. Roland. Contemporary One-Act Plays. 1922. (Bibliographies.)
    (Middleton, Althea Thurston, Mackaye, Eugene Pillot, Bosworth
    Crocker, Kreymborg, Paul Greene, Arthur Hopkins, Jeannette Marks,
    Oscar M. Wolff, David Pinski, Beulah Bornstead.)

Mayorga, Margaret Gardner. Representative One-Act Plays by American
    Authors. Little, Brown, 1919. (Full bibliographies). (Mary Aldis,
    Cook and Glaspell, Sada Cowan, Bosworth Crocker, Elva De Pue, Beulah
    Marie Dix, Hortense Flexner, Esther E. Galbraith, Alice Gerstenberg,
    Doris F. Halnan, Ben Hecht and Kenneth Sawyer Goodman, Phoebe
    Hoffman, Kreymborg, Mackaye, Marks, Middleton, O'Neill, Eugene
    Pillot, Frances Pemberton Spenser, Thomas Wood Stevens and Kenneth
    Sawyer Goodman, Walker, Wellman, Wilde, Oscar M. Wolff.)

More Portmanteau Plays. Stewart Kidd, 1919. (Stuart Walker.)

Morningside Plays. Shay, 1917. (Elva de Pue, Caroline Briggs, Elmer L.
    Reizenstein, Zella Macdonald).

Moses, Montrose J. Representative Plays by American Dramatists. Dutton,
    1918-21. Vol. III. (Belasco, Thomas, Walter.)

Pierce, John Alexander. The Masterpieces of Modern Drama. English and
    American. (Summarized and quoted.) 1915. (Thomas [2], Walter,
    Mackaye, Belasco.)

Portmanteau Plays. Stewart Kidd, 1918. (Stuart Walker.)

Provincetown Plays. _See_ Cook.

Quinn, A.H. Representative American Plays. Century, 1917. (Crothers,
    Mackaye, Sheldon, Thomas).

Shay, Frank, and Loving, P. Fifty Contemporary One-Act Plays, 1920.

Small Stages, Plays for. Duffield, 1915. (Mary Aldis.)

Smith, Alice Mary. Short Plays by Representative Authors. Macmillan,
    1920. (Constance D'Arcy Mackay, Mary Macmillan, Marks, Torrence,

Stage, Guild Plays and Masques. (Kenneth Sawyer Goodman, Thomas Wood

Washington Square Plays. Drama League Series. Doubleday, Page, 1916.
    (Lewis Beach, Alice Gerstenberg, Edward Goodman, Moeller.)

Wisconsin Plays. _See_ Dickinson.


Heydrick, B.A. Americans All. Harcourt, Brace, 1920.

Howells, W.D. Great Modern American Stories. Boni & Liveright, 1920.
    (Does not include much recent work.)

Laselle, Mary Augusta. Short Stories of the New America. Holt, 1919.

Law, F.H. Modern Short Stories. Century, 1918.

O'Brien, Edward J.H. Best short stories for 1915, 1916, etc. Published
    annually. Small, Maynard.

Thomas, Charles Swain. Atlantic Narratives. Atlantic, 1918.

Wick, Jean. The Stories Editors Buy and Why. Small, Maynard, 1921.

Williams, Blanche Colton. Our Short Story Writers. Moffat, Yard, 1920.


Kilmer, Joyce. Literature in the Making. Harper, 1917.

Morley, Christopher, Modern Essays. Harcourt, Brace, 1921.

Tanner, W.M. Essays and Essay-Writing. Atlantic, 1917.

Thomas, Charles Swain. Atlantic Classics, First and Second Series.
    Atlantic, 1918.



Boston Public Library. One-Act Plays in English. 1900-20.

Brown University Library. Plays of Today. 1921. (100 of the best modern

Chicago Public Library. Actable One-Act Plays. 1916.

University of Utah. The One-Act Play in Colleges and High Schools. 1920.

Worcester, Massachusetts, Free Public Library. Selected List of One-Act
    Plays. 1921.

Boynton, Percy H. History of American Literature. 1919.

Cheney, Sheldon. The Art Theatre. 1917. (Appendix.)

Clapp, John Mantel. Plays for Amateurs. 1915. (Drama League of America.)

Clark, Barrett H. How to Produce Amateur Plays. 1917.

Dickinson, Thomas H. The Insurgent Theatre. 1917. (Appendix.)

Drummond, A.M. Fifty One-Act Plays. 1915. (Quarterly Journal of Public
    Speaking, I, 234.)

---- ---- One-Act Plays for Schools and Colleges. 1918. (Education, IV,

Johnson, Gertrude Elizabeth. Choosing a Play. Century, 1920.

Lewis, B. Roland. Contemporary One-Act Plays. 1922.

Mackay, Constance D'Arcy, The Little Theatre in the United States. 1917.

Mayorga, Margaret Gardner, Representative One-Act Plays by American
    Authors. 1919.

Plays for Amateurs; a Selected List Prepared by the Little Theatre
    Department of the New York Drama League. Wilson, 1921.

Riley, Alice C.D. The One-Act Play Study Course. 1918. (Drama League
    Monthly, Feb.-Apr.)

Shay, Frank, Plays and Books of the Little Theatre, 1921.

Shay, Frank, and Loving, P. Fifty Contemporary One-act Plays, 1920.

Stratton, Clarence, Producing in Little Theatres, 1921. (Appendix lists
    200 plays for amateurs.)


Hannigan, F.J. Standard Index to Short Stories, 1900-1914. 1918.

O'Brien, E.J.H. Best Short Stories for 1915, 1916, etc. (Published



+Franklin Pierce Adams+--(Illinois, 1881)--humorous poet, "columnist."

Editor of "The Conning Tower" in the _New York World_.

For bibliography, cf. _Who's Who in America_.

+Henry (Brooks) Adams+--man of letters.

Born in Boston, 1838. Great-grandson of John Adams and grandson of John
Quincy Adams, presidents of the United States. Brother of Charles Francis
and Brooks Adams. A.B., Harvard, 1858, LL.D., Western Reserve, 1892.

Secretary to his father, Charles Francis Adams, American Minister to
England, 1861-8. Assistant professor at Harvard, 1870-7, and editor of
_North American Review_, 1870-6.

Lived in Washington from 1877 until his death in 1918, but traveled
extensively and knew many famous people.

In memory of his wife, he commissioned Saint Gaudens to make for her tomb
in Rock Creek Cemetery, Washington, the statue sometimes called
_Silence_, which is one of the sculptor's most beautiful works.


1. _The Education of Henry Adams_ is autobiographic.

The persistent irony of the presentation should be corrected by reading
Brooks Adams's account of his brother.

2. _Mont Saint Michel and Chartres_ is an attempt to interpret the spirit
of mediæval architecture, both secular and ecclesiastical. To appreciate
it fully, familiarity with the subject is necessary.

The novels are worth study as satires.


   Democracy. 1880. (Novel.)
   Esther. 1884. (Novel; under pseudonym, "Frances Snow Compton.")
   Historical Essays. 1891.
   Mont Saint Michel and Chartres. 1904.
   The Education of Henry Adams. 1918.
   The Degradation of the Democratic Dogma. 1919.
   Letters to a Niece and Prayer to the Virgin of Chartres. 1920.
   Also in: A Cycle of Adams Letters, 1861-1865. Edited by Worthington
     Chauncey Ford. 1920.



   Ath. 1919, 1: 361; 1919, 2: 633; 1920, 1: 243, 665.
   Atlan. 125 ('20): 623; 127 ('21): 140.
   Bookm. (Lond.) 57 ('19): 30.
   Cur. Op. 66 ('19): 108.
   Dial, 65 ('18): 468.
   Dublin Rev. 164 ('19): 218.
   Harv. Grad. M. 26 ('18): 540.
   Lond. Times, May 30, 1919: 290.
   Nation, 106 ('18): 674.
   New Repub. 15 ('18): 106.
   New Statesman, 16 ('21): 711.
   19th Cent. 85 ('19): 981.
   Pol. Sci. Q. 34 ('19): 305.
   Scrib. M. 69 ('21): 576 (portrait).
   Spec. 122 ('19): 231.
   World's Work, 4 ('02): 2324.
   Yale Rev. n.s. 8 ('19): 580; n.s. 9 ('20): 271, 890.

+George Ade+--humorist, dramatist.

Born at Kentland, Indiana, 1866. B.S., Purdue University, 1887. Newspaper
work at Lafayette, Indiana, 1887-90. On the _Chicago Record_, 1890-1900.

Although some of his earlier plays were successful and promised a career
as dramatist, his reputation now rests chiefly upon his humorous modern


   Fables in Slang. 1900.
   More Fables. 1900.
   Forty Modern Fables. 1901.
   The County Chairman. 1903. (Play.)
   The College Widow. 1904. (Play.)
   Ade's Fables. 1914.
   Hand-Made Fables. 1920.

For complete bibliography, see _Cambridge_, III (IV), 640, 763.



   Am. M. 73 ('11): 71 (portrait), 73.
   Bookm. 51 ('20): 568; 54 ('21): 116.
   Harp. W. 47 ('03): 411 (portrait), 426.
   No. Am. 176 ('03): 739. (Howells.)
   Rev. 2 ('20): 461.

+Conrad Potter Aiken+--poet, critic.

Born at Savannah, Georgia, 1889. A.B., Harvard, 1912. Has lived abroad,
in London, Rome, and Windermere.


1. A good introduction to Mr. Aiken's verse is his own explanation of his
theory in _Poetry_, 14 ('19); 152ff. To readers to whom this is not
accessible, the following extracts may furnish some clue as to his aim
and method:

     What I had from the outset been somewhat doubtfully hankering for
     was some way of getting contrapuntal effects in poetry--the effects
     of contrasting and conflicting tones and themes, a kind of
     underlying simultaneity in dissimilarity. It seemed to me that by
     using a large medium, dividing it into several main parts, and
     subdividing these parts into short movements in various veins and
     forms, this was rendered possible. I do not wish to press the
     musical analogies too closely. I am aware that the word symphony, as
     a musical term, has a very definite meaning, and I am aware that it
     is only with considerable license that I use the term for such poems
     as _Senlin_ or _Forslin_, which have three and five parts
     respectively, and do not in any orthodox way develop their themes.
     But the effect obtained is, very roughly speaking, that of the
     symphony, or symphonic poem. Granted that one has chosen a theme--or
     been chosen by a theme!--which will permit rapid changes of tone,
     which will not insist on a tone too static, it will be seen that
     there is no limit to the variety of effects obtainable: for not only
     can one use all the simpler poetic tones...; but, since one is using
     them as parts of a larger design, one can also obtain novel effects
     by placing them in juxtaposition as consecutive movements....

     All this, I must emphasize, is no less a matter of emotional tone
     than of form; the two things cannot well be separated. For such
     symphonic effects one employs what one might term emotion-mass with
     just as deliberate a regard for its position in the total design as
     one would employ a variation of form. One should regard this or that
     emotional theme as a musical unit having such-and-such a tone
     quality, and use it only when that particular tone-quality is
     wanted. Here I flatly give myself away as being in reality in quest
     of a sort of absolute poetry, a poetry in which the intention is not
     so much to arouse an emotion merely, or to persuade of a reality, as
     to employ such emotion or sense of reality (tangentially struck)
     with the same cool detachment with which a composer employs notes or
     chords. Not content to present emotions or things or sensations for
     their own sakes--as is the case with most poetry--this method takes
     only the most delicately evocative aspects of them, makes of them a
     keyboard, and plays upon them a music of which the chief
     characteristic is its elusiveness, its fleetingness, and its
     richness in the shimmering overtones of hint and suggestion. Such a
     poetry, in other words, will not so much present an idea as use its

2. An interesting comparison may be made between the work of Mr. Aiken,
and that of Mr. T.S. Eliot (q.v.), of whom he is an admirer. See also
Sidney Lanier's latest poems.

3. Another interesting study is the influence of Freud upon the poetry of
Mr. Aiken.


   Earth Triumphant and Other Tales. 1914.
   Turns and Movies. 1916.
   The Jig of Forslin. 1916.
   Nocturne of Remembered Spring. 1917.
   The Charnel Rose; Senlin: a Biography, and other Poems. 1918.
   Scepticisms: Notes on Contemporary Poetry. 1919.
   The House of Dust. 1920.
   Punch, the Immortal Liar. 1921.



   Ath. 1919, 2: 798, 840; 1920, 1: 10.
   Bookm. 47 ('18): 269; 51 ('20): 194.
   Chapbook, 1-2, May, 1920: 26.
   Dial, 64 ('18): 291 (J.G. Fletcher); 66 ('19): 558 (J.G. Fletcher);
     68 ('20): 491; 70 ('21): 343, 700.
   Egoist, 5 ('18): 60.
   Nation, 111 ('20): 509.
   Poetry, 9 ('16): 99; 10 ('17): 162; 13 ('18): 102; 14 ('19): 152;
     15 ('20): 283; 17 ('21): 220.
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1919, 1920.

+"Henry G. Aikman" (Harold H. Armstrong)+--novelist. Born in 1879. His
    books dealing with the psychology of the young man have attracted


   The Groper. 1919.
   Zell. 1921.

For reviews, see _Book Review Digest_, 1919, 1921.

+Zoë Akins+ (Missouri, 1886)--dramatist.

Attracted attention by her _Papa_, 1913, produced, 1919. Followed up this
success by _Déclassée_, also produced 1919 (quoted with illustrations in
_Current Opinion_, 68 ['20]: 187); and _Daddy's Gone A-Hunting_, produced

For complete bibliography, see _Who's Who in America_.

+Mrs. Richard Aldington+ (Hilda Doolittle, "H.D.")--poet.

Born at Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, 1886. Studied at Bryn Mawr, 1904-5, but
ill health compelled her to give up college work. In 1911, she went
abroad and remained there. In 1913, she married Richard Aldington, the
English poet (cf. Manly and Rickert, _Contemporary British Poetry_).

"H.D.'s" work is commonly regarded as the most perfect embodiment of the
Imagist theory.


   Sea Garden. 1916.
   Hymen. 1921.
   Also in: Des Imagistes. 1914.
            Some Imagist Poets. 1915, 1916.
            The Egoist. (_Passim._)



   Bookm. (Lond.) 51 ('17): 132.
   Chapbook, 2 ('20): No. 9, p. 22. (Flint.)
   Dial, 72 ('22): 203. (May Sinclair.)
   Egoist, 2 ('15): 72 (Flint); 88 (May Sinclair).
   Little Review, 5 ('18): Dec., p. 14. (Pound.)
   Lond. Times, Oct. 5, 1916: 479.
   Poetry, 20 ('20): 333.
   Poetry Journal, 7 ('17): 171.

+James Lane Allen+--novelist.

Born near Lexington, Kentucky, 1849, of Scotch-Irish Revolutionary
ancestry. A.B., A.M., Transylvania University; and honorary higher
degrees. Taught in various schools and colleges. Since 1886 has given his
time entirely to writing. Nature lover. Describes the Kentucky life that
he knows.


   Flute and Violin and Other Kentucky Tales and Romances. 1891.
   The Blue Grass Region of Kentucky and Other Kentucky Articles. 1892.
   John Gray--a Novel. 1893.
  *A Kentucky Cardinal. 1895.
   Aftermath. 1896.
   A Summer in Arcady. 1896.
   The Choir Invisible. 1897. (Novel; play, 1899.)
   Two Gentlemen of Kentucky. 1899.
   The Reign of Law. A Tale of the Kentucky Hemp Fields. 1900.
  *The Mettle of the Pasture. 1903.
   The Bride of the Mistletoe. 1909.
   The Doctor's Christmas Eve. 1910.
   The Heroine in Bronze, or A Portrait of a Girl. 1912.
   The Last Christmas Tree. 1914.
   The Sword of Youth. 1915.
   A Cathedral Singer. 1916.
   The Kentucky Warbler. 1918.
   The Emblems of Fidelity. 1919.



   Acad. 59 ('00): 35; 76 ('09): 800; 88 ('15): 234.
   Bk. Buyer, 20 ('00): 350, 374.
   Bookm. 32 ('10-11): 360, 640.
   Cur. Lit. 29 ('00): 147; 35 ('03): 129 (portrait).
   Lamp, 27 ('03): 117, 119 (portrait).
   Mentor, 6 ('18): 2 (portrait).
   Outlook, 96 ('10): 811.

+Sherwood Anderson+--short-story writer, novelist.

Born at Camden, Ohio, 1876. Of Scotch-Irish ancestry. Father a journeyman
harness-maker. Public school education. At the age of sixteen or
seventeen came to Chicago and worked four or five years as a laborer.
Soldier in the Spanish-American War. Later, in the advertising business.

In 1921, received the prize of $2,000 offered by _The Dial_ to further
the work of the American author considered to be most promising.


1. The autobiographical element in Mr. Anderson's work is marked and
should never be forgotten in judging his work. The conventional element
is easily discoverable as patched on, particularly in the long books.

2. To realize the qualities that make some critics regard Mr. Anderson as
perhaps our most promising novelist, examples should be noted of the
following qualities which he possesses to a striking degree: (1)
independence of literary traditions and methods; (2) a keen eye for
details; (3) a passionate desire to interpret life; (4) a strong sense of
the value of individual lives of little seeming importance.

3. Are Mr. Anderson's defects due to the limitations of his experience,
or do you notice certain temperamental defects which he is not likely to

4. Mr. Anderson's experiments in form are interesting to study. Compare
the prosiness of his verse with his efforts to use poetic cadence in _The
Triumph of the Egg_. Does it suggest to you the possibility of developing
a form intermediate between prose and free verse?

5. Does Mr. Anderson succeed best as novelist or as short-story writer?


   Windy McPherson's Son. 1916. (Novel.)
   Marching Men. 1917. (Novel.)
   Mid-American Chants. 1918. (Poems.)
   Winesburg, Ohio. 1919.
   Poor White. 1920. (Novel.)
   The Triumph of the Egg. 1921.


   Bookm. 45 ('17): 302 (portrait), 307.
   Dial, 72 ('22): 29, 79.
   Freeman, 2 ('21) 1403; 4 ('21): 281.
   New Repub. 9 ('17): 333; 24 ('20): 330; 28 ('21): 383.
   New Statesman, 8 ('17): 330.
   Poetry, 12 ('18): 155.
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1919, 1920, 1921.

+Mary Raymond Shipman Andrews+--(+Mrs. William Shankland
    Andrews+)--short-story writer, novelist.


  *The Perfect Tribute. 1906.
   The Militants. 1907.
  *The Lifted Bandage. 1910.
   The Counsel Assigned. 1912.
   The Marshal. 1912.
   The Three Things. 1915.
   Joy in the Morning. 1919.
   His Soul Goes Marching On. 1922.


   Bookm. 27 ('08): 155.
   Nation, 85 ('07): 58.
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1912, 1915, 1919.

+Mary Antin (Mrs. Amadeus W. Grabau)+--writer.

Born at Polotzk, Russia, 1881. Came to America in 1894. Educated in
American schools. Studied at Teachers' College, Columbia, 1901-2, and at
Barnard College, 1902-4.

Her second book attracted attention for its fresh and sympathetic
treatment of the experiences of immigrants coming to this country.


   From Polotzk to Boston. 1899.
  *The Promised Land. 1912.
   They Who Knock at Our Gates. 1914.


   Acad. 83 ('12): 637.
   Am. M. 77 ('14): Mar., p. 64 (portrait).
   Bookm. 35 ('12): 584.
   J. Educ. 81 ('15): 91.
   Lond. Times, Oct. 10, 1912: 420.
   Outlook, 104 ('13): 473 (portrait).

+Walter Conrad Arensberg+--poet.

Illustrates in his _Poems_, 1914, and _Idols_, 1916, conversion from the
old forms of verse to the new. Cf. also _Others_, 1916.

For studies, cf. Untermeyer; also _Dial_, 69 ('20): 61 _Poetry_, 8 ('16):

+Gertrude Franklin Atherton (Mrs. George H. Bowen Atherton)+--novelist.

Born at San Francisco, 1859. Great-grandniece of Benjamin Franklin.
Educated in private schools. Has lived much abroad.

Mrs. Atherton's work is very uneven, but is interesting as reflecting
different aspects of social and political life in this country.


   The Doomswoman. 1892.
   Patience Sparhawk and Her Times. 1897.
  *American Wives and English Husbands. 1898. (Revised edition, 1919;
     under the title _Transplanted_.)
   The Californians. 1898.
  *Senator North. 1900.
   The Aristocrats. 1901.
  *The Conqueror. 1902.
   The Splendid Idle Forties. 1902.
   Rezanov. 1906.
  *Ancestors. 1907.
   Perch of the Devil. 1914.
   California--an Intimate History. 1914.
   The White Morning. 1918.
   Sisters-in-law. 1921.
   Sleeping Fires. 1922.


   Courtney, W.L. The Feminine Note in Fiction. 1904.
   Halsey. (Women.)
   Harkins. (Women.)

   Bookm. 12 ('01): 541, 542 (portrait); 30 ('09): 356.
   Forum, 58 ('17): 585.

+Mary Hunter Austin (Mrs. Stafford W. Austin)+--novelist, dramatist.

Born at Carlinville, Illinois, 1868. At the age of nineteen went to live
in California. B.S., Blackburn University, 1888. Lived on the edge of the
Mohave Desert where she is said to have worked like an Indian woman,
housekeeping and gardening. Studied the desert, its form, its weather,
its lights, its plants. Also studied Indian lore extensively,
contributing the chapter on Aboriginal Literature to the _Cambridge
History of American Literature_ (IV [Later National Literature, III],


   The Land of Little Rain. 1903.
  *The Basket Woman: Fanciful Tales for Children. 1904.
   Isidro. 1905.
   The Flock. 1906.
   Santa Lucia. 1908.
   Lost Borders. 1909.
  *The Arrow Maker. 1911. (Play.) (Also in _Drama_, 1915.)
  *A Woman of Genius. 1912.
   The Green Bough. 1913.
   The Lovely Lady. 1913.
   Love and the Soul-Maker. 1914.
   The Man Jesus. 1915.
   The Ford. 1917.
   Outland. 1919. (Originally published under the pseudonym, "Gordon
     Stairs," London, 1910.)
   No. 26 Jayne Street. 1920.



   Am. M. 72 ('11): 178 (portrait).
   Bookm. 35 ('12): 586 (portrait).
   Cur. Lit. 53 ('12): 698 (portrait.)
   Freeman, 1 ('20): 311.
   New Repub. 24 ('20): 151.
   R. of Rs. 47 ('13): 241 (portrait).
   Review, 3 ('20): 73.
   Sunset, 43 ('19): 49 (portrait).

+Irving (Addison) Bacheller+ (New York, 1859)--novelist.

His outstanding books are:

   Eben Holden. 1900.
   A Man for the Ages. 1919. (Lincoln, the hero.)

For bibliography, see _Who's Who in America_.

+Josephine Dodge Daskam Bacon (Mrs. Selden Bacon)+--novelist.

Born at Stamford, Connecticut, 1876. A.B., Smith College, 1898.

Mrs. Bacon has made a special study of child life.


   Smith College Stories. 1900.
   The Imp and the Angel. 1901.
   Fables for the Fair. 1901.
   The Madness of Philip. 1902.
   Middle Aged Love Stories. 1903.
  *Memoirs of a Baby. 1904.
   The Domestic Adventurers. 1907.
  *Biography of a Boy. 1910.
   While Caroline Was Growing. 1911.
   Margarita's Soul. 1909. (Under the pseudonym "Ingraham Lovell.")
   Open Market. 1915.
   When Binks Came. 1920.


   Am. M. 69 ('10): 765, 766 (portrait).
   Bk. Buyer, 20 ('00): 191 (portrait).
   Bookm. 27 ('08): 159.
   Critic, 40 ('02): 332 (portrait), 335.
   Outlook, 78 ('04): 288 (portrait).

+Ray Stannard Baker ("David Grayson")+--man of letters.

Born at Lansing, Michigan, 1870. B.S., Michigan Agricultural College,
1889. Studied law and literature at University of Michigan; LL.D., 1917.
On the _Chicago Record_, 1892-7. Managing editor of McClure's Syndicate,
1897-8, and associate editor of _McClure's Magazine_, 1899-1905. On the
_American Magazine_, 1906-15. Director of Press Bureau of the American
Commission to Negotiate Peace at Paris, 1919.

His studies of country life under the pseudonym "David Grayson" are
widely popular.


   Adventures in Contentment. 1907.
   Adventures in Friendship. 1910.
   The Friendly Road. 1913.
   Hempfield. 1915.
   Great Possessions. 1917.


   Acad. 86 ('14): 137.
   Am. M. 78 ('14)138.
   Bookm. 43 ('16): 1 (portrait), 394.
   Bookm. (Lond.) 39 ('11): 290; 47 ('14): 107.
   McClure's, 24 ('04): 108, 110 (portrait).

+John Kendrick Bangs+ (New York, 1862-1922)--humorist.

Published some sixty volumes of prose sketches, verses, stories, and
plays, most of which belong to the nineteenth century. Characteristic
volumes are:

   Coffee and Repartee. 1893.
   A House Boat on the Styx. 1895.
   The Bycyclers and Other Farces. 1896.
   A Rebellious Heroine. 1896.
   Alice in Blunderland. 1907.
   Autobiography of Methuselah. 1909.
   The Foothills of Parnassus. 1914.

For complete bibliography, cf. _Who's Who in America_.



   Bk. Buyer, 20 ('00): 183 (portrait), 208.
   Bookm. 15 ('02): 412 (portrait).
   Critic, 42 ('03): 105 (portrait).
   Harp. W. 46 ('02): 891; 51 ('07): 23, 28. (Portraits.)

+Rex Ellingwood Beach+ (Michigan, 1877)--novelist.

Writer of novels of adventure, mainly about Alaska. For bibliography, see
_Who's Who in America_.

+(Charles) William Beebe+--Nature writer.

Born at Brooklyn, 1877. B.S., Columbia, 1898; post-graduate work, 1898-9.
Honorary Curator of Ornithology, New York Zoölogical Society since 1899;
director of the British Guiana Zoölogical Station. Has traveled
extensively in Asia, South America, and Mexico, especially, for purposes
of observation.


1. Although Mr. Beebe is preëminently an ornithologist, he belongs to
literature by reason of the volumes of nature studies listed below. A
comparison of his books with those of the English ornithologist, W.H.
Hudson (cf. Manly and Rickert, _Contemporary British Literature_) is
illuminative of the merits of both.

2. Another interesting comparison may be made between Mr. Beebe's
descriptions of the jungle in _Jungle Peace_ and H.M. Tomlinson's in _Sea
and Jungle_ (cf. Manly and Rickert, _op. cit._).

3. An analysis of the use of suggestion in appeal to the different senses
brings out one of the main sources of Mr. Beebe's charm as a writer.

4. Read aloud several fine passages to observe the prose rhythms.


   Two Bird Lovers in Mexico. 1905.
   The Log of the Sun. 1906.
   Our Search for a Wilderness. 1910. (With Mrs. Beebe.)
   Tropical Wild Life in British Guiana. 1917.
  *Jungle Peace. 1918.
   Edge of the Jungle. 1921.


   Nation, 106 ('18): 213.
   Science, n.s. 50 ('19): 473.
   Spec. 95 ('05): 1128.
   Travel, 38 ('21): 17 (portrait).
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1918, 1921.

+David Belasco+--dramatist.

Born at San Francisco, 1859. Stage manager of various theatres and
producer of many plays. Owner and manager of Belasco Theatre, New York

His most successful recent play, _The Return of Peter Grimm_ (1911), is
printed by Baker, _Modern American Plays_, 1920, and by Moses,
_Representative Plays by American Dramatists_, 1918-21, III. For
bibliography of unpublished plays, cf. _Cambridge_, III (IV), 763.


   Eaton, W.P. Plays and Players. 1916.
   Winter, William. Life of David Belasco. 1918.
   Acad. 83 ('12): 673.
   Nation, 100 ('10): 525.
   New Repub. 8 ('16): 155.
   Theatre Arts M. 5 ('21): 259=Outlook, 127 ('21): 418 (portrait).

+Stephen Vincent Benét+--poet, novelist.

Born at Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, 1898; brother of William Rose Benét
(q.v.) Graduate of Yale, 1919.

Mr. Benét's work at once attracted attention by its qualities of
exuberance and fancy. In 1921, he shared with Carl Sandburg (q.v.) the
prize of the Poetry Society of America.


   Five Men and Pompey. 1915.
   The Drug Shop. 1917.
   Young Adventure. 1918.
   Heavens and Earth. 1920.
   The Beginning of Wisdom. 1921. (Novel.)


   Bookm. 47 ('18): 558 (Phelps); 54 ('21): 394.
   Dial, 71 ('21): 597.
   Poetry, 16 ('20): 53; 20 ('22): 340.
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1919, 1920, 1921.

+William Rose Benét+--poet.

Born at Fort Hamilton, New York Harbor, 1886. Ph.B., Sheffield Scientific
School, Yale, 1907. Free lance writer in California 1907-11. Reader for
the _Century Magazine_, 1911-18. In 1920, associate editor of the
_Literary Review_ of the _New York Evening Post_.

Mr. Benét's verse has attracted attention for its pictorial imagination,
vigorous rhythms, and grotesque and lively fancy.


   Merchants from Cathay. 1913.
   The Falconer of God. 1914.
   The Great White Wall. 1916.
   The Burglar of the Zodiac. 1918.
   Perpetual Light. 1919.
   Moons of Grandeur. 1920.



   Bookm. 47 ('18): 558; 53 ('21): 168.
   Dial, 56 ('14): 67.
   Poetry, 5 ('14): 91; 9 ('17): 322; 12 ('18): 216; 15 ('19): 48.
   R. of Rs. 51 ('15): 759.
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1914, 1917, 1918, 1920.

+Konrad Bercovici+--story writer.


   The Crimes of Charity. 1917. (With introduction by John Reed.)
   Dust of New York. 1919. (Short stories.)
   Ghiza and Other Romances of Gipsy Blood. 1921.

For reviews, see _Book Review Digest_, 1917, 1919, 1921.

+Edwin (August) Björkman+--critic.

Born at Stockholm, Sweden, 1866. Educated in Stockholm high school.
Clerk, actor, and journalist in Sweden, 1881-91. Came to America, 1891.
On staffs of St. Paul and Minneapolis papers, 1892-7; on the _New York
Sun_ and _New York Times_, 1897-1905. On the editorial staff of the _New
York Evening Post_, 1906. Department editor of the _World's Work_ and
editor of the _Modern Drama Series_, 1912--.


   Is There Anything New Under the Sun? 1911.
   Gleams: A Fragmentary Interpretation of Man and His World. 1912.
   Voices of To-morrow. 1913.
   The Soul of a Child. 1922. (Novel.)


   Cur. Op. 55 ('13): 190 (portrait).
   R. of Rs. 45 ('12): 115 (portrait).
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1913.

+Maxwell Bodenheim+--poet.

Born at Natchez, Mississippi, 1892. Grammar school education. Served in
the U.S. Army, 1910-13. Studied law and art in Chicago.


Mr. Bodenheim gets his effects by his management of detail. For this
reason, his use of picture-making words and suggestive phrases offers
material for special study. See the _New Republic_, 13 ('17): 211, for
his own statement of his creed.


   Minna and Myself. 1918.
   Advice. 1920.
   Introducing Irony. 1922.
   Also in: Poetry. (_Passim._)
            The Little Review. (_Passim._)



   Dial, 66 ('19): 356; 69 ('20): 645.
   Poetry, 13 ('19): 342.
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1920, 1921.

+Gamaliel Bradford+--man of letters.

Born at Boston, 1863. Studied at Harvard, 1882; no degree, because of ill
health. Has confined his attention almost entirely to literature since
1886. Specializes in character portraits.


   Types of American Character. 1895.
   A Pageant of Life. 1904.
   The Private Tutor. 1904.
   Between Two Masters. 1906.
   Matthew Porter. 1908.
   Lee, the American. 1912.
   Confederate Portraits. 1914.
   Union Portraits. 1916.
   Portraits of Women. 1916.
   A Naturalist of Souls. 1917.
   Portraits of American Women. 1919.
   The Prophet of Joy. 1920. (Poems.)
   Shadow Verses. 1920.
   American Portraits, 1875-1900. 1922.


   Bookm. 41 ('15): 586 (portrait); 52 ('20): 170.
   Nation, 112 ('21): 86.
   New Repub. 9 ('16): supp. p. 3.
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1916, 1920.

+George H. Broadhurst+ (1866)--dramatist.

Of his plays the following have been published:

   What Happened to Jones. 1897.
   The Man of the Hour. 1908.
   Why Smith Left Home. 1912.
   The Law of the Land. 1914.
   Innocent. 1914.
   Bought and Paid for. 1916.

For bibliography of unpublished plays, see _Cambridge_, III (IV), 773.

+Alter Brody+--poet.

Born in Russia, 1895, of a Russian-Jewish family. Came to New York when
he was eight years old. Very little education. Translated for Jewish and
American newspapers. His first poems appeared in _The Seven Arts_ (cf.
James Oppenheim).

His one book, _A Family Album_, 1918, is interesting for its realistic
pictures of New York as seen through the temperament of a Russian Jew.



   Poetry, 14 ('19): 280.
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1918.

+Charles (Stephen) Brooks+--essayist.

Born in 1878. Graduate of Yale. Business man in Cleveland. Essay writing
an avocation.


   Journeys to Bagdad. 1915.
   "There's Pippins and Cheese to Come." 1917.
   Chimney-Pot Papers. 1919.
   Luca Sarto. 1920. (Historical novel.)
   Hints to Pilgrims. 1921.
   Frightful Plays! 1922.


   Bookm. 47 ('18): 439 (portrait).
   Nation, 109 ('19): 178.
   Review, 2 ('20): 463.
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1916, 1917, 1919, 1920.

+Van Wyck Brooks+--critic.

Born at Plainfield, New Jersey, 1886. A.B., Harvard, 1907. Taught at
Leland Stanford, 1911-3. With the Century Company since 1915.


   The Wine of the Puritans. 1909.
   The Malady of the Ideal. 1913.
   John Addington Symonds--a Biographical Study. 1914.
   The World of H.G. Wells. 1915.
   America's Coming-of-Age. 1915.
   Letters and Leadership. 1918.
   The Ordeal of Mark Twain. 1919.
   The History of a Literary Radical; a Biography of Randolph Bourne, 1920.


   Bookm. 41 ('15): 132 (portrait); 52 ('21): 333.
   Dial, 69 ('20): 293.
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1914, 1915, 1918, 1920.

+Heywood (Campbell) Broun+--critic, essayist.

Born at Brooklyn, New York, 1888. Studied at Harvard, 1906-10. On
_Morning Telegraph_, New York, 1908-9, 1911-12; _New York Tribune_,
1912-21. Now with _New York World_. War correspondent in France, 1917.


   A.E.F.--With General Pershing and the American Forces. 1918.
   Seeing Things at Night. 1921.


   Bookm. 53 ('21): 443.
   Cur. Op. 67 ('19): 315.
   Dial, 65 ('18): 125.
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1918, 1921.

+Alice Brown+--short-story writer, novelist, dramatist.

Born on a farm near Hampton Falls, New Hampshire, 1857. Graduated from
Robinson Seminary, Exeter, New Hampshire, 1876. Lived on a farm many
years and loves outdoor life. Many years on staff of _Youth's

Her stories of New England life should be compared with those of Sarah
Orne Jewett and Mary Wilkins Freeman (q.v.). In 1915, she won the
Winthrop Ames $10,000 prize for her play, _Children of Earth_.


   Fools of Nature. 1887.
  *Meadow-Grass. 1895. (Short stories.)
   Robert Louis Stevenson--A Study. 1895. (With Louise Imogene Guiney.)
   By Oak and Thorn. 1896. (English travels.)
   The Road to Castaly. 1896. (Poems.)
   The Day of His Youth. 1897.
  *Tiverton Tales. 1899. (Short stories.)
   King's End. 1901.
   Margaret Warrener. 1901.
   Judgment. 1903.
   The Mannerings. 1903.
   The Merrylinks. 1903.
   High Noon. 1904. (Short stories.)
   Paradise. 1905.
   The County Road. 1906.
   The Court of Love. 1906.
   Rose MacLeod. 1908.
   The Story of Thyrza. 1909.
   Country Neighbors. 1910. (Short stories.)
   John Winterbourne's Family. 1910.
   The One-Footed Fairy. 1911. (Short stories.)
   The Secret of the Clan. 1912.
   Vanishing Points. 1913. (Short stories.)
   Robin Hood's Barn. 1913.
   My Love and I. 1913. (Under the pseudonym "Martin Redfield.")
  *Children of Earth. 1915. (Play.)
   The Prisoner. 1916.
   Bromley Neighborhood. 1917.
   The Flying Teuton. 1918. (Short stories.)
   The Black Drop. 1919.
   Homespun and Gold. 1920. (Short stories.)
   The Wind between the Worlds. 1920. (Short stories.)
   Louise Imogene Guiney. 1921.
   One Act Plays. 1921.
   Old Crow. 1022. (Novel.)



   Acad. 76 ('09): 110.
   Atlan. 98 ('06): 55.
   Cur. Op. 57 ('14): 28.
   Lit. Digest, 48 ('14): 1435.
   Outlook, 123 ('19): 514 (portrait).
   R. of Rs. 39 ('09): 761; 43 ('11): 121. (Portraits.)
   Spec. 102 ('09): 785.

+Arthur Bullard ("Albert Edwards")+--novelist.

Born at St. Joseph, Missouri, 1869. Studied about two years at Hamilton
College. Settlement worker, probation officer of Prison Association of
New York, 1903-6. Since 1906, has traveled widely. In Russia and Siberia,
1917-9. Foreign correspondent for different magazines both before and
during the War. Socialist.


  *A Man's World. 1912.
   Comrade Yetta. 1913.
   The Barbary Coast. 1913. (Travels.)
   The Stranger. 1920.


   Bookm. 37 ('13): 518 (portrait).
   Cur. Lit. 53 ('12): 698, 699 (portrait).
   New Repub. 21 ('20): 361; 24 ('20): 25.
   R. of Rs. 47 ('13): 244 (portrait).
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1913, 1916, 1920.

+(Frank) Gelett Burgess+ (Massachusetts, 1866)--humorist.

Inventor of the "Goops" and of "Bromide" (_Are You a Bromide?_ 1907). The
humor of his illustrations contributes greatly to the success of his
writing. For bibliography, cf. _Who's Who in America_.


   Bookm. 53 ('21): 488.
   Overland, n.s. 60 ('12): 377.
   R. of Rs. 35 ('07): 116 (portrait).

+Frances Hodgson Burnett (Mrs. Stephen Townsend)+--novelist.

Born at Manchester, England, 1849, but went to live at Knoxville,
Tennessee, 1865. She began to write for magazines in 1867.


   That Lass o' Lowrie's. 1877.
   Through One Administration. 1883.
   Little Lord Fauntleroy. 1886. (Dramatized.)
   Editha's Burglar. 1888.
   The One I Knew the Best of All. 1893. (Autobiographical.)
   A Lady of Quality. 1896. (Dramatized; with Stephen Townsend.)
   T. Tembaron. 1913.
   The White People. 1917.
   The Head of the House of Coombe. 1922.


   Halsey. (Women.)
   Harkins. (Women.)

   Am. M. 70 ('10): 748 (portrait).
   Bookm. 20 ('04): 276 (portrait).
   Cur. Lit. 37 ('04): 321 (portrait).
   Good Housekeeping, 74 ('22): Feb., p. 27 (portrait).
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1915-1917.

+John Burroughs+--Nature writer, essayist, poet.

Born at Roxbury, New York, 1837. Academy education with honorary higher
degrees. Taught for about eight years; clerk in the Treasury, 1864-73;
national bank examiner, 1873-84. From 1874 lived on a farm, after 1884
dividing his time between market gardening and literature. He died in

Mr. Burroughs' cottage in the woods not far from West Park, New York,
appropriately called "Slabsides," has become famous and an effort is
being made to keep it for the nation.

Mr. Burroughs continued to write and publish to the time of his death.


   Notes on Walt Whitman as Poet and Person. 1867.
   Wake Robin. 1871.
   Winter Sunshine. 1875.
   Birds and Poets. 1877.
   Locusts and Wild Honey. 1879.
   Pepacton. 1881.
   Fresh Fields. 1884.
   Signs and Seasons. 1886.
   Indoor Studies. 1889.
   Riverby. 1894.
   Whitman, a Study. 1896.
   The Light of Day. 1900.
   Squirrels and Other Fur Bearers. 1900.
   Literary Values. 1904.
   Far and Near. 1904.
   Ways of Nature. 1905.
   Bird and Bough. 1906. (Poems.)
   Camping and Tramping with Roosevelt. 1907.
   Leaf and Tendril. 1908.
   Time and Change. 1912.
   The Summit of the Years. 1913.
   The Breath of Life. 1915.
   Under the Apple Trees. 1916.
   Field and Study. 1919.
   Accepting the Universe. 1920.
   My Boyhood: An Autobiography. 1922.


