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Title: Compilation of the Messages and Papers of the Presidents - William McKinley, Messages, Proclamations, and Executive Orders - Relating to the Spanish-American War
Author: McKinley, William, 1843-1901
Language: English
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A COMPILATION OF THE MESSAGES AND PAPERS OF THE PRESIDENTS

BY JAMES D. RICHARDSON

A REPRESENTATIVE FROM THE STATE OF TENNESSEE



PUBLISHED BY AUTHORITY OF CONGRESS

1902



       *       *       *       *       *

William McKinley

Messages, Proclamations, and Executive Orders Relating to the
Spanish-American War

       *       *       *       *       *



William McKinley

William McKinley, the twenty-fifth President of the United States, was
born in Niles, Trumbull County, Ohio, January 29, 1843. His ancestors on
the paternal side, who were Scotch-Irish, came from Scotland and located
in Pennsylvania. His great-grandfather, David McKinley, after serving in
the Revolution, resided in Pennsylvania until 1814, when he went to
Ohio, where he died in 1840, at the age of 85. The grandmother of the
President, Mary Rose, came from a Puritan family that fled from England
to Holland and emigrated to Pennsylvania with William Penn. The father
of the President, William McKinley, sr., was born in Pine Township,
Mercer County, Pa., in 1807, and married Nancy Campbell Allison, of
Columbiana County, Ohio, in 1829. Both the grandfather and father of the
President were iron manufacturers. His father was a devout Methodist,
a stanch Whig and Republican, and an ardent advocate of a protective
tariff. He died during his son's first term as governor of Ohio, in
November, 1892, at the age of 85. The mother of the President passed
away at Canton, Ohio, in December, 1897, at the advanced age of 89.
William McKinley was educated in the public schools of Niles, Union
Seminary, at Poland, Ohio, and Allegheny College, at Meadville, Pa.
Before attaining his majority taught in the public schools. At the
age of 16 became a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church. At the
beginning of hostilities in the War between the States Mr. McKinley,
who was a clerk in the Poland post-office, volunteered his services,
and on June 11, 1861, was enlisted as a private in the Twenty-third Ohio
Volunteer Infantry. Participated in all the early engagements in West
Virginia, and in the winter's camp at Fayetteville received his first
promotion, commissary-sergeant, on April 15, 1862. In recognition of his
services at Antietam, Sergeant McKinley was made second lieutenant, his
commission dating from September 24, 1862, and on February 7, 1863,
while at Camp Piatt, he was again promoted, receiving the rank of first
lieutenant. In the retreat near Lynchburg, Va., his regiment marched 180
miles, fighting nearly all the time, with scarcely any rest or food.
Lieutenant McKinley conducted himself with gallantry, and at Winchester
won additional honors. The Thirteenth West Virginia Regiment failed to
retire when the rest of Hayes's brigade fell back, and, being in great
danger of capture, the young lieutenant was directed to go and bring
it away, which he did in safety, after riding through a heavy fire.
On July 25, 1864, at the age of 21, McKinley was promoted to the rank of
captain. The brigade continued its fighting up and down the Shenandoah
Valley. At Berryville, Va., September 3, 1864, Captain McKinley's horse
was shot from under him. Served successively on the staffs of Generals
R.B. Hayes, George Crook, and Winfield S. Hancock, and on March 14,
1865, was brevetted major of United States Volunteers by President
Lincoln for gallantry in the battles of Opequan, Cedar Creek, and
Fishers Hill. Was detailed as acting assistant adjutant-general of the
First Division, First Army Corps, on the staff of General Samuel S.
Carroll. At the close of the war was urged to remain in the Army, but,
deferring to the judgment of his father, was mustered out of the service
July 26, 1865, and returned to Poland. At once began the study of law
under Glidden & Wilson, of Youngstown, Ohio, and later attended the
law school in Albany, N.Y. Was admitted to the bar in March, 1867, at
Warren, Ohio, and the same year removed to Canton, Ohio, which has since
been his home. In 1867 his first political speeches were made in favor
of negro suffrage. In 1869 was elected prosecuting attorney of Stark
County, and served one term, being defeated two years later for the same
office. Mr. McKinley took an active interest in State politics, and made
speeches in many of the campaigns. On January 25, 1871, married Miss
Ida Saxton. Two daughters were born to them, both of whom died in
early childhood. In 1876 was elected a member of the National House of
Representatives, and for fourteen years represented the Congressional
district of which his county was a part, except for a portion of his
fourth term, when he was unseated late in the first session. While in
Congress served on the Committees on the Judiciary, Revision of the
Laws, Expenditures in the Post-Office Department, Rules, and Ways and
Means. As chairman of the last-named committee in the Fifty-first
Congress, reported the tariff law of 1890. At the beginning of this
Congress was defeated in the caucus of his party for the Speakership of
the House. In the meantime, his district having been materially changed,
he was defeated for reelection to Congress in November, 1890, though he
largely reduced the usual majority against his party in the counties of
which the new district was constituted. In 1891 was elected governor of
Ohio by a plurality of 21,500, and in 1893 was reelected by a plurality
of 80,995. In 1884 was a delegate at large to the Republican national
convention, and supported James G. Blaine for President; was a member
of the committee on resolutions, and presented the platform to the
convention. Also attended the convention of his party in 1888 as a
delegate at large from Ohio, supporting John Sherman for President,
and as chairman of the committee on resolutions again reported the
platform. In 1892 was again a delegate at large from Ohio, and
supported the renomination of Benjamin Harrison, and served as chairman
of the convention. At that convention 182 votes were cast for him
for President, although he had persistently refused to have his name
considered. On June 18, 1896, was nominated for President by the
national convention of his party at St. Louis, receiving on the first
ballot 661-1/2 out of a total of 922 votes. Was chosen President at the
ensuing November election by a plurality in the popular vote of over
600,000, and received 271 electoral votes, against 176 for William J.
Bryan, of Nebraska.



SPECIAL MESSAGE.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _May 17, 1897_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States:_

Official information from our consuls in Cuba establishes the fact that
a large number of American citizens in the island are in a state of
destitution, suffering for want of food and medicines. This applies
particularly to the rural districts of the central and eastern parts.

The agricultural classes have been forced from their farms into
the nearest towns, where they are without work or money. The local
authorities of the several towns, however kindly disposed, are unable to
relieve the needs of their own people and are altogether powerless to
help our citizens.

The latest report of Consul-General Lee estimates six to eight hundred
Americans are without means of support. I have assured him that
provision would be made at once to relieve them. To that end I recommend
that Congress make an appropriation of not less than $50,000, to be
immediately available, for use under the direction of the Secretary of
State.

It is desirable that a part of the sum which may be appropriated by
Congress should, in the discretion of the Secretary of State, also be
used for the transportation of American citizens who, desiring to return
to the United States, are without means to do so.

WILLIAM McKINLEY.



FIRST ANNUAL MESSAGE.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _December 6, 1897_.

       *       *       *       *       *

The most important problem with which this Government is now called upon
to deal pertaining to its foreign relations concerns its duty toward
Spain and the Cuban insurrection. Problems and conditions more or less
in common with those now existing have confronted this Government at
various times in the past. The story of Cuba for many years has been one
of unrest, growing discontent, an effort toward a larger enjoyment of
liberty and self-control, of organized resistance to the mother country,
of depression after distress and warfare, and of ineffectual settlement
to be followed by renewed revolt. For no enduring period since the
enfranchisement of the continental possessions of Spain in the Western
Continent has the condition of Cuba or the policy of Spain toward Cuba
not caused concern to the United States.

The prospect from time to time that the weakness of Spain's hold upon
the island and the political vicissitudes and embarrassments of the home
Government might lead to the transfer of Cuba to a continental power
called forth between 1823 and 1860 various emphatic declarations of
the policy of the United States to permit no disturbance of Cuba's
connection with Spain unless in the direction of independence or
acquisition by us through purchase, nor has there been any change of
this declared policy since upon the part of the Government.

The revolution which began in 1868 lasted for ten years despite the
strenuous efforts of the successive peninsular governments to suppress
it. Then as now the Government of the United States testified its grave
concern and offered its aid to put an end to bloodshed in Cuba. The
overtures made by General Grant were refused and the war dragged on,
entailing great loss of life and treasure and increased injury to
American interests, besides throwing enhanced burdens of neutrality upon
this Government. In 1878 peace was brought about by the truce of Zanjon,
obtained by negotiations between the Spanish commander, Martinez de
Campos, and the insurgent leaders.

The present insurrection broke out in February, 1895. It is not
my purpose at this time to recall its remarkable increase or to
characterize its tenacious resistance against the enormous forces massed
against it by Spain. The revolt and the efforts to subdue it carried
destruction to every quarter of the island, developing wide proportions
and defying the efforts of Spain for its suppression. The civilized code
of war has been disregarded, no less so by the Spaniards than by the
Cubans.

The existing conditions can not but fill this Government and the
American people with the gravest apprehension. There is no desire on the
part of our people to profit by the misfortunes of Spain. We have only
the desire to see the Cubans prosperous and contented, enjoying that
measure of self-control which is the inalienable right of man, protected
in their right to reap the benefit of the exhaustless treasures of their
country.

The offer made by my predecessor in April, 1896, tendering the friendly
offices of this Government, failed. Any mediation on our part was not
accepted. In brief, the answer read: "There is no effectual way to
pacify Cuba unless it begins with the actual submission of the rebels
to the mother country." Then only could Spain act in the promised
direction, of her own motion and after her own plans.

The cruel policy of concentration was initiated February 16, 1896. The
productive districts controlled by the Spanish armies were depopulated.
The agricultural inhabitants were herded in and about the garrison
towns, their lands laid waste and their dwellings destroyed. This policy
the late cabinet of Spain justified as a necessary measure of war and as
a means of cutting off supplies from the insurgents. It has utterly
failed as a war measure. It was not civilized warfare. It was
extermination.

Against this abuse of the rights of war I have felt constrained on
repeated occasions to enter the firm and earnest protest of this
Government. There was much of public condemnation of the treatment of
American citizens by alleged illegal arrests and long imprisonment
awaiting trial or pending protracted judicial proceedings. I felt it my
first duty to make instant demand for the release or speedy trial of all
American citizens under arrest. Before the change of the Spanish cabinet
in October last twenty-two prisoners, citizens of the United States, had
been given their freedom.

For the relief of our own citizens suffering because of the conflict
the aid of Congress was sought in a special message,[1] and under
the appropriation of May 24, 1897,[2] effective aid has been given to
American citizens in Cuba, many of them at their own request having been
returned to the United States.

The instructions given to our new minister to Spain before his departure
for his post directed him to impress upon that Government the sincere
wish of the United States to lend its aid toward the ending of the war
in Cuba by reaching a peaceful and lasting result, just and honorable
alike to Spain and to the Cuban people. These instructions recited the
character and duration of the contest, the widespread losses it entails,
the burdens and restraints it imposes upon us, with constant disturbance
of national interests, and the injury resulting from an indefinite
continuance of this state of things. It was stated that at this juncture
our Government was constrained to seriously inquire if the time was not
ripe when Spain of her own volition, moved by her own interests and
every sentiment of humanity, should put a stop to this destructive war
and make proposals of settlement honorable to herself and just to her
Cuban colony. It was urged that as a neighboring nation, with large
interests in Cuba, we could be required to wait only a reasonable time
for the mother country to establish its authority and restore peace and
order within the borders of the island; that we could not contemplate an
indefinite period for the accomplishment of this result.

No solution was proposed to which the slightest idea of humiliation to
Spain could attach, and, indeed, precise proposals were withheld to
avoid embarrassment to that Government. All that was asked or expected
was that some safe way might be speedily provided and permanent peace
restored. It so chanced that the consideration of this offer, addressed
to the same Spanish administration which had declined the tenders of
my predecessor, and which for more than two years had poured men and
treasure into Cuba in the fruitless effort to suppress the revolt, fell
to others. Between the departure of General Woodford, the new envoy,
and his arrival in Spain the statesman who had shaped the policy of his
country fell by the hand of an assassin, and although the cabinet of the
late premier still held office and received from our envoy the proposals
he bore, that cabinet gave place within a few days thereafter to a new
administration, under the leadership of Sagasta.

The reply to our note was received on the 23d day of October. It is in
the direction of a better understanding. It appreciates the friendly
purposes of this Government. It admits that our country is deeply
affected by the war in Cuba and that its desires for peace are just.
It declares that the present Spanish government is bound by every
consideration to a change of policy that should satisfy the United
States and pacify Cuba within a reasonable time. To this end Spain has
decided to put into effect the political reforms heretofore advocated by
the present premier, without halting for any consideration in the path
which in its judgment leads to peace. The military operations, it is
said, will continue, but will be humane and conducted with all regard
for private rights, being accompanied by political action leading to
the autonomy of Cuba while guarding Spanish sovereignty. This, it is
claimed, will result in investing Cuba with a distinct personality, the
island to be governed by an executive and by a local council or chamber,
reserving to Spain the control of the foreign relations, the army and
navy, and the judicial administration. To accomplish this the present
government proposes to modify existing legislation by decree, leaving
the Spanish Cortes, with the aid of Cuban senators and deputies, to
solve the economic problem and properly distribute the existing debt.

In the absence of a declaration of the measures that this Government
proposes to take in carrying out its proffer of good offices, it
suggests that Spain be left free to conduct military operations and
grant political reforms, while the United States for its part shall
enforce its neutral obligations and cut off the assistance which it is
asserted the insurgents receive from this country. The supposition of an
indefinite prolongation of the war is denied. It is asserted that the
western provinces are already well-nigh reclaimed, that the planting of
cane and tobacco therein has been resumed, and that by force of arms and
new and ample reforms very early and complete pacification is hoped for.

The immediate amelioration of existing conditions under the new
administration of Cuban affairs is predicted, and therewithal the
disturbance and all occasion for any change of attitude on the part
of the United States. Discussion of the question of the international
duties and responsibilities of the United States as Spain understands
them is presented, with an apparent disposition to charge us with
failure in this regard. This charge is without any basis in fact. It
could not have been made if Spain had been cognizant of the constant
efforts this Government has made, at the cost of millions and by the
employment of the administrative machinery of the nation at command,
to perform its full duty according to the law of nations. That it has
successfully prevented the departure of a single military expedition or
armed vessel from our shores in violation of our laws would seem to be
a sufficient answer. But of this aspect of the Spanish note it is not
necessary to speak further now. Firm in the conviction of a wholly
performed obligation, due response to this charge has been made in
diplomatic course.

Throughout all these horrors and dangers to our own peace this
Government has never in any way abrogated its sovereign prerogative of
reserving to itself the determination of its policy and course according
to its own high sense of right and in consonance with the dearest
interests and convictions of our own people should the prolongation of
the strife so demand.

Of the untried measures there remain only: Recognition of the insurgents
as belligerents; recognition of the independence of Cuba; neutral
intervention to end the war by imposing a rational compromise between
the contestants, and intervention in favor of one or the other party.
I speak not of forcible annexation, for that can not be thought of.
That, by our code of morality, would be criminal aggression.

Recognition of the belligerency of the Cuban insurgents has often
been canvassed as a possible, if not inevitable, step both in regard
to the previous ten years struggle and during the present war. I am
not unmindful that the two Houses of Congress in the spring of 1896
expressed the opinion by concurrent resolution that a condition of
public war existed requiring or justifying the recognition of a state
of belligerency in Cuba, and during the extra session the Senate voted
a joint resolution of like import, which, however, was not brought
to a vote in the House of Representatives. In the presence of these
significant expressions of the sentiment of the legislative branch it
behooves the Executive to soberly consider the conditions under which
so important a measure must needs rest for justification. It is to be
seriously considered whether the Cuban insurrection possesses beyond
dispute the attributes of statehood, which alone can demand the
recognition of belligerency in its favor. Possession, in short, of
the essential qualifications of sovereignty by the insurgents and the
conduct of the war by them according to the received code of war are
no less important factors toward the determination of the problem of
belligerency than are the influences and consequences of the struggle
upon the internal polity of the recognizing state.

The wise utterances of President Grant in his memorable message of
December 7, 1875, are signally relevant to the present situation in
Cuba, and it may be wholesome now to recall them. At that time a ruinous
conflict had for seven years wasted the neighboring island. During all
those years an utter disregard of the laws of civilized warfare and
of the just demands of humanity, which called forth expressions of
condemnation from the nations of Christendom, continued unabated.
Desolation and ruin pervaded that productive region, enormously
affecting the commerce of all commercial nations, but that of the United
States more than any other by reason of proximity and larger trade and
intercourse. At that juncture General Grant uttered these words, which
now, as then, sum up the elements of the problem:

  A recognition of the independence of Cuba being, in my opinion,
  impracticable and indefensible, the question which next presents itself
  is that of the recognition of belligerent rights in the parties to the
  contest.

  In a former message to Congress[3] I had occasion to consider this
  question, and reached the conclusion that the conflict in Cuba,
  dreadful and devastating as were its incidents, did not rise to the
  fearful dignity of war. * * * It is possible that the acts of foreign
  powers, and even acts of Spain herself, of this very nature, might be
  pointed to in defense of such recognition. But now, as in its past
  history, the United States should carefully avoid the false lights
  which might lead it into the mazes of doubtful law and of questionable
  propriety, and adhere rigidly and sternly to the rule, which has been
  its guide, of doing only that which is right and honest and of good
  report. The question of according or of withholding rights of
  belligerency must be judged in every case in view of the particular
  attending facts. Unless justified by necessity, it is always, and
  justly, regarded as an unfriendly act and a gratuitous demonstration
  of moral support to the rebellion. It is necessary, and it is
  required, when the interests and rights of another government or of
  its people are so far affected by a pending civil conflict as to
  require a definition of its relations to the parties thereto. But
  this conflict must be one which will be recognized in the sense of
  international law as war. Belligerence, too, is a fact. The mere
  existence of contending armed bodies and their occasional conflicts do
  not constitute war in the sense referred to. Applying to the existing
  condition of affairs in Cuba the tests recognized by publicists and
  writers on international law, and which have been observed by nations
  of dignity, honesty, and power when free from sensitive or selfish and
  unworthy motives, I fail to find in the insurrection the existence of
  such a substantial political organization, real, palpable, and
  manifest to the world, having the forms and capable of the ordinary
  functions of government toward its own people and to other states,
  with courts for the administration of justice, with a local
  habitation, possessing such organization of force, such material, such
  occupation of territory, as to take the contest out of the category of
  a mere rebellious insurrection or occasional skirmishes and place it
  on the terrible footing of war, to which a recognition of belligerency
  would aim to elevate it. The contest, moreover, is solely on land; the
  insurrection has not possessed itself of a single seaport whence it
  may send forth its flag, nor has it any means of communication with
  foreign powers except through the military lines of its adversaries.
  No apprehension of any of those sudden and difficult complications
  which a war upon the ocean is apt to precipitate upon the vessels,
  both commercial and national, and upon the consular officers of other
  powers calls for the definition of their relations to the parties to
  the contest. Considered as a question of expediency, I regard the
  accordance of belligerent rights still to be as unwise and premature
  as I regard it to be, at present, indefensible as a measure of right.
  Such recognition entails upon the country according the rights which
  flow from it difficult and complicated duties, and requires the
  exaction from the contending parties of the strict observance of their
  rights and obligations. It confers the right of search upon the high
  seas by vessels of both parties; it would subject the carrying of arms
  and munitions of war, which now may be transported freely and without
  interruption in the vessels of the United States, to detention and to
  possible seizure; it would give rise to countless vexatious questions,
  would release the parent Government from responsibility for acts done
  by the insurgents, and would invest Spain with the right to exercise
  the supervision recognized by our treaty of 1795 over our commerce on
  the high seas, a very large part of which, in its traffic between the
  Atlantic and the Gulf States and between all of them and the States on
  the Pacific, passes through the waters which wash the shores of Cuba.
  The exercise of this supervision could scarce fail to lead, if not to
  abuses, certainly to collisions perilous to the peaceful relations
  of the two States. There can be little doubt to what result such
  supervision would before long draw this nation. It would be unworthy
  of the United States to inaugurate the possibilities of such result by
  measures of questionable right or expediency or by any indirection.


Turning to the practical aspects of a recognition of belligerency
and reviewing its inconveniences and positive dangers, still further
pertinent considerations appear. In the code of nations there is no
such thing as a naked recognition of belligerency, unaccompanied by the
assumption of international neutrality. Such recognition, without more,
will not confer upon either party to a domestic conflict a status not
theretofore actually possessed or affect the relation of either party to
other states. The act of recognition usually takes the form of a solemn
proclamation of neutrality, which recites the _de facto_ condition
of belligerency as its motive. It announces a domestic law of neutrality
in the declaring state. It assumes the international obligations of a
neutral in the presence of a public state of war. It warns all citizens
and others within the jurisdiction of the proclaimant that they violate
those rigorous obligations at their own peril and can not expect to be
shielded from the consequences. The right of visit and search on the
seas and seizure of vessels and cargoes and contraband of war and good
prize under admiralty law must under international law be admitted
as a legitimate consequence of a proclamation of belligerency. While
according the equal belligerent rights defined by public law to each
party in our ports disfavors would be imposed on both, which, while
nominally equal, would weigh heavily in behalf of Spain herself.
Possessing a navy and controlling the ports of Cuba, her maritime rights
could be asserted not only for the military investment of the island,
but up to the margin of our own territorial waters, and a condition of
things would exist for which the Cubans within their own domain could
not hope to create a parallel, while its creation through aid or
sympathy from within our domain would be even more impossible than now,
with the additional obligations of international neutrality we would
perforce assume.

The enforcement of this enlarged and onerous code of neutrality would
only be influential within our own jurisdiction by land and sea and
applicable by our own instrumentalities. It could impart to the United
States no jurisdiction between Spain and the insurgents. It would give
the United States no right of intervention to enforce the conduct of the
strife within the paramount authority of Spain according to the
international code of war.

For these reasons I regard the recognition of the belligerency of the
Cuban insurgents as now unwise, and therefore inadmissible. Should that
step hereafter be deemed wise as a measure of right and duty, the
Executive will take it.

Intervention upon humanitarian grounds has been frequently suggested and
has not failed to receive my most anxious and earnest consideration.
But should such a step be now taken, when it is apparent that a hopeful
change has supervened in the policy of Spain toward Cuba? A new
government has taken office in the mother country. It is pledged in
advance to the declaration that all the effort in the world can not
suffice to maintain peace in Cuba by the bayonet; that vague promises of
reform after subjugation afford no solution of the insular problem; that
with a substitution of commanders must come a change of the past system
of warfare for one in harmony with a new policy, which shall no longer
aim to drive the Cubans to the "horrible alternative of taking to the
thicket or succumbing in misery;" that reforms must be instituted in
accordance with the needs and circumstances of the time, and that these
reforms, while designed to give full autonomy to the colony and to
create a virtual entity and self-controlled administration, shall yet
conserve and affirm the sovereignty of Spain by a just distribution of
powers and burdens upon a basis of mutual interest untainted by methods
of selfish expediency.

The first acts of the new government lie in these honorable paths.
The policy of cruel rapine and extermination that so long shocked the
universal sentiment of humanity has been reversed. Under the new
military commander a broad clemency is proffered. Measures have already
been set on foot to relieve the horrors of starvation. The power of the
Spanish armies, it is asserted, is to be used not to spread ruin and
desolation, but to protect the resumption of peaceful agricultural
pursuits and productive industries. That past methods are futile to
force a peace by subjugation is freely admitted, and that ruin without
conciliation must inevitably fail to win for Spain the fidelity of a
contented dependency.

Decrees in application of the foreshadowed reforms have already been
promulgated. The full text of these decrees has not been received, but
as furnished in a telegraphic summary from our minister are: All civil
and electoral rights of peninsular Spaniards are, in virtue of existing
constitutional authority, forthwith extended to colonial Spaniards. A
scheme of autonomy has been proclaimed by decree, to become effective
upon ratification by the Cortes. It creates a Cuban parliament, which,
with the insular executive, can consider and vote upon all subjects
affecting local order and interests, possessing unlimited powers save as
to matters of state, war, and the navy, as to which the Governor-General
acts by his own authority as the delegate of the central Government.
This parliament receives the oath of the Governor-General to preserve
faithfully the liberties and privileges of the colony, and to it the
colonial secretaries are responsible. It has the right to propose to the
central Government, through the Governor-General, modifications of the
national charter and to invite new projects of law or executive measures
in the interest of the colony.

Besides its local powers, it is competent, first, to regulate electoral
registration and procedure and prescribe the qualifications of electors
and the manner of exercising suffrage; second, to organize courts of
justice with native judges from members of the local bar; third, to
frame the insular budget, both as to expenditures and revenues, without
limitation of any kind, and to set apart the revenues to meet the Cuban
share of the national budget, which latter will be voted by the national
Cortes with the assistance of Cuban senators and deputies; fourth, to
initiate or take part in the negotiations of the national Government for
commercial treaties which may affect Cuban interests; fifth, to accept
or reject commercial treaties which the national Government may have
concluded without the participation of the Cuban government; sixth,
to frame the colonial tariff, acting in accord with the peninsular
Government in scheduling articles of mutual commerce between the mother
country and the colonies. Before introducing or voting upon a bill the
Cuban government or the chambers will lay the project before the central
Government and hear its opinion thereon, all the correspondence in such
regard being made public. Finally, all conflicts of jurisdiction arising
between the different municipal, provincial, and insular assemblies, or
between the latter and the insular executive power, and which from their
nature may not be referable to the central Government for decision,
shall be submitted to the courts.

That the government of Sagasta has entered upon a course from which
recession with honor is impossible can hardly be questioned; that in
the few weeks it has existed it has made earnest of the sincerity of its
professions is undeniable. I shall not impugn its sincerity, nor should
impatience be suffered to embarrass it in the task it has undertaken.
It is honestly due to Spain and to our friendly relations with Spain
that she should be given a reasonable chance to realize her expectations
and to prove the asserted efficacy of the new order of things to which
she stands irrevocably committed. She has recalled the commander whose
brutal orders inflamed the American mind and shocked the civilized
world. She has modified the horrible order of concentration and has
undertaken to care for the helpless and permit those who desire to
resume the cultivation of their fields to do so, and assures them of the
protection of the Spanish Government in their lawful occupations. She
has just released the _Competitor_ prisoners, heretofore sentenced
to death, and who have been the subject of repeated diplomatic
correspondence during both this and the preceding Administration.

Not a single American citizen is now in arrest or confinement in Cuba of
whom this Government has any knowledge. The near future will demonstrate
whether the indispensable condition of a righteous peace, just alike to
the Cubans and to Spain, as well as equitable to all our interests so
intimately involved in the welfare of Cuba, is likely to be attained. If
not, the exigency of further and other action by the United States will
remain to be taken. When that time comes, that action will be determined
in the line of indisputable right and duty. It will be faced, without
misgiving or hesitancy, in the light of the obligation this Government
owes to itself, to the people who have confided to it the protection of
their interests and honor, and to humanity.

Sure of the right, keeping free from all offense ourselves, actuated
only by upright and patriotic considerations, moved neither by passion
nor selfishness, the Government will continue its watchful care over
the rights and property of American citizens and will abate none of
its efforts to bring about by peaceful agencies a peace which shall
be honorable and enduring. If it shall hereafter appear to be a duty
imposed by our obligations to ourselves, to civilization, and humanity
to intervene with force, it shall be without fault on our part and only
because the necessity for such action will be so clear as to command the
support and approval of the civilized world.

       *       *       *       *       *

WILLIAM McKINLEY.


JOINT RESOLUTION appropriating $50,000 for the relief of destitute
citizens of the United States in the island of Cuba.

_Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United
States of America in Congress assembled_, That the sum of $50,000 be,
and the same is hereby, appropriated, out of any money in the Treasury
not otherwise appropriated, for the relief of destitute citizens of the
United States in the island of Cuba, said money to be expended at the
discretion and under the direction of the President of the United States
in the purchase and furnishing of food, clothing, and medicines to such
citizens, and for transporting to the United States such of them as so
desire and who are without means to transport themselves.

Approved, May 24, 1897.

[Footnote 1: See p. 127.]

[Footnote 2: See p. 136.]

[Footnote 3: See Vol. VII, pp. 64-69.]



SPECIAL MESSAGES.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _March 28, 1898._

_To the Congress of the United States_:

For some time prior to the visit of the _Maine_ to Havana Harbor
our consular representatives pointed out the advantages to flow from the
visit of national ships to the Cuban waters, in accustoming the people
to the presence of our flag as the symbol of good will and of our ships
in the fulfillment of the mission of protection to American interests,
even though no immediate need therefor might exist.

Accordingly, on the 24th of January last, after conference with the
Spanish minister, in which the renewal of visits of our war vessels to
Spanish waters was discussed and accepted, the peninsular authorities at
Madrid and Havana were advised of the purpose of this Government to
resume friendly naval visits at Cuban ports, and that in that view the
_Maine_ would forthwith call at the port of Havana.

This announcement was received by the Spanish Government with
appreciation of the friendly character of the visit of the _Maine_
and with notification of intention to return the courtesy by sending
Spanish ships to the principal ports of the United States. Meanwhile the
_Maine_ entered the port of Havana on the 25th of January, her
arrival being marked with no special incident besides the exchange of
customary salutes and ceremonial visits.

The _Maine_ continued in the harbor of Havana during the three
weeks following her arrival. No appreciable excitement attended her
stay. On the contrary, a feeling of relief and confidence followed the
resumption of the long-interrupted friendly intercourse. So noticeable
was this immediate effect of her visit that the consul-general strongly
urged that the presence of our ships in Cuban waters should be kept up
by retaining the _Maine_ at Havana, or, in the event of her recall,
by sending another vessel there to take her place.

At forty minutes past 9 in the evening of the 15th of February the
_Maine_ was destroyed by an explosion, by which the entire forward
part of the ship was utterly wrecked. In this catastrophe 2 officers and
264 of her crew perished, those who were not killed outright by her
explosion being penned between decks by the tangle of wreckage and
drowned by the immediate sinking of the hull.

Prompt assistance was rendered by the neighboring vessels anchored in
the harbor, aid being especially given by the boats of the Spanish
cruiser _Alfonso XII_ and the Ward Line steamer _City of Washington_,
which lay not far distant. The wounded were generously cared for by
the authorities of Havana, the hospitals being freely opened to them,
while the earliest recovered bodies of the dead were interred by the
municipality in a public cemetery in the city. Tributes of grief and
sympathy were offered from all official quarters of the island.

The appalling calamity fell upon the people of our country with
crushing force, and for a brief time an intense excitement prevailed,
which in a community less just and self-controlled than ours might have
led to hasty acts of blind resentment. This spirit, however, soon gave
way to the calmer processes of reason and to the resolve to investigate
the facts and await material proof before forming a judgment as to the
cause, the responsibility, and, if the facts warranted, the remedy due.
This course necessarily recommended itself from the outset to the
Executive, for only in the light of a dispassionately ascertained
certainty could it determine the nature and measure of its full duty
in the matter.

The usual procedure was followed, as in all cases of casualty or
disaster to national vessels of any maritime state. A naval court of
inquiry was at once organized, composed of officers well qualified by
rank and practical experience to discharge the onerous duty imposed
upon them. Aided by a strong force of wreckers and divers, the court
proceeded to make a thorough investigation on the spot, employing every
available means for the impartial and exact determination of the causes
of the explosion. Its operations have been conducted with the utmost
deliberation and judgment, and, while independently pursued, no
attainable source of information was neglected, and the fullest
opportunity was allowed for a simultaneous investigation by the Spanish
authorities.

The finding of the court of inquiry was reached, after twenty-three days
of continuous labor, on the 21st of March instant, and, having been
approved on the 22d by the commander in chief of the United States naval
force on the North Atlantic station, was transmitted to the Executive.

It is herewith laid before the Congress, together with the voluminous
testimony taken before the court.

Its purport is, in brief, as follows:

When the _Maine_ arrived at Havana, she was conducted by the regular
Government pilot to buoy No. 4, to which she was moored in from 5-1/2
to 6 fathoms of water.

The state of discipline on board and the condition of her magazines,
boilers, coal bunkers, and storage compartments are passed in review,
with the conclusion that excellent order prevailed and that no
indication of any cause for an internal explosion existed in any
quarter.

At 8 o'clock in the evening of February 15 everything had been reported
secure, and all was quiet.

At forty minutes past 9 o'clock the vessel was suddenly destroyed.

There were two distinct explosions, with a brief interval between them.
The first lifted the forward part of the ship very perceptibly; the
second, which was more open, prolonged, and of greater volume, is
attributed by the court to the partial explosion of two or more of the
forward magazines.

The evidence of the divers establishes that the after part of the ship
was practically intact and sank in that condition a very few moments
after the explosion. The forward part was completely demolished.

Upon the evidence of a concurrent external cause the finding of the
court is as follows:

At frame 17 the outer shell of the ship, from a point 11-1/2 feet from
the middle line of the ship and 6 feet above the keel when in its normal
position, has been forced up so as to be now about 4 feet above the
surface of the water, therefore about 34 feet above where it would be
had the ship sunk uninjured.

The outside bottom plating is bent into a reversed V shape (*A), the
after wing of which, about 15 feet broad and 32 feet in length (from
frame 17 to frame 25), is doubled back upon itself against the
continuation of the same plating, extending forward.

At frame 18 the vertical keel is broken in two and the flat keel bent
into an angle similar to the angle formed by the outside bottom plates.
This break is now about 6 feet below the surface of the water and about
30 feet above its normal position.

In the opinion of the court this effect could have been produced only by
the explosion of a mine situated under the bottom of the ship at about
frame 18 and somewhat on the port side of the ship.


The conclusions of the court are:

That the loss of the _Maine_ was not in any respect due to fault or
negligence on the part of any of the officers or members of her crew;

That the ship was destroyed by the explosion of a submarine mine, which
caused the partial explosion of two or more of her forward magazines;
and

That no evidence has been obtainable fixing the responsibility for the
destruction of the _Maine_ upon any person or persons.

I have directed that the finding of the court of inquiry and the views
of this Government thereon be communicated to the Government of Her
Majesty the Queen Regent, and I do not permit myself to doubt that the
sense of justice of the Spanish nation will dictate a course of action
suggested by honor and the friendly relations of the two Governments.

It will be the duty of the Executive to advise the Congress of the
result, and in the meantime deliberate consideration is invoked.

WILLIAM McKINLEY.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _April 11, 1898_.

_To the Congress of the United States:_

Obedient to that precept of the Constitution which commands the
President to give from time to time to the Congress information of the
state of the Union and to recommend to their consideration such measures
as he shall judge necessary and expedient, it becomes my duty to now
address your body with regard to the grave crisis that has arisen in the
relations of the United States to Spain by reason of the warfare that
for more than three years has raged in the neighboring island of Cuba.

I do so because of the intimate connection of the Cuban question with
the state of our own Union and the grave relation the course which
it is now incumbent upon the nation to adopt must needs bear to the
traditional policy of our Government if it is to accord with the
precepts laid down by the founders of the Republic and religiously
observed by succeeding Administrations to the present day.

The present revolution is but the successor of other similar
insurrections which have occurred in Cuba against the dominion of Spain,
extending over a period of nearly half a century, each of which during
its progress has subjected the United States to great effort and expense
in enforcing its neutrality laws, caused enormous losses to American
trade and commerce, caused irritation, annoyance, and disturbance among
our citizens, and, by the exercise of cruel, barbarous, and uncivilized
practices of warfare, shocked the sensibilities and offended the humane
sympathies of our people.

Since the present revolution began, in February, 1895, this country has
seen the fertile domain at our threshold ravaged by fire and sword in
the course of a struggle unequaled in the history of the island and
rarely paralleled as to the numbers of the combatants and the bitterness
of the contest by any revolution of modern times where a dependent
people striving to be free have been opposed by the power of the
sovereign state.

Our people have beheld a once prosperous community reduced to
comparative want, its lucrative commerce virtually paralyzed, its
exceptional productiveness diminished, its fields laid waste, its mills
in ruins, and its people perishing by tens of thousands from hunger and
destitution. We have found ourselves constrained, in the observance
of that strict neutrality which our laws enjoin and which the law of
nations commands, to police our own waters and watch our own seaports
in prevention of any unlawful act in aid of the Cubans.

Our trade has suffered, the capital invested by our citizens in Cuba
has been largely lost, and the temper and forbearance of our people
have been so sorely tried as to beget a perilous unrest among our own
citizens, which has inevitably found its expression from time to time in
the National Legislature, so that issues wholly external to our own body
politic engross attention and stand in the way of that close devotion to
domestic advancement that becomes a self-contained commonwealth whose
primal maxim has been the avoidance of all foreign entanglements. All
this must needs awaken, and has, indeed, aroused, the utmost concern on
the part of this Government, as well during my predecessor's term as in
my own.

In April, 1896, the evils from which our country suffered through the
Cuban war became so onerous that my predecessor made an effort to bring
about a peace through the mediation of this Government in any way that
might tend to an honorable adjustment of the contest between Spain
and her revolted colony, on the basis of some effective scheme of
self-government for Cuba under the flag and sovereignty of Spain. It
failed through the refusal of the Spanish government then in power to
consider any form of mediation or, indeed, any plan of settlement which
did not begin with the actual submission of the insurgents to the mother
country, and then only on such terms as Spain herself might see fit to
grant. The war continued unabated. The resistance of the insurgents was
in no wise diminished.

The efforts of Spain were increased, both by the dispatch of fresh
levies to Cuba and by the addition to the horrors of the strife of
a new and inhuman phase happily unprecedented in the modern history
of civilized Christian peoples. The policy of devastation and
concentration, inaugurated by the Captain-General's _bando_ of
October 21, 1896, in the Province of Pinar del Rio was thence extended
to embrace all of the island to which the power of the Spanish arms was
able to reach by occupation or by military operations. The peasantry,
including all dwelling in the open agricultural interior, were driven
into the garrison towns or isolated places held by the troops.

The raising and movement of provisions of all kinds were interdicted.
The fields were laid waste, dwellings unroofed and fired, mills
destroyed, and, in short, everything that could desolate the land and
render it unfit for human habitation or support was commanded by one or
the other of the contending parties and executed by all the powers at
their disposal.

By the time the present Administration took office, a year ago,
reconcentration (so called) had been made effective over the better part
of the four central and western provinces--Santa Clara, Matanzas,
Havana, and Pinar del Rio.

The agricultural population to the estimated number of 300,000 or more
was herded within the towns and their immediate vicinage, deprived of
the means of support, rendered destitute of shelter, left poorly clad,
and exposed to the most unsanitary conditions. As the scarcity of food
increased with the devastation of the depopulated areas of production,
destitution and want became misery and starvation. Month by month the
death rate increased in an alarming ratio. By March, 1897, according to
conservative estimates from official Spanish sources, the mortality
among the reconcentrados from starvation and the diseases thereto
incident exceeded 50 per cent of their total number.

No practical relief was accorded to the destitute. The overburdened
towns, already suffering from the general dearth, could give no aid.
So-called "zones of cultivation" established within the immediate areas
of effective military control about the cities and fortified camps
proved illusory as a remedy for the suffering. The unfortunates, being
for the most part women and children, with aged and helpless men,
enfeebled by disease and hunger, could not have tilled the soil without
tools, seed, or shelter for their own support or for the supply of the
cities. Reconcentration, adopted avowedly as a war measure in order to
cut off the resources of the insurgents, worked its predestined result.
As I said in my message of last December, it was not civilized warfare;
it was extermination. The only peace it could beget was that of the
wilderness and the grave.

Meanwhile the military situation in the island had undergone a
noticeable change. The extraordinary activity that characterized the
second year of the war, when the insurgents invaded even the thitherto
unharmed fields of Pinar del Rio and carried havoc and destruction up
to the walls of the city of Havana itself, had relapsed into a dogged
struggle in the central and eastern provinces. The Spanish arms regained
a measure of control in Pinar del Rio and parts of Havana, but, under
the existing conditions of the rural country, without immediate
improvement of their productive situation. Even thus partially
restricted, the revolutionists held their own, and their conquest and
submission, put forward by Spain as the essential and sole basis of
peace, seemed as far distant as at the outset.

In this state of affairs my Administration found itself confronted with
the grave problem of its duty. My message of last December[4] reviewed
the situation and narrated the steps taken with a view to relieving its
acuteness and opening the way to some form of honorable settlement. The
assassination of the prime minister, Canovas, led to a change of
government in Spain. The former administration, pledged to subjugation
without concession, gave place to that of a more liberal party,
committed long in advance to a policy of reform involving the wider
principle of home rule for Cuba and Puerto Rico.

The overtures of this Government made through its new envoy, General
Woodford, and looking to an immediate and effective amelioration of the
condition of the island, although not accepted to the extent of admitted
mediation in any shape, were met by assurances that home rule in an
advanced phase would be forthwith offered to Cuba, without waiting for
the war to end, and that more humane methods should thenceforth prevail
in the conduct of hostilities. Coincidentally with these declarations
the new government of Spain continued and completed the policy, already
begun by its predecessor, of testifying friendly regard for this nation
by releasing American citizens held under one charge or another
connected with the insurrection, so that by the end of November not a
single person entitled in any way to our national protection remained in
a Spanish prison.

While these negotiations were in progress the increasing destitution of
the unfortunate reconcentrados and the alarming mortality among them
claimed earnest attention. The success which had attended the limited
measure of relief extended to the suffering American citizens among them
by the judicious expenditure through the consular agencies of the money
appropriated expressly for their succor by the joint resolution approved
May 24, 1897,[5] prompted the humane extension of a similar scheme of
aid to the great body of sufferers. A suggestion to this end was
acquiesced in by the Spanish authorities.

On the 24th of December last I caused to be issued an appeal to the
American people inviting contributions in money or in kind for the
succor of the starving sufferers in Cuba, following this on the 8th of
January by a similar public announcement of the formation of a central
Cuban relief committee, with headquarters in New York City, composed of
three members representing the American National Red Cross and the
religious and business elements of the community.

The efforts of that committee have been untiring and have accomplished
much. Arrangements for free transportation to Cuba have greatly aided
the charitable work. The president of the American Red Cross and
representatives of other contributory organizations have generously
visited Cuba and cooperated with the consul-general and the local
authorities to make effective distribution of the relief collected
through the efforts of the central committee. Nearly $200,000 in money
and supplies has already reached the sufferers, and more is forthcoming.
The supplies are admitted duty free, and transportation to the interior
has been arranged, so that the relief, at first necessarily confined to
Havana and the larger cities, is now extended through most, if not all,
of the towns where suffering exists.

Thousands of lives have already been saved. The necessity for a change
in the condition of the reconcentrados is recognized by the Spanish
Government. Within a few days past the orders of General Weyler have
been revoked. The reconcentrados, it is said, are to be permitted to
return to their homes and aided to resume the self-supporting pursuits
of peace. Public works have been ordered to give them employment and a
sum of $600,000 has been appropriated for their relief.

The war in Cuba is of such a nature that, short of subjugation or
extermination, a final military victory for either side seems
impracticable. The alternative lies in the physical exhaustion of the
one or the other party, or perhaps of both--a condition which in effect
ended the ten years' war by the truce of Zanjon. The prospect of such a
protraction and conclusion of the present strife is a contingency hardly
to be contemplated with equanimity by the civilized world, and least of
all by the United States, affected and injured as we are, deeply and
intimately, by its very existence.

Realizing this, it appeared to be my duty, in a spirit of true
friendliness, no less to Spain than to the Cubans, who have so much to
lose by the prolongation of the struggle, to seek to bring about an
immediate termination of the war. To this end I submitted on the 27th
ultimo, as a result of much representation and correspondence, through
the United States minister at Madrid, propositions to the Spanish
Government looking to an armistice until October 1 for the negotiation
of peace with the good offices of the President.

In addition I asked the immediate revocation of the order of
reconcentration, so as to permit the people to return to their farms and
the needy to be relieved with provisions and supplies from the United
States, cooperating with the Spanish authorities, so as to afford full
relief.

The reply of the Spanish cabinet was received on the night of the
31st ultimo. It offered, as the means to bring about peace in Cuba,
to confide the preparation thereof to the insular parliament, inasmuch
as the concurrence of that body would be necessary to reach a final
result, it being, however, understood that the powers reserved by the
constitution to the central Government are not lessened or diminished.
As the Cuban parliament does not meet until the 4th of May next, the
Spanish Government would not object for its part to accept at once
a suspension of hostilities if asked for by the insurgents from the
general in chief, to whom it would pertain in such case to determine
the duration and conditions of the armistice.

The propositions submitted by General Woodford and the reply of the
Spanish Government were both in the form of brief memoranda, the texts
of which are before me and are substantially in the language above
given. The function of the Cuban parliament in the matter of "preparing"
peace and the manner of its doing so are not expressed in the Spanish
memorandum, but from General Woodford's explanatory reports of
preliminary discussions preceding the final conference it is understood
that the Spanish Government stands ready to give the insular congress
full powers to settle the terms of peace with the insurgents, whether by
direct negotiation or indirectly by means of legislation does not
appear.

With this last overture in the direction of immediate peace, and its
disappointing reception by Spain, the Executive is brought to the end of
his effort.

In my annual message of December last I said:

  Of the untried measures there remain only: Recognition of the insurgents
  as belligerents; recognition of the independence of Cuba; neutral
  intervention to end the war by imposing a rational compromise between
  the contestants, and intervention in favor of one or the other party.
  I speak not of forcible annexation, for that can not be thought of.
  That, by our code of morality, would be criminal aggression.


Thereupon I reviewed these alternatives in the light of President
Grant's measured words, uttered in 1875, when, after seven years of
sanguinary, destructive, and cruel hostilities in Cuba, he reached the
conclusion that the recognition of the independence of Cuba was
impracticable and indefensible and that the recognition of belligerence
was not warranted by the facts according to the tests of public law.
I commented especially upon the latter aspect of the question, pointing
out the inconveniences and positive dangers of a recognition of
belligerence, which, while adding to the already onerous burdens of
neutrality within our own jurisdiction, could not in any way extend our
influence or effective offices in the territory of hostilities.

Nothing has since occurred to change my view in this regard, and
I recognize as fully now as then that the issuance of a proclamation of
neutrality, by which process the so-called recognition of belligerents
is published, could of itself and unattended by other action accomplish
nothing toward the one end for which we labor--the instant pacification
of Cuba and the cessation of the misery that afflicts the island.

Turning to the question of recognizing at this time the independence
of the present insurgent government in Cuba, we find safe precedents
in our history from an early day. They are well summed up in President
Jackson's message to Congress, December 21, 1836, on the subject of the
recognition of the independence of Texas. He said:

  In all the contests that have arisen out of the revolutions of France,
  out of the disputes relating to the crowns of Portugal and Spain, out
  of the revolutionary movements of those Kingdoms, out of the separation
  of the American possessions of both from the European Governments, and
  out of the numerous and constantly occurring struggles for dominion in
  Spanish America, so wisely consistent with our just principles has been
  the action of our Government that we have under the most critical
  circumstances avoided all censure and encountered no other evil than
  that produced by a transient estrangement of good will in those against
  whom we have been by force of evidence compelled to decide.

  It has thus been made known to the world that the uniform policy and
  practice of the United States is to avoid all interference in disputes
  which merely relate to the internal government of other nations, and
  eventually to recognize the authority of the prevailing party, without
  reference to our particular interests and views or to the merits of the
  original controversy.

         *       *       *       *       *

  * * * But on this as on every trying occasion safety is to be found in
  a rigid adherence to principle.

  In the contest between Spain and her revolted colonies we stood aloof
  and waited, not only until the ability of the new States to protect
  themselves was fully established, but until the danger of their being
  again subjugated had entirely passed away. Then, and not till then, were
  they recognized. Such was our course in regard to Mexico herself. * * *
  It is true that, with regard to Texas, the civil authority of Mexico has
  been expelled, its invading army defeated, the chief of the Republic
  himself captured, and all present power to control the newly organized
  Government of Texas annihilated within its confines. But, on the other
  hand, there is, in appearance at least, an immense disparity of physical
  force on the side of Mexico. The Mexican Republic under another
  Executive is rallying its forces under a new leader and menacing a fresh
  invasion to recover its lost dominion.

  Upon the issue of this threatened invasion the independence of Texas
  may be considered as suspended, and were there nothing peculiar in the
  relative situation of the United States and Texas our acknowledgment
  of its independence at such a crisis could scarcely be regarded as
  consistent with that prudent reserve with which we have heretofore
  held ourselves bound to treat all similar questions.


Thereupon Andrew Jackson proceeded to consider the risk that there might
be imputed to the United States motives of selfish interest in view of
the former claim on our part to the territory of Texas and of the avowed
purpose of the Texans in seeking recognition of independence as an
incident to the incorporation of Texas in the Union, concluding thus:

Prudence, therefore, seems to dictate that we should still stand aloof
and maintain our present attitude, if not until Mexico itself or one of
the great foreign powers shall recognize the independence of the new
Government, at least until the lapse of time or the course of events
shall have proved beyond cavil or dispute the ability of the people of
that country to maintain their separate sovereignty and to uphold the
Government constituted by them. Neither of the contending parties can
justly complain of this course. By pursuing it we are but carrying
out the long-established policy of our Government--a policy which
has secured to us respect and influence abroad and inspired confidence
at home.

These are the words of the resolute and patriotic Jackson. They are
evidence that the United States, in addition to the test imposed by
public law as the condition of the recognition of independence by a
neutral state (to wit, that the revolted state shall "constitute in fact
a body politic, having a government in substance as well as in name,
possessed of the elements of stability," and forming _de facto_,
"if left to itself, a state among the nations, reasonably capable of
discharging the duties of a state"), has imposed for its own governance
in dealing with cases like these the further condition that recognition
of independent statehood is not due to a revolted dependency until the
danger of its being again subjugated by the parent state has entirely
passed away.

This extreme test was, in fact, applied in the case of Texas.
The Congress to whom President Jackson referred the question as
one "probably leading to war," and therefore a proper subject for
"a previous understanding with that body by whom war can alone be
declared and by whom all the provisions for sustaining its perils must
be furnished," left the matter of the recognition of Texas to the
discretion of the Executive, providing merely for the sending of a
diplomatic agent when the President should be satisfied that the
Republic of Texas had become "an independent state." It was so
recognized by President Van Buren, who commissioned a chargé d'affaires
March 7, 1837, after Mexico had abandoned an attempt to reconquer the
Texan territory, and when there was at the time no _bona fide_
contest going on between the insurgent province and its former
sovereign.

I said in my message of December last:

  It is to be seriously considered whether the Cuban insurrection
  possesses beyond dispute the attributes of statehood, which alone
  can demand the recognition of belligerency in its favor.


The same requirement must certainly be no less seriously considered
when the graver issue of recognizing independence is in question, for
no less positive test can be applied to the greater act than to the
lesser, while, on the other hand, the influences and consequences of the
struggle upon the internal policy of the recognizing state, which form
important factors when the recognition of belligerency is concerned, are
secondary, if not rightly eliminable, factors when the real question is
whether the community claiming recognition is or is not independent
beyond peradventure.

Nor from the standpoint of expediency do I think it would be wise
or prudent for this Government to recognize at the present time the
independence of the so-called Cuban Republic. Such recognition is not
necessary in order to enable the United States to intervene and pacify
the island. To commit this country now to the recognition of any
particular government in Cuba might subject us to embarrassing
conditions of international obligation toward the organization so
recognized. In case of intervention our conduct would be subject to the
approval or disapproval of such government. We would be required to
submit to its direction and to assume to it the mere relation of a
friendly ally.

When it shall appear hereafter that there is within the island a
government capable of performing the duties and discharging the
functions of a separate nation, and having as a matter of fact the
proper forms and attributes of nationality, such government can be
promptly and readily recognized and the relations and interests of the
United States with such nation adjusted.

There remain the alternative forms of intervention to end the war,
either as an impartial neutral, by imposing a rational compromise
between the contestants, or as the active ally of the one party or the
other.

As to the first, it is not to be forgotten that during the last few
months the relation of the United States has virtually been one of
friendly intervention in many ways, each not of itself conclusive, but
all tending to the exertion of a potential influence toward an ultimate
pacific result, just and honorable to all interests concerned. The
spirit of all our acts hitherto has been an earnest, unselfish desire
for peace and prosperity in Cuba, untarnished by differences between us
and Spain and unstained by the blood of American citizens.

The forcible intervention of the United States as a neutral to stop the
war, according to the large dictates of humanity and following many
historical precedents where neighboring states have interfered to check
the hopeless sacrifices of life by internecine conflicts beyond their
borders, is justifiable on rational grounds. It involves, however,
hostile constraint upon both the parties to the contest, as well to
enforce a truce as to guide the eventual settlement.

The grounds for such intervention may be briefly summarized as follows:

First. In the cause of humanity and to put an end to the barbarities,
bloodshed, starvation, and horrible miseries now existing there, and
which the parties to the conflict are either unable or unwilling to stop
or mitigate. It is no answer to say this is all in another country,
belonging to another nation, and is therefore none of our business.
It is specially our duty, for it is right at our door.

Second. We owe it to our citizens in Cuba to afford them that protection
and indemnity for life and property which no government there can or
will afford, and to that end to terminate the conditions that deprive
them of legal protection.

Third. The right to intervene may be justified by the very serious
injury to the commerce, trade, and business of our people and by the
wanton destruction of property and devastation of the island.

Fourth, and which is of the utmost importance. The present condition of
affairs in Cuba is a constant menace to our peace and entails upon this
Government an enormous expense. With such a conflict waged for years
in an island so near us and with which our people have such trade and
business relations; when the lives and liberty of our citizens are in
constant danger and their property destroyed and themselves ruined;
where our trading vessels are liable to seizure and are seized at
our very door by war ships of a foreign nation; the expeditions of
filibustering that we are powerless to prevent altogether, and the
irritating questions and entanglements thus arising--all these and
others that I need not mention, with the resulting strained relations,
are a constant menace to our peace and compel us to keep on a semi war
footing with a nation with which we are at peace.

These elements of danger and disorder already pointed out have been
strikingly illustrated by a tragic event which has deeply and justly
moved the American people. I have already transmitted to Congress the
report of the naval court of inquiry on the destruction of the battle
ship _Maine_ in the harbor of Havana during the night of the 15th
of February.[6] The destruction of that noble vessel has filled the
national heart with inexpressible horror. Two hundred and fifty-eight
brave sailors and marines and two officers of our Navy, reposing in the
fancied security of a friendly harbor, have been hurled to death, grief
and want brought to their homes and sorrow to the nation.

The naval court of inquiry, which, it is needless to say, commands
the unqualified confidence of the Government, was unanimous in its
conclusion that the destruction of the _Maine_ was caused by an
exterior explosion--that of a submarine mine. It did not assume to
place the responsibility. That remains to be fixed.

In any event, the destruction of the _Maine_, by whatever exterior
cause, is a patent and impressive proof of a state of things in Cuba
that is intolerable. That condition is thus shown to be such that the
Spanish Government can not assure safety and security to a vessel of the
American Navy in the harbor of Havana on a mission of peace, and
rightfully there.

