Home
  By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | HTML | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon


We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: The Book of Sports: - Containing Out-door Sports, Amusements and Recreations, - Including Gymnastics, Gardening & Carpentering
Author: Martin, William
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Book of Sports: - Containing Out-door Sports, Amusements and Recreations, - Including Gymnastics, Gardening & Carpentering" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



by Florida's Publication of Archival, Library & Museum
Materials (PALMM))



THE
BOOK OF SPORTS:

CONTAINING
OUT-DOOR SPORTS,
AMUSEMENTS AND RECREATIONS,
INCLUDING
GYMNASTICS, GARDENING & CARPENTERING,

For Boys and Girls.

BY

WILLIAM MARTIN,
AUTHOR OF "FIRESIDE PHILOSOPHY," "THE PARLOUR BOOK,"
"INTELLECTUAL CALCULATOR," ETC. ETC. ETC.

SECOND EDITION.

LONDON:
DARTON AND CO., HOLBORN HILL.

M.DCCC.LII.

J. WERTHEIMER AND CO., PRINTERS, FINSBURY CIRCUS.

[Illustration]



CONTENTS.


  PREFACE                                                   vii


  I. GAMES WITH MARBLES.
    Ring Taw                                                  9
    Lag Out or Knock Out                                     10
    Three Holes                                              12
    Arches                                                   13
    Bonce-Eye                                                13
    Sun and Planet Taw                                       15
    Pyramid                                                  19


  II. GAMES FOR COLD WEATHER.
    Prisoners' Base                                          21
    Stag Out                                                 22
    Warning                                                  23
    Mouse in the Corner                                      23
    King of the Castle                                       24
    Hippas                                                   24
    Thread the Needle                                        24
    Touch                                                    25
    Bowls                                                    26
    Quoits                                                   27
    Why and Because                                          27
    Bombardment of a Snow Castle                             29
    Bandy Ball or Golf                                       31
    Foot Ball                                                32
    Trussing                                                 32
    Follow my Leader                                         33
    Blindman's Buff                                          33
    Tip-Cat                                                  34
    Jingling                                                 35
    French and English                                       36


  III. DANGEROUS GAMES.
    Heap the Bushel                                          37
    Drawing the Oven                                         37
    Hop-Scotch                                               38
    Basting the Bear                                         38
    Buck, Buck                                               38


  IV. GYMNASTICS.                                            39
    Walking                                                  44
    Running                                                  45
    Leaping                                                  46
    Climbing                                                 49
    Rope Ladder                                              50
    Slant Board                                              50
    Vaulting                                                 50
    Balancing                                                51


  V. CRICKET.                                                55
    Laws of the Game of Double Wicket                        59
    The Bowler                                               61
    The Striker                                              62
    The Wicket-Keeper                                        64
    Laws for Single Wicket                                   65
    Bets                                                     67


  VI. SWIMMING.                                              69
    Preliminary Exercises in Swimming                        78
    Bernardi's System                                        83


  VII. GARDENING.                                            89
    How to keep a Garden all the year round, with
      directions for each month                             105


  VIII. CARPENTERING.                                       115
    Uses of the various Tools:--Plane, Chisel Gimlet,
      Mallet, Hammer, Files and Nails.                      116
    Stuff and Labour                                        121


  IX. KEEPING POULTRY.                                      123
    Nature and Situation of Fowl-House                      124
    The Various Breeds of Fowl                              126
    Choice of Stock                                         128
    Food and Feeding                                        128
    Laying                                                  129
    Preservation of Eggs                                    129
    Hatching Chickens                                       130


  X. BEES.                                                  131
    Queen Bee.--Drone.--Construction of Nests.--How
      to get a Stock of Bees.--Hiving                       134



PREFACE.


The prime object of this book is to induce and to teach boys and girls
to spend their hours out of school in such a manner, as to gain innocent
enjoyment while they promote their own health and bodily strength. The
Author has never lost sight of this object, considering it to be what
properly belongs to a Book of Sports.

He has, however, in many instances, had in view, in a subordinate
degree, the intellectual improvement of his young readers. He hopes that
several of the games, now described in print for the first time, will be
found, if not "royal roads," at least delightful ones, to the knowledge
of many scientific facts. There seems to be no good reason why the
_utile_ (considered intellectually as well as bodily) should not find
its place in the sports of young people, if it be so skilfully combined
with the _dulce_ as not to convert pleasure into toil.

To those who assent to what has been stated, the introduction of a
chapter on gardening will need no apology.



PART I.

GAMES WITH MARBLES.


One of the best games with marbles is

RING TAW.

[Illustration]

This is played in the following manner:--A circle should be drawn about
four feet in diameter, and an inner circle of about six inches being
also marked out in its centre, into this each boy puts a marble. "Now
then, boys, knuckle down at the offing, which is in any part of the
outer circle. Now, whoever shoots a marble out of the ring is entitled
to go on again: so mind your shots; a good shot may clear the ring.
After the first shot, the players do not shoot from the offing, but from
the place where the marble stops after it has been shot from the
knuckle. Every marble struck out of the ring belongs to the party who
hits it; but if the taw remains in the inner ring, either after it has
struck a marble or not, the player is out, and must put in all the
marbles he has won. If one player strike another player's taw, the
player to whom the taw belongs is out; and he must give up all the
marbles he has won to the player whose taw struck his."


LAG OUT OR KNOCK OUT.

This game is played by throwing a marble against the wall, which
rebounds to a distance. Others then follow; and the boy whose marble
strikes against any of the others is the winner. Some boys play the game
in a random manner; but the boy who plays with skill judges nicely of
the law of forces, that is, he calculates exactly the force of the
rebound, and the direction of it.

The first law of motion is, that everything preserves a state of rest,
or of uniform rectilineal (that is, straight, motion), unless affected
by some moving force.

Second law.--Every change of motion is always proportioned to the degree
of the moving force by which it is produced, and it is made in the line
of direction in which that force is impressed.

Third law.--Action and reaction are always equal and contrary, or the
mutual action of two bodies upon each other are always equal and
directed to contrary parts.

To illustrate the first of these laws,--a marble will never move from
the ground of itself, and once put in motion, it will preserve that
motion until some other power operates upon it in a contrary direction.

With regard to playing Lag Out so as to win, you must further understand
the principle of reflected motion. If you throw your marble in a
straight line against the wall, you find that it comes back to you
nearly in a straight line again. If you throw it ever so slightly on one
side, or obliquely, it will fly off obliquely on the opposite side. If
you throw the marble from the point C to the point B, it will fly off in
the direction of the point A, and if a marble lay there it would hit it;
but if you threw it from the point D, you would stand no chance.

         WALL
  _________________
          B
         /|\
        / | \
       /  |  \
      /   |   \
     /    |    \
    /     |     \
   /      |      \
  /       |       \
  C       D        A

In science, the angle C, B, D, is called the angle of incidence, and D,
B, A, is called the angle of reflection.


THREE HOLES.

[Illustration]

Three Holes is not a bad game. To play it, you must make three small
holes about four feet apart: then the first shot tries to shoot a marble
into the first hole. If he gets in, he goes from that to the second, and
then to the third hole, after which he returns, and having passed up and
down three times, he thus wins the game. If he cannot get in the first
hole, the second player tries; and when he stops short at a hole, the
third, and so on. After any player has shot his marble into a hole, he
may fire at any adversary's marble to drive him away, and, if he hits
him, he has a right to shoot again, either for the hole or any other
player. The game is won by the player who gets first into the last hole
and works his way back again to the first, when he takes all his
adversaries' marbles.


ARCHES.

[Illustration]

To play arches, the players must be provided with a board of the
following shape, with arches cut therein; each arch being a little more
than the diameter of a marble, and each space between the arches the
same.

  +-----------------------------------------------+
  |                                               |
  |   8    6    5    3    1    2    4    7    9   |
  |  +-+  +-+  +-+  +-+  +-+  +-+  +-+  +-+  +-+  |
  |  | |  | |  | |  | |  | |  | |  | |  | |  | |  |
  +--+ +--+ +--+ +--+ +--+ +--+ +--+ +--+ +--+ +--+

The boy to whom the bridge belongs receives a marble from each boy who
shoots, and gives to each the number of marbles over the arches should
they pass through them.


BONCE-EYE.

Bonce-Eye is played by each player putting down a marble within a small
ring, and dropping from the eye another marble upon them so as to drive
them out, those driven out being the property of the Boncer.

The law of falling bodies may be well illustrated by this game. It is
one of the laws of motion, that the velocities of _falling bodies_ are
in proportion to the space passed over; and the space passed over in
each instant increases in _arithmetical progression_, or as the numbers
1, 3, 5, 7, 9.

                  A
                /|
               /1|
              /__|B
            /|\ 3|
           /3|3\ |
          /__|__\|C
        /|\ 5|\ 5|
       /5|5\ |5\ |
      /__|__\|__\|D
    /|\ 7|\ 7|\ 7|
   /7|7\ |7\ |7\ |
  /__|__\|__\|__\|E

By the annexed diagram it will be seen, that if a marble fall from the
hand at A, when it reaches B it has only the quantity of velocity or
force expressed in the angle 1; but when it passes to C, it has the
quantity expressed in the three angles 3; when it passes to D, it has
the quantity expressed in the angle 5; when it passes to E, it has the
quantity expressed by the seven angles marked 7. Thus we may understand
why a tall boy has a better chance at Bonce-Eye than a short one.

It is found by experiment, that a body falling from a height moves at
the rate of 16-1/12 feet in the first second; and acquires a velocity of
twice that, or 32-1/6 feet, in a second. At the end of the next second,
it will have fallen 64-1/3 feet; the space being as the square of the
time. The square of 2 is 4; and 4 times 16-1/12 is 64-1/3; by the same
rule, it will be found, that in the third second it will fall 144-3/4
feet; in the fourth second, 257-1/3; and so on. This is to be
understood, however, as referring to bodies falling where there is no
air. The air has a considerable effect in diminishing their velocity of
descent.


SUN AND THE PLANET TAW.

[Illustration]

This is an entirely new game, and consists of the Sun in the centre,
which may be represented by a bullet, because the sun is the most
ponderous body of the system, and will in this game be required to move
slowly. The planets moving round him, with their satellites, I represent
by marbles. Now, each boy must take the place of a planet; and having
taken it, he is required to put down as many marbles as there are
satellites belonging to it. The boy who plays Mercury, puts down only
one for his planet; the boy who plays Venus does the same; he who plays
the Earth, has to put down one for the Earth, and one for the Moon, its
satellite; the boy who plays Mars puts down Mars and the four satellites
that lie between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter; the boy who plays
Saturn puts down one for the planet, and draws a ring round it, outside
of which he puts the seven satellites in any position he chooses; the
boy who plays the planet Herschel, puts down one for the planet, and six
for the satellites. Each boy, having taken his place in this manner,
lays down his taw on any part of the orbit of his planet he pleases,
being the point from which he must make his first shot.

The rules of the game are very easy; but it is necessary to be perfectly
acquainted with them, as it saves much trouble, and prevents disputes;
and no one ought to play till he understands them tolerably well.

1. The players must each put his marble into a hat, and turn down the
hat over the sun; then, as the marbles fall near or far from the sun,
the planets are taken.

2. The player who puts in Mercury has the first shot.

3. No planet can be taken till the Sun has been struck beyond the orbit
of Mercury.

4. The player who strikes the Sun beyond the orbit of Mercury, receives
from the person who holds the orbit, as many marbles as there are
planets or satellites in the orbit in which it stops.

5. The orbits are,--for Mercury, all the space between the Sun and him;
for Venus, the space between Venus and Mercury; for the Earth, the space
between the Earth and Venus; for Mars, the space between Mars and the
Earth; for Jupiter, the space between Jupiter and Mars; for Saturn, the
space between Saturn and Jupiter; for Herschel, the space between
Herschel and Saturn.

6. If a player succeeds in knocking the Sun on the line of his own
orbit, he receives one from every shooter so long as it remains there.

7. If the Sun is knocked against a planet, the player doing so has to
pay two to the owner of the planet.

8. If the Sun be struck within the orbit of a planet, the player
striking it receives one if for Herschel, two for Saturn, three for
Jupiter, four for Mars, five for the earth, six for Venus, and seven for
Mercury.

9. The player who succeeds in knocking the Sun beyond the orbit of
Herschel, wins the game; that is, he receives one from each player, and
all the marbles on the stake in the inner circle.


MOTIONS OF THE PLANETS AND THEIR SATELLITES.

10. When a planet is knocked out of the outer ring (the orbit of
Herschel), it belongs to him who strikes it out: the loser must replace
it by putting a marble down in its _original_ place.

11. When a planet is struck within the orbit of any other planet, the
player striking it there has to pay him to whom the orbit belongs, as
many marbles as there are satellites.

12. Should a player's taw, after it has struck another taw, a planet, or
a satellite, fall into its own orbit, he has to put one in the inner
ring as stakes for the winner of the game.

13. If a player gets his taw within the inner ring, it must remain there
for the winner, and he cannot play any more.

14. If a player has all his satellites taken, he then becomes a Comet,
and can shoot from any part of any of the orbits every time the Sun is
struck.

15. No player can shoot at his own planet or satellite.

16. Any player who strikes a planet or satellite within Saturn's ring,
forfeits three to the inner circle. If he strikes the Sun, then he may
take up Saturn and all his satellites remaining within his orbit.

17. After the first shot, every player must shoot from the place at
which his taw rests.

       *       *       *       *       *

Such are the laws of Sun and Planet Taw, and it will be found that in
playing the game, some degree of thought is requisite, and a little
calculation respecting the moves. It may be judicious for a good shooter
to keep the Sun within the orbits as long as possible; or till such time
as the inner ring gets _fat_ with the forfeitures, or he may drive him
from orbit to orbit where the forfeitures are large. He will endeavour
to place him on the line of his own orbit. He may also strive to place
his adversaries' taws within the inner ring, and to be careful in
striking planets that they fall into the orbits where the forfeitures
are small. By thus thinking of what he is about and exercising
forethought and prudence, he will soon become expert, and by paying
attention to the game he will make it his own.


PYRAMID.

To play Pyramid, a small circle of about two feet in diameter should be
made on the ground, in the centre of which is a pyramid formed by
several marbles,--nine being placed as the base, then a layer of four,
and one on the top; and the Pyramid keeper asks his playmates to shoot.
Each player gives the keeper one for leave to shoot at the Pyramid, and
all that he can strike out of the circle belong to him.



PART II.

GAMES FOR COLD WEATHER.


[Illustration]

One of the best of these is called

"PRISONERS' BASE."

To play this, there must be a number of boys, not less than eight or
ten, and as many more as can be got together. To commence it, two
semicircles are drawn against a wall or hedge at the opposite sides of
the playground. These are called the BOUNDS.

Two other spaces are then marked out a little away from these to the
right or to the left. These places are called the PRISONS.

The game is commenced by a player from one side running out midway
between the bounds or prisons, a player from the other side immediately
following to capture him; one from the other side follows after the
second to capture him, and so on, both parties sending out as many as
they think fit. The object of each player is to intercept and touch any
player of the opposite side _who has left his bounds before him_, but he
is not at liberty to touch any that have started after him; it being
their privilege, if they can, to touch _him_ before he gets back to his
own bounds. A player must touch only one person each time he leaves
bounds, and cannot be touched by another after he has taken a prisoner.
Every player who is touched, must go to the prison belonging to his
adversaries, where he must remain until one of his own side can touch
him; and prisoners can neither touch nor be touched in their return to
their own bounds again. The game is won by that side which has taken all
the other party prisoners.


STAG OUT.

In this game, one boy personates the Stag, and with his hands closed
together, starts from his bounds after the other players. When he
succeeds in touching one who is called the Ass, the first who gets to
him rides him back to the bounds. The two then go out in the same
manner, then three, and so on, till the whole are caught.


WARNING.

This game is something similar to another very good game called
"Warning," which may be played by any number of players. One begins the
game in the same manner as in "Stag Out," repeating the following
words,--"Warning once, warning twice, warning thrice--A bushel of wheat,
and a bushel of rye, when the cock crows, out jump I--Cock a doodle
doo." He then runs out and touches the first he can overtake, who
returns to bounds with him. The two then join hands and sally forth, and
touch a third, who joins hands with the other two: again they sally
hand-in-hand, the two outside ones touching as many as they can.
Immediately a player is touched, they must break hands and run back to
the bounds. If any of the out-players can catch any of those who held
hands, they may ride them back to their bounds. When three are touched,
he who first begins the game has the privilege of joining the
out-players, whose object is always to break the line.


MOUSE IN THE CORNER.

In this game, one of the players takes the part of Puss, and places
himself in the centre, and the others playing take up their positions in
the four corners of the playground. Each of the players calls out,
"Puss, puss, puss, pretty puss,--how do you do pussy," and endeavour to
pass from corner to corner. The players are at liberty to change corners
in all directions, and if Puss can touch one when he is away from his
corner, the one so touched, after giving Puss a ride round the ground,
becomes Puss, or if Puss can take a vacant corner, the player without a
corner must do the same,--give Puss a ride round and become Puss.


KING OF THE CASTLE.

This is not a bad game. One player, called King of the Castle, places
himself on a little rising mound; the other players endeavour to push or
pull him from his elevation, and whoever succeeds in this, takes his
place.


HIPPAS.

[Illustration]

This game is something like the preceding, only that one boy mounts on
the back of another, who is called his Horse, another boy does the same,
and the two mounted boys endeavour to pull each other from the saddle.
This play is harmless when a soft piece of turf is chosen, but dangerous
on the stones or hard ground.


THREAD THE NEEDLE.

This is a good game,--any number of boys may play it. It is begun by
joining hands; and the two outside players at each end commence the game
by the following dialogue:--

    How many miles to Babylon?
      Three score and ten.
    Can I get there by candle-light?
      Yes, and back again.
    Then open the gates without more ado,
    And let the king and his men go through.

The player who stands at the opposite end of the line, now elevates his
hand, joined in that of the player next him, to form the needle's eye,
and the other outside player approaches running, and the whole line
follow him through, if possible, without breaking. This is continued,
each end holding up their hands successively, till the players are tired
of the sport.


TOUCH.

This is a game of speed. One volunteers to be Touch, and he pursues the
other players till he comes up with one of them and touches him; unless
the player so touched can say, "I touch iron," or, "I touch wood,"
before he is touched, he becomes Touch, and must give the player who
touched him a ride home. A player is liable to be touched only when
running from one piece of wood or iron to another.

