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Title: A Manual of the Malay language - With an Introductory Sketch of the Sanskrit Element in Malay
Author: Maxwell, William Edward, Sir, 1846-1897
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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[Transcriber’s Note:

This e-text includes characters that will only display in UTF-8
(Unicode) text readers:

  ḳ, ḥ, ṭ, ḍ, ṇ, ṃ, ṛ (letters with dot under: except ḳ and ḥ, these
    are used only in Sanskrit words)
  ṅ (n with dot over, in Sanskrit words)
  ă, ĕ, ŭ (vowel with breve or “short” sign: only ĕ is common)
  ā (a with macron or “long” sign)

If any of these characters do not display properly--in particular,
if the diacritic does not appear directly above the letter--or if the
apostrophes and quotation marks in this paragraph appear as garbage,
make sure your text reader’s “character set” or “file encoding” is set
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last resort, use the Latin-1 version of the text.

In the section on Sanskrit origins, anusvara was printed as m̃ (m with
tilde). It has been changed in this e-text to ṃ (m with dot under) for
more reliable display. Note also that ś is written as ç, ṣ as sh, and
ṛ as ṛi.

Footnote 53 of the Introduction refers to “the peculiar vowel sound
represented in Arabic by the letter _ain_ ... denoted by the Greek rough
breathing”. The reference is to the glottal stop. It is represented in
this e-text with a single opening quote ‘ because this will display more
reliably than the printed text’s ‛ or ῾ (“Greek rough breathing”,
equivalent to a “reversed high-nine” single quote).

In some sections, parts of words are italicized. These italics are shown
in {braces}; elsewhere, italics are shown conventionally with _lines_.

Errors are listed at the end of the e-text.]


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A

MANUAL OF THE MALAY LANGUAGE.



NEW WORKS ON

MALAY LANGUAGE

HANDBOOK OF THE MALAY LANGUAGE, for the Use of Tourists and Residents.
  By KELLY and WALSH. Second Edition. 98 pages, 12mo, cloth. 1903.
  3s. 6d. net. Printed in Roman characters only. It contains an
  elementary grammar and an English-Malay vocabulary.

SPREEKT GIJ MALEISCH? Words and phrases in Dutch, Malay, French, German,
  and English. By JZN. RIJNENBERG. Fourth Edition. 163 pages, oblong
  8vo. 1901. 3s. 6d. net.

PRACTICAL MALAY GRAMMAR, with Reading and Translation Exercises. By
  W. G. SHELLABEAR. 83 pages, 8vo, bound. 1899. 5s. net. All Malay words
  are printed in Roman characters only.

MALAY-ENGLISH VOCABULARY, containing 6500 Malay words and phrases. By
  W. G. SHELLABEAR. 141 pages, 8vo, cloth. 1902. 6s. net. Printed in
  Roman characters only.

MALAY-ENGLISH DICTIONARY. By R. J. WILKINSON. 4to. 1901-3. Unbound,
  £2, 10s.; bound, £3, 3s. The Malay words are printed in Arabic and
  in Roman characters.

ENGLISH-MALAY VOCABULARY. By F. A. SWETTENHAM. Fifth Edition. 245 and
  xxxii pages, 8vo, cloth. 1905. 8s. 6d. net.

MALAY-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. By F. A. SWETTENHAM. New edition in
  preparation. ⁂ Malay words printed both in Arabic and Roman
  characters.

TRAVELLER’S MALAY PRONOUNCING HANDBOOK, for the Use of Travellers and
  Newcomers to Singapore. Seventh Edition. 317 and xxvi pages, 12mo,
  cloth. 1904. 5s.

    _Printed in Roman characters only._


  LONDON: KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH, TRÜBNER, & CO. LTD.
  Dryden House, Gerrard Street, W.



  A MANUAL

  of the

  MALAY LANGUAGE.

  with

  +An Introductory Sketch of the
  Sanskrit Element in Malay.+

  by

  WILLIAM EDWARD MAXWELL,
  of the Inner Temple, Barrister-At-Law;
  Assistant Resident, Perak, Malay Peninsula.


  EIGHTH EDITION.


  LONDON:
  KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH, TRÜBNER, & CO. Ltd.
  Dryden House, Gerrard Street, W.

  1907



Je n’en refuis aulcune de phrases qui s’usent emmy les rues;
ceux qui veulent combattre l’usage par la grammaire se mocquent.

  MONTAIGNE.



PREFACE.


The language which I have endeavoured to illustrate in the following
pages is the Malay of the British Settlements in the Straits of Malacca,
some knowledge of which I have had the opportunity of acquiring during
sixteen years’ service in Penang, Province Wellesley, Malacca,
Singapore, and Perak.

Dialectical peculiarities are so abundant in Malay that it is impossible
to teach the colloquial language of the people without imparting to the
lesson the distinct marks of a particular locality. In parts of India it
is said proverbially that in every twelve _kos_ there is a variation in
the language,[1] and very much the same might be said of the Malay
Peninsula and adjacent islands. The construction of the language and the
general body of words remain, of course, the same, but in every state or
subdivision of a state there are peculiar words and expressions and
variations of accent and pronunciation which belong distinctively to it.
Words common in one district sound strangely in another, or, it may be,
they convey different meanings in the two places. Even words of such
constant occurrence as the personal pronouns “I” and “you” vary
according to locality. The Kedah accent is easily distinguished from
that of Patani, and that again from the speech of Trengganu and Pahang.
Certain expressions common in Penang are almost unintelligible in
Malacca and Singapore, and _vice versâ_. In Perak it is not difficult to
say whether a man comes from the upper or lower reaches of the river, by
merely noting particular words in his conversation. Even individual
villages and districts have their peculiar twang or their tricks of
expression not found elsewhere. In Java, Sumatra, and other islands
eastward in which Malay is spoken, the pronunciation and character of
the language are much influenced by the other languages current there.
Malay is only spoken in perfection in places where the natives speak no
other tongue.

    [Footnote 1: Beames, Comparative Grammar of the Aryan Languages,
    p. 101.]

Native pedantry has endeavoured to classify various styles of speaking,
as the court style (_bahasa dalam_), the well-bred style (_bahasa
bangsawan_), the trader’s language (_bahasa dagang_), and the mixed
language (_bahasa kachau-kan_), but all that can be correctly said is,
that a limited number of words are used exclusively in intercourse with
royal personages; that persons of good birth and education, in the
Eastern Archipelago, as elsewhere, select their expressions more
carefully than the lower classes; and that the vocabulary of commerce
does not trouble itself with the graces of style and the copious use of
Arabic words which commend themselves to native writers.

The written language is more stilted and less terse and idiomatic than
the colloquial dialect; and even where pure Malay is employed, the
influence of Arabic compositions is very marked. Whole sentences,
sometimes, though clothed in excellent Malay, are unacknowledged
translations of Arabic phrases. This may be verified by any one well
acquainted with Malay literary compositions who will look into a really
good translation of an Arabic work; for instance, Lane’s translation of
the “Thousand and One Nights.” The Malay speaks much better than he
writes, and has at his command quantities of words which never find
their way into his literature, and, therefore, but rarely into
dictionaries compiled by Europeans.

The spelling of Malay words in the native character is hardly yet fixed,
though the Perso-Arabic alphabet has been in use since the thirteenth
century; and those follow but a vain shadow who seek to prescribe exact
modes of spelling words regarding which even native authorities are not
agreed, and of which the pronunciation may vary according to locality.
The experience of Crawfurd sufficiently proves this; there are words in
his dictionary which are transliterated in as many as four different
ways.

Two classes of works in his own language have hitherto been at the
service of the English student of Malay--grammars, more or less
scientifically arranged, and vocabularies and books of dialogues, which
presuppose some knowledge of grammatical construction.

The Malay Grammar of Marsden is an admirable work, of unquestionable
utility to the advanced student; but it contains more than the beginner
wants to know. Crawfurd’s Malay Grammar, too, is hardly a work to put
into the hands of a beginner.

Mere vocabularies, on the other hand, teach nothing but words and
sentences, and throw no light upon forms of construction.

It has been my aim to supply a work which will be at once an elementary
grammar and a compendium of words and sentences, which will teach the
colloquial dialect and yet explain grammatical rules; and for this I
have taken as my model the Hindustani Manual of the late Professor
Forbes.

The language is not ennobled by having been the speech of men who have
made their mark in the world’s history. The islands of Indonesia have
never startled the Eastern world with an Akbar, or charmed it with a
Hafiz or a Chand. Receptivity, not originality, is the characteristic of
the Malay races. But the importance of Malay, when the traveller heads
eastward from the Bay of Bengal, has been recognised by Europeans since
the sixteenth century, when Magellan’s Malay interpreter was found to be
understood from one end of the Archipelago to the other. It is the
strong and growing language of an interesting people, and (in the words
of a recent writer on Eastern languages) “for Malay, as for Hindustani,
a magnificent future may be anticipated among the great speech-media of
Asia and of the world. They manifest that capacity for the absorption
and assimilation of foreign elements which we recognise as making
English the greatest vernacular that the world has ever seen.”[2]

    [Footnote 2: Cust, Modern Languages of the East Indies, 150.]

  W. E. M.

  THE RESIDENCY, LARUT, PERAK,
  _July_ 1, 1881



INTRODUCTION.


The interest of Englishmen in the Malay language began with the early
ventures of the East India Company in the Far East, in the first years
of the seventeenth century. It was the language of commerce everywhere
east of the Bay of Bengal, and our earliest adventurers found it spoken
at the trading ports which they visited. The Portuguese had preceded
them by a century, and the Dutch had been a little earlier in the same
field. Our countrymen seem to have been indebted to the latter for their
first Malay vocabulary. The minutes of the East India Company record
how, on the 22d January 1614, “a book of dialogues, heretofore
translated into Latin by the Hollanders, and printed with the Malacca
tongue, Mr. Hakluyt having now turned the Latin into English, and
supposed very fit for the factors to learn, was ordered to be printed
before the departure of the ships.”[1]

    [Footnote 1: Calendar of State Papers, Colonial Series, East
    Indies, p. 272.]

At present the use of Malay, as far as Englishmen are concerned, is
chiefly confined to the officers of the Colonial Government in the
British possessions in the Straits of Malacca and in the native states
adjoining them, and to other residents in those parts, and in the Dutch
settlements in the East. To these may be added the English communities
of Labuan and Sarawak, and merchants, traders, and seamen all over the
Eastern Archipelago. The limited extent of our Malay possessions, when
they are compared with the magnificent islands which make up Netherlands
India, excuse us, no doubt, for the secondary place which we occupy in
all researches connected with the language and literature of the Malays.
To the Dutch their colonies in the Eastern seas are what our Indian
Empire is to us; and with them the study of Malay, Javanese, Kawi, &c.,
takes the place of Persian, Hindustani, Tamil, Sanskrit, &c., which
occupy our civilians in India. The extent and value of Dutch works on
Malay subjects is, however, but little known to Englishmen in the East,
owing to their general ignorance of the Dutch language. It is not too
much to say that any one aiming at a thorough knowledge of the language,
literature, and history of the Malay people should commence his task by
learning Dutch.

Malay is the language not of a nation, but of tribes and communities
widely scattered in the East, and is probably spoken with greatest
purity in the states of Kedah and Perak, on the west coast of the Malay
Peninsula. It is spoken in all the states of the Peninsula, in Sumatra,
Sunda, Java, Borneo, Celebes, Flores, Timor, and Timor Laut, the
Moluccas, and the Philippines. Traces of it are found among the numerous
Polynesian dialects, and in the language of the islanders of Formosa.
Siam proper has a large Malay population, descendants mainly of captives
taken in war, and the language is therefore in use there in places; it
is found also here and there on the coasts and rivers of Anam and
Cochin-China. No other language of the Eastern Archipelago is understood
over such an extensive area, and it is the common means of communication
between the numerous tribes and races of the Malay family whose
languages and dialects differ.

Logan supposes that the earliest inhabitants of the Archipelago were
tribes of Africo-Indian origin, who peopled the Eastern islands as well
as the more accessible portions of the Continent, descendants of whom he
recognises in the negro and quasi-negro tribes that are still preserved
in some of the mountains of the Malay Peninsula, Siam, and Anam. To
these succeeded immigrant tribes from Mid-Asia, by way of the Irawadi,
whom Logan designates by the term of the Tibeto-Anam family, all the
races and languages from Tibet to Anam being included under it. “By a
long-continued influx this family spread itself over the Peninsula,
Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and Celebes; but its farther progress over the
many islands to the north and east appears to have been checked by the
older races. It was probably only by slow steps and by settling at many
points that it gained a firm footing even in the western islands, and a
long period must have elapsed before its tribes became so populous and
spread so far into the interior as to enable them to absorb and destroy
the earlier occupants.”[2] The variety which exists among the languages
and dialects in the region affected by these movements is thus accounted
for by Logan:-- “The languages imported by the Tibeto-Anamese settlers
differed as did those of the natives, and the combinations formed in
different places from the contact of the two families varied in the
proportions of each which entered into them. But the structures of the
native tongues had strong affinities amongst themselves, and
predominated in all these new combinations.”[3]

    [Footnote 2: Journ. Ind. Arch., iv. 311.]

    [Footnote 3: Idem, p. 315.]

The idea presented by this sketch of the origin of the aboriginal Malay
language is that of a mixed dialect, borrowing something from the
Tibeto-Anam languages (the influence of which would be more apparent in
the western settlements), and gradually approaching the Africo-Indian
forms farther east.[4] “Lastly,” Logan supposes, “a later Indian
influence, belonging to a far more advanced civilisation, flowed in a
great stream into the Western Archipelago, and cut off that of the
Irawadi, before its linguistic operation had made much progress.”[5] It
is to this epoch that we must ascribe the introduction of the Sanskrit
element into the Malay language.

    [Footnote 4: Journ. Ind. Arch., v. p. 569.]

    [Footnote 5: Idem.]

Malay is mainly dissyllabic, but there are not wanting evidences of a
former monosyllabic tendency. The syllable _bu_, _bun_, or _bung_, for
instance, occurs in a considerable number of words conveying an idea of
roundness:--

  _Bu-lan_      the moon.
  _Bu-lat_      round.
  _Bu-ah_       fruit.
  _Bu-yong_     a jar.
  _Bu-tir_      a grain, globule.
  _Bu-sar_      an arch.
  _Bu-kit_      a hill.
  _Bu-sut_      an anthill.
  _Bun-tar_     round.
  _Bun-ting_    pregnant.
  _Bun-chit_    pot-bellied.
  _Bun-tut._    the buttocks.
  _Bun-toh_     a numeral affix implying rotundity
                     (cf. _lún_, Burmese), used with such
                     words as _chin-chin_, a ring; and _kail_,
                     a fishhook.
  _Bung-kok_    hump-backed.
  _Bung-kus_    a bundle.

Many others might be cited.[6]

    [Footnote 6: These remarks do not, of course, affect foreign
    words, such as _bumi_ and _bujang_ derived from the Sanskrit
    _bhumi_ and _bhujangga_.]

Another characteristic list of words might be made, compounded with the
monosyllable _tang_ (which in Sakai and Semang means “_hand_”), and
conveying an idea of seizing or holding.

  _Tang-an _     the hand.
  _Tang-kap_     to seize.
  _Tang-kei_     a stalk.
  _Tang-gong_    to support.
  _Tang-gal_     to drop off (having left hold).
  _Tong-kat_     a walking-stick, &c.

The history of the Malay people is to be discovered in the language
itself, for no authentic records of pre-Muhammadan times exist. Just as
an insight into the early history of our own nation may be obtained by
analysing the component parts of the English tongue, and assigning to
each of the languages which have contributed to make it what it is their
due proportion of influence, so, by resolving the Malay language into
its separate elements, of which native, Sanskrit, and Arabic are the
chief, and by examining the words contributed by each, it is possible to
follow with some approach to historical accuracy the successive advances
which the Malay people have made on the path of civilisation.

The aboriginal dialect, prior to the admixture of Sanskrit, must have
been but the poor vocabulary of men hardly raised above savage life. The
purely native element in Malay furnishes all the necessary terms to
express the physical objects surrounding men leading a primitive life in
the forest, and all that has to do with their food, dwellings,
agriculture, fishing, hunting, and domestic affairs.

The use of a Sanskrit word for “plough” seems to record a revolution in
agriculture. The primitive cultivation of the Malays was carried on by
clearing and burning the hill-sides (a system still largely adopted in
native states where land is plentiful and timber valueless), and the
cultivation of the wet ricefields of the plains, which necessitates the
use of the plough, would thus seem to have been resorted to only after
the arrival of the Hindus.

As soon as the analysis reaches moral ideas, or objects requiring some
advance in civilisation, it is found that they are expressed by words of
foreign origin. These are, for the most part, Sanskrit or Arabic. The
latter require no notice here, for they are of comparatively recent
introduction. For the most part, they consist of terms incidental to the
ethical and religious teaching of the Muhammadans. The Arabic element in
Malay is not accurately determinable, for new expressions are constantly
being introduced.

A sketch of the Sanskrit element in Malay is all that there is space for
here.

A careful classification of the principal Sanskrit words which are found
in Malay helps to indicate what must have been the condition of society
when the Aryan came into contact with the islanders of Sumatra. It
shows, independently of other proof, that Hindu colonisation must have
gradually introduced the Malay races to institutions, ideas, pursuits,
and wants to which they had hitherto been strangers. Many of the
incidents of commerce, most of the metals and precious stones, the pomp
and ceremony of royalty, and the use of the elephant, are shown, by the
Sanskrit nomenclature employed in describing them, to be of Hindu
importation. From this it is not difficult to infer the primitive
condition of a people to whom all these things were unknown. So, the
Sanskrit names of many weapons indicate a period when the rude weapons
of savage Malay tribes--blowpipes, spears, &c.--were supplemented by
arms of a more formidable character, for which they were indebted to
India. Other groups of words show, independently of other proof, that
the Hindu religion was successfully planted among the Malays and
flourished for a time, and that the monarchical form of government was
introduced in Malay countries by Hindu settlers and rulers.

The word “rulers” is used advisedly, for the theory of Marsden as to the
manner of the introduction of Hinduism seems to possess greater claims
to general acceptance than that advocated by certain other writers,
notably Leyden and Crawfurd. Crawfurd asserted that the Sanskrit words
adopted in Malay came originally through the Hindu priesthood, and that
the priests through whom this was effected belonged to the Telugu race,
this, in his opinion, being the people who, commencing by trading with
the Malays, proceeded to partial settlement in their country, and ended
by converting them to Hinduism and introducing the language and
literature of the Hindus. He entirely discountenances the idea that
Sanskrit could have been introduced by a people of whom it was the
vernacular language.[7] He admits, however, that in Southern India
Sanskrit was itself a foreign tongue; that Sanskrit has found its way
into Javanese and Malay in a state of comparative purity, and not
intermixed with Telugu; and that there is no trace whatever of any
extensive settlement of the Telugus in the Malay Archipelago.

    [Footnote 7: Crawfurd, Malay Grammar, Dissertation xxxix., xliii.]

Marsden’s contention, on the other hand, points to Gujarat as the
quarter from which Hindu civilisation penetrated to the far East, and to
conquest as the mode in which the way was cleared for its
introduction.[8]

    [Footnote 8: “Innovations of such magnitude, we shall venture to
    say, could not have been produced otherwise than by the entire
    domination and possession of these islands by some ancient Hindu
    power, and by the continuance of its sway during several ages. Of
    the period when this state of things existed we at present know
    nothing, and judging of their principles of action by what we
    witness in these days, we are at a loss to conceive under what
    circumstances they could have exerted an influence in distant
    countries of the nature here described. The spirit of foreign
    conquest does not appear to have distinguished their character and
    zeal, for the conversion of others to their own religious faith
    seems to be incompatible with their tenets. We may, however, be
    deceived by forming our opinion from the contemplation of modern
    India, and should recollect that, previously to the Mohametan
    irruptions into the upper provinces, which first took place about
    the year 1000, and until the progressive subjugation of the
    country by Persians and Moghuls, there existed several powerful
    and opulent Hindu states of whose maritime relations we are
    entirely ignorant at present, and can only cherish the hope of
    future discoveries from the laudable spirit of research that
    pervades and does so much honour to our Indian establishments.”
    --_Marsden, Malay Grammar_, xxxii.]

Before proceeding to classify some of the Sanskrit words which are found
in Malay, and to deduce any theories from their presence, it is
necessary, in order to avoid misconception, to notice several
difficulties which cannot be overlooked.

In the first place, it is not meant to be asserted that the Malays have
obtained all the words enumerated further on direct from the people of
India. All theories founded upon the presence of Sanskrit words in Malay
must apply with equal force to Javanese, which contains a larger
proportion of Sanskrit words than Malay. “Sanskrit words are found in
greatest purity in the Javanese, and next to it in the Malay, their
corruption increasing as we recede from Java and Sumatra.”[9] It may be
assumed, therefore, that in addition to the influence which Hinduism
exerted among the Malays of Sumatra by means of direct intercourse with
India, there was also a second source from which the Malays derived a
great portion of their Hindu nomenclature, namely, the ancient Hindu
kingdoms of Java.[10]

    [Footnote 9: Crawfurd. See also Marsden, Malay Grammar, xxxiii.]

    [Footnote 10: “The Hindu religion and Sanskrit language were, in
    all probability, earliest introduced in the western part of
    Sumatra, the nearest part of the Archipelago to the continent of
    India. Java, however, became eventually the favourite abode of
    Hinduism, and its language the chief recipient of Sanskrit.
    Through the Javanese and Malays Sanskrit appears to have been
    disseminated over the rest of the Archipelago, and even to the
    Philippine Islands. This is to be inferred from the greater number
    of Sanskrit words in Javanese and Malay--especially in the first
    of these--than in the other cultivated languages, from their
    existing in greater purity in the Javanese and Malay, and from the
    errors of these two languages, both as to sense and orthography,
    having been copied by all the other tongues. An approximation to
    the proportions of Sanskrit existing in some of the principal
    languages will show that the amount constantly diminishes as we
    recede from Java and Sumatra, until all vestiges of it disappear
    in the dialects of Polynesia. In the ordinary written language of
    Java the proportion is about 110 in 1000; in Malay, 50; in the
    Sunda of Java, 40; in the Bugis, the principal language of
    Celebes, 17; and in the Tagala, one of the principal languages of
    the Philippines, about one and a half.” --_Crawfurd, Malay
    Grammar, Dissertation_ xlvii. _Sed quære_ as to the total absence
    of Sanskrit in the Polynesian dialects. Ellis’ “Polynesian
    Researches,” i. 116.]

These remarks may be illustrated by reference to the fourth column of
the lists of words which follow.

Again, some of the Sanskrit words in the following lists are synonyms
merely, there being native or Arabic words, or both, in common use to
express the same object.

In some instances, too, the words quoted are not often heard in the
colloquial dialect, but occur in books to which in many cases they have
been transplanted from Javanese romances.

All these circumstances seriously modify the possibility of drawing
general conclusions from an analysis of the body of Sanskrit vocables
found in Malay. The questions to be decided seem to be (1) whether it is
possible that such a mass of terms for common objects (for they are by
no means confined to words incident to the Hindu religion) could have
been imported into Malay by any means except by oral communication with
a Sanskrit-speaking people; (2) supposing that this could have been
effected through some later Indian dialect, itself largely tinged with
Sanskrit (as the Latin words in English came to us with the Norman
speech), what dialect was this? Telugu, as Crawfurd thinks, Gujarati, to
which Marsden inclines, or what?

It is in order to contribute to the settlement of such questions as
these that a classification of some of the Sanskrit terms in Malay has
been attempted in this Introduction.[11] It is hoped that the subject
may attract the attention of those more competent to deal with it, and
that the researches of Sanskrit scholars may facilitate a decision which
there is no pretension to pronounce here.

    [Footnote 11: A selection of words only is given. There are
    numbers of Sanskrit words in Malay which have no place in these
    lists.]

The centre of Hindu influence in Malay states would seem to have been
the court. From the governing classes the use of Sanskrit expressions
would gradually spread among the people. To this day there are certain
Sanskrit words which are applied to royalty alone, there being native
equivalents when the non-privileged classes are intended. The words
_putra_ and _putrî_ afford an instance in point. Meaning simply “son”
and “daughter” in Sanskrit, they have, from the fact of Sanskrit
nomenclature having been affected at Malay courts, come to mean
“_prince_” and “_princess_,” and are applied only to the sons and
daughters of rajas.

At the chief seats of Hindu government, there must have been Brahmans
conversant with the sacred writings, whose teaching would gradually be
the means of introducing a taste for Hindu learning and literature.
_Bacha_, to read (from _bach_, to speak), is Sanskrit, but _tulis_, to
write, is a native word,[12] and _surat_, a writing, is Arabic.
Language, therefore, in this instance does not throw much light on the
progress made by the Malays in the art of writing in the pre-Muhammadan
stage of their history. Rock-inscriptions found in Province Wellesley
and Singapore prove, however, that at some remote period an ancient
Indian character was known on the Peninsula,[13] though it was probably
confined to religious purposes.

    [Footnote 12: Unless the Sansk. root _likh_, to write, may be
    detected in the second syllable.]

    [Footnote 13: Journal Royal As. Soc., Bengal, vi. 680; xvii. part
    i. 154 and 232; Idem, part ii. 62, 66.]

Crawfurd, writing in 1852, stated that Malay can be written or spoken
without the least difficulty, without a word of Sanskrit or Arabic, and
described the foreign elements in Malay as “extrinsic and
unessential.”[14] But several words of the first necessity are Sanskrit.
It would be difficult to speak Malay intelligibly, while avoiding the
use of the relative pronouns _yang_ (Sansk. _yas_, _ya_, _yat_, who,
which) and _mana_ (Sansk. _mâna_, measure), or of the common auxiliary
_sudah_ (Sansk. _çuddha_,[15] pure, acquitted), which denotes the past
tense. A long list might be made of common words not included in any of
the following groups, which are almost pure Sanskrit, such as _bawa_, to
bring (_vaha_, bearing, carrying); _kata_, to say (_kath_, to tell,
talk); _biasa_, accustomed (_abhyâsa_, reflection); _langkah_, to step,
stride (_langh_, to stride over); _kelahi_, to fight (_kalaha_,
quarrel); and _niala_, to blaze, to burn (_jval_). Nor is the influence
of Sanskrit in Malay confined to words which have been adopted in
comparative purity. An extension of the sphere of research reveals whole
groups of Malay words which seem to be formed from some Sanskrit root,
and to retain to some extent its signification. Thus the Sanskrit root
_ju_ (to push on, impel) may perhaps be detected in such words as
_juwang_, to rush against; _jungur_, prominent, a beak; _jungang_,
prominent (of teeth); _juring_, sharp, pointed; _jurus_, to pull,
course, direction; _juluk_, to thrust upwards; _julir_, a kind of
harpoon; _julur_, to wag, to wriggle; &c.

    [Footnote 14: Malay Grammar, Dissertation vi.]

    [Footnote 15: This is the derivation given in Favre’s Dictionary.
    Another from _soḍha_, (borne, undergone) might perhaps be
    suggested with equal probability.]

_Ap_ is a common termination of Malay words, e.g., _tangkap_, to seize;
_chakap_, to speak; _silap_, to mistake, &c. The presence of the
Sanskrit root _âp_ (to attain, obtain) is not indeed to be assumed in
every case, but it is difficult to resist the conviction that it does
form a part of many Malay derivations. D{ap}at, to obtain; r{ap}at, to
approach; as{ap}, smoke (cf. vy{âp}ta); aw{ap}, steam; tangk{ap}, to
seize, grasp; a{lap}(Jav.), to take; are instances which, among others,
might be cited.

_Gal_ (Sansk., to drop, to distil, percolate, to fall) is another root
which seems to enter into the composition of Malay words, _e.g._,
tang{gal}, to fall off, to drop out; ting{gal}, to leave, forsake;
tung{gal}, solitary; pang{gal}, to chop off, a portion chopped off.
Compare also _gali_, to dig; teng{gal}am, to sink; tu{gal}, to sow rice
by putting seeds into holes made with a sharp stick; {gal}ah, a pole;
{gal}a-{gal}a, pitch.

If it be correct to assign a Sanskrit origin to all or any of these
words, they belong to a much earlier epoch than the comparatively pure
Sanskrit words, the importation of which into Malay is the subject now
under discussion.

The presence of Sanskrit words in the Malay language was first remarked
by Sir William Jones,[16] and the subject received more attention at the
hands of Marsden, who gives a short list of fifteen words, “taken, with
little pains in the selection, from a Malayan dictionary.”[17] Many of
the Sanskrit words are, as Marsden observes, “such as the progress of
civilisation must soon have rendered necessary, being frequently
expressive of the feelings of the mind, or denoting those ordinary modes
of thought which result from the social habits of mankind, or from the
evils that tend to interrupt them.” This assertion might have been put
in more forcible terms had it occurred to the author to include not only
words expressive of thought and feelings, but even some signifying
natural objects, though doubtless most of these are expressed by
aboriginal words. _Hari_, day, is clearly identical with the Sanskrit
_hari_, “the sun,” which is also used as a name of Vishnu or Krishna.
_Mata-hari_, the sun (Malay), is thus “the eye of Hari,” and is a
compound formed of the native word _mata_ and the Sanskrit _hari_.
_Halilintar_, a thunderbolt, seems to be compounded similarly of _hari_
and _lontar_ (to hurl), “hurled by Hari.” Here the _r_ has been softened
into _l_. The Sanskrit _kapala_ has almost entirely superseded the use
of the old native word _ulu_ or _hulu_, the head; the latter, however,
is found in composition with a Sanskrit word in the substantive
_hulubalang_, a war-chief, from _hulu_, head, and _bala_, an army.

    [Footnote 16: Asiatic Researches, iii. 11, 12.]

    [Footnote 17: On the Traces of the Hindu Language and Literature
    extant among the Malays, As. Res. iv. See also, On the Languages
    and Literature of the Indo-Chinese Nations, Leyden, As. Res. x.]

The extent to which the Malays are indebted to Sanskrit for words to
express the human body and members is shown in the following list:--

  |English.
  |  |Malay.
  |  |  |Sanskrit.
  |  |  |  |Other Languages[18]
  |The body
  |  |salîra
  |  |  |çarîra
  |  |  |  |J. _sarira_; Bat. _sorira_.
  |Limb, member, body
  |  |anggûta
  |  |  |angga
  |  |  |  |J. _ongga_.
  |Form, appearance
  |  |rûpa
  |  |  |rûpa
  |  |  |  |J., S., Bat., Mak., and Bu. _rupa_.
  |Joint
  |  |sendi
  |  |  |saṃdhi
  |  |  |  |S. _sandi_; D. _sandik_, bound; Tag. and Bis. _sandig_,
  |  |  |  |unite.
  |Head
  |  |kapâla
  |  |  |kapâla (the skull)
  |  |  |  |J., S., D., Mak. _kapala_, chief; Bat. _kapala_, thick.
  |Tongue
  |  |lîdah
  |  |  |lih (to lick), lîdha (licked)
  |  |  |  |J. _lidah_; Bat. _dila_; Mak. and Bu. _lila_; D. _jela_;
  |  |  |  |Tag. and Bis. _dila_.
  |Pulse
  |  |nâdî
  |  |  |nâḍî (artery, vein, intestine)
  |Shoulder
  |  |bâhû
  |  |  |bâhu (the arm)
  |  |  |  |J. _bahu_; S. and D. _baha_.
  |Hair of the body
  |  |rôma
  |  |  |roman
  |Foot
  |  |pâda
  |  |  |pâda
  |  |  |  |Kw. _pada_.

    [Footnote 18: The words in this column have been taken from the
    Malay and French Dictionary of the Abbé Favre. J. signifies
    Javanese, S. Sundanese, Bat. Battak, Mak. Makassar, Bu. Bugis, D.
    Dayak, Bis. Bisaya, Tag. Tagala, and Malg. Malagasi.]

Time and its division and measurement have supplied a number of Sanskrit
terms to the Malay language, most of which are so necessary in everyday
life that it is difficult to conceive the poverty of a dialect which
contained no words to express them. The following list contains the
greater number of them:--

  |English.
  |  |Malay.
  |  |  |Sanskrit.
  |  |  |  |Other Languages.
  |Time
  |  |kâla, kâli
  |  |  |kâla
  |  |  |  |J. and S. _kala_.
  |When
  |  |tatkâla
  |  |  |tad (this) kâla
  |Time, period
  |  |katika
  |  |  |ghatikâ (a division of time)
  |  |  |  |Bat. _katika_; D. _katika_.
  |Time, period, hour
  |  |dewâsa
  |  |  |divasa (a day)
  |  |  |  |J. _diwasa_, adult; Mak. _rewusa_.
  |Just now
  |  |tâdî
  |  |  |tad (this, that)
  |  |  |  |S. _tadi_.
  |Day
  |  |hârî
  |  |  |hari (the sun)
  |  |  |  |J. and B. _hari_.
  |Day
  |  |dîna
  |  |  |dina
  |  |  |  |J. _dina_.
  |Dawn
  |  |dînahârî
  |  |  |from dina and hari
  |Evening, sunset
  |  |senja, or senja- kala
  |  |  |saṃdhyâ (twilight)
  |  |  |  |Bat. _sonja_; J. _chandik-kala_, evg. twilight.
  |Always
  |  |santîasa
  |  |  |nityaças
  |  |  |  |J. _nityasa_.
  |Old, former
  |  |sadîa
  |Former time
  |  |sadîa-kâla
  |  |  |sâdhya (from sâdh, to finish, accomplish)
  |Continually
  |  |sada-kâla
  |  |  |sâda (perishing)
  |Time (when)
  |  |bîla
  |  |  |velâ
  |Time, season, period
  |  |mâsa
  |  |  |mâsa (month)
  |  |  |  |J. and S. _mangsa_; Tag. _masa_.

Another group of Sanskrit words found in Malay is that comprising
articles of commerce, weights and measures, &c. Their presence suffices
without other evidence to show that for their knowledge of the
commercial value of many products the East Indian islanders were
indebted to traders from Hindustan, who, indeed, probably introduced not
only the names of, but the use of, their weights and measures. _Buah
pala_, the Malay phrase for the “nutmeg,” is in strictness a pleonasm,
for _phala_ signifies “fruit” in Sanskrit, as _buah_ does in Malay.

TERMS OF COMMERCE.

  |English.
  |  |Malay.
  |  |  |Sanskrit.
  |  |  |  |Other Languages.
  |Nutmeg
  |  |pâla
  |  |  |phala (fruit)
  |  |  |  |J. and S. _pala_.
  |Clove
  |  |lawang
  |  |  |lavaṃga
  |Eagle-wood
  |  |găhârû
  |  |  |aguru
  |  |  |  |J., S., and Mak. _garu_; D. _garo_, perfume.
  |Camphor
  |  |kâpur, kâpur bârus
  |  |  |karpûra
  |  |  |  |J., S., and D. _kapur-barus_; Mak. _kaporo barusu_
  |Sandalwood
  |  |chandâna
  |  |  |chandana
  |  |  |  |J. and S. _chendana_; Tag. and Bis. _sandana_
  |Musk
  |  |kastûrî
  |  |  |kastûrî
  |  |  |  |J. and S. _kasturi_; Mak. _kasaturi_; Tag, and Bis.
  |  |  |  |_kastoli_.
  |Charcoal
  |  |ârang
  |  |  |aṅgâra
  |  |  |  |J. and S. _areng_; S. _arang_; Bat. _agong_; D. _aring_;
  |  |  |  |Tag. and Bis. _oling_.
  |Sugar
  |  |gûla
  |  |  |guḍa (molasses)
  |  |  |  |J., S., and D. _gula_; Mak. _golla_.
  |Saltpetre
  |  |sandâwa
  |  |  |saindhava (rocksalt)
  |  |  |  |J. _sendawa_; S. _chindawa_.
  |Silk
  |  |sûtra
  |  |  |sûtra (thread, fibre)
  |  |  |  |J. and S. _sutra_; Bat. _suntora_; Mak; and Bu. _sutara_;
  |  |  |  |Tag. _sutla_.
  |Cotton
  |  |kâpas
  |  |  |karpâsa
  |  |  |  |J., S., and D. _kapas_ Bat. _hapas_; Mak. _kapasa_;
  |  |  |  |Bis. _gapas_.
  |Gunny-bag
  |  |gônî
  |  |  |goṇi
  |  |  |  |S. _goné_
  |Price
  |  |harga
  |  |  |argha
  |  |  |  |S. and Bat. _harga_; J. and D. _rega_; Mak. _angga_;
  |  |  |  |Tag. and Bis. _halaga_.
  |Profit
  |  |lâba
  |  |  |lâbha
  |  |  |  |Kw., Bat., Mak., and D. _laba_; Tag. and Bis. _laba_,
  |  |  |  |increase, usury.
  |Scales for weighing
  |  |narâcha
  |  |  |nârâchî (a gold smith’s scales)
  |  |  |  |Kw. _naracha_; J. and S. _traju_
  |A bhar (native weight = 3 pikuls)
  |  |băhâra
  |  |  |bhâra (a load, a weight)
  |  |  |  |Kw. and Mak. _bara_ 100 millions: Bis. _bala_, to load
  |  |  |  |on the back.
  |A cubit
  |  |hasta
  |  |  |hasta
  |  |  |  |J. and S. _asta_.
  |A number, figure
  |  |ângka
  |  |  |aṅka (a mark, a cipher)
  |  |  |  |J. _ongka_; S., Mak., Bu., and D. _angka_.
  |Ten thousand
  |  |laksa
  |  |  |laksha (100,000)
  |  |  |  |J. _leksa_; S., D., Tag. and Bis. _laksa_; Bat. _loksa_;
  |  |  |  |Mak., _lassa_.
  |A million
  |  |jûta
  |  |  |ayuta (10,000)
  |  |  |  |J. and S. _yuta_.


Many of the metals and most of the precious stones are known to the
Malays by their Sanskrit names, even those which are found in Malay
countries.

  |English.
  |  |Malay.
  |  |  |Sanskrit.
  |  |  |  |Other Languages.
  |Gold
  |  |âmas, mas
  |  |  |mas (to mete, to measure)
  |  |  |  |J. _emas_; S. _mas_; Bat. _omas_; D. _amas_; Tag. and Bis.
  |  |  |  |_amas_, gold, weight.
  |Gold
  |  |kanchâna
  |  |  |kânchana
  |  |  |  |Kw. and S. _kanchana_.
  |Copper
  |  |tambâga
  |  |  |tâmra
  |  |  |  |J. _tembaga_; S. _tambaga_; Bat. _tombaga_;
  |  |  |  |Mak. _tambaga_; Tag. and Bis. _tumbaga_.
  |Tin
  |  |tîmah
  |  |  |tîvra
  |  |  |  |J., S., and D. _timah_; Bat. _simbora_; Mak. _timbera_;
  |  |  |  |Tag. and Bis. _tingga_.
  |Quicksilver
  |  |râsa
  |  |  |rasa
  |  |  |  |J., S., Mak., and D. _rasa_.
  |Pinchbeck
  |  |suwâsa
  |  |  |suvarchasa (brilliant)
  |  |  |  |J., S., Bat., and Mak. _suwasa._
  |Glass
  |  |kâcha
  |  |  |kâcha
  |  |  |  |J., S., Mak., and Bu. _kacha_; D. _kacha_; and _kasa_;
  |  |  |  |Tag. _kasa_, blue and green stone.
  |Mica
  |  |âbrak[19]
  |  |  |abhra (amber, talc)
  |Crystal
  |  |golega
  |  |  |golaka (globule)
  |Jewel, precious stone
  |  |mânî
  |  |  |maṇi
  |  |  |  |J. _mani_.
  |  |mânikam
  |  |  |maṇika
  |  |  |  |Kw. and S. _manikem_; Mak. _manikang_.
  |  |kamâla
  |  |  |kamala (lotus)
  |  |  |  |Kw. _kuma‘a_; Bat. _humala_, snake-stone.
  |Sapphire
  |  |nîlam (nîla, blue)
  |  |  |nîla (blue)
  |  |  |  |J. and S. _nila_; Mak. _nyila_, blue.
  |Opal
  |  |bidûri
  |  |  |vidûra (a mountain which produces lapis lazuli)
  |Ruby
  |  |dalîma
  |  |  |dâlima (pomegranate)
  |Jewel, brilliant
  |  |mustîka
  |  |  |mushtika (goldsmith)
  |Topaze
  |  |pusparâgam
  |  |  |pushparâga
  |Pearl
  |  |mutia, mutiara
  |  |  |muktâ
  |Jewel, precious stone
  |  |permâta
  |  |  |paramata (excellence)
  |  |  |  |Kw. _pramati_, a very beautiful object.
  |Jewels of five kinds
  |  |panchalôgam
  |  |  |panchaloha (five metals)

    [Footnote 19: Favre derives _abrak_ from the Arabic.]

The implements, utensils, instruments, &c., the names of which, if not
the things themselves, the Malay races have borrowed from their Indian
conquerors and rulers, are as follows:--

  |English.
  |  |Malay.
  |  |  |Sanskrit.
  |  |  |  |Other Languages.
  |A lock
  |  |kunchî
  |  |  |kunchikâ (a key)
  |  |  |  |J., S., and D. _kunchi_; Bat. _hunsi_; Mak. _konchi._
  |A bell
  |  |ganta
  |  |  |ghaṇṭâ
  |  |  |  |J. and S. _genta_; Bat. _gonta_; D. _ganta_;
  |  |  |  |Mak. _garaganta_.
  |A water vessel
  |  |kindî
  |  |  |kuṇḍî
  |  |  |  |J. and S. _kendi_.
  |A net
  |  |jâla
  |  |  |jâla
  |  |  |  |J., S., Bat., Mak., and D. _jala_.
  |A box
  |  |petî
  |  |  |peṭî (basket, bag)
  |  |  |  |S. _peti_; Mak. _patti_; D. _pati_.
  |Name of a sword
  |  |chora
  |  |  |kshura (a razor)
  |A plough
  |  |tanggâla
  |  |  |hala
  |  |  |  |Bat. _tinggala_; Mak. _nangkala_.
  |Chess
  |  |châtur
  |  |  |chatur (four)
  |  |  |  |J. and S. _chatur_.
  |Dice
  |  |jûdî
  |  |  |dyûta (game at dice)
  |  |  |  |J. _judi_; Bat. _juji_.
  |A saw
  |  |gargâjî
  |  |  |krakacha
  |  |  |  |J. _graji_; S. _gergaji_; Bat. and Mak. _garagaji_.
  |An awl
  |  |jâra
  |  |  |ârâ
  |  |  |  |J. and S. _jara_.
  |A coffin
  |  |karanda
  |  |  |karanda (basket)
  |  |  |  |Bat. _hurondo_.
  |Royal umbrella
  |  |chatrâ
  |  |  |chhattra
  |Salver with a pedestal
  |  |charâna
  |  |  |charaṇa (a foot)
  |  |  |  |S. _charana_; Bat. _sarano_; D. _sarana_.
  |A wheel
  |  |jantrâ
  |  |  |yantra (an engine or machine)
  |  |  |  |J. _jontra_; S. _jantra_.
  |Chariot
  |  |râta
  |  |  |ratha
  |  |  |  |J. _rata_.
  |Lyre, lute
  |  |kechâpî
  |  |  |kachchhapi
  |  |  |  |S. _kachapi_; Bat. _husapi_; D. _kasapi_.
  |Flute
  |  |bangsî
  |  |  |vançî
  |Pipe, flute
  |  |mûri
  |  |  |muralî

The terms of adulation common in India in the mouths of inferiors
addressing superiors have no equivalents in Malay. It is noticeable,
however, that some of the most ordinary Malay phrases of politeness are
Sanskrit. _Tâbek_ (J. and S. _tabé_; Bat. _santabi_; Mak. _tabeya_; D.
_tabi_; Tag. and Bis. _tabi_; Tag. _santabi_, to show respect), which
corresponds to the Indian _salaam_ in communications between Europeans
and Malays, means properly “pardon,” and is derived from the Sanskrit
_kshantavya_, excusable; _sîla_, to sit cross-legged[20] (the respectful
attitude indoors), is the Sanskrit _çîl_, to meditate, to worship; and
_sîla_, a Malay term of politeness, which in some respects answers to
our “if you please,” but which also means “to invite,” has its origin in
the Sanskrit word _çîla_, good conduct, moral practice. The same
language, too, supplies a considerable number of words denoting family
and relationship:--

  |English.
  |  |Malay.
  |  |  |Sanskrit.
  |  |  |  |Other Languages.
  |Father
  |  |âyah
  |  |  |vayas (prime of life)
  |  |  |  |J. _ayah_, grandson; S. _aya_; Mak. _aya_, mother.
  |Brother
  |  |sûdâra
  |  |  |sodarya
  |  |  |  |J. _saudara_.
  |Husband
  |  |swâmî
  |  |  |svâmin
  |Wife
  |  |istrî
  |  |  |strî (a woman)
  |  |  |  |J. _estri_; S. _istri_.
  |Virgin
  |  |ânak dâra
  |  |  |dâra (wife), adâra (unmarried)
  |  |  |  |Kw. _dara_; J. _lara_; Bat. _dara_; Mak. _rara_;
  |  |  |  |S. _dara_, a young woman who has just got her first child.
  |Relationship
  |  |pangkat
  |  |  |paṅkti (a line, row)
  |Race
  |  |bangsa
  |  |  |vaṃça
  |  |  |  |J. _wongsa_; S., Bat., and D. _bangsa_; Mak. _bansa_.
  |Family
  |  |kulawarga
  |  |  |kula (family), varga (class)
  |  |  |  |J. _kulawarga_.
  |Do.
  |  |kulawangsa
  |  |  |vaṃça

    [Footnote 20: J., S., and Tag. _sila_; S. _silah_, to invite; Bat.
    _sila_, a gift of welcome.]

The few astronomical terms known to the Malays have been borrowed either
from Sanskrit or Arabic, the former supplying the following:--

  |English.
  |  |Malay.
  |  |  |Sanskrit.
  |  |  |  |Other Languages.
  |Eclipse
  |  |grahana
  |  |  |grahaṇa
  |  |  |  |J. _grahana_.
  |Firmament
  |  |udara
  |  |  |adhara (lower)
  |Celestial sphere
  |  |chakrawâla
  |  |  |chakra-vâla (horizon; a range of mountains supposed to
  |  |  |  |encircle the earth and to be the limit of light and
  |  |  |  |darkness)
  |Atmosphere
  |  |bumantâra
  |  |  |_cf._ dyumantara (brilliancy)
  |  |  |  |Kw. _bomantara_; J. _jumantara_.
  |The heavens, æther
  |  |angkasa
  |  |  |âkâça
  |  |  |  |Kw. and S. _akasa_.
  |The milky-way
  |  |bîmasaktî
  |  |  |bhîma (terrible), çakti (strength, power)
  |  |  |  |S. _bimasakti_; J. _bimasakti_, the name of a star
  |Pleiades
  |  |kertîka
  |  |  |kṛittikâ (the third of the lunar mansions)
  |The sign Cancer in the Zodiac
  |  |mangkâra
  |  |  |makara
  |  |  |  |J. _mangkara_, crab.
  |Astrology
  |  |panchalîma
  |  |  |panchan (five)

To these may be added _Râhû_ (Sansk. _Râhu_, a deity to whom eclipses
are ascribed) and _Kedû_ (Sansk. _Ketu_, the mythological name of the
descending node, represented as a headless demon), monsters who are
supposed by the Malays to cause eclipses by swallowing the moon. To
denote the points of the compass the Malays have native, Sanskrit, and
Arabic terms. Utâra (_uttara_),[21] the north, and daḳsina (_dakshiṇa_),
the south, are Sanskrit words; and _paḳsina_, the north, has evidently
been coined by Malays in imitation of _daḳsina_.

    [Footnote 21: J., S., and D. _utara_; Bat. _otara_; Bis. _otala_,
    east wind.]

The elephant is most generally known all over the Archipelago by its
Sanskrit name _gajah_. Sanskrit terms are also used to signify the
driver of an elephant and several articles used in connection with this
animal. From these circumstances we may probably conclude, with
Crawfurd, that the art of training and domesticating elephants was
first learned by the Malays from natives of India.[22]

    [Footnote 22: Crawfurd’s Malay Grammar, Dissertation clxxxiii.]

  |English.
  |  |Malay.
  |  |  |Sanskrit.
  |  |  |  |Other Languages.
  |Elephant
  |  |gâjah
  |  |  |gaja
  |  |  |  |J., S., and D. _gajah_; Bat. and Mak. _gaja_;
  |  |  |  |Tag. _gadia_; Bis. _gadya_.
  |Elephant-driver
  |  |gambâla-gâjah
  |  |  |gopâla (herdsman)
  |Goad
  |  |ângkus, kwâsa
  |  |  |aṅkuça
  |Foot-chain
  |  |ândûwân
  |  |  |andu (chain)
  |Front part of the head
  |  |gomba, kumba
  |  |  |kumbha
  |Unbroken, vicious (of an elephant); the condition called _musth_
  |  |meta
  |  |  |mada (elephant in rut)
  |  |  |  |Kw. _meta_, wild elephant.
  |Hobbles for securing the feet
  |  |sengkăla
  |  |  |çṛiṅkhala (a chain)

The words of command used by elephant-drivers in the Malay peninsula
appear, however, to be adapted mainly from the Siamese, and it is from
this people that the Malays of the continent have acquired much of their
modern knowledge of the art of capturing, subduing, and training the
elephant. The names of animals, birds, &c., indicate, as might be
expected, that while most of the varieties known to the Malays are
indigenous, there are some species which have been imported, or which,
belonging to other countries, are known by name only in the Archipelago.
The word _morga_, (mṛiga) and _satwâ_ (sattva),[23] both meaning “an
animal,” are Sanskrit, and if the commoner word _benâtang_ is derived,
as seems possible, from the Sanskrit _vana_, forest, there is no purely
native generic term to signify a beast or animal. While, therefore, the
early Malay tribes had names for all the animals domesticated by them,
as well as those which they encountered in their forests, it was not
until the period of their intercourse with more civilised races from
India that they learned to generalise and to comprehend the brute
creation under one term. The following Sanskrit words for animals, &c.,
occur in Malay:--


  |English.
  |  |Malay.
  |  |  |Sanskrit.
  |  |  |  |Other Languages.
  |Lion
  |  |sînga
  |  |  |siṃha
  |  |  |  |J. and S. _singa_ and _singha_; Mak. and D. _singa_.
  |Jackal
  |  |srîgâla
  |  |  |cṛigâla
  |  |  |  |Bat. _sorigala_; J. _segawon_, a dog.
  |Camel
  |  |onta
  |  |  |ushṭra (a camel)
  |  |  |  |J. and Mak. _unta_; S. _onta_.
  |Wild bull
  |  |ândâka
  |  |  |dhâka
  |  |  |  |Kw. _daka_ and _andaka_.
  |Ichneumon
  |  |charpalei
  |  |  |sarpâri (sarpa, a snake)
  |A small yellow snake, about a span long
  |  |chintâ-mani
  |  |  |chintâ-maṇi (a fabulous gem, the possessor of which gets
  |  |  |all he wishes for)
  |Scorpion
  |  |kâla
  |  |  |kâla (black)
  |  |  |  |J., S., D., and Malg. _kala_; Bat. _kala_;
  |  |  |  |Mak. _pati-kala_.
  |Crow
  |  |gâgak
  |  |  |kâka
  |  |  |  |J. and S. _gayak_; Bat. _gak_; Mak. _kala_; D. _kak_.
  |Peacock
  |  |mĕraḳ
  |  |  |barha, varha
  |  |  |  |J. and S. _merak_; Mak. _muraka_; D. _marak_.
  |Goose[24]
  |  |angsa, hangsa, gangsa
  |  |  |haṃsa
  |  |  |  |J. _ongsa_; S. _gangsa_.
  |Pigeon
  |  |mĕr-ăpâti, perapâti
  |  |  |pârâpatî
  |  |  |  |S. _japati_; Bat. _darapati_; Tag. _palapati_;
  |  |  |  |Bis. _salapati_.
  |Eagle-falcon
  |  |râjawâlî
  |  |  |rajjuvâla (a species of bird)
  |Indian cuckoo (_Gracula religiosa_)
  |  |kokila
  |  |  |kokila
  |  |  |  |J. _kokila_.

    [Footnote 23: J. _mergu_; J. _sato_; S. _satoa_; D. _satua_; Bat.
    _santuwa_, a mouse.]

    [Footnote 24: Crawfurd has noticed the fact that the names of the
    domesticated animals are native, one exception being the goose,
    which, he thinks, may therefore be supposed to have been of
    foreign introduction (Crawfurd’s Grammar, Dissertation clxxxiii.).
    It must be remembered, however, that among the Hindus the goose is
    worshipped at the festivals of Brahma, and that, being thus in a
    manner sacred, its Sanskrit name would naturally be in use
    wherever the Hindu religion spread. Brahma is represented as
    riding on a white _haṃsa_.]

Perhaps the Malay word _harîmau_ (Kw. _rimong_; Bat. _arimo_, tiger-cat;
D. _harimaung_, panther), a tiger, may have been formed from _Hari_
(Krishna or Vishnu) and _mṛiga_ (an animal). Words similarly compounded
with _mṛiga_ (Malay _morga_) are not uncommon in Sanskrit, _e.g._,
_Kṛishṇa-mṛiga_ (the black antelope), _mahâ-mṛiga_ (an elephant).[25]
The terms in use for “horse” and “sheep” seem to indicate that those
animals were first brought to Malay countries from India. _Kûda_, horse
(Kw. and S. _kuda_), is derived by Crawfurd from _ghora_ (Hindi), by
others from _kudra_ (Tamul). _Bîri-bîri_ (sheep) is said to be borrowed
from the Hindi _bher_, which is itself derived from the Sanskrit
_bheḍa_, a ram, or from _bhîru_ (Sansk.), a goat. Certain fabulous birds
and reptiles which belong to the domain of Hindu mythology have their
places also in Malay folk-lore; such as _garuḍa_,[26] the eagle of
Vishnu, and _Jaṭâyu_ (Malay _jintâyu_), a fabulous vulture;
_chandrawâsi_, a name given by Malays to a fabulous bird which is heard
but never seen, is also evidently of Sanskrit origin. To these _nâga_, a
dragon, may be added (J., S., Bat., Mak., Bu., and D. _naga_).

    [Footnote 25: Perhaps a more plausible derivation is from the
    Tamul _ari-mâ_, a male lion.]

    [Footnote 26: J. and S. _garuda_; Mak. _guruda_.]

The vegetable kingdom supplies a long list of trees, plants, and flowers
which are known to the Malays by Sanskrit names. Some of these are
closely connected with another group of words to be noticed presently,
namely, those which belong to the department of religion. The use of
sweet-smelling flowers is a noticeable feature in the religious worship
of the Hindus, and the fact that many flowers held by them to be sacred
to the worship of particular gods are called by Malays by the same names
which they bear in the temples of India, is a remarkable example of an
historical lesson latent in words. It points to the fact, abundantly
proved by other evidence, that Brahmanism once held sway where it has
long been superseded by the faith of Islam, and that words which have no
special significance for the modern Muhammadan Malay were fraught with
mystic solemnity for his distant ancestors.