   Barrus, Clara. Our Friend John Burroughs. 1914.
   ---- ---- John Burroughs. Boy and Man. 1920.
   James, Henry. Views and Reviews. 1908.
   Loach, De, R.J.H. Rambles with John Burroughs. 1912.
   Sharp, Dallas Lore. The Seer of Slabsides. 1921.

   Atlan. 106 ('10): 631; 128 ('21): 517.
   Bookm. 49 ('19): 389.
   Cent. 63 ('02): 860 (poem by Edwin Markam to John Burroughs);
     80 ('10): 521; 101 ('21): 619; 102 ('21): 731. (Hamlin Garland.)
   Craftsman, 8 ('05): 564; 22 ('12): 240, 357, 525, 635; 27 ('15): 590.
   Critic, 47 ('05): 101 (portraits).
   Cur. Lit. 45 ('08): 60; 49 ('10): 680; 50 ('11): 413 (portraits).
   Cur. Op. 70 ('21): 644 (portrait), 667; 71 ('21): 74
   Dial, 32 ('02): 7.
   Edin. R. 208 ('08): 343.
   Lit. Digest, 48 ('14): 1441; 69 ('21): Apr. 16, p. 23.
   Liv. Age, 248 ('06): 188. (W.H. Hudson.)
   Nation, 112 ('21): 531.
   New Repub. 26 ('21): 186.
   No. Am. 214 ('21): 177.
   Outlook, 66 ('00): 351 (portrait); 109 ('15): 224 (portraits);
     127 ('21): 580 (portrait), 582; 129 ('21): 344.
   R. of Rs. 63 ('21): 517 (portrait).
   Review, 4 ('21): 338.

+Richard (Eugene) Burton+--critic, poet.

Born at Hartford, Connecticut, 1861. A.B., Trinity College, 1883; Ph.D.,
Johns Hopkins, 1888. Three years of teaching, editorial work, and travel
abroad. Editor of the _Hartford Courant_, 1890-7. Associate editor of
_Warner's Library of the World's Best Literature_, 1897-9. Head of the
English department at the University of Minnesota, 1898-1902 and

Besides his critical work, he has written a novel, a play, and a number
of volumes of poetry. For complete bibliography, cf. _Who's Who in


   Literary Likings. 1898.
   Forces in Fiction. 1902.
   Literary Leaders of America. 1904.
   The New American Drama. 1913.
   How to See a Play. 1914.
   Bernard Shaw--The Man and the Mask. 1916.



   Bookm. 47 ('18): 348.
   Chaut. 38 ('03): 82 (portrait).
   Lond. Times, Mar. 17, 1910: 95.
   R. of Rs. 55 ('17): 214 (portrait).

+Witter Bynner+--poet, dramatist.

Born at Brooklyn, 1881. A.B., Harvard, 1902. Assistant editor of
_McClure's Magazine_, 1902-6. Literary adviser to various publishing
companies. Has recently traveled in the Orient. Under the pseudonyms
"Emanuel Morgan" and "Anne Knish," Bynner and Arthur Davison Ficke
(q.v.) wrote _Spectra_, a burlesque of modern tendencies in poetry, which
some critics took seriously.


   An Ode to Harvard. 1907. (=Young Harvard, 1918.)
   Tiger. 1913. (Play.)
   The Little King. 1914. (Play.)
   The New World. 1915.
   Spectra. 1916. (Under pseudonym "Emanuel Morgan," with Arthur Davison
     Ficke, q.v.)
   Grenstone Poems. 1917.
   A Canticle of Praise. 1919.
   The Beloved Stranger. 1919.
   A Canticle of Pan and Other Poems. 1920.
   Pins for Wings. 1920. (Under pseudonym "Emanuel Morgan.")



   Acad. 86 ('14): 687.
   Bookm. 47 ('18): 394.
   Dial, 67 ('19): 302.
   Forum, 55 ('16): 675.
   Freeman, 1 ('20): 476.
   Mentor, 7 ('19): supp. (portrait).
   Nation, 109 ('19): 440.
   New Repub. 9 ('16): supp. p. 13. (Review of _Spectra_, Bynner.)
   Poetry, 7 ('15): 147; 12 ('18): 169; 15 ('20): 281.
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1914, 1920, 1921.

+James Branch Cabell+--novelist, critic.

Born at Richmond, Virginia, 1879, of an old Southern family. A.B.,
William and Mary College, 1898, where he taught French and Greek, 1896-7.
Newspaper work from 1899-1901. Since then he has devoted his time almost
entirely to the study and writing of literature. His study of genealogy
and history has an important bearing upon his creative work.


1. Before reading Mr. Cabell's stories, read his _Beyond Life_, which
explains his theory of romance. He maintains that art should be based on
the dream of life as it should be, not as it is; that enduring
literature is not "reportorial work"; that there is vital falsity in
being true to life because "facts out of relation to the rest of life
become lies," and that art therefore "must become more or less an

2. Mr. Cabell's fiction falls into two divisions:

  (1) Romances of the middle ages.
  (2) Comedies of present-day Virginia.

Both elements are found in _The Cream of the Jest_ (cf. with Du Maurier's
_Peter Ibbetson_). The romances illustrate different aspects of his
theory of chivalry; the modern comedies, his theory of gallantry (cf.
_Beyond Life_).

3. In his romances he has created an imaginary province of France, the
people of which bear names and use idioms drawn from widely diverse and
incongruous sources. His effort to create mediæval atmosphere by the use
of archaisms does not preclude modern idiom and slang. Through all this
work, elaborate pretense of non-existent sources of the tales and
frequent allusions to fictitious authors are a part of the method. After
reading some of these stories, consider the following criticism from the
_London Times_ quoted by Mr. Cabell himself at the end of _Beyond Life_:
"It requires a nicer touch than Mr. Cabell's, to reproduce the atmosphere
of the Middle Ages ... the artifice is more apparent than the art...."

4. An interesting study is to isolate the authors for whom Mr. Cabell
expresses particular admiration and those for whom he expresses contempt
in _Beyond Life_ and to deduce from his attitudes his peculiar literary

5. Mr. Cabell's style is notable for the elaboration of its rhythm, its
careful avoidance of _clichés_, its preference for rare, archaic words
and its allusiveness. Consider it from the point of view of sincerity,
simplicity, clarity, and charm. Does it intensify or dull your interest
in what he has to say? Study, for example, the following exposition of
his theory of art:

     For the creative artist must remember that his book is structurally
     different from life, in that, were there nothing else, his book
     begins and ends at a definite point, whereas the canons of heredity
     and religion forbid us to believe that life can ever do anything of
     the sort. He must remember that his art traces in ancestry from the
     tribal huntsman telling tales about the cave-fire; and so, strives
     to emulate not human life, but human speech, with its natural
     elisions and falsifications. He must remember, too, that his one
     concern with the one all-prevalent truth in normal existence is
     jealously to exclude it from his book.... For "living" is to be
     conscious of an incessant series of less than momentary sensations,
     of about equal poignancy, for the most part, and of nearly equal
     unimportance. Art attempts to marshal the shambling procession into
     trimness, to usurp the rôle of memory and convention in assigning to
     some of these sensations an especial prominence, and, in the old
     phrase, to lend perspective to the forest we cannot see because of
     the trees. Art, as long ago observed my friend Mrs. Kennaston, is an
     expurgated edition of nature: at art's touch, too, "the drossy
     particles fall off and mingle with the dust" (_Beyond Life_, p.

In summing up Mr. Cabell's work, consider the following:

  (1) Has he a definite philosophy?
  (2) Has he a genuine sense of character or do his characters
       repeat the same personality?
  (3) Is he a sincere artist or "a self-conscious attitudinizer?"
  (4) Is he likely ever to hold the high place in American
       literature which by some critics is denied him today? If so,
       on what basis?


   The Eagle's Shadow. 1904.
   The Line of Love. 1905.
   Gallantry. 1907.
   Chivalry. 1909.
   The Cords of Vanity. 1909.
   The Soul of Melicent. 1913.
   The Rivet in Grandfather's Neck. 1915.
   The Certain Hour. 1916.
   From the Hidden Way. 1916. (Verse.)
   The Cream of the Jest. 1917.
   Jurgen. 1919.
   Beyond Life. 1919. (Essays.)
   The Cords of Vanity. 1920. (Revised.)
   Domnei. 1920. (New version of _The Soul of Melicent_.)
   The Judging of Jurgen. 1920.
   Figures of Earth. 1921.
   Taboo. 1921.


   Walpole, Hugh. The Art of James Branch Cabell. 1920.

   Ath. 1919, 2: 1339. (Conrad Aiken.)
   Bookm. 52 ('20): 200.
   Cur. Op. 66 ('19): 254; 70 ('21): 537. (Portraits.)
   Dial, 64 ('18): 392; 66 ('19): 225.
   Harp. W. 49 ('05): 1598 (portrait).
   Lond. Times, Nov. 24, 1921: 767.
   Nation, 111 ('20): 343; 112 ('21): 914. (Carl Van Doren.)
   New Repub. 26 ('21): 187.
   Yale R. n.s. 9 ('20): 684. (Walpole.)

+George Washington Cable+--novelist.

Born at New Orleans, 1844. Educated in public schools, but has honorary
higher degrees. Served in the Confederate army, 1863-5. Reporter on the
New Orleans _Picayune_ and accountant with a firm of cotton factors,
1865-79. Since 1879, has devoted his time to literature.

Mr. Cable became at once famous for his studies of Louisiana life in _Old
Creole Days_, and his pictures of this life have given him a permanent
place in American literature. His stories should be read in connection
with those of Kate Chopin and of Grace King (q.v.).


  *Old Creole Days. 1879.
  *The Grandissimes. A Story of Creole Life. 1880.
  *Madame Delphine. 1881.
   The Creoles of Louisiana. 1884.
   The Silent South. 1885. (Articles.)
   Dr. Sevier. 1885.
   Bonaventure. A Prose Pastoral of Louisiana. 1888.
   Strange True Stories of Louisiana. 1889.
   The Negro Question. 1890. (Articles.)
   John March, Southerner. 1894.
   Strong Hearts. 1899.
   The Cavalier, 1901.
   Bylow Hill. 1902.
   Kincaid's Battery. 1908.
   Posson Jone and Père Raphael. 1909.
   The Amateur Garden. 1914.
   Gideon's Band. 1914.
   The Flower of the Chapdelaines. 1918.
  *Lovers of Louisiana. 1918.



   Countryside M. 23 ('16): 274 (portrait).
   Critic, 47 ('05): 426.
   Harp. W. 45 ('01): 1082 (portrait).
   Outlook, 69 ('01): 425; 93 ('09): 689. (Portraits.)
   So. Atlan. Q. 18 ('19): 145.

+Abraham Cahan+--novelist.

Of Lithuanian-Jewish ancestry. Became editor of the _Arbeiter Zeitung_,
1891, and of _The Jewish Daily Forward_, 1897. A journalist who has done
most of his work in Yiddish, but who has also written one remarkable
novel in English: _The Rise of David Levinsky_, 1917.


   Van Doren.

   Dial, 63 ('17): 521.
   Nation, 105 ('17): 432.
   New Repub. 14 ('17): 31.
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1917.

+(William) Bliss Carman+--poet.

Born at Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada, 1861. His ancestors lived in
Connecticut at the time of the Revolution. A.B., University of New
Brunswick, 1881; A.M., 1884. Studied at the University of Edinburgh,
1882-3, and at Harvard, 1886-8. Studied law two years. LL.D., University
of New Brunswick, 1906. Came to live in the United States, 1889. Has been
teacher, editor, and civil engineer.

In collaboration with Mary Perry King, Mr. Carman has produced several
poem-dances (_Daughters of Dawn_, 1913, and _Earth Deities_, 1914), which
it is interesting to compare with Mr. Lindsay's development of the idea
of the poem-game.

Mr. Carman's most admired work is to be found in the _Vagabondia_
volumes, in three of which he collaborated with Richard Hovey (1894,
1896, 1900). His _Collected Poems_ were published in 1905, and his
_Echoes from Vagabondia_, 1912.


   Bookm. 11 ('00): 519, 521 (portrait).

   Canad. M. 40 ('13): 455 (portrait); 47 ('16): 425 (portrait);
     56 ('21): 521.
   Critic, 40 ('02): 155 (portrait), 161; 42 ('03): 397 (portrait).
   Ind. 57 ('04): 1131, 1132 (portrait); 65 ('08): 1335 (portrait).
   Lit. Digest, 50 ('15): 113.
   R. of Rs. 46 ('12): 619 (portrait).

+Willa Sibert Cather+--novelist, short-story writer.

Born at Winchester, Virginia, 1875. A.B., University of Nebraska, 1895;
Litt. D., 1917. On staff of _Pittsburgh Daily Leader_, 1897-1901.
Associate editor of _McClure's Magazine_, 1906-12.


1. Miss Cather's special field is the pioneer life of immigrants in the
Middle West. Points to be considered are: (1) her realism; (2) her
detachment or objectivity; (3) her sympathy.

2. In what other respects does she stand out among the leading women
novelists of today?

3. What is the value of her material?

4. Compare her studies with those of Cahan (q.v.), Cournos (q.v.), and
Tobenkin (q.v.).


   April Twilights. 1903. (Poems.)
   The Troll Garden. 1905. (Short stories.)
   Alexander's Bridge. 1912.
   The Bohemian Girl. 1912.
  *O Pioneers. 1913.
   The Song of the Lark. 1915.
  *My Antonia. 1918.
   Youth and the Bright Medusa. 1920. (Short Stories.)
   One of Ours. 1922.



   Bookm. 21 ('05): 456 (portrait); 27 ('08): 152 (portrait);
     53 ('21): 212 (portrait).
   Lond. Times, June 23, 1921: 403.
   Nation, 113 ('21): 92.
   New Repub. 25 ('21): 233.
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1915, 1918, 1920.

+George Randolph Chester+ (Ohio, 1869)--novelist, short-story writer. The
    inventor of the _Get-Rich-Quick-Wallingford_ type of fiction.

For bibliography, see _Who's Who in America_.

+Winston Churchill+--novelist.

Born at St. Louis, 1871. Graduate of U.S. Naval Academy, 1894. Honorary
higher degrees. Member of New Hampshire Legislature 1903, 1905. Fought
boss and corporation control and was barely defeated for governor of the
state, 1908. Lives at Cornish, New Hampshire.


As an aid to analysis of Mr. Churchill's work, consider Mr. Carl Van
Doren's article in the _Nation_, of which the most striking passages are
quoted below:

     To reflect a little upon this combination of heroic color and moral
     earnestness is to discover how much Mr. Churchill owes to the
     element injected into American life by Theodore Roosevelt.... Like
     him Mr. Churchill has habitually moved along the main lines of
     national feeling--believing in America and democracy with a fealty
     unshaken by any adverse evidence and delighting in the American
     pageant with a gusto rarely modified by the exercise of any critical
     intelligence. Morally he has been strenuous and eager;
     intellectually he has been naïve and belated.

       *       *       *       *       *

     Once taken by an idea for a novel, he has always burned with it as
     if it were as new to the world as to him. Here lies, without much
     question, the secret of that genuine earnestness which pervades all
     his books: he writes out of the contagious passion of a recent
     convert or a still excited discoverer. Here lies, too, without much
     question, the secret of Mr. Churchill's success in holding his
     audiences: a sort of unconscious politician among novelists, he
     gathers his premonitions at happy moments, when the drift is already
     setting in. Never once has Mr. Churchill like a philosopher or a
     seer, run off alone.

       *       *       *       *       *

     Even for those, however, who perceive that he belongs intellectually
     to a middle class which is neither very subtle nor very profound on
     the one hand nor very shrewd or very downright on the other, it is
     impossible to withhold from Mr. Churchill the respect due a sincere,
      scrupulous, and upright man who has served the truth and his art
     according to his lights.... The sounds which have reached him from
     among the people have come from those who eagerly aspire to better
     things arrived at by orderly progress, from those who desire in some
     lawful way to outgrow the injustices and inequalities of civil
     existence and by fit methods to free the human spirit from all that
     clogs and stifles it. But as they aspire and intend better than they
     think, so, in concert with them, does Mr. Churchill.


  *The Celebrity. 1898.
   Richard Carvel. 1899.
   The Crisis. 1901.
   Mr. Keegan's Elopement. 1903.
   The Crossing. 1904.
   The Title-Mart. 1905. (Play.)
  *Coniston. 1906.
  *Mr. Crewe's Career. 1908.
   A Modern Chronicle. 1910.
  *The Inside of the Cup. 1913.
   A Far Country. 1915.
   The Dwelling Place of Light. 1917.
   A Traveller in War-Time. 1918.
   Dr. Jonathan. 1919. (Play.)



   Bookm. 27 ('08): 729 (portrait); 31 ('10): 246 (portrait);
     41 ('15): 607.
   Bookm. (Lond.) 34 ('08): 152 (portrait).
   Collier's, 52 ('13): Dec. 27, p. 5 (portrait).
   Cur. Lit. 27 ('00): 108; 52 ('12): 196 (portrait).
   Cur. Op. 55 ('13): 122, 341 (portrait).
   Ind. 53 ('01): 2097; 61 ('06): 96. (Portraits.)
   Lit. Digest, 47 ('13): 250, 426, 1278.
   Nation, 112 ('21): 619. (Carl Van Doren.)
   Outlook, 90 ('08): 93.
   R. of Rs. 24 ('01): 588 (portrait); 30 ('04): 123 (portrait);
     34 ('06): 142 (portrait); 37 ('08): 763 (portrait); 48 ('13): 46;
     58 ('18): 328 (portrait).
   Spec. 93 ('04): 124.
   World's Work, 17 ('08): 10959 (portrait), 11016.

+(Charles) Badger Clark+ (Iowa, 1883)--poet.

Deals with cowboy life. For bibliography, see _Who's Who in America_.

+Sarah Norcliffe Cleghorn+--novelist, poet.

Born at Norfolk, Virginia, 1876, but since childhood has lived in
Vermont. Studied at Radcliffe, 1895-6. In 1915 some of her lyrics were
published in a volume of short-stories called _Hillsboro People_, by her
friend, Dorothy Canfield Fisher (q.v.).

Socialist, pacifist, and anti-vivisectionist. Strong propagandist element
in her work. _The Spinster_ is said to contain much autobiography.


   A Turnpike Lady. 1907. (Novel.)
   The Spinster. 1916. (Novel.)
   Fellow-Captains. 1916. (With Dorothy Canfield Fisher.) (Essays.)
   Portraits and Protests. 1917. (Poems.)


   Nation, 112 ('21): 512.
   New Eng. M. n.s. 39 ('08): 236 (portrait).
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1916, 1917.

+Irvin S(hrewsbury) Cobb+ (Kentucky, 1876)--short-story writer, humorist,

His reputation is built upon his stories of Kentucky life and his
humorous criticisms of contemporary manners. For bibliography, see _Who's
Who in America_.

+Octavus Roy Cohen+ (South Carolina, 1891)--short-story writer. The
    discoverer of the Southern negro in town life. For bibliography, see
    _Who's Who in America_.

+Will Levington Comfort+ (Michigan, 1878)--novelist.

Work consists mainly of romances of Oriental adventure. His book, _Child
and Country_, 1916, is on education (cf. _Book Review Digest_, 1916).

+Grace Walcott Hazard Conkling (Mrs. Roscoe Platt Conkling)+--poet.

Born in New York City, 1878. Graduate of Smith College, 1899. Studied
music and languages at the University of Heidelberg, 1902-3, and in
Paris, 1903-4. Lived also in Mexico. Has taught in various schools, and
since 1914 has been a teacher of English at Smith College, where she has
roused much interest in poetry. Mother of Hilda Conkling (q.v.).


   Afternoons of April. 1915. (Collected poems.)
   Wilderness Songs. 1920.


   Poetry, 7 ('15): 152.
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1915, 1920.

+Hilda Conkling+--poet.

Born at Catskill-on-Hudson, New York, 1910, daughter of Grace Hazard
Conkling (q.v.). She began to talk her poems to her mother at the age of
four. Her mother took them down without change, merely arranging the line
divisions. Her earliest expression was in the form of a chant to an
imaginary companion to whom she gave the name "Mary Cobweb" (cf. Poetry,
14 ['19]: 344).

Hilda Conkling's name is included in this list, not because her poems are
remarkable for a child, but because they show actual achievement and the
highest quality of imagination.

Her work is to be found in _Poetry_, 8 ('16): 191; and 10 ('17): 197, and
one volume has been published, _Poems by a Little Girl_, 1920 (with
introduction by Amy Lowell).


   Bookm. 51 ('20):314.
   Cur. Op. 68 ('20): 852.
   Dial, 69 ('20): 186.
   Lit. Digest, 65 ('20): June 5, p. 50.
   Poetry, 16 ('20): 222.
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1920.

+James Brendan Connolly+ (Massachusetts)--short-story writer. Writes
    realistic sea stories. For bibliography, see _Who's Who in America_.

+George Cram Cook+ (Iowa, 1873)--dramatist.

Director of the Provincetown Players since 1915. With Susan Glaspell
(q.v.) wrote _Suppressed Desires_ (1915) and _Tickless Time_ (1920).

   Other plays are: The Athenian Women. 1917.
                    Spring. 1921. (Cf. _Literary Review_ of the _New York
                      Evening Post_, Feb. 11, 1922, p. 419.)

For complete bibliography, see _Who's Who in America_.

+Alice Corbin (Mrs. William Penhallow Henderson)+--poet, critic.

Born at St. Louis, Missouri. Lived many years in Santa Fé, New Mexico,
which has furnished material for many of her poems. Associate editor of
_Poetry_ since its foundation in 1912.


   The Spinning Woman of the Sky. 1912. (Poems.)
   The New Poetry, An Anthology. 1917. (Compiled with Harriet Monroe, q.v.)
   Red Earth. 1920.


   Bookm. 47 ('18): 391.
   Freeman, 4 ('22): 468.
   New Repub. 28 ('21): 304.
   Poetry, 9 ('16-'17): 144, 232.

+John Cournos+--novelist.

Mr. Cournos' studies of the immigrant in America in _The Mask,_ 1920, and
_The Wall_, 1921, attracted attention.


   Bookm. 51 ('20): 76.
   Dial, 68 ('20): 496.
   Freeman, 4 ('21): 238.
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1920, 1921.

+Adelaide Crapsey+--poet.

Born at Rochester, New York, 1878. A.B., Vassar, 1902. Taught English at
Kemper Hall, Kenosha, Wisconsin, 1903. In 1905, studied archæology in
Rome. Instructor in poetics at Smith College, 1911; but stopped teaching
because of failing health. Died at Saranac Lake, 1914.

She had begun an investigation into the structure of English verse, which
she was unable to finish. Her poems were nearly all written after her
breakdown in 1913, and reflect the tragic experience through which she
was passing.

Some of them are written in a form of her own invention, the "cinquain"
(five unrhymed lines, having two, four, six, eight, and two syllables).


1. Miss Crapsey's theories of versification should be remembered in
studying her forms.

2. What is to be said of her verbal economy?

3. A comparison of her verses with those of Emily Dickinson has been
suggested. Carried out in detail, it suggests interesting points of
difference as well as of resemblance.


   Poems. 1915.
   Study in English Metrics. 1918.



   Bookm. 50 ('20): 496.
   Poetry, 10 ('17): 316.
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1916, 1918.

+Gladys Cromwell+--poet.

Born in New York City, 1885. Educated in New York private schools and
lived much abroad. In 1918, with her twin sister, she went into Red Cross
Canteen work and was stationed at Chalons. As a result of depression due
to nerve strain, both sisters committed suicide by jumping overboard from
the steamer on which they were coming home. For their War service the
French Government later awarded them the Croix de Guerre. Miss Cromwell's
_Poems_ in 1919 divided with Mr. Neihardt's (q.v.) _Song of Three
Friends_ the annual prize of the Poetry Society of America.


   Gates of Utterance. 1915.
   Poems. 1919.


   Ath. 1920, 1: 289.
   Bookm. 51 ('20): 216.
   Dial, 68 ('20): 534.
   Lond. Times, April 15, 1920: 243.
   New Repub. 18 ('19): 189; 22 ('20): 65.
   Poetry, 13 ('19): 326; 16 ('20): 105.

+Rachel Crothers+--dramatist.

Born at Bloomington, Illinois. Graduate of the Illinois State Normal
School, Normal, Illinois, 1892.

Miss Crothers directs her plays and sometimes acts in them.


   Criss Cross. 1904.
   The Rector. 1906.
   A Man's World. 1915.
   The Three of Us. 1916.
   The Herfords. (Quinn, _Representative American Plays_, under the
     title _He and She_, 1917.)

For bibliography of unpublished plays, cf. _Cambridge_, III (IV), 765.


   Eaton, W.P. At the New Theatre. 1910.

   New Repub. 9 ('16): 217.
   Touchstone, 4 ('18): 25 (portrait).
   World Today, 15 ('08): 729 (portrait).
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1915.

+Samuel McChord Crothers+--essayist.

Born at Oswego, Illinois, 1857. A.B., Wittenberg College, 1873,
Princeton, 1874. Studied at Union Theological Seminary, 1874-7, and at
Harvard Divinity School, 1881-2. Higher honorary degrees. Ordained
Presbyterian minister, 1877. Pastorates in Nevada and California. Became
a Unitarian, 1882. Pastor in Brattleboro, Vermont, 1882-6; in St. Paul,
Minnesota, 1886-94; and of the First Church, Cambridge, since 1894.
Preacher to Harvard University.

Dr. Crothers's essays are rich with suave and scholarly humor, and are
written in a style suggestive of Lamb's.


   The Gentle Reader. 1903.
   The Understanding Heart. 1903.
   The Pardoner's Wallet. 1905.
   The Endless Life. 1905.
   By the Chrismas Fire. 1908.
   Oliver Wendell Holmes and His Fellow Boarders. 1909.
   Among Friends. 1910.
   Humanly Speaking. 1912.
   Three Lords of Destiny. 1913.
   Meditations on Votes for Women. 1914.
   The Pleasures of an Absentee Landlord. 1916.
   The Dame School of Experience. 1920.



   Bookm. 32 ('11): 631.
   Critic, 48 ('06): 200 (portrait).
   Cur. Op. 63 ('17): 406 (portrait).
   Outlook, 102 ('12): 645 (portrait), 648.
   So. Atlan. Q. 8 ('09): 150.

+James Oliver Curwood+ (Michigan, 1878)--novelist.

His material deals with primitive life in Canada. For bibliography, see
_Who's Who in America_.

+Thomas Augustine Daly+--poet.

Born at Philadelphia, 1871. Left college without a degree. Honorary
higher degrees. In 1889 became a newspaper man, and since 1891 has been
connected as reviewer, editorial writer, and "columnist" with
Philadelphia newspapers; associate editor of the _Evening Ledger_,

Mr. Daly has written good poetry in English, but is best known for the
dialect verses which he has published in the columns edited by him. His
most popular verses are in the Irish and Italian dialects.


   Canzoni. 1906.
   Carmina. 1909.
   Madrigali. 1912.
   Songs of Wedlock. 1916.
   McAroni Ballads. 1919.



   Am. M. 70 ('10): 750 (portrait); 89 ('20): June, p. 16.
   Dublin R. 155 (4 s., 46) ('14): 116.
   Outlook, 103 ('13): 261.
   Poetry, 16 ('20): 278.

+Olive Tilford Dargan (Mrs. Pegram Dargan)+--poet, dramatist.

Born in Kentucky. Educated at the University of Nashville and at
Radcliffe. Taught in Arkansas, Missouri, Texas, and Canada until she
married. Traveled abroad, 1910-14. Winner of $500 prize offered by the
Southern Society of New York for best book by Southern writer, 1916.


   Semiramis and Other Plays. (Carlotta, The Poet.) 1904.
   Lords and Lovers and Other Dramas. (The Shepherd, The Siege.) 1906.
   The Mortal Gods and Other Dramas. (A Son of Hermes, Kidmir.) 1912.
   The Welsh Pony. 1913. (Privately printed.)
   Path Flower and Other Poems. 1914.
   The Cycle's Rim. 1916.
   The Flutter of the Goldleaf and Other Plays. 1922. (With Frederick


   Bookm. 37 ('13): 123 (portrait).
   Outlook, 85 ('07): 328.
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1913, 1914, 1916.

+Mary Carolyn Davies+--poet.

Born at Sprague, Washington, and educated in and near Portland, Oregon.
As a freshman at the University of California, she won the Emily
Chamberlin Cook prize for poetry, 1912, and also the Bohemian Club prize.

The poems of Miss Davies express "the girl consciousness" (Kreymborg).


   The Drums in Our Street. 1918. (Poems.)
   The Slave with Two Faces. 1918. (Play.)
   Youth Riding. 1919. (Lyrics.)
   A Little Freckled Person. 1919. (Child Verse.)
   The Husband Test. 1921.
   Also in: Others, 1916, 1917.


   Poetry, 12 ('18): 218.
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1919.

+Fannie Stearns Davis.+ See +Fannie Stearns Davis Gifford+

+Margaret Wade Deland (Mrs. Lorin F. Deland)+--novelist, short-story

Born at a village called Manchester, now a part of Alleghany,
Pennsylvania, 1857. Educated in private schools, and studied drawing and
design at Cooper Institute. Later, taught design in a girls' school in
New York City.

Mrs. Deland's father was a Presbyterian and her mother an Episcopalian
(cf. _John Ward, Preacher_), and her home town is the "Old Chester" of
her books.


   The Old Garden and Other Verses. 1887.
  *John Ward, Preacher. 1888.
   Florida Days. 1889.
   Sidney. 1890.
   The Story of a Child. 1892.
   Mr. Tommy Dove and Other Stories. 1893.
   Philip and His Wife. 1894.
   The Wisdom of Fools. 1897. (Short stories.)
  *Old Chester Tales. 1898.
  *Dr. Lavendar's People. 1903. (Short stories.)
   The Common Way. 1904.
   The Awakening of Helena Richie. 1906.
   An Encore. 1907.
   R.J.'s Mother and Some Other People. 1908.
   The Way to Peace. 1910.
   The Iron Woman. 1911.
   The Voice. 1912.
   Partners. 1913.
   The Hands of Esau. 1914.
   Around Old Chester. 1915. (Short stories.)
   The Rising Tide. 1916.
   The Promises of Alice. 1919.
   Small Things. 1919.
   An Old Chester Secret. 1920.
   The Vehement Flame. 1922.


   Halsey. (Women.)

   Bookm. 25 ('07): 511 (portrait).
   Critic, 44 ('04): 107 (portrait).
   Cur. Op. 65 ('18): 178 (portrait).
   Harp. 123 ('11): 963.
   Harp. W. 50 ('06): 859, 1110. (Portraits.)
   Ind. 61 ('06): 337 (portrait).
   Outlook, 64 ('00): 407; 84 ('06): 730 (portrait); 99 ('11): 628.

+Floyd Dell+--novelist.

Born in Barry, Illinois, 1887. Left school at sixteen for factory work.
Literary editor of the _Chicago Evening Post_. Literary editor of _The
Masses_ and now of _The Liberator_.


   Women as World Builders. 1913.
   Were You Ever a Child? 1919. (Education.)
   The Angel Intrudes, a Play in One Act. 1918.
   Moon-Calf. 1920. Novel.
   The Briary Bush. 1921. (Novel.)
   Sweet and Twenty. 1921. (Comedy in One Act.)


   Bookm. 53 ('21); 245.
   Freeman, 2 ('21); 403.
   Nation, 111 ('20): 670.
   New Repub. 25 ('20): 49; 29 ('21): 78.
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1919, 1920, 1921.

+Babette Deutsch (Mrs. Avrahm Yarmolinsky)+--poet, critic.

Born in New York City, 1895. A.B., Barnard, 1917. Later, worked at the
School for Social Research. She attracted attention by her first volume
of poems, _Banners_, 1919.


   Poetry, 15 ('19): 166.
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1921.

+John (Roderigo) Dos Passos+--novelist.

Mr. Dos Passos' presentation (_Three Soldiers_) of the experiences of
privates in the U.S. Army during the War roused violent discussion.


   One Man's Initiation. 1917. 1920.
   Three Soldiers. 1921.
   Rosinante to the Road Again. 1921.


   Bookm. 54 ('21): 393.
   Cur. Op. 71 ('21): 624 (portrait).
   Dial, 71 ('21): 606.
   Freeman, 4 ('21): 282.
   Lit. Digest, 71 ('21): 29 (portrait).
   Lond. Mercury, 5 ('22): 319.
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1921.

+Theodore Dreiser+--novelist, dramatist.

Born at Terre Haute, Indiana, 1871, of German ancestry. Educated in the
public schools of Warsaw, Indiana, and at the University of Indiana.
Newspaper work in Chicago and St. Louis, 1892-5. Editor of _Every Month_
(literary and musical magazine), 1895-8. Editorial positions on
_McClure's_, _Century_, _Cosmopolitan_, and various other magazines,
finally becoming editor-in-chief of the Butterick Publications
(_Delineator_, _Designer_, _New Idea_, _English Delineator_), 1907-10.
Organized the National Child Rescue Campaign, 1907.


1. As Mr. Dreiser is considered by many critics the novelist of biggest
stature as yet produced by America, the nature and sources of his
strength and of his weakness deserve careful analysis. Observe (1) that
his attitude toward life and his general method derive from Zola; (2)
that his materials are drawn from his extensive and varied experience as
a journalist; (3) that these two facts are exemplified in brief in his
biographical studies, _Twelve Men_, which are "human documents."

2. Note the dates of _Sister Carrie_ and of _Jennie Gerhardt_, and work
out Dreiser's loss and gain during the long period of silence between

3. _Hey, Rub-a-Dub-Dub_ (cf. _Nation_, 109 ['19]: 278) should be read by
every student of Dreiser, for its revelation of his attitude toward
humanity, which contributes largely to the greatness of his work, and of
his failure to think out a point of view, which is a fundamental
weakness. Note his admission: "I am one of those curious persons who
cannot make up their minds about anything."

4. With what types of material does Mr. Dreiser succeed best? Why?

5. Discuss Mr. Dreiser's style in connection with the following topics:
(1) economy; (2) realism; (3) suggestion; (4) taste; (5) rhythmic beauty.
What deeply rooted defect is suggested by the following description of
the Woolworth Building in New York:--"lifts its defiant spear of clay
into the very maw of heaven"?

6. How far does Mr. Dreiser represent American life? Do you think his
work will be for some time the best that we can do in literature?

7. Read Mr. Van Doren's article (listed below) for suggestion of other
points for discussion. The following passage is especially significant:

     Not the incurable awkwardness of his style nor his occasional
     merciless verbosity nor his too frequent interpositions of crude
     argument can destroy the effect which he produces at his best--that
     of a noble spirit brooding over a world which in spite of many
     condemnations he deeply, somberly loves. Something peasantlike in
     his genius may blind him a little to the finer shades of character
     and set him astray in his reports of cultivated society. His
     conscience about telling the plain truth may suffer at times from a
     dogmatic tolerance which refuses to draw lines between good and evil
     or between beautiful and ugly or between wise and foolish. But he
     gains, on the whole, more than he loses by the magnitude of his
     cosmic philosophizing.... From somewhere sound accents of an
     authority not sufficiently explained by the mere accuracy of his
     versions of life. Though it may indeed be difficult for a thinker of
     the widest views to contract himself to the dimensions needed for
     realistic art, and though he may often fail when he attempts it,
     when he does succeed he has the opportunity, which the mere
     worldling lacks, of ennobling his art with some of the great lights
     of the poets.


  *Sister Carrie. 1900.
  *Jennie Gerhardt. 1911.
   The Financier. 1912.
   A Traveller at Forty. 1913. (Travel sketches.)
   The Titan. 1914.
   The Genius. 1915.
   Plays of the Natural and the Supernatural. 1916.
   A Hoosier Holiday. 1916. (Travel sketches.)
   Free and Other Stories. 1918.
   The Hand of the Potter. 1918. (Tragedy.)
   Twelve Men. 1919. (Biographical studies.)
   Hey-rub-a-dub-dub. 1920.
   A Book about Myself. 1922.


   Mencken, H.L., Prefaces.
   Sherman, Stuart P., On Contemporary Literature, 1917.

   Acad. 85 ('13): 133. (Frank Harris.)
   Bookm. 34 ('11): 221 (portrait); 38 ('14): 673; 53 ('21): 27 (portrait).
   Cur. Lit. 53 ('12): 696 (portrait).
   Cur. Op. 62 ('17): 344 (portrait); 63 ('17): 191; 66 ('19): 175.
   Dial, 62 ('17): 343, 507.
   Egoist, 3 ('16): 159.
   Ind. 71 ('11): 1267 (portrait).
   Lond. Times, June 23, 1921: 403.
   Nation, 101 ('15): 648 (Stuart P. Sherman); 112 ('21): 400. (Carl Van
   New Repub. 2 ('15): supp. Apr. 17, Pt. II, p. 7.
   No. Am. 207 ('18): 902.
   Review, 2 ('20): 380. (Paul Elmer More.)
   R. of Rs. 47 ('13): 242 (portrait).
   Spec. 118 ('17): 139.

+William Edward Burghardt Du Bois+--man of letters.

Born at Great Barrington, Massachusetts, 1865. Of negro descent but with
large admixture of white blood. A.B., Fisk University, 1888; Harvard,
1890; A.M., 1891; Ph.D., 1895. Studied at the University of Berlin.
Professor of economics and history, Atlanta University, 1896-1910.
Director of publicity of the National Association for the Advancement of
Colored People and editor of the _Crisis_, 1910--.

Mr. Du Bois is a distinguished economist and primarily a propagandist for
the equal rights and education of the negro, but he belongs to literature
as the author of _Darkwater_.


   The Souls of Black Folk. 1903.
   John Brown. 1909.
   The Quest of the Silver Fleece. 1911.
  *Darkwater. 1920. (Stories, sketches, essays.)


   Am. M. 66 ('08): May, pp. 61 (portrait), 65.
   Freeman, 1 ('20): 95.
   Lit. Digest, 65 ('20): May 1, p. 86.
   Nation, 110 ('20): 726.
   New Repub. 22 ('20): 189.
   World Today, 12 ('07): 6 (portrait).
   World's Work, 41 ('20): 159 (portrait).

+Finley Peter Dunne+--humorist.

Born at Chicago, 1867. Educated in Chicago public schools. Began
newspaper work as reporter, 1885. On _Chicago Evening Post_ and _Chicago
Times Herald_, 1892-7. Editor of the _Chicago Journal_, 1897-1900. Since
1900 has lived and worked in New York.


   Mr. Dooley in Peace and in War. 1898.
   Mr. Dooley in the Hearts of His Countrymen. 1899.
   Mr. Dooley's Philosophy. 1900.
   Mr. Dooley's Opinions. 1901.
   Observations by Mr. Dooley. 1902.
   Dissertations by Mr. Dooley. 1906.
   Mr. Dooley Says. 1910.
   Mr. Dooley on Making a Will and Other Necessary Evils. 1919.


   Am. M. 62 ('06): 571 (portrait); 65 ('07): 173.
   Bookm. 51 ('20): 674.
   Cent. 63 ('01): 63 (portrait).
   Cur. Lit. 38 ('05): 29 (portrait).
   Harp. W. 47 ('03): 331 (portrait), 346.
   Ind. 62 ('07): 741 (portrait).
   Lit. Digest, 44 ('12): 427 (portrait).
   No. Am. 176 ('03): 743. (Howells.)
   New Repub. 20 ('19): 235.
   Outlook, 123 ('19): 94 (portrait).
   Spec. 90 ('03): 258; 125 ('20): 146.

+Charles Alexander Eastman (Ohiyesa)+--writer.

Born at Redwood Falls, Minnesota, 1858, of Santee Sioux ancestry, his
father being a full-blood Indian, and his mother a half-breed. B.S.,
Dartmouth, 1887; M.D., Boston University, 1890. Government physician,
Pine Ridge Agency, 1890-3. Indian secretary, Y.M.C.A., 1894-7. Attorney
for Santee Sioux at Washington, 1897-1900. Government physician, Crow
Creek, South Dakota, 1900-3. Appointed to revise Sioux family names,


   Indian Boyhood. 1902.
   Old Indian Days. 1907.
   The Soul of the Indian. 1911.
   The Indian Today. 1915.
   From the Deep Woods to Civilization. 1916.


   Bk. Buyer, 24 ('02): 21 (portrait).
   Chaut. 35 ('02): 335 (portrait), 339.
   Outlook, 65 ('00): 83 (portrait).
   R. of Rs. 33 ('06): 700 (portrait), 703.

+Max Eastman+--poet, essayist, critic.

Born at Canandaigua, New York, 1883. Both his parents were
Congregationalist preachers. A.B., Williams College, 1905. From 1907 to
1911, associate in philosophy at Columbia. In 1911, began to give his
entire time to studying and writing about the problems of economic
inequality. In 1913, became editor of _The Masses_, a periodical which
voiced his theories, and which in 1917 became _The Liberator_.

In his _Enjoyment of Poetry_, Mr. Eastman shows in an interesting way how
poetry can be made to contribute to the enrichment of life.


