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´╗┐Title: McGuffey's Eclectic Spelling Book
Author: McGuffey, William Holmes, 1800-1873
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "McGuffey's Eclectic Spelling Book" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.

{Transcribers Notes:
Do you remember how to spell "pharmacopoeia" or "Winnipiseogee"?  This was
for sixth grade! Here is a chance to expand  your vocabulary or just enjoy
a trip to the grade school of 1900.

The original text uses a specialized font to indicate pronunciation.
Italics are used to specify words or syllables in the text. The
approximations given here retain only the emphasis (accent). See the DOC
or PDF format for the original graphics.

Don Kostuch}


McGUFFEY'S [Registered]




McGuffey Editions and Colophon are Trademarks of

John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


In revising this book, care has been taken to preserve all the excellences
that have so long and so favorably distinguished McGUFFEY'S ECLECTIC
SPELLING-BOOK: and the chief changes that have been made, have been
suggested by the evident plan of the original work.

The old system of indicating the pronunciation by numerals, called
"superiors," has been abandoned, and the diacritical marks used by Webster
have been adopted. The Revised Speller conforms in orthography,
pronunciation, and syllabication to the latest edition of Webster's
Unabridged Dictionary. Exercises have been given on each of the
distinctive marks used in the book, as will be seen by reference to
Lessons 36-57.

A number of lessons have been added in the department of prefixes and
suffixes, and now nearly all the more common of these etymological
principles have been explained. (See Lessons 136-167.) In arranging the
text of the several lessons, the object has been not to appeal merely to
arbitrary memory, but to associate each lesson with some principle of
sound, meaning, or accent, which would tend to aid the pupil in acquiring
a knowledge of our language. Several distinct lessons on pronunciation are
given, and towards the close of the book numerous lessons of difficult
words in orthography have been introduced.

Instead of indicating silent letters by italics, as has hitherto been
done, a new type has been made in which such letters are canceled, thus
enabling the pupil to discover their status at a glance.

The pages have been enlivened, as in the other books of this Series, by
attractive engravings.

The publishers take pleasure in acknowledging the valuable services of
W. B. Watkins, D. D., who planned and executed this revision.


Copyright, 1879, by Van Antwerp, Bragg & Co.


The English Alphabet consists of twenty-six letters, viz.:

Letters are divided into VOWELS and CONSONANTS.

The Vowels are those letters which can be perfectly sounded without the
aid of any other letter. The vowels are a, e, i, o, u, w, and y.

The vowel sounds of w and y are the same as those of u and i. A, e, and o
are always vowels. I, u, w, and y are sometimes consonants.

A Diphthong is the union of two vowels in one sound. When both vowels are
sounded, the diphthong is called PROPER, because then it is really a
DIPHTHONG, or double sound; that is, the sounds of the vowels unite; as,
oi in oil; ou in sound.

When only one of the vowels is sounded, the diphthong is called IMPROPER,
because then, as one of the vowels is silent, it is not properly a
DIPHTHONG, though it takes that name; as, oa in boat, ui in suit, where a
and i are silent.

The following diphthongs are in common use, viz.: oi, oy, ou, ow, ae, ai,
au, aw, ay, ea, ei, eo, eu, ew, ey, ia, ie, oa, oe, ua, ue, ui; as in
toil, boy, round, plow, seal, coal, head, sail, say, aught, yeoman. Of
these, oi, oy, ou, and ow are generally proper diphthongs; though
sometimes ou and ow are improper, as in famous, where o is silent, and in
slow, where w is silent.

A Triphthong is the union of three vowels in one syllable; as, eau in
beau, iew in view. The triphthong is properly a union of letters, not


All the vowels, and some of the consonants, have several sounds; in this
book these sounds are indicated by diacritical marks, as in the following

Long Sounds.

Sound  as is
-----  -----
a      ate
a      care
a      arm
a      last
a      all
oo     fool

e      eve
e      err
i      ice
o      ode
u      use

Short Sounds.

Sound  as is
-----  -----
a      am
e      elm
i      in
o      odd
u      up
oo     look


oi,oy,as in oil, boy  ou,ow, as in out, owl

Sound  as is
-----  -----
b      bib
d      did
g      gig
j      jug
n      nine
m      maim
ng     hang
l      lull

v      valve
th     this
z      zinc
zh     azure
r      rare
w      we
y      yet

Sound  as is
-----  -----
f      fife
h      him
k      cake
p      pipe
s      same

t      tart
sh     she
ch     chat
th     thick
wh     why

NOTE.--The foregoing forty-four sounds are those most employed in the
English language. Some of these sounds are represented by other letters,
as shown in the following table. For further instruction concerning the
sounds, see Lessons 36-57.

Sound  for  as in
-----  ---  -----
a      o    what
e      a    there
e      a    feint
i      e    police
i      e    sir
o      u    son
o      oo   to
o      oo   wolf
o      a    fork
o      e    work
u      oo   full
u      e    burn
u      oo   rude
y      i    fly

y      i    myth
c      k    can
c      s    cite
ch     sh   chaise
ch     k    chaos
g      j    gem
n      ng   ink
s      z    as
s      sh   sure
x      gz   exact
gh     f    laugh
ph     f    phlox
qu     k    pique[1]
qu     kw   quit

[Footnote 1: The u is canceled in this book when qu is sounded like k.]

W, in its vowel sounds, corresponds with u; an in new (pro. nu).

A has, in a few words, the sound of e; as in any (pro. en'ny).

U has, in a few words, the sound of e; as in bury (pro. ber'ry); or that
of i, as in busy (pro. biz'y).


The Consonants are those letters which can not be perfectly sounded
without the aid of a vowel. The consonants are b, c, d, f, g, h, l, k, l,
m, n, p, q, r, s, t, v, x, z, and sometimes i, u, w, and y. The consonants
are divided into MUTES and SEMI-VOWELS.

The Mutes are those consonants that admit of no sound without the aid of a
vowel. They are b, d, k, p, q, t, and c and g hard.

The Semi-vowels are those consonants that can be sounded imperfectly by
themselves. They are f, h, j, l, m, n, r, s, v, x, z, and c and g soft.

Four of the semi-vowels are called LIQUIDS; viz., l, m, n, and r. They are
called liquids because they unite so readily with other sounds, or flow
into them.


A Syllable is a sound, or a combination of sounds, uttered by a single
impulse of the voice: it may have one or more letters; as
  a, bad, bad-ness.

A Word is either a syllable or a combination of syllables; as, not,

A word of one syllable is called a Monosyllable; as, man.

A word of two syllables is called a Dissyllable; as, manly.

A word of three syllables is called a Trisyllable; as, manliness. Words of
more than three syllables are called Polysyllables.

Accent is a stress of voice placed upon some one syllable more than the
others. Every word composed of two or more syllables has one of them
accented. This accent is denoted by a mark (') at the end of the accented
syllable; as, mid'night,  a ban'don.

A Primitive Word is one which is not derived from any other word; as, man,
great, full.

A Derivative Word is one which is formed from some other word by adding
something to it; as, manful, greatness, fully.

A Simple Word is one which is not composed of more than one word; as,
kind, man, stand, ink.

A Compound Word is one that is composed of two or more simple words; as,
ink-stand, wind-mill.

Spelling is naming or writing the letters of a word.

Script Alphabet
[Illustration: The following letter are shown in an ideal hand-written


a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z


a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z


A [Illustration: Axe]
B [Illustration: Boy]
C [Illustration: Cat]
D [Illustration: Dog]
E [Illustration: Elk]
F [Illustration: Fox]
G [Illustration: Girl]
H [Illustration: Hen]
I [Illustration: Ink]
J [Illustration: Jug]
K [Illustration: Kid (Goat)]
L [Illustration: Lark]
M [Illustration: Man]
N [Illustration: Nut]
O [Illustration: Ox]
P [Illustration: Pig]
Q [Illustration: Quail]
R [Illustration: Rat
S [Illustration: Sun]
T [Illustration: Top]
U [Illustration: Urn]
V [Illustration: Vine]
W [Illustration: Wren]
X [Illustration: letter X]
Y [Illustration: Yak]
Z [Illustration: Zebra]


Lesson 1.


Short Sound of A.

am    cat    gap    ban    cap
an    bad    bag    can    map
as    mad    gag    fan    nap
at    pad    hag    pan    rap
ax    sad    lag    ran    hap
rat   gad    tag    tan    jam
sat   sap    fag    van    ham

Short Sound of E.

bed   den    net    sell   tent
led   ken    pet    nest   rent
red   men    set    zest   sent
wed   wen    yet    test   went
beg   jet    sex    pest   felt
leg   let    fell   rest   pelt
hen   met    bell   jest   melt

Lesson 2.


Short Sound of I.

if    rid   him   sin   jig
it    lid   rim   tin   rig
is    sip   fix   dig   bib
bit   tip   six   fig   jib
hit   nip   din   big   rib
sit   lip   pin   pig   fib

Short Sound of O.

on    cob   nod   box   dot
ox    job   pod   hop   jot
got   rob   rod   mop   lot
cot   sob   log   sop   pot
jot   cod   hog   pop   rot
lot   God   dog   top   not

Short Sound of U.

up    mud   rum   rut    gush
us    dug   sum   hung   dust
cub   mug   bun   bung   must
hub   pug   dun   lung   rust
rub   tug   run   sung   gust
bud   jug   sun   hulk   drum

Lesson 3.


man   lap   pat   tap   had
fin   get   ten   wet   peg
fit   dim   mix   hid   his
hot   rot   fob   dot   con
rug   hum   fun   hut   cut

had   fun   hug   gum   flog
den   fog   dip   nag   dram
did   tub   fog   bet   help
sod   hod   gun   pen   lift
lad   bet   did   cog   rush

Lesson 4.

Long Sound of A.

date   jade   came   cage   bane
late   fade   dame   page   lace
mate   rate   same   sage   wake

Long Sound of E.

me     we     she    heed   weed
fee    jeer   feed   deed   deep
feel   leer   meek   keep   peep
seek   veer   beef   reel   weep

Long Sound of I.

pile   dike   fire   life  bide
file   like   tire   rife   hide
mile   pike   sire   wife   ride

Long Sound of O.

code   dolt   bone   hope   dote
node   jolt   cone   pope   note
bode   molt   hone   rope   vote
rove   bolt   tone   cope   hold

Long Sound of U.

lure   cube   mute   lune   huge
cure   tube   duke   dune   pule
pure   lute   jute   use   cue

Lesson 5.

Short Sounds of Vowels.

crab   bled   chip   shot   bump
grab   fled   ship   blot   lump
drab   sled   whip   spot   pump
slab   sped   slip   plot   jump
stab   then   drip   trot   hump
brag   bent   spit   clog   bulk
cram   best   crib   frog   just
clan   hemp   gift   plod   drug
clad   vest   king   stop   shut
dash   west   grit   clod   hush

Lesson 6.

Various Vowel Sounds.

bard   deal   tank   dell   ill
card   veal   rank   tell   bill
hard   meal   sank   well   fill
bark   neat   hank   yell   rill
dark   heat   dank   belt   hill
dint   bang   dime   rave   cull
hint   fang   lime   gave   dull
lint   gang   tine   lave   gull
mint   hang   fine   pave   hull
tint   rang   mine   save   mull

Lesson 7.

Long Sounds of Vowels.

blaze   sneer   drive   globe   dean
craze   creed   tribe   drone   bean
shape   steep   brine   stone   bead
state   sleek   spire   probe   beam
crape   fleet   bride   shore   lean
fume    smite   blame   clear   mope
spume   spite   flame   drear   mold
fluke   quite   slate   blear   tore
flume   whine   spade   spear   robe
dure    spine   prate   smear   poke

Lesson 8.

Various Sounds of Vowels.

clasp   small   cramp   bring   moan
grasp   stall   stamp   cling   coast
flask   fall    grand   sling   toast
graft   wall    stand   swing   roast
craft   squall  lamp    thing   roach
book    boon    stork   wad     pod
good    spoon   horse   was     rob
took    bloom   snort   wash    rock
foot    broom   short   wast    soft
hook    stool   north   what    lost

Lesson 9.

Long Sounds of Vowels under the Accent.

fa'tal   le'gal   lo'cal   cu'bit
na'tal   re'gal   fo'cal   du'el
pa'pal   re'al    vo'cal   hu'man
pa'gan   pe'nal   o'ral    u'nit
ba'by    ta'per   o'val    du'ly
la'dy    di'al    to'tal   fu'ry
la'zy    tri'al   bo'ny    ju'ry
ma'zy    fi'nal   co'ny    pu'ny
na'vy    vi'tal   go'ry    pu'pil
ra'cy    ri'val   ro'sy    hu'mid
Sa'tan   vi'al    po'sy    tu'mid

Lesson 10.

Short Sounds of Vowels under the Accent.

al'um     el'der    civ'il   cul'prit
al'to     hec'tic   dit'ty   clum'sy
can'ter   helm'et   gid'dy   dul'cet
mar'ry    fen'nel   fil'ly   fun'nel
ral'ly    ken'nel   sil'ly   gul'ly
nap'kin   bel'fry   liv'id   buck'et
hap'py    ed'dy     lim'it   gus'set
pan'try   en'try    lim'ber  sul'len
ram'mer   en'vy     riv'et   sum'mon
mam'mon   test'y    lin'en   hur'ry
tab'let   self'ish  mil'let  mul'let

Lesson 11.

Various Sounds of A.

care   fast   charm  camp   war
mare   mast   chart  damp   warp
share  cask   lard   hand   warm
spare  mask   arm    land   ward
snare  past   yard   sand   warn
game   scar   lake   waft   fray
lame   spar   dale   raft   play
name   star   gale   chaff  gray
fame   garb   cape   aft    stay
tame   barb   shame  staff  bray

Lesson 12.

Various Sounds of A.

dan'ger   am'ber    lard'er   clat'ter
man'ger   ban'ter   mar'gin   flat'ter
quak'er   ban'ner   ar'dent   lat'ter
qua'ver   hand'y    ar'my     mat'ter
dra'per   man'na    art'ist   pat'ter
wa'ger    can'cer   har'vest  tat'ter
fa'vor    pan'der   par'ty    rag'ged
fla'vor   tam'per   tar'dy    rack'et
sa'vor    plan'et   ar'dor    van'ish
ma'jor    ham'per   car'pet   gal'lant
ca'per    stam'mer  gar'ment  pat'tern

Lesson 13.

Various Sounds of E.

sheep   ce'dar     bet'ter   cler'gy
creep   fe'ver     fet'ter   fer'vor
sleep   tre'mor    let'ter   her'mit
sweep   ge'nus     en'ter    mer'cy
speed   se'cret    ev'er     ser'mon
breeze  re'bus     nev'er    ser'pent
teeth   se'quel    sev'er    mer'chant
sneeze  se'quence  dex'ter   ver'bal
breed   he'ro      mem'ber   ver'dict
bleed   ze'ro      plen'ty   per'son
freed   se'cant    ven'om    fer'ment

Lesson 14.

Various Sounds of I.

bird    bri'er   bib'ber    thir'ty
birch   ci'der   bit'ter    thirst'y
chirp   mi'ser   dif'fer    third'ly
flirt   spi'der  din'ner    birch'en
girl    vi'per   frit'ter   chirp'er
shirt   cli'ent  lit'ter    girl'ish
squirm  gi'ant   riv'er     gird'er
squirt  i'tem    shiv'er    stir'less
third   i'cy     sil'ver    first'ly
girt    spi'ral  in'ner     birth'day
gird    i'vy     liv'er     mirth'ful

Lesson 15.

Various Sounds of O.

bro'ker   col'ic    cor'net    worst
clo'ver   ton'ic    cor'set    come
drov'er   top'ic    or'gan     love
gro'cer   mor'al    sor'did    dove
o'ver     com'ma    tor'pid    shoot
o'dor     dog'ged   form'al    moon
so'lar    doc'tor   for'ty     moose
po'lar    cop'per   lord'ly    tooth
pok'er    fod'der   morn'ing   gorge
home'ly   fos'ter   orb'it     most
po'em     pon'der   mor'tal    prop

Lesson 16.

Various Sounds of U.

hu'mor    but'ter    mur'der    pru'dent
ju'ror    mut'ter    mur'mur    fru'gal
tu'mor    rud'der    tur'ban    tru'ly
stu'por   shut'ter   tur'nip    tru'ant
tu'tor    suf'fer    tur'key    cru'et
cu'rate   sup'per    pur'port   bru'in
lu'cid    mum'my     curl'y     dru'id
stu'dent  mus'ket    fur'ry     ru'in
stu'pid   num'ber    fur'nish   ru'by
lu'nar    nut'meg    cur'vet    bru'tal
tu'mult   stut'ter   bur'den    gru'el

Lesson 17.

Various Sounds of the Vowels.

June   furl   husk    from    halt
dupe   hurl   musk    pomp    malt
tune   turn   rusk    romp    salt
flute  churn  stung   long    waltz
plume  hurt   pluck   song    swan
glue   curl   drunk   strong  wasp
droop  deck   chill   for     sheath
gloom  neck   drill   corn    shell
loop   next   quill   fork    shorn
hoof   text   skill   form    shout
roof   desk   spill   sort    shrub
proof  nest   frill   torch   shrug

Lesson 18.

Words Accented on the last Syllable.

a wake'    be hest'   be hind'   re cede'
be came'   be set'    be side'   con crete'
be have'   ca det'    be tide'   com pete'
be take'   de fend'   de rive'   se crete'
e late'    de pend'   re cite'   con cede'
per vade'  re pel'    re tire'   con vene'
for sake'  at tend'   re vile'   im pede'
a bate'    con sent'  re mise'   re plete'
cre ate'   im pend'   re vive'   un seen'
es tate'   im pel'    con nive'  su preme'
re late'   com pel'   ex cite'   re lease'

Lesson 19.

be rate'   a bode'     ex pire'    a cute'
a pace'    a lone'     con fide'   a buse'
re bate'   a tone'     con fine'   con fuse'
de bate'   af ford'    con spire'  de duce'
de face'   ca jole'    po lite'    de lude'
de fame'   de pose'    re cline'   ma ture'
se date'   com pose'   re fine'    pol lute'
col late'  en force'   re pine'    pro cure'
re gale'   en robe'    re quire'   re buke'
em pale'   ex plore'   re spire'   re duce'
en gage'   ex pose'    u nite'     se clude'
en rage'   im port'    en twine'   se cure'

Lesson 20.

blade   plash   bream   dress   twine
glade   clash   cream   swim    blind
grade   crash   dream   spend   grind
shade   smash   gleam   speck   spike
trade   trash   steam   fresh   smile
skate   slash   stream  whelp   while
brisk   drove   blush   cheap   carve
quilt   grove   flush   peach   farce
filth   stove   slush   teach   parse
pinch   clove   brush   reach   barge
flinch  smote   crush   bleach  large
mince   store   thrush  glean   snarl

Lesson 21.

ab'bey    rec'ord    pit'y     col'ter
ab'bot    check'er   dis'tant  fo'cus
atom      ed'it      din'gy    glo'ry
ash'es    lev'el     diz'zy    lo'cust
cap'tor   meth'od    fin'ish   mo'ment
car'rot   splen'did  gim'let   po'tent
cav'il    ves'per    spir'it   co'gent
ehap'ter  west'ern   tim'id    do'tage
chat'tel  bed'lam    pig'gin   no'ted
fath'om   des'pot    tin'sel   stor'age
gal'lon   ren'der    tip'pet   sto'ry
gal'lop   tem'pest   wit'ness  pro'test

Lesson 22.

shake   chose   march   pine    oil
snake   prose   parch   wild    moil
baste   those   starch  mild    coil
haste   froze   larch   tile    foil
taste   force   lark    slide   soil
paste   porch   stark   glide   toil
bunch   broth   prism   spent   boy
hunch   cloth   sixth   fence   coy
lunch   froth   stint   hence   hoy
punch   moth    smith   pence   joy
plump   botch   whist   thence  toy
stump   stock   midst   whence  cloy

Lesson 23.