In many cases, indeed, the Sanskrit names have been applied by the
Malays to different plants from those designated by the same expressions
in India. In other cases, names unknown in classical Sanskrit, but
obviously compounded of Sanskrit words, have been given by the Malays or
Javanese. The common native Malay term for “flower” is _bûnga_; _sâri_
(Javanese _sari_, Sansk. _kesara_) and _puspa_ (Sansk. _pushpa_) have
been borrowed from India.

  |English or Latin.
  |  |Malay.
  |  |  |Sanskrit.
  |  |  |  |Other Languages.
  |Michelia champaka
  |  |champaka
  |  |  |champaka (dedicated by the Hindus to Krishna; one of
  |  |  |Kamadeva’s arrows is tipped with it)
  |  |  |  |J. and S. _champaka_; Mak. _champaga_.
  |Jonesia asoka
  |  |ângsôka
  |  |  |açoka (sacred to Mahadeva, and held in the highest veneration
  |  |  |by the Hindus)
  |  |  |  |J. _angsoka_ and _soka_.
  |Mesua ferrea
  |  |nâgasârî (Rigg supposes the Malay plant to be _Acacia
  |  |pedunculata_; Marsden, _Acacia aurea_).
  |  |  |nâgakesara (“The delicious odour of its blossoms justly
  |  |  |gives them a place in the quiver of Kamadeva.” --_Sir William
  |  |  |Jones_)
  |Jasminum sambac (jasmine)
  |  |malâtî
  |  |  |mâlatî (_Jasminum grandiflorum_[27])
  |  |  |  |J. _malati_; S. _melati_.
  |Arabian jasmine (_Nyctanthes_?)
  |  |melor
  |  |  |mâdhura (cf. _malura_, Cratæva religiosa)
  |  |  |  |J. _menur_; Kw. _menur_, silver.
  |Ocymum basilicum (holy basil)
  |  |sulasi
  |  |  |tulasî (sacred to Krishna)
  |  |  |  |J. _selasih_ and _telasih_; S. _selasi_; Mak. _tolasi_;
  |  |  |  |Tag. _solasi_.
  |Uvaria odorata (or cananga)
  |  |kenânga
  |  |  |kânana[28] (a forest)
  |  |  |  |J. _kenonga_; Mak. and Bu. _kananga_.
  |Santalum album, sandal-wood
  |  |chandâna
  |  |  |chandana (“Perpetually mentioned in the most ancient books
  |  |  |of the Hindus as flourishing on the mountains of Malaya”
  |  |  |--_Sir Wm. Jones_)
  |  |  |  |J. and S. _chendana_; Tag. and Bis. _sandana_.
  |Plumieria acutifolia
  |  |kambôja
  |  |  |kâmboja (a kind of _mimosa_)
  |  |  |  |S. _kamboja_.
  |Nelumbium speciosum, lotus.
  |  |saroja
  |  |  |saroja
  |  |  |  |J. _saroja_.
  |Vitex trifoliata
  |  |lagundi [29]
  |  |  |nirgandhi (“Which Bontius calls _lagondi_.” --_Sir Wm.
  |  |  |Jones_) _-Gandhi_ is used in the latter part of a compound
  |  |  |word with same meaning that _gandha_ has: “smell,” “odour”
  |  |  |  |J. _legundi_; Bat. _gundi_.
  |Alpinia galanga, or Curcuma reclinata
  |  |gâdamâla
  |  |  |_gandha_, smell; _mâlâ_, a garland
  |Justicia gandarusa
  |  |gandarusa
  |  |  |_gandha_, smell; _rusa_ (Malay), a deer(?)
  |  |  |  |S. _gandarusa_
  |Hibiscus abelmoschus
  |  |gandapûra
  |  |  |_gandha_, smell; _pura_, calix of a flower
  |  |  |  |Mak. _gandapura_
  |Hedichium coronarium
  |  |gandasûlî
  |  |  |_gandha_, smell
  |  |  |  |S. _gandasoli_.
  |Liquidambar altingiana
  |  |rasamala
  |  |  |_surasa_, sweet, elegant; _mâlâ_, a garland
  |Carthamus tinctorius, safflower
  |  |kasumba
  |  |  |kusumbha
  |  |  |  |J., S., Mak., and D. _kasumba_; Tag. _kasubha_;
  |  |  |  |Bis. _kasobha_.
  |Crocus sativus, saffron
  |  |kumkumâ
  |  |  |kuṃkuma
  |  |  |  |J. _kamkuma_; Mak. _kuma_.
  |Alyxia stellata; an odoriferous root used in medicine
  |  |pûlasâri
  |  |  |phul (_Hind_.), flower; _sari_ (Javanese), from _kesara_
  |  |  |(Sansk.), a flower
  |Tectonia grandis, teak
  |  |jâtî
  |  |  |jâti (synonymous with _malati_), Jasminum grandiflorum
  |  |  |  |J., S., Bat., Mak., Bu., and D. _jati_.
  |Pterocarpus indicus
  |  |ângsâna
  |  |  |asana (Terminalia alata tomentosa)
  |  |  |  |J. and S. _angsana_.
  |Borassus flabelliformis
  |  |lontar
  |  |  |tâla
  |  |  |  |J. and S. _lontar_; Bat. _otal_; Mak. _tala_; Bu. _ta_;
  |  |  |  |Tag. _tual_.
  |Eugenia jambu, roseapple
  |  |jambû
  |  |  |jambu
  |  |  |  |J., S., Mak., and D. _jambu_; Bu. _jampu_; Tag. _dambo_;
  |  |  |  |Bat. _jambu-jambu_, fringe; Bu. _jambo-jambo_, fringe,
  |  |  |  |plume.
  |Mangifera indica, mango
  |  |mampelam
  |  |  |from Telugu, _mampalam_; Sansk. _mahâphala_, “great fruit”
  |  |  |  |J. _pelem_; S. _ampelem_.
  |Spondias myrobolan (or mangifera)
  |  |âmra
  |  |  |âmra (the mango, _Mangifera indica_); âmrâta (_Spondias
  |  |  |mangifera_)
  |Punica granatum, pomegranate
  |  |dalîma
  |  |  |dâḍima and dâlima
  |Zizyphus jujuba
  |  |bidâra
  |  |  |vidara
  |  |  |  |J. _widara_; S. _bidara_.
  |Cucurbita lagenaria, gourd, pumpkin
  |  |lâbû
  |  |  |alâbu
  |  |  |  |S. _labu_; Bat. _tabu-tabu_; Malg. _tawu_.
  |Tricosanthes laciniosa
  |  |patôla
  |  |  |paṭola
  |Cassia fistula
  |  |biraksa
  |  |  |vṛiksha (a tree)
  |Emblica officinalis
  |  |malâka
  |  |  |âmalaka (Emblic myrobalan)
  |  |  |  |S. _malaka_; Bat. _malakah_.


    [Footnote 27: “Commeline had been informed that the Javans give
    the name of _Malati_ to the _Zambak_ (_Jasminum sambac_), which in
    Sanskrit is called _Navamalika_, and which, according to Rheede,
    is used by the Hindus in their sacrifices; but they make offerings
    of most odoriferous flowers, and particularly of the various
    _Jasmins_ and _Zambaks_.” --_Sir William Jones_, _As. Res._ iv.]

    [Footnote 28: Ainslie’s Materia Medica, Madras, 1813. _Kanana_
    occurs in the names of several flowers, _e.g._, _kanana karavira_,
    Plumieria alba.]

    [Footnote 29: Perhaps a corruption of _nila-gandhi_. Ainslie gives
    the Sanskrit name as _jela-nirghoondi_.]

_Pâlas_, _palâsa_, and _palâsang_ are Malay names for trees of different
kinds, not one of which corresponds botanically with the Sanskrit
_palâça_ (_Butea frondosa_, a tree which is held by Hindus to be
peculiarly venerable and holy). The preceding list affords several
illustrations of a similar misuse of terms. To it might be added several
words borrowed from other Indian languages, such as _nânas_, pine-apple
(Hind. _ananas_), _bilimbing_ (Tamul _bilimbi_), &c., &c.[30]

    [Footnote 30: J. _nanas_; S. _kanas_; Bat. _honas_; D. _kanas_; J.
    and S. _balimbing_; Bat. _balingbing_.]

Marsden has remarked on the number of Sanskrit words expressive of the
feelings and emotions of the human mind which occur in Malay, and Arabic
also furnishes several. Either their synonymous native terms have been
lost, or the Malays, at the period of Indian influence, had not reached
that stage of civilisation when man commences to analyse and name the
emotions he experiences and sees experienced by others. Good and bad
qualities, in the same way and for the same reason, seem often to bear
Sanskrit appellations. The following list does not profess to be
complete:--

  |English.
  |  |Malay.
  |  |  |Sanskrit.
  |  |  |  |Other Languages.
  |Pleasure, to be pleased
  |  |sûka
  |  |  |sukha
  |  |  |  |J., S., and D. _suka_
  |Joy, rejoiced
  |  |suka-chita
  |  |  |sukha-chit (chit = thought, the heart)
  |Sorrow, grief
  |  |dûka
  |  |  |duhkha (pain)
  |  |  |  |J. and S. _duka_.
  |  |duka-chita
  |  |  |duhkha-chit
  |Care, anxiety, concern
  |  |chinta
  |  |  |chintâ (thought)
  |  |  |  |J. _chipta_; S. _chinta_; Mak. _chita_; D. and Tag.
  |  |  |  |_sinta_.
  |Passionately in love
  |  |berâhî
  |  |  |virahin (suffering separation)
  |  |  |  |J. _birahi_.
  |Angry
  |  |murka
  |  |  |mûrkha (stupidity)
  |  |  |  |J. _murka_, greedy, dissatisfied.
  |Hope
  |  |âsa
  |  |  |âçâ
  |  |  |  |Tag. _asa_.
  |Love
  |  |âsmâra
  |  |  |smara
  |  |  |  |J. and S. _asmara_.
  |Avarice, covetousness
  |  |lôba
  |  |  |lobha
  |  |  |  |Kw. _loba_, voluptuous, luxurious; S. _loba_, abundant.
  |Wisdom, understanding
  |  |bûdî
  |  |  |buddhi
  |  |  |  |J. and S. _budi_.
  |Stupid, foolish
  |  |bôdoh
  |  |  |abodha
  |  |  |  |J. and S. _bodo_.
  |Wise, learned
  |  |pandei
  |  |  |paṇḍita
  |  |  |  |J., S., and Bat. _pandé_.
  |Lazy
  |  |malas
  |  |  |alasa
  |Charity, benevolence
  |  |dermâ
  |  |  |dharma
  |  |  |  |J. and S. _derma_; Bat. _dorma_, means of gaining
  |  |  |  |affection.
  |Generous
  |  |dermâwan
  |  |  |dharmavant
  |Fidelity
  |  |setîa
  |  |  |satya
  |  |  |  |J. _satya_ and _secha_; S. _sacha_.
  |Faithful, loyal
  |  |setîâwan
  |  |  |satyavant
  |Thought, to think
  |  |sangka
  |  |  |çaṅka
  |To suspect, conjecture
  |  |tarka
  |  |  |tarka (doubt, reason)
  |  |  |  |J. and S. _tarka_ and _terka_.
  |Blame
  |  |chelâ
  |  |  |chhala (fraud)
  |  |  |  |J. _chela_; Mak. _challa_.
  |Misfortune, vile, base
  |  |chelâka
  |  |  |chhalaka (deceiving, a deceiver)
  |  |  |  |J. and S. _chelaka_; Mak. _chilaka_; D. _chalaka_.
  |Sin, crime
  |  |dôsa
  |  |  |dush (to sin)
  |  |  |  |J., S., Bat., Mak., and D. _dosa_.
  |False, untrue
  |  |dusta
  |  |  |dushta
  |Merit meritorious actions
  |  |pahâla
  |  |  |phala (fruit, produce, result)
  |  |  |  |Kw. _pahala_, fruit, merit.
  |Happiness, good fortune
  |  |bahagîa
  |  |  |bhâgya (lot, fate)
  |  |  |  |J. _bagya_; S. _bagia_; Bat. _badiya_.
  |Use, value, quality
  |  |guna
  |  |  |guṇa (quality)
  |  |  |  |J., S., Bat., Mak., and D. _guna_.

Inter-tribal warfare is usually characteristic of savage tribes, and an
ample vocabulary of words connected with fighting and the art of war may
be looked for in a language like Malay. But though the native terms are
numerous, many have also been furnished by Sanskrit, among which may be
instanced the following:--

  |English.
  |  |Malay.
  |  |  |Sanskrit.
  |  |  |  |Other Languages.
  |Army
  |  |bâla, bâlatantrâ
  |  |  |bala (an army), tantra (series, offspring)
  |  |  |  |J. and S. _bala_.
  |Fort
  |  |kôta
  |  |  |kûṭa
  |  |  |  |J. _kuta_; Bat. _kuta_; S., Mak., D., Tag., and Bis.
  |  |  |  |_kota_.
  |Bastion, redoubt
  |  |mâlawâti [31]
  |  |  |balavatî (strong, powerful)?
  |Weapon, arm
  |  |senjâta
  |  |  |sajjâ (armour), sajjatâ, readiness
  |  |  |  |Kw. and Mak. _sanjata_; Bat. _sonjata_; D. _sandata_.
  |Bow
  |  |pânah
  |  |  |vâṇa (an arrow)
  |  |  |  |J., S., and D. _panah_; Mak. _pana_; Tag. and Bis.
  |  |  |  |_pana_, arrow.
  |Dagger
  |  |kris
  |  |  |kṛit (to cut, to kill)
  |  |  |  |J. and S. _keris_ and _kris_; Bat. _horis_; Mak. _kurisi_;
  |  |  |  |Tag. and Bis. _kalis_.
  |Discus
  |  |chakra
  |  |  |chakra
  |Club
  |  |gada
  |  |  |gadâ
  |  |  |  |J. _gada_.
  |Cross-bow
  |  |gandî
  |  |  |gâṇḍiva
  |  |  |  |J. _gandewa_.
  |Pike
  |  |sanggamâra
  |  |  |saṃgrâma (war, battle)
  |Knife
  |  |churîka
  |  |  |chhurikâ
  |  |  |  |Kw. _churika_, a kris.
  |Enemy
  |  |satrû
  |  |  |çatru
  |  |  |  |J. and S. _satru_.
  |Battlefield
  |  |râna
  |  |  |raṇa (battle)
  |  |  |  |Kw. and S. _rana_.
  |Victory
  |  |jaya
  |  |  |jaya
  |  |  |  |J. and S. _jaya_.


    [Footnote 31: Crawfurd, very likely correctly, derives this from
    the Portuguese _baluârte_, a bulwark.]

Among the Malays the titles of royalty and nobility, and many of the
terms in use for the paraphernalia of the court, are Sanskrit. Logan
supposes the native Malayan institutions to have been of a “mixed
patriarchal and oligarchical” form.[32] Crawfurd was not satisfied that
the terms alluded to proved that Hinduism had exercised much influence
on Malayan government;[33] but when to these is added a long catalogue
of words connected with law, justice, and administration, it will
probably be apparent that Indian influence has played an important part
in moulding the institutions of the Malays. The following are some of
the principal titles, &c., in use about the court of a Malay Raja:--

  |English.
  |  |Malay.
  |  |  |Sanskrit.
  |  |  |  |Other Languages.
  |King
  |  |râja
  |  |  |râj
  |  |  |  |J., S., and Bat. _raja_.
  |Maharaja (a title not confined to royalty, but used also by Malay
  |chiefs)
  |  |mahârâja
  |  |  |mahârâja (a king, sovereign)
  |_Adiraja_ (a title)
  |  |âdirâja
  |  |  |âdhirâja (the first or primeval king, epithet of Manu and
  |  |  |of a son of Kuru)
  |King (reigning monarch)
  |  |baginda
  |  |  |bhâgya (merit, happiness)
  |  |  |  |J. _bagenda_; S. _baginda_.
  |_Paduka_ (a title of respect used in addressing persons of rank)
  |  |paduka[34]
  |  |  |pâduka (a shoe)
  |  |  |  |J. and S. _paduka_.
  |_Duli_ (a title used in addressing royalty)
  |  |dûli[34]
  |  |  |dhuli (dust)
  |  |  |  |J. _duli_; Bat. _daholi_.
  |Queen
  |  |permeisûrî
  |  |  |parameçvarî (a title of Durga, wife of Çiva)
  |  |  |  |J. _prameswari_; S. _permasuri_.
  |Prince
  |  |putrâ
  |  |  |putra (a son)
  |  |  |  |J. and S. _putra_.
  |Princess
  |  |putrî
  |  |  |putrî (a daughter)
  |  |  |  |J. and S. _putri_.
  |Minister
  |  |mantrî
  |  |  |mantrin (councillor)
  |  |  |  |J. _mantri_; Mak. _mantari_; S. _mantri_, a minor
  |  |  |  |official.
  |Chief minister
  |  |pardana-mantri
  |  |  |pradhâna
  |Councillor
  |  |paramantri
  |  |  |para (highest)
  |Officer of the household
  |  |sîda-sîda
  |  |  |siddha (priest, learned man)
  |Warrior, royal escort
  |  |hulubâlang
  |  |  |bala (army)
  |  |  |  |J. and Bat. _hulubalang_.
  |Sage, royal adviser
  |  |pandîta
  |  |  |paṇḍita
  |  |  |  |J. and S. _pandita_.
  |Laksamana (one of the officers of state)
  |  |laksamâna
  |  |  |lakshmaṇa (the son of Daçaratha by Sumitrâ)
  |  |  |  |J. and S. _laksmana_.
  |Treasurer
  |  |bandahâra
  |  |  |bhâṇḍâgâra (treasure)
  |  |  |  |Mak. _bandara_; J. _bendara_, master; S. _bandaran_;
  |  |  |  |custom-house.
  |Throne
  |  |singgahasana
  |  |  |siṃhâsana
  |  |  |  |Kw. and S. _singasana_.
  |Palace
  |  |astana
  |  |  |sthâna (place, whence the Persian _astana_, a threshold,
  |  |  |a fakir’s residence)
  |Crown
  |  |makôta
  |  |  |mukuṭa
  |  |  |  |J. and S. _makuta_; Mak. _makota_.
  |Royal insignia
  |  |upachara
  |  |  |upachâra (service)
  |  |  |  |J. _upachara_.
  |Title of a chief who is of noble blood on one side only
  |  |magat
  |  |  |mâgadha (the son of a Vaiçya by a Kshatriya woman)
  |Officer (hero)
  |  |punggâwa
  |  |  |puṅgava (a bull; as latter part of compound words,
  |  |  |“excellent,” _e.g._, _nara-puṅgava_, an excellent warrior)
  |  |  |  |J., S., and Mak. _punggawa_.

    [Footnote 32: Journ. Ind. Arch., v. 572.]

    [Footnote 33: Crawfurd, Malay Grammar, Dissertation ccii.]

    [Footnote 34: These two words must have been originally used by
    Malays in the sense which they bear in Sanskrit. “Unto the shoes
    of my lord’s feet,” or “beneath the dust of your majesty’s feet,”
    are phrases in which _paduka_ and _duli_ would immediately precede
    the name or title of the person addressed. Being thus used always
    in connection with the titles of royal or distinguished persons,
    the two words have been taken for honorific titles, and are so
    used by Malays, unaware of the humble origin of what are to them
    high-sounding words.]

The incidents of Asiatic government have caused the introduction into
the Malay language of such terms as the following, among others:--

  |English.
  |  |Malay.
  |  |  |Sanskrit.
  |  |  |  |Other Languages.
  |Country
  |  |negrî
  |  |  |nagara and nagarî
  |  |  |  |J. and S. _nagara_.
  |District
  |  |dêsa
  |  |  |diçâ
  |  |  |  |J., and S., Bat., and D. _desa_; Mak. _dessa_.
  |Tax
  |  |ûpatî
  |  |  |utpatti
  |  |  |  |J. and S. _upeti_.
  |Hall, court
  |  |bâlei
  |  |  |valaya (an enclosure)
  |  |  |  |S. _balé_; D. _balai_, open building; J. _balé_, bench;
  |  |  |  |Bat. _balé_, hut on a king’s tomb.
  |Examine, inquire
  |  |preḳsa
  |  |  |parîkshâ
  |  |  |  |J. _priksa_; Mak. _paressa_; D. _pariksa_ and _riksa_.
  |Cause, suit
  |  |bichara
  |  |  |vichâra (consideration, discussion)
  |  |  |  |Mak. and D. _bichara_; J. _wichara_; S. _pichara_.
  |Witness
  |  |saḳsi
  |  |  |sâkshin
  |  |  |  |J., S., D., Tag., and Bis. _saksi_.
  |Crime
  |  |dosa
  |  |  |dush (to sin)
  |  |  |  |J., S., Bat., Mak., and D. _dosa_.
  |Insult, trespass
  |  |ângkâra
  |  |  |ahaṃkâra (pride)
  |  |  |  |Kw. _angkara_.
  |Injustice, oppression
  |  |ânyâya
  |  |  |anyâya
  |  |  |  |J. _aniaya_.
  |Inheritance
  |  |pusâka
  |  |  |push (to possess)
  |  |  |  |J., S., and Mak. _pusaka_.
  |Action, negotiation
  |  |sanggêta
  |  |  |saṃketa (appointment, convention)
  |Proof
  |  |biti
  |  |  |vitti (probability)
  |Cause, matter in dispute
  |  |âchâra
  |  |  |âchara (conduct)
  |Punishment
  |  |siḳsa
  |  |  |çikshâ (learning)
  |  |  |  |J. and S. _siksa_; Mak. _sessa_.
  |Fine
  |  |denda
  |  |  |daṇḍa
  |  |  |  |J. and S. _denda_; Bat. _dangdang_; D. _danda_.
  |Prison
  |  |panjâra
  |  |  |panjara (a cage)
  |  |  |  |J. and S. _kunjara_; Mak. _panjara_; Bat. _binjara_,
  |  |  |  |a trap; D. _jara_ and _panjara_, punished.
  |Punishment (of a disgraceful kind inflicted on women)
  |  |druma
  |  |  |druh (to hurt)
  |Slave
  |  |sahâya
  |  |  |sahâya (companion)
  |Free, liberated
  |  |mardahîka
  |  |  |mṛidh (to pardon?)
  |  |  |  |J. and S. _mardika_; Bat. _mardaekoh_; Mak., Bu., and D.
  |  |  |  |_maradeka_; Tag. _mahadlika_
  |Executioner
  |  |palabâya
  |  |  |para (exceeding) bhaya (fear)

The groups of words remaining to be noticed are those connected with the
Hindu religion, and with the demon-worship or spirit-worship, which was
the earliest form which the religious sentiment took among the Malay
tribes.[35] After the conversion of the Malays to the faith of Muhammad,
the traditions of Hinduism were gradually confused with the aboriginal
superstitions, and neither have been entirely obliterated by the cult
which superseded them. The belief in the power of malignant spirits to
cause misfortune, sickness, and death is still strong among the Malays,
whose _pawangs_ or medicine-men claim to be able to propitiate demons by
spells, prayers, and offerings. These men frequently invoke benevolent
spirits by the names of Rama, Vishnu, and other Hindu deities, in
complete ignorance that they are Hindu,[36] to counteract the evil
influences of malevolent demons. Practices of this sort prevail most
generally in places remote from Arab influence.

    [Footnote 35: “The Javanese have peopled the air, the woods and
    rivers with various classes of spirits, their belief in which
    probably constituted their sole religion before the arrival of the
    Bramins.” --_Crawfurd’s Grammar_, _Dissertation_ cxcix.]

    [Footnote 36: “The Javanese consider all the Hindu gods of their
    former belief not as imaginary beings, but as real demons”
    (_Ibid._), just as the early Christians regarded the classic gods,
    and attributed oracles to diabolical agency.]

The Malays did not altogether discard the theological terms of Hinduism
when they adopted a new religion. For instance, _puâsa_,[37] abstinence,
fasting (Sansk. _upavâsa_), is used to express the annual fast of the
Muhammadans during the month Ramzan. Heaven and hell also retain their
Sanskrit names.

    [Footnote 37: J., S., Mak., D., and Bis. _puasa_; Bat. _puaso_.]

The following are some of the principal theological terms which have
passed from Sanskrit into Malay:--

  |English.
  |  |Malay.
  |  |  |Sanskrit.
  |  |  |  |Other Languages.
  |Religion
  |  |âgâma
  |  |  |âgama (sacred science)[38]
  |  |  |  |J., S. Mak., Bu., and D. _agama_.
  |Spiritual guide
  |  |gûrû
  |  |  |guru
  |  |  |  |J., S. Mak., Bu., and D. _guru_.
  |Praise, adoration
  |  |puji, puja
  |  |  |pûj (to honour)
  |  |  |pûjâ (worshipping)
  |  |  |  |J. and S. _puji_, _puja_; Bat. and Mak. _puji_;
  |  |  |  |D. _mampuji_; to invoke.
  |Religious penance
  |  |tâpa
  |  |  |tapas
  |  |  |  |J., S., Mak., D., and Bu. _tapa_.
  |Heaven
  |  |sûrga
  |  |  |svarga
  |  |  |  |J. _suwarga_; S. _surga_.
  |Hell
  |  |nâraka, patâla
  |  |  |naraka, pâtâla
  |  |  |  |J., S., Mak., and D. _naraka_; S. _patala_.
  |Fast, abstinence
  |  |puâsa
  |  |  |upavâsa
  |  |  |  |J., S., Mak., D., and Bis. _puasa_; Bat. _puaso_.
  |Supernatural power
  |  |saḳtî
  |  |  |çakti (strength, power)
  |  |  |  |J. and S. _sakti_.
  |Meritorious service, merit
  |  |baḳtî
  |  |  |bhakti (worship, devotion)
  |  |  |  |J. and S. _bakti_.
  |Sacred formula, charm, spell
  |  |mantrâ
  |  |  |mantra
  |  |  |  |J. and S. _mantra_.
  |Incense
  |  |dûpa
  |  |  |dhûpa
  |  |  |  |J., S., Mak., Bu., and D. _dupa_; Bat. _daupa_;
  |  |  |  |Tag. _dupa-an_, censer.
  |Incense (made of eight ingredients)
  |  |istanggi
  |  |  |ashṭaka (a collection of eight things)
  |  |  |  |S. _istanggi_; Mak. _satanggi_.
  |Censer (a bamboo split at one end, and opened out so as to form
  |a receptacle)
  |  |sangka
  |  |  |çaṅkha (conchshell used for libations)
  |Trumpet
  |  |sangkakala
  |  |  |çaṅkha (conchshell used for blowing as a horn), kala (time)
  |Protection, blessing, or invocation to secure protection
  |  |sempana
  |  |  |sampanna
  |_Sati_, self-sacrifice on the tomb of a lord or husband
  |  |bela
  |  |  |velâ (sudden death?)
  |  |  |  |J. and Bat. _bela_.
  |Recluse, devotee
  |  |biku
  |  |  |bhikshu (a religious mendicant)
  |  |  |  |Kw. _wiku_; Siam. _phiku_, a devotee, beggar.
  |Mystic words prefixed to prayers and invocations
  |  |Om, hong[39]
  |  |  |om (a mystic word prefacing all prayers); hum (a mystic
  |  |  |syllable used in incantations)
  |  |  |  |J. _hong_.
  |Sacrifice, burnt-offering
  |  |hûmum
  |  |  |homa (sacrifice)

DEITIES, &c.

  |A god
  |  |batâra
  |  |  |avatâra (descent)
  |  |  |  |J., S., Bat., and Mak. _batara_; Bis. _batala_, idol.
  |Minor deity
  |  |dêwa, dêwâta
  |  |  |deva, devatâ
  |  |  |  |J. and S. _dewa_, _dewata_; Mak. _dewa_, _rewata_;
  |  |  |  |D. _dewa_; Bis. _dia_, idol; Bat. _debata_; Bu. _dewata_.
  |Do. (female)
  |  |dêwî
  |  |  |devî
  |  |  |  |J., S., and Mak. _dewi_.
  |Names supposed by Malays to belong to powerful spirits or demons
  |  |Brahma
  |  |  |Brahma (one of the three principal Hindu deities)
  |  |Bisnû
  |  |  |Vishnu (one of the three principal Hindu deities)
  |  |Srî Râma
  |  |  |Râma (the hero of the Râmâyana)
  |  |Ranjûna
  |  |  |Arjuna (the third son of Pandu)
  |  |Barûna
  |  |  |Varuṇa (the deity of the waters)
  |  |  |  |S. _Baruna_.
  |  |Mahêswâra
  |  |  |Maheçvara
  |  |Handûman
  |  |  |Hanumant (the monkey chief in the Râmâyana)
  |  |Mahareshî
  |  |  |Maharshi (a sage of a pre-eminent class)
  |Supernatural beings
  |  |Indrâ
  |  |  |Indra (king of heaven)
  |  |  |  |Kw. _Endra_; S. _Indra_.
  |  |Chandrâ
  |  |  |Chandra (the moon)
  |  |  |  |J. and S. _Chandra_.
  |Nymph, goddess
  |  |Bidyâdârî
  |  |  |Vidyâdharî (a female demi-god)
  |  |  |  |J. _Widadari_; Mak. _Bidadari_.

DEMONS, &c.

  |Demon
  |  |jana, janu
  |  |  |jana (creature, demon)
  |Malignant spirit
  |  |bôta
  |  |  |bhûta
  |  |  |  |J. and S. _buta_; Mak. _bota_.
  |Name of a particular demon
  |  |pancha-maha-bôta
  |  |  |panchan (five); bhûta (element); the five elements according
  |  |  |to the Hindus are earth, fire, water, air, and æther
  |A kind of demon
  |  |bôga
  |  |  |bhoga (a snake)
  |Name of a particular demon
  |  |bûjangga
  |  |  |bhujaṃga (a snake)
  |  |  |  |J. _bujongga_; S. _bujangga_.
  |An evil spirit
  |  |rakshâsa
  |  |  |râkshasa
  |  |  |  |J. and S. _raksasa_.
  |Ghost, goblin
  |  |hantû
  |  |  |hantu (death)
  |  |  |  |J. _antu_; Bat. and S. _hantu_; D. _hantu_, corpse.
  |Spectre (which haunts the scene of a murder or sudden death)
  |  |bâdei
  |  |  |vadha (killing, murder)
  |A female who chants incantations
  |  |bîdû, bidûan
  |  |  |vidhavâ (a widow)
  |  |  |  |Bat. _biduwan_.
  |Spell to cause death
  |  |permâya
  |  |  |pramaya (death)
  |  |  |  |Bat. _parangmayo_.
  |A demon
  |  |danâwa
  |  |  |dânava
  |  |  |  |J. _danawa_.
  |A daitya or demon
  |  |ditya
  |  |  |daitya
  |  |  |  |Kw. _ditya_.
  |A supernatural monster
  |  |gargâsi
  |  |  |karkaça (cruel), or perhaps, from _ugra_, very strong,
  |  |  |terrible, cruel
  |  |  |  | J. _gargasi_, a large bird
  |Magic
  |  |sastarâ
  |  |  |çâstra (science, learning)
  |Magician, sorcerer
  |  |sastarâwan
  |  |  |çâstravant (skilled in the holy writings)

    [Footnote 38: “_Agama_ in Sanskrit is ‘authority for religious
    doctrine:’ in Malay and Javanese it is religion itself, and is at
    present applied both to the Mohammedan and the Christian
    religions.” --_Crawfurd_, _Malay Grammar_, _Dissertation_
    cxcviii.]

    [Footnote 39: I have found both these words used separately and
    distinctly by Pawangs in the state of Perak. Raffles and Logan
    confused them. Journ. Ind. Arch., i. 309; History of Java, ii.
    369. De Backer mentions _ong_ only. L’Archipel. Indien, p. 287]

A remarkable instance of the extent to which the Malay language has been
enriched by Aryan terms is to be found in their national or racial name.
The origin of the word _Malayu_ (the native word from which we obtain
our “Malay”) has been made the subject of some discussion by several
authors. Some are disposed to trace it to the Sanskrit word _malaya_,
while others prefer to regard it as a purely native word. These views
are summarised in the following extract from the introduction to the
Malay Grammar of the Abbé Favre:--

“Some authors, and particularly Dr. Leyden, whose authority in this
matter is of great weight, derive the word _malayu_ from the Tamil
_malé_, which means ‘mountain,’ whence _malaya_, ‘chain of mountains,’ a
word applied in Sanskrit to the Western Ghauts.

“Marsden asserts that this opinion, being founded upon a mere
resemblance of sound between the Sanskrit word _malaya_ and the name of
the Malay people, is not sufficient to justify this derivation.[40]

“Nevertheless the opinion of Dr. Leyden has continued to command belief,
and has been regarded as not altogether unfounded by M. Louis de Backer,
who has recently published a work on the Indian Archipelago.[41]

“Another theory, which has the support of Werndly,[42] is so far simple
and rational that it seeks the etymology of this word in the traditions
of the Malays and in books written by themselves. Thus, in a work which
has the greatest authority among them, and which is entitled
_Sulālates-salātin_, or _Sejārat malāyu_, the following passage
occurs:--

“‘There is in the island of Sumatra an ancient kingdom called Palembang,
opposite to the island of Banka; a river flows there which is still
called Tatang, into the upper portion of which another river falls,
after having watered the spurs of the mountain Maha Meru (which Malay
princes claim as the cradle of their origin); the tributary is called
_Melayu_, or _Malayu_.’ The meaning of this word is ‘to flow quickly’ or
‘rapidly,’ from _layu_, which in Javanese as well as in the dialect of
Palembang signifies ‘swift, rapid;’ it has become _laju_, _melaju_, in
Malay by the conversion of ي into ج, a change which is by no means rare
in Malay, as it may be seen in يهوري and جهوري,[43] from the Sanskrit
_ayuta_ and _yodi_, and in جوري _jehudi_, from the Arabic جوت _yehudi_,
&c.

“Now the Malays, an essentially nautical people, are in the habit of
settling along the banks of rivers and streams, whence it comes that a
great number of their towns have taken the names of the rivers on or
near which they are situated, such as Johor, Pahang, &c. In this way
‘the country situated near the river of which the current is rapid,’
_Sungei Malayu_, would take the name of _Tanah Malayu_, and the
inhabitants of this country (governed in those times by a chief named
Demang Lebar Daun) that of _Orang Malayu_, just as the inhabitants of
Johor and Pahang are called _Orang Johor_, _Orang Pahang_; and their
language is called _Bahasa Orang Malayu_ or _Bahasa Malayu_.

“The name of _Malayu_ thus applied to the people and to the language
spread with the descendants of Demang Lebar Daun, whose son-in-law, Sang
Sapurba, became king of Menangkabau or Pagar Ruwang, a powerful empire
in the interior of Sumatra. A grandson of Demang Lebar Daun, named Sang
Mutiaga, became king of Tanjong Pura. A second, Sang Nila Utama, married
the daughter of the queen of Bentan, and immediately founded the kingdom
of Singapore, a place previously known as Tamassak. It was a descendant
of his, Iskander Shah, who founded the empire of Malacca, which extended
over a great part of the peninsula; and, after the capture of Malacca by
the Portuguese, became the empire of Johor. It is thus that a portion of
the Indian Archipelago has taken the name of _Tanah Malayu_, ‘Malay
country.’

“One of the granddaughters of Demang Lebar Daun was married to the
Batara or king of Majapahit, a kingdom which extended over the island of
Java and beyond it; and another was married to the Emperor of China, a
circumstance which contributed not a little to render the name of
_Malayu_ or Malay known in distant parts.”[44]

    [Footnote 40: Malay Grammar, Introduction.]

    [Footnote 41: L’Archipel Indien, p. 53.]

    [Footnote 42: Maleische Spraakkunst, door G. H. Werndly p. xix.]

    [Footnote 43: The derivation of _judi_, gaming, from _dyuta_ (game
    at dice), seems to be preferable to that adopted by M. Favre
    (following Van der Tuuk), who refers it to _yodi_, a warrior.]

    [Footnote 44: Favre, Grammaire de la Langue Malaise, Introduction,
    viii.]

This theory requires that we should suppose that a word of wide
application, which is known wherever Malays have established themselves,
is, in fact, a Malay word disguised in a form found only in Javanese and
the dialect of Palembang. If the arguments adduced in support of it are
to apply, we must first of all admit the very doubtful historical
accuracy of the _Sejarah Malayu_, from which they are drawn.

There is a Malay word, _layu_, which means “faded,” “withered,” and it
is only the exigency of finding a word applicable to a river that makes
it necessary to look for a derivation in _laju_, swift. In this or some
kindred sense the word _laju_ is found in Javanese, Sundanese, and
Dayak; but why it should give its name, in the form of _layu_, to a
river in Sumatra, and thence to the whole Malay race, is not very
obvious. A river named in consequence of its swift current would be
called by Malays _Sungei Laju_, not _Sungei Malaju_. Even if the
derivation of Malayu from _melaju_ had the support of the Malays
themselves, Malay etymologies are not often safe guides. Not much, for
instance, can be said in favour of the fanciful derivation of Sumatra
from _semut raya_, “large ant,” which is given by the author of the
_Sâjarah Malayu_.[45]

    [Footnote 45: Leyden’s Malay Annals, 65.]

It is impossible to treat the story of Sang Sapurba, the first Malay
raja, as historical. The name, “Maha-Meru,” sufficiently shows that we
are upon mythological ground. The story is as follows:-- Three young men
descend from the heavens of Indra (_ka indra-an_) upon the mountain
Maha-Meru, on the slopes of which they meet two women who support
themselves by planting hill-padi. Supernatural incidents mark the advent
of the strangers. The very corn in the ground puts forth ears of gold,
while its leaves become silver and its stalks copper. One of the
new-comers rides on a white bull, and carries a sword called _Chora_
(Sansk. _kshura_, a razor) _samandang-kini_. They are received by the
natives of the district (Palembang) and made rajas. He who rides the
bull becomes king of Menangkabau, and the other two receive minor
kingdoms.

It is not difficult to recognise here certain attributes of the god
Çiva, with which, by a not unnatural confusion of ideas, Muhammadan
Malays, the recipients of the old traditions, have clothed their first
raja.

Maha-Meru, or Sumeru, on which are the abodes of the gods, is placed by
Hindu geographers in the centre of the earth. _Malaya_ is mentioned in
the _Puranas_ as a mountain in which the Godavari and other rivers take
their rise. The white bull of Sang Sapurba is evidently the _vahan_ of
Çiva, and the name of the sword bears a close resemblance to
_manda-kini_, the name given in heaven to the sacred Ganges, which
springs from the head of Çiva. Most of the incidents in the story,
therefore, are of purely Hindu origin, and this gives great probability
to the conjecture which assigns a Sanskrit source to the word _Malayu_.
The Straits of Malacca abound with places with Sanskrit names. Not to
speak of Singha-pura, there are the islands of Langka-wi and Lingga and
the towns of Indragiri and Indrapura, &c. Sumeru (in Java), Madura,
Ayuthia (in Siam), and many other names, show how great Indian
influences have been in past times in the far East. May it not be,
therefore, that _Malaya_ or _Malayu_[46] was the name by which the
earliest Sanskrit-speaking adventurers from India denominated the rude
tribes of Sumatra and the peninsula with whom they came in contact, just
as _Jawi_ is the name given to Malays by the Arabs, the term in either
case being adopted by the people from those to whom they looked up with
reverence as their conquerors or teachers? According to this view, the
introduction of a river, _Malayu_, into the story of Sang Sapurba is an
_ex post facto_ way of explaining the name, inserted with this object by
the native author of the _Sâjarah Malayu_.

    [Footnote 46: Besides signifying a range of mountains, _Malaya_
    has the secondary meaning of “a garden.” If the term was applied
    originally in reference to the agricultural pursuits of the
    primitive tribes, it receives additional illustration from the
    name given to one of the women whom Sang Sapurba meets on Mount
    Maha-Meru, “_Malini_,” a gardener’s wife (Sansk.).]

If it be granted that the story of Sang Sapurba is mythological, it
becomes unnecessary to follow any attempt to show that the name of
_Malayu_ received additional celebrity from the marriages of
granddaughters of Demang Lebar Daun with the Batara of Majapahit and the
Emperor of China! The contemptuous style in which Malay, Javanese, and
other barbarian rajas are spoken of by ancient Chinese historians leaves
but slender probability to the legend that an Emperor of China once took
a Malay princess as his wife.[47]

    [Footnote 47: See Grœneveldt’s Notes on the Malay Archipelago,
    compiled from Chinese sources. Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch
    Genootschap, xxxix.]

From this subject it is natural to proceed to another disputed
etymology, namely, the origin of the word _Jawi_, which is often used by
the Malays for the word _Malayu_ in speaking of their language and
written character, _bahasa jawi_ meaning Malay language, and _surat
jawi_ a document written in Malay. It is not necessary to go into all
the various conjectures on the subject, which will be found in the works
of Marsden, Crawfurd, Favre, and others.

_Jawi_ is a word of Arab origin, and is formed in accordance with the
rules of Arabic grammar from the noun _Jawa_, Java. Just as from
_Makah_, Meccah, is derived the word _Makk-i_, of or belonging to
Meccah, so from _Jawa_, Java, we get _Jawi_, of or belonging to Java.
When this name was first applied to Malays, the Arabs had not an
accurate knowledge of the ethnography of the Eastern Archipelago.
Without very strict regard to ethnical divergencies, they described all
the brown races of the eastern islands under the comprehensive and
convenient term _Jawi_, and the Malays, who alone among those races
adopted the Arabic alphabet, adopted also the term in speaking of their
language and writing.[48]

    [Footnote 48: “_Sawa_, _Jawa_, _Saba_, _Jaba_, _Zaba_, &c., has
    evidently in all times been the capital local name in Indonesia.
    The whole Archipelago was compressed into an island of that name
    by the Hindus and Romans. Even in the time of Marco Polo we have
    only a _Java Major_ and a _Java Minor_. The Bugis apply the name
    of Jawa, _Jawaka_ (comp. the Polynesian _Sawaiki_, Ceramese
    _Sawai_) to the Moluccas. One of the principal divisions of
    Battaland in Sumatra is called _Tanah Jawa_. Ptolemy has both Jaba
    and Saba.” --_Logan_, _Journ. Ind. Arch._, iv. 338.]

As in Malay there are no inflexions to denote change of number, gender,
or person, the connection of _Jawi_ with _Jawa_ is quite unknown to the
Malays, just as the second part of the word _senamaki_ (_sena-maki_,
senna of Meccah[49]) is not suspected by them to have any reference to
the sacred city. There is a considerable Malay and Javanese colony in
Meccah,[50] where all are known to the Meccans indiscriminately as
_Jawi_.

    [Footnote 49: _Senna_ (_Cassia senna_), as a medicine, enjoys a
    high reputation in India and all over the East. In Favre’s
    Malay-French Dictionary _daun sena-maki_ is translated _feuilles
    de séné_, no notice being taken of the last word; but Shakespear’s
    Hindustani Dictionary has _sena makk-i_, “senna of Mecca.”]

    [Footnote 50: Burton’s Pilgrimage to Medinah and Meccah, p. 175.]

Marsden devotes several pages of the introduction to his Malay Grammar
to a discussion as to the origin and use of the expression _orang
di-bawah angin_, people below the wind, applied by Malays to themselves,
in contradistinction to _orang di-atas angin_, people above the wind, or
foreigners from the West. He quotes from De Barros and Valentyn, and
from several native documents, instances of the use of these
expressions, but confesses his inability to explain their origin.
Crawfurd quotes these terms, which he considers to be “native,” and
remarks that they are used by the Malays alone of all the tribes in the
Archipelago. A much more recent writer characterises these terms as
“_Noms dont on ignore encore la vraie signification_.”[51]

    [Footnote 51: De Backer, L’Archipel Indien, li. (Paris, 1874).]

The expression is not of Malay origin, but is a translation into that
language of an Arabic phrase. Instances of its use occur in the “MOHIT”
(the ocean), a Turkish work on navigation in the Indian seas, written by
Sidi al Chelebi, captain of the fleet of Sultan Suleiman the Legislator,
in the Red Sea. The original was finished at Ahmedabad, the capital of
Gujarat, in the last days of Muharram, A.H. 962 (A.D. 1554). It
enumerates, among others, “the monsoons below the wind, that is, of the
parts of India situated below the wind,” among which are “Malacca,
Shomotora, Tanassari, Martaban, and Faiku (Pegu).”[52]

    [Footnote 52: Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, iii. 545.]


TRANSLITERATION OF MALAY IN THE ROMAN CHARACTER.

Malay is written in a character which has been borrowed from a foreign
literature in comparatively modern times, and which but imperfectly
suits its sounds. With the introduction of the Muhammadan religion, the
Malays adopted the Arabic alphabet, modified to suit the peculiarities
of their language.

In Malay literary compositions there is great diversity in the manner of
spelling many words. The accentuation of the spoken dialect differs so
much from Arabic, that it is difficult, even for native writers, to
decide when to write the long vowels and when to leave them out. This is
the point in which diversity is most common.

Every European author who writes Malay in the Roman character has to
decide on what system he intends to render the native language by means
of our alphabet. The Malay alphabet has thirty-four letters, so it is
obvious that ours will not accurately correspond with it. It is open to
him, if he wishes to obtain a symbol to correspond with every letter of
the Malay alphabet, to employ various means to denote those letters for
which we have no equivalents; or he may dismiss the native alphabet from
his mind altogether, and determine to write the language phonetically.
In a language, however, which abounds in Sanskrit and Arabic words, he
should, of course, avoid the adoption of any system of spelling which
would disguise the true origin of words of foreign derivation.

Muhammadans from India or Persia introduced their own method of writing
among the Malays. They wrote Malay in their own character (to the
gradual supersession of any native alphabet that may have previously
existed), and this became the alphabet of the Malays.

It is now our turn to write Malay in our character. Is it sufficient to
do this in our own way, as those did who introduced the Perso-Arabic
alphabet, or must we also have regard to the mode of spelling adopted by
the latter?

In an elementary work like the present, it does not seem to be necessary
to burden the student with a system of transliteration. The native
character is not employed in this manual, and there is, therefore, all
the less occasion for using special means for denoting peculiar native
letters. It will be found that the mode of spelling Malay words adopted
by Marsden has been followed in the main.[53] In this Introduction the
long vowels (that is, the vowels which are written in full in the native
character) are marked with a circumflex accent, but it has not been
thought necessary to adopt this system in the body of the work.

    [Footnote 53: In certain foreign words the hard _k_ will be found
    to be denoted by a dot under the letter, thus, ḳ; and the peculiar
    vowel sound represented in Arabic by the letter _ain_ is denoted
    by the Greek rough breathing ‘.]

Sometimes vowels will be found marked with the short sign, ˘. This is
only for the purpose of assisting the student in pronunciation, and does
not represent any peculiarity in the native character.

The vowels are to be sounded in general as in the languages of the
Continent of Europe. Final _k_ is mute.

The correct pronunciation of Arabic words is aimed at by Malays of
education, and the European student should get the right sounds of the
vowel _ain_ and of the more peculiar Arabic consonants explained to him.



MALAY MANUAL.



_PART I._


The object of this work is to facilitate the acquisition of an
elementary knowledge of the Malay language. It is believed also that
some of the hints and suggestions which it contains will be of use to
those who already have a colloquial knowledge of Malay, especially if
this has been acquired from Indian or Chinese settlers in the Straits of
Malacca, not from Malays themselves.

The Roman character is used throughout, but a knowledge of the native
character can hardly be dispensed with by those who aim at a thorough
acquaintance with the language. As it abounds in idiomatic expressions,
the study of native compositions is most important, and these are
generally to be found only in the Malay character. Little attempt is
made at scientific arrangement. In dealing with the various parts of
speech, technical terms are as far as possible avoided, and reliance is
placed rather on illustrations than abstract rules. The student should
divest himself of the expectation that sentences may be formed in Malay
on principles of construction which govern composition in European
languages. An elementary knowledge of Malay is so easily acquired that a
learner soon begins to construct sentences, and the tendency, of course,
is to reproduce the phrases of his own language with words of the new
one. He may thus succeed in making himself intelligible, but it need
hardly be said that he does not speak the language of the natives.
Correctness of expression cannot be entirely learnt from grammars. In
this manual cautions and hints will be given, and, where possible,
absolute rules will be laid down, but these must not be regarded as
complete. Instruction derived from books must be supplemented by
constant practice in speaking _with Malays_--not with Malay-speaking
Asiatics of other nationalities--before idioms can be mastered. Until
some facility in framing sentences according to native idioms has been
attained, and it has been perceived how shades of meaning may be
conveyed by emphasis, or by the position of a word in the sentence, the
European will find it difficult to convey his ideas in Malay, even with
a considerable vocabulary of words at his disposal. A Dutch author
justly remarks:-- “Malay is called a poor language, and so it is, but
not so much so as is often imagined, certainly not as far as its
vocabulary is concerned. That it is often unable to furnish us with
words for abstract ideas is a deficiency which it has in common with all
languages of the Indian Archipelago, or rather with all races who have
not yet risen to the height of our civilisation and development. Its
richness or poverty, however, must not be judged by the existing
dictionaries, or by the contents of those manuscripts which are known to
us. When Malays are seated together talking about various topics of
everyday life, they are not in want of words, and such conversations
would, if noted down, provide our present dictionaries with a good many
supplements, additions, corrections, and appendices.”[1]

    [Footnote 1: Klinkert, Eenige ophelderingen omtrent de Maleische
    Spreekwoorden en spreekwijzen.]


I. THE ARTICLE.

There is no article in Malay, that is, there is no word which
corresponds exactly with our definite article _the_, or indefinite
article _a_, _an_. _Kuda_, horse, and _orang_, man, signify equally
“_the_ horse” and “_the_ man.” When it is desired to specify particular
objects, the pronouns _ini_, this, _itu_, that, and _yang_, this which,
or that which, are used. _Si_ sometimes supplies the place of the
definite article when a person is spoken of; as _si-laki-laki_, the man;
_si-perampuan_, the woman; _si-mati_, the deceased; _si-bongkok_, the
cripple.

The numeral _satu_, one, is often used as the indefinite article; as
_ada sa’ orang di negri Kedah_, there was a man in the state of Kedah;
_ini satu kuda chantek_, this is a beautiful horse.


II. SUBSTANTIVES.

A difficulty which attends the classification of Malay words into
various parts of speech, according to the system applied to European
languages, consists in the number of words which, while yet unmodified
by particles, are either verb or substantive, substantive or adjective,
adjective or adverb, according to the context. _Baniak_, as an adverb,
means much, as an adjective, many; _jalan_ is either a road or to walk;
_panjang_ either long, tall, or length, height. The same thing occurs in
English in a minor degree; but with us the difference between _cold_ and
_a cold_, or between _to brush_ and _a brush_, is rendered distinct by
the use of the article _a_ and the particle _to_. Many Malay words must
thus be treated as now substantive, now adjective, now verb, according
to the position they occupy in the sentence.

The noun undergoes no change to denote number, gender, or case.


NUMBER.

The plural, if not sufficiently made plain from the context, is often
indicated by the use of such words as _baniak_, many, _sumua_,
_sa-kali-an_, and _sagala_, all.

It is also expressed sometimes by repeating the noun; as _raja_, a king,
_raja-raja_, kings; _tuan_, master, _tuan-tuan_, masters. _All_ nouns
are not capable of this duplication. As a general rule, it may be said
to be mainly confined to nouns expressing persons or animate objects.

When there is nothing to show whether singular or plural is meant, the
number remains indefinite, but may generally be assumed to be plural. In
such phrases as _menembak burong_, to shoot birds, _membĕli hayam_, to
buy fowls, the substantives are clearly plural, though nothing marks
them as such. To restrict the number, and show that _one bird_ or _one
fowl_ is meant, it would be necessary to use the word _satu_, one, with
the idiomatic term _ekor_ (lit. _tail_), which is always used in
enumerating the lower animals; as _menembak sa’ekor burong_, to shoot a
bird; _membĕli sa’ekor hayam_, to buy a fowl.


GENDER.

Inflexion is unknown in Malay, and gender has no place in the grammar of
the language. Most nouns which signify animate things are of both
genders, and the sexes are distinguished by the addition, in the case of
persons, of the words _laki-laki_, male, and _perampuan_, female, and in
other cases of the words _jantan_, male, and _betina_, female. _Jantan_
and _betina_ are also applied vulgarly to persons. If an apparent
exception is found in such words as _putra_, a prince, and _putri_, a
princess, derivation from a foreign language may be suspected. The
inflexion in the word just cited is due to the rules of Sanskrit
grammar.


DECLENSION.

There is nothing in the Malay language which corresponds with the
_cases_ of a Latin, Greek, or Sanskrit noun, which are formed by changes
of termination, or of a Hindustani noun, which are formed by
postpositions. In Malay the cases are expressed, as in English, by
prepositions:--

  To, _ka_, _kepada_, _sama_.
  For, _akan_.
  With, _dengan_, _sama_.
  From, _deri_, _deri-pada_.
  By, _uleh_.

The genitive or possessive case is expressed either by the use of the
word _punya_ after the noun, or by placing the noun which signifies the
possessor immediately after the thing possessed; as _sahaya_, I; _sahaya
punya_, of me, mine; _rumah_, house; _rumah punya_, of the house;
_sahaya punya rumah_, or _rumah sahaya_, my house.

The employment of the genitive with _punya_ is to be avoided. It is more
idiomatic to say _rumah sahaya_ than _sahaya punya rumah_.

Substantives are of five classes:--

1. Those which in their primitive form are substantives; as _orang_,
person; _rumah_, house; _kuda_, horse; _bapa_, father.

2. Those which are formed from verbs by prefixing the inseparable
particle _pe_; as _pe-lari_, a runaway; _peng-asuh_, a nurse;
_pem-buru_, a hunter; _pen-churi_, a thief; _penyapu_, a broom.

3. Those which are formed by affixing the termination _-an_ to verbs,
adjectives, prepositions, and to other substantives; as _makan-an_,
food; _manis-an_, sweetness; _hampir-an_, proximity; _trus-an_, a
channel; _buah-an_, fruit in general; _laut-an_, the ocean.

4. Those which are formed by prefixing the particle _pe_ and adding the
termination _-an_; as _pe-layar-an_, a voyage; _peng-ajar-an_,
instruction; _pem-bunoh-an_, slaying, execution; _pen-dapat-an_,
acquisition; _pel-ajar-an_, lesson; _per-uleh-an_, possession;
_per-main-an_, amusement.

5. Those which are formed by prefixing the particle _ka-_ and adding the
termination _-an_; as _ka-jadi-an_, creation, origin; _ka-baniak-an_,
generality; _ka-puji-an_, praise; _ka-salah-an_, guilt, offence;
_ka-korang-an_, want, deficiency.


III. ADJECTIVES.

Adjectives, like nouns, are indeclinable. They are always placed _after_
their substantives; as _kuda baik_, a good horse; _orang jahat_, a bad
man; not _baik kuda_, _jahat orang_.


IV. PRONOUNS.

The proper use of the personal pronouns and of the nouns which are used
for them presents some difficulty.

The following words may be used to express the first person singular,
_I_:--

  1. _Aku_, I.
  2. _Sahaya_ (lit. companion, slave; Sansk. _sahâya_).
  3. _Hamba_ (lit. slave), or _hamba tuan_ (lit. master’s slave).
  4. _Perhamba_ (lit. lowest slave).
  5. _Beta_ (lit. slave).
  6. _Patek_ (lit. slave).
  7. _Tĕman_ (lit. companion).

The appropriate use of these pronouns is dependent upon the relative
positions of the persons between whom communication takes place.

_Aku_ is generally used by natives among themselves. Its use implies
familiarity and equality. It should not be used by Europeans addressing
natives, or by natives addressing Europeans.

_Sahaya_ is the ordinary polite form used by Europeans in conversation
with natives of all classes, and by natives of the upper class in
addressing Europeans.

_Ha ba_, _ha ba tuan_, and _perhamba_ are used by persons of inferior
rank when addressing superiors. _Hamba_, if used by a chief or native of
high rank, implies a certain affectation of modesty.

The use of _beta_ is confined to literary composition, and it is
incorrect to employ the word colloquially. It may be used by Europeans
and natives.

_Patek_ is used only by natives, and by them only when addressing a
person of royal blood.

_Tĕman_ is used only in intercourse between natives of the upper class
and of approximately equal rank.

The first person plural is _kita_ or _kami_, we. _Kita_ is used when the
person addressed is intended to be included. _Kami_, on the contrary,
like the royal “we” in English, excludes the person addressed.

Sometimes the word _orang_ is added without changing the signification;
as _kita orang_, we.

Other forms are also in use, but they are generally provincialisms
confined to particular states or districts. _Sahaya apa_, _kita apa_,
and _hamba tuan apa_ are used in Kedah, and _sahaya-ma_ in Perak, for
_kita orang_.

Colloquially the personal pronouns are often omitted to avoid
repetition. This is done especially in narration or description; as, for
example, in the following sentence: _Lepas itu jalan pula ka-kampong
singgah di rumah Haji Ismail hari pun sudah pĕtang langsong pulang
ka-rumah maka nasi_-- Afterwards (I started) again (and) walked to the
_kampong_, (and) stopped at the house of Haji Ismail, (and then), as it
was evening, (I) went straight home (and) had my dinner.