There is another and a better game of Touch, called "Cross Touch," which
is played thus:--One volunteers to be Touch, and sallies forth from his
bounds. While he is pursuing one of the players, a third player runs
between him and the player pursued, and touch must then follow the one
who crosses till another crosses them, and so on, till at length the
whole playground will become a scene of activity and sport.


BOWLS.

     "I will play at _Bowls_ with the sun and moon."--_Byron._

     "He who plays _Bowls_ must expect rubbers."--_Bowles._

This is one of the best of games for hot or cold weather, for it is
excellent exercise, and requires skill and judgment. Few requisites are
required for it, but a level lawn, or tolerably level field, is
indispensable, as are the bowls, the Jack, and the players.

In playing bowls, partners may be chosen, if there are many players, or
the game may be played by two persons. When, however, there are three or
four of a side, there is more interest attached to the game. The best
player of my time was the good old schoolmaster, Mr. Fenn, from whom I
obtained all the particulars concerning Bowls.

The bowls used at this game are of wood, loaded with lead, or _biassed_,
as it is called, namely, there is one side thicker than the other, which
is marked, and this may be held either near or away from the thumb as it
may be required to lay the ball. No writer in a book can teach this, as
it depends upon the nature of the ground, and the situation of the balls
already bowled.

Before commencing the game, the first player leads out a small white
ball, called a Jack; he then lays his own balls as near to it as
possible; the players then follow in succession, but no partners follow
each other till the whole balls are delivered, and those who obtain the
nearest points to the Jack score one for each ball.

The number making the game is arbitrary, but eleven is generally fixed
upon. Of course it would be more were there a great number of bowlers.
The sport of the game consists in driving your opponent's ball from the
Jack, and putting your own near it. When one side scores eleven before
their opponents get five, it is called a _lurch_. The players at Bowls
change the Jack from one side of the green to the other after the whole
of each side have bowled once.


QUOITS.

     "_Quoit_ me down, Bardolph."--_Shakspeare._

The game of Quoits resembles Bowls. It is played with flat rings of iron
of various weights. At a certain number of paces apart (to be agreed
upon), two circular pins of iron are driven into the ground. The players
beginning the game stand at one of these pins, called the Hob, and pitch
the quoits to the other, each person having two. When all the quoits are
cast from one Hob, the players walk to the other and pitch to the first,
and so on in succession.

Those who get nearest to the Hob, are, of course, nearest to the game,
and each pair of quoits counts two,--each single quoit, one; but if a
quoit belonging to A lies nearest to the Hob, and a quoit belonging to B
the second, A can claim but one towards the game, although all his other
quoits may be nearer to the Hob than all those of B, as the quoit of B
is said, technically, to have _cut them out_.


WHY AND BECAUSE.

[Illustration]

This is also a new game, and one of those that combine amusement and
instruction. To play it, a king must be chosen, who is called "King of
the Shy," who sets up a brick on its end and puts a stone upon it, as a
mark for the players to bowl their stones at, which they do
successively. When a player has bowled, if he knocks the stone off the
brick, he may take up his own stone and run back to his bounds, if he
can do so before the king sets his brick and stone up again; but if the
King can touch the player after having set his brick up, he is obliged
to answer a "Why," or be King instead of him. The "Why" must be proposed
by the King, and it may either be a conundrum, or it may contain the
reason of any thing, as, "Why does a stone fall to the ground?" "What
makes the smoke go up the chimney?" If the player cannot answer the
"Why," he is obliged to mind the shy and let the others bowl. Sometimes
it will happen, that of all the boys who have bowled at the shy, not one
has thrown it down; the King then looks sharply at each one who tries to
take up his stone, to touch him. It generally happens, that whilst the
King is pursuing one, who has taken up his stone, to touch him, all the
rest take to their stones, and make off home. But it should have been
said, that by the place from which they bowl, a string is stretched for
a leap, over which a player running from the King is obliged to jump
before he is considered home.

(_Some good Conundrum Questions for this game will be found in the "Book
of Sports," on In-Door Amusements._)


BOMBARDMENT OF A SNOW CASTLE.

There is no game like this for promoting warmth and exercising the
ingenuity. To play this, a Snow Castle, Tower, and Fort must be
constructed, and a Bombardment got up.

When the snow is on the ground, let a party go into a meadow and divide
themselves into two companies, and appoint a general to each. Each
company then takes up its respective position, and proceeds to build a
fort and castle, for defence, on each side; the dexterity with which the
work is performed, and the celerity with which it is accomplished, being
much in favour of those who play. During the building of the castle,
some must be employed as sharp-shooters, who must annoy the builders on
each side with snow balls, and some must be employed in making a store
of snow balls for the magazine. When the castle is commenced, the first
thing to be done is, for several of the builders to make a roll of snow
about eighteen inches in length, and as thick as his arm, and to roll
this on the snow, which will attach itself to it till it forms a large
ball as high as the builders's shoulders. This must be turned over on
its flat side, and as many more as can be arranged in the following
manner, for a fort (supposing the other side to be erecting a castle).
The foundation thus being laid, other balls not quite so large must be
rolled up and laid on the former, so as to make the rampart about four
feet high. Behind this, a single line of snow balls must be placed,
about one foot in height, on which the attacking party may mount to
discharge their balls to the castle opposite. On elevated parts of the
forts, long sticks with pocket-handkerchiefs, as flags, must be raised,
and in the centre, a larger flag should be placed, and it must be the
object of the opposite party to demolish them with their balls. When a
player wishes to throw a ball, he mounts upon one of the inner partings
of snow, discharges his shot, and jumps down behind the parapet for more
shot. The party on the opposite side may build their castle as they
please; but each party should watch each other's movements, and build
their different places of defence or annoyance in such a manner as to
defend themselves and annoy the enemy in the most effective manner. It
may be observed, that the fort must be so constructed with reference to
the castle, that it is brought to bear on every point of it. The two
ends are towers, which should be a foot higher than the ramparts, and
should be made by three snow balls laid one upon the other,--the last
one being turreted, with room for one boy to mount to the top, if
necessary, to discharge his shots. The highest place of all, is the
keep, and should be at least six feet high, with room and steps behind
for two boys to mount. Convenient places should be left behind, where
the ammunition should be piled up.

When the fort or castle is built, each party uses its best efforts for
the demolition of the other, but no one is allowed to make use of his
hands in the demolition of either castle or fort; battering-rams may
alone be employed. In ancient times, battering-rams were large beams,
hooped and shod with iron; but the moderns do things better, and the way
in which it may be done is as follows:--A boy who volunteers to be
battering-ram has his legs tied and then two other boys take him up,
and, swinging him by the arms and legs, force his feet against the
walls of the castle or fort to batter it down, the opposite party
pouring on them, all the while, snow balls heated to a white heat from
the ramparts above. Parties also may go out from one side to the other,
as in playing "Hippas," mounted, and may meet in the open space and
endeavour to pull each other from their horses. If a player on either
side can break over the fort and capture one of the flags without being
touched, he may bring it off and place it on his own ramparts as a
trophy, and the party from whom the flag is captured must not replace
it; but if in this act he is touched, he becomes a prisoner, and must
make snow-balls for his adversaries. Every one who is thrown down,
either from his horse or by any other means, is considered a dead man,
and can do nothing but make snow-balls for the opposite party. When the
flags are all struck on either side by being shot away, or when the men
are all taken prisoners or slain, or when the ramparts are demolished,
the victors may sing, "Old Rose and burn the Bellows."


BANDY BALL OR GOLF.

This game is played with a bat and a small ball; and the game consists
in driving the ball into certain holes made in the ground. Sometimes
these holes from first to last, are at the distance of half a mile or
even more from each other. There are many intervening holes. Those who
drive the ball into the greatest number of holes, of course win the
game; but the ball must never be driven beyond a hole without first
going into it. If the ball passes in the way beyond a hole, the player
is out.


FOOT BALL.

Foot Ball is a very simple game. A large soft ball is procured (which is
now made of Gutta Percha), and the players having assembled and taken
sides, a line is drawn across the playground, and the play commences.
The object of the play is, for each party to kick the ball across the
goal of the other, and to prevent it from passing their own. The party
into whose bounds the ball is kicked, loses the game.


TRUSSING.

This is an excellent game. In some places it is called "Cock Fighting."
To play it, two players must be matched against each other, and one is
sometimes called "Black Cock," and the other "White Cock." They are
seated on a carpet, or, what is better, the floor of the play-room, and
undergo the operation of "trussing." This is performed as follows:--The
hands are first tied with a handkerchief at the wrists. The ancles are
tied in the same manner. The Cock then has his hands brought to his
instep, while his knees pass between his arms, and a short stick is
thrust in under the knees and over the joints of the elbow, and secured
in this situation. The fight now begins by each Cock advancing towards
his enemy, and when they come close to each other, each endeavours, by
inserting his toes under the other's feet, to capsize him and throw him
over on the side; and whoever does this, is entitled to _crow_, and is
winner of the game. There is often a good deal of fun in this game, and
the players can rarely hurt each other.


FOLLOW MY LEADER.

[Illustration]

Follow my Leader is a very good game; and when the Leader is a droll
boy, causes much fun and laughter. The leader starts off at a moderate
pace, and all the other boys, in a line, one after the other, follow
him. They are not only bound to follow him, but do exactly what he does.
If he hops on one leg, or crawls on the ground, or coughs, or sneezes,
or jumps, or rolls, or laughs, all must do the same. If any boy fail to
follow his Leader, he is called the "Ass," and must be ridden by the boy
next him. Sometimes the Leader will leap a ditch, climb a tree, or run
into a river. But boys should be careful of very mad pranks in this
sport.


BLINDMAN'S BUFF.

In this game, a person is blindfolded, and endeavours to catch any one
of the players, who, if caught, is blindfolded and takes his place.

There is another Game something resembling it, called SHADOW BUFF. A
piece of white linen is thrown over a line across the room; between this
screen and close to the wall on one side, a candle is placed, and on the
other side, Buffy is obliged to stand, while the players moving between
the candle and linen show their shadows through it, and Buffy has to
distinguish each person by his shadow. When he does this, the player so
found out becomes Buffy and takes his place.


TIP-CAT.

For this game a piece of wood must be procured about six inches in
length and two inches thick, of the following shape:--

[Illustration]

that is, of a double curve. It will be seen by the shape of this, that
it will fly up as easily as a ball when it is laid in the trap, for the
striker has only to tap one end of it, and up it flies, making many a
summerset as it rises; while it is performing this turn-over motion,
which philosophers call the rotatory, the striker makes a blow at it and
sends it whither he pleases.

The proper way to play the game, is as follows:--A large ring is made on
the ground, in the middle of which the striker takes his station; he
then tips the Cat and endeavours to strike it out of the ring; if he
fail in this, he is out, and another player takes his place. If he
strike the Cat out of the ring, he judges with his eye the distance the
Cat is driven from the centre of the ring, and calls for a number, at
pleasure, to be scored towards the game. The place is now measured by
the stick with which the Cat is struck, and if the number called be
found to exceed the same number of lengths of the cudgel, he is out, but
if it does not, he obtains his call. Another method of playing, is to
make four, six, or eight holes in the ground in a circular direction, at
equal distances from each other, and at every hole is placed a player
with his cudgel. One of the party who stands in the field, tosses the
Cat to the batsman who is nearest to him, and every time the Cat is
struck, the players must change their situations and run over from one
hole to another in succession. If the Cat be driven to any great
distance, they continue to run in the same order, and claim a score
towards their game every time they quit one hole and run to another. But
if the Cat be stopped by their opponents, and thrown across between any
two of the holes before the player who has quitted one of them can reach
the other, he is out.


JINGLING.

This game is common to the West of England, and is called a "Jingling
Match." It is played by a number of players being blindfolded within a
ring formed for the game, and one or two others, termed the "Jinglers,"
not blindfolded, with a bell fastened to their elbow, also enter the
ring. The blinded players have to catch the Jingler, who moves about
rapidly from place to place. He who catches the Jingler wins the game;
but if after a certain time, agreed upon previously by the players, the
Jingler is not caught, he is declared the victor.


FRENCH AND ENGLISH.

French and English is another good game. A rope being provided, two
players stand out, and after having cleeped for first choice, select the
partners. After an equal number has been selected for each side, one
party attaches itself to one end of the rope, and the other party lays
hold of the other: a line is then made on the ground, and each party
endeavours to pull the other over this line. The party succeeding in
this, wins the game.



PART III.

DANGEROUS GAMES.


And now that we have given a description of some good games, it may be
as well to warn our readers of some bad or foolish ones, which are
either calculated to spoil their clothes, make them very dirty, or are
dangerous to their limbs.


HEAP THE BUSHEL.

This is a very dangerous game, if it can be called a game. Should one
boy happen to fall, it is the practice of other boys to fall upon him
and to "Heap the Bushel," as it is called, all the other boys leaping on
the one already down. It sometimes happens, that those underneath are
seriously injured; and the sport is seldom engaged in without
quarrelling among the players, and sometimes it leads to a fight.


DRAWING THE OVEN.

This is another dangerous game. It consists of several players being
seated on the ground in a line, clasped by each other round the waist:
when all are thus united, two others take the foremost one, and
endeavour by pulling and tugging to _break him off_ from the rest. Thus
the united strength of several boys before, and as many behind, is made
to act upon the one in front, and an arm may be dislocated by a sudden
jerk, not to say anything about a broken neck.


HOP-SCOTCH.

This is a silly game. It is calculated to wear out the shoes.


BASTING THE BEAR.

This is another silly game. A boy, who is called the "Bear," kneels down
on the ground in a ring marked out, to let the other boys beat him with
their twisted or knotted handkerchiefs. The master of the Bear, who
holds him by the rope, endeavours to touch one of the assailants; if he
succeeds in doing this, without pulling the Bear out of his circle, or
letting go the rope, the player touched becomes Bear in his turn. But it
is calculated to spoil the clothes of the Bear, and sometimes, should he
kneel on a sharp stone, may do him much injury.


BUCK, BUCK.

"Buck, Buck, how many horns do I hold up?" is also a stupid game. It
neither requires speed, nor agility, nor wit. The game is played by one
boy resting his head against a wall and making a back, upon which the
other jumps, who, when seated, holds up as many of his fingers as he
pleases, and cries, "Buck, Buck, how many horns do I hold up?" The
player who is leaped upon, now _makes a guess_; if he guesses correctly,
it is his turn to leap, if not, the leaper leaps again. But there is
little good in all this, and it ought not to be encouraged.



PART IV.

GYMNASTICS.


All boys, and girls too, ought to train themselves to habits of agility,
and nothing is more calculated to do this than Gymnastics, which may be
rendered a source of health and amusement.

In all playgrounds, a piece of ground should be laid out; and there
should be erected thereon, a couple of posts, about twenty feet apart,
and sixteen feet high, which should support a plank, about a foot wide,
and six inches thick; on the underside of this might be affixed a hook,
from which a triangle might be swung,--this is capable of being used in
a variety of ways. Two more hooks, about a foot apart, might be used for
two ropes, so that the more advanced pupils could climb to the top by
means of grasping a rope in each hand, and without the assistance of the
feet. A pole may rise from the ground to the cross piece about midway:
the pupils will be able to climb up this without the assistance of the
feet. A wood ladder and rope ladder may occasionally be fastened to the
beam, but may, when necessary, be taken down. A board about a foot broad
may also be set up against the beam, inclining four feet from the
perpendicular: the climber will grasp the sides with his hands, and
placing his feet almost flat against the board, will proceed to the top:
this is an advanced exercise. Another board may be set up which should
be three feet broad, at least, and should slant more than the other: the
pupil will run up this to the top of the beam easily, and down again.
The middle of this, up to the top, should be perforated with holes about
four inches apart, in which a peg may be placed: this may be in the
first hole to begin with. The pupil will run up and bring this down, and
then run up and put it in the second, and so on, till he has arrived at
the top: then two or more pegs may be used, and it may be varied in many
ways. A pole, twenty-five or thirty feet high should be erected, rather
thin towards the top: at distant intervals of this, three or four pegs,
as resting places, should be fastened; another pole, thicker, from about
sixteen to twenty feet high, should be erected; on the top of which
should be placed four projecting hooks turning on a pivot: to these
hooks four ropes should be attached, reaching to within two feet from
the ground. This is called the "Flying Course," from an individual
taking hold of the peg at the end of each rope.

One person may cross a rope under the one in possession of another, and
by pulling round hard, make the other fly over his head. Care should be
taken to make the hooks at the top quite secure, for otherwise many
dangerous accidents might ensue. A cross pole might also be set up, but
most of the exercises for which this is used, may be performed by the
triangle. On the parallel bars, several beneficial exercises may be
done, and also on the bridge. This is a pole thick at one end, thin at
the other, and supported at three or four feet from the ground by a post
at one end and another in the middle, so that the thin end vibrates with
the least touch. This, it will be evident, is an exercise for the organ
of equilibrium, and exercises the muscles of the calf, of the neck, and
anterior part of the neck, and those of the back, very gently. On this
bridge a sort of combat may be instituted,--two persons meeting each
other, giving and parrying strokes with the open hands. The string for
leaping is also another very pleasing exercise. It is supported by a
couple of pegs on two posts fastened in the ground. The string may be
heightened and lowered at pleasure,--it may be raised as high as the
leaper's head when a leaping-pole is used. Besides these arrangements, a
trench about a foot and a half deep should be dug, and widening
gradually from one foot to seven, for the purpose of exercising the long
leap either with or without the aid of the pole. Such are the general
arrangements of a gymnasium, but before the youth enters upon regular
exercises, he may commence with a few preliminary ones.


FIRST COURSE.

EXERCISE 1. The pupil should hold out his hand at arm's length, until he
can hold it out no longer, and repeat it until he has power in the
muscles, to continue it, without fatigue, for a considerable length of
time.

2. Stand on one foot till he is tired, and repeat this for a similar
period.

3. Hold out both arms parallel with his chin, letting the thumbs and
fingers touch each other.

4. Hold the hands behind the back in a similar manner, the arms being
stretched as far backward as possible, and hold the hands high.

[Illustration]

5. Hold up the right foot by the right hand, extending the leg and arm
by degrees.

6. Hold up the left foot in the same manner.

7. Stand with the knees bent, and exercise them towards the ground,
until he can kneel on both knees at once without supporting himself as
he drops.