   The Child of the Amazons and Other Poems. 1913.
   The Enjoyment of Poetry. 1913.
   Journalism Versus Art. 1916.
   Understanding Germany. 1916.
   The Colors of Life. 1918.
   The Sense of Humor. 1921.



   Countryside M. 23 ('16): 273 (portrait).
   Cur. Op. 55 ('13): 126 (portrait).
   Dial, 65 ('18): 611 (Louis Untermeyer); 66 ('19): 146. (Arturo
   Harp. W. 57 ('13): June 7, p. 20.
   Lit. Digest, 54 ('17): 71 (portrait).
   New Repub. 9 ('17): 303. (Hackett.)
   Poetry, 2 ('13): 140; 3 ('13): 31; 13 ('19): 322.
   Survey, 30 ('13): 489.

+Walter Prichard Eaton+--critic, essayist.

Born at Malden, Massachusetts, 1878. A.B., Harvard, 1900. Dramatic critic
on the _New York Tribune_, 1902-7, and the _New York Sun_, 1907-8, and on
the _American Magazine_, 1909-18.


   The American Stage of Today. 1908.
   At the New Theatre and Others. 1910.
   Barn Doors and Byways. 1913.
   The Man Who Found Christmas. 1913.
   The Idyl of Twin Fires. 1915.
   New York. 1915.
   Plays and Players. 1916.
   Green Trails and Upland Pastures. 1917.
   Newark. 1917.
   Echoes and Realities. 1918. (Poems.)
   In Berkshire Fields. 1919.
   On the Edge of the Wilderness. 1920.


   Bookm. 28 ('09): 412; 29 ('09): 473. (Portraits).
   Country Life, 25 ('14): Jan., p. 110 (portrait).
   Lit. Digest, 53, ('16): 1711 (portrait).

+"Albert Edwards."+ See _Arthur Bullard_.

+T(homas) S(tearns) Eliot+--poet, critic.

Born at St. Louis, Missouri, 1888. A.B., Harvard, 1909; A.M., 1910.
Studied at the Sorbonne, Paris, and at Merton College, Oxford. Teacher
and lecturer in London since 1913.


1. Is Mr. Eliot's poetry derived from a keen sense of life experienced or
from literature? What echoes of earlier poets do you find in his work?

2. Does the adjective _distinguished_ apply to his work? What are the
sources of his distinction? What evidences of fresh vision of old things
do you find? of unexpected and true associations and contrasts? of a
delicate sense for essential details that make a picture? of the power of
suggestive condensation? of ability to get an emotional effect through

3. Consider the following quotation from Mr. Eliot as illuminative of his
method of work: "The contemplation of the horrid or sordid by the artist
is the necessary and negative aspect of the impulse toward beauty."

4. It is interesting to make a special study of Mr. Eliot's management of

5. What, if any, temperamental defect is likely to interfere with his


   Poems. 1920.
   The Sacred Wood. Essays on Poetry and Criticism. 1921.
   The Waste Land. 1922.
   Also in: The Little Review, 4 ('17): May, June, September.


   Ath. 1920, 1: 239.
   Dial, 68 ('20): 781; 70 ('21): 336.
   Freeman, 1 ('20): 381; 2 ('21): 593. (Conrad Aiken.)
   Lond. Times, June 13, 1919: 322; Dec. 2, 1920: 795.
   Nation, 110 ('20): 856.
   Poetry, 10 ('17): 264; 16 ('20): 157; 17 ('21): 345.
   New Statesman, 16 ('21): 418.
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1920, 1921.

+John Erskine+--essayist, poet.

Born in New York City, 1879. A.B., Columbia, 1900; A.M., 1901; Ph.D.,
1903. Taught English at Amherst and Columbia. Since 1916, professor at
Columbia. Co-editor of the _Cambridge History of American Literature_.


   The Moral Obligation to be Intelligent, and Other Essays. 1915.
   The Shadowed Hour. 1917. (Poems.)
   Democracy and Ideals, a Definition. 1920.
   The Kinds of Poetry, and Other Essays. 1920.


   Dial, 70 ('21): 347.
   Outlook, 126 ('20): 377 (portrait).
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1920.

+Theodosia Faulks (Theodosia Garrison: Mrs. Frederic J. Faulks)+--poet.

Born at Newark, New Jersey, 1874. Educated in private schools.


   The Joy o' Life and Other Poems. 1909.
   Earth Cry and Other Poems. 1910.
   The Dreamers. 1917.


   Bookm. 16 ('02): 16 (portrait); 47 ('18): 398.
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1917, 1921.

+Edna Ferber+--short-story writer, novelist.

Born at Kalamazoo, Michigan, 1887. Educated in the public and high
schools of Appleton, Wisconsin. Began newspaper work at seventeen as
reporter on the _Appleton Daily Crescent_. Later, employed on the
_Milwaukee Journal_ and the _Chicago Tribune_.

Miss Ferber's special contribution to American Literature thus far has
been through her studies of American women in business.


   Dawn O'Hara. 1911.
   Buttered Side Down. 1912.
   Roast Beef Medium. 1913.
   Personality Plus. 1914.
   Emma McChesney & Co. 1915.
   Fanny Herself. 1917.
   Cheerful--By Request. 1918.
   Half Portions. 1920.
   $1200 a Year. 1920. (Comedy.)
   The Girls. 1921. (Novel.)



   Bookm. 54 ('21): 393; 54 ('22): 434 (portrait), 582.
   Cur. Op. 54 ('13): 491 (portrait).
   New Repub. 29 ('22): 158. (Hackett.)
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1917, 1918, 1920, 1921.

+Arthur Davison Ficke+--poet.

Born at Davenport, Iowa, 1883. A.B., Harvard, 1904. Studied at the
College of Law, State University of Iowa. Taught English at State
University of Iowa, 1905-7. Admitted to the bar, 1908. Under the name
"Anne Knish" joined Witter Bynner (q.v.) under the pseudonym "Emanuel
Morgan" in writing _Spectra_. Mr. Ficke's knowledge of art, especially
Japanese art, has an important bearing upon his work.


   From the Isles. 1907.
   The Happy Princess. 1907.
   The Earth Passion. 1908.
   The Breaking of Bonds. 1910.
   Twelve Japanese Painters. 1913.
   Mr. Faust. 1913.
  *Sonnets of a Portrait Painter. 1914.
   The Man on the Hilltop. 1915.
   Chats on Japanese Prints. 1915.
   Spectra. 1916. (Under pseudonym "Anne Knish," with Witter Bynner, q.v.)
   An April Elegy. 1917.



   Forum, 55 ('16): 240, 675.
   Poetry, 4 ('14): 29; 6 ('15): 39, 247; 10 ('17): 323; 12 ('18): 169.
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1915.

+Dorothy Canfield Fisher (Dorothea Frances Canfield Fisher, Mrs. John
    Redwood Fisher)+--novelist.

Born at Lawrence, Kansas, 1879. Ph.B., Ohio State University, 1899;
Ph.D., Columbia, 1904. Secretary of Horace Mann School, 1902-5. Studied
and traveled widely in Europe and speaks several languages. Spent several
years in France, doing war work.


   The Squirrel-Cage. 1912.
   Hillsboro People. 1915. (Short stories, with poems by Sarah Cleghorn,
  *The Bent Twig. 1915.
   The Real Motive. 1916.
   Fellow-Captains. 1916. (With Sarah Cleghorn, q.v.) (Essays.)
   Self-Reliance. 1916.
   Understood Betsy. 1917.
   Home Fires in France. 1918.
   The Day of Glory. 1919.
  *The Brimming Cup. 1921.
   Rough-Hewn. 1922.



   Bookm. 42 ('16): 599; 48 ('18): 105; 53 ('21): 453.
   Dial, 65 ('18): 320.
   Lit. Digest, 69 ('21): June 11, p. 57.
   New Repub. 5 ('16): 314.
   R. of Rs. 45 ('12): 759 (portrait).
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1915, 1917-9, 1921.

+F(rancis) Scott (Key) Fitzgerald+--novelist, short-story writer.

Born in 1896.


   This Side of Paradise. 1920.
   Flappers and Philosophers. 1920. (Short stories.)
   The Beautiful and Damned. 1922.


   Lond. Times, June 23, 1921: 402.
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1920.

+John Gould Fletcher+--poet, critic.

Born at Little Rock, Arkansas, 1886. Studied at Phillips Academy,
Andover, Massachusetts, and at Harvard, 1903-7. Has lived much in


1. Read the prefaces to _Irradiations_ and _Goblins and Pagodas_ for Mr.
Fletcher's theory of poetry before you read the poems themselves. Has he
succeeded in making the arts of painting and music do service to poetry?

2. After reading the poems, consider the justice or injustice of Mr.
Aiken's criticism: "It is a sort of absolute poetry, a poetry of detached
waver and brilliance, a beautiful flowering of language alone--a
parthenogenesis, as if language were fertilized by itself rather than by
thought or feeling. Remove the magic of phrase and sound and there is
nothing left: no thread of continuity, no thought, no story, no emotion.
But the magic of phrase and sound is powerful, and it takes one into a
fantastic world."

3. Do you find any poems to which the quotation given above does not
apply? Are these of more or of less value than the others?


   Irradiations--Sand and Spray. 1915.
   Goblins and Pagodas. 1916.
   Japanese Prints. 1917.
   The Tree of Life. 1918.
   Breakers and Granite. 1921.
   Paul Gauguin; His Life and Art. 1921.

For bibliography of editions out of print, see _A Miscellany of American
Poetry_. 1920.



   Bookm. 41 ('15): 236 (portrait).
   Dial, 66 ('19): 189.
   Egoist, 2 ('15): 73, 79, 177 (portrait); 3 ('16): 173.
   New Repub. 3 ('15): 75, 154, 204; 5 ('15): 280; 9 ('16): supp. p. 11.
   Poetry, 7 ('15): 44, 88; 9 ('16): 43; 13 ('19); 340; 19 ('21): 155.
   Sat. Rev. 126 ('18): 1039.
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1915, 1918, 1919, 1921.

+Sewell Ford+ (Maine, 1868)--short-story writer.

The creator of Shorty McCabe and Torchy. For bibliography, see _Who's Who
in America_.

+John (William) Fox, Jr.+--novelist.

Born in Kentucky, 1862, of a pioneer family. Pupil of James Lane Allen
(q.v.), whose influence on his work should be noted. Also associated in
friendship with Roosevelt and with Thomas Nelson Page. War correspondent
during the Spanish and Japanese wars. Died in 1919.


  *The Little Shepherd of Kingdom Come. 1903.
   Following the Sun Flag. 1905.
   A Knight of the Cumberland. 1906.
  *The Trail of the Lonesome Pine. 1908.
   The Heart of the Hills. 1913.
   In Happy Valley, 1917.
   Erskine Dale; Pioneer. 1920.


   Bookm. 32 ('10): 363.
   Nation, 109 ('19): 72.
   Outlook, 90 ('08): 700; 126 ('20): 333. (Portraits.)
   Scrib. M. 66 ('19): 674. (Thomas Nelson Page.)

+Waldo David Frank+--novelist.

Born in 1889. His criticism of America (1919) roused much discussion.


   The Unwelcome Man. A Novel. 1917.
   Our America. 1919.
   Dark Mother. 1920.
   Rahab. 1922.


   Cur. Op. 68 ('20): 80 (portrait).
   Dial, 62 ('17): 244 (Van Wyck Brooks); 70 ('21): 95.
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1917, 1919.

+Mary E(leanor) Wilkins Freeman (Mrs. Charles M. Freeman)+--short-story
    writer, novelist, dramatist.

Born at Randolph, Massachusetts, 1862. Educated there and at Mount
Holyoke Seminary, 1874.


  *A Humble Romance and Other Stories. 1887.
  *A New England Nun and Other Stories. 1891.
   A Pot of Gold and Other Stories. [1892.]
   Young Lucretia. 1892.
   Giles Corey, Yeoman. A Play. 1893.
   Jane Field. A Novel. 1893.
   Pembroke. A Novel. 1894.
   Comfort Pease and Her Gold Ring. 1895.
   Madelon. A Novel. 1896.
   Jerome, a Poor Man. 1897.
   Silence and Other Stories. 1898.
   People of Our Neighborhood. 1898.
   In Colonial Times. 1899.
   Evelina's Garden. 1899.
   The Jamesons. 1899.
   The Love of Parson Lord and Other Stories. 1900.
   The Hearts Highway. A Romance of Virginia in the Seventeenth Century.
   The Portion of Labor. 1901.
   The Home-Coming of Jessica. 1901.
   Understudies. 1901.
   Six Trees. 1903.
   The Wind in the Rose Bush and Other Stories of the Supernatural. 1903.
   The Givers. 1904.
   The Debtor. A Novel. 1905.
   "Doc." Gordon. 1906.
   By the Light of the Soul. 1906.
   The Fair Lavinia. 1907.
   The Shoulders of Atlas. A Novel. 1908.
   The Winning Lady. 1909.
   The Green Door. 1910.
   The Butterfly House. 1912.
   The Yates Pride. 1912.
   The Copy-Cat and Other Stories. 1914.
   An Alabaster Box. 1917. (With Florence Morse Kingsley.)
   Edgewater People. 1918.


   Halsey. (Women.)
   Harkins. (Women.)

   Atlan. 83 ('99): 665.
   Bk. Buyer, 8 ('91): 53 (portrait); 23 ('01): 379.
   Bookm. 24 ('06): 20 (portrait).
   Bookm. (Lond.) 24 ('06): 20 (portrait).
   Bk. News, 11 ('93): 227.
   Citizen, 4 ('98): 27.
   Critic, 20 ('92): 13; 22 ('93): 256 (portrait); 32 ('98): 155
   Harp. W. 47 ('03): 1879; 49 ('05): 1940. (Portraits.)

+Alice French ("Octave Thanet")+--novelist.

Born at Andover, Massachusetts, and educated at Abbott Academy there;
Litt. D., University of Iowa, 1911.

Upon going to live in the Middle West, Miss French became interested in
the local color of Iowa and Arkansas and in the labor conditions with
which she came in contact as a member of a family of manufacturers. The
sociological and propagandist elements are strong in her work.


   Knitters in the Sun. 1887.
   Stories of a Western Town. 1893.
   The Man of the Hour. 1905.
   The Lion's Share. 1907.
   By Inheritance. 1910.
   Stories That End Well. 1911.
   A Step on the Stair. 1913.
   And the Captain Answered. 1917.


   Harkins. (Women.)

   Arena, 38 ('07): 683 (portrait), 691.
   Cur. Lit. 28 ('00): 143.

+Robert Lee Frost+--poet.

Born at San Francisco, 1875. At the age of ten, he was taken to New
England where eight generations of his forefathers had lived. In 1892, he
spent a few months at Dartmouth College but disliking college routine,
decided to earn his living, and became a millhand in Lawrence,
Massachusetts. In 1897, two years after he had married, he entered
Harvard and studied there for two years; but he finally gave up the idea
of a degree and turned to various kinds of work, teaching, shoe-making,
and newspaper work. From 1900-11, he was farming at Derry, New Hampshire,
but with little success. At the same time, he was writing and offering
for publication poems which were invariably refused. He likewise taught
English at Derry, 1906-11, and psychology at Plymouth, 1911-2.

In 1912, he sold his farm and with his wife and four children went to
England. He offered a collection of poems to an English publisher and
went to live in the little country town of Beaconsfield. The poems were
published and their merits were quickly recognized. In 1914, Mr. Frost
rented a small place at Ledbury, Gloucestershire, near the English poets,
Lascelles Abercrombie, and W.W. Gibson. With the publication of _North of
Boston_ his reputation as a poet was established.

In 1915, Mr. Frost returned to America and went to live near Franconia,
New Hampshire. From 1916 to 1919 he taught English at Amherst College.
But he found that college life was disturbing to his creative energy, and
in 1920 he bought land in Vermont and again became a farmer. In 1921,
the University of Michigan, in recognition of his talents, offered him a
salary to live in Ann Arbor without teaching. This position he accepted,
but it is reported that he intends to return to farming to secure the
leisure necessary for his work.


1. Make a list of subjects that you have not found treated elsewhere in
poetry. Test the truth of the treatment by your own experience and decide
whether Mr. Frost has converted these commonplace experiences into a new
field of poetry.

2. Read in succession the poems concerning New England life and decide
whether they seem more authentic and more valuable than the others. If
so, why?

3. Is Mr. Frost's realism photographic? Consider in this connection his
own statement: "There are two types of realist--the one who offers a good
deal of dirt with his potato to show that it is a real one; and the one
who is satisfied with the potato brushed clean.... To me the thing that
art does for life is to strip it to form."

In view of the last sentence it is interesting to consider the kinds of
details that Mr. Frost chooses for presentation and those that he omits.

4. Read several of the long poems to discover his relative strength in
narrative and in dramatic presentation.

5. Examine the vocabulary for naturalness, colloquialism, and
extraordinary occasional fitness of words.

6. Try to sum up briefly Mr. Frost's philosophy of life and his attitude
toward nature and people.

7. What do you observe about the metrical forms, the beauty or lack of
beauty in the rhythm? Do many of the poems sing?

8. What do you prophesy as to Mr. Frost's future?


   A Boy's Will. 1913.
   North of Boston. 1914.
   Mountain Interval. 1916.



   Atlan. 116 ('15): 214.
   Bookm. 45 ('17): 430 (portrait); 47 ('18): 135.
   Chapbook, 1-2, May, 1920: 5.
   Cur. Op. 58 ('15): 427 (portrait).
   Dial, 61 ('16): 528.
   Ind. 86 ('16): 283; 88 ('16): 533. (Portraits.)
   Lit. Digest, 66 ('20): June 17, p. 32 (portrait).
   Nation, 109 ('19): 713.
   New Repub. 9 ('16): 219; 12 ('17): 109.
   Poetry, 2 ('13): 72; 5 ('14): 127; 9 ('17): 202.
   R. of Rs. 51 ('15): 432 (portrait).
   School and Soc. 7 ('18): 117.
   Spec. 126 ('21): 114.
   Survey, 45 ('20): 318.
   Touchstone, 3 ('18): 70 (portrait).

+Henry Blake Fuller+--novelist, short-story writer.

Born in Chicago, 1857. Educated in Chicago public schools, graded and
high; and at a "classical academy" in Wisconsin. In Europe, '79-'80, '83,
'92, '94, '96-7. Literary editor _Chicago Post_, 1902. Editorials
_Chicago Record Herald_, 1910-11 and 1914; at present, _Literary Review_
of the _New York Evening Post_, for the _Freeman_, _New Republic_,
_Nation_, etc.


1. Compare Mr. Fuller's stories of Europe with his studies of life in
Chicago. What is their relative success? What inferences do you draw?

2. Considering dates, materials, and methods, where do you place Mr.
Fuller's work in the development of the American novel?

3. Before reading _On the Stairs_, cf. _Dial_, 64 ('18): 405.


  *The Chevalier of Pensieri-Vani. 1891.
   The Chatelaine of La Trinité. 1892.
   The Cliff-Dwellers. 1893.
   With the Procession. A Novel. 1895.
   The Puppet-Booth. Twelve Plays. 1896.
   From the Other Side. Stories of Transatlantic Travel. 1898.
   The Last Refuge. A Sicilian Romance. 1900.
   Under the Skylights. 1901.
   Waldo Trench and Others. Stories of Americans in Italy. 1908.
   Lines Long and Short. Biographical Sketches in Various Rhythms. 1917.
   On the Stairs. 1918.
   Bertram Cope's Year. 1919.


   Bk. Buyer, 24 ('02): 185 (portrait).
   Bookm. 38 ('13): 275; 47 ('18): 340.
   Dial, 64 ('18): 405.
   Poetry, 10 ('17): 155.
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1918, 1920.

+Zona Gale+--novelist, short-story writer, dramatist.

Born at Portage, Wisconsin, 1874. B.L., University of Wisconsin, 1895;
M.L., 1899. On Milwaukee papers until 1901. Later on staff of the _New
York World_.


   The Loves of Pelleas and Etarre. 1907.
   Friendship Village. 1908.
   Friendship Village Love Stories. 1909.
   Mothers to Men. 1911.
   When I Was a Little Girl. 1913.
   Neighborhood Stories. 1914.
   The Neighbors. 1914. (One-act play.)
   A Daughter of the Morning. 1917.
   Birth. 1918.
  *Miss Lulu Bett. 1920. (Play, 1921.)
   The Secret Way. 1921. (Poems.)


   Acad. 75 ('08): 595.
   Bookm. 13 ('01): 520 (portrait); 25 ('07): 567 (portrait);
     53 ('21): 123.
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1915, 1917-19, 1920.

+Hamlin Garland+--short-story writer, novelist.

Born on a farm near West Salem, Wisconsin, 1860, of Scotch and New
England ancestry. During his boyhood, his father moved first to Iowa,
then to Dakota. As a boy, Mr. Garland helped his father with all the hard
work of making farmland out of prairie. While still in his teens, he was
able to do a man's work. His schooling was desultory, but he finished the
course at Cedar Valley Seminary, Osage, Iowa, then taught, 1882-3. In
1883 he took up a claim in Dakota, but the next year went to Boston and
began his career as teacher and writer.


1. Read the autobiographical books, _A Son of the Middle Border_ and _A
Daughter of the Middle Border_, to get the background of Mr. Garland's
work. Then read his essays called _Crumbling Idols_, for the literary
theory on which his work was created.

2. Two literary landmarks in Mr. Garland's history are: Edward
Eggleston's _The Hoosier Schoolmaster_ (1871), and Joseph Kirkland's
_Zury: the Meanest Man in Spring County_ (1887). Read these and decide
how much they influenced _Main-Traveled Roads_ and similar volumes of Mr.

3. Mr. Garland says that he presents farm life "not as the summer boarder
or the young lady novelist sees it--but as the working farmer endures
it." Find evidence of this.

4. Consider how far Mr. Garland's success depends upon the richness of
his material, how far upon his philosophy of life and his honesty to his
own experience, and how far upon his technical skill as a writer.

5. What are his most obvious limitations? What is the relative importance
of his novels and of his short stories?

6. Consider separately: (1) his power of visualization; (2) his choice of
significant detail; (3) his originality or lack of it; (4) his range in
characterization; (5) his power of suggestion as over against his
vividness of delineation; (6) his economy--or lack of it--in expression.
Where does his main strength lie?


   Under the Wheel. A Modern Play in Six Scenes. 1890.
  *Main-Traveled Roads. 1890.
   Jason Edwards. 1891.
   A Little Norsk. 1891.
  *Prairie Folks. 1892.
   A Spoil of Office. A Story of the Modern West. 1892.
   A Member of the Third House. 1892.
   Crumbling Idols. 1893. (Essays.)
   Prairie Songs. 1894.
  *Rose of Dutcher's Coolly. 1895.
   Wayside Courtships. 1897.
   The Spirit of Sweetwater. 1898.
   Boy Life on the Prairie. 1899. (Autobiographical.)
   The Eagle's Heart. 1900.
   Her Mountain Lover. 1901.
   The Captain of the Gray Horse Troop. A Novel. 1902.
   Hesper. A Novel. 1903.
   The Light of the Star. A Novel. 1904.
   The Tyranny of the Dark. 1905. (Novel.)
   The Long Trail. A Story of the Northwest Wilderness. 1907.
   Money Magic. A Novel. 1907.
   The Shadow World. 1908. (Novel.)
   The Moccasin Ranch. A Story of Dakota. 1909.
   Cavanagh, Forest Ranger. A Romance of the Mountain West. 1909.
  *Other Main-Traveled Roads. 1910.
   Victor Ollnee's Discipline, 1911. (Novel.)
   The Forester's Daughter. A Romance of the Bear-Tooth Range. 1914.
   They of the High Trails. 1916.
   A Son of the Middle Border. 1917. (Autobiographical.)
   A Daughter of the Middle Border. 1921. (Autobiographical.)



   Arena, 34 ('05): 112 (portrait), 206.
   Bookm. 31 ('10): 226 (portrait), 309.
   Chaut. 64 ('11): 322 (portrait).
   Cur. Lit. 53 ('12): 589.
   Cur. Op. 63 ('17): 412.
   Lit. Digest, 55 ('17): Sept. 15, p. 28 (portrait).
   No. Am. 196 ('12): 523.
   R. of Rs. 25 ('02): 701 (portrait).
   Sewanee R. 27 ('19): 411.
   Touchstone, 2 ('17): 322.
   World's Work, 6 ('03): 3695.

+Katharine Fullerton Gerould (Mrs. Gordon Hall Gerould)+--short-story
    writer, novelist, essayist.

Born at Brockton, Massachusetts, 1879. A.B., Radcliffe College, 1900;
A.M., 1901. Reader in English at Bryn Mawr College, 1901-10, except
1908-9 which she spent in England and France.


1. Mrs. Gerould belongs to the school of Henry James, but shows marked
individuality in her themes and in her dramatic power. A comparison of
some of her short stories with stories by Mr. James (q.v.) and by Mrs.
Wharton (q.v.) is illuminating for the powers and limitations of all

2. Another interesting comparison is between Mrs. Gerould's stories and
the collection entitled _Bliss_ by the English writer, Katherine
Mansfield (Mrs. J. Middleton Murry); cf. Manly and Rickert, _Contemporary
British Literature_.


  *Vain Oblations. 1914.
  *The Great Tradition. 1915.
   Hawaii, Scenes and Impressions. 1916.
   A Change of Air. 1917.
   Modes and Morals. 1919. (Essays.)
   Lost Valley. 1921. (Novel.)


   Bookm. 44 ('16): 31.
   Cur. Lit. 58 ('15):353.
   New Repub. 22 ('20): 97.
   No. Am. 211 ('20): 564. (Lawrence Gilman.)
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1914-17, 1920.

+Fannie Stearns Davis Gifford (Mrs. Augustus McKinstry Gifford)+--poet.

Born at Cleveland, Ohio, 1884. A.B., Smith College, 1904. Taught English
at Kemper Hall, Kenosha, Wisconsin, 1906-7.


   Myself and I. 1913.
   Crack o' Dawn. 1915.


   Bookm. 47 ('18): 388.
   Poetry, 2 ('13): 225; 6 ('15): 45.

+Arturo Giovannitti+--poet.

Born in the Abruzzi, Italy, 1884, of a family of good social standing,
his father and one of his brothers being doctors, and another brother a
lawyer. Educated in a local Italian college. Came to America in 1900,
full of enthusiasm for democracy. Worked in a coal mine. Later, studied
at Union Theological Seminary. Conducted Presbyterian missions in several

In 1906, he became a socialist and one of the leaders of the I.W.W.
During the Lawrence strikes he preached the doctrine of Syndicalism and
was arrested on the charge of inciting to riot. He also organized relief
work for the strikers.

On an Italian newspaper; editor of _Il Proletario_, a socialist paper.
His first speech in English was made at the time of his trial and
produced a powerful effect upon his audience. During his imprisonment, he
studied English literature and wrote poems, of which the most famous is
"The Walker." His chief concern is with the submerged, and he writes from
actual experience of having been "one of those who sleep in the park."


1. What are the main features of the social creed at the root of
Giovannitti's poetry?

2. Is he a poet or a propagandist? Test his sincerity; his passion; his
truth to experience.

3. What are his limitations as thinker and as poet?

4. Compare and contrast his work with Whitman's in ideas and in form.

5. Do you find marks of greatness in him?


   Arrows in the Gale. 1914. (With introduction by Helen Keller.)
   Also in: Others. 1919.



   Atlan, 111 ('13): 853.
   Cur. Op. 54 ('13): 24 (portrait).
   Forum, 52 ('14): 609.
   Lit. Digest, 45 ('12): 441.
   Outlook, 104 ('13): 504.
   Poetry, 6 ('15): 36.
   Survey, 29 ('12): 163 (portrait).

+Ellen (Anderson Gholson) Glasgow+--novelist.

Born at Richmond, Virginia, 1874. Privately educated. Her best work deals
with life in Virginia.


   The Descendant. 1897.
   Phases of an Inferior Planet. 1898.
   The Voice of the People. 1900.
   The Battle-ground. 1902.
   The Deliverance. 1904.
   The Ancient Law. 1908.
  *The Romance of a Plain Man. 1909.
  *The Miller of Old Church. 1911.
   Virginia. 1913.
   Life and Gabriella. 1916.
   The Builders. 1919.
   Stranger Things Have Happened. 1922.


   Harkins. (Women).

   Bookm. 19 ('04): 14 (portrait), 43; 29 ('09): 613 (portrait), 619.
   Critic, 44 ('04): 200 (portrait).
   Cur. Lit. 32 ('02): 623.
   Cur. Op. 55 ('13): 50 (portrait).
   Outlook, 71 ('02): 213 (portrait).
   World's Work, 5 ('02): 2793 (portrait); 39 ('20): 492 (portrait).

+Susan Glaspell (Mrs. George Cram Cook)+--dramatist, novelist.

Born at Davenport, Iowa, 1882. Ph.B., Drake University and post-graduate
work at the University of Chicago. Statehouse and legislative reporter
for the _News_ and the _Capitol_, Des Moines. Connected with the Little
Theatre movement through the Provincetown Players.


   The Glory of the Conquered; the Story of a Great Love. 1909.
   The Visioning. 1911. (Novel.)
   Lifted Masks. 1912. (Short stories.)
   Fidelity. 1915. (Novel.)
   Suppressed Desires. 1915. (With George Cram Cook, q.v.)
   Trifles. 1916.
   People; and Close the Book. 1918.
   Plays. 1920. (Trifles, The People, Close the Book, The Outside, Woman's
     Honor, Suppressed Desires, with George Cram Cook, Tickless Time, with
     same; and Bernice, a three act play.)
   Inheritors. 1921.


   Bookm. 33 ('11): 350 (portrait), 419; 46 ('18): 700 (portrait).
   Cur. Op. 59 ('15): 48 (portrait).
   Freeman, 1 ('20): 518.
   Nation, 111 ('20): 509; 113 ('21): 708.
   R. of Rs. 39 ('09): 760 (portrait).
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1915, 1920.

+Montague (Marsden) Glass+ (England, 1877)--short-story writer. The
    creator of Potash and Perlmutter.

For bibliography, see _Who's Who in America_.

+Kenneth Sawyer Goodman+--dramatist.

Born in 1883. Lieutenant in the Navy, chief aide at Great Lakes Naval
Station. Coöperated with B. Iden Payne at Fine Arts Theatre, 1913. Died
in 1918.


   Dust of the Road, a Play in One Act. 1912.
   Holbein in Blackfriars; an Improbable Comedy. 1913. (With Thomas Wood
   Back of the Yards, a Play in One Act. 1914.
   Barbara, a Play in One Act. 1914.
   The Game of Chess; a Play in One Act. 1914.
   Ephraim and the Winged Bear; a Christmas-Eve Nightmare in One Act. 1914.
   Dancing Dolls, a Fantastic Comedy in One Act. 1915.
   A Man Can Only Do His Best; a Fantastic Comedy in One Act. 1915.
  *Quick Curtains. 1915. (Includes all the preceding plays.)
   The Green Scarf; an Artificial Comedy in One Act. 1920.
   The Hero of Santa Maria; a Ridiculous Tragedy in One Act, 1920. (With
     Ben Hecht, q.v.)
   The Wonder Hat; a Harlequinade in One Act. 1920. (With Ben Hecht, q.v.)

+Robert Grant+--novelist.

Born at Boston, 1852. A.B., Harvard, 1873; Ph.D., 1876; LL.B., 1879.
Judge since 1893. Overseer of Harvard, 1895--.


   The Little Tin Gods on Wheels. 1879.
   An Average Man. 1883.
   The Reflections of a Married Man. 1892.
   The Opinions of a Philosopher. 1893.
   The Art of Living. 1895.
   Unleavened Bread. 1900.
   The Orchid. 1905.
   The Chippendales. 1909.
   The Convictions of a Grandfather. 1912.
   Their Spirit. 1916.



   Bookm. 11 ('00): 463.
   Critic, 37 ('00): 3 (portrait); 46 ('05): 209 (portrait), 368.
   Cur. Lit. 29 ('00): 418.
   Ind. 58 ('05): 1006 (portrait), 1008; 60 ('06): 1047.
   Outlook, 78 ('04): 867 (portrait); 92 ('09): 42.
   R. of Rs. 31 ('05): 118 (portrait.)

+"Grayson, David."+ See _Ray Stannard Baker_.

+Zane Grey+ (Ohio, 1875)--novelist.

Writes of the West, from Idaho to Texas. For bibliography, see _Who's Who
in America_.

+Arthur Guiterman+--poet.

Born of American parents in Vienna, Austria, 1871. B.A., College of the
City of New York, 1891. Editorial work on the _Woman's Home Companion_,
_Literary Digest_, and other magazines, 1891-1906. Lecturer on magazine
and newspaper verse, New York School of Journalism, 1912-15.


   The Laughing Muse. 1915.
   The Mirthful Lyre. 1918.
   Ballads of Old New York. 1919.
   Chips of Jade, or What They Say in China. 1920. (Includes _Betel Nuts,
     or What They Say in Hindustan_.)
   The Ballad-Maker's Pack. 1921.


   Bookm. 42 ('15): 461.
   Ind. 88 ('16): 312 (portrait).
   Lit. Digest, 52 ('16): 241.
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1920.

+Francis (O'Byrne) Hackett+--critic.

Born in Kilkenny, Ireland, 1883. Son of a physician. Educated at
Clongowes Wood College, Kildare. Came to America in 1900. Began as office
boy and gradually worked his way up as critic and editorial writer.
Connected with the _Chicago Evening Post_, 1906-11. Associate editor of
the _New Republic_, 1914-22.


   Ireland, A Study in Nationalism. 1918.
   Horizons. 1918.
   The Invisible Censor. 1921.


   Bookm. 47 ('18): 312.
   New Repub. 16 ('18): 308; 19 ('19): 88.
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1918, 1921.

+Hermann Hagedorn, Jr.+--man of letters.

Born in New York City, 1882. A.B., Harvard, 1907. Studied at University
of Berlin, 1907-8, and at Columbia, 1908-9. Instructor in English at
Harvard, 1909-11.


   Poems and Ballads. 1912.
   Faces in the Dawn. 1914. (Novel.)
   Makers of Madness. 1914. (Play.)
   The Great Maze--The Heart of Youth. 1916. (Poem and play.)
   Barbara Picks a Husband. 1918. (Novel.)
   Hymn of Free Peoples Triumphant. 1918.


   Bookm. 47 ('18): 394.
   Ind. 74 ('13): 53.
   New Repub. 7 ('16): 234.
   Outlook, 102 ('12): 207 (portrait); 103 ('13): 262.
   Poetry, 9 ('16): 90.
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1913-4, 1916-21.

+Clayton (Meeker) Hamilton+--critic, dramatist.

Born at Brooklyn, New York, 1881. A.B., Polytechnic Institute of
Brooklyn, 1900; A.M., Columbia, 1901. Teacher of English and lecturer in
various schools and colleges, 1901-17. Dramatic critic and associate
editor of the _Forum_, 1907-09. Dramatic editor of _The Bookman_,
1910-18, and of other magazines. Has traveled widely.


   Studies in Stage Craft. 1914.
   The Big Idea. 1917. (With A.E. Thomas, q.v.)
   Problems of the Playwright. 1917.
   Seen on the Stage. 1920.


   Bookm. 27 ('08): 340 (portrait); 42 ('16): 523 (portrait); 46 ('17): 257
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1915, 1917.

+Arthur Sherburne Hardy+--novelist.

Born at Andover, Massachusetts, 1847. Graduate of U.S. Military Academy,
1869. Honorary higher degrees. Studied and taught civil engineering,
1874-78, and mathematics, 1878-93, at Dartmouth. Represented the United
States in Persia and in various countries of Europe as minister,


   But Yet a Woman. 1883.
  *Passe Rose. 1889.
   Aurélie. 1912.
   Diane and Her Friends. 1914.
   Helen. 1916.
   No. 13, Rue du Bon Diable. 1917.
   Peter. 1920.


   Bk. Buyer, 21 ('00): 96.
   Nation, 99 ('14): 582.
   R. of Rs. 27 ('03): 628 (portrait).

+Frank Harris+--man of letters.

Born in Galway, Ireland, 1854, but came to the United States in 1870.
Naturalized. Educated at the universities of Kansas, Paris, Heidelberg,
Strassburg, Göttingen, Berlin, Vienna, and Athens (no degrees). Admitted
to the Kansas bar, 1875. Later, returned to Europe and became editor of
the _Evening News_ and _Fortnightly Review_ and secured control of the
_Saturday Review_.

Mr. Harris's work belongs in a class by itself. It is valuable partly for
its content, as in the case of his intimate portraits of famous men whom
he has known, and partly for the force and brilliancy of the style.


   Elder Conklin. 1892. (Novel.)
   The Bomb--A Story of the Chicago Anarchists of 1886. 1909.
   The Man Shakespeare. 1909.
   Montes, the Matador. 1910. (Short stories.)
   Shakespeare and his Love. 1910.
   The Women of Shakespeare. 1911.
   Gravitation. 1912.
   Unpathed Waters. 1913.
   The Veils of Isis and Other Stories. 1914.
  *Contemporary Portraits. 1914.
   Great Days. 1914. (Novel.)
   Love in Youth. 1914.
   England or Germany? 1915.
   Oscar Wilde; His Life and Confessions. 1916.
  *Contemporary Portraits. Second Series. 1919.
   A Mad Love. 1920.
  *Contemporary Portraits. Third Series. 1921.


   Bookm. 36 ('13): 498; 37 ('13): 592.
   Bookm. (Lond.) 45 ('14): 226; 47 ('15): 160.
   Cur. Op. 59 ('15): 196.
   Eng. Rev. 9 ('11): 599.
   Forum, 55 ('16): 189.
   Lit. Digest, 46 ('13): 134 (portrait).
   Lond. Times, Oct. 7, 1915: 341.
   Nation, 101 ('10): 361.
   New Repub. 29 ('21): 21. (Hackett.)
   No. Am. 202 ('15): 915.
   Sat. Rev. 90 ('00): 551.

+Henry Sydnor Harrison+--novelist.

Born at Sewanee, Tennessee, 1880. A.B., Columbia, 1900; A.M., 1913.


Read the article by Robert Herrick listed below, and compare Harrison's
work with that of Dickens, Sterne, and Meredith. Deal with each novelist
separately according to the influences noted by Mr. Herrick.


   Captivating Mary Carstairs. 1911. (Under the pseudonym, "Henry Second.")
   Queed. 1911.
   V.V.'s Eyes. 1913.
   Angela's Business. 1915.
   When I Come Back. 1919.
   Saint Teresa. 1922.


   Bookm. 39 ('14): 420 (portrait).
   Columbia Univ. Quar. 15 ('13): 341 (portrait).
   Cur. Op. 58 ('15): 352 (portrait).
   Ind. 71 ('11): 533 (portrait).
   Lit. Digest, 48 ('14): 905 (portrait).
   New Repub. 2 ('15): 199. (Herrick.)
   World's Work, 26 ('13): 221.

+Ben Hecht+--novelist, dramatist.

Born in New York City, 1893. Traveled much until he was eight years old,
then lived in Racine, Wisconsin, and was educated in the Racine high
school. Went to Chicago, intending to join the Thomas Orchestra as
violinist, but instead, joined the staff of the Chicago _Journal_ and
later that of the _Daily News_. War correspondent in Germany.


   The Hero of Santa Maria; a Ridiculous Tragedy in One Act. 1920. (With
     Kenneth Sawyer Goodman, q.v.)
   The Wonder Hat; a Harlequinade in One Act. 1920. (With Kenneth Sawyer
     Goodman, q.v.)
   Erik Dorn. 1921. (Novel.)
   Also in: The Little Review. (_Passim._)


   Cur. Op. 71 ('21): 644.
   Dial, 71 ('21): 597.
   Freeman, 4 ('21): 282.
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1921.

+Joseph Hergesheimer+--novelist.

Born at Philadelphia, 1880. Educated for a short time at a Quaker school
in Philadelphia and at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts.


1. Note Mr. Hergesheimer's use of setting and atmosphere. What is the
relative importance of these to plot and character? Is the author's main
interest in developing a story, in creating characters that live, or in
suggesting particular phases of life, each with its own physical and
emotional atmosphere?

2. What evidences of originality do you find in his books?

3. Is the author a realist or a romanticist? Is it true, as has been
said, that he stands midway between the "unrelieved realism" of the new
school of writers and the "genteel moralism" of the old?

4. Consider these two criticisms of Mr. Hergesheimer's work: (1) He aims
to set down "relative truth ... the colors and scents and emotions of
existence"; and (2) he is at times as much concerned "with the stuffs as
with the stuff of life."

5. Make a special study of his style: (1) of his use of suggestion; (2)
of his choice of words; (3) of his feeling for rhythm. It is true that
there is both art and artifice in his methods?

6. In what ways, if any, has he made actual contribution to American
literature? Can you prophesy as to his future?


   The Lay Anthony. 1914.
   Mountain Blood. 1915.
   The Three Black Pennys. 1917.
   Gold and Iron. 1918. (Wild Oranges, Tubal Cain, The Dark Fleece.)
  *Java Head. 1919.
   The Happy End. 1919. (Play.)
  *Linda Condon. 1919.
   Hugh Walpole, an Appreciation. 1919.
   San Cristóbal de la Habana. 1920.
   Cytherea. 1922.
   The Bright Shawl. 1922.


