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Title: Make Your Own Hats
Author: Martin, Gene Allen
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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Transcriber's note

      Obvious printer's errors have been corrected. A list of
      corrections is found at the end of the text.




Director of Domestic Arts Department of
the Minneapolis Y.W.C.A.; Designer, Demonstrator
and Instructor in Millinery

Illustrated by E. E. Martin


Boston and New York
Houghton Mifflin Company
The Riverside Press Cambridge

Copyright, 1921, by Gene Allen Martin
All Rights Reserved
The Riverside Press
Cambridge · Massachusetts
Printed in the U.S.A.


Hat-making is an art which may be acquired by any one possessing
patience and ordinary ability. To make a hat for the trade is not as
difficult as to make one for an individual; neither is it so high a
phase of art.

Many rules are given for crown-height, brim-width, and color, as being
suited to different types of faces, but they are so often misleading
that it seems best to consider only a few, since the becomingness of a
hat almost invariably depends upon minor characteristics of the
individual for which there are no rules.

A girl or woman with auburn hair may wear grays--gray-green, cream
color, salmon pink; a touch of henna with gold or orange; mulberry if
the eyes are dark.

The woman with dark hair and blue or dark eyes may wear any color if the
skin is clear.

One having dark hair and eyes and a sallow skin may find golden brown, a
pale yellow or cream color becoming--possibly a mulberry if just the
right depth. A hat with slightly drooping brim faced with some shade of
rose will add color to the cheeks. No reds should be worn unless the
skin is clear. No shade of purple or heliotrope should be worn by any
one having blue eyes--it seems to make the blue paler.

Any one having auburn hair, blue eyes, and a clear skin may wear browns,
grays, greens, tan, blue, and black. Black should not be worn next the
face unless the skin is brilliant. It is, however, very becoming to
blondes, and to women whose hair has become quite white.

A black hat is almost a necessity in every woman's wardrobe, and it may
always be made becoming by using a facing of some color which is
especially becoming to the wearer--black and white is always a smart
combination, but very difficult to handle.

In regard to lines--it is known that a hat with a drooping brim takes
from the height of the wearer and should never be worn by any one having
round shoulders or a short neck. A hat turned up at the back would be
much better. A narrow brim and high crown add height to the wearer. A
woman with a short, turned-up nose should avoid a hat turned up too
sharply from the face. Short people should avoid very wide brims. For
the possessor of a very full, round face the high crown and narrow brim,
or a brim which turns up sharply against the crown on one side, or all
around, should prove becoming. A tall, slender woman would do well to
wear a drooping brim, wide enough to be in keeping with her height.
There is one style of hat which seems to be, with various modifications,
universally becoming, and that is the bicorne, a form of the Napoleon
style of hat.

After all, experience is the best teacher. Whenever a hat is found to be
especially becoming, one would do well to find out just why it is so and
make a note of the color, size, and general outline. These notes are of
value if kept for future reference, whether hats are to be made for the
shop or for home millinery.

A hat is seldom becoming all the way around, but the aim should be to
make it so. Over-ornamentation should be guarded against, also too close
harmony in color until much experience has been gained. A rule by which
to judge of the becomingness of a hat and to which there is no exception
is this--the hat must enhance your looks. If you do not look more
pleasing with it on than with it off, it is not as good a model for you
as it might be.

In planning or choosing a hat we unconsciously decide upon those colors
and outlines which are an outward expression of ourselves. A hat, as
well as any article of clothing, may express many things--dejection,
happiness, decision, indecision, gayety, dignity, graciousness, a
trained or an untrained mind, forethought, refinement, generosity,
cruelty, or recklessness. How often we hear some one say, "That hat
looks just like Mrs. Blank!" Clothing of any kind is an index to the
personality of the wearer. A friend once said in my presence to a
saleswoman who was trying to sell her a hat, "But I do not _feel_ like
that hat!" The saleswoman replied, "That's just it--you refuse to buy it
because you do not _feel_ like it, while I tell you that it is most
becoming." All of which showed that this saleswoman had not the most
remote idea of what was meant, and had a total lack of understanding.

Clothes _should_ be a matter of "feeling," and this same feeling is
something vital and should be catered to if our garments are to help
set our spirits free. Why should we wear anything which is misleading in
regard to ourselves? Let us look in the mirror each day and ask
ourselves whether we look to be what we wish others to think we are.

It is important in planning a hat to see it in broad daylight as well as
under artificial light. It should also be tried on in a good light while
_standing_ before a mirror, as a hat which may seem becoming while
sitting may not be so while standing, with the whole figure taken into

To make one's own hats, using up old materials, stimulates originality
and gives opportunity for expression. It is amazing to see how many new
ideas are born when we start out to do something which we have thought
quite impossible. It all helps to give added zest to life. Making one's
own hats appeals to the constructive instinct of every woman aside from
the matter of thrift, which should always be taken into consideration.
Some one will say, "I would not wear any hat I might make." How often
have we worn unbecoming hats, poor in workmanship, besides paying some
one handsomely for the privilege. Let us try to form some standard by
which to judge of the worth of a hat instead of the maker's name.

Before making a hat, the entire wardrobe should be carefully looked over
to see with what the hat must be worn, and the kind of service we are
going to expect from it. Every article of a costume should be related
and harmonious as to color, outline, and suitability. The result should
be a perfect whole without a single discord. How often we see a green
skirt, mustard-colored coat, and a bright blue hat--each article
pleasing by itself, but atrocious when worn collectively. Bright, gay
little hats are pleasing when seen seldom, but we soon tire of one if it
must be worn daily.

Time and our best thought are well spent in planning our apparel. The
proper clothing gives us confidence and self-respect, and the respect of
others. To be well dressed is to be free from the thought of clothes. We
judge and are judged by the clothes we wear--they are an outward
expression of ourselves, and speak for us, while we must remain silent.

"Simplicity is the keynote of beauty"--no one article of clothing should
stand out too conspicuously, unless it _is_ the hat. Nature uses bright
colors sparingly. If you look at a plant, you find it dark near the
ground, growing lighter near the top with its green leaves, and then the
blossom; the glory is at the _top_. Everything in nature teaches us to
_look up_. So the hat should be the crowning glory of a costume, the
center of interest, and should receive the most careful attention as to
becomingness, suitability, and workmanship.


     I. EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS                                      1

    II. COVERING FRAME WITH VELVET                                  15

   III. FRAMES OF NETEEN AND CRINOLINE                              31

    IV. WIRE FRAMES                                                 35

     V. ROUND CROWN OF WIRE                                         44

    VI. HAT COVERINGS                                               54

   VII. TRIMMINGS                                                   68

  VIII. HAND-MADE FLOWERS                                           78

    IX. REMODELING AND RENOVATING                                  100


  PLACE                                                              4


  PLACE                                                             16

  VARIOUS PROCESSES                                                 36

  FANCY CROWN-TIP OF BRAID                                          44

  ROLLING WIRE BRIM                                                 44

  ROUND CROWN OF WIRE                                               44



  RIBBON TRIMMINGS                                                  72

  HAND-MADE FLOWERS                                                 78





  Tailor's chalk or pencil
  Milliner's pliers or wire cutters
  Scissors, large and small
  Paper for patterns

_Thimble_--good quality

_Thread_--Geneva lustre, black and white, number 36. Colored thread as

_Needles_--assorted paper of milliner's needles, 8 to 10.

_Tape-measure_--of good quality sateen.

_Tailor's chalk_--white and dark blue.

_Milliner's pliers_--pliers which fit the hand, not too heavy, with
blunt points, and sharp enough to cut a thread.



  Cape net
  Neteen or Fly net
  Willow plate


  Frame or brace wire

_Paper for patterns_--

  Heavy manila


Comes in black and white, about twenty-seven inches wide--a heavy stiff
material, smooth on one side and rather rough on the other. It is more
commonly used for hat foundations than any other fabric. There is also a
summer buckram, lighter in weight and smooth on both sides.


Comes in black and white, twenty-seven inches wide--a stiff, thin,
open-meshed material, used to make soft hat frames, to cover wire
frames, and in bias strips to cover edge wire after it is sewed on the
fabric frame.


A stiff open-meshed material--comes in black, white, and ecru, one yard
wide--a very popular material on account of its great pliability and
lightness. It is used for blocking frames and copying, the lines being
much softer than when made with buckram. Very durable.


A light-weight, open-meshed material used for blocking and for soft
frames. Not as pliable as neteen.


A coarse straw-like material, light in weight, brittle, and very
expensive, used in blocking; frames are also made from it without

Must be dampened before using. Not recommended for amateurs.

WIRE comes in black, white, silver, and gilt, and is covered with
cotton, mercerized cotton, and silk. It may be procured in single and
double bolts.


Largest wire used in millinery. In making wire frames, it is used as
edge wire and sometimes for the entire frame. Being larger than frame
wire, it makes a pleasing effect when used as part of the wire frame
design, if it is to be covered with sheer material.


Used in making frames and is sewed on the edge of all buckram and fabric
hat frames.


Smaller than frame wire, used for wiring lace ribbon and flowers, and
sometimes for making an entire frame when a very dainty design is



Smallest wire used in millinery; comes wound on spools. Is used
to tie other wires, and in making hand-made flowers. Comes in black,
white, and green.


A cotton ribbon about three eighths of an inch wide, with a fine wire
woven through the center, also a wire on each edge. Used to wire


An uncovered steel wire used to make halo brims; is sometimes sewed on
edge of buckram or other fabric brims, if the hat is unusually wide, or
if a brim is to be especially stiff. It is occasionally used as an edge
wire on wire frames.


Much care, thought, and patience must be exercised in making the frame
of any hat. It is the foundation upon which we build, and if poorly made
no amount of work can cover it up later. A hat must be right every step
of the way. The frame is the first step, and so the most important.

The simplest hat to make is the straight brim sailor with a square
crown, covered with velvet. Such a model we will take up at first.


For convenience we will use the following dimensions: Width of brim,
three inches; height of crown, three and one-half inches; length of
crown tip, eight and one-half inches; width of crown tip, six and
one-half inches, and headsize, twenty-four inches.


Cut from a piece of manila paper fourteen and one-half by fourteen and
one-half inches the largest possible circle; the paper may be folded
into halves, then quarters, then into eighths and creased.

A round brim will not be of equal width all around from headsize wire,
because the headsize wire must be oval to fit the head. The front and
back will both be about an inch narrower than the sides.


TO MEASURE--This is especially important, for upon the accuracy of this
measurement depends the comfort of the wearer; this is the foundation
wire. Pass a tape measure around the head over the hair where the hat
is to rest and add two inches to this measure. One is for lapping the
ends and the other inch is to allow for lining and covering of hat which
goes up into the headsize.[7-1]

As our headsize measure is twenty-four inches long, cut a piece of frame
wire twenty-six inches long; this allows for the two inches just
mentioned. Lap the ends one inch and fasten each end with tie wire.[7-2]
Wire always laps one inch--no more, no less.

TO SHAPE--With the hands inside, pull the circle until it is elongated
to fit the head. This headsize wire must not press unduly upon any part
of the head.

TO LOCATE HEADSIZE ON PATTERN--Lay pattern flat, pin headsize wire on
pattern with joining at back crease in paper, having the back and front
of brim of equal width, and the two sides of brim of equal width. Mark
all around headsize wire with a pencil. Remove wire and cut paper
one-half inch inside this mark.

TO CUT BUCKRAM BRIM--Lay pattern on smooth side of buckram, pin, and cut
the edges very smoothly. Cut headsize same as pattern. Mark location of
center back and center front. Remove pattern and with a hot iron press
the buckram perfectly flat, being careful not to break or make a sharp
bend in the buckram, for if once broken it cannot be satisfactorily

TO SEW HEADSIZE WIRE TO BRIM--First note the relation of headsize wire
to brim. If buckram is carefully cut, the wire may be pinned on one-half
inch from edge. The brim has been cut round and will have the appearance
of a round hat when worn and yet, on account of the oval headsize wire,
the brim when finished will measure about three and one-half inches on
each side and about two and one-half inches back and front. Pin wire on
smooth side of buckram with lap at center back, also pin front and each
side, being careful not to lose the shape of the headsize wire. Bring
needle up from under side of brim close to wire, beginning at lap. Take
stitch over wire to under side coming back through first stitch to right
side. Take next stitch over wire one-fourth inch from first, coming back
to right side. Repeat all the way around until lap is reached. Fasten
thread by taking several stitches close together over ends of wire in
order to join neatly and prevent their working loose. Slash buckram
inside headsize wire every half inch and turn pieces up. This makes
small flaps to which crown may be fastened later. The brim may now be
tried on and changes made if necessary.