Monosyllables miscellaneously arranged.

free   clip   shelf   quest   shine
spin   hate   chide   flax    wore
shad   tape   fringe  still   think
band   race   clock   trim    marsh
pack   mire   cheek   door    booth
bath   kite   full    clung   wince
dock   bank   frock   loft    spray
gold   fell   troop   pulp    join
pipe   pink   glass   grape   friz
club   hilt   lurk    pose    brow
shop   last   cloud   zest    grace

Lesson 24.

Words in which the final e is silent.

ca'ble    nee'dle   rab'ble   bub'ble
fa'ble    Bi'ble    sam'ple   bun'dle
ga'ble    ti'tle    sim'ple   crum'ble
sa'ble    ri'fle    tem'ple   muf'fle
sta'ble   no'ble    dim'ple   muz'zle
cra'dle   fick'le   fid'dle   pud'dle
la'dle    am'ple    kin'dle   ruf'fle
ma'ple    ap'ple    lit'tle   tum'ble
sta'ple   baffle    bot'tle   pur'ple
bee'tle   bat'tle   cob'ble   cir'cle
fee'ble   cat'tle   fond'le   sad'dle

Lesson 25.

an'gel      ab'sent    bish'op    blun'der
ba'sis      ac'rid     big'ot     blus'ter
ca'ter      blank'et   bil'let    cus'tom
fla'grant   clas'sic   blis'ter   cut'ler
fra'grant   crag'gy    cin'der    cut'ter
has'ty      dam'sel    crick'et   sum'mer
ha'tred     dan'dy     fif'ty     sun'der
la'bel      fab'ric    fil'let    shud'der
pa'tent     fam'ish    lim'pid    thun'der
sa'cred     fran'tic   pil'fer    tum'bler
state'ment  lath'er    pil'lar    ul'cer
va'cate     lav'ish    print'er   un'der

Lesson 26.


NOTE TO TEACHERS.--These lessons are intended as exercises in the meaning
as well as the spelling of words. Distinguish carefully words of similar
sound, but which differ in their spelling. At the recitation the sentences
should be read aloud by the teacher, and the pupils required to write them
out neatly and correctly upon their slates or on the blackboard.

  He ate seven or eight apples. Send the pale maid with the pail of milk.
  He owed for the paper on which he wrote an ode to the moon. We are not
  quite ready for the quiet man. Age gives edge to wine. He said the idol
  looked like a satyr. Clever satire often rouses the idle.

Lesson 27.

Sounds of ai, ou, ow, and ea,

paid    bound   cow     cheat    head
grain   found   how     treat    dead
staid   ground  town    beast    stead
waif    hound   growl   bleat    tread
rail    mound   clown   preach   dread
flail   pound   frown   speak    thread
quail   round   crown   streak   sweat
snail   sound   drown   feast    death

Lesson 28.

Dissyllables with short Sounds of Vowels.

ad'age     fren'zy    bick'er     blos'som
bal'last   emp'ty     crit'ic     cot'ton
bant'ling  gen'try    dig'it      com'ic
can'to     mer'it     flim'sy     drop'sy
ras'cal    men'tal    flip'pant   flor'id
las'so     sher'iff   frig'id     frol'ic
an'tic     ten'dril   in'fant     gos'pel
sad'ness   vel'lum    in'gress    gos'sip
sal'ver    vel'vet    in'mate     hor'rid
sand'y     nec'tar    in'quest    jol'ly
mag'got    ves'try    in'sect     rock'et

Lesson 29.

Trisyllables with short Sounds of the Vowels.

bal'co ny     del'i cate    lib'er ate
bar'o ny      des'o late    lim'i tate
cav'i ty      der'o gate    im'mo late
fac'ul ty     dev'as tate   in'di cate
grav'i ty     em'u late     in'ti mate
mal'a dy      hes'i tate    in'du rate
van'i ty      med'i tate    in'vo cate
am'pu tate    pet'ri fy     ir'ri tate
ab'so lute    plen'i tude   lit'i gate
al'ti tude    rec'ti tude   mil'i tate
am'bu lance   res'o lute    stip'u late

Lesson 30.

Miscellaneous Sounds.

prime   swine    straw   crawl
brawn   snore    gloss   flank
brick   charge   crow    quench
green   tinge    shark   Scotch
chest   goose    brand   thrift
space   prow     twist   flange
crank   wealth   slice   twain
limp    screw    throb   thrice
chess   flake    soon    flesh
finch   flash    flaw    twelve
flung   clean    loaf    scale

Lesson 31.

Long Sounds of I and U, and short Sounds of E and I.

a bide'    ac cuse'     con tend'   ad mit'
a like'    im pure'     con tent'   ad dict'
a live'    im pute'     in tend'    as sist'
a rise'    as sume'     in tent'    com mit'
de cide'   com mute'    dis sect'   con sist'
de file'   com mune'    de ject'    de pict'
de fine'   com pute'    de test'    dis till'
de ride'   con clude'   de tect'    emit'
de sire'   con fute'    in spect'   en list'
di vide'   dis pute'    ob ject'    en rich'
di vine'   en dure'     re spect'   for bid'

Lesson 32.

Silent Letters.

B is silent after m and before t, and p is silent before s. The silent
letters are canceled in this lesson, as they are throughout the book.

lamb   numb    debt    debt'or
comb   bomb    doubt   doubt'ful
tomb   crumb   psalm   sub'tle
dumb   thumb   pshaw   psal'ter


The lamb is a dumb animal. He climbed the hill to the tomb, but his limbs
became numb. Comb your hair, but do not thumb your book. Bombs are now
commonly called "shells." The debtor, who was a subtle man, doubted his
word, and gave not a crumb of comfort. Take your psalter and select a
joyous psalm. His answer was, "Pshaw!"

Lesson 33.

Sounds of igh, oa, shr, and thr.

nigh    load   coax     shrank   thrash
thigh   oats   hoax     shrewd   threat
fight   boat   oath     shrift   throng
light   oak    coach    shrike   throve
flight  foal   float    shrunk   thrust
fright  goat   poach    thrill   throat
tight   soap   hoarse   three    thrum

Lesson 34.

Long and short Sounds of A, and short Sound of E.

gain     a bash'      dis patch'   pre tend'
nail     ca bal'      dis tract'   re flect'
taint    ca nal'      ex pand'     re fresh'
trail    cra vat'     a bet'       re lent'
aim      de camp'     be deck'     re ject'
maim     pro tract'   be held'     re quest'
train    re cant'     be quest'    re bel'
strain   re fract'    de fect'     re gress'
chain    re lax'      e lect'      re press'
paint    at tack'     e rect'      sub ject
quaint   at tract'    e vent'      neg'lect'

Lesson 35.

Short Sounds of Vowels under the Accent.

ac'ci dent   ben'e fit     dif'fer ent
ad'a mant    brev'i ty     dif'fi cult
am'i ty      clem'en cy    fil'a ment
an'i mal     des'ti ny     in'cre ment
an'nu al     neg'li gent   in'do lent
can'is ter   pend'u lum    his'to ry
flat'ter y   rem'e dy      in'ju ry
fam'i ly     reg'u lar     pil'lo ry
lax'i ty     rel'e vant    sim'i lar
man'i fest   pen'i tence   tit'u lar
man'i fold   pen'e trate   tim'or ous

Lesson 36.


In this lesson, and in the pages immediately following, will be found
forty-three exercises on the various sounds of the English language. Some
of these have been given already, but are repeated here for the more
thorough instruction of the pupil Let the teacher carefully discriminate
between the different sounds of the vowels, and fully drill the scholars
in their correct enunciation.

1. Regular Long Sound of A, marked a.

make    la'tent    brave   a base'ment
safe    cham'ber   crave   a bate'ment
gaze    pas'try    grave   ad ja'cent
saint   man'gy     shave   a wa'ken

Lesson 37.

2. Regular Short Sound of A, marked a.

span   ad'der    crack   can'di date
trap   an'vil    gland   cal'i co
plat   ban'ish   slack   grat'i tude
sham   bran'dy   plaid   mag'is trate

3. Sound of A before r in such words as air, care, marked a.

dare    af fair'    chair    trans par'ent
rare    de spair'   prayer   for bear'ance
flare   be ware'    scare    par'ent age
glare   com pare'   square   care'ful ness

Lesson 38.

4. Sound of the Italian A, as in arm, marked a.

farm   ar'bor    guard   ar'gu ment
harm   ar'mor    daunt   ar'ti choke
barn   bar'ber   harsh   car'di nal
yarn   car'go    jaunt   car'pen ter

5. Sound of A in certain words before ff, ft, ss, st, sk, sp, and in a few
before nce and nt, marked a, as in staff.

mass    chance      gasp     chan'cel lor
class   pass'port   quaff    chan'cer y
vast    mas'ter     chant    craft'i ness
task    graft'ed    prance   ad van'tage

Lesson 39.

6. Sound of broad A. as in all, marked a.

thrall   de bauch'   drawl    au'di ence
tall     de fault'   pawn     laud'a ble
wart     de fraud'   sprawl   plaus'i ble
awe      as sault'   warmth   talk'a tive

7. Short Sound of broad A, as in what, marked a.

wan      wan'ton     squash   squal'id ness
wand     wan'der     squab    was'ish ly
squat    squan'der   squad    watch'ful ness
wat'ch   wal'low     swamp    what ev'er

Lesson 40.

8. Regular Long Sound of E, as in eve, marked e.

feel   fe'male    wean     de'i ty
keel   pee'vish   these    de'cen cy
glee   que'ry     priest   e gre'gious
deem   nei'ther   cheer    fre'quen cy

9. Regular Short Sound of E, as in end, marked e.

ebb    pen'ny    sledge,   en'e my
fret   sec'ond   spread    rec'og nize
helm   ten'der   knelt     len'i ty
them   rec'tor   cleft     mem'o ry

Lesson 41.

10. Sound of E as in there, marked e, This corresponds with the sound of a
in care.

ne'er       par terre'   where up on'
where       ere long'    where un to'
there of'   there by'    where a bouts'
heir'ess    where at'    where with al'

11. Sound of E like a, as in prey, marked e.

they      neigh'bor   neigh'bor hood
whey      hei'nous    sur vey'or
freight   o bey'      pur vey'ance
deign     in veigh'   con vey'ance

Lesson 42.

12. Sound of E before r, verging toward the sound of u in urge, and marked

term    er'mine    terse    ter'ma gant
pearl   ear'ly     merge    per'son al
err     per'fect   yearn    mer'chan dise
learn   mer'cer    swerve   ser'mon ize

13. Regular Long Sound of I. as in ice, marked i.

fife     di'et     Christ   brib'er y
crime    qui'et    spice    di'a dem
shrine   fi'at     strive   li'a ble
thrive   pli'ant   slime    i'ci cle

Lesson 43.

14. Regular Short Sound of I, as in ill, marked i.

sting   piv'ot      spring   dif'fi dent
bliss   splin'ter   twitch   pin'a fore
inch    tin'der     thick    in'fa my
strip   wick'ed     sphinx   lit'ur gy

15. Sound of I like that of long e, as in pique, marked i.

pe tite'    fa tigue'    mag a zine'
an tique'   in trigue'   sub ma rine'
ca price'   po lice'     ver'di gris
fas cine'   va lise'     quar'an tine

Lesson 44.

16. Sound of I before r, verging toward u in urge, marked i.

stir    birth'right   girth    girl'ish ness
first   gird'le       thirst   mirth'ful ness
firm    irk'some      firth    thir'ti eth
skirt   vir'gin       smirch   flirt'ing ly

17. Regular Long Sound of O, as in old, marked o.

host    po'et     chrome   fo'lio
smoke   to'ry     blown    glo'ri fy
sport   lo'cate   scold    o'pi ate
slope   so'lo     droll    po'et ry

Lesson 45.

18. Regular Short Sound of O, as in not, marked o.

bond    mon'ster    croft    lon'gi tude
frost   pot'ter     sconce   prompt'i tude
lodge   lodg'ment   mosque   nom'i nate
prong   yon'der     frond    ob'li gate

19. Sound of O like short u, as in dove, marked o.

month   blood'shed   sponge   cov'ert ly
glove   love'ly      tongue   cov'e nant
shove   noth'ing     flood    broth'er hood
front   cov'et       blood    moth'er Iy

Lesson 46.

20. Sound of O like oo long, as in do, marked o.

whom   tour'ist       group    who ev'er
move   rou tine'      prove    shoe'-mak er
tour   through out'   douche   en tomb'ment
shoe   en tomb'       youth    mov'ing ly

21. Sound of O like oo short, as in wolf, marked o.

wolf     bo'som       em bo'som     wol ver ene'
would    wom'an       un bo'som     wom'an ly
could    wolf'ish     wom'an hood   wom'an ish
should   wolf'-net    worst'ed      wolf'ish ly

Lesson 47.

22. Sound of 0 like a (broad a), as in form, marked o.

born     tort'ure   corpse   form'al ist
horn     fork'ed    thorn    cor'mo rant
morse'   for'mer    scorn    hor'ta tive
lorn     for'ward   scorch   mor'ti fy

23. Another mark has been added in this book to indicate a sound of O
where it precedes r, as in work, marked o.

work   wor'thy    worse   wor'thi ly
word   wor'ship   world   world'li ness
worm   ef'fort    whorl   wor'ship er
wort   world'ly   whort   work'ing-man

Lesson 48.

24. Regular Long Sound of double 0, as in moon, marked 00.

tool     moon'shine  groom    boor'ish ness
noon     noon'tide   school   gloom'i ly
spool    bloom'ing   soothe   room'i ness
groove   gloom'y     smooth   sooth'say ing

25. Regular Short Sound of double O, as in wool, marked oo.

wool   hood'wink    brook   coop'er age
look   look'out     crook   rook'er y
rook   wood'land    shook   book'-bind er
hood   wool'ly      stood   crook'ed ness

Lesson 49.

26. Regular Long Sound of U, as in mute. marked u.

sue    beau'ty   deuce    beau'ti ful
lieu   feud'al   sluice   cu'ti cle
nude   cu'bic    juice    mu'ti ny
suit   flu'id    fugue    pu'ri ty

27. Regular Short Sound of U, as in but, marked u.

lungs   slum'ber    clump   but'ter y
plush   rus'set     stunt   cus'to dy
dunce   duch'ess    skulk   1ux'u ry
trump   scuf'fle    young   sum'ma ry

Lesson 50.

28. Sound of U when preceded by r in the same syllable, as in rude, marked
u. It is the same sound as oo.

true    ru'mor     prune    cru'di ty
crude   ru'ral     truce    rhru'ma tism
cruse   truf fle   spruce   pru'dent ly
rule    bru'tish   cruise   pru'ri ent

29. Sound of U like that of short oo, as in put, marked u.

bull   pul'pit    ful'ly     ful fill'ment
pull   pul'ley    bush'y     bul'le tin
put    cush'ion   puss'y     bull'ion ist
push   bul'wark   butch'er   bush'i ness

Lesson 51.

30. Sound of U before r in such words as urge, marked u.

urge   jour'ney      spurn   ur'gen cy
burn   stur'geon     nurse   curl'i ness
spur   church'man    curst   jour'nal ist
curb   bur'gess      burst   hurt'ful ness

31. Regular Long Sound of Y, as in fly, marked y.

ap ply'   ty'rant   pyre    dy'nas ty
de ny'    hy'dra    type    an'ti type
re ly'    ty'phus   fyke    a sy'lum
re ply'   ty'ro     chyme   hy e'na

Lesson 52.

32. Regular Short Sound of Y, as in hymn, marked y.

pyx    sys'tem   lymph   sym'me try
cyst   syn'tax   nymph   syn'co pe
tymp   phys'ic   tryst   syn'dic ate
Styx   lyr'ic    rynd    syn op'sis

33. The sound of oi or oy (unmarked), as heard in oil, oyster.

oint    re coil'    spoil    en joy'ment
voice   re joice'   moist    dis joint'ed
troy    de stroy'   broil    em ploy'ment
poise   em ploy'    choice   ap point'ment

Lesson 53.

34. The sound of ow (unmarked), as heard in owl. When the ow is sounded as
in blown, the o is marked long (blown).

howl   al low'   crowd   flow'er y
gown   en dow'   prowl   pow'er ful
cowl   vow'el    scowl   em bow'el
down   row'el    brown   en dow'ment

35. The diphthong ou has two leading sounds: that of ow in words derived
from the Anglo-Saxon, as in out; and that of oo in words derived from the
French, as in soup.

sour   found'ling    fount    an nounce'ment
pout   ground'less   mount    un found'ed
soup   rou lette'    croup    crou'pi er
roup   group'ing     wound    trou'ba dour

Lesson 54.

36. The consonant C has two regular sounds: as soft c in cede, marked
c; as hard c in cot, where it has the sound of k, and is marked c.

cives   ac'id      trace   De cem'ber
mace    sol'ace    brace   in ces'sant
clot    tac'tic    curd    en act'ment
acts    traf'fic   cave    e lect'or

37. The sound of N as heard in link, is marked thus, n, which is the
same sound as that represented by ng.

lank   monk'ey     drink     con'gru ous
monk   con'gress   trunk     sin'gu lar
sunk   lan'guage   conch     drunk'en ness

Lesson 55.

38. S bas two regular sounds: when unmarked it has its sharp or hissing
sound, as in yes; when marked thus, s, it has the buzzing sound of z in

sick   mass'y      smelt   pos sess'ive
pest   vest'ment   gross   as sess'or
has    a muse'     grows   re sem'ble
ease   in fuse'    ruse    res'o nant

39. Ch has three sounds: unmarked (English ch), it has nearly the sound of
tsh, as in child; marked thus, eh (French ch), it has the sound of sh, as
in chaise; and marked thus, ch (Latin ch), it has the sound of k, as in

such    speech'less   child    choc'o late
chef    ma chine'     chaise   chiv'al ry
chasm   chem'ist      chrism   char'ac ter

Lesson 56.

40. G has two regular sounds: marked thus, g (g hard), it has the sound of
g in go; marked thus, g (g soft), it has the compound sound of j, as in

gear'ing   gew'gaw     slug   gid'di ness
gen'tile   slug'gish   crag   guil'lo tine
gen'der    gest'ure    gibe   gen'er al

41. Th has two sounds: its sharp sound, as in thing, which is unmarked,
and its soft sound, as in thine, marked th.

thin   the'ist   breath    myth'ic al
thaw   the'sis   theft     the'o ry
this   gath'er   thine     hith'er to
than   both'er   breathe   oth'er wise

Lesson 57.