Further referring in this connection to recent diplomatic
correspondence, a dispatch from our minister to Spain of the 26th ultimo
contained the statement that the Spanish minister for foreign affairs
assured him positively that Spain will do all that the highest honor
and justice require in the matter of the _Maine_. The reply above
referred to, of the 31st ultimo, also contained an expression of the
readiness of Spain to submit to an arbitration all the differences which
can arise in this matter, which is subsequently explained by the note of
the Spanish minister at Washington of the 10th instant, as follows:

  As to the question of fact which springs from the diversity of views
  between the reports of the American and Spanish boards, Spain proposes
  that the facts be ascertained by an impartial investigation by experts,
  whose decision Spain accepts in advance.


To this I have made no reply.

President Grant, in 1875, after discussing the phases of the contest as
it then appeared and its hopeless and apparent indefinite prolongation,
said:

  In such event I am of opinion that other nations will be compelled to
  assume the responsibility which devolves upon them, and to seriously
  consider the only remaining measures possible--mediation and
  intervention. Owing, perhaps, to the large expanse of water separating
  the island from the peninsula, * * * the contending parties appear to
  have within themselves no depository of common confidence to suggest
  wisdom when passion and excitement have their sway and to assume the
  part of peacemaker. In this view in the earlier days of the contest the
  good offices of the United States as a mediator were tendered in good
  faith, without any selfish purpose, in the interest of humanity and in
  sincere friendship for both parties, but were at the time declined by
  Spain, with the declaration, nevertheless, that at a future time they
  would be indispensable. No intimation has been received that in the
  opinion of Spain that time has been reached. And yet the strife
  continues, with all its dread horrors and all its injuries to the
  interests of the United States and of other nations. Each party seems
  quite capable of working great injury and damage to the other, as well
  as to all the relations and interests dependent on the existence of
  peace in the island; but they seem incapable of reaching any adjustment,
  and both have thus far failed of achieving any success whereby one party
  shall possess and control the island to the exclusion of the other.
  Under these circumstances the agency of others, either by mediation or
  by intervention, seems to be the only alternative which must, sooner or
  later, be invoked for the termination of the strife.


In the last annual message of my immediate predecessor, during the
pending struggle, it was said:

  When the inability of Spain to deal successfully with the insurrection
  has become manifest and it is demonstrated that her sovereignty is
  extinct in Cuba for all purposes of its rightful existence, and when a
  hopeless struggle for its reestablishment has degenerated into a strife
  which means nothing more than the useless sacrifice of human life and
  the utter destruction of the very subject-matter of the conflict, a
  situation will be presented in which our obligations to the sovereignty
  of Spain will be superseded by higher obligations, which we can hardly
  hesitate to recognize and discharge.


In my annual message to Congress December last, speaking to this
question, I said:

  The near future will demonstrate whether the indispensable condition of
  a righteous peace, just alike to the Cubans and to Spain, as well as
  equitable to all our interests so intimately involved in the welfare
  of Cuba, is likely to be attained. If not, the exigency of further and
  other action by the United States will remain to be taken. When that
  time conies, that action will be determined in the line of indisputable
  right and duty. It will be faced, without misgiving or hesitancy, in
  the light of the obligation this Government owes to itself, to the
  people who have confided to it the protection of their interests and
  honor, and to humanity.

  Sure of the right, keeping free from all offense ourselves, actuated
  only by upright and patriotic considerations, moved neither by passion
  nor selfishness, the Government will continue its watchful care over
  the rights and property of American citizens and will abate none of
  its efforts to bring about by peaceful agencies a peace which shall
  be honorable and enduring. If it shall hereafter appear to be a duty
  imposed by our obligations to ourselves, to civilization, and humanity
  to intervene with force, it shall be without fault on our part and only
  because the necessity for such action will be so clear as to command
  the support and approval of the civilized world.


The long trial has proved that the object for which Spain has waged
the war can not be attained. The fire of insurrection may flame or may
smolder with varying seasons, but it has not been and it is plain that
it can not be extinguished by present methods. The only hope of relief
and repose from a condition which can no longer be endured is the
enforced pacification of Cuba. In the name of humanity, in the name of
civilization, in behalf of endangered American interests which give us
the right and the duty to speak and to act, the war in Cuba must stop.

In view of these facts and of these considerations I ask the Congress
to authorize and empower the President to take measures to secure a full
and final termination of hostilities between the Government of Spain
and the people of Cuba, and to secure in the island the establishment
of a stable government, capable of maintaining order and observing its
international obligations, insuring peace and tranquillity and the
security of its citizens as well as our own, and to use the military
and naval forces of the United States as may be necessary for these
purposes.

And in the interest of humanity and to aid in preserving the lives of
the starving people of the island I recommend that the distribution of
food and supplies be continued and that an appropriation be made out of
the public Treasury to supplement the charity of our citizens.

The issue is now with the Congress. It is a solemn responsibility.
I have exhausted every effort to relieve the intolerable condition of
affairs which is at our doors. Prepared to execute every obligation
imposed upon me by the Constitution and the law, I await your action.

Yesterday, and since the preparation of the foregoing message, official
information was received by me that the latest decree of the Queen
Regent of Spain directs General Blanco, in order to prepare and
facilitate peace, to proclaim a suspension of hostilities, the duration
and details of which have not yet been communicated to me.

This fact, with every other pertinent consideration, will, I am sure,
have your just and careful attention in the solemn deliberations upon
which you are about to enter. If this measure attains a successful
result, then our aspirations as a Christian, peace-loving people will be
realized. If it fails, it will be only another justification for our
contemplated action.

WILLIAM McKINLEY.

[Footnote 4: See pp. 127-136.]

[Footnote 5: See p. 136.]

[Footnote 6: See pp. 136-139.]



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, April 11, 1898_.

_To the Senate of the United States:_

I transmit herewith, in response to a resolution of the Senate of the
14th of February last, calling for information and correspondence in
regard to the condition of the island of Cuba and to negotiations for
commercial relations between the United States and that island, a report
of the Secretary of State, with its accompanying correspondence,
covering the first inquiry of the resolution, together with a report
of the special commissioner plenipotentiary charged with commercial
negotiations under the provisions of the tariff act approved July 24,
1897, in response to the second inquiry.

WILLIAM McKINLEY.



DEPARTMENT OF STATE, _Washington_, _April 11, 1898_.

The PRESIDENT:

The Secretary of State has had the honor to receive, by reference from
the President, a resolution adopted in the Senate of the United States
on the 14th of February last, reading as follows:

"_Resolved,_ That the President is requested, if in his opinion it
is not incompatible with the public service, to send to the Senate
copies of the reports of the consul-general and of the consuls of the
United States in Cuba written or received since March 4, 1897, which
relate to the state of war in that island and the condition of the
people there, or that he will send such parts of said reports as will
inform the Senate as to these facts.

"Second. That the President inform the Senate whether any agent of a
government in Cuba has been accredited to this Government or the
President of the United States with authority to negotiate a treaty of
reciprocity with the United States, or any other diplomatic or
commercial agreement with the United States, and whether such person has
been recognized and received as the representative of such government in
Cuba."

This resolution contemplates answer being made to two separable
inquiries: First, in relation to the present condition of affairs in
Cuba, and, secondly, with regard to the action had in view of the
overtures of the Government of Spain for a reciprocal commercial
agreement covering particularly the trade between the United States and
the island of Cuba.

The conduct of commercial negotiations under the authority and in
accordance with the conditions found in sections 3, 4, and 5 of the
existing tariff act, approved July 24, 1897, having been intrusted to a
special commissioner plenipotentiary duly empowered by the President to
that end, it has been deemed convenient to leave to the commissioner the
preparation of a report in answer to the second part of the Senate
resolution, the undersigned reserving to himself the response to the
first part thereof, which concerns the political and consular functions
of the Department of State. The separate report of the Hon. John A.
Kasson, special commissioner plenipotentiary, is therefore herewith
independently submitted to the President with a view to its transmission
to the Senate, should such a course be, in the President's judgment, not
incompatible with the public service.

The Senate resolution, while in terms calling for the submission to that
honorable body of all or of a practical selection of the reports of the
consul-general and consuls of the United States in Cuba written or
received since March 4, 1897, which relate to the state of war in that
island and the condition of the people there, appears to leave it to the
discretion of the President to direct the scope of the information to be
so reported and the manner of its communication. The undersigned, having
taken the President's direction on both these points, has the honor to
lay before him a selection of the correspondence received by the
Department of State from the various consular representatives in Cuba,
aiming thereby to show the present situation in the island rather than
to give a historical account of all the reported incidents since the
date assigned by the resolution.

Respectfully submitted.

JOHN SHERMAN.



DEPARTMENT OF STATE, WASHINGTON,

_Office of Special Commissioner Plenipotentiary_.

The PRESIDENT:

In response to the following resolution of the Senate, passed under date
of February 14, 1898, and which was referred to the undersigned for
report, viz--

"Second. That the President inform the Senate whether any agent of
a government in Cuba has been accredited to this Government or the
President of the United States with authority to negotiate a treaty
of reciprocity with the United States, or any other diplomatic or
commercial agreement with the United States, and whether such person has
been recognized and received as the representative of such government
in Cuba"--

I have the honor to submit the following report:

In October, 1897, the minister of Spain at this capital verbally advised
the undersigned that so soon as the new government in Spain had leisure
to take up the question he would probably be authorized to enter into
negotiations with the undersigned for reciprocal trade arrangements with
Spain, and that a representative of Cuba would probably be associated
for the interests of that island.

Under date of December 9, 1897, the minister of the United States at
Madrid was instructed to ascertain the disposition of the Spanish
Government in respect to these negotiations.

Under date of January 24, 1898, a dispatch from Mr. Woodford (referred
to this office) advised the Secretary of State that arrangements were
made for the negotiation of a commercial treaty between Spain and the
United States; that separate provisions would be made for Cuba, and that
the Cuban insular government would appoint a delegate to represent that
island in the negotiations. This was accompanied by a memorandum from
the Spanish minister of colonies, stating that the same rules as for
Cuba might be applied to Puerto Rico, and suggesting a basis for the
negotiations. This communication was referred to this office on the 4th
of February.

On the 6th of February the Spanish minister, Mr. Dupuy de Lôme, called
on the undersigned and announced that he was authorized to represent
Spain in the pending negotiations and that a special representative
would arrive from Cuba, under appointment of the insular government, to
act as far as the interests of that island were involved. He mentioned
the name of Señor Angulo as the gentleman who had been suggested in Cuba
for that appointment; but the delegate was not officially notified to
this office.

On March 17 a note from the Spanish minister, Señor Polo y Bernabé,
addressed, under date of the 16th instant, to the Secretary of State,
was referred to this office. In that note his excellency advised this
Government of his appointment by Her Majesty the Queen Regent of Spain
to conduct these negotiations, assisted by Señor Manuel Rafael Angulo as
special delegate of the insular government of Cuba, who would be aided
by two technical assistants, also appointed by the Cuban government;
and, further, that an officer from the treasury department would be
added in the same character.

His excellency announced his readiness to commence the labors of the
commission so soon as the Government of the United States should
formulate the general plan for carrying on the work.

Respectfully submitted, March 17, 1898.

JOHN A KASSON,

_Special Commissioner Plenipotenitary_.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _April 12, 1898_.

_To the Senate of the United States:_

In response to a resolution of the Senate of the 4th instant, I inclose
herewith a letter from the Secretary of the Navy, inclosing a copy of a
report from the Chief of the Bureau of Navigation.

WILLIAM McKINLEY.



NAVY DEPARTMENT, _Washington, April 9, 1898_.

The PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES SENATE.

SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of Senate resolution of
April 4, directing that the Senate be informed "of the total number of
human lives that were lost by the sinking of the United States battle
ship _Maine_ in Havana Harbor, Cuba, on the 15th day of February,
1898, the total number of dead bodies rescued from said ship, the total
number remaining unrescued, and what effort, if any, is being made to
rescue them," and in reply thereto inclose a copy of a report from the
Chief of the Bureau of Navigation covering the above inquiry. I have the
honor to be, sir, very respectfully,

JOHN D. LONG, _Secretary_.


  MEMORANDUM FOR THE SECRETARY.

  BUREAU OF NAVIGATION, _Washington, D.C., April 8, 1898._

  Number on board the U.S.S. _Maine_ at the time of the disaster:
    Officers                                              26
    Sailors                                              290
    Marines                                               39
                                                         --- 355
  Number saved:
    Officers                                              24
    Sailors                                               60
    Marines                                               11
                                                         ---
                                                          95
  Number lost:
    Officers                                               2
    Sailors                                              230
    Marines                                               28
                                                         ---
                                                         260
                                                         --- 355
  Bodies recovered:
    Officers                                               1
    Sailors and marines                                  177
  Died from injuries:
    Sailors and marines                                    8
                                                         --- 186

  Of the number recovered there were buried--
    In the cemetery at Havana                            166
    At Key West                                           19
    At Pittsburg, Pa. (officer)                            1
                                                         --- 186
  Number of bodies not recovered:
    Officers                                               1
    Enlisted men and marines                              73
                                                         ---  74


The work of recovery was continued until April 6, when the wrecking tugs
were withdrawn, and nothing is now being done in that direction so far
as is known; and the last bodies reported as recovered were sent to Key
West on the 30th ultimo. No estimate has been made of the portions of
bodies which were recovered and buried. The large percentage of bodies
not recovered is due, no doubt, to the fact that the men were swinging
in their hammocks immediately over that portion of the vessel which was
totally destroyed.

A.S. CROWNINSHIELD,

_Chief of Bureau_.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, April 25, 1898_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of
America_:

I transmit to the Congress, for its consideration and appropriate
action, copies of correspondence recently had with the representative of
Spain in the United States, with the United States minister at Madrid,
and through the latter with the Government of Spain, showing the action
taken under the joint resolution approved April 20, 1898, "for the
recognition of the independence of the people of Cuba, demanding that
the Government of Spain relinquish its authority and government in the
island of Cuba and to withdraw its land and naval forces from Cuba and
Cuban waters, and directing the President of the United States to use
the land and naval forces of the United States to carry these
resolutions in to effect."[7]

Upon communicating to the Spanish minister in Washington the demand
which it became the duty of the Executive to address to the Government
of Spain in obedience to said resolution, the minister asked for his
passports and withdrew. The United States minister at Madrid was in turn
notified by the Spanish minister for foreign affairs that the withdrawal
of the Spanish representative from the United States had terminated
diplomatic relations between the two countries, and that all official
communications between their respective representatives ceased
therewith.

I commend to your especial attention the note addressed to the United
States minister at Madrid by the Spanish minister for foreign affairs
on the 21st instant, whereby the foregoing notification was conveyed.
It will be perceived therefrom that the Government of Spain, having
cognizance of the joint resolution of the United States Congress,
and in view of the things which the President is thereby required and
authorized to do, responds by treating the reasonable demands of this
Government as measures of hostility, following with that instant and
complete severance of relations by its action which by the usage of
nations accompanies an existent state of war between sovereign powers.

The position of Spain being thus made known and the demands of the
United States being denied, with a complete rupture of intercourse,
by the act of Spain, I have been constrained, in exercise of the power
and authority conferred upon me by the joint resolution aforesaid, to
proclaim, under date of April 22, 1898,[8] a blockade of certain ports
of the north coast of Cuba lying between Cardenas and Bahia Honda, and
of the port of Cienfuegos, on the south coast of Cuba, and further in
exercise of my constitutional powers and using the authority conferred
upon me by the act of Congress approved April 22, 1898, to issue my
proclamation dated April 23, 1898,[9] calling forth volunteers in order
to carry into effect the said resolution of April 20, 1898. Copies of
these proclamations are hereto appended.

In view of the measures so taken, and with a view to the adoption of
such other measures as may be necessary to enable me to carry out the
expressed will of the Congress of the United States in the premises, I
now recommend to your honorable body the adoption of a joint resolution
declaring that a state of war exists between the United States of
America and the Kingdom of Spain, and I urge speedy action thereon, to
the end that the definition of the international status of the United
States as a belligerent power may be made known and the assertion of all
its rights and the maintenance of all its duties in the conduct of a
public war may be assured.[10]

WILLIAM McKINLEY.

[Footnote 7: See p. 155.]

[Footnote 8: See pp. 202-203.]

[Footnote 9: See pp. 203-204.]

[Footnote 10: See p. 201.]


JOINT RESOLUTION for the recognition of the independence of the people
of Cuba, demanding that the Government of Spain relinquish its authority
and government in the island of Cuba and to withdraw its land and naval
forces from Cuba and Cuban waters, and directing the President of the
United States to use the land and naval forces of the United States to
carry these resolutions into effect.

Whereas the abhorrent conditions which have existed for more than three
years in the island of Cuba, so near our own borders, have shocked the
moral sense of the people of the United States, have been a disgrace to
Christian civilization, culminating, as they have, in the destruction of
a United States battle ship, with 266 of its officers and crew, while on
a friendly visit in the harbor of Havana, and can not longer be endured,
as has been set forth by the President of the United States in his
message to Congress of April 11, 1898,[11] upon which the action of
Congress was invited: Therefore,

_Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United
States of America in Congress assembled_, First. That the people of
the island of Cuba are and of right ought to be free and independent.

Second. That it is the duty of the United States to demand, and the
Government of the United States does hereby demand, that the Government
of Spain at once relinquish its authority and government in the island
of Cuba and withdraw its land and naval forces from Cuba and Cuban
waters.

Third. That the President of the United States be, and he hereby is,
directed and empowered to use the entire land and naval forces of the
United States and to call into the actual service of the United States
the militia of the several States to such extent as may be necessary to
carry these resolutions into effect.

Fourth. That the United States hereby disclaims any disposition or
intention to exercise sovereignty, jurisdiction, or control over
said island except for the pacification thereof, and asserts its
determination, when that is accomplished, to leave the government
and control of the island to its people.

Approved, April 20, 1898.

[Footnote 11: See pp. 139-150.]



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _May 9, 1898_.

_To the Congress of the United States:_

On the 24th of April I directed the Secretary of the Navy to telegraph
orders to Commodore George Dewey, of the United States Navy, commanding
the Asiatic Squadron, then lying in the port of Hongkong, to proceed
forthwith to the Philippine Islands, there-to commence operations and
engage the assembled Spanish fleet.

Promptly obeying that order, the United States squadron, consisting of
the flagship _Olympia_, _Baltimore_, _Raleigh_, _Boston_, _Concord_, and
_Petrel_, with the revenue cutter _McCulloch_ as an auxiliary dispatch
boat, entered the harbor of Manila at daybreak on the 1st of May and
immediately engaged the entire Spanish fleet of eleven ships, which were
under the protection of the fire of the land forts. After a stubborn
fight, in which the enemy suffered great loss, these vessels were
destroyed or completely disabled and the water battery at Cavite
silenced. Of our brave officers and men not one was lost and only eight
injured, and those slightly. All of our ships escaped any serious
damage.

By the 4th of May Commodore Dewey had taken possession of the naval
station at Cavite, destroying the fortifications there and at the
entrance of the bay and paroling their garrisons. The waters of the bay
are under his complete control. He has established hospitals within the
American lines, where 250 of the Spanish sick and wounded are assisted
and protected.

The magnitude of this victory can hardly be measured by the ordinary
standard of naval warfare. Outweighing any material advantage is the
moral effect of this initial success. At this unsurpassed achievement
the great heart of our nation throbs, not with boasting or with greed of
conquest, but with deep gratitude that this triumph has come in a just
cause and that by the grace of God an effective step has thus been taken
toward the attainment of the wished-for peace. To those whose skill,
courage, and devotion have won the fight, to the gallant commander and
the brave officers and men who aided him, our country owes an
incalculable debt.

Feeling as our people feel, and speaking in their name, I at once sent
a message to Commodore Dewey thanking him and his officers and men for
their splendid achievement and overwhelming victory and informing him
that I had appointed him an acting rear-admiral.

I now recommend that, following our national precedents and expressing
the fervent gratitude of every patriotic heart, the thanks of Congress
be given Acting Rear-Admiral George Dewey, of the United States Navy,
for highly distinguished conduct in conflict with the enemy, and to
the officers and men under his command for their gallantry in the
destruction of the enemy's fleet and the capture of the enemy's
fortifications in the bay of Manila.

WILLIAM McKINLEY.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _June 1, 1898_.

_To the Congress of the United States:_

The resolution of Congress passed May 9, 1898, tendering to Commodore
George Dewey, United States Navy, commander in chief of the United
States naval force on the Asiatic station, the thanks of Congress and of
the American people for highly distinguished conduct in conflict with
the enemy, as displayed by him in the destruction of the Spanish fleet
and batteries in the harbor of Manila, Philippine Islands, May 1, 1898,
and through him extending the thanks of Congress and of the American
people to the officers and men under his command for gallantry and
skill exhibited by them on that occasion, required the President to
communicate the same to Commodore Dewey, and through him to the officers
and men under his command. This having been done, through the Secretary
of the Navy, on the 15th of May, 1898, the following response has been
received and is hereby transmitted to the Congress:

I desire to express to the Department, and to request that it will be
transmitted to the President and to Congress, my most sincere thanks for
the great compliment paid to me.

WILLIAM McKINLEY.


JOINT RESOLUTION tendering the thanks of Congress to Commodore George
Dewey, United States Navy, and to the officers and men of the squadron
under his command.

_Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United
States of America in Congress assembled_, That, in pursuance of the
recommendation of the President, made in accordance with the provisions
of section 1508 of the Revised Statutes, the thanks of Congress and
of the American people are hereby tendered to Commodore George Dewey,
United States Navy, commander in chief of the United States naval force
on the Asiatic station, for highly distinguished conduct in conflict
with the enemy, as displayed by him in the destruction of the Spanish
fleet and batteries in the harbor of Manila, Philippine Islands, May 1,
1898.

SEC. 2. That the thanks of Congress and the American people are hereby
extended through Commodore Dewey to the officers and men under his
command for the gallantry and skill exhibited by them on that occasion.

SEC. 3. _Be it further resolved_, That the President of the United
States be requested to cause this resolution to be communicated to
Commodore Dewey, and through him to the officers and men under his
command.

Approved, May 10, 1898.


JOINT RESOLUTION authorizing the Secretary of the Navy to present a
sword of honor to Commodore George Dewey, and to cause to be struck
bronze medals commemorating the battle of Manila Bay, and to distribute
such medals to the officers and men of the ships of the Asiatic Squadron
of the United States.

_Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United
States of America in Congress assembled_, That the Secretary of the
Navy be, and he hereby is, authorized to present a sword of honor to
Commodore George Dewey, and to cause to be struck bronze medals
commemorating the battle of Manila Bay, and to distribute such medals to
the officers and men of the ships of the Asiatic Squadron of the United
States under command of Commodore George Dewey on May 1, 1898; and that
to enable the Secretary to carry out this resolution the sum of $10,000,
or so much thereof as may be necessary, is hereby appropriated out of
any money in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated.

Approved, June 3, 1898.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _June 27, 1898_.

_To the Congress of the United States:_

On the 11th of May, 1898, there occurred a conflict in the bay of
Cardenas, Cuba, in which the naval torpedo boat _Winslow_ was
disabled, her commander wounded, and one of her officers and a part
of her crew killed by the enemy's fire.

In the face of a most galling fire from the enemy's guns the revenue
cutter _Hudson_, commanded by First Lieutenant Frank H. Newcomb,
United States Revenue-Cutter Service, rescued the disabled
_Winslow_, her wounded commander and remaining crew. The commander
of the _Hudson_ kept his vessel in the very hottest fire of the
action, although in constant danger of going ashore on account of the
shallow water, until he finally got a line made fast to the
_Winslow_ and towed that vessel out of range of the enemy's guns--a
deed of special gallantry.

I recommend that in recognition of the signal act of heroism of First
Lieutenant Frank H. Newcomb, United States Revenue-Cutter Service, above
set forth, the thanks of Congress be extended to him and to his officers
and men of the _Hudson_, and that a gold medal of honor be
presented to Lieutenant Newcomb, a silver medal of honor to each of his
officers, and a bronze medal of honor to each member of his crew who
served with him at Cardenas.

It will be remembered that Congress by appropriate action recognized the
several commanders of ships of war for their services in the battle of
Manila, May 1, 1898.

The commander of the revenue cutter _Hugh McCulloch_, present and
in active cooperation with the fleet under Commodore Dewey on that
occasion (by Executive order under the provisions of section 2757,
Revised Statutes), is the only commander of a national ship to whom
promotion or advancement was not and could not be given, because he
already held the highest rank known to the Revenue-Cutter Service.

I now recommend that in recognition of the efficient and meritorious
services of Captain Daniel B. Hodgsdon, United States Revenue-Cutter
Service, who commanded the _Hugh McCulloch_ at the battle of Manila
(that officer being now in the sixty-third year of his age and having
served continuously on active duty for thirty-seven years), he be placed
upon the permanent waiting-orders or retired list of the Revenue-Cutter
Service on the full-duty pay of his grade.

WILLIAM McKINLEY.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _June 27, 1898_.

_To the Congress of the United States:_

On the morning of the 3d of June, 1898, Assistant Naval Constructor
Richmond P. Hobson, United States Navy, with a volunteer crew of seven
men, in charge of the partially dismantled collier _Merrimac_,
entered the fortified harbor of Santiago, Cuba, for the purpose of
sinking the collier in the narrowest portion of the channel, and thus
interposing a serious obstacle to the egress of the Spanish fleet which
had recently entered that harbor. This enterprise, demanding coolness,
judgment, and bravery amounting to heroism, was carried into successful
execution in the face of a persistent fire from the hostile fleet as
well as from the fortifications on shore.

Rear-Admiral Sampson, commander in chief of our naval force in Cuban
waters, in an official report dated "Off Santiago de Cuba, June 3,
1898," and addressed to the Secretary of the Navy, referring to Mr.
Hobson's gallant exploit, says:

  As stated in a recent telegram, before coming here I decided to make the
  harbor entrance secure against the possibility of egress of the Spanish
  ships by obstructing the narrow part of the entrance by sinking a
  collier at that point. Upon calling upon Mr. Hobson for his professional
  opinion as to a sure method of sinking the ship, he manifested a most
  lively interest in the problem. After several days' consideration he
  presented a solution which he considered would insure the immediate
  sinking of the ship when she had reached the desired point in the
  channel. * * * The plan contemplated a crew of only seven men and Mr.
  Hobson, who begged that it might be intrusted to him.

  As soon as I reached Santiago and had the collier to work upon, the
  details were commenced and diligently prosecuted, hoping to complete
  them in one day, as the moon and tide served best the first night after
  our arrival. Notwithstanding every effort, the hour of 4 o'clock in the
  morning arrived and the preparations were scarcely completed. After a
  careful inspection of the final preparations I was forced to relinquish
  the plan for that morning, as dawn was breaking. Mr. Hobson begged to
  try it at all hazards.

  This morning proved more propitious, as a prompt start could be made.
  Nothing could have been more gallantly executed. * * * A careful
  inspection of the harbor from this ship showed that the _Merrimac_
  had been sunk in the channel.

  I can not myself too earnestly express my appreciation of the conduct of
  Mr. Hobson and his gallant crew. I venture to say that a more brave and
  daring thing has not been done since Cushing blew up the _Albemarle_.


The members of the crew who were with Mr. Hobson on this memorable
occasion have already been rewarded for their services by advancement,
which, under the provisions of law and regulations, the Secretary of the
Navy was authorized to make; and the nomination to the Senate of Naval
Cadet Powell, who in a steam launch followed the _Merrimac_ on her
perilous trip for the purpose of rescuing her force after the sinking of
that vessel, to be advanced in rank to the grade of ensign has been
prepared and will be submitted.

Cushing, with whose gallant act in blowing up the ram _Albemarle_
during the Civil War Admiral Sampson compares Mr. Hobson's sinking of
the _Merrimac_, received the thanks of Congress, upon recommendation
of the President, by name, and was in consequence, under the provisions
of section 1508 of the Revised Statutes, advanced one grade, such
advancement embracing 56 numbers. The section cited applies, however, to
line officers only, and Mr. Hobson, being a member of the staff of the
Navy, could not under its provisions be so advanced.