This is cut from frame wire and must be long enough to reach around edge
of brim and lap one inch. Edge wire is always sewed on same side of brim
as the headsize wire, which is usually the smooth side. Shape this wire
to conform to shape of brim. Never depend on the hat or the stitches to
hold a wire in place. Begin at center-back of hat holding wire toward
you, and sewing from right to left. Hold wire as near the edge as
possible, without letting it slip over the edge. Sew on with overcasting
stitch, taking two stitches in same hole. Take the stitches just the
depth of the wire. If too shallow, the wire will slip off over the edge,
or, if too deep, the wire will slip back away from the edge leaving it
unprotected and liable to become broken and uneven-looking. A frame must
be well made in every detail to produce satisfactory results when

TO COVER EDGE WIRE--All edge wire must be covered with crinoline or a
cheap muslin. Cut a strip of such goods on a true bias, three-eighths of
an inch wide. Remove the selvage and stretch the strip. Bind the edge
wire with it, holding it very tight. Sew close to wire using a stab


This stitch is made by taking a long stitch on right side and then a
short back stitch on wrong side. Lap ends of crinoline one-fourth inch
at finish, but do not turn ends under.


A square crown is one having a flat top, or one only slightly rounded,
with the sides slightly sloping in towards the top. A crown of this type
three or three and one-half inches in height would be at least one and
one-half inches smaller at the top than at the bottom. Any crown made
separately from the brim must be large enough to cover the headsize wire
on the brim at the base. To eliminate any slashes or seams in the side
crown, a paper pattern should be made. Following paragraphs explain how
this is done.


Cut a piece of manila paper one-fourth inch wider than crown height and
one-half inch longer than headsize wire measure. Slash across this paper
in four equally distant places, within one-fourth inch of edge of
bottom, then lap slashes at top a little more than one-fourth inch, or
about enough to take out about one and one-half inches. Pin slashes. Lap
ends of paper one-fourth inch and pin together. Place this pattern on
brim with joining at back and pin to upturned slashes on brim. Try on to
see if any alterations are necessary. It can be decided at this point
and changes made should the crown be too sloping or too straight. An
amateur should try on a frame often in order to be assured of lines and
curves that are becoming. Remove pattern from brim and cut off from top
and bottom any irregularities on the edge.


Remove the pins from the seam, allowing pins in slashes to remain. Lay
pattern flat on smooth side of buckram, lengthwise of the material to
take advantage of the natural roll. Cut close to pattern; lap the ends
one-fourth inch. Sew, using a fine back stitch close to each edge; this
makes two rows of stitching. Sew a piece of frame wire to top and bottom
of side crown, keeping all joining at back. Use same method as in sewing
edge wire on brim. Cover both wires with crinoline.


The top of the crown may be kept soft-looking or it may be made of
buckram, producing a stiff effect. Both methods will be given.

SOFT CROWN TIP--First shape side crown to fit headsize wire on brim,
which will be an ellipse. Cut piece of crinoline, the exact shape of the
crown, plus one inch all around. Pin this over top, puffing it a very
little, and sew with stab stitch close under wire. Cut surplus material
off to one-fourth inch.

STIFF CROWN TIP, MADE OF BUCKRAM--Lay top of side crown on smooth side
of buckram and mark the shape with a pencil. Cut buckram one-half inch
outside of this mark. Next, in order to fold down this stiff crown tip,
it will be necessary to cut, from this half-inch of buckram outside the
pencil line, small wedge-like pieces, about one inch apart. Cut them
close to the line drawn. Pin this piece on top of crown, press flaps
down and sew on with stab stitch.


If a round crown is to be used it is advisable to buy a ten-cent
separate crown or a frame with a round crown. If an entire frame is
purchased, remove the crown and wire its bottom edge. After some skill
has been acquired by the student of millinery, a round crown of fabric
may be blocked by hand over a wire crown.


Pin material on top of crown with bias at front. Pull with the straight
of the material and pin just below edge of curve. Sew one-half inch
below this with stab stitch, trim material off close under this
stitching. Remove pins. Fit a bias piece of material, using same method
and measurements as for side crown of velvet sailor in chapter II. Sew
the crown to brim before adjusting the side crown covering. Pull this
bias piece over crown and pin smoothly in place. Finish top and bottom
of this band by turning the edges over a wire. Use same stitch as in
finishing edge of facing on brim.[13-1] This makes a neat finish for a
hat which will demand little trimming. If the amateur finds it too
difficult to finish the bottom of a side crown in this way, the edge may
be covered with a fold of material or a narrow ribbon; the top may also
be finished by a narrow ribbon, but finishing neatly with a wire should
be mastered if possible, as this style of finish is used in many places.


[Footnote 7-1: To cut wire see chapter IV.]

[Footnote 7-2: To tie wire see chapter IV.]

[Footnote 13-1: See chapter II.]



Material required one and one-half yards milliner's velvet or any velvet
eighteen to twenty-four inches wide. If velvet used is thirty-six inches
wide, one yard will be sufficient.


Place corner of velvet at front of brim on top side (smooth side).
Edgewire and headsize wire should always be on top of brim. Turn velvet
over edge of brim and pin. Stick pins through at right angles to brim to
avoid marring the velvet. Pin closely all around edge of brim, pulling
material with the thread to remove any fullness. Do not pull tight
enough to bend the brim. Trim velvet off one-fourth inch to turn under
brim. Baste close to headsize wire on top with stab stitch. Cut velvet
out inside of headsize wire, leaving a half inch to slash and turn up
with the buckram.


This should be done with a close overcasting stitch on the under side,
being careful not to prick through to the right side of the velvet. It
is sometimes advisable in preparing the frame to stitch the buckram in
from the edge about one-fourth inch with the sewing machine, using a
long stitch. This stitching may then be used to put the needle through
when sewing the velvet down. If the velvet seems thick and heavy-looking
on under side after sewing, it may be pressed down with a hot iron. If
done quickly and lightly, it will not show on the right side.



Pin velvet on under side, using same method in pinning as that on top of
brim. This must be pinned very carefully. Cut off velvet all around
edge, leaving a little _less_ than one-fourth inch to turn under.
Facings are usually finished at the edge with a wire. Cut a piece of
frame wire the exact circumference of the brim, plus one inch for lap.
Bend to shape of brim and pin under edge of velvet, beginning at the
center back. Roll velvet over wire and bring out to edge. Pin in place
all the way around before beginning to sew. Place pins in at right
angles to brim. A piece of velvet held in the left hand will prevent
finger marks from showing on the velvet. Begin to sew at left of wire
joining, while holding underside of brim towards you. Bring needle
through from back close under wire. With the head of the needle press
velvet along under wire to make a crease or sort of bed for the thread
of the next stitch. Take nearly a half-inch stitch by placing needle
close under the wire and coming through between the wire and the upper
facing. Come back under the wire with a very small back stitch, being
careful to adjust the wire as you sew, and to catch a little of the
upper covering with each back stitch. When wire joining is reached,
treat the lapped ends as one wire. Fasten ends securely by taking
several small back stitches. Lace wire, being smaller than frame wire,
is sometimes used to finish the edge of facing. It does not look as
heavy, but is somewhat more difficult for a beginner to handle.



To cover the top, cut a piece of velvet with the bias at the front, same
shape as top of crown plus one inch all around. Gather one-fourth inch
from edge, place over top, equalize the gathers, pin in place, and sew
with stab stitch over line of gathering. Make the edge lie as flat as
possible and do not draw velvet too tight across the top.


Cut a piece of velvet on a true bias two and one-half inches wider than
height of crown. Pin this strip wrong side out around side crown to find
length and to locate seam. Draw it snugly and pin seam on straight of
material with warp thread. (Warp thread is parallel with selvage.)
Remove velvet and stitch seam. Open it and press by drawing it over the
edge of a hot iron.


The simplest way to proceed is to sew the crown on the brim before
adjusting the side crown covering. Pin back, front, and each side of
crown to brim, placing seams at back. Sew through upturned flaps of brim
and crown one-fourth inch from bottom wire. Stretch the velvet strip for
side crown on the crown, placing seam at back, unless trimming has been
planned which will cover the seam better if it is placed at some other
point. Turn top and bottom edges under to fit the side crown, and press
bottom fold down close to brim. If this band has been fitted tight
enough, it will not be found necessary to sew it.


A brim covered with velvet or any fabric may also be finished underneath
without a wire, the edges being slipstitched together. In this case, the
underfacing would be turned under one-fourth inch and pinned in place
all the way around before beginning to sew. Bring the needle through
from underside of facing to the very edge of fold. Place point of needle
directly opposite this stitch and take a small stitch in upper facing,
then take a small stitch in underfacing. Each stitch always begins just
opposite the ending of preceding stitch, so that the thread between the
two facings crosses the seam at right angles to edge of brim. This
method makes the work look smooth, and also it will not pull out of
place; however, this style of finishing an edge is not popular and
requires much practice.


This method can be used satisfactorily only when the brim is narrow,
and the fabric pliable. For convenience we will give measurements as for
a two and one-half inch brim, flat sailor, outside edge measuring forty
inches. Cut a bias piece of velvet forty inches long and seven inches
wide. Fold this velvet through center lengthwise and stick pins every
three inches through edge of fold at right angles to edge and close to
edge. This is to mark the line that must be placed on the edge of the
brim. If the velvet is not placed evenly, there will be found a greater
amount of fullness on one side than on the other. Place velvet over the
brim and pin on edge at points marked by pins. Stretch as tight as
possible. On a brim of this width all of the fullness should be worked
out. If this is found to be very difficult, lay the brim aside, with the
velvet pinned on, for an hour or for overnight, and the velvet will be
found to give a little more. Remove as much of the length as possible.
Locate seam, remove from frame, sew seam, and replace as before. Sew on
top close to headsize wire, working out all the fullness possible; pull
under part up into headsize. Sew one-fourth inch above headsize wire
onto the flaps, being careful not to pull the thread too tight or the
headsize wire will be reduced in size.


A pleasing variety is sometimes obtained by using a colored underfacing
on a black hat. The entire facing may be of a contrasting color or
extend only from headsize wire to within an inch of the edge of the
brim. In this case there could be a strip of material the same as upper
facing an inch and a half wide finished at the edge of the brim with a
wire. Then the colored facing would be finished over the edge of this
with another wire.


A flat brim or mushroom shape is often covered by using two fabrics,
which may be of the same color or of contrasting colors. Small pieces of
old material may often be conserved in this manner and the hat at the
same time have much charm. For instance, the edge of the hat could have
a bias band of satin, two or more inches wide, stretched around the edge
of the brim, with the rest of the brim covered with velvet overlapping
the satin and finished with a wire both on top and bottom, or only on
one side. Underside of brim may be finished the same way, or the facing
may be brought out even with the edge and finished with a wire.


The simplest _shaped_ brim is the mushroom style.


Make a paper pattern the same as for the straight brim sailor. Measure
the same for the headsize wire, join ends of wire, shape to fit the
head, and pin on paper pattern of any desired width. To make the brim
droop, slash the pattern from the edge to the headsize wire in four
different places equally distant. Lap these slashes one-fourth inch at
the edge, and pin. The pattern may also be slashed in eight or more
different places if desired, the slashes being adjusted by lapping more
or less according to the amount of droop which may be becoming.

After the pattern is adjusted satisfactorily, mark with a pencil all
around just inside the headsize wire. Remove the wire and cut the paper
on this line. Cut pattern in two at back and lay out flat on smooth side
of buckram, leaving pins in slashes. Cut close to outside edge and allow
one-fourth inch for the lap at ends. Mark on buckram with pencil close
to headsize line and cut one-half inch inside this mark. Lap ends
one-fourth inch and backstitch closely at each edge of flap. Sew a
strip of crinoline flat over seam to smooth it up. Sew headsize wire on
place marked, which will be one-half inch from inside edge. Keep all
joinings at back. Slash buckram from inside edge to headsize wire every
half inch. Wire edge of brim and cover wire with crinoline--same method
as used on sailor brim.