42. X has three sounds: its regular sharp sound (unmarked) like ks, as in
expect, and its soft or flat sound like gz, as in exist, marked x;. At the
beginning of words x has the sound of z as in xebec (ze'bec).

ex'it      ex pan'sive'   ex tra'ne ous
ex cel'    ex'pi ate      ex te'ri or
ex alt'    ex am'ple      ex ec'u tive'
ex empt'   ex ult'ant     ex or'di um

43. Q is followed in all cases by u, and has usually the sound of kw, as
in queen; but in a few words derived from the French, qu is sounded like
k, as in coquette.

quack     queer'ly    quoit    qui e'tus
queen     quo'rum     quote    quo ta'tion
plaque    piqu'ant    bisque   co quet'tish
clique'   co quet'    torque   piqu'an cy

Lesson 58.

cas cade'    a base'     in clude'   a larm'
ex change'   a maze'     ad jure'    a far'
in flame'    a brade'    de pute'    re mark'
ob late'     cru sade'   re fuse'    de bark'
par take'    de base'    ma nure'    em bark'
ad dress'    re gret'    in ject'    ac quit'
re flex'     ex cept'    in vent'    a drift'
ar rest'     ex pect'    mo lest'    re miss'
con test'    ex pend'    op press'   be fit'
de press'    ex press'   re dress'   per sist'

Lesson 59.


NOTE.--These exercises on words of similar sound, instead of being
gathered into a single department, are interspersed throughout the book.

raised, lifted up.           plait, a fold.
razed, destroyed.            plate, flattened metal.
pries, inspects closely.     plumb, perpendicular.
prize, to value.             plum, a fruit.
pray, to supplicate.         place, site; spot.
prey, a spoil.               plaice, a fish.
pore, a small opening.       please, to gratify.
pour, to cause to flow.      pleas, excuses.
poll, the head.              bell, a sounding vessel.
pole, a rod; a perch.        belle, a fine young lady.

Lesson 60.

bight, a bay.                    piece, a part.
bite, to seize with the teeth.   peace, quietness.
bloat, to swell.                 new, not old.
blote, to dry and smoke.         knew, did know.
board, a plank.                  gnu, a quadruped.
bored, did bore.                 limb, a branch.
bread, food.                     limn, to draw or paint.
bred, reared.                    arc, part of a circle.
blue, a color.                   ark, a vessel.
blew, did blow.                  prays, supplicates.
boar, the male swine.            praise, honor.
bore, to pierce.                 preys, spoils.

Lesson 61.

Words accented on the last Syllable.

ab rupt'      dis cuss'    a cross'    a gree'
an nul'       de duct'     a dopt'     a sleep'
con struct'   in duct'     a loft'     es teem'
in struct'    re but'      a non'      de cree'
in trust'     re sult'     be long'    de gree'
at tire'      in vite'     com port'   dis close'
en tice'      o blige'     re port'    dis pose'
en tire'      per spire'   con sole'   re store'
in cline'     sub lime'    re pose'    en throne'
in cite'      sur vive'    con voke'   ex plode'

Lesson 62.


Dost consider that dust thou art? He paid the servant his hire, and the
wages were higher than last year. With whoop and hurra they tore the hoop
from the barrel. The mower will cut more grass to-morrow. The foreign
consul took counsel with the enemy, and called a council of war. English
consols are high. Kings are sometimes guilty of flagrant wrongs. Many a
fragrant flower blooms unseen. He tore his clothes in a struggle to close
the door. His course toward that coarse lad was wrong.

Lesson 63.

Words accented on the first Syllable.

con'tact   nos'tril    cur'ry      pun'gent
for'est    prod'uct    ful'crum    rus'tic
hob'by     prob'lem    hud'dle     rub'bish
loft'y     ros'ter     pub'lic     sulk'y
log'ic     tor'rent    pub'lish    sul'try
af'flux    bank'rupt   kin'dred    scrib'ble
am'bush    cam'phor    pick'et     trip'let
an'them    hav'oc      tick'et     trick'le
an'nals    hag'gard    wick'et     liz'ard
as'pect    hatch'et    in'voice    vil'la

Lesson 64.

cam'bric    de'ist      cy'press     trib'al
ca'dence    e'qual      Fri'day      cri'sis
da'tive     free'dom    ice'berg     hy'drant
na'tive     need'ful    li'bel       sci'ence
pave'ment   meet'ing    mi'grate     si'lent
duke'dom    boun'ty     pow'der      boy'hood
dur'ance    coun'ty     prow'ess     clois'ter
cu'beb      cow'ard     sound'ings   joy'ous
pu'trid     drow'sy     tow'el       loi'ter
pur'ist     fount'ain   tow'er       loy'al

Lesson 65.

beard    build    palm     verse      witch
crease   built    calf     search     script
eaves    squint   half     fern       guess
heave    live     talk     kern       start
leap     stick    walk     sperm      wrath
knee     cliff    chalk    serve      floor
spleen   writ     lawn     were       czar
have     bronze   daub     herb       haunch
frank    buzz     fault    strength   flaunt
slake    snatch   spawn    sneak      haunt
smack    dredge   drift    purse      sharp
clamp    church   fund     clutch     kneel

Lesson 66.

en no'ble,     in duce'ment   a bu'sive,
e lope'ment    a cu'men       pe ru'sal
ex po'nent     ac cu'sant     pur su'ant
he ro'ic       al lure'ment   re fus'al
pro mo'tive    a muse'ment    sul phu'ric
de tach'ment   es tab'lish    at tend'ant
dog mat'ic     fa nat'ic      as sem'blage
dra mat'ic     fan tas'tic    ap pend'ant
ec stat'ic     gi gan'tic     in tes'tate
e las'tic      in hab'it      com'pen sate

Lesson 67.

cit, a citizen.              wreak, to revenge.
sit, to rest on a seat.      reek, vapor.
duct, a channel.             bier, a carriage for the dead.
ducked, plunged under.       beer, fermented liquor.
chuff, a clown.              rest, quietness; ease.
chough (chuf), a bird.       wrest, to turn; to twist.
coin, metal stamped.         ring, a circle.
coigne, a corner.            wring, to twist.
cole, a kind of cabbage.     rote, repetition.
coal, carbon.                wrote, did write.
find, to discover.           strait, a narrow channel.
fined, did fine; mulcted.    straight, not crooked.
prints, calicoes.            wave, an undulation.
prince, a king's son.        waive, to refuse.

Lesson 68.

bole, the body of a tree.    hist, hush!
bowl, a vessel.              hissed, did hiss.
boll, a pod.                 paws, the feet of beasts.
nose, part of the face.      pause, a stop.
knows, does know.            faun, a sylvan god.
mote, a particle.            fawn, a young deer.
moat, a ditch.               pride, vanity.
toled, allured.              pried, did pry.
told, did tell.              wain, a wagon.
tolled, did toll.            wane, to decrease.
rein, part of a bridle.      see, to behold.
rain, falling water.         sea, a body of water.
reign, to rule.              si, a term in music.

Lesson 69.

a float'     post pone'    di lute'    de mure'
be low'      pro rogue'    a new'      de plume'
be moan'     dis course'   dis use'    re cruit'
be stow'     de port'      en sue'     re cluse'
de plore'    re mote'      im bue'     re fute'
a breast'    at tempt'     a bridge'   e clipse'
a head'      dis tress'    dis miss'   e vince'
be friend'   con nect'     a midst'    ex tinct'
be held'     bur lesque'   be twixt'   for give'
in flect'    de flect'     be witch'   in flict'

Lesson 70.

Long Sounds of Vowels.

au stere'    de crease'    ap peal'      dis creet'
be queath'   in crease'    ap pear'      en treat'
re vere'     de mean'      ap pease'     ex treme'
be seech'    fu see'       ar rear'      gran dee'
bo hea'      re peal'      blas pheme'   im peach'
a light'     de scribe'    ac quire'     dis guise'
a wry'       de spise'     at trite'     es quire'
be guile'    pre scribe'   as sign'      ig nite'
be lie'      de cline'     de mise'      in quire'
de prive'    re quite'     com prise'    ma lign'

Lesson 71.

Words accented on the Penult.

a mend'ed      con tent'ed     di lem'ma
an gel'ic      re flect'ive    dis tem'per
ap pen'dix     de crep'it      do mes'tic
as sem'bly     de fend'ant     em bel'lish
as sess'ment   de mer'it       em bez'zle
pa rent'al     re fresh'ing    re dun'dant
po et'ic       re plen'ish     a sun'der
pre sent'ed    re sent'ment    con cur'rent
pu tres'cent   re splen'dent   ef ful'gent
pre vent'ive   sur ren'der     en cum'ber

Lesson 72.

Trisyllables with the short Sounds of the Vowels.

ac quit'tal    de liv'er      in sip'id
be nig'nant    di min'ish     in trin'sic
be wil'der     con sist'ent   ma lig'nant
com mit'ment   con tin'gent   pa cif'ic
con sid'er     e nig'ma       pro hib'it
a bol'ish      car bon'ic     em bod'y
ab hor'rent    co los'sus     har mon'ic
ad com'plish   de mol'ish     im pos'tor
ad mon'ish     a pos'tate     la con'ic
al lot'ment    des pot'ic     ma son'ic

Lesson 73.

hart, the male deer.            hour, sixty minutes.
heart, the seat of life.        our, belonging to us.
hear, to perceive by the ear    in, within.
                                inn, a hotel.
here, in this place.            key, a fastener.
heard, did hear.                quay (ke), a wharf.
herd, a drove.                  rhyme, poetry.
hie, to hasten.                 rime, white frost.
high, lofty.                    knot, a fastening of cord.
him, objective case of he.
hymn, a song of praise.         not, negation.
hole, an opening.               know, to understand.
whole, all; entire.             no, not so.

Lesson 74.

The Vowel in the last Syllable silent.

ba'con    sweet'en    dam'son     bit'ten
to'ken    trea'son    fat'ten     driv'en
bra'zen   weak'en     flax'en     kit'ten
ha'ven    wea'sel     glad'den    pris'on
ha'zel    height'en   hap'pen     quick'en
maid'en   light'en    mad'den     ris'en
ma'son    lik'en      rav'el      smit'ten
ra'ven    rip'en      sad'den     stiff'en
shak'en   tight'en    red'den     swiv'el
wea'zen   wid'en      fresh'en    writ'ten
tak'en    bro'ken     o'pen       fast'en
wak'en    clo'ven     leav'en     glis'ten
spok'en   froz'en     length'en   drunk'en
dea'con   gold'en     reck'on      mut'ton

Lesson 75.

The Vowel in the last Syllable not silent.

cray'on   asp'en    tal'on     glu'ten
de'mon    cab'in    wag'on     cit'ron
ci'on     drag'on   sud'den    kitch'en
si'phon   flag'on   fel'on     mit'ten
co'lon    lin'den   lem'on     pis'ton
o'men     grav'el   mel'on     her'on
bar'rel   bev'el    chan'nel   flan'nel
par'cel   plat'en   chick'en   slov'en

Lesson 76.

Dissyllables with the long Sounds of the Vowels.

a'gue       fa'mous      cai'tiff     ci'pher
ca'lyx      fail'ure     fra'cas      high'land
cha'os      faith'ful    gate'-way    mo'hair
dai'ly      frail'ty     name'sake    oak'um
dai'sy      game'ster    stra'tum     poul'tice
bea'dle     neat'ly      mea'sles     trea'cle
bea'ver     clear'ance   peo'ple      trea'tise
drear'y     cre'dence    le'gion      treat'ment
ea'ger      flee'cy      re'gion      twee'zers
mean'ness   greed'y      stee'ple     wea'ry

Lesson 77.

Words ending with ow, the last Letter being silent.

ar'row     sal'low    fel'low   win'dow
har'row    tal'1ow    mel'low   win'now
nar'row    shal'low   fal'low   wid'ow
mar'row    shad'ow    mead'ow   bor'row
spar'row   el'bow     bil'low   mor'row

Words containing ei or ie, promiscuously arranged.

grieve   re trieve'   be siege'   de ceiv'er
thieve   ag grieve'   bre vier'   de ceit'ful
ceiled   a piece'     de ceive'   dis sei'zin
pieced   con ceit'    re lief'    a chiev'ing
sheik    be lieve'    re lieve'   re ceiv'er

Lesson 78.

aught, any thing.           oar, for rowing.
ought, should.              ore, unrefined metal.
wry, crooked.               o'er, over.
rye, a kind of grain.       ow'er, one who owes.
lead, a metal.              adds, joins to.
led, did lead.              adz, a joiner's tool.
read, perused.              ale, a liquor.
red, a color.               ail, to feel pain.
read, to peruse.            ate, did eat.
reed, a plant.              eight, twice four.
all, the whole.             ant, an insect.
awl, a sharp instrument.    aunt, a relation.

Lesson 79.

bald, without hair.         air, the atmosphere.
bawled, cried out.          ere, before.
bad, ill; vicious.          e'er, ever.
bade, past tense of bid.    heir, one who inherits.
baize, a kind of cloth.     aisle, walk in a church.
bays, plural of bay.        isle, an island.
bear, an animal.            I'll, I will.
bare, naked.                cere, to cover with wax.
bay, part of the ocean.     sear, to burn; dry.
bey, a Turkish officer.     seer, a prophet.
be, to exist.               ball, a round body.
bee, an insect.             bawl, to cry out.

Lesson 80.

gai'ter      plant'ain      shriv'el    jaun'dice
clev'er      das'tard       jos'tle     si'lex
paint'er     scab'bard      but'ton     mas'tiff
way'ward     scaf'fold      pic'nic     sar'casm
di'gest      sham'bles      grum'ble    tar'nish
light'ning   tran'script    hus'tle     tar'tar
por'trait    nest'ling      mur'rain    ha rangue'
nov'ice      men'ace        rum'ble     re lapse'
Tues'day     pen'ance       troub'le    pro fess'
cli'mate     shep'herd      ar'gue      re venge'
wrist'let    whole'some     pin'cers   flight'y

Lesson 81.


To essay the task, requires courage. The discourse was an able essay. An
agent will assay the ore, and forward a receipt. Contemn a mean act; but
do not always condemn the actor. They were to seize the fort, and cease
firing. They affect great grief; but do not effect their purpose. Do you
dissent from my opinion? The hill was difficult of descent. A decent
regard for others' ills is human. They advise the young to take the advice
of the old. The enemy will invade the rich province. They were strongly
inveighed against.

Lesson 82.

ed'u cate    em'er y      meth'od ist
eb'on y      ex'o dus     pen'i tent
ef'fi gy     fel'o ny     sen'ti nel
el'e phant   gen'e sis    fel'low ship
em'bas sy    fed'er al    res'i dent
ad'mi ral    can'ni bal   myr'i ad
ag'o ny      fac'to ry    slip'per y
al'i ment    gal'ler y    min'u end
al'co hol    man'u al     tyr'an ny
am'nes ty    par'a sol    sym'pho ny

Lesson 83.

mul'ber ry     cul'ti vate    am'ulet
mus'cu lar     jus'ti fy      an'ces try
pun'ish ment   mul'ti ply     Cal'va ry
sub'se quent   mul'ti tude    cav'al ry
sup'pli cant   sub'sti tute   mar'i gold
am'pli fy      cam'o mile     bat'ter y
grat'i fy      pan'to mime    can'o py
pac'i fy       rad'i cal      char'i ty
rar'e fy       pat'ron ize    chas'ti ty
sanc'ti fy     sat'el lite    maj'es ty

Lesson 84.

bail, surety.            bold, brave.
bale, a pack of goods.   bowled, did bowl.
bait, a lure.            bourn, a limit.
bate, to lessen.         borne, carried.
base, low; vile.         bow, a weapon.
bass, a part in music.   beau (bo), a man of dress.
beach, the shore.        break, to sever by force.
beech, a kind of tree.   brake, a thicket.
beat, to strike.         bruise, to crush.
beet, a vegetable.       brews (bruz), does brew.
bin, a box.              by, near.
been (bin), existed.     buy, to purchase.

Lesson 85.

berth, a sleeping-place.     cast, to throw.
birth, coming into life.     caste, an order or class.
braid, to weave.             cede, to yield.
brayed, did bray.            seed, to sow; to scatter.
breach, a gap.               coarse, not fine.
breech, the hinder part.     course, way; career.
broach, a spit; to pierce.   dam, mother of beasts.
brooch, an ornament.         damn, to condemn.
but, except.                 cane, a reed; a staff.
butt, a cask; a mark.        Cain, a man's name.
call, to name.               ceil, to line the top of
caul, a kind of net-work.    seal, a sea animal.

Lesson 86.


The ensign would not sign the paper. His design was known. He maligned his
rival, and suffered condign punishment. A benign face. He was arraigned
after the campaign. He deigned not to feign surprise. Squirrels gnaw the
bark. He affirmed it with phlegm. The knight carried a knapsack. He had a
knack for rhymes. She knew how to knead the dough. They cut the knot with
a knife. The curfew tolls the knell of parting day. The knave had hard
knuckles, but little knowledge.

Lesson 87.

Sounds of O and U.

con'dor     sol'id      or'ange     spon'dee
doc'trine   loz'enge    os'trich    toc'sin
cos'tive    of'fal      pomp'ous    jock'ey
fos'sil     of'fice     pon'tiff    mot'ley
frost'y     ol'ive      prom'ise    nos'trum
ton'nage    nov'el      cum'brous   buck'le
won'der     boot'y      cus'tard    bus'tle
won'drous   move'ment   flour'ish   dud'geon
wont'ed     stuc'co     hun'dred    dun'geon
wor'ry      buz'zard    hus'band    lunch'eon

Lesson 88.

Short Sounds of Vowels.

doub'le      bed'stead    eb'on        fend'er
knuck'le     cher'ub      eph'od       heav'y
nour'ish     cres'cent    es'sence     heif'er
south'ern    crev'ice     eth'ics      jeal'ous
frus'trate   dex'trous    feath'er     jel'ly
rep'tile     ster'ile     brim'stone   ab'bess
ref'use      ves'tige     dic'tate     ad'junct
sen'tence    wed'lock     frig'ate     dag'ger
skep'tic     Wednes'day   pil'lage     bram'ble
speck'le     zeal'ous     trib'ute     cal'lous

Lesson 89.

cell, a small room.              cart, a vehicle.
sell, to barter away.            carte, a bill of fare.
cent, a small coin.              dear, costly; beloved.
sent, did send.                  deer, an animal.
scent, odor; smell.              due, owing; fit.
chased, did chase.               dew (du), moisture condensed.
chaste, pure.
clause, part of a sentence.      doe, the female deer.
claws, the nails of a beast.     dough, unbaked paste.
cord, a small rope.              dram, a glass of spirits.
chord, musical tones in hamony   drachm, a small weight.
                                 fane, a temple.
cote, a pen; a fold.             fain, gladly.
coat, an outer garment.          feign, to pretend.

Lesson 90.

be speak'    ab solve'    ad judge'    in dulge'
nan keen'    de volve'    be grudge'   re pulse'
im plead'    dis solve'   sub duct'    suc cumb'
con ceal'    re solve'    be numb'     af front'
con geal'    re spond'    con vulse'   a mong'
re frain'    re print'    re proach'   re take'
re main'     re strict'   en croach'   re trace'
re strain'   re sist'     pa trol'     re pay'
re tain'     sub mit'     pa role'     de lay'
re tail'     dis tinct'   be fore'     al lay'

Lesson 91.

dust, powdered earth.         day, twenty-four hours.
dost, second person of do.    dey, a Turkish title.
earn, to gain by labor.       ewe (yu), a female sheep.
urn, a kind of vase.          you, the person spoken to.
ern, the sea-eagle.
die, to expire.               yew (yu), a kind of tree.
dye, to color.                eye, the organ of sight.
draught (draft), drawing      I, myself.
                              ay, yes.
draft, a bill of exchange.    aye, an affirmative vote.
dun, a dark color.            flee, to run away.
done, performed.              flea, an insect.
fate, destiny.                flew (flu) , did fly.
fete, a festival.             flue, a passage for smoke.