In considering the question of suitably rewarding Assistant Naval
Constructor Hobson for his valiant conduct on the occasion referred
to, I have deemed it proper to address this message to you with the
recommendation that he receive the thanks of Congress and, further, that
he be transferred to the line of the Navy and promoted to such position
therein as the President, by and with the advice and consent of the
Senate, may determine. Mr. Hobson's transfer from the construction
corps to the line is fully warranted, he having received the necessary
technical training as a graduate of the Naval Academy, where he stood
No. 1 in his class; and such action is recommended partly in deference
to what is understood to be his own desire, although, he being now a
prisoner in the hands of the enemy, no direct communication on the
subject has been received from him, and partly for the reason that the
abilities displayed by him at Santiago are of such a character as to
indicate especial fitness for the duties of the line.

WILLIAM McKINLEY.



SECOND ANNUAL MESSAGE.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _December 5, 1898_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives:_

Notwithstanding the added burdens rendered necessary by the war, our
people rejoice in a very satisfactory and steadily increasing degree of
prosperity, evidenced by the largest volume of business ever recorded.
Manufacture has been productive, agricultural pursuits have yielded
abundant returns, labor in all fields of industry is better rewarded,
revenue legislation passed by the present Congress has increased the
Treasury's receipts to the amount estimated by its authors, the finances
of the Government have been successfully administered and its credit
advanced to the first rank, while its currency has been maintained at
the world's highest standard. Military service under a common flag and
for a righteous cause has strengthened the national spirit and served to
cement more closely than ever the fraternal bonds between every section
of the country.

A review of the relation of the United States to other powers, always
appropriate, is this year of primary importance in view of the momentous
issues which have arisen, demanding in one instance the ultimate
determination by arms and involving far-reaching consequences which will
require the earnest attention of the Congress.

In my last annual message[12] very full consideration was given to the
question of the duty of the Government of the United States toward Spain
and the Cuban insurrection as being by far the most important problem
with which we were then called upon to deal. The considerations then
advanced and the exposition of the views therein expressed disclosed
my sense of the extreme gravity of the situation. Setting aside as
logically unfounded or practically inadmissible the recognition of the
Cuban insurgents as belligerents, the recognition of the independence
of Cuba, neutral intervention to end the war by imposing a rational
compromise between the contestants, intervention in favor of one or the
other party, and forcible annexation of the island, I concluded it was
honestly due to our friendly relations with Spain that she should be
given a reasonable chance to realize her expectations of reform to which
she had become irrevocably committed. Within a few weeks previously she
had announced comprehensive plans which it was confidently asserted
would be efficacious to remedy the evils so deeply affecting our own
country, so injurious to the true interests of the mother country as
well as to those of Cuba, and so repugnant to the universal sentiment
of humanity.

The ensuing month brought little sign of real progress toward the
pacification of Cuba. The autonomous administrations set up in the
capital and some of the principal cities appeared not to gain the favor
of the inhabitants nor to be able to extend their influence to the large
extent of territory held by the insurgents, while the military arm,
obviously unable to cope with the still active rebellion, continued many
of the most objectionable and offensive policies of the government that
had preceded it. No tangible relief was afforded the vast numbers of
unhappy reconcentrados, despite the reiterated professions made in that
regard and the amount appropriated by Spain to that end. The proffered
expedient of zones of cultivation proved illusory. Indeed no less
practical nor more delusive promises of succor could well have been
tendered to the exhausted and destitute people, stripped of all that
made life and home dear and herded in a strange region among
unsympathetic strangers hardly less necessitous than themselves.

By the end of December the mortality among them had frightfully
increased. Conservative estimates from Spanish sources placed the deaths
among these distressed people at over 40 per cent from the time General
Weyler's decree of reconcentration was enforced. With the acquiescence
of the Spanish authorities, a scheme was adopted for relief by
charitable contributions raised in this country and distributed, under
the direction of the consul-general and the several consuls, by noble
and earnest individual effort through the organized agencies of the
American Red Cross. Thousands of lives were thus saved, but many
thousands more were inaccessible to such forms of aid.

The war continued on the old footing, without comprehensive plan,
developing only the same spasmodic encounters, barren of strategic
result, that had marked the course of the earlier ten years' rebellion
as well as the present insurrection from its start. No alternative save
physical exhaustion of either combatant, and therewithal the practical
ruin of the island, lay in sight, but how far distant no one could
venture to conjecture.

At this juncture, on the 15th of February last, occurred the destruction
of the battle ship _Maine_ while rightfully lying in the harbor of
Havana on a mission of international courtesy and good will--a
catastrophe the suspicious nature and horror of which stirred the
nation's heart profoundly. It is a striking evidence of the poise and
sturdy good sense distinguishing our national character that this
shocking blow, falling upon a generous people already deeply touched by
preceding events in Cuba, did not move them to an instant desperate
resolve to tolerate no longer the existence of a condition of danger and
disorder at our doors that made possible such a deed, by whomsoever
wrought. Yet the instinct of justice prevailed, and the nation anxiously
awaited the result of the searching investigation at once set on foot.
The finding of the naval board of inquiry established that the origin of
the explosion was external, by a submarine mine, and only halted through
lack of positive testimony to fix the responsibility of its authorship.

All these things carried conviction to the most thoughtful, even before
the finding of the naval court, that a crisis in our relations with
Spain and toward Cuba was at hand. So strong was this belief that it
needed but a brief Executive suggestion to the Congress to receive
immediate answer to the duty of making instant provision for the
possible and perhaps speedily probable emergency of war, and the
remarkable, almost unique, spectacle was presented of a unanimous vote
of both Houses, on the 9th of March, appropriating $50,000,000 "for the
national defense and for each and every purpose connected therewith,
to be expended at the discretion of the President." That this act of
prevision came none too soon was disclosed when the application of the
fund was undertaken. Our coasts were practically undefended. Our Navy
needed large provision for increased ammunition and supplies, and even
numbers to cope with any sudden attack from the navy of Spain, which
comprised modern vessels of the highest type of continental perfection.
Our Army also required enlargement of men and munitions. The details
of the hurried preparation for the dreaded contingency are told in the
reports of the Secretaries of War and of the Navy, and need not be
repeated here. It is sufficient to say that the outbreak of war when
it did come found our nation not unprepared to meet the conflict.

Nor was the apprehension of coming strife confined to our own country.
It was felt by the continental powers, which on April 6, through their
ambassadors and envoys, addressed to the Executive an expression of hope
that humanity and moderation might mark the course of this Government
and people, and that further negotiations would lead to an agreement
which, while securing the maintenance of peace, would afford all
necessary guaranties for the reestablishment of order in Cuba. In
responding to that representation I said I shared the hope the envoys
had expressed that peace might be preserved in a manner to terminate the
chronic condition of disturbance in Cuba, so injurious and menacing to
our interests and tranquillity, as well as shocking to our sentiments
of humanity; and while appreciating the humanitarian and disinterested
character of the communication they had made on behalf of the powers,
I stated the confidence of this Government, for its part, that equal
appreciation would be shown for its own earnest and unselfish endeavors
to fulfill a duty to humanity by ending a situation the indefinite
prolongation of which had become insufferable.

Still animated by the hope of a peaceful solution and obeying the
dictates of duty, no effort was relaxed to bring about a speedy
ending of the Cuban struggle. Negotiations to this object continued
actively with the Government of Spain, looking to the immediate
conclusion of a six months' armistice in Cuba, with a view to effect
the recognition of her people's right to independence. Besides this,
the instant revocation of the order of reconcentration was asked,
so that the sufferers, returning to their homes and aided by united
American and Spanish effort, might be put in a way to support
themselves and, by orderly resumption of the well-nigh destroyed
productive energies of the island, contribute to the restoration of
its tranquillity and well-being. Negotiations continued for some little
time at Madrid, resulting in offers by the Spanish Government which
could not but be regarded as inadequate. It was proposed to confide the
preparation of peace to the insular parliament, yet to be convened under
the autonomous decrees of November, 1897, but without impairment in any
wise of the constitutional powers of the Madrid Government, which to
that end would grant an armistice, if solicited by the insurgents, for
such time as the general in chief might see fit to fix. How and with
what scope of discretionary powers the insular parliament was expected
to set about the "preparation" of peace did not appear. If it were to be
by negotiation with the insurgents, the issue seemed to rest on the one
side with a body chosen by a fraction of the electors in the districts
under Spanish control, and on the other with the insurgent population
holding the interior country, unrepresented in the so-called parliament
and defiant at the suggestion of suing for peace.

Grieved and disappointed at this barren outcome of my sincere endeavors
to reach a practicable solution, I felt it my duty to remit the whole
question to the Congress. In the message of April 11, 1898,[13] I
announced that with this last overture in the direction of immediate
peace in Cuba and its disappointing reception by Spain the effort of
the Executive was brought to an end. I again reviewed the alternative
courses of action which had been proposed, concluding that the only one
consonant with international policy and compatible with our firm-set
historical traditions was intervention as a neutral to stop the war and
check the hopeless sacrifice of life, even though that resort involved
"hostile constraint upon both the parties to the contest, as well to
enforce a truce as to guide the eventual settlement." The grounds
justifying that step were the interests of humanity, the duty to protect
the life and property of our citizens in Cuba, the right to check injury
to our commerce and people through the devastation of the island, and,
most important, the need of removing at once and forever the constant
menace and the burdens entailed upon our Government by the uncertainties
and perils of the situation caused by the unendurable disturbance in
Cuba. I said:

  The long trial has proved that the object for which Spain has waged
  the war can not be attained. The fire of insurrection may flame or may
  smolder with varying seasons, but it has not been and it is plain that
  it can not be extinguished by present methods. The only hope of relief
  and repose from a condition which can no longer be endured is the
  enforced pacification of Cuba. In the name of humanity, in the name of
  civilization, in behalf of endangered American interests which give us
  the right and the duty to speak and to act, the war in Cuba must stop.


In view of all this the Congress was asked to authorize and empower the
President to take measures to secure a full and final termination of
hostilities between Spain and the people of Cuba and to secure in the
island the establishment of a stable government, capable of maintaining
order and observing its international obligations, insuring peace and
tranquillity and the security of its citizens as well as our own, and
for the accomplishment of those ends to use the military and naval
forces of the United States as might be necessary, with added authority
to continue generous relief to the starving people of Cuba.

The response of the Congress, after nine days of earnest deliberation,
during which the almost unanimous sentiment of your body was developed
on every point save as to the expediency of coupling the proposed action
with a formal recognition of the Republic of Cuba as the true and lawful
government of that island--a proposition which failed of adoption--the
Congress, after conference, on the 19th of April, by a vote of 42 to 35
in the Senate and 311 to 6 in the House of Representatives, passed the
memorable joint resolution declaring--

  First. That the people of the island of Cuba are, and of right ought
  to be, free and independent.

  Second. That it is the duty of the United States to demand, and the
  Government of the United States does hereby demand, that the Government
  of Spain at once relinquish its authority and government in the island
  of Cuba and withdraw its land and naval forces from Cuba and Cuban
  waters.

  Third. That the President of the United States be, and he hereby is,
  directed and empowered to use the entire land and naval forces of the
  United States and to call into the actual service of the United States
  the militia of the several States to such extent as may be necessary
  to carry these resolutions into effect.

  Fourth. That the United States hereby disclaims any disposition or
  intention to exercise sovereignty, jurisdiction, or control over
  said island except for the pacification thereof, and asserts its
  determination when that is accomplished to leave the government and
  control of the island to its people.


This resolution was approved by the Executive on the next day, April 20.
A copy was at once communicated to the Spanish minister at this capital,
who forthwith announced that his continuance in Washington had thereby
become impossible, and asked for his passports, which were given him.
He thereupon withdrew from Washington, leaving the protection of
Spanish interests in the United States to the French ambassador and the
Austro-Hungarian minister. Simultaneously with its communication to
the Spanish minister here, General Woodford, the American minister at
Madrid, was telegraphed confirmation of the text of the joint resolution
and directed to communicate it to the Government of Spain with the
formal demand that it at once relinquish its authority and government
in the island of Cuba and withdraw its forces therefrom, coupling this
demand with announcement of the intentions of this Government as to
the future of the island, in conformity with the fourth clause of the
resolution, and giving Spain until noon of April 23 to reply.

That demand, although, as above shown, officially made known to the
Spanish envoy here, was not delivered at Madrid. After the instruction
reached General Woodford on the morning of April 21, but before he could
present it, the Spanish minister of state notified him that upon the
President's approval of the joint resolution the Madrid Government,
regarding the act as "equivalent to an evident declaration of war," had
ordered its minister in Washington to withdraw, thereby breaking off
diplomatic relations between the two countries and ceasing all official
communication between their respective representatives. General Woodford
thereupon demanded his passports and quitted Madrid the same day.

Spain having thus denied the demand of the United States and initiated
that complete form of rupture of relations which attends a state of war,
the executive powers authorized by the resolution were at once used by
me to meet the enlarged contingency of actual war between sovereign
states. On April 22 I proclaimed a blockade of the north coast of Cuba,
including ports on said coast between Cardenas and Bahia Honda, and the
port of Cienfuegos, on the south coast of Cuba,[14] and on the 23d I
called for volunteers to execute the purpose of the resolution.[15] By
my message of April 25 the Congress was informed of the situation, and
I recommended formal declaration of the existence of a state of war
between the United States and Spain. [16] The Congress accordingly voted
on the same day the act approved April 25, 1898, declaring the existence
of such war from and including the 21st day of April,[17] and reenacted
the provision of the resolution of April 20 directing the President
to use all the armed forces of the nation to carry that act into
effect.[18] Due notification of the existence of war as aforesaid was
given April 25 by telegraph to all the governments with which the
United States maintain relations, in order that their neutrality
might be assured during the war. The various governments responded with
proclamations of neutrality, each after its own methods. It is not among
the least gratifying incidents of the struggle that the obligations of
neutrality were impartially discharged by all, often under delicate and
difficult circumstances.

In further fulfillment of international duty I issued, April 26, 1898, a
proclamation announcing the treatment proposed to be accorded to vessels
and their cargoes as to blockade, contraband, the exercise of the right
of search, and the immunity of neutral flags and neutral goods under
enemy's flag.[19] A similar proclamation was made by the Spanish
Government. In the conduct of hostilities the rules of the Declaration
of Paris, including abstention from resort to privateering, have
accordingly been observed by both belligerents, although neither was a
party to that declaration.

Our country thus, after an interval of half a century of peace with all
nations, found itself engaged in deadly conflict with a foreign enemy.
Every nerve was strained to meet the emergency. The response to the
initial call for 125,000 volunteers[20] was instant and complete, as was
also the result of the second call, of May 25, for 75,000 additional
volunteers.[21] The ranks of the Regular Army were increased to the
limits provided by the act of April 26, 1898.

The enlisted force of the Navy on the 15th day of August, when it
reached its maximum, numbered 24,123 men and apprentices. One hundred
and three vessels were added to the Navy by purchase, 1 was presented
to the Government, 1 leased, and the 4 vessels of the International
Navigation Company--the _St. Paul_, _St. Louis_, _New York_, and
_Paris_--were chartered. In addition to these the revenue cutters
and lighthouse tenders were turned over to the Navy Department and
became temporarily a part of the auxiliary Navy.

The maximum effective fighting force of the Navy during the war,
separated into classes, was as follows:

Four battle ships of the first class, 1 battle ship of the second
class, 2 armored cruisers, 6 coast-defense monitors, 1 armored ram,
12 protected cruisers, 3 unprotected cruisers, 18 gunboats, 1 dynamite
cruiser, 11 torpedo boats; vessels of the old Navy, including monitors,
14. Auxiliary Navy: 11 auxiliary cruisers, 28 converted yachts, 27
converted tugs, 19 converted colliers, 15 revenue cutters, 4 light-house
tenders, and 19 miscellaneous vessels.

Much alarm was felt along our entire Atlantic seaboard lest some attack
might be made by the enemy. Every precaution was taken to prevent
possible injury to our great cities lying along the coast. Temporary
garrisons were provided, drawn from the State militia; infantry and
light batteries were drawn from the volunteer force. About 12,000 troops
were thus employed. The coast signal service was established for
observing the approach of an enemy's ships to the coast of the United
States, and the Life-Saving and Light-House services cooperated, which
enabled the Navy Department to have all portions of the Atlantic coast,
from Maine to Texas, under observation.

The auxiliary Navy was created under the authority of Congress and was
officered and manned by the Naval Militia of the several States. This
organization patrolled the coast and performed the duty of a second line
of defense.

Under the direction of the Chief of Engineers submarine mines were
placed at the most exposed points. Before the outbreak of the war
permanent mining casemates and cable galleries had been constructed at
nearly all important harbors. Most of the torpedo material was not to be
found in the market, and had to be specially manufactured. Under date
of April 19 district officers were directed to take all preliminary
measures short of the actual attaching of the loaded mines to the
cables, and on April 22 telegraphic orders were issued to place the
loaded mines in position.

The aggregate number of mines placed was 1,535, at the principal harbors
from Maine to California. Preparations were also made for the planting
of mines at certain other harbors, but owing to the early destruction of
the Spanish fleet these mines were not placed.

The Signal Corps was promptly organized, and performed service of the
most difficult and important character. Its operations during the war
covered the electrical connection of all coast fortifications, the
establishment of telephonic and telegraphic facilities for the camps at
Manila, Santiago, and in Puerto Rico. There were constructed 300 miles
of line at ten great camps, thus facilitating military movements from
those points in a manner heretofore unknown in military administration.
Field telegraph lines were established and maintained under the enemy's
fire at Manila, and later the Manila-Hongkong cable was reopened.

In Puerto Rico cable communications were opened over a discontinued
route, and on land the headquarters of the commanding officer was kept
in telegraphic or telephonic communication with the division commanders
on four different lines of operations.

There was placed in Cuban waters a completely outfitted cable ship,
with war cables and cable gear, suitable both for the destruction of
communications belonging to the enemy and the establishment of our own.
Two ocean cables were destroyed under the enemy's batteries at Santiago.
The day previous to the landing of General Shafter's corps, at
Caimanera, within 20 miles of the landing place, cable communications
were established and a cable station opened giving direct communication
with the Government at Washington. This service was invaluable to the
Executive in directing the operations of the Army and Navy. With a total
force of over 1,300, the loss was by disease in camp and field, officers
and men included, only 5.

The national-defense fund of $50,000,000 was expended in large part
by the Army and Navy, and the objects for which it was used are fully
shown in the reports of the several Secretaries. It was a most timely
appropriation, enabling the Government to strengthen its defenses and
make preparations greatly needed in case of war.

This fund being inadequate to the requirements of equipment and for the
conduct of the war, the patriotism of the Congress provided the means in
the war-revenue act of June 13 by authorizing a 3 per cent popular loan
not to exceed $400,000,000 and by levying additional imposts and taxes.
Of the authorized loan $200,000,000 were offered and promptly taken, the
subscriptions so far exceeding the call as to cover it many times over,
while, preference being given to the smaller bids, no single allotment
exceeded $5,000. This was a most encouraging and significant result,
showing the vast resources of the nation and the determination of the
people to uphold their country's honor.

It is not within the province of this message to narrate the history of
the extraordinary war that followed the Spanish declaration of April 21,
but a brief recital of its more salient features is appropriate.

The first encounter of the war in point of date took place April 27,
when a detachment of the blockading squadron made a reconnoissance in
force at Matanzas, shelled the harbor forts, and demolished several new
works in construction.

The next engagement was destined to mark a memorable epoch in maritime
warfare. The Pacific fleet, under Commodore George Dewey, had lain for
some weeks at Hongkong. Upon the colonial proclamation of neutrality
being issued and the customary twenty-four hours' notice being given,
it repaired to Mirs Bay, near Hongkong, whence it proceeded to the
Philippine Islands under telegraphed orders to capture or destroy the
formidable Spanish fleet then assembled at Manila. At daybreak on the
1st of May the American force entered Manila Bay, and after a few
hours' engagement effected the total destruction of the Spanish fleet,
consisting of ten war ships and a transport, besides capturing the naval
station and forts at Cavite, thus annihilating the Spanish naval power
in the Pacific Ocean and completely controlling the bay of Manila, with
the ability to take the city at will. Not a life was lost on our ships,
the wounded only numbering seven, while not a vessel was materially
injured. For this gallant achievement the Congress, upon my
recommendation, fitly bestowed upon the actors preferment and
substantial reward.

The effect of this remarkable victory upon the spirit of our people and
upon the fortunes of the war was instant. A prestige of invincibility
thereby attached to our arms which continued throughout the struggle.
Reenforcements were hurried to Manila under the command of Major-General
Merritt and firmly established within sight of the capital, which lay
helpless before our guns.

On the 7th day of May the Government was advised officially of the
victory at Manila, and at once inquired of the commander of our fleet
what troops would be required. The information was received on the 15th
day of May, and the first army expedition sailed May 25 and arrived off
Manila June 30. Other expeditions soon followed, the total force
consisting of 641 officers and 15,058 enlisted men.

Only reluctance to cause needless loss of life and property prevented
the early storming and capture of the city, and therewith the absolute
military occupancy of the whole group. The insurgents meanwhile had
resumed the active hostilities suspended by the uncompleted truce of
December, 1897. Their forces invested Manila from the northern and
eastern sides, but were constrained by Admiral Dewey and General Merritt
from attempting an assault. It was fitting that whatever was to be done
in the way of decisive operations in that quarter should be accomplished
by the strong arm of the United States alone. Obeying the stern precept
of war which enjoins the overcoming of the adversary and the extinction
of his power wherever assailable as the speedy and sure means to win a
peace, divided victory was not permissible, for no partition of the
rights and responsibilities attending the enforcement of a just and
advantageous peace could be thought of.

Following the comprehensive scheme of general attack, powerful forces
were assembled at various points on our coast to invade Cuba and Puerto
Rico. Meanwhile naval demonstrations were made at several exposed
points. On May 11 the cruiser _Wilmington_ and torpedo boat
_Winslow_ were unsuccessful in an attempt to silence the batteries
at Cardenas, a gallant ensign, Worth Bagley, and four seamen falling.
These grievous fatalities were, strangely enough, among the very few
which occurred during our naval operations in this extraordinary
conflict.

Meanwhile the Spanish naval preparations had been pushed with great
vigor. A powerful squadron under Admiral Cervera, which had assembled at
the Cape Verde Islands before the outbreak of hostilities, had crossed
the ocean, and by its erratic movements in the Caribbean Sea delayed our
military plans while baffling the pursuit of our fleets. For a time
fears were felt lest the _Oregon_ and _Marietta_, then nearing
home after their long voyage from San Francisco of over 15,000 miles,
might be surprised by Admiral Cervera's fleet, but their fortunate
arrival dispelled these apprehensions and lent much-needed
reenforcement. Not until Admiral Cervera took refuge in the harbor of
Santiago de Cuba, about May 19, was it practicable to plan a systematic
naval and military attack upon the Antillean possessions of Spain.

Several demonstrations occurred on the coasts of Cuba and Puerto Rico in
preparation for the larger event. On May 13 the North Atlantic Squadron
shelled San Juan de Puerto Rico. On May 30 Commodore Schley's squadron
bombarded the forts guarding the mouth of Santiago Harbor. Neither
attack had any material result. It was evident that well-ordered land
operations were indispensable to achieve a decisive advantage.

The next act in the war thrilled not alone the hearts of our countrymen
but the world by its exceptional heroism. On the night of June 3
Lieutenant Hobson, aided by seven devoted volunteers, blocked the narrow
outlet from Santiago Harbor by sinking the collier _Merrimac_ in
the channel, under a fierce fire from the shore batteries, escaping with
their lives as by a miracle, but falling into the hands of the
Spaniards. It is a most gratifying incident of the war that the bravery
of this little band of heroes was cordially appreciated by the Spanish
admiral, who sent a flag of truce to notify Admiral Sampson of their
safety and to compliment them on their daring act. They were
subsequently exchanged July 7.

By June 7 the cutting of the last Cuban cable isolated the island.
Thereafter the invasion was vigorously prosecuted. On June 10, under a
heavy protecting fire, a landing of 600 marines from the _Oregon_,
_Marblehead_, and _Yankee_ was effected in Guantanamo Bay, where it had
been determined to establish a naval station.

This important and essential port was taken from the enemy, after severe
fighting, by the marines, who were the first organized force of the
United States to land in Cuba.

The position so won was held despite desperate attempts to dislodge
our forces. By June 16 additional forces were landed and strongly
intrenched. On June 22 the advance of the invading army under
Major-General Shafter landed at Daiquiri, about 15 miles east of
Santiago. This was accomplished under great difficulties, but with
marvelous dispatch. On June 23 the movement against Santiago was begun.
On the 24th the first serious engagement took place, in which the First
and Tenth Cavalry and the First United States Volunteer Cavalry, General
Young's brigade of General Wheeler's division, participated, losing
heavily. By nightfall, however, ground within 5 miles of Santiago was
won. The advantage was steadily increased. On July 1 a severe battle
took place, our forces gaining the outworks of Santiago; on the 2d El
Caney and San Juan were taken after a desperate charge, and the
investment of the city was completed. The Navy cooperated by shelling
the town and the coast forts.

On the day following this brilliant achievement of our land forces, the
3d of July, occurred the decisive naval combat of the war. The Spanish
fleet, attempting to leave the harbor, was met by the American squadron
under command of Commodore Sampson. In less than three hours all the
Spanish ships were destroyed, the two torpedo boats being sunk and the
_Maria Teresa_, _Almirante Oquendo_, _Vizcaya_, and _Cristóbal Colón_
driven ashore. The Spanish admiral and over 1,300 men were taken
prisoners. While the enemy's loss of life was deplorably large, some 600
perishing, on our side but one man was killed, on the _Brooklyn_, and
one man seriously wounded. Although our ships were repeatedly struck,
not one was seriously injured. Where all so conspicuously distinguished
themselves, from the commanders to the gunners and the unnamed heroes in
the boiler rooms, each and all contributing toward the achievement of
this astounding victory, for which neither ancient nor modern history
affords a parallel in the completeness of the event and the marvelous
disproportion of casualties, it would be invidious to single out any for
especial honor. Deserved promotion has rewarded the more conspicuous
actors. The nation's profoundest gratitude is due to all of these brave
men who by their skill and devotion in a few short hours crushed the sea
power of Spain and wrought a triumph whose decisiveness and far-reaching
consequences can scarcely be measured. Nor can we be unmindful of the
achievements of our builders, mechanics, and artisans for their skill in
the construction of our war ships.

With the catastrophe of Santiago Spain's effort upon the ocean virtually
ceased. A spasmodic effort toward the end of June to send her
Mediterranean fleet, under Admiral Camara, to relieve Manila was
abandoned, the expedition being recalled after it had passed through the
Suez Canal.

The capitulation of Santiago followed. The city was closely besieged by
land, while the entrance of our ships into the harbor cut off all relief
on that side. After a truce to allow of the removal of noncombatants
protracted negotiations continued from July 3 until July 15, when, under
menace of immediate assault, the preliminaries of surrender were agreed
upon. On the 17th General Shafter occupied the city. The capitulation
embraced the entire eastern end of Cuba. The number of Spanish soldiers
surrendering was 22,000, all of whom were subsequently conveyed to Spain
at the charge of the United States. The story of this successful
campaign is told in the report of the Secretary of War, which will be
laid before you. The individual valor of officers and soldiers was never
more strikingly shown than in the several engagements leading to the
surrender of Santiago, while the prompt movements and successive
victories won instant and universal applause. To those who gained this
complete triumph, which established the ascendency of the United States
upon land as the fight off Santiago had fixed our supremacy on the seas,
the earnest and lasting gratitude of the nation is unsparingly due. Nor
should we alone remember the gallantry of the living; the dead claim our
tears, and our losses by battle and disease must cloud any exultation at
the result and teach us to weigh the awful cost of war, however rightful
the cause or signal the victory.