   Ath. 1919, 2: 1339. (Conrad Aiken.)
   Bookm. 50 ('19): 267. (James Branch Cabell.)
   Bookm. (Lond.) 56 ('19): 65; 58 ('20): 193. (Portraits.)
   Cur. Op. 66 ('19): 184; 68 ('20): 229; 71 ('21): 237. (Portraits.)
   Dial, 66 ('19): 449.
   Lond. Mercury, 1 ('20): 342.
   Nation, 109 ('19): 404; 112 ('21): 741. (Carl Van Doren.)
   Sat. Rev. 128 ('19): 343.
   Spec. 125 ('20): 371.
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1919.

+Robert Herrick+--novelist.

Born at Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1868. A.B., Harvard, 1890. Taught
English at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1890-3, and at the
University of Chicago since then, becoming professor, 1905. More
important for interpretation of his work is the fact that he has
carefully studied modern English and Continental literatures and is
deeply interested in philosophy and the social sciences.


1. Much of Mr. Herrick's work must be regarded as primarily social
criticism of American life. Does the interest tend to centre rather upon
the problems of the characters, growing out of their circumstances, or
upon the characters themselves?

2. Is Mr. Herrick's work more notable for scope and breadth or for

3. Note, especially in the novels previous to 1905, the conscientious
artistry, the compactness of structure, and the unity of tone commonly
associated with poetry. What other qualities characteristic of poetry
appear in Mr. Herrick's work?

4. With the structure of his earlier work compare that of the _Memoirs of
an American Citizen_ as showing an attempt at greater breadth of canvas
and greater variety of tone. Trace this attempt further in his later

5. What evidences do you find in Mr. Herrick's novels of a carefully
wrought theory of the art of the novelist?

6. Someone has called Mr. Herrick "a discouraged idealist." Is this just?


   The Man Who Wins. 1895.
   Literary Love Letters and Other Stories. 1896.
   The Gospel of Freedom. 1898.
   Love's Dilemmas. 1898.
   The Web of Life. 1900.
   The Real World. 1901.
   Their Child. 1903.
  *The Common Lot. 1904.
   The Memoirs of an American Citizen. 1905.
  *The Master of the Inn. 1908.
  *Together. 1908.
   A Life for a Life. 1910.
   The Healer. 1911.
   One Woman's Life. 1913.
   His Great Adventure. 1913.
   Clark's Field. 1914.
   The World Decision. 1916.
   The Conscript Mother. 1916.


   Bjorkman, E. Voices of Tomorrow. 1913.

   Acad. 75 ('08): 331.
   Bookm. 20 ('04): 192 (portrait), 220; 28 ('08): 350 (portrait);
     38 ('13): 274.
   Critic, 44 ('04): 112 (portrait).
   Cur. Op. 54 ('13): 317 (portrait).
   Dial, 56 ('14): 5.
   Lit. Digest, 44 ('12): 426 (portrait).
   Nation, 113 ('21): 230.
   No. Am. 189 ('09): 812. (Howells.)
   Outlook, 78 ('04): 862, 864 (portrait).
   Poet Lore, 19 ('08): 337.
   R. of Rs. 42 ('10): 123 (portrait); 43 ('11): 380 (portrait);
     49 ('14): 621.

+Robert Cortes Holliday ("Murray Hill")+--essayist, critic.

Born at Indianapolis, 1880. Studied at the Art Students' League, New
York, 1899-1902, and at the University of; Kansas, 1903-4. Illustrator
for magazines, 1904-5. Bookseller with Scribner's, 1906-11. Librarian,
1912-3. Held various editorial positions with New York publishers,
1913-8. Associate editor of _The Bookman_, 1918, and editor, 1919--.


   Booth Tarkington. 1918.
   The Walking Stick Papers. 1918.
   Joyce Kilmer, A Memoir. 1918.
   Peeps at People. 1919.
   Broome Street Straws. 1919.
   Men and Books and Cities. 1920.
   Turns about Town. 1921.


   Bookm. 47 ('18): 149 (portrait); 48 ('18): 478.
   Dial, 64 ('18): 297; 65 ('18): 419.
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1918-21.

+William Dean Howells+--novelist, dramatist, critic, poet.

Born at Martins Ferry, Ohio, 1837. Of Welsh, English, Pennsylvania Dutch,
and Irish ancestry. His father was a country editor, and Mr. Howells,
living as he did under pioneer conditions, had very little formal
education, but educated himself in working on newspapers as printer,
correspondent, and editor. He read continually in boyhood, and taught
himself to read six languages. As the result of a campaign life of
Lincoln, he was appointed U.S. consul at Venice and lived there, 1861-5.
After a year on the staff of the _Nation_, he became assistant editor of
the _Atlantic Monthly_, 1866-72, and editor, 1872-81. Later, he became an
editorial writer for _Harper's Magazine_, 1886-91, and finally writer of
the "Editor's Easy Chair," for the same magazine.

Although Mr. Howells did not go to college, he received many honorary
higher degrees, and was offered professorships by three Universities
(including that which had been held by Longfellow and Lowell at Harvard);
but he refused these, not considering himself fitted for such work. In
his editorial capacity he gave much advice and help to authors who
afterward became famous. He died in 1920.


1. For just appraisement of Mr. Howells, it is necessary to be familiar
with the facts of his life, and with his theories of fiction. For his
life the two autobiographical books _Years of My Youth_ and _My Literary
Passions_ are most valuable. After reading these, it is possible to see
the large use of autobiographical material in the novels.

2. It is interesting to group the books of Howells according to the
sources of the material: (1) those growing out of his early life in Ohio;
(2) those growing out of his life abroad; (3) those growing out of his
life in Boston and New York. This last class might well be subdivided
into those written before he came under the influence of Tolstoi and
those written after. The turning-point is in _A Hazard of New Fortunes_.
Does Mr. Howells's interest in sociological problems add to or lessen the
final value of his work?

3. The realism of Howells set a standard for American literature, the
effect of which has not yet passed. Study his theories of fiction
(_Criticism and Fiction_, and _Literature and Life_) and consider the
good and bad effects of his work upon the development of the novel.

4. Use the following quotation from Van Wyck Brooks, on Howells's
"panoramic theory" of the novel as a test of his work:

     To make a work of art, it is necessary to take a piece out of life
     and round it off; and, so long as the piece is perfectly rounded off
     and complete in itself, so long as the chosen group of characters
     are perfectly proportioned in relation to one another, there is no
     need to introduce an artificial chain of action.

5. Howells's style has often been admired. Try to analyze it into its
elements. Consider Mark Twain's judgment:

     For forty years his English has been to me a continual delight and
     astonishment. In the sustained exhibition of certain great
     qualities--clearness, compression, verbal exactness and unforced and
     seemingly unconscious felicity of phrasing--he is, in my belief,
     without his peer in the English-writing world.

6. Can you make any judgment now as to Howells's future place in American


   Poems by Two Friends. 1860. (With John J. Piatt.)
   Life of Abraham Lincoln. 1860.
   Venetian Life. 1866.
   Italian Journeys. 1867.
   No Love Lost: A Romance of Travel. 1869. (Poems.)
   Suburban Sketches. 1871.
   Their Wedding Journey. 1871.
   Poems. 1873.
   A Chance Acquaintance. 1873.
   A Foregone Conclusion. 1875.
   The Parlor Car. 1876. (Farce.)
   A Day's Pleasure. 1876.
   Out of the Question. 1877. (Comedy.)
   A Counterfeit Presentment. 1877. (Comedy.)
  *The Lady of the Aroostook. 1879.
   The Undiscovered Country. 1880.
   A Fearful Responsibility, and Other Stories. 1881.
   A Day's Pleasure, and Other Sketches. 1881.
   Dr. Breen's Practice. 1881.
  *A Modern Instance. 1882.
   The Sleeping-Car. 1883. (Farce.)
   A Woman's Reason. 1883.
   Three Villages. 1884.
   The Register. 1884. (Farce.)
  *The Rise of Silas Lapham. 1884.
   The Elevator. 1885. (Farce.)
   Five O'Clock Tea. 1885. (Farce.)
   Indian Summer. 1885.
   The Garroters. 1886. (Farce.)
   Tuscan Cities. 1886.
   Poems. 1886.
   The Minister's Charge. 1887. (=The Apprenticeship of Lemuel Barker.)
   Modern Italian Poets. 1887.
  *April Hopes. 1888.
   A Sea-Change or Love's Stowaway. 1888. (Farce.)
   Annie Kilburn. 1889.
  *A Hazard of New Fortunes. 1889.
   The Mouse Trap, and Other Farces. 1889.
   The Shadow of a Dream. 1890.
   A Boy's Town. 1890. (Autobiographical.)
   The Albany Depot. 1891. (Play.)
   Criticism and Fiction. 1891.
   An Imperative Duty. 1892.
  *The Quality of Mercy. 1892.
   A Letter of Introduction. 1892. (Farce.)
   A Little Swiss Sojourn. 1892.
   Christmas Every Day, and Other Stories for Children. 1893.
   My Year in a Log Cabin. 1893. (Autobiographical.)
   The Unexpected Guests. 1893. (Farce.)
   The World of Chance. 1890.
   Evening Dress. 1893. (Farce.)
   The Coast of Bohemia. 1893.
   A Likely Story, 1894. (Farce.)
   A Traveler from Altruria. 1894. (Romance.)
   My Literary Passions. 1895. (Autobiographical.)
   Stops of Various Quills. 1895. (Poems.)
   The Day of Their Wedding. 1896.
   A Parting and a Meeting. 1896.
   Impressions and Experiences. 1896.
   Idyls in Drab. 1896.
   The Landlord at Lion's Head. 1897.
   A Previous Engagement. 1897. (Comedy.)
   An Open-Eyed Conspiracy. 1897.
   Stories of Ohio. 1897.
   The Story of a Play. 1898.
   The Ragged Lady. 1899.
   Their Silver Wedding Journey. 1899.
   An Indian Giver. 1900. (Comedy.)
   Room Forty-five. 1900. (Farce.)
   The Smoking Car. 1900. (Farce.)
   Bride Roses. A Scene. 1900.
   Literary Friends and Acquaintances. 1900.
   A Personal Retrospect of American Authorship. 1900.
   Doorstep Acquaintance and Other Sketches. 1900.
   A Pair of Patient Lovers. 1901. (5 stories.)
   Poems. 1901.
   Heroines of Fiction. 1901.
   The Kentons. 1902.
   Literature and Life. 1902.
   The Flight of Pony Baker. A Boy's Town Story. 1902.
   Minor Dramas. 1902. (19 Farces.)
   Letters Home. 1903.
   Questionable Shapes. 1903. (3 stories.)
   The Son of Royal Langbrith. 1904.
   Miss Bellard's Inspiration. 1905.
   London Films. 1905.
   Certain Delightful English Towns. 1906.
   Between the Dark and the Daylight. 1907. (7 stories.)
   Through the Eye of the Needle. 1907. (Romance.)
   Mulberries in Pay's Garden. 1907.
   Roman Holidays and Others. 1908.
   Fennel and Rue. 1908.
   The Mother and the Father. Dramatic Passages. 1909.
   Seven English Cities. 1909.
   Imaginary Interviews. 1910.
   My Mark Twain. 1910.
   Parting Friends. 1911. (Farce.)
   New Leaf Mills. 1913.
   Familiar Spanish Travels. 1913.
   The Seen and the Unseen at Stratford-on-Avon. A Fantasy. 1914.
   Years of my Youth. 1916. (Autobiographical.)
   Buying a Horse. 1916.
   The Leatherwood God. 1916.
   The Daughter of the Storage and Other Things in Prose and Verse. 1916.
   The Vacation of the Kelwyns. 1920.
   Mrs. Farrell. 1921.

For complete bibliography, see _Cambridge_, III (IV), 663.


   Cambridge, III, 77.
   Clemens, S.L. What is Man? and Other Essays. 1917.
   Harvey, A. William Dean Howells. 1917.
   Phelps. (Modern Novelists.)
   Robertson, J.M. Essays toward a Critical Method. 1889.
   Van Doren, Carl.

   Ath. 1920, 1: 634.
   Atlan. 91 ('03): 77; 119 ('17): 362.
   Bookm. 21 ('05): 566; 25 ('07): 2 (portrait), 67; 45 ('17): 1 (Hamlin
     Garland); 49 ('19): 549; 51 ('20): 385.
   Bookm. (Lond.) 23 ('03): 214; 52 ('17): 88 (portrait).
   Cath. World, 111 ('20): 445.
   Cent. 100 ('20): 674 (portrait).
   Critic, 38 ('01): 165.
   Cur. Lit. 52 ('12): 461.
   Cur. Op. 54 ('13): 411; 60 ('16): 352 (portrait); 62 ('17): 278, 357
     (portrait); 63 ('17): 270; 69 ('20): 93 (portrait).
   Fortn. 115 ('21): 154.
   Forum, 32 ('02): 629; 49 ('13): 217.
   Harp. 113 ('06): 221 (Mark Twain)=Cur. Lit. 41 ('06): 48 (condensed);
     134 ('17): 903; 141 ('20): 265 (portrait), 346.
   Harp. W. 46 ('02): 929 (portrait), 947; 56 ('12): Mar. 9, pp. 5, 27
   Ind. 72 ('12): 533 (portrait).
   J. Educ. 65 ('07): 311.
   Lit. Digest, 44 ('12): 485; 65 ('20): My. 29, p. 34, Je. 12, p. 53
     (portrait), Je. 19, pp. 37, 56.
   Liv. Age, 294 ('17): 173; 306 ('20): 98; 308 ('21): 304; 312 ('21): 304.
   Lond. Mer., 2 ('20): 133.
   Lond. Times, Dec. 7, 1916: 585.
   Nation, 31 ('80): 49 (W.C. Brownell); 104 ('17): 261; 110 ('20): 673.
   New Repub. 10 ('17): supp. p. 3; 22 ('20): 393; 26 ('21): 192.
   New Statesman, 15 ('20): 195.
   No. Am. 176 ('03): 336; 195 ('12): 432 (portrait), 550; 196 ('12): 339;
     212 ('20): 1 (portrait), 17.
   Outlook, 69 ('01): 712 (portrait); 111 ('15): 786, 798 (portrait);
     129 ('21): 187 (portrait).
   R. of Rs. 61 ('20): 562 (portrait), 644.
   Sat. Rev. 91 ('01): 806.
   Spec. 98 ('07): 450; 117 ('16): 834.
   Westm. R. 178 ('12): 597.
   World's Work, 18 ('09): 11547. (Van Wyck Brooks.)
   Yale Rev. n.s. 10 ('20): 99.
   Cf. also _Cambridge_, III (IV), 665.

+James Gibbons Huneker+--critic.

Born at Philadelphia, 1860. Graduate of Roth's Military Academy,
Philadelphia, 1873. Studied law five years at the Law Academy,
Philadelphia. Studied piano in Paris and was for ten years associated
with Rafael Joseffy, as teacher of piano at the National Conservatory,
New York. Musical and dramatic critic of the _New York Recorder_, 1891-5;
of the _Morning Advertiser_, 1895-7; also musical, dramatic, and art
critic of the _New York Sun_. Died in 1921.

For an understanding of Mr. Huneker's criticisms, it is well to begin
with his autobiography (_Steeplejack_).


   Mezzotints in Modern Music. 1899.
   Melomaniacs. 1902.
   Overtones. 1904.
   Iconoclasts--A Book of Dramatists. 1905.
   Visionaries. 1905.
   Egoists--A Book of Supermen. 1909.
   Promenades of an Impressionist. 1910.
   The Pathos of Distance. 1913.
   Ivory Apes and Peacocks. 1915.
   New Cosmopolis. 1915.
   Unicorns. 1917.
   Steeplejack. 1919.
   Painted Veils. 1920.
   Bedouins. 1920.
   Variations. 1921.


   Mencken, H.L. Prefaces.

   Bookm. 11 ('00): 501 (portrait); 21 ('05): 79 (portrait), 564, 565
     (portrait); 29 ('09): 236 (portrait); 31 ('14): 241 (portrait);
     37 ('13): 598 (portrait); 41 ('15): 246 (portrait); 53 ('21): 124.
   Cent. 102 ('21): 191.
   Critic, 36 ('00): 487 (portrait).
   Cur. Lit. 39 ('05): 75 (portrait); 42 ('07): 167; 47 ('09): 57
   Cur. Op. 65 ('18): 392; 70 ('21): 534. (Portraits.)
   Forum, 41 ('09): 600.
   Lit. Digest, 68 ('21): Mar. 5, p. 28 (portrait).
   Liv. Age, 309 ('21): 426.
   New Repub. 25 ('21): 357.
   No. Am. 213 ('21): 556.
   Outlook, 126 ('20): 469 (portrait); 127 ('21): 286.
   Sat. Rev. 97 ('04): 551.
   Spec. 115 ('15): 879.

+Fannie Hurst+ (Missouri, 1889)--short-story writer, novelist.

Has studied especially the lives of working girls. For bibliography, see
_Who's Who in America_.

+Wallace Irwin+ (New York, 1875)--short-story writer.

Most characteristic material life in California and the Japanese there.
For bibliography, see _Who's Who in America_.

+Henry James+--novelist.

Born in New York City, 1843. Younger brother of William James, the
psychologist. Educated largely in France and Switzerland. Studied at the
Harvard Law School. After 1869, lived for the most part abroad, chiefly
in England. Spent much time at Lamb House, Rye, a beautiful eighteenth
century English house which he purchased in order to live in retirement.
Just before his death, to show his sympathy for the part played by
England in the War and his criticism of what he considered our
backwardness, he became naturalized as a British citizen. In 1916,
received the Order of Merit (O.M.), the highest honor for literary men
conferred in England. His death in 1916 was attributed to overstrain
caused by the War and his efforts to help the sufferers.


1. A good approach to the work of Henry James is through the three
articles from the _Quarterly Review_ listed below. Mr. Fullerton sums up
the material scattered through the prefaces to the definitive edition of
1909. Mr. Percy Lubbock writes as the editor of the _Letters_. Mrs.
Wharton adds to criticism of the _Letters_ illuminating personal

2. One of the important _Prefaces_ on James's theory of the novel and his
method of work is that to the _Portrait of a Lady_, from which the
extract below is taken. In speaking of Turgenev's attitude toward his
characters, James says:

     He saw them, in that fashion, as disponible, saw them subject to the
     chances, the complications of existence, and saw them vividly but
     then had to find for them the right relations, those that would most
     bring them out; to imagine, to invent and select and piece together
     the situations most useful and favourable to the sense of the
     creatures themselves, the complications they would be most likely to
     produce and to feel.

     "To arrive at these things is to arrive at my 'story,' he said, "and
     that's the way I look for it. The result is that I'm often accused
     of not having 'story' enough...."

     So this beautiful genius, and I recall with comfort the gratitude I
     drew from his reference to the intensity of suggestion that may
     reside in the stray figure, the unattached character, the image _en
     disponible_. It gave me higher warrant than I seemed then to have
     met for just that blest habit of one's own imagination, the trick of
     investing some conceived or encountered individual, some brace or
     group of individuals, with the germinal property and authority. I
     was myself so much more antecedently conscious of my figures than of
     their setting--a too preliminary, a preferential interest in which
     struck me as in general such a putting of the cart before the horse.
     I might envy, though I couldn't emulate, the imaginative writer so
     constituted as to see his fable first and to make out his agents
     afterwards: I could think so little of any situation that didn't
     depend for its interest on the nature of the persons situated, and
     thereby on their way of taking it....

     The question comes back thus, obviously, to the kind and the degree
     of the artist's prime sensibility, which is the soil out of which
     his subject springs. The quality and capacity of that soil, its
     ability to "grow" with due freshness and straightness any vision of
     life, represents, strongly or weakly, the projected morality. That
     element is but another name for the more or less close connexion of
     the subject with some mark made on the intelligence, with some
     sincere experience.

     On one thing I was determined; that, though I should clearly have to
     pile brick upon brick for the creation of an interest, I would leave
     no pretext for saying that anything is out of line, scale or
     perspective. I would build large--in fine embossed vaults and
     painted arches, as who should say, and yet never let it appear that
     the chequered pavement,  the ground under the reader's feet, fails
     to stretch at every point to the base of the walls....

     The bricks, for the whole counting-over--putting for bricks little
     touches and inventions and enhancements by the way--affect me in
     truth as well-nigh innumerable and as ever so scrupulously fitted
     together and packed-in. It is an effect of detail, of the minutest;
     though, if one were in this connexion to say all, one would express
     the hope that the general, the ampler part of the modest monument
     still survives....

     So early was to begin my tendency to _overtreat_, rather than
     undertreat (when there was choice or danger) my subject. (Many
     members of my craft, I gather, are far from agreeing with me, but I
     have always held overtreating the minor disservice.) ... There was
     the danger of the noted "thinness"--which was to be averted, tooth
     and nail, by cultivation of the lively.... And then there was
     another matter. I had, within the few preceding years, come to live
     in London, and the "international" light lay, in those days, to my
     sense, thick and rich upon the scene. It was the light in which so
     much of the picture hung. But that _is_ another matter. There is
     really too much to say.

3. Remember the following clues in reading James's, work: "His one
preoccupation was the criticism, for his own purpose, of the art of
life." The emphasis is on the word _art_. His _purpose_ is suggested by
his own claim to have "that tender appreciation of actuality which makes
even the application of a single coat of rose-color seem an act of

4. There is suggestion of Mr. James's limitations in the facts that he
was tone deaf and so could not appreciate music, and that he is said not
to have written a line of verse, and also in the fact that although his
method of presentation in the novels is dramatic throughout and he
strongly desired to write plays, the eight plays that he wrote (three of
which were presented) were failures.

5. Mr. James's place in the sequence of great European novelists is as a
follower of Balzac, Flaubert, De Maupassant, and Turgenev, and as a
predecessor of Conrad (whose study of him listed below should be read).

6. Early in the nineties, a great change in method came about in James's
work (cf. _Cambridge_, III, 98, 103). Judge separately typical books
written before this change and others written after; then read several
books of the period of change and decide what happened and whether or
not it enhanced the value of his work.

7. One of the remarkable facts about James's style is its influence upon
the critics who write about him. A close analysis of its
qualities--sentence length, the order and placing of the parts of the
sentence, punctuation, vocabulary, etc., might bring a more definite
understanding of the reasons for this influence.

8. A comparison of the work and qualities of Henry and William James
might be made a valuable contribution to criticism.

9. For a student familiar with Europe, a study of the reasons for James's
affinity with Europe and dislike for American life would make an
interesting study.

10. What different types of reasons can you bring to show that Henry
James is likely to be a permanent force in American literature?


   A Passionate Pilgrim, and Other Tales. 1875.
   Transatlantic Sketches. 1875.
   Roderick Hudson. 1876.
  *The American. 1877.
   Watch and Ward. 1878.
   French Poets and Novelists. 1878.
   The Europeans. A Sketch. 1878.
  *Daisy Miller. A Study. 1879.
   An International Episode. 1879.
   Daisy Miller: A Study. An International Episode. Four Meetings. 1879.
   The Madonna of the Future and Other Tales. 1879.
   Hawthorne. 1879. (English Men of Letters.)
   The Diary of a Man of Fifty and A Bundle of Letters. 1880.
   Confidence. 1880.
   Washington Square. 1881.
   Washington Square. The Pension Beaurepas. A Bundle of Letters. 1881.
  *The Portrait of a Lady. 1881.
   Daisy Miller: A Comedy. 1882. (Privately printed.)
   The Siege of London, The Pension Beaurepas, and The Point of View. 1883.
   Portraits of Places. 1883.
   Tales of Three Cities. 1884.
   A Little Tour in France. 1885.
   Stories Revived. 1885. (3 vols. of Short Stories.)
   The Bostonians. 1886.
   The Princess Casamassima. 1886.
   The Reverberator. 1888.
   The Aspern Papers. Louisa Pallant. The Modern Warning. 1888.
   Partial Portraits. 1888.
   A London Life. The Patagonia. The Liar. Mrs. Temperley. 1889.
   The Tragic Muse. 1892.
   The Lesson of the Master. The Marriages. The Pupil. Brooksmith. The
     Solution. Sir Edward Orme. 1892.
   The Real Thing and Other Tales. 1893.
   The Private Life. Lord Beaupré. The Visits. 1893.
   The Wheel of Time. Collaboration. Owen Wingrave. 1893.
   Picture and Text. 1893.
   Essays in London and Elsewhere. 1893.
   Theatricals. Two Comedies: Tenants. Disengaged. 1894.
   Theatricals. Second Series. The Album. The Reprobate. 1895.
  *Terminations. The Death of the Lion. The Coxon Fund. The Middle Years.
     The Altar of the Dead. 1895.
   Embarrassments. The Figure in the Carpet. Glasses. The Next Time. The
     Way It Came. 1896.
   The Other House. 1896.
  *The Spoils of Poynton. 1897.
  *What Maisie Knew. 1897.
   In the Cage. 1898.
   The Two Magics. The Turn of the Screw. Covering End. 1898.
   The Awkward Age. 1899.
   The Soft Side. 1900.
   The Sacred Fount. 1901.
  *The Wings of the Dove. 1902.
   The Better Sort. 1903. (Short stories.)
  *The Ambassadors. 1903.
   William Wetmore Story and His Friends. 1903.
  *The Golden Bowl. 1904.
   English Hours. 1905.
   The Question of Our Speech. The Lesson of Balzac: Two Lectures. 1905.
   The American Scene. 1907.
   Views and Reviews, Now First Collected. 1908.
   Italian Hours. 1909.
  *The Altar of the Dead. The Beast in the Jungle. The Birthplace, and
     Other Tales. 1909.
   The Finer Grain. 1910. (Short stories.)
   The Outcry. 1911.
   A Small Boy and Others. 1913. (Autobiography.)
   Notes of a Son and Brother. 1914. (Autobiography.)
   Notes on Novelists. With Some Other Notes. 1914.
   The Ivory Tower. 1917.
   The Sense of the Past. 1917.
   The Middle Years. 1917. (Autobiography.)
   Gabrielle de Bergerac. 1918. (_Atlantic_, 1860.)
   Travelling Companions. 1919. (7 stories originally published 1868-74.)
   A Landscape Painter. 1919. (4 stories originally published 1866-68.)
   Master Eustace. 1920. (5 stories originally published 1869-78.)
   The Letters of Henry James. 1920. (Selected and edited by Percy

For further bibliographical references, see _Cambridge_, III (IV), 671.


   Beach, J.W. The Method of Henry James. 1918.
   Cary, Elizabeth Luther. The Novels of Henry James. 1905.
   Elton, Oliver. Modern Studies. 1907.
   Freeman, John. The Moderns. 1917.
   Hacket, Francis. Horizons. 1918.
   Hueffer, Ford Madox. Henry James: a Critical Study. 1913.
   Perry, Bliss. The American Spirit in Literature. 1918.
   Sherman, Stuart P. On Contemporary Literature. 1917.
   Van Doren, Carl.
   West, Rebecca. Henry James. 1916.

   Acad. 75 ('08): 609; 86 ('14): 359; 87 ('14): 509; 89 ('15): 67.
   Ath. 1919, 1: 518.
   Atlan. 95 ('05): 496; 100 ('07): 458; 117 ('16): 801.
   Bookm. 15 ('02): 396; 21 ('05): 23 (portrait), 71, 464; 26 ('07): 357;
     30 ('09): 138 (portrait); 36 ('12): 176; 37 ('13): 595; 43 ('16): 219;
     51 ('20): 364, 389.
   Bookm. (Lond.) 43 ('13): 299 (portraits); 45 ('14): 302; 53 ('17): 107;
     53 ('18): 163.
   Contemp. 101 ('12): 69=Liv. Age, 272 ('12): 287.
   Critic, 42 ('03): 31, 107 (portrait), 204, 393 (portrait); 44 ('04):
     146; 46 ('05): 98 (portrait), 146.
   Cur. Lit. 27 ('00): 21; 29 ('00): 148.
   Cur. Op. 54 ('13): 489 (portrait); 56 ('14): 457; 60 ('16): 280
     (portrait); 63 ('17): 118, 247, 407 (portrait).
   Dial, 44 ('08): 174; 54 ('13): 372; 60 ('16): 259, 313, 316;
     63 ('17): 260.
   Egoist, 5 ('18): 1 (T.S. Eliot), 2 (Ezra Pound), 3, 4.
   Eng. R. 22 ('16): 317.
   Fortn. 105 ('16): 620=Liv. Age, 290 ('16): 281; 107 ('17): 995=Liv.
     Age, 294 ('17): 346=Bookm, 45 ('18): 571; 113 ('20): 864.
   Forum, 55 ('16): 551.
   Harp. W. 47 ('03): 273, 532, 552 (portrait); 48 ('04): 1375 (portrait),
     1548 (portrait); 57 ('13): May 3, p. 18 (portrait); 62 ('16): March
     25: 291. (Canby.)
   Lamp, 28 ('04): 47. (Herbert Croly.)
   Little Review, 5 ('18): August number.
   Liv. Age, 236 ('03): 577; 240 ('04): 1; 262 ('09): 691; 289 ('16): 122,
     229, 568; 306 ('20): 55; 310 ('21): 267.
   Lond. Merc. 1 ('20): 673; 2 ('20): 29. (Edmund Gosse.)
   Lond. Times, Apr. 10, 1913: 150; Mar. 9, 1916: 109; Oct. 19, 1917: 497;
     Dec. 27, 1918: 655; Mar. 28, 1919: 163.
   Nation, 85 ('07): 343; 102 ('16): 244; 104 ('17): 393; 110 ('20): 690;
     111 ('20): 441.
   New Repub. 6 ('16): 152, 191; 7 ('16): 171; 13 ('17): 119, 254;
     16 ('18): 172; 20 ('19): 113; 23 ('20): 63.
   New Statesman, 6 ('16): 518; 9 ('17): 375; 15 ('20): 162.
   19th Cent. 80 ('16): 141=Liv. Age, 290 ('16): 505.
   No. Am. 176 ('03): 125; 180 ('05): 102 (Joseph Conrad); 185 ('07): 214;
     203 ('16): 572 (Howells), 585 (Conrad), 592; 207 ('18): 130; 211
     ('20): 682; 213 ('21): 211.
   Outlook, 79 ('05): 838; 125 ('20): 167. (Portraits.)
   Quar. 212 ('10): 393=Liv. Age, 265 ('10): 643; 226 ('16): 60=Liv. Age,
     290 ('16): 733; 234 ('20): 188.
   Sat. Rev. 95 ('03): 79; 107 ('09): 266; 121 ('16): 226; 123 ('17): 201;
     129 ('20): 537.
   Scrib. M. 36 ('04): 394; 67 ('20): 422, 548; 68 ('20): 89.
   Sewanee Rev. 27 ('19): 1.
   Spec. 98 ('07): 334; 116 ('16): 312.
   Yale R. n.s. 5 ('16): 783; n.s. 10 ('20): 143.
   Cf. also _Cambridge_, III (IV), 674.

+Orrick Johns+--poet.

Born at St. Louis, Missouri, 1887. Trained as an advertising copy writer.
Won the prize of the _Lyric Year_, 1912, for his _Second Avenue_.


   Asphalt and Other Poems. 1917.
   Black Branches. 1920.
   Also in: Others, 1916, 1917, 1919.


   Dial, 62 ('17): 476.
   Poetry, 11 ('17): 44; 16 ('20): 162.
   Bookm. 46 ('18): 578.

+Owen McMahon Johnson+ (New York City, 1878)--novelist short-story

Best known for studies in college life and in the psychology of the young
woman (_The Salamander_, 1913). For bibliography, see _Who's Who in

+Robert Underwood Johnson+--poet.

Born at Washington, D.C., 1853. B.S., Earlham College, 1871. Has many
honorary higher degrees and decorations. Joined the staff of the
_Century_, 1873; associate editor, 1881-1909; editor, 1909-13. Father of
Owen McMahon Johnson (q.v.).

Ambassador to Italy, 1920-1.

For Mr. Johnson's many activities outside his work as poet and as editor,
see _Who's Who in America_.


Collected Poems. 1919.


   Bookm. 47 ('18): 547. (Phelps.)
   Critic, 42 ('03): 231 (portrait).
   Lit. Digest, 64 ('20): Mar. 6, p. 32 (portrait).
   R. of Rs. 49 ('14): 759 (portrait).

+Mary Johnston+ (Virginia, 1870)--novelist.

Historical material, especially colonial Virginia. For bibliography, see
_Who's Who in America_.

+Charles Rann Kennedy+--dramatist.

Born at Derby, England, 1871. Largely self-educated. Office boy and
clerk, thirteen to sixteen. Lecturer and writer to twenty-six. Actor,
press-agent, and miscellaneous writer and theatrical business manager to
thirty-four. His play, _The Servant in the House_, established his


  *The Servant in the House. 1908.
   The Winterfeast. 1908.
   The Terrible Meek. 1911.
   The Necessary Evil. 1913.
   The Idol-Breaker. 1914.
   The Rib of the Man. 1917.
   The Army With Banners; A Divine Comedy of this Very Day. 1917.
   The Fool from the Hills. 1919.


   Arena, 40 ('08): 18 (portrait), 20.
   Atlan. 103 ('09): 73.
   Dial, 45 ('08): 36.
   Ind. 72 ('12): 725.
   R. of Rs. 37 ('08): 757; 45 ('12): 633; 49 ('14): 501. (Portraits.)

+(Alfred) Joyce Kilmer+--poet, essayist.

Born at New Brunswick, New Jersey, 1886. Of mixed ancestry, Irish,
German, English, Scotch. A.B., Rutgers, 1904; Columbia, 1906. Married
Miss Aline Murray, step-daughter of Henry Mills Alden, editor of
_Harper's Magazine_ (cf. Aline Kilmer). Taught a short time, then held
various editorial positions on _The Churchman_, the _Literary Digest_,
_Current Literature_, the _New York Times Sunday Magazine_, among others.
In 1913, he and his wife were converted to Catholicism. In 1916, he was
called to the faculty of the School of Journalism, New York University,
succeeding Arthur Guiterman (q.v.). Enlisted as a private in the War and
was killed in action, 1918.


1. Kilmer wished to be judged by poetry written after October, 1913, and
to discard all earlier work. Why?

2. The following influences are traceable in his poetry: (1) Francis
Thompson, Coventry Patmore, and earlier Catholic poets; (2) his mother's
musical talent; (3) his journalistic work; (4) the War.

3. Kilmer's letters illustrate and explain the qualities of his work.


   Trees and Other Poems. 1915.
   Main Street and Other Poems. 1917.
   Joyce Kilmer, edited by Robert Cortes Holliday. 1918. (Poems, essays,
     and letters.)
   Circus, and Other Essays and Fugitive Pieces. 1921.


   Holliday, R.C. Memoir in _Joyce Kilmer_ (listed in bibliography).
   Kilmer, Mrs. Annie Kilburn. Memories of my Son, Sergeant Joyce Kilmer,

   Ath. 1919, 2: 1220.
   Bookm. 48 ('18): 133 (portrait).
   Bookm. (Lond.) 56 ('19): 122; 57 ('19): 118.
   Cath. World, 100 ('14): 301; 108 ('18): 224.
   Lit. Digest, 58 ('18): Aug. 31, p. 36 (portrait); Sept. 7, pp. 32
     (portrait), 42.
   Outlook, 120 ('18): 12, 16; 122 ('19): 467.
   Poetry, 11 ('18): 281; 13 ('18): 31. 149.
   R. of Rs. 58 ('18): 431 (portrait).

+Aline Murray Kilmer+--poet.

Step-daughter of Henry Mills Alden. Married in 1909 to Joyce Kilmer


   Candles that Burn. 1919.
   Vigils. 1921.


   Bookm. 54 ('21): 384.
   Nation, 109 ('19): 116.
   New Repub. 29 ('21): 133.
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1919, 1921.

+Grace Elizabeth King+--novelist.

Born at New Orleans, 1852, and educated there and in France. Her stories
and novels furnish material for an interesting comparison with the work
of G.W. Cable (q.v.). Her writing grew out of the desire to present from
the inside the Creole Society in which she had grown up, to which she
felt that Mr. Cable, as an outsider, had not done justice.


   Monsieur Motte. 1888.
   Balcony Stories. 1893.
   The Pleasant Ways of St. Médard. 1916.

For reviews, see _Pattee_; also _Book Review Digest_, 1916.

+Harry Herbert Knibbs+ (Ontario, Canada, 1874)--poet.

His material is cowboy life. For bibliography see _Who's Who in America_.

+Alfred Kreymborg+--poet.

Born in New York City, 1883, of Danish ancestry. Educated at the Morris
High School. A chess prodigy at the age of ten, and supported himself
from seventeen to twenty-five by teaching chess and playing matches. Had
several years of experience as bookkeeper.

In 1914, founded and edited _The Glebe_, which issued the first anthology
of free verse. In 1916, 1917, 1919, published _Others_--three anthologies
of radical poets. In 1921, went to Rome to edit, in association with
Harold Loeb, an international magazine of the arts called _The Broom_
(cf. _Dial_ 70 ['21]: 606), but shortly after resigned.


1. Mr. Kreymborg is a rebel against all conventions of form and content
in poetry. Consequently, the one thing to be expected in his work is the
unexpected. How far his utterances are sincere and how far posed, each
reader must judge for himself.

2. The following quotation from _Poetry_ (9 ['16]: 51) may serve as a
starting-point in discussing Mr. Kreymborg's qualities: "An insinuating,
meddlesome, quizzical, inquiring spirit; sometimes a clown, oftener a
wit, now and then a lyric poet ... trips about cheerfully among life's
little incongruities; laughs at you and me and progress and prejudice and
dreams; says 'I told you so!' with an air, as if after a double
somersault in the circus ring; grows wistful, even tender, with emotions
always genuine ... always ... as becomes the harlequin-philosopher,

3. The new movements in art--Futurist, Cubist, Vorticist--should be
remembered in studying Mr. Kreymborg's verse.

4. What is to be said of his economy in words?


   Love and Life and Other Studies. 1908.
   Apostrophes. 1910.
   Erna Vitek. 1914. (Novel.)
   Mushrooms; A Book of Free Forms. 1916.
   Others, An Anthology of New Verse. 1916, 1917, 1919.
   Plays for Poem-Mimes. 1918.
   Blood of Things. 1920.
   Plays for Merry Andrews. 1920.



   Ath. 1919, 2: 1003. (Conrad Aiken.)
   Chapbook, 1-2, May, 1920: 30.
   Dial, 66 ('19): 29. (Lola Ridge.)
   Poetry, 9 ('16): 51; 11 ('18): 201; 13 ('19): 224; 17 ('20): 153.
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1916, 1920.

+Peter Bernard Kyne+ (San Francisco, 1860)--novelist.

The inventor of Cappy Ricks in stories of business life in California.
For bibliography, see _Who's Who in America_.

+Stephen Butler Leacock+--humorist.

Born in Hampshire, England, 1869. B.A., Toronto University; Ph.D.,
University of Chicago. Honorary higher degrees. Head of the department
of economics, McGill University.


   Literary Lapses. 1910.
   Nonsense Novels. 1911.
   Sunshine Sketches of a Little Town. 1912.
   Behind the Beyond. 1913.
   Arcadian Adventures with the Idle Rich. 1914.
   Moonbeams from the Larger Lunacy. 1915.
   Essays and Literary Studies. 1916.
   Further Foolishness. 1916.
   Frenzied Fiction. 1917.
   The Hohenzollerns in America. 1919.
   The Unsolved Riddle of Social Justice. 1920. (Sociological discussion.)
   Winsome Winnie and Other New Nonsense Novels. 1920.

For study, see Bookm. (Lond.) 51 ('16): 39; also _Book Review Digest_,
1914-7, 1919, 1920.

+Jennette (Barbour Perry) Lee (Mrs. Gerald Stanley Lee)+--novelist.

Born at Bristol, Connecticut, 1860. A.B., Smith, 1886. Taught English at
Vassar, 1890-3; at Western Reserve, 1893-6; instructor and professor of
English at Smith, 1901-13.


   The Son of a Fiddler. 1902.
  *Uncle William. 1906.
   Happy Island. 1910.
   Mr. Achilles. 1912.
   The Taste of Apples. 1913.
   Aunt Jane. 1915.
   The Green Jacket. 1917.
   The Air-Man and the Tramp. 1918.
   The Rain-Coat Girl. 1919.
   The Chinese Coat. 1920.
   The Other Susan. 1921.
   Uncle Bijah's Ghost. 1922.


   Bk. Buyer, 22 ('01): 99 (portrait).
   Bookm. 36 ('12): 347 (portrait); 38 ('13): 233, 236 (portrait).
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1913, 1915-8.

+Edwin Lefevre+ (Colombia, South America, 1871)--novelist, short-story

Uses Wall Street as material. For bibliography, see _Who's Who in

+Sinclair Lewis+--novelist.