Here the personal pronoun _I_ is understood throughout.

The second person singular is _angkau_, you. Each syllable of this word
may be used separately for the whole. _Ang_ or _hang_ is much employed
in Kedah and Perak, and _kau_ in other parts of the peninsula and in
Borneo. In Perak _mika_, in Malacca _awah_, in Borneo _kita_, and in
Batavia _kweh_, are also used. The preceding words are used by a
superior addressing an inferior, or by the common people in ordinary
(not in polite) conversation.

In polite conversation the use of _angkau_, or of most of the words
given above, must be avoided, as it is considered by Malays to be vulgar
or harsh. In addressing servants or followers, the name of the
individual addressed is often inserted in the sentence instead of the
pronoun _you_; as, in addressing Ismail: When you were at the bazaar
just now who was with you?-- _Apabila Ismail di pekan tadi siapa sama?_
In the same way _tuan_, sir, master, is employed in addressing a haji or
sayyid; _tuan-ku_ or _tunku_, my lord, in addressing a raja; _datoh_,
grandfather, in addressing a chief or _penghulu_.

Other words similarly employed are--

  _Abang_ (elder brother) or _wah_ (uncle), to a man older than the
    speaker.
  _Kakak_ (elder sister), to a woman older than the speaker.
  _Adek_ (younger brother).
  _Inche_ (sir or madam), to respectable persons of either sex.


EXAMPLES.

  When did you arrive? (to a haji)--
    _Bila-mana tuan sudah tiba?_
  I must ask one thing of you (to a raja)--
    _Sahaya handak minta satu kapada tunku._
  If you give the order (to a chief)--
    _Jikalau datoh suroh._
  Do not be angry (to an elderly man)--
    _Jangan abang marah._
  Please help yourselves to water (to guests of various ranks)--
    _Datoh-datoh, tuan-tuan, inche-inche sakalian, sila berayer._

The use of the word _lu_, a form of the second person singular, derived
from the Chinese, and generally used by Europeans, is offensive to
Malays of all classes, and is altogether to be avoided.

In the plural _kamu_, ye, corresponds to _angkau_, you, in the singular;
that is to say, it is used by a superior addressing inferiors. It is
found in its contracted form _mu_ in literary composition, but seldom
colloquially; as _ka-tahu-i uleh-mu_, be it known unto ye.

_Kamu_ is sometimes used in the singular also.


THIRD PERSON SINGULAR.

_Dia_ or _iya_, he, she, it.

_Dia_ and _iya_ are used indifferently, but perhaps _dia_ is more common
in conversation and _iya_ in literature.

The plural is _dia orang_ (and sometimes, though less commonly, _iya
orang_), they.

Another form of the third person plural is _marika-itu_, they, these, or
those persons; but it is found in literary compositions only, and is not
used in conversation.

A pronoun of the third person only used in conjunction with other words
is _-nia_, a contraction of _inia_, he, she, it.

The indefinite form “one” (the French “on” and German “man”) is
expressed in Malay by _orang_; as _orang tiada bĕrani pergi sana_, one
dare not go there; _kalau orang handak kawin_, if one is about to marry.


POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS.

The possessive pronouns, _my_, _thy_, _his_, _our_, _your_, _their_, are
usually denoted by placing the personal pronoun after the word
expressing the object possessed; as _rumah sahaya_, my house; _pada
pikir-an hamba_, in my opinion; _apa pen-chari-an angkau?_ what is your
occupation? _apa nama dia?_ what is his name?

Possessive pronouns are also formed by the word _punya_ or _ampunya_
(lit. owning, owned) placed after the personal pronoun; as _aku punya_,
my or mine; _tuan punya suka_, as you please (your pleasure); _yang
ampunya tanah_, (he) whose land it is.

  _Singular._                   |  _Plural._
  My, mine, _sahaya punya_.     |  Ours, _kita punya_.
  Thy, thine, _angkau punya_.   |  Yours, _kamu punya_.
  His, hers, its, _dia punya_.  |  Theirs, _dia-orang punya_.

Frequently where the word “your” would be used in English Malays leave
out the pronoun altogether. “Bring your gun with you,” would be
correctly rendered in Malay, _bawa snapang sama_ (lit. bring gun
together), not _bawa angkau punya snapang sama angkau_.

In literary composition _ku_ and _mu_ (abbreviated forms of _aku_ and
_kamu_) are affixed to the noun denoting the thing possessed; as
_rumah-ku_, my house; _bapa-mu_, your father.

The affix _-nia_ is used in the sense of _his_, _hers_, or _its_, as
well as the other forms of the possessive pronoun; as _patah kaki-nia_,
his leg was broken; _bauh-nia terlalu wangi_, its smell is very sweet.


DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS.

  _Ini_, this, these.    _Itu_, that, those.

The demonstrative pronouns, like adjectives, follow the word to which
they belong; as _rumah ini_, this house; _hari ini_, this day, to-day;
_aku ini_, I myself; _sakarang ini_, this moment; _orang itu_, that man
or those men; _waktu itu_, that time; _iya itu_, that is to say. It is
not unusual to hear _ini_ and _itu_ placed before the noun, but this is
not idiomatic.


The INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS are

  _Siapa_, who?    _Apa_, what?    _Mana_, who? what?


EXAMPLES.

  _Apa mahu?_-- What do you want?
  _Rumah ini siapa?_-- Whose house is this?
  _Siapa panggil?_-- Who called?
  _Gajah mana ini?_-- What elephant is this?
  _Siapa akan tahu?_-- Who knows?


The RELATIVE PRONOUN is

_Yang_, who, which.


EXAMPLES.

  _Burong yang liyar_, a bird that is wild.
  _Raja yang adil_, a king who is just.
  _Ada yang tuah, ada yang muda_, some are old and some are young
    (lit. there are who are old, &c.).

The Menangkabau word is _nen_. This is often found in composition, but
is seldom used in the dialect spoken in the Straits of Malacca. Example:
_Patek nen fakir_-- I who am but a beggar.


REFLECTIVE PRONOUNS.

_Diri_, _sendiri_, or _kendiri_, self, are used with or without the
personal pronouns to signify myself, yourself, himself, ourselves, &c.

EXAMPLES.

  _Bunoh diri_, to kill oneself.
  _Meng-ajar diri_, to take oneself to task.
  _Hamba sendiri handak pergi_, I shall go myself.
  _Baik tuan sendiri suroh_, you had better order it yourself.
  _Kemdian turun-lah raja sendiri_, afterwards the king himself
    descended.
  _Dia lari masok hutan membawa diri-nia_, she escaped to the jungle
    with her life (lit. taking herself with her).
  _Biar-lah hamba sa-orang diri me-lawan dia_, let me fight him myself
    alone.


V. VERBS.

Verbs are either primitive or derivative; the former are those which in
their original signification are verbs; the latter are formed from
primitive verbs, or from substantives, adjectives, or adverbs, by the
application of particles.

Examples of primitive verbs are _pukul_, to strike; _makan_, to eat;
_lari_, to run; of derivative verbs, _ber-kaki_, to have feet, from
_kaki_, a foot; _panjang-kan_, to lengthen or make long, from _panjang_,
long.

The primitive verb, which is generally a dissyllable, is either
transitive, as _tangkap_, to seize, or intransitive, as _tidor_, to
sleep; but a transitive sense may be given to an intransitive verb by
the addition of the particle _-kan_, as _lari_, _me-lari_, to run;
_me-lari-kan_, to carry off.

Though the examples of primitive verbs given above are translated for
the sake of convenience by our infinitive, their signification is not
necessarily rendered by that mood. Favre translates them by the past
participle (as _ambil_, taken, _buang_, thrown[2]), but this is rather
fanciful than accurate. The fact is, that the meaning of the radical or
primitive is indefinite, and depends for its precise signification on
its position (with respect to other words) in the sentence, or on the
particles which may be added before or after it. Thus _lari_ means
simply run, though syntax will show that it may mean to run, I run, he
runs, run thou, &c., according to its position in the sentence.

    [Footnote 2: Grammaire de la Langue Malaise, 56.]

Marsden distinguishes the following moods--the imperative, the
indicative or assertive, the conditional, and the infinitive or
indefinite--“which admit, for the most part, of being expressed in the
present, the past, and the future tenses or times.”

It is not proposed, in an elementary work like the present, to go deeply
into a scientific arrangement, which, however well suited to the Latin
and Greek languages, is adapted with less propriety to uncultivated
languages like Malay. It is believed that an explanation of the use of
auxiliaries and particles, and a paradigm showing the most common
changes of which the verb is susceptible, will be sufficient, and that
the student may be left to gain further knowledge as to the mode of
expressing variations of mood and tense as he advances in the study of
the language.[3]

    [Footnote 3: “It is difficult to eradicate the belief that the
    forms in which we think are identical with the thought itself; and
    it is only linguistic science that enables us to see that many of
    the forms of grammar which we imagine necessary and universal are,
    after all, but accidental and restricted in use. The cases of
    Latin and Greek do not exist in the majority of languages; the
    Polynesian dialects have no true verbs; and the Esquimaux gets on
    well enough without ‘the parts of speech’ that figure so largely
    in our own grammars.” --_Sayce, Introduction to the Science of
    Language_, ii. 328.]


USE OF PARTICLES.

The inseparable affix _-kan_ always denotes a verb used in a
_transitive_ sense; as _men-jalan-kan_, to cause to walk. It is an
abbreviation of the preposition _akan_. Thus _buat-kan_ (to do) means to
do something _to_ (_akan_) something or somebody.

The inseparable affix _-i_ also denotes the transitive sense; as
_kras-i_, to oppress (from _kras_, hard); _halus-i_, to treat carefully
(from _halus_, fine, close).

The inseparable prefix _ber-_ (_bel-_, _be-_) is the mark of a verb
which expresses a state or condition of being; as _ber-jalan_, to walk,
or to be in the act of walking; _ber-wang_, to have money; _ber-misei_,
to wear moustaches; _ber-pukul_, to strike, _i.e._, to be in the act or
condition of striking (not to strike another, _transitive_, which would
be expressed by _pukul-_ or _me-mukul-kan_).

The inseparable prefix _me-_ (in all its various forms, _mem_, _meng_,
_men_, and _meny_) is the mark of a verb which expresses an action; as
_men-jalan-kan_, to cause to walk, _mem-buat_, to make; _menyakit-kan_,
to afflict (from _sakit_); _meng-ambil_, to take.

According as the primitive verb has a transitive or intransitive sense,
the derivative verbs formed from it will take _ber-_ or _me-_ as the
case may be. Thus from _adu_, to sleep, is formed _ber-adu_, not
_meng-adu_; while from _adu_, to complain, is formed _meng-adu_, not
_ber-adu_.

Often both particles may be used, and both transitive and intransitive
derivative verbs may be formed from the same primitive. Thus from
_taroh_, to put, are formed _menaroh_, to put (the act of a person who
puts), and _ber-taroh_, to bet (the condition of a person who stakes).
From _tidor_, to sleep, are formed _menidor-kan_, to put to sleep, and
_ber-tidor_, to be sleeping or lying down; and from _ajar_, instruct,
_meng-ajar_, to teach (impart instruction), and _bel-ajar_, to learn
(get instruction).

_Mem-bawa_, to bring, _mem-bunoh_, to kill, and _me-makan_, to eat, are
formed from _bawa_, _bunoh_, and _makan_ respectively, which, as they
express actions, not states, do not take the prefix _ber-_.
_Ber-gantong_ is to hang (intransitive), that is, to be in a state or
condition of hanging; _meng-gantong-kan_ is to hang (transitive), that
is, to perform the action of hanging something.

The particle _per-_ (Sansk. _pra_), a prefix used with transitive verbs,
does not seem always to effect a change in the sense. It is used more
generally in literature than in the colloquial dialects, and seems to be
introduced frequently for the sake of euphony only. The difference, for
instance, between _meng-himpun-kan_, to assemble, to collect persons
together, and _mem-per-himpun-kan_, to cause persons to collect
together, is not very marked. No general rule applicable to all
transitive verbs can be laid down for the use of this form with
_mem-per-_; practice and experience must form the only guide.


AUXILIARIES.

The auxiliary verbs and adverbs are--

  _Ada_, is, was, are, were.
  _Sudah_, was, did, has been.
  _Tĕlah_, was, did, has been.
  _Mahu_, will, shall, would, must.
  _Handak_, will, shall, would, must, is, was, or were about to.
  _Jadi_, is, was, become, became.


PARADIGMS.

_Tidor_, sleep.

  _Sahaya tidor_, I sleep, or I was sleeping.
  _Tidor-lah dia_, he was sleeping or slept.
  _Ber-tidor_, asleep, sleeping.
  _Sahaya sudah tidor_, I have slept.
  _Dia telah tidor_, he had slept.
  _Sahaya maku tidor_, I will sleep, or I want to sleep.
  _Sahaya handak tidor_, I shall sleep, or I am about to sleep.
  _Dia akan tidor_, he will sleep or is going to sleep.
  _Tidor-lah_, sleep thou.
  _Mahu-lak angkau tidor_, you must sleep.
  _Biar iya tidor_, let him sleep.
  _Handak-lah di-tidor-nia_, it must be slept by him, _i.e._, he
      intends to sleep.
  _Menidor-kan_ or _menidor-i_, to lay down (transitive).
  _Mem-per-tidor-kan_ or _mem-per-tidor-i_, to cause to sleep.
  _Penidor_, a soporific; that which causes to sleep.
  _Penidor-an_, act of causing to sleep.
  _Per-tidor-an_, that which belongs to sleep; a bed.
  _Ka-tidor-an_, the act of sleeping; there was sleeping on the part
      of ----.
  _Sa-ka-tidor-an_, the act of sleeping with another; there was
      sleeping with ----.
  _Si-tidor_, the sleeper.
  _Ter-tidor_, gone to sleep.


_Lari_, run.

  _Sahaya lari_, I run, or I was running.
  _Lari-lah dia_, he ran, or was running.
  _Ber-lari_, run, running.
  _Ber-lari-lari_, running about incessantly.
  _Sahaya sudah lari_, I have or had run.
  _Dia telah lari_, he had run.
  _Sahaya mahu lari_, I will run, or I want to run.
  _Sahaya handak lari_, I will run, or I am about to run.
  _Dia akan lari_, he will run.
  _Lari-lah_, run thou.
  _Mahu lah angkau lari_, you must run.
  _Biar iya lari_, let him run.
  _Handak-lah di lari-nia_, it must be run by him, _i.e._, he intends
    to run.
  _Me-lari-kan_, to carry off (transitive).
  _Lari-an_, a running, a course.
  _Ber-lari-an_, the act of running; there was running on the part
    of ----.
  _Ber-lari-lari-an_, incessant running; running to and fro; there was
    incessant running on the part of ----.
  _Ka-lari-an_, flight; act of running.
  _Pe-lari_, a runaway, a fugitive.
  _Pe-lari-an_, flight.
  _Di-lari-kan_ (passive), is, are, was, were, have, has, or had been
    run away with.
  _Di-lari-kan-nia_, is, are, was, were, have, has, or had been run
    away with by him, her, or them.
  _Ter-lari_, run, run away (past).
  _Bawa lari_, to carry off, run off with. (Here _lari_ is the past
    participle after _bawa_, to take, bring, and may be used with that
    verb in all its forms.)


_Ada_, be.

  _Sahaya ada_, I am or was.
  _Ber-ada_, have (possess.), has or had.
  _Meng-ada_, to cause to be, to make, invent.
  _Sudah ada_, have got, have been.
  _Telah ada_, was, have been.
  _Mahu ada_, must be.
  _Meng-ada-ngada_, to make or invent repeatedly.
  _Meng-ada kan_, to create, to cause to exist.
  _Ber-ada-kan_, possess, own.
  _Mem-per-ada-kan_, to produce, to cause to exist.
  _Ter-ada-kan_, produced, created.
  _Ada-an_, being, existence.
  _Ka-ada-an_, state, existence.


_Bawa_, bring.

  _Sahaya bawa_, I bring or was bringing.
  _Mem-bawa_, bring, to bring.
  _Sudah bawa_, has brought.
  _Telah bawa_, had brought.
  _Mahu bawa_, will or must bring.
  _Aku handak bawa_, I will bring, or am about to bring.
  _Bawa-lah_, bring thou.
  _Biar iya bawa_, let him bring.
  _Mem-bawa-kan_ or _mem-bawa-i_, to cause to be brought or taken.
  _Pem-bawa_, a bringer.
  _Bawa-an_, that which is brought; a burden.
  _Pem-bawa-an_, act of bringing, transport.
  _Di-bawa_ and _di-bawa-kan_, brought, passive.
  _Di-bawa-nia_ and _di-bawa-kan-nia_, is, are, was, were, have, has,
    or had been brought by him, her, or them.
  _Ter-bawa_, brought.


_Ambil_, take.

  _Sahaya ambil_, I take.
  _Meng ambil_, take, to take.
  _Sudah ambil_, has or had taken.
  _Telah ambil_, had taken.
  _Mahu ambil_, will or must take.
  _Handak ambil_, shall take or about to take.
  _Ambil-lah_, take thou.
  _Mahu-lah angkau ambil_, you must take.
  _Biar iya ambil_, let him take.
  _Handak-lah di ambil-nia_, he must take or intends to take.
  _Meng-ambil-kan_, to take or cause to take.
  _Ambil-an_, a thing taken.
  _Peng-ambil-an_, the act of taking.
  _Di-ambil_ or _di-ambil-kan_, is or was, &c., taken (passive).
  _Di-ambil-nia_ or _di-ambil-kan-nia_, is or was. &c., taken by him,
    her, or them.
  _Ter-ambil_, taken, having been taken.


_Suroh_, order.

  _Sehaya suroh_, I order.
  _Menyuroh_, order, to order.
  _Sudah suroh_, has ordered.
  _Telah suroh_, had ordered.
  _Mahu suroh_, will or must order.
  _Handak suroh_, shall order or about to order.
  _Suroh-lah_, order thou.
  _Mahu-lah angkau suroh_, you must order.
  _Biar iya suroh_, let him order.
  _Handak-lah di suroh-nia_, he must order or intends to order.
  _Menyuroh-kan_, to issue orders, to commission.
  _Pe-suroh_ and _penyuroh_, one who is commissioned; a messenger.
  _Penyuroh-an_, an order, command; the act of commanding.
  _Suroh-suroh-an_, people who are at the orders or command of another.
  _Suroh-menyuroh_, to issue orders incessantly.
  _Di-suroh_ or _di-suroh-kan_, is or was, &c., ordered.
  _Di-suroh-nia_ or _di-suroh-kan-nia_, is, or was, &c., ordered by
    him, her, or them.
  _Ter-suroh_, ordered, having been ordered.


The facts to be derived from a careful study of the foregoing examples
may be summarised as follows:--

1st. The tense of the verb standing alone is indefinite. It may be
present, imperfect, present or past, &c., according to the context; as
_dia ada_, he is; _tatkala sahaya ada di sana_, when I was there; _kalau
sahaya ada dĕkat_, if I am, should be, were, or had been near. This
applies equally to the forms created by prefixing _ber-_ and _me-_,
_mem-_, _men-_, _meng-_, _meny-_ to the radical. Examples: _kita
ber-jalan_, we _are_ or _were_ walking; _nanti sampei sahaya ber-balik_,
wait till I _shall have_ returned; _mati-mati ber-minyak_, if you
_should_ use oil; _raja meng-angkat kalmarin dahulu_, the raja _set_ out
the day before yesterday.

2d. The Imperfect may sometimes be expressed by making the verb,
followed by the particle _-lah_, precede the pronoun; as _diam-lah dia
orang_, they were silent; _maka pergi-lah raja kapada tuan putri_, and
the king went to the princess.

3d. _Past._-- Though the past may be expressed by the primitive verb, as
shown above, if the context shows that the act spoken of is past, it is,
nevertheless, more emphatically marked by the use of the auxiliaries
_sudah_ and _tĕlah_, has or had; as _dia sudah tidor_, he has gone to
sleep; _telah lari-lah pe-rompah sumua_, the pirates have (or had) all
run away.

4th. _Future._-- The verb standing alone may express the future when
there is something in the sentence which indicates that a future tense
is meant, such as the word “to-morrow” or “hereafter;” as _esok hari
kita ber-pĕrang pula_, to-morrow we shall be fighting again.

The future is also expressed by the auxiliaries _mahu_ and _handak_; as
_dia mahu jual_, he will sell it; _tiada mahu dia datang_, he would not
come; _kapal handak masok sungei_, a ship is about to enter the river;
_di-panggil-nia orang-besar-besar mushawarat handak di-buat meligei_, he
summoned the chiefs to consult about building a palace.

Another mode of forming the future is by the word _nanti_ (lit. wait),
placed, like the French verb _aller_, before the verb; as _sahaya nanti
chahari_, _je vais chercher_, I am going to seek, or _j’irai chercher_,
I shall go to seek.

The preposition _akan_, in order to, in order that, is sometimes used to
convey the sense of the future; as _penyakit itu tiada akan semboh_,
that disease is not to be cured; _siapa akan tahu?_ who shall know?
(= who can tell?); _jikalau raja yang anyaya naraka akan tampat-nia_, if
a king is unjust hell will be his place hereafter.

5th. _Imperative._-- To convey an order or command the radical is used
either by itself or with the affix _-lah_; _kamu_, thou, being either
expressed or understood. The particle adds additional emphasis to the
command. Examples: _pergi_, go; _pergi-lah_, be off, get away; _ka-luar_
or _ka-luar-lah_, go out; _ka-luar-kan-lah_, take (it) out, or turn
(him) out.

_Mahu_ and _handak_ with the affix _-lah_ signify must; as _mahu-lah
kamu turut_, ye must obey; _handak-lah ayam yang puteh_, there must be a
fowl that is white, or, the fowl must be a white one; _handak-lah segala
pegawei raja itu duduk dengan adab dan diam_, the king’s officers must
sit with reverence and in silence.

The third person of the imperative mood, which we express by “let him,”
may be rendered in Malay by the use of the word _biar_ or _biar-lah_,
with the verb in the manner shown by the following examples:-- _Biar-lah
dia masok_, let him come in; _biar-lah aku mati_, let me die.

6th. From many verbs are formed verbal nouns by prefixing the particle
_pe-_ (_peng_, _pem_, _pen_, _peny_) to the radical. This prefix
operates like the syllable _-er_ in such words as robber, purchaser,
teacher; as _churi_, to steal; _pen-churi_, a robber; _bĕli_, to buy;
_pem-bĕli_, a purchaser; _ajar_, to teach; _peng-ajar_, a teacher.
Substantives of this kind and others formed from the verb with the
particles _ka-_ and _-an_ have already been noticed under the head of
the Substantive. But the form arrived at by prefixing to the simple verb
the particle _ka-_ and annexing the particle _-an_ is not merely a noun,
but, as Marsden says, “a gerund in form as well as in sense, being in
fact a verbal noun infinitively applied in construction;” as,
_ka-dengar-an sampei Sayong_, it was to be heard as far as Sayong;
_tiada ka-tahu-an_, not to be understood; _mata-hari tiada ka-lihat-an
sebab ka-lindong-an-lah sayap-nia_, the sun was not to be seen by reason
of the shadowing of its wings.

7th. _Passive._-- In Malay the passive voice is denoted by the particle
_di-_ prefixed to the verb. The place of the nouns which express the
agent and subject respectively will be understood from the following
examples:--

  _Hamba di-pukul orang_, I was beaten by men.
  _Orang di-pukul hamba_, the men were beaten by me.
  _Rumah di-makan api_, the house was consumed by fire.
  _Api di-padam-kan orang_, the fire was extinguished by men.

Here the personal pronoun or other agent follows the verb and the
subject precedes it.

Sometimes the preposition “by” finds an equivalent in Malay, the word
_uleh_ being expressed instead of being understood (as in the preceding
sentences). Examples:--

  _Maka uleh baginda pun di-sambut dengan seperti ‘adat_, they were
    received by the king with the customary ceremony.
  _Di-titah-kan-lah uleh baginda_, it was commanded by the king.

The passive participle is formed by prefixing to the verb the
inseparable particle _ter-_; as _ter-pukul_, struck; _ter-tulis_,
written. When _ter-_ precedes _per-_, one of the particles drops its
final letter; as _te-per-sayang_, compassionated; _ter-pe-lanting_, sent
flying.

_Other forms of the Verb._-- In the preceding paradigms generally those
changes have been inserted which result from the application of
inseparable particles. But there are moods and tenses of the English
verb which are translatable in Malay, though they are not included above
because they involve the use of other words, which, though united to the
verb in construction, do not form part of it.

_Conditional or Potential._-- In expressing a conditional or potential
sense the verb undergoes no change, though following such conjunctions
as “if,” “provided that,” “in order that;” as _jika tuan datang_, if you
come; _kalau raja me-larang_, if the king should forbid; _dapat kami
ber-untong_, provided we are successful; _sapaya jangan hamba kĕna
rugi_, in order that I may not incur a loss; _agar sapaya anak-nia
menjadi ‘alim_, in order that his children may become learned.

_Optative._-- An optative sense is generally indicated by such words as
_apa-lah_, _apa-lah kira-nia_, prithee, expressions of entreaty, or
_garangan_, forsooth, conveying the notion of a doubt or query; as
_barang di-sampei-kan Allah apa-lah kira-nia_, may God in his goodness
cause it to arrive. But sometimes these are understood; as _di-bri Allah
kamarau sadikit_, may God grant a little fair weather.

_Participle Present._-- Continuity or existing duration of action is
often expressed by the use of such words as _lagi_, still more,
_sambil_, _seraya_, and _serla_, whilst at the same time the verb
remains unaltered in form; as _lagi datang_, coming; _lagi tidor_,
sleeping or still asleep; _ber-jalan sambil ber-sinnyum_, walked on
smiling; _meniambah serta meniapu ayer mata-nia_, made obeisance, at the
same time wiping away her tears.

_Tengah_, half, middle, is often used with the verb in a similar way; as
_dia tengah makan nasi_, he was in the act of eating his dinner.


VI. ADVERBS.

Adverbs in Malay are not distinguished by any prevailing termination
corresponding to the English _-ly_ or the French _-ment_. Many
adjectives and some prepositions are used adverbially.

The following are some of the most useful adverbs:--


ADVERBS OF TIME.

  _sakarang_, now.
  _tadi_, just now.
  _dahulu_, before, formerly.
  _sa’buntar_, presently.
  _bĕlum_, not yet.
  _pagi-pagi_, early.
  _esok_, _besok_, to-morrow.
  _kalmarin_,[4] yesterday.
  _tatkala_, _sa-katika_, when (_relative_).
  _kemdian_, afterwards.
  _pernah_, ever.
  _ta’pernah_, never.
  _sĕdang_, while.
  _kadang_, sometimes.
  _apa-bila_, _apa-kala_, _bila-mana_,  _bila_, when? (_interrogative_).
  _kalmarin dahulu_, the day before yesterday.
  _lusa_, the day after to-morrow.
  _tulat_, the third day from this.

    [Footnote 4: In Perak _kalmarin_ means “formerly.” _Pĕtang_ is
    “yesterday.”]


ADVERBS OF PLACE.

  _sini_, _ka-mari_, here.
  _situ_, _sana_, _nun_, there.
  _mana_, where, wherever (_rel._).
  _di-mana_, where? (_inter._).
  _hampir_, near, nearly.
  _luar_, outside.
  _dalam_, inside.
  _sabĕrang_, across.
  _jauh_, far.
  _atas_, above.
  _bawah_, below.
  _sabĕlah_, beside.
  _balik_, behind.
  _dĕkat_, near.


MISCELLANEOUS.

  _bagini_, like this.
  _bagitu_, like that.
  _bageimana_, how?
  _ya_, yes.
  _bukan_, no, not.
  _sahaja_, only.
  _makin_, so much the more.
  _naschaya_, certainly.
  _tidak_, no.
  _tentu_, certainly.

Adverbs expressing intensity will be found enumerated in Lesson 4.

Among the examples above given several are also prepositions, and will
be found under that heading.


VII. PREPOSITIONS.

The principal prepositions of place and motion are _di_, at, in, on;
_ka_, to, towards; _deri_, from. A great many so-called prepositions are
formed from these three compounded with certain other words, such as:--

  _di-atas_, on the top of.
  _ka-atas_, to the top of.
  _deri-atas_, from the top of.
  _di-dalam_, in the interior of.
  _ka-dalam_, to the interior of.
  _deri-dalam_, from the interior of.
  _di-bĕlakang_, at the back of.
  _ka-bĕlakang_, to the back of.
  _deri-bĕlakang_, from the back of.
  _di-sabĕrang_, on the farther side of.
  _ka-sabĕrang_, to the farther side of.
  _deri-sabĕrang_, from the farther side of.
  _di-bawah_, at the bottom of.
  _ka-bawah_, to the bottom of.
  _deri-bawah_, from the bottom of.
  _di-hadap-an_, in front of.
  _ka-hadap-an_, to the front of.
  _deri-hadap-an_, from the front of.
  _di-luar_, at the outside of.
  _ka-luar_, to the outside of.
  _deri-luar_, from the outside of.

These twenty-one words are used like prepositions, and are often
classified as such, but the true prepositions are the three initial
words.

_Atas_, _bawah_, _dalam_, _hadap-an_, _bĕlakang_, _luar_, and _sabĕrang_
here are really substantives governed by the prepositions _di_, _ka_,
and _deri_. Some of these words aptly illustrate the difficulty of
classifying Malay words according to the parts of speech usually
recognised by grammarians. _Dalam_, for instance, has already been
classified in the preceding section as an adverb. It is also
substantive, adjective, and preposition.

  _Dalam_ (subs.), interior, depth; as _penghulu dalam_, the guardian
    of the interior (inner apartments); _dalam-nia tiga depa_, its
    depth is three fathoms.
  _Dalam_ (adj.), deep; as _ter-lalu dalam sungei ini_, this river is
    very deep.
  _Dalam_ (adv.), inside; as _ada orang dalam_, there are people inside.
  _Dalam_ (prep.), in; as _kain yang dalam gĕdong itu_, cloth in that
    warehouse.

In Malay a substantive in the possessive case immediately follows the
substantive denoting the possessor (_supra_, p. 47). In the sentences
_bĕlakang gunong_, the back of the mountain; _hadap-an raja_, the
presence of the king; _sabĕrang sungei_, the farther side of the river,
all the words are substantives, _gunong_, _raja_, and _sungei_ being in
the possessive case.

Now let the prepositions _di_, _ka_, and _deri_ be added to these
sentences.

_Di-bĕlakang gunong_, at the back of the mountain, may be more shortly
translated _behind_ the mountain; so _ka-hadap-an raja_ may be rendered
_before_ the king, and _deri-sabĕrang sungei_ _from beyond_ the river.

Here, though the purport of the Malay phrases _di-bĕlakang_,
_ka-hadap-an_, and _deri-sabĕrang_ are correctly rendered by English
prepositions, only the first portion of each phrase is a Malay
preposition.

Of the remaining prepositions the following are the chief:--

  _pada_, _kapada_, at, to, on, towards.
  _deri-pada_, from, than.
  _akan_, to, for, as to, as for.
  _uleh_, by.
  _atas_, on, upon.
  _datang_, }
  _sampei_, } until, as far as.
  _hingga_, }
  _antara_, between.
  _samantara_, until.
  _ganti_, instead of.
  _balik_, behind.
  _serta_, with.
  _sama_, with, to.
  _dengan_, with.
  _dalam_, in, into.
  _lĕpas_, after.
  _karana_, }
  _krana_,  } on account of.
  _sebab_,  }
  _sa-kadar_, according to.
  _demei_, by.
  _dĕkat_, near.
  _tentang_, concerning, opposite.
  _bagi_, to.
  _trus_, through.


VIII. CONJUNCTIONS.

The following list includes the most useful of the conjunctions in
Malay:--

  _dan_, and.
  _kalau_,   }
  _jika_,    } if.
  _jikalau_, }
  _antah_, } perhaps.
  _kunun_, }
  _sapaya_, in order that.
  _pula_, also, again.
  _sambil_, } whilst.
  _selang_, }
  _seraya_, at the same time.
  _tambah-an_, furthermore.
  _karana_,   } because.
  _sĕbab_, }
  _serta_, and, also.
  _asal-kan_, provided that.
  _atau_, or.
  _tĕtapi_, but.
  _me-lain-kan_, except.
  _hania_, but, except.
  _yang_, that.
  _kĕlak_, forsooth.
  _juga_, _jua_, also.
  _sahaja_, only.
  _lagi_, again, even.
  _lagi pula_, again, too.
  _lagi pun_, besides, also.
  _saperti_, as, like.
  _laksana_, } like.
  _bagei_,   }
  _iya-itu_, that is to say.
  _lamun-kan_, although.

There are also a number of conjunctions which are met with almost
exclusively in the written language, and which it would be pedantic to
use in conversation. Of such are:--

  _maka_, _bahwa_, _ḥata_, _shahadan_, seldom necessary to the sense,
    and not always requiring translation. They answer in some degree
    to such words as “now,” “next,” “but,” “then,” “again,” “so.”
  _sa-ber-mula_, first, now.
  _sa-bagei-lagi_, further, again.
  _arkian_, now, then.
  _agar_, in order that.
  _y‘ani_, that is to say.
  _wab‘adahu_,[5] and then, afterwards.
  _walakin_ (Arab. _wa_, and _lakin_, but), but, though, nevertheless.

    [Footnote 5: Arabic _wa_, and, _b‘adahu_, afterwards--often used
    by a pleonasm with _kemdian_, afterwards; _wab‘adahu kemdian
    deri-pada itu_, and after that.]


IX. INTERJECTIONS.

The interjections in most common use are:--

  _hei!_ O! _ya!_ O! (Arabic).
  _aho!_ O! (Sansk.).
  _aduh!_ _aduhi!_ oh! alas! (pain, lamentation).
  _niah!_ _niah-lah!_ be off! begone!
  _ai!_ _wah!_ oh! alas! (astonishment or affliction).
  _ayo!_ _ayohi!_ ah! (affection).
  _cheh!_ fie!
  _wayi!_ alas!
  _demei Allah!_ by God!
  _nah!_ there! take it!
  _jum!_[6] forwards!

    [Footnote 6: This is a Kedah word. _Mah!_ is used in the same
    sense in Perak.]

Many other words are used like interjections; such as _kasi-han_ (lit.
affection), what a pity! _sayang_ (lit. concern), ’tis pity! alas!
_karam_ (lit. wrecked), woe to thee! _me-rachun_ (may I be poisoned),
no! (emphatic denial), &c., &c.

A number of Arabic expressions common to all Muhammadans in all parts of
the world are used by Malays, such as _In sháa-lláh_, if it be the will
of God; _Alláhu a‘alam_, God is all-knowing; _Astaghfir alláh_, I beg
forgiveness of God; _Wa-llahi_ and _Wa-llah_, by God! _Yá rabb_, O Lord!
_Bi-smi-llah_, in the name of God! _El-ḥamdu li-llah_, praise be to God!
_Alláhu akbar_, God is most great.


X. NUMERALS.

The numerals in Malay are exceedingly simple. The first ten are:--

  1. _sa_, _satu_, _suatu_, one.
  2. _dua_, two.
  3. _tiga_, three.
  4. _ampat_, four.
  5. _lima_, five.
  6. _anam_, six.
  7. _tujoh_, seven.
  8. _dĕlapan_, eight.
  9. _sambilan_, nine.
  10. _sapuloh_, ten.

From eleven to nineteen inclusive the numerals are formed from the
digits with the termination _bĕlas_:--

  11. _sa-bĕlas_, eleven.
  12. _dua-bĕlas_, twelve.
  13. _tiga-bĕlas_, thirteen.
  14. _ampat-bĕlas_, fourteen.
  15. _lima-bĕlas_, fifteen.
  16. _anam-bĕlas_, sixteen.
  17. _tujoh-bĕlas_, seventeen.
  18. _dĕlapan-bĕlas_, eighteen.
  19. _sambilan-bĕlas_, nineteen.
  20. _dua-puloh_, twenty.

Multiples of ten up to ninety inclusive have the termination _puloh_,
ten:--

  20. _dua-puloh_, twenty.
  30. _tiga-puloh_, thirty.
  40. _ampat-puloh_, forty.
  50. _lima-puloh_, fifty.
  60. _anam-puloh_, sixty.
  70. _tujoh-puloh_, seventy.
  80. _dĕlapan-puloh_, eighty.
  90. _sambilan-puloh_, ninety.

The intermediate numbers are formed simply by adding the units; as--

  21. _dua-puloh-satu_, twenty-one.
  32. _tiga-puloh-dua_, thirty-two.
  43. _ampat-puloh-tiga_, forty-three.
  54. _lima-puloh-ampat_, fifty-four.
  65. _anam-puloh-lima_, sixty-five.
  76. _tujoh-puloh-anam_, seventy-six.
  87. _dĕlapan-puloh-tujoh_, eighty-seven.
  98. _sambilan-puloh-dĕlapan_, ninety-eight.

Above a hundred the numbers proceed with equal regularity:--

  100. _sa-ratus_, one hundred.
  200. _dua-ratus_, two hundred.
  300. _tiga-ratus_, three hundred.
  400. _ampat-ratus_, four hundred.
  1000. _sa-ribu_, one thousand.
  2000. _dua-ribu_, two thousand.
  3000. _tiga-ribu_, three thousand.
  4000. _ampat-ribu_, four thousand.

Any sum, however great, may be expressed by the numerals in
juxtaposition without the insertion of a conjunction; as,
_sa-ribu-dĕlapan-ratus-tujoh-puloh-sambilan_, one thousand eight hundred
(and) seventy nine, 1879.

Certain terms for high numbers have been borrowed from the Sanskrit
language and misapplied in adoption, namely, _laḳsa_ (Sansk. _laksha_,
100,000), _keti_ (Sansk. _koṭi_, 10,000,000), and _juta_ (Sansk.
_ayuta_, 10,000).

The numbers represented by these words in Malay are _sa-laḳsa_, ten
thousand; _sa-keti_, one hundred thousand; _sa-juta_, one million.

In reckoning the numbers from 20 to 30, _lekor_, a score, is sometimes
used instead of _dua-puloh_ (especially in mentioning dates), but in
that case the unit precedes instead of following the decimal; as
_sa-lekor_, twenty-one; _dua-lekor_, twenty-two; _tiga-lekor_,
twenty-three, &c.

To express a quantity which approaches what we call a round number, it
is sometimes convenient to state the latter qualified by the figure in
which it is deficient, as is done in the old-fashioned phrase “forty
stripes save one.” Thus, instead of _sambilan-puloh-dĕlapan_,
ninety-eight, the phrase _korang dua sa-ratus_, one hundred save two,
may be used.

The use of the word _tengah_, half, before a numeral serves in the same
way to reduce it by half of one. Thus, _tengah dua_ signifies “one and a
half,” or “two, less half a one,” as if the full phrase were _korang
sa-tengah dua_; so _tengah tiga-puloh_, twenty-five (lit. “three tens
save half”); _tengah lima ratus_, four hundred and fifty (lit. “five
hundreds save half”).


ORDINAL NUMBERS.

  _pertama_ (Sansk. _prathama_), first.
  _ka-dua_, second.
  _ka-tiga_, third.
  _ka-sa-bĕlas_, eleventh.
  _ka-dua-puloh_, twentieth.
  _ka-sa-ratus_, hundredth.

The word _yang_ placed before ordinals corresponds to the definite
article in English; as _yang pertama_, the first; _yang ka-dua_, the
second; _yang ka-sa-ribu_, the thousandth.


FRACTIONAL NUMBERS.

_Tengah_, _sa-tengah_, half; _suku_, _sa-suku_, quarter; _sa-per-dua_,
one-half; _sa-per-tiga_, one-third; _dua-per-tiga_, two-thirds;
_tiga-per-ampat_, three-fourths. Similar fractions may be formed with
other numbers by placing the particle _per_ between the dividend and the
divisor.


COLLECTIVE NUMBERS.

Phrases like “a score,” “a dozen,” “a couple,” are formed in Malay by
the use of the particle _ber_ with the numeral; as--

  _ber-dua_, the two, or the pair.
  _ber-tiga_, the three.
  _ber-puloh-puloh_, by tens.
  _be-ratus-ratus_, by hundreds.
  _be-ribu-ribu_, by thousands.

The word _ganda_, which in Hindustani is a collective numeral meaning “a
four,” is used in Malay in conjunction with numerals in a sense
corresponding to the English word “times;” as _dua-ganda_, double,
twice; _tiga-ganda_, triple, three times.


NUMERAL CO-EFFICIENTS.

In Malay, as in Burmese, Siamese, and Chinese, “there exists a set of
specific and technical terms, called by the grammarians _numeral
affixes_, some one or other of which is always used as a co-efficient to
the numeral, the term being selected according to the class under which
the object falls.”[7] The use of these terms will be best understood by
comparing it with the analogous use in English of such phrases as so
many _head_ of cattle; so many _file_ of soldiers; so many _sail_ of
ships; so many _stand_ of rifles.

    [Footnote 7: Col. Yule, Journ. Anthropol. Inst. Feb. 1880. This
    peculiarity in the Indo-Chinese languages has attracted much
    attention among ethnologists. See Peschel, Races of Man, 117;
    Tylor, Early History of Mankind, 208; Bunsen’s Universal History,
    i. 409.]

1. _Orang_ (person or persons) is introduced in the enumeration of
mankind; as _China tiga orang, Malayu sa’orang_, three Chinese and a
Malay; _budak dua orang_, two children.

2. _Ekor_ (tail) is employed in speaking of animals; as _sa-ekor
kuching_, a cat; _kuda bĕlang dua ekor_, two piebald horses; _ikan
kechil-kechil barang lima anam ekor_, about five or six small fish.

3. _Buah_ (fruit) is applied to fruit, houses, ships, places, &c.; as
_sa-buah rumah_, a house; _sa-buah nĕgri_, a town or kingdom; _lima buah
kapal_, five ships.

4. _Biji_ (seed) is applied to small objects more or less round; as
_buah manggis lima-puloh biji_, fifty mangostins; _ampat biji telor_,
four eggs; _nior muda sa-biji_, one green cocoa-nut.

5. _Halei_ or _lei_, to tenuous objects, such as hair, feathers, leaves,
wearing apparel, &c.; as _bulu sa-lei_, a feather; _kain Palembang
sa-puloh halei_, ten Palembang sarongs.

6. _Batang_ (stem), to long objects; as _lembing dua batang_, two
spears; _tiang ampat batang_, four posts.

7. _Puchuk_ (young shoot), to letters, muskets, cannon, elephants’
tusks, &c.; as _tiga puchuk surat_, three letters; _sa-puchuk gading_,
one tusk: _snapang lima puchuk_, five muskets.

8. _Keping_ (piece, slice), to pieces of wood, metal, &c.; as _papan
sa-keping_, a plank; _timah tiga-puloh keping_, thirty slabs of tin.

9. _Tangga_ (ladder) and _pintu_ (door), to houses; as _rumah dua
tangga_, two houses; _rumah batu anam pintu_, six brick houses.

10. _Lapis_ (fold), to clothing; as _kapan sa-lapis_, a shroud.

11. _Rawan_, to nets and cordage; as _pukut sa-rawan_, a seine net;
_jala dua rawan_, two casting nets.

12. _Bilah_, to cutting weapons; as _kris sa-bilah_, one kris; _pĕdang
lima bilah_, five swords.

13. _Buntoh_, to rings, fish-hooks, &c.; as _kail sa-buntoh_, a
fish-hook; _chinchin tiga buntoh_, three rings.

14. _Bidang_, to things spread out; as _destar sa-bidang_, one
head-cloth.

15. _Butir_, to fruit, seeds, and other small round objects; as _nior
sa-butir_, a cocoa-nut; _mutiara sa-butir_, a pearl.

There are many other similar idiomatic terms, examples of which will be
given in the more advanced lessons farther on.


XI. PARTICLES.

Most of the particles have been noticed in speaking of the verb, but
there are three or four which require special mention.

_Lah_ is affixed to words of all kinds, sometimes merely for the sake of
euphony, but more frequently as a particle of intensity.

In the sentence _ada-lah kapada suatu hari_, it happened on a certain
day, _lah_ is simply expletive; but in the sentence _dia-lah yang buat_,
it was _he_ who did it, the particle serves to emphasise the word _dia_.
The latter use of the particle _lah_ is exemplified by its frequent
employment to emphasise a command; as _mari-lah_, come; _pergi-lah_, go.

_Kah_ is the interrogative particle. When affixed to words it is the
sign of a question or a doubt; as _itu-kah atau lain-kah?_ is it that or
another? _Antah sunggoh-kah atau tidak_, it is doubtful whether it be
true or not.

_Tah_ is also an interrogative particle, but of less general use than
_kah_. _Apa-tah?_ what else? is a common phrase indicating assent.

_Pun_ is annexed to all kinds of words, sometimes merely to give
roundness to a phrase, sometimes with the sense of “too,” or “also”
(where the sentence is affirmative), or “nor,” “neither” (where it is
negative); as _maka iya-pun datang_, then he came; _aku pun mahu_, I too
want it; _siyang pun tidak malam pun tidak_, it was neither day nor
night.



PART II.

COMPOSITION OF SENTENCES.


Owing to the absence of inflexion, the composition of simple sentences
in Malay offers few difficulties. The phrases and exercises which will
be given in this Part are simple and elementary, serving thus as a
preparation for others of progressive difficulty to be reached at a
later stage.



LESSON I.


SUBSTANTIVES.

  person (man, woman, or child), _orang_.
  man, _laki-laki_.
  woman, _per-ampu-an_.
  child, _anak_.
  house, _rumah_.
  water, _ayer_.
  fire, _api_.
  wind, _angin_.
  wood, _kayu_.
  carriage, _kreta_.
  horse, _kuda_.
  ship, _kapal_.
  steamer, _kapal-api_.
  boat, _sampan_.
  cow, ox, _lumbu_.
  dog, _anjing_.
  bird, _burong_.
  snake, _ular_.
  fish, _ikan_.
  sun, _mata-hari_.
  moon, _bulan_.
  star, _bintang_.
  sea, _laut_.
  river, _sungei_.
  cloth, _kain_.


ADJECTIVES.

  good, _baik_.
  new, _băharu_.
  naughty, wicked, _jahat_.
  beautiful, _bagus_.
  pretty, _chantek_.
  wise, _pandei_.
  stupid, _bodoh_.
  large, _bĕsar_.
  small, _kĕchil_.
  deep, _dalam_.
  swift, _laju_.
  high, _tinggi_.
  round, _bulat_.
  old, _tuah_.
  young, _muda_.
  cold, _sĕjuk_.
  hot, _panas_.
  far, _jauh_.
  near, _dĕkat_.
  coarse, _kasar_.
  fine, _halus_.


ADVERBS.

  very, _baniak_.
  exceedingly, _sangat_.

Before showing how sentences may be constructed with these words by
means of the verb _ada_, and with the aid of the personal pronouns, two
of the hints already given are here repeated:--

1. Adjectives follow their substantives.

2. The verb _ada_ is frequently omitted and left to be understood.


EXAMPLES.

  A bad man--
    _Orang jahat._
  A pretty woman--
    _Perampuan chantek._
  A high house--
    _Rumah tinggi._
  A high wind--
    _Angin bĕsar._
  Cold water--
    _Ayer sĕjuk._
  This is my child--
    _Ini anak sahaya_ (not, _Ini ada sahaya punya anak_).
  That bullock-cart is mine--
    _Kreta lumbu itu sahaya punya._
  That pony-carriage is swift--
    _Kreta kuda itu ada laju._
  That person has a dog--
    _Orang itu ada sa’ekor anjing._
  That woman’s cloth is very fine--
    _Kain perampuan itu halus sangat._
  This man has one son and two daughters--
    _Orang ini ada anak laki-laki sa’orang dan anak perampuan dua
      orang._
  The steamer is near--
    _Kapal-api ada dĕkat._
  His child is very naughty--
    _Anak dia baniak jahat._
  They have a boat--
    _Dia orang ada sa’buah sampan._
  There are men and women--
    _Ada orang laki-laki dan perampuan._
  The old man has a piece of coarse cloth--
    _Orang tuah itu ada kain kasar sa’lei._


EXERCISE.

I am a good man. His child is very wise. The moon is round. They have a
beautiful horse. My boat is very large. The sea is very deep. The sun
and stars are very far off. This person has a vicious dog. That man’s
daughter is beautiful. This river is very swift. A small snake. This ox
is very old. That person’s boat is small. There are fish. There is a
bird. The water of the river is warm. There are stupid people and there
are wise people. His ship is very far off.



LESSON II.


ON THE SECOND PERSON.

The use of the word _angkau_ and similar pronouns is to be avoided as
much as possible. When the pronoun of the second person cannot be
understood but must be expressed, _angkau_, or the local or provincial
word used in substitution for it (according to the part of the
Archipelago in which the speaker finds himself), may be employed. In
addressing natives of rank or of superior position, the appropriate
forms should be used. The word _lu_ should never be used to a Malay; it
is, however, in common use among those Chinese who use Malay as a medium
of communication with other nationalities. On the subject of the second
person see _supra_, p. 49.


SUBSTANTIVES.

  animal, _bĕnatang_.
  father (common form), _bapa_.
  father (polite form), _ayah_, _ayahnda_.
  mother (common form), _mak_, _ibu_.
  mother (polite form), _bonda_.
  elder brother, _abang_.
  elder sister, _kakak_.
  younger brother or sister, _adek_.
  boy or girl, _budak_.
  brother or sister, _sudara_.
  husband, _laki_.
  wife, _bini_.
  forest, _hutan_.
  tree, _pokok_.
  plain, _padang_.
  shop, _kĕdei_.
  fruit, _buah_.
  sky, _langit_.
  ground, _tanah_.
  dollar, _ringgit_.
  road, _jalan_.
  age, _‘umur_.


ADJECTIVES.

  long, _panjang_.
  short, _pendek_, _pandah_.
  sweet, _manis_.
  wet, _basah_.
  dry, _kĕring_.
  many, _baniak_.
  rich, _kaya_.
  poor, _miskin_.
  strong, _kuat_.
  hard, _kĕras_.
  soft, _lumbut_.
  few, _sadikit_.


VERBS.

  to say, _kata_.
  to go, _pergi_.
  to run, _lari_.
  to talk, _chakap_.
  to tell, _bilang_.
  to arrive, _sampei_.
  to sit, _duduk_.
  to dwell, _tinggal_.
  to send, _kirim_.
  to bring, _bawa_.


EXAMPLES.

_To a Raja._

  Your house is very large--
    _Rumah tunku baniak besar._
  Your father is very old--
    _Ayahnda tunku tuah sangat._
  This is your horse--
    _Ini tunku punya kuda._

_To a respectable Chinese._

  There is a quantity of cloth in your shop--
    _Ada baniak kain-kain didalam baba punya kĕdei._
  When did you arrive?--
    _Towkay bila sampei?_
  Your elder brother is very rich--
    _Towkay punya abang baniak kaya._
  Your carriage and mine are alike--
    _Kreta baba dengan kreta sahaya ada sama._

_To a Malay Headman._

  There are a number of people in your house--
    _Ada baniak orang di-dalam rumah datoh._
  Your son is very strong--
    _Anak datoh, baniak kuat._
  Where do you live?--
    _Datoh di-mana tinggal?_

_To a Malay of superior rank._

  What do you say to it?--
    _Apa kata inche?_
  Who told it to you?--
    _Siapa bilang kapada inche?_
  Your elder sister has a great many fruit-trees--
    _Inche punya kakak ada baniak pokok buah._

_To a Sayyid or Haji._

  Where are you going to?--
    _Tuan handak pergi ka-mana?_
  What is your age?--
    _Bĕr-apa ‘umur tuan?_
  I wish to talk a little with you--
    _Sahaya handak chakap sadikit dengan tuan._

_To Persons of inferior rank._

  Who are you?--
    _Siapa kamu?_
  Is this yours?--
    _Angkau punya-kah ini?_
  Where is your house?--
    _Di-mana rumah angkau?_
  Bring your hat--
    _Bawa topi sĕndiri._
  Where do you live?--
    _Di-mana tinggal?_
  Have you got a light?--
    _Ada api?_
  Why are you so late?--
    _Apa buat lambat ini?_
  When you were at the shop just now, who was there?--
    _Apabila angkau di kĕdei tadi siapa ada di-situ?_


EXERCISE.

Where is your shop? Is this your mother? You and your brother were
running. You are very stupid. Have you told your elder sister? Your son
has arrived. Was it you who sent fruit? What did you say to him? When
will you go? You will bring a boat. You went to the jungle.



LESSON III.


SUBSTANTIVES.

  news, _khabar_.
  workman, _tukang_.
  cat, _kuching_.
  rat, _tikus_.
  sugar, _gula_.
  needle, _jarum_.
  form, _rupa_.
  elephant, _gajah_.


ADJECTIVES.

  excellent, _endah_.
  careful, _jimat_.
  worthless, _burok_.
  difficult, _susah_.


VERBS.

  To do, make, _buat_.
  To seek, _chăhari_.
  To conceal, _sembunyi_.
  To find, obtain, _dapat_.


ON THE DEGREES OF COMPARISON.

One form of the comparative degree is similar in construction to the
Hindustani comparative, that is to say, the object with which the
comparison is made is put in the ablative case (by the use of the
preposition _deri_ or _deri-pada_), while the adjective remains
unmodified by adverb or particle. Thus the phrase “This house is larger
than that,” may be rendered _Besar rumah ini deri rumah itu_ (_Yih ghar
us ghar se baṛā hai_).


EXAMPLES.

  The rumour is better than the reality--
    _Endah khabar deri rupa._
  The Chinese workman is more skilful than the Kling--
    _Pandei tukang China deri tukang Kling._
  The cat is larger than the mouse--
    _Besar kuching deri tikus._
  This is better than that--
    _Baik ini deri-pada itu._
  (_Note that the adjective always precedes the objects compared._)

The comparative degree is also formed by the use of the adverb _lebeh_
or _ter-lebeh_, more, prefixed to the adjective, which is followed by
the preposition _deri_ or _deri-pada_.

  Hotter than before--
    _Lebeh panas deri dahulu._
  Sweeter than honey--
    _Lebeh manis deri gula._
  It is better to go than to remain--
    _Ter-lebeh baik pergi deri-pada tinggal._

The adverb _lagi_, more, is sometimes used instead of _lebeh_.

  You must make it larger--
    _Mahu buat besar lagi._
  This is better--
    _Ini lagi baik._

Another form of comparison is constructed with the adverb _korang_,
less, prefixed to the adjective; as _korang baik_, not very good;
_korang biasa_, inexperienced (lit. less accustomed).

The superlative degree is formed in several ways: First, by making a
comparison of universal application; as--

  This is the best (lit. this is better than all)--
    _Baik ini deri sumua._
  The finest needle of all--
    _Jarum yang lebeh halus deri-pada sumua-nia._
  The hardest of all to obtain--
    _Yang ter-lebeh susah men-dapat deri-pada sumua-nia._

Secondly, by the use of the adverb _sakali_, very, exceedingly, after
the adjective when the latter is preceded by the relative pronoun
_yang_; as--

  The best--
    _Yang baik sakali._
  The worst--
    _Yang burok sakali._
  Such-a-one was the handsomest--
    _Yang elok sakali si-anu._

Thirdly, by duplication of the adjective, which then takes the particle
_sa_ before it; as--

  The quickest pace of an elephant is the slowest walk of a man--
    _Sa-chepat-chepat jalan-an gajah, sa-lambat-lambat jalan an orang._
  The very least--
    _Sa-korang-korang._
  Utterly and completely guilty--
    _Sa-penoh-penoh salah._
  The most just king--
    _Sa-adil-adil raja._
  With the greatest care--
    _Dengan sa-habis-habis jimat._
  You must look out for the very best article--
    _Handak chăhari yang sa-baik-baik-nia._
  He hides it with the greatest pains--
    _Di-sembunyi-kan-nia dengan sa-buleh-buleh-nia._


EXERCISE.