If not very drooping, it may be covered without making a seam in the
material. To do this, begin by placing the corner of the fabric on top
at the front of the brim. Pin the front, back, and each side, always
pulling with the thread of the material, and pin closely at edge, with
pins at right angles to the brim. If covered with georgette, satin or
silk, which is pliable, the fullness may all be worked out without a
seam. Baste close to headsize wire and finish edge by following same
method as used in finishing sailor brim. Also follow same method with
facing. If the material used is not pliable, or if the brim is too
drooping to admit of stretching the material smoothly, a seam must be
made at the back. The method would be the same as used in covering the
rolled brim.


In covering with anything as sheer as georgette, it is advisable to line
with some other material first. The color could be made deeper by using
a lining of the same color, or made paler by lining with white. The
lining should be fitted and sewed on with the outside material.


The pattern for any hat is first cut from a flat piece of paper. The
headsize is marked as for flat sailor and the headsize wire pinned on.
The pattern is then slashed in to headsize wire from the outside edge,
the slashes lapped over and pinned. If the hat is to be rolled more
closely on one side than on the other, the greater number of slashes
must be placed there. In this way the pattern can be adjusted to any
desired shape. It is an advantage sometimes to cut the paper pattern
through in the back, leaving pins in the slashes, and lay out flat on
another piece of paper for a new pattern. This eliminates some of the
slashes and makes further experiments easier. Pattern-making is very
important, and it is of extreme value to make as many patterns as
possible before cutting the foundation fabric. Changing a pattern the
slightest sometimes makes a great deal of difference in its
becomingness. Of course a brim may be changed by adding a slash or two
in the buckram, or by inserting a V shape to give more flare, but the
fewer seams the better for the hat frame. A rolled or close-fitting brim
is more difficult to cover than a sailor or mushroom shape.


Place corner of material on top of brim at front and pin on the edge.
Always use the same method of pinning on the edge as given in the first
lesson. Draw the material down to the headsize wire and pin. Work the
material out smoothly toward the left and pin at the edge; also at the
headsize wire. Then proceed in the same way toward the right, always
pinning closely. Be _sure_ to keep the material tight and smooth both at
edge and at the headsize wire. Allow the fullness to go where it will.
The seam should be located at the center back. Cut away all superfluous
material, allowing three-eighths of an inch seam at the center back.
Turn the raw edges under away from each other at the seam and
slipstitch together neatly.


Bring needle through edge of fold on one side and enter the needle
through edge of fold on other side exactly opposite. Slip needle along
in this fold one-eighth of an inch, then bring the needle through to the
edge of the fold and take a stitch one-eighth of an inch long in the
fold of the other side, always being careful to begin the stitch exactly
opposite the end of the one preceding. Try to cut the material out from
inside the headsize wire in one piece so that it may be used for
something else. Examine the material carefully to make sure that it fits
perfectly. Baste with a stab stitch close to the headsize wire on the
outside; remove all pins as soon as possible. After basting this, you
will sometimes find that the material needs a little more adjusting at
the edge. Turn the velvet over the edge one-fourth inch and sew down
with an overcasting stitch.


When there is a decided roll to a brim, it is sometimes most difficult
to keep the velvet smooth and to make it lie close to the brim, so we
resort to milliner's glue. Do not use glue on satin, or on any fabric
thinner than velvet, or on any frame other than buckram. Care should
always be taken to have the smooth side of the buckram on top when the
velvet is to be glued on.

After fitting the velvet carefully and sewing the seam in the back,
remove the pins from the outer edge and gather the velvet up inside the
headsize where it is to be held while the glue is being spread on the
buckram. The glue must be spread very evenly. It will make a neater job
to glue the seam of the velvet open before going further. Be very
careful to keep the glue away from the right side of the velvet. Next,
rub the glue on the frame with a stiff brush until it is smooth, then
spread the velvet back into place, pressing and smoothing it with the
hands from the headsize wire out. Watch it carefully for any places
which have not sufficient glue, as the material may be raised before it
is dry and more glue added. Do not sew the edge until the glue has
dried. Usually it is only the material on the upper side of the brim
which needs gluing down. The facing may be put on as desired. Sometimes
the top of a crown has indentations, and then the velvet may be glued to
stay in place.

The under or outer facing may be fitted to a rolled or close-fitting
brim more easily than the upper. Beginning at the front with the corner
of the material, pin at the edge and at the headsize wire. Keep the
material smooth; work from right to left, and then from left to right.
Work the material around to where the seam is to be made. Cut away all
superfluous material, allowing three-eighths of an inch for a seam.
Slipstitch together as on the top and finish the edge over wire.
Whenever possible a seam should be made on the straight of the material.


There are two methods of making a shirred crown of fabric in which
taffeta, satin, georgette, or velvet may be used. Velvet is especially
beautiful made up in this way. The first method is the preferred. Cut a
circular piece of material, having a diameter the length of the crown
from front to back, measuring over the top from the headsize wire, plus
four inches.

On the wrong side of the material mark circles (concentric) one-half
inch apart, after first having marked a circle in the center about three
inches in diameter. Gather on the line of each circle with a fine
running stitch and bring the thread through to the right side as each
circle is completed.

Locate the exact center of the crown top and cut a small hole at this
point. Pull thread of the smallest circle up tight. This will form a bag
which should be pulled down through the hole made at the center of the
crown top and sewed securely in place. The material should be pinned
down at four equal points at the edge of the crown, the threads of the
other circles pulled up until the material fits the crown snugly. Adjust
the fullness evenly and sew in place. This is an excellent way to use up
old material which would otherwise show marks or any other defects.

The second method does not make as pleasing an effect, but may be used
when the material happens to be in such shape that a circle cannot be
cut from it. A bias strip about eight inches wide and long enough to
reach around the crown, plus three or four inches, should be joined on
the lengthwise thread of the material. The first shirring or gathering
should be one-half inch from the edge, the additional threads should be
run in evenly every half inch. The first thread near the edge should
then be drawn up as tightly as possible and this edge pushed through the
hole in the top of the crown. This method will require a somewhat larger
opening than the first. The material is then drawn down on the outside
and pinned to the bottom of the crown; the threads are then pulled tight
and firm and are fastened off. Next adjust the gathers evenly and sew in



Lay the pattern on the neteen in such a way as to bring the bias where
the greatest amount of roll is to be, then cut making the same
allowances as if cut from buckram. This material should be used double
to secure the best results. Cut one thickness first and pin this on
another piece in such a way that the warp thread of one piece will lie
parallel to the woof thread of the other. Cut the two pieces the same
size and before removing the pins baste closely all over the brim with
fine thread, making one inch stitches. Fine thread should be used for
this as a coarse thread might show through the covering.


Insert one thickness between the other two ends, and backstitch closely.
This method ought to make a fairly smooth seam. Cover the seam with a
strip of crinoline to smooth it up.


It is difficult to sew edge wire on neteen. A good result is obtained,
however, by sewing the wire directly on the edge or by covering the edge
first with crinoline and sewing the wire on it. Great care must be taken
in handling neteen to preserve the shape, as it is very easily stretched
and pulled out of shape while sewing on the edge wire. The same method
is used in covering a neteen frame as with the buckram frame. The
velvet, if velvet is used, can be glued on, but the material is so
porous that it is not very satisfactory. Neteen and crinoline make
excellent foundations for braid hats, as these materials are light in
weight, soft, and pliable. They are also very satisfactory for
children's hats.


Make the side crown from a bias fold of neteen or crinoline, the height
desired, plus one inch. The length should be the headsize measurement
plus one-half inch. This allows for a tiny flare next to the face which
is usually more becoming. Join the ends of bias strips on the warp


Sew the headsize wire one inch from the bottom, being careful not to
stretch or full the material. Cut another piece of brace wire one or two
inches larger than headsize wire and sew on the raw edge at the bottom,
stretching the fabric to fit if a flare is desired. A roll may be made
by slightly fulling the fabric on to the wire, which must be smaller
than for a flare. If the side of the crown is to be curved in slightly,
this is easily done by taping the side about halfway between the top and
the bottom, drawing the tape as tight as is necessary. Next pin the tape
and sew in place. Sew another wire high enough above the tape to make
the crown the required height. If the crown is to be flared a little at
top, sew the wire inside and stretch the material as much as desired. If
the top of the crown is to be drawn in, sew the wire on the outside,
making the crown slightly smaller at the top. If sufficient material is
allowed at the top the extra amount may be drawn up over a small circle
of wire to make the crown top, but an extra piece cut for this purpose
is more satisfactory. A smooth crown may be made from an extra piece
sewed over the top after the side is finished.


Turbans are becoming to many types and are particularly suitable for the
matron. Gay coverings are used on them often when they would be out of
place on a larger hat. However, any material may be used; braids, alone
or in combination with fabric. Velvets, georgette, satin, and taffeta
are used. A turban covered entirely with flowers sewed down flat makes a
charming hat: the lower edge invariably looks better if first bound with
a bias piece of velvet no matter what the covering may be--it seems to
give a softer look around the face. A round crown of buckram makes a
good turban frame if a bias strip of crinoline an inch wide is sewed to
the lower edge to give a little flare. A frame of this kind may be
draped with velvet, satin, georgette, or any pliable material, and when
skillfully done the effect is beautiful indeed.




  Brace wire or frame wire
  Tie wire
  Sprung wire


Hold the coil in the left hand; unfasten and allow it to loosen
gradually in the hand; pass it over the arm and knock it until the coils


Place wire firmly and squarely between the jaws of the pliers at the
point where they cut and press straight down. Be sure to cut with the
first attempt; otherwise, if the wire is haggled off, the pliers are
injured and the covering loosened at the ends of the wire which will
make it impossible to tie them together.


Pass the wire between the thumb and finger with a sweeping motion. A
piece of cloth or paper may be held in the hand if the fingers become
tender. Do not make small dents in the wire in attempting to straighten
it, as it will be impossible to remove them.


Ends of brace wire parallel.

Right angles tied diagonally.

Brace wire tied without use of tie wire.

Before beginning to make a frame of wire, time will be saved and
necessary experience gained by tying a few short pieces of wire, until a
strong joint can be made. Cut fifty pieces or more of tie wire
three-quarters of an inch long. Cut two pieces of brace or frame wire
two or three inches long. Lap the ends of the heavy wire one inch, then
lap one of these pieces of tie wire around once as close to the end of
the brace wire as is possible. Hold in the left hand and with the end of
the pliers grasp the ends of the tie wire as close to the brace wire as
possible and twist tightly until the joint feels firm. Place pliers back
a little and twist several times until a little cable is formed. Cut
this off, leaving an eighth-inch end. Press this end down flat with the
jaws of the pliers. Tie the other end in the same manner. Practice this
until a satisfactory joint can be made with ease, before attempting to
make a frame of wire.









Hold the strand of wire against the wire to which it is to be fastened,
at right angles to it, with about two and one-half or three inches
extending beyond the point at which the twist is to be made. Press the
end straight backward, close to and parallel with the other end of the
wire. The end should pass once and a half around. Use the jaws of the
pliers to press parallel wires in the twist together, and to tighten the
twist. Cut the end off close and use the pliers to press the end down


Always remember that it will greatly simplify the work first to make a
paper pattern for every hat. A hat is seldom made with all sections of
the brim of equal width, and this is one important reason why it is more
satisfactory first to make a paper pattern.


Make a pattern the same as for a straight-brim sailor, being careful to
fold the pattern in halves from front to back, and to crease sharply.
Fold the halves into fourths and the fourths into eighths and crease.
This is to determine the position of the wire spokes in the brim. The
eight creases will correspond to the eight spokes in the brim; this is
the correct number of spokes.


A wire frame needs two headsize wires, so cut two just alike,
remembering always that the headsize wire is the most important wire in
any hat, as the comfort of the wearer depends upon the measurements
taken for this wire. Measure as for the headsize in a fabric hat,
lapping the ends one inch, and tying them. Try on these wires and shape
to fit the head. They should usually be elongated two inches.