8. Raise himself from this position without the aid of his hands, by
springing back on his toes.

9. Endeavour to touch both his toes, with the back straight, the legs
close together, and the head down.

10. Take a piece of wood, three inches broad, and twenty long, that will
not bend, and hold it across the back, the three first fingers touching
the wood.

[Illustration]

11. Endeavour to sit, but not touch the ground, nor let any part of his
body touch his heels, with his arms stretched out in a line with his
chin.

12. Stand with his arms and legs extended, so as to form the letter X.


SECOND COURSE.

Let the pupil:--

13. Lie down on his back, and raise his body from an horizontal to a
vertical position, without any assistance from the hands or elbows.

14. Draw up the legs close to the posterior part of the thighs, and rise
without other assistance.

[Illustration]

15. Extend himself on his back again, and walk backwards with the palms
of his hands and his feet.

16. Sustain the weight of the whole body upon the palms and the toes,
the face being towards the ground.

[Illustration]

17. Lie on his back, and take hold of each foot in his hands, and throw
himself on his face by rolling over.

18. Lie with the face down, and take hold of his toes while in that
position.

[Illustration]

19. With his chest downwards, drag his body along by walking only with
his hands.

20. Place himself on his back, and endeavour to advance by means of the
propulsion of the feet.

21. Place his body on his hands and feet, with the breast upwards, and
endeavour to bring the lips to the ground.

22. Lean on the breast and palms of the hands, and throw the legs over
towards the back of the head.

23. Stretch himself on the back, and extending the hands beyond the
head, at the utmost stretch, touch the ground, and, if possible, bring
up a piece of money, previously to be placed there.

24. In the same manner, endeavour to seize a ball by the toes at full
length.


WALKING.

These preliminary exercises having been practised, the young pupil will
commence a course of more advanced exercises, such as walking, running,
leaping, balancing, vaulting, and climbing. Walking is common to all,
but few persons have a good walk, and nothing exhibits the person to so
much disadvantage as a slovenly bad gait. It is true, that the walk of a
person will indicate much of his character. Nervous people walk
hurriedly, sometimes quick, sometimes slow, with a tripping and
sometimes a running step; phlegmatic people have a heavy, solid, and
loitering step; the sanguine man walks rapidly, treads somewhat briskly
and firmly; while the melancholic wanders, and seems almost unconscious
of touching the ground which he seems to slide over. But the qualities
of the mind itself manifest themselves in the gait. The man of high
moral principle and virtuous integrity, walks with a very different step
to the low sensualist, or the cunning and unprincipled knave; therefore
the young pupil will be sure that even the art of walking, which seems
to be an exertion purely physical, will not be acquired properly if his
mind has taken a vicious and unprincipled bias: it will either indicate
his pride or his dastardly humility, his haughty self-sufficiency, or
his mean truckling to the opinion of others, his honest independence, or
his cringing servility. But he who has been blessed with the full use of
his muscular powers, in proportion as he is virtuous, will, with a very
little attention, indicate by his bearing, step, and carriage, the
nobility of his mind.

In walking, the arms should move freely by the side--they act like the
fly-wheel of an engine, to equalise the motion of the body, and to
balance it. One hand in the breeches pocket, or both, indicates the sot,
and has a very bad appearance. The head should be upright, without,
however, any particular call being made upon the muscles of the neck to
support it in that position, so that it may move freely in all
directions. The body should be upright, and the shoulders thrown
moderately backwards, displaying a graceful fall. When the foot reaches
the ground, it should support the body, not on the toe or heel, but on
the ball of the foot. This manner of walking should be practised daily,
sometimes in a slow, sometimes in a moderate walk, and sometimes in a
quick pace, until each is performed with elegance and ease.


RUNNING.

In running, as the swiftness of the motion steadies the body in its
course, without the aid of the oscillations of the arms, they are
naturally drawn up towards the sides, and, bent at the elbows, form a
right angle. Their motion is almost suspended in very swift running. In
moderate running, a gentle oscillation is observed, increasing in
proportion as the body approaches to the walking pace. The knees are now
more bent,--the same part of the foot does not touch the ground, the
body being carried forward more by the toes. The degree of velocity is
acquired in proportion to the length and quickness of the steps. The
person should therefore endeavour to ascertain whether long or short
steps suit his muscular powers best; generally speaking a moderately
short step, quickly repeated, accelerates motion most. In learning to
run, the pupil should first endeavour to improve his breath by degrees:
he must try his speed first in short distances, to be gradually
increased: the distance will vary according to the age and strength of
the runner. The first exercises in running should commence at a gentle
trot over a distance of a hundred and fifty yards, at the rate of about
six feet to a second: this should be varied up to eight feet in a
second, for the first three or four days, and the distance increased
from one hundred and fifty to two hundred and fifty yards. On following
days, the distance may be increased to five hundred yards, and
afterwards gradually, until a mile can be performed in ten minutes,
which is tolerably good running. Afterwards, six miles may be tried in
an hour, which will be easily accomplished.

As regards rapid running, from one hundred feet to one hundred yards may
be attempted at full speed, and when the constitution is good, the body
not too fat, the muscular developments fine, and the lungs sound, a
quarter of a mile a minute may be accomplished, and a mile in five
minutes, which is seldom done even in very good running. Ten miles an
hour, which is the average speed of the mail, may, however, be easily
performed with judicious and proper training.


LEAPING.

In leaping, that with the run, is the most common and the most useful.
The object of the run is to impart to the nerves of the body a certain
quantity of motion which may carry it onwards after the propelling power
has ceased to act when the body leaves the ground. The run need not
exceed twelve or fifteen paces: in this the steps are small and rapid.
When the body leaves the ground, the legs are drawn up, one foot
generally a little more than the other; and a great thing to be avoided,
is coming to the ground on the heels. When springing, the height of the
leap must be calculated, the breath held, the body pressed forward, and
the fall should be upon the toes and the ball of the foot, although in
an extended leap this is impossible. Leaping must, like running, be
practised gradually; in the high leap, a person may easily accomplish
the height of his own body, and should practise with the bar, which may
be made of two upright posts bored, through which ropes should be placed
according to the height required for the leap: on these should be hung a
string with weights attached to each end to keep it straight. Should the
leaper touch it with his feet as he takes his leap, it will be thrown
off the pegs, thus showing that he did not make a clean leap.

The deep leap may be acquired from the top of a bank into a hollow, and
is useful in leaping from the top of a house or wall in a moment of
danger. It may be practised from a flight of steps, ascending a step at
a time to increase the height, till the limbs can bear the shocks, to
break which, the body must be kept in a bent position, so that its
gravity has to pass through many angles. The leaper should always take
advantage of any rivulet that has one bank higher than the other, to
practise himself.

In the long leap, a person ought to be able to clear with a run, three
times the length of his body.

[Illustration]

The high leap, the deep leap, and the long leap, may be all practised
with the pole. For the high leap, the pole should be taken with the
right hand, about the height of the head, and with the left hand, about
the height of the hips; when put to the ground, the leaper should spring
with the right foot, and pass by the left of the pole, and swing round
as he alights, so as to face the place he leaped from. In the deep leap,
the pole being placed the depth you have to leap, the body should be
lowered forward, and then, the feet being cast off, swing round the pole
in the descent. The long leap, with the pole, is performed much in the
same manner.

[Illustration]


CLIMBING.

[Illustration]

In climbing the rope, the hands are to be moved one above the other
alternately; the feet should be crossed, and the rope held firmly by
their pressure: sometimes the rope may be made to pass along the right
thigh just above the knee, and wind round the thigh under the knee.

In climbing the upright pole, the feet, legs, knees, and hands touch the
pole. Taking a high grasp of the pole, the climber raises himself by
bending his body, drawing up and holding fast by the legs, and so on
alternately.


THE ROPE LADDER.

The climber must keep the body stretched out, and upright, so as to
prevent the steps, which are loose, from being bent forward.

The oblique rope must be climbed with the back turned towards the
ground, the legs crossed and thrown over, so that the rope passes under
the calf, and thus he must work himself up by raising his hands one
above the other alternately.

The exercises on the ladder are:--1. To ascend and descend rapidly. 2.
To ascend and descend with one hand. 3. Without using the hand. 4.
Passing another person on the ladder, or swinging to the back to let
another pass.


THE SLANT BOARD.

[Illustration]

This should be seized with both hands, the feet being placed in the
middle. The board should be considerably aslant when first attempted,
and gradually brought towards the perpendicular.


VAULTING.

This exercise may be practised on that part of the balancing bar between
the posts. It may be performed with or without running: it should,
however, be commenced with a short run. The height should be, to
commence, about the pit of the stomach, which should be increased to the
height of the individual.


BALANCING.

There are two kinds of balancing to which we shall allude; namely, the
balancing of other bodies, and the balancing of our own.

All feats of balancing depend upon the centre of gravity being uniformly
preserved in one position. The centre of gravity is that point, about
which all the other parts exactly balance each other. If a body be
freely suspended upon this point, it will rest with security, and as
long as this point is supported, it will never fall, while in every
other position it will endeavour to descend to the lowest place at which
it can arrive. If a perpendicular line were drawn from the centre of
gravity of a body to the centre of the earth, such a line would be
termed the line of direction, along which every body supported
endeavours to fall. If this line fall within the base of a body, such a
body will be sure to stand.

[Illustration]

When the line of direction is thrown beyond its centre, unless the base
be enlarged to counterbalance it, the person or body will fall. A person
in stooping to look over a deep hole, will bend his trunk forward; the
line of direction being altered, he must extend his base to compensate
for it, which he does by putting his foot a step forward. A porter
stoops forward to prevent his burthen from throwing the line of
direction out of the base behind, and a girl does the same thing in
carrying a pail of water, by stretching out her opposite arm, for the
weight of the pail throws the centre of gravity on one side, and the
stretching out of the opposite arm brings it back again, and thus the
two are balanced. The art of balancing, therefore, simply consists in
dexterously altering the centre of gravity upon every new position of
the body, so as constantly to preserve the line of direction within the
base. Rope-dancers effect this by means of a long pole, held across the
rope; and when the balancing-rail is mounted, it will be found necessary
to hold out both the arms for the same purpose; nay, even when we slip
or stumble with one foot, we in a moment extend the opposite arm, making
the same use of it as the dancer does of his pole.

[Illustration]

A balancer finds that a body to be balanced, is the best for his purpose
if it have a loaded head, and a slender or pointed base, for although
the higher the weight is placed above the point of support, the more
readily will the line of direction be thrown beyond the base, yet he can
more easily restore it by the motion of his hand,--narrowly watching
with his eyes its deviations. Now the same watchfulness must be
displayed by the gymnastic balancer: he first uses the balancing
pole,--he then mounts the balancing bar without it. On mounting the bar,
the body should be held erect, and the hands must be extended. He must
then learn to walk firmly and steadily along the bar, so as to be able
to turn round, and then he should practise going backwards. Two
balancers should then endeavour to pass each other on the bar;
afterwards, to carry each other, and bodies of various weights, in
various positions.

Walking on stilts is connected with balancing. A person can walk with
greater security upon high than on low stilts. In some parts of France,
the peasantry, in looking after their sheep, walk generally on stilts,
and it only requires practise to make this as easy as common walking.
Some few years ago, several of these stilt-walkers were to be seen in
London, and they could run, jump, stoop, and walk with ease and
security, their legs seeming quite as natural to them as those of the
Stork.



PART V.

CRICKET.


[Illustration]

Cricket is the king of games. Every boy in England should learn it. The
young prince of Wales is learning it, and will some day be the prince of
cricket-players, as I trust he will some day, a long while hence,
however, let us hope, be king of merry England. I shall, therefore, be
very particular concerning this noble game. It is played by a bat and
ball, and consists of double and single wicket. The wicket was formerly
two straight thin batons, called stumps, twenty-two inches high, which
were fixed in the ground perpendicularly, six inches apart, and over
the top of both was laid a small round piece of wood, called the bail,
but so placed as to fall off readily if the stumps were touched by the
ball. Of late years the wicket consists of three stumps and two bails;
the middle stump is added to prevent the ball from passing through the
wicket without beating it down; the external stumps are now seven inches
apart, and all of them three feet two inches high. Single wicket
requires five players on each side, and double wicket eleven; but the
number in both instances may be varied at the pleasure of the two
parties. At single wicket the striker with his bat is the protector of
the wicket; the opponent party stands in the field to catch or stop the
ball; and the bowler, who is one of them, takes his place by the side of
a small baton or stump, set up for that purpose, twenty-two yards from
the wicket, and thence delivers the ball with the intention of beating
it down. It is now usual to set up two stumps with a bail across, which
the batsman, when he runs, must beat off before he returns home. If the
bowler prove successful, the batsman retires from the play and another
of his party succeeds; if, on the contrary, the ball is struck by the
bat, and driven into the field beyond the reach of those who stand out
to stop it, the striker runs to the stump at the bowler's station, which
he touches with his bat, and then returns to his wicket. If this be
performed before the ball is thrown back, it is called a run, and a
notch or score is made upon the tally towards the game; if, on the
contrary, the ball be thrown up and the wicket beaten down by the
opponent party before the striker is home or can ground his bat within
three feet ten inches of the wicket (at which distance a mark is made
in the ground, called the _popping crease_), he is declared to be out,
and the run is not reckoned. He is also out if he strike the ball into
the air and it is caught by any of his antagonists before it reaches the
ground, and retained long enough to be thrown up again. When double
wicket is played, two batsmen go in at the same time,--one at each
wicket: there are also two bowlers, who usually bowl four balls in
succession alternately. The batsmen are said to be in as long as they
remain at their wickets, and their party is called the _in-party_; on
the contrary, those who stand in the field with the bowlers, are called
the _out-party_. Both parties have two innings, and the side that
obtains the most runs in the double contest, claims the victory. These
are the general outlines of this noble pastime, but there are many
particular rules and regulations by which it is governed, and these
rules are subject to frequent variations.


SINGLE WICKET.

Single wicket may be played with any number of players, and is better
than double wicket for any number of players under seven. At double
wicket, a small number of players would get so fatigued with running
after the ball, that when it came to the last player's turn, he would
find himself too tired, without resting a while. The first innings in
single wicket must be determined by chance. The bowler should pitch the
wickets, and the striker measure the distance for the bowling-stump.
Measure a distance of the length of the bat, and then one of the
striker's feet, from the middle stump in a direction towards the
bowling stump: there make a mark, which is the same as the
popping-crease, and this will show when you are on the ground; place
your bat upright on the mark at the place where the measure came to, and
ask the bowler whether your bat is before the middle of your wicket;
here make a mark on the ground, which is generally called the
blocking-hole.

The bowler now begins to bowl, and the striker should endeavour to hit
any ball which comes within his compass, or if the ball given be not
favourable for that purpose, he may block it; but in blocking he must be
careful never to let the tip of the bat come before the handle, as the
ball in such a case will probably rise in the air towards the bowler,
and he will be caught out. In running, the striker must touch the
bowling-stump with his bat or person, or it is no run, and he may be put
out if he do no put his bat or some part of his person on his ground
before the ball touches his wicket.

With three players, the bowler and striker will be the same as when two
are at play; the second player will be fieldsman, who, when the ball be
hit nearer to him than to the bowler, will pick it up, or catch it if he
can, and return it to the bowler. If the striker should attempt to run,
the bowler should immediately run to the wicket, and the fieldsman
should throw the ball to him, so that he may catch it, and touch the
wicket with it to get the striker out. When the first striker is out,
the fieldsman will take his place, the striker will bowl, and the bowler
will take the field. When four players are engaged, the fourth should
stand behind the wicket; and when five or more play, the additional
players should take the field. The rule in such a case is simply, that
as soon as a striker is out he becomes bowler, then he becomes
wicket-keeper, and then he takes his place in the field on the left of
the bowler, and afterwards the other places in regular progression,
until it is his turn to have a new innings.


LAWS OF THE GAME OF DOUBLE WICKET.

"Law, is law," said Evergreen; "laws must be rigidly obeyed, and,
therefore, I will read the articles of war for your edification. The
first article of war is said to be, 'That it shall be death to stop a
cannon-ball with your head.'" Cricketers must be cautious also how they
stop cricket-balls with this part of the body: but

_Imprimis_, the BALL must be in weight between five ounces and a half
and five ounces and three quarters, and must be between nine inches and
nine inches and one-eighth in circumference.

2. The BAT must not be more than thirty-eight inches in length, nor
exceed four inches and a quarter in its widest part.

3. The STUMPS, which are three to each wicket, must be twenty-seven
inches out of the ground, and placed so closely as not to allow the ball
to pass through. The bails must be eight inches in length.

4. The BOWLING-CREASE must be in a line with the stumps, and six feet
eight inches in length, the stumps in the centre, with a return-crease
at each end towards the bowler at right angles.

5. The POPPING CREASE must be three feet ten inches from the wicket,
and parallel to it, unlimited in length, but not shorter than the
bowling-crease.

6. They must be opposite to each other, twenty-two yards apart.

7. It is not lawful for either party, during a match, without the other
party gives consent, to make any alteration in the ground by rolling,
watering, covering, mowing, or beating.

This rule is not meant to prevent the striker from beating the ground
with his bat near to the spot where he stands during the innings, nor to
prevent the bowler from filling up holes with sawdust, &c., when the
ground is wet.

8. After rain, the wickets may be changed with the consent of both
parties.

[Illustration]


THE BOWLER.

9. The bowler must deliver the ball with one foot behind the
bowling-crease, and bowl four bowls before he changes wickets, which he
is permitted to do, once only, in the same innings.

10. The ball must be bowled; if it be thrown or jerked, or if the hand
be above the shoulder in the delivery, the umpire must call "no ball"
(this being reckoned as one of the four balls).

11. In some matches, the bowler may give six balls where the parties are
agreed. The bowler may order the striker at the wicket from which he
bowls, to stand on which side of it he pleases.

12. Should the bowler toss the ball over the striker's head, or bowl it
so wide that it shall be out of distance to be played at, the umpire,
although the striker attempt it, shall adjudge one run to the parties
receiving the innings, either with or without an appeal from them, which
shall be put down to the score of wide balls, and such balls shall not
be reckoned as any of the four balls. When the umpire shall have called
"wide ball," one run only shall be reckoned, and the ball shall be
considered dead.

13. If "no ball" be called by the umpire, the hitter may strike at it,
and is allowed all the runs he can make, and is not be considered out
except by running out. Should no run be obtained by any other means,
then one run shall be scored.