My horse is better than your horse. These people are more stupid than
those. The form of the horse is handsomer than that of the elephant. The
men are more wicked than the women. The pace of the horse is swifter
than that of the elephant. That woman is the handsomest, but this one is
the wisest. His house is the worst of all. Bring the slowest elephant of
all. The father is wiser than the child. It is better to bring the ox
than the horse.



LESSON IV.

ON INTENSIVES.


SUBSTANTIVES.

  reception-hall, _balei_.
  room, _bilek_.
  stairs, _tangga_.
  a play, _per-main-an_.
  conduct, _ka-laku-an_.
  body, _tuboh_.
  head, _kapala_.
  year, _tahun_.
  month, _bulan_.
  price, _harga_.
  country, _nĕgri_.
  queen, _permeisuri_.
  king, _raja_.
  minister, _mantri_.
  patience, _sabar_.


ADJECTIVES.

  ill, painful, _sakit_.
  cheap, _morah_.
  dear, _mahal_.
  wide, _luas_.
  astonished, _heiran_.
  thin, _kurus_.
  fat, _gumok_.
  illustrious, _mulia_.
  narrow, _simpit_.
  glad, _suka_.


VERBS.

  to see, _lihat_.
  to demand, _minta_.
  to be able, _buleh_.
  to hear, _dengar_.
  to play, _main_.
  to look, _tengok_.
  to enter, _masok_
  to order, _suroh_.


_On Intensives._-- To express an intensive degree the particle _ter_ is
prefixed to adjectives and adverbs; as _ter-bĕsar_, very large;
_ter-kuasa_, very powerful; _ter-lebeh_, most; _ter-lalu_, excessively;
_ter-lampau_, surpassing; _ter-amat_, most exceedingly.

The adjective may also be intensified by duplication; as _ikan yang
besar-besar_, great big fish; _burong kechil-kechil_, very small birds;
_nĕgri jauh-jauh_, far-distant lands; _dia harti baik-baik_, he
understands very well.

The following adverbs are of frequent use in heightening the sense of
words:--

  _baniak_, very.
  _amat_, exceedingly.
  _sangat_, very.
  _sakali_, quite, most.
  _ter-lebeh_, most.
  _ter-lalu_, excessively.
  _ter-langsong_, } surpassingly.
  _ter-lampau_,   }
  _ter-amat_, most exceedingly.

All of these precede the positive except _sakali_, which invariably
follows it. _Amat_ and _sangat_ are also sometimes placed after the
adjective which they qualify.

It is common to use more than one of these words with the same
adjective, just as we say “the very most.”


EXAMPLES.

  There were a very great number of people in the reception-hall--
    _Di balei itu ter-amat-lah baniak orang._
  His body was very thin--
    _Tuboh-nia sangat kurus._
  The performance was exceedingly pretty--
    _Sangat-lah chantek itu per-main-an._
  He was immensely astonished at seeing it--
    _Dia ter-lalu heiran me-lihat-kan._
  This year all fruit is very plentiful and cheap--
    _Tahun ini sagala buah-buah sangat-lah baniak dan morah harga-nia._
  You must be exceedingly patient--
    _Handak-lah dengan sabar sangat._
  Very stupid in appearance--
    _Ter-lalu bodoh rupa-nia._
  The road is very bad--
    _Jalan itu burok sakali._
  Most exceedingly painful--
    _Yang ter-lebeh sangat sakit._
  It was a very large country--
    _Ter-lalu amat besar negri itu._
  His conduct was too bad--
    _Ter-lampau jahat ka-laku-an-nia._

The adjective _maha_, great, is similarly used; as _maha besar_, very
great; _maha mulia_, most illustrious; _maha kuasa_, all-powerful.


EXERCISE.

He demanded a very high price. He is very ill. Your father was
exceedingly wise. It is a very large river. I am very frightened. The
water is very deep. Those Chinese are very wicked. The most illustrious
and most mighty queen. The old man’s cow is very thin. I was much
surprised at hearing it. He brought some very big horses. Some very
large ships have arrived. This month fish is very cheap. The room is
very wide. The river was much too narrow, the ship could not enter. I
have a very bad headache.



LESSON V.


INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES.

In asking a question, the tone of the voice sometimes marks the
interrogation sufficiently.

Sometimes the interrogation is marked by the use of the particle _-kah_
affixed to the emphatic word of the sentence.

Sometimes the interrogative form of a sentence is shown by the use of
such words as--

  _apa_, what?
  _siapa_, who?
  _ka-mana_, where?
  _bĕr-apa_, how many?
  _mana_, who, which, how?
  _bagei-mana_, how?
  _apa sebab_, or }
  _apa buat_, or  } why?
  _mengapa_       }

SUBSTANTIVES.

  time, _kali_.
  rain, _hujan_.
  market, _pasar_.
  stone, _batu_.
  use, _guna_.
  iron, _besi_.
  steel, _baja_.
  tin, _timah_.
  lead, _timah hitam_.
  copper, _tambaga_.
  box, _pĕti_.
  kind, sort, _macham_.
  tobacco, _tambakau_.
  coffee, _kahwah_.
  tea, _teh_, _cha_.
  tea (dry), _daun teh_.
  tea (liquid), _ayer teh_.
  money, _wang_.
  jacket, _baju_.
  trousers, _saluar_.


EXAMPLES.

  What is the matter?--
    _Apa korang?_
  What is to be done? (_i.e._, there is nothing to be done)--
    _Apa bulik buat?_
  What is the use?--
    _Apa guna?_
  Whence do you come?--
    _Deri-mana datang kamu?_
  Where are you going?--
    _Handak pergi ka-mana?_
  Why did you not tell me sooner?--
    _Apa buat ta’bilang dahulu?_
  What do you say?--
    _Apa kata kamu?_
  Why do ye run?--
    _Mengapa kumu orang lari?_
  Where did you get that?--
    _Di-mana-kah angkau dapat itu?_
  Which tree shall I cut down?--
    _Pokoh mana handak tebang?_
  How many days ago?--
    _Bĕrapa hari sudah?_
  When was he at the market?--
    _Bila-mana dia di pasar?_
  Whose house is this?--
    _Rumah ini siapa punya?_
  Are there many Chinese in Patani?--
    _Baniak-kah orang China di Patani?_
  Was it truly he who did it?--
    _Sunggoh-kah dia yang buat?_
  Is it this one or another?--
    _Ini-kah atau lain-kah?_
  Is it going to rain?--
    _Handak hujan-kah?_
  What is the price of this?--
    _Bĕrapa harga ini?_
  What is the news? (How goes it?)--
    _Apa khabar?_
  How could I dare to do it ?--
    _Macham mana sahaya bĕrani buat?_


EXERCISE.

Where is my jacket? What did he say? Why do you come here? Are there any
dollars in the box? How many times has it rained this month? Whose tin
is this? Who brought this tobacco? Did you demand the money from his
father? Whence did you obtain this news? Did you order him to bring the
coffee? How many miles (lit. _stones_) is it to the market? Shall I cut
down this tree? Have you seen that play? Who was that who brought the
fish? What kind of animal is that? When were you at the house? Why do
they not enter?


Sometimes the word _apa_ at the commencement of a sentence gives it an
interrogative sense;[1] as _apa, tuan ta’ makan daging karbau?_ do you
not eat buffalo meat? _apa tiada-kah sukar leher bangau itu?_ what!
would not the stork’s neck be inconveniently long? _apa tiada-kah
tuan-hamba kenal akan bangau itu?_ does not my lord recognise that
stork?[2]

    [Footnote 1: Like the Hindustani _kya_ or the Latin _an_, _num_.
    Forbes’ Hindustani Manual.]

    [Footnote 2: Sri Rama. Favre’s Grammar, p. 92.]



LESSON VI.


FORMATION OF NEGATIVE SENTENCES.

  _Tidak_, no.
  _Tiada_, is not (are, was, were, do, did not, &c.).
  _Bukan_, no, not.
  _Jangan_, don’t, let not.
  _Antah_, I know not; who knows? there is no saying.
  _Jangan-kan_, not only, not, so far from.

_Bukan_ is a more emphatic denial than _tidak_. It is also used, either
alone or with the affix _-kah_, to signify _is it not?_ _is it not so?_

_Tiada_ is generally abbreviated colloquially to _t’ada_ and _t’a’_ (in
Java _trada_ and _tra_).

_Antah_ is an expression of doubt.


EXAMPLES.

  Yes or no?--
    _Ya atau tidak._
  That which is he causes not to be; that which is not he causes to be--
    _Yang ada dia tidak-kan, yang tidak dia ada-kan._
  It is nothing = never mind--
    _Tidak apa._
  He got no small quantity of fish--
    _Dia men-dapat ikan bukan sadikit._
  Her beauty was of no ordinary kind--
    _Molek-nia bukan alang-kapalang._
  Is this his house or not?--
    _Ini-kah rumah dia atau bukan?_
  Indescribable, wonderful--
    _Bukan buat-an lagi_ (lit. _it was no longer doing_).
  You said just now that you went home first, did you not?--
    _Kata kamu tadi sudah pulang ka rumah dahulu, bukan-kah?_
  He is not my child--
    _Bukan-lah iya anak hamba._
  He will not come--
    _Dia ta’ mahu datang._
  I asked him a great many times, but he would not--
    _Sahaya minta bĕrapa kali tiada dia mahu._
  There are no fish in the market--
    _T’ada ikan di pasar._
  I do not know where he has gone--
    _Antah ka-mana pergi-nia._
  There is no saying how many of them died--
    _Antah ber-apa baniak-nia yang mati._
  It cannot be otherwise--
    _Ta’ dapat tiada._
  He cannot enter--
    _Dia ta’bulih masok._
  Do not go--
    _Jangan pergi._
  Do not believe what people say--
    _Jangan perchaya akan perkata-an orang._
  Shall I enter the house or not?--
    _Masok-kah aku dalam rumah atau jangan-kah?_
  So far from obtaining it, we did not even see it--
    _Jangan-kan dapat, me-lihat-pun tidak._
  Not to speak of _you_, of _me_, even, they are afraid--
    _Jangan-kan tuan, hamba-tuan pun dia orang takut._


EXERCISE.

He said no. That conduct is not proper. He cannot write. The children
are not in the house. So far from getting a pony-carriage, we cannot
even get a bullock-cart. Not to speak of the night, by day even people
are afraid to go there. There is no saying how it happened. Do not go
near. Shall I give the fruit to the woman or not? There are not many
horses here. Do you not know that? The Chinaman will not say yes or no.
Do not be afraid. If the seed is good it cannot but be that the fruit is
good also. The wind was of no ordinary force (_kuat_).


_New words in this Lesson to be learned by heart._

Beautiful, beauty, _molek_; dead, to die, _mati_; to believe,
_perchaya_; saying, speech, _per-kata-an_ (from _kata_, to say); to
fear, _takut_; to write, _tulis_; night, _malam_; daylight, _siyang_;
seed, _biji_; doing, making, fabrication, manufacture, _buat-an_ (from
_buat_, to do, to make); to go away, go home, _pulang_.



LESSON VII.


ON THE USE OF PREPOSITIONS.

For a list of the most useful prepositions see _supra_, p. 63.


EXAMPLES.

  We are going _up_ the mountain--
    _Kita handak naik ka-atas gunong._
  _For_ every _orlong_ (land-measure) ten cents--
    _Pada satu orlong sa-puloh duit._[3]
  The clerks who are _under_ him--
    _Krani-krani yang di-bawah-nia._
  Many people have settled _at_ that place--
    _Baniak orang sudah masok di tampat itu._
  He saw it _from_ outside--
    _Deri luar iya me-lihat-kan._
  People have remarked upon the subject _before_ me (in my presence)--
    _Ada juga orang ter-kenang-kan hal itu di hadap-an sahaya._
  The Raja gave a present _to_ him--
    _Raja membĕri hadia kapada-nia._
  Che Ismail has made preparations for marrying his daughter
      _to (with)_ Haji Daud--
    _Che Ismail sudah siap handak me-nikaḥ-kan anak-nia dengan Haji
      Daud._
  They were sentenced _by_ the judge--
    _Di-ḥukum-kan uleh ḥakim._
  _Among_ the four men three were wounded and one ran away--
    _Di-dalam ampat orang itu tiga luka satu lari._
  I want to know _about_ that affair--
    _Sahaya handak tahu deri-pada hal itu._
  The case was begun _on_ the first day of the month--
    _Kapada satu hari bulan di-mula-i bichara-nia._
  _With_ great haste--
    _Dengan sangat gopoh._
  He has gone _towards_ the kitchen--
    _Sudah dia jalan sa-bĕlah dapor._
  _On_ both sides of the road--
    _Antara ka-dua bĕlah jalan._
  _Regarding_ the subject of that document--
    _Akan hal surat itu._
  _After_ a few days--
    _Lepas sadikit hari._
  He was buried _near_ his father--
    _Di-ḳubur-kan dĕkat ayah-nia._
  _According to_ their circumstances--
    _Atas ḳadar-nia._
  _According to_ his strength--
    _Sa-kadar kuasa-nia._
  Go _to_ your master--
    _Pergi sama tuan kamu._
  He inquired _about_ a murder--
    _Dia preḳsa fasal bunoh._
  Another version _behind_ your back--
    _Balik bĕlakang lain bichara._
  _Between_ earth and sky--
    _Antara bumi dan langit._
  To walk _through_ the water--
    _Ber-jalan trus ayer._
  _For the sake of_ God--
    _Karana Allah._
  _As far as_ the cross-roads--
    _Hingga sempang jalan._
  _Until_ now--
    _Sampei sakarang._

    [Footnote 3: In Penang 1 _duit_ = 1 cent.; in Singapore and
    Malacca ¼ cent.]


EXERCISE.

He lives upon the hill. On the tenth day of the month. They came before
the raja. His master gave a dollar to him. He was buried by his
brothers. After that all went away. Among those ten persons six are men
and four are women. As regards the subject of that case, inquiry is now
being made. Each man received according to his circumstances. In which
direction has he gone, towards the right or towards the left? Between
the house and the river. How much will you receive for every pikul of
tin? The dogs are under the house. They sat upon the ground. He arrived
at that place with fifteen men. They remained until night.

The following words used in this lesson should be committed to memory:--

Clerk, _krani_; place, _tampat_; affair, subject, _hal_; gift, present,
_hadia_; judge, _ḥakim_; order, sentence, _ḥukum_; case, negotiation,
_bichara_; hurried, haste, _gopoh_; kitchen, _dapor_; a grave, _ḳubur_;
to bury, _ḳubur-kan_; rate, condition, circumstances, _ḳadar_; strength,
power, _kuasa_; the back, _bĕlakang_; the earth, _bumi_; God, _Allah_;
fork (of a road), _sempang_; side, _bĕlah_.

To ascend, _naik_; to reflect, consider, _kenang_; wounded, to wound,
_luka_; to marry, _nikaḥ_; to give in marriage, _nikaḥ-kan_; to examine,
inquire into, _preḳsa_; to kill, _bunoh_; to receive, _tĕrima_.



LESSON VIII.


ON THE WORDS _SUDAH_ AND _HABIS_.

SUBSTANTIVES.

  a lock, _kunchi_.
  a key, _anak kunchi_.
  accounts, _kira-kira_.
  skill, _ka-pandei-an_.
  anger, _ka-marah-an_.
  small-pox, _ka-tumboh-an_.
  loss, _rugi_.
  disease, _penyakit_.
  an egg, _tĕlor_.
  an axe, _kapak_.
  the foot, _kaki_.
  cold (in the head), _sardi_.
  dagger, kris, _kris_.
  rocks, reef, _karang_.
  a fine, _denda_.
  blemish, _chachat_.


VERBS.

  to lock, _kunchi-kan_.
  to try, attempt, _choba_.
  to expend, _bĕlanja_.
  to be silent, _diam_.
  to break, _pechah_.
  to stab, _tikam_.
  to beat, _pukul_.
  to be destroyed, _binasa_.
  to burn, _bakar_; burnt, _ter-bakar_.
  to be angry, _marah_.
  to loose, _lepas_; loosed _ter-lepas_.
  to disobey, _bantah_.
  to cheat, _tipu_.
  to be damaged, _rosak_.
  to rob, _samun_.
  to bite (as a snake), _pagut_.


ADJECTIVES.

  guilty, _salah_.
  black, _hitam_.
  slow, _lambat_.
  rotten, _busuk_.
  severe, _tĕrok_.
  fit, suitable, probable, _harus_.


ADVERBS.

  quickly, _lăkas_.
  slowly, _perlahan_.

_Sudah_ is classed as an adverb, but its most common use is to serve as
a kind of auxiliary verb in forming the past tenses. It is
translateable, according to the context, by the words and phrases, has,
had; has, have, and had been, or become; done, finished, completed, &c.

_Habis_ signifies done, finished, exhausted, expended; utterly,
completely. The use of these words with verbs will be seen from the
following examples:--


EXAMPLES.

  Have you locked the door?--
    _Sudah kunchi-kan pintu-kah?_
  I have--
    _Sudah._
  When I reached the house he was already there (lit. had become
      present before)--
    _Tatkala sahaya sampei di rumah dia sudah ada dahulu._
  It is not yet finished--
    _Belum sudah._
  It is half finished (just being finished)--
    _Tengah handak sudah._
  Nearly finished--
    _Dekat mahu sudah._
  Long ago--
    _Lama sudah._
  A month ago, more or less--
    _Lebih korang sa’bulan sudah._
  That is enough--
    _Sudah-lah._
  It has gone bad--
    _Sudah busuk._
  It is over--
    _Sudah habis._
  His father is an old man (has become old)--
    _Bapa-nia sudah tuah._
  Try to complete this--
    _Choba-lah bagi sudah._
  He understands (has arrived at understanding) accounts very well--
    _Pasal kira-kira sudah iya harti baik-baik._
  Now it is (has become) near--
    _Sakarang sudah dĕkat._
  They are all dead and gone--
    _Sumua-nia mati habis._
  Entirely destroyed--
    _Habis binasa._
  It is all spent--
    _Sudah bĕlanja habis._
  When he had finished speaking--
    _Apabila sudah habis chakap._
  All were quite silent--
    _Habis-lah diam sumua._
  The utmost of his skill--
    _Sa-habis ka-pandei-an dia._


EXERCISE.

He is dead. He died long ago. He had made preparations for going away.
Are they all ready? The workman says that the box is not yet finished.
He has gone to Malacca. I have seen this before. The tea is finished.
All the eggs are broken. The house was entirely burnt. He spent all his
father’s money. Finish that quickly. They have gone back to their own
country. That house is nearly finished. I arrived here a year ago. When
you have finished writing that letter go home. It is now at a distance.
I am just finishing this letter.



LESSON IX.


ON THE VERB _KĔNA_.

_Kĕna_, in the sense of “to incur,” is frequently used with other words
to express the passive mood. Thus, instead of “he was fined,” Malays
will say “he incurred a fine;” instead of “he was blamed,” “he incurred
anger.” _Kĕna_ also means to touch, strike, hit, affect. _Kĕna apa?_
“affected by what?” is frequently pronounced as a single word, _kenapa_,
meaning “why?”

  He was prosecuted--
    _Dia kĕna bichara._
  They were sentenced to five years each--
    _Kĕna hukum atas sa’orang lima tahun._
  He incurred the displeasure of his father--
    _Dia kĕna ka-marah-an deri-pada bapa-nia._
  The axe slipped in his hand and took effect on the back of his leg--
    _Ter lepas di tangan kapak itu, kĕna di bĕlakang kaki-nia._
  Those who have not yet had small-pox--
    _Orang yang belum kĕna ka-tumboh-an._[4]
  If any one disobeys he will be fined five dollars--
    _Kalau ada siapa ban tah nanti kĕna denda lima ringgit._
  I have been cheated--
    _Sahaya sudah kĕna tipu._
  He has been found guilty--
    _Dia sudah kĕna salah._
  He died of a snake-bite--
    _Dia mati kĕna pagut ular._
  That won’t do (does not hit it)--
    _Ta’ kĕna bagitu._
  Don’t go there, you may be injured--
    _Jangan pergi sana, barangkali kĕna satu apa-apa._
  I am always catching cold--
    _Salalu sahaya kĕna sardi._[5]
  If the medicine does not take effect it is likely that the disease
      will take a long time to be cured (_i.e._, the patient will
      probably die)--
    _Kalau tiada kĕna ubat-nia harus juga lambat baik penyakit itu._

    [Footnote 4: The Malay word for small-pox differs in various
    localities. In Penang the common word is _ka-tumboh-an_ (lit.
    _eruption_); in Malacca and Singapore, _chachar_; in Perak,
    _si-tawar_ and _sakit orang baik_ (lit. “disease of the good
    people,” a euphuism); in some parts of Borneo, _puru nasi_.]

    [Footnote 5: _Sardi_ (Persian and Hindustani) is the word used by
    the Malays of Penang. _Selesima_ and _selimat_ generally mean more
    than a mere cold in the head.]


EXERCISE.

He died of a stab with a _kris_. He was put to great expense. The ship
was damaged by striking on the rocks. They were fined twenty dollars
each. It did not receive a single blemish. Those who disobey will be
prosecuted. He was very severely beaten. What has happened to the dog
that he limps like that? He has been robbed on the road. He suffered no
small loss. That place won’t do. This letter has been blackened by fire.
Yesterday he incurred his master’s anger.



LESSON X.


ON THE VERBS _BULEH_, _BAHAGI_, &C.

The verbs _buleh_, can, or to be able; _bahagi_, to give (lit. to
divide); _kasih_ and _bĕri_, to give, grant; and _biar_, to permit, to
suffer, are frequently used to govern other verbs, which they invariably
precede.

_Buleh_ is a contraction of _ber-uleh_, a verb formed from the
preposition _uleh_, by, by means of. The primary meaning of _ber-uleh_
or _buleh_ is to obtain, effect, and hence it has come to mean “to be
able.” The original sense of the word may be seen in such sentences as
_ber-uleh per-minta-an_, to obtain (compliance with) a request;
_sudah-kah buleh anak?_ have you had a child?


EXAMPLES.

  How can one know?--
    _Mana buleh tahu?_
  Can you read English?--
    _Kamu buleh-kah mem-bacha surat Inggris?_
  It is not to be calculated--
    _Tiada-lah buleh handak di-kira-kira lagi._
  Every month I remind (give to remember) him--
    _Tiap-tiap bulan ada hamba-tuan bĕri ingat._
  To feed (lit. give to eat)--
    _Bĕri makan._
  Just read that and let me hear it--
    _Choba bacha itu biar sahaya dengar._
  I wished to speak to him, but they would not let me--
    _Sahaya handak chakap dengan dia orang ta’ bahagi._
  He informed (gave to know) the Penghulu--
    _Dia bĕri tahu kapada Penghulu._
  Send those people away--
    _Kasih pulang orang-orang itu._
  Let it fall--
    _Biar jatoh._


EXERCISE.

I cannot open the door. He tried to stab him, but could not touch him.
Let him strike. Let the axe drop. His brother cannot understand the
accounts. Let that child go back to the house. I wanted to give him a
little tea, but they would not permit it. The raja sent (gave to go)
messengers. He brought (gave to come) his wife and children. Can I live
here? I have searched, but I cannot find it. He lets them come into the
house. When can you come?


Request, _per-minta-an_, from _minta_, to ask; messenger, _lit._ one
ordered, _penyuroh_, from _suroh_, to order; to remember, _ingat_; to
read, _bacha_; to fall, _jatoh_; every, _tiap-tiap_.



LESSON XI.

ON THE VERBS _LANGSONG_, _LALU_, &C.


In describing a proceeding which involves motion to a place or
continuous action on the part of some person or thing, it is common to
use the words _langsong_, _lanjar_ or _lanchar_, and _lalu_, to proceed,
go, direct one’s course. Their signification in a sentence is not easily
translateable in English, but it is perhaps best rendered by the English
idiom, to _go and_ do a thing. Sometimes the effect is that of the
adverbs “immediately,” “at last,” “incontinently,” “forthwith,”
“altogether.” _Langsong_ is generally used in Penang, but in Perak the
Malays generally use _lanjar_ in the same sense.


EXAMPLES.

  Intending to cook (food), to go and burn it--
    _Handak masak langsong hangus._
  He went to Meccah and never returned--
    _Dia pergi ka-Makah lanjar ta’ balik._
  The pony fell down and immediately died--
    _Rĕbah kuda itu langsong mati._
  He journeyed to Singapore and thence on to Johor--
    _Ber-laiar-lah dia ka-Singgapura lalu ka-Johor._
  He spat it out and then went and licked it up again--
    _Sudah ludah lalu di-jilat_ (a proverb).
  He took a knife and forthwith stabbed him--
    _Dia ambil pisau langsong tikam._
  He visited the districts down the river and thence went on to Kampar--
    _Dia pergi ka-daira rantau hilir, lanjar ka-Kampar._
  He has gone altogether--
    _Dia sudah pergi langsong._

_Lalu_ is often used in the sense of “can,” “able,” instead of _buleh_.

  I cannot do it--
    _Sahaya ta’ lalu buat._
  For a day or two past she has been unable to eat--
    _Sudah satu dua hari dia ta’ lalu makan nasi._[6]
  Will fish swallow a bare hook?--
    _Ada-kah ikan lalu me-makan mata kail sahaja?_

    [Footnote 6: _Makan nasi_, eat rice. Malays do not, like us, say
    simply eat, read, write. It is more idiomatic to say, eat rice,
    read book, write letter.]


EXERCISE.

He got up and forthwith went away. He was very angry, and at once
ordered him to go out. The ship struck on a rock and immediately sunk.
He ate rice and then went to sleep. He stabbed him twice and immediately
ran away. He came out of the house and at once fell down. He returned to
his country and died there. Do you intend to go direct to Johor?


To cook, _masak_; to burn, _hangus_; to fall down, _rĕbah_; to return,
_balik_; to spit, _ludah_; to lick, _jilat_; to take, _ambil_; to eat,
_makan_; to go out, _kaluar_; to sink, _tinggalam_; a sail, _laiar_; to
sail; _ber-laiar_; a knife, _pisau_; a district, _daira_; rice, _bĕras_;
boiled rice, _nasi_; fish-hook, _mata kail_; reach of a river, _rantau_;
down-stream, _hilir_; up-stream, _hulu_.



LESSON XII.


ON THE WORDS _SAMPAT_ AND _DAN_.

_Sampat_, to be able, competent to, opportunity, fit time; and _dan_,
occasion, opportunity, fit time, are two useful words which are employed
with verbs in much the same manner as _buleh_, _lalu_, &c.

In some parts of the peninsula (Perak, for example), _sampang_ is used
instead of _sampat_.

These words are used more generally to state a negative proposition than
an affirmative one.


EXAMPLES.

  They are not able to stand--
    _Tiada-lah sampat iya ber-diri._
  There was not time (for the fire) to spread to the inner part of the
      house, but (it was confined) to the cook-room--
    _Tiada sampang di-makan sampei ka-dalam rumah hania sa-bĕlah dapor
      sahaja._
  There was no time to render assistance--
    _Tiada dan di-tulong._
  He is not in a position to resist--
    _Tiada sampat iya me-lawan._
  I was not in time to see him; he had already started--
    _Ta’dan ber-jumpa, sudah dia jalan dahulu._
  Such of them as could not gain the shore--
    _Barang yang tiada sampat naik ka-darat._


EXERCISE.

He ran away before I was able to seize him. They were unable to run
away, for people seized them. He went away quickly, so I had no time to
see him. That place is very far off; there is not time to reach it in
one day. He fell down and died before one could render assistance.
Yesterday I was in a great hurry and had not time to finish what I was
saying. There is not time to finish it in two days. Before I could stand
up he struck me.


To stand, _ber-diri_; except, but, _hania_; to help, _tulong_; to
resist, oppose, _lawan_; to meet, _jumpa_; land, _darat_; any, some,
each, every, _barang_.



PART III.


The preceding lessons, it is hoped, will have explained and illustrated
in some degree the construction of sentences in Malay. It is now
proposed to give a series of useful words and phrases applicable for the
most part to common domestic incidents, so that the student may at once
have at command the phrases most likely to be required in speaking to
native servants. Unfortunately for the purity of the dialect spoken at
the British settlements in the Straits of Malacca, the majority of the
domestic servants there are foreigners (natives of India, Chinese,
Javanese, &c.), who seldom speak Malay well, either as regards style or
pronunciation. It is assumed that the student aims at something more
than clothing foreign idioms with Malay words, and he should be on his
guard therefore against the errors of people of this class. Facility of
expression and the accurate use of idioms can only be acquired by much
practice in speaking with Malays, and by attentive study of Malay
authors.



LESSON XIII.


        { breakfast, }
  Bring { dinner,    }
        { luncheon,  }
    _Bawa makan-an_.[1]
  Put bread on the table--
    _Taroh roti di-atas meja._[2]
  Is there any milk?--
    _Susu ada-kah?_
  A little sugar--
    _Gula sadikit._
  Shut the door--
    _Tutup (OR katup) pintu._
  Open the window--
    _Buka jandela[3] (OR tingkap)._
  Light the candle--
    _Pasang[4] dian[5] (OR lilin)._
  Put out the lamp--
    _Padam palita._[6]
  I am very hungry--
    _Sahaya lapar sangat._
  Have you eaten rice?--
    _Sudah makan nasi?_
  What will you drink, sir?--
    _Tuan apa handak minum?_
  Go quickly--
    _Pergi lakas._
  Don’t be long--
    _Jangan lambat._
  Call him here--
    _Panggil din ka-mari._
  Tell him to come here--
    _Ajak dia kamari._
  Tell him I want to speak to him--
    _Khabar-kan dia sahaya handak chakap sadikit._
  Don’t make a noise--
    _Jangan engar-engar._
  Go to the right--
    _Pergi ka-kanan._
  Go towards the right--
    _Pergi sa-bĕlah kanan._
  Turn to the left--
    _Pusing sa-bĕlah kiri._
  Come--
    _Mari._ _Mari-lah._
  Come here--
    _Mari sini._ _Mari di-sini._ _Mari-lah ka-mari._
  Come near--
    _Mari dĕkat._
  Come quite near--
    _Mari dĕkat-dĕkat._

    [Footnote 1: Lit. eatables. Sometimes the Hindustani word _hazri_
    is used for breakfast.]

    [Footnote 2: _Meza_ or _meja_, table, is borrowed from the
    Persian.]

    [Footnote 3: _Jandela_ is from the Portuguese _janella_, and is
    applied to the windows of the houses of Europeans. _Tingkap_ is
    the window or window-shutter of a native house.]

    [Footnote 4: _Pasang_ signifies to give action to, to apply.]

    [Footnote 5: _Dian_ is the better word. _Lilin_ is literally wax.]

    [Footnote 6: _Palita_, in Hindustani (corrupted from the Persian
    _patilah_), signifies the match of a gun, a candle, a wick used in
    sorcery.]


EXERCISE.

Bring some bread. Where are you going? Light the lamp quickly. Bring
tea, sugar, and milk. Put two candles on the table. Is there any coffee?
When you reach the cross-roads turn to the right. Eat first and then go.
Don’t tell any one. Who is making a noise outside? He told him to come
quite near. Light the lamp and then shut all the windows.



LESSON XIV.


  I want a servant (lit. a hired man)--
    _Sahaya handak chahari orang gaji sa’orang._
  Where did you work before?--
    _Di-mana kerja dahulu?_
  What wages do you want per month?--
    _Bĕr-apa mahu gaji pada sa-bulan?_
  I will give seven dollars a month--
    _Sahaya handak kasih tujoh ringgit sa-bulan._
  Take care--
    _Jaga baik-baik._
  Hold it quite straight--
    _Pegang-lah betul-betul._
  Steady now; don’t let it slant--
    _Baik-baik-lah jangan singet._
  Don’t forget--
    _Jangan lupa._
  Call the syce--
    _Panggil sais._[7]
  Have you cleaned the horse?--
    _Kuda sudah gosok-kah?_
  Just as you please--
    _Mana suka tuan._
  Just as you may order--
    _Mana hukum tuan._
  What o’clock is it (lit. Has struck how many times)?--
    _Sudah pukul bĕr-apa?_
  It has struck twelve--
    _Sudah pukul dua-bĕlas._
  It is half-past ten--
    _Sudah pukul sa-puloh sa-tengah._
  It wants a quarter to one--
    _Pukul satu korang suku._
  Take away those shoes--
    _Bawa pergi kasut[8] itu._
  Take away all the things--
    _Angkat-lah perkakas-an sumua._
  Get the carriage ready--
    _Siap-kan kreta_,[9] or _sedia-kan-lah kreta._
  Have you ordered the carriage?--
    _Kreta sudah suroh pasang-kah?_
  Put the horse to--
    _Kĕna-kan kuda._
  A pair of horses--
    _Kuda sa-pasang._
  Saddle the black horse--
    _Bubok zin[10] diatas kuda hitam._
  Bring the riding-horse--
    _Bawa kuda tunggang._

    [Footnote 7: _Sa’is_ (Hindustani, derived from Arabic), groom,
    horsekeeper.]

    [Footnote 8: _Kasut_ is the native word, but _sapatu_ (Portuguese
    _sapato_) is also extensively used to signify boots and shoes of
    European pattern.]

    [Footnote 9: _Kreta_, Portuguese _carreta_.]

    [Footnote 10: _Zin_, Hindustani and Persian. _Palana_ (Hindustani
    and Persian _patan_, a pack-saddle) and _sela_ (Portuguese
    _sella_) are also used.]


EXERCISE.

Get dinner ready. How much do you give your syce a month? At two o’clock
or half-past two, just as you like. I intend to dine at seven o’clock;
don’t forget. Hold it carefully, and don’t let it fall. Where are all
the servants? Have you ordered the syce to saddle the horse? Take care;
this horse is rather vicious. At what time shall I get the carriage
ready? I shall return at five o’clock. Call some one to hold the horse.
I have brought one pair of shoes.



LESSON XV.


  Is the cook there?--
    _Tukang[11] masak ada-kah?_
  I keep one grass-cutter for every two horses--
    _Pada dua-dua ekor kuda sahaya upah tukang-rumput sa’orang._
  The gardener does not work on Friday--
    _Hari juma‘at tukang-kabun tiada kerja._
  Be good enough to order two pairs of shoes at the shoemaker’s--
    _Tulong-lah păsan pada tukang-kasut dua pasang kasut._
  What I want are shoes that lace up--
    _Yang sahaya handak itu, kasut yang ber-tali._
  Where does the goldsmith live?--
    _Di-mana tinggal tukang-mas?_
  Look out for some good carpenter--
    _Chăhari-lah tukang-kayu mana-mana satu yang pandei sadikit._
  How much must I pay the blacksmith?--
    _Bĕrapa handak baiar kapada tukang bĕsi?_
  The painter says it will be finished in two days--
    _Kata tukang-chat lagi dua hari habis-lah._
  It must be here at two o’clock without fail--
    _Mahu ada di-sini jam pukul dua, ta’ bulih tidak._
  I am sorry that so-and-so has not come--
    _Sayang-lah si-anu ta’ datang._
  What a pity!--
    _Kasih-an!_
  Poor old man!--
    _Kasihan-lah orang tuah!_
  On what day will the washerman come?--
    _Hari mana dobi[12] handak datang?_
  I will not give it--
    _Sahaya ta’ mahu kasih._
  He asks too much--
    _Dia minta ter-lampau baniak._
  He asks too long a price--
    _Dia minta mahal sangat._
  Speak slowly--
    _Chakap perlahan-perlahan._
  Has he brought anything?--
    _Sudah dia bawa apa-apa?_

    [Footnote 11: _Tukang._ This word in Malay corresponds to our
    “_fellow_,” the Hindustani _wala_ and the Tamul _karen_. When
    used, as in the examples above given, as part of a compound, it
    signifies agent, doer, keeper.]

    [Footnote 12: _Dhobi_ is Hindustani; _binara_, washerman, is the
    most idiomatic term, but _tukang-basoh_ is often heard, also, in
    Batavia, _tukang menatu_.]


EXERCISE.

What has the cook brought? Tell the washerman to come in three days. How
much does he ask? Why is the gardener not working? The shoemaker was not
at his house. Have you called the blacksmith? When will you give it to
me? If you speak slowly I can understand. I do not want the carriage
to-day. Be good enough to call the grass-cutter. Poor little child! The
black horse is dead. I am sorry about that horse. Did he demand
anything?



LESSON XVI.

  Pour out the tea--
    _Tuang ayer teh._
  This water is not hot enough--
    _Ayer ini ta’ panas bĕtul._
  When it is boiling bring it--
    _Apa-bila ayer men-didih baharu-lah bawa._
  Boil two eggs--
    _Masak tĕlor dua biji._
  Kill a fowl--
    _Potong (OR sembilik[13]) hayam sa’ ekor._
  Don’t scald it; pluck the feathers out--
    _Jangan chelor, bulu-nia chabut satu-satu._
  Make an omelette--
    _Buat dadar telor._
  Count these knives--
    _Choba bilang pisau ini bĕrapa._
  A person has brought bread for sale--
    _Ada orang handak jual roti._
  Take two loaves--
    _Ambil-lah dua kĕtul._
  What kind of meat do you wish me to get?--
    _Daging apa macham tuan handak suroh chăhari?_
  I am not particularly fond of beef--
    _Daging lumbu sahaya ta’ bĕrapa gamar._
  See if you can get any mutton--
    _Choba preḳsa daging kambing barang-kali dapat kĕlak._[14]
  Is the meat to be roasted or boiled?--
    _Daging handak panggang-kah handak rebus-kah?_
  Mince it up fine--
    _Chinchang lumat-lumat._
  Don’t be troublesome--
    _Jangan bising._
  This is the fruit-season--
    _Ini-lah musim buah kayu._
  What kind of fruit is there for sale now?--
    _Apa macham buah orang jual sakarang?_
  Mangoes, mangostins, and oranges--
    _Buah mampelam, buah manggis dan limau manis._
  Are there any shaddocks?--
    _Limau kadangsa ada-kah?_
  Buy about a dozen limes--
    _Bĕli limau asam barang dua-bĕlas biji._
  The basket is full--
    _Bakul sudah pĕnoh._
  Bring a basket to put these things into--
    _Bawa-lah raga handak isi-kan barang-barang ini._
  This durian is unripe--
    _Buah durian ini muda lagi._
  No, sir; its pulp is delicious--
    _Tidak tuan, elok sakali isi-nia._
  These durians are not to be surpassed--
    _Ta’ lawan-lah buah durian ini._

    [Footnote 13: _Sembilik_ is used only of the killing of an animal
    by a Muhammadan for consumption by Muhammadans. It is a corruption
    of the Arabic phrase Bi-smi-llāhi, which is pronounced as the
    animal’s throat is cut.]

    [Footnote 14: _Kĕlak_ implies a doubt, “perchance,” “may be.”]


EXERCISE.

I am not very fond of poultry. Why does not the cook bring a basket? Are
not these mangoes unripe? How many mangostins are there in the basket?
Can you make an omelette? Boil the mutton and roast the beef. When the
water is boiling put the egg in. Count the limes which the cook has
brought. How many loaves of bread do you take each day? He is not very
clever at cooking.



LESSON XVII.


  Call a hack-carriage--
    _Panggil kreta sewa._
  I want to hire this carriage to go to church--
    _Sahaya mahu sewa kareta ini handak pergi ka-greja._[15]
  What fare shall I have to pay?--
    _Bĕrapa nanti kĕna bayar penyewa-nia?_
  Can you get there in half-an-hour?--
    _Tengah jam buleh sampei-kah?_
  Has the gun fired (lit. sounded)?--
    _Mariam[16] sudah ber-bunyi-kah?_
  The cannon has gone off--
    _Mariam sudah me-letup._
  He fired a musket--
    _Dia me-letup-kan snapang._[17]
  Let go. Leave hold--
    _Lepas tangan._
  Who is there?--
    _Siapa ada?_
  Bring a light--
    _Bawa api._
  Where are the matches?--
    _Di-mana goris api?_
  Say that again--
    _Choba kata lagi sakali._
  I did not quite hear--
    _Sahaya ta’ bĕrapa dengar._
  They are great liars--
    _Dia orang kuat mem-bohong._
  I dare not tell you a lie--
    _Sahaya ta’ bĕrani mem-bohong kapada tuan._
  I am very sorry to hear it--
    _Sahaya baniak susah hati men-dengar._
  Move to the right--
    _Kĕsak ka-kanan._
  This is a very large pine-apple--
    _Ter-lalu besar sa-biji nanas ini._
  Plantains are of various kinds--
    _Macham-macham-lah pisang._
  I cannot come to-morrow--
    _Besok sahaya ta’ buleh kamari._
  Cut this stick in two--
    _Kayu ini kĕrat dua._
  Bring some wine and water--
    _Bawa anggor sama ayer._
  Has the rain stopped?--
    _Sudah tedoh-kah hujan?_
  It has moderated--
    _Ada sidang sadikit._
  The rain is very heavy--
    _Hujan lebat sakali._
  It has stopped--
    _Sudah ber-hinti._

    [Footnote 15: _Greja_, from the Portuguese _iglesia_.]

    [Footnote 16: _Mariam_, taken evidently, though unconsciously, from
    the Portuguese name of the Holy Virgin. --_Crawfurd._]

    [Footnote 17: _Snapang_, from the Dutch _snaphaan_.]


EXERCISE.

Tell him to go slowly. Ask the syce for matches. Tell him to light the
lamps. He dare not go home alone. I told him to let go. Have you heard
the gun fire? One cannot get there in an hour. He will hire out (lit.
give to hire) his carriage. When the rain has stopped I will go there.
He does not drink wine. Fire off the gun again. I do not quite like it.
He demands much too high a fare.



LESSON XVIII.


  Is dinner ready?--
    _Makan-an sudah sedia-kah?_
  I have invited five gentlemen to dine here this evening--
    _Sudah sahaya per-sila-kan tuan-tuan lima orang me-makan di-sini
      malam ini._
  You must cool the wine well--
    _-Mahu-lah sejuk-kan anggor baik-baik._
  If there is not enough saltpetre get more--
    _Kalau korang sendawa ambil-lah lagi._
  There is plenty of ice--
    _Ayer băku[18] ada baniak._
  What is the price of Bengal potatoes by the catty?--
    _Ubi Benggala bĕrapa harga sa-kati?_
  Wipe the spoons and forks with a cloth--
    _Senduk garfu sumua-nia sapu-lah sama kain._
  There is a hole in this tablecloth--
    _Kain meja ini ber-lobang._
  It caught on a nail and was torn--
    _Sudah ter-sangkut di-hujong paku langsong koyah-lah._
  Some gravy was spilt on it--
    _Kuah di-tumpah di-atas-nia._
  Let the vegetables be perfectly hot--
    _Sayur-sayur biar hangat sakali._
  It is difficult to get fish at this hour--
    _Ikan payah di-chahari bagini hari._
  The pomfret is better than the sole--
    _Baik ikan bawal deri-pada ikan lidah._
  He is washing the plates--
    _Dia mem-basoh piring._
  That lad is very handy--
    _Chĕpat sakali budak itu._
  Pull out the cork--
    _Chabut penyumbat._[19]
  Put in the cork--
    _Bubok-lah penyumbat._
  Do you want this bottle for any purpose?--
    _Tuan handak ber-guna-kan balang[20] ini?_
  Bring finger-glasses (lit. water to wash the hands)--
    _Bawa ayer basoh tangan._

    [Footnote 18: Lit. “congealed water;” _ayer batu_, “stone water” is
    also used, but less correctly.]

    [Footnote 19: _Penyumbat_, a stopper, from _sumbat_, to stop up,
    close.]

    [Footnote 20: _Balang_ is the native word for a flask or bottle,
    but is seldom heard in the British settlements, where the English
    word “bottle” is generally understood.]


EXERCISE.

Wipe this table. Don’t give the washerman the tablecloths which have
holes. It is difficult to get ice here. Bengal potatoes are better than
those from China. Wash your hands first. I am very fond of ice. Put two
spoons and two forks on the table. Let the water be very cold. Perhaps I
shall want it some day. I came here having been invited[21] by Mr. ----.

    [Footnote 21: _Di-per-sila-kan uleh._]



LESSON XIX.


  Look at this for a moment--
    _Choba tengoh ini sa-buntar._
  Let me see it--
    _Biar sahaya me-lihat._
  Do you see that man who is looking in front of him?--
    _Kamu nampa-kah orang itu yang pandang ka-hadap?_
  I did not pay particular attention--
    _Sahaya ta’ bĕrapa per-hati-kan._
  I don’t quite know (lit. I have insufficiently inquired)--
    _Sahaya korang preḳsa._
  Pick out those that are torn--
    _Pilih yang ter-koyah._
  How many pairs of white trousers are there?--
    _Saluar puteh ada bĕr apa hălei?_
  Give me a shirt--
    _Kasih kameja[22] sa’lei._[23]
  Thick material (_e.g._, blanket, rug, flannel)--
    _Kain panas._
  Any cloth or garment for wrapping round the body (_e.g._, sheet,
      coverlet)--
    _Sălimut._
  Fold up this handkerchief--
    _Lipat sapu-tangan ini._
  He was lying wrapped up with a blanket--
    _Dia tidor-lah ber-sălimut kain panas._
  They wrapped him round with a sarong--
    _Di-sălimut-kan-nia kain sarong._
  There is one pair of socks too few--
    _Sarong kaki ada korang sa-pasang._
  My waist-belt has disappeared--
    _Tali pinggang sudah ta’ nampa lagi._
  Bolt the door--
    _Kanching-kan-lah pintu._
  Knock at the door before coming in--
    _Kĕtok pintu dahulu baharu-lah masok._
  I am going to bathe now--
    _Sahaya handak mandi sakarang._
  Is there any water for bathing?--
    _Ayer mandi ada-kah?_
  The tub is full--
    _Tong sudah pĕnoh._

    [Footnote 22: _Kameja_, Portuguese _camiza_.]

    [Footnote 23: See _supra_, p. 70.]
      [[Numeral coefficients, no. 5]]


EXERCISE.

Just look at this shirt; it is torn. Bring me a pair of thick trousers.
Is the door bolted? Have you seen my waist-belt anywhere? Let me see
that handkerchief for a moment. He knocked at the door, but you did not
hear him. I am going down to bathe. Pick out about five good ones. I
look ahead of me, not behind me. He said that he had not inquired. Fold
up these sheets.



LESSON XX.


  Have you fed the dogs?--
    _Anjing sudah kasih makan-kah?_
  Did you deliver that letter?--
    _Surat itu sudah sĕrah-kah?_
  Is there any answer?--
    _Ada jawab[24]-nia apa-apa?_
  The master sends his compliments--
    _Tuan kirim tabek baniak-baniak._
  There are a great many mosquitoes here--
    _Nyamok ter-lampau baniak di-sini._
  I don’t much like living here--
    _Sahaya ta’ bĕr-apa suka duduk[25] di-sini._
  I was disgusted at hearing him speak like that--
    _Sahaya binchi men-dengar per-kata-an-nia yang bagitu._
  Are you on good terms with so-and-so?--
    _Kamu sama si-anu ada baik-kah?_
  Mr. ---- was very angry with him--
    _Marah sa-kali Tuan ---- kapada-nia._
  I do not venture to interfere--
    _Sahaya ta’ bĕrani champor._
  Don’t interrupt--
    _Jangan masok-kan mulut._
  Mix both together--
    _Champor-lah dua-dua._
  I must have onions, pepper, salt, and chillies--
    _Mahu-lah bawang lada garam sama chabei._
  Don’t use cocoa-nut oil--
    _Jangan pakei minyak kalapa._
  She sits weeping day and night--
    _Dia duduk menangis siyang malam._
  This will do as a pattern--
    _Ini-lah jadi chonto._
  He made a model of a house--
    _Di-buat-kan-nia achu-an rumah._
  Where is the bullet-mould?--
    _Achu-an peluru[26] dimana?_
  My mind is made up--
    _Tĕtap-lah hati sahaya._
  I very much wish (lit. the vow of my heart is) to have a garden--
    _Niat hati sahaya handak ber-kabun._

    [Footnote 24: _Jawab_ (a word of Arabic derivation) has been
    borrowed by the Malays from Hindustani.]

    [Footnote 25: _Duduk_, to sit, means also (in some districts) to
    live, inhabit.]

    [Footnote 26: _Pe-luru_, a missile, “that which goes direct,” a
    substantive formed by the particle _pe-_ and the word _lurus_,
    direct, straight.]


EXERCISE.

I did not dare to go near. Put some pepper and salt into it and then mix
it well. They have delivered up all the muskets. He is not on very good
terms with his wife. I like to look at it. He said he would send an
answer. Don’t be angry with the boys. If you give the carpenter a model
he can make anything. I would ask for a little bit of this cloth as a
pattern. Give my compliments to your master.



LESSON XXI.


  Can you sew?--
    _Kamu tahu-kah menjahit?_
  The tailor has come--
    _Tukang jahit sudah datang._
  This does not fit me--
    _Ta’ bĕtul ini dengan badan[27] sahaya._
  Measure the length of this--
    _Hukur-lah panjang-nia._
  Just hold this for a moment--
    _Tulong pegang ini sa‘at._[28]
  Wait a moment--
    _Nanti sa‘at._
  He has a bad foot--
    _Kaki-nia sakit._
  He was wounded between the ankle and the heel--
    _Dia kĕna luka antara mata kaki dan tumit._
  Her neck was swollen--
    _Bongkok-lah batang leher-nia._
  From the nape of the neck down to the feet--
    _Deri tangkuk hingga kaki._
  He put his arm under his head (lit. he made a pillow of his forearm)--
    _Dia mem-bantal-kan lengan._
  His knee-pan was broken--
    _Patah-lah tempurong[29] lutut-nia._
  A skull was found in the river--
    _Di-jumpa tengkurak di-dalam sungei._
  As big as one’s finger--
    _Besar jari._
  The thumb--
    _Ibu jari_ or _ibu tangan._
  The forefinger--
    _Jari telunjuk._
  The middle finger--
    _Jari tengah_, _jari mati_, or _jari hantu._
  The fourth finger--
    _Jari manis._
  The little finger--
    _Jari kelingking._
  His right arm was dislocated--
    _Tangan kanan-nia sudah salah urat._
  He has a beard--
    _Dia ber-janggut._
  One seldom sees a Chinese with a moustache--
    _Jarang ber-jumpa orang China ber-misei._

    [Footnote 27: _Badan_, Arabic, adopted in Hindustani also; _tuboh_
    is the native word; _salira_ (Sansk.) is also found.]

    [Footnote 28: More correctly _sa-sa‘at_, one moment. _Sa‘at_
    (Arabic) is found in Hindustani also.]

    [Footnote 29: The primary meaning of _tempurong_ is “cocoa-nut
    shell.”]


EXERCISE.

Show the tailor a pair of white trousers. My little finger is swollen.
Hold this stick for a moment. He was stabbed in the leg near the knee.
Both his arms were broken. Be good enough to sew this. I was much
concerned at seeing him; he is suffering greatly. A stick as thick as my
forearm. He was struck on the back of the neck. She wore a ring[30] on
her fourth finger.

    [Footnote 30: _Chinchin._]



LESSON XXII.


  Bring my hat and riding-whip--
    _Bawa topi[31] dengan rotan._[32]
  What is this candle made of?--
    _Dian ini di-buat dengan apa?_
  Give me pen and ink--
    _Kasih kalam[33] sama dawat._[34]
  That man is deaf and dumb--
    _Orang itu bisu._
  His hair is very long--
    _Panjang sakali rambut-nia._
  What is your occupation?--
    _Apa pen-chahari-an angkau?_
  He cultivates padi for a livelihood--
    _Dia buat bendang[35] men-chahari makan._
  Is so-and-so alive still, or is he dead?--
    _Si-anu ada-kah lagi hidop atau mati-kah?_
  This cloth is very dirty--
    _Kotor sakali kain ini._
  His house was entered by robbers last night--
    _Rumah dia di-masok peny-amun sa-malam._
  They made off with a good many things--
    _Baniak juga barang-barang dia orang angkat bawa pergi._
  All were fast asleep, not one was awake--
    _Sumua orang tidor lena sa-orang pun tiada jaga._
  I keep my box under my bed--
    _Peti sahaya simpan di-bawah tampat tidor._
  I sleep on an iron bedstead--
    _Sahaya tidor di-atas katil[36] besi._
  My two children sleep in the loft--
    _Anak-anak sahaya dua orang tidor di para._
  There was a policeman watching in the street--
    _Ada mata-mata sa’orang men-jaga di jalan._
  He ran very fast and could not be caught--
    _Dia lari ter-lalu dĕras ta’ sămpat orang menangkap._
  The policeman chased him down to the river-bank--
    _Mata-mata kejar juga sampei ka-tepi sungei._
  Sometimes he comes in the morning, sometimes in the middle of the
      day--
    _Kadang-kadang dia datang pagi-pagi, kadang-kadang tengah hari._

    [Footnote 31: _Topi_, Hindustani, signifies the hat of an
    European.]

    [Footnote 32: _Rotan_, rattan, more correctly _raut-an_, the thing
    peeled, from _raut_, to peel.]

    [Footnote 33: _Kalam_ (found in Hindustani also) is derived from
    the Arabic. Cf. Sanskrit _kalama_, a kind of rice; Greek κάλαμος.]

    [Footnote 34: _Dawat_ in Hindustani (derived from Arabic) means
    inkstand, ink-bottle, pen-case; in Malay it also signifies ink.
    _Tinta_ (Portuguese) is also used by the Malays for _ink_.]

    [Footnote 35: _Buat bendang_, lit. “works the fields;” _bendang_ =
    wet rice-fields, as opposed to _huma_, dry fields on high ground.]

    [Footnote 36: _Kaṭṭil_, Tamul, a cot.]


EXERCISE.[37]

Ada sa-orang binara memelehra-kan sa-ekor kaldei maka ‘adat-nia pada
tiap-tiap hari apabila sudah iya mem-basoh kain maka di-muat-kan-nia
ka-atas kaldei itu di-bawa-nia-lah ka negri di-pulang-kan-nia kemdian
pula di-ambil-nia kain-kain chumar di-muat-kan-nia ka-atas-nia
di-bawa-nia pulang ka rumah-nia sa-telah malam hari di-ambil-nia suatu
kulit harimau di-salimut-kan-nia ka-atas kaldei itu lalu
di-lepas-kan-nia dalam ladang orang damikian-lah hal-nia binara itu pada
tiap-tiap hari maka apabila dinahari pulang-lah kaldei itu ka rumah
tuan-nia itu maka be-ber-apa kali ber-tĕmu kapada yang ampunya ladang
itu ka-takut-an lah iya di-sangka-kan harimau lari-lah iya pulang.

    [Footnote 37: This and the following fables are taken from a Malay
    translation of the Hindi version of the Pancha-tantra, by
    Abdu-llah Munshi.]



LESSON XXIII.


  People are making a clearing on the hill--
    _Orang ber-ladang di-atas bukit._
  What are they planting?--
    _Apa di-tanam-nia?_
  Plantains, gourds, maize, and cucumbers--
    _Pisang, labu, jagong, dan timun._
  What news of the seeds which I sowed the day before yesterday?--
    _Apa khabar biji itu yang di-tabur kalmarin dahulu?_
  They are sprouting beautifully--
    _Sangat-lah elok tunas-nia naik itu._
  Goodness knows if they will live--
    _Wallahu ‘alam akan hidop-nia._
  We shall know in a few days--
    _Lepas sadikit hari tahu-lah kita._
  He complained to the master about that matter also--
    _Di-adu juga pada tuan hal itu._
  I have never heard it--
    _Ta’ pernah hamba tuan men-dengar._
  There is a great quantity of fruit on that tree--
    _Lebat sakali buah-buah di-atas pokok itu._
  Pick three or four ripe ones--
    _Choba petik barang tiga ampat biji yang masak._
  You cannot reach them with your hand; bring a hook--
    _Tangan ta’ sampei bawa penggait._
  He put up a hut in the middle of his plantation--
    _Di-buat-nia dangau di tengah ladang._
  The walls are wood and the thatch _bertam_ leaves--
    _Dinding-nia kayu atap-nia bertam._
  He tied it with rattan--
    _Di-ikat-nia sama rotan._
  Chop that stick with a bill-hook--
    _Tetak kayu itu dengan parang._
  He made a notch in the log--
    _Di-takuk-nia batang kayu itu._
  The tax is 10 cents for every log--
    _Hasil-nia sapuloh duit pada sa-batang._
  The timber is the property of the owner of the land--
    _Kayu-kayu pulang kapada yang ampunya tanah._


EXERCISE.