Pin the headsize wire on the paper pattern, placing the joining on the
back crease and the exact center front of wire on the front crease; next
pin the sides securely, being careful to keep the wire shaped to fit the
head. Allow one-half inch inside of wire and slash every half inch out
to headsize wire. The pattern may now be tried on the head for any
necessary alterations. The brim pattern may be added to or cut away.


Make a pencil mark on the pattern around the headsize wire. Before
removing the wire, mark the eight different points where it crosses the
creases in the paper pattern. Remove the wire from the pattern.


Straighten and cut four pieces of frame wire the length of the diameter
of the brim plus three inches for finishing. Place one of these sticks
across the headsize wire from front to back on the marks made by the
pencil, allowing the ends to extend an equal length. Fasten to the
headsize wire with tie wire. Place the next stick from side to side,
joining on the pencil marks. The two remaining sticks when placed on the
remaining marks divide the circle into eighths. This is called the
skeleton of the brim; the wires are named _front_, _back_, _right side_,
_left side_, _right side front_, _right side back_, _left side front_,
_left side back_. The position of these ends or spokes should correspond
to the creases in the paper pattern, and the length of each one should
be determined by measuring the corresponding crease on the pattern.


Cut a circle of brace wire the exact length of the circumference of the
brim plus one inch for lap and tie. Lay this close to the edge of the
pattern and mark on it with pencil where each crease touches it, always
keeping the tied ends on the back crease. If these measurements are
carefully made, the brim will be exactly like the pattern.


Begin at the back and place the mark on the edge wire on the back spoke
at the pencil mark. Twist the end of the spoke once and a half around
the edge wire, using the jaws of the pliers to tighten the twist. Cut
the end off close and press the cut end flat with the pliers. Next
finish the center front spoke, then the sides and those in between. A
great deal depends upon accuracy in making an acceptable wire frame. Add
as many circles of wire between the edge wire and the headsize wire as
desired, fastening to the spokes with tie wire. Keep all wire laps at
the back on the center spoke.


Cut the wire inside of the headsize wire in the center. Twist these
wires once and a half around the headsize wire, bringing the ends up at
right angles to the headsize wire. Join the second headsize wire to the
top of these wires, using the same method as for joining the edge wire.
This collar may be made very low or as high as the wires will permit. A
separate crown of wire is not always used in a hat covered with very
sheer material or sheer braid. In such a case the collar would be made
as high as possible to make a support for the crown trimming.


Straighten the brace wire and cut four sticks or pieces long enough to
reach from the base of the crown at the front up over the proposed crown
to the base of the crown at the back, allowing eight inches for
finishing. Cut and join a small circle of brace wire--about three inches
in diameter--for the crown top. Lay the four sticks across this circle
dividing it into eight equal sections as at the beginning of the brim,
and join to the sticks with tie wire. Cut a piece of brace wire one inch
smaller than the headsize wire. Lap the ends and tie this wire. Elongate
slightly. Join to the sticks outside of the small circle. Keep all
lapped ends of circles on the center back spoke. Bend spokes down _over_
this circle, then measure down from this circle for the height of crown
and mark on spokes with pencil. Be very accurate.


Measure and cut a length of brace wire one-half inch longer than for the
headsize wire. Lap the ends one inch and join with tie wire. The base
wire of any separate crown must be large enough to fit over the headsize
wire on the brim. Place this circle, after having shaped it like the
headsize wire, on the inside of the spokes at the point marked,
beginning at the center back, and finish as any edge wire by twisting
the ends of the spokes once and a half around the wire. Press the wires
down tight with the pliers. Cut the ends off close and press flat with
the jaws of the pliers. Many more circles may be added and tied on with
tie wire if desired; also more spokes may be added. This would be
desirable if the frame is to be covered with braid, or if used for
blocking fabric for frames.


If a wire frame is to be covered with thin material, great care and
thought should be given to the frame, for it then forms part of the
design of the hat. A finer wire is sometimes used in this case, or a
beautiful frame may be made for thin materials by using a satin-covered
cable wire, and using as few wires as possible. It may seem advisable
after a wire frame is made to cut away some of the wires.



A round crown is one which rounds from tip to base. First straighten,
measure, and cut four sticks of brace wire, as for square crown, of the
ordinary length, allowing for finishing. Cut and join the ends of a
short piece of brace wire five or six inches long. This makes a small
circle for the top of the crown. Begin by tying the sticks across this
circle under it, dividing it into halves, quarters, and eighths, being
careful that the divisions are made accurately and that the sticks
extend an equal length from the circle. Keep these wires _flat_ across
this circle. The sticks may now be curved down. It is sometimes found
easier to attach the base wire at this point before adding other



[Illustration: ROUND CROWN OF WIRE]


Cut a piece of brace wire one-half inch longer than the wire used for
the headsize wire. Lap the ends one inch. Make this the same shape as
the headsize wire and test the size by trying it on over the headsize
wire on the brim for which the crown is made. An ordinary height for a
round crown would be seven inches from tip to base wire, but to be safe,
it is always better to measure the head. Sometimes, on account of an
abundance of hair or a high coiffure, a greater height is needed. If the
base wire is elongated to fit the head, the side measurement from the
tip to the base of the crown will be found shorter than from the tip to
the front and the back. It will be most helpful to take an old crown
which has an elongated headsize and either measure it and work from the
measures or else work over it.

The crown must be even at the bottom when finished, and when placed upon
the table must rest evenly. The base wire may be tied with tie wire on
the front and back spokes and on each side spoke until the circles
between it and the crown tip are added. It will then be found easy to
adjust it before finishing off the wires; i.e., the crown may be made
higher or lower.


Add three circles of wire between the base wire and the small circle at
the top. The first circle just above the base wire should be of the same
size. Keep all wire laps at the back. The other two circles will
conform to the shape of the crown and will be found to be a little
further apart at the front and back than at the sides.


The spokes of the crown may now be turned out sharply where the base
wire is to be fastened and finished off the same as the edge wire on the


The simplest wire frame which is shaped at all is the mushroom shape or
one that droops a little. Before beginning this hat it will be found
easier to have a pattern for the brim, but it will not be necessary to
make a pattern for the crown, which may be either round or square, and
for which directions have already been given.


Make a pattern of manila paper for the brim the same as for a fabric
shape, following the same directions. It may droop only a very little or
fit quite close. In either case the method is the same.

Pin the headsize wire on this pattern and try on to shape. Mark on the
wire at the point where the creases touch the wire. It is important not
to hurry at this point. Make many patterns and then choose the most
becoming one. After the pattern is perfected, crease it sharply the same
as in the sailor brim. Take all the measurements from this pattern and
use them in marking the wires. This brim pattern is not needed until the
crown has been made. In making a wire frame in one piece, we begin at
the top of the crown and work down.


Measure four sticks as for the crown in the preceding lesson, plus the
width of the brim, plus six inches for finishing. This is ample to
finish both ends of wire, but on account of the ends easily becoming
frayed it is better to have a generous allowance. Begin at the crown tip
and work down until ready for the headsize wire. The last wire is or
should be of the same size as the regular headsize wire. Place the lap
of the headsize wire on the back spoke of the crown and join by twisting
the spokes once and a half around. Join the front and remaining spokes
in the same way, being careful to join where the wire was marked at the
creases on the pattern.


We are now ready to make use of the measurements taken from the pattern.
Mark the length of each spoke with a pencil; the distance they are to be
apart should be marked on the edge wire. These measurements are taken
from the pattern. Finish the edge the same as the sailor brim. Add as
many circles between the edge wire and the headsize wire as desired.

We have now made in wire the first variation from a perfectly flat brim.
Always make a pattern before making a wire frame except when copying and
then measurements may be taken from the hat to be copied. Here are some
of the reasons why the pattern is important: first, it may be tried on
and this helps to decide if the style is becoming, before working it out
in wire; second, the position of the wires may be determined and marked
on the paper pattern; third, the more work done from a paper pattern the
easier it will be to copy; fourth, it trains the eye, thus making
free-hand work much easier.


Whether the hat is made in one piece or with a separate brim, the same
method is used. First, as always, the paper pattern. If the brim is to
roll closely on one side and much higher than on the other, extra wires
will be needed to fill the space. The place for these may be determined
on the paper pattern. They may go all the way around, being brought more
closely together on the low side or only part way around as in the

Wire frame making requires much patience and practice. It is an art just
as all millinery is an art. Lines are all important. Because of this I
urge much pattern making. Even though one may not have the fundamental
principles of art, something really good often develops and we find we
have built better than we knew. It stimulates originality, but we must
work without _fear_.


Wires come in both black and white. A white frame may be colored to
match any sheer fabric used for its covering. It will be found to be
more simple to color the frame after it is made. Any of the cold or soap
dyes may be used. If these are not available, a piece of velveteen
soaked in alcohol and rubbed on the frame will give of its color
sufficiently to tint the wire. Crêpe paper may also be used, or
water-color paints. Rouge may be used effectively if moistened. There
are also gold and silver wires which may be used for frames when
desired, and which will add to the beauty of the design. If they cannot
be purchased, a frame of white wire may be gilded by using liquid gilt,
applying it to the frame with a small brush.


Halo brims may be made from any fabric, but to be effective the material
should be sheer. Malines, nets, georgette crêpe, or chiffon are all used
to good effect in making this style of hat. Good-looking halo brims have
been made from old georgette waists, using the back for the brim and the
front and sleeves for the crown.

Only two wires are used in making this brim, the edge wire and the
headsize wire. The size of the brim is to be determined and then a hoop
of sprung wire cut just the length of the circumference of the brim.
This wire is uncovered; the ends just meet and are joined by the use of
a little clamp, the ends being inserted and pressed down with the jaws
of the pliers.

Place the material from which the brim is to be made upon a flat
surface. If of maline, several thicknesses may be used. Fasten this
material down to the table slightly with pins or thumb tacks. Lay a
circle of sprung wire on the material and pin in place. Begin by pinning
the back, front, and then each side, being careful not to pull the wire
out of shape. Take the work up and pin the material closely all around
the edge. Cut off, allowing one-quarter of an inch to turn over the
wire. Sew to the wire closely with an overcasting stitch or with a
running stitch just inside of the wire. The edge may be bound with a
fold of the same material, a fold of satin or one row of braid.


This headsize wire is made of frame wire. First measure, then cut, join
ends, and shape as for any hat. Lay the headsize wire on the material,
having the joining at the back. The front and the back of the brim, if
of equal width, will be somewhat narrower than the side because of the
elongated headsize wire; however, the headsize wire may be placed on
the brim in any position desired. Pin in place and sew with an
overcasting stitch. Trim the material inside the headsize wire, leaving
an extension of one-quarter of an inch to turn over; it will be found
necessary to sew this down over the wire, making the edge more secure.

Another method of making a halo brim is accomplished by cutting a piece
of material on the bias, twice as wide as the brim and as long as the
circumference. Stretch this piece of material, then pin the center of
the strip over the edge wire, gather the raw edges to fit the headsize
wire and sew in place. This method does not make a smooth brim, but is
more quickly made. When two thicknesses of sheer material are used for
halo brims a very pretty effect is obtained by placing flat flowers,
petals of flowers, or feathers between the two materials.


This may be very sheer, although a halo brim may be used on a braid or
satin crown if desired. A wire crown for a halo brim usually consists of
a mere collar of frame wire several inches high. This is sewed to the
headsize wire. The covering for the crown is usually made in the shape
of a circle about fourteen inches in diameter, with the same number of
thicknesses as the brim. Gather one-quarter of an inch from the edge,
adjust fullness and sew to the headsize wire. The height of the crown
depends upon the style of hair dressing. Place a band of the same
material as the crown, or a narrow ribbon, around the base of the crown
for trimming and to conceal the wires. A wired bow of the sheer material
may be used very effectively. (See chapter on "Bows.")




Great care and patience must be exercised in covering a hat with straw
braid. The lines which are to be emphasized should be carefully studied,
as there are several methods used in laying the braid on the frames.
(See illustration.)