14. When a fresh bowler takes the ball, only two balls shall be allowed
for practice; he must, however, continue the next four in the game
before he can change for another better approved. If six balls are
agreed to be bowled, then he must continue the six instead of four.

15. No substitute in the field shall be allowed to bowl, keep wicket,
STAND AT THE POINT or MIDDLE WICKET, except by mutual agreement of the
parties.


THE STRIKER.

Is OUT, if either of the bails be struck off by the ball, or either of
the stumps struck out of the ground.

He is OUT, if the ball, from a stroke of the bat or hand below the
wrist, be held by his adversary before it touches the ground, although
hugged or caught between the arms and breast of the catcher.

He is OUT, if in striking, or at any other time while the ball is in
play, both his feet be over the popping-crease, and his wicket put down,
except his bat be grounded within it.

He is OUT, if in striking at the ball, he either with his bat, clothes,
or person, hits down his wicket.

He is OUT, if under pretence of running a notch, or otherwise, either of
the strikers prevent a ball from being caught, or if the ball be struck
up and he wilfully strikes it again.

He is OUT, if in running a notch the wicket be struck down by a throw,
or with the hand or arm with ball in hand, before his bat is grounded
over the popping-crease. If the bails should happen to be off, a stump
must be struck out of the ground.

He is OUT, should he take up or touch the ball while in play, unless at
the request of the opposite party.

He is OUT, if with a part of his person he stop the ball, which the
bowler, in the opinion of the umpire at the bowler's wicket, has pitched
in a straight line with the wicket.

If the players have _crossed_ each other, he that runs for the wicket
that is put down, is out; and if they have _not crossed_, he that has
left the wicket which is put down, is out.

When a ball is caught, no run is to be reckoned.

When a striker is run out, the notch they were running for is not to be
reckoned.

If "lost ball" shall be called, the striker is allowed the runs; but if
more than six shall have been run before "lost ball" shall have been
called, then the striker shall have all that have been run.

When the ball has been lodged in the wicket-keeper's or bowler's hands,
it is considered _dead_, that is, no longer in play, and the striker
need not keep within ground, till the umpire has called "play;" but if
the player goes off his ground, with intent to run, the bowler may put
him out.

Should the striker be hurt, he may retire from his wicket and return to
it any time during that innings. Some other person may stand out for
him, but not go in.

If any person stop the ball with his bat, the ball is to be considered
as DEAD, and the opposite party to add five notches to their score.

If the ball be struck up, the striker may guard his wicket with his bat
or any part of his body except his _hand_.

If the striker hit the ball against his partner's wicket when he is off
his ground, he is out, should it previously have touched the bowler or
any of the fieldmen's hands, but not otherwise.


THE WICKET-KEEPER.

The wicket-keeper should not take the ball for the purpose of stumping,
until it have passed the wicket. He shall stand at a proper distance
behind the wicket, and shall not move till the ball be out of the
bowler's hand. He shall not by any noise, incommode the striker, and if
any part of his person be over or before the wicket, although the ball
hit it, he shall not be out.


THE UMPIRES.

The umpires are the sole judges of fair and unfair play, and all
disputes are determined by them, each at his own wicket. They shall not
stand more than six yards from the wicket. In case of a catch, which the
umpire at the wicket cannot see sufficiently to decide upon, he may
apply to the other umpire, whose opinion is conclusive.

The umpires shall pitch fair wickets, and the parties shall toss up for
the choice of innings.

They shall allow two minutes for the striker to come in, and fifteen
minutes between each innings. When the umpires shall call "play," the
party who refuses shall lose the match.

They are not to order a player out unless assented to by the
adversaries.

If the bowler's foot be not behind the bowling-crease and within the
return crease when he delivers the ball, they must, unasked, call "no
ball;" if the striker run a short run, the umpire must call "no run."

If in running either of the strikers shall fail to ground his bat, in
hand, or some part of his person, over the popping crease, the umpire,
for every such failure, shall deduct two runs from the number intended
to have been run, because such striker, not having run in the first
instance, cannot have started in the second from the proper goal.

No umpire is allowed to bet.

No umpire to be changed during a match, unless with the consent of both
parties, except in case of a violation of the last law, then either
party may dismiss the transgressor.

After the delivery of four balls, the umpire should call "over," but not
until the ball shall be lodged and definitely settled in the
wicket-keeper's or bowler's hand; the ball shall then be considered
dead. Nevertheless, if an idea be entertained that either of the
strikers is out, a question may be put previously to, but not after the
delivery of the next ball.

The umpire must take especial care to call "no ball" instantly upon
delivery, and "wide ball," as soon as ever it shall pass the striker.


LAWS FOR SINGLE WICKET.

1. When there shall be less than four players on a side, bounds shall be
placed, twenty-two yards each, in a line from the off and leg stump.

2. The ball must be hit before the bounds to entitle the striker to a
run, which run cannot be obtained unless he touch the bowling-stump or
crease, in a line with it, with his bat or person, or go beyond them,
returning to the popping-crease, as in double wicket, according to the
law.

3. When the striker shall hit the ball, one of his feet must be on the
ground behind the popping-crease, otherwise the umpire shall call "no
hit."

4. When there shall be less than five players of a side, neither byes
nor overthrows shall be allowed, nor shall the striker be caught out
behind the wicket, nor stumped out.

5. The fieldsman must return the ball so that it shall cross the space
between the wicket and the bowling stump, or between the bowling stumps
and the bounds; the striker may run till the ball be so returned.

6. After the striker has made one run, he must touch the bowling stump,
and run before the ball shall cross the play, to entitle him to another.

7. The striker shall be entitled to three runs for lost ball, and the
same number for ball stopped with bat.

8. When there shall be more than four players to a side, there shall be
no bounds; all _hits_, _byes_, and _overthrows_, will then be allowed.

9. The bowler is subject to the same laws as at double wicket.

10. No more than one minute shall be allowed between each ball.


BETS.

1. No bet is payable in any match unless it be played out or given up.

2. If the runs of one player be betted against those of another, the bet
depends on the first innings, unless otherwise specified.

3. If the bet be made upon both innings, and one party beats the other
in one innings, the runs in the first innings shall determine it.

4. If the other party go in a second time, then the bet must be
determined by the number in the second.


OBSERVATIONS.

Cricket is played by twenty-two persons, eleven on each side, and two
umpires, with two persons to score and count the innings. Thirteen
players play at one time, viz., two strikers, one bowler, one
wicket-keeper, long-stop, short-stop, point, cover, middle-wicket,
long-field, off-side, on-side, and leg; of these the two strikers are
the inside, or have their innings. The object of the game is to get the
greatest number of runs, and this is to be done by the strikers. Each
side having been in once and out once, the first innings is concluded,
and, we might say, a complete game has been played, but in most matches
another innings is played. The scorers keep the account of runs to each
striker separately for each innings. The side that has obtained the
greatest number of runs, wins the game. The arrangement of the players
in the field is as follows:--

  +--------------------------------------+
  | 6                                    |
  | *             8                      |
  |               *                      |
  |                            9         |
  |                            *         |
  |         7                         10 |
  |    5    *                          * |
  |    *                                 |
  | 4  3  1                   1  2       |
  | *  *  *                   *  *       |
  |                                      |
  |                                      |
  |                                      |
  |                                      |
  |     12                    11         |
  |      *                     *         |
  +--------------------------------------+

ORDER OF THE PLAYERS.

   1. Striker.
   2. Bowler.
   3. Wicket-keeper.
   4. Long-stop.
   5. Short-stop.
   6. Long-slip.
   7. Point.
   8. Cover.
   9. Middle-wicket.
  10. Long-field, off-side.
  11. Long-field, on-side.
  12. Leg.



PART VI.

SWIMMING.


[Illustration]

No boy should be unable to swim, because it is essential to the
preservation of life; but the attainment of the art has been held to be
difficult, and the number of good swimmers is very small. The whole
science of swimming consists in multiplying the surface of the body by
extensive motions, so as to displace a greater quantity of liquid. As
the first requisite of oratory was said to be action; the second,
action; and the third, action; so the first, second, and the third
requisite in learning to swim, is COURAGE. Now there is a vast
difference between courage and temerity; courage proceeds from
confidence, temerity, from carelessness; courage is calm and collected,
temerity is headstrong and rash; courage ventures into the water
carefully, and throws himself off with a firm and vigorous lounge
forward, and a slow and equable stroke; temerity begins to dive before
he knows whether he can swim or sink, and after floundering about for a
minute or two, finds that he can swim farthest where it is deepest.
Therefore, let the young swimmer mark the distinction between courage
and temerity, and he will speedily become a swimmer.

Before, however, we proceed to offer any remarks on swimming as an art,
we cannot refrain from calling the attention of our young friends to the
observations of a celebrated medical doctor who has thought profoundly
on the subject. "Immersion in cold water," says he, "is a custom which
lays claim to the most remote antiquity; indeed it must be coeval with
man himself. The necessity of water for the purpose of cleanliness, and
the pleasure arising from its application in hot countries, must have
very early recommended it to the human species; even the example of
other animals was sufficient to give the hint to man; by instinct many
of them are led to apply cold water in this manner, and some, when
deprived of its use, have been known to languish, and even to die."

The cold bath recommends itself in a variety of cases, and is peculiarly
beneficial to the inhabitants of populous cities who indulge in idleness
and lead sedentary lives: it accelerates the motion of the blood,
promotes the different secretions, and gives permanency to the solids.
But all these important purposes will be more easily answered by the
application of salt water; this also ought not only to be preferred on
account of its superior gravity, but also, "for its greater power of
stimulating the skin, which prevents the patient from catching cold."

It is necessary, however, to observe, that cold bathing is more likely
to prevent than to remove obstructions of the glandular or lymphatic
system; indeed, when these have arrived at a certain height, they are
not to be removed by any means; in this case, the cold bath will only
aggravate the symptoms, and hurry the unhappy patient into an untimely
grave. It is, therefore, of the utmost importance, previously to the
patient entering upon the use of the cold bath, to determine whether or
not he labours under any obstinate obstruction of the lungs or other
viscera, and when this is the case, cold bathing ought strictly to be
prohibited.

In what is called a plethoric state, or too great fulness of the body,
it is likewise dangerous to use the cold bath without due preparation.
In this case, there is danger of bursting a blood-vessel, or occasioning
an inflammation.

The ancient Romans and Greeks, we are told, when covered with sweat and
dust, used to plunge into rivers without receiving the smallest injury.
Though they might escape danger from this imprudent conduct, yet it was
certainly contrary to sound reason; many robust men have thrown away
their lives by such an attempt. We would not, however, advise patients
to go in the cold water when the body is chilled; as much exercise at
least ought to be taken as may excite a gentle glow all over the body,
but by no means so as to overheat it.

To young people, and particularly to children, cold bathing is of the
utmost importance; it promotes their growth, increases their strength,
and prevents a variety of diseases incident to childhood.

It is necessary here to caution young men against too frequent bathing,
as many fatal consequences have resulted from the daily practice of
plunging into rivers, and continuing there too long.

The most proper time of the day for using the cold bath is, no doubt,
the morning, or at least before dinner, and the best mode, that of quick
immersion. As cold bathing has a tendency to propel the blood to the
head, it ought always to be a rule to wet that part as soon as possible.
By due attention to this circumstance, there is reason to believe that
violent head-aches, and other complaints which frequently proceed from
cold bathing, might be often prevented.

The cold bath, when too long continued, not only occasions an excessive
flux towards the head, but chills the blood, cramps the muscles, relaxes
the nerves, and wholly defeats the intention of bathing; hence expert
swimmers are often injured, and sometimes lose their lives. All the
beneficial purposes of cold bathing are answered by one immersion at a
time, and the patient ought to be rubbed dry the moment he comes out of
the water, and should continue to take exercise some time after.

Doctor Franklin, who was almost always a practical man, says, "that the
only obstacle to improvement in this necessary and life-preserving art,
is fear; and it is only by overcoming this timidity, that you can expect
to become a master of the following acquirements. It is very common for
novices in the art of swimming, to make use of corks or bladders to
assist in keeping the body above the water; some have utterly condemned
the use of them. However, they may be of service for supporting the body
while one is learning what is called the stroke, or that manner of
drawing in and striking out the hands and feet that is necessary to
produce progressive motion; but you will be no swimmer till you can
place confidence in the power of the water to support you. I would
therefore advise the acquiring that confidence in the first place, as I
have known several who, by a little practice necessary for that purpose,
have insensibly acquired the stroke, taught as if it were by nature. The
practice I mean, is this--choosing a place where the water deepens
gradually, walk coolly in it until it is up to your breast, then turn
your face towards the shore and throw an egg into the water between you
and the shore, it will sink to the bottom and will easily be seen there
if the water is clear; it must lie in the water so deep that you cannot
reach to take it up without diving for it. To encourage yourself to do
this, reflect that your progress will be from deep to shallow water, and
that at any time you may, by bringing your legs under you and standing
on the bottom, raise your head far above the water; plunge under it with
your eyes open, which must be kept open before going under, as you
cannot open your eyelids from the weight of water above you, throw
yourself towards the egg and endeavour by the action of your feet and
hands against the water, to get forward till within reach of it. In this
attempt you will find that the water buoys you up against your
inclination, and that it is not so easy to sink as you imagine, and
that you cannot, but by active force, get down to the egg. Thus you feel
the power of water to support you, and learn to confide in that power,
while your endeavours to overcome it and to reach the egg, teach you the
manner of acting on the water with your feet and hands, which action is
afterwards used in swimming to support your head higher above the water,
or to go forward through it.

"I would the more earnestly press upon you the trial of this method,
because, though I think I shall satisfy you that your body is lighter
than water, and that you might float for a long time with your mouth
free for breathing, if you would put yourself into a proper posture, and
would be still and forbear struggling, yet till you have obtained this
experimental confidence in the water, I cannot depend upon your having
the necessary presence of mind to recollect the posture and the
directions I gave you relating to it; the surprise may put all out of
your mind.

"Though the legs, arms, and head of a human body, being solid parts, are
specifically somewhat heavier than fresh water, yet the trunk,
particularly the upper part, from its hollowness, is so much lighter
than water, as that the whole of the body, taken altogether, is too
light to sink wholly under water, but that some parts will remain above
until the lungs become filled with water, which happens from drawing
water to them instead of air, when a person in the fright attempts
breathing while the mouth and nostrils are under water.

"The legs and arms are specifically lighter than salt water, and will be
supported by it, so that a human body cannot sink in salt water, though
the lungs were filled as above, but for the greater specific gravity of
the head. Therefore, a person throwing himself on his back in salt
water, and extending his arms, may easily lie so as to keep his mouth
and nostrils free for breathing, and by a small motion of the hand may
prevent turning if he should perceive any tendency to it.

"In fresh water, if a man throw himself on his back near the surface, he
cannot continue in that situation but by proper action of his hands in
the water; if he have no such action, the legs and lower part of the
body will gradually sink till he comes into an upright position, in
which he will continue suspended, the hollow of his breast keeping the
head uppermost.

"But if in this erect position, the head be kept upright above the
shoulders, as when we stand on the ground, the immersion will, by the
weight of that part of the head that is out of the water, reach above
the mouth and nostrils, perhaps a little above the eyes, so that a man
cannot long remain suspended in the water with his head in that
position.

"The body continuing suspended, as before, and upright, if the head be
leaned quite back, so that the face look upward, all the back part of
the head being under water, and its weight consequently being in a great
measure supported by it, the face will remain above water quite free for
breathing, will rise an inch higher at every inspiration, and sink as
much at every expiration, but never so low that the water may come over
the mouth.

"If, therefore, a person unacquainted with swimming, falling into the
water, could have presence of mind sufficient to avoid struggling and
plunging, and to let the body take this natural position, he might
continue long safe from drowning, till, perhaps, help should come; for
as to the clothes, their additional weight, when immersed, is very
inconsiderable, the water supporting them, though when he comes out of
the water he would find them very heavy indeed.

"But, as I said before, I would not advise you or any one to depend on
having this presence of mind on such an occasion, but learn fairly to
swim, as I wish all men were taught to do in their youth: they would on
many occasions be the safer for having that skill, and on many more, the
happier, as being free from painful apprehensions of danger, to say
nothing of the enjoyment in so delightful and wholesome an exercise.
Soldiers, particularly, should all be taught to swim; it might be of
particular use either in surprising an enemy or saving themselves, and
if I had any boys to educate, I would prefer those schools in which an
opportunity was afforded for acquiring so advantageous an art, which
when once learned, is never forgotten.

"I know by experience, that it is a great comfort to a swimmer who has a
great distance to go, to turn himself sometimes on his back, and to vary
in other respects the means of procuring a progressive motion.

"When he is seized with the cramp in the leg, the method to drive it
away, is to give the parts affected a sudden, vigorous and violent
shock, which he may do in the air as he swims on his back.

"During the great heats in summer, there is no danger in bathing,
however warm he may be, in rivers which have been thoroughly warmed by
the sun; but to throw one's-self into cold spring water when the body
has been heated by exercise in the sun, is an imprudence which may
prove fatal. I once knew an instance of four young men, who, having
worked at harvest in the heat of the day, with a view of refreshing
themselves, plunged into a spring of cold water; two died upon the spot,
a third next morning, and the fourth recovered with great difficulty. A
copious draught of cold water, in similar circumstances, is frequently
attended with the same effect in North America.

"When I was a boy, I amused myself one day with flying a paper kite, and
approaching the bank of a lake which was near a mile broad, I tied the
string to a stake, and the kite ascended to a very considerable height
above the pond while I was bathing. In a little while, being desirous of
amusing myself with my kite and enjoying at the same time the pleasure
of swimming, I returned, and loosening from the stake the string with
the little stick which was fastened to it, went again into the water,
where I found, that by lying on my back and holding the stick in my
hand, I was drawn along the surface of the water in a very agreeable
manner. Having thus engaged another boy to carry my clothes round the
pond to a place which I pointed out to him on the other side, I began to
cross the pond with my kite, which carried me quite over without the
least fatigue and with the greatest pleasure imaginable. I was only
obliged occasionally to halt a little in my course and resist its
progress, when it appeared that by following too quick I lowered the
kite too much; by doing thus occasionally, I made it rise again. I have
never since that time practised this singular mode of swimming, though I
think it not impossible to cross in this manner from Dover to Calais.
The packet boat is, however, preferable."


PRELIMINARY EXERCISES IN SWIMMING.