Lesson 92.

ag'ile     hack'ney    pas'sive     bis'cuit
al'oes     knap'sack   prac'tice    fil'bert
dac'tyl    lad'der     rab'id       im'age
fash'ion   lat'tice    rap'id       im'pulse
gal'ley    lan'cet     tac'tics     mil'dew
bit'tern   crys'tal    crim'son     kid'ney
brisk'et   dis'tance   grid'dle     lin'tel
cis'tern   dis'taff    live'long    liq'uid
chim'ney   dwin'dle    gyp'sy       liq'uor
chis'el    pick'le     hith'er      rid'dance

Lesson 93.

slui'cy     bol'ster     cer'tain   driz'zle
jui'cy      court'ship   sur'ly     tick'le
stew'ard    fro'ward     sur'geon   twink'le
jew'el      co'coa       ear'nest   thim'ble
neu'tral    nose'gay     jour'nal   vil'lain
cor'ner     gor'gon      au'dit     so'da
cor'sair    lord'ship    caus'tic   so'fa.
corse'let   mor'bid      awk'ward   so'ber
for'feit    mort'gage    gaud'y     sto'ic
gor'geous   mor'sel      lau'rel    to'paz

Lesson 94.


The awl is used by all shoe-makers. He said that he would do aught that he
ought to do. The man who stole the bale of goods gave bail. The Bey rode a
bay horse around the bay. Deer break through the brake and brush. He had
just lain down in the narrow lane. The horse with the long mane ran
through the main street of a town in Maine. Which of the pair of fine
pears will you pare for the child? The joiner's plane will smooth the
plain door. You can rein your horse, if it should rain. The kings reign

Lesson 95.

bal'us trade   fab'ri cate    bev'er age
al'ka li       gal'ax y       cher'u bim
al'ka line     mas'to don     dem'o crat
ap'o gee       mack'er el     den'i zen
al'i quot      mar'i ner      den'si ty
as'ter isk     par'a graph    ex'or cist
az'i muth      par'al lax     ed'i fy
bach'e lor     par'a gon      em'a nate
cal'a bash     par'a pet      em'pha size
cal'a mus      par'a phrase   ep'i cure

Lesson 96.

fir, a kind of tree.          fort, a stronghold.
fur, soft hair.               forte, one's strong point.
faint, weak; languid.         forth, forward.
feint, a pretense.            fourth, the next after third.
fair, clear; handsome.
fare, food; cost of passage.  frays, quarrels.
                              phrase, part of a sentence,
feet, plural of foot.         fore, toward the front.
feat, an exploit.             four, twice two.
floe, a large piece of ice.   foul, impure.
flow, a current.              fowl, a bird.
flour, ground wheat.          freeze, to become ice.
flow'er, a blossom.           frieze, a kind of cloth.

Lesson 97.

ex'pe dite'    ped'i ment     cur'ren cy
hel'le bore    pel'i can      ful'some ly
per'i gee      pet'u lant     nul'li ty
reg'i cide     rec'om pense   sub'si dy
rec'on dite'   spher'ic al    sub'ter fuge
fif'ti eth     syn'o nym      con'ju gate
mir'a cle      tyr'an nize    con'tro vert
nim'ble ness   witch'er y     con'se crate
rig'or ous     wil'der ness   cor'o net
ris'i ble      whim'si cal    dom'i nant

Lesson 98.

ar'bi trate    hard'i hood    for'mu la
ar'ma ment     har'le quin    gor'mand ize
ar'mis tice    car'ni val     or'der ly
ar'chi tect    car'bon ate    or'di nal
arch'er y      gar'den er     or'di nate
bar'ba rism    gar'ni ture    or'phan age
dec'i mal      met'a phor     crit'i cism
des'pot ism    ed'it or       cyl'in der
em'pha sis     sen'a tor      mys'ter y
ep'i taph      ser'a phim     mys'ti fy
leth'ar gy     spec'i men     phys'ic al
pen'ta teuch   spec'u late    typ'i fy

Lesson 99.

Short and long Sounds of the Vowels.

but'ler      com'mon    dis'mal     blem'ish
buck'ler     dog'ma     dis'trict   elem'ent
cud'gel      dol'phin   mim'ic      cher'ry
judg'ment    hos'tile   mis'sive    cred'it
snuff'ers    mod'ern    syn'od      em'bers
bond'age     con'vent   cli'max     aid'ance
cot'tage     soph'ist   fi'brous    bail'iff
for'age      sor'rel    hy'brid     base'ment
hos'tage     stop'ple   hy'men      brace'let
pros'trate   tod'dy     hy'phen     brave'ly

Lesson 100.

furs, skins with soft hair.   groan, a deep sigh.
furze, a prickly shrub.       grown, increased.
gage, to pledge.              gall, bile.
gauge, to measure.            Gaul, old name of France.
gate, door; entrance.         gild, to overlay with gold.
gait, manner of walking.      guild, a corporation.
gilt, adorned with gold.      gloze, to smooth over.
guilt, crime.                 glows, shines.
great, large; vast.           guest, a visitor.
grate, a range of bars.       guessed, did guess.
grease, soft fat.             hale, sound; healthy.
Greece, a country.            hail, frozen rain.

Lesson 101.

a lert'     ex pert'      sub vert'   re move'
as sert'    in ert'      su perb'     a do'
a ver'      in fer'      ab surd'     a loof'
a vert'     in sert'     re cur'      bal loon'
con cern'   in vert'     de mur'      buf foon'
per vert'   pre fer'     dis turb'    hal loo'
a vail'     re claim'    dis play"    be fall'
a wait'     ab stain'    en tail'     re call'
de cay'     ac quaint'   ob tain'     en thrall'
de claim'   af fray'     con tain'    re sort'
de fray'    as suage'    per suade'   as sort'
pre vail'   block ade'   a broad'     be sought'

Lesson 102.

al'pha      pad'lock    ad'dle      hon'ey
an'ise      plac'id     bar'rack    com'fort
brack'et    Sab'bath    man'date    moth'er
dam'ask     saf'fron    man'ly      oth'er
mad'der     stag'nant   stag'nate   smoth'er
clos'et     con'trite   cher'ish    ves'tal
com'ment    oc'tave     den'tist    leg'ate
con'course  vol'ume     fresh'et    mem'brane
con'text    bon'fire    rel'ish     mes'sage
con'vex     con'quer    rem'nant    res'cue

Lesson 103.

flout    a fresh'      fir'kin     a'er ate'
meant    con temn'     serv'ile    la'i ty
wren     con tempt'    skir'mish   de'vi ous
quick    com mand'     ster'ling   re'al ize
solve    com mence'    sur'feit    re'qui em
wrong    com mend'     ur'gent     co'gen cy
quince   com pact'     fur'lough   no'ti fy
shrimp   com plaint'   jas'mine    po'ten cy
cause    es tray'      lack'ey     o'ri ole
gauze    ap proach'    latch'et    o'ri ent
quoin    cor rode'     mat'in      jo'vi al
squaw    cur tail'     scat'ter    vo'ta ry
cross    re pute'      sav'age     zo'di ac

Lesson 104.


I accept all your presents except the last. His joy was in excess, at the
news of his access to fortune. Though your terms exceed my expectations, I
must accede to them. The best cosmetic is air and exercise. He pretended
to exorcise evil spirits. Both assent to go up the ascent. He was indicted
for inditing a false letter. Champagne is made in France. The soldiers
crossed the champaign. The law will levy a tax to build a levee. The levee
was held at the mayor's residence. The senior brother was addressed as

Lesson 105.

cer'ti fy     for'ti fy     cog'ni zance
fer'ti lize   for'ti tude   con'ju gal
herb'al ist   fort'u nate   glob'u lar
serv'i tude   or'di nance   or'i gin
ter'mi nate   or'gan ism    hom'i ly
fer'ven cy    ar'bi ter     af'flu ent
mer'cu ry     ar'ter y      bal'us ter
nurs'er y     har'mo ny     bar'ri er
per'fi dy     lar'ce ny     bar'ris ter
per'ju ry     har'mo nize   car'ri on

Lesson 106.

Words accented on the first Syllable.

cler'ic al      fes'ti val   li'bra ry
el'e gy         eth'ic al    like'li hood
em'i grant      her'ald ry   mi'cro cosm
em'per or       her'e tic    mi'cro scope
ep'i gram       her'o ism    ni'tro gen
pa'pa cy        di'a lect    ped'ant ry
fla'gran cy     di'a gram    ped'es tal
fra'gran cy     di'a ry      med'i cine
ra'di ance      fin'er y     lex'i con
sla'ver y       i'vo ry      sed'u lous
main'te nance   pli'a ble    quer'u lous

Lesson 107.

Monosyllables representing different Sounds.

stray    sleet    strike   trope    curse
ache     fleece   trite    grope    hearse
bathe    steer    splice   broke    purge
lathe    speech   stripe   stroke   scourge
plaint   sphere   tithe    cloak    verge
brain    fief     yield    crock    squeal
slave    field    fierce   block    league
quake    thief    pierce   flock    plead
stave    fiend    tierce   shock    squeak
plague   shriek   niece    mock     heath

Lesson 108.


Make Sentences containing the following Words.

bough, a branch of a tree.    grieves, laments.
bow, to bend.                 greaves, armor for the legs.
brute, a beast.               hew (hu), to cut; to chop.
bruit, to noise abroad.       hue, a color; dye.
cite, to summon.              Hugh, a man's name.
site, a situation.            kill, to deprive of life.
sight, the sense of seeing.   kiln, a large oven.
climb, to ascend.             leaf, of a tree or book.
clime, climate; region.       lief, willingly; gladly.
core, the inner part.         maze, an intricate place.
corps, a body of soldiers.    maize, Indian corn.
creek, a narrow inlet.        mean, low; middle point.
creak, a grating noise.       mien, air; manner.

Lesson 109.

Miscellaneous Sounds.

bul'let    coop'er      nor'mal     pre cise'
bull'y     wool'en      or'phan     pre side'
bull'ock   cool'ly      tor'por     pro scribe'
bul'rush   scoun'drel   quar'ter    com mode'
bush'el    bal'sam      ac claim'   en gross'
bull'ion   squad'ron    o paque'    con sume'
crup'per   war'rant     sca lene'   pre sume'
cuck'oo    quad'rant    se cede'    be dew'

Lesson 110.

false    naught   pitch    batch     edge
quart    sought   flitch   match     hedge
sward    bought   stitch   hatch     ledge
swarm    bright   fitch    latch     wedge
thwart   plight   hitch    patch     fledge
bilge    budge    fosse    breadth   twinge
bridge   judge    thong    breast    print
ridge    drudge   notch    cleanse   fling
hinge    grudge   blotch   friend    string
cringe   plunge   prompt   knell     swift

Lesson 111.

hall, a large room.             hoop, a ring; a band.
haul, to drag by force.         whoop, to make a noise.
hay, dried grass.               hied, made haste.
hey! an exclamation.            hide, to conceal.
hare, an animal.                hoard, to lay up.
hair, of the head.              horde, a tribe.
heal, to cure.                  hoes, plural of hoe.
heel, hinder part of the foot.  hose, stockings.
                                jam, a conserve of fruit.
hire, wages.                    jamb, the sidepiece of a
high'er, more high.                   door or fireplace.
hoe, a farming tool.            knead, to work dough.
ho! an exclamation.             need, want.

Lesson 112.

faith     theme    length    sor'row    sol'emn
scrape    chime    launch    dur'ing    hire'ling
strange   whilst   morgue    gib'bet    tres'pass
greet     smart    pledge    bod'kin    shil'ling
perch     badge    gourd     gos'ling   mat'tock
champ     dodge    schist    lob'by     ram'part
drench    brawl    flounce   tan'sy     tran'quil
squeeze   dwarf    screech   lock'et    cun'ning
grist     yawl     spasm     van'dal    her'ring
shrink    grant    starve    ex'tra     drug'gist
copse     spunk    scalp     cut'lass   spon'sor

Lesson 113.

knight, a title of honor.     lee, the sheltered side.
night, time of darkness.      lea, a meadow; field.
knave, a wicked person.       lie, to deceive.
nave, hub of a wheel.         lye, water passed through ashes.
loan, any thing lent.         links, parts of a chain.
lone, solitary.               lynx, an animal.
knap, a small protuberance.   loch, a lake.
nap, a short sleep.           lough (lok), a lake.
lac, a kind of gum.           lock, to fasten a door.
lack, to want; need.          lax, loose; vague.
laid, placed.                 lacks, wants; needs.
lade, to load.                lacs, plural of lac.

Lesson 114.

Words containing I consonant, sounded like Y consonant; as alien,
pronounced al'yen.

al'ien       on'ion       bat tal'ion
sav'ior      bil'ious     pe cul'iar
pan'nier     brill'iant   re bell'ion
un'ion       fil'ial      dis un'ion
sen'ior      mill'ion     o pin'ion
jun'ior      pill'ion     do min'ion
gal'liard    pin'ion      com mun'ion
span'iel     trill'ion    mut'u al
val'iant     coll'ier     punc til'io
bill'iards   pon'iard     punc til'ious
bill'ion     ruff'ian     ver mil'ion
In'dian      Chris'tian   aux il'ia ry

Lesson 115.

The following words, according to the analogy of the English language,
should he spelled with the termination er, with the exception of the last
word of each line.

cen'ter   mi'ter     spec'ter   sep'ul cher
fi'ber    ni'ter     o'cher     the'a ter
lus'ter   som'ber    mau'ger    ma neu'ver
mea'ger   sa'ber     um'ber     cal'i ber
me'ter    scep'ter   om'ber     ac cou'ter
a'cre     na'cre     lu'cre     mas'sa cre

Lesson 116.

In the following words, ng is pronounced as if the g were doubled; as
anger, pronounced ang'ger.

an'ger     lan'guor    jin'gle     youn'ger
an'gle     lan'guid    min'gle     con'ger
an'gry     man'gle     sin'gle     bun'gler
an'guish   man'go      tin'gle     hun'ger
clan'gor   san'guine   din'gle     hun'gry
dan'gle    span'gled   lon'ger     wran'gler
fan'gled   span'gle    lon'gest    fin'ger
jan'gle    tan'gle     stron'ger   lan'guish
ban'gle    wran'gle    bun'gle     un'guent

Lesson 117.

In the following, S has the sound of sh as sure, (pro. shure).

sure'ly     cen'sure    fis'sure   is'su ance
sure'ness   press'ure   ton'sure   as sur'ance
sure'ty     is'sue      as sure'   in sur'ance
sug'ar      tis'sue     in sure'   in sur'er

The following words are spelled, according to analogy, with the
termination se.

con dense'   dis pense'   im mense'    pre tense'
de fense'    ex pense'    of fense'    sus pense'
re cense'    in cense'    pre pense'   li'cense

Lesson 118.

lane, a narrow passage.        main, chief
lain, past participle of lie.  mane, hair on the neck of  a horse.
                               mail, armor.
lapse, to fall.                male, masculine.
laps, plural of lap.           mark, a sign.
leak, to run out.              marque, letters of reprisal.
leek, a kind of onion.         mead, a drink.
lo! behold!                    meed, reward.
low, not high.                 meet, fit; proper.
lore, learning.                mete, to measure.
low'er, more low.              meat, food in general.
maid, a maiden.                might, strength; power.
made, finished.                mite, a small insect.

Lesson 119.

mode', way; manner.          nay, no.
mowed, cut down.             neigh, to cry as a horse.
mule, an animal.             nit, egg of an insect.
mewl (mul), to squall.       knit, to unite.
mist, fine rain.             gneiss, a kind of mineral.
missed, did miss.
more, a greater quantity.    nice, delicate; fine.
mow'er, one who mows.        owe, to be bound.
muse, to meditate.           oh! alas!
mews (muz), an inclosure.    ode, a poem.
                             owed, indebted.
none, not one.               one (wun), a single thing.
nun, a religious woman.      won, gained.

Lesson 120.

a mal'gam ate     cheese    e man'ci pate
as sas'sin ate    dirt      e rad'i cate
ca pac'i tate     bleak     e vac'u ate
co ag'u late      goad      a ban'don ment
con cat'e nate    slouch    in fat'u ate
con fab'u late    gone      in val'i date
con grat'ulate    scarf     be at'i fy
con tam'i nate    nerve     pro cras'ti nate
de cap'i tate     raid      re tal'i ate
e jac'u late      graze     e vap'o rate
e lab'o rate      stale     pre var'i cate

Lesson 121.

cir'cus     ca pac'i ty      an'a gram
cur'few     com par'i son    am'bi ent
cur'tain    com par'a tive   al'li gate
fer'tile    com pat'i ble    cal'a mine
fer'vid     con cav'i ty     hal'cy on
fur'nace    de clar'a tive   Jes'u it
fur'long    di ag'o nal      ped'i gree
mer'maid    di am'e ter      reg'is ter
nerv'ous    dog mat'ic al    rev'el ry
pur'chase   em bas'sa dor    skep'tic al
sur'face    de prav'i ty     ver'i ly

Lesson 122.

In words like the following, sier, zier, sure, zure, su, sion, and
sia are pronounced zhur, zhur, zhu, zhun, and zha.

bra'sier    em bra'sure    cas'u al ly
gla'zier    e ras'ure      cas'u ist ry
gra'zier    e va'sion      treas'ur er ship
ras'ure     in va'sion     us'u al ly
seiz'ure    per sua'sion   pleas'ur a ble
ho'sier     ad he'sion     meas'ur a ble
o'sier      co he'sion     oc ca'sion al
fu'sion     am bro'sia     pro vis'ion al
az'ure,     dis clos'ure   u su'ri ous
meas'ure    ex plo'sion    dis com pos'ure
pleas'ure   col lu'sion    in de cis'ion

Lesson 123.


brid'al, belonging to a bride.    met'al, a substance.
                                  met'tle, spirit.
bri'dle, a check; a curb.         vice, defect; fault.
les'son, a task for recitation.   vise, an instrument.
                                  wail, to lament.
less'en, to make less.            wale, to mark with stripes.

Filled with choler, he seized the youth by the collar. The priest filled
the censer. He is a censor of the press. The ship took divers persons as
divers for pearls. The plaintiff assumed a plaintive air. To lessen the
number of exercises, will make an easier lesson.

Lesson 124.

scrive'ner   friv'o lous    fru gal'i ty
slug'gard    im'age ry      gram mat'ic al
stub'born    in'di go       hi lar'i ty
sub'urbs     in'sti gate    hu man'i ty
symp'tom     liq'ui date    in hab'it ant
med'ley      pil'grim age   i ras'ci ble
peas'ant     fish'er y      le gal'i ty
pheas'ant    hick'o ry      lo cal'i ty
pen'sive     in'ter est     lo quac'i ty
pres'ence    mit'ti mus     men dac'i ty
read'y       min'strel sy   ra pac'i ty

Lesson 125.

NOTE.--These words are not exactly alike in sound, and should be carefully

as sist'ance, help; relief         rab'bit, an animal.
as sist'ants, helpers.             rab'bet, a term in carpentry.
de vis'er, an inventor.
di vi'sor, a term in Arithmetic.   lin'e a ment, a feature.
                                   lin'i ment, an ointment.
def'er ence, respect.              prin'ci pal, chief
dif'fer ence, variation.           prin'ci ple, rule of action.
in gen'u ous, open; free.          li'ar, one who tells lies.
in gen'ious, having skill.         lyre, a kind of harp.

Lesson 126.


His assistants gave him great assistance. He was the deviser of the
machine. Which is the larger, the divisor or the quotient? This difference
being settled, he will pay due deference to your opinion. The ingenious
mechanic was also an ingenuous man. Not a lineament could be recognized by
his friends. Apply to the wound a healing liniment. The principal in the
agreement was devoid of moral principle. Though a great liar, he could
play upon the lyre. The rabbit was tame. The carpenter will rabbet the

Lesson 127.