Maka apabila ter-dengar khabar itu kapada kapala kawal heiran iya serta
ber-kata “Ada-kah pernah harimau me-makan padi antah ‘alamat akhir
zaman-lah sudah,” lalu di-ambil-nia sa-batang lembing lalu pergi-lah iya
sebab handak me-lihat hal itu, maka ber-temu-lah iya dengan kaldei itu
maka apabila di-lihat kaldei manusia datang itu lalu ber-triak-lah iya
serta di-dengar uleh kapala kawal itu suara kaldei maka
di-hampir-i-nia-lah akan dia lalu di-tikam-nia dengan lembing-nia lalu
mati-lah kaldei itu damikian-lah ada-nia per-mula-an per-satru-an itu
datang-nia deripada mulut juga asal-nia.



LESSON XXIV.


  His whip dropped on the road--
    _Chabuk[38]-nia jatoh di jalan._
  He drives exceedingly well--
    _Dia pandei sakali pegang ras._[39]
  Drive out that dog--
    _Halau-kan anjing itu._
  I am going out for a drive--
    _Sahaya handak naik kreta ber-angin-angin._
  He knows how to write Malay--
    _Dia tahu menyurat Jawi._
  The letters are the same, but the pronunciation is different--
    _Huruf-nia sama tetapi bunyi-nia lain._
  I want to stop a moment at the warehouse--
    _Sahaya mahu singga sa-kejap di gedong._
  When will you come and see me?--
    _Bila handak mari men-dapat-kan sahaya?_
  This skin has been destroyed by insects--
    _Kulit ini habis-lah di-makan ulat._
  He has no fixed occupation--
    _Ta’ tuntu pe-karja-an-nia._
  He has no settled residence--
    _Ta’ tetap tampat ka-duduk-an-nia._
  Who is the headman of the river?--
    _Siapa kapala sungei?_
  The headman of the village received him--
    _Di-sambut-kan-nia kapala kampong._
  Five men stood on guard at the door--
    _Lima orang ber-kawal di-pintu._
  Whom do you wish to see?--
    _Kamu handak ber-jumpa dengan siapa-kah?_
  I felt as if I wanted to cry--
    _Saperti handak ber-triak rasa-nia di-dalam hati sahaya._
  I have been here for several months without meeting you--
    _Bĕr-apa bulan sahaya di-sini tiada juga ber-tĕmu dengan tuan._
  It was heard across the river--
    _Ka-dengar-an sampei sabĕrang sungei._
  By the mouth the body comes to harm--
    _Sebab mulut badan binasa._

    [Footnote 38: _Chabuk_, Hindi, whip.]

    [Footnote 39: _Pegang ras_, lit. holds the reins; _rassi_,
    Hindustani, reins.]


EXERCISE.

Ada kapada suatu hutan tampat gajah maka dalam gajah yang baniak itu ada
sa-orang raja-nia maka be-bĕr-apa lama-nia iya diam pada hutan itu maka
kapada suatu katika datang-lah musim kamarau maka ka-kĕring-an-lah
sagala ayer maka di-suroh uleh raja gajah akan sa-ekor gajah pergi
men-chahari ayer maka pergi-lah iya maka sampei-lah iya kapada sa-buah
gunong maka di-bawah gunong itu ada-lah sa-buah kulam penoh ayer-nia
maka apabila di-lihat-nia itu maka segra-lah iya kambali membĕri tahu
raja-nia maka ber-angkat-lah raja itu serta sagala ra‘iyat-nia handak
pergi me-minum ayer.



LESSON XXV.

  What is the price of this?--
    _Ini bĕr-apa harga?_
  At first he demanded two dollars--
    _Mula-mula dia minta dua ringgit._
  I offered one dollar, but he would not accept it--
    _Sahaya tawar sa-ringgit tiada mahu di-tărima-nia._
  He said that the fixed price was two dollars--
    _Kata-nia harga mati dua ringgit._
  Give me whichever you please--
    _Yang mana angkau suka handak bahagi, bahagi-lah._
  Any one will do--
    _Mana-mana satu pun jadi-lah._
  This quantity will do--
    _Jadi-lah sa-baniak ini._
  Is this boat your own?--
    _Prahu ini sendiri punya-kah?_
  Are you married?--
    _Sudah ber-bini-kah?_
  Is he a married man?--
    _Ada-kah rumah tangga-nia?_[40]
  He has three children--
    _Dia sudah dapat anak tiga orang._
  How many children have you?--
    _Sudah dapat anak bĕr-apa orang?_
  His wife has lately had a child--
    _Bini dia baharu ber-anak._
  He has got a son by his elder wife--
    _Dia sudah dapat anak laki-laki sa-orang dengan istri-nia yang
      tuah._
  Are these children twins?--
    _Kambar-kah budak ini?_
  I have known him from his childhood--
    _Deri kechil lagi sahaya kenal._
  His child is quite an infant, still at the breast--
    _Kechil juga anak dia, menyusu lagi._
  She suckled her child--
    _Dia menetek-kan (OR menyusu-kan) anak-nia._
  He is cutting his teeth--
    _Baharu tumboh gigi-nia._
  You must have it vaccinated--
    _Mahu di-chungkil tanam ka-tumboh-an._
  It did not take the first time--
    _Mula-mula ta’ kĕna._

    [Footnote 40: Lit. Has he a house with a ladder? _i.e._, has he an
    establishment of his own?]


EXERCISE.

Maka ada-lah pada tepi kulam itu sa-ekor raja pelanduk serta dengan
ra‘iyat-nia ber-buat tampat diam di-situ maka serta ka-dengar-an-lah
bunyi sagala gajah itu datang saperti ribut maka ber-kata-lah pelanduk
itu sama sendiri-nia jikalau datang gajah itu kambali naschaya tiada-lah
buleh kita diam di tampat ini maka uleh raja pelanduk itu di-panggil-nia
mantri-nia seraya ber-sabda “Apa-kah bichara-nia jikalau datang gajah
itu kamari naschaya tiada-lah buleh kita diam lagi di-sini,” maka jawab
mantri pelan duk itu “Jikalau dengan titah tuanku akan patek maka
patek-lah pergi meng-halau-kan gajah itu dengan barang daya upaya
patek,” maka di-bĕri-lah uleh raja părentah akan mantri itu.


LESSON XXVI.

  Go and complain at the police-station--
    _Pergi-lah mengadu di-balei (OR rumah pasong_).
  He has been arrested--
    _Dia sudah kĕna tangkap._
  He has been locked up--
    _Dia sudah kĕna tutop._
  What is his offence?--
    _Apa ka-salah-an-nia?_
  What do they charge him with?--
    _Apa di-tudoh-kan di-atas-nia?_
  For how many days has he been detained?--
    _Sudah bĕr-apa, hari dia kĕna tahan?_
  This is not his first offence--
    _Bukan sa-kali ini sahaja yang dia buat jahat._
  Do you know him?--
    _Tuan kenal-kah dia?_
  No, I see him now for the first time--
    _Tidak, baharu sa-kali ini sahaya me-lihat._
  People say that he is a great opium-smoker--
    _Kata orang dia kuat makan chandu._
  He broke into the house of a Chinese in the middle of the night--
    _Dia pechah masok rumah orang China tengah malam._
  He was not alone; there were several others with him--
    _Bukan dia sa’orang ada juga dua tiga ampat orang kawan-nia._
  They were all Malays--
    _Melayu belaka[41] ka-sumua-nia._
  He was not the principal, but an accomplice--
    _Bukan dia kapala tetapi dia menyerta-i sama._
  Their intention was to steal the gold ornaments--
    _Kahandak hati-nia mahu churi barang-barang mas._
  He used abusive and improper language--
    _Dia ber-maki-maki dengan yang ta’patut._
  What is the name of the defendant?--
    _Siapa nama yang kĕna adu itu?_
  What the prosecutor says is quite right--
    _Benar juga saperti kata adu-an._

    [Footnote 41: _Belaka_ (entirely, completely, altogether) is often
    used parenthetically in a sentence, corresponding in some degree
    to such expressions as, “it must be said,” “I should say,” “let me
    add,” “you must know.”

    _Ka-sumua-nia_, the whole of them, a collective substantive formed
    from _sumua_, all. Numerals are dealt with in the same way, as,
    _ka-dua-nia_, both of them.]


EXERCISE.

Maka mantri pelanduḳ itu-pun ber-lari-lah pergi men-dapat-kan raja gajah
itu seraya ber-pikir di-dalam hati-nia, “handak meng-halau-kan gajah ini
ter-lalu susah-kah? ada-pun saperti sagala raja-raja itu jikalau handak
mem-bunoh orang itu saperti laku orang ter-tawa bahwa damikian-lah raja
ini-pun dengan sa-buntar ini juga aku halau-kan jikalau damikian
baik-lah aku naik ka-atas gunong ini,” maka ka-lihat-an-lah raja gajah
itu serta dengan sagala tantra-nia maka ber-sĕru-sĕru-lah pelanduḳ itu
dengan niaring suara-nia kata-nia “ada-kah tuanku serta tantra tuanku
sakalian baik?” maka menulih-lah raja gajah itu serta dengan marah-nia
kata-nia “Hei benatang yang kechil lagi hina apa sebab-nia angkau
menyĕru aku di tengah jalan dengan ka-laku-an be-adab[42] ini siapa-kah
angkau ini?”

    [Footnote 42: _Be-adab_, “unmannerly,” a compound adjective
    (Hindustani) formed by prefixing the privative particle _be-_ to
    the noun _adab_. Malays also borrow from the same source the word
    _be-hosh_, “stupified,” generally mispronounced by them _bi-us_.]



LESSON XXVII.


  On what day will the case be commenced?--
    _Pada hari mana handak buka bichara?_
  So-and-so got up and gave evidence.--
    _Ber-diri si-anu jadi saḳsi._
  Bail was refused--
    _Tiada di-bĕri jamin._[43]
  Have you any one who will go bail for you?--
    _Ada-kah orang yang mahu tanggong?_
  This is the surety--
    _Ini-lah aku-an._
  I will give bail for any amount--
    _Bĕr-apa bĕrat sakali-pun hamba tuan bĕrani tanggong._
  Is this a man of property?--
    _Orang ber-harta-kah ini?_
  One surety is not enough; there must be two at least--
    _Sa’orang aku ta’jadi sa-korang-korang mahu-lah dua orang._
  Sign at this place--
    _Di-sini-lah turun tanda tangan._
  Do you know how to write?--
    _Tahu-kah menyurat?_
  If you cannot write, make a mark--
    _Jikalau ta’tahu menyurat buat-lah goris tanda tangan._
  That will do; you can go now--
    _Suda-lah, pulang-lah dahulu._
  What do you call this in Malay?--
    _Bahasa Malayu apa kata ini?_
  He has done it in the English fashion--
    _Dia sudah buat chara Inggris._
  Speak loud, and let people hear you--
    _Chakap kuat-kuat sapaya buleh orang men-dengar._
  He was very much afraid (and looked) as if he were about to fall
      down--
    _Takut-lah sakali dia saperti handak rĕbah ka-bawah._
  His face grew very pale--
    _Puchat sakali muka-nia._
  His statement is incoherent--
    _Ta’tuntu per-kata-an-nia._
  He fell at his master’s feet and asked for pardon--
    _Dia menyămbah kaki tuan-nia lalu me-minta ampun._
  His master, being very kind-hearted, forgave him--
    _Sebab ter-lalu morah hati tuan-nia langsong di-bĕri-nia ma‘af._

    [Footnote 43: _Jamin_, “bail,” a word frequently heard in the
    Straits Settlements, is a corruption of the Hindustani _zamin_.]


EXERCISE.

Maka jawab pelanduk “Dengar-lah tuanku akan per-kata-an patek ini,
ada-pun tuan yang menĕrang-kan sagala ‘alam dunia ini serta laut dan
darat iya-itu bulan maka patek ini sa-orang hamba-nia yang
di-perchaya-nia maka di-suroh-nia patek datang kapada tuanku minta
khabar-kan” maka jawab raja gajah itu “apa-kah khabar-nia? Kata-kan-lah
uleh-mu” maka pelanduk itu-pun sambil memandang ka-langit pura-pura iya
menyămbah bulan seraya kata-nia “adapun tuanku itu-lah bulan yang
ampunya gunong dan kulam itu-pun iya-lah yang mem-buat-nia akan tampat
mandi maka apabila iya pulang petang ka-langit maka di-suroh-nia jaga
kulam itu dengan be-bĕr-apa singa yang garang-garang maka sebab itu-lah
apa-bila di-lihat-nia tuanku ber-angkat datang kamari di-suroh-nia akan
hamba mem-bĕri tahu maka apabila tuanku datang di-kulam naschaya
di-bunoh-lah uleh sagala singa itu maka dosa-nia itu di-atas-nia maka
sebab itu-lah iya menyuroh-kan hamba datang ini membĕri tahu tuanku
sakalian menyuroh-kan balik sigra”----.



LESSON XXVIII.


  In which direction had we better go?--
    _Sa-bĕlah mana baik kita pergi?_
  There are numbers of snipe in the padi-fields--
    _Di-bendang baniak juga burong berkik._
  He has a double-barrelled gun--
    _Dia punya snapang dua laras._
  Both barrels are loaded--
    _Sudah ber-isi ka-dua-nia._
  You use very small shot--
    _Tuan pakei pengabur yang halus sakali._
  He is a very good shot--
    _Dia pandei sakali menembak burong._
  He killed two birds at one shot--
    _Sakali me-letup mati-lah dua ekor burong._
  Before we could get close the green pigeons all flew away--
    _Belam sămpat dĕkat lagi habis lari-lah burong punei sumua._
  Perhaps we shall get some on the other side of that thicket--
    _Balik sana belukar itu barang-kali dapat kĕlak._
  One of its wings is broken.--
    _Patah-lah sayap sa-bĕlah._
  It is not hit--
    _Ta’kĕna._
  It is wounded slightly--
    _Kĕna juga sadikit._
  It has settled on the ground--
    _Sudah hinggap di tanah._
  It has perched on a cocoanut tree--
    _Sudah hinggap di pokok nior._
  Don’t speak: how can you expect to get near a wild animal if you make
      a noise?--
    _Jangan ber-mulut, benatang liyar bukan-kah, jikalau engar-engar
      macham mana handak dĕkat._
  The elephant received a ball in his head, and immediately dropped--
    _Kĕna peluru sa-biji di kapala gajah itu, lalu tumbang._
  Have you ever shot a tiger?--
    _Ada-kah tuan dapat menembak harimau?_
  How many birds have you got?--
    _Tuan sudah buleh bĕr-apa ekor burong?_


EXERCISE.

“Maka ter-lalu-lah baniak marah-nia akan tuanku tetapi tiada mengapa
segra-lah tuanku baliḳ sapaya buleh hamba pergi mem-bujuḳ raja bulan dan
mem-baiḳ-ki hati-nia itu dan lagi pikir-lah tuan-tuan sakalian bahawa
sakian lama sudah kamarau sagala kulam habis-kah ka-kĕring-an apa
sebab-nia kulam[44] ini baniaḳ ayer-nia? maka sakalian ini-pun sebab
kasihan hati hamba akan jiwa tuan-tuan sapaya jangan anyaya masi.”
Sa-ber-mula sa-telah di-dengar uleh raja gajah akan sagala per-kata-an
pĕlanduḳ itu maka ka-takut-an-lah iya sambil menyămbah ara ka-langit
maka sigra-lah iya ber-balik dengan dahaga-nia. Damikian handaḳ-nia
orang yang handak menjadi raja apabila di-dengar orang nama-nia menjadi
ka-takut-an ada-nia.

    [Footnote 44: _Kulam_, Tamil, a tank.]



LESSON XXIX.


  Is the tide making or ebbing?--
    _Ayer pasang-kah surut-kah?_
  Is the boat ready?--
    _Prahu ada siap-kah?_
  How many people will this boat carry?--
    _Bĕr-apa orang buleh muat di prahu ini?_
  Ten persons, including two rowers--
    _Buleh muat sa-puloh orang masok anak dayong dua orang._
  There is a head-wind; we cannot sail--
    _Angin muka ta’buleh ber-laiar._
  Row hard--
    _Dayong-lah kuat-kuat._
  When we reach the mouth of the river, you can stop for a moment and
      rest--
    _Tiba di kuala sakarang buleh berhinti sa-kejap biar hilang penat._
  Who is steering?--
    _Siapa pegang kamudi?_
  If one is going down-stream paddles are used; for going up-stream
      poles are required--
    _Kalau kilir pakei pengayu kalau mudik mahu-lah ber-galah._
  What kind of wood is the best for boat-building?--
    _Kayu mana yang ter-lebeh baik handak mem-buat prahu?_
  The Chinese _sampan_ is called _sampan kotak_ in Singapore--
    _Sampan China itu kata orang di Singgapura “Sampan kotak.”_
  Of what wood is this dug-out canoe made?--
    _Prahu sagor ini di-buat dengan kayu apa?_
  Steer straight for that point--
    _Tuju betul ka tanjong itu._
  I shall go on shore at the landing-place--
    _Sahaya handak naik di darat di pengkalan._
  Give me the line and let us fish a little--
    _Bahagi-lah tali kail biar kita mengail sakejap._
  Have you got any bait?--
    _Umpan ada-kah?_
  If we have any luck we may catch some big fish--
    _Kalau ada untong kita barang-kali dapat juga ikan besar-besar._
  The spines of that fish are very poisonous--
    _Duri ikan itu bisa sakali._


EXERCISE.

Ada kapada suatu hari sa’orang pem-buru masok ka hutan lalu mem-buru iya
ber-keliling hutan itu maka lalu ber-temu-lah iya dengan sa’ekor kijang
maka di-kejar-nia akan kijang itu serta di-panah-nia sa-telah mati maka
di-angkat-nia handak di-bawa-nia pulang sa-telah sampei ka tengah jalan
maka ber-temu-lah iya pula dengan sa’ekor babi hutan maka kijang itu-pun
di-letak-kan-nia lalu di-kejar-nia akan babi hutan itu lalu di-panah-nia
tiada-lah kena maka handak di-panah-nia sakali lagi maka di-terkam-lah
uleh babi itu akan dia serta di-gigit-nia maka mati-lah iya
ber-sama-sama dengan babi itu akan tetapi anak panah itu ada juga
ter-kena kapada busar-nia yang di-tangan pem-buru itu.



LESSON XXX.


  He is not yet dressed--
    _Dia bĕlum pakei kain lagi._
  He is dressed like a Malay--
    _Dia pakei chara Malayu._
  Wake me to-morrow morning at six o’clock--
    _Gĕrak-kan sahaya pukul anam pagi._
  I want to get up early--
    _Sahaya handak bangun siyang-siyang._
  He did not do it on purpose--
    _Bukan-nia dia buat sangaja._
  I was only in play--
    _Sahaya lawak-lawak sahaja._
  I was very sorry that I could not accompany you--
    _Ter-buku hati sahaya sangat ta‘buleh ber-sama-sama._
  What are the contents of that letter?--
    _Apa bunyi-nia surat itu?_
  Do you understand the pith of it?--
    _Tuan dapat-kah buku-nia?_
  Has any one been here to look for me?--
    _Ada-kah siapa-siapa datang men-chahari sahaya?_
  Ask that woman where the well is--
    _Choba tanya pada perampuan itu di-mana-kah talaga._
  Is this good water?--
    _Baik-kah ayer ini?_
  It is excellent water, both clear and cool--
    _Elok sakali ayer ini, jerneh lagi sejuk._
  Can we get a green cocoanut here?--
    _Nior muda dapat-kah di-sini?_
  There is no one who can climb (the tree)--
    _T’ada orang yang tahu panjat._
  Let me climb it--
    _Biar aku memanjat._
  Have you brought cooking-utensils?--
    _Priuk bĕlanga sudah bawa-kah?_
  These sticks are damp and will not burn--
    _Basah kayu ini ta’mahu menyala._
  Grind the spices--
    _Giling rampah-rampah._
  Will you smoke?--
    _Tuan mahu minum rokok?_
  I am sleepy, and shall go to bed--
    _Sudah mengantuk, sahaya handak masok tidor._
  Did you call me?--
    _Tuan panggil-kah?_


EXERCISE.

Maka sagala hal itu ada-lah di-lihat uleh sa’ekor srigala maka ber-lari
iya datang serta ber-kata “bahwa sapuloh hari lama-nia tiada-lah aku
men-chahari makan-an lagi” serta datang-lah iya meng-hampir-i pem-buru
itu maka di-gigit-nia tali busar itu maka tiba-tiba anak panah itu-pun
datang-lah menikam srigala itu maka iya-pun mati-lah maka jikalau kita
terlalu tema‘a dan handak ber-lebeh-lebeh naschaya ada-lah hal kita
saperti hakayat pem-buru dengan srigala itu ada-nia.



PART IV.


To the more advanced lessons and exercises which are contained in this
section, it may be well to prefix a few notes on colloquial Malay, which
are suggested by a consciousness of some of the common errors into which
European students of Malay are apt to fall.

First, Try to observe and imitate the impersonal and elliptical
construction of Malay sentences. Notice how much more is left to the
imagination than in English, and get rid of the notion that it is
necessary to express invariably by nouns or pronouns the agents or
objects of the actions spoken of. Ideas are conveyed in Malay in a much
less concrete form than in the civilised languages of Europe, and what
is lost in accuracy and distinctness is partially compensated for by
brevity.

Why say _kasih sama sahaya_ (lit. “give to me”), in imitation of the
English _give me_, or the French _donnez-moi_, or the German _geben sie
mir_, in all of which the pronoun is expressed, when a Malay would
simply say _bahagi-lah_, give, or _bawa_, bring? It is easy enough to
leave tone or gesture to supply any deficiency in meaning. The constant
use of this phrase, _sama sahaya_, or _sama kita_, is a bad habit, which
arises from a natural desire to give the word “me” its due value in
Malay. This, as has been shown, is not necessary.


EXAMPLES.

  Tell me; don’t be afraid--
    _Bilang-lah, jangan takut_; not, _bilang sama sahaya_, &c.
  What are you going to give us?--
    _Apa mahu bahagi?_ not, _apa mahu bahagi sama kita?_
  How much must I pay you?--
    _Bĕr-apa nanti kĕna bayar?_ not, _bĕr-apa sahaya mahu bayar sama
      angkau?_
  I want him to make me a jacket--
    _Sahaya handak suroh dia buat baju_; not, _sahaya handak suroh dia
      buat baja sama sahaya._
  Can you make me a table?--
    _Buleh-kah buat meja?_ not, _buleh-kah buat meja sama sahaya._
  Afterwards come and tell me--
    _Lepas itu mari-lah khabar-kan_; not, _mari bilang sama sahaya._

In direct narration the personal pronoun “I” should often be left
untranslated, and the sentence put in an impersonal form. We are
accustomed to commence sentences frequently with “I think,” “I hear,” “I
hope,” “I wish,” and there is a temptation therefore to overload Malay
sentences with “_Sahaya fikir_,” “_Sahaya dengar khabar_,” &c. These,
though not ungrammatical, should be used sparingly. _Rasa-nia_, the
feeling is, _agak-nia_, the guess is, _rupa-nia_, the appearance is (it
seems), _khabar-nia_, the report is, and similar phrases, should often
take their place.


EXAMPLES.

  INSTEAD OF-- I am told, or people tell me, _Orang bilang sama sahaya_;
    SAY, People say, _Kata orang_.
  INSTEAD OF-- I hear that he is coming here, _Sahaya dengar khabar dia
      handak mari sini_;
    SAY, He is coming here, the report goes, _Dia handak kamari
      khabar-nia_.
  INSTEAD OF-- I think there are five quarts, _Sahaya fikir ada lima
      chupah_;
    SAY, There are five quarts, the estimate is, _Ada lima chupah
      agak-nia_.
  INSTEAD OF-- I think it is going to rain, _Sahaya fikir hari handak
      hujan_;
    SAY, It is going to rain, it seems, _Hari handak hujan rupa-nia_.
  INSTEAD OF-- I like driving better than walking, _Sahaya lagi suka
      naik kreta deri-pada jalan kaki_;
    SAY, It is better to drive than to walk, _Baik ber-kreta deri-pada
      ber-jalan_.

Note the impersonal way of putting the statement in the following
sentences:--

  I was very glad to hear it--
    _Sangat-lah suka hati sahaya akan men-dengar._
  I very much wish to go to Meccah--
    _Niat hati sahaya handak pergi ka-Makah._
  I should be doing wrong to receive it, and I am ashamed to return it--
    _Handak tĕrima salah, handak pulang-kan malu._
  I was disappointed--
    _Putus-lah harap sahaya._
  I hope sincerely that the case will soon be decided--
    _Besar-lah harap sahaya bichara itu akan di-putus-kan dengan sigra._
  I have made up my mind that, however great the oppression may be,
      I will hold out--
    _Tetap-lah hati sahaya bageimana bĕrat sakali-pun handak tahan
      juga._

Second, Avoid word-for-word translations of English sentences in which
the word “you” occurs. So much has been said on this subject already
(_supra_, _pp._ 49, 75) that it is only necessary here to give a few
additional illustrations of the mode in which Malays dispense with the
pronoun. In most English and Malay phrase-books the use of _angkau_ is
far too frequent.

  As you like--
    _Mana suka-lah._
  As you may think best--
    _Mana elok kapada hati sendiri._
  You can go--
    _Buleh pulang._
  I have nothing more to ask you--
    _T’ada apa lagi handak tanya._
  Where have you been?--
    _Pergi ka-mana tadi?_
  If you do so another time you will certainly be punished--
    _Kalau buat lagi sakali bageimana yang sudah ini tuntu-lah kena
      hukum._
  Do you want employment?--
    _Handak minta karja-kah?_
  Can you wait at table?--
    _Tahu-kah jaga meja?_
  What are you doing?--
    _Apa buat?_
  You must take great care of it, and see that it is not injured--
    _Mahu-lah jaga baik-baik, jangan di-rosak-kan-nia._

Even in reprimanding or scolding another, it is common in Malay to adopt
an impersonal and not a direct mode of address. Instead of saying, “You
are a lazy, good-for-nothing boy, and deserve a good thrashing,” the
Malay says, “What manner of boy is this? If one were to beat him soundly
it would be well.”


EXAMPLES.

  Are you deaf? Can’t you hear what I say to you?--
    _Tuli-kah budak ini? Orang kata t’ada dengar-kah?_ (_Lit._ Is the
      boy deaf? does he not hear what one is saying?)
  How slow you are! or, what a time you are taking!--
    _Ai budak ini! bukan lambat-nia!_ (_Lit._ Oh, this boy! Isn’t he
      slow?)
  How slowly you are rowing! Can’t you pull faster when you are told?
      Give way, will you!--
    _Ai, bukan lengah dayong budak ini, bukan-kah orang suroh dĕras.
      Dĕras-lah sadikit._ (_Lit._ Oh, are not these boys rowing slowly!
      Has not one told them to make haste? Quick! now, a little!)
  You are behaving exceedingly badly, and it would serve you right if
      you got a caning--
    _Jahat sakali orang ini, kalau bahagi rasa sadikit dengan rotan
      baharu dia ingat_. (_Lit._ This person is exceedingly bad; if
      one were to make him feel with a rattan he would remember.)
  What an idiot you are! I tell you to bring water, and you bring oil--
    _Budak bedebah ini! Orang suroh bawa ayer di-bawa-nia minyak._

Third, Do not be satisfied with one general Malay verb to describe a
whole class of actions for which separate specific words exist. It may
be possible to make oneself intelligible by using _pukul_, to strike,
for every kind of blow, but it is preferable to employ the appropriate
term for the particular mode of striking.

The following lists will illustrate this caution:--

 1. _Pukul_, to strike, beat.
    _Gasak_, to beat, flog, punish.
    _Hentam_, to strike, attack, throw.
    _Balun_, to beat, thrash, drub.
    _Palu_, to beat, hammer, knock.
    _Kĕtok_, to knock, tap, rap.
    _Godam_, to thrash, hammer.
    _Lantak_, to nail, to drive in.
    _Tinju-kan_, to box, strike with the fist.
    _Tumbuk_, to pound, strike with the fist.
    _Bĕdal_, to switch.
    _Sakal_, and _sakai_, to strike.
    _Tampar_, and _tampiling_, to slap.
    _Tepuk_, to pat.

 2. _Chuchuk_, to thrust, poke.
    _Merusuk_, to thrust, poke, pierce.
    _Radak_ or _rodok_, to pierce with a spear.
    _Juluk_, to thrust upwards.
    _Tikam_, to thrust, pierce, stab.
    _Sigi_, to poke with the finger.
    _Merunjang_, to lower a spear at the charge.

 3. _Angkat_, to lift, carry off, remove.
    _Pikul_, to carry on the back, to carry a load.
    _Kandar_, to carry on a stick over the shoulder.
    _Bibit_, to carry with the fingers.
    _Junjong_, to carry on the head.
    _Tanggong_, to bear, carry, support.
    _Gendong_, to carry slung in a bundle.
    _Usong_, to carry in a litter.
    _Julang_, to hold aloft, to hoist, to carry with the arm uplifted.
    _Bawa_, to carry, convey, bring.
    _Dukong_, to carry on the back or hip.
    _Kepit_, to carry under the arm.
    _Jinjing_, to carry in the arms or hands.
    _Galas_, to carry slung over the back or shoulder.
    _Kilik_, to carry under the arm.
    _Bebat_, to carry in the girdle.
    _Tatang_, to carry on the palms of the hands.
    _Kandong_, to carry at the waist.

 4. _Jatoh_, to fall, drop.
    _Gugur_, to drop off, fall, miscarry.
    _Tumbang_, to fall, tumble down.
    _Reban_, to fall in, give way, tumble down.
    _Runtoh_, to come down, to fall.
    _Luroh_, to drop off, fall (as fruit).
    _Titek_, to drop, distil (as water).
    _Rĕbah_,[1] to tumble, fall.
    _Timpa_, to fall against.
    _Chichir_, to drop, to spill.
    _Tumpah_, to spill.

    [Footnote 1: Also _ribah_ and _rubuh_.]

 5. _Buang_, to throw away.
    _Lotar_ or _lontar_, to hurl, fling.
    _Lempar_, to throw, fling.
    _Humban_, to throw down, cast away.
    _Champak_, to throw down, cast away.
    _Baling_, to throw, fling.
    _Lanting_, to throw, cast, propel.

 6. _Lihat_, to see.
    _Pandang_, to look, to look at.
    _Kelih_, to see.
    _Nampa_, to see, perceive.
    _Intei_, to peep, spy, observe.
    _Petiak_, to notice, observe.
    _Tulih_, to look, glance.
    _Tengok_, to see.
    _Jingok_, to peep, look out.
    _Tengadah_, to look up.
    _Tampak_, to see, perceive.
    _Per-hati-kan_, to perceive, notice, take notice of.
    _Tentang_, to regard.

 7. _Chakap_, to speak.
    _Bilang_, to tell.
    _Khabar-kan_, to tell, inform.
    _Ber-mulut_, to speak, utter.
    _Sabda_, to say, command.
    _Cheritra-kan_, to relate.
    _Meripit_, to chatter, gabble.
    _Mengomong_, to chat, gossip.
    _Kata_, to say, speak, talk.
    _Tutur_, to talk, tell, converse.
    _Sĕbut_, to tell, mention.
    _Uchap_, to utter, express.
    _Titah_, to say, command (as a raja).
    _Merongut_, to mutter.
    _Ber-bual_, to chat.
    _Ber-sungut_, to grumble, to murmur.

Fourth, Learn to employ the passive form of the verb which takes the
prefix _di-_. Easy examples of this have been given occasionally in the
preceding lessons, and the exercises on pages 107 and 108 contain
abundant illustrations of it. It is a mistake to suppose that the Malay
passive is confined to the written language; it is of common use
colloquially among Malays, but, probably because it offers certain
difficulties of construction, it is little understood and seldom
employed by Europeans in the Straits of Malacca.

“He did not, or would not, accept it,” would be vulgarly rendered _dia
ta’ mahu tĕrima_; but it may be more elegantly translated _tiada-lah
di-tĕrima-nia_, “It was not accepted by him.” Here the affix _-nia_ has
the force of “by him,” and, as it denotes the agent, immediately follows
the verb in accordance with the rule stated on p. 61.


EXAMPLES.

  He ordered (it was ordered by him)--
    _Di-suroh-nia._
  He seized the robber (the robber was seized by him)--
    _Di-tangkap-nia penchuri._
  They cut away (were cut away by them) the huts and prevented the fire
      from spreading far--
    _Di-potong-nia rumah-rumah tiada di-bĕri me-larat panjang api itu._
  The rats ate up three candles--
    _Dian tiga batang habis di-makan tikus._
  They have not yet erected the house; they are getting the timber
      ready--
    _Rumah belum di-diri-kan lagi, tengah di buat kayu-kayu-nia._
  The boat was leaky and the water got in--
    _Bochor prahu itu di-masok ayer dalam-nia._
  He only allowed him to use it; he did not give it to him out and out--
    _Di-bĕri pakei sahaja bukan di-bĕri-nia langsong._
  He said that it was too late to send an answer--
    _Handak di-balas pun kata-nia sudah ter-lepas waktu-nia._
  He asked for information about the house that is being built--
    _Di-tanya-nia deri-pada hal rumah yang di-per-buat itu._
  When the country becomes populous it will be right to raise the
      assessment--
    _Apabila negri sudah ramei bahru-lah patut di-per-naik-kan
      hasil-nia._
  God, ever to be praised and most high, gave his aid, and on that very
      day there descended the heaviest shower of rain possible--
    _Di-tulong Allah subhana wa ta‘ala pada waktu hari itu di-turun
      hujan sa-habis-habis lebat._
  The people of the village feasted abundantly--
    _Jenoh-lah di-makan orang kampong itu._

Fifth, Bear in mind the distinction between the force given to a verb by
the particle _ber-_ (_be-_, _bel-_), and that which is caused by
prefixing _me-_ (_mem-_, _meng-_, _men-_, and _meny-_); see _supra_, p.
55.

When the former is employed, the verb describes _a state or condition_,
and is intransitive. The latter generally denotes a verb expressing _an
action_. Apparent departures from this rule are found sometimes, but
these often arise from a difficulty in classifying a particular verb.
Such a verb, for instance, as “to weep,” may be viewed in two
ways--either as descriptive of the condition of the person who weeps or
of the act of weeping; the former is expressed in Malay by _ber-tangis_
and the latter by _menangis_, but practically the distinction is not
great. So _memakei_ (_pakei_), to wear, _merajuk_, to sulk, _menanti_,
to wait, and others, seem to describe states or conditions,
notwithstanding that they have the particle _me-_; but this is explained
by showing that in their primary meanings they really convey an idea of
action, _memakei_ meaning to put on, _merajuk_, to show temper, and
_menanti_, to await somebody or something.

The following derivative verbs will illustrate the rule laid down
above:--

  Primitive.
    Derivative with _ber-_.
      Derivative with _me-_.

  _angkat_, to lift.
    _ber-angkat_, to arise.
      _meng-angkat_, to lift.
  _alih_, to change.
    _ber-alih_, to undergo change.
      _meng-alih_, to change.
  _balik_, behind, back.
    _ber-balik_, to turn (_intrans_.)
      _mem-balik_, to turn, return (_trans_.)
  _diri_, self, being.
    _ber-diri_, to stand up.
      _men-diri-kan_, to cause to stand, to establish.
  _ganti_, instead of.
    _ber-ganti_, to take the place of.
      _meng-ganti_, to put in the place of.
  _habis_, finished.
    _ber-habis_, to be finished.
      _meng-habis_, to finish, to complete.
  _igau_, delirium.
    _ber-igau_, to be delirious.
      _meng-igau_, to rave.
  _ikat_, tie, bond.
    _ber-ikat_, to be fastened.
      _meng-ikat_, to tie, fasten.
  _ingat_, memory, to remember.
    _ber-ingat_, to be sensible of.
      _meng-ingat_, to call to mind, remember.
  _jaga_, to watch, guard.
    _ber-jaga_, to be on watch.
      _menjaga_, to watch, to guard.
  _keliling_, around.
    _ber-keliling_, to border, surround.
      _mengeliling_, to hem in, to go round.
  _karja_, work.
    _ber-karja_, to be a workman.
      _mengarja-kan_, to work, effect, accomplish.
  _lepas_, loosed.
    _ber-lepas_, to be free.
      _melepas_, to set free.
  _lambat_, slow.
    _ber-lambat_, to be slow.
      _me-lambat_, to retard.
  _labuh_, to lower, drop.
    _ber-labuh_, to be at anchor.
      _me-labuh_, to let fall, to anchor.
  _naung_, shade.
    _ber-naung_, to be sheltered.
      _me-naung-i_, to shelter, to shade, protect.
  _pegang_, to hold.
    _ber-pegang_, to hold.
      _memegang_, to take hold of, to seize.
  _rugi_, loss.
    _be-rugi_, to suffer loss.
      _me-rugi-kan_, to cause loss.
  _sembunyi_, to hide.
    _ber-sembunyi_, to be concealed.
      _menyembunyi_, to hide, conceal.
  _takut_, afraid, fear.
    _ber-takut_, to be afraid.
      _menyakut-kan_, to frighten.
  _ubah_, change, to change.
    _ber-ubah_, to undergo change.
      _meng-ubah_, to change, to alter.

Sixth, Notice must be taken of the common native habit (not one to be
imitated by Europeans learning the language) of inserting in a sentence
words which have no meaning to fill a temporary hiatus while the speaker
is thinking of his next word. These prop-words or pillow-words, to
borrow a Hindustani phrase,[2] are numerous in Malay and vary in
different localities. _Anu_, _bahasa-nia_, _misal[3]-nia_, and
_kata-kan_ are some of those commonly used.

    [Footnote 2: The Hindustani term is _sukhan-takya_, from _sukhan_,
    a word, and _takya_ a pillow.]

    [Footnote 3: Corresponding with the Hindustani _maslan_, which is
    used in a similar way.]

Seventh, The following abbreviations are commonly employed:--

_Na’_ for _handak_; _sikit_ for _sadikit_; _auat_ for _apa-buat?_ why?;
_ta’_ and _t’ada_ for _tiada_; _pi_ and _pĕgi_ (in Patani _gi_) for
_pergi_.



LESSON XXXI.


PHRASES OF POLITENESS.

  Be pleased to ----.--
    _Sila_, _sila-lah_, or _sila-kan-lah._
  Please come into the house--
    _Sila-kan naik atas rumah._
  Be pleased to sit down on a chair--
    _Sila-kan duduk di-atas krusi._
  My house is not what it should be--
    _Rumah sahaya tiada dengan sapertinia._
  Treat it as your own house; don’t stand upon ceremony--
    _Buat-lah saperti rumah sendiri, jangan malu._
  I must beg leave to depart (lit. to rise)--
    _Sahaya handak minta diri-lah dahulu._
  Pray do as you wish; take care as you go--
    _Sila-kan-lah. Jalan baik-baik._
  I crave permission to retire, as I wish to go home--
    _Hamba tuan handak mohun-lah dahulu handak balik._
  Very well (it does not matter)--
    _Ta’ apa-lah._
  I must ask to be pardoned for going (style of the Court)--
    _Patek handak meng-ampun-lah dahulu._
  Very well--
    _Baik-lah._
  Pray come and see me often; don’t hesitate--
    _Mari-lah kĕrap-kĕrap rumah sahaya, jangan-lah segan-segan._
  I am exceedingly pleased to have seen you at my house--
    _Sangat sudi sahaya tuan-tuan datang ber-landang rumah sahaya._
  May your journey be safe--
    _Salamat jalan._
  May you remain in peace--
    _Salamat tinggal._
  There is something that I want; it is to invite you to a trifling
      entertainment--
    _Ada hajat sadikit handak jamu makan sadikit ayer-ayer sejuk._
  I thank you exceedingly (lit. I accept a great favour from you)--
    _Sahaya baniak tĕrima kasih_, or, simply, _tĕrima kasih._
  Are you well?--
    _Tuan ada baik?_
  How is so-and-so, who was ill the other day?--
    _Apa khabar si-polan[4] yang sakit kalmarin itu?_
  He has quite recovered his former health--
    _Sudah sihat balik saperti sedia lama._
  Thanks to the favouring influence of your good fortune, we are free
      from all misfortune and sickness--
    _Dengan berkat tuah tuah tulong tiada-lah satu apa-apa mara-bahaya
      deri-pada sakit demam._

    [Footnote 4: _Polan_, or _fulan_, such a one, probably from the
    Hindustani _fulana_, a word of Arab derivation.]


EXERCISE.

It is a long time since I saw you last. I did not know that you had
arrived here. How did you come, by the river, or by the road? How long
do you intend to stay? Don’t be in a hurry to return; stay for a while,
and recover from the fatigue of your journey. It is a pity that I did
not know beforehand that you were coming. He is a most excellent old
man, and it would be hard to find many like him. If nothing occurs to
prevent it, I shall come and see you on Monday next. There is no
necessity for writing a letter; if you let my clerk know, that will be
sufficient.



LESSON XXXII.


READING AND WRITING.

  Malay is a language of which it is very easy to learn to speak a
      little. It is, however, very difficult to acquire the idioms of
      the natives.--
    _Bahasa Malayu itu mudah sakali di-dapat chahap sadikit-sadikit,
      tetapi kalau handak ikut saperti per-kata-an orang Malayu sendiri
      payah sakali._
  It is written from right to left, whereas English is written from
      left to right--
    _Tulis-an Jawi itu deri kanan bawa ka-kiri tulis-an Inggris deri
      kiri bawa ka kanan._
  The letters employed are the Arabic letters--
    _Huruf-nia yang di-pakei itu huruf ‘Arab._
  What do you call that in Malay?--
    _Orang Malayu apa kata ini?_
  What is the name of this object in Malay?--
    _Apa nama barang ini bahasa Malayu?_
  The pronunciation of Malay differs in different states--
    _Chakap orang Malayu itu lain sakali bunyi-nia di-dalam lain-lain
      tampat._
  His pronunciation is not good--
    _Chakap-nia ta’ terus_, or _dia chakap pelet_, or _télor._
  The Malays of that district have a flat pronunciation; they say _apé_
      for _apa_--
    _Orang Malayu negri itu leper chakap, handak kata APA di-kata-nia
      APÉ_.
  How do you spell that word?--
    _Per-kata-an ini apa eja-nia?_
  This word is not correctly spelt--
    _Per-kata-an ini ta’ betul eja-nia._
  You should read for at least two hours a day, and thus you will soon
      be able to read fluently--
    _Patut-lah tuan membacha surat Jawi sa-korang-korang dua jam lama
      nia pada tiap-tiap hari, lama-lama tuntu-lah buleh dapat bacha
      lanchar._
  Why do you undertake a thing and give it up when half finished?--
    _Perkara itu apa sebab tuan ta’ mahu bahagi habis, buat sa’
      kĕrat-kĕrat sahaja?_
  My son has learned to write Malay, and is now learning the Koran--
    _Anak sahaya sudah dapat tulis Jawi sakarang tengah meng-aji Koran._
  When he has read it through, he will commence to learn (Arabic)
      grammar--
    _Tatkala sudah khatam dia handak mengaji nahu._
  He chants the Koran very well--
    _Pandei juga dia mem-bacha Koran._


EXERCISE.

I am not skilled in composition. He ordered the two writings to be
compared. If he is diligent, he will soon get instruction. He has been
attending school for ever so long, but he knows nothing. After reading
the letter he put it away in a box. The raja ordered the letter to be
read aloud in the assembly. How were these lines ruled? Just look over
this letter and see if it will do. If you will permit me, I will take
away this book to read it. His handwriting is exceedingly good.



LESSON XXXIII.


HOUSEKEEPING.

  There will be no one dining here to-day except the master and myself--
    _T’ ada orang lain makan di rumah hari ini, sahaya ber-dua dengan
      tuan sahaja._
  Tell the cook that last night’s dinner was not at all good--
    _Choba bilang kapada tukang-masak makan-an sa-malam ta’ baik sakali
      masak-nia._
  What he put into the soup I don’t know, but it had a nasty taste--
    _Apa-apa di-bubok-nia di-dalam tim itu ta’ tahu-lah sahaya,
      rasa-nia maung sahaja._
  The rice, too, was burned, and no one could eat it--
    _Nasi pun hangus ta’ lalu (OR buleh) orang makan._
  What is the price of fowls at the market?--
    _Hayam bĕr-apa harga di pasar?_
  Full-grown hens as much as fifty cents each, half-grown fowls about
      twenty cents each, and capons so much a catty according to
      weight--
    _Kalau ibu hayam sampei lima kupang pun ada, hayam sedang agak-nia,
      dua kupang sa’ ekor, hayam kambiri (OR kasi) ikut timbang-an
      kati._
  The milk-man has not come yet--
    _Bĕlum orang bawa susu lagi._
  Choose fish which is quite fresh. What we had yesterday was spoilt
      before it could be cooked--
    _Pilih ikan yang baharu. Ikan kalmarin belum sămpat di-masak lagi
      sudah busŭk._
  Wait a moment. You must have breakfast ready every day at nine o’clock
      punctually, there must be no delay--
    _Nanti-lah dahulu. Sa-hari-hari mahu-lah sedia-kan hazri waktu
      pukul sambilan ta’ buleh lambat lagi._
  Pour this oil into a jar--
    _Minyak ini tuang-lah di-dalam tempayan._
  Take care not to spill it--
    _Baik-baik jangan tumpah._
  Are the kitchen utensils complete, pots and pans, cocoanut scraper,
      stone for grinding spices, &c.?--
    _Chukup-kah per-kakas-an dapor, priuk, bĕlanga, kuali, kukur-an,
      batu giling rampah-rampah, dan lain-lain-nia?_
  The only things wanting are basket-work frames for the cooking-pots,
      and a coffee-mill--
    _Yang ada korang sadikit lekar sahaja dengan kisar-an kahwa._
  I am tired of poultry--
    _Sahaya sudah jĕmu makan daging hayam itek._


EXERCISE.

Is the water boiling? Boil two eggs, but take care that they are not
hard. What do you call this vegetable in Malay? Tell some one to pull
the punkah. This plate is dirty; take it away and bring another. Put the
dish down upon that tray. Weigh the meat when it is brought every day. I
have weighed the beef; there is half a catty too little. How many months
did you work for that gentleman? On what account did you leave?



LESSON XXXIV.


PREPARATIONS FOR DEPARTURE.

  I am going away to ---- on Friday next--
    _Sahaya handak ka-luar ka-kampong anu pada hari juma‘at yang datang
      ini._
  Pack up enough clothes for a few days--
    _Kemas-kan kain-kain mana chukup sampei dua tiga ampat hari
      lama-nia._
  You need not take so many; I am not going for good--
    _Ta’payah bagitu baniak, ta’kan orang handak pergi langsong._
  Put all these clothes into a box--
    _Isi-kan kain-kain ini sumua dalam peti._
  Will this go in?--
    _Chelus-kah ini._
  No; it is too big--
    _Ta’chelus, besar sangat._
  Three or four handkerchiefs and two pairs of socks--
    _Saputangan barang tiga ampat ’lei, sarong kaki dua pasang._
  Not this spotted neck-tie, but the striped one--
    _Bukan tali leher yang ber-rintik ini, ada lain yang ber-choring._
  Unfasten this cord--
    _Rangkei tali ini._
  Roll up that rug--
    _Gulong kain panas itu._
  Have everything taken down to the boat--
    _Bawa-lah turun ka-prahu barang-barang ini sumua._
  Put them into the bullock-cart--
    _Muat-kan di-atas kreta lumbu_.
  Call the coolies, and tell them to take the things away--
    _Panggil kuli-kuli suroh angkat._
  We will stop to-night at Kampong--which is the usual halting-place--
    _Hari ini kita ber-malam di Kampong--itu-lah tampat per-hinti-an
      deri salama-lama._
  Wrap a waterproof sheet round that bedding, so that it may not get
      wet--
    _Balut tikar bantal itu dengan kain-gĕtah jangan di-kena basah._
  Set that box down here; I want to take something out of it--
    _Letak-kan peti itu di-sini, sahaya mahu ambil apa-apa
      di-dalam-nia._
  Put everything away again--
    _Simpan kambali sumua._
  What else is there (to detain us)?--
    _Apa lagi kita?_


EXERCISE.

Count all those clothes, and then put them away. At least one hundred
people were waiting at the river-side. After waiting for several hours,
no one came, so they were all disappointed. About midnight there was a
great storm, with thunder and lightning. His shoulder was quite swollen,
for he had never been in the habit of carrying a load on a stick. What
have those two people been quarrelling about? There is a great
difference between these two things.



LESSON XXXV.


ORDINARY NARRATIVE STYLE.

  On the 5th inst., at three o’clock on Thursday morning--
    _Pada lima tarikh pukul tiga malam[5] Khamis._
  On Tuesday last about mid-day--
    _Pada hari Salasa yang sudah waktu tengah hari._
  I had just finished my breakfast, and was about to smoke a cigar--
    _Sahaya pun baharu lepas makan nasi tengah handak minum rokok._
  So-and-so came and called me, saying that my uncle was very ill--
    _Datang-lah si-anu me-manggil kata-nia bapa penakan sahaya sakit
      sangat._
  I said, “Let me lock the door of the house first, and then I will go
      with you”--
    _Kata sahaya biar-lah aku kunchi-kan pintu rumah dahulu baharu-lah
      buleh pergi sama-sama._
  There is a single woman who lives in the house of her brother-in-law--
    _Ada-lah sa’orang perampuan yang duduk di rumah ipar-nia._
  All her property was carried off in the middle of the night by thieves
      without the knowledge of the inmates of the house--
    _Barang-barang dia habis di-angkat penchuri tengah malam tiada
      orang rumah sedar._
  Search was made everywhere without success--
    _Di-chahari rata t’ada juga di-dapat-nia._
  While we were searching about we found a box thrown aside in the
      jungle--
    _Tengah chahari itu jumpa sa’ biji peti ter-champak di-dalam hutan._
  After that we got into the carriage again and returned home without
      stopping anywhere--
    _Lepas itu naik kreta pula pulang ka rumah t’ada singgah
      di-mana-mana._
  After that we watched for ever so long at the edge of the jungle--
    _Sudah-lah bagitu bĕr-apa lama pula kita meng-endap di-tepi hutan._
  At length, as no one appeared, and it was getting very late, we went
      home to bed--
    _Kemdian sa’ orang pun t’ada kaluar hari pun sudah jahu malam jadi
      kita pun pulang-lah tidor._
  It is as well that I should tell you so, that you may not be ignorant
      of it--
    _Baik sahaya khabar-kan jangan-lah tuan ta’ tahu._

    [Footnote 5: Among Muhammadans the day commences at sunset and the
    night is classed with the day which _follows_ it. Thursday night,
    therefore, with them, includes our Wednesday night and part of
    Thursday morning.]


EXERCISE.

On Wednesday night at 9.30 p.m. He drove to the landing-place, took a
boat and went on board the steamer. They were not permitted to land. I
was just getting ready to return when your messenger arrived. We left
before daylight in the morning and did not return until after dark. Can
we go there and back in a day? All the men who were with me were very
tired. I said, “Very well, come to my house to-morrow morning at six
o’clock.” He seemed to be very weak, and walked with difficulty.



LESSON XXXVI.


BUYING AND SELLING.

  How much did you give for this?--
    _Bĕr-apa tuan bĕli ini?_
  What is the balance remaining?--
    _Tinggal baḳi-nia bĕr-apa?_
  Don’t ask too much; say exactly what you want--
    _Jangan-lah mahal sangat, kata-lah betul-betul._
  I can’t take that; it would not even cover my outlay--
    _Ta’ buleh-lah tuan, ta’ pulang modal sahaya._
  He paid an exorbitant price for it--
    _Dia bĕli dengan harga mahal ter-lampau._
  What is it worth?--
    _Bĕr-apa patut di-bayar harga-nia?_
  Whatever you may pay for it, I will repay to you--
    _Bĕr-apa-apa harga yang angkau bĕli itu nanti sahaya bayar-kan._
  Have you no curiosities in your shop?--
    _T’ada-kah benda apa-apa yang pelik-pelik di-dalam kedei ini?_
  I bought this article at auction--
    _Benda ini sudah sahaya tangkap dalam ’lelong._
  I did not venture to bid more--
    _Ta’ bĕrani sahaya tawar lebeh._
  I have always sold them for a dollar a-piece--
    _Yang sudah-sudah ini sahaya jual sa-ringgit satu._
  You must pay ready-money; he will not give credit--
    _Mahu-lah mem-bayar tunei, ta’ mahu dia mem-bĕri hutang._
  He was offered one hundred dollars for it, but would not part with
      it--
    _Sudah orang minta dengan harga sa-ratus rial ta’ mahu juga dia
      lepas-kan._
  As long as it is a good article, I don’t mind about the price--
    _Asal-kan barang yang baik sahaya ta’ sayang pasal harga-nia._
  Examine it well lest there should be any defect in it--
    _Păreḳsa-lah baik-baik takut ada chachat-nia apa-apa._
  Gutta-percha sells very well just now--
    _Gĕtah baniak laku sakarang._
  This coin is not current here--
    _Wang ini ta’ laku di-sini._
  Write down all the items and let me know what the total is--
    _Tulis-lah perkara-perkara satu-satu khabar-kan bĕr-apa jĕmlah-nia._
  There are ten dollars for you--
    _Nah! sa-puloh ringgit._
  This material is not to be surpassed either in excellence of quality
      or beauty of colour--
    _Ta’ lawan-lah kain ini deri-pada baik sifat-nia dan dok warna-nia._
  It is both strong and thick--
    _Kukuh lagi tebal._
  This colour does not fade--
    _Ta’ turun warna ini._


EXERCISE.

How much are these plantains a bunch? It is not worth a cent. I have
searched all the shops without finding what I want. I offered him two
dollars and a half, and after a time he agreed. He said he would
guarantee the goods, and that you might return the whole if they are not
in good order. There is a quantity of chaff in this rice. I have no
copper money, be good enough to get me change for a dollar. This is not
according to sample. Weigh it first and then put it away. Don’t be
uneasy; you can trust this man.



LESSON XXXVII.


BUILDING.

  When will your new house be finished?--
    _Rumah tuan yang baharu itu bila akan sudah?_
  Not for a long time yet; I am just getting the materials together--
    _Lama juga lagi, tengah kumpul ramu-ramu-an._
  The floor and walls will be of plank--
    _Lantei papan dinding pun papan._
  There will be four windows on each side opening down to the floor--
    _Sa-bĕlah ampat jandela panjang ter-buka sampei di bendul._
  The front door has steps (in front of it)--
    _Pintu di hadap-an ber-tangga._
  The length of the house is thirty-five feet and the breadth forty
      feet, including the verandah--
    _Panjang-nia rumah itu tiga-puloh lima kaki, buka-nia dengan
      sarambi ampat puloh kaki._
  The servants’ houses have _atap_ walls covered with _samir_ or
      _kajang_ matting--
    _Rumah orang gaji itu dinding-nia ikat atap apit samir atau kajang._
  This timber will not last long; it will rot very quickly--
    _Kayu ini ta tahan lama, lakas nanti rĕput._
  These wooden posts will be planed as smooth as possible--
    _Tiang kayu ini nanti tukang tara buat lichin sakali._
  Make out a list of all the different timber you will require, such as
      posts, beams, joists, rafters, &c.--
    _Buat-lah kira-kira kayu-kayu yang handak itu deri-pada jerjak,
      rasuk, gĕlĕgar, kasau, dan lain-lain-nia._
  Measure the height from the floor to the top of the wall-plate--
    _Hukur-lah tinggi-nia deri lantei sampei ka-atas kapala-tiang._
  Those door-posts are not straight--
    _Ta’ betul jinang paha pintu itu._
  I shall fix lattice-work here for climbing plants to grow over--
    _Sahaya handak pukul papan jala-jala di-sini biar me-lata pokok
      bunga di-atas-nia._
  In how many days will you thatch it?--
    _Bĕr-apa hari lagi mahu bubok atap?_
  Three thousand _ataps_ will not be enough--
    _Ta’ chukup-lah tiga ribu atap._


EXERCISE.