We have shown that much of the art of swimming depends upon having
confidence, and that that confidence is speedily dissipated upon the
swimmer coming in contact with the water. Besides this, a great deal in
the art of swimming depends upon the degree of ease with which the
swimmer can use his hands and feet. Now this sort of exercise may in
part be acquired on land, and it would be of great usefulness to the
learner were he to enter upon some preliminary practice which would give
him the use of his hands and feet, in the manner required in swimming.
To do this, he should provide himself with two ropes, which should be
fastened up in the manner of two swings, at about sixteen inches apart
from each other, and one a little higher than the other; these should be
joined together with two or three cords passing from the one to the
other, and on the rack thus made, a pillow or cushion should be placed;
upon this, the learner will throw himself on his breast, as upon the
water, and supporting himself in this position, and having his hands and
feet perfectly at liberty, he will move them to and fro in the same
manner as in swimming; this he should repeat several times a day, until
he finds that he has got a complete mastery over the action required.
The head must be drawn back, the chin raised, the fingers must be kept
close, and the hands slightly concave on the inside,--they must be
struck out in a line with the breast; the legs must then be drawn up and
struck out, not downwards, however, but _behind_, in such a manner,
that they may have a good hold upon the water. These directions being
followed for a few days, will give the learner so much assistance, that
when he enters the water he will find little more requisite than
calmness and confidence in striking out.

[Illustration]

In proceeding to take water, the first thing the youth should do, is to
make himself thoroughly convinced that the spot is safe, that there are
no holes in it, that no weeds are at the bottom, that it does not
contain any stones likely to cut the feet. Ho must also be cautious that
he does not enter a stream whose eddy sweeps round a projecting point,
or hollow; the bank should slope off gradually, so that he may proceed
for ten or twelve yards from the shore, before the water rises to the
level of his armpits. With regard to the use of bladders and corks,
although it may perhaps be better to learn to keep ourselves afloat
without their aid, yet they may be used with advantage, if used
sparingly. The pupil, in using them, places his breast across the rope
which unites them, so that when he lays himself over them in the water,
they float above him, and thus assist in buoying him up; thus sustained,
he strikes out and propels himself with his hands and feet. In striking
out when in the water, the fingers are to be perfectly straight, and the
thumb kept close to the hand; the hands are then to be brought forward,
palm to palm, and to be thrust out in a direction on a level with the
chin; when at their fullest reach, they are to be parted and swept
slowly and regularly with the palms in a horizontal position, the full
stretch of the arms backwards, they are then brought up from the hips
and struck out forward, as before. While the hands are near the hips, is
the time for the legs to perform their part; they are to be drawn up as
near to the body as possible, and the soles of the feet struck against
the water with moderate force, immediately the hands are again thrust
forward. Now all this is very easily performed with a little practice,
but will be very difficult if the learner have not coolness and
self-possession. A slow long stroke, the hand thrust forward with
energy, and the legs brought up and struck out with a regular and even
stroke, is the whole art of simple swimming. The swimmer must, however,
be careful to draw his breath at the time when his hands are descending
towards his hips; if he attempt it when he strikes out his legs, his
head will partially sink, and his mouth will fill with water. The breath
should accordingly be expired while the body is sent forward by the
action of the legs.

[Illustration]

The young swimmer will find much use in having a plank, ten feet long,
two inches thick, and a foot broad, which he may take hold of at one of
its ends, and his body being thus supported he will perfect himself in
the action of the legs, and will, by striking them out, drive the plank
before him: he must, however, take care to hold it fast, for if he
should let go his hold, he will find himself sinking over head and ears
in the water. A rope may also be so fixed as to reach over the water, by
which the swimmer may support himself while learning to strike out with
his legs; but he should be careful always in performing this exercise,
to keep his legs near the surface, as, if the legs drop down, he will
make very little way in the water. One of the best kinds of assistance,
however, the young swimmer can have, is the hand of some one who is
willing to teach him, and is superior to any other methods for very
young swimmers. If a grown person will take the trouble to take the
little learner out with him till he is breast high in the water, and
sustain him with one hand under the breast, and occasionally hold him up
by the chin, at the same time directing and encouraging him, and
occasionally letting him loose that he may support himself by striking
out, the little learner will soon reach that triumphant period when he
floats alone on the water.

After this triumph, however, the young swimmer must be exceedingly
cautious, though he may feel conscious of his own power, he must venture
only a few strokes out of his depth: should he be in a broad river, he
must be careful not to do so where there is a strong curling eddy or
flood: in a small river, the breadth of which is only a few yards, he
may venture across with a few bold and regular strokes; but should he
become flurried and lose his time, he will most assuredly be in danger
of sinking. Let him then obtain such perfect command over his limbs, and
also over himself, that when he ventures out of his depth, he may be
able to keep afloat in the water, pleasantly to himself, and without
hazard.

[Illustration]

A most important branch in art of swimming, is floating, as the swimmer
may frequently rest himself when fatigued, and otherwise engage himself
in the water. To do this, he must turn himself as gently as possible on
the back, put his head back, so that his eyes, mouth, and chin, only,
are above the water, elevate his breast, and inflate his chest as much
as possible: the arms may be brought towards the hips, and the hands
should be paddled in a horizontal kind of sweep, which will sustain the
body. Should the learner wish to swim, he must strike out with his legs,
taking care not to lift his legs too high; in this position the arms may
occasionally be folded across the breast.

[Illustration]

To _tread water_, the legs must be suffered to drop in the water till
the swimmer finds himself upright, he then treads downwards with his
feet, occasionally paddling with the palms of his hands. The swimmer,
when long in the water, will soon find himself tired, changes of action
are therefore necessary; there are many which are highly advantageous to
learn, such as swimming like a dog, porpoise, etc. To _swim like a dog_,
he must strike with each hand and foot alternately, beginning with the
right hand and foot, he must draw the hand towards the chin, and the
foot towards the body, at the same time; he then must kick backwards
with the foot, and strike out in a right line with the hand, and the
same with the left hand and foot: the palms of the hands must be hollow,
and the water pulled towards the swimmer. In _swimming like a porpoise_,
the right arm is lifted entirely out of the water, the shoulder is
thrust forward, and while the swimmer is striking out with his legs, he
reaches forward with his hand as far as he can; his hand then falls, a
little hollowed, in the water, which it grasps or pulls towards him in a
transverse direction towards the other armpit. While this is going on,
the legs are drawn up for another effort, and the left arm and shoulder
are raised and thrust forward, as the right had previously been. When
the swimmer feels tired, he may change these positions for swimming on
the side. To do this, he must lower his left side and elevate his right,
striking forward with his left hand, and sideways with his right, the
back of the hand being in front instead of upward, the thumb side of the
hand being downward so as to serve as an oar. Should the swimmer wish to
turn on his back, he must keep one leg still, and embrace the water
beside him with the other, and he will turn to that side. To shew the
feet, he must turn himself on his back, and bend the small of it
downwards, supporting himself by his hands to and fro immediately above
his breast, and hold his feet above the water. Swimming under water is
performed by the usual stroke, the head being kept a little downwards,
and the feet struck out a little higher than when swimming on the
surface.


BERNARDI'S SYSTEM.

_Upright swimming._--This is a new mode of swimming, introduced by
Bernardi, a Neapolitan, and consists in adopting the accustomed motion
of the limbs in walking. It gives great freedom to the hands and arms,
affords a greater facility of breathing and of sight. It is true, that a
person swimming in an upright position, advances more slowly, but as the
method is more natural, the person is able to continue his course
longer, and can remain with greater safety in the water.

The first object with Bernardi, is to enable the pupil to float in an
upright position, and in this the head is made the great regulator of
all the motions. After having been by practice familiarised to keep his
equilibrium, a variety of motions are gradually practised, until the
swimmer is enabled at every stroke to urge himself forward a distance
equal to the length of his body, and to travel, without fatigue, at
least three miles an hour, and to continue this without great fatigue
for many hours. Bernardi, speaking of the success of his practice, says,
"Having been appointed to instruct the youths of the Royal Naval Academy
at Naples in the art of swimming, a trial of the pupils took place in
the presence of a number of persons assembled on the shore, and under
the inspection of authorities appointed to witness and report upon the
experiment. A twelve-oared boat attended the progress of the pupils,
from motives of precaution. They swam so far out in the bay, that at
length the heads of the young men could with difficulty be discerned
with the naked eye; and the Major-General of Marine, Fortguerri, for
whose inspection the exhibition was attended, expressed serious
apprehensions for their safety. Upon their return to the shore, the
young men, however, assured him that they felt so little exhausted, as
to be willing immediately to repeat the exertion."

After devoting a month to the investigation of Bernardi's plan, the
Neapolitan government state in their official report--

"That it has been established by the experience of more than a hundred
persons of different bodily constitutions, that the human body is
lighter than water, and, consequently, will float by nature, and that
the art of swimming must be acquired to render that privilege useful.

"That Bernardi's system is new, in so far as it is founded on the
principle of husbanding the strength, and rendering the power of
recruiting it easy."

The speed, according to the new method, is no doubt diminished, but
security is much more important than speed, and the new plan is not
exclusive of the old when occasions require great effort.

Little more need be said on the subject of swimming, except giving a few
directions in diving and plunging, which require to be performed with
caution and elegance. When the swimmer prepares to dive, he must take a
full inspiration of air, the eyes must be kept open, the back made
round, and the head bent forwards on the breast; the legs must be thrown
out with force, and the arms and hands, instead of being struck forward
as in swimming, must move backward. When the swimmer would ascend, the
chin must be held up, the back bent inwards, the hands struck out high
and brought sharply down, and the body will immediately rise to the
surface of the water.

[Illustration]

_Plunging._--There are two different modes of plunging to be acquired,
namely, the flat plunge, which is necessary in shallow water, and the
deep plunge, which is used where there is considerable depth of water.
For the latter, the arms must be outstretched, the knees bent, and the
body leant forward till the head descends nearly to the feet when the
spine and knees are extended. In the flat plunge, the swimmer must fling
himself forward in an inclined direction, according to the depth or
shallowness of the water; when he touches the bottom, he must rise in
the same manner as after diving.

[Illustration]

After all these necessary motions and movements have been acquired in
the water, there is one thing of which the swimmer must beware, and
against which art and precaution can do but little--this is the CRAMP.
When this seizes the swimmer, he must endeavour, as much as possible, to
avoid being alarmed, as he will reflect, that as the body is lighter
than water, a very little exertion in it will keep his body afloat. Of
course his first thoughts will be towards the shore, but he must not
forget, that the cramp being only a muscular contraction, may be thrown
off by proper muscular exertion. He must strike out the limb violently,
and bringing the toes towards the shin-bone, thrust his feet out, which
will probably restore the muscles to their proper exercise; but if the
cramp still continue, he can easily keep himself afloat with his hands,
and paddle towards the shore, till some assistance comes to him. If one
leg is only attacked, he may drive himself forward with the other, and
for this purpose, in an emergency, the swimmer should frequently try to
swim with one hand, or one leg and one hand, or by two hands alone,
which will be easily acquired.

Should a companion be in danger of drowning, it is our duty to use every
exertion to save his life; and, indeed, not to use the utmost exertion
is a high degree of moral guilt, but in doing this, we must not rashly
hazard our own life, nor put ourselves into a position in which the
swimmer can cling to us or grasp any part of our body, or the loss of
both will be inevitable. It will be better in all cases where bathing is
practised, that there should be ropes and planks at hand, and young
swimmers should never venture far into the water without such means of
rescue are available. In conclusion, we would caution all who go into
the water, against remaining in it too long, as nothing can be more
dangerous; and we would further advise that the practice of bathing and
swimming be not only common to boyhood, but be continued in after life,
as few things tend more to the preservation of HEALTH.



PART VII.

GARDENING.


We read in the sacred records, that when man was created, he was placed
in a "Garden,"--the Garden of Eden, to dress it and to keep it; and we
may infer therefrom, first, that, the occupation of gardening was one
pre-eminently fitted for the happiness of man, and secondly, that
industry, and even labour, was also a part of man's duty, even in a
state of innocence.

There is not a more innocent amusement than gardening. Nothing can be
more lovely than to be among buds and fruits and flowers; nothing is
more conducive to health and peace of mind, and few things are better
calculated to inspire religious feelings than gardening.

Every little boy or girl should have a garden, and should be shown how
to manage it. There is a great deal in _management_ and in _method_ at
all times, but especially in gardening. Much _attention_ is also
necessary,--great _care_ and much _forethought_; all of which qualities
of the mind it is in the highest degree proper to train and exercise.
Whoever, therefore, begins gardening, must not look upon it as an idle
sport, to be taken up and thrown aside with the whim of the moment, but
as an occupation for leisure hours, that the mind must be brought to
bear upon, and which must engage him from day to day, from month to
month, from spring to summer, from autumn to winter, and so through all
the changes of the varied year.

[Illustration]


LAYING OUT THE GROUND.

                                30 yds.
  +-----------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                                                                 |
  |       +--------------------+       +--------------------+       |
  |       |                    |       |                    |       |
  |       +--------------------+       |                    |       |
  |       |                    |       |                    |       |
  |       +--------------------+       |                    |       |
  |       |                    |       |                    |       |
  |       +--------------------+       |                    |       |
  |       |                    |       |                    |       |
  |       +--------------------+       |                    |       |
  |       |                    |       |                    |       |
  |       +--------------------+       |                    |       |
  |       |                    |       |                    |       |
  | 2 ft. |   22-1/2 ft. Bed   | 3 ft. |    22-1/2 ft. Bed  | 2 ft. | 40
  | 6 in. |                    | wide  |                    | 6 in. | yds.
  | wide  |                    |       |                    | wide  |
  |       |                    |       |                    |       |
  |       |                    |       |                    |       |
  |       |                    |       |                    |       |
  |       |                    |       |                    |       |
  |       |                    |       |                    |       |
  |       |                    |       |                    |       |
  |       |                    |       |                    |       |
  |       |                    |       |                    |       |
  |       |                    |       |                    |       |
  |       |                    |       |                    |       |
  |       |                    |       |                    |       |
  |       +--------------------+       +--------------------+       |
  |                                                                 |
  +-----------------------------------------------------------------+

To begin gardening, a little boy must have some _ground_, which is quite
indispensable; and a boy of from ten to fourteen years old ought to
have, at least, a piece large enough for him to divide and subdivide,
and arrange with neatness and order. A piece of about forty yards long
by thirty wide will be large enough to commence with, and this should be
set out in the subjoined manner. This will allow of a path three feet
wide in the centre, and of one two feet six inches round the sides,
leaving the beds twenty-two and a half feet wide. The paths should be
gravelled with a good red binding gravel, and to look nice, the borders
should be edged with box or edging tiles. At each corner of the two
parallelograms, might be planted a tree, say, one apple, one pear, one
plum, and one cherry, that is, eight in all; and at distances of about a
yard, might be planted, all round, a foot from the paths, alternately,
gooseberry-bushes, currant-trees, and raspberry-trees, and between them,
various kinds of flowers, to come into blossom at different seasons. At
one end, the south end if possible, should be erected a small arbour,
with a couple of seats in it, and at the two opposite corners should be
two small manure pits,--one for the reception of well-rotted manure, to
be quickly used, and the other for the reception of all weeds, leaves,
and rubbish, which will make manure, and which should be mixed up from
time to time with the spade. These pits should be used alternately. As
soon as one has its contents well rotted, it should be emptied from time
to time on the land, while the other pit should be used to hold the
fresh matter newly collected. By the time this is full, the other will
be empty, and then that may be used as a _collector_ and the other as a
_decomposer_, and so on, alternately.


MANURE.

It is of no use whatever to think of getting things to grow without
manure. This is the life and soul of all garden operations. Almost
everything can be converted into manure. The grass from lawns, fallen
leaves, weeds, and all vegetable matter, afford good light manure.
Strong manures are prepared from horse, cow, sheep, and goat dung. The
dung of fowls and rabbits is also most excellent; and where fowls or
rabbits are kept, their dung should be preserved with great care, and
put by itself into a rotting-pit, or into a tank, and kept wet. The
juicy part can then be used as a liquid manure, and will be found of a
highly fertilizing property, and the more solid may be spread over the
land. The best time for putting manure on the land is in dry or frosty
weather, and it should be dug in as soon as spread. It is a very unwise
plan to spread manure on the land and let it lie, as in such cases, much
of the strength of the manure is lost. Young gardeners should be very
careful in preparing and collecting manure, and also when they are
moving it from the pits to the ground, they should take care and not
soil their paths.


GARDENING TOOLS.

It is quite necessary that a young gardener should have proper tools. He
should have a small but strong _spade_, a small but strong _rake_, a
digging _fork_, a _hoe_, a _trowel_, a good _pruning-knife_, a _box_ for
seeds, a little _wheelbarrow_, a _line_, and above all, a little
gardener's _apron_, and a _straw hat_ with a _broad brim_. Thus
equipped, he may commence his gardening operations with great comfort to
himself and some chance of success.


DIGGING.

The young gardener should practise digging, with a view to digging well.
In beginning to dig a piece of ground, he should first clear it of all
sticks, stalks, or stones, that might impede his labor. He should then
commence at one end of the ground, with his back to the sun, if
possible, and, beginning from the left-hand corner, dig one line all the
way to the right-hand corner, either one or two spades deep, as may be
required. The ground should be turned over, evenly laid up at the top,
nice and level, and the weeds completely buried. The operator should dig
carefully when near the roots of gooseberry, currant, raspberry, or
fruit trees, and more carefully still, among flowers. If digging early
in the season, he must mind he does not dig into his _bulbs_; such as
lilies, tulips, snow-drops, crocuses, or daffodils, and cut them to
pieces.

In the latter part of the year, in November and December, it is a good
plan to dig up any unoccupied ground into ridges, and leave it in that
state during the winter, that the frost may act upon it. The effect of
frost upon the ground so prepared is very beneficial, as it breaks the
clods and pulverizes the more cloggy portions, which fall down in a thaw
as a fine soft mould. When manure is dug into the ground, it should not
be dug in too deeply, about four or five inches being quite sufficient
in most cases.


WEEDING.