With the fall of Santiago the occupation of Puerto Rico became the next
strategic necessity. General Miles had previously been assigned to
organize an expedition for that purpose. Fortunately he was already at
Santiago, where he had arrived on the 11th of July with reenforcements
for General Shafter's army.

With these troops, consisting of 3,415 infantry and artillery, two
companies of engineers, and one company of the Signal Corps, General
Miles left Guantanamo on July 21, having nine transports convoyed by the
fleet under Captain Higginson with the _Massachusetts_ (flagship), _Dixie_,
_Gloucester_, _Columbia_, and _Yale_, the two latter carrying troops.
The expedition landed at Guanica July 25, which port was entered with
little opposition. Here the fleet was joined by the _Annapolis_ and
the _Wasp_, while the _Puritan_ and _Amphitrite_ went to San Juan and
joined the _New Orleans_, which was engaged in blockading that port. The
Major-General Commanding was subsequently reenforced by General Schwan's
brigade of the Third Army Corps, by General Wilson with a part of his
division, and also by General Brooke with a part of his corps, numbering
in all 16,973 officers and men.

On July 27 he entered Ponce, one of the most important ports in the
island, from which he thereafter directed operations for the capture of
the island.

With the exception of encounters with the enemy at Guayama,
Hormigueros, Coarno, and Yauco and an attack on a force landed at Cape
San Juan, there was no serious resistance. The campaign was prosecuted
with great vigor, and by the 12th of August much of the island was in
our possession and the acquisition of the remainder was only a matter
of a short time. At most of the points in the island our troops were
enthusiastically welcomed. Protestations of loyalty to the flag and
gratitude for delivery from Spanish rule met our commanders at every
stage. As a potent influence toward peace the outcome of the Puerto
Rican expedition was of great consequence, and generous commendation
is due to those who participated in it.

The last scene of the war was enacted at Manila, its starting place. On
August 15, after a brief assault upon the works by the land forces, in
which the squadron assisted, the capital surrendered unconditionally.
The casualties were comparatively few. By this the conquest of the
Philippine Islands, virtually accomplished when the Spanish capacity for
resistance was destroyed by Admiral Dewey's victory of the 1st of May,
was formally sealed. To General Merritt, his officers and men, for their
uncomplaining and devoted service and for their gallantry in action, the
nation is sincerely grateful. Their long voyage was made with singular
success, and the soldierly conduct of the men, most of whom were without
previous experience in the military service, deserves unmeasured praise.

The total casualties in killed and wounded in the Army during the war
with Spain were: Officers killed, 23; enlisted men killed, 257; total,
280; officers wounded, 113; enlisted men wounded, 1,464; total, 1,577.
Of the Navy: Killed, 17; wounded, 67; died as result of wounds, 1;
invalided from service, 6; total, 91.

It will be observed that while our Navy was engaged in two great battles
and in numerous perilous undertakings in blockade and bombardment, and
more than 50,000 of our troops were transported to distant lands and
were engaged in assault and siege and battle and many skirmishes in
unfamiliar territory, we lost in both arms of the service a total of
1,668 killed and wounded; and in the entire campaign by land and sea we
did not lose a gun or a flag or a transport or a ship, and, with the
exception of the crew of the _Merrimac_, not a soldier or sailor
was taken prisoner.

On August 7, forty-six days from the date of the landing of General
Shafter's army in Cuba and twenty-one days from the surrender of
Santiago, the United States troops commenced embarkation for home, and
our entire force was returned to the United States as early as August
24. They were absent from the United States only two months.

It is fitting that I should bear testimony to the patriotism and
devotion of that large portion of our Army which, although eager to be
ordered to the post of greatest exposure, fortunately was not required
outside of the United States. They did their whole duty, and, like their
comrades at the front, have earned the gratitude of the nation. In like
manner, the officers and men of the Army and of the Navy who remained
in their departments and stations faithfully performing most important
duties connected with the war, and whose requests for assignment in the
field and at sea I was compelled to refuse because their services were
indispensable here, are entitled to the highest commendation. It is my
regret that there seems to be no provision for their suitable
recognition.

In this connection it is a pleasure for me to mention in terms of
cordial appreciation the timely and useful work of the American National
Red Cross, both in relief measures preparatory to the campaigns, in
sanitary assistance at several of the camps of assemblage, and later,
under the able and experienced leadership of the president of the
society, Miss Clara Barton, on the fields of battle and in the hospitals
at the front in Cuba. Working in conjunction with the governmental
authorities and under their sanction and approval, and with the
enthusiastic cooperation of many patriotic women and societies in the
various States, the Red Cross has fully maintained its already high
reputation for intense earnestness and ability to exercise the noble
purposes of its international organization, thus justifying the
confidence and support which it has received at the hands of the
American people. To the members and officers of this society and all who
aided them in their philanthropic work the sincere and lasting gratitude
of the soldiers and the public is due and is freely accorded.

In tracing these events we are constantly reminded of our obligations to
the Divine Master for His watchful care over us and His safe guidance,
for which the nation makes reverent acknowledgment and offers humble
prayer for the continuance of His favor.

The annihilation of Admiral Cervera's fleet, followed by the
capitulation of Santiago, having brought to the Spanish Government
a realizing sense of the hopelessness of continuing a struggle now
become wholly unequal, it made overtures of peace through the French
ambassador, who, with the assent of his Government, had acted as the
friendly representative of Spanish interests during the war. On the
26th of July M. Cambon presented a communication signed by the Duke of
Almodóvar, the Spanish minister of state, inviting the United States to
state the terms upon which it would be willing to make peace. On the
30th of July, by a communication addressed to the Duke of Almodóvar
and handed to M. Cambon, the terms of this Government were announced
substantially as in the protocol afterwards signed. On the 10th of
August the Spanish reply, dated August 7, was handed by M. Cambon to the
Secretary of State. It accepted unconditionally the terms imposed as to
Cuba, Puerto Rico, and an island of the Ladrones group, but appeared to
seek to introduce inadmissible reservations in regard to our demand as
to the Philippine Islands. Conceiving that discussion on this point
could neither be practical nor profitable, I directed that in order
to avoid misunderstanding the matter should be forthwith closed by
proposing the embodiment in a formal protocol of the terms upon which
the negotiations for peace were to be undertaken. The vague and
inexplicit suggestions of the Spanish note could not be accepted, the
only reply being to present as a virtual ultimatum a draft of protocol
embodying the precise terms tendered to Spain in our note of July 30,
with added stipulations of detail as to the appointment of commissioners
to arrange for the evacuation of the Spanish Antilles. On August 12
M. Cambon announced his receipt of full powers to sign the protocol
so submitted. Accordingly, on the afternoon of August 12, M. Cambon,
as the plenipotentiary of Spain, and the Secretary of State, as the
plenipotentiary of the United States, signed a protocol providing--

  ARTICLE I. Spain will relinquish all claim of sovereignty over and title
  to Cuba.

  ART. II. Spain will cede to the United States the island of Puerto Rico
  and other islands now under Spanish sovereignty in the West Indies, and
  also an island in the Ladrones to be selected by the United States.

  ART. III. The United States will occupy and hold the city, bay, and
  harbor of Manila pending the conclusion of a treaty of peace which shall
  determine the control, disposition, and government of the Philippines.


The fourth article provided for the appointment of joint commissions on
the part of the United States and Spain, to meet in Havana and San Juan,
respectively, for the purpose of arranging and carrying out the details
of the stipulated evacuation of Cuba, Puerto Rico, and other Spanish
islands in the West Indies.

The fifth article provided for the appointment of not more than five
commissioners on each side, to meet at Paris not later than October 1
and to proceed to the negotiation and conclusion of a treaty of peace,
subject to ratification according to the respective constitutional forms
of the two countries.

The sixth and last article provided that upon the signature of the
protocol hostilities between the two countries should be suspended and
that notice to that effect should be given as soon as possible by each
Government to the commanders of its military and naval forces.

Immediately upon the conclusion of the protocol I issued a proclamation,
of August 12,[22] suspending hostilities on the part of the United
States. The necessary orders to that end were at once given by
telegraph. The blockade of the ports of Cuba and San Juan de Puerto Rico
was in like manner raised. On the 18th of August the muster out of
100,000 volunteers, or as near that number as was found to be
practicable, was ordered.

On the 1st of December 101,165 officers and men had been mustered out
and discharged from the service, and 9,002 more will be mustered out
by the 10th of this month; also a corresponding number of general and
general staff officers have been honorably discharged the service.

The military commissions to superintend the evacuation of Cuba, Puerto
Rico, and the adjacent islands were forthwith appointed--for Cuba,
Major-General James F. Wade, Rear-Admiral William T. Sampson,
Major-General Matthew C. Butler; for Puerto Rico, Major-General John R.
Brooke, Rear-Admiral Winfield S. Schley, Brigadier-General William W.
Gordon--who soon afterwards met the Spanish commissioners at Havana and
San Juan, respectively. The Puerto Rican Joint Commission speedily
accomplished its task, and by the 18th of October the evacuation of the
island was completed. The United States flag was raised over the island
at noon on that day. The administration of its affairs has been
provisionally intrusted to a military governor until the Congress shall
otherwise provide. The Cuban Joint Commission has not yet terminated its
labors. Owing to the difficulties in the way of removing the large
numbers of Spanish troops still in Cuba, the evacuation can not be
completed before the 1st of January next.

Pursuant to the fifth article of the protocol, I appointed William R.
Day, lately Secretary of State; Cushman K. Davis, William P. Frye, and
George Gray, Senators of the United States, and Whitelaw Reid to be the
peace commissioners on the part of the United States. Proceeding in due
season to Paris, they there met on the 1st of October five commissioners
similarly appointed on the part of Spain. Their negotiations have made
hopeful progress, so that I trust soon to be able to lay a definitive
treaty of peace before the Senate, with a review of the steps leading
to its signature.

I do not discuss at this time the government or the future of the new
possessions which will come to us as the result of the war with Spain.
Such discussion will be appropriate after the treaty of peace shall
be ratified. In the meantime and until the Congress has legislated
otherwise it will be my duty to continue the military governments which
have existed since our occupation and give to the people security in
life and property and encouragement under a just and beneficent rule.

As soon as we are in possession of Cuba and have pacified the island
it will be necessary to give aid and direction to its people to form
a government for themselves. This should be undertaken at the earliest
moment consistent with safety and assured success. It is important that
our relations with this people shall be of the most friendly character
and our commercial relations close and reciprocal. It should be our
duty to assist in every proper way to build up the waste places of the
island, encourage the industry of the people, and assist them to form a
government which shall be free and independent, thus realizing the best
aspirations of the Cuban people.

Spanish rule must be replaced by a just, benevolent, and humane
government, created by the people of Cuba, capable of performing all
international obligations, and which shall encourage thrift, industry,
and prosperity and promote peace and good will among all of the
inhabitants, whatever may have been their relations in the past. Neither
revenge nor passion should have a place in the new government. Until
there is complete tranquillity in the island and a stable government
inaugurated military occupation will be continued.

With the one exception of the rupture with Spain, the intercourse of
the United States with the great family of nations has been marked with
cordiality, and the close of the eventful year finds most of the issues
that necessarily arise in the complex relations of sovereign states
adjusted or presenting no serious obstacle to a just and honorable
solution by amicable agreement.

A long unsettled dispute as to the extended boundary between the
Argentine Republic and Chile, stretching along the Andean crests from
the southern border of the Atacama Desert to Magellan Straits, nearly a
third of the length of the South American continent, assumed an acute
stage in the early part of the year, and afforded to this Government
occasion to express the hope that the resort to arbitration, already
contemplated by existing conventions between the parties, might prevail
despite the grave difficulties arising in its application. I am happy to
say that arrangements to this end have been perfected, the questions of
fact upon which the respective commissioners were unable to agree being
in course of reference to Her Britannic Majesty for determination.
A residual difference touching the northern boundary line across the
Atacama Desert, for which existing treaties provided no adequate
adjustment, bids fair to be settled in like manner by a joint
commission, upon which the United States minister at Buenos Ayres has
been invited to serve as umpire in the last resort.

I have found occasion to approach the Argentine Government with a view
to removing differences of rate charges imposed upon the cables of an
American corporation in the transmission between Buenos Ayres and the
cities of Uruguay and Brazil of through messages passing from and
to the United States. Although the matter is complicated by exclusive
concessions by Uruguay and Brazil to foreign companies, there is strong
hope that a good understanding will be reached and that the important
channels of commercial communication between the United States and the
Atlantic cities of South America may be freed from an almost prohibitory
discrimination.

In this relation I may be permitted to express my sense of the fitness
of an international agreement whereby the interchange of messages over
connecting cables may be regulated on a fair basis of uniformity.
The world has seen the postal system developed from a congeries of
independent and exclusive services into a well-ordered union, of which
all countries enjoy the manifold benefits. It would be strange were the
nations not in time brought to realize that modern civilization, which
owes so much of its progress to the annihilation of space by the
electric force, demands that this all-important means of communication
be a heritage of all peoples, to be administered and regulated in their
common behoof. A step in this direction was taken when the international
convention of 1884 for the protection of submarine cables was signed,
and the day is, I trust, not far distant when this medium for the
transmission of thought from land to land may be brought within the
domain of international concert as completely as is the material
carriage of commerce and correspondence upon the face of the waters
that divide them.

The claim of Thomas Jefferson Page against Argentina, which has been
pending many years, has been adjusted. The sum awarded by the Congress
of Argentina was $4,242.35.

The sympathy of the American people has justly been offered to the ruler
and the people of Austria-Hungary by reason of the affliction that has
lately befallen them in the assassination of the Empress-Queen of that
historic realm.

On the 10th of September, 1897, a conflict took place at Lattimer, Pa.,
between a body of striking miners and the sheriff of Luzerne County and
his deputies, in which 22 miners were killed and 44 wounded, of whom
10 of the killed and 12 of the wounded were Austrian and Hungarian
subjects. This deplorable event naturally aroused the solicitude of the
Austro-Hungarian Government, which, on the assumption that the killing
and wounding involved the unjustifiable misuse of authority, claimed
reparation for the sufferers. Apart from the searching investigation and
peremptory action of the authorities of Pennsylvania, the Federal
Executive took appropriate steps to learn the merits of the case, in
order to be in a position to meet the urgent complaint of a friendly
power. The sheriff and his deputies, having been indicted for murder,
were tried, and acquitted, after protracted proceedings and the hearing
of hundreds of witnesses, on the ground that the killing was in the line
of their official duty to uphold law and preserve public order in the
State. A representative of the Department of Justice attended the trial
and reported its course fully. With all the facts in its possession,
this Government expects to reach a harmonious understanding on the
subject with that of Austria-Hungary, notwithstanding the renewed claim
of the latter, after learning the result of the trial, for indemnity for
its injured subjects.

Despite the brief time allotted for preparation, the exhibits of this
country at the Universal Exposition at Brussels in 1897 enjoyed the
singular distinction of a larger proportion of awards, having regard
to the number and classes of articles entered than those of other
countries. The worth of such a result in making known our national
capacity to supply the world's markets is obvious.

Exhibitions of this international character are becoming more frequent
as the exchanges of commercial countries grow more intimate and varied.
Hardly a year passes that this Government is not invited to national
participation at some important foreign center, but often on too short
notice to permit of recourse to Congress for the power and means to do
so. My predecessors have suggested the advisability of providing by
a general enactment and a standing appropriation for accepting such
invitations and for representation of this country by a commission.
This plan has my cordial approval.

I trust that the Belgian restrictions on the importation of cattle from
the United States, originally adopted as a sanitary precaution, will at
an early day be relaxed as to their present features of hardship and
discrimination, so as to admit live cattle under due regulation of their
slaughter after landing. I am hopeful, too, of favorable change in
the Belgian treatment of our preserved and salted meats. The growth
of direct trade between the two countries, not alone for Belgian
consumption and Belgian products, but by way of transit from and to
other continental states, has been both encouraging and beneficial. No
effort will be spared to enlarge its advantages by seeking the removal
of needless impediments and by arrangements for increased commercial
exchanges.

The year's events in Central America deserve more than passing mention.

A menacing rupture between Costa Rica and Nicaragua was happily composed
by the signature of a convention between the parties, with the
concurrence of the Guatemalan representative as a mediator, the act
being negotiated and signed on board the United States steamer
_Alert_, then lying in Central American waters. It is believed that
the good offices of our envoy and of the commander of that vessel
contributed toward this gratifying outcome.

In my last annual message the situation was presented with respect to
the diplomatic representation of this Government in Central America
created by the association of Nicaragua, Honduras, and Salvador under
the title of the Greater Republic of Central America, and the delegation
of their international functions to the Diet thereof. While the
representative character of the Diet was recognized by my predecessor
and has been confirmed during my Administration by receiving its
accredited envoy and granting exequaturs to consuls commissioned under
its authority, that recognition was qualified by the distinct
understanding that the responsibility of each of the component sovereign
Republics toward the United States remained wholly unaffected.

This proviso was needful inasmuch as the compact of the three
Republics was at the outset an association whereby certain
representative functions were delegated to a tripartite commission
rather than a federation possessing centralized powers of government
and administration. In this view of their relation and of the
relation of the United States to the several Republics, a change
in the representation of this country in Central America was neither
recommended by the Executive nor initiated by Congress, thus leaving one
of our envoys accredited, as heretofore, separately to two States of the
Greater Republic, Nicaragua and Salvador, and to a third State, Costa
Rica, which was not a party to the compact, while our other envoy was
similarly accredited to a union State, Honduras, and a nonunion State,
Guatemala. The result has been that the one has presented credentials
only to the President of Costa Rica, the other having been received only
by the Government of Guatemala.

Subsequently the three associated Republics entered into negotiations
for taking the steps forecast in the original compact. A convention of
their delegates framed for them a federal constitution under the name of
the United States of Central America, and provided for a central federal
government and legislature. Upon ratification by the constituent States,
the 1st of November last was fixed for the new system to go into
operation. Within a few weeks thereafter the plan was severely tested
by revolutionary movements arising, with a consequent demand for unity
of action on the part of the military power of the federal States to
suppress them. Under this strain the new union seems to have been
weakened through the withdrawal of its more important members. This
Government was not officially advised of the installation of the
federation and has maintained an attitude of friendly expectancy, while
in no wise relinquishing the position held from the outset that the
responsibilities of the several States toward us remained unaltered by
their tentative relations among themselves.

The Nicaragua Canal Commission, under the chairmanship of Rear-Admiral
John G. Walker, appointed July 24, 1897, under the authority of a
provision in the sundry civil act of June 4 of that year, has nearly
completed its labors, and the results of its exhaustive inquiry into the
proper route, the feasibility, and the cost of construction of an
interoceanic canal by a Nicaraguan route will be laid before you. In the
performance of its task the commission received all possible courtesy
and assistance from the Governments of Nicaragua and Costa Rica, which
thus testified their appreciation of the importance of giving a speedy
and practical outcome to the great project that has for so many years
engrossed the attention of the respective countries.

As the scope of the recent inquiry embraced the whole subject, with the
aim of making plans and surveys for a canal by the most convenient
route, it necessarily included a review of the results of previous
surveys and plans, and in particular those adopted by the Maritime Canal
Company under its existing concessions from Nicaragua and Costa Rica, so
that to this extent those grants necessarily hold as essential a part
in the deliberations and conclusions of the Canal Commission as they
have held and must needs hold in the discussion of the matter by the
Congress. Under these circumstances and in view of overtures made to the
Governments of Nicaragua and Costa Rica by other parties for a new canal
concession predicated on the assumed approaching lapse of the contracts
of the Maritime Canal Company with those States, I have not hesitated
to express my conviction that considerations of expediency and
international policy as between the several governments interested in
the construction and control of an interoceanic canal by this route
require the maintenance of the _status quo_ until the Canal
Commission shall have reported and the United States Congress shall have
had the opportunity to pass finally upon the whole matter during the
present session, without prejudice by reason of any change in the
existing conditions.

Nevertheless, it appears that the Government of Nicaragua, as one
of its last sovereign acts before merging its powers in those of the
newly formed United States of Central America, has granted an optional
concession to another association, to become effective on the expiration
of the present grant. It does not appear what surveys have been made
or what route is proposed under this contingent grant, so that an
examination of the feasibility of its plans is necessarily not embraced
in the report of the Canal Commission. All these circumstances suggest
the urgency of some definite action by the Congress at this session
if the labors of the past are to be utilized and the linking of the
Atlantic and Pacific oceans by a practical waterway is to be realized.
That the construction of such a maritime highway is now more than ever
indispensable to that intimate and ready intercommunication between our
eastern and western seaboards demanded by the annexation of the Hawaiian
Islands and the prospective expansion of our influence and commerce in
the Pacific, and that our national policy now more imperatively than
ever calls for its control by this Government, are propositions which
I doubt not the Congress will duly appreciate and wisely act upon.

A convention providing for the revival of the late United States and
Chilean Claims Commission and the consideration of claims which were
duly presented to the late commission, but not considered because of the
expiration of the time limited for the duration of the commission, was
signed May 24, 1897, and has remained unacted upon by the Senate. The
term therein fixed for effecting the exchange of ratifications having
elapsed, the convention falls unless the time be extended by amendment,
which I am endeavoring to bring about, with the friendly concurrence of
the Chilean Government.

The United States has not been an indifferent spectator of the
extraordinary events transpiring in the Chinese Empire, whereby portions
of its maritime provinces are passing under the control of various
European powers; but the prospect that the vast commerce which the
energy of our citizens and the necessity of our staple productions for
Chinese uses has built up in those regions may not be prejudiced through
any exclusive treatment by the new occupants has obviated the need of
our country becoming an actor in the scene. Our position among nations,
having a large Pacific coast and a constantly expanding direct trade
with the farther Orient, gives us the equitable claim to consideration
and friendly treatment in this regard, and it will be my aim to subserve
our large interests in that quarter by all means appropriate to the
constant policy of our Government. The territories of Kiao-chow, of
Wei-hai-wei, and of Port Arthur and Talienwan, leased to Germany,
Great Britain, and Russia, respectively, for terms of years, will,
it is announced, be open to international commerce during such alien
occupation; and if no discriminating treatment of American citizens and
their trade be found to exist or be hereafter developed, the desire of
this Government would appear to be realized.

In this relation, as showing the volume and value of our exchanges with
China and the peculiarly favorable conditions which exist for their
expansion in the normal course of trade, I refer to the communication
addressed to the Speaker of the House of Representatives by the
Secretary of the Treasury on the 14th of last June, with its
accompanying letter of the Secretary of State, recommending an
appropriation for a commission to study the commercial and industrial
conditions in the Chinese Empire and report as to the opportunities
for and obstacles to the enlargement of markets in China for the
raw products and manufactures of the United States. Action was not
taken thereon during the late session. I cordially urge that the
recommendation receive at your hands the consideration which its
importance and timeliness merit.

Meanwhile there may be just ground for disquietude in view of the unrest
and revival of the old sentiment of opposition and prejudice to alien
people which pervades certain of the Chinese provinces. As in the case
of the attacks upon our citizens in Szechuen and at Kutien in 1895, the
United States minister has been instructed to secure the fullest measure
of protection, both local and imperial, for any menaced American
interests, and to demand, in case of lawless injury to person or
property, instant reparation appropriate to the case. War ships have
been stationed at Tientsin for more ready observation of the disorders
which have invaded even the Chinese capital, so as to be in a position
to act should need arise, while a guard of marines has been sent to
Peking to afford the minister the same measure of authoritative
protection as the representatives of other nations have been constrained
to employ.

Following close upon the rendition of the award of my predecessor as
arbitrator of the claim of the Italian subject Cerruti against the
Republic of Colombia, differences arose between the parties to the
arbitration in regard to the scope and extension of the award, of which
certain articles were contested by Colombia, while Italy claimed their
literal fulfillment. The award having been made by the President of the
United States, as an act of friendly consideration and with the sole
view to an impartial composition of the matter in dispute, I could
not but feel deep concern at such a miscarriage, and while unable to
accept the Colombian theory that I, in my official capacity, possessed
continuing functions as arbitrator, with power to interpret or revise
the terms of the award, my best efforts were lent to bring the parties
to a harmonious agreement as to the execution of its provisions.

A naval demonstration by Italy resulted in an engagement to pay
the liabilities claimed upon their ascertainment; but this apparent
disposition of the controversy was followed by a rupture of diplomatic
intercourse between Colombia and Italy, which still continues, although,
fortunately, without acute symptoms having supervened. Notwithstanding
this, efforts are reported to be continuing for the ascertainment of
Colombia's contingent liability on account of Cerruti's debts under the
fifth article of the award.

A claim of an American citizen against the Dominican Republic for
a public bridge over the Ozama River, which has been in diplomatic
controversy for several years, has been settled by expert arbitration
and an award in favor of the claimant amounting to about $90,000. It,
however, remains unpaid, despite urgent demands for its settlement
according to the terms of the compact.

There is now every prospect that the participation of the United States
in the Universal Exposition to be held in Paris in 1900 will be on a
scale commensurate with the advanced position held by our products and
industries in the world's chief marts.

The preliminary report of Mr. Moses P. Handy, who, under the act
approved July 19, 1897, was appointed special commissioner with a view
to securing all attainable information necessary to a full and complete
understanding by Congress in regard to the participation of this
Government in the Paris Exposition, was laid before you by my message
of December 6, 1897, and showed the large opportunities opened to make
known our national progress in arts, science, and manufactures, as
well as the urgent need of immediate and adequate provision to enable
due advantage thereof to be taken. Mr. Handy's death soon afterwards
rendered it necessary for another to take up and complete his unfinished
work, and on January 11 last Mr. Thomas W. Cridler, Third Assistant
Secretary of State, was designated to fulfill that task. His report was
laid before you by my message of June 14, 1898, with the gratifying
result of awakening renewed interest in the projected display. By a
provision in the sundry civil appropriation act of July 1, 1898, a sum
not to exceed $650,000 was allotted for the organization of a commission
to care for the proper preparation and installation of American exhibits
and for the display of suitable exhibits by the several Executive
Departments, particularly by the Department of Agriculture, the Fish
Commission, and the Smithsonian Institution, in representation of the
Government of the United States.

Pursuant to that enactment I appointed Mr. Ferdinand W. Peck, of
Chicago, commissioner-general, with an assistant commissioner-general
and a secretary. Mr. Peck at once proceeded to Paris, where his success
in enlarging the scope and variety of the United States exhibit has
been most gratifying. Notwithstanding the comparatively limited area
of the exposition site--less than one-half that of the World's Fair at
Chicago--the space assigned to the United States has been increased from
the absolute allotment of 157,403 square feet reported by Mr. Handy to
some 202,000 square feet, with corresponding augmentation of the field
for a truly characteristic representation of the various important
branches of our country's development. Mr. Peck's report will be laid
before you. In my judgment its recommendations will call for your early
consideration, especially as regards an increase of the appropriation to
at least one million dollars in all, so that not only may the assigned
space be fully taken up by the best possible exhibits in every class,
but the preparation and installation be on so perfect a scale as to
rank among the first in that unparalleled competition of artistic and
inventive production, and thus counterbalance the disadvantage with
which we start as compared with other countries whose appropriations are
on a more generous scale and whose preparations are in a state of much
greater forwardness than our own.

Where our artisans have the admitted capacity to excel, where our
inventive genius has initiated many of the grandest discoveries of these
later days of the century, and where the native resources of our land
are as limitless as they are valuable to supply the world's needs, it is
our province, as it should be our earnest care, to lead in the march of
human progress, and not rest content with any secondary place. Moreover,
if this be due to ourselves, it is no less due to the great French
nation whose guests we become, and which has in so many ways testified
its wish and hope that our participation shall befit the place the two
peoples have won in the field of universal development.