In former days the Raja of Kedah sent messengers to the Rajah of Perak
with a letter. When the letter was opened and read in the assembly, in
the presence of the Raja and the chiefs, its purport was found to be
this single question only:-- “Which is the higher, Gunong Jerei or
Gunong Bubu?” Now Gunong Jerei is a mountain in Kedah, and Gunong Bubu
is a mountain in Perak. When the letter had been read, there was much
excitement among the Perak people, for many thought that the message
betokened war. For three days the Raja and the chiefs consulted together
as to the nature of the answer which should be given to the Raja of
Kedah. On the third day a letter was written in reply to this effect:--
“Gunong Jerei is the higher of the two, but Gunong Bubu is the greater.”



LESSON XXXVIII.


SEWING.

  I want two or three jackets made--
    _Sahaya handak suroh buat baju dua tiga ’lei._
  I don’t mind your taking some time about it, as long as the work is
      well done--
    _Biar lambat sadikit karja ta’apa, asal-kan elok jahit-an-nia._
  If it is not well done I will not take it--
    _Jikalau ta’elok sahaya ta’mahu tĕrima._
  Join these two pieces and sew them--
    _Dua ’lei ini kampuh-lah jahit._
  Tack it first and then sew it--
    _Jelujur-lah jarang dahulu, lepas itu sakali jahit._
  Fell the seams close--
    _Kĕlim tulang halus-halus._
  Don’t let them ravel--
    _Jangan bahagi ka-luar benang._
  When you fell, fold the stuff wide and turn the edge well in, so that
      when it is washed the threads will not ravel--
    _Kalau kĕlim lipat kain baniak, masok-kan tepi ka-dalam, nanti
      waktu basoh bulu-nia tidak-lah ka-luar._
  Stitch the wristband--
    _Ber-kiya hujong tangan-nia._
  Hem the border--
    _Tepi itu lipat jahit._
  To make the seam strong, don’t run it, but sew it over--
    _Tulang it mahu buat kukuh jangan-lah jelujur, lilit ubi sahaja._
  Take those torn stockings and darn them--
    _Ambil sarong-kaki yang koyak itu jerumat-lah sadikit._
  That is very much torn and cannot be darned; you must patch it--
    _Sudah baniak koyak kain itu radup ta’buleh kĕna tampong-lah._
  To gather (lit. pull the thread and make it pucker)--
    _Tarik benang bahagi kerudut._
  Why do you take such long stitches? I take three stitches where you
      take one. Cannot you sew closer?--
    _Ken’apa jahit ini jarang sahaja, tiga penyuchuk kita satu
      penyuchuk dia, ta tahu-kah buat kĕrap-kĕrap?_
  Needles, Berlin wool, scissors, thimble, and a reel of white cotton--
    _Jerum, benang bulu kambing, gunting, sarong-jari dan benang puteh
      sa’kotak._


EXERCISE.

It happened once that two men had a dispute about a woman. One of them
was a learned man and the other was a peasant who earned his living by
cultivating his fields. Each asserted that the woman was his wife, and
they went before the Kazi and stated their claims. The case was rendered
all the more difficult by the refusal of the woman to say anything one
way or the other. After hearing all the witnesses on both sides, the
Kazi directed the woman to remain at his house and all the rest to
return next day. All then saluted him and retired. On the following day,
when the parties assembled, the Kazi delivered the woman to the learned
man and sentenced the peasant to fifty stripes of a rattan. When
questioned afterwards as to his reason for this decision, the Kazi said,
“This morning, in my house, I ordered this woman to fill my inkstand;
this she at once did most expertly, like one accustomed to the task.
Then I knew she must be the wife of the learned man, for what should the
wife of a peasant know of inkstands?” All praised the Kazi for his
wisdom, and his fame as a judge was spread far and wide.



LESSON XXXIX.


SICKNESS.

  I am not at all well--
    _Ta’ sedap badan sahaya._
  For five or six days he has been unable to eat--
    _Sudah lima anam hari dia ta’buleh makan nasi._
  What is the matter with him?--
    _Apa sakit-nia?_
  His father has taken him into the country for treatment--
    _Bapa-nia sudah bawa naik ka-darat ber-ubat._
  He is a little better--
    _Ada-lah korang sadikit sakit-nia._
  When he was very ill the other day, many people thought that he would
      not recover--
    _Tatkala dia tengah sakit sangat dahulu itu baniak orang fikir
      tiada buleh baik._
  I saw that he was very thin and his voice was very weak--
    _Sahaya lihat tuboh-nia sangat kurus, dia ber-chakap pun suara-nia
      perlahan sahaja._
  Where do you feel pain? I am very weak and cannot get up--
    _Sa-bĕlah mana rasa sakit? Sahaya leteh sakali ta’lalu bangket._
  Open your mouth and put out your tongue--
    _Nganga hulur lidak._
  You had better take a purgative--
    _Baik makan penchahar._
  Let me feel his pulse--
    _Biar sahaya pegang nadi dia._
  He is suffering from fever--
    _Dia sakit demam panas._
  He is suffering from rheumatism and has pains in his joints--
    _Dia sakit angin, rasa-nia sakit di sendi-sendi sumua._
  I will give you some oil of a certain kind which you must rub on his
      body every day till he is well--
    _Nanti sahaya bahagi minyuk satu macham mahu di-urut tiap-tiap hari
      sampei hilang sakit itu._
  Mix this white powder with a little water, stir it and then drink it--
    _Serbuk puteh ini champor-lah dengan ayer sadikit kachau lalu
      minum._
  If the small-pox spreads the natives will all certainly leave their
      homes--
    _Kalau me-larat penyakit chachar itu ter-tuntu lah lari habis
      ra‘iyat sumua._
  The fever called _kapialu_ is very dangerous and often ends fatally--
    _Demam kapialu itu jahat sangat kĕrap juga bawa niawa._
  Cholera is the disease which is most dreaded--
    _Ta‘un itu yang orang takut ter-lebeh sakali._


EXERCISE.

Di-kata-kan pada suatu hari Nabi Suleiman ‘aleyhi-assalam duduk di-atas
takhta ka-raja-an dan angin pun mem-bawa dia ka-atas di-udara dan sagala
manusia dan jin yang tiada ter-bilang baniak-nia itu ber-jalan serta-nia
maka ‘ajaib Nabi Suleiman deri-pada ka-besar-an ka-raja-an itu maka
laku-lah dalam hati-nia suatu nafsu pada katika itu dan karana itu
mahkota jadi bengkok maka Nabi Suleiman sigra handak mem-betul-kan
mahkota itu jadi makin bengkok dan jikalau sa-hingga tiga kali pun sudah
handak di-betul-kan Nabi Suleiman mahkota-nia itu tiada jadi betul
sa-telah itu maka ber-kata-lah Nabi Suleiman, “Hei, mahkota, karana apa
angkau tiada jadi betul?” Maka mahkota itu dengan firman Allah ta‘ala
menyahut. “Hei, Suleiman, betul-kan hati-mu dahulu sapaya aku-pun jadi
betul.”[6]

    [Footnote 6: This and the following exercise are extracts from the
    _Taj-assalatin_.]



LESSON XL.

TO ILLUSTRATE THE USE OF NUMERAL CO-EFFICIENTS.[7]


  In that gentleman’s house one piece of matting covers a whole room--
    _Rumah tuan itu sa’BIDANG tikar sahaja chukup satu bilek._
  They found in the hut five spears, one long _kris_, and nine muskets--
    _Di-jumpa di bangsal itu lembing lima BATANG, kris panjang sa-BILAH
      dengan snapang sembilan PUCHUK._
  See if you can get twenty-five fish-roes. How much are they a-piece?--
    _Chahari-lah telor tĕrubuk dua puloh lima KAMPUH. Bĕr-apa harga-nia
      sa-KAMPUH?_
  She ordered a curtain to be hung before the doorway--
    _Di-suroh-nia gantong tirei sa-LABUH di muka pintu._
  That bunch of plantains contains about ten rows--
    _Di-dalam sa-TANDAN pisang itu agak-agak sapuloh sikat._
  I said I wanted to buy ten cakes of wax--
    _Kata sahaya, sahaya mahu bĕli lilin sa-puloh TAMPANG._
  The child was wearing a coral necklace round her neck--
    _Budak itu ada pakei sa-LABUH merjan di leher-nia._
  How many yards of cloth are there in a piece?--
    _Sa-KAYU kain itu jadi ber-apa ela?_[8]
  How many _ataps_ can one person make in a day?--
    _Satu orang bĕr-apa MENGKAWAN buleh semat atap pada sa’hari?_
  The buffalo destroyed six sugar-cane plants and a quantity of
      lemon-grass plants--
    _Sudah di-makan kerbau tĕbu anam RUMPUN dengan serei ta’tuntu
      baniak RUMPUN-nia._
  He planted seven or eight young trees in front of the house--
    _Di-tanam-nia di-hadap-an rumah anak pokok kayu tujoh delapan
      PERDU._
  It was a pretty thick book, containing about two hundred sheets--
    _Tebal juga kitab itu ada lebeh korang dua ratus KAJANG kartas._
  I have bought a casting-net to take home with me--
    _Sahaya sudah bĕli jala sa’UTAS (OR sa’RAWAN) handak bawa pulang
      ka tampat sahaya._
  He tied three threads round his stomach--
    _Di-ikat-nia tiga URAT benang di pĕrut-nia._
  Pick two or three jasmine blossoms, and about ten sprays of that red
      flower--
    _Petik-lah bunga melor dua tiga KUTUM dengan bunga merah itu barang
      sa-puloh TANGKEI._

    [Footnote 7: See _supra_, p. 70.]

    [Footnote 8: _Ela_, yard, from the Dutch _el_.]


EXERCISE.

Di cheritra-kan deri-pada Sultan Iskandar bahwa sa-hari duduk dengan
chinta-nia dan tiada kaluar deri-pada astana-nia maka Jalinus Hakim
masok mengadap Sultan Iskandar lalu lihat dia duduk ber-chinta maka
iya-pun ber-tanya deri-pada-nia “apa chinta Sultan itu bahwa Sultan
tiada kaluar deri-dalam astana?” maka Sultan Iskandar ber-sabda
“chinta-ku deri-pada itu-lah yang dunia ini tiada baniak dan karana
suatu ka-raja-an dunia ini yang tiada ber-apa ada-nia aku menyusah-kan
diri-ku dan sagala orang yang lain maka deri-pada pekarja-an yang
sia-sia ini-lah aku jua ber-chinta” maka sembah Hakim itu “Benar-lah
bichara Sultan itu karana apa garangan dunia dan ber-apa dunia ini bahwa
Sultan menyusah-kan diri-nia karana ka-raja-an itu yang sia-sia tetapi
ka-raja-an dunia ini ada suatu tanda deri-pada maha besar ka-raja-an
akhirat itu yang tiada ber-ka-sudah-an ada-nia dan yang Sultan dapat
ber-uleh deri-pada pe-karja-an ka-raja-an dunia ini dengan
sa-sunggoh-nia sapaya Sultan men-dapat ka-raja-an akhirat itu yang
sagala yang tiada buleh di-kira-kira-i ka-besar-an-nia itu” maka
suka-lah Sultan Iskandar deri-pada kata-nia dan bichara-nia yang baik
itu.



APPENDIX TO PART IV.


MUHAMMADAN MONTHS.

  1. _Muharram._
  2. _Safar._
  3. _Rabia-el-awal._
  4. _Rabia-el-akhir._
  5. _Jumad-el-awal._
  6. _Jumad-el-akhir._
  7. _Rejab._
  8. _Sha‘aban._
  9. _Ramazan._
  10. _Shawal._
  11. _Zu’l-ka‘adah._
  12. _Zu’l-hajah._

DAYS OF THE WEEK.

  Sunday, _Ahad_, lit. “the first.”
  Monday, _Isnein_ or _Senein_, lit. “the second.”
  Tuesday, _Salasa_, lit. “the third.”
  Wednesday, _Arba‘ah_ or _Rabu_, lit. “the fourth.”
  Thursday, _Khamis_, lit. “the fifth.”
  Friday, _Juma‘at_, lit. “the congregation.”
  Saturday, _Sabtu_, lit. “Sabbath.”

PERIODS OF PRAYER.

  1. _Maghrib_, a few minutes after sunset.
  2. _‘Isha_, evening, after dark.
  3. _Subh_, daybreak.
  4. _Lohor_, or _Dluḥr_, between noon and 1 P.M.
  5. _Asr_, afternoon, midway between noon and nightfall.

MALAY PHRASES FOR DIVISIONS OF TIME.

  1. _Belum terbang lalat_, “Before the flies are astir,” just before
      daybreak.
  2. _Pechah panas_, “When the heat commences,” sun-up.
  3. _Kĕring ambun_, “When the dew dries,” about 8 A.M.
  4. _Tengah naik_, “When the sun is half-way,” 9 A.M.
  5. _Tulih tenggala_, “When the plough is idle.”[1]
  6. _Tengah hari tĕpat_, “Mid-day exactly,” noon.
  7. _Rambang_, “Right in the middle” (_i.e._ the sun in the sky), noon.
  8. _Buntar membayang_, “When the shadows are round” (_i.e._, when your
      shadow is round your feet), noon.
  9. _Ber-alis hari_, “When the day changes,” afternoon.
  10. _Lepas ba‘adah_, and _lepas ba‘adah salah_, “After (Friday’s)
      prayers (in the mosque),” about 1.30 P.M.
  11. _Turun kerbau be-rendam_, “When the buffaloes go down to the
      water,” about 5 P.M.
  12. _Jindĕra budak_, “When the children have gone to sleep,” about
      10 P.M.

    [Footnote 1: _Tulih tinggala muda_ is about 9 A.M., and _tulih
    tinggala tuah_ about 11 A.M.]


MALAY PROPER NAMES.

The proper names common to the whole Muhammadan world, many of which are
Hebrew also, are in use among the Malays. It is common, however, to
abbreviate them in a manner peculiarly Malay. For example, “Muhammad” is
shortened to “Mat,” “Ibrahim” becomes “Brahim” and “Him,” and for
“Isahak,” “Sahak” and “Ak” are often heard.

Certain names are also in use, which, either used by themselves or
prefixed to other proper names, show the relative seniority of a person
in his or her family. In Kedah, Penang, &c., three of these are commonly
used, “_Long_,” “_Ngah_,” and “_Busuk_:”--

  _Long_ is equivalent to _Sulong_, “eldest,”
  _Ngah_ is equivalent to _Tengah_, “middle,”
  _Busuk_ is equivalent to _Bongsu_, “youngest.”

In Perak seven of these names are in use:--

  1. _Long._
  2. _Ngah._
  3. _Alang._
  4. _Panjang._
  5. _Pandah._
  6. _Uda._
  7. _Utih._


WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.

   16 _tahil_,                      1 _kati_.[2]
  100 _kati_,                       1 _pikul_.
    3 _pikul_,                      1 _bahara_.
   40 _pikul_,                      1 _koyan_.

    [Footnote 2: 1 _kati_ = 1 lb. 6 oz. 13 drs.]

GOLDSMITH’S WEIGHT.

  12 _saga_,                        1 _mayam_.
  16 _mayam_,                       1 _bungkal_.[3]
  12 _bungkal_,                     1 _kati_.

    [Footnote 3: 1 _bungkal_ = the weight of two Spanish dollars = 832
    grains.]

CAPACITY.

    4 _chupak_,                     1 _gantang_.[4]
   10 _gantang_,                    1 _parah_.
   16 _gantang_,                    1 _nalih_.
  160 _gantang_,                    1 _kunchah_.
    5 _kunchah_ or 800 _gantang_    1 _koyan_.

    [Footnote 4: 1 _gantang_ contains 271.65 cubic inches, or 1¼
    gallons nearly. The standard varies according to locality.]

LINEAR.

   2 _jingkal_ (span),              1 _hasta_ (cubit).
   2 _hasta_,                       1 _ela_ (yard).
   4 _hasta_,                       1 _dĕpa_ (fathom).
   2 _dĕpa_,                        1 _jumba_.
  20 _jumba_,                       1 _orlong_ (80 yards).

SQUARE MEASURE.

  400 _jumba_,                      1 _orlong_.

The _jumba_ is equal to 144 square feet; the _orlong_ is equal to 6400
square feet, or about 1⅓ acre (1 acre, 1 rood, 12 perches).


MONEY.

The currency in the Straits of Malacca is the Spanish dollar (_ringgit_
or _real_) divided into cents. A quarter of a dollar (25 cents) is
called _suku_ (quarter). Local terms are also used to denote fractions
of the dollar, as in Penang, _kupang_ (= 10 cents), and in Malacca,
_wang baharu_ (= 2½ cents).

In the native states on the west coast of the peninsula, the currency of
the British settlements has almost entirely displaced that which was in
use before. In Perak lumps of tin were formerly current as coin; in
addition to these Dutch and Spanish silver coins were also employed.

The following are some of the old modes of reckoning:--

TIN COINAGE.

  2 _boya_,     1 _tampang_ (value the 10th part of a dollar).[5]
  5 _boya_,     1 _bidor_ (value the 4th part of a dollar).

    [Footnote 5: The weight of the _tampang_ (in Perak) was one
    _kati_. It was a small cubical lump of tin, with a pattern stamped
    on it. The _bidor_ weighed 2½ _kati_, or the 40th part of a
    _pikul_.]

SILVER COINS USED IN WEIGHING GOLD.

  2 _penjuru_,  1 _piah_,     weight 1 _mayam_.
  4 _piah_,     1 _jampal_,   weight 4 _mayam_.
  2 _jampal_,   1 _real_,     weight 8 _mayam_.

COINS FORMERLY IN USE.

  36 _duit hayam_ (copper),   1 _wang_ (silver).
   7 _wang_,                  1 _suku_.



PART V.


VOCABULARY.


  A.

  Abandon, to, _meninggal-kan_.
  Abase, to, _me-rendah-kan_, _meng-hina-kan_.
  Able, _larat_, _sămpat_, _buleh_, _lalu_.
  Abscess, _barah_.
  Abuse, to, _maki_, _me-maki_.
  Accept, to, _tĕrima_, _menĕrima_.
  Accompany, to, _ber-serta_, _ber-sama_, _ber-kawan_, _ber-tĕman_,
      _menyerta_.
  Accomplish, to, _habis-kan_, _meng-habis-kan_, _menyampei-kan_,
      _sudah-kan_, _menyudah-kan_, _sampei hajat_.
  Accost, to, _tegor_, _siapa-kan_, _meny-apa-kan_.
  Accounts, _kira-kira_, _hitong-an_, _ bilang-an_.
  Accuse, to, _tudoh_.
  Accustomed, _biasa_.
  Ache, _sakit_, _sakit-an_, _senak_.
  Acknowledge, to, _aku_, _mengaku_.
  Acquire, to, _ber-uleh_, _dapat_, _men-dapat_.
  Act, _buat-an_, _karja_, _pe-karja-an_.
  Active, _chĕpat_.
  Add, to, _tambah_, _menambah_;
    (to cast up), _jumlah-kan_.
  Adjourn, to, _tangguh_.
  Admirable, _endah_.
  Admire, _chengang_.
  Adopt, to, _angkat_.
  Adrift, _ter-hanyut_.
  Adultery, _zinah_.
  Advantage, _faidah_, _laba_.
  Adversity, _chelaka_, _bala_, _ka-susahan_.
  Advice, _peng-ajar-an_.
  Affair, _perkara_.
  Affection, _kasih_, _kasih-an_.
  Afraid, _takut_.
  Aft, _di burit-an_.
  After, _lĕpas_, _bĕlakang_.
  Afterwards, _kemdian_, _ba‘ad_.
  After-birth, _uri_, _tembuni_.
  Again, _lagi-sakali_, _pula_, _kambali_.
  Age, _‘umur_.
  Agent, _wakil_.
  Ago, _sudah_.
  Agree, _janji_, _mufakat_, _sa-tuju_;
    (suit), _rasi_, _sarasi_.
  Ague, _demam-kura_.
  Ahead, _di-hadap-an_, _di-muka_, _di-halu-an_.
  Aid, _tulong_, _menulong_, _bantu_, _mem-bantu_.
  Aim, to, _tembak_, _menembak_, _tuju_, _menuju_.
  Air, _hawa_.
  Alarmed, _ter-kĕjut_.
  Alight, _hinggap_.
  All, _sumua_, _sagala_, _sakali-an_.
  Allow, _biar_, _bĕri_, _kasih_.
  Allure, _bujuk_, _mem-bujuk_.
  Almighty, _maha-kuasa_.
  Almost, _hampir_, _dĕkat_, _niaris_.
  Almond, _badam_.
  Alms, _darma_, _sădăkah_.
  Aloes-wood, _gaharu_, _kayu-gaharu_.
  Alone, _sa-orang_, _bujang_, _tunggal_.
  Also, _juga_.
  Alter, to, _ubah_, _meng-ubah_, _tukar_, _menukar_.
  Alum, _tawas_.
  Always, _sa-lalu_, _sa-nantiasa_, _sa-lama-lama-nia_.
  Ambassador, _utusan_, _pĕsuroh_.
  Amid, _di-dalam_, _di-tengah_.
  Amuse oneself, to, _main_, _main-main_, _ber-main_.
  Ancestors, _nenek-moyang_.
  Anchor, an, _sauh_;
    (anchor, to), _ber-labuh_.
  Angel, _malaikat_.
  Anger, _marah_, _ka-marah-an_, _murka_.
  Angry, _marah_, _murka_, _gĕram_, _hangat-hati_.
  Animal, _benatang_, _satwa_, _morga_.
  Ankle, _mata-kaki_, _peng-gĕlang-kaki_.
  Anklet, _gĕlang-kaki_.
  Annoy, to, _usik_, _meng-usik_, _bising_.
  Another, _lain_.
  Answer, to, _sahut_, _menyahut_, _jawab_, _balas jawab_.
  Ant, _sĕmut_;
    (large red), _kĕrangga_;
    (white), _anei-anei_.
  Anthill, _pongsu_, _busut_.
  Antidote, _pĕnawar_.
  Anvil, _landas_, _landas-an_.
  Anxiety, _per-chinta-an_.
  Anxious, _rindu_, _dendam_, _bimbang_, _risau_.
  Any, _barang_.
  Apart, _asing_;
    (with an opening between), _renggang_.
  Appear, to, _terbit_, _timbul_.
  Appearance, _rupa_, _sifat_.
  Apply, to, _pasang_, _kĕna-kan_;
    (ask), _minta_.
  Appraise, to, _nilai_.
  Approach, to, _hampir_, _menghampir_.
  Arabia, _benua ‘arab_.
  Arm, _tangan_;
    (fore-arm), _lengan_.
  Arm, weapon, _senjata_.
  Armpit, _katiak_.
  Army, _balatantra_, _lashkar_.
  Arrive, to, _sampei_, _tiba_.
  Arrow, _anak-panah_.
  Arsenic, _warangan_.
  Art, _hikmat_, _‘ilmu_.
  As, _bagei_, _saperti_, _laḳsana_, _macham_.
  Ascend, to, _naik_, _panjat_;
    (a river), _mudik_.
  Ashamed, _malu_, _bermalu_.
  Ashes, _habu_.
  Ask, to, _minta_, _pinta_, _pohun_, _me-mohun_;
    (a question), _tanya_.
  Asleep, _ber-tidor_, _ber-lena_, _ber-adu_.
  Ass, _kaldei_.
  Assault, to, _langgar_, _terkam_, _pukul_, _memukul_.
  Assay, _uji_.
  Assemble, to, _impun_, _kumpul_, _kĕrumun_.
  Assist, to, _tulong_, _bantu_.
  Astonished, _ter-chengang_.
  Astray, _sesat_.
  At, _di_, _pada_.
  Athwart, _lentang_.
  Attack, to, _langgar_, _sĕrang_, _men-yĕrang_.
  Attempt, to, _choba_, _men-choba_.
  Attire, _pakei-an_.
  Auction, _lelong_.
  Audience-hall, _balei_, _balei-ruang_.
  Auger, _gurdi_.
  Aunt, _mah_, _mah-sudara_, _mah-pena-kan_.
  Authority, _kuasa_, _pĕrentah_.
  Await, to, _me-nanti_.
  Awake, to, _jaga_, _ber-jaga_;
    (to arouse), _gĕrak-kan_, _mem-bangket-kan_, _mem-bangun-kan_.
  Awl, _peng-gorek_, _jara_.
  Axe, _kapak_.


  B.

  Babe, _anak kechil_.
  Bachelor, _bujang_, _taruna_.
  Back, _bĕlakang_;
    (to go --), _pulang_;
    (to send --), _pulang-kan_.
  Backward, _segan_, _malas_.
  Bad, _jahat_.
  Bag, _karong_, _pundi-pundi_.
  Bail, _aku-an_, _tanggong-an_.
  Bait (for fish), _umpan_.
  Bake, to, _panggang_.
  Balance (scales), _naracha_;
    (to weigh), _timbang_;
    (surplus), _baḳi_.
  Bald, _botak_.
  Bale, to, _timba_, _menimba_.
  Banana, _pisang_.
  Bank, of a river, _tĕbing_, _baroh_;
    (shoal), _bĕting_.
  Bar, _kanching_.
  Barber, _pen-chukor_, _tukang-chukor_.
  Bargain, to, _tawar_;
    (to conclude a bargain), _angkat jual-bĕli_.
  Bark, of a tree, _kulit-kayu_;
    (of a dog), _salak_, _menyalak_.
  Barrel, _pipa_, _tong_;
    (of a gun), _laras_.
  Base, _hina_.
  Basket, _bakul_, _raga_, _kĕranjang_.
  Bastard, _anak-haram_, _haram-zada_.
  Bat, _lalawa_, _kalawar_;
    (flying fox), _kaluang_.
  Bathe, to, _mandi_, _me-mandi_.
  Battle, _pĕrang_, _pe-pĕrang-an_.
  Bawl, to, _tĕriak_, _ber-tĕriak_.
  Bay, _telok_.
  Beach, _pantei_, _pasisir_.
  Beads, _mani-mani_.
  Beak, of a bird, _paroh_.
  Beam, of light, _sinar_.
  Bear, to, (carry), _pikul_, _memikul_;
    (endure), _tahan_;
    (ursus), _bĕruang_.
  Beard, _janggut_.
  Beast, _benatang_, _satwa_, _morga_.
  Beat, to, _pukul_, _palu_;
    (to throb), _dabar_, _ber-dabar_.
  Beautiful, _bagus_, _elok_, _chantek_, _molek_.
  Because, _sebab_, _karana_.
  Beckon, to, _gamit_, _lambei_.
  Become, to, _jadi_, _menjadi_.
  Bed, _tampat-tidor_;
    (bedstead), _katil_, _gĕrai_, _geta_, _pentas_;
    (bridal), _palamin_.
  Bee, _lĕbah_.
  Beef, _daging lumbu_.
  Beetle, _kumbang_.
  Before, _mengadap_, _ka-hadap-an_;
    (in time past), _dahulu_;
    (ere), _sa belum_.
  Beg, to, _minta_, _minta sădăkah_.
  Beginning, _per-mula-an_, _ahwal_, _pangkal_, _asal_.
  Behaviour, _ka-laku-an_, _pakerti_, _per-angei_.
  Belch, to, _serdawa_.
  Believe, to, _perchaya_.
  Bell, _ganta_, _loching_.
  Beloved, _kakasih_.
  Below, _bawah_, _di-bawah_, _ka-bawah_;
    (under the lee of), _di-olak_.
  Belt, _tali-pinggang_, _tali-pinding_.
  Bench, _bangko_.
  Bend, to, _me-lengkong-kan_;
    (to incline), _chondong_.
  Bent, _lengkong_, _bengkok_, _lengkok_.
  Benevolence, _morah-hati_.
  Benzoin, _kaminian_.
  Besprinkle, to, _perchik_, _memerchik_.
  Bet, to, _ber-taroh_.
  Betel-nut, _pinang_;
    (leaf), _sirih_;
    (stand), _tampat-sirih_, _bujam-sirih_.
  Betrothed, one that is, _tunang_, _tunang-an_.
  Better, _lebeh baik_.
  Between, _antara_, _di-tengah_, _kĕlang-kĕlang_.
  Beyond, _balik_, _balik-sana_.
  Bible (the Gospels), _Injil_.
  Bid, to, _tawar_.
  Bier, _jănazat_.
  Big, _besar_.
  Bind, to, _ikat_.
  Bird, _burong_.
  Bird’s-nest, _sarong-burong_.
  Birth, _per-anak-an_, _ka-jadi-an_.
  Bite, to, _gigit_;
    (as a snake), _pagut_.
  Bitter, _pahit_.
  Black, _hitam_.
  Blacksmith, _tukang-bĕsi_.
  Blade (of a weapon), _mata_.
  Blame, to, _per-salah-kan_.
  Blanket, _kamal_, _kamli_, _kain panas_.
  Blemish, _chachat_.
  Blessing, _barkat_.
  Blind, _buta_.
  Block, pulley, _kapi_.
  Blood, _darah_.
  Blossom, _bunga_, _kembang_.
  Blow, to, (with wind), _hambus_, _tiup_;
    (through a tube), _sumpit_, _men-yumpit_;
    (as a flower), _ber-kembang_.
  Blue, _biru_.
  Blunderbuss, _pamuras_.
  Blunt, _tumpul_.
  Boar, _babi-jantan_.
  Board, _papan_.
  Boat, _prahu_, _sampan_.
  Body, _tuboh_, _salira_, _badan_.
  Boil, to, _rĕbus_;
    (rice), _tanak_, _menanak_.
  Boiling, to be, _mendidik_.
  Bold, _bĕrani_.
  Bolt, _kanching_, _penganching_.
  Bond, _surat per-janji-an, surat piu-tang_.
  Bone, _tulang_.
  Book, _surat_;
    (religious --), _kitab_.
  Booth, _teratak_, _jambar_, _lengkok_.
  Bore, to, _korek_, _gorek_, _mengorek_.
  Borrow, to, _pinjam_, _meminjam_.
  Bother, _bising_.
  Bottle, _balang_.
  Bough, _dahan_, _ranting_.
  Bound, to, _lompat_, _me-lompat_.
  Boundary, _per-hingga-an,[1] tumpu-tumpu-an_.

      [Footnote 1: Pronounced _prĕnggan_.]

  Bow, to, (reverence), _tunduk_, _men-unduk_.
  Bow (weapon), _busar_, _gandiwa_.
  Bow (of a ship), _halu-an_.
  Bowels, _pĕrut_, _isi-pĕrut_.
  Box, _peti_;
    (small ornamental), _chumbul_, _chelapa_.
  Box, to, (fight), _tinju_.
  Brains, _otak_.
  Branch, _dahan_, _ranting_, _chabang_;
    (of a river or road), _sempang_, _chabang_.
  Brass, _tambaga_.
  Brave, _bĕrani_.
  Brazen-faced, _muka-papan_.
  Bread, _roti_.
  Bread-fruit, _sukun_.
  Break, to, _pechah_, _patah_, _putus_.
  Breast, _dada_.
  Breasts, _susu_, _tetek_.
  Breath, _nafas_.
  Breeches, _saluar_, _sarual_.
  Breed, family, _bangsa_, _asal_.
  Breeding, manners, _bahasa_, _budi-bahasa_.
  Breeze, _angin_;
    (land), _angin-darat_;
    (sea), _angin-laut_.
  Bribe, _suap_.
  Brick, _bata_, _batu-bata_.
  Bride, _pengantin_.
  Bridegroom, _mempelei_.
  Bridge, _titi_, _jambatan_, _gerta_;
    (of the nose), _batang-hidong_.
  Bridle, _kang_, _kakang_, _lagam_ (Hindustani).
  Bright, _tĕrang_, _chaya_.
  Bring, to, _bawa_;
    (out), _kaluar-kan_.
  Broad, _lebar_, _luas_.
  Broad-cloth, _sahalat_.
  Broil, to, _panggang_.
  Broken, _ter-pechah_, _ter-patah_, _ter-putus_.
  Brooch, _krosang_.
  Broom, _penyapu_.
  Brother, _sudara_;
    (elder), _abang_;
    (younger), _adek_.
  Brother-in-law, _ipar_.
  Brow, _dahi_;
    (eye --), _kening_.
  Bruise, _lebam_.
  Brush, to, _sikat-kan_, _menyapu_.
  Brushwood, _semak_.
  Bucket, _timba_, _tong_.
  Buckle, _kanching_, _pinding_.
  Bud, of a flower, _kutum_, _kuntum_;
    (of a leaf), _tunas_.
  Buffalo, _kerbau_.
  Bug, _pijat-pijat_.
  Build, to, _men-diri-kan_, _bangun-kan_, _buat_, _mem-buat_.
  Bull, _lumbu jantan_.
  Bullet, _peluru_.
  Bunch (of fruit), _tandan_.
  Bundle, _bungkus_, _baban_.
  Burial-place, _kuburan_, _kandang_, _kĕramat_.
  Burn, to, _bakar_, _hangus_.
  Bury, to, _tanam_, _menanam_, _kubur-kan_, _simpan mayat_.
  Bush, _pokok_, _semak_.
  Business, _karja_, _pe-karja-an_.
  But, _tetapi_.
  Butt, target, _sasar_, _sasar-an_.
  Butter, _mantega_.
  Butterfly, _kupu-kupu_, _rama-rama_.
  Button, _kanching_.
  Buy, to, _bĕli_.
  By and by, _sa-buntar lagi_.


  C.

  Cabbage, _kobis_.
  Cable, _tali-sauh_.
  Cage, _sangkar_, _sangkar-an_, _kurong-an_.
  Cake, _penganan_, _kueh_.
  Calculate, to, _kira_, _hitong_, _bilang_.
  Calf, _anak lumbu_;
    (of the leg), _jantong-betis_.
  Calico, _kain kalamkari_.
  Call, to, _panggil_.
  Calm, _tenang_, _tedoh_.
  Calumny, _fitnah_.
  Camel, _unta_.
  Camphor, _kapur-barus_.
  Can, _buleh_, _sampat_, _lalu_.
  Canal, _salur-an_, _parit_.
  Cancel, to, _hapus_, _baṭal-kan_.
  Candle, _dian_, _lilin_.
  Candlestick, _kaki-dian_.
  Cane, walking-stick, _rotan_, _tongkat_.
  Cannon, _mariam_.
  Canoe, _jalor_, _sagor_, _sampan golek_.
  Canopy, _langit-langit_.
  Canvas, _kain laiar_.
  Cap, _kopiah_.
  Cape, _tanjong_.
  Capon, _hayam kambiri_.
  Capsicum, _chabei_, _lada-merah_, _lada-china_.
  Captain of a ship, _juragan_, _nakhoda_.
  Captive, _tawan_.
  Carcass, _bangkei_.
  Cards, playing, _daun chiki_, _daun pakau_.
  Cardamum, _kapulaga_.
  Care, to take, _ingat_, _jaga_;
    (anxiety), _per-chinta-an_, _susah hati_.
  Careless, _lalei_.
  Cargo, _muat-an_.
  Carpenter, _tukang kayu_.
  Carpet, _permadani_.
  Carriage, _kreta_.
  Carry, to, _bawa_, _membawa_;
    (a load), _pikul_, _memikul_;
    (under the arm), _kepit_;
    (on the back or hip), _du-kong_;
    (on the open hand), _tatang_;
    (with the fingers), _bibit_;
    (on the head), _junjong_;
    (on the shoulder), _kilik_;
    (in the girdle), _gendong_;
    (on a stretcher), _usong_.
  Cart, _pedati_, _kreta_.
  Carve, to, _ukir_.
  Cascade, _ayer terjun_, _ayer lata_.
  Cash, _wang tunei_.
  Cashew-apple, _jangsus_, _gajus_.
  Cask, _pipa_, _tong_.
  Cast, to, (fling), _lempar_, _lotar_;
    (shed), _tanggal-kan_.
  Casting-net, _jala_.
  Castor-oil, _minyak jarak_.
  Cat, _kuching_.
  Catch, to, _tangkap_, _menangkap_.
  Caterpillar, _ulat_.
  Cause, _sabab_, _karana_.
  Cave, _goah_.
  Cede, to, _sĕrah_, _menyĕrah_.
  Celebrated, _megah_, _mashur_.
  Censer, _perasap_.
  Census, _banchi_.
  Centipede, _lipan_, _alipan_.
  Centre, _per-tengah-an_, _pusat_.
  Certain, _tuntu_.
  Certainly, _naschaya_, _tuntu_, _sunggoh-sunggoh_.
  Certify, to, _menuntu-kan_, _menyata-kan_.
  Chafe, to (shampoo), _urut_.
  Chaff, _sekam_.
  Chain, _rantei_.
  Chair, _krusi_.
  Chalk, _kapur_.
  Challenge, to (as a sentry), _tegor_, _menyapa-kan_.
  Chamber, _bilek_.
  Chance, _untong_, _nasib_.
  Change, to, _tukar_, _menukar_, _ubah_, _ber-ubah_;
    (clothes), _salin-kan_;
    (turns), _gilir_, _men-gilir_.
  Chapter, _perkara_, _fasal_.
  Character, _pakerti_.
  Charcoal, _arang_.
  Charge, to (accuse), _tudoh_.
  Charity, _sădăkah_.
  Charm, spell, _mantra_, _jampi_;
    (to wear), _‘azimat_, _tangkal_.
  Chase, to, _hambat_, _kejar_;
    (hunt), _buru_.
  Chat, to, _ber-buwei_.
  Cheap, _morah_.
  Cheat, to, _tipu_, _kechek_.
  Cheek, _pipi_.
  Cheese, _panir_ (Hind.), _keju_ (Dutch).
  Chess, _chatur_.
  Chest, box, _peti_, _saharah_;
    (thorax), _dada_.
  Chew, to, _mamak_.
  Chicken, _anak hayam_.
  Chief, headman, _orang besar_, _datoh_, _peng-hulu_.
  Child, _anak_.
  Chin, _dagu_.
  Chintz, _kain chit_.
  Chisel, _pahat_.
  Choke, to, _lemas_;
    (throttle), _chĕkek_.
  Choose, to, _pileh_.
  Chop, to, _chinchang_.
  Christ, _Nabi Isa_.
  Christian, _Nasarani_, _Sarani_.
  Chronicle, _charitra_, _hakayat_.
  Church, _greja_.
  Cinder, _bara_.
  Cinnamon, _kayu-manis_.
  Circumcise, to, _sunat-kan_.
  Circumcision, _sunat_, _khatan_.
  Citron, _limau_, _jeruk_.
  City, _negri_.
  Civil, _ber-budi_.
  Civility, _adab_, _supan_.
  Civet-cat, _musang jebat_.
  Clasp, to, _peluk_, _memeluk_, _dakap_.
  Claw, _kuku_;
    (talon), _chakar_.
  Clay, _tanah-liat_.
  Clean, _bersih_, _suchi_.
  Clear, _tĕrang_, _hening_, _jerneh_.
  Cleave, to, (split), _bĕlah_.
  Clerk, _juru-tulis_, _kĕrani_.
  Clever, _pandei_.
  Climb, to, _panjat_, _daki_;
    (as a plant), _me-lata_.
  Clock, _jam_.
  Close, to, _tutup_, _rapat-kan_, _menutup-kan_.
  Cloth, _kain_.
  Clothes, _pakei-an_.
  Cloud, _awan_, _pokok_.
  Cloudy, _redup_.
  Clove, _bunga-chingkei_, _bunga-lawang_.
  Coal, _batu-arang_;
    (live), _bara_.
  Coarse, _kasar_.
  Coast, _pantei_, _pasisir_.
  Coat, _baju_.
  Coax, to, _bujuk_, _mem-bujuk_.
  Cobweb, _sarang lawa-lawa_.
  Cock, _hayam-jantan_, _hayam-kukuh_.
  Cock’s-comb, _balong_.
  Cockfight, _sabong_, _menyabong_.
  Cockpit, _galanggang_.
  Cockroach, _lipas_.
  Cocoanut, _nior_, _kalapa_;
    (shell), _tempurong_;
    (husk), _sabut_;
    (emulsion), _santan_;
    (oil), _miniak kalapa_.
  Coffee, _kahwah_.
  Coffin, _karanda_, _lang_.
  Coil, to, _lilit_.
  Cold, _sejuk_;
    (in the head), _sardi_ (Hind.), _selesimah_.
  Collar, _leher_.
  Collect, to, _impun_, _kumpul_.
  Colour, _warna_.
  Comb, _sisir_, _sikat_;
    (to comb the hair), _kirai_.
  Combine, to, _pakat_, _mufakat_.
  Come, to, _mari_, _datang_;
    (in), _masok_.
  Comet, _bintang-ber-ekor_.
  Comfort, _hibor_.
  Command, to, _suroh_, _titah_.
  Commission, to, _pasan_.
  Common, _ka-baniak-an_.
  Compact, _per-janji-an_.
  Companion, _teman_, _kawan_, _taulan_.
  Compare, to, _banding-kan_.
  Compass, mariner’s, _pandoman_.
  Compasses, _jangka_.
  Compassion, _kasihan_, _bĕlas_, _rahamat_.
  Compensate, to, _balas_, _mem-balas_.
  Complain, to, _adu_, _meng-adu_.
  Complaint, _peng-adu-an_.
  Complete, to, _semporna-kan_.
  Complexion, _sri-muka_, _ayer-muka_.
  Compliments, _tabek_.
  Compose, to, _karang_, _mengarang_.
  Concern, _karja_, _perkara_.
  Concubine, _gundik_.
  Condemn, to, _hukum-kan_.
  Condiment, _lauk_, _sambal_, _hulam_.
  Conduct, _ka-laku-an_.
  Conduct, to (lead by the hand), _pimpin_.
  Confess, to, _meng-aku_.
  Confiscate, to, _rampas_.
  Confront, to, _sa-muka-kan_.
  Confused, _ter-kachau_.
  Confusion, _haru-hara_.
  Congregation, _juma‘a_.
  Conjure, to, _sulap_.
  Conjuror, _penyulap_.
  Conquer, to, _menang_, _alah-kan_.
  Consent, to, _turut_.
  Consider, to, _kenang_.
  Constable, _mata-mata_.
  Contagious, _ber-jangkit_.
  Contend, to, _lawan_.
  Content, _puas_, _puas-hati_.
  Contents, _isi_.
  Contraband, _larang-an_.
  Contract, _per-janji-an_.
  Contradict, to, _lawan chakap_, _ber-tingkar_.
  Convalescent, _semboh_, _betah_.
  Convenient, _patut_, _senang_.
  Convert, _martad_.
  Convulsions, _sawan_.
  Cook, to, _masak_, _memasak_;
    (boil rice), _tanak_, _menanak_.
  Cool, _sejuk_.
  Copper, _tambaga_.
  Copy, _salin_, _tiru_;
    (model), _teladan_.
  Coral (rock), _karang_;
    (precious), _marjan_.
  Cord, _tali_.
  Cork (stopper), _sumbat_, _penyum-bat_.
  Coriander, _katumbar_.
  Corner, _chĕroh_, _buchuk_, _penjuru_.
  Corpse, _mayat_.
  Cost, _harga_.
  Cot, _katil_.
  Cotton, _kapas_, _kabu-kabu_.
  Cough, _batok_.
  Council, _majlis_.
  Count, _hitong_, _bilang_, _kira_.
  Counterfeit, _lanchong_, _pura-pura_.
  Country, _benua_, _negri_.
  Couple, _sa-pasang_, _sa-jodo_.
  Course (direction), _arah_, _tuju_.
  Court, _balei-bichara_.
  Cousin, _sa-pupu_.
  Cover, to, _tudong_.
  Covetous, _kikir_, _loba_, _haloba_.
  Covey, _kawan_.
  Cow, _lumbu-betina_.
  Coward, _penyakut_.
  Crab, _ketam_, _kapiting_.
  Crack, _retak_.
  Cradle, _buayan_.
  Cramp, _semut-semut-an_;
    (in the stomach), _senak_.
  Crawl, to, _merangkah_.
  Cream, _kapala-susu_.
  Create, to, _men-jadi-kan_.
  Creation, _ka-jadi-an_.
  Creep, to, _lata_, _me-lata_.
  Crevice, _chĕlah_.
  Crew, _anak prahu_.
  Cricket, _chingkrek_, _riyang_.
  Crocodile, _buaya_.
  Crop, to (cut off), _kĕrat-kan_, _me-rampong_.
  Crooked, _bengkok_, _lengkok_;
    (winding), _ber-kelo-kelo_.
  Cross (sulky), _merajuk_, _muka-masam_.
  Cross, to (water), _menyabĕrang_.
  Crossed (lying across), _ter-lentang_;
    (having lines crossing), _ber-silang-silang_.
  Cross-road, _sempang_.
  Crow, _gagak_;
    (crow, to), _ber-kuku_.
  Crown, _makuta_;
    (of the head), _ubun-ubun_.
  Cruel, _bingis_.
  Crush, to, _hanchur_.
  Cry, to, _menangis_, _ber-tĕriak_.
  Cucumber, _timun_.
  Cultivate, to, _tanam_, _buat_.
  Cultivation, _tanam-tanam-an_.
  Cunning, _cherdek_.
  Cup, _mangkok_.
  Curd, _dadeh_.
  Cure (remedy), _ubat_, _penawar_;
    (cure, to), _semboh-kan_.
  Curious, _endah_, _pĕlik_.
  Curly, as hair, _kerenting_.
  Current, _harus_.
  Curry, _gulei_, _lauk_.
  Curse, a, _per-sumpah-an_;
    (curse, to), _sumpah-kan_.
  Curtain, _tirei_, _tabir_;
    (mosquito), _kalambu_.
  Curved, _bengkok_, _lengkok_.
  Cushion, _bantal_, _chiau_.
  Custard-apple, _sri-kaya_.
  Custom, _‘adat_;
    (excise), _chukei_.
  Cut, to, _potong_, _kĕrat_, _tetas_;
    (fell trees), _tebang_;
    (underwood), _tebas_;
    (a wound), _luka_, _liang_.
  Cymbals, _cherachap_.
  Cypher, _angka_.


  D.

  Dagger, _kris_.
  Daily, _sa-hari-hari_.
  Damaged, _rosak_.
  Damask (on a weapon), _pamur_.
  Damp, _basah_, _lembab_.
  Dance, to, _tari_, _menari_.
  Dancer (public), _joget_.
  Dandriff, _daki_.
  Danger, _bahaya_.
  Dare, to, _bĕrani_.
  Dark, _gĕlap_, _kĕlam_.
  Darn, to, _sutam_, _menyulam_.
  Dash against, to, _banting_.
  Date, _tarikh_;
    (fruit), _kurma_.
  Daughter, _anak perampuan_;
    (in law), _menantu perampuan_.
  Dawn, _cherah_, _dina-hari_.
  Day, _hari_;
    (daylight), _siang_;
    (day and night), _siang malam_;
    (daybreak), _fajr_, _dina-hari_;
    (day of judgment), _hari ḳiamat_.
  Dead, _mati_, _mampus_;
    (of a royal personage), _mangkat_.
  Deaf, _tuli_, _pekak_.
  Dear, _kakasih_;
    (costly), _mahal_.
  Death, _ka-mati-an_, _maut_.
  Debt, _hutang_, _piutang_.
  Debtor, _orang ber-hutang_.
  Decayed, _reput_, _busuk_.
  Deceive, to, _tipu_, _menipu_.
  Declare, to, _menyatakan_.
  Decree, _ḥukum_.
  Deed, _buat-an_, _per-karja-an_.
  Deep, _dalam_.
  Deer, _rusa_;
    (mouse-deer), _pelan-duk_.
  Defeat, to, _alah-kan_.
  Defile, to, _kotor-kan_, _chamar-kan_.
  Degree, _pangkat_, _martabat_.
  Deity, _tuhan_, _Allah_;
    (Hindu), _dewa_, _dewata_.
  Delay, _lambat_.
  Delegate, to, _wakil-kan_.
  Delirious, to be, _ber-igau-igau_, _meng-igau_.
  Deliver up, to, _sĕrah_, _menyĕrah_.
  Deluge, _bah_, _ayer bah._.
  Demand, to, (claim), _tuntut_, _menuntut_.
  Demon, _hantu_, _bota_, _jin_.
  Dented, _sumbing_.
  Deny, to, _sangkal_, _menyangkal_, _mungkir_.
  Depart, to, _pergi_, _ber-angkat_.
  Dependency, _jajahan_, _ta‘aluk_.
  Deposit, to, _taroh_, _kirim_.
  Depth, _dalam_.
  Descend, to, _turun_, _menurun_.
  Descent, _turun-an_, _ka-turun-an_.
  Desert, _gurun_, _hutan_;
    (merit), _pa-hala_.
  Design, desire, _kahandak_.
  Despair, _putus harap_.
  Despise, to, _meng-hina-kan_.
  Destroy, to, _binasa_.
  Devil, _sheitan_, _iblis_.
  Devour, to, _makan_, _makan habis_;
    (swallow), _telan_.
  Dew, _ambun_.
  Dial-bird, _morai_.
  Diagonal, _lentang-bujor_.
  Dialect, _bahasa_, _chara_.
  Diamond, _intan_.
  Diarrhœa, _chirit_.
  Die, to, _mati_, _mampus_;
    (of a Mussulman), _pulang ka rahmat Allah_, lit. returned to the
      mercy of God.
  Differ, to, _ber-lain_, _ber-beda_.
  Difference, _per-lain-an_, _beda_, _per-beda-an_, _pewat_.
  Different, _lain_.
  Difficult, _payah_, _susah_.
  Dig, to, _gali_, _korek_.
  Dim, _kĕlam_, _kabur_.
  Dip, to, (in a condiment for eating), _chichah_;
    (to dye), _chelup_.
  Direct, straight, _betul_, _lurus_.
  Dirt, _chamar_, _sampah_.
  Disappear, to, _liniap_, _hilang_, _ghraib_.
  Discard, to, _tolak-kan_.
  Discharge, to, _me-lepas-kan_.
  Disciple, _murid_.
  Discover, to, _dapat_, _men-dapat_.
  Disease, _penyakit_.
  Disembark, to, _naik darat_.
  Disgraceful, _keji_.
  Disguise, _samar_.
  Dish (china-ware), _piring_, _pinggan_;
    (native, of metal), _cheper_, _hidan-gan_.
  Disloyal, _derhaka_.
  Dismiss, to, _buang_, _me-lepas-kan_, _kaluar-kan_.
  Disorder, _haru-hara_.
  Dispersed, _pechah-bĕlah_.
  Dissolve, to, _luluh_, _hanchur_.
  Distant, _jauh_.
  Distil, to, _kukus_.
  Distinct, _tĕrang_.
  Distress, _ka-susah-an_.
  District, _mukim_, _dairah_.
  Ditch, _parit_.
  Dive, to, _selam_, _menyelam_.
  Divide, to, _membahagi_.
  Divine, to, _teleh_, _meneleh_, _tenung_.
  Divorce, _cherei_;
    (to divorce), _cherei-kan_;
    (to be divorced), _ber-cherei_.
  Dizzy, _pening_.
  Do, to, _buat_, _mem-buat_.
  Doctor, _bomor_, _tukang ubat_.
  Dog, _anjing_.
  Dollar, _ringgit_.
  Done, finished, _sudah_.
  Door, _pintu_.
  Doubt, _shak_, _khuatir_.
  Doubtful, _tiada tuntu_.
  Dove, _tekukur_, _balam_.
  Draft, of a document, _ranchana_.
  Drag, to, _hela_, _herut_, _seret_.
  Dragon, _naga_.
  Dragon’s blood, _jernang_.
  Dragon-fly, _bari-bari_.
  Drain, _parit_, _saluran_.
  Draw, to, (pull), _tarik_, _hela_.
  Dream, _mimpi_.
  Dress, _pakei-an_.
  Drift, to, _hanyut_.
  Drill, _baris_.
  Drink, to, _minum_.
  Drive, to, (a carriage), _lari-kan kreta_;
    (away), _halau_, _halau-kan_.
  Drop, _titek_.
  Drop, to, (as a fluid), _menitek_;
    (to fall prematurely), _gugur_;
    (as ripe fruit), _luroh_;
    (to let fall), _labuh-kan_.
  Drought, _kamarau_.
  Drown, to, _lemas_.
  Drum, _gendang_, _rabana_.
  Drunk, _mabuk_.
  Dry, _kĕring_.
  Dry, to, _jemur_.
  Duck, _itek_.
  Due, proper, _patut_.
  Due, tribute, _chukei_.
  Dumb, _bisa_, _kelu_.
  Dung (manure), _baja_.
  Dust, _habu_.
  Duty, import, _chukei_, _hasil_.
  Dwarf, _chabul_.
  Dwell, to, _diam_, _tinggal_.
  Dye, to, _chelup_.
  Dysentery, _chirit-darah_.


  E.

  Each, _masing-masing_.
  Ear, _telinga_.
  Ear-ring, _kĕrabu_, _anting-anting_;
    (worn by unmarried girls), _subang_.
  Early, _siang_.
  Earnest-money, _panjar_, _chinkĕram_.
  Earth, _tanah_, _bumi_.
  Earthenware, _tembikar_.
  Earthquake, _gumpa_.
  Earth-oil, _miniak tanah_.
  Earthworm, _chaching_.
  East, _mata-hari naik_, _timur_.
  Easy, _mudah_.
  Eat, to, _makan_;
    (of a royal personage), _santap_.
  Ebb, _surut_.
  Ebony, _kayu-arang_.
  Eclipse, _grahana_.
  Economical, _jimat_.
  Edge, _tepi_;
    (sharp), _mata_.
  Educate, to, _pelehra_, _ajar_.
  Eel, _bĕlut_.
  Egg, _tĕlor_.
  Egg-plant, _tĕrong_.
  Elbow, _siku_.
  Elder brother, _abang_.
  Elder sister, _kakak_.
  Eldest child, _sulong_.
  Elephant, _gajah_;
    (howdah), _kop_;
    (goad), _kuasa_;
    (driver), _gambala gajah_;
    (paniers), _rengka_;
    (hobbles), _sengkăla_;
    (tusk), _gading_;
    (trunk), _belalei_.
  Elephantiasis, _untut_.
  Embankment, _batas_.
  Embark, to, _naik kapal_.
  Embrace, to, _peluk_, _dakap_.
  Embroider, to, _soji_.
  Emerald, _zamrud_.
  Emissary, _penyuroh_.
  Empty, _kosong_, _hampa_.
  Employment, _per-karja-an_.
  Enclosed, _ber-keliling_.
  End, _ka-sudah-an_.
  Endeavour, to, _choba_.
  Endure, to, _tahan_.
  Enemy, _musoh_, _satru_.
  Enmity, _binchi-an_.
  Enough, _sudah_, _chukup_.
  Enigma, _tekak-teki_.
  Enquire, to, _tanya_, _păreksa_.
  Entangled, _ter-sangkut_.
  Enter, to, _masok_.
  Entertain, to (offer hospitality), _men-jamu_.
  Entertainment (feast), _jamu-an_, _kanduri_.
  Entrails, _isi-pĕrut_.
  Envelop, to, _balut_.
  Envy, _dingki_.
  Epilepsy, _sawan-babi_.
  Equal, _sama_, _sa-tara_.
  Equally, _sama-rata_.
  Equip, to, _langkap_.
  Erase, to, _kikis_, _parang_.
  Erect, to, _mem-bangket-kan_.
  Escape, to, _lari_;
    (flee from danger), _melari-kan niawa_, _membawa diri_.
  Escort to, _antar-kan_.
  Establish, to, _me-letak-kan_, _men-diri-kan_, _tegoh-kan_.
  Esteem, to (prize), _endah-kan_.
  Estimate, _nilai_.
  Estuary, _kuala_.
  Eternity, _kakal_, _baḳa_.
  Even (of numbers), _ganap_;
    (level), _rata_.
  Even, likewise, _juga_, _pun_.
  Evening, _pĕtang_.
  Ever, _pernah_.
  Evidence, _ka-niata-an_.
  Evil, _jahat_, _nakal_.
  Evil, calamity, _mara-bahaya_, _bala_, _chelaka_.
  Ewe, _kambing-betina_.
  Exalt, to, _per-tinggi-kan_, _mem-besar-kan_.
  Examine, to, _păreksa_.
  Example, _teladan_.
  Exceed, to, _lampau_, _lalu-i_.
  Except, _hania_, _me-lain-kan_.
  Excess, surplus, _ka-lebeh-an_.
  Exchange, to, _tukar-kan_.
  Expect, to, _me-nanti-kan_.
  Expensive, _mahal_.
  Extend, to, _panjang-kan_, _lanjut-kan_.
  Extensive, _lapang_, _luas_.
  Extinguish, to, _padam-kan_.
  Eye, _mata_;
    (ball), _biji-mata_;
    (brow), _kĕning_;
    (lid), _kĕlopak-mata_.