Born at Sauk Center, Minnesota, 1885. Son of a physician. A.B., Yale,
1907. During the next ten years was a newspaper man in Connecticut, Iowa,
and California, a magazine editor in Washington, D.C., and editor for New
York book publishers. During the last five years has been traveling in
the United States, living from one day to six months in the most diverse
places, and motoring from end to end of twenty-six states. While
supporting himself by short stories and experimental novels, he laid the
foundation for his unusually successful _Main Street_. His first book,
_Our Mr. Wrenn_, is said to contain a good deal of autobiography.


1. Do you recognize Gopher Prairie as a type? Is Mr. Lewis's picture
photography, caricature, or the kind of portraiture that is art? Or to
what degree do you find all these elements?

2. Is the main interest of the book in the story? in the
characterization? in the satire? or in an element of propaganda?

3. What is to be said of the constructive theory of living proposed by
the heroine? Is it better or worse than the standard that prevailed
before she went to Gopher Prairie to live?

4. Explain the success of the book. What, if any, elements of permanent
value do you find? What conspicuous defects?


   Our Mr. Wrenn. 1914.
   The Trail of the Hawk. 1915.
   The Job. 1917.
   The Innocents. 1917.
   Free Air. 1919.
  *Main Street. 1920.
   Babbitt. 1922.


Am. M. 91 ('21): Apr., p. 16 (portrait). Bookm. 39 ('14): 242, 248
(portrait); 54 ('21): 9. (Archibald Marshall.) Freeman, 2 ('20): 237.
Lit. Digest, 68 ('21): Feb. 12, p. 28 (portrait). New Repub. 25 ('20):
20. Sat. Rev. 132 ('21): 230. See also _Book Review Digest_, 1920.

+Ludwig Lewisohn+--critic.

Born at Berlin, Germany. 1882. Brought to America, 1890. A.B., and A.M.,
College of Charleston, 1901 (Litt. D., 1914); A.M., Columbia, 1903.
Editorial work and writing for magazines, 1904-10. Translator from the
German. College instructor and professor, 1910-19. Dramatic editor of
_The Nation_, 1919--.


   The Modern Drama. 1915.
   A Modern Book of Criticism. 1919.
   Up Stream, an American Chronicle. 1922.
   The Drama and the Stage. 1922.


   Bookm. 48 ('19): 558.
   Nation 111 ('20): 219.
   Sewanee R. 17 ('09): 458.
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1915, 1920.

+Joseph Crosby Lincoln+ (Massachusetts, 1870)--novelist.

Writes of New England types, especially sailors. For bibliography, see
_Who's Who in America_.

+(Nicholas) Vachel Lindsay+--poet.

Born at Springfield, Illinois, 1879. Educated in the public schools.
Studied at Hiram College, Ohio, 1897-1900; at the Art Institute, Chicago,
1900-3, and at the New York School of Art, 1904-5. Member of the
Christian (Disciples) Church. Y.M.C.A. lecturer, 1905-09. Lecturer for
the Anti-Saloon League throughout central Illinois, 1909-10. Makes long
pilgrimages on foot (cf. _A Handy Guide for Beggars_).

In the summer of 1912, he walked from Illinois to New Mexico,
distributing his poems and speaking in behalf of "The Gospel of Beauty."


1. Read for background _A Handy Guide for Beggars_ and _Adventures while
Preaching the Gospel of Beauty_.

2. An important clue to Mr. Lindsay's work is suggested in his own note
on reading his poems. Referring to the Greek lyrics as the type which
survives in American vaudeville where every line may be two-thirds spoken
and one-third sung, he adds: "I respectfully submit these poems as
experiments in which I endeavor to carry this vaudeville form back
towards the old Greek presentation of the half-chanted lyric. In this
case the one-third of music must be added by the instinct of the
reader.... Big general contrasts between the main sections should be the
rule of the first attempts at improvising. It is the hope of the writer
that after two or three readings each line will suggest its own separate
touch of melody to the reader who has become accustomed to the cadences.
Let him read what he likes read, and sing what he likes sung."

In carrying out this suggestion, note that Mr. Lindsay often prints aids
to expression by means of italics, capitals, spaces, and even side notes
and other notes on expression.

3. What different kinds of material appeal especially to Mr. Lindsay's
imagination? How do you explain his choice, and his limitations?

4. What effect upon his poetry has the missionary spirit which is so
strong in him? Is his poetry more valuable for its singing element or for
its ethical appeal? Do you discover any special originality?

5. How does his use of local material compare with that of Masters? of
Frost? of Sandburg?

6. Study his rhythmic sense in different poems, the verse forms that he
uses, the tendencies in rhyme, his use of refrain, of onomatopoeia, of
catalogues, etc.

7. Does Mr. Lindsay offend your poetic taste? If so, can you justify his
use of the material you object to?

8. Do you judge that Mr. Lindsay is likely to write much greater poetry
than he has hitherto produced?

9. Mr. Lindsay's drawings are worth study for comparison with his poems.

10. Compare Mr. Lindsay's development of the idea of the "poem game" with
the "poem dance" of Bliss Carman (q.v.).

11. Consider Mr. Lindsay as the "poet of democracy." What is he likely to
do for the people? for poetry?


   General William Booth Enters into Heaven, and Other Poems. 1913.
   Adventures While Preaching the Gospel of Beauty. 1914. (Prose.)
   The Congo and Other Poems. 1914.
   The Art of the Moving Picture. 1913. (Prose.)
   A Handy Guide for Beggars. 1916. (Prose.)
   The Chinese Nightingale and Other Poems. 1917.
   The Daniel Jazz and Other Poems. 1920.
   The Golden Book of Springfield. 1920. (Prose.)
   The Golden Whales of California. 1920.



   Am. M. 74 ('12): 422 (portrait).
   Ath. 1919, 2: 1334.
   Bookm. 46 ('18): 575; 47 ('18): 125 (Phelps); 53 ('21): 525 (Morley).
   Bookm. (Lond.) 57 ('20): 178.
   Cent. 102 ('21): 638.
   Chapbook, 1-2, May, 1920: 19.
   Collier's, 51 ('13): 7 (portrait).
   Cur. Lit. 50 ('11): 320.
   Cur. Op. 68 ('20): 851; 69 ('20): 371 (portrait).
   Dial, 57 ('14): 281.
   Ind. 77 ('14): 72.
   Lit. Digest, 65 ('20): 43.
   Liv. Age, 307 ('20): 671.
   Lond. Merc. 2 ('20): 645; 3 ('20): 112.
   New Repub. 9 ('16): supp. 6, (Hackett); 21 ('20): 321.
   Poetry, 3 ('14): 182; 5 ('15): 296; 11 ('18): 214; 16 ('20): 101;
     17 ('21): 262.
   R. of Rs. 49 ('14): 245.
   Spec. 125 ('20): 372, 604; 126 ('21): 645.
   Touchstone, 2 ('18): 510.

+Philip Littell+--critic.

Born at Brookline, Massachusetts, 1868. A.B., Harvard, 1890. On staff of
_Milwaukee Sentinel_, 1890-1901, and _New York Globe_, 1910-13. On _The
New Republic_ since 1914. His one volume is _Books and Things_, 1919.


   Dial, 68 ('20): 362.
   No. Am. 210 ('19): 849.
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1919.

+Jack London+--novelist.

Born at San Francisco, 1876. Studied at the University of California, but
left college to go to the Klondyke. In 1892, shipped before the mast.
Went to Japan; hunted seal in Behring Sea. Tramped far and wide in the
United States and Canada, in 1894, for social and economic study. War
correspondent in the Russian-Japanese War. Traveled extensively.
Socialist. Died in 1916.

His work is very uneven; but the following books are regarded as among
his best:

   The Call of the Wild. 1903.
   The Sea-Wolf. 1904.
   Martin Eden. 1909. (Autobiographical.)
   John Barleycorn. 1913. (Autobiographical.)

For an account of his life and work, see _The Book of Jack London_, by
Charmian London, 1921 (cf. _Freeman_, 4 ['22]: 407). For reviews, cf. the
_Book Review Digest_, especially 1903-7, 1911, 1915.

+Robert Morss Lovett+--man of letters.

Born at Boston, 1870. A.B., Harvard, 1892. Taught English at Harvard,
1892-3; at Chicago, since 1893; professor since 1909. Editor of _The
Dial_, 1919. On the staff of _The New Republic_, 1921--.


   Richard Gresham. 1904. (Novel.)
   A Winged Victory. 1907. (Novel.)
   Cowards. 1917. (Play, published in _Drama_, 7.)


   Drama, 7 ('17): 325.

+Amy Lowell+--poet, critic.

Born at Brookline, Massachusetts, 1874. Sister of President Lowell of
Harvard, and of Percival Lowell, the astronomer. Distantly related to
James Russell Lowell. Educated at private schools. Traveled extensively
in Europe as a child. Her visits to Egypt, Greece, and Turkey influenced
her development. In 1902, she decided to become a poet and spent eight
years studying, without publishing a poem. Her first poem appeared in the
_Atlantic_, 1910.

She is a collector of Keats manuscripts and says that the poet who
influenced her most profoundly was Keats. She has also made special study
of Chinese poetry.


1. As Miss Lowell is the principal exponent of the theories of imagism
and free verse in this country, careful reading of some of her critical
papers leads to a better understanding of her work. Especially valuable
are her studies of Paul Fort in her volume entitled _Six French Poets_,
of "H.D." and John Gould Fletcher in her _Tendencies in Modern American
Poetry_, the prefaces to different volumes of her poems and to the
anthologies published under the title _Some Imagist Poets_ (1915, 1916),
and her articles in the _Dial_, 64 ('18): 51 ff., and in Poetry, 3 ('13):
213 ff.

2. In judging her work, consider separately her poems in regular metrical
form and those in free verse. Decide which method is better suited to her
type of imagination.

3. To what extent does her inspiration come from cultural
sources--travel, literature, art, music?

4. Consider especially her presentation of "images." How far do these
seem to be derived from direct experience? Test them by your own
experience. What principles seem to determine her choice of details?
Which sense impressions--sight, sound, taste, smell, touch--does she most
frequently and successfully suggest? Note instances where her figures of
speech sharpen the imagery and others where they seem to distort it. In
what ways is the influence of Keats perceptible in her work?

5. It is worth while to make special study of the historical imagery of
the poems in _Can Grande's Castle_.

6. If you are familiar with the impressionistic method of painting, work
out an analogy between it and Miss Lowell's word pictures.

7. Study separately her varieties of free verse and polyphonic prose (cf.
her study of Paul Fort and the preface to _Can Grande's Castle_). Choose
several poems in which you think the free verse form is especially
adapted to the content and draw conclusions as to the problems of
development of this kind of verse or of its possible influence upon
regular metrical forms.

8. Use the following poem by Miss Lowell as a basis for judging her work:


    What is poetry? Is it a mosaic
      Of colored stones which curiously are wrought
      Into a pattern? Rather glass that's taught
    By patient labor any hue to take
    And glowing with a sumptuous splendor, make
      Beauty a thing of awe; where sunbeams caught,
      Transmuted fall in sheafs of rainbows fraught
    With storied meaning for religion's sake.

9. In summing up Miss Lowell's achievement, consider the different phases
of it that appear in her volumes taken in chronological order, noting the
successive influences under which she has come. In what qualities does
she stand out strikingly from other contemporary poets? Do you expect
different and more important work from her in the future?


   A Dome of Many-Colored Glass. 1912.
   Sword Blades and Poppy Seed. 1914.
   Six French Poets. 1915.
   Men, Women and Ghosts. 1916.
   Tendencies in Modern American Poetry. 1917.
   Can Grande's Castle. 1918.
   Pictures of the Floating World. 1919.
   Legends; Tales of Peoples. 1921.
   Fir-Flower Tablets. Poems Translated from the Chinese. 1921. (With
     Florence Ayscough.)


   Hunt, R. and Snow, R.H. Amy Lowell. 1921.

   Bookm. 47 ('18): 255. (Phelps.)
   Chapbook, 1-2, May, 1920: 8.
   Dial, 61 ('16): 528; 65 ('18): 346; 67 ('19): 331
   Egoist, 1 ('14): 422; 2 ('15): 81, 109; 3 ('16): 9.
   Freeman, 4 ('21): 18.
   Ind. 87 ('16): 306 (portrait); 88 ('16):533 (portrait); 93 ('18): 294.
   Lit. Digest, 52 ('16): 971; 63 ('19): Nov. 29, p. 31 (portraits);
     72 ('22): 38.
   Lond. Mer., 3 ('21): 441.
   New Repub. 6 ('16): 178.
   No. Am. 207 ('18): 257, 736.
   Poetry, 6 ('15): 32; 9 ('17): 207; 10 ('17): 149; 13 ('18): 97;
     15 ('20): 332.
   Sewanee R. 28 ('20): 37.
   Spec. 125 ('20): 744.
   Touchstone, 2 ('18): 416; 7 ('20): 219.

+George Barr McCutcheon+ (1866)--novelist.

The creator of Graustark. For bibliography, see _Who's Who in America_.

+Percy (Wallace) Mackaye+--dramatist, poet.

Born in New York City, 1875, son of Steele Mackaye, dramatist and
manager. A.B., Harvard, 1897. Traveled in Europe, 1898-1900, studying at
the University of Leipzig, 1899-1900. Taught in private school in New
York, 1900-04. Joined the colony at Cornish, New Hampshire, 1904. Since
then has been engaged chiefly in dramatic work.


   Fenris the Wolf. 1905. (Tragedy.)
   The Scarecrow. 1908. (Also, Dickinson, _Chief Contemporary Dramatists_.
   The Playhouse and the Play. 1909. (Essays.)
   A Garland to Sylvia. 1910. (Comedy.)
   Anti-Matrimony. 1910. (Satirical comedy.)
   Tomorrow. 1911. (Play.)
   Yankee Fantasies. 1912. (One act plays.)
   The Civic Theatre. 1912.
   Sinbad the Sailor. 1912. (Lyric drama.)
   A Thousand Years Ago. 1914. (Comedy.)
   The Immigrants. 1915. (Lyric drama.)
   A Substitute for War. 1915. (Essay.)
  *Poems and Plays. 1916.
   American Conservation Hymn. 1917.
   The Community Drama. 1917. (Essay.)
   Washington. 1919. (Ballad-play.)
   Rip Van Winkle. 1919. (Folk-opera.)
   Dogtown Common. 1921. (Verse.)

For full bibliography see _Cambridge_, III (IV), 770.


   Am. M. 71 ('10): 121 (portrait).
   Bookm. 25 ('07): 230 (portrait), 231; 32 ('10): 256 (portrait only);
     39 ('14): 376 (portrait); 47 ('18): 395.
   Craftsman, 26 ('14): 139 (portrait)=R. of Rs. 49 ('14): 749 (condensed);
     30 ('16): 483.
   Cur. Op. 60 ('16): 408.
   Everybody's, 40 ('19): 29.
   Harv. Grad. M. 17 ('09): 599 (portrait).
   No. Am. 199 ('14): 290.
   Survey, 35 ('16): 508.
   World Today, 17 ('09): 997 (portrait).

+(Charles) Edwin Markham+--poet.

Born at Oregon City, Oregon, 1852. Went to California, 1857. Worked at
farming, blacksmithing, and herding cattle and sheep during boyhood.
Educated at San José Normal School and at Christian College, Santa Rosa.
Principal and superintendent of schools in California until 1899. Made
famous by the publication of _The Man with the Hoe_.


   The Man with the Hoe, and Other Poems. 1899.
   The Man with the Hoe, with Notes by the Author. 1900.
   Lincoln, and Other Poems. 1901.
   California the Wonderful. 1914.
   The Children in Bondage. 1914. (Study of child labor problem.)
   The Shoes of Happiness and Other Poems. 1915.
   The Gates of Paradise. 1920.


   Arena, 27 ('02): 391; 35 ('06): 143, 146.
   Bookm. 27 ('08): 267; 37 ('13): 300; 41 ('15): 397.
   Cur. Lit. 29 ('00): 1 (portrait), 16; 42 ('07): 317 (portrait).
   Poetry, 6 ('15): 308.
   R. of Rs. 30 ('04): 622 (portrait).

+Jeannette(Augustus) Marks+--novelist, dramatist.

Born at Chattanooga, Tennessee, 1875. A.B., Wellesley, 1900; A.M., 1903.
Studied in England. Associate professor of English literature at Mt.
Holyoke, 1901-10, and lecturer since 1913, where she introduced Poetry
Shop Talks by writers to students. Her most interesting work has been
based upon Welsh material, which she obtained by walking several summers
with a knapsack in Wales. In 1911, two of Miss Marks's one-act Welsh
plays (_The Merry, Merry Cuckoo_, and _Welsh Honeymoon_) were given first
prize in the Welsh National Theatre competition, notwithstanding the fact
that the prize was offered for a three-act play.


   The Cheerful Cricket and Others. 1907.
   Through Welsh Doorways. 1909.
   The End of a Song. 1911.
   Gallant Little Wales. Sketches of its People, Places, and Customs. 1912.
   Leviathan: the Record of a Struggle and a Triumph. 1913.
  *Three Welsh Plays: The Merry, Merry Cuckoo; the Deacon's Hat; Welsh
     Honeymoon. 1917.
   Courage. 1919. (Essays.)


   Bookm. 33 ('11): 116 (portrait); 44 ('17): 569 (portrait).
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1913-4, 1917, 1919.

+Donald (Robert Perry) Marquis (Don Marquis)+--humorist, "columnist,"

Born at Walnut, Illinois, 1878. Newspaper man, conductor of the column
called "The Sun Dial" in the _New York Evening Sun_.


   Danny's Own Story. 1912.
   Dreams and Dust. 1915. (Poems.)
   The Cruise of the Jasper B. 1916.
  *Hermione and her Little Group of Serious Thinkers. (Satire.) 1916.
  *Prefaces. 1919.
   Carter and Other People. 1921.
   Noah an' Jonah an' Cap'n John Smith. 1921.
   The Old Soak, and Hail and Farewell. 1921.
   Poems and Portraits. 1922.
   Sonnets to a Red-Haired Lady and Famous Love Affairs. 1922.


   Am. M. 84 ('17): Sept., p. 18 (portrait).
   Bookm. 42 ('15): 365 (portrait), 460.
   Cur. Op. 67 ('19): 119.
   Everybody's, 42 ('20): Jan., p. 29 (portrait).
   Outlook, 124 ('20): 289; 126 ('20): 100. (Portraits.)

+Edward Sandford Martin+--satirist, man of letters.

Born at Owasco, New York, 1856. A.B., Harvard, 1877. Honorary higher
degrees. Admitted to the Rochester bar, 1884. Editorial writer for _Life_
nearly thirty years, for _Harper's Weekly_ about fifteen years, and for
other periodicals.


   Sly Ballades in Harvard China. 1882.
  *A Little Brother of the Rich. 1890. (Verses.)
   Pirated Poems. 1890.
  *Windfalls of Observation. 1893.
   Cousin Anthony and I. 1895.
   Lucid Intervals. 1900.
   Poems and Verses. 1902.
   The Luxury of Children, and Other Luxuries. 1904.
   The Courtship of a Careful Man. 1905.
   In a New Century. 1908.
   Reflections of a Beginning Husband. 1913.
   The Unrest of Women. 1913.
   The Diary of a Nation. 1917.


   Am. M. 71 ('11): 728 (portrait).
   Bookm. 28 ('08): 301 (portrait), 324.
   Critic, 42 ('03): 233 (portrait).
   Harp. W. 48 ('04): 1995 (portrait).
   Outlook, 90 ('08): 707 (portrait).

+George Madden Martin (Mrs. Attwood R. Martin)+--story writer.

Born at Louisville, Kentucky, 1866. Educated in the Louisville public
schools, finishing at home on account of ill health. Made her reputation
by her study of a little Kentucky girl in _Emmy Lou--Her Book and Heart_,
1902. For complete bibliography, see _Who's Who in America_.


   Outlook, 78 ('04): 287 (portrait).
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1916, 1920.

+Helen Reimensnyder Martin+ (Pennsylvania, 1868)--novelist.

Writes about the Pennsylvania Dutch. For bibliography, see _Who's Who in

+Edgar Lee Masters+--poet.

Born at Garnett, Kansas, 1868, but brought up in Illinois. His schooling
was desultory, but he read widely. Studied one year at Knox College;
learned Greek, which influenced him strongly.

Studied law in his father's office at Lewiston, and practiced there for a
year. Then went to Chicago where he became a successful attorney and also
took an active part in politics.

Mr. Masters' fame was established by the _Spoon River Anthology_, which
was suggested by _The Greek Anthology_. With this Mr. Masters had become
familiar as early as 1909, through Mr. William Marion Reedy. _The Spoon
River Anthology_ first appeared in _Reedy's Mirror_, under the
significant pseudonym, "Webster Ford."


1. Begin with _The Spoon River Anthology_. (Cf. the preface to _Toward
the Gulf_.) How much does it owe to its model? to other literary sources?
to the central Illinois environment in which the author grew up? What are
its most conspicuous merits and defects? How do you explain each?

2. Test the sketches by your own experience of small town life. Which
seem to you truest to individual character and most universal in type?

3. Compare similar sketches of personalities by Edwin Arlington Robinson,
which Mr. Masters had not read until after his book was published.

4. Consider how far Mr. Masters has achieved his avowed purpose "to
analyze society, to satirise society, to tell a story, to expose the
machinery of life, to present a working model of the big world"; to
create beauty, and to depict "our sorrows and hopes, our religious
failures, successes and visions, our poor little lives, rounded by a
sleep, in language and figures emotionally tuned to bring all of us
closer together in understanding and affection."

5. How do you explain the sudden popularity of the _Anthology_? What are
its chances of becoming a classic?

6. Read one of Mr. Masters' later volumes and compare it with the
_Anthology_ as to merits and defects.

7. Mr. Masters has always been a great reader. Trace, as far as you can,
the influence of the following authors: Homer; the Bible; Poe; Keats;
Shelley; Swinburne; Browning.

8. Draw parallels between his work and the work of (1) Edwin Arlington
Robinson, q.v., (2) of Robert Frost, q.v., (3) of Vachel Lindsay, q.v.,
and (4) of Carl Sandburg, q.v.

9. An interesting study might be made of the effects of Mr. Masters'
legal training upon his poetry.

10. Compare _Children of the Market Place_ with the _Anthology_ or
_Domesday Book_. Is Mr. Masters more successful as poet or as novelist?


   A Book of Verses. 1898.
   Maximilian. 1902. (Drama in blank verse.)
   The New Star Chamber and Other Essays. 1904.
   Blood of the Prophets. 1905.
   Althea. 1907. (Play.)
   The Trifler. 1908. (Play.)
  *The Spoon River Anthology. 1915.
   Songs and Satires. 1916.
   The Great Valley. 1916.
   Toward the Gulf. 1918.
   Starved Rock. 1919.
   Domesday Book. 1920.
   Mitch Miller. 1920. (Boy's story.)
   The Open Sea. 1921.
   Children of the Market Place. 1922. (Novel.)



   Ath. 1916, 2: 323, 520.
   Bookm. 41 ('15): 355, 432; 44 ('16): 264 (Kilmer); 47 ('18): 262.
   Bookm. (Lond.) 49 ('16): 187; 52 ('17): 153.
   Chapbook, 1-2, May, 1920: 11.
   Cur. Op. 58 ('15): 356; 60 ('16): 127.
   Dial, 60 ('16): 415, 498; 61 ('16): 528.
   Forum, 55 ('16): 109, 118, 121.
   Ind. 88 ('16): 533 (portrait).
   Lit. Digest, 52 ('16): 564 (portrait).
   Lond. Times, Apr. 13, 1917: 173; May 19, 1921: 318.
   New Repub. 20 ('19): supp. 10.
   New Statesman, 6 ('16): 332; 7 ('16): 593.
   Poetry, 6 ('15): 145; 8 ('16): 148; 9 ('17): 202; 12 ('18): 150;
     16 ('20): 151.
   R. of Rs. 51 ('15): 758 (portrait).
   So. Atlan. Q. 16 ('17): 155.
   Touchstone, 3 ('18): 172.

+(James) Brander Matthews+--critic, man of letters.

Born at New Orleans, 1852. A.B., Columbia, 1871, LL.B., 1873, A.M., 1874.
Many honorary higher degrees. Admitted to the bar in 1873, but took up
writing. Professor at Columbia since 1892.


   The Theatres of Paris. 1880.
   French Dramatists of the Nineteenth Century. 1881.
   In Partnership; Studies in Story-Telling. 1884. (With H.C. Bunner.)
   With My Friends; Tales Told in Partnership. 1891.
   The Story of a Story and Other Stories. 1893.
   Studies of the Stage. 1894.
   Vignettes of Manhattan. 1894.
   Aspects of Fiction. 1896.
   Outlines in Local Color. 1898.
   The Historical Novel. 1901.
   The Philosophy of the Short Story. 1901.
   A Study of the Drama. 1910.
   Vistas of New York. 1912.
   A Book about the Theatre. 1916.
   These Many Years. Recollections of a New Yorker. 1917.
   The Principles of Playmaking. 1919.
   Essays on English. 1921.

For complete bibliography, cf. _Who's Who in America_ and _Cambridge_,
III (IV), 771.



   Bk. Buyer, 22 ('21): 15 (portrait).
   Bookm. 31 ('10): 117.
   Forum, 39 ('08): 377.
   Ind. 69 ('10): 1085 (portrait).
   Internat. Q. 4 ('01): 289.
   Outlook, 78 ('04): 879 (portrait); 102 ('12): 645 (portrait), 649;
     117 ('17): 640. (Lyman Abbott.)
   Putnam's, 1 ('07): 708 (portrait).
   Spec. 106 ('11): 969; 114 ('15): 686.

+H(enry) L(ouis) Mencken+--critic, man of letters.

Born at Baltimore, Maryland, 1880, of German ancestry. Graduate of
Baltimore Polytechnic, 1896. On the Baltimore _Herald_, 1903-5, and
_Baltimore Sun_, 1906-17. Became literary critic for _The Smart Set_,
1908, and (with George Jean Nathan), editor, 1914--. War
correspondent in Germany and Russia, 1917. Much interested in music.


   Ventures Into Verse. 1903.
   George Bernard Shaw, His Plays. 1905.
   The Philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche. 1908.
   Men vs. the Man. 1910. (With R.R. LaMonte.)
   The Artist. 1912.
   Europe After 8:15. 1914. (With George Jean Nathan, q.v., and Willard
     Huntingdon Wright.)
   A Book of Burlesques. 1916.
   A Little Book in C Major. 1916.
   A Book of Prefaces. 1917.
   In Defense of Women. 1918.
   Damn: a Book of Calumny. 1918.
   The American Language. 1919. (Revised ed., 1922.)
   Prejudices: First Series. 1919.
   The American Credo; a Contribution toward the Interpretation of the
     National Mind. 1920. (With George Jean Nathan, q.v.)
   Prejudices: Second Series. 1920.
   Heliogabalus, a Buffoonery in Three Acts. 1920. (With George Jean
     Nathan, q.v.)
   Prejudices: Third Series.


   Hatteras, O.A.J. Pistols for Two. 1917.
   Rascoe, Burton, and Others (Vincent O'Sullivan, q.v., and F.C.
     Henderson). H.L. Mencken. Brief Appreciations and a Bibliography.

   Ath. 1920, 1: 10.
   Bookm. 41 ('15): 46 (portrait), 56; 53 ('21): 79; 54 ('22): 551
   Cur. Op. 66 ('19): 391 (portrait); 71 ('21): 360.
   Dial, 68 ('20): 267.
   Freeman, 1 ('20): 88.
   Liv. Age, 303 ('19): 798.
   New Repub. 21 ('20): 239; 26 ('21): 191; 27 ('21): 10.
   Little Review, 5 ('18): Jan., p. 10.
   New Statesman, 14 ('20): 748.

+George Middleton+--dramatist.

Born at Paterson, New Jersey, 1880. A.B., Columbia, 1902. Married Fola La
Follette, 1911. Literary editor of _La Follette's Weekly_, 1912--.


  *Embers; with The Failures, The Gargoyle, In His House, Madonna, The
     Man Masterful: One-Act Plays of Contemporary Life. 1911.
   Tradition, with On Bail, Their Wife, Waiting, The Cheat of Pity, and
     Mothers: One-Act Plays of Contemporary Life, 1913.
   Nowadays; a Contemporaneous Comedy. 1914.
   Criminals; a One-Act Play about Marriage. 1915.
   Back of the Ballot; a Woman Suffrage Farce in One Act. 1915.
   Possession, with The Groove, The Unborn, Circles, A Good Woman, The
     Black-Tie: One-Act Plays of Contemporary Life. 1915.
   The Road Together; a Contemporaneous Drama in Four Acts. 1916.
   Masks, Jim's Beast, Tides, Among the Lions, The Reason, The House:
     One-Act Plays of Contemporary Life. 1920. (With Guy Bolton.)

For bibliography of unpublished work, see _Who's Who in America_.


   Bookm. 51 ('20): 472.
   Cur. Op. 56 ('14): 376 (portrait); 68 ('20): 783 (portrait).
   Freeman, 1 ('20): 449.
   Nation, 110 ('20): 693.
   New Repub. 24 ('20): 26.
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1913-6, 1920.

+Lloyd Mifflin+--poet.

Born at Columbia, Pennsylvania, 1846. Son of an artist. Educated at
Washington Classical Institute and by tutors. Studied art with his father
and in Germany and Italy. Began as a painter, but later turned to poetry.
Is best known for his sonnets, the form in which most of his poetry is
written. These may be studied in his _Collected Sonnets_, 1905 (revised
edition, 1907), although several volumes have been published since then.


   Cur. Lit. 39 ('05): 106 (portrait).
   Dial, 40 ('06): 125; 47 ('09): 100.
   Nation, 81 ('05): 17, 508.
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1905.

+Edna St. Vincent Millay+--poet, dramatist.

Born at Rockland, Maine, 1892. A.B., Vassar, 1917. Connected with the
Provincetown players both as dramatist and as actress.

Miss Millay's first poem, "Renascence," was published in _The Lyric
Year_, 1912.


1. The poems need to be read aloud to give the full effect of their
passion and lyric beauty.

2. Compare Miss Millay's naïveté with that of Blake. Do you find
suggestions of philosophy behind it or sheer emotion?

3. Does Miss Millay's later work show growth toward greatness or toward
sophisticated cleverness?


   Renascence and other Poems. 1917.
   A Few Figs from Thistles: Poems and Four Sonnets. 1920.
   Aria da Capo. 1920. (Play; published in _The Monthly Chapbook_, 1920.)
   Second April. 1921.
   The Lamp and the Bell. 1921. (Play.)



   Freeman, 1 ('20): 307; 4 ('21): 189.
   Poetry, 13 ('18): 167; 19 ('21): 151.
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1918, 1921.

+Enos A(bijah) Mills+--Nature writer.

Born near Kansas City, Kansas, 1870. Self-educated. Worked on a ranch
fourteen years. Foreman in a mine. Went to the Rocky Mountains early in
life. Built a home on Long's Peak, Colorado, 1886. Has explored the Rocky
Mountains extensively, alone, on foot, and without firearms. Colorado
"snow observer" for Government, 1907, 1908.

Mr. Mills has done valuable work for the protection of wild animals and
flowers and for the establishment of national parks. His work belongs
with that of Thoreau, Burroughs, and Muir (by whom he was influenced to
continue it) for its freshly observed Nature content.

Among his best-known books are, perhaps, _The Story of a Thousand Year
Pine_, 1914, and _The Story of Scotch_, 1916 (dog story).

For complete bibliography, see _Who's Who in America_.


   Bookm. 51 ('20): 103.
   Lit. Digest, 55 ('17): July 14, p. 44.
   Sunset, 38 ('17): 40 (portrait).

+Philip Moeller+--dramatist.


   Helena's Husband. 1916.
   Madame Sand; a Biographical Comedy. 1917.
   Five Somewhat Historical Plays. 1918. (Helena's Husband; A Road-house
     in Arden; Sisters of Susannah; The Little Supper; Pokey.)
   Two Blind Beggars and One Less Blind; a Tragic Comedy in One Act. 1918.
   Molière; a Romantic Play in Three Acts. 1919.
   Sophie, a Comedy. 1919. (Prologue by Carl Van Vechten.)


   See _Book Review Digest_, 1918, 1920.

+Harriet Monroe+ (Illinois)--critic, poet.

Editor of _Poetry_, 1912--. Compiler of _The New Poetry; an
Anthology_ (with Alice Corbin, q.v.), 1917. For bibliography of her
poems, cf. _Who's Who in America_.

+Marianne Moore+--poet.

Her reputation was established by her poems in _Others_, 1916, 1917,
1919, and in the _Dial_ and _Poetry_ (_passim_). Her first volume,
_Poems_, was published in 1921. Cf. _Poetry_, 20 ('22): 208.

+Paul Elmer More+--critic, man of letters.

Born at St. Louis, 1864. A.B., Washington University, 1887; A.M., 1892;
Harvard, 1893. Honorary higher degrees. Taught Sanskrit at Harvard,
1894-5; Sanskrit and classical literature at Bryn Mawr, 1895-7. Literary
editor of _The Independent_, 1901-3; _New York Evening Post_, 1903-9.
Editor of _The Nation_, 1909-14.


   A Century of Indian Epigrams; Chiefly from the Sanskrit of Bhartrihari.
   The Jessica Letters, an Editor's Romance. 1904. (With Mrs. L.H. Harris.)
  *Shelburne Essays, (11 volumes.) 1904-21.
   Nietzsche. 1912.
   Platonism. 1917.
   The Religion of Plato. 1921.



   Acad. 80 ('11): 353.
   Ath. 1909, 1: 67; 1920, 1: 703.
   Bookm. (Lond.) 44 ('13): 256; 58 ('20): 207.
   Critic, 45 ('04): 395 (portrait).
   Cur. Op. 55 ('13): 126.
   Ind. 65 ('08): 1337 (portrait).
   Outlook, 81 ('05): 678.
   Philos. R. 26 ('17): 409.
   Putnam's, 1 ('07): 716 (portrait) 752.
   Review, 2 ('20): 54.
   R. of Rs. 60 ('19): 190 (portrait).
   Sat. Rev. 132 ('21): 323.
   Sewanee R. 26 ('18): 63.
   Spec. 116 ('16): 632; 125 ('20): 113.

+Christopher (Darlington) Morley+--essayist, poet.

Born at Haverford, Pennsylvania, 1890. A.B., Haverford College, 1910.
Rhodes Scholar at Oxford, 1910-13. Editorial staff Doubleday, Page and
Company, 1913-17; _Ladies Home Journal_, 1917-18; _Philadelphia Evening
Public Ledger_, 1918-20. In 1920, began his column, "The Bowling Green"
in the _New York Evening Post_.


   The Eighth Sin. 1912.
   Parnassus on Wheels. 1917.
   Songs for a Little House. 1917.
   Shandygaff. 1918.
   The Rocking Horse. 1919.
   The Haunted Book Shop. 1919.
   In the Sweet Dry and Dry. 1919. (+With Bart Haley.+)
   Mince Pie. 1919.
   Travels in Philadelphia. 1920.
   Kathleen. 1920.
   Hide and Seek. 1920. (Poems.)
   Chimneysmoke. 1921.
   Modern Essays. 1921. (Compilation.)
   Plum Pudding. 1921.
   Tales from a Roll-Top Desk. 1921.
   Where the Blue Begins. 1922.
   Thursday Evening. 1922. (Play.)


   Bookm. 46 ('18): 657 (portrait).
   Everybody's 42 ('20): Feb., p. 29 (portrait).
   Ind. 94 ('18): 412 (portrait).
   Lit. Digest, 63 ('19): Oct. 18, p. 27=Liv. Age, 303 ('19): 170.
   Outlook, 124 ('20): 202 (portrait).

+George Jean Nathan+--critic, man of letters.

Born at Fort Wayne, Indiana, 1882. A.B., Cornell, 1904. On editorial
staff of the _New York Herald_, 1904-6. On the staffs of various
magazines, including _Harper's Weekly_, the _Associated Sunday Magazine_,
and the _Smart Set_, usually as dramatic critic, 1906-14. With James
Huneker (q.v.) dramatic critic for _Puck_, 1915-6. Dramatic critic for
the National Syndicate of Newspapers since 1912. Editor since 1914 of
_The Smart Set_ (with H.L. Mencken, q.v.).


   Europe After 8:15. 1914. (With H.L. Mencken, q.v., and Willard
     Huntingdon Wright.)
   Another Book on the Theatre. 1916.
   Bottoms Up. 1917.
   Mr. George Jean Nathan Presents. 1917.
   A Book Without a Title. 1918.
   The Popular Theatre. 1918.
   Comedians All. 1919.
   Heliogabalus. 1920. (With H.L. Mencken, q.v.)
   The American Credo. 1920. (With H.L. Mencken, q.v.).
   The Theatre, the Drama, the Girls. 1921.
   The Critic and the Drama. 1922.


   Hatteras, O.A.J. Pistols for Two. 1917.

   Bookm. 43 ('16): 282 (portrait only); 53 ('21): 163.
   Cur. Op. 63 ('17): 95 (portrait).
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1919, 1920.

+Robert Nathan+--novelist.

   Author of: Peter Kindred. 1919.
              Autumn. 1921.

Cf. _Book Review Digest_, 1919, 1921.

+John G(neisenau) Neihardt+--poet.

Born at Sharpsburg, Illinois, 1881. Finished scientific course at
Nebraska Normal College, 1897; Litt. D., University of Nebraska, 1917.
Lived among the Omaha Indians, 1901-7, studying them and their folk lore.
Has worked many years on an American epic cycle of pioneer life. Shared
with Gladys Cromwell (q.v.) the prize of the Poetry Society of America,


   A Bundle of Myrrh. 1907.
   Man-Song. 1909.
   The River and I. 1910.
   The Dawn-Builder. 1911.
   The Stranger at the Gate. 1912.
   The Death of Agrippina. 1913. (Also in _Poetry_, 2 ['13]:33.)
   Life's Lure. 1914.
   The Song of Hugh Glass. 1915.
   The Quest. 1916. (Collected lyrics.)
  *The Song of Three Friends. 1919.
   The Splendid Wayfaring. 1920.
   The Two Mothers. 1921. (Eight Hundred Rubles; Agrippina.)


   House, J.T. John G. Neihardt: Man and Poet. 1920.

   Bookm. 47 ('18): 395; 49 ('19): 496.
   Lit. Digest, 69 ('21): May 14, p. 31 (portrait).
   Poetry, 7 ('16): 264; 17 ('20): 94.
   Putnam's, 4 ('08): 473, 506 (portrait).
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1919, 1920.

+A(lfred) Edward Newton+--essayist.

Born at Philadelphia, 1863. Educated in private schools. Business man.
Collector of first editions of books, especially of the eighteenth


   The Amenities of Book-Collecting and Kindred Affections. 1918.
   A Magnificent Farce, and Other Diversions of a Book-Collector. 1921.

For reviews, see _Book Review Digest_, 1921.

+Meredith Nicholson+--novelist, man of letters.

Born at Crawfordsville, Indiana, 1866. His reputation was founded upon
the novel, _The House of a Thousand Candles_, 1905. He has published also
several volumes of essays and studies, beginning with _The Hoosiers_
(National Studies in American Letters), 1900. Note among them _The Valley
of Democracy_, 1918, a characterization of the Middle West. For
bibliography, cf. _Who's Who In America_.

+Charles Gilman Norris+--novelist.

Brother of Frank Norris, the novelist. Married Kathleen Thompson (cf.
Kathleen Norris).


   The Amateur.
   Salt: The Education of Griffith Adams. 1918.
   Brass. 1921.


   Bookm. 47 ('18): 679.
   New Repub. 29 ('21): 48. (Lovett.)
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1918, 1921.

+Kathleen Norris+--novelist.

Born at San Francisco, 1880. Educated privately. Had experience as
business woman. Married Charles Gilman Norris (q.v.), 1909.


   Mother. 1911.
   The Rich Mrs. Burgoyne. 1912.
  *"Saturday's Child." 1914.
   The Story of Julia Page. 1915.
   The Heart of Rachael. 1916.
   Martie, the Unconquered. 1917.
   The Beloved Woman. 1921.
   Lucretia Lombard. 1922.



   Bookm. 34 ('11): 437 (portrait); 37 ('13): 109 (portrait).
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1911, 1913-7.

+Grace Fallow Norton+--poet.

Born at Northfield, Minnesota, 1876.


   Little Gray Songs from St. Joseph's. 1912.
   The Sister of the Wind. 1914.
   Roads. 1916.
   What is Your Legion? 1916.


   Poetry, 5 ('14): 87; 11 ('17): 164.
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1912, 1914, 1916.

+Frederick O'Brien+--travel writer.

Mr. O'Brien's account of his experiences in the Marquesas Islands created
a literary fashion for the South Sea Islands.


   White Shadows in the South Seas. 1919.
   Mystic Isles of the South Seas. 1921.

See _Book Review Digest_, 1919, 1921.

+Eugene Gladstone O'Neill+--dramatist.