Gardens will always produce a great deal more than is wished for, in the
shape of various herbs, shrubs, and plants, called weeds; such as
dandelions, couch-grass, cow-parsley, chick-weed, and many other plants,
which go by the general name of _weeds_. These, if left to their own
natural growth, would soon cover the ground, and take away from the
garden plants the nutriment in the soil designed for them, besides
entangling their roots, stems, and leaves; therefore, weeding is as
indispensable as digging. The young gardener should make up his mind
before he sets foot in his garden to have _no weeds in it_; for however
assiduous he may have been in other respects, however he may have
planted, watered, dug, or attended to his garden, if it show a crop of
weeds, he is a bad gardener, and will be sure to get laughed at. Weeds
may either be pulled up by the hand or cut up by the hoe. In both cases,
the roots must be eradicated. They must not be plucked from the stem, or
cut from the level ground by the edge of the hoe, but hoed or plucked
up, root and all; and after they are got up, they are not be left about
in the ridges to take root and grow again, but must be cleared away and
safely put into the pit, never again to rise, but in the chemistry of
good manure.


PLANTING AND SOWING.

Everything in a garden must be planted in some way or other, and there
are many ways of planting and sowing. Sowing relates more particularly
to seeds, and planting to the setting of plants that have been raised
from seed in the first instance. The sowing of seeds is a very important
work, and before seeds can be sown with a prospect of their springing up
properly, the preparation of the soil, the time of the year, and even
the time of day, must be taken into consideration. Some seeds perish in
particular kinds of soil, while others thrive luxuriantly in them.
Onions like a rich soil, as do cauliflowers and asparagus. Carrots and
parsnips like a loose or sandy soil, as do sea-kale and many other
plants. Some plants will only grow in bog earth; and some thrive, such
as strawberries, best in a clayey loam. Attention to such matters must
be given by the young gardener, if he wish to have his garden what it
ought to be.


HOT-BEDS AND FRAMES.

[Illustration]

Before we can sow many kinds of seeds in this country in the open
ground, it is necessary to raise them first in a hot-bed, and for this
reason,--many flowers common in our gardens are not natives of our cold
and variable climate, but of one much warmer; and if we delay to sow the
seed of such plants and flowers till the warm days of summer are fully
set in, the plant has scarcely time to grow into perfection before the
chills of autumn come on, and they perish before their blossoms, fruit,
or seeds come to perfection. But this may be obviated by means of a
frame and hot-bed, which every young gardener ought to have, however
small it may be. One of the simplest is the common garden or cucumber
frame, which may be bought for a few shillings. This, if about a yard
square, should be set upon a low framework of bricks, within which a pit
is dug, and filled with good manure over which some fine mould is
placed, to the depth of about six inches. Upon this mould the more
delicate kinds of flower-seeds may be sown at an early period of the
year,--varieties of all those found in the gardening books under the
head of tender annuals,--balsams, French marigolds, tobacco, stocks,
marigolds, gourds, and sun-flowers. The seed must be sown
carefully,--not too thick, and occasionally looked at. In mild, open
weather, the glass should be raised a little, but in cold weather kept
down. The giving of water should be managed with care, and the plants as
they appear should not be suffered to grow too rapidly, but be kept
under, or they will not bear to be transplanted when the time comes for
doing so.

In transplanting, care should always be taken not to transplant too
early, or in improper weather; for if the weather happens to be cold or
wet, the tender plants will suffer very much, and probably fail. This
would be the case, not only with flowers, but with all the tender kinds
of plants, such as cauliflowers, and, therefore, the young gardener must
keep his "weather eye" open, as the sailors say, and not be too much in
a hurry, as young gardeners generally are.


OPEN CROPS.

In the sowing of open crops, care should also be taken to sow at the
proper time. Very early sowing is generally hazardous, but yet, if you
would have your crops come in soon, a little risk must be run. When seed
is sown in the open ground, it requires watching, and this particularly
applies to such crops as early potatoes or beans. Sometimes potatoes are
sown in February, with the view to an early crop; and in April the young
tender sprouts appear above the ground. One night's frost, however,
settles them,--down they go, black and jelly-like to the earth; but if
the weather be doubtful, the thoughtful young gardener takes care to
cover up the tender shoots with dry leaves or straw, to break the icy
tooth of the frost, and save his crop. The same care should be also
bestowed upon any other vegetable of a tender kind, and without this
care, gardening would come to nothing.

After seeds are sown, they have many natural enemies. The slug, the
snail, the wire-worm, the impudent sparrow, and the most impudent and
insolent chaffinch, who all seem to have an idea that the seed is put
into the ground entirely for their benefit. As soon as the pea-shoot
comes above the earth, the slug has a mouthful in its tenderest moments;
after the shoot has in part recovered from the gentle nibble, Master
Sparrow swoops down and picks off, as quick as he can, all the delicate
little sprouts by mouthfuls: to make a fit ending to what is so well
begun, the chaffinch descends in the most impudent manner, close to your
face, and pulls up stalk and pea both together, and flies away as
unconcerned as can be. Now it is of no use to stand with a gun or a pair
of clappers in your hand all the day after these intruders, and the only
protection is by a net, or rows of twine strung with feathers, stretched
over the bed in rows, and a few other pieces of white twine crosswise in
their immediate vicinity. Birds do not like the look of any threads
drawn across the ground, and they will rarely fly where there appears
danger of entanglement; and this method is the best that can be adopted
for seed-beds. A _Guy_ is also good; and there are few boys who do not
know how to construct one. A _Guy_ is also particularly appropriate for
the _early Warwick peas_. As to slugs and caterpillars, they must be
hunted for and picked off; and if they abound in a garden, the line of
shooting peas, beans, or other seed, must be dredged with a little
slacked lime, which is an infalliable mode of protection. But mind the
lime does not blow into your eyes; for, if it does, you will be worse
off than the caterpillars.


RAKING.

When seeds are sown, the beds should be nicely raked. Some seeds, such
as carrot and parsnip seeds, should be beaten down with the flat part of
the spade, and laid very evenly and nicely. The edges of the little
cross-paths should be sharp and straight, and the whole put into a
ship-shape order. The stones should be raked off into the cross-paths,
and may remain there until the land is dug up in the autumn or winter,
when they may be removed. There is a good deal to be done with the rake
in many ways, besides the raking of beds. It is a very useful tool to
job over a bed when some kinds of seeds are sown: it also makes a very
good drill, and is especially useful in getting leaves from the paths
and borders; but it should be used with a light hand, and care taken not
to scratch the ground into holes with it, as many young gardeners do.


HOEING.

The hoe is of very great use, both to hoe up weeds and to form drills.
We have spoken about its former use, and shall now say a word or two
about the latter. In forming a drill for peas, beans, or other seed, one
thing is above all things requisite, namely, that it should be
_straight_. A drill resembling a dog's hinder leg, never looks well in a
garden, and therefore the little gardener must have recourse to his
_line_. This ought to be long enough to stretch quite across his ground,
and when he wants to strike a drill, he should stretch it across from
path to path, and, taking his hoe in his hand, cut or scrape a little
furrow, about three or four inches deep, by the side of his line. In
sowing peas and beans, the drills are generally a yard apart, and
between them other crops are sometimes sown. Very often a crop of
spring-spinach or of radishes is sown between lines of peas, and so on
of other intermediate crops.

[Illustration]

The line is very useful in all kinds of planting. In planting
broad-beans, they are put into the ground by a _dibber_, which is a
piece of wood with a pointed end and a handle. The holes are to be
dibbed along the side of the line. The same tool is used in a similar
way in planting potatoes, strawberries, cabbage-plants, and a variety of
other roots, which require to be planted in straight and equidistant
lines.


TRANSPLANTING.

There are a great many vegetables which require to be
transplanted,--some from the hot-bed, and some from the open ground,
where they have sprung from seeds, to their destination in the garden.
All transplanting should be done with care. Some plants, such as cabbage
plants, do not require so much care as others, but every plant to do
well should be well planted. Young gardeners are liable to many mistakes
in transplanting; one is, that they often put the root of the plant into
the ground bundled together; another is, that they make the hole too
large with the dibber, and are not careful in pressing the mould to the
root at the bottom of the hole, so that the root of the plant has
nothing to feed upon. All this the thoughtful little gardener will
avoid; and when he puts a plant into the ground, he will reflect that if
it be not well _planted_ it will _not grow_. The young plants of the
more delicate flowers should be moved with the greatest care into spots
congenial with their natures. Some plants require a warm, some a cool
situation, some a moist, some a dry one, and these will be ascertained
by studying the nature of the plant.


WATERING.

Boys generally fancy there is nothing like watering, and they are very
pleased when they get the watering-pot in their hands. They always like
to be watering,--no doubt thinking that the more the seeds and plants
are watered the better they thrive; but this is a mistake, moderation in
all things should be the motto. When a plant wants watering
artificially, it in general shows its wants by very unequivocal signs,
namely, by a drooping of its pretty head and leaves; and then, if too
much water be given to it, it soon springs up with great luxuriance; and
the first burning day of sunshine is likely to kill it, or to do it
great injury. The rule should be, to water as little as possible, and to
wait as long as possible for nature's heavenly rain, which is better
than any artificial watering. Plants should never be watered during the
middle of the day, but early in the morning, or when the sun is
descending in the evening. Pump-water should never be used if rain or
pond-water can be obtained. Much good often results to plants and
seed-beds from the use of _liquid_ manure. This can be easily prepared
by getting an old beer-cask and knocking out the head. The bottom should
then be fixed in a hole dug to receive it, and the earth allowed to
reach to the brim. Some of the best manure to be had should then be put
into this, with a pound or two of guano, and pour upon it three pails of
water. It should then be allowed to stand for a week or two, and used as
required. The effects will soon show themselves in the increased growth
and vigour of the plants.


ON THE PROPAGATION OF VARIOUS KINDS OF SHRUBS AND PLANTS.

Besides sowing seed and rearing plants from them by transplanting, there
are many other ways of propagating plants, namely, by _off-sets_,
_suckers_, _layers_, _divided-roots_, _cuttings_, and _pipings_. If
tulips and hyacinths be examined, it will be found, that besides
shedding seed, the bulb of the plant very often makes a smaller bulb on
the larger one, and this, if taken off and planted by itself, becomes a
new plant: many plants may be propagated in this way. The strawberry
also, will be found to send off a long shoot, and, at about a foot
distant from the parent root, a little knob appears, having a bud to
spring into the air and a root to work into the ground: this is called a
_runner_. These may be cut away from the parent and planted separately,
and will become a new plant. Many other plants, such as roses,
raspberries, and lilacs, send from their roots little thin stems: these
are called _suckers_, and may be removed from the parent shrub and
planted by themselves, when they will become separate plants. Many
plants can be propagated by what are termed _layers_. To do this,
nothing more is necessary than to select a shoot, as near the root as
possible, and having partially divided it with a knife, make an upward
slit in it, and then placing a bit of twig between the divided parts,
press it down to the ground, burying the joint beneath the surface of
the soil. To plant from _cuttings_, some care is necessary as regards
green-house plants, but nothing is easier than to rear fresh stocks of
roses, currants and gooseberries from cuttings, as it is only necessary
to cut the shoots cleanly off, and, after reducing them to about six
inches in length, to place them in the ground with the shooting end
upwards. They should be planted about six inches apart, and after the
first year be removed to their proper situation; and they will bear
fruit in the following year. To plant from _pipings_, such as pinks and
carnations, it is only necessary to pull off one of the tubular stems,
and dividing it at or near the joint, pull off the surrounding leaves,
and insert the end or jointed part in some fine sand-mould, placing a
glass over them till they have "struck," that is, formed roots, when
they can afterwards be transplanted.


PRUNING.

[Illustration]

Little gardeners ought to know something of pruning trees. To cut or
prune gooseberry and currant-trees is very simple. Gooseberry-trees
should be cut differently from currant-trees. In gooseberry-trees, much
of the fruit grows on wood of the last year's growth, but on
currant-trees, the fruit is, for the most part, found near the knob or
joint between the old wood and the new. To prune gooseberry trees, all
the old dead wood should be cut out, and every branch that trails on the
ground should be cut away, all branches in the centre of the tree that
intersect each other, and all ugly branches, should be removed,--all
suckers should be taken from the root, and the stem of the tree left
straight and free to about ten or twelve inches from the ground, and the
tree trained to throw its branches into the kind of form in the margin.
The branches should then be cut, i. e., about half of the white or new
wood should be cut _cleanly_ off with a sharp knife, and the cuttings
carefully gathered up.

[Illustration]

In cutting currant-trees, nearly all the white wood should be cut away,
leaving only head shoots to some one single or middle shoot of a main
branch. The under-wood, old wood, and irregular and ugly wood, should
also be cut away, as recommended at the cutting of gooseberries. In
pruning or cutting raspberries, the old wood should be cut quite away,
and the stems of the last year shortened about one third.


GRAFTING AND BUDDING.

Grafting is the transferring of a shoot of one tree into the stem of
another, called the _stock_. Into this a slit is made; and then the
scion or shoot is cut into the form of a tongue and inserted into it.
The head of the stock is then cut off in a slanting direction, and the
two are then tied together, or closely wrapped together, in moss,
covered with grafting clay. No book can give directions so clear for
grafting, as to enable the young gardener to perform it successfully. He
must see it done, try it afterwards, and then ask if he has done it
correctly; and to learn grafting and budding well, it is only necessary
to get on the right side of the gardener. The same may be said as
regards the pruning of vines, fruit and wall trees. Ten minutes'
experience with the gardener will teach more than twenty volumes on the
subject.


SHIFTING OF CROPS.

Crops must not be grown twice in rotation on the same ground. Peas and
beans should be the crop after any of the roots, such as potatoes,
carrots, and parsnips. Cabbages, and plants of that kind, may be sown
and grown intermediately. The best rotation of crops will be found in
any gardening book on the subject, and this the young gardener should
make a subject of some study.


HOW TO MANAGE A LITTLE GARDEN ALL THE YEAR ROUND.

JANUARY.

The chief wish of the little gardener this month is to take advantage of
the hard frosts, and during their prevalence, to wheel upon his ground
such manure as may be necessary. It should be wheeled in at this time,
because, while the frost is hard, the wheelbarrow can pass over the
paths and beds without doing much injury, nor will the dung and rubbish
in its moving make more dirt than can be easily swept up. The manure
should be left in heaps, and not spread till the time comes for digging
it in.

In the middle or latter end of the month, should the weather be fine and
open, attention should be given to the cutting of the gooseberry,
currant, and raspberry-trees, and to the planting of off-sets from each,
or of cuttings, as directed. A crop of peas might be sown, as well as
mustard and cress, and a few broad-beans for coming in early. The peas
and beans should be sown in rows, about a yard apart, and a little
spinach might be sown in a broad drill, made by the hoe between them.
The gravel-walks should be turned up in the first thaw and left in a
ridge, ready for turning down and rolling when the weather becomes fine
and dry.

Radishes may also now be sown in beds prepared by digging and freshly
turned up. The seed should be thrown in, not too thickly, and raked
over. Straw should then be placed upon it to keep off the birds, or a
Guy and feathers. The straw must be kept over the beds in the frosty
weather and during the night, and taken off in the morning.

Now is the time to plant bulbous roots, such as snow-drops, crocuses,
tulips, hyacinths, jonquils, daffodils, and flags; and off-sets of
bulbous roots may be planted in beds. Anemones and ranunculuses may also
be planted in dry weather, and some of the most hardy of the perennial
and biennial shrubs, as asters, Canterbury-bells, and campanulas, may be
planted.

FEBRUARY.

In February, the young gardener will find much to do. In the
flower-garden, he may finish planting the remainder of the bulbous
roots, such as the star of Bethlehem, fritillarias, narcissuses, and
gladioluses, in beds or borders, all for flowering the same year. Some
may be planted in pots to flower in the house, or they may be placed in
the hot-bed for early flowering. Some of the hardy annual flower-seeds
may now be sown.

In the kitchen-garden, if we may so call it, a little crop of turnips
may be sown to come in early. Cabbage-plants may be set in rows; and a
little lettuce-seed may be sown under the frame in the hot-bed. This
frame should be well covered at night, and slightly raised in the day
time, when the weather is mild, to give the plants within it light and
air.

MARCH.

In the flower-garden, the gardener may begin to sow in beds, borders and
pots, larkspurs, candy-tuft, lupines, sweet-peas, Venus's looking-glass,
pansies, stocks, sweet-scabius, and many others.

In the culinary department, now is the time to sow a little bed of
onions in a well-manured bed. A bed for carrots may also be prepared,
and the seed sown and well trodden down. A bed of parsnips should also
be prepared in the same way; and another crop of peas of the marrow-fat
kind may be planted in drills in the same manner as the former. And
now, perhaps, the cabbages will require the earth to be drawn to their
stems; and, if the little gardener has room, he may plant three or four
rows of early potatoes. They should be the cuttings of large ones, with
not more than two eyes in each piece, and should be planted with manure
in rows, about two feet and a half apart and about a foot distant from
each other.

APRIL.

Now is the time to begin sowing the more tender annual flower seeds.
Some should be sown in the hot-bed; such as African and French
marigolds, Indian pinks, China-asters, yellow-sultanas; and many others
of the hardy kind, wall-flowers, Canterbury-bells, French honey-suckles,
mignonette, pinks, and daises may be planted.

In the kitchen department, kidney-beans may be sown, and at the latter
end of the month scarlet-runners and French-beans may be planted. It is
not a bad plan to raise a few scarlet-runners in the hot-bed, and to
plant them out when they have formed roots, and two or three leaves at
the head. But as these kinds of beans are very tender, they should be
carefully watched, and covered with straw on the sudden appearance of
frost, which often takes place in this month.

MAY.

Now may be sown the tenderest of the annuals in the hot-beds, as
cock's-combs, tricolors, balsams, egg-plants, ice-plants, and others of
that kind. Dahlias may also be placed in the bed in this or the former
month, and suffered to sprout, previous to planting in the open ground.
Bulbous roots of every flower now out of bloom, and the leaves decayed,
may be taken up and the off-sets separated dry, and housed for future
planting.

Now is the time to plant melons, gourds, and pumpkins. The seeds of
these should be sown in April in the hot-bed, and the plants should be
transplanted into good ground in a warm spot, about the latter end of
the month. They will grow freely and produce ripe fruit in August.
Common pumpkins may be sown on one of the dunghills. The gourds, such as
the orange-gourd, may be planted near an arbour, and be trained up the
principal parts. French-beans and scarlet-runners may also be planted,
if not done before; and should the young gardener have raised any
tomatoes or capsicums in his hot-bed, now is the time to plant them out,
as well as the slips of geraniums and tobacco-plants.

The young gardener will now find employment in sticking peas and beans,
weeding and transplanting. And such broad-beans as are now in blossom,
should have their tops nipped off, to promote the setting of the pods.
But let him be very careful to look after the weeds, which now grow in
great abundance; and let him rake nicely all his borders and keep
everything clean and neat, as this is the most brilliant time of a
garden's beauty.