  F.

  Fable, _cheritra_, _hakayat_.
  Face, _muka_.
  Fade, to _layu_, _ber-layu_.
  Fail, to (in business), _jatoh_.
  Faint, weak, _leteh_;
    (swoon), _pengsan_.
  Fair, just, _betul_.
  Faith, _iman_.
  Fall, to, _jatoh_;
    (to cause to fall), _jatoh-kan_;
    (to drop spontaneously), _luroh_, _gugur_;
    (to tumble down), _rĕbah_, _tumbang_.
  False, _bohong_, _dusta_.
  Famed, _megah_, _mashur_.
  Family, _isi-rumah_;
    (stock, lineage), _bangsa_, _kaum_.
  Famine, _ka-lapar-an_.
  Fan, _kipas_; to fan, _kirap_.
  Far, _jauh_.
  Farewell, _salamat tinggal_.
  Farm (of public revenues), _pajak_.
  Fast (quickly), _lakas_;
    (swift), _laju_;
    (abstinence), _puasa_.
  Fasten, to, _ikat_, _tambat_.
  Fat (plump), _gumok_, _tumbun_;
    (grease), _lemak_.
  Fate, _nasib_, _ajal_.
  Father, _bapa_, _ayah_;
    (step), _bapa-tiri_;
    (in-law), _mentuah_.
  Fathom, _depa_.
  Fatigued, _panat_, _lelah_.
  Fault, _salah_, _ka-salah-an_.
  Favour, _kasih-an_;
    (royal), _karunia_, _anugrah_.
  Fear, _takut_.
  Feast, _kanduri_, _per-jamu-an._
  Feather, _bulu_.
  Features, _paras_.
  Fee, _upah_, _faidah_.
  Feeble, _lemah_, _leteh_.
  Feed, to, _bĕri makan_, _suap-kan_.
  Feel, to (touch), _raba_, _jamah_, _jabat_.
  Feint, _pura-pura_.
  Fell, to, _tĕbang_.
  Female, _perampuan_, _betina_.
  Fence, _pagar_.
  Fern, _paku_.
  Ferry, _tambang_.
  Ferryboat, _prahu tambang_.
  Festival, _hari-besar_, _hari-raya_.
  Fetch, to, _ambil_, _bawa_, _jemput_.
  Fever, _demam_.
  Field, _padang_;
    (wet rice), _sawah_, _bendang_.
  Fierce, _garang_.
  Fig, _buah ara_.
  Fight, to, _ber-kalahi_;
    (of animals), _ber-laga_;
    (of cocks), _sabong_.
  File, _kikir_.
  Fill, to, _penoh-kan_, _isi-kan_.
  Filter, to, _tapis_.
  Fin, _sirip_.
  Find, to, _dapat_.
  Fine (elegant), _bagus_, _elok_;
    (not coarse), _halus_.
  Fine (amercement), _denda_.
  Finger, _jari_.
  Finish, to, _habis-kan_, _menyudah-kan_.
  Finished, _habis_, _sudah_.
  Fire, _api_.
  Fire-fly, _kĕlip-kĕlip_.
  Firewood, _kayu-api_.
  Firm, _kukuh_.
  First, _mula-mula_, _pertama_.
  Fish, _ikan_; (fish, to), _panching_, _memanching_, _mengail_;
    (with artificial bait), _kachor_.
  Fish-hook, _kail_;
    (line), _tali-kail_.
  Fist, _tinju_.
  Fit, _patut_, _harus_, _wajib_;
    (seizure), _pitam_.
  Flag, _bandera_;
    (staff), _tiang-bandera_.
  Flame, _niala_.
  Flannel, _kain-panas_.
  Flash, _kilat_.
  Flat, _cheper_;
    (level), _rata_.
  Flay, to, _kupas_, _kelupas_.
  Flea, _kutu anjing_.
  Fleece, _bulu-kambing_.
  Fleet, _angkat-an_.
  Flesh, _daging_, _isi_.
  Fling, to, _baling_, _lempar_, _lotar_;
    (down), _champak_.
  Flint, _batu api_.
  Float, to, _timbul_, _hanyut_.
  Flock, _kawan_.
  Flog, to, _pukul_, _gasak_.
  Floor, _lantei_.
  Flour, _tepong_.
  Flow, to, _leleh_, _meleleh_;
    (as a river), _alir_, _mengalir_;
    (of the tide), _pasang_.
  Flower, _bunga_.
  Fly, _lalat_;
    (horse-), _pikat_;
    (eye-), _kakoroh_;
    (fly, to), _terbang_.
  Foam, _buih_.
  Fog, _kabut_.
  Fold (a pen), _kandang_;
    (fold, to), _lipat_.
  Follow, to, _ikut_, _turut_.
  Food, _makan-an_.
  Foolish, _bodoh_, _gila_.
  Foot, _kaki_;
    (sole of the), _tapak kaki_.
  Football, _sepak raga_.
  For, _akan_, _pada_;
    (because), _karana_.
  For fear, lest, _takut_.
  Forbid, to, _larang_.
  Force, _kuasa_, _kuat_;
    (to use --), _kuat-kan_, _kĕras-i_.
  Ford, to (wade), _merandau_.
  Fordable, shallow, _changkat_, _tohor_.
  Foreigner, _orang dagang_, _anak dagang_.
  Forehead, _dahi_.
  Foreskin, _kulup_.
  Forest, _rimba_.
  Forfeited, _luchut_.
  Forget, to, _lupa_, _lupa-kan_.
  Forgive, to, _ampun-kan_, _ma‘af-kan_.
  Forgiveness, _ampun_, _ma‘af_.
  Fork, _garfu_, _penyuchuk_.
  Form, _rupa_.
  Former times, _dahulu kala_.
  Fornication, _ber-kendak_.
  Forsake, to, _tinggal-kan_.
  Fort, _kota_.
  Fortunate, _mujur_, _tuah_.
  Fortune, _untong_, _nasib_.
  Foundation, _kaki tembok_, _alas rumah_.
  Founder, to, _karam_.
  Fountain, spring, _mata ayer_.
  Fowl, _hayam_.
  Fragment, _sa-patah_, _sa-kĕrat_.
  Frankincense, _kaminiau_.
  Free, _bebas_.
  Freed, _mardahika_.
  Freeze, to, _băku_.
  Frequent, _kĕrap_.
  Fresh, new, _baharu_;
    (of water), _tawar_.
  Friend, _sahabat_.
  Fright, _ka-takut-an_.
  Frighten, _menyakut-kan_.
  Fringe, _jala-jala_, _daun budi_.
  Frog, _katak_, _kodok_.
  From, _deri_, _deri-pada_.
  Front, _hadap-an_.
  Froth, _buih_.
  Fruit, _buah_.
  Fry, to, _goreng_, _rendang_.
  Fulfil, to, _sampei-kan_, _semporna-kan_.
  Full, _pĕnuh_.
  Full-moon, _pernama bulan_.
  Fun, _lawak-lawak_, _ber-suka-suka-an_.
  Fund, capital, _modal_.
  Funnel, _chorot_.
  Furnace, _dapur_, _ralau_.


  G.

  Gain, _laba_, _faidah_.
  Gale, _ribut_.
  Gall, _ampadu_.
  Gamble, to, _judi_, _men-judi_.
  Game, _per-main-an_.
  Game-cock, _hayam sabong_.
  Gaol, _panjara_.
  Gape, to, _nganga_.
  Garden, _kabun_;
    (flower), _taman_.
  Garlic, _bawang puteh_.
  Gasp, to, _menguap_.
  Gate, _pintu_, _kerbang_.
  Gate-keeper, _penunggu-pintu_.
  Gather, to (pluck), _kutib_, _petik_;
    (pick up), _pungut_;
    (assemble), _ber-kumpul_, _ber-impun_.
  Gaze, to, _renong_.
  Gem, _permata_.
  Generous, _morah-hati_.
  Gentle, _lembut_, _manis_.
  Get, to, _dapat_, _men-dapat-kan_.
  Get up, to, _bangket_, _bangun_.
  Ghost, _hantu_.
  Giddy, _pening_.
  Gift, _hadia_, _pem-bĕri-an_.
  Gild, to, _chelop_, _sador_.
  Gills, of a fish, _isang_.
  Gimlet, _gurdi_.
  Ginger, _halia_.
  Girdle, _tali-pinggang_.
  Girl, _budak_.
  Girth, _tali-pĕrut_.
  Give, to, _bĕri_, _kasih_;
    (back), _pulang-kan_, _membalik-kan_.
  Gizzard, _ampedal_.
  Glad, _suka_, _suka-chita_.
  Glass, _kacha_.
  Glean, to, _pungut_.
  Glitter, to, _kilau_, _mengilau_.
  Glorious, _mulia_.
  Glory, _ka-mulia-an_.
  Glove, _sarong tangan_.
  Glue, _perĕkat_.
  Glutton, _gelujuh_.
  Gnat, _agas_.
  Go, to, _pergi_;
    (in), _masuk_;
    (out), _terbit_, _kaluar_.
  Goat, _kambing_.
  Goblin, _bota_.
  God, _Allah_.
  Gold, _mas_, _amas_;
    (leaf), _mas kartas_;
    (dust), _mas urei_.
  Goldsmith, _tukang mas_.
  Gong, _tawa-tawa_.
  Good, _baik_.
  Goods, _barang-barang_, _benda_, _harta_, _dagang-an_.
  Goose, _angsa_.
  Gore, to, _tandok_, _menandok_.
  Gospel, _injil_.
  Gourd, _labu_.
  Govern, to, _memerentah_.
  Government, _perentah_.
  Gown, _kabaya_.
  Grace, _karunia_, _anugrah_.
  Grain, _biji_, _butir_.
  Grammar, _nahu_.
  Grandchild, _chuchu_;
    (great), _chichit_.
  Grandparent, _datoh_, _nenek_;
    (great), _moyang_.
  Granite, _batu bukit_.
  Grapes, _buah anggur_.
  Grasshopper, _belalang_.
  Grasp, to, _genggam_.
  Grass, _rumput_.
  Grate, to (rasp), _kukur_.
  Grave, a, _ḳubur_.
  Gravel, _batu-lada_, _batu-kĕlikir_.
  Gravy, _kuah_.
  Grease, _lemah_.
  Great, _besar_.
  Greedy, _gelujuh_.
  Green, _hijau_.
  Green-pigeon, _punei_.
  Grief, _duka-chita_, _ka-susah-an_.
  Grieved, _susah-hati_.
  Grind, to, _kisar_;
    (on a flat surface), _giling_;
    (to sharpen), _asah_, _chanei_.
  Grinder, molar tooth, _gerham_.
  Grinding-stone, _batu-giling_.
  Gripes, colic, _mulas_, _senak pĕrut_.
  Groan, to, _mengĕrang_.
  Grope, to (feel in the dark), _raba_.
  Gross, coarse, _kasar_.
  Ground, soil, _tanah_.
  Grow, to, _tumboh_.
  Growl, to, _men-dĕring_, _men-dĕram_.
  Grudge, _sakit-hati_, _kechil-hati_.
  Gruel, _kanji_.
  Grumble, to, _sungut_, _ber-sungut_.
  Guard, to, _tunggu_, _kawal_.
  Guava, _jambu-biji_.
  Guide, _pandu_, _pertulus_.
  Guilt, _ka-salah-an_.
  Guilty, _salah_.
  Gulf, _teluk_.
  Gum, _getah_.
  Gums, the, _gusi_.
  Gun, _bedil_, _snapang_;
    (cannon), _mariam_;
    (swivel), _lela_, _rantaka_.
  Gunpowder, _ubat-bedil_.
  Gunwale, _rubing_.
  Gutter, _saluran-ayr_.


  H.

  Habit, custom, _‘adat_;
    (in the habit of), _biasa_.
  Hair, _rambut_, _bulu_.
  Hair-pin, _chuchuk-sanggul_.
  Half, _tengah_, _sa-tengah_, _sa-paroh_.
  Halt, crippled, _tempang_;
    (to stop on a journey), _singgah_.
  Halve, to, _bahagi dua_.
  Hammer, _pemukul_, _pengĕtok_, _martel_.
  Hammer, to, _kĕtok_.
  Hamper, a, _kĕranjang_, _raga_.
  Hand, _tangan_.
  Handful, _sa-genggam_.
  Handkerchief, _sapu-tangan_.
  Handle, of a weapon, _hulu_;
    (of a jar), _telinga_.
  Handsome, _bagus_, _elok_, _hebat_.
  Handwriting, _tapak-tangan_, _khat_.
  Hang, to, (suspend), _gantong_, _meng-gantong-kan_;
    (to be suspended), _ber-gantong_.
  Happen, to, _jadi_.
  Happy, _senang_, _salamat_.
  Hard, _kĕras_, _tegar_.
  Hardship, _ka-sukar-an_.
  Harlot, _sundal_, _jalang_.
  Harpoon, _sarampang_.
  Harrow, _sikat_, _garu_.
  Hasp, _kuku_.
  Haste, _gopoh_.
  Hat, _topi_;
    (conical leaf hat), _terendah_.
  Hatch, to, _meng-gĕram_.
  Hatchet, _bĕliong_, _kapak_.
  Hate, to, _binchi_.
  Haul, to, _tarik_, _hela_.
  Have, to, _ada_, _ber-uleh_, _menaroh_.
  Haze, _kabut_.
  Head, _kapala_, _hulu_.
  Headache, _sakit-kapala_.
  Health, _sihat niaman_.
  Heap, _kumpul-an_, _tambun_.
  Hear, to, _dengar_.
  Heart, _hati_, _jantong_;
    (of timber), _tĕras_;
    (to have the heart to), _sampei hati_, _dapat hati_.
  Heat, _hangat_.
  Heave, to, _bongkar_.
  Heaven, _surga_;
    (Muhammadan), _janat-al-naim_.
  Heavy, _bĕrat_.
  Hedge, _pagar_.
  Heel, _tumit_.
  Heel, to (incline), _singet_.
  Heir, _waris_.
  Hell, _naraka_, _patala_, (Muhammadan), _jahanam_.
  Helm, _kamudi_.
  Help, to, _tulong_, _menulong_, _bantu_, _mem-bantu_.
  Hem, _kelim_.
  Hen, _ibu-hayam_, _hayam-betina_.
  Here, _sini_, _di-sini_, _kamari_.
  Heritage, _pusaka_.
  Hiccup, _sedu_.
  Hide, to, _sembunyi_.
  Hide, skin, _belulang_, _kulit_.
  High, _tinggi_.
  Hill, _bukit_, _changkat_.
  Hillock, _busut_.
  Hilt, _hulu_.
  Hinder, to, _tegah_, _larang_, _sangkut_, _tahan_.
  Hire, to (engage), _upah_, _meng-upah-kan_;
    (rent), _penyewa_;
    (to rent), _sewa_, _menyewa_.
  History, _cheritra_, _hakayat_.
  Hiss, to, _ber-siul_.
  Hit, to, _kĕna_.
  Hoarse, _garok_.
  Hoe, _changkol_.
  Hoist, to, _angkat_.
  Hold, to, _pegang_.
  Hold, of a ship, _peta_.
  Hole, _lobang_, _liang_.
  Holiday, _hari-raya_.
  Hollow, _lekok_, _geronggong_.
  Homicide, murder, _pem-bunoh-an_.
  Hone, _batu-asah_.
  Honest, _betul_.
  Honesty, _puteh-hati_.
  Honey, _madu_, _manis-an lebah_.
  Honour, _ka-mulia-an_.
  Hoof, _kuku_.
  Hook, _penggait_;
    (elephant-goad), _kuasa_;
    (fish-), _mata-kail_.
  Hoop, _simpei_.
  Hope, _harap_, _asa_.
  Hopeless, _putus-harap_.
  Horizon, _kaki-langit_.
  Horn, _tandok_;
    (of the rhinoceros), _sumboh_;
    (feeler), _sungut_.
  Hornet, _tabu-an_, _naning_.
  Horrible, _ngĕri_, _hebat_.
  Horse, _kuda_.
  Horse-mango, _bachang_, _machang_.
  Horse-race, _ber-lomba kuda_.
  Hot, _panas_, _hangat_;
    (acrid), _pedas_, _pedis_.
  Hour, _jam_.
  House, _rumah_.
  Household, _isi-rumah_.
  Hovel, _pondok_, _teratak_.
  How, _bagei-mana_.
  Howdah, _kop_;
    (panniers), _rengkah_.
  However, _tetapi_, _akan-tetapi_.
  How much? how many? _bĕr-apa_, _bĕr-apa baniak_.
  How long? _bĕr-apa lama_.
  Hug, to, _peluk_, _dakap_.
  Hum, to, _sering_, _menyering_.
  Humane, _morah-hati_.
  Humble, _rendah_;
    (to humble oneself), _me-rendah-kan diri_.
  Humpback, _bongkok_.
  Hungry, _lapar_.
  Hunt, to, _buru_, _mem-buru_.
  Hurricane, _ribut_, _tufan_.
  Hurry, _gopoh_.
  Hurt, to, _sakit-kan_, _menyakit-kan_.
  Husband, _laki_, _swami_, _rumah-tangga_.
  Husk, _kulit_;
    (of cocoanut), _sabut_;
    (of rice), _sekam_.
  Hut, _pondok_, _teratak_, _jambar_, _lengkok_.


  I.

  Ice, _ayar băku_, _ayer batu_.
  Idea, _‘aḳal_.
  Idiot, _bodoh_, _gila_, _korang-‘aḳal_.
  Idle, _malas_, _segan_.
  Idol, _berhala_.
  If, _kalau_, _jikalau_.
  Ignite, to, _chuchuk_, _pasang_.
  Ignorant, _babal_, _bodoh_.
  Ill, _sakit_;
    (of a royal personage), _gĕring_.
  Ill-bred, _korang-adab_, _be-adab_.
  Ill-humoured, _masam-muka_, _peny-ĕbal_.
  Illicit, _larang_, _churi_.
  Illustrious, _mulia_.
  Image, _rupa_, _gambar_, _bangun_.
  Imagine, to, _sangka_, _agak_.
  Imitate, to, _tiru_, _turut_.
  Immediately, _sakarang ini_.
  Immortal, _kakal_, _baḳa_.
  Impatient, _korang-sabar_.
  Impertinent, _kasar_, _sombong_.
  Important, _besar_, _bĕrat_, _matan_.
  Impossible, _tiada akan_, _ta’kan_, _mustahil_.
  Impound, to, _kandang-kan_.
  Imprison, to, _kurong-kan_.
  Improve, to, _baik-i_, _mem-baik-i_.
  Impudent, _muka-tebal_, _muka-papan_.
  Incense, _kaminian_, _istanggi_, _dupa_.
  Incest, _sumbang_.
  Incline, to (bend), _chondong_.
  Increase, to, _ber-tambah_;
    (to add), _tambah-kan_, _me-lebeh-kan_;
    (subs.), _tambah-an_, _ka-lebeh-an_.
  Indebted, _ber-hutang_.
  India-rubber, _gĕtah_.
  Indian-corn, _jagong_.
  Indigo (plant), _tarum_;
    (dye), _nila_.
  Indignant, _hangat-hati_.
  Indulge, to, _kasih_, _pandang_.
  Industrious, _rajin_.
  Infectious, _jangkit_, _ber-jangkit-an_.
  Infidel, _kafir_.
  Infirm, _lemah_, _leteh_.
  Inform, to, _bĕri-tahu_, _me-ma‘alum-kan_.
  Informer, _penudoh_.
  Inhabit, to, _duduk_, _diam_.
  Inhabitants, _isi-negri_.
  Inheritance, _pusaka_.
  Inhuman, _bingis_.
  Injure, to, _rosak-kan_, _binasa-kan_.
  Ink, _dawat_, _tinta_.
  Inkstand, _tampat-dawat_.
  Inland, _hulu_, _darat_.
  Inquire, to, _tanya_, _păreksa_.
  Insect, _benatang_.
  Insert, to, _masok-kan_, _sĕlip_.
  Insignia, regalia, _perkakas-ka-raja-an_.
  Insipid, _tawar_, _maung_.
  Instant, _sa’at_, _sa-kejap_, _sa-buntar_.
  Instead, _ganti_, _alih-alih_.
  Instruct, to, _ajar_, _meng-ajar-kan_, _meng-aji-kan_.
  Instructor, _guru_, _pengajar_.
  Instrument, _alat_, _perkakas-an_.
  Intend, to, _mahu_, _handak_, _niat-hati_.
  Intercept, to (cut off), _kĕpong_.
  Interest, _bunga_.
  Interior, _dalam_;
    (of a country), _hulu_, _darat_.
  Interfere, to, _masok-mulut_.
  Interpret, to, _salin-kan_, _turun-kan bahasa lain_;
    (into Malay), _jawi-kan_, _men-jawi-kan_.
  Interpreter, _juru-bahasa_.
  Interval, _selang_.
  Intestines, _isi-pĕrut_.
  Intoxicated, _mabuk_.
  Inundation, _ayer bah_.
  Invade, to, _langgar_, _me-langgar_.
  Invent, to, _meng-ada-kan_.
  Invention, _hikmat_.
  Invisible, _baṭin_.
  Invite, to, _panggil_, _sila-kan_.
  Invulnerable, _kebal_, _pĕlias_.
  Iron, _besi_.
  Irony, _sindir_.
  Island, _pulau_.
  Issue, to, _terbit_.
  Itch (the), _kudis_;
    (to), _gatal_.
  Ivory, _gading_.


  J.

  Jack-fruit, _nangka_.
  Jackal, _sri-gala_.
  Jacket, _baju_.
  Jar, _tempayan_, _buyong_.
  Jargon, _bahasa kachau-kan_.
  Jasmine, _malati_, _melur_.
  Jealous, _chemburu_.
  Jealousy, _chemburu-an_.
  Jetty, _jambatan_, _pelantar_.
  Jew, _Yahudi_.
  Jewel, _permata_.
  Join, to, _hubong_, _meng-hubong-kan_.
  Joint, _buku_, _ruas_, _sendi_.
  Joke, _lawah_, _gurau_, _saluroh_, _gonja_.
  Journey, _per-jalan-an_;
    (by sea), _pelaiar-an_;
    (provisions for a), _bakal_, _bekas_.
  Joy, _ka-suka-an_, _suka-hati_, _ber-suka-suka-an_.
  Judge, _hakim_.
  Judgment, _sangka_, _rasa_;
    (to deliver), _putus hukum_;
    (day of), _hari-kiamat_.
  Jug, a, _buyong_.
  Juggle, to, _sulap_, _balik-mata_.
  Juggler, _penyulap_.
  Juice, _ayer_;
    (of plants), _getah_.
  Jump, to, _lompat_, _ber-lompat_;
    (down), _terjun_.
  Junk, _jong_, _wangkang_, _top_.
  Just, _‘adil_.
  Just now, _tadi_, _baharu-ini_, _baharu-tadi_.
  Justice, _ka-‘adil-an_.


  K.

  Keel, _lunas_.
  Keep, to, _simpan_, _menyimpan_.
  Keepsake, _tanda hayat_.
  Kernel, _isi_.
  Kettle, _cherek_.
  Key, _anak kunchi_.
  Kick, to, _sepak_, _tendang_.
  Kid, _anak kambing_.
  Kidneys, _buah pinggang_.
  Kill, to, _bunoh_, _membunoh_.
  Kiln, _tenur_.
  Kind, affectionate, _ber-kasih_.
  Kind, sort, _bangsa_, _jenis_.
  Kindle, to, _chuchuk_, _pasang-api_, _ pĕlakat-api_.
  Kindred _kaum_, _kulawarga_.
  King, _raja_.
  Kiss, to, (smell), _chium_.
  Kitchen, _dapor_.
  Kite, (bird), _halang_, _lang_;
    (paper), _wau_, _layang-layang_.
  Kitten, _anak kuching_.
  Knee, _lutut_.
  Kneel, to, _berdiri-lutut_;
    (as an elephant), _tĕrum_.
  Knee-pan, _tempurong-lutut_.
  Knife, _pisau_.
  Knitting, _aniam_, _rajut_.
  Knock, to, _kĕtok_, _pukul_.
  Knot, _simpul_.
  Know, to, _tahu_, _kenal_.
  Knuckle, _buku-jari_.


  L.

  Labour, _karja_, _usaha_.
  Labourer, _kuli_, _orang-gaji_.
  Lad, _budak_.
  Ladder, _tangga_.
  Ladle, _sendok_, _gayong_;
    (to ladle out), _chedok_.
  Lady, _tuan_, _siti_, _inche_.
  Lace, gold or silver, _renda_.
  Lake, _tasek_, _danau_.
  Lamb, _anak-biri_.
  Lame, _tempang_, _chapik_.
  Lament, to, _ratap_, _meratap_, _menangis_;
    (regret), _menyesal_.
  Lamp, _palita_.
  Lance, _lembing_, _tombak_.
  Land, _tanah_, _darat_;
    (padi-land), _sawah_, _tanah bendang_;
    (garden-land), _tanah kampong_.
  Lancet, _taji_.
  Lane, _lurong_.
  Language, _bahasa_, _chara_.
  Lantern, _tanglong_.
  Lap, _pangku_, _riba_.
  Larboard, _kiri_.
  Large, _besar_.
  Last, to, _tahan_, _menahan_.
  Last, hindmost, _yang belakang_, _sa-kali_, _akhir_;
    (last night), _sa-malam_.
  Late, _akhir_;
    (at night), _jauh malam_.
  Lath, _kasau_, _lantei_.
  Lattice-work, _gisi-gisi_.
  Laugh, to, _tertawa_, _gelak_.
  Laugh at, to, (deride), _menggonja-kan_.
  Law, _hukum_, _undang-undang_.
  Lawn, _halaman_.
  Lawful, _halal_, _harus_.
  Lawyer, _wakil_.
  Lay, to, (set down), _bubok_, _letak_, _me-letak-kan_;
    (wager), _ber-taroh_;
    (an egg), _ber-telor_.
  Lazy, _malas_, _segan_.
  Lead (the metal), _timak hitam_.
  Lead, to (by the hand), _pimpin_;
    (guide), _tunjuk-kan_, _pandu-kan_, _hantar-kan_.
  Leaf, _daun_;
    (of paper), _halei_, _lei_, _kajang_.
  Leaky, _bochor_, _tiris_.
  Lean, thin, _kurus_.
  Lean, to (rest against), _sandar_, _menyandar_.
  Leap, to, _lompat_, _me-lompat_;
    (down), _terjun_.
  Learn, to, _belajar_;
    (religion), _mengaji_.
  Learned, _pandei_, _‘alim_.
  Leather, _kulit_, _belulang_.
  Leave, permission, _izin_.
  Leave (to quit), _tinggal-kan_.
  Leech, _lintah_;
    (forest), _pachat_.
  Leeward, _di-bawah angin_.
  Left, _kiri_.
  Left (remaining), _sisa_.
  Leg, _kaki_;
    (thigh), _paha_;
    (from knee to ankle), _betis_;
    (calf), _jantong-betis_.
  Lend, to, _bĕri-pinjam_.
  Length, _panjang_, _lanjut_.
  Lengthways, _bujur_.
  Leprosy, _kusta_.
  Less, _korang_.
  Let (to allow), _biar_;
    (hire), _bĕri-sewa_.
  Let off, to (fire-arms), _pasang_, _chuchuh_, _me-letup-kan_;
    (forgive, discharge), _ampun-kan_, _me-lepas-kan_.
  Letter, _surat kirim-an_.
  Level, _rata_.
  Liar, _pem-bohong_.
  Liberal, _morah-hati_.
  Liberate, to, _lepas-kan_, _mardahika-kan_.
  Lick, to, _jilat_.
  Lid, _tudong_;
    (eye-), _kelopak-mata_.
  Lie, falsehood, _bohong_.
  Lie down, to, _baring_, _tidor_.
  Life, _niawa_, _jiwa_, _hayat_.
  Lift, to, _angkat_, _meng-angkat_.
  Light, bright, _chahya_, _tĕrang_;
    (not heavy), _ringan_.
  Light (to kindle), _chuchuh_, _pasang_;
    (to guide with a torch), _suloh_, _menyuloh_.
  Lighter, _tongkang_.
  Lightning, _kilat_.
  Like, _bagei_, _saperti_, _laksana_, _sa-umpama_.
  Like, to, _suka_, _gamar_, _ber-kenan_.
  Likeness, _rupa_, _gambar_.
  Limb, _angguta_.
  Lime, _kapur_;
    (quicklime), _tohor_;
    (birdlime), _getah_.
  Lime, lemon, _limau-asam_.
  Line, (string), _tali_;
    (row), _baris_, _nirei_.
  Lineage, _ka-turun-an_.
  Linen, _kain-rami_.
  Lining, _alas_, _lapis_.
  Lion, _singa_.
  Lip, _bibir_.
  Liquid, _chayer_.
  Listen, to, _men-dengar_.
  Litter, _usong-an_.
  Little, _kechil_.
  Little finger, _kelingking_.
  Liver, _limpah_.
  Livelihood, _ka-hidop-an_, _pen-cha-hari-an_.
  Lizard, _chichak_.
  Load, _baban_, _pikul-an_;
    (cargo), _muat-an_, _sarat-an_.
  Loaf, _ketul_.
  Lobster, _hudang-galah_.
  Lock, _kunchi_.
  Locust, _bilalang_.
  Lodge, to, _tumpang_, _menumpang_;
    (for a night), _ber-malam_.
  Loft, _para_, _loteng_.
  Log, _batang_, _puntong_.
  Lonely, _sunyi_.
  Long, _lama_.
  Long, to, _dendam_, _rindu_.
  Look, to, _pandang_, _tengok_, _lihat_;
    (look up), _tengadah_.
  Looking-glass, _chermin_.
  Loom, _perkakas-tenun_.
  Loose, _longgar_, _kendor_.
  Lord, _tuan_;
    (deity), _tuhan_.
  Lose, to, _hilang_;
    (to suffer defeat), _alah_.
  Lotos, _teratei_.
  Loud, _riyuh_, _kuat_.
  Love, _kasih-an_;
    (love, to), _kasih_, _ber-kasih_, _berahi_.
  Low, _rendah_.
  Low-water, _ayer-surut_, _ayer mati_.
  Loyal, _setia_.
  Luck, _untong_.
  Luckily, _sa-baik-baik-nia_.
  Lucky, _mujur_.
  Lullaby, _lagu pengulik_.
  Lump, _ketul_.
  Lunatic, _orang-gila_.
  Lungs, _paru-paru_.
  Lust, _hawa_, _nafsu_.
  Lute, _kechapi_.


  M.

  Mace, _bunga-pala_.
  Machine, _pesawat_.
  Mad, _gila_.
  Maggot, _hulat_.
  Magic, _‘ilmu_.
  Magistrate, _hakim_, _tuan polis_.
  Magnet, _besi-bĕrani_.
  Maimed, _kudong_.
  Mainmast, _tiang-agong_.
  Maintain, to, _pelehra_.
  Maize, _jagong_.
  Majesty, _baginda_.
  Make, to, _buat_, _membuat_.
  Male (man), _laki-laki_;
    (animal), _jantan_.
  Malice, _dingki_, _kechil-hati_.
  Malignant, _ber-dingki_.
  Man, _orang_, _laki-laki_.
  Man-of-war, _kapal pĕrang_.
  Manage, to, _perentah_, _memerentah_.
  Mane, _gambong_, _jambul_.
  Mange, _kudis_.
  Mango, _mampelam_, _mangga_;
    (horse-), _machang_, _bachang_.
  Mangostin, _manggis_.
  Manifest, to, _menyata-kan_, _mene-rang-kan_.
  Mankind, _manusia_.
  Manner, _bagei_, _macham_.
  Manure, _baja_.
  Many, _baniak_.
  Map, _peta_.
  Marble, _pualam_.
  Mare, _kuda-betina_.
  Margin, _tepi_.
  Mark, _tanda_, _‘alamat_;
    (to shoot at), _tuju-an_, _sasar_.
  Market, _pasar_.
  Marriage, _kawin_, _nikah_;
    (to demand in), _pinang_, _meminang_;
    (to give in), _nikah-kan_.
  Married, _ber-kawin_;
    (having a wife), _ber-bini_;
    (having a husband), _ber-laki_.
  Marrow, _otak-tulang_.
  Marsh, _paya_, _redang_.
  Mash, to, _pipis_.
  Mason, _tukang-batu_.
  Mast, _tiang_.
  Master, _tuan_;
    (of a ship), _juragan_, _nakhoda_.
  Mat, _tikar_.
  Match, _goris-api_;
    (to suit), _padan_.
  Matchlock, _satinggar_.
  Mate, of a ship, _malim_.
  Matter (affair), _perkara_;
    (pus), _nanah_.
  Mattress, _tilam_.
  May, _buleh_.
  Meal (repast), _makan-an_;
    (flour), _tepong_.
  Mean, _hina_;
    (to understand), _harti_, _meng-harti_.
  Meaning (sense), _ma‘ana_, _harti_.
  Meanwhile, _dalam antara itu_.
  Means (by all), _hubaya_.
  Measure, to, _hukur_, _sukat_.
  Measurement, _hukur-an_, _sukat-an_.
  Meat, _daging_.
  Medicine, _ubat_.
  Meek, _manis_, _lemah-lumbut_.
  Meet, to, _jumpa_, _ber-jumpa_, _temu_, _ber-temu_.
  Melon (water), _temikei_.
  Melt, to, _lebor_, _hanchur-kan_.
  Member, _angguta_.
  Memory, _ingat-an_.
  Mend, to, _baik-i_, _mem-baik-i_.
  Mendicant, _faḳir_.
  Mention, to, _sebut_.
  Merchandise, _dagang-an_.
  Mercury, _rasa_.
  Mercy, _rahamat_.
  Meridian (noon), _rambang_.
  Merit, _pahala_.
  Mesh (of a net), _mata_.
  Message, _pasan-an_.
  Messenger, _penyuroh_, _pesuroh_.
  Method (arrangement), _atur-an_.
  Middle, _tengah_, _per-tengah-an_;
    (middle finger), _jari-hantu_.
  Middling, _sedang_.
  Midwife, _bidan_, _dukun_.
  Might, _gagah_, _kuasa_, _ḳoderat_.
  Mighty, _ḳuat_, _ber-kuasa_.
  Mild, _manis_, _lumbut_.
  Mildew, _lapuk_, _kulat_.
  Milk, _susu_.
  Mill, _kisar-an_, _giling-an._
  Million, _juta_.
  Mimic, to, _ajuk_.
  Mince, to, _chachah_, _chinchang_.
  Mind (sense), _‘aḳal_, _budi_;
    (inclination), _ka-handak_;
    (never mind), _tiada apa_, _ta’ apa_, _ta’ usah_.
  Mine, _gali-an_, _lombong_, _tebok_.
  Miner, _kuli tebok_, _tukang gali_.
  Minister, _mantri_.
  Minute (small), _halus_, _seni_;
    (moment), _sa‘at_.
  Mire, _lumpur_, _lechah_.
  Mirror, _chermin_.
  Miscarriage, _gugur-an_;
    (of an elephant), _sanglong_.
  Mischief, _benchana_.
  Miserly, _kikir_, _kikil_, _chikil_.
  Misery, _hal ka-sukar-an_.
  Mist, _kabut_.
  Mistake, _salah_, _silap_.
  Mistress, _tuan_.
  Misunderstand, to, _salah-mengarti_, _salah-dengar_.
  Mix, to, _champur_, _kachau_.
  Mock, _olok_, _pupuh_;
    (to deride), _sindir_.
  Mode, _pri_, _chara_.
  Model, _teladan_, _achu-an_.
  Modest, _ber-malu_, _sopan_.
  Moment, _sa-buntar_, _sa-kejap_, _sa‘at_.
  Money, _wang_, _duit_;
    (ready-money), _wang tunei_.
  Monkey, _monyet_, _kĕra_.
  Monsoon, _musim_.
  Month, _bulan_.
  Moon, _bulan_.
  Morass, _paya_, _redang_.
  More, _lebeh_, _lagi_.
  Morning, _pagi_, _dina-hari_.
  Morrow, _esok_, _besok_, _ka-esok-an_.
  Morsel, _sa-suap_, _sa-mulut_.
  Mortal, _fana_.
  Mortar, _lesong_.
  Mortgage, to, _gadei_, _chagar_, _sandar_.
  Mosque, _masjid_.
  Mosquito, _niamok_.
  Moss, _lumut_.
  Most, _ter-lebeh_.
  Mother, _mak_, _ibu_, _bonda_;
    (adoptive), _ma-angkat_;
    (step-mother), _ma-tiri_;
    (mother-in-law), _mentuah_.
  Mould, earth, _tanah_;
    (mildew), _lapuk_;
    (matrix), _achu-an_.
  Mouldy, _basi_.
  Mount, to, _naik_.
  Mountain, _gunong_.
  Mourn, to, _tangis-kan_, _menangis-kan_, _ratap_, _meratap_.
  Mouse, _tikus_.
  Mouse-deer, _pelanduk_.
  Moustache, _misei_.
  Mouth, _mulut_;
    (of a river), _kuala_.
  Mouthful, _sa-suap_, _sa-mulut_.
  Move, to, (intrans.), _ber-ubah_, _ber-gĕrak_, _kesak_;
    (trans.), _gĕrak-kan_, _meng-gĕrak-kan_, _alih-kan_,
      _meng-alih-kan_, _meng-ubah-kan_.
  Much, _baniak_.
  Mud, _lumpur_, _sulut_, _lechah_.
  Muddy, turbid, _kĕrok_.
  Mug, _kindi_.
  Multiply, to, _per-baniak-kan_.
  Murder, to, _bunoh_, _mem-bunoh_.
  Murmur, to, _sungut_.
  Muscle, _urat_.
  Mushroom, _chendawan_.
  Music, _bunyi-bunyi-an_, _lagu_.
  Musk, _kasturi_.
  Musk-rat, _chenchurut_.
  Musket, _snapang_, _bedil_.
  Muslin, _kain khasa_.
  Must, _handak_, _harus_, _dapat-tiada_.
  Mustard, _sesawi_.
  Muster (to summon), _kĕrah_.
  Mutiny, _belut_.
  Mystery, _rahusia_.


  N.

  Nail, _paku_;
    (of the fingers or toe), _kuku_;
    (finger-nail worn purposely long), _changei_.
  Naked, _telanjang_.
  Name, _nama_;
    (title), _gĕlar-an_;
    (to name), _gelar-kan_, _nama-kan_.
  Nape of the neck, _tangkok_.
  Napkin, _kain basah_.
  Narrate, to, _cheritra-kan_.
  Narrow, _sumpit_, _simpit_, _sesak_, _ginting_.
  Nation, _bangsa_.
  Nature, _tabi‘at_.
  Navel, _pusat_.
  Navigate, to, _me-layar-kan_.
  Navigation (science of), _‘ilmu-pe-layar-an_.
  Neap-tide, _ayer surut_, _ayer mati_.
  Near, _dekat_, _hampir_.
  Neat, _chantek_, _chermat_.
  Necessary, _wajib_.
  Necessity, desire, _hajat_.
  Neck, _batang leher_;
    (throat), _leher_.
  Needle, _jarum_.
  Neglect, _lalei_.
  Neighbour, _orang rumah sa-bĕlah_.
  Nephew, _anak-penakan_, _anak su dara_.
  Nerve, _urat_.
  Nest, _sarang_, _sarang-burong_.
  Net (casting), _jala_;
    (seine), _pukat_;
    (landing), _sauh-sauh_;
    (snare), _jaring_.
  Net, to, _serat_, _menyerat_.
  Net-work, _serat-an_, _jala-jala_.
  Never, _ta’pernah_;
    (never mind), _ta’apa_, _ta’usah_.
  New, _baharu_.
  New-moon, _sa-hari bulan_.
  News, _khabar_.
  Next (in time), _lepas itu_, _kemdian_;
    (in place), _sa-bĕlah_.
  Nice (pleasant), _sedap_.
  Niece, _anak-penakan_, _anak-sudara_.
  Night, _malam_;
    (to pass the), _ber malam_.
  Night-jar, _tetegok_, _punggok_.
  Nimble, _chepat_, _pantas_.
  Nip (to pinch), _pichit_, _chubit_, _ketam_, _sepit_.
  Nippers (pincers), _penyepit_.
  Nitre, _sendawa_.
  Noble, _bangsawan_.
  Nod, to, _meng-antok_.
  Noise, _gadoh_, _gempar_, _bising_, _riau_.
  None, _satu pun tidak_.
  Nonsense, _sia-sia_, _ta’ka-tahu-an_.
  Noon, _rambang_, _tengah-hari_.
  Noose, _jerat_.
  North, _utara_.
  Nose, _hidong_;
    (bridge of the), _batang_, _hidong_.
  Nosegay, _karangan-bunga_.
  Nostril, _liang hidong_.
  Notch, _takuk_;
    (gap, dent), _sumbing_.
  Nothing, _apa pun tidak_.
  Notice, to, _per-hati-kan_.
  Notwithstanding, _tetapi_, _lamun-kan_.
  Nourish, to, _pelehra-kan_.
  Now, _sakarang_;
    (now and then), _kadang kadang_, _ter-kadang_.
  Number (quantity), _baniak_;
    (a numeral), _angka_.
  Nurse, a, _inang_, _pengasoh_.
  Nurse (to rear, cherish), _pelehra_;
    (give suck), _menetek-kan_, _menyusu-kan_;
    (a sick person), _dukun_.
  Nut, _kachang_.
  Nutmeg, _buah pala_.
  Nymph, _bidyadari_.


  O.

  Oakum, _pakul_.
  Oar, _dayong_, _pengayuk_.
  Oath, _sumpah_.
  Obey, to, _turut_.
  Obscene, _charut_;
    (to use obscene language), _men-charut_.
  Obscure, _kĕlam_, _gĕlap_.
  Observe (watch), _intei_;
    (notice), _per-hati-kan_.
  Obstinate, _degil_, _bantak_, _kras ka-pala_.
  Obstruct, to, _sekat-kan_.
  Occasion, _paksa_.
  Occupied (busy), _‘aral_.
  Occur, to, _jadi_, _jatoh_, _tiba_.
  Ocean, _laut-an_.
  Odd (of numbers), _gasal_, _ganjil_.
  Odds and ends, _rinchik-rinchik_.
  Offer, to, _unjuk_, _tawar_.
  Office, (employment), _pegang-an_;
    (place of business), _gedong_.
  Offspring, _anak-pinak_.
  Often, _kĕrap-kĕrap_.
  Oil, _minyak_.
  Old, _tuah_, _lama_;
    (decayed), _burok_.
  Olden time, _dahulu-kala_, _zaman dahulu_.
  Omen, evil, _pemali_.
  Once, _sa-kali_.
  Only, _sahaja_, _hania_.
  Onion, _bawang_.
  Open, _ter-buka_;
    (extensive), _lapang_, _luas_;
    (to open), _buka_, _mem-buka_.
  Opening (chink), _chelah_.
  Opinion, _rasa_, _pe-rasa-an_, _sangka_, _kira_, _pikir-an_.
  Opium, _apiun_, _madat_, _chandu_.
  Opportunity, _paksa_, _dan_, _sampat_.
  Oppose, to, _lawan_.
  Oppression, _anyaya_.
  Oppressive, _zalim_.
  Orange, _limau-manis_.
  Order (arrangement), _atur-an_, _per-atur-an_;
    (class), _pangkat_;
    (to command), _suroh_, _menyuroh_;
    (of a royal personage), _titak_.
  Orifice, _liang_.
  Origin, _asal_, _pangkal_.
  Ornament, _per-hias-an_.
  Orphan, _piatu_.
  Other, _lain_.
  Otter, _anjing-laut_.
  Ottoman, _petarana_.
  Ought, _patut_, _harus_, _handak-lah_, _mahu-lah_.
  Out, _luar_.
  Outcast, _bangsat_, _ter-buang_.
  Outcry, _gempar_, _engar_.
  Outhouse, _bangsal_.
  Outward, visible, _zahir_.
  Oval, _bulat-bujur_.
  Oven, _dapor_, _tenur_.
  Over (upon), _atas_;
    (ended), _sudah_.
  Overcast (darkened), _ber-tedoh_.
  Overflow, to, _limpah_, _me-limpah_.
  Overladen, _sarat_.
  Overlook, to, _jaga_, _men-jaga_, _tunggu_, _menunggu_.
  Overseer, _tandil_, _mandor_.
  Overturn, to, _balik_, _mem-balik-kan_.
  Overturned, to be, _ber-balik_, _ter-balik_.
  Owe, to, _ber-hutang_.
  Owl, _burong-hantu_.
  Owner, _tuan_, _yang ampunya_.
  Ox, _lumbu_, _sapi_;
    (wild), _si-ladang_.
  Oyster, _teram_, _siput_.


  P.

  Pace (step), _jangka_.
  Pack, to, _kemas_, _bungkus-kan_.
  Paddle, a, _kayuh_, _pengayuh_;
    (to row with), _mengayuh_.
  Pain, _sakit_, _sakit-an_, _ka-sakit-an_;
    (anxiety), _per-chinta-an_, _susah-hati_.
  Paint, _chat_;
    (to paint), _sapu-chat_;
    (a painter), _tukang-chat_.
  Pair, _jodo_, _pasang_.
  Palace, _astana_, _meligei_.
  Pale, _puchat_.
  Paling, _pagar_, _gisi-gisi_.
  Palm of the hand, _tapak-tangan_, _telapak_.
  Palpitation, _dabar_.
  Palsy, _tepok_, _basal_.
  Pan (earthen), _pasu_;
    (iron), _kuali_.
  Pant, to, _mangah_, _menguap_.
  Paper, _ḳarṭas_.
  Parable, _per-upama-an_.
  Parasol, _payong_.
  Parcel, _bungkus_, _bungkus-an_.
  Pardon, _ampun_, _ma‘af_;
    (to pardon), _ampun-kan_, _ma‘af-kan_.
  Pare, to, _raut_, _me-raut_, _hiris_, _meng-hiris_.
  Parents, _ibu-bapa_.
  Parrot, _nuri_, _bayan_;
    (small green parroquet), _serindit_.
  Parry, to, _tangkis_.
  Part, _bahagi-an_, _sa-kĕrat_, _sa-paroh_.
  Particle, _butir_.
  Partner, _kawan_, _kongsi_.
  Partnership, in, _sa-modal_.
  Pass, to, _lalu_;
    (miss), _selisih_;
    (as coin), _laku_.
  Passion (anger), _marah_, _hangat_.
  Passionate, _hati panas_, _lakas marah_.
  Past, _sudah_, _yang telah sudah_, _yang telah lalu_.
  Paste, _pe-rĕkat_, _bubur_.
  Pastry, _penganan_.
  Pat, to, _tepuk_.
  Patch, _tampal_.
  Patience, _sabar_.
  Pattern, _teladan_, _chonto_.
  Pawn, to, _gadei_, _meng-gadei_;
    (a pledge), _sandar-an_.
  Pay, to, _bayar_, _mem-bayar_;
    (by instalments), _ansur_.
  Payment, _bayar-an_, _pem-bayar-an_.
  Pea, _kachang_.
  Peace, _sajehtra_, _santosa_, _ka-senang-an_;
    (to make peace), _ber-damei_.
  Peacock, _mĕrak_.
  Peak, _puchuk_, _kamunchak_.
  Pearl, _mutiara_.
  Peck, to, _patok_, _pagut_.
  Pedlar, _orang ber-jajah_, _orang kelon-tong_.
  Peel, to, _kupas_, _kelupas_.
  Peep, to, _intei_, _meng-intei_.
  Pelican, _undan_.
  Pelt, to, _lotar_, _me-lontar_.
  Pellucid, _hening_, _jerneh_.
  Pen, _ḳalam_.
  Pen (enclosure), _kandang_.
  Penalty, _denda_, _siḳsa_.
  Penetrate, to, _lut_, _melut_.
  Penitence, _taubat_.
  Penknife, _pisau-lipat_.
  People, _orang_.
  Pepper, _lada_;
    (black), _lada-hitam_;
    (Chili), _lada-merah_, _lada-china_, _chabei_.
  Perceive, to, _rasa_, _per-hati-kan_.
  Perch, to, _hinggap_, _tengger_.
  Percolate, to, _tiris_, _meniris_.
  Perfect, _semporna_.
  Perfectly, _betul_, _benar_, _sakali_.
  Perfume, _bau-bau-an_.
  Perfumed, _harum_, _wangi_.
  Perhaps, _antah_, _barangkali_, _mudah-mudah-an_.
  Peril, _bahaya_, _mara-bahaya_.
  Perjury, _dusta_.
  Permanent, _kekal_, _kukuh_, _tetap_.
  Permission, _izin_.
  Permit, to, _bĕri_, _kasih_, _biar_.
  Perpetual, _sanantiasa_, _yang tiada ber-ka-putus-an_.
  Persecute, to, _anyaya-kan_.
  Persevere, to, _ber-usaha_.
  Person, _orang_, _marika_.
  Perspiration, _peluh_.
  Perverse, _bantah_, _angkara_.
  Pestle, _alu_, _antan_.
  Petition, _per-minta-an_.
  Pheasant, _pegar_;
    (argus pheasant), _kuang_, _kuwau_.
  Phlegm, _dahak_, _hingus_.
  Pick (to gather), _kutib_, _petik_;
    (pick up), _pungut_.
  Pickles, _achar_;
    (pickled fish or meat), _pe-kasam_.
  Piebald, pied, _bĕlang_.
  Piece, _sa-patah_, _su-kĕrat_, _sa-patong_.
  Pier, _jambatan_, _pangkalan_.
  Pierce, to, _chuchuk_.
  Piety, _‘ibadat_.
  Pig, _babi_.
  Pigeon, _merpati_.
  Pile (stake), _panchang_;
    (to heap up), _susun-kan_.
  Pillage, to, _samun_, _rampas_.
  Pillar, _tiang_.
  Pillow, _bantal_.
  Pillow-case, _sarong-bantal_.
  Pimple, _bisul-lada_.
  Pin, _piniti_, _jarum-penyĕmat_.
  Pincers, _sepit_, _penyepit_.
  Pinch (a small quantity), _sa-jumput_;
    (to pinch), _chubit_, _pichit_.
  Pinchbeck, _suasa_.
  Pineapple, _nanas_.
  Pink, _kasumbah_.
  Pipe (conduit), _panchur-an_.
  Pipeclay, _tanah-mala_.
  Pirate, _perompak_.
  Pit, _lobang_.
  Pitch, _gala-gala_;
    (to pitch as a ship), _anggu_, _meng-anggu_.
  Pitcher, _buyung_.
  Pith, _ampulur_.
  Pity, _kasih-an_, _bĕlas_.
  Place, _tampat_;
    (to place), _bubok_, _taroh_, _letak_, _me-letak-kan_.
  Plague (pestilence), _hawar_.
  Plain, _padang_, _medan_.
  Plait, to, _aniam_, _pintal_.
  Plane, _kĕtam_.
  Plank, _papan_.
  Plant, _pokok_, _tanam-an_, _tumboh-tumboh-an_.
  Plantain, _pisang_.
  Plantation, _kabun_, _ladang_.
  Plate (earthenware), _piring_, _pinggan_;
    (metal), _cheper_.
  Play, to, _main_.
  Pleasant, _sedap_, _lezat_.
  Pleased, _suka_.
  Pledge, _chagar_, _sandar-an_.
  Plenty, _baniak_.
  Plough, _tanggala_.
  Plover, _kedidi_, _chicheoh_.
  Pluck (to gather), _petik_;
    (pluck out), _chabut_.
  Plump, _tumbun_, _pejal_.
  Plunge, to, _terjun_, _sĕlam_, _menyĕlam_.
  Plunder, to, _samun_, _rampas_.
  Pocket, _saku_.
  Point, _hujong_;
    (to point), _tunjok_, _menunjok_.
  Poison, _rachun_.
  Poisonous, _bisa_.
  Poke (to thrust), _chuchuk_, _jolok_, _chungkil_.
  Pole, _batang_;
    (for propelling a boat), _galah_.
  Polecat, _musang_.
  Polite, _adab_, _bastari_.
  Pollute, to, _chamar-kan_, _kotor-kan_.
  Pomegranate, _buah-dalima_.
  Pond, _kulam_.
  Ponder, to, _kenang_, _pikir_.
  Pool, _lubok_.
  Poop, _burit-an_.
  Poor, _miskin_.
  Porcelain, _tembikar_.
  Porcupine, _landak_.
  Pork, _daging-babi_.
  Porpoise, _lomba-lomba_.
  Portion, _bahagi-an_.
  Position (situation), _ka-duduk-an_.
  Possess, to, _milik_, _taroh_.
  Possible, _buleh_.
  Post, _panchang_, _tiang_.
  Pot (earthenware), _priuk_, _bĕlanga_;
    (iron), _kuali_;
    (water), _buyung_;
    (flower), _pasu_.
  Potato, _ubi benggala_, _ubi china_.
  Pouch, _pundi-pundi_.
  Pound (pen), _kandang_.
  Pound, to, _tumbok_.
  Pour, to, _tuang_, _tumpah_;
    (water over a person bathing), _jurus_.
  Powder, _serbuk_;
    (dust), _lumat_;
    (gunpowder), _ubat bedil_.
  Power, _kuasa_.
  Praise, _puji_, _puji-an_;
    (to praise), _memuji_.
  Prawn, _hudang_.
  Pray, to, _sembahyang_, _do‘a_.
  Precious, _endah_.
  Predestination, _ajal_, _taḳdir_.
  Predict, to, foretell, _tenung_.
  Pregnant, _bunting_, _mengandong_, _ḥamil_.
  Prepare, to, _sedia-kan_, _langkap-kan_.
  Present (to be), _ada_, _hazir_, _berhadap_.
  Present (gift), _hadia_, _pem-bĕri-an_, _tanda-hayat_ (lit. “token
      of life”).
  Presently, _sa-buntar lagi_.
  Press, to, _apit-kan_;
    (press down), _tekan_;
    (squeeze out), _pĕrah_.
  Presumption, _angkara_.
  Pretend, to, _achu_.
  Pretence, _pura-pura_, _buat-buat_.
  Pretty, _bagus_, _chantek_, _molek_.
  Prevent, to, _tegah_, _larang_.
  Price, _harga_;
    (of a slave), _penebus_.
  Prick, to, _chuchuk_, _tikam_.
  Prickle, _duri_;
    prickly, _ber-duri_.
  Priest. (Muhammadan), _imam_;
    (Christian), _padri_.
  Prince, _putra_.
  Princess, _putri_.
  Principal, _pokok_, _modal_.
  Print, to, _chap_.
  Prison, _panjara_.
  Private (secluded), _sunyi_;
    (parts), _ka-malu-an_.
  Privy, _jamban_.
  Prize (booty), _rampas-an_;
    (to value highly), _endah-kan_.
  Procession, _arak_.
  Proclaim, to, _menyata-kan_, _mashur-kan_.
  Prodigal, _pemburus_.
  Profit, _laba_, _untong_, _faidah_.
  Prohibit, to, _larang-kan_, _tegah-kan_.
  Prohibited, _larang-an_, _haram_.
  Prolong, to, _lanjut-kan_.
  Prominent (projecting), _jungur_.
  Promise, a, _per-janji-an_;
    (to promise), _janji_.
  Prone (lying face downwards), _tiharap_.
  Pronounce, to, _sebut_, _menyebut_.
  Proof, _ka-nyata-an_, _saksi-an_.
  Proper, _patut_, _harus_.
  Property, _harta_, _benda_, _had_.
  Prophet, _nabi_.
  Prosecute, to, _dawa_, _men-dawa_.
  Prostitute, _sundal_.
  Prostrate, _menyiharap_, _pelanting_.
  Protect, to, _lindong-kan_, _pelehra-kan_.
  Proud, _sombong_.
  Prove, to, _nyata-kan_, _me-nyata-kan_.
  Proverb, _‘ibarat_, _tamsil_, _bidal_, _per upama-an_.
  Provisions, _băkal_, _băkas_, _pelabur_.
  Provoke, to, _usik_, _mengusik_.
  Prudence, _ka-bija-an_.
  Prudent, _cherdek_, _bijak_, _chermat_.
  Prune, to, _ranchong_, _me-ranchong_.
  Psalm, _zabur_.
  Pull, to, _tarik_, _menarik_;
    (drag), _hela_;
    (pull up), _chabut_.
  Pulley, _kapi_.
  Pulse, _nadi_.
  Pump, _bomba_.
  Pumpkin, _labu_.
  Pungent, _pedas_.
  Punish, to, _siksa-kan_, _sakit-kan_.
  Punishment, _siksa_, _ka-sakit-an_.
  Pupil (of the eye), _biji mata_;
    (scholar), _murid_.
  Puppy, _anak-anjing_.
  Pure (clear), _jerneh_, _hening_.
  Purgative, _pen-chahar_.
  Purple, _ungu_.
  Purpose, _ka-handak_;
    (on purpose), _sangaja_.
  Purse, _unchang_, _pundi-pundi_.
  Pursue, to, _hambat_, _kejar_;
    (wild animals), _buru_, _mem-buru_.
  Pus, _nanah_.
  Push, to, _tolak_, _sorong_.
  Put, to, _taroh_, _bubok_, _letak_;
    (put on), _pakei_, _kĕna-kan_;
    (put off, postpone), _tangguh_;
    (put out fire), _padam_.
  Putrid, _busuk_.
  Puzzle (enigma), _tekak-teki_.