Born in New York City, 1888. Son of the actor, James O'Neill. Studied at
Princeton, 1906-7. Much of the material used in his plays seems to be
drawn from or based upon his adventurous experiences between 1907 and
1914. Actor and newspaper reporter. Spent two years at sea. In 1909, is
said to have gone on a gold-prospecting expedition in Spanish Honduras
(cf. _Gold_). Lived in the Argentine. Threatened tuberculosis gave him
his first leisure (cf. _The Straw_). In 1914-5, he studied dramatization
at Harvard. In 1918, when he married, he went to live in a deserted
life-saving station near Provincetown. Associated with the Provincetown
Players. In 1920, his _Beyond the Horizon_ was given the Pulitzer Prize.


1. What effect has Mr. O'Neill's life experience had upon the quality of
his plays?

2. What evidence of originality do you find in his (1) themes, (2)
background, and (3) technique?

3. Consider the influence of Joseph Conrad (cf. Manly and Rickert,
_Contemporary British Literature_) upon O'Neill. Read especially _The
Nigger of the "Narcissus."_

4. How has Mr. O'Neill been influenced by the plays of John Millington

5. What do you make of the fact that Mr. O'Neill has struck out in
various directions instead of working a particular vein?

6. What reasons do you find for the common opinion that he is our most
promising dramatist? What limitations or weaknesses do you think may
interfere with his development? Do you think he will become a great


   Thirst, and Other One-Act Plays. 1914. (The Web, Warnings, Fog,
   Before Breakfast. 1916.
   The Moon of the Caribbees, and Other Plays of the Sea. 1919. (Bound
     East for Cardiff; The Long Voyage Home; In the Zone; Ile; Where the
     Cross is Made; The Rope.)
  *Chris Christopherson. 1919. (Produced as Anna Christie, quoted with
     illustrations, Cur. Op. 72 ['22]: 57.)
  *Beyond the Horizon. 1920.
   Gold. 1920.
   The Emperor Jones; Diff'rent; The Straw. 1921.
   The Hairy Ape; Anna Christie; The First Man. 1922.


   Bookm. 53 ('21): 511; 54 ('22): 463.
   Century, 103 ('22): 351 (portrait).
   Cur. Op. 65 ('18): 159 (portrait); 68 ('20): 339.
   Everybody's, 43 ('20): July, p. 49 (portrait).
   Freeman, 1 ('20): 44.
   Ind. 105 ('21): 158 (portrait).
   Nation, 113 ('21): 626.
   New Repub. 25 ('21): 173.
   Theatre Arts M. 4 ('20): 286; 5 ('21): 174 (portrait only).

+James Oppenheim+--novelist, short-story writer, poet.

Born at St. Paul, Minnesota, 1882. Two years later his family moved to
New York, where he has lived ever since. Special student at Columbia,
1901-3. Has done settlement work, as assistant head worker of the Hudson
Guild Settlement. Superintendent of the Hebrew Technical School for
Girls, 1904-7. In 1916-7 edited the magazine, _The Seven Arts_ (cf.
_Poetry_, 9 ['16-'17]: 214).


1. The following influences have entered largely into Oppenheim's work:
Whitman, the Bible, and the theories of psycho-analysis developed by
Freud and Jung. Without considering these, no fair estimate of the value
of his work can be reached.

2. In what respects does his poetry reflect the Oriental temperament?

3. What strength do you find in his work? what weakness?


   Doctor Rast. 1909. (Short stories.)
   Monday Morning and Other Poems. 1909.
   Wild Oats. 1910. (Novel.)
   The Pioneers. 1910. (Poetic play.)
  *Pay-Envelopes. 1911. (Short stories.)
   The Nine-Tenths. 1911. (Novel.)
   The Olympian: A Story for the City. 1912.
   Idle Wives. 1914.
  *Songs for the New Age. 1914.
   The Beloved. 1915.
   War and Laughter. 1916. (Poems.)
   The Book of Self. 1917. (Poems.)
   Night. 1918. (Poetic drama in one act.)
  *The Solitary. 1919. (Poems.)
   The Mystic Warrior. 1921.



   Acad. 89 ('15): 218.
   Bookm. 30 ('09): 322 (portrait), 393.
   Dial, 67 ('19): 301.
   Ind. 88 ('16): 533 (portrait).
   Nation, 109 ('19): 441.
   New Statesman, 6 ('16): 332.
   Outlook, 102 ('12): 207 (portrait).
   Poetry, 5 ('14): 88; 11 ('18): 219; 16 ('20): 49; 20 ('22): 216.
   R. of Rs. 47 ('13): 243 (portrait)

+Vincent O'Sullivan+--novelist.

Of American birth, but has lived many years in England. His work
published in the time of the _Yellow Book_ was especially admired by the
English critic, Edward Garnett, who maintained that Mr. O'Sullivan should
rank high among our writers. American editions of _The Good Girl_ and
_Sentiment_ were published in 1917.


   A Book of Bargains. 1896. (With frontispiece by Aubrey Beardsley.)
   Poems. 1896.
   The Houses of Sin. 1897. (Poems.)
   Green Window. 1899.
   A Dissertation upon Second Fiddles. 1902.
   Human Affairs. 1905.
   The Good Girl. 1912.
   Sentiment and Other Stories. 1913.

See _Book Review Digest_, 1917.

+Thomas Nelson Page+--novelist, short-story writer.

Born on a Virginia plantation, 1853. Studied a short time at Washington
and Lee University. Many higher honorary degrees. Practiced law in
Richmond, Virginia, 1875-93. Ambassador to Italy, 1913-9.

Mr. Page is one of the pioneer writers in negro dialects. His first
collection of short stories, _In Ole Virginia_, 1887, is his best-known

For bibliography, see _Cambridge_, III (IV), 668. For biography and
criticism, see Halsey, Harkins, Pattee, Toulmin, and the _Book Review
Digest_, especially for 1906, 1909, 1913.

+Josephine Preston Peabody (Mrs. L.S. Marks)+--poet, dramatist.

Born in New York City. Educated at Girls' Latin School, Boston, and at
Radcliffe, 1894-6. Instructor in English at Wellesley College, 1901-3.
Her play _The Piper_ obtained the Stratford-on-Avon prize in 1910. Died
in 1922.


   The Wayfarers--A Book of Verse. 1898.
   Fortune and Men's Eyes--New Poems with a Play. 1900.
   Marlowe, a Drama. 1901.
   The Singing Leaves. 1903.
   Pan--A Choric Idyl. 1904.
   The Wings. 1905. (Play.)
   The Book of the Little Past. 1908.
   The Piper. 1909. (Play.)
   The Singing Man. 1911. (Poems.)
   The Wolf of Gubbio. 1913. (Play.)
   Harvest Moon. 1916. (War poems.)
   The Chameleon. 1917.
   Portrait of Mrs. W. 1922.


   Eaton, W.P. Plays and Players, 1916.

   Bk. Buyer, 21 ('00): 9 (portrait).
   Bookm. 32 ('10): 7 (portrait); 47 ('18): 550.
   Critic, 40 ('02): 14 (portrait).
   Cur. Lit. 49 ('10): 435 (portrait).
   New Eng. M. n.s. 33 ('05): 426; 39 ('08): 225 (portrait), 236;
     42 ('10): 270 (portrait).
   Poetry, 9 ('17): 269.

+Bliss Perry+--critic.

Born at Williamstown, Massachusetts, 1860. A.B., Williams, 1881; A.M.,
1883. Studied at the universities of Berlin and Strassburg. Honorary
higher degrees. Professor of English at Williams College, 1886-93; at
Princeton, 1893-1900. Editor of the _Atlantic Monthly_, 1899-1909.
Professor of English literature at Harvard, 1907--. Harvard lecturer
at University of Paris, 1909-10.


   The Broughton House. 1890.
   Salem Kittredge, and Other Stories. 1894.
   The Plated City. 1895.
   The Powers at Play. 1899. (Short stories.)
   A Study of Prose Fiction. 1902.
   The Amateur Spirit. 1904.
   Park St. Papers. 1909.
   The American Mind. 1912.
   The American Spirit in Literature. 1918.
   The Study of Poetry. 1920.


   Bookm. 12 ('00): 359, 362 (portrait); 36 ('12): 443.
   Dial, 70 ('21): 347.
   Lit. W. 30 ('99): 264.
   Outlook, 78 ('04): 880 (portrait); 102 ('12): 648.
   R. of Rs. 34 ('06): Dec., p. 758; 46 ('12): Dec., p. 749. (Portraits.)
   Spec. 110 ('13): 809.

+William Lyon Phelps+--critic.

Born at New Haven, Connecticut, 1865. A.B., Yale, 1887; Ph.D. 1891; A.M.,
Harvard, 1891. Instructor in English literature at Yale, 1892-6,
assistant professor of the English language and literature, 1896-1901;
Lampson professor since 1901. Deacon in the Baptist Church.


   Essays on Modern Novelists. 1910.
   Essays on Russian Novelists. 1911.
   Essays on Books. 1914.
   Browning. 1915.
   The Advance of the English Novel. 1916.
   The Advance of English Poetry. 1918.
   Archibald Marshall. 1918.
   The Twentieth Century Theatre. 1918.
   Reading the Bible. 1919.
   Essays on Modern Dramatists. 1920.


   Bookm. 41 ('15): 585 (portrait), 587; 31 ('10): 349 (portrait).
   Ind. 71 ('11): 815 (portrait).
   Lond. Times, Mar. 17, 1910: 95.
   Poetry, 14 ('19): 159.
   R. of Rs. 45 ('12): 103 (portrait).

+David Pinski+--dramatist.

Born in Russia, 1873. Educated at the University of Berlin, 1897-9. Came
to the United States, 1899. Studied at Columbia, 1903-4. President of
Pinski-Massel Press. President of Jewish National Workers' Alliance.

His reputation is based principally upon his five volumes of plays and
two of stories in Yiddish, but he has also written in English.

BIBLIOGRAPHY (of works in English)

   The Treasure. 1916. (Comedy.)
   Three Plays. 1918.
   Little Heroes; The Stranger. 1918. (In Goldberg, I., Six Plays of the
     Yiddish Theatre. Second Series.)



   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1918-20.

+Edwin Ford Piper+ (Nebraska, 1871)--poet.

Mr. Piper's volume, (_Barbed Wire and Other Poems_, 1917) reflects the
prairies of the Middle West.



   Poetry, 12 ('18): 276.
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1917.

+Ernest Poole+--novelist.

Born at Chicago, 1880. A.B., Princeton, 1902. Lived in University
Settlement, New York, 1902-5, studying social conditions, especially in
connection with child labor, and in the movement to fight tuberculosis.
He helped Upton Sinclair (q.v.) gather stockyards material for _The
Jungle_. War correspondent in Germany and France, 1914-5. As a socialist,
Mr. Poole also worked for a time in Russia with the revolutionaries.

The familiarity with dockyards and dockmen, which is such a striking
feature of _The Harbor_, dates back to Mr. Poole's boyhood.


   The Voice of the Street. 1906.
   The Harbor. 1915.
   His Family. 1917.
   His Second Wife. 1918.
   The Village. 1918.
   "The Dark People," Russia's Crisis. 1918.
   Blind. 1920.
   Beggar's Gold. 1921.


   Bookm. 41 ('15): 115 (portrait).
   Cur. Op. 58 ('15): 266 (portrait).
   Ind. 94 ('18): 229 (portrait).
   Mentor, 6 ('18): 7 (portrait).
   R. of Rs. 51 ('15): 631 (portrait).
   Unpop. R. 6 ('16): 231.
   World Today, 18 ('10): 232 (portrait).
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1915, 1917, 1918, 1920.

+Ezra (Loomis) Pound+--poet, critic.

Born at Hailey, Idaho, 1885. Of English descent; on his mother's side
distantly related to Longfellow. Ph.B., Hamilton College. Fellow of the
University of Pennsylvania. Traveled in Spain, in Italy, in Provence,
1906-7; lived in Venice, and finally made his home in England. London
editor of _The Little Review_, 1917-9, and foreign correspondent of
_Poetry_, 1912-9.


1. Mr. Pound is an experimenter in verse, who has come under many
influences and belonged to many schools. His work should be studied
chronologically to discover these changes in interest and relationship.
To be noted among the influences are: (1) the mediæval poetry of
Provence; (2) the Greek poets; (3) the Latin poets of the Empire; (4)
among modern French poets, Laurent Tailhade; (5) the poets of China and
Japan, whom he learned to know through the manuscript notes of Ernest
Fenollosa; (6) the work of the English Imagists (cf. especially the poems
of T.E. Hulme, published in Mr. Pound's volume called _Ripostes_); (7)
the work of the Vorticist school of poets and artists (cf. _Blast_,
edited by Wyndham Lewis), and the more accessible periodical, _The
Egoist_, of which Richard Aldington (cf. Manly and Rickert, _Contemporary
British Literature_) is assistant editor.

2. Consider also this from his own theory of poetry: "Poetry is a sort of
inspired mathematics, which gives us equations, not for abstract figures,
triangles, spheres and the like, but equations for the human emotions. If
one have a mind which inclines to magic rather than science, one will
prefer to speak of these equations as spells or incantations; it sounds
more arcane, mysterious, recondite."

Can this be related to the qualities of Mr. Pound's poetry?

3. After reading Mr. Pound's output, discuss the adequacy of the
following: "When content has become for an artist merely something to
inflate and display form with, then the petty serves as well as the
great, the ignoble equally with the lofty, the unlovely like the
beautiful, the sordid as the clean.... Real feeling consequently becomes
rarer, and the artist descends to trivialities of observation, vagaries
of assertion, or mere _bravado_ of standards and expression--pure tilting
at convention."


   Provença: Poems Selected from Personæ, Exultations, and Canzoniere.
   The Spirit of Romance. 1910.
   The Sonnets and Ballate of Cavalcanti. 1912. (Translations.)
   Ripostes of Ezra Pound, whereto are Appended the Complete Poetical Works
     of T.E. Hulme. 1912.
   Gaudier Brzeska; a Memoir. 1916.
   Lustra of Ezra Pound, with Earlier Poems. 1917.
   Noh; or, Accomplishment; a Study of the Classical Stage of Japan. 1917.
     (With Ernest F. Fenollosa.)
   Pavannes and Divisions. 1918. (Essays and sketches.)
   Quia Pauper Amavi. 1919. (English edition.)
   Instigations, 1920. (Criticism.)
  *Umbra: the Early Poems of Ezra Pound, All That He Now Wishes to Keep
     in Circulation from "Personæ," "Exultations," "Ripostes." With
     Translations from Guido Cavalcanti and Arnaut Daniel and Poems by
     the Late T.E. Hulme. 1920.
   Also in: Des Imagistes. 1914.
            Poetry. (_Passim._)
            The Little Review. (_Passim._)

Cf. also Ezra Pound, his Metric and Poetry. 1917. (Bibliography, p. 29.)



   Acad. 81 ('11): 354.
   Ath. 1911, 2: 238; 1919, 2: 1065, 1132, 1268.
   Bookm. 35 ('12): 156; 46 ('18): 577.
   Bookm. (Lond.) 36 ('09): 154 (portrait); 52 ('17): 151.
   Chapbook, 1-2: May, 1920: 22. (Fletcher.)
   Dial, 54 ('13): 370; 69 ('20): 283 (portrait); 72 ('22): 87.
   Egoist, 2 ('15): 71; 4 ('17): 7, 27, 44.
   Eng. Rev. 2 ('09): 627.
   Ind. 70 ('11): 259 (portrait).
   Lond. Times, Sept. 20, 1918: 437.
   New Repub. 16 ('18): 83.
   New Statesman, 8 ('17): 332, 476.
   No. Am. 211 ('20): 658. (May Sinclair.)
   Poetry, 7 ('16): 249 (Carl Sandburg); 11 ('18): 330; 12 ('18): 221;
     14 ('19): 52 (William Gardner Hale); 15 ('20): 211; 16 ('20): 213.

+(John) Herbert Quick+ (Iowa, 1861)--novelist.

Farmer, lawyer, editor of _Farm and Fireside_, 1909-16. Author of _The
Fairview Idea_, 1919; and of _Vandemark's Folly_ 1922, which introduces
fresh material (canalboat life) into fiction, and also contributes to the
literature that deals with the opening up of the middle west.

See _Book Review Digest_, 1919.

+Lizette Woodworth Reese+--poet.

Born at Baltimore, in 1856. Educated in private and public schools.
Teacher in Baltimore high school.

Her poems, always conventional in form and limited in ideas, are admired
for their simplicity, intensity of emotion, and perfection of technique.


   A Branch of May. 1887.
   A Handful of Lavender. 1891.
   A Quiet Road. 1896.
   A Wayside Lute. 1909.
   Spicewood. 1920.



+Agnes Repplier+--essayist.

Born at Philadelphia, 1858, of French extraction. Educated at the Sacred
Heart Convent, Torresdale, Pennsylvania. Litt. D., University of
Pennsylvania, 1902. Has traveled much in Europe. Roman Catholic.


   Books and Men. 1888.
   Points of View. 1891.
   Essays in Miniature. 1892.
   Essays in Idleness. 1893.
   In the Dozy Hours. 1894.
   Varia. 1897.
   The Fireside Sphinx. 1901.
   Compromises. 1904.
   In Our Convent Days. 1905.
   A Happy Half Century. 1908.
   Americans and Others. 1912.
   The Cat. 1912. (Compilation.)
   Counter Currents. 1915.
   Points of Friction. 1920.


   Halsey. (Women.)

   Critic, 45 ('04): 302; 47 ('05): 204. (Portraits).
   Lit. Digest, 48 ('14): 827 (portrait).
   Lond. Times, Aug. 10, 1916: 378.
   New Repub. 7 ('16): 20. (Francis Hackett.)
   New Statesman, 7 ('16): 597.
   Outlook, 78 ('04): 880 (portrait).
   Spec. 117 ('16): 105.

+Alice (Caldwell) Hegan Rice (Mrs. Cale Young Rice)+--novelist.

Born at Shelbyville, Kentucky, 1870. Educated in private schools. One of
the founders of the Cabbage Patch Settlement House, Louisville. Uses her
own experience in charity work in her books.


   Mrs. Wiggs of the Cabbage Patch. 1901.
   Lovey Mary. 1903.
   Sandy. 1905.
   Captain June. 1907.
   Mr. Opp. 1909.
   A Romance of Billy Goat Hill. 1912.
   The Honorable Percival. 1914.
   Calvary Alley. 1917.
   Miss Mink's Soldier and Other Stories. 1918.
   Turn About Tales. 1920. (With Cale Young Rice, q.v.)
   Quin. 1921.



   Bookm. 29 ('09): 412; 32 ('10): 369.
   Bookm. (Lond.) 24 ('03): 158 (portrait), 160.
   Outlook, 72 ('02): 802 (portrait); 78 ('04): 282, 286 (portrait).
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1905, 1907, 1909, 1912, 1918.

+Cale Young Rice+ (Kentucky, 1872)--poet, dramatist.

   Collected Plays and Poems. 1915.
   For later volumes, cf. _Who's Who in America_.

+Lola Ridge+--poet, critic.

Born at Dublin, Ireland, but brought up in Sydney, Australia. As a child,
lived also in New Zealand, but studied art in Australia. In 1907 she came
to the United States and supported herself for three years by writing
fiction for the popular magazines. But finding that this work was going
to kill her creative ability, she earned her living in a variety of other
ways--as organizer, advertisement writer, illustrator, artist's model,
factory worker, etc.--while she wrote poems. Her reputation was made by
the publication of _The Ghetto_ in 1918.


   The Ghetto and Other Poems. 1918.
   Sun-up and Other Poems. 1920.
   Also in: Others, 1919.



   Dial, 66 ('18): 83. (Aiken.)
   New Repub. 17 ('18): 76. (Hackett.)
   Poetry, 13 ('19): 335; 17 ('21): 332.
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1918, 1920.

+James Whitcomb Riley+--poet.

Born at Greenfield, Indiana, 1853, of Irish and Pennsylvania Dutch
ancestry. Educated in the public schools, but received many higher
honorary degrees. Died in 1916.

Mr. Riley came to be the representative poet of his native state, the
"Hoosier poet," and many of his poems are written in the dialect of
Indiana, but his reputation is national. His numerous poems were
collected and published in ten volumes, as _Complete Works_, in 1916. For
detailed bibliography, cf. _Cambridge_, III (IV), 651.



   Atlan. 118 ('16): 503. (Nicholson.)
   Bookm. 20 ('04): 18; 33 ('11): 67 (portrait); 35 ('12): 357 (portrait),
     637; 38 ('13): 163 (portrait), 598; 44 ('16): 22 (portraits), 58, 79.
   Cur Lit. 41 ('06): 160 (portrait); 57 ('14): 425 (portrait).
   Cur. Op. 61 ('16): 196 (portrait).
   J. Educ. 84 ('16): 149, 298.
   Lit. Digest, 47 ('13): 782; 53 ('16): Aug. 1, pp. 304 (portrait), 408;
     51 ('15): 730.
   Nation, 97 ('13): 332.
   No. Am. 204 ('16): 421.
   Outlook, 111 ('15): 249, 273 (portrait), 396; 113 ('16): 778.
   R. of Rs. 54 ('16): 327 (portrait).
   World's Work, 22 ('11): 14777 (portrait); 25 ('13): 565.
   Yale R. n.s. 9 ('20): 395.

+Charles George Douglas Roberts+--novelist, poet, Nature writer.

Born at Douglas, New Brunswick, 1860. Studied at the University of New
Brunswick, 1876. Has been a teacher, editor, soldier. In France during
the War.

Major Roberts has published many volumes of poems, besides novels and
animal stories.

For bibliography, see _Who's Who_ (English). For reviews, see _Book
Review Digest_, 1914, 1916, 1919.

+Edwin Arlington Robinson+--poet.

Born at Head Tide, Maine, 1869. Educated at Gardiner, Maine, on the
Kennebec River ("Tilbury Town"). Studied at Harvard, 1891-3. Struggled in
various ways to make a living in New York, even working in the subway,
while publishing his first poems. His _Captain Craig_, 1902, attracted
the attention of Roosevelt, who gave the author a position in the New
York Custom House, which he held 1905-10. Since then he has been able to
give his entire time to poetry.


1. A good introduction to Mr. Robinson's work is Miss Lowell's review of
his _Collected Works_, in the _Dial_, 72 ('22): 130. Although Miss
Lowell's contention that Mr. Robinson is our greatest living poet would
be disputed by some critics, her article suggests many points of
departure in the study of his very important contribution to American

2. Divide Mr. Robinson's work into two groups: (1) poems of which the
material is based upon literature; (2) those of which it comes from his
own life experience. Is it possible to say now which of these two groups
has the best chance of long endurance? Can you decide how far literature
has had a good effect upon Mr. Robinson's work, and how far it has
lessened the value of his poetry?

3. Consider as a group the poems that grow out of Mr. Robinson's New
England origin. In what ways is he characteristic of New England?
Compare his work with that of Mr. Frost in this respect.

4. Compare and contrast Mr. Robinson's portraits of persons with names as
titles with similar portraits in the _Spoon River Anthology_. This type
of verse seems to have been developed independently by both poets.

5. An interesting study could be made of the influence on Robinson of
Crabbe; another, of the influence of Hardy.

6. Another interesting study might grow out of the consideration of
Robinson as a poet born twenty years too soon. How much has the temper of
his work been determined by the fact that he had to wait so long for

7. What are the main features of Mr. Robinson's philosophy as suggested
in the poems?

8. Can you find many poems that sing? What is to be said of the poet's
mastery of rhythms?

9. After reading the best of Mr. Robinson's work, it is interesting to
look up the comments of various admirers of it published on the occasion
of his fiftieth birthday, in the _New York Times_, December 21, 1919, or
the quotations from this article in _Poetry_, 15 ('20): 265, and to see
how far your judgment bears out these extravagant statements.

10. The influence of Robinson's work on younger American poets,
especially on Lindsay and Sandburg, makes an interesting study.


   The Torrent and the Night Before. 1896. (Privately printed.)
   The Children of the Night. 1897.
   Captain Craig. 1902.
   The Town down the River. 1910.
   Van Zorn. 1914. (Play.)
   The Porcupine. 1915. (Play.)
   The Man against the Sky. 1916.
   Merlin. 1917.
   Lancelot. 1919.
   The Three Taverns. 1920.
  *Collected Poems. 1921.
   Avon's Harvest. 1921.



   Atlan. 98 ('06): 330.
   Bk. Buyer, 25 ('02): 429.
   Bookm. 45 ('17): 429 (portrait); 47 ('18): 551; 50 ('20): 507;
     51 ('20): 457.
   Chapbook, 1-2, May, 1920: 1. (Fletcher.)
   Dial, 34 ('03): 18; 72 ('22): 130. (Amy Lowell.)
   Fortn. 86 ('06): 429.
   Forum, 45 ('11): 80; 51 ('14): 305.
   Ind. 55 ('03): 446.
   Lit. Digest, 64 ('20): Jan. 10: p. 32 (portrait), 40.
   Nation, 75 ('02): 465; 111 ('20): 453.
   New Eng. M. 33 ('05): 425.
   New Repub. 2 ('15): 267; 7 ('16): 96 (Amy Lowell); 23 ('20): 259.
   No. Am. 211 ('20): 121.
   Outlook, 105 ('13): 736, 744 (portrait); 112 ('16): 786; 123 ('19): 535.
   Poetry, 8 ('16): 46; 10 ('17): 211; 15 ('20): 265; 16 ('20): 217;
     20 ('22): 278.
   Scrib. M. 66 ('19): 763.

+Edwin Meade Robinson+--poet, novelist.

Born at Lima, Indiana, 1879. Not related to Edwin Arlington Robinson.
Newspaper man, first on the _Indianapolis Sentinel_, later on the
_Cleveland Plain Dealer_, in which he conducts a column. Besides his
successful volume of verse, _Piping and Panning_, 1920, Mr. Robinson has
published a novel which has attracted attention as an honest record of a
growing boy, _Enter Jerry_, 1920. For reviews, see _Book Review Digest_,
1920, 1921.

+Carl Sandburg+--poet.

Born at Galesburg, Illinois, of Swedish stock. Has little schooling but
wide experience of life. At thirteen drove a milk wagon, and for the next
six years did all kinds of rough work--as porter in a barber shop,
scene-shifter, truck-handler in a brickyard, turner apprentice in a
pottery, dishwasher in hotels, harvest hand in Kansas.

During the Spanish-American War served as private in Porto Rico.

Studied at Lombard College, Galesburg, 1898-1902, where he was captain
of the basket-ball team and editor-in-chief of the college paper.

After leaving college, earned his living in various ways--as advertising
manager for a department store, salesman, newspaperman, "safety first"
expert. Worked also as district organizer for the Social-Democratic party
of Wisconsin and was secretary to the mayor of Milwaukee, 1910-12.

In 1904 he had published a small pamphlet of poems, but his first real
appearance before the public was in _Poetry_, 1914. In the same year he
was awarded the Levinson prize for his "Chicago." In 1918 he shared with
Margaret Widdemer (q.v.) the prize of the Poetry Society of America; and
in 1921, shared this with Stephen Vincent Benét (q.v.).

Mr. Sandburg has a good voice and sings his poems to the accompaniment of
the guitar.


1. In judging Mr. Sandburg's work, it is important to remember that his
theory involves complete freedom from conventions of all sorts--in
thinking, in metrical form, and in vocabulary. His aim seems to be to
reproduce the impressions that all phases of life make upon him.

2. Consider whether his early prairie environment had anything to do with
the large scale of his imagination, the appeal to him of enormous periods
of time, masses of men, and forces.

3. Do you find elements of universality in his exaggerated localisms? Do
they combine to form a definite philosophy?

4. What effect do the eccentricities and crudities of form have upon you?
Do you consider them an essential part of his poetic expression or
blemishes which he may one day overcome?

5. Do you find elements of greatness in Mr. Sandburg's work? Do you think
they are likely to outweigh his obvious defects?

6. Compare and contrast his democratic ideals with those of Lindsay.


   Chicago Poems. 1916.
   Cornhuskers. 1918.
   The Chicago Race Riots. 1919.
   Smoke and Steel. 1920.
   Slabs of the Sunburnt West. 1922.
   Rootabaga Stories. 1922. (Children's stories.)



   Bookm. 47 ('18): 389 (Phelps); 52 ('21): 242, 285 (_for_ 385);
     53 ('21) 389 (portrait); 54 ('21): 360.
   Chapbook, 1-2, May, 1920: 15. (Fletcher.)
   Dial, 61 ('16): 528; 65 ('18): 263 (Untermeyer).
   Liv. Age, 308 ('21): 231.
   New Repub. 22 ('20): 98; 25 ('20): 86.
   Poetry, 8 ('16): 90; 13 ('18): 155; 15 ('20): 271; 17 ('21): 266.
   Survey, 45 ('20): 12.

+George Santayana+--poet, critic.

Born at Madrid, Spain, 1863. Came to the United States, 1872. A.B.,
Harvard, 1886; A.M., Ph.D., 1889. In 1889 began to teach philosophy at
Harvard; professor, 1907-12.

While Mr. Santayana's chief work is in philosophy, he belongs to
literature by the beauty of his poems, especially his sonnets, and by the
quality of his prose.


  *Sonnets and Other Poems. 1894.
   The Sense of Beauty. 1896.
   Lucifer--A Theological Tragedy. 1899.
   Interpretations of Poetry and Religion. 1900.
   The Hermit of Carmel, and Other Poems. 1901.
   The Life of Reason. 1905.
   Three Philosophical Poets. 1910.
   Winds of Doctrine. 1913.
   Philosophical Opinion in America. 1918.
   Character and Opinion in the United States. 1920.
  *Little Essays. 1920. (Selected with author's collaboration, by Logan
     Pearsall Smith, q.v.)



   Acad. 79 ('10): 561.
   Ath. 1913, 1: 353.
   Bookm. 47 ('18): 546.
   Bookm. (Lond.) 58 ('20): 208.
   Critic, 42 ('03): 129.
   Cur. Op. 55 ('13): 120; 69 ('20): 860. (Portraits.)
   Harp. W. 58 ('13): 27.
   Ind. 61 ('06): 335 (portrait).
   Liv. Age, 307 ('20): 50; 310 ('21): 200; 312 ('21): 300. (J. Middleton
   Lond. Mer. 2 ('20): 411.
   Nation, 109 ('19): 12.
   New Repub. 23 ('20): 221; 25 ('21): 321.
   New Statesman, 16 ('21): 729.
   Outlook, 126 ('20): 729 (portrait).
   Spec. 95 ('05): 119; 125 ('20): 239; 126 ('21): 19.

+Lew R. Sarett+--poet.

Born at Chicago, 1888. A.B., Beloit, 1911. Studied at Harvard, 1911-2;
LL.B., University of Illinois, 1916. Woodsman and guide in the Northwest
several months each year for nine years. Teacher of English and oratory.
Since 1920, associate professor of oratory, Northwestern University.
Lecturer on the Canadian North and on Indian life. Sarett's _Many, Many
Moons: A Book of Wilderness Poems_, 1920 (with an introduction by Carl
Sandburg), is a reflection of his familiarity with Indian material.
Received the Levinson prize for his poem, "The Box of God," 1921.


   Poetry, 17 ('20): 158.
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1920.

+Clinton Scollard+--poet.

Born at Clinton, New York, 1860. A.B., Hamilton College, 1881. Studied at
Harvard and at Cambridge, England. Professor of English literature,
Hamilton College, 1888-96 and 1911--. Has published nearly forty
volumes of graceful, accomplished verse. For bibliography, cf. _Who's Who
in America_.



   Chaut. 35 ('02): 345.
   Critic, 40 (02): 295 (portrait).
   Lamp, 29 ('04): 451.
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1915.

+(Mrs.) Evelyn Scott+--poet, novelist.

Mrs. Scott has lived many years in Brazil (cf. _Poetry_, 15 ['19]: 100).


   Precipitations. 1920. (Poems.)
   The Narrow House. 1921. (Novel.)


   Cent 103 ('22): 520. (H.S. Canby.)
   Dial, 70 ('21): 591, 594.
   Lond. Mercury, 5 ('22): 319.
   New Repub. 28 ('21): 305. (Padraic Colum.)
   Poetry, 17 ('21): 334. (Lola Ridge.)
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1920, 1921.

+Anne Douglas Sedgwick (Mrs. Basil de Sélincourt)+--novelist.

Born at Englewood, New Jersey, 1873. Educated at home. Left America when
nine years old and has since lived abroad, chiefly in Paris and London.
Studied painting for several years in Paris. Her reputation was made by
_Tante_, 1911. Her latest book is _Adrienne Toner_, 1922. For
bibliography, see _Who's Who in America_.


   Sedgwick, H.D., The New American Type and Other Essays. 1908.

   Ath. 1911, 2: 553.
   Atlan. 109 ('12): 682.
   Bookm. 34 ('12): 655.
   Dial, 52 ('12): 323.
   Ind. 72 ('12): 678.
   Lond. Mercury, 5 ('22): 431.
   Lond. Times, May 13, 1920: 301.
   Nation, 94 ('12): 262.
   New Statesman, 15 ('20): 137 (Rebecca West); 18 ('21): 200 (Rebecca

+Alan Seeger+--poet.

Born in New York City, 1888. In his boyhood lived in Mexico, and later in
Paris and London. Entered Harvard, 1906. In 1913, went to Paris. In the
first weeks of the War, enlisted in the Foreign Legion of France and was
in action almost continually. Killed July 4, 1916.

He won fame with his poem, "I Have a Rendezvous with Death."


   Poems. 1916. (Introduction by William Archer.)
   Letters and Diary. 1917.


   Bookm. 47 ('18): 399, 585.
   Eng. R. 27 ('18): 199.
   Lit. Digest, 53 ('16): 1190; 55 ('17): Oct. 27, p. 24 (portrait).
   Liv. Age, 294 ('17): 221.
   Lond. Times, June 29, 1917: 307; Dec. 14, 1917: 612.
   New Repub. 10 ('17): 160.
   New Statesman, 9 ('17): 356.
   Poetry, 10 ('17): 38.
   R. of Rs. 55 ('17): 208 (portrait).
   Scrib. M. 61 ('17): 123.

+Ernest Thompson Seton+--Nature writer.

Born at South Shields, England, 1860. Lived in the backwoods of Canada,
1866-70 and on the Western plains, 1882-87. Educated at the Toronto
Collegiate Institute and (as artist) at the Royal Academy, London.
Official naturalist to the government of Manitoba. Studied art in Paris,
1890-6. One of the illustrators of the _Century Dictionary_. Prominent in
the organization of the Boy Scout movement in America. For many years
kept full journals of his expeditions and observations (illustrated).
These make the "most complete pictorial animal library in the world."


   Wild Animals I Have Known. 1898.
   The Trail of the Sandhill Stag. 1899.
   The Biography of a Grizzly. 1900.
   Lobo, Rag and Vixen. 1900.
   Lives of the Hunted. 1901.
   Pictures of Wild Animals. 1901.
   Krag and Johnny Bear. 1902.
   Two Little Savages. 1903.
   Monarch, the Big Bear. 1904.
   Animal Heroes. 1905.
   Biography of a Silver Fox. 1909.
   Life-histories of Northern Animals. 1909.
   Wild Animals at Home. 1913.
   The Preacher of Cedar Mountain. 1916.
   Wild Animal Ways. 1916.



   Acad. 82 ('12): 523.
   Am. M. 91 ('21): 14 (portrait).
   Atlan. 91 ('03): 298.
   Bookm. 13 ('21): 4; 25 ('07): 452. (Portraits.)
   Bookm. (Lond.) 45 ('13): 144 (portrait), 147.
   Bk. News, 18 ('00): 490.
   Craftsman, 19 ('10): 66 (portrait.)
   Critic, 39 ('01): 320 (portrait).
   Everybody's, 23 ('10): 473.
   Liv. Age, 232 ('02): 222.
   Outlook, 69 (!01): 904 (portrait).
   Spec, 105 ('10): 488; 117 ('16): 345.

+Dallas Lore Sharp+--Nature writer.

Born at Haleyville, New Jersey, 1870. A.B., Brown, 1895; S.T.B., Boston
University, 1899; Litt. D., Brown, 1917. Ordained for the Methodist
Episcopal ministry, 1896. Pastor, 1896-9; librarian, 1899-1902. On staff
of _Youth's Companion_, 1900-3. Has taught English in Boston University
since 1902, professor since 1909.


   Wild Life Near Home. 1901.
   A Watcher in the Woods. 1903.
   Roof and Meadow. 1904.
   The Lay of the Land. 1908.
   The Face of the Fields. 1911.
   Where Rolls the Oregon. 1914.
   The Hills of Hingham. 1916.
   Ways of the Woods. 1919.
   Patrons of Democracy. 1920.
   The Seer of Slabsides. 1921.


   Cur. Lit. 37 ('04): 230 (portrait).
   Dial, 45 ('08): 297.
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1914, 1916.

+Edward Brewster Sheldon+--dramatist.

Born at Chicago, 1886. A.B., Harvard, 1907; A.M., 1908. Mr. Sheldon's
most successful play thus far is _Romance_, which was played by Doris
Keane for almost ten years.


   The Nigger. 1910.
   The Boss. 1911. (Quinn, _Representative American Plays_, 1917.)
   Romance. 1914. (Baker, _Modern American Plays_, 1920.)
   The Garden of Paradise. 1915.

For bibliography of unpublished plays, cf. _Cambridge_, III (IV), 771.


   Eaton, W.P. Plays and Players, 1916.
   At the New Theatre, 1910.

   Harv. Grad. M. 17 ('09): 599 (portrait), 604.
   Outlook, 102 ('12): 947.
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1910, 1914.

+Stuart P(ratt) Sherman+--critic.

Born at Anita, Iowa, 1881. A.B., Williams, 1903; A.M., Harvard, 1904;
Ph.D., 1906. Taught English at Northwestern University, 1906-11;
professor at the University of Illinois since 1911. Associate editor of
the _Cambridge History of American Literature_.


   On Contemporary Literature. 1917.
   American and Allied Ideals. 1918.


   Cur. Op. 64 ('18): 270 (portrait).
   Lamp, 29 ('04): 451, 452 (portrait).
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1917.

+Upton Sinclair+--novelist.

Born at Baltimore, 1878. A.B., College of the City of New York, 1897. Did
graduate work for four years at Columbia. Assisted in the government
investigation of the Chicago stockyards, 1906 (cf. _The Jungle_).
Socialist. Founded the Helicon Hall communistic colony at Englewood, New
Jersey, 1906-7, and the Intercollegiate Socialist Society.


   King Midas. 1901.
   The Journal of Arthur Stirling. 1903. (Autobiographical.)
  *The Jungle. 1906.
   The Metropolis. 1908.
   The Money-changers. 1908.
   Plays of Protest. 1911.
   Sylvia. 1913.
   Sylvia's Marriage. 1914.
   The Cry for Justice. 1915. (Anthology.)
   King Coal, a Novel of the Colorado Strike. 1917.
   Jimmie Higgins. 1919.
  *The Brass Check. 1919. (Arraignment of commercialized newspapers and
     plea for an endowed newspaper.)
   100%; the Story of a Patriot. 1920.


   Arena, 35 ('06): 187 (portrait).
   Ath. 1912, 1: 558; 2: 247.
   Bookm. 23 ('06): 130 (portrait), 195, 244, 584; 24 ('07): 2, 443
   Chaut. 64 ('11): 175 (portrait).
   Cur. Lit. 41 ('06): 3 (portrait).
   Cur. Op. 66 ('19): 386; 68 ('20): 669 (portrait).
   Freeman, 4 ('21): 258, 262.
   Ind. 57 ('04): 1133 (portrait); 62 ('07): 711; 71 ('11): 326.
   Nation, 113 ('21): 347.
   New Statesman, 1 ('13): 209.
   Review, 4 ('21): 128.
   R. of Rs. 31 ('05): 117; 33 ('06): 760; 34 ('06): 6. (Portraits.)
   Spec. 96 ('06): 793; 99 ('07): 231.
   World Today, 11 ('06): 676; 21 ('11): 1197. (Portraits.)

+Elsie Singmaster (Mrs. Harold Lewars)+--novelist.

Born at Schuylkill Haven, Pennsylvania, 1879. A.B., Radcliffe, 1909;
Litt. D., Pennsylvania College, 1916. Her work deals with the
Pennsylvania Dutch.


   Gettysburg--Stories of the Red Harvest and the Aftermath. 1913.
   Katy Gaumer. 1914.
   Emmeline. 1916.
   Basil Everman. 1920.
   John Baring's House. 1920.
   Ellen Levis. 1921.
   Bennett Malin. 1922.

For reviews, see _Book Review Digest_, 1917, 1920.

+Logan Pearsall Smith+--essayist.

American scholar living in England. Belongs to literature through his
_Trivia_--short prose poems, which suggest comparison with similar
experiments by Baudelaire, Oscar Wilde, and Marcel Schwob.


   The Youth of Parnassus and Other Stories. 1895.
   Trivia. 1902. (Revised ed., 1918.)
   More Trivia. 1921.