JUNE.

Look well to the strawberries, and see that they are well watered, which
operation should be performed in dry weather every other day. These
plants will by this time have made their runners, and these should be
cleared away, except those that may be required for making fresh beds,
which may now be planted. Trim the roots a little, and cut off the
strays or runners from each plant.

Look well at this period, morning and evening, for snails and other
insects, and after showers of rain in particular. If there should be any
small cherry trees or other fruit trees, they ought be netted or well
watched, or the birds will eat them.

All sorts of flowers may now be planted out into the borders. Some may
also be put in pots, such as balsams. Take care, however, that they are
removed in damp or showery weather. In dry weather, take up tulips,
crown-imperials, and jonquils, such as are past flowering, and pluck
away the off-sets: let them be well cleaned and dried in the shade from
the mid-day sun; then put each sort into separate bags or boxes, and
keep them in some dry apartment till September, October or November, at
which time they will have to be planted again. Most other bulbs may also
be now taken up and put away for future planting. June is also the
proper time to propagate pinks and carnations by pipings.

JULY.

This is the time to plant out savoys and cabbages for winter use.
Brocoli may also be planted, and some seed sown for a late spring crop.
The plants raised from this seed will be ready to put out, finally, in
the middle and towards the latter end of August and the beginning of
September, and will produce small heads in April and in the beginning of
May. Lettuces may be now planted out, and other seed sown for future
use. Spinach for winter may also be now sown; for this, that part of the
garden should be chosen that has the most of the winter's sun upon it.
Now is the very best time in the whole year to sow the large black
turnip-rooted radish for autumn and winter. The young gardener must at
this period be on the watch for such seeds, both of flowers and garden
vegetables, as are ripe. This should always be done in dry
weather,--cutting or pulling up the stems with the seeds in. They should
then be spread in an airy place where the sun and wind will dry them
thoroughly.

The various herbs, such as balm, penny-royal, sweet-marjorum, sage,
lavender, marigolds, should also be gathered up for winter use. Slips
may now be planted from any of these. Take the side shoots of the
branches four or five inches in length, and plant them in a shady
border, and do not forget to give them water.

The ground should be kept clear at this period from refuse leaves,
stumps of cabbages, haulm of peas and beans, and from all decaying
rubbish and litter. Cut box-edgings also; and if the operation of
budding is to be performed, now is the time to do it.

AUGUST.

Look over the flowers in borders from day to day, to see what they
require. When the shoots of rambling flowers interpose with each other,
they should be shortened, so that every plant may stand singly, as they
always appear to best advantage when they stand clear of each other.

In this month, we must still continue to look out for ripe flower-seeds;
also, there are several kinds of autumnal flower-bulbs, which may be
planted, such as the autumnal crocus and Guernsey-lily.

Now weed and water seedlings, and shift such pot-flowers as require it
into larger pots. In doing this, rub off the moulds and matted fibres
from the roots, and throw away part of the outward, loose old earth.
Then, having put a little fresh earth into the old pots, with a piece of
broken tile over the hole in the bottom, put in your plant, and fill all
the sides round with nice soft mould.

SEPTEMBER.

In the third or fourth week of this month, it will be proper to begin to
plant the choice hyacinth and tulip roots for an early spring blossom.
The bed should be dug at least one full spade deep, breaking the earth
fine and laying the bed even by raking, and then plant the bulbs about
six inches apart. Ranunculus beds or borders may be prepared in the same
way, and the plants planted similarly, about two inches deep. Take care
of the new carnation and pink pipings or layers, and let them be
transplanted as soon as convenient. Perennial plants, such as
carnations, pinks, and sweet-williams, may now be transplanted. Now may
be sown the seeds of bulbous flower roots, as tulips, crown-imperials,
hyacinths, and most other bulbs. Evergreens may now be transplanted,
and much work be done in the preparation of manure, and gathering in
crops of various kinds.

OCTOBER.

This month again ushers in planting in various ways. In the kitchen
department, beans may be planted for an early crop in the succeeding
spring; that is, if the frost does not nip them. A warm border, under a
south wall is the best place for them. A few peas may be sown also, to
try the chance of the winter. Sow lettuce and small salad and radishes;
also transplant lettuces to situations to stand till the spring. A few
rows of cabbages for the winter and spring should now be planted, and
winter spinach sown. Now is a good time to begin to dig up parsnips and
carrots to store away for winter; and now all ground not in use should
be well dug up and trenched, to lie ready for the winter's frost to act
upon it. Now gather various fruits as they are fully ripe, and choose
dry days for so doing.

NOVEMBER.

The season is now closing, yet a good deal is to be done by those who
love a garden,--a vast deal of planting and transplanting of every
variety of flowers. Roots of many may be separated, and fresh sorts
planted. Nearly every kind of bulbous roots, if not previously planted,
may now be put in the earth. The cuttings of gooseberry and currant
trees may also be planted, and young trees raised in the spring be
transplanted to their proper situation. It is also a good time to plant
filberts, hazel-nuts, and barberries. Strawberry plants should have a
dressing of good manure.

DECEMBER.

Make neat the borders, dig all loose ground, turn the manure, plant
suckers from old roots, roll green and gravel walks, gather seeds on
fine days, cut away old wood, nail fruit trees, prepare hot-beds, get
matting to put over tender plants during the frost, look over seeds, and
see that they are dry and properly put away and make all clean, nice,
and neat for the coming spring.

       *       *       *       *       *

Such is an outline of what a boy may be expected to do with his little
garden. A great deal more is to be learned than can be learned from a
book; but if the young gardener will keep his eyes open, reflect on the
reasons for doing things, and pay attention to the voice of experience,
he will probably reap more real delight from his few yards of ground
than from all the toys and playthings he ever possessed.



PART VIII.

CARPENTERING.


[Illustration]

There is not a more useful and pleasant amusement than that of
"Carpentering." Every boy should be able to do little jobs with the
plane and chisel; for whether he may turn out a gentleman or a poor man,
it will be of great use to him. If a gentleman, he can amuse himself
with it, and if a poor man, it will be of essential service to be able
to put up a row of palings in his garden, to make a gate, to build a
pig-stye, to make and fix up shelves, build out-houses, and perform
sundry odd jobs about the house for his comfort and convenience.

Every boy should have a box of tools, and a bench to work at, also a
little room or loft for a workshop. He ought to obtain good tools, and
by no means buy the boxes of rubbish sold to boys for their amusement.
He should go the ironmonger's and purchase the following tools; of
course, out of his own savings,--his own pocket-money,--and not apply to
his parents for it.

     Two saws, one small and one hand-saw.
     Four gimlets of different sizes.
     One pair of pincers.
     One pair of plyers.
     Four chisels of different sizes.
     One gouge.
     Two hammers, large and small.
     One mallet.
     Two bradawls.
     Two planes, long and short.
     Two flies, large and small.
     One level.
     One square.
     One screw-driver.
     Nails, screws, rings, glue-pot, hone, oil, etc.

He must also manage to obtain a carpenter's-bench, which he cannot very
well do without, and then he may begin carpentering with expedition.


USES OF THE VARIOUS TOOLS.

THE SAW.--Before a saw can be used after it is purchased, it generally
has to be "set," as it is termed; that is, its teeth are to be sharpened
and placed a little outwards from the plane of its length. There are
several kinds of saws, namely, the common hand-saw, the key-hole saw,
and the small-toothed saw. The first is to cut planks and thick pieces
of wood; the second is to cut holes in planks or boards; the third is to
cut small pieces of wood, or those that require to be very nicely
divided.

THE PLANE.--The plane is used to smooth boards with. There are several
kinds of planes. The long plane and the short plane are the principal
ones. Within the plane is the knife, which is fastened in by a knock of
the hammer on the wedge inside, which is made so as to fix the edged
knife at any distance from the bottom of the plane, either for thin or
thick shaving. A very little direction from the carpenter will enable
the young carpenter to fix his knife properly; and a knock on the end of
the plane with a hammer will loosen it in a moment. The knife should be
sharpened from time to time on the stone or hone. This should be done
with great care, so as to preserve a proper angle at the edge and great
evenness in every part, otherwise, the planing will be very imperfect.

In planing, the wood to be planed is either laid flat on the bench, with
its end against the little pin, to prevent its moving, or fixed in the
screw of the bench, and the plane being brought upon the top or edge of
the wood, is pushed carefully, but somewhat sharply along. The shaving
comes through the hole in the plane, and must be cleared away, from time
to time, out of the way of the knife. Everything planed should be planed
perfectly level, smooth, and even.


[Illustration]

THE CHISEL.--The use of the chisel is to cut square or sharp-cornered
holes in wood, especially mortices. A _mortice_ is the hole cut in a
post or other piece of wood, in which another piece of wood cut to fit
it, called a _tenon_, is put. The tenon and mortice should both be cut
exactly, and so that they fit at right angles, firmly and securely.
Tenons and mortices are of perpetual use in carpentering, and the young
carpenter should learn as quickly as possible to make them.

THE MALLET is to be used instead of the hammer for a variety of
purposes. In cutting mortices, it is the mallet and not the hammer that
is used, and in almost all cases where the chisel is employed, the
mallet should be used. Were we to use a hammer to knock the end of the
chisel, we should soon split its handle, or so bruise it, as to make it
unservicable.

THE GIMLET AND BRADAWL.--The gimlet is used to bore awls with, so that
nails when they are driven in may not split the wood. Bradawls are used
for the same purpose, before smaller nails, called _brads_, are put in.
A bradawl is sometimes called a nail-piercer. There is a thread gimlet
now come into use, but this requires much care in handling: it must be
very gently put in, and very gently taken out, or it will snap like a
piece of glass; but it is a very useful tool, and is a great improvement
upon the old gimlet.

PINCERS AND PLYERS.--Pincers are used to take loose nails out of wood,
to wrench off staples, or other things that have been attached to wood.
Plyers are a smaller kind of pincers, and are used for small work in the
same way. They are very useful tools, and it is impossible to do without
them.

[Illustration]

THE HAMMER.--Almost everybody knows how a hammer is used: it is used to
drive nails with, and also to take them out. The hammer used to take out
nails, is called a claw-hammer, from its having a claw at one part. The
claw is placed under the head of the nail, when the handle of the hammer
becomes a lever, and the head the fulcrum; and, placed in this position,
the hand acquires great power,--sometimes amounting to at least a
hundred-weight. In using a hammer, we should always be careful to use
the kind of hammer necessary for the work to be done.

FILES.--Files are of various uses, and we cannot do very well without
them in carpentering. There are several kinds of files: one kind flat on
one side and rounded at the other; another is flat on both sides, and
another kind has three edges and three flat sides. The first is used for
rasping wood or other things down to a level; and the others are used to
file things into a point, or to cut them in pieces.

THE SCREW-DRIVER is used to drive in and take out screws. It ought to
have a very hard tough edge and a long handle. When placed in the head
of the screw, to drive in, it should be turned from left to right, and
in taking out, from right to left. There is a particular way of getting
out a screw, which is only to be learned by a little practice. The knack
consists in combining with nicety the pressure on the screw-head and the
turning of the driver. The young carpenter will now and then find a very
stubborn screw and fancy it quite impossible to get it out; but by a
little perseverance, he soon finds out the knack of doing it; and what
seemed immoveable yields to his skill and strength. There is one thing
young carpenters frequently do, and that is, to use their chisels for
screw-drivers; the consequence of this is, the spoiling of the chisel,
for the edges are sure to break away.

[Illustration]

THE LEVEL.--Every piece of work should be square and level, except when
it is of a curved form, and then it should be reduced to the principles
of the circle or ellipse. The level is used in putting up posts,
palings, or work of any kind in an upright position. It consists of a
hoard of wood, upon which a string is suspended, having a plummet at the
end of it, which falls along a straight line at a right angle with the
bottom of the level. To obtain a perfect perpendicular and perfect
horizontal, the level is placed on the work till the line falls
exactly over the nick at the top of the hole. The square is principally
applied to things made at the bench, and is used to bring everything
made to a _right angle_, so that a true level and perpendicular is thus
secured.


STUFF.

The young carpenter will find it very difficult to work without stuff.
He ought, therefore, to purchase a deal sawed into planks or boards,
consisting of one three quarters of an inch thick, another one inch
thick, and another half an inch thick. He ought, also, to obtain a slab
not sawed at all, to cut out as occasion may require. He will then be
provided with wood. He must also lay in a stock of various kinds of
nails, screws, rings, hasps, hinges, etc., and, above all, a good
substantial box to keep his tools and other matters in. This should be
divided into compartments, and everything should be arranged in it with
neatness and order.


LABOUR.

The young carpenter ought to be fond of work; and to feel a pleasure in
it. Should this be the case, there is scarcely an end to his labours. He
may make his hen-houses, his rabbit-hutches, his summer-houses, his
boxes, seats, rustic-chairs, lattice-work and palings for his garden,
build out-houses, and make book-shelves; in short, amuse himself with
the manufacture of a great variety of things, both for use and ornament,
and of which he may justly be a little proud.

Such an amusement is infinitely superior to feats of conjuring and
legerdemain, tricks with cards, and impositions of various kinds, which
are put in some books for the amusement of young people, and which are
highly pernicious both to their mental and moral progress.



PART IX.

KEEPING POULTRY.


Keeping poultry is an innocent amusement both for boys and girls.
Domesticated animals, unlike the free inhabitants of the country, do not
suffer from the loss of liberty, and when they are well housed, fed, and
attended to, they are as happy in their state of domestication as they
would be in their wild state of liberty; perhaps, more so, and therefore
it is quite right to keep them.

There is something very pleasant in watching the old hen as she sits so
patiently on her nest, and to see the little birds issue from the eggs,
with the proud but careful mother strutting by them, and scratching and
toiling to obtain them food; and nothing is more touching to a sensitive
mind than to behold her at the least chill of air, or overcasting of the
clouds, calling her young brood under her wings for warmth, shelter, and
security. There are many lessons of good to be learned in fowl-keeping.

In proceeding to keep poultry, the young poultry-keeper should first
secure a proper place to keep them in. He ought to be able to build, if
not the whole, a great portion of his poultry-house, which need not be
on a very extensive plan; but there are a certain number of little
requisites belonging to it which ought not to be forgotten.

[Illustration]


NATURE AND SITUATION OF FOWL-HOUSE.

[Illustration: SIDE VIEW.]

The situation of a fowl-house should be such as to afford sun and warmth
in winter and spring, and shade in summer. It should be well covered in
at the top, free from damp, have good ventilation and light, with
windows of lattice-work, with boards behind to open and shut. It should
be placed against a wall with a slanting roof. The side should contain
one latticed window (A); the front, also, a latticed window (B), with a
hatch-door, partly latticed and partly boarded at the side. A little
door for the fowls should communicate with a fowl-yard, as seen below.

[Illustration: FRONT VIEW.]

  +----------+-+-------------------------------------------------+
  |          |4|                                                 |
  |          +-+                                           +---+ |
  |          |                                             |   | |
  |          |              +-----------+                  |   | |
  |        +-+   +------+   |           |  +------------+  |   | |
  |    H   |     |  1   |   |     6     |  |     2      |  | 3 | |
  |        +-+   +------+   |           |  +------------+  |   | |
  |          |              +-----------+                  |   | |
  |          |                                             |   | |
  |          +-+                                           +---+ |
  |          |5|                                                 |
  +----------+-+-------------------------------------------------+

The above is a sketch of the ground-plan of the house and fowl-yard. H
is the fowl house. No. 1 is a small pit filled with dry sand and ashes,
in which the fowls may roll to free themselves from vermin. No. 2 is
another small trench or pit, containing horse-dung and rubbish of
various kinds, to be frequently renewed, in which they may amuse
themselves in scraping for corn and worms. No. 3 is a square of turf, on
which they may pasture and amuse themselves. Two or three trees ought to
be planted in the middle of the run, and these might be cherry or
mulberry trees, as they are very fond of the fruit. Nos. 4 & 5 are two
little stone tanks for water, and No. 6 is a pond for the ducks, in case
it should be thought advisable to keep such, which I should strongly
recommend to be done.

Within the fowl-house there must be perches put up for the fowls to
roost on. These should be placed one above another at the corner, and so
disposed, that one range of birds does not sit quite under the other,
for reasons which need not be explained. At the bottom of the
fowl-house, but not under the perches, should be placed the nest boxes,
from four to six, as may be required, in which straw should be placed
for the hens to make their nests with. The fowl-house and everything
about it should be kept scrupulously clean, and be frequently
white-washed; and it is good, occasionally, to fumigate the house by
burning herbs, and juniper and cedar woods.


THE VARIOUS BREEDS OF FOWLS.

These are very numerous, and are becoming more so every day. Among them
are the following:--

THE DORKING BREED.

So named from the town of Dorking in Surrey. It is one of the largest of
our fowls. It is of an entire white colour, and has five claws upon each
foot, _generally_, for some have not. They are good layers, and their
flesh is plump. They make excellent capons.

POLAND BREED.

The Poland fowls are greatly esteemed, but they are seldom to be met
with pure in this country. They were originally imported from Holland.
Their colour is shining black, with white tufts on the head of both cock
and hen, springing from a fleshy protuberance or "King David's crown,"
the celestial in heraldry. This breed lay a great quantity of eggs, and
are sometimes called "everlasting layers." They quickly fatten, and are
good eating.

SPANISH BREED.

The Spanish fowl, with the Hamburg and Chittagong, is a very large fowl,
laying large eggs, and all seem more or less allied to the Polish
family. They are well adapted for capons, and produce eggs nearly equal
in size to those of the Malay hens. This breed is now common,
particularly in London.

BANTAMS.

This breed is small, but very beautiful. It came originally from India.
They are frequently feathered to the toes; but booted legs are not
exclusively peculiar to Bantams, for Bantam fanciers, with Sir John
Sebright at their head, prefer those which have clean bright legs
without any feathers. The full-bred Bantam-cock should not weigh more
than a pound. He should have a rose comb, a well-feathered tail, and a
proud lively carriage. The Nankeen coloured and the black are the
greatest favourites. The Nankeen bird should have his feathers edged
with black, his wings bordered with purple, his tail-feathers black, his
hackles slightly studded with purple, and his breast black, with white
edges to the feathers. The hen should be small, clean-legged, and match
in plumage with the cock. For young persons, Bantams are the best kinds
of fowls to be kept, as they make but little dirt, and are very gentle
and pretty.