The stitch used for sewing braid is always the same--a very short stitch
on the right side, and a stitch one-quarter of an inch long on the wrong
side. The thread must not be pulled too tight, or the position of the
stitches may be seen; also always match the thread to the straw. Straw
braid may be sewed to a willow, buckram, neteen, or crinoline frame
except when a _very_ soft hat is desired; it may then be sewed and
shaped over a wire or buckram frame, but not on to it, as it is to be
removed from the frame after sewing; or, if the braid is coarse, it may
be sewed to a wire frame which has been previously covered with
crinoline or mull. (See illustration.)


Many hats have a brim faced with straw, while a fabric is used on top.
In this case the braid must be put on first in order that the stitches
may be taken through the brim, which the fabric on top will cover.


Place the outer edge of the straw even with the outer edge of the brim,
beginning at the center back, allowing three inches to extend to the
right. Pin in place and baste all the way around until the center back
is reached. Curve the second row gradually up from the center back; do
not make an abrupt curve, until the correct lap is reached, usually
one-eighth of an inch. There will be found a thread at the edge of most
braids which may be pulled up to take out the extra fullness when sewed
on a curve. The outside edge of the first row must be left free for the
edge of the fabric, which covers the other side, to be slipped under. Do
not begin sewing until the second row is basted in place.


Bring the needle through the edge of the braid at the lap from the under
side and take a tiny stitch, stabbing the needle through the braid and
the buckram; the small stitch on the right side will be hidden if the
thread is not pulled too tight. Take a stitch on the wrong side from
one-quarter to one-half an inch in length, depending upon the width and
quality of the braid. Continue basting and sewing the braid until the
headsize is reached and the braid extends up above the headsize wire one
inch. If the brim is wider at some points than at others, the wider side
must be filled in with short strips following the same curve, being
careful that the ends are left long enough to extend up beyond the
headsize wire one inch. When the brim is very much wider at some points,
short pieces of braid may be worked in at intervals as the braid is
sewed; this would not make such an abrupt curve, and the general lines
of the braid would be more pleasing.

When one side of the brim is to be covered with fabric, fit this to the
brim, baste at the headsize wire and cut the edge, allowing one-quarter
of an inch to lap over the edge. Remove the basting from the first row
of braid and tuck the edge of the fabric under. Pin and slipstitch to
place through the straw.


Allow the first rows to project slightly beyond the edge of the brim
both on the top and the bottom. These edges may be brought together
with a small slanting stitch, or if preferred the edge may be first
bound with a bias piece of satin, or with a row of braid or gay-colored
material. If the edge of the brim is bound, the edges of the first rows
of braid at the top and bottom would not meet. The bound edge thus
showing gives the effect of a cord.


Begin at the bottom of the crown, slanting the second row off from the
first row the same as on the brim. Pull the braid up with the thread
(which will be found on the edge of nearly every braid) and sew until
the center of the crown tip is reached, when a hole in the top of the
crown may be made and the end pushed through and fastened on the
underside. Keep the braid full enough so that it will lie flat all the
way. Sometimes it is easier to begin sewing the braid on at the very
center of the top of the crown, or a few rows may be sewed to a small
circle of crinoline before attaching to the top of the crown.

If a braid is used which is composed of four or five smaller braids
sewed together, the method is the same until the crown tip is reached
or a place where it is impossible to make the braid lie flat. The braid
must then be separated into the smaller strands and one cut off at a
time, and each end lapped under the preceding strand; proceed with the
remaining strands, cutting one off at a time until only one remains to
finish the center with. When the crown tip is completed, push the
remaining end through a hole in the center of the crown tip and sew to
the inside of the crown. When using this kind of braid the operation may
be reversed, beginning at the center of the top and covering a small
circle of buckram with braid; press it with a warm iron to flatten it,
then sew in place on the crown and complete the covering. This seems the
easier method, because the top of the crown will look much better if
pressed and this will be found hard to do unless begun on a small
separate piece of buckram.


Sometimes a braid must be pieced at a conspicuous point on the hat, when
careful handling will be found necessary. If the braid is composed of
several smaller braids sewed together, the ends should be ripped apart
for several inches and the strands cut in unequal lengths; also the
strands of the other end which is to be joined to it should be cut of
such length as to meet the corresponding ends and allow a lap of one
inch. The ends cut in this way may be tucked under one at a time without
the joining being noticeable. If the braid is very wide it may seem best
when covering a frame to cut and join the ends of the row of braid. It
would then be better to make a straight joining in the back.

If a fancy braid is to be pieced, the ends are lapped diagonally and
sewed flat. If a fancy joining is part of the design, a simple one is to
lap the ends to look as though woven. This may be employed on a crown or
brim or both, and it then becomes a part of the design. Also the top of
the crown or any part of the hat may have a woven covering of braid, but
any such fancy method requires an additional amount of braid.

The top of the crown may be covered by laying the braid on straight from
front to back, allowing the ends to extend down on the side crown an
inch or more. The braid of the side crown should cover these ends. The
brim of a narrow hat is often covered with short lengths of braid
radiating from the headsize wire, the ends extending up on the crown
one inch. A fabric is often combined with braid for the sake of design,
or if there is an insufficient quantity of braid.





A very soft-looking braid hat may be made by sewing braid over a wire
foundation which has been made for the purpose. The braid may be pinned
on the brim of wire and sewed, being careful not to attach the braid to
the frame; slip the needle over the wire and finish sewing the braid
while it is still pinned to the brim, then remove, press slightly, and
sew a facing of braid to the under side of the brim if desired. Some
kinds of braid may be dampened before pressing, but it is safer to
experiment first with a small piece, for some braid is ruined by

A soft crown of braid should be fitted over a wire crown and sewed in
the same way. After removing it from the wire frame, it can be slightly
pressed by holding it over a thick cloth held in the hand and pressing a
warm iron to the outside. A soft hat of braid can more easily be made by
first making a frame of crinoline and sewing the braid to it. Horsehair
braid crowns are beautiful when shaped over a wire foundation. They may
be pressed slightly (after being removed from the wire crown over which
they have been shaped) when they will be found to keep their shape. The
brim would need a wire foundation to hold it out in shape and the braid
should be caught down to the wire as it is being sewed. A small lace
wire should be used for this foundation, four spokes together with the
headsize wire and edge wire being sufficient. The wire should be wound
with maline or have a facing of maline. Horsehair braid is transparent.
There are many fanciful ways of using braid on a hat, but these can be
readily copied if the foregoing methods have been mastered. Be very
careful about pressing braids or adding moisture as it ruins some
braids, while others must be moistened before they can be handled in
sewing to a hat frame.


Wire frames which are to be covered with sheer material, such as maline,
net, or georgette, must be carefully made, as the wire frame becomes a
part of the design, and the wire should be silk covered.

If maline is used, it should be pleated or gathered on, unless the brim
is of the halo style, for which directions are given elsewhere. Four or
five thicknesses of maline are necessary. The material is often gathered
in small quarter-inch tucks at the points where the tuck may be sewed to
the circle wire on the brim or the crown. A small tuck at the edge wire
would make a softer looking edge than if put on plain. The fullness is
then gathered in and sewed to the headsize wire. If the edge is left
plain, a few rows of lacey-looking braid may be sewed on the edge. A
wide tuck hanging down from the edge is sometimes used and it is very
becoming to certain types of faces. The wires of a frame are often first
wound with narrow bias pieces of net or maline. The edges are turned in
and the material wrapped on smoothly and evenly. Sometimes the wires are
wound with a contrasting color.

An effective covering for any frame may be made from ribbon or bias
strips of satin or silk, velvet or georgette, or any soft fabric. If a
wire frame is used, it must first be covered with a thin plain material
to serve as a foundation to which the ribbon or strips of material may
be sewed, or a frame of neteen or crinoline may be used if a very soft
hat is desired.


If a ribbon is used, it must be gathered on one edge so that it may be
drawn down to fit the frame and may be laid on the same as braid. An
inch-wide ribbon is easily handled.


If bias strips of silk or satin are used, the material should be cut in
strips two and one-half inches wide, on a true bias, and joined in one
long strip. Fold lengthwise through the middle and gather the raw edges
together a little less than one-quarter of an inch from the edge. This
is sewed to the frame the same as braid, the folded edge overlapping the
raw edge and the thread drawn up to adjust it as it is pinned and sewed
in place. This is an excellent way to use up old material.


A hat lining should receive the same careful consideration and
workmanship as the outside of the hat. From the milliner's point of view
it is an advertisement, the place where we find the designer's name. A
well-fitted lining, whether of somber or gay colored silk, enhances the
value of a hat. Sometimes we find a tiny sachet rosebud sewed to the
lining, or a little lace-trimmed pocket for the veil.

There are three popular kinds of linings--

  Plain lining
  French lining
  Tailored lining


This should be made of a bias strip of material cut the length of the
headsize wire, plus one inch for seam. The width should be the same as
the crown height plus two and one-half inches.


Fold one end over one-half inch and pin to the back of the hat; fold
the edge of the material down one-quarter of an inch around the inside
of the crown as close as possible to the edge without showing when the
hat is on the head. Pin in place all the way round and slipstitch the
two ends together; then begin at the seam and slipstitch the lining in
place. The method is to bring the needle from the underside of the
lining through the edge of the fold, catch a few threads of material on
the hat opposite this thread, and put the needle back through the fold
at the same point; bring the needle through the fold one-half inch from
the first stitch and proceed in this manner until the seam is reached.
Turn the other raw edge down one-half inch to the wrong side and make a
running stitch one-quarter inch from the folded edge in which a narrow
ribbon should be run, and drawn down as much as necessary to make the
lining fit the crown. A crown tip is used with this lining, which is
made of a piece of silk four inches square, sewed or glued to the inside
of the crown top. On this piece the designer's name is usually found.


This lining is made from an oval piece of silk which corresponds to the
crown measurements. Measure the crown from front to back and from side
to side, adding one inch to these measurements. Fit a small wire to the
inside of the hat at the headsize and tie. Lap the edge of the silk over
the wire one-quarter of an inch. Gather the silk close to the wire using
a small running stitch. After completed, pin in place and slipstitch to
the crown. This lining will reduce the headsize of any hat somewhat, so
it should never be used if there is any danger of making the hat too
small for the head.


This lining is rather the most popular lining used. Large firms send
their material away to be made up for their trade and the linings may be
bought ready-made, but almost every one has pieces of silk which may be
easily made into one of these linings.

Cut an oval of crinoline two-thirds as large as the top of crown, baste
a piece of silk lining over this. Pin this on top of the crown, as this
can best be fitted on the outside and should be done before the hat is
made. Now cut a piece of bias material long enough to reach around the
bottom of the crown wide enough to meet this crown tip at all points.
After pinning it to the crown tip, turn up one-quarter of an inch at the
bottom and pin to the bottom of the crown. Stretch snugly because the
inside of the crown is smaller; pin the fullness to the crown top all
around, gather between pins, and baste in place. Stitch on the machine.
This seam may be corded or a small cord sewed on to cover the seam.

Linings may be made of taffeta, china silk, satin, sateen or of almost
any material which is not too heavy. When a wire frame is covered with
thin material and the frame shows through, the hat should have a thin
lining. If the hat is covered with maline, use a maline lining; if with
georgette, a georgette lining should be used.




Cut from a piece of velvet, satin, or any fabric which is to be used, a
bias strip one and one-half inches wide and of the desired length. This
must be on a true bias, which is found by placing the warp and woof
threads parallel. Any other bias is called a garment bias. Hold the
wrong side toward you and turn the bottom edge up on the wrong side
toward you and up to the center and baste close to the edge. The basting
thread must be loose enough to permit the fold to be stretched. Leave
the basting in. Next fold the other raw edge down until the two edges
meet, but do not baste. Fold again, keeping this last fold one-quarter
of an inch or a little less from the other folded edge. Hold in place
and slipstitch down. Slip the needle through the edge of the fold and
take a long stitch, then, going down through to the other side, take a
short stitch. Come back through a little under the fold to hide the
stitch. Slip the needle along the edge of the fold as before, and
continue in this manner. The thread should be kept loose all the way to
permit the fold to be stretched slightly when used. The fold when
finished should not twist or look as if it had a stitch in it.