   Bookm. (Lond.) 55 ('18): 68.
   Cur. Op. 64 ('18): 123 (portrait).
   Nation (Lond.), 26 ('19): 398.
   New Statesman, 10 ('17-'18): 233; 11 ('18): 134.
   Spec. 124 ('20): 50.

+Wilbur Daniel Steele+--novelist, short-story writer.

Born at Greensboro, North Carolina, 1886. A.B., University of Denver,
1907. Studied art in Boston, Paris, and New York, 1907-10.


   Storm. 1914.
   Land's End. 1918.


   Bookm. 46 ('18): 704 (portrait).
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1918.

+George Sterling+--poet.

Born at Sag Harbor, New York, 1869. Educated in private and public
schools. About 1895 he moved to the West and now lives in California.


   The Testimony of the Suns and Other Poems. 1903.
   A Wine of Wizardry and Other Poems. 1908.
   The House of Orchids and Other Poems. 1911.
   Beyond the Breakers and Other Poems. 1914.
   The Caged Eagle and Other Poems. 1916.
   The Binding of the Beast and Other Poems. 1917.
   Lilith. 1919. (Dramatic poem.)
   Rosamond. 1920.


   Bookm. 47 ('18): 339.
   Poetry, 7 ('16): 307.
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1916.

+Wallace Stevens+--poet.

A New York lawyer, living in Hartford, Connecticut, whose work although
not as yet collected into a volume has attracted much attention. Received
the _Poetry_ prize for the best one-act play, in 1916, for his "Three
Travellers Watch a Sunrise," and the Levinson prize for his
"Pecksniffiana," 1920.

Mr. Stevens's art is purely decorative, and its effects must be studied
as in pictorial art. He is an experimenter in free verse forms as well as
in impressions.


   Poems in Little Review. 1918.
            Others 1916, 1917, 1919.
            Poetry, vols. 7, 8, 11, 12, 15, 19, 20.


   Chapbook, 1-2, May, 1920: 28.
   Poetry, 17 ('20): 155.

+Arthur Stringer+ (Canada, 1874)--novelist.

Author of _The Prairie Wife_, 1915, and _The Prairie Mother_, 1920. For
bibliography, see _Who's Who in America_.

+Simeon Strunsky+--essayist, man of letters.

Born at Vitebsk, Russia, 1879. A.B., Columbia, 1900. Department editor of
the _New International Encyclopedia_, 1900-06, and editorial writer for
the _New York Evening Post_, 1906--.


   The Patient Observer. 1911.
   Post-Impressions. An Irresponsible Chronicle. 1914.
   Belshazzar Court or Village Life in New York City. 1914.
   Professor Latimer's Progress. 1918. (Novel.)
   Little Journeys towards Paris. 1918.
   Sinbad and His Friends. 1921.


   Bookm. 51 ('20): 65.
   Cur. Op. 57 ('14): 198; 65 ('18): 51. (Portraits.)
   Ind. 80 ('14): 245 (portrait).
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1914, 1918.

+Ida M(inerva) Tarbell+--essayist, historian.

Born in Erie County, Pennsylvania, 1857. A.B., Allegheny College, 1880;
A.M., 1883. Honorary higher degrees. Associate editor of _The
Chautauquan_, 1883-91. Studied in Paris at the Sorbonne and the Collège
de France, 1891-4. On staff of _McClure's_ and associate editor,
1894-1906. Associate editor of the _American Magazine_, 1906-15.


   Early Life of Abraham Lincoln. 1896. (With J. McCan Davis.)
   Life of Abraham Lincoln. 1900.
   He Knew Lincoln. 1907.
   The Business of Being a Woman. 1912.
   The Ways of Women. 1915.
   New Ideals in Business. 1916.
   The Rising of the Tide. 1919. (Novel.)
   In Lincoln's Chair. 1920.
   Peacemakers--Blessed and Otherwise. 1922.


   Am. M. 62 ('06): Oct., 569, 574 (portrait); 63 ('06): Nov., p. 79;
     78 ('14): Nov., p. 10 (portrait only).
   Bookm. 16 ('03): 438. (Portraits.)
   Craftsman, 14 ('08): 2 (portrait).
   Critic, 46 ('05): 296 (portrait), 366.
   Cur. Lit. 37 ('04): 28; 52 ('12): 682. (Portraits.)
   Dial, 28 ('00): 192.
   Ind. 90 ('17): 34; 91 ('17): 19. (Portraits.)
   McClure's, 24 ('04): 109 (portrait), 217.
   Nation, 70 ('00): 164; 104 ('17): 84.
   Outlook, 64 ('00): 413; 78 ('04): 283 (portrait).

+(Newton) Booth Tarkington+--novelist, dramatist.

Born at Indianapolis, Indiana, 1869, of French ancestry on one side. Came
early under the influence of Riley (q.v.), a neighbor. Educated at
Phillips Exeter Academy, Purdue University, and Princeton. Honorary
higher degrees. Popular at college for his singing, acting and social
talents. Began to study art but was not successful as an artist. Has
written songs. Takes an active part in the social and political life of
his state. Served in the Indiana legislature, 1902-3.


1. Consider separately Mr. Tarkington's studies of boy life (especially
_Penrod_), and of adolescence (especially _Seventeen_ and _Clarence_).
Judged by your own experience and observation, are they presented with
true knowledge and humor, or are they a farcical skimming of surface
eccentricities? Compare them with Mark Twain's books about boys and with
Howells's _Boy's Town_.

2. Consider separately the historical novels. Is pure romance Mr.
Tarkington's field? Why or why not?

3. Consider the justice or the injustice of the following:

     According to all the codes of the more serious kinds of fiction, the
     unwillingness--or the inability--to conduct a plot to its legitimate
     ending implies some weakness in the artistic character; and this
     weakness is Mr. Tarkington's principal defect.... Now this causes
     the more regret for the reason that he has what is next best to
     character in a novelist--that is, knack. He has the knack of
     romance, when he wants to employ it: a light, allusive manner; a
     sufficient acquaintance with certain charming historical epochs and
     the "properties" thereto pertaining...; a considerable experience in
     the ways of the "world"; gay colors, swift moods, the note of tender
     elegy. He has also the knack of satire, which he employs more
     frequently than romance ... he has traveled a long way from the
     methods of his greener days. Why, then, does he continue to trifle
     with his threadbare adolescents, as if he were afraid to write
     candidly about his coevals? Why does he drift with the sentimental
     tide and make propaganda for provincial complacency?

4. In what direction lies Mr. Tarkington's future? Is he likely to become
more than a popular writer? What, if any, elements of enduring value do
you find in his work?

5. What "Hoosier" elements do you find in his work? Compare him with Ade,
Riley, Nicholson, and with the older writers of Indiana, Edward
Eggleston, and Maurice Thompson.


   The Gentleman from Indiana. 1899.
  *Monsieur Beaucaire. 1900. (Dramatized, with E.G. Sutherland.)
   The Two Vanrevels. 1902.
   Cherry. 1903.
   In the Arena. 1905.
   The Conquest of Canaan. 1905.
   The Beautiful Lady. 1905.
   His Own People. 1907.
   The Guest of Quesnay. 1908.
   Beasley's Christmas Party. 1909.
   Beauty and the Jacobin. 1911.
   The Flirt. 1913.
  *Penrod. 1914.
  *The Turmoil. 1915.
   Penrod and Sam. 1916.
  *Seventeen. 1916.
   The Magnificent Ambersons. 1918.
   Ramsey Milholland. 1919.
  *Clarence. 1919. (Play.)
  *Alice Adams. 1921.
   Gentle Julia. 1922.

For bibliography of unpublished plays, cf. _Who's Who in America_.


   Eaton, W.P. At the New Theatre. 1910.
   Holliday, Robert C. Booth Tarkington. 1918.
   Nicholson, Meredith. The Hoosiers. (National Studies in American
     Letters.) 1900.

   Am. M. 83 ('17): Jan., p. 9; 86 ('18): Nov., p. 18. (Portraits.)
   Bookm. 16 ('02): 214 (portrait), 373; 21 ('05): 5 (portrait);
     24 ('07): 605 (portrait); 42 ('16): 505, 507 (portrait);
     46 ('17): 259 (portrait); 48 ('18): 493.
   Bookm. (Lond.) 55 ('19): 123 (portrait).
   Critic, 36 ('00): 399 (portrait); 37 ('00): 396.
   Cur. Lit. 30 ('01): 280.
   Harp. W. 46 ('02): 1773 (portrait).
   Ind. 52 ('00): 67, 2795 (portrait).
   Liv. Age, 300 ('19): 541.
   Mentor, 6 ('18): supp., p. 3 (portrait).
   Nation, 103 ('16): 330; 112 ('21): 233. (Carl Van Doren.)
   Outlook, 72 ('02): 817 (portrait); 90 ('08): 701; 126 ('20): 281;
     128 ('21): 658 (portrait).
   World's Work, 39 ('20); 496 portrait).

+Bert Leston Taylor+ (+"B.L.T."+, Massachusetts, 1866)--humorist, poet,

Editor of "A Line o' Type or Two" in the _Chicago Tribune_ until his
death in 1921. Characteristic books are _Motley Measures_, 1913, and _The
So-Called Human Race_, 1922. For complete bibliography, cf. _Who's Who in

+Sara Teasdale (Mrs. Ernst B. Filsinger)+--poet.

Born at St. Louis, Missouri, 1884. Educated in private schools, St.
Louis. Traveled in Europe and the Near East. Received prizes from the
Poetry Society of America, 1916, 1918.

Sara Teasdale's love lyrics have been admired for their simplicity,
feeling, and perfection of form. They need merely to be read to be


   Sonnets to Duse, and Other Poems. 1907.
   Helen of Troy and Other Poems. 1911.
   Rivers to the Sea. 1915.
   Love Songs. 1917.
   The Answering Voice: One Hundred Love Lyrics by Women. 1917.
   Vignettes of Italy. 1919. (Songs.)
   Flame and Shadow. 1920.



   Bookm. 42 ('15): 365 (portrait), 457.
     47 ('18): 392 (Phelps).
   Forum, 65 ('21): 229.
   Lit. Digest, 58 (18'): 29 (portrait).
   New Repub. 15 ('18): 239.
   Poetry, 7 ('15): 148; 12 ('18): 264; 17 ('21): 272.
   Touchstone, 2 ('17): 310 (portrait).

+Augustus Thomas+--dramatist.

Born at St. Louis, Missouri, 1859. Son of the director of a theatre in
New Orleans. As a boy often went to plays; began to write them at
fourteen; at sixteen or seventeen, organized an amateur company. Educated
in the St. Louis public schools. Page in the 41st Congress. Honorary
A.M., Williams, 1914. Studied law two years; had six years of experience
in railroading. Special writer, and illustrator on St. Louis, Kansas
City, and New York newspapers.


   Alabama. 1905.
   The Witching Hour. 1908. (Also, Dickinson, _Chief Contemporary
     Dramatists_, 1915.)
   As a Man Thinks. 1911. (Also, Baker, _Modern American Plays_. 1920.)
   Arizona. 1914.
   In Mizzoura. 1916. (Also, Moses, _Representative Plays by American
     Dramatists_, 1918-21, III.)
   For bibliography of unpublished plays, cf. _Cambridge_, III (IV), 771.


   Eaton, W.P. Plays and Players. 1916
   ---- ---- At the New Theatre. 1910.

   Bookm. 33 ('11): 353 (portrait), 354.
   Collier's, 44 ('09): 23.
   Cur. Lit. 39 ('05): 544; 46 ('09): 544. (Portraits.)
   Cur. Op. 64 ('18): 183.
   Everybody's, 25 ('11): 681 (portrait).
   Forum, 39 ('08): 366; 40 ('08): 43; 42 ('09): 575.
   Ind. 61 ('06): 737 (portrait).
   Outlook, 94 ('10): 212 (portrait); 110 ('15): 836, 865 (portrait).
   Scrib. M. 55 ('14): 275 (portrait).
   World's Work, 18 ('09): 11850 (portrait), 11882. (Van Wyck Brooks.)

+Eunice Tietjens (Mrs. Cloyd Head)+--poet.

Born at Chicago, 1884. Married Paul Tietjens, the composer, 1904; Cloyd
Head, the writer, 1920. Associate editor of _Poetry_, 1914, 1916. War
correspondent in France, 1917-8.

Mrs. Tietjens' _Profiles from China_ is based upon her experience as an
observer of life in China.


   Profiles from China. 1917.
   Body and Raiment. 1919.
   Jake. 1921.



   Poetry, 10 ('17): 326; 15 ('20): 272.
   Spec. 124 ('20): 315.
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1917, 1919, 1921.

+Elias Tobenkin+--novelist.

Born in Russia, 1882. Came to the United States as a boy. A.B.,
University of Wisconsin, 1905; A.M., 1906. Specialized in German
literature and philosophy. Extensive newspaper experience in Milwaukee,
San Francisco, and Chicago. European correspondent of _New York Tribune_,


   Witte Arrives. 1916.
   The House of Conrad. 1918.
   The Road. 1922.


   Bookm. 45 ('17): 300 (portrait), 303; 47 ('18): 340, 343.
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1916, 1918.

+(Frederic) Ridgely Torrence+--poet, dramatist.

Born at Xenia, Ohio, 1875. Educated at Miami University and Princeton.
Librarian in the Astor Library, 1897-1901, and Lenox Library, 1901-3.
Assistant editor of _The Critic_, 1903-4, and associate editor of the
_Cosmopolitan_, 1906-7.

Mr. Torrence's plays for a negro theatre are worth special study.


   The House of a Hundred Lights. 1900.
   El Dorado, a Tragedy. 1903.
   Abelard and Heloise. 1907. (Poetic drama.)
   Granny Maumee; The Rider of Dreams; Simon the Cyrenian. Plays for a
     Negro Theatre. 1917.



   Atlan. 96 ('05): 712; 98 ('06): 333.
   Bk. Buyer, 20 ('00): 96 (portrait).
   Fortn. 86 ('06): 434.
   New Repub. 10 ('17): 325.

+Horace Traubel+--poet, biographer.

Born at Camden, New Jersey, 1873, of part Jewish parentage. Worked as
newsboy, errand boy, printer's devil, proof reader, reporter, and
editorial writer. Editor of various publications, including _The
Conservator_. Died in 1919.

Mr. Traubel is best known for his association with Whitman as friend,
secretary, and literary executor. When Whitman went to Camden in 1873, he
became a member of the Traubel household; and Mr. Traubel's account of
his life there is of the greatest value for the study of Whitman.

Although Traubel's poetry was strongly influenced by Whitman, he worked
out a philosophy of his own which is worth study. An interesting
comparison can be made of his ideas with Whitman's and with Edward
Carpenter's (cf. Manly and Rickert, _Contemporary British Literature_).


   Chants Communal. 1905.
   With Walt Whitman in Camden--a Diary. 1905 (Volume I). 1908 (Volume II).
     1914 (Volume III).
   Optimos. 1910. (Poems.)
   Collects. 1915.


   Karsner, D. Horace Traubel, His Life and Work. 1919.

   Am. M. 76 ('13): Nov., pp. 59 (portrait), 60.
   Arena, 40 ('08): 128 (portrait), 183.
   Cur. Lit. 39 ('05): 37 (portrait); 52 ('12): 590 (portrait).
   Forum, 50 ('13): 708.
   Freeman, 1 ('20): 46, 448.
  *Open Court, 34 ('20): 49, 87.

+Jean Starr Untermeyer+--poet.

Born at Zanesville, Ohio, 1886. Educated at Putnam Seminary, Zanesville,
and special student at Columbia. In 1907, she married Louis Untermeyer


   Growing Pains. 1918.
   Dreams out of Darkness. 1921.


   Poetry, 14 ('19): 47. (Amy Lowell.)
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1918, 1921.

+Louis Untermeyer+--poet, critic.

Born in New York City, 1885. Educated at the De Witt Clinton High School,
New York. An accomplished pianist and professional designer of jewelry.
Married Jean Starr (q.v.), 1907. Business man. Associate editor of _The
Seven Arts_ (cf. _Poetry_, 9 ['16-'17]: 214). Contributing editor to _The
Liberator_. Socialist.

Mr. Untermeyer's early verse was influenced by Heine, Housman, and
Henley, especially the last; but he has broken away from them to an
individual expression of social passions.


   The Younger Quire. 1911.
   First Love. 1911.
   Challenge. 1914.
   "---- and Other Poets." 1917. (Parodies.)
   These Times. 1917.
   The New Era in American Poetry. 1919.
   Including Horace. 1919.
   Modern American Poetry. 1919. (Anthology.)
   The New Adam. 1920.
   Modern British Poetry. 1920. (Anthology.)


   Bookm. 47 ('18): 266. (Phelps.)
   Lond. Times, Nov. 17, 1921: 746.
   New Statesman, 18 ('21): 114.
   Outlook, 122 ('19): 644 (portrait).
   Poetry, 4 ('14): 203; 11 ('17): 157; 14 ('19): 159; 17 ('21): 212.
   Sat. Rev. 132 ('21): 737.

+Carl Van Doren+--critic.

Born at Hope, Illinois, 1885. A.B., University of Illinois, 1907; Ph.D.,
Columbia, 1911. Taught English at the University of Illinois, 1907-16;
assistant professor, 1914-6. Associate in English at Columbia since 1916.
Headmaster of The Brearley School, New York, 1916-9. Literary editor of
_The Nation_, 1919--. Co-editor of the _Cambridge History of American
Literature_. His most important books are _The American Novel_, 1921;
_Contemporary American Novelists_, 1922.


   Cur. Op. 71 ('21): 642.
   Dial, 71 ('21): 355.
   Nation, 113 ('21): 18.
   New Repub. 29 ('21): 106.
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1921.

+Henry van Dyke+--man of letters.

Born at Germantown, Pennsylvania, 1852. Graduate of the Brooklyn
Polytechnic Institute, 1869; A.B., Princeton, 1873, A.M., 1876; Princeton
Theological Seminary, 1877; at the University of Berlin, 1877-9. Many
honorary higher degrees and other marks of distinction. Ordained minister
in the Presbyterian Church, 1879. Pastor in Newport, Rhode Island,
1879-82, and in New York, 1883-1900, 1902, 1911. Professor of English
literature at Princeton University, 1900--. American lecturer at the
University of Paris, 1908-9. United States minister to The Netherlands,

Most of Mr. Van Dyke's numerous stories, essays, and poems are to be
found in his _Collected Works_, 1920. His most recent works are:
_Camp-Fires and Guide Posts_, 1921, and _Songs Out of Doors_, 1922.



   Bookm. 30 ('10): 551; 38 ('13): 20. (Portraits.)
   Cent. 67 ('04): 579 (portrait).
   Critic, 42 ('03): 511, 516 (portrait).
   Cur. Lit. 28 ('00): 282.
   Nation, 104 ('17): 54.
   Outlook, 99 ('11): 704.
   R. of Rs. 41 ('10): 509 (portrait).

+Hendrik Willem van Loon+--man of letters.

Born at Rotterdam, Holland, 1882. A.B., Cornell, 1905; Ph.D., Munich,
1911. Associated Press correspondent in Russia during the revolution of
1906 and in various countries of Europe during the war. Lecturer on
history and the history of art.

Mr. Van Loon has made a place in literature by _The Story of Mankind_,
1921. Cf. _Book Review Digest_, 1921.

+Stuart Walker+--dramatist.

Born at Augusta, Kentucky. A.B., University of Cincinnati, 1902. Studied
at the American Academy of Dramatic Arts. Play-reader, actor, and stage
manager with David Belasco (q.v.), 1909-14. Originator of the Portmanteau
Theatre, 1914, and since 1915 his own producer.


   Portmanteau Plays. 1917. (The Triplet, Nevertheless, The Medicine
     Show, Six Who Pass While the Lentils Boil.)
   More Portmanteau Plays. 1919. (The Lady of the Weeping Willow
     Tree, The Very Naked Boy, Jonathan Makes a Wish.)

   Portmanteau Adaptations. 1920.
   Sir David Wears a Crown. 1922.


   New Repub. 13 ('17): 222; 21 ('19): 60.
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1919.

+Eugene Walter+--dramatist.

Born at Cleveland, Ohio, 1874. Educated in the public schools. Political
and general news reporter on various newspapers in Cleveland, Detroit,
Cincinnati, Seattle, and New York. Business manager of theatrical and
amusement enterprises, ranging from minstrels and circuses to symphony
orchestras and grand opera companies. Served in the Spanish War. His most
successful play, _The Easiest Way_ (1908), is printed by Dickinson,
_Chief Contemporary Dramatists_, 1915, and by Moses, _Representative
Plays by American Dramatists_, 1918-21, III.

For bibliography of unpublished plays, cf. _Cambridge_, III (IV), 772.


   Eaton, W.P. At the New Theatre. 1910.
   Am. M. 71 ('10): 121 (portrait).
   Cur. Op. 62 ('17): 403.
   Drama, 6 ('16): 110.

+Willard Austin Wattles+--poet.

Born at Bayneville, Kansas, 1888. A.B., University of Kansas, 1909; A.M.,
1911. Taught English in various schools; since 1914, at the University of


   Sunflowers--A Book of Kansas Poems. 1014. (Compilation; includes
     some of his poems.)
   Lanterns in Gethsemane. 1918.
   The Funston Double-Track and Other Poems. 1919.
   Silver Arrows. 1920.


   Ind. 91 ('17): 59 (portrait).
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1919.

+Mary Stanbery Watts (Mrs. Miles Taylor Watts+)--novelist.

Born at Delaware, Ohio, 1868. Educated at the Convent of the Sacred
Heart, Cincinnati, 1881-4.


   The Tenants. 1908.
  *Nathan Burke. 1910.
   The Legacy. 1911.
   Van Cleve. 1913.
  *The Rise of Jennie Cushing. 1914.
   From Father to Son. 1919.
   The House of Rimmon. 1922.



   Bookm. 27 ('08); 157 (portrait), 159; 31 ('10); 454 (portrait).
   Cur. Op. 56 ('14): 137 (portrait).
   Ind. 71 ('11): 532 (portrait).
   New Repub. 2 ('15): 152. (Robert Herrick.)
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1916-20.

+Henry Kitchell Webster+--novelist.

Born at Evanston, Illinois, 1875. Ph.M., Hamilton College, 1897.
Instructor in rhetoric at Union College, 1897-8. Since then he has given
his time entirely to writing novels.


   The Short Line War. 1899. (With Samuel Merwin.)
   Calumet "K". 1901. (With Samuel Merwin.)
   The Real Adventure. 1916.
   The Painted Scene. 1916. (Short stories.)
   The Thoroughbred. 1917.
   An American Family. 1918.
   Mary Wollaston. 1920.
   Real Life. 1921.


   Bookm. 26 ('07): 4 (portrait only).
   Everybody's, 37 ('17): Nov., p. 16 (portrait).
   New Repub. 9 ('16): 133.
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1916, 1917, 1918, 1920.

+Winifred Welles+--poet.

Born at Norwich Town, Connecticut, 1893, and educated in the vicinity.
Her first volume, _The Hesitant Heart_, 1920, attracted attention for its
lyric beauty.


   Bookm. 51 ('20): 457.
   New Repub. 23 ('20): 156.
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1920, 1921.

+Rita Wellman (Mrs. Edgar F. Leo)+--dramatist.

Born at Washington, D.C., 1890. Daughter of Walter Wellman, the airman
and explorer. Educated in public schools and the Pennsylvania Academy of
Fine Arts.


   The Gentile Wife. 1919.
   Wings of Desire. 1919. (Novel.)
   Funiculi Funicula. 1919. (Mayorga.)

+Edith (Newbold Jones) Wharton+--novelist, short-story writer.

Born in New York City, 1862. Educated at home but spent much time abroad
when she was young. Mrs. Wharton is a society woman and a great lover of
outdoors and of animals. Chevalier of the Legion of Honor of France.


1. Mrs. Wharton's friendship with Henry James and the derivation of her
methods from his suggest an interesting comparison of the work of these
two writers. For this comparison, books treating of similar material
should be chosen; for example, Mrs. Wharton's _The Custom of the Country_
or _Madame de Treymes_ with Mr. James's _Portrait of a Lady_ or _The
Ambassadors_. The result will show that Mrs. Wharton, having an
essentially different type of mind, has worked out an interesting set of
variations of Mr. James's method.

2. Mrs. Wharton's novels of American social life should be studied and
judged separately from her Italian historical novel (_The Valley of
Decision_) and from her New England stories, _Ethan Frome_ and _Summer_.

3. Two special phases of Mrs. Wharton's work which call for study are her
management of supernatural effects in some of her short stories and her
use of satire.

4. Her short stories offer a basis of comparison with those of Mrs.
Gerould (q.v.), another disciple of Mr. James.

5. Has Mrs. Wharton enough originality and enough distinction to hold a
permanent high place as a novelist of American manners?

6. Use the following criticisms by Mr. Carl Van Doren as the basis of a
critical judgment of your own. Decide whether he is in all respects

     From the first Mrs. Wharton's power has lain in the ability to
     reproduce in fiction the circumstances of a compact community in a
     way that illustrates the various oppressions which such communities
     put upon individual vagaries, whether viewed as sin, or ignorance,
     or folly, or merely as social impossibility.

     She has always been singularly unpartisan, as if she recognized it
     as no duty of hers to do more for the herd or its members than to
     play over the spectacle of their clashes the long, cold light of her
     magnificent irony.

     It is only in these moments of satire that Mrs. Wharton reveals much
     about her disposition: her impatience of stupidity and affectation
     and muddy confusion of mind and purpose; her dislike of dinginess;
     her toleration of arrogance when it is high-bred. Such qualities do
     not help her, for all her spare, clean movement, to achieve the
     march or rush of narrative; such qualities, for all her satiric
     pungency, do not bring her into sympathy with the sturdy or burly or
     homely, or with the broader aspects of comedy.... So great is her
     self-possession that she holds criticism at arm's length, somewhat
     as her chosen circles hold the barbarians. If she had a little less
     of this pride of dignity she might perhaps avoid her tendency to
     assign to decorum a larger power than it actually exercises, even in
     the societies about which she writes.... The illusion of reality in
     her work, however, almost never fails her, so alertly is her mind on
     the lookout to avoid vulgar or shoddy romantic elements.


   The Greater Inclination. 1899.
   The Touchstone. 1900.
   Crucial Instances. 1901.
   The Valley of Decision. 1902.
   Sanctuary. 1903.
   The Descent of Man, and Other Stories. 1904.
   Italian Villas and Their Gardens. 1904.
   Italian Backgrounds. 1905.
  *The House of Mirth. 1905.
  *Madame de Treymes. 1907.
   The Fruit of the Tree. 1907.
   The Hermit and the Wild Woman. 1908.
   A Motor-flight Through France. 1908.
   Artemis to Actæon. 1909.
   Tales of Men and Ghosts. 1910.
  *Ethan Frome. 1911.
   The Reef. 1912.
  *The Custom of the Country. 1913.
   Fighting France. 1915.
  *Xingu and Other Stories. 1916.
   Summer. 1917.
   The Marne. 1918.
   In Morocco. 1920.
   French Ways and their Meaning. 1919.
  *The Age of Innocence. 1920.
   Glimpses of the Moon. 1922.


   Björkman, E. Voices of Tomorrow. 1913.
   Halsey. (Women.)
   Sedgwick, H.D. The New American Type. 1908.

   Atlan. 98 ('06): 217.
   Bookm. 33 ('11): 302 (portrait).
   Critic, 37 ('00): 103 (portrait), 173.
   Cur. Op. 58 ('15): 272.
   Dial, 68 ('20): 80.
   Harp. W. 49 ('05): 1750 (portrait).
   Lit. Digest, 55 ('17): Aug. 4, p. 37 (portrait).
   Lond. Times, Dec. 5, 1919: 710.
   Nation, 85 ('07): 514; 97 ('13); 404; 112 ('21): 40. (Carl Van Doren.)
   New Repub. 2 ('15): 40; 3 ('15): 20; 10 ('17): 50.
   New Statesman, 8 ('16): 234.
   No. Am. 182 ('06): 840; 183 ('06): 125 (continuation of previous
   Outlook, 71 ('02): 209, 211 (portrait); 81 ('05): 719; 90 ('08): 698
     (portrait), 702.
   Putnam's, 3 ('08): 590 (portrait).
   Quarterly R. 223 ('15): 182 (Percy Lubbock)=Liv. Age, 284 ('15): 604.
   Spec. 95 ('05): 470.

+John Hall Wheelock+--poet.

Born at Far Rockaway, Long Island, 1886. A.B., Harvard, 1908; studied at
the University of Göttingen, 1909; University of Berlin, 1910. With
Charles Scribner's Sons since 1911.

Strongly influenced by Whitman and Henley.


   The Human Fantasy. 1911.
   The Beloved Adventure. 1912.
   Love and Liberation. 1913.
   Dust and Light. 1919.



   Lit. Digest, 55 ('17): Nov. 10, p. 29 (portrait).
   Poetry, 4 ('14): 163; 15 ('20): 343.
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1919.

+Stewart Edward White+--novelist, short story writer.

Born at Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1873, of pioneer ancestry. At the age of
twelve, went with his father to California and for four years lived
mostly in the saddle. At the age of sixteen, went to high school in
Michigan but spent much time in the woods, studying the birds and making
a large collection of specimens. Ph.B., University of Michigan, 1895;
A.M., 1903. Went to the Black Hills in a gold rush, but returned poor and
went to Columbia to study law, 1896-7. He was influenced by Brander
Matthews to write. Made his way into literature via book-selling and
reviewing. Explored in the Hudson Bay wilderness and in Africa, spent a
winter as a lumberman in a lumber camp, and finally went to the Sierras
of California to live. He is a thorough woodsman.


   The Claim Jumpers. 1901.
  *The Blazed Trail. 1902.
   Conjuror's House. 1903.
   The Magic Forest. 1903.
  *The Silent Places. 1904.
   Blazed Trail Stories. 1904.
   Arizona Nights. 1907.
   The Riverman. 1908.
  *The Rules of the Game. 1909.
   The Cabin. 1910.
   The Land of Footprints. 1912. (Travel.)
   African Camp Fires. 1913. (Travel.)
   Gold. 1913.
   The Rediscovered Country. 1915. (Travel.)
   The Gray Dawn. 1915.
   The Forty-Niners. 1918. (_Chronicles of America Series_, vol. 25.)
   The Rose Dawn. 1920.
   The Killer. 1920.


   Bookm. 17 ('03): 308 (portrait); 31 ('10): 486 (portrait); 38 ('13): 9.
   Bookm. (Lond.) 27 ('05): 253; 46 ('14): 31 (portrait and illustrations).
   Mentor, 6 ('18): supp. no. 14 (portrait only).
   Outing, 43 ('03): 218 (portrait).
   World's Work, 6 ('03): 3695. (portrait).

+Brand Whitlock+--novelist, short story writer.

Born at Urbana, Ohio, 1869. Educated in public schools and privately.
Honorary higher degrees. Newspaper experience in Toledo and Chicago,
1887-93. Clerk in office of Secretary of State, Springfield, Illinois,
1893-7. Studied law and was admitted to the bar, (Illinois, 1894; Ohio,
1897). Practiced in Toledo, Ohio, 1897-1905. Elected mayor as Independent
candidate, 1905, 1907, 1909, 1911; declined fifth nomination. Minister
(1913) and ambassador (1919) to Belgium and did distinguished war service

Mr. Whitlock has made his political experience the basis of his most
interesting contributions to literature.


  *The 13th District. 1902.
   Her Infinite Variety. 1904.
   The Happy Average. 1904.
  *The Turn of the Balance. 1907.
   Abraham Lincoln. 1908.
   The Gold Brick. 1910.
   On the Enforcement of Law in Cities. 1910.
   The Fall Guy. 1912.
   Forty Years of It. 1914.
   Memories of Belgium Under the German Occupation. 1918.
   Belgium; a Personal Narrative. 1919.


   Am. M. 69 ('10): 599, 601 (portrait); 82 ('16): Nov., p. 30. (portrait).
   Arena, 37 ('07): 560 (portrait), 623.
   Bookm. (Lond.) 56 ('19): 58 (portrait), 201.
   Cur. Op. 58 ('15): 167 (portrait).
   Everybody's, 38 ('18): Jan., p. 25 (portrait).
   Harper's, 129 ('14): 310.
   Lit. Digest, 51 ('15): 1240, 1352 (portrait).
   Nation, 105 ('17): 21.
   New Repub. 5 ('15): 86.
   No. Am. 192 ('10): 93. (Howells.)
   Outlook, 111 ('15): 652, 661 (portrait).
   R. of Rs. 43 ('11): 119; 52 ('15): 703 (portrait).
   Spec. 122 ('19): 795.

+Margaret Widdemer (Mrs. Robert Haven Schauffler)+--poet, novelist.

Born at Doylestown, Pennsylvania. Educated at home. Graduate of the
Drexel Institute Library School, 1909. Her first published poem,
"Factories," attracted wide attention for its humanitarian interest. In
1918, she shared with Carl Sandburg (q.v.) the prize of the Poetry
Society of America. Her verse reflects the attitudes and interests of the
modern woman.


   The Rose-Garden Husband. 1915. (Novel.)
  *Factories, with Other Lyrics. 1915.
   Why Not? 1915. (Novel.)
   The Wishing-Ring Man. 1917. (Novel.)
   The Old Road to Paradise. 1918.
   You're Only Young Once. 1918. (Novel.)
   The Board Walk. 1919. (Short stories.)
   I've Married Marjorie. 1920. (Novel.)
   Cross-Currents. 1921.
   The Year of Delight. 1921. (Novel.)
   A Minister of Grace. 1922. (Short stories.)


   Bookm. 42 ('15): 458; 47 ('18): 392.
   Poetry, 7 ('15): 150; 14 ('19): 273.
   See also _Book Review Digest_, 1915, 1917, 1918, 1920, 1921.

+Kate Douglas Wiggin (Mrs. George C. Riggs)+--Story-writer.

Born at Philadelphia, 1859. As a child, lived in New England and was
educated at home, and at Abbott Academy, Andover, Massachusetts. Honorary
Litt. D., Bowdoin, 1906. Studied to be a kindergarten teacher. Later, her
family moved to Southern California and she organized the first free
kindergarten for poor children on the Pacific coast. Her kindergarten
experience is seen in her first two books. She has continued her interest
in kindergarten work. Musician (piano and vocal); composer.


   The Birds' Christmas Carol. 1888.
   The Story of Patsy. 1889.
  *Timothy's Quest. 1890.
   Penelope's English Experiences. 1893.
   Penelope's Progress. 1898.
   Penelope's Experiences in Ireland. 1901.
  *Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm. 1903. (Play, 1908.)
   Rose o' the River. 1905.
   New Chronicles of Rebecca. 1907.
   The Old Peabody Pew. 1907. (Play, 1917.)
   Mother Carey's Chickens. 1911. (Play, 1915.)
   The Story of Waitstill Baxter. 1913.
   Penelope's Postscripts. 1915. (Play.)
   Collected Works. 1917.
   Ladies-in-Waiting. 1919.


   Halsey. (Women.)
   Harkins. (Women.)
   Wiggin, K.D. The Girl and the Kingdom: Learning to Teach.
   Atlan. 90 ('02): 276.
   Bk. Buyer, 8 ('91): 285.
   Bookm. 18 ('03): 4 (portrait), 652; 20 ('05): 402 (portrait);
     25 ('07): 226 (portrait), 304, 566; 32 ('10): 236 (portrait);
     40 ('15): 478.
   Bookm. (Lond.) 38 ('10): 149 (portrait); 43 ('12): 9.
   Critic, 43 ('03): 388; 47 ('05): 197. (Portraits.)
   Cur. Lit. 30 ('01): 277.
   J. Educ. 83 ('16): 594 (portrait).
   Lamp, 29 ('05): 585.
   Lit. Digest, 63 ('19): 30 (portrait).
   Outlook, 75 ('03): 847 (portrait).

+Percival Wilde+--dramatist.

Born in New York City, 1887. B.S., Columbia, 1906. Banker, inventor,
reviewer. Has been writing plays since 1912, and has had many produced in
Little Theatres.


   Dawn, with The Noble Lord, The Traitor, A House of Cards, Playing with
     Fire, The Finger of God; One-Act Plays of Life Today. 1915.
   Confessional, and Other American Plays. 1916. (Confessional, The Villain
     in the Piece, According to Darwin, A Question of Morality, The
     Beautiful Story.)
   The Unseen Host, and Other War Plays. 1917. (The Unseen Host, Mothers
     of Men, Pawns, In the Ravine, Valkyrie.)

For Bibliography of unpublished plays, see _Who's Who in America_.

For Reviews, see the _Book Review Digest_, 1915-17.

+Marguerite (Ogden Bigelow) Wilkinson+ (+Mrs. James G. Wilkinson+, Nova
    Scotia, Canada, 1883)--poet.

Compiler of _Golden Songs of the Golden State_ (California anthology),
1917, and of _New Voices_, (studies in modern poetry with extensive
quotations), 1919. Has also published several volumes of poetry.

+Ben Ames Williams+--novelist.

Born at Macon, Mississippi, 1889. A.B., Dartmouth, 1910. Newspaper writer
until 1916.


   All the Brothers Were Valiant. 1919.
   The Sea Bride. 1919.
   The Great Accident. 1920.
   Evered. 1921.

For reviews, _see Book Review Digest_, 1919, 1920, 1921.

+Jesse Lynch Williams+ (Illinois, 1871)--novelist, short-story writer.

First attracted attention with his stories of college life. For
bibliography, see _Who's Who in America_.

+William Carlos Williams+--poet.

Born in 1883. Physician. Lives in Rutherford, New Jersey, where his first
book was privately printed. Co-editor of _Contract_.


   Poems. 1909.
   The Tempers. 1913.
   A Book of Poems, Al Que Quiere. 1917.
   Kora in Hell: Improvisations. 1920.
   Sour Grapes. 1921.
   Also in: Des Imagistes. 1914.
            Dial. (_Passim._)
            Egoist. (_Passim._)
            Little Review. (_Passim._)


   Dial, 70 ('21): 352, 565; 72 ('22): 197.
   Poetry, 17 ('21): 329.

+Harry Leon Wilson+ (Illinois, 1867)--novelist, dramatist.

His best-known novel is _Ruggles of Red Gap_, 1915. Collaborated with
Booth Tarkington (q.v.) in the plays, _The Man from Home_, 1908, and
_Bunker Bean_, 1912. For bibliography, see _Who's Who in America_.

+Owen Wister+--novelist.

Born at Philadelphia, 1860. A.B., Harvard, 1882; A.M., LL.B., 1888;
honorary LL.D., University of Pennsylvania, 1907. Admitted to the
Philadelphia bar, 1889. In literary work since 1891.


   The Dragon of Wantley--His Tail. 1892.
   Red Men and White. 1896.
   Lin McLean. 1898. (Short stories.)
   The Jimmy John Boss. 1900.
  *The Virginian. 1902.
   Philosophy 4. 1903.
   A Journey in Search of Christmas. 1904.
  *Lady Baltimore. 1906.
   The Seven Ages of Washington. 1907. (Biography.)
   Members of the Family. 1911. (Short stories.)
   The Pentecost of Calamity. 1915. (Germany in 1914.)
   The Straight Deal; or The Ancient Grudge. 1920.


   Bk. Buyer, 25 ('02): 199.
   Bookm. 27 ('08): 458, 465 (portrait).
   Critic, 41 ('02): 358.
   Cur. Lit. 33 ('02): 127 (portrait), 238.
   Dial, 59 ('15): 303.
   Ind. 60 ('06): 1159 (portrait).
   Lond. Times, July 4, 1902: 196.
   World's Work, 5 ('02): 2792, 2795 (portrait); 6 ('03): 3694.

+Charles Erskine Scott Wood+--poet.

Born at Erie, Pennsylvania, 1852. Graduate of U.S. Military Academy,
1874; Ph.B., LL.B., Columbia, 1883. Served in the U.S. Army, 1874-84, in
various campaigns against the Indians. Admitted to the bar, 1884, in
Portland, Oregon, and practiced until he retired, 1919. Painting, as well
as writing, an avocation.

His knowledge of the Indians and of the desert appears in his principal
work, a long poem in the manner of Whitman, _The Poet in the Desert_.


   A Book of Tales, Being Myths of the North American Indians. 1901.
   A Masque of Love. 1904.
  *The Poet in the Desert. 1915.
   Maia. 1916.
   Circe. 1919.


   Cur. Op. 59 ('15): 268.
   Poetry, 6 ('15): 311.
   Sunset, 28 ('12): 232 (portrait).

+George Edward Woodberry+--poet, critic.

Born at Beverly, Massachusetts, 1855. A.B., Harvard, 1877. Honorary
higher degrees. Professor of English at the University of Nebraska,
1877-8, 1880-2, and of comparative literature, Columbia, 1891-1904.

Mr. Woodberry has published many volumes of poetry and criticism. His
critical writings were brought together in his _Collected Essays_ (six
volumes) in 1921. His most recent volume of poetry is _The Roamer and
Other Poems_, 1920.


   Bacon, E.M. Literary Pilgrimages, 1902.
   Ledoux, L.V. The Poetry of George Edward Woodberry. 1917.