The commercial arrangement made with France on the 28th of May, 1898,
under the provisions of section 3 of the tariff act of 1897, went into
effect on the 1st day of June following. It has relieved a portion of
our export trade from serious embarrassment. Further negotiations
are now pending under section 4 of the same act with a view to the
increase of trade between the two countries to their mutual advantage.
Negotiations with other governments, in part interrupted by the war with
Spain, are in progress under both sections of the tariff act. I hope to
be able to announce some of the results of these negotiations during the
present session of Congress.

Negotiations to the same end with Germany have been set on foot.
Meanwhile no effort has been relaxed to convince the Imperial Government
of the thoroughness of our inspection of pork products for exportation,
and it is trusted that the efficient administration of this measure by
the Department of Agriculture will be recognized as a guaranty of the
healthfulness of the food staples we send abroad to countries where
their use is large and necessary.

I transmitted to the Senate on the 10th of February last information
touching the prohibition against the importation of fresh fruits from
this country, which had then recently been decreed by Germany on the
ground of danger of disseminating the San José scale insect. This
precautionary measure was justified by Germany on the score of the
drastic steps taken in several States of the Union against the spread of
the pest, the elaborate reports of the Department of Agriculture being
put in evidence to show the danger to German fruit-growing interests
should the scale obtain a lodgment in that country. Temporary relief was
afforded in the case of large consignments of fruit then on the way by
inspection and admission when found noninfected. Later the prohibition
was extended to dried fruits of every kind, but was relaxed so as to
apply only to unpeeled fruit and fruit waste. As was to be expected, the
alarm reached to other countries, and Switzerland has adopted a similar
inhibition. Efforts are in progress to induce the German and Swiss
Governments to relax the prohibition in favor of dried fruits shown to
have been cured under circumstances rendering the existence of animal
life impossible.

Our relations with Great Britain have continued on the most friendly
footing. Assenting to our request, the protection of Americans and their
interests in Spanish jurisdiction was assumed by the diplomatic and
consular representatives of Great Britain, who fulfilled their delicate
and arduous trust with tact and zeal, eliciting high commendation.
I may be allowed to make fitting allusion to the instance of Mr. Ramsden,
Her Majesty's consul at Santiago de Cuba, whose untimely death after
distinguished service and untiring effort during the siege of that city
was sincerely lamented.

In the early part of April last, pursuant to a request made at the
instance of the Secretary of State by the British ambassador at this
capital, the Canadian government granted facilities for the passage of
four United States revenue cutters from the Great Lakes to the Atlantic
coast by way of the Canadian canals and the St. Lawrence River. The
vessels had reached Lake Ontario and were there awaiting the opening of
navigation when war was declared between the United States and Spain.
Her Majesty's Government thereupon, by a communication of the latter
part of April, stated that the permission granted before the outbreak of
hostilities would not be withdrawn provided the United States Government
gave assurance that the vessels in question would proceed direct to
a United States port without engaging in any hostile operation.
This Government promptly agreed to the stipulated condition, it being
understood that the vessels would not be prohibited from resisting any
hostile attack.

It will give me especial satisfaction if I shall be authorized to
communicate to you a favorable conclusion of the pending negotiations
with Great Britain in respect to the Dominion of Canada. It is the
earnest wish of this Government to remove all sources of discord and
irritation in our relations with the neighboring Dominion. The trade
between the two countries is constantly increasing, and it is important
to both countries that all reasonable facilities should be granted for
its development.

The Government of Greece strongly urges the onerousness of the duty here
imposed upon the currants of that country, amounting to 100 per cent or
more of their market value. This fruit is stated to be exclusively a
Greek product, not coming into competition with any domestic product.
The question of reciprocal commercial relations with Greece, including
the restoration of currants to the free list, is under consideration.

The long-standing claim of Bernard Campbell for damages for injuries
sustained from a violent assault committed against him by military
authorities in the island of Haiti has been settled by the agreement of
that Republic to pay him $10,000 in American gold. Of this sum $5,000
has already been paid. It is hoped that other pending claims of American
citizens against that Republic may be amicably adjusted.

Pending the consideration by the Senate of the treaty signed June 16,
1897, by the plenipotentiaries of the United States and of the Republic
of Hawaii, providing for the annexation of the islands, a joint
resolution to accomplish the same purpose by accepting the offered
cession and incorporating the ceded territory into the Union was adopted
by the Congress and approved July 7, 1898. I thereupon directed the
United States steamship _Philadelphia_ to convey Rear-Admiral
Miller to Honolulu, and intrusted to his hands this important
legislative act, to be delivered to the President of the Republic of
Hawaii, with whom the Admiral and the United States minister were
authorized to make appropriate arrangements for transferring the
sovereignty of the islands to the United States. This was simply but
impressively accomplished on the 12th of August last by the delivery of
a certified copy of the resolution to President Dole, who thereupon
yielded up to the representative of the Government of the United States
the sovereignty and public property of the Hawaiian Islands.

Pursuant to the terms of the joint resolution and in exercise of
the authority thereby conferred upon me, I directed that the civil,
judicial, and military powers theretofore exercised by the officers of
the Government of the Republic of Hawaii should continue to be exercised
by those officers until Congress shall provide a government for the
incorporated territory, subject to my power to remove such officers and
to fill vacancies. The President, officers, and troops of the Republic
thereupon took the oath of allegiance to the United States, thus
providing for the uninterrupted continuance of all the administrative
and municipal functions of the annexed territory until Congress shall
otherwise enact.

Following the further provision of the joint resolution, I appointed the
Hons. Shelby M. Cullom, of Illinois, John T. Morgan, of Alabama, Robert
R. Hitt, of Illinois, Sanford B. Dole, of Hawaii, and Walter F. Frear,
of Hawaii, as commissioners to confer and recommend to Congress such
legislation concerning the Hawaiian Islands as they should deem
necessary or proper. The commissioners having fulfilled the mission
confided to them, their report will be laid before you at an early day.
It is believed that their recommendations will have the earnest
consideration due to the magnitude of the responsibility resting upon
you to give such shape to the relationship of those mid-Pacific lands to
our home Union as will benefit both in the highest degree, realizing the
aspirations of the community that has cast its lot with us and elected
to share our political heritage, while at the same time justifying the
foresight of those who for three-quarters of a century have looked to
the assimilation of Hawaii as a natural and inevitable consummation, in
harmony with our needs and in fulfillment of our cherished traditions.

The questions heretofore pending between Hawaii and Japan growing out
of the alleged mistreatment of Japanese treaty immigrants were, I am
pleased to say, adjusted before the act of transfer by the payment of
a reasonable indemnity to the Government of Japan.

Under the provisions of the joint resolution, the existing customs
relations of the Hawaiian Islands with the United States and with other
countries remain unchanged until legislation shall otherwise provide.
The consuls of Hawaii here and in foreign countries continue to fulfill
their commercial agencies, while the United States consulate at Honolulu
is maintained for all appropriate services pertaining to trade and the
revenue. It would be desirable that all foreign consuls in the Hawaiian
Islands should receive new exequaturs from this Government.

The attention of Congress is called to the fact that, our consular
offices having ceased to exist in Hawaii and being about to cease in
other countries coming under the sovereignty of the United States, the
provisions for the relief and transportation of destitute American
seamen in these countries under our consular regulations will in
consequence terminate. It is proper, therefore, that new legislation
should be enacted upon this subject in order to meet the changed
conditions.

The interpretation of certain provisions of the extradition convention
of December 11, 1861, has been at various times the occasion of
controversy with the Government of Mexico. An acute difference arose in
the case of the Mexican demand for the delivery of Jesús Guerra, who,
having led a marauding expedition near the border with the proclaimed
purpose of initiating an insurrection against President Diaz, escaped
into Texas. Extradition was refused on the ground that the alleged
offense was political in its character, and therefore came within the
treaty proviso of nonsurrender. The Mexican contention was that the
exception only related to purely political offenses, and that as
Guerra's acts were admixed with the common crime of murder, arson,
kidnaping, and robbery, the option of nondelivery became void, a
position which this Government was unable to admit in view of the
received international doctrine and practice in the matter. The Mexican
Government, in view of this, gave notice January 24, 1898, of the
termination of the convention, to take effect twelve months from that
date, at the same time inviting the conclusion of a new convention,
toward which negotiations are on foot.

In this relation I may refer to the necessity of some amendment of
our existing extradition statute. It is a common stipulation of such
treaties that neither party shall be bound to give up its own citizens,
with the added proviso in one of our treaties, that with Japan, that it
may surrender if it see fit. It is held in this country by an almost
uniform course of decisions that where a treaty negatives the obligation
to surrender the President is not invested with legal authority to act.
The conferment of such authority would be in the line of that sound
morality which shrinks from affording secure asylum to the author of a
heinous crime. Again, statutory provision might well be made for what is
styled extradition by way of transit, whereby a fugitive surrendered by
one foreign government to another may be conveyed across the territory
of the United States to the jurisdiction of the demanding state.
A recommendation in this behalf made in the President's message of
1886[23] was not acted upon. The matter is presented for your
consideration.

The problem of the Mexican free zone has been often discussed with
regard to its inconvenience as a provocative of smuggling into the
United States along an extensive and thinly guarded land border.
The effort made by the joint resolution of March 1, 1895, to remedy the
abuse charged by suspending the privilege of free transportation in
bond across the territory of the United States to Mexico failed of good
result, as is stated in Report No. 702 of the House of Representatives,
submitted in the last session, March 11, 1898. As the question is one to
be conveniently met by wise concurrent legislation of the two countries
looking to the protection of the revenues by harmonious measures
operating equally on either side of the boundary, rather than by
conventional arrangements, I suggest that Congress consider the
advisability of authorizing and inviting a conference of representatives
of the Treasury Departments of the United States and Mexico to consider
the subject in all its complex bearings, and make report with pertinent
recommendations to the respective Governments for the information and
consideration of their Congresses.

The Mexican Water Boundary Commission has adjusted all matters
submitted to it to the satisfaction of both Governments save in three
important cases--that of the "Chamizal" at El Paso, Tex., where the two
commissioners failed to agree, and wherein, for this case only, this
Government has proposed to Mexico the addition of a third member; the
proposed elimination of what are known as "Bancos," small isolated
islands formed by the cutting off of bends in the Rio Grande, from
the operation of the treaties of 1884 and 1889, recommended by the
commissioners and approved by this Government, but still under
consideration by Mexico; and the subject of the "Equitable distribution
of the waters of the Rio Grande," for which the commissioners
recommended an international dam and reservoir, approved by Mexico, but
still under consideration by this Government. Pending these questions
it is necessary to extend the life of the commission, which expires
December 23 next.

The coronation of the young Queen of the Netherlands was made the
occasion of fitting congratulations.

The claim of Victor H. McCord against Peru, which for a number of
years has been pressed by this Government and has on several occasions
attracted the attention of the Congress, has been satisfactorily
adjusted. A protocol was signed May 17, 1898, whereby, the fact of
liability being admitted, the question of the amount to be awarded was
submitted to the chief justice of Canada as sole arbitrator. His award
sets the indemnity due the claimant at $40,000.

The Government of Peru has given the prescribed notification of its
intention to abrogate the treaty of friendship, commerce, and navigation
concluded with this country August 31, 1887. As that treaty contains
many important provisions necessary to the maintenance of commerce
and good relations, which could with difficulty be replaced by the
negotiation of renewed provisions within the brief twelve months
intervening before the treaty terminates, I have invited suggestions by
Peru as to the particular provisions it is desired to annul, in the hope
of reaching an arrangement whereby the remaining articles may be
provisionally saved.

His Majesty the Czar having announced his purpose to raise the
Imperial Russian mission at this capital to the rank of an embassy,
I responded, under the authority conferred by the act of March 3,
1893, by commissioning and accrediting the actual representative
at St. Petersburg in the capacity of ambassador extraordinary and
plenipotentiary. The Russian ambassador to this country has since
presented his credentials.

The proposal of the Czar for a general reduction of the vast military
establishments that weigh so heavily upon many peoples in time of peace
was communicated to this Government with an earnest invitation to be
represented in the conference which it is contemplated to assemble with
a view to discussing the means of accomplishing so desirable a result.
His Majesty was at once informed of the cordial sympathy of this
Government with the principle involved in his exalted proposal and of
the readiness of the United States to take part in the conference.
The active military force of the United States, as measured by our
population, territorial area, and taxable wealth, is, and under any
conceivable prospective conditions must continue to be, in time of peace
so conspicuously less than that of the armed powers to whom the Czar's
appeal is especially addressed that the question can have for us no
practical importance save as marking an auspicious step toward the
betterment of the condition of the modern peoples and the cultivation
of peace and good will among them; but in this view it behooves us as
a nation to lend countenance and aid to the beneficent project.

The claims of owners of American sealing vessels for seizure by Russian
cruisers in Bering Sea are being pressed to a settlement. The equities
of the cases justify the expectation that a measure of reparation will
eventually be accorded in harmony with precedent and in the light of the
proven facts.

The recommendation made in my special message of April 27 last is
renewed, that appropriation be made to reimburse the master and owners
of the Russian bark _Hans_ for wrongful arrest of the master and
detention of the vessel in February, 1896, by officers of the United
States district court for the southern district of Mississippi. The
papers accompanying my said message make out a most meritorious claim
and justify the urgency with which it has been presented by the
Government of Russia.

Malietoa Laupepa, King of Samoa, died on August 22 last. According to
Article I of the general act of Berlin, "his successor shall be duly
elected according to the laws and customs of Samoa."

Arrangements having been agreed upon between the signatories of the
general act for the return of Mataafa and the other exiled Samoan
chiefs, they were brought from Jaluit by a German war vessel and landed
at Apia on September 18 last.

Whether the death of Malietoa and the return of his old-time rival
Mataafa will add to the undesirable complications which the execution of
the tripartite general act has heretofore developed remains to be seen.
The efforts of this Government will, as heretofore, be addressed toward
a harmonious and exact fulfillment of the terms of the international
engagement to which the United States became a party in 1889.

The Cheek claim against Siam, after some five years of controversy, has
been adjusted by arbitration under an agreement signed July 6, 1897, an
award of 706,721 ticals (about $187,987.78), with release of the Cheek
estate from mortgage claims, having been rendered March 21, 1898, in
favor of the claimant by the arbitrator, Sir Nicholas John Hannen,
British chief justice for China and Japan.

An envoy from Siam has been accredited to this Government and has
presented his credentials.

Immediately upon the outbreak of the war with Spain the Swiss
Government, fulfilling the high mission it has deservedly assumed as the
patron of the International Red Cross, proposed to the United States and
Spain that they should severally recognize and carry into execution,
as a _modus vivendi_, during the continuance of hostilities, the
additional articles proposed by the international conference of Geneva,
October 20, 1868, extending the effects of the existing Red Cross
convention of 1864 to the conduct of naval war. Following the example
set by France and Germany in 1870 in adopting such a _modus vivendi_,
and in view of the accession of the United States to those additional
articles in 1882, although the exchange of ratifications thereof still
remained uneffected, the Swiss proposal was promptly and cordially
accepted by us, and simultaneously by Spain.

This Government feels a keen satisfaction in having thus been enabled to
testify its adherence to the broadest principles of humanity even amidst
the clash of war, and it is to be hoped that the extension of the Red
Cross compact to hostilities by sea as well as on land may soon become
an accomplished fact through the general promulgation of the additional
naval Red Cross articles by the maritime powers now parties to the
convention of 1864.

The important question of the claim of Switzerland to the perpetual
cantonal allegiance of American citizens of Swiss origin has not made
hopeful progress toward a solution, and controversies in this regard
still continue.

The newly accredited envoy of the United States to the Ottoman Porte
carries instructions looking to the disposal of matters in controversy
with Turkey for a number of years. He is especially charged to press for
a just settlement of our claims for indemnity by reason of the
destruction of the property of American missionaries resident in that
country during the Armenian troubles of 1895, as well as for the
recognition of older claims of equal justness.

He is also instructed to seek an adjustment of the dispute growing
out of the refusal of Turkey to recognize the acquired citizenship of
Ottoman-born persons naturalized in the United States since 1869 without
prior imperial consent, and in the same general relation he is directed
to endeavor to bring about a solution of the question which has more or
less acutely existed since 1869 concerning the jurisdictional rights of
the United States in matters of criminal procedure and punishment under
Article IV of the treaty of 1830. This latter difficulty grows out of a
verbal difference, claimed by Turkey to be essential, between the
original Turkish text and the promulgated translation.

After more than two years from the appointment of a consul of this
country to Erzerum, he has received his exequatur.

The arbitral tribunal appointed under the treaty of February 2, 1897,
between Great Britain and Venezuela, to determine the boundary line
between the latter and the colony of British Guiana, is to convene at
Paris during the present month. It is a source of much gratification to
this Government to see the friendly resort of arbitration applied to the
settlement of this controversy, not alone because of the earnest part we
have had in bringing about the result, but also because the two members
named on behalf of Venezuela, Mr. Chief Justice Fuller and Mr. Justice
Brewer, chosen from our highest court, appropriately testify the
continuing interest we feel in the definitive adjustment of the question
according to the strictest rules of justice. The British members,
Lord Herschell and Sir Richard Collins, are jurists of no less exalted
repute, while the fifth member and president of the tribunal, M.F.
De Martens, has earned a world-wide reputation as an authority upon
international law.

The claim of Felipe Scandella against Venezuela for arbitrary expulsion
and injury to his business has been adjusted by the revocation of the
order of expulsion and by the payment of the sum of $16,000.

I have the satisfaction of being able to state that the Bureau of
the American Republics, created in 1890 as the organ for promoting
commercial intercourse and fraternal relations among the countries of
the Western Hemisphere, has become a more efficient instrument of the
wise purposes of its founders, and is receiving the cordial support of
the contributing members of the international union which are actually
represented in its board of management. A commercial directory, in two
volumes, containing a mass of statistical matter descriptive of the
industrial and commercial interests of the various countries, has been
printed in English, Spanish, Portuguese, and French, and a monthly
bulletin published in these four languages and distributed in the
Latin-American countries as well as in the United States has proved to
be a valuable medium for disseminating information and furthering the
varied interests of the international union.

During the past year the important work of collecting information of
practical benefit to American industries and trade through the agency
of the diplomatic and consular officers has been steadily advanced, and
in order to lay such data before the public with the least delay the
practice was begun in January, 1898, of issuing the commercial reports
from day to day as they are received by the Department of State. It is
believed that for promptitude as well as fullness of information the
service thus supplied to our merchants and manufacturers will be found
to show sensible improvement and to merit the liberal support of
Congress.

The experiences of the last year bring forcibly home to us a sense of
the burdens and the waste of war. We desire, in common with most
civilized nations, to reduce to the lowest possible point the damage
sustained in time of war-by peaceable trade and commerce. It is true we
may suffer in such cases less than other communities, but all nations
are damaged more or less by the state of uneasiness and apprehension
into which an outbreak of hostilities throws the entire commercial
world. It should be our object, therefore, to minimize, so far as
practicable, this inevitable loss and disturbance. This purpose can
probably best be accomplished by an international agreement to regard
all private property at sea as exempt from capture or destruction by the
forces of belligerent powers. The United States Government has for many
years advocated this humane and beneficent principle, and is now in
position to recommend it to other powers without the imputation of
selfish motives. I therefore suggest for your consideration that the
Executive be authorized to correspond with the governments of the
principal maritime powers with a view of incorporating into the
permanent law of civilized nations the principle of the exemption of
all private property at sea, not contraband of war, from capture or
destruction by belligerent powers.

The Secretary of the Treasury reports that the receipts of the
Government from all sources during the fiscal year ended June 30,
1898, including $64,751,223 received from sale of Pacific railroads,
amounted to $405,321,335 and its expenditures to $443,368,582. There
was collected from customs $149,575,062 and from internal revenue
$170,900,641. Our dutiable imports amounted to $324,635,479, a decrease
of $58,156,690 over the preceding year, and importations free of duty
amounted to $291,414,175, a decrease from the preceding year of
$90,524,068. Internal-revenue receipts exceeded those of the preceding
year by $24,212,067.

The total tax collected on distilled spirits was $92,546,999;
on manufactured tobacco, $36,230,522, and on fermented liquors,
$39,515,421. We exported merchandise during the year amounting to
$1,231,482,330, an increase of $180,488,774 from the preceding year.

It is estimated upon the basis of present revenue laws that the
receipts of the Government for the year ending June 30, 1899, will
be $577,874,647, and its expenditures $689,874,647, resulting in a
deficiency of $112,000,000.

On the 1st of December, 1898, there was held in the Treasury gold coin
amounting to $138,441,547, gold bullion amounting to $138,502,545,
silver bullion amounting to $93,359,250, and other forms of money
amounting to $451,963,981.

On the same date the amount of money of all kinds in circulation, or not
included in Treasury holdings, was $1,886,879,504, an increase for the
year of $165,794,966. Estimating our population at 75,194,000 at the
time mentioned, the per capita circulation was $25.09. On the same date
there was in the Treasury gold bullion amounting to $138,502,545.

The provisions made for strengthening the resources of the Treasury in
connection with the war have given increased confidence in the purpose
and power of the Government to maintain the present standard, and have
established more firmly than ever the national credit at home and
abroad. A marked evidence of this is found in the inflow of gold to the
Treasury. Its net gold holdings on November 1, 1898, were $239,885,162
as compared with $153,573,147 on November 1, 1897, and an increase of
net cash of $207,756,100, November 1, 1897, to $300,238,275, November 1,
1898. The present ratio of net Treasury gold to outstanding Government
liabilities, including United States notes, Treasury notes of 1890,
silver certificates, currency certificates, standard silver dollars,
and fractional silver coin, November 1, 1898, was 25.35 per cent, as
compared with 16.96 per cent, November 1, 1897.

I renew so much of my recommendation of December, 1897, as follows:

  That when any of the United States notes are presented for redemption
  in gold and are redeemed in gold, such notes shall be kept and set
  apart and only paid out in exchange for gold. This is an obvious duty.
  If the holder of the United States note prefers the gold and gets it
  from the Government, he should not receive back from the Government a
  United States note without paying gold in exchange for it. The reason
  for this is made all the more apparent when the Government issues an
  interest-bearing debt to provide gold for the redemption of United
  States notes--a non-interest-bearing debt. Surely it should not pay
  them out again except on demand and for gold. If they are put out in
  any other way, they may return again, to be followed by another bond
  issue to redeem them--another interest-bearing debt to redeem a
  non-interest-bearing debt.


This recommendation was made in the belief that such provisions of law
would insure to a greater degree the safety of the present standard, and
better protect our currency from the dangers to which it is subjected
from a disturbance in the general business conditions of the country.

In my judgment the present condition of the Treasury amply justifies the
immediate enactment of the legislation recommended one year ago, under
which a portion of the gold holdings should be placed in a trust fund
from which greenbacks should be redeemed upon presentation, but when
once redeemed should not thereafter be paid out except for gold.

It is not to be inferred that other legislation relating to our currency
is not required; on the contrary, there is an obvious demand for it.

The importance of adequate provision which will insure to our future a
money standard related as our money standard now is to that of our
commercial rivals is generally recognized.

The companion proposition that our domestic paper currency shall be kept
safe and yet be so related to the needs of our industries and internal
commerce as to be adequate and responsive to such needs is a proposition
scarcely less important. The subject, in all its parts, is commended to
the wise consideration of the Congress.

The annexation of Hawaii and the changed relations of the United States
to Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines resulting from the war, compel
the prompt adoption of a maritime policy by the United States. There
should be established regular and frequent steamship communication,
encouraged by the United States, under the American flag, with the newly
acquired islands. Spain furnished to its colonies, at an annual cost of
about $2,000,000, steamship lines communicating with a portion of the
world's markets, as well as with trade centers of the home Government.
The United States will not undertake to do less. It is our duty to
furnish the people of Hawaii with facilities, under national control,
for their export and import trade. It will be conceded that the present
situation calls for legislation which shall be prompt, durable, and
liberal.

The part which American merchant vessels and their seamen performed
in the war with Spain demonstrates that this service, furnishing both
pickets and the second line of defense, is a national necessity, and
should be encouraged in every constitutional way. Details and methods
for the accomplishment of this purpose are discussed in the report of
the Secretary of the Treasury, to which the attention of Congress is
respectfully invited.

In my last annual message I recommended that Congress authorize the
appointment of a commission for the purpose of making systematic
investigations with reference to the cause and prevention of yellow
fever. This matter has acquired an increased importance as a result
of the military occupation of the island of Cuba and the commercial
intercourse between this island and the United States which we have
every reason to expect. The sanitary problems connected with our new
relations with the island of Cuba and the acquisition of Puerto Rico
are no less important than those relating to finance, commerce, and
administration. It is my earnest desire that these problems may be
considered by competent experts and that everything may be done
which the most recent advances in sanitary science can offer for the
protection of the health of our soldiers in those islands and of
our citizens who are exposed to the dangers of infection from the
importation of yellow fever. I therefore renew my recommendation that
the authority of Congress may be given and a suitable appropriation made
to provide for a commission of experts to be appointed for the purpose
indicated.

Under the act of Congress approved April 26, 1898, authorizing the
President in his discretion, "upon a declaration of war by Congress, or
a declaration by Congress that war exists," I directed the increase of
the Regular Army to the maximum of 62,000, authorized in said act.

There are now in the Regular Army 57,862 officers and men. In said act
it was provided--

  That at the end of any war in which the United States may become
  involved the Army shall be reduced to a peace basis by the transfer
  in the same arm of the service or absorption by promotion or honorable
  discharge, under such regulations as the Secretary of War may establish,
  of supernumerary commissioned officers and the honorable discharge or
  transfer of supernumerary enlisted men; and nothing contained in this
  act shall be construed as authorizing the permanent increase of the
  commissioned or enlisted force of the Regular Army beyond that now
  provided by the law in force prior to the passage of this act,
  except as to the increase of twenty-five majors provided for in
  section I hereof.


The importance of legislation for the permanent increase of the Army is
therefore manifest, and the recommendation of the Secretary of War for
that purpose has my unqualified approval. There can be no question that
at this time, and probably for some time in the future, 100,000 men
will be none too many to meet the necessities of the situation. At all
events, whether that number shall be required permanently or not, the
power should be given to the President to enlist that force if in his
discretion it should be necessary; and the further discretion should
be given him to recruit for the Army within the above limit from the
inhabitants of the islands with the government of which we are charged.
It is my purpose to muster out the entire Volunteer Army as soon as the
Congress shall provide for the increase of the regular establishment.
This will be only an act of justice and will be much appreciated by the
brave men who left their homes and employments to help the country in
its emergency.

In my last annual message I stated:

  The Union Pacific Railway, main line, was sold under the decree of the
  United States court for the district of Nebraska on the 1st and 2d of
  November of this year. The amount due the Government consisted of the
  principal of the subsidy bonds, $27,236,512, and the accrued interest
  thereon, $31,211,711.75, making the total indebtedness $58,448,223.75.
  The bid at the sale covered the first-mortgage lien and the entire
  mortgage claim of the Government, principal and interest.


This left the Kansas Pacific case unconcluded. By a decree of the court
in that case an upset price for the property was fixed at a sum which
would yield to the Government only $2,500,000 upon its lien. The sale,
at the instance of the Government, was postponed first to December 15,
1897, and later, upon the application of the United States, was
postponed to the 16th day of February, 1898.

Having satisfied myself that the interests of the Government required
that an effort should be made to obtain a larger sum, I directed the
Secretary of the Treasury, under the act passed March 3, 1887, to pay
out of the Treasury to the persons entitled to receive the same the
amounts due upon all prior mortgages upon the Eastern and Middle
divisions of said railroad out of any money in the Treasury not
otherwise appropriated, whereupon the Attorney-General prepared a
petition to be presented to the court, offering to redeem said prior
liens in such manner as the court might direct, and praying that
thereupon the United States might be held to be subrogated to all the
rights of said prior lien holders and that a receiver might be appointed
to take possession of the mortgaged premises and maintain and operate
the same until the court or Congress otherwise directed. Thereupon the
reorganization committee agreed that if said petition was withdrawn and
the sale allowed to proceed on the 16th of February, 1898, they would
bid a sum at the sale which would realize to the Government the entire
principal of its debt, $6,303,000.