Another separate single fold may be added to this; it is then called a
French fold. The milliner's fold has many uses, such as finishing the
edge of hats, and the bottom of crowns, to cover the joining of the hat
to the brim. It is used sometimes around the top of a square crown and
is much used in mourning millinery, when it is made of crêpe.


For the inexperienced in bow-making there is no better plan than to copy
many different styles of bows, using either tissue paper or cheap
cambric, as ribbons are ruined by being made over too many times.
Bow-making is sometimes quite difficult for an amateur, while for some
students of millinery it is very easy, but any one with patience may
become quite expert in time.

Cut the tissue paper or cambric the exact width of the ribbon which is
to be used. In this way the exact amount of ribbon may be determined,
as well as the length of each loop. If a stiff, smart-looking bow is to
be made, fold the ribbon in loops before pleating. If a soft-looking or
puffy, "fat"-looking bow is desired, pleat the ribbon singly before
making the loops. The soft bow is often used for children's hats. After
the desired number of loops is made, wind a strong thread around the
center and over this wrap the remaining end of ribbon around the center
several times until the center is filled up sufficiently to look well.


Maline is one of the most beautiful materials used in millinery and it
lends itself to many uses. Hat frames are covered with maline; it is
used to cover wings to keep feathers in place; to cover faded or
worn-out flowers; for shirred brims and crowns; for pleatings; for folds
on edges of brims to give a soft look; and for bows.

A bow of maline requires wiring with a very small tie wire or lace wire.
The wire may be caught in a fold at the edge of the loops, or the loops
may be made double with the wire caught inside.


Ribbon is sometimes wired if a stiff effect is desired. Silk, satin,
velvet, or any kind of ribbon can be used. The flat ribbon wire is
sometimes pasted between two ribbons with milliner's glue. Often two
colors are rather effectively used in this way. The wire may also be
stitched to one edge of the ribbon. This is done by turning the ribbon
over the wire at the edge and stitching on the sewing machine. The ends
of the wire should extend two inches beyond the ends of the loop of the
bow. After the bow is arranged, these ends should be bent out and back,
making loops which are sewed down to the hat. This holds the bow very
firmly, especially if a small piece of buckram is placed inside the hat
at the point at which the bow is to be sewed. This re-enforces the frame
and makes it still more firm. If a bow is to be placed on top of a
crown, a hole may be made and the ribbon which completes the middle of
the bow may be brought up from the inside of the crown through this
opening, over the bow, and down through this opening and fastened inside
of the crown.

A narrow ribbon of velvet is very pretty twisted over a wire and two
perky loops and ends made. These are very pretty perched on the edge of
a brim or among flowers on the hat.


This is not, strictly speaking, a bow, but comes under this head. The
ribbon used is made into the knot and sewed flat as it is made. It may
be sewed on the brim or side crown and is very effective made of gold


This bow is usually made from a piece of ribbon which has both sides
alike, although it may be made from any ribbon. A Knox tailored bow is
made from gros-grained ribbon. Cut a small piece of buckram for a
foundation to sew the ribbon on. This should be sufficiently small so
that the ribbon will conceal it. Make two loops of equal length, letting
the ribbon lie perfectly flat. Measurements should be very exact. Sew
these loops firmly to the buckram; fold the ribbon back and forth to
make these loops without cutting. Next fold two more loops, one on each
side, one-quarter of an inch shorter and exactly on top. Sew firmly and
cut the ribbon off at the center. Fasten two short ends to the back of
the bow, allowing them to extend one-quarter of an inch and cut
diagonally. Take a short length of ribbon and pleat it once through the
center. Wrap this once around the bow and fasten at the back.

This bow is much used on sailors or any tailored hat. There are many
kinds of fancy bows brought out from season to season, but if the making
of a few styles of standard bows is mastered, others may be easily



[Illustration: TRUE LOVERS' KNOT]


[Illustration: SECOND METHOD OF MAKING AN ORCHID CENTER (see page 91)]


A pleating is difficult and requires patience. Unless accurately made,
it should never be used on a hat, for upon its accuracy depends its
attractiveness. The simplest pleating is a side pleating. This may be
made from paper or stiff muslin for practice work. There should not be a
thread's difference in the width of each pleat. Any simple pleating
requires three times the length of the space it is to cover. If a
half-inch pleating is to be made, the folds will come every one and
one-half inches. As each fold is laid, baste it down with silk thread.
Press slightly on the wrong side before using.


This is made by turning the first pleat to the left and the next to the
right. The same amount of material is required as for side pleating. If
the pleats are to be one-half inch deep, the box pleat will be _one_
inch across. Baste with silk thread at the top and bottom, and press on
the wrong side. A simple box pleating may be basted through the center
and the edges caught together.


This is made by adding one or more pleats, one on top of the other.
Begin by making two or more pleats turning to the left, then the same
number turning to the right. Be very accurate, being careful to keep the
box pleat the exact width desired. Baste at the top and bottom. This
pleating is nearly always used by basting through the center, after
having slightly pressed. The top and bottom bastings are then removed.
The pleating may be caught together at top and bottom of box pleat, and
it is then known as _rose pleating_.


This is the most difficult pleating to fashion, but very handsome
ornaments are made in this way. A foundation of buckram is usually
required to sew the pleats on as they are laid. The two illustrations
given will suffice. After these two examples are correctly copied, other
models and original designs can be easily made.


The foundation for the second is in the shape of a low pyramid made from
buckram. Cut a small circle of buckram, slash in three equally distant
places from the outer edge to within one-eighth of an inch of the
center. Lap a small amount and sew. Three rows or more of pleating may
be used on this ornament. An ordinary ornament will require about five
yards of inch-wide ribbon. The first row would be placed near the
outside edge of the buckram and each pleat sewed as it is laid. The
pleating should radiate from the center. To do this, the inside of the
pleating will lap more than the outside. The next row will overlap this
first row and the same method will be used. The pleating may be tested
by holding a ruler on a line between the top and the lower edge of the
pleating. The pleats should all be on a straight line between these
points. The last or finishing row is the most difficult of all. The
pleats at the apex should meet, and pleats at the lower overlapping edge
be on a line with the rest of the pleating. A tiny bow or button is
sometimes used to finish the top, but it is much handsomer if finished
without either bow or button.


Maline pompons make a very pretty ornament for any hat. They may be made
perfectly round or elongated like the illustration. Several thicknesses
of the material may be cut at one time. The shape of the pieces for the
elongated pompon would be cut like pattern "a." Each piece is folded
lengthwise of the material, and this fold is fastened to a wire which
has been previously wound with maline. The edges of these pieces are
left raw, and enough are used to make the pompon appear quite compact.


There are many different kinds of rosettes made from ribbon. Sometimes
several loops of ribbon are made very close together and wound with
thread as they are gathered. A very pretty rosette is made of narrow
ribbon one-quarter of an inch wide. Many loops three inches long or more
of this width ribbon may be fastened to a small piece of buckram. A knot
placed at the end of each loop adds to its attractiveness.


An old plume may be used to make trimming for a hat by cutting it from
the quill with a very sharp knife or razor blade, retaining a small
portion of the quill which will be sufficient to hold the feathers
together. This should be sewed onto a fine wire, and it may then be
wound into a rosette. A small flower placed in the center is a pleasing





  Tie wire, green
  Gum tissue, brown and green
  Cotton batting
  Milliner's glue
  Yellow stamens
  Dark green tissue paper

Flowers may be made from almost any fabric--satin, velvet, georgette,
maline, ribbon, soft leather, oilcloth, yarn, and chenille. A scrapbag
for odds and ends should always be kept for small pieces of materials.
Any piece two inches square may be used for flowers or fruits. Such a
bag of pieces will prove a veritable gold mine to use in making flowers
and fruit trimmings. Each year brings out novelties in trimmings, but
hand-made flowers are always worn more or less on hats, gowns, suits,
and muffs. They are especially beautiful on evening gowns. A generous
number of the best examples are given here with illustrations.

To prepare the petals of any flower is not difficult, but to arrange
them is another matter. Study the face of any blossom which you are
making and try to make it look as natural as possible. Pinning the
petals in place before sewing them is of great value, otherwise they are
apt to slip back on the stem as they are being sewed.



This rose may be made of silk or satin; it may have as many petals as
desired. Each petal is cut from a piece of folded material like the
diagram (1). It is highly important that the folded edge be on a _true_
bias. Begin the rose by cutting three petals like the illustration, with
the bias edge one and one-half inches long. Run a gathering thread
one-eighth of an inch from the curved edge, leaving a thread one inch
long so that the petal may be adjusted as it is pinned in place. Make a
loop one inch long on the end of a piece of wire six inches long. Cover
this loop with a small circle of the material like the rose. It is
sometimes found to be advantageous to fill this circle with cotton to
make a soft center for the rose.

For an ordinary-sized rose there should be eighteen petals. The first
three are already described as having a one and one-half-inch bias. The
next larger in size should have a two-inch bias and be correspondingly
wider; the next five should have a two and one-half-inch bias, and the
next five a three-inch bias. The three small petals should be arranged
around the covered loop of wire and pinned in place before sewing. Sew
securely. Each row, as it is arranged according to size, should be
pinned in place and scrutinized carefully to see that it is placed
effectively. Each row should be placed a little higher than the
preceding one. See that the face of the flower looks as nearly like a
real rose as possible, allowing the back to look as it will.

With a little experience one soon becomes efficient and learns how to
adjust the different materials. Some materials being more pliable than
others, the shape of the petals may be changed slightly to meet the
need. The back of the rose may be finished by adding a sufficient number
of green leaves taken from some discarded flower or bought for the
purpose. A small green cup is also added to finish the base; these may
be bought at ribbon counters. The bud used with this rose may be made by
using the three smallest petals. Some green foliage must also be used
with this rose and the stem bound with a narrow gray-green ribbon, or
with gum tissue which should be warmed before using. The inside petals
may be of a darker shade than the outside petals.


To make a medium-sized ribbon rose requires two yards of satin ribbon
two inches wide. There are several different methods of making the
center for this rose. A simple center for this rose may be made from a
piece of the ribbon, four inches long. Fold this in half. Sew the
selvages together along one side. Turn and fill with cotton around which
has been wound the end of a six-inch piece of frame wire. A little
rose-scented sachet powder may be sprinkled on this cotton to add
perfume to the blossom. Gather the satin down close to the wire after
rounding the corners at the lower edges. Two yards should make this
center and eighteen petals. More may be added or fewer may be used. For
the first row cut three lengths three inches long; the second row, five
lengths three and one-half inches long; third row, five lengths four
inches long; fourth row five lengths four and one-half inches long. Each
petal is finished the same before it is sewed in place Fold the two
ends together, turn each corner of the folded end down diagonally and
pin in place. Now raise the end on the back of the petal and catch the
corners down with a few small stitches. Replace the end and gather the
raw edges together, but do not draw up close. Prepare all of the petals
in the same way before beginning to sew them to the center. Sometimes a
tiny bit of cotton is placed inside each petal to make the rose look
larger. When all the petals are finished, begin the rose by adding the
three smallest petals first. Pin in place around the center, wrapping
them closely around it and letting them extend about one-eighth of an
inch above the point. Add the next row, pinning each petal in place
before sewing. Place each succeeding row one-eighth of an inch above the
preceding one. Watch the face of the blossom carefully and see that it
looks as natural as possible. The back of the blossom will be covered
when finished, either with a few old rose leaves and a rose cup, or
points of green ribbon sewed to resemble leaves. A rubber stem may be
bought to slip over the wire on which the rose is sewed, or the wire may
be wound with green floss, baby ribbon, green tissue paper, or gum
tissue. If the rose is to be full blown, it would be much better to
make the center of yellow stamens.


The petals for the wild rose may be cut from the same pattern as for the
first rose given. This same pattern is used for many different
flowers--the wild rose, apple blossom, sweet pea, and for foliage.