In words like the following, U should receive its proper consonant sound;
as nature, pronounced nat'yur.

nat'ure      sig'na ture    ag'ri cult ure
creat'ure    sep'ul ture    leg'is la ture
feat'ure     fur'ni ture    ar'chi tect ure
fut'ure      for'feit ure   tem'per a ture
capt'ure     lig'a ture     lit'er a ture
rapt'ure     ap'er ture     flo'ri cult ure
text'ure     quad'ra ture   ju'di ca ture
pict'ure     ad vent'ure    hor'ti cult ure
script'ure   con ject'ure   man u fact'ure

Lesson 128.

pail, a wooden vessel.     Paul, a man's name.
pale, not bright.          pall, a covering.
pear, a fruit.             pique, to give offense.
pare, to cut thin.         peak, the top.
pair, a couple.            peer, a nobleman.
raze, to pull down.        pier, a wharf
raise, to lift up.         quartz, a kind of rock.
rays, beams of light.      quarts, measures.
pain, uneasiness.          plain, smooth.
pane, a square of glass.   plane, a surface; tool.
peel, rind; skin.          quire, twenty-four sheets of paper.
peal, a sound of bells.
port, a harbor.            choir (kwir), a band of singers.
Porte, a Turkish court.

Lesson 129.

X with the sound of gz; as exact, pronounced egz act'.

ex act'     ex act'ly      ex ag'g'er ate
ex ist'     ex am'ine      ex an'i mate
ex ult'     ex em'plar     ex as'per ate
ex hale'    ex er'tion     ex ec'u trix
ex haust'   ex hib'it      ex hil'a rate
ex ert'     ex ist'ence    ex on'er ate
ex hort'    ex ist'ent     ex em'pli fy
ex ude'     ex ot'ic       ex or'bi tant
ex ergue'   ex haust'ive   ux o'ri ous

Lesson 130.

Ti has often the sound of sh: followed by on, it is pronounced shun.

na'tion      ces sa'tion     de vi a'tion
pa'tient     col la'tion     dep re da'tion
fac'tious    cre a'tion      des per a'tion
frac'tious   dic ta'tion     lib er a'tion
sta'tion     do na'tion      me di a'tion
lo'tion      du ra'tion      mod er a'tion
mo'tion      e qua'tion      nu mer a'tion
no'tion      tes ta'tion     op er a'tion
po'tion      for ma'tion     tol er a'tion
por'tion     frus tra'tion   trep i da'tion
quo'tient    gra da'tion     val u a'tion

Lesson 131.

Other examples in which final tion is pronounced shun.

men'tion    ab strac'tion   ed u ca'tion
sec'tion    at trac'tion    em ula'tion
frac'tion   de trac'tion    ex cla ma'tion
dic'tion    dis trac'tion   ex pec ta'tion
fic'tion    ex trac'tion    ex por ta'tion
fric'tion   in frac'tion    fer men ta'tion
junc'tion   pro trac'tion   gen er a'tion
ac'tion     re frac'tion    grav i ta'tion
cap'tion    re trac'tion    hab i ta'tion
op'tion     con trac'tion   il lus tra'tion
fac'tion    sub trac'tion   im por ta'tion

Lesson 132.

Examples in which sci, ti, and ci have the sound of sh.

auc'tion      au da'cious    ab er ra'tion
cau'tion      ca pa'cious    ad mi ra'tion
cau'tious     ve ra'cious    ad o ra'tion
gla'cial      fal la'cious   ad u la'tion
gra'cious     fu ga'cious    ag gra va'tion
spa'cious     lo qua'cious   ap pli ca'tion
Gre'cian      ra pa'cious    ap pro ba'tion
spe'cious     sa ga'cious    prep a ra'tion
par'tial      te na'cious    pres er va'tion
con'science   vi va'cious    proc la ma'tion
spe'cie       vo ra'cious    prof a na'tion

Lesson 133.

Ci, ce, and si with the sound of sh.

spe'cies     ju di'cial     ac ces'sion
o'cean       lo gi'cian     com pres'sion
so'cial      ma gi'cian     de clen'sion
spe'cial     mu si'cian     ex pres'sion
cru'cial     tac ti'cian    im pres'sion
pre'cious    op ti'cian     op pres'sion
pas'sion     pa tri'cian    pre ten'sion
man'sion     phy si'cian    suc ces'sion
pen'sion     pro vin'cial   trans gres'sion
ten'sion     fi nan'cial    ad mis'sion
tor'sion     om nis'cient   con cus'sion

Lesson 134


They propose to alter the place of the altar. He cast his ballot for
mayor. The ballet dancer and the ballad singer arrived. The wine seller
lived in a cellar. He said that the cymbal was a symbol of music. They
sent an arrant rogue on the errand. His manner of conducting the manor did
not suit the lord. The prophet of Mammon foretold great profit. The relics
of the kingdom were saved by the relict of the king. The stature of the
statue of Liberty is fixed by statute.

Lesson 135.

rack, an engine of torture.   write, to make letters.
wrack, a sea-plant.           wright, a workman.
rap, to strike.               roe, eggs of a fish.
wrap, to roll together.       row, to impel with oars.
reck, to heed; to care.       rose, a flower.
wreck, destruction.           rows, does row.
rice, a kind of grain.        roes, plural of roe.
rise, increase; ascent.       sees, beholds.
rite, a ceremony.             seas, large bodies of  water.
right, not wrong.             seize, to lay hold of

Lesson 136.


Many words are formed by adding something to the end of another word. The
added part is called an affix; as ly, added to man, forms manly. In this,
and the following seventeen lessons, the more common affixes are

Plurals formed by adding s to the Singular.

roofs       so'los    ty'ros     al bi'nos
hoofs       ha'los    jun'tos    me men'tos
scarfs      las'sos   can'tos    oc ta'vos
truths      ze'ros    quar'tos   si roc'cos

Plurals formed by adding es to the Singular.

ech'oes     to ma'toes     po ta'toes
car'goes    mu lat'toes    bra va'does
mot'toes    vol ca'noes    por'ti coes
grot'toes   mos qui'toes   vi ra'goes

Lesson 137.

Words in which f and fe are changed into ves in the Plural: as, leaf,
leaves; wife, wives.

beeves    lives    thieves   calves    our selves'
sheaves   wives    wolves    halves    them selves'
leaves    knives   loaves    shelves   your selves'

Words in which Y final is changed into ies in the Plural.

skies   la'dies     to'ries       gro'cer ies
spies   du'ties     can'dies      for'ger ies
cries   beau'ties   tro'phies     gal'ler ies

Lesson 138.

Words ending in Y which form the Plural by adding a.

toys    chim'neys   al'leys    at tor'neys
drays   val'leys    pul'leys   Sat'ur days
buoys   mon'eys     tur'keys   hol'i days
whys    jour'neys   mon'keys   cor du roys'

Words in which the Plurals are formed irregularly. As the Plural only is
given, the teacher might require the pupil to ascertain the Singular, and
to spell it.

mice           cri'ses     ter'mi ni
chil'dren      neb'u lae   a lum'ni
ver'te brae    stra'ta     syn op'ses   geese
{ kine, cows }
{ staves, staffs}
{ broth'ers,breth'ren }
{ pease, peas}
{ dies, dice}

Lesson 139.

Ing signifies continuing to; as talking, continuing to talk. The following
words, in taking their suffix, double the final letter. The last letter is
doubled when the word ends with a single consonant preceded by a single

plan'ning   win'ning    stop'ping   a bet'ting
fret'ting   blot'ting   gun'ning    re bel'ling
bid'ding    rob'bing    shut'ting   o mit'ting

Other words ending with consonants, which do not double the final letter.

act'ing     fail'ing   mean'ing   ex pand'ing
land'ing    rain'ing   coax'ing   con sent'ing
build'ing   sail'ing   suit'ing   vis'it ing

Lesson 140.

Words ending in e silent, generally drop the e in adding ing.

mak'ing     seiz'ing   rul'ing      ex pir'ing
nam'ing     forc'ing   lin'ing      re fus'ing
plagu'ing   hedg'ing   squeez'ing   in trigu'ing
ach'ing     writ'ing   schem'ing    alleg'ing

The final e is retained when it is necessary to prevent a change of
pronunciation, or to maintain the identity of a word.

hoe'ing     shoe'ing    change'a ble
toe'ing     singe'ing   trace'able
tinge'ing   dye'ing     peace'a ble
foe'man     blue'ness   charge'a ble

Lesson 141.

Ed, as a suffix, generally signifies did. In words like the following the
e in ed is silent, and the wards, though of two and three syllables, are
pronounced in one and two.

blazed    wedged   boiled    be reaved
drained   solved   coiled    be sieged'
hailed    called   soiled    blas phemed'
lamed     hauled   bowed     ac quired'
paved     mauled   crowned   con trol1ed'
stowed    warmed   plowed    a bused'
saved     warned   roused    ac cused'
feared    warped   scoured   com muned'
flowed    proved   soured    con fused'
glued     shoved   dodged    de coyed'
begged    loved    filled    en joyed'

Lesson 142.

In words like the following, ed is pronounced as t; and, although of two
and three syllables, the words are pronounced in one and two.

graced    fixed   es caped'     at tacked'
scraped   mixed   em braced'    con fessed'
cracked   boxed   en grossed'   op pressed'

In other words formed by the affix ed, the last letter is doubled in words
of one syllable, or in words accented on the last syllable, when they end
with a single consonant preceded by a single vowel; as, wed, wed'ded. If
the word ends in any other consonant than d or t, the e in ed becomes
silent, and the two syllables become one; as, hem, hemmed, pronounced

jut'ted    shunned   com pelled   o mit'ted
fret'ted   tapped    e quipped'   im bed'ded
fit'ted    rubbed    de murred'   com mit'ted

Lesson 143.

Words not included in the ahove rule, do not double the final

act'ed    failed   quar'reled   ex pand'ed
land'ed   rained   bar'reled    mer'it ed
rest'ed   coaxed   trav'eled    vis'it ed

Y is sometimes changed into i; as cry, cried.

cried   dried   mar'ried   glo'ried
tried   fried   tar'ried   sto'ried
shied   spied   car'ried   wor'ried

Lesson 144.

Ar, er, and or signify one who does, or that which does; as, baker, one
who bakes. If the word ends in e, r only is added. After a consonant y is
generally changed into i. Another letter is sometimes united to the affix;
as law, law'yer. The final consonants are doubled, as in Lesson 142.

beg'gar     bank'er    bak'er      cre a'tor
dig'ger     plant'er   pa'cer      cru sad'er
dip'per     build'er   pav'er      dic ta'tor
clip'per    giv'er     stran'ger   en grav'er
trot'ter    1aw'yer    writ'er     sur viv'or
los'er      saw'yer    boast'er    be liev'er
woo'er      read'er    mourn'er    ad vis'er
vouch'er    rid'er     own'er      as sign'er
wres'tler   dy'er      rul'er      in vei'gler

Lesson 145.

Words formed by the Affixes er or or.

be gin'ner    la'bor er      nav'i ga tor
in dors'er    rea'son er     ded'i ca tor
de sert'er    li'bel er      cal'cu la tor
dis turb'er   wag'on er      spec'u la tor
u surp'er     con'quer or    pros'e cu tor
con duct'or   for'eign er    cul'ti va tor
tor ment'or   cus'tom er     mul'ti pli er
en chant'er   mur'der er     nu'mer a tor
sup port'er   gov'ern or     gen'er a tor
ag gress'or   pen'sion er    ra'di a tor

Lesson 146.

In adjectives, er is generally added to form the comparative, and est to
form the superlative; as, rich, richer, richest.

strict'er   fierc'est   wealth'i er   wor'thi est
broad'er    slow'est    greed'i er    read'i est
bright'er   gaunt'est   drear'i er    haugh'ti est

Ly is an abbreviation of like; as manly for man-like, or like a man. Ly is
still further shortened into y; as, rock, rocky.

bright'ly  eas'y     heav'i ly    thor'oug ly
gay'ly     earth'y   heart'i ly   might'i ly
no'bly     speed'y   read'i ly    has'ti ly
wind'y     spon'gy   tar'di ly    stead'i ly

Lesson 147.

Ness is from the Saxon nesse, and means state or quality; as, neatness,
state of being neat.

bleak'ness    smooth'ness   come'li ness
fierce'ness   numb'ness     drow'si ness
hoarse'ness   wrong'ness    naught'i ness
calm'ness     sweet'ness    wea'ri ness

The termination full adds its own meaning to the word; as, joyful, full of
joy. The final l is omitted in the derivatives.

change'ful   mourn'ful   skill'ful   fan'ci ful
fright'ful   woe'ful     will'ful    pit'i ful
spite'ful    wrath'ful   aw'ful      du'ti ful

Lesson 148.

The termination less gives a negative meaning to the derivative; as
graceless, without grace.

brain'less   sight'less   friend'less   worth'less
cease'less   soul'less    head'less     house'less
guile'less   friut'less   guilt'less    noise'less

The affix age signifies the pay for, a state of being, or composed of; as
cartage, the pay for carting.

mar'riage     fer'ri age     vag'a bond age
herb'age      her'mit age    dis ad van'tage
wharf'age     pat'ron age    es'pi on age

Lesson 149.

The suffix al signifies relating to; an signifies pertaining to; ant and
ent, in many instances, signify the agent or doer.

tid'al      com'ic al     me dic'i nal
ur'ban      pub'li can    di oc'e san
claim'ant   as sist'ant   i tin'er ant
a'gent      pres'i dent   cor re spond'ent

Able and ible signify that may be, capable of being, fit or worthy to be,
or capacity.

eat'a ble    blam'a ble    am'i ca ble
sal'a ble    laugh'a ble   nav'i ga ble
leg'i ble    for'ci ble    com bus'ti ble
cred'i ble   au'di ble     in del'i ble

Lesson 150.

Ist, ster, ee, and ess, generally signify the person who, or thing which.
The last is an affix denoting the feminine gender.

aur'ist     phys'i cist     pi a'nist
tap'ster    chor'is ter     for'est er
grant ee'   mort ga gee'    as sign ee'
em'press    shep'herd ess   mar'chion ess

Dom signifies the office of or state of being; hood, the state of being;
ish, somewhat, like; and ism, the condition or doctrines of.

king'dom     chris'ten dom   hea'then dom
child'hood   maid'en hood    live'li hood
knav'ish     yel'low ish     a'gu ish
Bud'dhism    Meth'od ism     Mor'mon ism

Lesson 151.

Eer or ier generally signifies one who has charge of; en means made of,
or, with adjectives, to make; ic signifies pertaining to, belonging to, or
like; and ise or ize, to make, to become, or to assimilate.

cash ier'    fin an cier'   gon do lier'
cloth'ier    en gi neer'    can non eer'
beech'en     be hold'en     em bold'en
bright'en    en light'en    en liv'en
civ'ic       ce phal'ic     me tal'lic
u'til ize    cat'e chise    crit'i cise
sat'ir ize   civ'il ize     os'tra cize

Lesson 152.

Ion and ment denote the state of being, or the act of; fy, to make or
become; ance or ence, the act or state of; ive, having a tendency to, or
the power or nature of; ory, the power or nature of, or belonging to; and
ous, partaking of, or full of.

dis per'sion   di ver'sion    as per'sion
ex cep'tion    e lec'tion     con di'tion
a tone'ment    a gree'ment    dec're ment
de'i fy        stu'pe fy      sat'is fy
an noy'ance    ac cord'ance   con cord'ance
oc cur'rence   ab hor'rence   in dul'gence
a mu'sive      con clu'sive   of fen'sive
cur'so ry      ar'mo ry       man'da to ry
dan'ger ous    li'bel ous     har mo'ni ous

Lesson 153.

Kin, ling, let, and ule indicate smallness or diminution.

lamb'kin     man'i kin     la'dy kin
duck'ling    un'der ling   fos'ter ling
leaf'let     riv'u let     flag'eo let
glob'ule     mol'e cule    an i mal'cule

Some means like or same, full of, or very; ward denotes in the direction
of; ure means state of; and y, full of, or composed of.

tire'some   cum'ber some   vent'ure some
east'ward   heav'en ward   aft'er ward
verd'ure    cur'va ture    im post'ure
smok'y      sin'ew y       sil'ver y

Lesson 154.

ruff, an article of dress.     roar, to make a loud noise.
rough (ruf), uneven.           row'er, one who rows.
retch, to vomit.               sail, a sheet of canvas.
wretch, a miserable person.    sale, the act of selling.
rode, did ride.                seen, beheld.
road, a way; route.            scene, a view.
rowed, did row.                seine, a net for fishing.
room, an apartment.            slay, to kill.
rheum, a serous fluid.         sleigh, a vehicle on runners.
sow, to scatter seed.          sley, a weaver's reed.
sew (so), to use a needle.     seem, to appear.
so, thus; in like manner.      seam, a line of junction.

Lesson 155.

rude, uncivil; rough.       slow, not fast.
rood, fourth of an acre.    sloe, a kind of fruit.
serf, a slave; servant.     sun, the source of light.
surf, a swell of the sea.   son, a male child.
serge, a kind of cloth.     steel, refined iron.
surge, to rise; to swell.   steal, to rob; to pilfer.
sheer, pure; clear.         stile, steps over a fence.
shear, to cut or clip.      style, manner of writing.
side, a part; a margin.     stare, to look fixedly.
sighed, did sigh.           stair, a step.
slew (slu), did slay.       sweet, pleasing to the taste.
slue, to slip aside.        suite (swet), retinue.

Lesson 156.


When a syllable or word is placed before another word, it is called a
prefix. The prefix re generally gives the idea of repetition or return;
as, recall, to call back.

re build'   re ap pear'    re an'i mate
re touch'   re as cend'    re gen'er ate
re seat'    re im burse'   re sus'ci tate
re view'    ro doub'le     re ver'ber ate

The prefix un generally gives a negative meaning; as, unapt, not apt.

un paid'    un friend'ly   un court'ly
un clean'   un health'y    un ea'sy
un known'   un stead'y     un fruit'ful
un nerve'   un err'ing     un learn'ed

Lesson 157.

In, also, has a negative meaning; it often becomes im, il, ir, or ig, for
the sake of sound.

in act'ive   in sin cere'   ir res'o lute
im prop'er   im po lite'    ir re lig'ious
il le'gal    il lu'sive     irre spect'ive
ig no'ble    ig'no rant     ir'ri ta ble

im ma te ri al'i ty         im prac ti ca bil'i ty
in di vis i bil'i ty        in de struc ti bil'i ty
in com pat i bil'i ty       ir re sist i bil'i ty
in com press i bil'i ty     im pen e tra bil'i ty

Lesson 158.

Dis is a Latin particle, and has the force of a negative or privative; as,
disagree, not to agree, disarm, to deprive of arms.

dis please'   dis ap pear'    dis con tin'ue
dis joint'    dis be lieve'   dis in her'it
dis lodge'    dis o blige'    dis or'gan ize
dis charge'   dis cour'age    dis sim'i lar
dis grace'    dis cov'er      dis crim'i nate

The prefix after conveys its own meaning.

aft'er piece    aft'er noon    aft'er most
aft'er guard    aft'er math    aft'er-thought

Lesson 159.