   Bookm. 17 ('03): 336 (portrait); 47 ('18): 549.
   Critic, 43 ('03): 321 (portrait), 327.
   Cur. Lit. 33 ('02): 513; 42 ('07): 289 (portrait).
   Manchester Guardian Wkly., Jan. 20, 1922: 53.
   Outlook, 64 ('00): 875.
   Poetry, 3 ('13): 69; 11('17): 103.
   Weekly Review, 4 ('21): 273.


(Since the authors appear in the body of the book in alphabetical order,
page references have been omitted in these indexes.)


  Adams, Franklin P.
  Aiken, Conrad
  Akins, Zoë
  Aldington, Mrs. Richard ("H.D.")
  Anderson, Sherwood
  Arensberg, Walter Conrad
  Bangs, John Kendrick
  Benét, Stephen Vincent
  Benét, William Rose
  Bodenheim, Maxwell
  Brody, Alter
  Brown, Alice
  Burroughs, John
  Burton, Richard
  Bynner, Witter
  Cabell, James Branch
  Carman, Bliss
  Clark, Badger
  Cleghorn, Sarah Norcliffe
  Conkling, Grace Hazard
  Conkling, Hilda
  Corbin, Alice
  Crapsey, Adelaide
  Cromwell, Gladys
  Daly, T.A.
  Dargan, Olive Tilford
  Davies, Mary Carolyn
  Deutsch, Babette
  Eastman, Max
  Eliot, T.S.
  Erskine, John
  Faulks, Theodosia (Garrison)
  Ficke, Arthur Davison ("Anne Knish")
  Fletcher, John Gould
  Frost, Robert
  Fuller, Henry B.
  Gale, Zona
  Garland, Hamlin
  Gifford, Fannie Stearns Davis
  Giovannitti, Arturo
  Guiterman, Arthur
  Hagedorn, Hermann, Jr.
  Howells, William Dean
  Johns, Orrick
  Johnson, Robert Underwood
  Kilmer, Aline
  Kilmer, Joyce
  Knibbs, H.H.
  Kreymborg, Alfred
  Lindsay, Vachel
  Lowell, Amy
  Mackaye, Percy
  Markham, Edwin
  Marquis, Don
  Martin, Edward Sandford
  Masters, Edgar Lee
  Mifflin, Lloyd
  Millay, Edna St. Vincent
  Monroe, Harriet
  Moore, Marianne
  Morley, Christopher
  Neihardt, John G.
  Norton, Grace Fallow
  Oppenheim, James
  Peabody, Josephine Preston
  Piper, Edwin Ford
  Pound, Ezra
  Reese, Lizette Woodward
  Rice, Cale Young
  Ridge, Lola
  Riley, James Whitcomb
  Roberts, Charles George Douglas
  Robinson, Edwin Arlington
  Robinson, Edwin Meade
  Sandburg, Carl
  Santayana, George
  Sarett, Lew R.
  Scollard, Clinton
  Scott, Evelyn
  Seeger, Alan
  Sterling, George
  Stevens, Wallace
  Stringer, Arthur
  Taylor, Bert Leston ("B.L.T.")
  Teasdale, Sara
  Tietjens, Eunice
  Torrence, Ridgely
  Traubel, Horace
  Untermeyer, Jean Starr
  Untermeyer, Louis
  Van Dyke, Henry
  Wattles, Willard
  Welles, Winifred
  Wheelock, John Hall
  Widdemer, Margaret
  Wilkinson, Marguerite
  Williams, William Carlos
  Wood, C.E.S.
  Woodberry, George Edward


(Not included in this volume, but included in Untermeyer's _Modern
American Poetry_, Monroe and Henderson's _The New Poetry_, or _Others_
for 1916, 1917, 1919.)

  Aldis, Mary. Monroe. Others, 1916.
  Barrett, Wilton Agnew. Monroe.
  Beach, Joseph Warren. Monroe.
  Branch, Anna Hempstead. Untermeyer.
  Britten, Rollo. Monroe.
  Brown, Robert Carleton. Others, 1916
  Burr, Amelia Josephine. Untermeyer.
  Cannéll, Skipwith. Monroe. Others, 1916, 1917.
  Carnevale, Emanuele. Others, 1919.
  Curran, Edwin. Untermeyer.
  Dodd, Lee Wilson. Monroe.
  D'Orge, Jeanne. Others, 1917, 1919.
  Driscoll, Louise. Monroe.
  Dudley, Dorothy. Monroe.
  Dudley, Helen. Monroe.
  Evans, Donald. Others, 1919.
  Frank, Florence Kiper. Monroe.
  Gilman, Charlotte P.S. Untermeyer.
  Glaenzer, Richard Butler. Monroe.
  Gorman, Herbert S. Untermeyer.
  Gould, Wallace. Others, 1919.
  Gregg, Frances. Others, 1916.
  Groff, Alice. Others, 1916.
  Guiney, Louise Imogen. Untermeyer.
  Hartley, Marsden. Others, 1916.
  Hartpence, Alanson. Others, 1916.
  Helton, Roy. Untermeyer.
  Herford, Oliver. Untermeyer.
  Holley, Horace. Monroe. Others, 1916.
  Hoyt, Helen. Monroe. Others, 1916, 1917.
  Iris, Scharmel. Monroe.
  Jennings, Leslie Nelson. Untermeyer.
  Johnson, Fenton. Others, 1919.
  Kemp, Harry. Untermeyer.
  Laird, William. Monroe.
  Lee, Agnes. Monroe.
  Leonard, William Ellery. Monroe. Untermeyer.
  Long, Lily A. Others, 1919.
  Loy, Mina. Others, 1916, 1917, 1919.
  McCarthy, John Russell. Others, 1916.
  McClure, John. Others, 1916.
  Michelson, Max. Monroe. Others, 1919.
  Morton, David. Untermeyer.
  Noguchi, Yone. Monroe.
  O'Brien, Edward J. Others, 1916.
  O'Neil, David. Others, 1917.
  O'Sheel, Shaemas. Untermeyer.
  Ramos, Edward. Others, 1916.
  Ray, Man. Others, 1916.
  Reed, John. Monroe.
  Reyher, Ferdinand. Others, 1916.
  Rodker, John. Others, 1916, 1917.
  Sainsbury, Hester. Others, 1916.
  Sanborn, Pitts. Others, 1916.
  Sanborn, Robert Alden. Others, 1916, 1917, 1919.
  Saphier, William. Others, 1919.
  Seiffert, Marjorie Allen. Others, 1919.
  Shanafelt, Clara. Monroe.
  Shaw, Frances. Monroe.
  Sherman, Frank Dempster. Untermeyer.
  Skinner, Constance Lindsay. Monroe.
  Syrian, Ajan. Monroe.
  Thomas, Edith Matilda. Untermeyer.
  Towne, Charles Hanson. Monroe.
  Upward, Allen. Monroe.
  White, Hervey. Monroe.
  Wilkinson, Florence. Monroe.
  Wolff, Adolph. Others. 1916.
  Wyatt, Edith. Monroe.
  Zorach, Marguerite. Others, 1916.
  Zorach, William. Others, 1916.


  Ade, George
  Akins, Zoë
  Austin, Mary Hunter
  Belasco, David
  Broadhurst, George H.
  Brown, Alice
  Bynner, Witter
  Churchill, Winston
  Cobb, Irvin S.
  Cook, George Cram
  Crothers, Rachel
  Dargan, Olive Tilford
  Dell, Floyd
  Dreiser, Theodore
  Ferber, Edna
  Freeman, Mary E. Wilkins
  Fuller, Henry B.
  Gale, Zona
  Glaspell, Susan
  Glass, Montague
  Goodman, Kenneth Sawyer
  Hamilton, Clayton
  Hecht, Ben
  Hergesheimer, Joseph
  Howells, William Dean
  James, Henry
  Kennedy Charles Rann
  Kreymborg, Alfred
  Lovett, Robert Morss
  Mackaye, Percy
  Marks, Jeannette
  Middleton, George
  Millay, Edna St. Vincent
  Moeller, Philip
  Morley, Christopher
  O'Neill, Eugene
  Peabody, Josephine Preston
  Pinski, David
  Rice, Cale Young
  Robinson, Edwin Arlington
  Sheldon, Edward Brewster
  Tarkington, Booth
  Thomas, Augustus
  Torrence, Ridgely
  Walker, Stuart
  Walter, Eugene
  Wellman, Rita
  Wilde, Percival
  Wilson, Harry Leon


  Adams, Henry
  Aikman, H.G.
  Allen, James Lane
  Anderson, Sherwood
  Andrews, Mary Raymond Shipman
  Atherton, Gertrude Franklin
  Austin, Mary Hunter
  Bacheller, Irving
  Bacon, Josephine Dodge Daskam
  Beach, Rex Ellingwood
  Benét, Stephen Vincent
  Björkman, Edwin Brooks, C.S.
  Brown, Alice
  Bullard, Arthur ("Albert Edwards")
  Burnett, Frances Hodgson
  Cabell, James Branch
  Cable, George W.
  Cahan, Abraham
  Cather, Willa Sibert
  Chester, George Randolph
  Churchill, Winston
  Cleghorn, Sarah
  Comfort, Will Levington
  Cournos, John
  Curwood, James Oliver
  Deland, Margaretta Wade
  Dell, Floyd
  Dos Passos, John
  Dreiser, Theodore
  "Edwards, Albert." _See_ Bullard, Arthur
  Ferber, Edna
  Fisher, Dorothy Canfield
  Fitzgerald, F. Scott
  Fox, John, Jr.
  Frank, Waldo David
  Freeman, Mary E. Wilkins
  French, Alice ("Octave Thanet")
  Fuller, Henry B.
  Gale, Zona
  Garland, Hamlin
  Gerould, Katherine Fullerton
  Glasgow, Ellen
  Glaspell, Susan
  Grant, Robert
  Grey, Zane
  Hagedorn, Hermann
  Hardy, Arthur Sherburne
  Harris, Frank
  Harrison, Henry Sydnor
  Hecht, Ben
  Hergesheimer, Joseph
  Herrick, Robert
  Howells, William Dean
  Irwin, Wallace
  James, Henry
  Johnson, Owen
  Johnston, Mary
  King, Grace
  Kyne, Peter B.
  Lee, Jennette
  Lefevre, Edwin
  Lewis, Sinclair
  Lincoln, Joseph C.
  London, Jack
  Lovett, Robert Morss
  McCutcheon, George Barr
  Marks, Jeannette
  Martin, George Madden
  Martin, Helen Reimensnyder
  Masters, Edgar Lee
  Nathan, Robert
  Nicholson, Meredith
  Norris, Charles G.
  Norris, Kathleen
  Oppenheim, James
  O'Sullivan, Vincent
  Page, Thomas Nelson
  Perry, Bliss
  Poole, Ernest
  Quick, Herbert
  Rice, Alice Hegan
  Roberts, Charles G.D.
  Scott, Evelyn
  Sedgwick, Anne Douglas
  Sinclair, Upton
  Singmaster, Elsie
  Steele, Wilbur Daniel
  Stringer, Arthur
  Strunsky, Simeon
  Tarkington, Booth
  "Thanet, Octave." _See_ French, Alice
  Tietjens, Eunice
  Tobenkin, Elias
  Watts, Mary S.
  Webster, Henry Kitchell
  Wharton, Edith
  White, Stewart Edward
  Whitlock, Brand
  Widdemer, Margaret
  Wiggin, Kate Douglas
  Williams, Ben Ames
  Williams, Jesse Lynch
  Wilson, Harry Leon
  Wister, Owen


  Ade, George
  Allen, James Lane
  Anderson, Sherwood
  Andrews, Mary Raymond Shipman
  Austin, Mary Hunter
  Bacon, Josephine Dodge Daskam
  Bangs, John Kendrick
  Bercovici, Konrad
  Brown, Alice
  Cabell, James Branch
  Cable, George W.
  Cather, Willa Sibert
  Chester, George Randolph
  Cobb, Irvin S.
  Cohen, Octavus Roy
  Connolly, James Brendan
  Deland, Margaretta Wade
  Dreiser, Theodore
  Ferber, Edna
  Fisher, Dorothy Canfield
  Fitzgerald, F. Scott
  Ford, Sewell
  Fox, John
  Freeman, Mary E. Wilkins
  French, Alice ("Octave Thanet")
  Fuller, Henry B.
  Gale, Zona
  Garland, Hamlin
  Gerould, Katharine Fullerton
  Glaspell, Susan
  Glass, Montague
  Hergesheimer, Joseph
  Howells, William Dean
  Hurst, Fannie
  Irwin, Wallace
  James, Henry
  Johnson, Owen
  King, Grace
  Kyne, Peter B.
  Lee, Jennette
  Lefevre, Edwin
  London, Jack
  Martin, George Madden
  Martin, Helen Reimensnyder
  Matthews, Brander
  Oppenheim, James
  O'Sullivan, Vincent
  Page, Thomas Nelson
  Perry, Bliss
  Pinski, David
  Rice, Alice Hegan
  Singmaster, Elsie
  Steele, Wilbur Daniel
  "Thanet, Octave." _See_ French, Alice
  Van Dyke, Henry
  Webster, Henry Kitchell
  Wharton, Edith
  White, Stewart Edward
  Widdemer, Margaret
  Wiggin, Kate Douglas
  Williams, Jesse Lynch
  Wister, Owen


  Adams, Henry
  Beebe, William
  Bradford, Gamaliel
  Brooks, Charles S.
  Broun, Heywood
  Burroughs, John
  Crothers, Samuel McChord
  Eastman, Max
  Erskine, John
  Harris, Frank
  Holliday, Robert Cortes
  Kilmer, Joyce
  Martin, Edward Sandford
  Matthews, Brander
  More, Paul Elmer
  Morley, Christopher
  Newton, Alfred Edward
  Nicholson, Meredith
  Pound, Ezra
  Repplier, Agnes
  Smith, Logan Pearsall
  Strunsky, Simeon
  Tarbell, Ida
  Van Dyke, Henry


  Aiken, Conrad
  Björkman, Edwin
  Brooks, Van Wyck
  Burton, Richard
  Eastman, Max
  Eaton, Walter Prichard
  Eliot, T.S.
  Hackett, Francis
  Hamilton, Clayton
  Holliday, Robert Cortes
  Howells, William Dean
  Huneker, James Gibbons
  Lewisohn, Ludwig
  Littell, Philip
  Lovett, Robert Morss
  Lowell, Amy
  Matthews, Brander
  Mencken, H.L.
  More, Paul Elmer
  Nathan, George Jean
  Perry, Bliss
  Phelps, William Lyon
  Pound, Ezra
  Santayana, George
  Sherman, Stuart P.
  Untermeyer, Louis
  Van Doren, Carl
  Woodberry, George Edward


  Baker, Ray Stannard ("David Grayson")
  Beebe, William
  Burroughs, John
  Eaton, Walter Prichard
  "Grayson, David." _See_ Baker, Ray Stannard
  Mills, Enos A.
  O'Brien, Frederick
  Roberts, Charles G.D.
  Seton, Ernest Thompson
  Sharp, Dallas Lore


  Adams, Franklin P.
  Ade, George
  Bangs, John Kendrick
  Burgess, Gelett
  Cobb, Irvin S.
  Dunne, Finley Peter
  Leacock, Stephen
  Marquis, Don
  Martin, Edward Sandford
  Robinson, Edwin Meade
  Taylor, Bert Leston ("B.L.T.")


  Adams, Franklin P.
  Broun, Heywood
  Daly, Thomas Augustine
  Marquis, Don
  Morley, Christopher
  Robinson, Edwin Meade
  Taylor, Bert Leston ("B.L.T.")


  Adams, Henry
  Antin, Mary
  Burnett, Frances Hodgson (The One I Knew the Best of All)
  Burroughs, John
  Comfort, Will Levington (Mid-stream)
  Du Bois, William E.B.
  Eastman, Charles Alexander
  Garland, Hamlin (A Son of the Middle Border; a Daughter of the Middle
  Harris, Frank
  Howells, William Dean
  Huneker, James G. (Steeplejack)
  James, Henry
  Lindsay, Vachel (Prose)
  London, Jack (Martin Eden, John Barleycorn)
  Sinclair, Upton (Arthur Sterling)
  Tarbell, Ida
  Traubel, Horace
  Van Loon, Hendrik Willem (The Story of Mankind)
  Whitlock, Brand


(In some cases information as to birthplace could not be obtained.)

  Fletcher, John Gould

  Atherton, Gertrude
  Belasco, David
  Frost, Robert
  Kyne, Peter B.
  London, Jack
  Norris, Charles G.
  Norris, Kathleen

  Bacon, Josephine Dodge Daskam
  Burton, Richard
  Lee, Jennette
  Phelps, William Lyon
  Welles, Winifred

  Johnson, Robert Underwood
  Wellman, Rita

  Aiken, Conrad

  Pound, Ezra

  Austin, Mary
  Corbin, Alice (Chicago)
  Crothers, Rachel
  Crothers, Samuel McChord
  Dell, Floyd
  Dunne, Finley Peter (Chicago)
  Fuller, Henry Blake (Chicago)
  Lindsay, Vachel
  Marquis, Don
  Monroe, Harriet (Chicago)
  Neihardt, John G.
  Poole, Ernest (Chicago)
  Sandburg, Carl
  Sarett, Lew A. (Chicago)
  Sheldon, Edward Brewster
  Tietjens, Eunice (Chicago)
  Van Doren, Carl
  Webster, Henry Kitchell (Chicago)
  Williams, Jesse Lynch
  Wilson, Harry Leon

  Ade, George
  Dreiser, Theodore
  Holliday, Robert Cortes (Indianapolis)
  McCutcheon, George Barr
  Nathan, George Jean
  Nicholson, Meredith
  Riley, James Whitcomb
  Robinson, Edwin Meade
  Tarkington, Booth (Indianapolis)

  Clark, Badger
  Cook, George Cram
  Ficke, Arthur Davison
  Glaspell, Susan
  Sherman, Stuart Pratt

  Fisher, Dorothy Canfield
  Masters, Edgar Lee
  Mills, Enos A.
  Wattles, Willard

  Allen, James Lane
  Cobb, Irvin S.
  Dargan, Olive Tilford
  Fox, John
  Martin, George Madden
  Rice, Alice Hegan
  Rice, Cale Young
  Walker, Stuart

  Cable, George Washington
  King, Grace Elizabeth
  Matthews, Brander

  Millay, Edna St. Vincent
  Robinson, Edwin Arlington

  Mencken, H.L. (Baltimore)
  Sinclair, Upton (Baltimore)

  Adams, Henry (Boston)
  Bradford, Gamaliel (Boston)
  Burgess, Gelett
  Child, Richard Washburn
  Connolly, James Brendan
  Du Bois, William E.B.
  Eaton, Walter Prichard
  Freeman, Mary E. Wilkins
  French, Alice ("Octave Thanet")
  Gerould, Katherine Fullerton
  Grant, Robert (Boston)
  Hardy, Arthur Sherborne
  Herrick, Robert (Cambridge)
  Lincoln, Joseph C.
  Littell, Philip
  Lovett, Robert Morss (Boston)
  Lowell, Amy (Brookline)
  Perry, Bliss
  Taylor, Bert Leston
  Woodberry, George Edward

  Baker, Ray Stannard ("David Grayson")
  Beach, Rex
  Comfort, Will Levington
  Curwood, James Oliver
  Ferber, Edna
  White, Stewart Edward

  Eastman, Charles Alexander (Ohiyesa)
  Lewis, Sinclair
  Norton, Grace Fallow
  Oppenheim, James (St. Paul)

  Bodenheim, Maxwell

MISSOURI (St. Louis)
  Akins, Zoë
  Bullard, Arthur ("Albert Edwards")
  Churchill, Winston
  Eliot, T.S.
  Hurst, Fannie
  Johns, Orrick
  More, Paul Elmer
  Teasdale, Sara
  Thomas, Augustus

  Piper, Edwin Ford

  Brown, Alice

  Brooks, Van Wyck
  Faulks, Theodosia
  Kilmer, Joyce
  Middleton, George
  Sedgwick, Anne Douglas
  Sharp, Dallas Lore
  Traubel, Horace

  Bacheller, Irving
  Bangs, John Kendrick
  Beebe, William (Brooklyn)
  Benét, William Rose
  Broun, Heywood (Brooklyn)
  Burroughs, John
  Bynner, Witter (Brooklyn)
  Conkling, Grace Hazard (City)
  Conkling, Hilda
  Crapsey, Adelaide
  Cromwell, Gladys (City)
  Deutsch, Babette (City)
  Eastman, Max
  Erskine, John (City)
  Hagedorn, Hermann, Jr. (City)
  Hamilton, Clayton (Brooklyn)
  Hecht, Ben (City)
  Irwin, Wallace
  James, Henry (City)
  Johnson, Owen (City)
  Knibbs, H.H.
  Kreymborg, Alfred (City)
  Mackaye, Percy (City)
  Martin, Edward Sandford
  O'Neill, Eugene (City)
  Peabody, Josephine Preston (City)
  Scollard, Clinton
  Seeger, Alan
  Sterling, George
  Untermeyer, Louis (City)
  Wharton, Edith (City)
  Wheelock, John Hall
  Wilde, Percival (City)

  Steele, Wilbur Daniel

  Anderson, Sherwood
  Chester, George Randolph
  Gifford, Fannie Stearns Davis (Cleveland)
  Grey, Zane
  Howells, William Dean
  Torrence, Ridgely
  Untermeyer, Jean Starr
  Walter, Eugene (Cleveland)
  Watts, Mary S.
  Whitlock, Brand

  Markham, Edwin

  Aldington, Hilda Doolittle ("H.D.")
  Benét, Stephen Vincent
  Daly, T.A. (Philadelphia)
  Deland, Margaretta Wade
  Hergesheimer, Joseph (Philadelphia)
  Huneker, James Gibbons (Philadelphia)
  Martin, Helen Reimensnyder
  Mifflin, Lloyd
  Morley, Christopher
  Newton, Alfred Edward (Philadelphia)
  Repplier, Agnes (Philadelphia)
  Singmaster, Elsie
  Tarbell, Ida
  Van Dyke, Henry
  Widdemer, Margaret
  Wiggin, Kate Douglas (Philadelphia)
  Wister, Owen (Philadelphia)
  Wood, C.E.S.

  Cohen, Octavus Roy

  Harrison, Henry Sydnor
  Marks, Jeanette

  Cabell, James Branch (Richmond)
  Cather, Willa Sibert
  Cleghorn, Sarah
  Glasgow, Ellen (Richmond)
  Johnston, Mary
  Page, Thomas Nelson

  Davies, Mary Carolyn

  Gale, Zona
  Garland, Hamlin


  Antin, Mary (Russia)
  Björkman, Edwin (Sweden)
  Brody, Alter (Russia)
  Burnett, Frances Hodgson (England)
  Cahan, Abraham (Lithuania?)
  Carman, Bliss (Canada)
  Giovannitti, Arturo (Italy)
  Glass, Montague, (England)
  Hackett, Francis (Ireland)
  Harris, Frank (Ireland)
  Kennedy, Charles Rann (England)
  Leacock, Stephen (Canada)
  Lewisohn, Ludwig (Germany)
  Pinski, David (Russia)
  Ridge, Lola (Ireland)
  Roberts, Charles G.D. (Canada)
  Santayana, George (Spain)
  Seton, Ernest Thompson (England)
  Stringer, Arthur (Canada)
  Strunsky, Simeon (Russia)
  Tobenkin, Elias (Russia)
  Van Loon, Hendrik Willem (Holland)
  Wilkinson, Marguerite (Canada)


(This list is not complete but merely suggestive. Titles are given only
in cases where the books might not be readily identified. Some special
information is also given in parenthesis.)

  White, Stewart Edward

  Beach, Rex
  London, Jack

ANIMALS. _See_ Nature.

  White, Stewart Edward

  Ficke, Arthur Davison (Japanese)
  Howells, W.D. (The Coast of Bohemia)
  James, Henry
  Norris, Charles G. (The Amateur)

  Grant, Robert
  Howells, William Dean

  Aikman, H.G.
  Cahan, Abraham (The Rise of David Levinsky)
  Chester, George Randolph
  Dreiser, Theodore (The Financier, The Titan)
  Ferber, Edna
  Herrick, Robert
  Howells, William Dean (The Rise of Silas Lapham, The Quality of Mercy)
  Hurst, Fannie
  Kyne, Peter B.
  Lefevre, Edwin
  Tarkington, Booth (The Turmoil)

  Atherton, Gertrude
  Austin, Mary
  Irwin, Wallace (Japanese)
  Lindsay, Vachel
  Markham, Edwin
  Sterling, George
  White, Steward Edward

  Curwood, James Oliver
  Roberts, Charles G.D.
  Stringer, Arthur

  Anderson, Sherwood (Marching Men)
  Atherton, Gertrude (Perch of the Devil)
  French, Alice (The Man of the Hour, The Lion's Share)
  Sinclair, Upton (The Jungle, Jimmy Higgins, King Coal)
  Tobenkin, Elias (The House of Conrad)
  Webster, H.K. (An American Family)
  Wharton, Edith (The Fruit of the Tree)

  Dell, Floyd (The Briary Bush)
  Dreiser, Theodore
  Ferber, Edna (The Girls)
  Fuller, Henry B. (The Cliff Dwellers, With the Procession)
  Harris, Frank (The Bomb)
  Herrick, Robert
  Sandburg, Carl
  Webster, Henry Kitchell

  Bacon, Josephine Dodge Daskam
  Björkman, Edwin (The Soul of a child)
  Burnett, Frances Hodgson
  Comfort, Will Levington (Child and Country)
  Conkling, Hilda
  James, Henry (What Maisie Knew)
  Martin, George Madden
  Masters, Edgar Lee (Mitch Miller)
  Robinson, Edwin Meade (Enter Jerry)
  Tarkington, Booth (Penrod)

  Aldington, Mrs. Richard ("H.D.")
  Pound, Ezra

  Bacon, Josephine Dodge Daskam
  Fisher, Dorothy Canfield (The Bent Twig)
  Fitzgerald, F. Scott
  Johnson, Owen
  Williams, Jesse Lynch

  Cather, Willa Sibert (Song of the Lark)
  Sinclair, Upton (King Coal)

  Bachellor, Irving (Eben Holden)
  Baker, Ray Stannard
  Howells, William Dean (The Vacation of the Kelwyns)

  Clark, Badger
  Knibbs, H.H.
  White, Stewart Edward
  Wister, Owen

  Cable, George W.
  King, Grace

  Bynner, Witter
  Lindsay, Vachel
  Sandburg, Carl

  Grey, Zane
  Wood, C.E.S.

  Comfort, Will Levington (Child and Country)
  Dell, Floyd (Were You Ever a Child?)
  Norris, Charles G. (Salt)

  Burnett, Frances Hodgson
  James, Henry
  Wiggin, Kate Douglas

  Hardy, Arthur Sherborne
  James, Henry (The American, The Ambassadors)
  Tarkington, Booth (The Guest of Quesnay)
  Wharton, Edith

  Austin, Mary (A Woman of Genius)
  Drieser, Theodore (The Genius)
  James, Henry (The Death of the Lion, The Coxon Fund)
  Sedgwick, Anne Douglas (Tante)

  Bercovici, Konrad

  London, Jack

  Andrews, Mary Raymond Shipman (The Perfect Tribute, The Counsel
    Assigned--Lincoln; The Marshal--Napoleonic period.)
  Atherton, Gertrude (The Conqueror--Hamilton)
  Brooks, C.S. (Luca Sarto--15th century France)
  Bacheller, Irving (A Man for the Ages--Lincoln)
  Cable, George W. (Old Louisiana, especially New Orleans)
  Churchill, Winston (Richard Carvel--18th century; The Crisis--Civil War;
    The Crossing--early 19th century)
  Glasgow, Ellen (Civil War and Reconstruction periods)
  Hardy, Arthur Sherborne (Passe Rose--time of Charlemagne)
  Harris, Frank (Great Days--time of Napoleon)
  Hergesheimer, Joseph (The Three Black Pennys, Java Head--early American)
  Johnston, Mary (Colonies--Virginia)
  Mackaye, Percy (Various periods)
  Rice, Cale Young (Various periods)
  Tarkington, Booth (Monsieur Beaucaire--18th century England;
    Cherry--18th century America)
  Watts, Mary S. (Nathan Burke--early Ohio)
  Wharton, Edith (The Valley of Decision--18th century Italy)

  Lindsay, Vachel
  Masters, Edgar Lee

  Cabell, James Branch (Poictesme)
  Howells, William Dean (Altruria)
  McCutcheon, George Barr (Graustark)

  Antin, Mary (Russian)
  Cahan, Abraham (Lithuanian)
  Cather, Willa Sibert (Bohemian)
  Cournos, John
  Daly, T.A. (Irish, Italian)
  Mackaye, Percy (The Immigrants)
  Tobenkin, Elias (Russian)

  Ade, George
  Nicholson, Meredith
  Riley, James Whitcomb
  Tarkington, Booth

  Austin, Mary
  Eastman, Charles A.
  Garland, Hamlin (The Captain of the Gray Horse Troop.)
  Neihardt, John G.
  Sarett, Lew R.
  Wister, Owen (Red Men and White)
  Wood, C.E.S.

  Atherton, Gertrude (The Aristocrats, American Wives and English Husbands)
  Burnett, Frances Hodgson
  Howells, William Dean
  James, Henry
  Wharton, Edith

  Garland, Hamlin
  Quick, Herbert

  Daly, T.A.
  Dunne, Finley Peter

  Daly, T.A.
  Fuller, Henry B.
  Howells, William Dean (A Foregone Conclusion)
  James, Henry (Roderick Hudson, Daisy Miller, The Portrait of a Lady,
    The Wings of a Dove, The Aspern Papers, etc.)
  Wharton, Edith (The Valley of Decision)

  Irwin, Wallace (in California)

  Brody, Alter
  Cahan, Abraham
  Glass, Montague
  Pinski, David
  Ridge, Lola

  Cournos, John (The Wall)
  Howells, William Dean (A Hazard of New Fortunes, The World of Chance)

  Allen, James Lane
  Cobb, Irvin S.
  Fox, John
  Martin, George Madden
  Rice, Alice Hegan

  Aikman, H.G. (Zell)
  Churchill, Winston (A Modern Chronicle)
  Deland, Margaretta Wade
  Dell, Floyd (The Briary Bush)
  Fisher, Dorothy Canfield (The Brimming Cup)
  Herrick, Robert (Together)
  Norris, Charles G. (Brass)
  Poole, Ernest (His Second Wife)
  Webster, Henry Kitchell (Thoroughbred)
  Widdemer, Margaret (I've Married Marjorie)
  Williams, Jesse Lynch (And So They Were Married)

  Anderson, Sherwood
  Cather, Willa Sibert
  French, Alice ("Octave Thanet")
  Gale, Zona
  Garland, Hamlin
  Lewis, Sinclair
  Lindsay, Vachel
  Masters, Edgar Lee
  Neihardt, John G.
  Piper, Edwin Ford
  Quick, Herbert
  Sandburg, Carl

  Atherton, Gertrude (Perch of the Devil--Butte)

  Beebe, William
  Burroughs, John
  Eaton, Walter Prichard
  London, Jack
  Mills, Enos A.
  Roberts, Charles G.D.
  Seton, Ernest Thompson
  Sharp, Dallas Lore
  White, Stewart Edward

  Cather, Willa Sibert
  Piper, Edwin Ford

  Burnett, Frances Hodgson
  Cable, George W.
  Cohen, Octavus Roy (contemporary, city)
  Du Bois, William B.
  Howells, William Dean (An Imperative Duty)
  King, Grace
  Lindsay, Vachel (The Congo)
  O'Neill, Eugene (The Emperor Jones)
  Page, Thomas Nelson
  Sheldon, Edward (The Nigger)
  Torrence, Ridgely (Plays for a Negro Theatre)

  Brown, Alice
  Connolly, James Brendan (Gloucester fishermen)
  Freeman, Mary Wilkins
  Frost, Robert
  Hergesheimer, Joseph (Java Head)
  Howells, William Dean
  Lee, Jennette
  Lincoln, Joseph (Cape Cod)
  Nathan, Robert
  O'Neill, Eugene (Beyond the Horizon)
  Robinson, Edwin Arlington
  Wharton, Edith (Ethan Frome, Summer)
  Wiggin, Kate Douglas

  Corbin, Alice

  Cable, George W.
  King, Grace

  Bercovici, Konrad (The Dust of New York)
  Ford, Sewell
  Glass, Montague (Jewish)
  Guiterman, Arthur (Old New York)
  Howells, William Dean (A Hazard of New Fortunes, The World of Chance)
  Hurst, Fannie
  James, Henry (Washington Square)
  Poole, Ernest (The Harbor)
  Strunsky, Simeon
  Wharton, Edith (The Age of Innocence)

  Bangs, John Kendrick
  Burgess, Gelett
  Leacock, Stephen
  Marquis, Don

  Anderson, Sherwood
  Howells, William Dean (The Leatherwood God, The New Leaf Mills)
  Watts, Mary S.

  Benét, William Rose (The Great White Wall)
  Comfort, Will Levington
  Guiterman, Arthur (Chips of Jade)
  Lindsay, Vachel (The Chinese Nightingale)
  Lowell, Amy (Fir-Flower Tablets)
  Pound, Ezra
  Tietjens, Eunice

  Hardy, Arthur Sherborne
  Wharton, Edith (Madame de Treymes)

  Deland, Margaretta (Alleghany)
  Hergesheimer, Joseph
  Martin, Helen R. (Dutch)
  Singmaster, Elsie (Dutch)

PHILOSOPHY (popular)
  Baker, Ray Stannard ("David Grayson")
  Brooks, Charles S.
  Crothers, Samuel McChord
  Fisher, Dorothy Canfield, and Cleghorn, Sarah (Fellow-Captains)
  Morley, Christopher
  Van Dyke, Henry

  Cather, Willa Sibert (O Pioneers, My Antonia)
  Neihardt, John G.

  Atherton, Gertrude (Senator North)
  Churchill, Winston (Coniston, Mr. Crewe's Career)
  Tarkington, Booth (The Gentleman from Indiana)
  Whitlock, Brand
  Williams, Ben Ames (The Great Accident)

  Garland, Hamlin
  Piper, Edwin Ford
  Stringer, Arthur

  London, Jack
  White, Stewart Edward

  Aiken, Conrad
  Aikman, H.G. (Zell)
  Anderson, Sherwood (The Triumph of the Egg)
  Björkman, Edwin (The Soul of a Child)
  Dell, Floyd (Moon-Calf)

  Churchill, Winston (The Inside of the Cup)
  Deland, Margaretta (John Ward, Preacher)
  Kennedy, Charles Rann (The Servant in the House, The Army with Banners)
  Van Dyke, Henry
  Wattles, Willard

  Atherton, Gertrude

  Connolly, James B. (Gloucester fishermen)
  Lincoln, Joseph C. (Cape Cod)
  O'Neill, Eugene
  Williams, Ben Ames

  Bercovici, Konrad
  Harrison, Henry Sydnor (V.V.'s Eyes)
  Rice, Alice Hegan
  Wiggin, Kate Douglas

  Eastman, Max
  Giovannitti, Arturo
  Howells, William Dean (A Hazard of New Fortunes, Annie Kilburn,
    The Eye of the Needle, A Traveler from Altruria)
  Kennedy, Charles Rann
  Markham, Edwin
  Oppenheim, James
  Poole, Ernest
  Sinclair, Upton
  Traubel, Horace
  Whitlock, Brand (The Turn of the Balance)

  Adams, Henry (Democracy, Esther)
  Atherton, Gertrude
  Grant, Robert
  James, Henry
  Wharton, Edith

  Scott, Evelyn (Brazil)

  O'Brien, Frederick
  London, Jack

  Belasco, David (The Return of Peter Grimm)
  Brown, Alice (The Wind between the Worlds)
  Freeman, Mary Wilkins (The Wind in the Rosebush)
  Garland, Hamlin (The Tyranny of the Dark, The Shadow World, Victor
    Ollnee's Discipline)

  Cather, Willa Sibert (Song of the Lark)
  Hurst, Fannie
  Sheldon, Edward B. (Romance)
  Watts, Mary S. (The Board-man Family)
  Webster, Henry Kitchell (The Real Adventure, The Painted Scene)

  Fisher, Dorothy Canfield (The Brimming Cup, Hillsboro People)
  Nathan, Robert (Autumn)

  Anderson, Sherwood (Winesburg, Ohio)
  Brown, Alice (New England)
  Deland, Margaretta (Pennsylvania)
  Freeman, Mary Wilkins (New England)
  Gale, Zona (Wisconsin)
  Lewis, Sinclair (Main Street--Minnesota)
  Lindsay, Vachel (The Golden Book of Springfield)
  Masters, Edgar Lee (Illinois)
  Williams, Ben Ames (The Great Accident)

  Cabell, James Branch
  Glasgow, Ellen
  Johnston, Mary
  Page, Thomas Nelson

  Marks, Jeannette

  Andrews, Mary Raymond Shipman
  Atherton, Gertrude (The White Morning)
  Broun, Heywood
  Comfort, Will Levington (Red Fleece)
  Deland, Margaretta Wade (Small Things)
  Dos Passos, John
  Fisher, Dorothy Canfield
  Kilmer, Joyce
  Poole, Ernest (Blind)
  Seeger, Alan
  Wharton, Edith
  Whitlock, Brand
  Wilde, Percival (The Unseen Host)

  Atherton, Gertrude (Senator North)
  Burnett, Frances Hodgson (Through One Administration)

  Gale, Zona
  Garland, Hamlin

  Churchill, Winston (A Modern Chronicle)
  Cleghorn, Sarah
  Deland, Margaretta (The Awakening of Helena Richie, The Rising Tide)
  Dreiser, Theodore (Sister Carrie, Jennie Gerhardt)
  Ferber, Edna (The Girls)
  Fisher, Dorothy Canfield
  Hergesheimer, Joseph (Linda Condon)
  Johnson, Owen (The Salamander, Virtuous Wives)
  Norris, Kathleen
  Tarkington, Booth (Alice Adams, Gentle Julia)
  Watts, Mary S. (The Rise of Jennie Cushing)

  Aikman, H.G. (Zell)
  Allen, James Lane (A Summer in Arcady, The Kentucky Warbler)
  Anderson, Sherwood
  Björkman, Edwin (The Soul of a Child)
  Davies, Mary Carolyn
  Dell, Floyd
  Fitzgerald, F. Scott
  Hecht, Ben
  James, Henry (The Awkward Age)
  Nathan, Robert (Peter Kindred)
  Norris, Charles G. (Salt)
  Tarkington, Booth (Seventeen, Clarence)
  Widdemer, Margaret (The Boardwalk)
  Williams, Ben Ames (The Great Accident)

Transcriber's Note

The following errors and inconsistencies have been maintained.

Misspelled words and typographical errors:

  Page  Error
  xii   "Loveman, Amy," should end with a .
  xii   "Littell, Philip," should end with a .
  xii   "Underwood, John Curtis," should end with .
  xiii  "Aiken, Conrad," should end with .
  xv    "Miscellany of American Poetry," should end with .
  xv    "Stork, Charles Wharton," should end with .
  xviii "Morley, Christopher," should end with .
  xix   "Mackay, Constance D'Arcy," should end with .
  xix   "Mayorga, Margaret Gardner," should end with .
  xix   "Shay, Frank," should end with .
  xix   "Stratton, Clarence," should end with .
  38    "By the Chrismas Fire" should read "Christmas"
  80    "31 ('14)" should be "31 ('10)"
  82    "my 'story,' he said," missing " after story,'
  103   "Jeannette(Augustus)" missing space before (
  146   "portrait)" should read "(portrait)"
  147   "Lit. Digest, 58 (18')" should read "Lit. Digest, 58 ('18)"
  169   "Brown, Robert Carleton. Others, 1916" should have . at end
  171   "Kennedy Charles Rann" should have , after Kennedy
  172   "Gerould, Katherine Fullerton" should read Katharine
  178   "Child, Richard Washburn" does not have an entry in the main
        text of the book
  178   "Gerould, Katherine Fullerton" should read Katharine
  178   "Hardy, Arthur Sherborne" should read Sherburne
  179   "Jeanette" should read Jeannette
  180   "Glass, Montague, (England)" has an extra , after Montague
  182   "Bachellor" should read Bacheller
  182   "Hardy, Arthur Sherborne" should read Sherburne
  183   "Drieser, Theodore" should read Dreiser
  183   "Hardy, Arthur Sherborne" should read Sherburne
  183   "(The Captain of the Gray Horse Troop.)" has an extra . before
        the )
  186   "Hardy, Arthur Sherborne" should read Sherburne

The following words were inconsistently capitalized:

  One-Act / One-act
  Present-Day / Present-day
  Who's Who In America / Who's Who in America

The following word was inconsistently spelled:

  Björkman / Bjorkman

Other inconsistencies:

ff. used in page references is sometimes closed up with the page numbers
and sometimes spaced.

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Contemporary American Literature - Bibliographies and Study Outlines" ***

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