  Q.

  Quail, _puyuh_, _pikau_.
  Quake, to, _kĕtar_, _mengĕtar_.
  Quality, _sifat_.
  Quantity, _baniak_.
  Quarrel, _per-bantah-an_;
    (to quarrel), _ber-kalahi_, _ber-tingkar_.
  Quarter (fourth part), _suku_;
    (of a slaughtered animal), _paha_.
  Queen, _permeisuri_.
  Quench, to, _padam-kan_.
  Question, _sual_;
    (to question), _pareksa_, _sual-kan_, _tanya_.
  Quick, _lakas_, _chepat_, _bangat_, _lantas_, _pantas_.
  Quicksilver, _rasa_.
  Quid (of betel), _sepah_.
  Quiet, _diam_, _sunyi_;
    (silent), _sengap_.
  Quit (to forsake), _tinggal-kan_.
  Quite, _sakali_, _sa-mata-mata_.


  R.

  Race (lineage), _bangsa_, _asal_.
  Races (contest), _lomba_, _ber-lomba_.
  Radish, _lobak_.
  Raft, _rakit_, _lantin_.
  Rafter, _kasau_.
  Rag, _perchah_.
  Ragged, _koyak-rabak_, _chompang-champing_.
  Railing, _pagar_, _kilik-kilik-an_.
  Rain, _hujan_;
    (to rain, rainy), _ber-hujan_;
    (drizzle), _rinteh_.
  Rainbow, _palangi_.
  Raise, to, _angkat_, _bangun-kan_;
    (with a lever), _tuwas_.
  Raisins, _kismis_, _buah-anggor_.
  Rake, _peng-garu_, _sikat_.
  Range (to dispose in order), _meng atur-kan_.
  Rank (row, line), _baris_, _saf_;
    (station in life), _pangkat_, _martabat_.
  Rank (rancid), _hanyir_, _basi_.
  Ransom, to, _tebus_, _menebus_.
  Rape, _rugul_.
  Rapid, _dĕras_, _laju_.
  Rapids (in a river), _jeram_, _chigar_, _riyam_.
  Rare, _jarang_.
  Rat, _tikus_;
    (musk-rat), _chenchurut_.
  Rattan, _rautan_.
  Rave, to (in delirium), _meng-igau_, _ber-igau-igau_.
  Raw, _mantah_.
  Ray (of light), _sinar_;
    (a fish, the skate), _pari_.
  Razor, _pisau-chukur_.
  Reach, to (with the hand), _chapei_, _men-chapei_;
    (attain), _sampei_.
  Read, to, _bacha_.
  Ready, _sedia_, _siap_.
  Really, _sunggoh_, _sa-sunggoh-nia_.
  Reap, to, _ketam_, _tuwei_, _menuwei_.
  Rear (to bring up), _pelehra_, _me-melehra-kan_.
  Reason (cause), _karana_, _sebab_;
    (understanding), _budi_, _‘aḳal_.
  Rebellious, _derhaka_, _belut_.
  Rebuke, to, _ajar_, _tegor_, _tengking_.
  Receive, to, _terima_, _menerima_;
    (take), _sambut_.
  Reckon, to, _hitong_, _bilang_.
  Recline, to, _baring_, _sandar_.
  Recollect, to, _ingat_, _sedar_.
  Recover (to get well), _ber-semboh_.
  Red, _merah_.
  Redeem, to, _tebus_, _menebus_.
  Red-lead, _sadalinggam_.
  Reduce, to, _korang-kan_.
  Reed, _buluh_.
  Reef, _karang_.
  Reflect, to, _kenang_.
  Refuse, to, _sangkal_, _anggan_.
  Refuse (rubbish), _hampas_, _sampah_.
  Regalia, _perkakaska-raja-an_.
  Regard (to gaze at), _intei_, _renong_.
  Region, _benua_.
  Regret, to, _sesal_, _menyesal_.
  Reign, _ka-raja-an_.
  Rein (bridle), _tali-kang_.
  Reject, to, _tolak-kan_, _buang_, _champak_.
  Rejoice (to be glad), _ber-suka_;
    (gladden), _menyuka-kan_.
  Relapse, _balik-sakit_.
  Relate, to, _cheritra-kan_.
  Relations (kindred), _sudara_, _ibu-bapa_, _puwah_, _ḳaum_.
  Release, to, _lepas-kan_, _me-lepas-kan_.
  Relieve guard, to, _gilir_.
  Religion, _agama_.
  Reluctant, _segan_.
  Remain, to, _diam_, _tinggal_, _ber-hinti_.
  Remainder, _baḳi_;
    (leavings), _sisa_.
  Remedy, _penawar_, _ubat_.
  Remember, to, _ingat_, _meng-ingat_, _kenang_.
  Remove, to, (intrans.), _pindah_;
    (trans.), _men-jauh-kan_, _ubah-kan_.
  Rent (hire), _sewa_, _penyewa_.
  Repair, to, _baik-i_, _mem-per-baik-kan_.
  Repeat, to, _ulang_.
  Repent, to, _taubat_, _sesal_, _menyesal_.
  Replace, to, _ganti_.
  Reply, to, _sahut_, _menyahut_, _men-jawab_, _balas jawab_.
  Report, to, _khabar-kan_, _bĕri tahu_.
  Report (rumour), _khabar_, _bunyi_.
  Reprimand, to, _mengajar_.
  Reprobate, _bangsat_.
  Repudiate, to, _cherei-kan_.
  Request, to, _minta_, _pinta_.
  Resembling, _akan-akan_, _sa-rupa_.
  Reside, to, _tinggal_, _diam_, _duduk_.
  Resign, to, _serah-kan_, _pulang-kan_.
  Resin, _damar_, _getah_.
  Resist, to, _lawan_, _me-lawan_.
  Respect, _hormat_.
  Responsible for, to be, _sanggup_, _tanggong_.
  Rest, _per hinti-an_, _ka-senang-an_.
  Rest (remainder), _baḳi_.
  Restore (to give back), _pulang-kan_.
  Restrain, to, _tahan_, _menahan_.
  Result, _ka-sudah-an_.
  Retire (to retreat), _undur_, _ber-undur_.
  Retired (secluded), _sunyi_.
  Retribution, _pem-balas-an_.
  Return, to, _pulang_, _balik_, _kambali_;
    (retaliate), _balas_.
  Revenge, _balas_, _damdam_.
  Revenue, _hasil_.
  Reverence, _sembah_.
  Reverse, to, _mem-balik-kan_.
  Revile, to, _hujat-kan_, _me-maki_.
  Revive, to, _sedar_.
  Reward, _upah_, _pahala_.
  Rheumatism, _sakit tulang_, _sakit-angin_, _sengal_.
  Rhinoceros, _badak_;
    (rhinoceros-bird), _enggang_.
  Rib, _rusuk_.
  Ribbon, _fitah_.
  Rice, _bĕras_;
    (boiled), _nasi_;
    (in the husk), _padi_;
    (parched), _bertih_.
  Rice-field, _sawah_, _bendang_;
    (upland), _umah_, _ladang_.
  Rich, _kaya_.
  Riches, _ka-kaya-an_, _harta_, _benda_.
  Riddle, _tekak-teki_.
  Ride, to, _naik_, _tunggang_.
  Ridge (rising ground), _permatang_;
    (of a roof), _bumbong-an_.
  Ridicule, to, _sindir_, _gonja_.
  Right (proper), _betul_, _benar_, _patut_.
  Right-hand, _kanan_.
  Rightly, _sa-betul-nia_, _sa-patut-nia_.
  Rigid (stiff), _tegar_, _kinchang_.
  Rim, _tepi_.
  Rind, _kulit_.
  Ring (to sound), _derang_, _ber-derang_.
  Ring, _chinchin_;
    (ornamental hoop on weapons, &c.), _simpei_.
  Ripe, _masak_.
  Rise, to, _bangun_, _bangkit_;
    (spring up), _timbul_, _tumboh_.
  River, _sungei_, _ayer_, _batang-hari_;
    (river-brink), _baroh_.
  Rivulet, _anak-sungei_, _anak-ayer_.
  Road, _jalan_;
    (path), _lurong_.
  Roadstead, _labuh-an_.
  Roam, to, _jajah_, _hanyut_, _ulang-pergi-datang_.
  Roar, to, _menganguh_.
  Roast, to, _panggang_.
  Rob, to, _rompak_, _rampas_, _samun_, _rebut_, _churi_.
  Robe (gown), _kabaya_.
  Rock, _batu_, _karang_.
  Rock, to (intrans.), _ayun_, _ber-ayun_, _goyang_, _ber-goyang_;
    (trans.), _ayun-kan_, _meng-ayun-kan_, _goyang-kan_,
      _meng-goyang-kan_.
  Roe (of fish), _telor-ikan_, _telor-tĕru-buk_.
  Roll up, to, _gulong_, _meng-gulong_.
  Rolling, _guling_, _goleh_.
  Roof, _bumbong_;
    (of the mouth), _lalangit_.
  Room, _bilek_;
    (space), _legah_.
  Roost, to, _hinggap_, _tenggir_.
  Root, _akar_.
  Rope, _tali_.
  Rose, _mawar_;
    (rose-water), _ayer-mawar_.
  Rot, to, _reput_.
  Rotten, _burok_, _busuk_, _reput_.
  Rough, _kesap_, _kesat_, _kĕrutu_.
  Round, _bulat_, _buntar_.
  Roundabout, _keliling_.
  Rouse, to, _bangun-kan_, _gĕrak-kan_.
  Row, to, _dayong_, _ber-dayong_;
    (with paddles), _kayuh_, _ber-kayuh_.
  Rub, to, _gosok_, _sapu_, _urut_, _genyek_, _gesek_.
  Rubbish, _sampah_.
  Ruby, _dalima_.
  Rudder, _kamudi_.
  Rude, _kasar_.
  Ruin, to, _binasa_, _mem-binasa-kan_, _rosak_.
  Rule, to, _pĕrentah_, _memerentah_.
  Ruling-line, _benang-arang_.
  Rump, _punggong_, _pangkal-paha_.
  Run, to, _lari_;
    (as water), _me-leleh_, _meng-alir_.
  Run against (collide), _himpit_, _timpah_.
  Rupee, _rupiyah_.
  Rush at, to, _terkam_, _menerkam_.
  Rust, _karat_.


  S.

  Sack, _karong_, _goni_.
  Sacrifice, to, _mem-pĕlas_.
  Sad, _susah-hati_, _duka-chita_.
  Saddle, _zin_, _palana_, _sela_.
  Safe, _salamat_, _sajehtra_.
  Saffron, _kuniet_, _kumkuma_.
  Sagacious, _cherdek_, _bijak_.
  Sago, _sagu_.
  Sail (of a vessel), _layar_;
    (to sail), _ber-layar_.
  Sailor, _matros_, _khalasi_.
  Saint, _wali_, _oulia_.
  Salary, _gaji_, _upah_.
  Sale, _jual-bĕli_.
  Saliva, _ayer liyor_.
  Salt, _garam_;
    (in taste), _masin_, _asin_.
  Saltpetre, _sendawa_.
  Salutation, _tabek_, _salam_.
  Salute, to, _bĕri salam_, _minta tabek_.
  Same, _sama_, _sarupa_.
  Sand, _pasir_.
  Sandbank, _beting_.
  Sandalwood, _chandana_.
  Sap, _getah_, _aris_.
  Sash, _salendang_, _tali-pinggang_.
  Satisfied, _puas_, _kiniang_.
  Sauce, _kuah_.
  Saucer, _piring_.
  Savage, _liyar_, _buas_.
  Save, to, _simpan_, _mengimpan_;
    (be sparing), _jimat_.
  Savoury, _sedap_.
  Saw, _gergaji_.
  Say, to, _kata_, _mengata-kan_.
  Scald, to, _chelor_.
  Scale (of a fish), _sisik_.
  Scales, _daching_, _naracha_.
  Scar, _parut_.
  Scarce, _jarang_.
  Scarf, _salendang_, _salimpei_.
  Scarlet, _merah-tuah_.
  Scatter, to, _tabur_, _menabur-kan_.
  Scent, _bau_, _bau-bau-an_.
  Scheme, _jalan_, _hikmat_.
  Scholar (pupil), _murid_.
  School, _tampat-belajar_.
  Science, _‘ilmu_.
  Scissors, _gunting_.
  Scold, to, _maki_, _ber-tingkar_.
  Score, _kodi_.
  Scorpion, _kala-jengking_.
  Scrape, to, _kikis_, _parang_.
  Scraper, _kukur-an_.
  Scratch, to, _garu_, _chakar_.
  Scream, to, _tampik_, _ber-tĕriak_.
  Screen, _tirei_, _bidei_.
  Screen (to protect), _me-lindong-kan_.
  Screw, _paku pulas_.
  Scull, _tengkorak_.
  Scum, _buih_.
  Scurf, _kedal_, _kurap_.
  Sea, _laut_, _laut-an_.
  Seal (signet), _chap_, _matrei_.
  Sealing-wax, _lak_.
  Seam, _jahit-an_.
  Sea-shore, _pantei_, _tepi-laut_.
  Sea-sick, _mabuk-ombak_.
  Season, _musim_.
  Search, to, _chahari_, _bongkar_, _men-chahari_, _siasat_,
      _salongkar_.
  Seat, _ka-duduk-an_.
  Sea-weed, _bunga-karang_.
  Secret, _rahusia_.
  Secrete, to, _sembunyi-kan_.
  Secretly, _churi-churi_.
  Security, bail, _aku-an_, _tanggong-an_.
  See, to, _tengok_, _lihat_, _pandang_.
  Seed, _biji_, _bĕnih_.
  Seed-plot, nursery, _semai_.
  Seek, to, _chahari_.
  Seize, to, _pegang_, _tangkap_.
  Seldom, _jarang_.
  Select, to, _pilih_, _memilih_.
  Self, _diri_, _sendiri_, _kendiri_.
  Sell, to, _jual_, _men-jual_.
  Send, to, _kirim_, _hantar_.
  Sense, _‘aḳal_;
    (meaning), _ma‘ana_.
  Senses (the five), _pancha-indra_.
  Sentence, to, _hukum-kan_, _putus-kan hukum_.
  Sentry, _penungguh_.
  Separate, to, _asing-kan_, _cherei-kan_;
    (distinguish), _per-lain-kan_.
  Sepoy, _sipahi_.
  Serious, _bĕrat_.
  Serpent, _ular_.
  Servant, _budak_, _orang-gaji_, _pen-jawat_.
  Serve (to wait on), _me-layan_.
  Service (employment), _pegang-an_, _tanggong-an_.
  Serviceable, _ber-guna_.
  Set (to place, put), _letak_, _buboh_, _taroh_;
    (to set out, depart), _berangkat_.
  Settle, to, _sĕlăsi_;
    (to fix, decide), _tetap-kan_.
  Several, _baniak juga_.
  Severe, _kĕras_.
  Sew, to, _jahit_, _menjahit_, _jaib_, _men-jaib_.
  Shade, _tĕdoh_, _naung_, _per-naung-an_.
  Shadow, _bayang_, _bayang-bayang_.
  Shady, _ber-tedoh_, _ber-lindong_.
  Shaft (of a weapon), _hulu_.
  Shake, to, _goyang_, _gonchang_;
    (hands), _jabat tangan_.
  Shallow, _chetek_, _tohor_;
    (of a plate or vessel), _cheper_.
  Sham, _pura-pura_.
  Shame, _malu_.
  Shape, _rupa_, _sifat_.
  Share, _habu-an_, _bahagi-an_.
  Shark, _hiyu_, _ikan hiyu_.
  Sharp, _tajam_.
  Sharpen, to, _asah_, _chanai_, _tajam-kan_;
    (by paring or cutting), _ranchong_.
  Shatter, to, _rĕmok_, _rĕdam_.
  Shave, to, _chukor_.
  Sheath, _sarong_.
  Shed, _bangsal_, _pondok_, _teratak_, _jambar_.
  Sheep, _kambing biri-biri_.
  Sheet, _kain selimut_.
  Shell, _siput_;
    (rind or covering), _kulit_;
    (cocoanut), _tempurong_;
    (missile), _priuk-api_.
  Shepherd, _gambala_.
  Shew, to, _tunjok_, _unjok_.
  Shield, _pĕrisai_.
  Shift (to change), _alih_, _mengalih_.
  Shin, _tulang-kĕring_.
  Shine, to, _ber-sinar_, _ber-kilat_.
  Ship, _kapal_, _prahu_.
  Shipwrecked, _karam_.
  Shirt, _kameja_.
  Shiver, to, _gatar_, _mengatar_.
  Shoal, _beting_.
  Shock (start), _kĕjut_.
  Shoe, _kasut_, _sapatu_;
    (-horn), _pengijah-kasut_.
  Shoot, to, _tembak_, _menembak membedil_;
    (an arrow), _panah_, _memanah_;
    (sprout), _tumboh_.
  Shop, _kedei_;
    (to keep a), _ber-kedei_.
  Shore (beach), _pantei_;
    (to go on shore), _naik di darat_;
    (prop), _sokong_.
  Short, _pendek_, _pandak_;
    (in quantity), _korang_.
  Shot, small, _kachang-kachang_, _pengabur_.
  Shoulder, _bahu_.
  Shout, _sorak_, _sĕru_, _tampik_.
  Shove, to, _tolak_, _sorong_.
  Shower, _hujan_.
  Shred, to, _hiris_.
  Shriek, to, _mekik_, _pekik_, _men-jerit_.
  Shrill, _nyaring_, _ranang_.
  Shrimp, _hudang_.
  Shrink, to, shrivel, _kechut_, _kerukut_.
  Shroud, _kapan_.
  Shut, to, _tutop_, _katop_;
    (the eyes), _pejam_, _kejam_.
  Shy, _liyar_.
  Sick (ill), _sakit_, _gĕring_;
    (sea-sick), _mabuk-ombak_;
    (to vomit), _muntah_.
  Sickle, _sabit_, _pengetam_.
  Side, _rusuk_;
    (one--), _sa-bĕlah_.
  Sieve, _nyiru_.
  Sift, to, _ayak_, _ayak-kan_.
  Sigh, to, _keluh_, _mengeluh_.
  Sight, _peng-lihat-an_, _pandang-an_.
  Sign (token), _‘alamat_, _tanda_.
  Sign, to, _turun tanda tangan_.
  Signature, _tanda tangan_, _khat_.
  Signet, _chap_, _matrei_.
  Signification, _ma‘ana_.
  Silent, _diam_, _sengap_.
  Silk, _sutra_.
  Silly, _bodoh_, _bingong_.
  Silver, _perak_.
  Similar, _sama_.
  Simply, _sahaja_, _chuma_.
  Sin, _dosa_.
  Since, _sa-peninggal_.
  Sincere, _suchi hati_, _ekhlas_.
  Sinew, _urat_.
  Sing, to, _nyanyi_, _me-nyanyi_.
  Single, solitary, _tunggal_;
    (alone), _sa’orang_.
  Sink, to, _tinggalam_, _karam_.
  Sinuous (winding), _kelo-kelo_.
  Sip, to, _hisap_, _hirup_.
  Sister, _sudara perampuan_;
    (elder), _kakah_;
    (younger), _adek_;
    (in-law), _ipar_.
  Sit, to, _duduk_;
    (with the legs crossed), _ber-sila_;
    (with the feet hanging down), _ber-juntei_;
    (resting on the left arm with the left leg under the right),
      _ber-tempuh_;
    (to squat), _ber-jongkok_, _ber-tenggong_, _menyeranggong_.
  Site, _tampat_.
  Size, _besar_.
  Skein, _tukal_.
  Skate, _ikan-pari_.
  Skewer, _penyuchuk_.
  Skill, _ka-pandei-an_.
  Skin, _kulit_;
    (hide), _belulang_.
  Skin (to flay), _kupas_, _kelupas_.
  Skip, to, _me-lompat_.
  Skirt (of a garment), _puncha_.
  Sky, _langit_.
  Slab (of tin), _keping_;
    (small), _jung-kong_.
  Slack, _kundor_.
  Slander, _fitnah_.
  Slanting, _miring_, _chondong_, _singet_.
  Slap, _tampar_, _tempiling_.
  Slave, _hamba_, _sahaya_.
  Sleep, to, _tidor_, _lena_, _ber-adu_.
  Sleeve, _tangan-baju_.
  Slender, _nipis_;
    (in the waist), _ramping_.
  Slice, to, _hiris_, _meng-hiris_.
  Slice, a, _sa’potong_.
  Slip, to, _tĕgălichik_, _kalichik_, _gelinchir_, _kelinchir_.
  Slippery, _lichin_, _linchin_.
  Slit, to, _bĕlah_, _mem-bĕlah_.
  Slow, _lambat_, _perlahan_.
  Small, _kĕchil_, _halus_.
  Small-pox, _chachar_, _ka-tumboh_.
  Smart, to, _pedih_.
  Smear, to, _lumur_, _lumas_, _chalit_.
  Smell, _bau_;
    (to smell), _chium_.
  Smelt, to, _lĕbur_.
  Smile, to, _sinnyum_.
  Smith, _tukang_.
  Smoke, _asap_.
  Smooth, _lichin_;
    (level), _rata_.
  Smother, _lemas-kan_.
  Snail, _unam_, _kelambui_.
  Snake, _ular_.
  Snare, _rachik_.
  Snarl, to, _kerennyut_, _kerising_, _gerennying_.
  Snatch, to, _rebut_, _me-rebut_, _sentak_, _rampas_.
  Sneer, to, _sindir_.
  Sneeze, to, _bersin_.
  Snipe, _tetiru_, _berkik_.
  Snivel, _ingus_.
  Snore, to, _mengĕrok_, _dengkor_, _melengkor_.
  So, _bagini_, _bagitu_, _damikian_.
  Soak, to, _rendam_.
  Soap, _sabun_.
  Soar (to fly), _melayang_.
  Sob, to, _isak_;
    (sobbing), _ter-isak-isak-an_.
  Society (community), _jumaha_.
  Soft, _lemak_, _lumbut_.
  Solder, _patĕri_, (to solder), _patĕri-kan_.
  Soldier, _sipahi_, _soldado_.
  Sole (of the foot), _tapak-kaki_;
    (fish), _ikan lidah_.
  Sometimes, _kadang-kadang_.
  Son, _anak laki-laki_, _anak-jantan_.
  Song, _nyanyi_, _lagu_, _gurindam_.
  Soon, _sa-buntar-lagi_.
  Soot, _arang-para_.
  Sop, to, _chichah_.
  Sore (ulcer), _puru_;
    (wound), _luka_;
    (painful), _sakit_, _pedih_.
  Sorrow, _ka-duka-an_, _duka-chita_, _ka-susah-an_, _susah-hati_.
  Sorry, _susah-hati_.
  Sort, _bagei_, _macham_, _rupa_, _jenis_.
  Soul, _nyawa_, _jiwa_, _ruḥ_.
  Sound (noise), _bunyi_.
  Sour, _asam_, _masam_.
  South, _selatan_;
    (south-east), _tang-gara_;
    (south-west), _barat-daya_.
  Sow, to, _tabur_, _menabur_.
  Space, _lapang_.
  Spade, _peng-gali_.
  Span, _jingkal_.
  Sparing (parsimonious), _kikir_.
  Spark, _bunga-api_.
  Sparrow, _burong-pipit_.
  Speak, to, _ber-chakap_, _ber-kata_, _ber-tutur_;
    (to speak to, address), _tegor_, _siapa-kan_.
  Spear, _lembing_, _tombak_.
  Speck, _titik_.
  Speckled, _rintik_, _be-rintik_.
  Spectacles, _chermin-mata_.
  Spell (incantation), _mantra_.
  Spell, to, _eja_.
  Spend, to, _bĕlanja_.
  Spices, _rampak-rampak_.
  Spider, _laba-laba_, _lawa-lawa_.
  Spill, to, _tumpah_, _menumpah_.
  Spin, to, _pintal_.
  Spinach, _bayam_.
  Spinster, _bujang_.
  Spirit (soul), _nyawa_, _ruh_, _samangat_.
  Spirits (ardent), _arak_.
  Spit (skewer), _penyuchuk_.
  Spit, to, _ludah_.
  Spite, _sakit-hati_, _kechil-hati_, _dingki_.
  Splash, to, _perchik_, _memerchik_.
  Spleen, _limpa-kechil_.
  Splinter, _serupih_, _tatal_.
  Split, to, _bĕlah_, _mem-bĕlah_.
  Spoil, to, _rosak_, _binasa_.
  Spoon, _sendok_, _suduk_.
  Sponge, _bunga-karang_.
  Spotted, _ber-rintik_.
  Spout, _panchur_.
  Sprain, _salah-urat_.
  Spray (driving rain), _tempias_.
  Spread, to (a mat, cloth, &c.), _hampar_, _bentang_;
    (as fire or infection), _jangkit_, _ber-jangkit_, _melarat_.
  Spring (of water), _mata-ayer_.
  Spring (to germinate), _tumboh_;
    (issue forth), _timbul_, _terbit_.
  Sprinkle, to, _perchik_, _memerchik_;
    (to water), _seram_.
  Sprout, _tunas_.
  Spur, _taji_.
  Spy, _solo_;
    (to spy), _intei_;
    (spy-glass), _tĕropong_.
  Squander, to, _mem-boros-kan_.
  Square, _ampat-pesagi_.
  Squat down, to, _ber-jungkok_.
  Squeeze, to, _apit_, _tindih_;
    (wring, squeeze out), _pĕrah_.
  Squint, _juling_.
  Squirrel, _tupei_.
  Stab, to, _tikam_, _menikam_.
  Stable (firm), _kukuh_, _tĕtap_;
    (for horses), _bangsal-kuda_.
  Stagger, to, _chondong-ruyong_, _layah-siak_, _me-ruyong_.
  Stagnant, _tenang_.
  Stairs, _tangga_.
  Stake, post, _panchang_.
  Stake (to wager), _ber-taroh_.
  Stale (musty), _basi_.
  Stalk, _tangkei_.
  Stammer, to, _gagap_.
  Stamp (to trample), _injak_, _jijak_, _pijak_, _terajang_;
    (impress), _chap-kan_.
  Stand, to, _ber-diri_.
  Star, _bintang_.
  Stare, to, _renong_.
  Startled, _ter-kejut_.
  Starve, to, _mati-lapar_.
  Station (rank), _pangkat_.
  Stay (to dwell), _tinggal_, _diam_;
    (wait), _nanti_, _tangguh_.
  Steady, _tetap_, _tegoh_, _kukuh_.
  Steal, to, _churi_.
  Steam, _hawap_;
    (to cook by), _kukus_.
  Steel, _baja_.
  Steep, _tega_, _terjal_.
  Steep (to dip), _chelop_.
  Steer, to, _pegang kamudi_.
  Steersman, _juru-mudi_.
  Step (stride), _langkah_.
  Stepfather, _bapa tiri_.
  Stern (of a vessel), _burit-an_.
  Stew, to, _tumis_.
  Stick (walking), _tongkat_.
  Stick (to adhere), _lekat_;
    (to be obstructed), _sangkut_.
  Stiff, _kaku_.
  Sting, to, _singat_.
  Stingy, _kikir_, _chikil_, _bakhil_.
  Stink, _bau-busuk_.
  Stir, to, _gĕrak_.
  Stitch, _jerumat_.
  Stockade, _kubu_.
  Stocking, _sarong-kaki_.
  Stocks, _pasong_.
  Stomach, _pĕrut_.
  Stone, _batu_.
  Stool, _bangko_.
  Stoop, to, _tundok_.
  Stop (to cease), _ber-hinti_;
    (hinder), _tahan_, _tegah_;
    (intercept), _ampang_, _adang_;
    (stop up, plug), _sumbat_.
  Stopper, _penyumbat_.
  Store, warehouse, _gĕdong_.
  Stork, _bangau_.
  Storm, _ribut_.
  Story, _cheritra_;
    (of a house), _tingkat_.
  Straight, _betul_, _lurus_.
  Strain (to filter), _tapis_.
  Strait (of the sea), _selat_.
  Strange (curious), _pelik_;
    (wonderful), _‘ajaib_.
  Stranger, _orang-dagang_.
  Strangle, to, _pujut_.
  Stray (wandering), _jalang_;
    (to lose the way), _sesat_.
  Stream (river), _sungei_;
    (current), _harus_.
  Street, _jalan_, _lorong_.
  Strength, _kuasa_, _ḳuat_.
  Strengthen, to, _menegoh-kan_.
  Stretch (to spread out), _bentang_;
    (the limbs), _melunjur_;
    (in yawning), _mengelisah_.
  Strew, to, _hambur-kan_.
  Strict, _kĕras_.
  Stride, _langkah_.
  Strike, to, _pukul_, _gasak_, _palu_.
  String, _tali_, _utas_.
  Strip, to, _tanggal-kan_.
  Striped, _bĕlang_, _ber-choring_.
  Stripped (naked), _telanjang_.
  Stroke, _sa’kali pukul_, _sa’kali takuk_.[2]

      [Footnote 2: There is no word in Malay which corresponds with our
      word “stroke” or “blow,” the idea of distinguishing the blow
      struck from the act of striking not having suggested itself to the
      native mind. “So many blows” must be translated, “struck so many
      times.” He was sentenced to twenty stripes with a rattan, _Kĕna
      hukum di-atas-nia gasak dengan rotan dua-puloh kali_. So-and-so
      can cut down a _nibong_ tree in three strokes, _Kalau si-anu
      tebang pokok nibong takuk tiga kali tumbang_.]

  Stroke, to, _raba_, _urut_.
  Strong, _ḳuat_, _gagah_;
    (violent), _kĕras_, _dĕras_.
  Struggle, to, _lawan_, _ber-gumul_.
  Stubborn, _kapala-kĕras_, _degil_.
  Studious (diligent), _rajin_.
  Study (learning), _pelajar-an_, _pengan-an_;
    (to study), _bel-ajar_, _meng-aji_.
  Stumble (to trip, knock against something), _antuk ter-antuk_,
      _sen-tuk_.
  Stump (of a tree), _tunggul_.
  Stupid, _bodoh_, _bingong_, _babal_.
  Stupefied, _bius_. (See _note_, p. 112.)
  Subject (subordinate to), _ta‘aluk_;
    (matter, purport), _fasal_, _buku_, _bunyi_;
    (citizen), _ra‘iyat_.
  Submit, to, _tunduk_;
    (refer for decision), _sĕmbah-kan_, _menyĕmbah-kan_.
  Substitute, _ganti_.
  Subtract, to, _tolak_, _chabut_.
  Succeed (to take the place of), _meng-ganti_;
    (to answer), _jadi_.
  Succession (inheritance), _pusaka_.
  Such, _bagini_, _bagitu_, _yang dami-kian_.
  Suck, to, _hisap_, _hirup_;
    (the breast), _mam susu_.
  Suddenly, _sa-kunyong-kunyong_.
  Suet, _lemak_.
  Suffer (to endure), _tahan_, _tanggong_.
  Sufficient, _chukup_.
  Sugar, _gula_, _shakar_;
    (moist), _gula-pasir_;
    (sugar-candy), _gula-batu_;
    (sugar-cane), _tebu_.
  Suicide, _bunoh-diri_.
  Suit (cause), _bichara_, _da‘wa_.
  Suitable, _padan_, _patut_, _harus_.
  Sulky, _muka-masam_, _merajuk_.
  Sulphur, _bălirang_.
  Sumatra, _pulau-percha_.
  Summit, _merchu_, _puchuk_, _kamunchak_.
  Summon (to call out the peasantry), _kĕrah_, _mengĕrah_;
    (to cite), _panggil_.
  Sun, _mata-hari_.
  Sunrise, _mata-hari naik_, _terbit-mata-hari_.
  Sunset, _mata-hari turun_, _masok mata-hari_.
  Sundry, _ber-bagei-bagei_.
  Supercargo, _tukang peta_.
  Superintend, to, _pĕrentah_, _memĕ-rentah_.
  Supine (lying face upwards), _telentang_.
  Supple, _lemah_.
  Supplies, _bakal_, _pelabur_.
  Support, to, _tahan_, _tanggong_;
    (prop), _sokong_.
  Sure, _tuntu_, _tetap_.
  Surety (security), _aku-an_.
  Surfeited, _jemu_.
  Surpass, to, _lalu_, _lampau_.
  Surplus, _ka-lebeh-an_.
  Surprised, _heiran_, _ter-chengang_.
  Surrender, to, _sĕrah-kan_.
  Surround, to, _kepong_, _mengeliling kan_.
  Suspect, to, _menaroh shak_.
  Suspicion, _shak hati_.
  Swaddle, to, _bĕdong_.
  Swallow (a bird), _layang-layang_;
    (to swallow), _tĕlan_.
  Swamp, _paya_, _redang_.
  Swear, to, _sumpah_, _ber-sumpah_.
  Sweat, _pĕluh_.
  Sweep, to, _sapu_, _menyapu_.
  Sweet, _manis_;
    (fragrant), _harum_, _wangi_.
  Sweetheart, _kakasih_.
  Sweetmeats, _manis-an_, _halwa_.
  Sweet potatoes, _keledek_.
  Swell, to, _bengkak_.
  Swift, _laju_, _lantas_, _dĕras_.
  Swim, to, _berĕnang_.
  Swindle, to, _tipu_, _kechek_.
  Swing, a, _buayan_, _indul_;
    (to swing), _melenggang_, _ayun_.
  Swoon, to, _pengsan_.
  Swoop, to, _sambar_, _menyambar_.
  Sword, _pedang_.
  Sympathise, _ber-serta_.


  T.

  Table, _meja_.
  Tablecloth, _kain-meja_.
  Tack (to sew), _jahit_, _jaib_;
    (nautical term), _beluk_.
  Tail, _ekor_.
  Tailor, _tukang-jaib_.
  Take, to, _ambil_;
    (away), _angkat_, _bawa-pergi_.
  Tale, _cheritra_.
  Talk, to, _ber-chakap_, _ber-kata-kata_.
  Talkative, _mulut-panjang_.
  Tall, _tinggi_.
  Tamarind, _asam-jawa_.
  Tame, _jinak_.
  Tangled, _kusut_, _ter-kusut_.
  Tap, to, _tepuk_, _ketok_.
  Tap-root, _umbi_, _akar-susu_.
  Target, _sasar_, _sasar-an_.
  Taste, _rasa_.
  Tasteless, _tawar_.
  Tax, _chukei_.
  Tea, _teh_, _cha_, _daun-teh_, _daun-cha_, _ayer-teh_, _ayer-cha_.
  Teapot, _teh-kwan_.
  Teach, to, _ajar_, _meng-ajar_.
  Teak, _kayu jati_.
  Teal, _bĕlibis_.
  Tear, to, _koyak_, _charik_, _rabit_.
  Tears, _ayer-mata_.
  Tease, to, _usik_, _sakat_, _menyakat_.
  Teeth, _gigi_.
  Telescope, _tĕropong_.
  Tell, to, _khabar-kan_, _bilang_, _bĕri-tahu_.
  Temper, _pĕrangei_.
  Tempest, _ribut_.
  Temples, the, _pĕlipis_.
  Tend, to, _tunggu_, _jaga_.
  Tender (to offer), _unjuk-kan_.
  Tendon, _urat_.
  Tenor (purport), _bunyi_, _harti_.
  Terrible, _ngĕri_.
  Test, to, _choba_;
    (metals), _uji_.
  Tether to, _tambat_.
  Thatch, _atap_.
  Then, _waktu itu_, _tatkala itu_, _pada masa itu_.
  There, _sana_, _situ_, _di-sana_, _di-situ_.
  Therefore, _karana itu_, _sebab itu_.
  Thick, _tĕbal_;
    (in consistency), _kental_;
    (turbid), _kĕroh_;
    (close together), _kĕrap_, _lebat_.
  Thief, _penchuri_.
  Thigh, _paha_.
  Thimble, _sarong-jari_, _didal_.
  Thin, _nipis_, _halus_;
    (lean), _kurus_.
  Thing, _barang_, _bĕnda_, _mata-bĕnda_.
  Think, to, _fikir_, _pikir_, _kira_, _sangka_.
  Thirst, thirsty, _haus_, _dahaga_.
  Thorn, _duri_.
  Though, _wolo_, _lamun-kan_, _masa-kan_.
  Thought, _pikir-an_, _pe-rasa-an_.
  Thrash, to, _balun_, _godam_, _gasak_.
  Thread, _bĕnang_.
  Threaten, to, _ugut_.
  Thrifty, _jimat_.
  Throat (outside), _leher_;
    (inside), _rungkong_.
  Throb, to, _dĕbar_, _ber-dĕbar_.
  Throne, _takhta_, _singgahsana_.
  Through, _tĕrus_.
  Throw, to, _lempar_, _baling_;
    (away), _champak_, _buang_.
  Thumb, _ibu-jari_.
  Thunder, _guntur_, _guroh_.
  Thunderbolt, _panah-halilintar_.
  Tickle, to, _gĕli_.
  Tide (flood), _ayer-pasang_;
    (ebb), _ayer-surut_;
    (current), _harus_.
  Tie, to, _ikat_, _tambat_.
  Tier (row), _baris_, _pangkat_, _saf_.
  Tiger, _harimau_, _rimau_.
  Tight, _tĕgang_, _ketat_, _chekang_.
  Tiles (roofing), _ginting_.
  Timber, _kayu_;
    (balk), _balak_;
    (tree), _pokok-kayu_.
  Time, _waktu_, _katika_, _masa_;
    (opportunity), _sampat_, _dan_.
  Timid, _takut_.
  Tin, _timah_, _timah-puteh_.
  Tinder, _rabok_.
  Tinsel, _pĕrada_.
  Tipsy, _mabuk_.
  Tired, _pĕnat_, _lĕlah_.
  Title, _gĕlar-an_.
  Toad, _kangkong_.
  Toast, to, _panggang_.
  Tobacco, _tembakau_.
  To-day, _hari-ini_.
  Toddy, _tuak_.
  Toe, _jari-kaki_.
  Together, _sama_, _sama-sama_, _serta_.
  Token, _‘alamat_, _tanda_.
  Toll, _chukei_.
  Tomb, _ḳubur_;
    (place of visitation), _kăramat_.[3]
      [Footnote 3: _Kăramat_, a tomb, place, person, or thing of reputed
      sanctity; a corruption of the words _ka rahmat_, “to the mercy,”
      which occur in the phrase, _Sudah pulang ka rahmat Allah_, “Has
      returned to the mercy of God,” _i.e._, has died.]
  To-morrow, _esok_, _besok_;
    (morning), _besok-pagi_.
  Tone, _bunyi_.
  Tongs, _penyĕpit_.
  Tongue, _lidah_.
  Tools, _pekakas_.
  Tooth, _gigi_;
    (-pick), _pen-chunkil-gigi_.
  Top, _kapala_;
    (summit), _puchuk_, _kamunchak_.
  Torch, _damar_, _suluh_.
  Torment, _sangsara_.
  Torrent, _ayer-dĕras_;
    (of tears), _sebak_.
  Tortoise, _kora-kora_, _labi-labi_;
    (-shell), _sisik-pennyu_.
  Torture, _tuwas_.
  Toss, to, _me-lanting_.
  Total, _jumlah_, _kumpul-an_.
  Touch, to, _chekoh_, _jabat_, _suntoh_.
  Touchstone, _batu-uji_.
  Tow, to, _tunda_.
  Towards, _ara ka-_, _hala ka-_, _tuju ka-_.
  Towel, _sapu-tangan_.
  Town, _negri_, _bandar_.
  Toy, _per-main-an_.
  Trace, _băkas_;
    (foot-mark), _băkas-kaki_.
  Trade, _per-nyaga-an_;
    (to carry on), _ber-nyaga_, _menyaga_.
  Trader, _sudagar_.
  Tradition, _cheritra orang tuah-tuah_.
  Trample, to, _pijak_, _jijak_, _terajang_.
  Transcribe, to, _salin-kan_, _turun-kan_.
  Translate, to, _salin_, _tarjamah_, _turun-kan_, _pindah-kan_.
  Transplant, to, _alih_, _pindah-kan_.
  Transparent, _jerneh_, _hening_.
  Transverse, _lentang_.
  Trap, _perangkap_;
    (bird-), _rachik_;
    (set with a spear or sharp stake for larger animals), _belantik_.
  Trappings, _per-hias-an_.
  Tray, _dulang_;
    (round), _talam_.
  Tread, to, _pijak_, _jijak_, _injak_.
  Treasury, _khazanah_.
  Treaty, _per-janji-an_.
  Tree, _pokok_, _pohun_;
    (a dead tree), _punggor_;
    (a fallen tree), _rĕbah_.
  Tremble, to, _kĕtar_, _mengĕtar_.
  Trench, _parit_.
  Tribe, _suku_.
  Trick (to cheat), _kichau_, _kechek_.
  Trickle, _titik_, _menitik_.
  Trim (to arrange), _andam_, _meng-andam_;
    (balance), _timbang_.
  Troop (company, flock), _kawan_.
  Trouble, _ka-susah-an_;
    (misfortune, calamity), _bala_, _malang_, _mara-bahaya_;
    (difficulty), _ka-sukar-an_.
  Trough, _palong_.
  Trousers, _saluar_, _sarual_, _chalana_.
  True, _bĕnar_, _sungguh_, _bĕtul_.
  Trunk (of a tree), _batang_;
    (of an elephant), _belalei_.
  Trust (to confide), _harap_, _perchaya_.
  Try, to, _choba_;
    (judicially), _păreḳsa_.
  Tub, _tong_.
  Tumble, to, _jatoh_, _rebah_.
  Tune, _lagu_, _ragam_.
  Turban, _sarban_, _dastar_, _tangkolo_.
  Turn (to go round), _ber-pusing_, _ber-paling_;
    (to cause to move round), _mem-pusing_;
    (over), _balik-kan_.
  Turtle, _pennyu_.
  Tusk, _siong_, _taring_;
    (of an elephant), _gading_.
  Twig, _dahan_, _ranting_.
  Twinkle, to, _kĕjap_, _kĕlip_.
  Twilight (morning), _dina-hari_;
    (evening), _senja-kala_.
  Twin, _kambar_.
  Twine (cord), _tali-rami_.
  Twist, to, _pulas_, _pintal_.
  Tyrannical, _zalim_.


  U.

  Ugly, _uduh_, _buruk_.
  Ulcer, _puru_.
  Umbrella, _payong_.
  Uncertain, _ta’ tuntu_.
  Uncle, _bapa-sudara_, _pa-penakan_.
  Uncover, _buka_, _mem-buka_.
  Under, _bawah_, _di-bawah_.
  Understand, _mengarti_.
  Underwood, _bĕlukar_.
  Undress, to, _tanggal kain baju_, _buka pakei-an_.
  Unfortunate, _chelaka_, _nasib ta’ baik_.
  Unhappy, _susah-hati_.
  Unite, to, _hubong_, _rapat-kan_.
  Universe, _‘alam_.
  Unless, _hania_, _melain-kan_.
  Unload, to, _bongkar_, _punggah_.
  Unlucky, _chelaka_, _malang_.
  Unmannerly, _kasar_, _be-adab_.
  Unmarried, _bujang_.
  Untie, to, _rungkei_, _luchut-kan_.
  Until, _sampei_, _hingga_.
  Untrue, _bohong_, _dusta_.
  Up, _atas_, _di-atas_, _ka-atas_;
    (up to, as high as), _arah_, _ḥad_.
  Upside down, _ter-balik_.
  Urine, _ayer-kinching_.
  Usage, _‘adat_.
  Use, _guna_;
    (to use), _pakei_, _per-guna-kan_.
  Useful, _ber-guna_.
  Utter, to, _sebut_, _meng-uchap_.


  V.

  Vacant, _kosong_.
  Vagabond, _bangsat_.
  Vain, conceited, _kachak_, _bisi_, _sombong_;
    (fruitless), _sia-sia_, _chuma_.
  Valiant, _gagah_, _bĕrani_, _perkasa_.
  Valley, _lembah_, _lurah_.
  Valuable, _endah_, _ber-harga_.
  Value (to appraise), _nilai_.
  Vanish, to, _linyap_, _ghraib_.
  Vanquish, to, _alah-kan_;
    (vanquished), _alah_.
  Vapour, _hawap_.
  Variegated, _pancha-warna_;
    (striped), _ber-choring_.
  Various, _ber-bagei-bagei_, _ber-jenis-jenis_.
  Vary (to alter), _ubah_;
    (differ), _ber-lain_, _ber-beda_.
  Vast, _luas_.
  Vegetables, _sayur_.
  Veil, _kain-selubong_.
  Veiled, _ber-selubong_.
  Vein, _urat-darah_.
  Velvet, _beludu_;
    (of a deer’s antlers), _saput_.
  Vengeance, _balas_;
    (animosity, desire of vengeance), _damdam_.
  Venom, _bisa_.
  Verandah, _serambi_.
  Verily, _sa-sunggoh-nia_.
  Vermin (insect), _tuma_.
  Verse, _sloka_;
    (text), _ayat_.
  Vex, to, _usik_, _menyusah-kan_.
  Victory, _jaya_.
  Village, _kampong_, _dusun_.
  Vinegar, _chuka_.
  Violate, to, _rugul_, _me-rugul_.
  Virgin, _anak-dara_.
  Visit, to, _ber-tandang_.
  Vizier, _wazir_.
  Voice, _suara_.
  Volcano, _gunong ber-api_.
  Volume, _jilit_.
  Vomit, to, _muntah_.
  Voracious, _gĕlujuh_.
  Vow, _niat_;
    (to fulfill a vow), _bayar niat_, _lepas niat_.
  Vowel-points, _baris_.
  Voyage, _pe-layar-an_.
  Vulgar, _hina_.
  Vulture, _hering_.


  W.

  Wade, to, _meng-arung_, _me-randai_.
  Wages, _gaji_, _upah_.
  Wail, to, _ratap_.
  Waist, _pinggang_;
    (waist-belt), _tali-pinggang_, _tali-pending_.
  Waist-buckle, _pending_.
  Wait, to, _nanti_, _tangguh_.
  Wake, to, _jaga_, _ber-jaga_.
  Waken, to, _men-jaga-kan_, _bangun-kan_, _gĕrak-kan_.
  Walk, to, _jalan_, _ber-jalan_;
    (on all fours), _me-rangkak_.
  Walking-stick, _tongkat_.
  Wall, _dinding_, _tembok_.
  Wallow, to, _meng-gĕlumang_.
  Wander, to, _ber-hanyut_.
  Want (necessity), _ka-korang-an_;
    (to want), _handak_, _mahu_, _ber-ka-handak_.
  Wanton, _gatal_.
  War, _pĕrang_.
  Ward off, to, _tangkis_.
  Warehouse, _gĕdong_.
  Warm, _panas_, _hangat_;
    (to warm oneself at a fire), _ber-diang_.
  Wash, to, _basoh_.
  Wasp, _tabuan_, _peningat_.
  Waste (to squander), _burus_.
  Watch, _jam_, _harloji_, _urulis_;
    (to watch), _jaga_, _tunggu_, _kawal_;
    (expectantly), _me-langut_.
  Water, _ayer_.
  Waterfall, _ayer-terjun_, _ayer-lata_.
  Water-melon, _temikei_.
  Waterpot, _buyong_, _kindi_.
  Wave, _ombak_, _gelumbang_;
    (to wave), _kirap_, _kĕlebat_.
  Wax, _lilin_;
    (sealing wax), _lak_.
  Weak, _lĕmah_, _leteh_.
  Wealth, _ka-kaya-an_.
  Weapon, _senjata_.
  Wear, to, _pakei_.
  Weary, _leteh_, _lesu_, _pĕnat_.
  Weather (climate), _angin_.
  Weave, to, _tĕnun_.
  Web (spider’s), _sarang-laba-laba_.
  Wedge, _baji_.
  Week, _juma‘at_, _minggu_.
  Weep, to, _tangis_, _menangis_.
  Weigh, to, _timbang_;
    (anchor), _bongkar-sauh_.
  Weighty, _bĕrat_.
  Welcome, to, _tegor_, _meng-elu_.
  Well, _tĕlaga_, _pĕrigi_;
    (-born), _bang-sawan_;
    (-bred), _bastari_, _ber-budi_.
  West, _barat_, _mata-hari-jatoh_, _maghrib_.
  Wet, _basah_.
  Whale, _paus_.
  Wheat, _gandum_.
  Wheel, _roda_.
  Whet, to, _asak_, _chanai_.
  Whetstone, _batu-asah_.
  While, _sĕdang_, _salagi_, _sambil_.
  Whip, _chabuk_, _chamti_.
  Whiskers, _misei_.
  Whisper, to, _bisek_, _ber-bisek_.
  Whistle, to, _siul_.
  White, _puteh_.
  Whole, _sumua_, _chukup_.
  Wick, _sumbu_.
  Wicked, _jahat_.
  Wide, _lebar_, _luas_;
    (not closed), _renggang_.
  Widow, _janda_, _balu_.
  Widower, _balu laki-laki_.
  Wife, _bini_, _istri_, _perampuan_.
  Wild, _liar_.
  Will, _ka-handak_, _harap_, _harap-hati_, _ka-handak-hati_;
    (testament), _wasiyat_.
  Willing, _sudi_, _suka_, _mahu_.
  Win, to, _mĕnang_.
  Wind, _angin_;
    (to wind), _balut_, _lilit_, _putar_, _pusing_.
  Window, _jandela_, _tingkap_.
  Windpipe, _rungkong_.
  Wine, _anggur_.
  Wing, _sayap_, _kepak_.
  Wink, to, _kejap_, _kelip_.
  Winnow, to, _tampik_.
  Wipe, to, _sapu_, _menyapu_.
  Wire, _kawat_, _dawei_.
  Wisdom, _ka-pandei-an_, _bijaksana_.
  Wise, _pandei_, _bijak_, _cherdek_.
  Wish, to, _handak_, _mahu_, _harap_, _niat-hati_, _ber-ka-handak_.
  Withdraw, to, _undur_.
  Wither, to, _layu_.
  Withhold, to, _tahan_, _tahan-kan_.
  Witness, _saḳsi_.
  Woe, _duka_.
  Woman, _perampuan_, _betina_.
  Womb, _pĕrut_.
  Wonder, to, _ber-chengang_, _heiran_.
  Wonderful, _‘ajaib_.
  Wood, _kayu_;
    (a wood), _hutan_, _bĕlukar_.
  Woodpecker, _belatok_.
  Wood-pigeon, _tekukur_.
  Wool, _bulu_.
  Word, _sa’patah chakap_, _per-kata-an_.
  Work, _karja_;
    (to work), _buat karja_, _karja-kan_, _mengarja-kan_.
  Workman, _tukang_.
  World, _dunia_.
  Worm, _chaching_, _hulat_.
  Worship, to, _sembahyang_, _puja_.
  Worth, _harga_, _laku_.
  Worthy, _mustehik_.
  Wound, _luka_;
    (open), _liang_.
  Wrap, to, _balut_, _bungkus-an_.
  Wrecked, _karam_.
  Wrench open, to, _umpil_, _sungkit_.
  Wrestle, to, _ber-gumul_.
  Write, to, _tulis_, _menulis_, _menyurat_.
  Wrinkle, wrinkled, _kĕrut_, _kerukut_, _keretut_.
  Wrist, _peng-gĕlang-an_.
  Writer, _juru-tulis_.
  Wrong, _salah_, _silap_.


  Y.

  Yam, _ubi_.
  Yard, _ela_.
  Yawn, to, _meng-uwap_.
  Year, _tahun_.
  Yearly, _sa-tahun-tahun_.
  Yearn, to, _rindu_, _dendam_.
  Yeast, _ragi_.
  Yellow, _kuning_.
  Yesterday, _kalmarin_;
    (the day before --), _kalmarin dahulu_.
  Yet, _lagi_.
  Yoke, _koh_.
  Yolk (of an egg), _kuning-telor_.
  Young, _muda_.
  Youth, a, _budak_.

  Printed by BALLANTYNE, HANSON & CO.
  Edinburgh & London

       *       *       *       *       *
           *       *       *       *
       *       *       *       *       *

ERRATA (noted by transcriber)

Minor errors in punctuation, such as missing periods (full stops) at the
end of a sentence, were silently corrected. In the tables of Sanskrit
derivations, all citations from Sir William Jones were missing the
closing parenthesis. The spellings “Tamil” and “Tamul” are used
interchangeably.

Hyphenization is as in the original. Note that in modern written
Malay, hyphens are generally not used except in duplications such as
“siapa-siapa”.

In the Vocabulary list, a few commas after parentheses were silently
supplied.

  _Tong-kat_ a walking-stick, &c.
    [_text unchanged: other words in this list use spelling “Tang-_”]
  _Ap_ ... a{lap}  [_text unchanged: error for “al{ap}” with
      non-italic “l”?_]
  _Sejarah Malayu_  [_later spelled “Sâjarah”_]
  the difference between _cold_ and _a cold_
    [_text has “differ-/rence” at line break_]
  _ka-puji-an_, praise  [_second hyphen missing or invisible_]
  Pronouns: _Tĕman_ (lit. companion).  [Tĕan]
  _Maka uleh baginda pun di-sambut dengan seperti ‘adat_,
    [_text has ἁ (Greek alpha with rough breathing) for ‘a_]
  PART I: XI. PARTICLES.  [X.]
  Lesson IV. ... to play, _main_.  [maln]
  Printed ... Edinburgh & London  [_text from 8th edn.; 10th edn.
      changes to “at Paul’s Work, Edinburgh”]

Montaigne quotation

  Je n’en refuis aulcune de phrases qui s’usent ...
    [_Passage is formally “aulcune de celles [des phrases] qui” ..._]

Sanskrit

  Continually ... sâda (perishing)
    [_text unchanged: error for “sadâ” (always)?_]
  Makara
    [_May be an error: Sanskrit makara is crocodile or Capricorn_]
  King ... râj  [_text unchanged: should probably be “râjan”_]
  Lakshmaṇa  [lakhshmaṇa]
  District ... diçâ  [dicâ]
  Varuṇa (the deity of the waters)  [Varuna]
  _pertama_ (Sansk. _prathama_ ), first  [pratama]

Question Marks in Lessons

  printed . for ?
    Lesson V. ... _Pokoh mana handak tebang?_
    Lesson XXI. ... _Kamu tahu-kah menjahit?_
    Lesson XXX. ... _Ada-kah siapa-siapa datang men-chahari sahaya?_
    Lesson XXXIX. ... _Apa sakit-nia?_

  printed ? for .
    Lesson XXVI. ... _Bukan sa-kali ini sahaja yang dia buat jahat._





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