Post is a Latin word, meaning after.

post'script    post-di lu'vi an    post me rid'i an
post'-date     post po si'tion     post'hu mous ly

Other words are formed by prefixing the English word post, a letter-

post'al         post'man      post'mark
post'-chaise    post'-town    post'-office
post-haste'     post'boy      post'mas ter

Bene is a Latin prefix, signifying well.

ben'e dict     ben e fac'tion    be nef'i cence
ben'e fice     ben e fi'cial     be nev'o lence

Lesson 160.

Fore adds its own meaning to the word; as foretaste, to taste before; pre
is from the Latin prae, before; ante (Latin), before. Anti (Greek), means
against or opposite.

fore'sight   fore tell'er      fore bod'ing ly
fore'most    fore knowl'edge   fore de ter'mine
fore know'   fore'cas tle      pre med'i tate
pre fix'     pre cau'tion      pre oc'cu py
pre judge'   pre ced'ing       pre-em'i nent
pre serve'   pre des'tine      an te pas'chal
pre sage'    an'te past        an te mun'dane
pre text'    an'te date        an te nup'tial
fore warn'   an'ti pode        an ti cli'max
fore'front   an'ti dote        an ti feb'rile

Lesson 161.

The word miss signifies to err, to go wrong; in the compound
the last s is omitted.

mis guide'    mis be lief'     mis reck'on
mis spell'    mis con ceive'   mis con'strue
mis choose'   mis di rect'     mis gov'ern
mis chance'   mis re cite'     mis guid'ance

Words formed by the prefixes up and under.

up raise'    un der lay'      un'der hand
up heave'    un der write'    un'der growth
up'right     un der sign'     un'der brush
up'ward      un der neath'    un'der shot

Lesson 162.

Words formed by the prefixes out and over.

out brave'   o ver reach'     o'ver board
out grow'    o ver awe'       o'ver alls
out pour'    o ver flow'      o'ver night
out talk'    o ver freight'   o'ver sight

Counter, from the Latin contra, against.

coun'ter pane    coun'ter sign     coun ter move'
coun'ter feit    coun'ter point    coun ter weight'

Extra (Latin), beyond.

ex tra ju di'cial        ex tra phys'ic al
ex tra pro vin'cial      ex tra trop'ic al

Lesson 163.

Semi (Latin), and hemi (Greek), ha1f; super (Latin), over or above; trans
(Latin), beyond or through; and inter (Latin), among or between.

sem'i breve      sem'i co lon       sem'i qua ver
sem'i tone       sem'i cir cle      sem i ton'ic
hem'i sphere     hem'i cy cle       hem i morph'ic
hem'i trope      hem i he'dral      hem i spher'ic
su per add'      su per fi'cial     su per in duce'
su per scribe'   su per'flu ous     su per struct'ure
tran scend'ent   trans at lan'tic   tran'si to ry
trans fig'ure    trans fus'i ble    trans mis'si ble
in'ter course    in ter mit'tent    in ter reg'num
in'ter lude      in ter ces'sor     in ter sec'tion


Ad signifies to, and for euphony takes the forms of ac, af, ag, al, an,
ap, ar, and as; as ad and verto, advert, to turn to.

ad duce'     al lure'    as sail'     ag'gre gate
ac count'    an nex'     ad vance'    ag'gra vate
ac cord'     ar rive'    ad'verb      ap pend'age
af fix'      as cend'    ad'verse     ar'ro gance

Bi (from Latin bis, twice) means two, double, or in two.

bi'fid      bi den'tate     bi no'mi al
bi'form     bi cor'nous     bi en'ni al
bi'nate     bi fur'cate     bi noc'ular
bi'ped      bi lin'gual     bi valv'u lar
bi sect'    bi par'tite     bi sul'phu ret

Lesson 165.

Con (Latin cum, with) signifies with or together; it takes the forms of
com, col, co, cog, and cor, for ease in pronunciation.

con vert'     con de scend'     con ven'tion al
com press'    com pan'ion       com pen sa'tion
col lect'     col'lo quy        col lat'er al
co here'      co-ex ist'        co-ex ten'sive
cog'nate      cog'ni zant       cog nos'ci ble
cor rect'     cor re spond'     cor o na'tion
con cur'      con vul'sion      con sec'u tive
con dign'     con vey'er        con se quen'tial
con form'     con tu'sion       con nat'u ral

Lesson 166.

De signifies down or from; epi significs on, near, during; and ex has the
meaning out of. Ex also becomes e, ec, or ef.

de scend'    ex tract'    ep i dem'ic
de tract'    e vade'      ep'i lep sy
de note'     ef fuse'     ep i glot'tis
de vote'     ec'logue     ep i derm'is

Dia, ob, per, and circum mean respectively apart, against, through, and
around. With English words, dis gives a negative meaning.

dis tend'    dis sev'er        dis em bar'rass
ob trude'    ob lique'ly       ob lit'er ate
per plex'    per fect'ive      per sist'en cy
cir'cuit     cir cum volve'    cir cum ja'cent

Lesson 167.

Mal signifies evil, ill; mono is from Greek monos, single; pan (Greek),
signifies all, every thing; and poly (Greek polus), many.

mal'con tent    ma li'cious    ma lev'o lent
mon'o tone      mon'o gram     mo nop'o Iy
pan'o ply       pan'the ist    pan o ra'ma
pol'y gon       pol'y pus      pol'y the ism

Pro is a Latin preposition signifying for, before, and forth; uni (Latin
unus, one) signifies one or producing one; syn (sometimes syl and sym)
signifies together; and sub (sometimes suf, sup, and sug) denotes under,

pro'noun     u'ni ty        syn'the sis    sub scribe'
pro pel'     u'ni form      syl'la ble     suf'fix
pro duce'    u'ni corn      sym'pa thy     sup press'
pro vide'    u'ni val ve    syn tac'tic    sug gest'

Lesson 168.

Compound Words promiscuously arranged.

ale'-house      lime'-kiln     hedge'hog
hail'stone      boat'man       pen'knife
lay'man         four'score     grist'-mill
safe'guard      load'stone     mid'night
waist'coat      oat'meal       pitch'fork
bee'-hive       pole'-star     ship'wreck
key'-stone      snow'-drop     wrist'band
knee'-pan       sports'man     block'head
bride'groom     jew's'-harp    cross'-bow
light'-house    luke'warm      off'spring

Lesson 169.

Compound Words.

Lisle'-glove    night'fall      harts'horn
north-east'     book'-case      corn'-stalk
joint'-stock    foot'stool      loop'-hole
well'-bred      cork'screw      bur'dock
snuff'-box      watch'-word     whirl'pool
towns'man       broom'stick     fools'cap
house'wife      dooms'day       work'shop
char'coal       brown'-bread    for sooth'
out weigh'      down'right      down'cast
horn'pipe       tooth'ache      noon'day
heir'loom       air'brake       law'suit

Lesson 170.

Compound Words.

can'dle stick     post'al-card       but'ter fly
hand'ker chief    cop'y-book         wa'ter-fall
bed'-cham ber     oft'en times       gas'-me ter
ev'er green       type'-writ er      cler'gy man
gen'tle man       jour'ney man       bric'-a-brac
pep'per mint      hum'ming-bird      na'vy-yard
camp'-meet ing    musk'-mel on       fool'-hard y
mas'ter piece     blood'-ves sel     al might'y
pass'o ver        hon'ey-comb        by'stand er
fowl'ing-piece    stem'-wind er      bass'-vi ol
pow'der-horn      school'-mas ter    tale'-bear er

Lesson 171.


A'bel, a man's name.         de scend'ent, falling.
a'ble, powerful.             cough'er, one who coughs.
al'ley, a narrow passage.    coffer, a chest.
al ly', one who assists.     can'died, covered with sugar.
al lu'sion, a reference.     can'did, honest; truthful.
il lu'sion, mockery.         cent'u ry, 100 years.
de scend'ant, offspring.     sen'try, a guard.

The able man's name was Abel. A narrow alley. France was an ally of
England in the Crimean war. He made an allusion to the illusion that
possessed him. His descendant was descendent from the same line. The
cougher sat on the coffer. The candid youth ate the candied cakes. The
sentry wore a costume of the last century.

Lesson 172.

Words spelled alike, whose Pronunciation and Meaning differ.

aye, always.                  conjure, to enchant.
aye, an affirmative vote.     bow, a weapon.
chose, did choose.            bow, part of a ship.
chose, a thing; a chattel.    chap, a boy.
bass, a term in music.        chap, the jaw.
bass, a fish.                 gout, a disease.
conjure', to implore.         gout, taste; relish.

Lesson 173.

Words spelled alike, whose Pronunciation and Meaning differ.

mall, a public walk.                 scald, a poet.
mall, a mallet.                      sew'er (so'er), one who sews.
slough (sluf), a snake's skin.       sew'er (su'er), a drain.
slough, a miry place.                court'e sy, civility.
wear, a dam in a river.              courte'sy, a slight bow.
wear, waste.                         slav'er, a slave ship.
min'ute (min'it), sixty seconds.     slav'er, spittle.
mi nute', very small.                i'ron y (i'urn y), of iron.
hind'er, in the rear.                i'ron y, ridicule.
hin'der, to obstruct.                worst'ed, a kind of yarn.
scald, a burn.                       worst'ed, defeated.

Lesson 174.

Words in which the letter A is often mispronounced. Some of the words in
this and succeeding lessons have two pronunciations, but in all cases the
preferable one is given.

hearth    mam ma'       an'cient    fra'ter nize
grass     a slant'      la'va       com man dant'
slant     pa pa'        saun'ter    ti a'ra
gape      a las'        pal'frey    al ter'nate
gaunt     al'mond       rap'ine     af fla'tus
far       scath'less    dra'ma      hi a'tus
swathe    pag'eant      la'ma       ba na'na
lance     stal'wart     da'ta       sul ta'na
calm      aft'er        ma'gi       man da'mus
laugh     par'ent       pa'thos     oc ta'vo

Lesson 175.

Words in which A is frequently mispronounced.

chal'dron     ar ca'num       u ra'ni urn
na'tant       er ra'tum       a qua'ri um
hal'berd      ver ba'tim      ap pa ra'tus
tas'sel       val'en tine     ig no ra'mus
sau'cy        ca'ri ous       ir ra'tion al
mael'strom    tra'che a       lit er a'ti
squa'lor      bar bar'ic      lit er a'tim
dai'ry        bar ri cade'    ul ti ma'tum
ca'ret        ra'di us        mar a nath'a
gra'tis       chol'e ra       gym na'si um
ra'dix        ca na'ry        ex pa'ti ate

Lesson 176.

Sounds of A frequently mispronounced.

gla'mour    sac'ra ment    glance    al'ways
raft'er     a'pri cot      zouave    a mass'
scal'lop    gar'ru lous    drain     Ar'ab
craft'y     bra va'do      stanch    ba'thos
grass'y     de fal'cate    scarce    cal'dron
em balm'    ca ca'o        cant      chas'ten
a ghast'    rail'ler y     can't     fac'ile
was'sail    an dan'te      strap     fair'y
balm'y      hal'i but      yacht     ga'la
al'der      na'ive te      scath     qua'si
Al'dine     fi na'le       calk      lo cale'

Lesson 177.

Sounds of A often mispronounced.

swath     pau'per      gra va'men     a men'
halve     ha'rem       to ma'to       gua'no
jean      pa sha'      sa'li ent      na'ive
catch     fac'et       pa'ri ah       har'ass
balm      fal'chion    far ra'go      sat'ire
groat     laugh'ter    tap'es try     jal'ap
trance    tar'iff      de ca'dence    e clat'
yea       ba salt'     a're a         prai'rie
are       hur ra'      va ga'ry       ra'tion
shaft     ba ton'      cu'po la       Sal'ic
scared    quag'mire    cu ra'tor      ta'pis

Lesson 178.

Words in which the Sounds of E are often mispronounced.

ei'ther     eq'ui ty       leg'end a ry
pre'cept    ten'a ble      ab ste'mi ous
weap'on     e'go tism      a me'na ble
prel'ate    ter'ra pin     a pe'ri ent
yel'low     al le'gro      ste're o type
ven due'    in her'ent     sac ri le'gious
for get'    le'ni ent      be nef'i cent
stead'y     yes'ter day    a men'i ty
en'gine     e'qua ble      e le'gi ac
ket'tle     pe'o ny        hy men e'al
treb'le     e'qui poise    em py re'an

Lesson 179.

Words in which the Sounds of E are often mispronounced.

leant     pet'rel        cere'ment    les see'
dreamt    se'ries        lei'sure     me lee'
eyre      seam'stress    ef fete'     deaf'en
rear      steel'yard     en feoff'    rou'e
deaf      sex'ton        keel'son     e lite'
teat      fe'brile'      seck'eI      khe dive'
pert      fec'und        bes'tial     res'pite
tete      sen'na         fet'id       there'fore
feoff     ten'et         fe'tich      pref'ace
egg       tep'id         se'nile      tet'ter
yet       le'ver         he'lot       met'ric

Lesson 180.

Words in which the Sounds of E are often mispronounced.

per'uke     nep'o tism     ter'ri ble
neth'er     as cet'ic      res'in ous
pet'al      red'o lent     rec'i pe
res'in      co te rie'     tet'a nus
ra ceme'    em ploy e'     ref'lu ent
pre'lude    at ta che'     hy e'mal
me'grim     pre'mi er      cer'e brum
ven'ue      o bei'sance    ve'he ment
bre vet'    gen'er a       def'i cit
car tel'    Ma dei'ra      splen'e tic
e'pact      her'o ine      i de'a

Lesson 181.

Words in which the Sounds of I are often mispronounced.

fi'nite      mer'can tile    pa ri'e tal
pro'file     pi az'za        rec i ta tive'
de bris'     he gi'ra        an ni'hi late
A'pril       de cli'vous     cal li'o pe
fi nanec'    O ri'on         he li'ac al
ox'ide       i tal'ic        zo di'ac al
ar'chives    ho ri'zon       i soch'ro nous
vis'or       si'ne cure      men in gi'tis
sir'up       so ri'tes       ma ni'ac al
bas tile'    bron chi'tis    scar la ti'na
rib'ald      trip'ar tite    i so therm'al

Lesson 182.

Words in which the Sounds of I are often mispronounced.

rid       ti rade'      py ri'tes
vive      ton tine'     fa ri'na
rinse     bro'mine      mar'i time
shire     li'chen       pi a'no
width     ob lique'     vir'u lent
si'ren    vis'count     cyn'o sure
ti'ny     vi'rile       is'o late
li'en     spike'nard    vol'a tile
an'ile    trib'une      en fran'chise
ei'der    qui'nine,     de ci'sive,
tri'o     di late'      pu'er ile

Lesson 183.

Words in which the Sounds of I are often mispronounced.

fu'tile      as pir'ant        ad ver tis'er
ar tiste'    in quir'y         tri syl'la ble
fi nesse'    sub sid'ence'     ka lei'do scope
stir'rup     chas'tise ment    ad ver'tise ment
sub'tile     di gres'sion      in ter ne'cine
chlo'rine    di men'sion       lar yn gi'tis
Al'pine      di plo'ma         mi rac'u lous
chi cane'    sim'o ny          in ci'so ry
cui sine'    crin'o line       vi vip'a rous
li'lac       par'a digm        is o la'tion
vic'ar       e chi'nus         si mul ta'ne ous

Lesson 184.

Words in which 0 is sometimes mispronounced.

holm     tro'phy      mon'as ter y
yolk     on'ly        proc'u ra tor
scoff    mon'grel     mi cros'co py
nonce    be troth'    drom'e da ry
cost     proc'ess     zo ol'o gy
won't    doc'ile      al lop'a thy
wont     prov'ost     au tom'a ton
shone    grov'e1      hy drop'a thy
sloth    fore'head    La oc'o on
forge    joc'und      pho tog'ra phy
doth     don'key      in ter loc'u tor

Lesson 185.

Words in which O is sometimes mispronounced.

front'ier       ap ro pos'         ab do'men
plov'er         vo'ca ble          dis com'fit
a mour'         pos til'ion        court'e ous
hov'er          pre co'cious       pa rot'id
sur tout'       o'o lite           con do'lence
sloth'fu1       dol'or ous         cog no'men
Sou chong'      ca lor'ic          op po'nent
caout'choue     front'is piece     co ro'na
re volt'        prob'i ty          col'port eur
fort'night      pome gran'ate      po'ta ble
com'pass        sov'er eign        a ro'ma

Lesson 186.

Words in which U is sometimes mispronounced.

tulle      col'umn           in au'gu rate
joust      sut'ure           ce ru'le an
guide      pup'pet           vi tu'per ate
yours      su'mac            ac cu'mu late
ghoul      ful'some          co ad ju'tor
gi'aour    con'duit          pu'pil la ry
de but     cu'cum ber        in'sti tute
duc'at     tru'cu lent       eu re'ka
U'lan      con nois seur'    cae su'ra
sup'ple    ju'gu lar         con'sti tute
du'ty      nu'mer ous        tour'na ment

Lesson 187.

Words properly accented on the first Syllable.

con'strue    com'bat ant      pu'is sance
trav'erse    dis'pu tant      in'ter im
ramp'ant     gon'do la        au'top sy
ath'lete     pleth'o ra       tym'pa num
syr'inge     mis'chiev ous    wise'a cre
ex'tant      blas'phe mous    or'ches tral
brig'and     con'ver sant     im'po tent
con'cord     san'he drim      con'gru ent
dis'cord     con'tra ry       im'be cile
do'nate      pro'te an        pha'e ton
ob'long      dis'ci pline     ret'i na

Lesson 188.

roll, to turn over and over.    soar, to mount upward.
role, a part performed.         stake, a pointed stick.
sign, a token; a mark.          steak, a slice of flesh.
sine, a line in geometry.       step, a pace; a foot-print.
skull, part of the head.        steppe, a dreary plain.
scull, to impel a boat.         stoop, to bend forward.
sleeve, an arm cover.           stoup, a basin; a pitcher.
sleave, untwisted silk.         sum, the amount; whole.
slight, to neglect; feeble.     some, a part; a portion.
sleight, dexterity.             tale, that which is told.
soul, the immortal spirit.      tail, terminal appendage.
sole, bottom of the foot.       tare, allowance in weight.
sore, a hurt; painful.          tear, to rend; to lacerate.

Lesson 189.

tacks, small nails.              toe, part of the foot.
tax, import; duty.               tow, coarse part of flax.
throne, seat of a king.          tract, a region.
thrown, cast.                    tracked, followed.
team, horses hitched together    their, belonging to them.
teem, to bring forth.            there, in that place.
tear, water from the eye.        throw, to cast; to hurl.
tier, a row or rank.             throe, agony.
threw (thru), did throw.         tide, rising of the sea.
through, from end to end.        tied, bound; fastened.
time, duration.                  toad, a harmless reptile.
thyme, a pungent herb.           towed, drawn by a rope.

Lesson 190.

Words properly accented on the first Syllable.

prog'ress    eq'ui page       ex'qui site ly
in'grate     phos'phor us     com'pa ra ble
pae'an       lu'di crous      per'emp to ry
cou'pon      vic'i nage       or'tho e py
du'ress      in'te gral       ex'em pla ry
good'man     in'te ger        lam'en ta ble
o'zone       an'ces tor       in'ter est ing
a'corn       an'ti podes      con'tu me ly
pro'logue    at'ro phy        sub'lu na ry
thir'teen    com'plai sant    va'ri o loid
sar'dine     det'o nate       e'ti o late

Lesson 191.