Believing that no better price could be obtained and appreciating the
difficulties under which the Government would labor if it should become
the purchaser of the road at the sale, in the absence of any authority
by Congress to take charge of and operate the road I directed that upon
the guaranty of a minimum bid which should give the Government the
principal of its debt the sale should proceed. By this transaction the
Government secured an advance of $3,803,000 over and above the sum which
the court had fixed as the upset price, and which the reorganization
committee had declared was the maximum which they would pay for the
property.

It is a gratifying fact that the result of these proceedings against the
Union Pacific system and the Kansas Pacific line is that the Government
has received on account of its subsidy claim the sum of $64,751,223.75,
an increase of $18,997,163.76 over the sum which the reorganization
committee originally agreed to bid for the joint property, the
Government receiving its whole claim, principal and interest, on the
Union Pacific, and the principal of its debt on the Kansas Pacific
Railroad.

Steps had been taken to foreclose the Government's lien upon the Central
Pacific Railroad Company, but before action was commenced Congress
passed an act, approved July 7, 1898, creating a commission consisting
of the Secretary of the Treasury, the Attorney-General, and the
Secretary of the Interior, and their successors in office, with full
power to settle the indebtedness to the Government growing out of the
issue of bonds in aid of the construction of the Central Pacific and
Western Pacific bond-aided railroads, subject to the approval of the
President.

No report has yet been made to me by the commission thus created.
Whatever action is had looking to a settlement of the indebtedness in
accordance with the act referred to will be duly submitted to the
Congress.

I deem it my duty to call to the attention of Congress the condition of
the present building occupied by the Department of Justice. The business
of that Department has increased very greatly since it was established
in its present quarters. The building now occupied by it is neither
large enough nor of suitable arrangement for the proper accommodation of
the business of the Department. The Supervising Architect has pronounced
it unsafe and unsuited for the use to which it is put. The
Attorney-General in his report states that the library of the Department
is upon the fourth floor, and that all the space allotted to it is so
crowded with books as to dangerously overload the structure. The first
floor is occupied by the Court of Claims. The building is of an old and
dilapidated appearance, unsuited to the dignity which should attach to
this important Department.

A proper regard for the safety, comfort, and convenience of the officers
and employees would justify the expenditure of a liberal sum of money in
the erection of, a new building of commodious proportions and handsome
appearance upon the very advantageous site already secured for that
purpose, including the ground occupied by the present structure and
adjoining vacant lot, comprising in all a frontage of 201 feet on
Pennsylvania avenue and a depth of 136 feet.

In this connection I may likewise refer to the inadequate accommodations
provided for the Supreme Court in the Capitol, and suggest the wisdom of
making provision for the erection of a separate building for the court
and its officers and library upon available ground near the Capitol.

The postal service of the country advances with extraordinary growth.
Within twenty years both the revenues and the expenditures of the
Post-Office Department have multiplied threefold. In the last ten years
they have nearly doubled. Our postal business grows much more rapidly
than our population. It now involves an expenditure of $100,000,000 a
year, numbers 73,000 post-offices, and enrolls 200,000 employees. This
remarkable extension of a service which is an accurate index of the
public conditions presents gratifying evidence of the advancement of
education, of the increase of communication and business activity, and
of the improvement of mail facilities leading to their constantly
augmenting use.

The war with Spain laid new and exceptional labors on the Post-Office
Department. The mustering of the military and naval forces of the United
States required special mail arrangements for every camp and every
campaign. The communication between home and camp was naturally eager
and expectant. In some of the larger places of rendezvous as many as
50,000 letters a day required handling. This necessity was met by the
prompt detail and dispatch of experienced men from the established force
and by directing all the instrumentalities of the railway mail and
post-office service, so far as necessary, to this new need. Congress
passed an act empowering the Postmaster-General to establish offices or
branches at every military camp or station, and under this authority the
postal machinery was speedily put into effective operation.

Under the same authority, when our forces moved upon Cuba, Puerto
Rico, and the Philippines they were attended and followed by the postal
service. Though the act of Congress authorized the appointment of
postmasters where necessary, it was early determined that the public
interests would best be subserved, not by new designations, but by the
detail of experienced men familiar with every branch of the service,
and this policy was steadily followed. When the territory which was the
theater of conflict came into our possession, it became necessary to
reestablish mail facilities for the resident population as well as to
provide them for our forces of occupation, and the former requirement
was met through the extension and application of the latter obligation.
I gave the requisite authority, and the same general principle was
applied to this as to other branches of civil administration under
military occupation. The details are more particularly given in the
report of the Postmaster-General, and, while the work is only just
begun, it is pleasing to be able to say that the service in the
territory which has come under our control is already materially
improved.

The following recommendations of the Secretary of the Navy relative to
the increase of the Navy have my earnest approval:

1. Three seagoing sheathed and coppered battle ships of about 13,500
tons trial displacement, carrying the heaviest armor and most powerful
ordnance for vessels of their class, and to have the highest practicable
speed and great radius of action. Estimated cost, exclusive of armor and
armament, $3,600,000 each.

2. Three sheathed and coppered armored cruisers of about 12,000 tons
trial displacement, carrying the heaviest armor and most powerful
ordnance for vessels of their class, and to have the highest practicable
speed and great radius of action. Estimated cost, exclusive of armor and
armament, $4,000,000 each.

3. Three sheathed and coppered protected cruisers of about 6,000 tons
trial displacement, to have the highest practicable speed and great
radius of action, and to carry the most powerful ordnance suitable for
vessels of their class. Estimated cost, exclusive of armor and armament,
$2,150,000 each.

4. Six sheathed and coppered cruisers of about 2,500 tons trial
displacement, to have the highest speed compatible with good cruising
qualities, great radius of action, and to carry the most powerful
ordnance suited to vessels of their class. Estimated cost, exclusive
of armament, $1,141,800 each.

I join with the Secretary of the Navy in recommending that the grades
of admiral and vice-admiral be temporarily revived, to be filled by
officers who have specially distinguished themselves in the war with
Spain.

I earnestly urge upon Congress the importance of early legislation
providing for the taking of the Twelfth Census. This is necessary in
view of the large amount of work which must be performed in the
preparation of the schedules preparatory to the enumeration of the
population.

There were on the pension rolls on June 30, 1898, 993,714 names, an
increase of nearly 18,000 over the number on the rolls on the same day
of the preceding year. The amount appropriated by the act of December
22, 1896, for the payment of pensions for the fiscal year of 1898
was $140,000,000. Eight million seventy thousand eight hundred and
seventy-two dollars and forty-six cents was appropriated by the act of
March 31, 1898, to cover deficiencies in army pensions, and repayments
in the sum of $12,020.33, making a total of $148,082,892.79 available
for the payment of pensions during the fiscal year 1898. The amount
disbursed from that sum was $144,651,879.80, leaving a balance of
$3,431,012.99 unexpended on the 30th of June, 1898, which was covered
into the Treasury. There were 389 names added to the rolls during the
year by special acts passed at the second session of the Fifty-fifth
Congress, making a total of 6,486 pensioners by Congressional enactments
since 1861.

The total receipts of the Patent Office during the past year were
$1,253,948.44. The expenditures were $1,081,633.79, leaving a surplus
of $172,314.65.

The public lands disposed of by the Government during the year reached
8,453,896.92 acres, an increase of 614,780.26 acres over the previous
year. The total receipts from public lands during the fiscal year
amounted to $2,277,995.18, an increase of $190,063.90 over the preceding
year. The lands embraced in the eleven forest reservations which were
suspended by the act of June 4, 1897, again became subject to the
operations of the proclamations of February 22, 1897, creating them,
which added an estimated amount of 19,951,360 acres to the area embraced
in the reserves previously created. In addition thereto two new reserves
were created during the year--the Pine Mountain and Zaca Lake Reserve,
in California, embracing 1,644,594 acres, and the Prescott Reserve, in
Arizona, embracing 10,240 acres--while the Pecos River Reserve, in New
Mexico, has been changed and enlarged to include 120,000 additional
acres.

At the close of the year thirty forest reservations, not including those
of the Afognak Forest and the Fish-Culture Reserve, in Alaska, had been
created by Executive proclamations under section 24 of the act of March
3, 1891, embracing an estimated area of 40,719,474 acres.

The Department of the Interior has inaugurated a forest system, made
possible by the act of July, 1898, for a graded force of officers in
control of the reserves. This system has only been in full operation
since August, but good results have already been secured in many
sections. The reports received indicate that the system of patrol has
not only prevented destructive fires from gaining headway, but has
diminished the number of fires.

The special attention of the Congress is called to that part of
the report of the Secretary of the Interior in relation to the Five
Civilized Tribes. It is noteworthy that the general condition of the
Indians shows marked progress. But one outbreak of a serious character
occurred during the year, and that among the Chippewa Indians of
Minnesota, which happily has been suppressed.

While it has not yet been practicable to enforce all the provisions
of the act of June 28, 1898, "for the protection of the people of the
Indian Territory, and for other purposes," it is having a salutary
effect upon the nations composing the five tribes. The Dawes Commission
reports that the most gratifying results and greater advance toward the
attainment of the objects of the Government have been secured in the
past year than in any previous year. I can not too strongly indorse the
recommendation of the commission and of the Secretary of the Interior
for the necessity of providing for the education of the 30,000 white
children resident in the Indian Territory.

The Department of Agriculture has been active in the past year.
Explorers have been sent to many of the countries of the Eastern and
Western hemispheres for seeds and plants that may be useful to the
United States, and with the further view of opening up markets for our
surplus products. The Forestry Division of the Department is giving
special attention to the treeless regions of our country and is
introducing species specially adapted to semiarid regions. Forest fires,
which seriously interfere with production, especially in irrigated
regions, are being studied, that losses from this cause may be avoided.
The Department is inquiring into the use and abuse of water in many
States of the West, and collating information regarding the laws of the
States, the decisions of the courts, and the customs of the people in
this regard, so that uniformity may be secured. Experiment stations are
becoming more effective every year. The annual appropriation of $720,000
by Congress is supplemented by $400,000 from the States. Nation-wide
experiments have been conducted to ascertain the suitableness as to soil
and climate and States for growing sugar beets. The number of sugar
factories has been doubled in the past two years, and the ability of the
United States to produce its own sugar from this source has been clearly
demonstrated.

The Weather Bureau forecast and observation stations have been extended
around the Caribbean Sea, to give early warning of the approach of
hurricanes from the south seas to our fleets and merchant marine.

In the year 1900 will occur the centennial anniversary of the founding
of the city of Washington for the permanent capital of the Government of
the United States by authority of an act of Congress approved July 16,
1790. In May, 1800, the archives and general offices of the Federal
Government were removed to this place. On the 17th of November, 1800,
the National Congress met here for the first time and assumed exclusive
control of the Federal district and city. This interesting event assumes
all the more significance when we recall the circumstances attending the
choosing of the site, the naming of the capital in honor of the Father
of his Country, and the interest taken by him in the adoption of plans
for its future development on a magnificent scale.

These original plans have been wrought out with a constant progress and
a signal success even beyond anything their framers could have foreseen.
The people of the country are justly proud of the distinctive beauty and
government of the capital and of the rare instruments of science and
education which here find their natural home.

A movement lately inaugurated by the citizens to have the anniversary
celebrated with fitting ceremonies, including, perhaps, the
establishment of a handsome permanent memorial to mark so historical an
occasion and to give it more than local recognition, has met with
general favor on the part of the public.

I recommend to the Congress the granting of an appropriation for this
purpose and the appointment of a committee from its respective bodies.
It might also be advisable to authorize the President to appoint a
committee from the country at large, which, acting with the
Congressional and District of Columbia committees, can complete the
plans for an appropriate national celebration.

The alien contract law is shown by experience to need some amendment; a
measure providing better protection for seamen is proposed; the rightful
application of the eight-hour law for the benefit of labor and of the
principle of arbitration are suggested for consideration; and I commend
these subjects to the careful attention of the Congress.

The several departmental reports will be laid before you. They give in
great detail the conduct of the affairs of the Government during the
past year and discuss many questions upon which the Congress may feel
called upon to act.

WILLIAM McKINLEY.

[Footnote 12: See pp. 127-136.]
[Footnote 13: pp. 139-150.]
[Footnote 14: See pp. 202-203.]
[Footnote 15: See pp. 203-204.]
[Footnote 16: See pp. 153-155.]
[Footnote 17: See p. 201.]
[Footnote 18: See p. 155.]
[Footnote 19: See pp. 204-205.]
[Footnote 20: See pp. 203-204.]
[Footnote 21: See pp. 205-206.]
[Footnote 22: See pp. 206-207.]
[Footnote 23: See Vol. VIII, pp. 501-503.]



AN ACT declaring that war exists between the United States of America
and the Kingdom of Spain.

_Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the
United States of America in Congress assembled_, First. That war be,
and the same is hereby, declared to exist, and that war has existed
since the 21st day of April, A.D. 1898, including said day, between the
United States of America and the Kingdom of Spain.

Second. That the President of the United States be, and he hereby is,
directed and empowered to use the entire land and naval forces of the
United States and to call into the actual service of the United States
the militia of the several States to such extent as may be necessary to
carry this act into effect.

Approved, April 25, 1898.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, February 10, 1899_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

As a consequence of the ratification of the treaty of peace between the
United States and Spain and its expected ratification by the Spanish
Government, the United States will come into possession of the
Philippine Islands, on the farther shores of the Pacific. The Hawaiian
Islands and Guam becoming United States territory and forming convenient
stopping places on the way across the sea, the necessity for speedy
cable communication between the United States and all these Pacific
islands has become imperative.

Such communication should be established in such a way as to be wholly
under the control of the United States, whether in time of peace or of
war. At present the Philippines can be reached only by cables which
pass through many foreign countries, and the Hawaiian Islands and Guam
can only be communicated with by steamers, involving delays in each
instance of at least a week. The present conditions should not be
allowed to continue for a moment longer than is absolutely necessary.

So long ago as 1885 reference was made in an Executive message to
Congress to the necessity for cable communication between the United
States and Hawaii. This necessity has greatly increased since then.
The question has been discussed in the Fifty-second, Fifty-fourth, and
Fifty-fifth Congresses, in each of which some effort has been made
looking toward laying a cable at least as far as the Hawaiian Islands.
The time has now arrived when a cable in the Pacific must extend at
least as far as Manila, touching at the Hawaiian Islands and Guam on
the way.

Two methods of establishing this cable communication at once suggest
themselves: First, construction and maintenance of such a cable by
and at the expense of the United States Government, and, second,
construction and maintenance of such a cable by a private United States
corporation, under such safeguards as Congress shall impose.

I do not make any recommendations to Congress as to which of these
methods would be the more desirable. A cable of the length of that
proposed requires so much time for construction and laying that it is
estimated that at least two years must elapse after giving the order for
the cable before the entire system could be successfully laid and put in
operation. Further deep-sea soundings must be taken west of the Hawaiian
Islands before the final route for the cable can be selected. Under
these circumstances it becomes a paramount necessity that measures
should be taken before the close of the present Congress to provide such
means as may seem most suitable for the establishment of a cable system.

I commend the whole subject to the careful consideration of the Congress
and to such prompt action as may seem advisable.

WILLIAM McKINLEY.



PROCLAMATIONS.


BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

Whereas by a joint resolution passed by the Congress and approved April
20, 1898,[24] and communicated to the Government of Spain, it was
demanded that said Government at once relinquish its authority and
government in the island of Cuba and withdraw its land and naval forces
from Cuba and Cuban waters, and the President of the United States was
directed and empowered to use the entire land and naval forces of the
United States and to call into the actual service of the United States
the militia of the several States to such extent as might be necessary
to carry said resolution into effect; and

Whereas in carrying into effect said resolution the President of the
United States deems it necessary to set on foot and maintain a blockade
of the north coast of Cuba, including all ports on said coast between
Cardenas and Bahia Honda, and the port of Cienfuegos, on the south coast
of Cuba:

Now, therefore, I, William McKinley, President of the United States, in
order to enforce the said resolution, do hereby declare and proclaim
that the United States of America have instituted and will maintain a
blockade of the north coast of Cuba, including ports on said coast
between Cardenas and Bahia Honda, and the port of Cienfuegos, on the
south coast of Cuba, aforesaid, in pursuance of the laws of the United
States and the law of nations applicable to such cases. An efficient
force will be posted so as to prevent the entrance and exit of vessels
from the ports aforesaid. Any neutral vessel approaching any of said
ports or attempting to leave the same without notice or knowledge of the
establishment of such blockade will be duly warned by the commander of
the blockading forces, who will indorse on her register the fact and the
date of such warning, where such indorsement was made; and if the same
vessel shall again attempt to enter any blockaded port she will be
captured and sent to the nearest convenient port for such proceedings
against her and her cargo as prize as may be deemed advisable.

Neutral vessels lying in any of said ports at the time of the
establishment of such blockade will be allowed thirty days to issue
therefrom. In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the
seal of the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington, this 22d day of April, A.D. 1898, and of
the Independence of the United States the one hundred and twenty-second.

WILLIAM McKINLEY.

By the President:
  JOHN SHERMAN,
    _Secretary of State_.

[Footnote 24: See p. 155.]



BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES.

A PROCLAMATION.

Whereas a joint resolution of Congress was approved on the 20th day of
April, 1898,[25] entitled "Joint resolution for the recognition of the
independence of the people of Cuba, demanding that the Government of
Spain relinquish its authority and government in the island of Cuba and
to withdraw its land and naval forces from Cuba and Cuban waters, and
directing the President of the United States to use the land and naval
forces of the United States to carry these resolutions into effect;" and

Whereas by an act of Congress entitled "An act to provide for
temporarily increasing the military establishment of the United States
in time of war, and for other purposes," approved April 22, 1898, the
President is authorized, in order to raise a volunteer army, to issue
his proclamation calling for volunteers to serve in the Army of the
United States:

Now, therefore, I, William McKinley, President of the United States, by
virtue of the power vested in me by the Constitution and the laws, and
deeming sufficient occasion to exist, have thought fit to call forth,
and hereby do call forth, volunteers to the aggregate number of 125,000
in order to carry into effect the purpose of the said resolution, the
same to be apportioned, as far as practicable, among the several States
and Territories and the District of Columbia according to population and
to serve for two years unless sooner discharged. The details for this
object will be immediately communicated to the proper authorities
through the War Department.

In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington, this 23d day of April, A.D. 1898, and of
the Independence of the United States the one hundred and twenty-second.

WILLIAM McKINLEY.

By the President:
  JOHN SHERMAN,
    _Secretary of State_.

[Footnote 25: See p. 155.]



BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

Whereas by an act of Congress approved April 25, 1898,[26] it is
declared that war exists and that war has existed since the 21st day of
April, A.D. 1898, including said day, between the United States of
America and the Kingdom of Spain; and

Whereas, it being desirable that such war should be conducted upon
principles in harmony with the present views of nations and sanctioned
by their recent practice, it has already been announced that the policy
of this Government will be not to resort to privateering, but to adhere
to the rules of the Declaration of Paris:

Now, therefore, I, William McKinley, President of the United States of
America, by virtue of the power vested in me by the Constitution and the
laws, do hereby declare and proclaim:

1. The neutral flag covers enemy's goods with the exception of
contraband of war.

2. Neutral goods not contraband of war are not liable to confiscation
under the enemy's flag.

3. Blockades in order to be binding must be effective.

4. Spanish merchant vessels in any ports or places within the United
States shall be allowed till May 21, 1898, inclusive, for loading their
cargoes and departing from such ports or places; and such Spanish
merchant vessels, if met at sea by any United States ship, shall be
permitted to continue their voyage if on examination of their papers
it shall appear that their cargoes were taken on board before the
expiration of the above term: _Provided_, That nothing herein
contained shall apply to Spanish vessels having on board any officer in
the military or naval service of the enemy, or any coal (except such as
may be necessary for their voyage), or any other article prohibited or
contraband of war, or any dispatch of or to the Spanish Government.

5. Any Spanish merchant vessel which prior to April 21, 1898, shall have
sailed from any foreign port bound for any port or place in the United
States shall be permitted to enter such port or place and to discharge
her cargo, and afterwards forthwith to depart without molestation; and
any such vessel, if met at sea by any United States ship, shall be
permitted to continue her voyage to any port not blockaded.

6. The right of search is to be exercised with strict regard for the
rights of neutrals, and the voyages of mail steamers are not to be
interfered with except on the clearest grounds of suspicion of a
violation of law in respect of contraband or blockade.

In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington on the 26th day of April, A.D. 1898, and
of the Independence of the United States the one hundred and
twenty-second.

WILLIAM McKINLEY.

By the President:
  ALVEY A. ADEE,
    _Acting Secretary of State_.

[Footnote 26: See p. 201.]



BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES.

A PROCLAMATION.

Whereas an act of Congress was approved on the 25th day of April,
1898,[27] entitled "An act declaring that war exists between the United
States of America and the Kingdom of Spain;" and

Whereas by an act of Congress entitled "An act to provide for
temporarily increasing the military establishment of the United States
in time of war and for other purposes," approved April 22, 1898, the
President is authorized, in order to raise a volunteer army, to issue
his proclamation calling for volunteers to serve in the Army of the
United States:

Now, therefore, I, William McKinley, President of the United States, by
virtue of the power vested in me by the Constitution and the laws, and
deeming sufficient occasion to exist, have thought fit to call forth,
and hereby do call forth, volunteers to the aggregate number of 75,000
in addition to the volunteers called forth by my proclamation of the 23d
of April, in the present year,[28] the same to be apportioned, as far as
practicable, among the several States and Territories and the District
of Columbia according to population and to serve for two years unless
sooner discharged. The proportion of each arm and the details of
enlistment and organization will be made known through the War
Department. In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused
the seal of the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington, this 25th day of May, A.D. 1898, and of
the Independence of the United States the one hundred and twenty-second.

WILLIAM McKINLEY.

By the President:
  WILLIAM R. DAY,
    _Secretary of State_.

[Footnote 27: See p. 201.]

[Footnote 28: See pp. 203-204.]



BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

Whereas, for the reasons set forth in my proclamation of April 22,
1898,[29] a blockade of the ports on the northern coast of Cuba from
Cardenas to Bahia Honda, inclusive, and of the port of Cienfuegos, on
the south coast of Cuba, was declared to have been instituted; and

Whereas it has become desirable to extend the blockade to other Spanish
ports:

Now, therefore, I, William McKinley, President of the United States,
do hereby declare and proclaim that in addition to the blockade of the
ports specified in my proclamation of April 22, 1898, the United States
of America has instituted and will maintain an effective blockade of all
the ports on the south coast of Cuba from Cape Frances to Cape Cruz,
inclusive, and also of the port of San Juan, in the island of Puerto
Rico.

Neutral vessels lying in any of the ports to which the blockade is by
the present proclamation extended will be allowed thirty days to issue
therefrom with cargo.

In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington, this 27th day of June, A.D. 1898, and of
the Independence of the United States the one hundred and twenty-second.

WILLIAM McKINLEY.

By the President:
  J.B. MOORE,
    _Acting Secretary of State_.

[Footnote 29: See pp. 202-203.]



BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

Whereas by a protocol concluded and signed August 12, 1898[30] by
William R. Day, Secretary of State of the United States, and His
Excellency Jules Cambon, ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary of
the Republic of France at Washington, respectively representing for this
purpose the Government of the United States and the Government of Spain,
the United States and Spain have formally agreed upon the terms on which
negotiations for the establishment of peace between the two countries
shall be undertaken; and

Whereas it is in said protocol agreed that upon its conclusion and
signature hostilities between the two countries shall be suspended and
that notice to that effect shall be given as soon as possible by each
Government to the commanders of its military and naval forces:

Now, therefore, I, William McKinley, President of the United States,
do, in accordance with the stipulations of the protocol, declare and
proclaim on the part of the United States a suspension of hostilities
and do hereby command that orders be immediately given through the
proper channels to the commanders of the military and naval forces
of the United States to abstain from all acts inconsistent with this
proclamation.

In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington, this 12th day of August, A.D. 1898, and
of the Independence of the United States the one hundred and
twenty-third.

WILLIAM McKINLEY.

By the President:
  WILLIAM R. DAY,
    _Secretary of State_.

[Footnote 30: See p. 174.]



BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES.

A PROCLAMATION.

The approaching November brings to mind the custom of our ancestors,
hallowed by time and rooted in our most sacred traditions, of giving
thanks to Almighty God for all the blessings He has vouchsafed to us
during the year.

Few years in our history have afforded such cause for thanksgiving as
this. We have been blessed by abundant harvests; our trade and commerce
have wonderfully increased; our public credit has been improved and
strengthened; all sections of our common country have been brought
together and knitted into closer bonds of national purpose and unity.

The skies have been for a time darkened by the cloud of war, but as we
were compelled to take up the sword in the cause of humanity we are
permitted to rejoice that the conflict has been of brief duration and
the losses we have had to mourn, though grievous and important, have
been so few, considering the great results accomplished, as to inspire
us with gratitude and praise to the Lord of Hosts. We may laud and
magnify His holy name that the cessation of hostilities came so soon as
to spare both sides the countless sorrows and disasters that attend
protracted war.

I do therefore invite all my fellow-citizens, as well those who may be
at sea or sojourning in foreign lands as those at home, to set apart
and observe Thursday, the 24th day of November, as a day of national
thanksgiving, to come together in their several places of worship for a
service of praise and thanks to Almighty God for all the blessings of
the year, for the mildness of the seasons and the fruitfulness of the
soil, for the continued prosperity of the people, for the devotion and
valor of our countrymen, for the glory of our victory and the hope of a
righteous peace, and to pray that the divine guidance which has brought
us heretofore to safety and honor may be graciously continued in the
years to come.

In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington, this 28th day of October, A.D. 1898, and
of the Independence of the United States the one hundred and
twenty-third.

WILLIAM McKINLEY.

By the President:
  JOHN HAY,
    _Secretary of State_.



EXECUTIVE ORDERS.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, May 7, 1898_.


DEWEY,
  _Care American Consul, Hongkong_:

The President, in the name of the American people, thanks you and your
officers and men for your splendid achievement and overwhelming victory.

In recognition he has appointed you acting rear-admiral and will
recommend a vote of thanks to you by Congress as a foundation for
further promotion.

LONG.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, May 19, 1898_.

The SECRETARY OF WAR.

SIR: The destruction of the Spanish fleet at Manila, followed by the
taking of the naval station at Cavite, the paroling of the garrisons,
and the acquisition of the control of the bay, has rendered it
necessary, in the further prosecution of the measures adopted by this
Government for the purpose of bringing about an honorable and durable
peace with Spain, to send an army of occupation to the Philippines for
the twofold purpose of completing the reduction of the Spanish power in
that quarter and of giving order and security to the islands while in
the possession of the United States. For the command of this expedition
I have designated Major-General Wesley Merritt, and it now becomes my
duty to give instructions as to the manner in which the movement shall
be conducted.

The first effect of the military occupation of the enemy's territory is
the severance of the former political relations of the inhabitants and
the establishment of a new political power. Under this changed condition
of things the inhabitants, so long as they perform their duties, are
entitled to security in their persons and property and in all their
private rights and relations. It is my desire that the people of the
Philippines should be acquainted with the purpose of the United States
to discharge to the fullest extent its obligations in this regard.
It will therefore be the duty of the commander of the expedition,
immediately upon his arrival in the islands, to publish a proclamation
declaring that we come not to make war upon the people of the
Philippines, nor upon any party or faction among them, but to protect
them in their homes, in their employments, and in their personal and
religious rights. All persons who, either by active aid or by honest
submission, cooperate with the United States in its efforts to give
effect to this beneficent purpose will receive the reward of its support
and protection. Our occupation should be as free from severity as
possible.