For the wild rose use the size having the two-inch bias. Gather
one-eighth of an inch from the curved edge, draw down tight and fasten
the thread off. This rose requires five petals, and will look more
natural if two of the petals are of a darker shade than the other three.
For the center wrap a piece of tie wire around several yellow rose
stamens which may be bought at a millinery store, leaving the ends of
wire five or six inches long. Arrange the petals flat around this center
and sew in place. The petals should lie out flat, or nearly so. A bud
for this rose is made by folding a petal together after having gathered
it. The bud may be effectively finished by using two leaves of foliage,
placing one on either side, partially covering the bud and then
finishing with the wire or a small green rose cup. To finish with wire,
make a loop in the center of a ten-inch piece of tie wire. To this loop
sew the bud. Twist the wire several times for an inch below the bud,
then turn one end of the wire back and twist it around the stem until
the bud is reached. Wind it several times over the base of the bud, draw
it tight and see that the wire is close together. This will make a
finish for the bud.


The rose foliage may be made if desired. Cut the leaves from green satin
or velvet, or color them green with water-color if a light-colored
material must be used. After cutting the pieces in the shape of rose
leaves (it will require two pieces for each leaf), lay one wrong side
up, cover with milliner's glue. Lay on the center of this a piece of tie
wire long enough for the stem. Place another leaf on this and press
together. When all the leaves are made after this method, arrange on a
long stem or wire, and if wound with brown gum tissue it will look very


Cut from a true bias a strip of material one inch wide and four inches
long. Fold lengthwise through the middle. Turn the raw edges in on one
end, and gather one-eighth inch from the edge along the raw edges. Draw
the thread up to one inch and roll, beginning with the folded end, and
sew. A piece of tie wire may be glued inside the fold before gathering,
if desired. These little roses may be sewed on a stem or sewed to a
shaped piece of buckram which has been covered with silk. It may be in
the shape of a buckle or a circle and covered with these little roses in
several colors, pink, blue, and mauve. Sewed flat against a crown or on
a brim, they would trim a hat effectively.


This rose, when carefully made, is most beautiful and sells for an
exorbitant price. To make the rose as illustrated requires one-quarter
of a yard of satin cut on the bias and one-eighth of a yard of velvet
cut on the bias. If the velvet is one or more shades darker, the result
will be more pleasing.

The rose is fashioned from petals cut like the illustration. The first
three petals are cut from dimensions given in the illustration, two
inches long and one and three-quarters inches wide. The next five petals
should be one-quarter of an inch larger, and each succeeding row of five
petals should be one-quarter of an inch larger than the preceding one.
The last row of petals is to be made from the velvet. Cut a piece of the
tie wire long enough to reach around the outside edge of each petal,
plus one and one-half inches. Lay the petals down wrong side up, bend
the wire to the shape of the petal, lay the wire close to the edge and
turn the raw edge over the wire one-eighth of an inch and glue in place
with milliner's glue. Place a light weight on the petals until
thoroughly dry.

Begin assembling the flower by first making a center from some of the
scraps left from the velvet, or yellow rose stamens may be used; fold
several small pieces into bud-like shapes of about one inch in length,
sew strongly and fasten on a loop of the wire six inches long. Keep the
point where all the petals are joined in as small a circumference as
possible. Begin with the three small petals, pleat them at the bottom
into as small a space as possible, and sew to the center with the wrong
side to the center. After they have been arranged, the edges may be
crinkled down somewhat. Add the remaining petals according to their
size. The last row of velvet petals is rather pretty if one or more is
placed with the right side toward the center.


A conventional flower which makes a beautiful trimming may be made from
the pattern for the wired rose first given. Cut five petals (of any size
required) from velvet, and five the same size from silk or satin. Lay
the velvet petals wrong side up and cover with milliner's glue. Lay on
this a piece of tie wire one-quarter of an inch from the edge, allowing
an extension of ends of the wire at the bottom of the petal. Lay the
silk petal on top and press firmly. When dry arrange these five petals
around a cluster of yellow stamens, which have been fastened to a loop
of tie wire. This blossom should lie out flat when finished. Of course
the shape of the petals may be changed in any way desired.


The petals of this blossom are also pasted to a lining, the poinsettia
making a beautiful ornament. While a bright red is extremely lovely, a
black poinsettia is equally effective. The petals should be made of
velvet and lined with the same color in satin. These petals being
narrow, only need a wire through the center. After the petals have been
prepared, they should be assembled around a bunch of yellow stamens or
knotted baby ribbon.

The foliage is made from green velvet lined with green silk. The
accompanying illustration shows the proportion of both the petals of the
blossom and the foliage. The stems may be wound with green or brown gum


Poppies may be made from ribbon seventeen inches long and two and
one-quarter inches wide. Cut two pieces five and one-half inches long.
This leaves one piece six inches long. This will make five petals. Cut
the ends round on the five and one-half inch pieces, and cut one end of
the six-inch piece round. Beginning at the center, close to edge, gather
with a small running stitch. Turn in the raw edges and draw the thread
sufficiently to make the rounded ends curl over one inch, and fasten off
the thread. These two long pieces make four petals. Pleat them very
close at the center, sew together, finish the single petal the same and
add it to the four petals. Knotted black baby ribbon or yellow stamens
or both will make a beautiful center.


Cut a circle of paper four inches in diameter. One quarter section of
this will be the pattern for a morning glory. The circle may be larger
if desired, but the size should depend somewhat upon the material used.
These dimensions are for a small blossom made of taffeta silk or
organdie. If made of velvet or heavy silk, the pattern should be much

Lap the straight edges one-eighth of an inch in and paste in place. This
makes a cone. Cut a piece of tie wire six inches in length, lap one end
over several knots of yellow baby ribbon and twist securely. Push the
other end of wire through the cone from the inside and draw the knots
down into the point. Make a short bend in the wire at the lower point of
the blossom on the outside to prevent its slipping down on the wire. The
upper edge of the cone may be rolled over a piece of tie wire and pasted
if necessary; usually it stays in place without either sewing or
pasting. The edge should be stretched slightly. Organdie or taffeta silk
will stay rolled into place without the tie wire. Water color is used
most effectively on these flowers to make the shading as true to nature
as possible. If made of velvet they may be sewed down flat on a hat at
the side joining, when a large stamen of twisted ribbon or chenille may
be made to cover the joining in the cone.


This blossom is especially adapted to the gown of the matron, or
wherever a touch of lavender is desired. It is effectively combined with
violets, or lilies-of-the-valley and maidenhair fern. The petals are
made of satin ribbon one and one-quarter inches wide and of the peculiar
pinkish lavender orchid shade. There are five petals in all--each calls
for seven inches of ribbon. If possible, three of the petals should be
one or two shades darker than the other two.

Fold a seven-inch piece of ribbon (one and one-quarter inches wide) in
half with the right side out. Cut into shape like the illustration.
Stitch a seam along the curved edge one-eighth of an inch from the edge.
Twist a very small loop in one end of a piece of seven-inch tie wire and
fasten up at folded end of the ribbon. Overhand this wire along the raw
edges, turn to the wrong side and sew the wire in with a one-eighth-inch
seam on the wrong side. This makes a French seam. Now spread the petal
open flat, and push it up on the wire until the petal measures six
inches in length. Gather the raw ends and wind them tight to the wire.
Finish the other four petals the same way.


This calls for a piece of velvet ribbon one and one-half inches wide and
four inches in length. If possible this ribbon should be darker than the
darkest petal, but of course should harmonize. Roll the ends and hem
them down. Gather along one edge and draw down close around the looped
end of a piece of tie wire in which a bunch of yellow stamens have been
fastened. The blossom should be arranged with the three darker petals
pointing up at the back of the center and the other two at the front


This center is made from a piece of velvet ribbon three and one-half
inches long and one and one-quarter inches wide. Fold lengthwise, with
the satin side out. At one end sew straight across, making a seam
one-eighth of an inch deep and turn. Cut the other end like the diagram
and sew this with the velvet side out, leaving a tiny space at the
bottom to insert the wire. This now looks something like a "Jack in the
Pulpit." Twist a few yellow stamens in the end of a piece of seven-inch
tie wire and push the other end down through the little opening left at
the lower point and draw the stamens down in as low as desired. Make a
small, short loop in the tie wire close to the blossom to prevent its
slipping back down on the wire.

Each year there are new developments in flower making, but the
principles are the same. If a few are mastered, there is usually very
little difficulty experienced in copying others which may appear from
year to year. Lovely flowers may be made from a few inches of hat braids
which are left over or from wool and raffia, maline or colored nets.


These may be made by using the same pattern as for the American Beauty
rose, selecting the size required. (See illustration.) Lay a strip of
tie wire inside along the bias fold. Gather along the curved edge and
draw down tight. This brings the two ends of the tie wire together, and
they should be twisted lightly. Arrange four or five leaves around a
few yellow stamens. If green tie wire is used, it is not necessary to
wind the stems; otherwise brown gum tissue may be wound around the stem.
From this pattern many different blossoms may be made, varying it
slightly, such as rosebuds, sweet peas, and apple blossoms.


Cut four petals after the same pattern, making one about one and
one-half inches and two one inch, then a small one for the center, or a
few knots of baby ribbon may be used for the center. Arrange the petals
in a natural-looking blossom.


No flower is more popular than the violet, and a cluster of handsome
violets make a most acceptable gift at any time.

Violet-colored satin ribbon about one-quarter of an inch in width is
used. Begin by tying a knot one inch from the end, tie another one inch
from this knot; continue until there are five or six knots one inch
apart. In tying, try to keep the satin side of the ribbon out and make
as round a knot as possible by pushing the ribbon edges together on the
knot. Do not tie too tightly. A little practice is needed, but the
blossom is easily made. Hold the first knot between the thumb and
finger, bring the third knot up and place with it, then the fifth, and
so on, until the knots are all placed--usually three on one side, and
two or three on the other. Cut green tie wire six or seven inches long
for stems. Wind an inch of the end over the ribbon between these folded
knots and twist. Cut the ribbon off pointed, leaving one-half inch end.

Two shades of ribbon may be used if desired. Sometimes a few yellow
stamens are fastened in with the wire or a few French knots in yellow
added at the center after the blossom is made, but neither is needed and
add but little to the beauty of this little blossom. Shape the petals up
around the center.

The foliage for this flower can be bought, or made according to
directions given elsewhere. A spray of almost any foliage will do. A
small rosebud, a morning-glory or an orchid added to a bouquet of
violets will make it doubly charming.


Daisies may be made from one-quarter inch ribbon, using as many petals
as desired. Cut the ribbon into two and one-half-inch lengths. Tie a
knot in the center. Sew the ends to a small, round piece of buckram. If
two rows of petals are used, the second row may be made one-quarter of
an inch shorter. The center may be covered with ready-made daisy centers
or a few French knots. The stem of wire is tacked to the buckram on the
back and may be wound with green floss.


These flowers are made of geranium-colored satin ribbon. Use the same
method as in making violets, except that yellow stamens should always be



The material required for making apples is cut into a circle of any size
desired and from any material. The edge should be turned in
one-sixteenth of an inch and gathered all around. Place this over a
piece of cotton batting, over which a piece of wire has been twisted,
leaving ends long enough for a stem. Add a sufficient amount of cotton
to fill the material out well. Draw the thread tight and sew. A stitch
may be caught through the center and pulled down, or a little tuft of
brown embroidery thread sewed to the center to give a more realistic
look. The apple may be tinted with water-color if desired. In that case
the entire apple should be moistened first and then the color applied
and allowed to dry.


These are made from a smaller circle of material than the apple--satin
or velvet would make a charming cluster. The method used is the same as
for the apple, except that there would be no stitch in the center. They
should also be filled until they are hard. Use tie wire for the stems.


These may be made from a piece of plum-colored material on a true bias,
two and one-quarter inches long and one and one-quarter inches wide. Sew
the ends together on the wrong side. Turn, gather one end one-eighth of
an inch from the edge. Pull the thread up tight and sew. This makes the
"blow" end. Turn the lower edge in one-eighth of an inch and gather.
Fill with cotton to which a piece of tie wire has been attached and
pull close to wire and sew. Add as much cotton as necessary to procure
the right shape before finishing.


These may be made from gathering a folded circle of plum-colored
material one-eighth of an inch from the edge, but used without filling
with cotton. Sew to the end of looped tie wire and wind the wire with
brown gum tissue. Arrange in a cluster. Always warm the tissue before
using so that it will adhere.


These are made the same as cherries, except a cluster would have several
sizes. They are beautiful made from black velvet. A cluster of grapes to
sew flat to hat may be made by covering different sizes of button molds
and arranging them on a hat to look like a cluster.