Words properly accented on the second Syllable.

trust ee'      he ral'dic      ap pel'la tive
mon soon'      ple thor'ic     a nem'o ne
pro lix'       re cu'sant      ar tif i cer
back slide'    ple be'ian      ar bit'ra ment
where as'      pre ced'ence    con sum'mate ly
gain say'      le the'an       ca mel'o pard
re cess'       il lus'trate    con not'a tive
pla card'      im mob'ile      in ter'po late
a dept'        phi lip'pic     te leg'ra phy
suc cess'      o de'on         pe riph'ra sis
ro mance'      e la'ine        re con'nais sance

Lesson 192.

Words properly accented on the second Syllable.

cos tume'     so no'rous      re med'i less
with draw'    ly ce'um        pre ced'en cy
suc cinct'    mu se'um        hy per'bo le
ex cess'      e ner'vate      py ram'i dal
de funct'     ac cli'mate     te leph'o ny
ca nine'      in un'date      il lus'tra tive'
mo rale'      con den'sate    ex ec'u tor
re lay'       Lin nae'an      ex tem'po re
si moom'      ob jur'gate     gla di'o lus
re course'    ad um'brate     in fer'a ble
ac cess'      cho re'us       chal ced'o ny

Lesson 193.

Words properly accented on the second Syllable.

ex traor'di na ry      in ter'po la tor
in com'pa ra ble       con sol'a to ry
ir ref'ra ga ble       de lib'er a tive
ir rep'a ra ble'       pro thon'o ta ry
ir rev'o ca ble        dis crim'i na tive
in dis'so lu ble       com mem'o ra tive
in dis'pu ta ble       ac cel'er a tive
in ex'o ra ble         sa lu'ta to ry
ab sol'u to ry         pa ri'e ta ry
de mon'stra tive ly    nun cu'pa to ry
oc tog'e na ry         in ex'pli ca ble

Lesson 194.

Words properly accented on the third Syllable.

rev er ie'       am a teur'           dem o ni'ac al
ob li gor'       bom ba zine'         ho me op'a thy
jag u ar'        tam bour ine'        ap o the'o sis
im pro vise'     ric o chet' [noun]   her e dit'a ment
or mo lu'        mule teer'           spon ta ne'i ty
et i quette'     mau so le'um         ep i zo'o ty
av a lanche      con ser va'tor       hy per bo're an
as sign or'      cot y le'don         ep i cu're an
po lo naise'     no men clat'ure      Pyth a go're an
cat a falque'    hy men e'an          hip po pot'a mus
dis ha bille'    den u da'tion        rec i proc'i ty

Lesson 195.

Words frequently mispronounced, or improperly accented.

mulet          sa'chem          jave'lin     hos'tler
soot           asth'ma          chest'nut    de'tail [noun]
noose          le'gend          wres'tle     fa cade'
twice          de sign' [noun]  or'chis      strych'nine
niche          isth'mus         list'en      per'fume [noun]
salve          this'tle         bay'ou       mus tache'
height         rai'sn           gib'bous     bas'ket
milch          a dult'          gla'cier     Gae'lic
browse [noun]  psalm'ist        griev'ous    Le vant' [noun]
vase           oft'en           na'sal       soft'en

Lesson 196.

Words frequently mispronounced, or improperly accented.

though     goose'ber ry      da guerre'o type
gist       sooth'say er      cab ri o let'
fifth      ju've nile        min i a ture'
drought    lic'o rice        leg er de main'
nook       a pos'tle         char i ot eer'
poor       ar'gen tine       an i mad vert'
roil       Ar min'ian        av oir du pois'
sauce      de co'rous        Cy clo pe'an
rhythm     cyc'la men        Eu ro pe'an
schism     so'journ er       spo li a'tion
root       cov'et ous        in'ter est ed

Lesson 197.

Words frequently mispronounced, or improperly accented.

pom'mel         ab'jeet ness    nu mis'ma tist
bel'lows        ab'a cus        ig nit'i ble
fig'ure         ad'verse'ly     Jan'u a ry
di rect'        Bur'gun dy      Feb'ru a ry
as'sets         Bed'ou in       in'ven to ry
je june'        en vi'rons      cor'ol la ry
ver'min         ex'ple tive     vi'o la ble
ran'sack        um'pi rage      rep'a ra ble
short'-lived    o'a sis         des'pi ca ble
so'journ        ar'se nic       bap'tis ter y
cais'son        ar'ti san       pres'by ter y

Lesson 198.

Words frequently mispronounced, or improperly accented.

in'nate       chol'er ic      se'cre to ry
ter'mites     gon'fa lon      dec're to ry
way'lay       cen'tu ple      ex'ple to ry
slaugh'ter    re'tro cede     con sis'to ry
frag'ile      nu'cle us       pre cep'to ry
car'riage     cen'tau ry      rep'er to ry
thor'ough     co quet'ry      chi rur'ger y
sched'ule     sto mach'ic     sperm a ce'ti
grand'eur     in'ter stice    pan e gyr'ist
hir sute'     ce ram'ic       pan'e gy rize
ben'zine      re volt'ing     mel lif'lu ous

Lesson 199.

Words frequently mispronounced, or impropedy accented.

ag'gran dize    dem'on strate     tur'mer ic
al'der man      tre men'dous      mne mon'ic
Al'co ran       stu pen'dous      vir'e lay
al'ge bra       gov'ern ment      ex'pur gate
mis'tle toe     Ar'a bic          am'ber-gris
pres'by ter     com'bat ive       min'a ret
rasp'ber ry     com'mu nist       or'de al
ven'i son       com'plai sance    plat'i num
pos'i tive      con'verse ly      fem'i nine
dis hon'est     dis as'ter        gen'u ine
chiv'al ric     dram'a tist       por tent'ous

Lesson 200.

Words to be carefully discriminated.

cor'po ral, an officer.               ve'ni al, pardonable.
cor po're al, bodily.                 ve'nal, mercenary; base.
du'al ist, a believer in two gods.    ap'po site, suitable; fit.
                                      op'po site, over against.
du'el ist, one who fights a duel      ac cla ma'tion, a slout.
                                      ac cli ma'tion, inurement to climate.
de scen'sion, descent.
dis sen'sion, strife.                 an'a lyze, to separate.
ce're ous, like wax.                  an'nal ize. to record.
se'ri ous, grave; solemn.             or'a cle, a prophet.
Sir'i us, the dog-star.               au'ri cle, the external ear.

Lesson 201.

The words opposite one another in the lines have nearly the same meaning,
and are called Synonyms.

au'thor ize     com mis'sion    em pow'er
ap par'ent      ob'vi ous       ev'i dent
ac cord'ant     con'so nant     a gree'ing
de port'ment    de mean'or      be hav'ior
di dac'tic      pre cep'tive    in struc'ive
fla gi'tious    a tro'cious     out ra'geous
ad her'ent      par'ti san      fol'low er
in'di gence     pen'u ry        pov'er ty
syc'o phant     par'a site      flat'ter er
har'bin ger     pre cur'sor     fore run'ner

Lesson 202.

to, towards; unto.             vane, a weathercock.
too, also.                     vain, proud; empty.
two, one and one.              vein, a blood-vessel.
trey, three at cards.          waste, to consume; loss.
tray, a shallow vessel.        waist, part of the body.
vale, a valley; a dell.        ware, merchandise.
veil, a cover; a curtain.      wear, to use; to waste.
wait, to tarry; to stay.       way, a road; manner.
weight, heaviness; load.       weigh, to balance.
weighted, balanced.            week, seven days.
wade, to walk in water.        weak, not strong.
weth'er, a sheep.              wood, timber; a forest.
weath'er, state of the air.    would, preterit of will.

Lesson 203.

Words sometimes incorrectly pronounced alike, but which should be
carefully discriminated.

line      loin      creek    crick    sex       sects
loam      loom      pint     point    yon       yawn
lose      loose     sat      sot      least     lest
morn      mourn     phase    face     scrawl    scroll
rout      route     laud     lord     tents     tense
stalk     stock     east     yeast    with      withe
can       ken       dawn     don      close     clothes
blanch    blench    dose     doze     coarse    corse
want      wont      wen      when     white     wight
wax       whacks    alms     arms     moor      more

Lesson 204.

Words nearly alike in Sound, to be carefully distinguished.

as say'      es say'        ep'ic        ep'och
de cease'    dis ease'      bea'con      beck'on
de scent'    dis sent'      coffin       cough'ing
de vice'     de vise'       grist'ly     gris'ly
huz za'      hus sar'       di'vers      di'verse
in tense'    in tents'      cho'ral      cor'al
a loud'      al lowed'      gant'let     gaunt'let
im merse'    a merce'       mu'sic       mu'cic
af fect'     ef fect'       rad'ish      red'dish
e lude'      al lude'       sculp'tor    sculpt'ure
Cas'tile     cast'-steel    hum'ble      um'bel

Lesson 205.

as cent', steepness.             bur'y (ber'ry), to cover with earth.
as sent', agreement.
an'chor, for a ship.             ber'ry, a small fruit.
ank'er, a liquid measure.        can'non, a great gun.
al'ter, to change.               can'on, a rule or law.
al'tar, a place for sacrifice.   ceil'ing, top of a room.
au'ger, an instrument.           seal'ing, as with wax.
au'gur, to foretell.             cel'lar, a lower room.
bur'row, hole for shelter.       sel'ler, one who sells.
bor'ough, a corporate town.      ces'sion, a giving up.
                                 ses'sion, a sitting.
bold'er, more bold.              cous'in, a relation.
bowl'der, a large pebble.        coz'en, to cheat.

Lesson 206.

cen'su al, of the census.            phil'ter, a love-charm.
sen'su al, carnal.                   great'er, larger.
coun'cil, an assembly.               gra'ter, that which grates.
coun'sel, advice.                    ho'ly, sacred; pure.
can'vas, a kind of coarse cloth.     whol'ly, entirely.
can'vass, to discuss.                mar'tin, a bird.
crew'el, worsted yarn.               mar'ten, a kind of weasel.
cru'el, inhuman; savage.             man'ner, form; method.
cyg'net, a young swan.               man'or, district.
sig'net, a seal.                     man'tel, shelf over a fireplace.
chol'er, anger; wrath.               man'tle, a cloak.
col'lar, for the neck.               mar'tial, warlike.
fil'ter, to strain.                  mar'shal, an officer.

Lesson 207.

Words nearly alike in Sound, to be carefully distinguished.

con'so nance      con'so nants      cen'sus        sen'ses
e lys'i an        e lis'ion         Lat'in         lat'ten
e mer'sion        im mer'sion       con'cert       con'sort
for'mer ly        form'ally         cor'nice       Corn'ish
pass'a ble        pas'si ble        hal'low        halo
pe ti'tion        par ti'tion       rel'ic         rel'ict
com'i ty          com mit'tee       or'der         ord'ure
dep ra va'tion    dep ri va'tion    fa'ther        far'ther
ve rac'i ty       vo rac'i ty       plaint'iff     plaint'ive
sta'tion a ry     sta'tion er y     pa'tience      pa'tients

Lesson 208.

Words nearly alike in Sound, to be carefully distinguished.

bile     boil      ad her'ence     ad her'ents
wig      whig      con fi dant'    con'fi dent
God      gaud      at tend'ance    at tend'ants
dance    daunts    ac'ci dence     ac'ci dents
dome     doom      e lic'it        il lic'it
wheel    weal      em'i nence      im'mi nence
lease    lees      e rup'tion      ir rup'tion
sense    since     sal'a ry        cel'er y
dross    draws     bar'ren ness    bar'on ess
whit     wit       proph'e cy      proph'e sy

Lesson 209.

med'al, a stamped coin.        pen'cil, used for writing.
med'dle, to interfere.         pen'sile, hanging.
mi'nor, one under age.         pet'ty, small; little.
mi'ner, a worker in mines.     pet'it', a term in law.
mit'y, full of mites.          pom'ace, ground apples.
might'y, powerful.             pum'ice, a spongy stone.
na'val, of ships.              rig'or, severity; stiffness.
na'vel, the central part.      rig'ger, one who rigs.
cen'sor, one who censures.     suck'er, a kind of fish.
cens'er, a pan for incense.    suc'cor, help; assistance.
pan'nel, a kind of saddle.     sur'plus, excess.
pan'el, a jury roll.           sur'pluce, a clerical dress.

Lesson 210.

pal'let, a small bed.           com'pli ment, regard.
pal'ate, part of the mouth.     com'ple ment, fullness.
pal'ette, an oval board.        coun'sel or, an adviser.
em'i grate, to move out.        coun'cil or, member of a council.
im'mi grate, to move in.
cas'tor, the beaver.            straight'en, to make straight.
cast'er, one who casts.         strait'en, to narrow.
cur'rent, running.              cal'en dar, an almanac.
cur'rant, a small fruit.        cal'en der, a hot press.
cap'i tol, a public edifice.    sut'ler, an army trader.
cap'i tal, principal.           sub'tler, more subtle.

Lesson 211.

Words which require Care in Spelling.

jilt     dol'lar     rip'ple     nat'u ral
gyre     schol'ar    trip'le     gut'tur al
jow1     grap'ple    pop'py      lit'er al
troll    chap'el     cop'y       diz'zi ly
goal     ren'net     sun'ny      bus'i ly
knoll    sen'ate     mon'ey      ver'ti cal
dole     freck'le    glim'mer    ar'ti cle
turf     shek'el     prim'er     du'te ous
verb     wit'ty      tread'le    beau'te ous
pirn     cit'y       ped'dle     fin'i cal
perk     hop'per     cod'dle     pin'na cle
surd     prop'er     mod'el      cyn'ic al

Lesson 212.

Words which require Care in Spelling.

scream    com'et      peb'ble    in ter cede'
screen    vom'it      reb'el     su per sede'
sheave    plum'met    sib'yl     col'o nize
sheet     sum'mit     spin'et    ad ver tise'
shield    ver'y       lin'net    par'a lyze
twirl     mer'ry      cam'el     se'cre cy
churl     bod'y       tram'mel   ec'sta sy
clerk     shod'dy     mam'mal    vac'il late
quirk     mud'dy      sev'en     fas'ci nate
fraud     stud'y      heav'en    co er'cion
broad     guin'ea     par'rot    de ter'sion
awe'd     nin'ny      clar'et    ex er'tion

Lesson 213.

Words which require Care in Spelling.

grief     do'ing        a byss'      hid'e ous
sheaf     stew'ing      a miss'      pre'vi ous
guile,    yeo'man       as sess'     im'pi ous
chyle     chlo'ral      ab'scess     a'que ous
rend      know'ing      sick'le      par'ti cle
wrench    go'ing        nick'el      crit'ic al
dearth    con dole'     tal'ents     dil'i gent
worth     con trol'     bal'ance     el'e gant
mirth     en roll'      si'lence     fal'li ble
earth     dis pel'      com peer'    prel'a cy
spurt     fore tell'    ad here'     jeal'ous y

Lesson 214.

Words which require Care in Spelling.

which     stom'ach    re prieve'    in i'tial
ditich    sau'sage    con ceive'    of fi'cial
feud      word'y      de grade'     es sen'tial
sued      tur'gid     a fraid'      sol sti'tial
prude     ver'ger     pre pare'     a bun'dant
wooed     vir'tue     for bear'     de pend'ent
balk      leop'ard    bar'ter       in veigh'er
shawl     lep'er      tar'tar       be tray'er
guise     fam'ine     mar'tyr       di'a logue
sighs     gam'mon     suc ceed'     dy nam'ics
flies     salm'on     ac cede'      me chan ics

Lesson 215.

Words which require Care in Spelling.

wield     scan'dal    se rene'      an'no tate
weird     han'dle     un clean'     an'o dyne
swale     clam'or     be tween'     col on nade'
swain     gram'mar    ma rine'      ser e nade'
storm     ham'mer     com plete'    dom i neer'
swarm     palm'er     de feat'      bel ve dere'
scythe    sa'tyr      de ceit'      pen'ni less
writhe    trai'tor    co erce'      mon'ey less
sieve     wait'er     dis burse'    joc'u lar
give      cra'ter     dis perse'    jock'ey ing

Lesson 216.

Words which require Care in Spelling.

skein    val'id      kir'tle      pol'i cy
slain    sal'ad      tur'tle      leg'a cy
crane    mal'let     fer'tile     cur'ti lage
sword    val'et      myr'tle      syn'a gogue
boast    breez'y     wid'geon     cod'i cil
ghost    greasy      pig'eon      dom'i cile
queer    gar'den     mal'ice      ver'sa tile
brief    par'don     pal'ace      hyp'o crite
spoke    e'vil       tor'toise    hip'po drome
croak    ea'gle      mor'tise     scen'er y
self     pole'ax     sel'vage     ple'na ry
sylph    poult'ry    por'ridge    dean'er y

Lesson 217.

Words which require Care in Spelling.

zinc      col'lege      con fer'      u ten'sil
brink     knowl'edge    a stir'       pre hen'sile
fought    leath'er      oc cur'       fa tigu'ing
caught    teth'er       ef face'      be lea'guer
wrought   cau'cus       e rase'       si li'ceous
fuse      mawk'ish      chas tise'    vex a'tious
news      au'thor       bap tize'     fa ce'tious
views     awn'ing       a chieve'     sus pi'cion
choose    ar'id         per ceive'    po si'tion
wooes     heir'ship     be reave'     in cis'ion
ooze      air'y         re nown'      de ris'ion
whose     car'ry        re nounce'    e di'tion

Lesson 218.

Words which require Care in Spelling.

earl      ran'cor      in vade'     di ur'nal
knurl     can'ker      up braid'    hi ber'nal
shirk     flux'ion     ur bane'     at tor'ney
jerk      suc'tion     or dain'     de ter'gent
pith      hos'pice     a dieu'      con ta'gion
myth      au'spice     im brue'     her ba'ceous
growth    bot'tom      pre cede'    frol'ic some
loath     au'tumn      pro ceed'    frol'ick ing
loathe    trunn'ion    re deem'     de pres'sion
clothe    bun'ion      ex treme'    dis cre'tion

Lesson 219.

Words which require Care in Spelling.

risk      coup'le      wry'ness    ve'hi cle
wrist     cup'board    ri'ot       typ'ic al
shred     cho'rus      ly'rist     ob'sta cle
dread     po'rous      li'vre      pro'to col
scheme    hill'y       ten'on      mys'tic al
chief     lil'y        pen'non     mis'ti ness
siege     san'dal      ros'trum    rec're ant
seat      can'dle      phan'tom    reck'on er
seethe    nu'tant      fan'ion     wretch'ed ly
keyed     neu'ter      ver'sion    of'fi cer
tweed     nui'sance    ter'tian    oph'i cleide

Lesson 220.

Words containing silent Letters.

thought    hand'some     re doubt'     hec'a tomb
wreathe    vict'uals     re scind'     sci'o list
wreath     scis'sors     gneis'sose    co a lesce'
rhomb      schot'tish    be nign'      ap'a thegm
gnat       g'no'mon      cam paign'    di'a phragm
rogue'     for'eign      ar raign'     psy'chic al
gnaw       dough'ty      op pugn'      sac'cha rine
gnash      haugh'ty      re sign'      rheu mat'ic
gnarl      chron'ic      de light'     rhap'so dy
gnome      daugh'ter     ex pugn'      rhet'o ric
phlegm     ghast'ly      af fright'    ca tarrh'al

Lesson 221.

Silent Letters.

taught     hon'est       ca tarrh'    pneu mat'ics
source     gher'kin      con demn'    psal'ter y
brought    chalk'y       de mesne'    pneu mo'ni a
realm      isl'and       de pot'      rhi noc'e ros
vault      naph'tha      burgh'er     ren'dez vous
knob       gris'tle      calk'er      jeop'ard y
qualm      thros'tle,    rhom'boid    hem'or rhage
wroth      chris'ten     tme'sis      rhiz'o pod
fraugt     jeop'ard      ptis'an      ptar'mi gan
knock      wrig'gle,     psy'chic     pseu'do nym
knife      bris'tle      rhym'er      psalm'ist ry

Lesson 222.