CHOICE OF STOCK.

In commencing fowl-keeping, it is important to choose young and healthy
sorts. There should be a two year old cock, and pullets in their first
year. In choosing them, we should note that the comb is red and healthy,
the eyes bright and dry, and the nostrils free from any moisture. The
indications of old age or sickness are paleness of the comb and gills,
dulness of colour, a sort of stiffness in the down and feathers,
increased length of talons, loose and prominent scales on the legs.

There should be from four to six hens to one cock, the latter being the
extreme number; and the conduct of the cock towards the hens should be
watched, for if he should be of a sulky, selfish, persecuting and
domineering disposition, the hens will be unhappy, and he ought to have
his neck wrung, as a just reward for selfishness and tyranny.


FOOD AND FEEDING.

Fowls must be well fed, but they should not have too much. Over-feeding
is as bad for fowls as for men. They ought not to be fed with stale or
bad corn, but of the best, and now and then with a little buck-wheat;
with cabbage, mangold-wurzel leaves, and parsley, which should be
chopped fine. Where they are likely to be stinted for insect food, small
pieces of meat chopped up should occasionally be added to their food.

On the floor of the fowl-house, a little sand should be occasionally
spread, and sandy gravel should be placed in the corners. The small
sharp stones found in gravel are absolutely necessary to fowls, as they
are picked up by the birds and find their way into the gizzard, where
they perform the part of mill-stones in grinding the corn.


LAYING.

The early period of spring, and after a cessation at the end of summer,
are the two periods at which fowls begin to lay. When the period of
laying approaches, it is known by the redness of the comb in the hen,
the brightness of her eyes, and her frequent clucking. She appears
restless, and scratches and arranges the straw in her laying place, and
at last begins to lay. She generally prefers to lay in a nest where
there is one or more eggs; hence it is of use to put a chalk egg into
the nest you wish her to settle on.

The eggs ought to be taken from the nest every afternoon, when no more
are expected to be laid, for if left in the nest, the heat of the hens
when laying each day will tend to corrupt them. Some hens will lay only
one egg in three days, some every other day, and some every day.

To promote laying, good food in moderate quantities should be given to
the hens, and also clean water. A hen well fed and attended to, will
produce upwards of one hundred and fifty eggs in a year, besides two
broods of chickens. Some half-bred game hens begin to lay as soon as
their chickens are three weeks old.


PRESERVATION OF EGGS.

To preserve eggs fresh for a length of time, it is only necessary to rub
each egg with a small piece of butter, which need not be larger than a
pea, or the tip of the finger may be dipped in a saucer of oil and
passed over the shell in the same way. Eggs may be thus preserved for
nine months.


HATCHING CHICKENS.

The eggs given to the hen to hatch must be perfectly fresh; they should
be large in size, the produce of the most beautiful birds, well shaped,
and the number put under the hen should vary according to her size, and
may be from nine to thirteen eggs; odd numbers, old housewives say, are
the _luckiest_.

When a hen wants to sit, she makes a particular kind of clucking, and
goes to her nest. Here she fixes herself for a period of three weeks, at
the end of which time, the young chickens break the eggs and come out
perfect beings. They run about as soon almost as they are out of the
egg, and in twenty-four hours will take food.

On the first day of their birth, chickens require nothing but warmth,
and they must be kept under the mother in the nest. The next day, they
may be put under a coop and fed with crumbs of bread soaked in milk, a
few chicken's groats being added, and the yolks of eggs boiled hard.
After being kept warm under the coop with the mother for five or six
days, they may then be turned a little in the sun, towards the middle of
the day, and fed with boiled barley mixed with curds, and a few
pot-herbs chopped up. At the end of a fortnight, they may be left
entirely to the care of the mother, who will be sure to perform her
duty.

Such are the principal particulars regarding the keeping of fowls. There
are many books written on the subject: one of the best of them is called
the "Poultry-yard," which may be consulted for further information.



PART X.

BEES.


[Illustration]

Any humane person must be unwilling to keep what may be termed "pets,"
when, as is very often the case, they are taken from the freedom which
nature has given them, to be pent up in cages, hutches, and round-about
boxes. It is not a part of good moral training to encourage children to
deprive anything of liberty, and the keeping of rabbits, guinea-pigs,
birds, gold and silver fish, white mice, pigeons and squirrels, is not
only attended with a vast deal of trouble and expense, but with a great
many bad smells, filth, and dirt. Such matters, have, therefore, been
excluded from this volume, as being by no means calculated to improve
either the minds or morals of young persons, but rather to have a
contrary tendency.

These objections do not, however, lie against the keeping of _bees_,
which afford at all times lessons of industry, of order, of contrivance,
of perseverance, and of many other virtues, which are great ornaments to
little boys and girls, as well as to grown men and women. We shall,
therefore, give as copious an account of this interesting insect as we
can, and, at the same time, show the best methods of managing it with
advantage to its possessor.

Bee is the English name for an extensive _genera_ of insects,--_apis_ or
the section _anthophla_ or _mellifera_ of modern classification. The
common domestic bee, of which it is now our business to treat, is the
_apis mellifica_ of Linnæus; and it may be as well to state, for the
guidance of the young reader, that the Hive-bee is distinguished from
all other species of bees,--by having the shanks of the hind legs
furnished with a smooth and concave pollen-plate on the outer surface,
and destitute of spines at the extremity,--by the basal joint of the
_torsi_ in the working bees, of an oblong form, with its inner surface
clothed with fine hairs, disposed in transverse layers,--by the oblong
shape of its body,--and by the feelers at the sheath of the tongue being
almost obsolete and formed of a single point.

The Hive-bee may be regarded as one of the most perfectly social species
of insects, and one whose economy is regulated by the possession of a
more remarkable degree of instinct than is perhaps possessed by any
other insect. Another peculiarity regarding bees is, that there are not
simply males and females among them, but mules or workers, or female
non-breeders, as they have been termed, which constitute the great mass
of the population of a hive. They are smaller, as regards size, than the
males or the female bees, and it is to them that the internal economy of
the hive is committed, and upon them the whole labour of the community
devolves. Moreover, it is their duty to guard and protect the hive and
the queen, to feed the young, and to kill the drones at the appointed
time.

In a single hive there are sometimes not fewer than thirty thousand of
these individuals. They are distinguished from the breeding females by
having a longer lip, the jaws not notched at the tip, and the sting
straight. The male bees, of which there are several hundreds, sometimes
even two thousand in a full hive, are idle creatures, doing no work.
They are generally termed _drones_, and they are of a more bulky size
than the other bees, and they are not armed with a sting.

Such are the inhabitants of the hive; the chief products of which are
bees-wax and honey. The former is secreted by the worker-bees, by a
peculiar apparatus on the under side of the belly, as occasion requires,
and is employed for constructing the combs in which the family provision
and the young brood are deposited.

Honey is obtained by bees from the _nectaries_ of flowers, which, it is
well known, are constantly secreting a sweet thick fluid. This is sucked
up by the tongue of the insect, and a portion of it is consumed at once
for its support, but the greater part of the supply, although taken into
the stomach of the bee, is again brought up (regurgitated, to use a hard
word), and poured into the cells of the hives for the food of the grubs
and the use of the community through the winter.

[Illustration: QUEEN BEE.]

[Illustration: DRONE.]

The cells into which the honey is poured for store are placed in the
most inaccessible parts of the hive, and are fitted with waxen lids, but
the honey destined for the use of the _nurses_, _workers_, and _drones_,
is deposited in unclosed cells. In each honey-cell there is a cream-like
layer or covering of a thicker consistency than the honey itself. This
layer is perforated by the bee with its fore-legs, and is closed before
the bee flies away.

Having thus noticed the inhabitants of the hive, we will now turn our
attention to the hive itself. The most profound philosopher, as well as
the most incurious observer, is struck with astonishment on inspecting
the interior of a bee-hive. He beholds a city in miniature. He sees this
city divided into regular streets; and these streets composed of houses
constructed on the most exact geometrical principles and the most
symmetrical plan; some serving as store-houses for food, others for the
habitations of the citizens, and a few, much more extensive than the
rest, destined for the palace of their sovereign. He perceives that the
substance of which the city is built, is one which man with all his
skill is unable to fabricate, and that the edifices in which it is
employed are such as the most expert architect would find himself
incompetent to erect.

The nest, as constructed by the insects, consists of a continued series
of combs, arranged vertically, each of which consists of a vast number
of cells, forming two ranges backed against each other, and,
consequently, placed in a horizontal position. A sufficient space is
left between each of these double layers of cells to allow a couple of
bees, engaged upon the opposite cells, to work without incommoding each
other. In addition to these spaces, the combs are perforated in various
places, so as to allow the bees a passage from one street to another,
thus saving them much time. But it is in the construction of the cells
themselves that the most admirable instinct is displayed. Geometricians
are aware, that in order to occupy a given space with solid objects of
equal size and similar form, without any useless interstices, three
figures only can be adopted, namely, the equilateral triangle
[Illustration], the square or cube [Illustration], and the regular
hexagon [Illustration]. Of these three geometrical figures, the hexagon
most completely unites.

It is a remarkable circumstance, that in a new colony the design of
every comb is sketched out, and the first rudiments laid, by a single
bee, which having disengaged itself from the swarm, commences the
building of cells, which is then taken up by the other wax-makers, and,
subsequently, by the nurse bees, which give the finishing stroke to the
cells; and so quick are the bees at their work, that a comb,
twenty-seven inches long, by seven or eight inches wide, is built in
four and twenty hours, and in five or six days they will fill the hive.
The combs are attached to the roof and sides of the dwelling,--the
hives or boxes to the floors and roofs.

There are three sorts of cells: the first one for the larvæ of workers,
and for containing the honey,--these are of the ordinary form; the
second are for the grubs of the males or drones, being considerably
larger and more substantial,--they usually appear near the bottom of the
combs; the third are the cells for the females, of which there are
usually three or four, and these are generally attached to the ceiling
part of the comb, having very little wax in their composition. One of
these cells considerably exceeds in height the ordinary ones, and they
are not interwoven with them, but suspended perpendicularly, their sizes
being nearly parallel to the mouths of the common cells, several of
which are sacrificed to support them. After the queen bee has quitted
her cell, it is destroyed by the workers, and its place occupied by a
range of common cells. The queen bee deposits her eggs separately at the
bottom of each cell: the egg is of a lengthened oval shape, with a
slight curve, and of a bluish colour. The worker's eggs, which are the
only ones laid by the queen during the first eleven months, hatch in a
few days, and become little white maggots. Each is now fed with bee
bread by the workers, very assiduously, and, at the expiration of six
days, having attained its full size, it is roofed in by the workers,
spins a silken cocoon, which occupies it for thirty-six hours, and then
becomes a nymph or pupa, and, eleven days after this, quits its case,
eats through the roof of the cell, and comes forth a perfect working
bee.

For nearly twelve months, the queen bee deposits only workers' eggs;
after which period, however, she commences laying those of drones. As
soon as this change takes place, the workers begin to construct the
royal cells, in which, without discontinuing to lay male eggs, she
deposits now and then, about once in three days, an egg destined to
produce a future queen. The food of the royal grubs has been termed
"royal jelly." It is a pungent food prepared by the workers for the
express purpose of feeding the grubs that are to be future queens, and
is more stimulating than the food given to the common grubs.

Should it happen, as is sometimes the case, that the queen bee be
killed, or the hive in any manner be deprived during the first eleven
months of her existence, and before she has deposited any royal eggs,
the most extraordinary circumstances occur. After a little while, a
hubbub commences, work is abandoned, the whole hive is in an uproar,
every bee traverses the hive at random, with the most evident want of
purpose. This state of confusion sometimes continues for several days,
then the bees gather in knots and clusters of a dozen or so, as though
engaged in consultation; shortly after which, a resolution appears to
have been taken by the whole population. Some of the workers select
one of the worker-eggs, which had been previously deposited by the lost
sovereign. Three cells are thrown into one for its reception,--the eggs
in the two other cells being destroyed. The grub when hatched is fed
with the royal jelly, and a queen is produced. Even if the grub had been
hatched and partly fed as a worker, and had only received two or three
days' allowance of the royal food, the result would be the same,--they
emerge from the pupa perfect queens whereas, had they remained in the
cells which they originally inhabited, they would have turned out
workers.

We now come to that period of the year when the queen insects, having
undergone the change to the pupa state, are nearly ready to burst into
life. It is now that the old queen mother, losing all her parental
feelings, becomes infuriated: she rushes to the cells wherein are
deposited the future queens, and instantly begins to tear them open. The
guards which surround the cells make way for her approach, and suffer
her to act as she pleases, whereupon she slaughters the inmates with her
sting, without remorse, and, after a short time, a great portion of the
working bees accompanying her, rushes out of the hive, and seeks another
dwelling. This is called "swarming."

Something very like concerted action and foresight seems to belong to
these proceedings. It is always in calm weather, when the sky is serene,
between nine in the morning and four in the afternoon, when they quit
their habitation. After flying about for some time in a cluster, by
degrees they fix themselves on a branch, form a group there by hooking
themselves one to another with their feet, and remain perfectly
tranquil. Then it is that the proprietor may secure them, and form a new
colony.

In this manner several swarmings take place in the course of the summer
between the months of April and August. A good stock of bees usually
produces three swarms in a favourable season: each swarm containing not
only the young bees recently hatched, but also a portion of the old
inhabitants. The duration of life of the different individuals is
various: the male bees only live a few months, the workers only one or
two years, and the queen only four or five. Such is, in brief, the
birth, parentage, education, life, character, and behaviour of the
honey-bee, and it will be only necessary now to say a few words
regarding the management of these insects, with a view to instruction,
amusement, and profit.


HOW TO GET A STOCK OF BEES.

They must be purchased, and the purchaser must take care and procure
them of some one upon whom he may depend. This will save a great deal of
trouble. The hive should be weighed before and after a swarm is placed
in it, and a note kept of its weight, a judgment may then be formed of
the quantity of honey it contains in the autumn.

The hives should be sheltered by a wall, a hedge, or a tuft of trees, in
order that the bees may get to the door of the hives with ease. This
they cannot do if there are gusts of air sweeping round it, in which
case, numbers of them will fall to the ground about the hive, from
which, perhaps, they will not be able to rise before the chill and damp
of the evening comes on and destroys them.

There must be water near the hives, as the working bees drink a great
deal in the spring, and they are very fond of walking along straws which
float in the water and sipping as much as they want. The door of the
hive should look towards the forenoon sun, and the hive should not be
raised above eighteen inches from the ground.

We will now suppose that your bees have laid up their winter store, and
that you wish to share it with them. We say share it, because we do not
suppose you are so cruel and foolish as to wish to kill your bees. You
might as well kill a cow for the purpose of getting milk. The more bees
you have, the more honey,--that is certain.

About the latter end of September, the flowering season is over, and few
flowers remain for the bees to get honey from. This is the best time to
ascertain what honey they can spare; therefore, weigh every hive, and
deduct from it the weight of the hive and the bees, as ascertained when
the swarm entered it at first, as above directed.

To live through the winter, a hive must have at least sixteen pounds of
honey, and if you wish it to swarm early, it ought to have twenty-five
or even thirty pounds.

When you determine on taking away the honey from a hive, either for your
own use or for distributing it to other hives, proceed as follows:--

The first fine calm morning after the honey season is over, go to your
hive provided with a tobacco-pipe in your mouth, a large dish for the
honey in one hand, and a long knife with the point bent, and a goose or
turkey feather in your other. Blow two or three full puffs of smoke in
at the door, then turn the hive upside down on the ground, so as to
stand steadily, and immediately give the bees, who will collect on the
edge of the comb to see what is going on, a little more smoke. This will
stupify them so completely, that not above one or two will be able to
fly out, and they will be so sick, that they will not dream of stinging
you. Begin at one side of the hive, and cut out a comb, having first
sent down a puff of smoke to make the bees go away to the middle and the
other side. Proceed thus,--sweeping the bees off every comb back into
the hive with the feather, till you come to the centre comb. The only
nicety consists in blowing away the bees to prevent any of them being
crushed. If the operation be neatly done, scarcely any bees will be
killed. Take the hive now and replace it on its stand as before.

The next thing to be done is to join the bees, from which the honey has
been so taken, to another hive in which you wish them to be
accommodated, which may be done as follows:--In the evening, if you look
into the hive which has been deprived of its honey, you will find all
the bees hanging in the centre, just like a new swarm. Bring the hive
near the one to which they are to be joined,--get about a table spoonful
of raw honey or syrup, so thin as to pour easily, and have it in a jug
beside the hive which is to receive the strangers,--blow a few whiffs of
tobacco smoke in the door of the hive, then turn it up and give them an
additional puff or two, and pour the honey or syrup from the jug all
over the bees between the combs, so that they may be quite smeared over.
Then spread a clean linen cloth on the ground in front of the hive, with
one edge of it placed on the floor of the hive and secured there by two
stones, to prevent its falling, and which will also serve to keep the
hive a little raised from its floor on that side; now replace the hive
so that the edge of the cloth may be under it while the two stones keep
it raised about an inch; next take the hive containing the bees, hold it
steadily over the cloth, and by one sudden blow, knock out all the bees
upon the cloth in a lump. They will immediately begin to climb up and
enter the new hive. If they were to be united without previously
smearing one of them with honey or syrup, the chance is, that half of
both hives would be killed by fighting.

Hives may be either of straw or wood. Bees thrive equally well in
either. In winter the hives should be placed in a northern exposure, or,
at any rate, the sun should not be allowed to shine too much on them, as
it entices the bees out, who often perish by sudden cold.

You ought to keep at least three hives: Nos. 1, 2 & 3. No. 1 is the
first or old one, say, of last year; Nos. 2 & 3 of this year's swarming,
and these must be so managed as to supply you with honey and the bees
with food. This is well explained in a little book called the "Farmer,"
which those who wish to keep bees ought to study.

Such are the most important facts regarding the bee and its management.
There are many little works on the subject to be obtained, but the few
directions in the work above named will be ample information for the
young bee-breeder, and ensuring him lots of honey, lots of lessons of
economy, and lots of amusement.


THE END.


J. WERTHEIMER AND CO., CIRCUS PLACE, FINSBURY CIRCUS.





*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Book of Sports: - Containing Out-door Sports, Amusements and Recreations, - Including Gymnastics, Gardening & Carpentering" ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.



Home