Hats worn when one is in mourning are nearly always small and made of
black crêpe with a few folds of white crêpe near the face. The covering
of crêpe is always lined, preferably with sheet wadding to give the
soft appearance desired. The trimming is of milliner's folds or flat
flowers made of the crêpe.[98-1] The mourning veils used may have a
simple wide hem sewed down by hand or an applied hem. The applied hem is
much the handsomer finish.


For a hem three inches wide, cut a strip six inches in width and long
enough to reach around the edge of the veil plus three inches for each
corner. It takes that much extra length to mitre a corner of a
rectangular veil.

Fold this strip lengthwise in the middle and baste with fine running
stitches one inch from the fold to hold the fold flat. Measure this
strip at the edge of the veil to locate the place where the fold must be
mitred at the corners. Cut a V-shaped piece from this fold to within
one-quarter of an inch of the fold. Cut through both thicknesses. Sew
these raw edges together in a seam one-quarter of an inch deep and the
result will be a mitred corner. Each corner should be carefully planned
and mitred before sewing to the veil. Next turn both raw edges down
toward the inside one-quarter of an inch and baste separately. Slip the
edge of the veil between, pin carefully in place, baste and slipstitch
the edges to the veil. Both edges may be stitched at the same time. If
this work is carefully done, the result more than repays the time spent
upon it.

The veil is a very important part of the hat and may be adjusted in any
becoming way. It may form part of the covering of the hat, and is then
arranged in becoming folds toward the back and allowed to fall to any
desired length. It makes a becoming background for the face. Mourning
millinery is not used as much as formerly, but those who desire to
adhere to the custom will find the style little changed.


[Footnote 98-1: See chapter on "Flowers."]




BRIM--Brush well to remove all the dust. If the brim is too wide, a few
rows of braid may be removed from the edge, and the edge refinished with
one or more rows of ornamental braid of the same color. If it seems
necessary to use an edge wire, this last row of braid may be made to
cover it, or a bias fold of satin, silk, velvet, or ribbon may be sewed
over the wire.

CROWN--When the crown of a straw hat is found to be too low for the
present style, the crown may be ripped from the brim, a narrow piece of
buckram sewed to the bottom of the crown and then sewed back to the
brim. Of course trimming must be planned to cover up this buckram. If
the crown is too high, a few rows of braid may be removed at the bottom
of the crown, enough to give the desired height.


If the general outlines of a straw shape are found to be good, or if it
only needs slight reshaping, it can be done at home with satisfactory
results. It is really home-blocking by the use of heavy cardboard. A
rounded crown can be made flat on top, and a slightly rolling brim can
be made into a straight brim by using this method. It is a joy to take
an old, discarded, battered straw hat and make it into a fresh-looking
and up-to-date hat, a piece of work which any one may well be proud of.

Cut from a piece of heavy cardboard the exact shape and size of which
the crown top is to be made. Cut another the exact height of the crown
and long enough to fit around the head, allowing the ends to just meet.
Sew these pieces of cardboard together which will make a crown the exact
shape you wish. Dampen the straw crown sufficiently to make it very
pliable and pull it into shape over this cardboard crown. Turn the crown
upside down on a flat surface and place a weight in the crown. A
flatiron or a small stone jar will make a good weight. Bind the outside
firmly and smoothly with a cloth, pin in place, and leave to dry. After
it is thoroughly dry, remove the cloth, and before removing it from the
block, cover with a coating or two of some good coloring which may be
bought for the purpose. This can be procured in several colors, but must
be put on with a stiff brush and rubbed in well in order to produce an
even shade.

If the brim is rolling and is to be made flat, dampen it thoroughly,
press it down flat on a smooth surface, and cover with weights; leave
until dry, when a few coats of coloring may be applied. If the brim is
separate from the crown, the hat may be completely changed by slipping
the brim down over the crown, leaving it an inch or so from the bottom
on one side or in the back, making a bandeau which lends itself to
trimming of flowers, ribbons, or malines. In this case the bottom of the
crown would require a wire sewed on at the edge to keep it in shape. If
a high luster is desired, a coating of shellac may be applied the last
thing before trimming.


Light straw hats may be cleaned by the use of soap and water or
gasoline. If the hat is in need of bleaching, sulphur and water may be
used, or a commercial bleaching fluid may be bought all ready to use
according to printed directions. Two or three coatings of coloring will
change the color. Pleasing results are sometimes obtained by using two
different colors, one over the other. This, of course, requires
experience and should be tried out before using on a hat.


Rip carefully from the foundation; brush and press carefully. Some straw
will not stand dampening, so try out a small piece first. Place it on a
heavily-padded board and press on the wrong side.


It is much more satisfactory to send a Panama to a good professional
cleaner. A Panama hat may be made less severe-looking by the addition of
an underfacing on the brim of some sheer material, such as georgette or
crêpe de chine, finished off at the edge over a wire. The facing may be
put on top of the brim if desired. The entire crown is sometimes changed
by covering it with a figured chiffon drawn down tightly and finished at
the bottom with a band and bow of ribbon.

Another change might be made by covering the entire crown with flower
petals sewed down flat and intermingled with green leaves. They should
then be covered with a layer or more of maline. This is a good way to
use up old flowers. The flowers will stand a lot of retouching with
color when they are veiled.


When a covered buckram shape has become broken and out of shape, remove
all the covering. Dampen the frame and press with a hot iron. A roll of
cloth or paper must be held in the hand while pressing the crown. A
break in buckram is difficult to remove; however, if new material is not
available, much may be done with the old. Do not remove the headsize
wire unless a pencil mark is made where it is to be sewed.

If the headsize wire is too large or too small, now is the time to
change it. If the general shape of the brim is to be changed, remove the
edge wire and trim to the required width. If it is to droop or roll,
slash the brim from the outer edge to the headsize wire and lap
one-quarter of an inch at the edge. Slash in several places if
necessary. Sew close to both lapped edges of the buckram and cover with
a strip of muslin or crinoline sewed on flat.

If a brim is to be made more flat or flaring, slash and add V-shaped
pieces of buckram. If the headsize is entirely too large, this may be
remedied by dividing the brim into halves. Remove the headsize wire and
the edge wire, cutting through from front to back. Lap and sew; make the
headsize wire the required size and sew back on the brim. Trim the outer
edge of the brim and add the edge wire. The same thing may be done to
the crown. If too large, divide into halves and lap the edges until it
is the required size, or a piece of material may be added to make the
crown larger. The crown may be lowered by cutting a piece from the base,
or raised by adding a piece of heavy material at the base. When a
fabric-covered brim is changed it will be found difficult to use the old
covering, but it can sometimes be done.


If a buckram frame needs changing radically, it may be done by blocking
over a wire frame made for the purpose. The wire frame should have six
sticks instead of four, and circles not more than one inch apart, shaped
as desired. Old or new buckram, neteen, or any coarse material which has
been heavily starched, may be used. Wet the fabric thoroughly with warm

Block the crown first. Place the material over the crown and pull it
down until all the wrinkles are removed, pin closely to the headsize
wire all around. When dry, mark with a pencil all around close to the
headsize wire, remove from the frame, cut on the pencil mark and sew a
headsize wire on the edge. If there are marks of the wire to be removed,
hold a cloth on the inside of the crown and press lightly with a hot
iron. The brim is managed in the same way. Mark at the headsize, cut off
at this point one-half inch inside the mark, and sew a headsize wire on
the pencil mark. Mark at the edge wire, cut off at the pencil mark, and
finish with edge wire.


If the brim of a hat is past renewing, a new one may be made, or the
wire brim from an old hat may be used with a crown of velvet, or any
fabric or straw. The wire brim may be re-covered with georgette--an old,
half-worn waist will do nicely, using the back or sleeves, or any
portions that are not too badly worn. When a heavier crown is used, the
edge of a sheer brim should have a fold of material like the crown
sewed at the edge, or a row of straw when the crown is of straw braid.


When soiled, clean with gasoline and cornmeal. To restore the gloss, rub
the hat with a very fine piece of sandpaper which has been tacked over a
small block of wood. Rub with the nap. To complete the process, remove
the sandpaper and substitute a piece of velvet. Rub this on a hot iron,
then on beeswax. Continue the operation of rubbing the hat with the nap
until it is restored to its original freshness. The crown must be packed
with cloth before rubbing to keep it solid enough to do satisfactory
work. If the brim of a felt or beaver hat needs cutting down at the
edge, mark with a piece of chalk where the brim is to be cut. Sew on
this line with an unthreaded sewing machine several times, and the felt
will be cut through and the edge broken off at this point. This looks
much better than when cut with shears or with a knife.


To freshen velvet and raise the pile, brush well to remove the dust.
With the wrong side down, hold it over the spout of a tea-kettle of
rapidly boiling water. An assistant is needed to brush it lightly as it
is passed back and forth over the steam. The great force of the steam
will raise the pile much more quickly than the method of using a damp
cloth over a hot iron. If the velvet after steaming is found to be still
too imperfect or faded to be used on the hat plain, it may be gathered a
half inch apart or more and used either on the crown or the brim, or it
may be mirrored by ironing on the right side with a hot iron, always
ironing lightly one way, using a sweeping motion. Do not let the iron
rest for a second on the material or it will leave a mark.


Brush the crêpe with a fine brush to remove the dust. Clean in gasoline
if necessary. Crêpe may be made to look like new if pinned down smoothly
and evenly on a padded surface, a damp cloth placed over it, then a hot
iron passed over it without touching it, but near enough so that a
slight amount of steam will dampen the crêpe. Remove the cloth and allow
the crêpe to dry in place. Crêpe becomes shabby-looking quickly if not
given the best of care.


To clean, immerse the feather in gasoline to which has been added a few
spoonfuls of cornmeal. Draw the feather through the hands several times
until it is clean; rinse in clear gasoline and shake in the fresh air
till dry. A very light-colored or white feather may be tinted by
dissolving some oil paint in the gasoline used for rinsing.

To curl, draw the flues, a very few at a time, over a blunt knife. A
plume is rather difficult to sew on a hat and produce the desired
effect. The end of the quill may be sewed very firmly to the hat, while
the tip of the plume should not be sewed close to the hat, otherwise it
will look stiff.


If soiled, they may be cleaned in gasoline or soap and water, using a
brush. Do not rub or wring. Hang up to drip dry, or wind tightly around
a bottle and leave to dry. Do not press until after twenty-four hours,
if cleaned in gasoline. To produce extra stiffness, rinse in a weak
solution of sugar and water. It is also very easy to change the color of
ribbons by using any of the commercial cold dyes.


If flowers are faded, they may be touched up with water-color. If they
are pink, rouge may be used effectively. If the edges are much frayed,
trim them slightly with the shears. Green leaves may be dipped in hot
paraffine to restore their gloss, or pressed with a warm iron without
paraffine. Even very imperfect flowers may be made to look well if
veiled with maline or georgette.


Quills are sometimes improved by passing them between the thumb and
finger on which a small amount of vaseline or oil has been placed. A
quill may be curved by holding it over the spout of a tea-kettle of
rapidly boiling water. Place a dull knife on the underside and press the
quill hard enough to make a sharp dent. Do this every half inch. If the
quill is sufficiently steamed this may be accomplished easily, and the
result is permanent.


Loose feathers should be glued in place and the wing covered with maline
or a hair net of the same color. Wings may be covered with a coat of
shellac which stiffens them and gives them a very glossy look.


Most laces may be washed in warm, soapy water. Press gently in the
hands--do not rub. Press the water out after having rinsed the lace well
in warm water. Shake gently and pin down smoothly on a sheet, being
careful to stretch and pin each scallop in place. Allow it to dry. If
necessary press slightly with a warm iron on the wrong side. Some laces
are greatly improved by pressing.


Malines may be used to good advantage, even if parts are badly worn and
faded. Place a thin, damp cloth over them and press with a warm iron.
Allow to dry thoroughly before removing from the ironing-board.

     *     *     *     *     *     *

Transcriber's note

   The following typographical errors were corrected.

     Page  Change
     108   CREPE changed to CRÊPE
     110   WINGS changed to WINGS--

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