Words liable to be misspelled.

tres'tle       glu'ey ness       collect'i ble'
pa paw'        crys'tal line     e ras'a ble
gey'ser        chrys'a lis       ac cor'di on
gaug'ing       lach'ry mose      sac er do'tal
co log'ne      ker'o sene'       ef fer ves'cence
qua drille'    glyc'er ine       tran quil'li ty
sky'ey         ar'go naut        com mit'ti ble
sor'ghum       fore'bod'ing      cor us ca'tion
sur vey'       ex cheq'uer       mac a ro'ni
starve'ling    sib'yl line       pic'ca lil li
pro'gramme     sib'i lant        fil'i bus ter

Lesson 223.

Words liable to be misspelled.

fleam     ey'ing       gen e al'o gy
glyph     wee'vil      bac ca lau're ate
liege     lac'quer     ab o rig'i nes
cuish     du et'       ar chae ol'o gy
taunt     quar tet'    as a fet'i da
drap      phe'nix      er y sip'e las
fleche    rogu'ish     ho mo ge'ne ous
frere     whey'ey      hy per crit'i cism
jardes    ledg'er      ich thy ol'o gy
crypt     sach'el      ig'nis-fat u us
sou       lar'ynx      lack a dai'si cal

Lesson 224.

Words frequently mispronounced.

for'tress     dan'druff     prod'uce       con cise'
car'bine      fran'chise    com'bat        dis own'
chlo'ride     hom'age       thith'er       dis dain'
cof'fee       rhu'barb      o'nyx          di vulge'
com'rade      cov'ert       dis arm'       ex tol'
sau'cer       ma'tron       jo cose'       for bade'
dec'ade       mon'ad        bour geois'    suf fuse'
quin'sy       pa'tron       Cay enne'      pos sess'
gal'lows      lith'arge     con tour'      fare well'
mis'le        par'tridge    di verge'      be neath'
fau'cet       wa'ter        di vert'       re source'

Lesson 225
Words frequently mispronounced.

di'a mond        par'a dise       cin cho'nit
chan de lier'    a'li as          in vei'gle
gran'a ry        par'a chute      stra te'gic
cou'ri er        pot-pour ri'     ex cur'sion
eg'lan tine      hy'gi ene        a cous'tics
sor'cer y        con'fis cate     an cho'vy
ex'tir pate      psal'mo dy       pa la'ver
cor'di al        guard'i an       Cau ca'sian
cor'ri dor       com'mu nism      ap par'el
gas'e ous        sub al'tern      so pra'no
doc'i ble        cou ra'geous     im mor telle'

Lesson 226.

Words liable to be misspelled.

som'er sault     how'itz er      bar'y tone
stim'u lus       syc'a more      bil'lings gate
sil'hou ette     a bridg'ment    bry'o ny
pa vil'ion       ad'di ble       cen'ti ped
quin till'ion    aes thet'ic     cim'e ter
ci vil'ian       al'che my       col'an der
cen'ti gram      ar'que buse     cop'i er
ma nil'la        ai'lan'tus      nas tur'tium
eu'pho ny        as bes'tus      chic'o ry
pros'e lyte      as cend'ant     hei'nous ness
pu'tre fy        syz'y gy        deb o nair'
pro bos'cis      bar'be cue      por'phy ry

Lesson 227.

Words liable to be misspelled.

bal'dric      mal fea'sance     cal lig'ra phy
ban'yan       sur'cin gle       dys'en ter y
bau'ble       pleu'ri sy        rem i nis'cence
la pel'       por'ce lain       hy poc'ri sy
ker'chief     os'cil late       hy pot'e nuse
gnos'tic      del'e ble         syn ec'do che
but'-end      lau'da num        si de're al
cam'phene     crys'tal lize     ad sci ti'tious
catch'up      pol'y glot        am au ro'sis
cess'-pool    guer ril'la       lill i pu'tian
ci gar'       quin tes'sence    lil i a'ceos

Lesson 228.

Words liable to be misspelled.

clew      coif'fure      con fec'tion er y
clinch    fledge'ling    klep to ma'ni a
sleuth    af'ghan        cor nu co'pi a
blonde    che nille'     cot y led'o nous
glebe     che mise'      di u tur'ni ty
gyves     chas'seur      terp sich o re'an
guy       chev'ron       me temp sy cho'sis
crutch    cor'ymb        me te or'o lite
touch     e leve'        per ip neu'mo ny
kraal     hogs'head      phar ma co poe'ia
chintz    meer'scham     phar ma ceu'tic al
ceirge    buhr'-stone    sac cha rif'er ous

Lesson 229.

Words liable to be misspelled or mispronounced.

el e phan ti'a sis        ir re cog'ni za ble
par a di si'ac al         gu ber na to'ri al
par a pher na'li a        el ee mos'y na ry
ver i si mil'i tude       pol y cot y le'don
tin tin nab u la'tion     het er o ge'ne ous
su per e rog'a tive       hi e ro glyph'ic al
pu sil la nim'i ty        hyp o chon dri'ac al
phan tas ma go'ri a       his to ri og'ra pher
ob'li ga to ri ly         in dis'so lu ble'ness
id i o syn'cra sy         in dis'pu ta ble'ness
ir re me'di a ble'        er y si pel'a tous
ip e cac u an'ha          ir ref'ra ga ble ness

Lesson 230.

Words of irregular Pronunciation.

of (ov)          tough (tuf)        trough (trawf)
sice (siz)       hough (hok)        bus'y (biz'y)
tige (tej)       fiord (fyord)      ma'ny (men'y)
says (sez)       bouy (bwoy)        pret'ty (prit'ty)
said (sed)       cough (kawf)       wom'en (wim'en)
loir (lwar)      mont (mong)        cann on' (kan yun')
a'ny (en'y)      rouge (roozh)      sa lon' (sa long')
newt (nut)       mauve (mov)        chap'eau (shap'o)
beaux (boz)      ruche (roosh)      cha teau' (sha to')
once (wuns)      Czech (tchek)      cro quet (kro ka')
i'ron (i'urn)    caf'e (kaf 'a)     men age' (-azh')

Lesson 231.

Words of irregular Pronunciation.

pa tois' (pat wa')      bou quet' (boo ka')
bi jou (be zhoo')       breech'es (brich'ez)
phthis'ic (tiz'ik)      por'poise (por'pus)
bu'reau (bu'ro)         a gain' (a gen')
En'glish (ing'glish)    dis cern' (diz zern')
flam'beau (flam'bo)     e nough' (e nuf')
haut'boy (ho'boy)       en nui' (ong nwe')
hic'cough (hik'kup)     ron deau' (ron do')
right'eous (ri'chus)    vign ette' (vin yet')
cham'ois (sham'my)      squir'rel (or skwur'rel)
bou'doir (boo'dwor)     suf fice' (suf fiz')
ser'geant (sar'jent)    cor'tege (kor'tazh)

Lesson 232.

Words of irregular Pronunciation.

sough (suf)      men ag'e rie (men azh'e ry)
myrrh (mer)      ci ce ro'ne (che che- or sis'e-)
suave (swav)     chev'aux-de-frise (shev'o de frez)
shew (sho)       pap'ier-ma che (pap'ya ma sha)
strew (stru)     de col le te' (da kol le ta')
bouffe (boof)    tic-dou lou reux' (tik doo lo roo')
nom (nong)       ver mi cel'li (-chel'li or -sel'li)
clough (kluf)    su per fi'cies (su per fish'ez)
nee (na)         ra tion a'le (rash un a'le)
ghat (gawt)      ha bit u e (a bit n a')
creux (kru)      hal le lu jah (hal le lu'ya)

Lesson 233.

Words of irregular Pronunciation.

bus'i ness (biz'nes)      roq'ue laure (rok'e lor)
colo nel (kur'nel)        sac'ri fice (sak'ri fiz)
hau teur' (ho tur')       chef-d'oeuvre' (sha doovr')
bdell'ium (del'yum)       es cri toire' (es kri twor')
cui rass' (kwe ras')      belles-let'tres (bel let'ter)
gauch rie' (gosh re')     res tau rant' (res to rang')
trous seau' (troo so')    mign on ette' (min yon et')
gun'wale (gun'nel)        fuch'si a (fook'si a)
dah'lia (dal'ya)          re veil'le (re val'ya)
soi ree' (swa ra')        pap e terie' (pap a tre')
sap'phire' (saf'ir)       sur veil'lance' (-val'yans)
cog'nac (kon'yak)         Ple'ia des (ple'ya dez)

Lesson 234.

Words of irregular Pronunciation.

nes'cience (nesh'ens)        re cher che' (ruh sher sha')
ba rege' (ba razh')          so bri quet' (so bre ka')
diph'thong (dif-)            aid'-de-camp (ad'de kong)
sol'dier (sol'jer)           mag gio're (mad jo'ra)
fort'une' (fort'yun)         made moi selle' (-mwa zel')
neph'ew (nef'yu)             fleur-de-lis' (flur de le')
let'tuce (let'tis)           deb au chee' (deb o she')
en tree' (ong tra')          res er voir' (rez er vwor')
re gime' (ra zhem')          eis tedd'fod (is teth'fod)
scru toire' (skru twor')     pro te ge' (pro ta zha')
phy sique' (fe zek')         de noue'ment (-noo'mong)

Lesson 235.

Words of irregular Pronunciation.

cri tique' (kri tek')       en core' (ong kor')
pen chant' (pong shong')    se ance' (sa ongs')
chig'non (shen'yong)        mor ceau' (mor so')
cha let' (sha la')          dan seuse' (dong zurz')
e lan' (a lang')            sang-froid' (song frwa')
mem'oir (mem'wor)           qui vive (ke vev)
mon sieur' (mo ser')        faux pas' (fo pa')
blanc-mange' (blo-monj')    bon ton (bong tong)
a mende' (a mongd')         bon'mot (bong'mo)
cen time' (son tem')        mil lier' (mi lya')
biv'ouac (biv'wak)          sa vant' (sa vong')

Lesson 236.

Names of Men.

Charles    Ad'am        Har'old     A'sa
Frank      Al'bert      Hen'ry      Bas'il
George     An'drew      Ho'mer      Ca'leb
Hugh       Ar'thur      I'saac      Ce'phas
James      Clar'ence    Ja'cob      Cy'rus
Job        Da'vid       Jo'seph     Eu'gene
John       Ed'ward      Lew'is      Fe'lix
Luke       Ed'win       No'ah       Ja'bez
Mark       Ez'ra        Pat'rick    Leon'ard
Saul       Fran'cis     Pe'ter      Mo'ses
Ralph      Gil'bert     Will'iam    Rob'ert

Lesson 237.

Names of Men.

Her'bert     Ab'sa lom         Al ex an'der
Hi'ram       An'tho ny         An dro ni'cus
Hor'ace      Ben'ja min        Bar thol'o mew
Ja'son       E li'jah          Eb en e'zer
Jes'se       Fer'di nand       Em man'u el
Law'rence    Fred'er ick       E ze'ki el
Le'vi        I sa'iah (-ya)    Jer e mi'ah
Lu'ther      Le an'der         Le on'i das
Os'car       Ol'i ver          Na po'le on
Phil'ip      Sam'u el          The oph'i lus
Rich'ard     Tim'o thy         Zech a ri'ah

Lesson 238.

Names of Women.

Anne       A'da       Es'ther      Lo'is
Blanche    Ag'nes     Eu'nice      Lu'cy
Eve        Al'ice     E'va         Ma'bel
Grace      An'na      Fan'ny       Mar'tha
Jane       Ber'tha    Flo'ra       Ma'ry
Jean       Clar'a     Fran'ces     My'ra
Kate       Co'ra      Ger'trude    Nan'cy
Maud       E'dith     Hel'en       Ra'chel
May        Ed'na      Han'nah      Rho'da
Pearl      El'la      I'da         Sa'rah
Ruth       Em'ma      Lau'ra       Su'san

Lesson 239.

Names of Women.

A'my          Ad'e line       A me'li a
Bet'sey       A man'da        Ar a bel'la
Bridg'et      Bar'ba ra       Dor o the'a
Char'lotte    Be'a trice      E liz'a beth
Chlo'e        Deb'o rah       E van'ge line
Dor'cas       E li'za         Fe lic'i a
Di'nah        Em'i ly         Fred er i'ca
El'len        Mar'ga ret      Ge'or gi an'a
Flor'ence     Pris cil'la     Is a bel'la
Ja net'       Re bec'ca       La vin'i a
Ro'sa         Su san'na       Vic to'ri a

Lesson 240.

Abbreviations used in Writing and Printing.

A. or Am., Answer.                 Bro., Brother.
A. B., Bachelor of Arts.           C. H., Court-House.
A. C., or B. C., Before Christ.    Co., Company; County.
                                   C. O. D., Collect on delivery.
A. D., In the year of our Lord.
A. M., Master of Arts; Before      Cr., Credit.
noon; In the year of the world.    D. D., Doctor of Divinity.
                                   Do., or ditto, The same.
Bart., Baronet.                    Dr., Doctor; Debtor.
Bbl., Barrel; barrels.             e. g. (exempli gratia), For example.
B. L., Bachelor of Laws.

Lesson 241.

Abbreviations used in Writing and Printing.

Ed., Editor; Edition.                  H. B. M., Her Britannic Majesty.
Eng., England; English.
Esq., Esquire.                         Hhd., Hogshead.
Etc. (et cetera), And so forth.        H.R., House of Representatives.
Fri., Friday.
Fahr., Fahrenheit.                     Ibid., In the same place.
F.R.S., Fellow of the Royal Society.   Id.(idem), The same.
                                       i. e. (id est), That is.
Gen., General; Genesis.                Jas., James.
Gov., Governor.                        Jun. or Jr., Junior.
G.P.O., General Post-Office.           Lat., Latitude.
                                       Lb., Pound; pounds.

Lesson 242.

Abbreviations used in Writing and Printing.

LL. D., Doctor of Laws.          Mrs., Mistress.
Long., Longitude.                N., North.
L. S., Place of the Seal.        N. A., North America.
M., Monsieur.                    MS., Manuscript.
M. C., Member of Congress.       No., Number.
Mon., Monday.                    N. B. (nota bene), Take notice.
M. D., Doctor of Medicine.       pp., Pages.
Messrs., Gentlemen.              Per., By the.
M. P., Member of Parliament.     P. M., Postmaster; Afternoon.
                                 P.O., Post-Office.
Mr., Mister; Master.             Prof, Professor.

Lesson 243.

Abbreviations used in Writing and Printing.

P. S., Postscript.            St., Saint; Street.
Pub. Doc., Public Document.   Sun., Sunday.
                              Supt., Superintendent.
Pxt., He painted it.          Thurs., Thursday.
Sc., He engraved it.          Tues., Tuesday.
Q. M., Quartermaster.         V., vid., or vide, See.
Rec'd., Received.             Viz.(videlicet), Namely.
Rev., Reverend.               Vol., Volume.
S., Shilling; South.          Vs. (versus), Against.
S. A., South America.         Wed., Wednesday.
Sat., Saturday.               W.I., West Indies.
Sen., Senior; Senator.        Wt., Weight.

Lesson 244.

Abbreviations of the States, with their Pronunciation.

Ala., Al a ba'ma.               Ia., I'o wa.
Ark., Ar'kan sas.               Kan., Kan'sas.
Cal., Cal i for'ni a.           Ky., Ken tuck'y.
Col. or Colo., Col o ra'do.     Lou. or La., Lou i si a'na.
Conn. or Ct., Con nect'i cut    Mass., Mas sa chu'setts.
                                Md., Ma'ry land.
Del., Del'a ware.               Me., Maine.
Flor. or Fla., Flor'i da.       Mich., Mich'i gan.
Geo. or Ga., Geor'gi a.         Minn., Min ne so'ta.
Ill., Il li nois'.              Miss., Mis sis sip'pi.
Ind., In di an'a.               Mo., Mis sou'ri.

Lesson 245.

Abbreviations of the States, with their Pronunciation.

Neb., Ne bras'ka.                 R. I., Rhode Is1'and.
N. C., North Car o li'na.         S. C., South Car o li'na.
N. H., New Hamp'shire             Tenn., Ten nes see'.
                                  Tex., Tex'as.
N. J., New Jer'sey.               Uh., U'tah (yoo'ta).
Nev., Ne va'da.                   U.S.A., U nit'ed States of A mer'i ca.
N. Y., New York.
Or., Or'e gon.                    Va., Vir gin'i a.
O., O hi'o.                       Vt., Ver mont'.
Pa. or Penn., Penn syl va'ni a.   Wis., Wis con'sin.
                                  W Va., West Vir gin'i a.

Lesson 246.

American and Foreign Geographical Names.

Al'ba ny         Ba'den               Al le ghe'ny
Ayr (ar)         Bal'ti more          A'si a (a'shi a)
Aulne (on)       Bor deaux' (-do')    Cin cin na'ti
Bos'ton          Chi ca'go            Eu phra'tes
Chey enne'       Cai'ro               Ha wai'i
Main             Cey'lon'             Pal'es tine
Mo bile'         I'ser (e'zer)        Phil a del'phi a
Pau (po)         Mad rid'             Pyr'e nees
Saone            Mil wau'kee          Szeg ed in'
Seine            Mon ta'na            Vi en'na
Thames (temz)    New Or'leans         Wash'ing ton

Lesson 247.

Other Geographical Names of frequent Mispronunciation.

Guanaxuato (gwa na hwa'to)       Aube (ob)
Poughkeepsie (po kip'si)         Caen (kon)
Worcester (woos'ter)             Dieppe (dyep)
Youghiogheny (yoh'ho ga'ni)      Foix (fwa)
Newfoundland (nu'fund land)      Joux (zhoo)
Chuquisaca (choo ke sa'ka)       Lisle (lel)
Guatemala (ga te ma'la)          Moux (moo)
Winnipiseogee (-pis sok'ki)      Oude (owd)
Venezuela (ven e zwe'la)         Sioux (soo)
Altamaha (al ta ma ha')          Thau (to)
Chautauqua (sha ta'kwa)          Y (i)

Lesson 248.


A Comma [, ] denotes the slightest degree of separation between the
elements of a sentence.

A Semicolon [; ] denotes a degree of separation somewhat greater than that
indicated by a comma.

A Colon [:] marks a still greater degree of separation than a semicolon.

A Period [.] usually indicates the close of a sentence.

The Interrogation Point [?] is used at the end of a question.

The Exclamation Point [!] denotes astonishment or other emotion.

A Hyphen [ - ] is used to join words or syllables.

A Dash [-] marks a sudden break or stop in a sentence.

A Parenthesis [( )] includes words which might be left out without
injuring the sense.

Brackets [ ] inclose words, etc., intended to explain or rectify what
precedes or follows.

An Apostrophe ['] indicates the omission of one or more letters; or
denotes the possessive case.

Quotation Marks [" "] show that the passage included, is taken from some
other author.


A Capital should begin: (1) the first word of every sentence, and of every
line of poetry; (2) proper names of persons, places, months, and days; (3)
all appellations of the Deity; (4) titles of honor; (5) names of things
personified; (6) names denoting the race or nation of individuals; (7)
adjectives derived from proper names; (8) the first word of a direct
quotation or speech; (9) the principal words in the titles of books; (10)
words denoting important events, the chief subject of a composition, etc.
(11) The pronoun I and the interjection O are always capitals.

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