Though the powers of the military occupant are absolute and supreme and
immediately operate upon the political condition of the inhabitants, the
municipal laws of the conquered territory, such as affect private rights
of person and property and provide for the punishment of crime, are
considered as continuing in force, so far as they are compatible with
the new order of things, until they are suspended or superseded by the
occupying belligerent; and in practice they are not usually abrogated,
but are allowed to remain in force and to be administered by the
ordinary tribunals substantially as they were before the occupation.
This enlightened practice is, so far as possible, to be adhered to on
the present occasion. The judges and the other officials connected with
the administration of justice may, if they accept the authority of the
United States, continue to administer the ordinary law of the land as
between man and man under the supervision of the American commander
in chief. The native constabulary will, so far as may be practicable,
be preserved. The freedom of the people to pursue their accustomed
occupations will be abridged only when it may be necessary to do so.

While the rule of conduct of the American commander in chief will be
such as has just been defined, it will be his duty to adopt measures
of a different kind if, unfortunately, the course of the people should
render such measures indispensable to the maintenance of law and order.
He will then possess the power to replace or expel the native officials
in part or altogether, to substitute new courts of his own constitution
for those that now exist, or to create such new or supplementary
tribunals as may be necessary. In the exercise of these high powers the
commander must be guided by his judgment and his experience and a high
sense of justice.

One of the most important and most practical problems with which the
commander of the expedition will have to deal is that of the treatment
of property and the collection and administration of the revenues.
It is conceded that all public funds and securities belonging to the
government of the country in its own right and all arms and supplies and
other movable property of such government may be seized by the military
occupant and converted to the use of this Government. The real property
of the state he may hold and administer, at the same time enjoying
the revenues thereof; but he is not to destroy it save in the case
of military necessity. All public means of transportation, such as
telegraph lines, cables, railways, and boats belonging to the state may
be appropriated to his use, but unless in case of military necessity
they are not to be destroyed. All churches and buildings devoted to
religious worship and to the arts and sciences, all schoolhouses, are,
so far as possible, to be protected, and all destruction or intentional
defacement of such places, of historical monuments or archives, or of
works of science or art is prohibited save when required by urgent
military necessity.

Private property, whether belonging to individuals or corporations, is
to be respected, and can be confiscated only as hereafter indicated.
Means of transportation, such as telegraph lines and cables, railways,
and boats, may, although they belong to private individuals or
corporations, be seized by the military occupant, but unless destroyed
under military necessity are not to be retained.

While it is held to be the right of a conqueror to levy contributions
upon the enemy in their seaports, towns, or provinces which may be in
his military possession by conquest, and to apply the proceeds to defray
the expenses of the war, this right is to be exercised within such
limitations that it may not savor of confiscation. As the result of
military occupation the taxes and duties payable by the inhabitants to
the former government become payable to the military occupant, unless he
sees fit to substitute for them other rates or modes of contribution to
the expenses of the government. The moneys so collected are to be used
for the purpose of paying the expenses of government under the military
occupation, such as the salaries of the judges and the police, and for
the payment of the expenses of the army.

Private property taken for the use of the army is to be paid for when
possible in cash at a fair valuation, and when payment in cash is not
possible receipts are to be given.

In order that there may be no conflict of authority between the army and
the navy in the administration of affairs in the Philippines, you are
instructed to confer with the Secretary of the Navy so far as necessary
for the purpose of devising measures to secure the harmonious action of
those, two branches of the public service.

I will give instructions to the Secretary of the Treasury to make a
report to me upon the subject of the revenues of the Philippines, with a
view to the formulation of such revenue measures as may seem expedient.
All ports and places in the Philippines which may be in the actual
possession of our land and naval forces will be opened, while our
military occupation may continue, to the commerce of all neutral
nations, as well as our own, in articles not contraband of war, and upon
payment of the prescribed rates of duty which may be in force at the
time of the importation.

WILLIAM McKINLEY.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, May 19, 1898_.

The SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY.

SIR: The destruction of the Spanish fleet at Manila, followed by the
taking of the naval station at Cavite, the paroling of the garrisons,
and the acquisition of the control of the bay, has rendered it
necessary, in the further prosecution of the measures adopted by this
Government for the purpose of bringing about an honorable and durable
peace with Spain, to send an army of occupation to the Philippines for
the twofold purpose of completing the reduction of the Spanish power in
that quarter and of giving to the islands order and security while in
the possession of the United States. For the command of this expedition
I have designated Major-General Wesley Merritt, and it now becomes my
duty to give instructions as to the manner in which the movement shall
be conducted.

It is held to be the right to levy contributions upon the enemy in all
places which may be in military possession by conquest, and to apply
the proceeds to defray the cost of the war, including the expenses of
government during the military occupation. It is desirable, however,
and in accordance with the views of modern civilization, to confine
the exercise of this power, so far as possible, to the collection of
such contributions as are equivalent to the duties and taxes already
established in the territory. I have determined to order that all ports
or places in the Philippines which may be in the actual possession
of our land and naval forces by conquest shall be opened, while our
military occupation may continue, to the commerce of all neutral
nations, as well as our own, in articles not contraband of war, upon
payment of the rates of duty which may be in force at the time when the
goods are imported. In the execution of this policy it may be advisable
to substitute new rates of duty and new taxes for those now levied in
the Philippines. You are therefore instructed to examine the existing
Spanish laws in relation to duties and taxes, and to report to me such
recommendations as you may deem it proper to make with respect either
to the rates of duties and taxes or to the regulations which should be
adopted for their imposition and collection.

As the levy of all contributions in territory occupied by a belligerent
is a military right derived from the law of nations, the collection and
distribution of duties and taxes in the Philippines during the military
occupation of the United States will be made, under the orders of the
Secretary of War and the Secretary of the Navy, by the military or naval
commanders, as the case may be, of the ports or places which may be in
the possession of our forces. Your report is desired in order that I may
be able to give the proper directions to the Department of War and of
the Navy.

WILLIAM McKINLEY.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, May 19, 1898_.

The SECRETARY OF THE NAVY.

SIR: The destruction of the Spanish fleet at Manila, followed by the
taking of the naval station at Cavite, the paroling of the garrisons,
and the acquisition of the control of the bay, has rendered it
necessary, in the further prosecution of the measures adopted by this
Government for the purpose of bringing about an honorable and durable
peace with Spain, to send an army of occupation to the Philippines for
the twofold purpose of completing the reduction of the Spanish power in
that quarter and of giving to the islands order and security while in
the possession of the United States. For the command of this expedition
I have designated Major-General Wesley Merritt, and it now becomes my
duty to give instructions as to the manner in which the movement shall
be conducted.

I inclose herewith a copy of an order which I have this day addressed
to the Secretary of War, setting forth the principles on which the
occupation of the Philippines is to be carried out.[31] You are
instructed to confer with the Secretary of War in order that measures
may be devised by which any conflict of authority between the officers
of our army and navy in the Philippines may be avoided.

I have given instructions to the Secretary of the Treasury to examine
the subject of the duties and taxes imposed by Spain in the Philippines
and to report to me any recommendations which he may deem it proper to
make in regard to the revenues of the islands.[32] I have informed him,
however, that the collection and disbursement of the duties and taxes
collected there will, as a measure of military right derived from the
law of nations, be made, under the orders of the Secretary of War and
the Secretary of the Navy, by our military or naval commanders, as the
case may be, at the ports or places which may be in possession of our
forces.

WILLIAM McKINLEY.

[Footnote 31: See pp. 208-211.]

[Footnote 32: See pp. 211-212.]



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, July 4, 1898._


Admiral SAMPSON,
  _Playa del Este, Cuba_:

You have the gratitude and congratulations of the whole American people.
Convey to your noble officers and crews, through whose valor new honors
have been added to the American Navy, the grateful thanks and
appreciation of the nation.

WILLIAM McKINLEY.



THE PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS TO THE PEOPLE FOR THANKSGIVING AND PRAYER.


EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, July 6, 1898._

_To the People of the United States of America_:

At this time, when to the yet fresh remembrance of the unprecedented
success which attended the operations of the United States fleet in the
bay of Manila on the 1st day of May last are added the tidings of the no
less glorious achievements of the naval and military arms of our beloved
country at Santiago de Cuba, it is fitting that we should pause and,
staying the feeling of exultation that too naturally attends great deeds
wrought by our countrymen in our country's cause, should reverently bow
before the throne of divine grace and give devout praise to God, who
holdeth the nations in the hollow of His hands and worketh upon them the
marvels of His high will, and who has thus far vouchsafed to us the
light of His face and led our brave soldiers and seamen to victory.

I therefore ask the people of the United States, upon next assembling
for divine worship in their respective places of meeting, to offer
thanksgiving to Almighty God, who in His inscrutable ways, now leading
our hosts upon the waters to unscathed triumph; now guiding them in
a strange land, through the dread shadows of death, to success, even
though at a fearful cost; now bearing them, without accident or loss, to
far distant climes, has watched over our cause and brought nearer the
success of the right and the attainment of just and honorable peace.

With the nation's thanks let there be mingled the nation's prayers that
our gallant sons may be shielded from harm alike on the battlefield and
in the clash of fleets, and be spared the scourge of suffering and
disease while they are striving to uphold their country's honor; and
withal let the nation's heart be stilled with holy awe at the thought
of the noble men who have perished as heroes die, and be filled with
compassionate sympathy for all those who suffer bereavement or endure
sickness, wounds, and bonds by reason of the awful struggle. And above
all, let us pray with earnest fervor that He, the Dispenser of All Good,
may speedily remove from us the untold afflictions of war and bring to
our dear land the blessings of restored peace and to all the domain now
ravaged by the cruel strife the priceless boon of security and
tranquillity.

WILLIAM McKINLEY.



WASHINGTON, D.C., _July 8, 1898_.

General SHAFTER,
  _Playa, Cuba_:

Telegram which it appears you did not receive read as follows:

The President directs me to say you have the gratitude and thanks of the
nation for the brilliant and effective work of your noble army in the
fight of July 1. The sturdy valor and heroism of officers and men fill
the American people with pride. The country mourns the brave men who
fell in battle. They have added new names to our roll of heroes.

R.A. ALGER, _Secretary of War_.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, July 13,1898._

The SECRETARY OF WAR.

SIR: The capitulation of the Spanish forces in Santiago de Cuba and in
the eastern part of the Province of Santiago, and the occupation of the
territory by the forces of the United States, render it necessary to
instruct the military commander of the United States as to the conduct
which he is to observe during the military occupation.

The first effect of the military occupation of the enemy's territory is
the severance of the former political relations of the inhabitants and
the establishment of a new political power. Under this changed condition
of things the inhabitants, so long as they perform their duties, are
entitled to security in their persons and property and in all their
private rights and relations. It is my desire that the inhabitants of
Cuba should be acquainted with the purpose of the United States to
discharge to the fullest extent its obligations in this regard. It will
therefore be the duty of the commander of the army of occupation to
announce and proclaim in the most public manner that we come not to make
war upon the inhabitants of Cuba, nor upon any party or faction among
them, but to protect them in their homes, in their employments, and in
their personal and religious rights. All persons who, either by active
aid or by honest submission, cooperate with the United States in its
efforts to give effect to this beneficent purpose will receive the
reward of its support and protection. Our occupation should be as free
from severity as possible.

Though the powers of the military occupant are absolute and supreme and
immediately operate upon the political condition of the inhabitants, the
municipal laws of the conquered territory, such as affect private rights
of person and property and provide for the punishment of crime, are
considered as continuing in force, so far as they are compatible with
the new order of things, until they are suspended or superseded by the
occupying belligerent; and in practice they are not usually abrogated,
but are allowed to remain in force and to be administered by the
ordinary tribunals substantially as they were before the occupation.
This enlightened practice is, so far as possible, to be adhered to on
the present occasion. The judges and the other officials connected with
the administration of justice may, if they accept the supremacy of the
United States, continue to administer the ordinary law of the land as
between man and man under the supervision of the American commander
in chief. The native constabulary will, so far as may be practicable,
be preserved. The freedom of the people to pursue their accustomed
occupations will be abridged only when it may be necessary to do so.

While the rule of conduct of the American commander in chief will be
such as has just been defined, it will be his duty to adopt measures
of a different kind if, unfortunately, the course of the people should
render such measures indispensable to the maintenance of law and order.
He will then possess the power to replace or expel the native officials
in part or altogether, to substitute new courts of his own constitution
for those that now exist, or to create such new or supplementary
tribunals as may be necessary. In the exercise of these high powers the
commander must be guided by his judgment and his experience and a high
sense of justice.

One of the most important and most practical problems with which it
will be necessary to deal is that of the treatment of property and the
collection and administration of the revenues. It is conceded that all
public funds and securities belonging to the government of the country
in its own right and all arms and supplies and other movable property of
such government may be seized by the military occupant and converted to
his own use. The real property of the state he may hold and administer,
at the same time enjoying the revenues thereof; but he is not to destroy
it save in the case of military necessity. All public means of
transportation, such as telegraph lines, cables, railways, and boats,
belonging to the state may be appropriated to his use, but unless in
case of military necessity they are not to be destroyed. All churches
and buildings devoted to religious worship and to the arts and sciences,
all schoolhouses, are, so far as possible, to be protected, and all
destruction or intentional defacement of such places, of historical
monuments or archives, or of works of science or art is prohibited
save when required by urgent military necessity.

Private property, whether belonging to individuals or corporations,
is to be respected, and can be confiscated only for cause. Means of
transportation, such as telegraph lines and cables, railways, and boats,
may, although they belong to private individuals or corporations, be
seized by the military occupant, but unless destroyed under military
necessity are not to be retained.

While it is held to be the right of the conqueror to levy contributions
upon the enemy in their seaports, towns, or provinces which may be in
his military possession by conquest, and to apply the proceeds to defray
the expenses of the war, this right is to be exercised within such
limitations that it may not savor of confiscation. As the result of
military occupation the taxes and duties payable by the inhabitants to
the former government become payable to the military occupant, unless he
sees fit to substitute for them other rates or modes of contribution to
the expenses of the government. The moneys so collected are to be used
for the purpose of paying the expenses of government under the military
occupation, such as the salaries of the judges and the police, and for
the payment of the expenses of the army.

Private property taken for the use of the army is to be paid for when
possible in cash at a fair valuation, and when payment in cash is not
possible receipts are to be given.

All ports and places in Cuba which may be in the actual possession of
our land and naval forces will be opened to the commerce of all neutral
nations, as well as our own, in articles not contraband of war, upon
payment of the prescribed rates of duty which may be in force at the
time of the importation.

WILLIAM McKINLEY.



WASHINGTON, D.C., _July 16, 1898_.

General SHAFTER,
  _Commanding United States Forces, Santiago, Playa_:

The President of the United States sends to you and your brave army the
profound thanks of the American people for the brilliant achievements at
Santiago, resulting in the surrender of the city and all of the Spanish
troops and territory under General Toral. Your splendid command has
endured not only the hardships and sacrifices incident to campaign and
battle, but in stress of heat and weather has triumphed over obstacles
which would have overcome men less brave and determined. One and all
have displayed the most conspicuous gallantry and earned the gratitude
of the nation. The hearts of the people turn with tender sympathy to the
sick and wounded. May the Father of Mercies protect and comfort them.

WILLIAM McKINLEY.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, July 21, 1898_.

In view of the occupation of Santiago de Cuba by the forces of the
United States, it is ordered that postal communication between the
United States and that port, which has been suspended since the opening
of hostilities with Spain, may be resumed, subject to such military
regulations as may be deemed necessary.

As other portions of the enemy's territory come into the possession of
the land and naval forces of the United States, postal communication may
be opened under the same conditions.

The domestic postal service within the territory thus occupied may be
continued on the same principles already indicated for the continuance
of the local municipal and judicial administration, and it maybe
extended as the local requirements may justify, under the supervision of
the military commander.

The revenues derived from such service are to be applied to the expenses
of conducting it, and the United States postage stamps are therefore to
be used.

The Postmaster-General is charged with the execution of this order in
cooperation with the military commander, to whom the Secretary of War
will issue the necessary directions.

WILLIAM McKINLEY.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, August 6, 1898_.

_Ordered_, That the graves of our soldiers at Santiago shall be
permanently marked. The present marking will last but a short time, and
before its effacement occurs suitable and permanent markers should be
put up.

The Secretary of War is charged with the execution of this order.

WILLIAM McKINLEY.



ADJUTANT-GENERAL'S OFFICE, _Washington, August 17, 1898._

Major-General MERRITT,
  _Manila, Philippines_:

The President directs that there must be no joint occupation with the
insurgents. The United States, in the possession of Manila City, Manila
Bay and Harbor, must preserve the peace and protect persons and property
within the territory occupied by their military and naval forces.
The insurgents and all others must recognize the military occupation
and authority of the United States and the cessation of hostilities
proclaimed by the President. Use whatever means in your judgment are
necessary to this end. All law-abiding people must be treated alike.

By order Secretary War:

H.C. CORBIN,
  _Adjutant-General._



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, August 21, 1898._

Major-General MERRITT,
  _United States Army, Manila_:

In my own behalf and for the nation I extend to you and the officers
and men of your command sincere thanks and congratulations for the
conspicuously gallant conduct displayed in your campaign.

WILLIAM McKINLEY.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, August 21, 1898_.

Admiral DEWEY,
  _Manila_:

Receive for yourself and for the officers, sailors, and marines of your
command my thanks and congratulations and those of the nation for the
gallant conduct all have again so conspicuously displayed.

WILLIAM McKINLEY.



ADJUTANT-GENERAL'S OFFICE, _Washington, December 4, 1898_.

General OTIS,
  _Manila, Philippine Islands_:

By direction of the Secretary of War, following from the President is
sent you for your early consideration.

CORBIN.


The President desires that Admiral Dewey and General Otis shall have
an early conference and advise him what force and equipment will be
necessary in the Philippine Islands. The President would be glad to have
suggestions from these commanders as to the government of the islands,
which of necessity must be by the Army and the Navy for some time to
come. When these islands shall be ceded to us, it is his desire that
peace and tranquillity shall be restored and as kind and beneficent a
government as possible given to the people, that they may be encouraged
in their industries and made secure in life and property. The fullest
suggestions are invited.

WILLIAM McKINLEY.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _December 9, 1898_.

By virtue of the authority vested in me as Commander in Chief of the
Army and Navy of the United States, I hereby order and direct that
during the occupancy by the military authorities of the United States
of the island of Cuba and all islands in the West Indies west of the
seventy-fourth degree, west longitude, evacuated by Spain, said islands
shall constitute a collection district for customs purposes. Havana
shall be the chief port of entry. An officer of the Army shall be
assigned to such port, who shall be the collector of customs of the
islands and of the chief port and shall have general jurisdiction over
the collection of customs in the islands.

The ports of Matanzas, Cardenas, Cienfuegos, Sagua, Caibarien, Santiago,
Manzanillo, Nuevitas, Guantanamo, Gibara, and Baracoa, in said islands,
are hereby declared to be subports of entry, and an officer of the Army
will be assigned to each of the subports, who will be the collector
of customs of a subport and shall have general jurisdiction of the
collection of customs at such port. He shall make weekly reports to
the collector of customs of the islands at the chief port of all
transactions at the subport over which he has jurisdiction, with copies
of all entries of merchandise, duly certified.

The Secretary of War shall appoint such civilian deputy collectors,
inspectors, and other employees as may be found necessary.

The collectors of the subports shall deposit all moneys collected by
them with the collector of the islands, and a receipt from the collector
of the islands must be taken in duplicate for all such deposits.

There shall be appointed an auditor, who shall be stationed at the chief
port, whose duty it shall be to examine all entries of merchandise and
if found correct to certify to them. Such auditor shall on the first
of each month make a full and complete report, duly certified, to the
Secretary of War of all duties collected at each port, with an itemized
report of all expenditures made therefrom, which shall be referred to
the Auditor for the War Department for audit.

All questions arising in the administration of customs in the islands
shall be referred to the collector of the islands at the chief port for
decision, from which there shall be no appeal, except in such cases as
may be referred by the collector of the islands to the Secretary of War
for his decision.

WILLIAM McKINLEY.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, December 21, 1898_.

The SECRETARY OF WAR.

SIR: The destruction of the Spanish fleet in the harbor of Manila by the
United States naval squadron commanded by Rear-Admiral Dewey, followed
by the reduction of the city and the surrender of the Spanish forces,
practically effected the conquest of the Philippine Islands and the
suspension of Spanish sovereignty therein.

With the signature of the treaty of peace between the United States
and Spain by their respective plenipotentiaries at Paris, on the 10th
instant, and as the result of the victories of American arms, the future
control, disposition, and government of the Philippine Islands are ceded
to the United States. In fulfillment of the rights of sovereignty thus
acquired and the responsible obligations of government thus assumed,
the actual occupation and administration of the entire group of the
Philippine Islands become immediately necessary, and the military
government heretofore maintained by the United States in the city,
harbor, and bay of Manila is to be extended with all possible dispatch
to the whole of the ceded territory.

In performing this duty the military commander of the United States is
enjoined to make known to the inhabitants of the Philippine Islands
that in succeeding to the sovereignty of Spain, in severing the former
political relations of the inhabitants, and in establishing a new
political power the authority of the United States is to be exerted for
the security of the persons and property of the people of the islands
and for the confirmation of all their private rights and relations.

It will be the duty of the commander of the forces of occupation to
announce and proclaim in the most public manner that we come, not as
invaders or conquerors, but as friends, to protect the natives in
their homes, in their employments, and in their personal and religious
rights. All persons who, either by active aid or by honest submission,
cooperate with the Government of the United States to give effect to
these beneficent purposes will receive the reward of its support and
protection. All others will be brought within the lawful rule we have
assumed, with firmness if need be, but without severity so far as may
be possible.

Within the absolute domain of military authority, which necessarily is
and must remain supreme in the ceded territory until the legislation of
the United States shall otherwise provide, the municipal laws of the
territory in respect to private rights and property and the repression
of crime are to be considered as continuing in force and to be
administered by the ordinary tribunals so far as practicable. The
operations of civil and municipal government are to be performed by such
officers as may accept the supremacy of the United States by taking the
oath of allegiance, or by officers chosen as far as may be practicable
from the inhabitants of the islands.

While the control of all the public property and the revenues of the
state passes with the cession, and while the use and management of all
public means of transportation are necessarily reserved to the authority
of the United States, private property, whether belonging to individuals
or corporations, is to be respected, except for cause duly established.
The taxes and duties heretofore payable by the inhabitants to the late
government become payable to the authorities of the United States,
unless it be seen fit to substitute for them other reasonable rates or
modes of contribution to the expenses of government, whether general or
local. If private property be taken for military use, it shall be paid
for when possible in cash at a fair valuation, and when payment in cash
is not practicable receipts are to be given.

All ports and places in the Philippine Islands in the actual possession
of the land and naval forces of the United States will be opened to the
commerce of all friendly nations. All goods and wares not prohibited for
military reasons, by due announcement of the military authority, will be
admitted upon payment of such duties and other charges as shall be in
force at the time of their importation.

Finally, it should be the earnest and paramount aim of the military
administration to win the confidence, respect, and affection of the
inhabitants of the Philippines by assuring to them in every possible
way that full measure of individual rights and liberties which is the
heritage of free peoples, and by proving to them that the mission of the
United States is one of benevolent assimilation, substituting the mild
sway of justice and right for arbitrary rule. In the fulfillment of this
high mission, supporting the temperate administration of affairs for the
greatest good of the governed, there must be sedulously maintained the
strong arm of authority to repress disturbance and to overcome all
obstacles to the bestowal of the blessings of good and stable government
upon the people of the Philippine Islands under the free flag of the
United States.

WILLIAM McKINLEY.



ADJUTANT-GENERAL'S OFFICE, _Washington, December 21, 1898_.

General OTIS,
  _Manila_:

Answering your message of December 14, the President directs that you
send necessary troops to Iloilo to preserve the peace and protect life
and property. It is most important that there should be no conflict with
the insurgents. Be conciliatory, but firm.

By order of the Secretary War:

CORBIN.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, December 22, 1898_.

Until otherwise ordered no grants or concessions of public or corporate
rights or franchises for the construction of public or _quasi_
public works, such as railroads, tramways, telegraph and telephone
lines, water works, gas works, electric-light lines, etc., shall be made
by any municipal or other local governmental authority or body in Cuba,
except upon the approval of the major-general commanding the military
forces of the United States in Cuba, who shall before approving any such
grant or concession be so especially authorized by the Secretary of War.

WILLIAM McKINLEY.

[Similar orders applying to Puerto Rico and to the Philippines were
issued.]



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, December 22, 1898_.

The SECRETARY OF WAR:

       *       *       *       *       *

The major-general commanding the United States forces in Cuba and the
senior naval officer of the American fleet in the port of Havana are
directed to observe such arrangements and ceremonies for the evacuation
of Havana, to take place on January 1, 1899, as may be communicated to
them by the United States commissioners on evacuation. They will aid
in carrying out such arrangements.

WILLIAM McKINLEY.



ADJUTANT-GENERAL'S OFFICE, _Washington, January 1, 1899--4.30 p.m._

General OTIS,
  _Manila_:

The President considers it of first importance that a conflict brought
on by you be avoided at this time, if possible. Can not Miller get into
communication with insurgents, giving them President's proclamation and
informing them of the purposes of the Government, assuring them that
while it will assert its sovereignty its purpose is to give them a good
government and security in their personal rights.

By order Secretary War:

CORBIN.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, January 20, 1899._

The SECRETARY OF STATE:

My communication to the Secretary of War dated December 21, 1898,[33]
declares the necessity of extending the actual occupation and
administration of the city, harbor, and bay of Manila to the whole of
the territory which by the treaty of Paris, signed on December 10, 1898,
passed from the sovereignty of Spain to the sovereignty of the United
States and the consequent establishment of military government
throughout the entire group of the Philippine Islands.

While the treaty has not yet been ratified, it is believed that it will
be by the time of the arrival at Manila of the commissioners named
below. In order to facilitate the most humane, specific, and effective
extension of authority throughout these islands and to secure with the
least possible delay the benefits of a wise and generous protection of
life and property to the inhabitants, I have named Jacob G. Schurman,
Rear-Admiral George Dewey, Major-General Elwell S. Otis, Charles Denby,
and Dean C. Worcester to constitute a commission to aid in the
accomplishment of these results.

In the performance of this duty the commissioners are enjoined to meet
at the earliest possible day in the city of Manila and to announce by a
public proclamation their presence and the mission intrusted to them,
carefully setting forth that while the military government already
proclaimed is to be maintained and continued so long as necessity may
require, efforts will be made to alleviate the burdens of taxation, to
establish industrial and commercial prosperity, and to provide for the
safety of persons and of property by such means as may be found
conducive to these ends.

The commissioners will endeavor, without interference with the military
authorities of the United States now in control of the Philippines, to
ascertain what amelioration in the condition of the inhabitants and what
improvements in public order may be practicable, and for this purpose
they will study attentively the existing social and political state of
the various populations, particularly as regards the forms of local
government, the administration of justice, the collection of customs
and other taxes, the means of transportation, and the need of public
improvements.

They will report through the State Department, according to the forms
customary or hereafter prescribed for transmitting and preserving such
communications, the results of their observations and reflections, and
will recommend such executive action as may from time to time seem to
them wise and useful.

The commissioners are hereby authorized to confer authoritatively
with any persons resident in the islands from whom they may believe
themselves able to derive information or suggestions valuable for the
purposes of their commission, or whom they may choose to employ as
agents, as may be necessary for this purpose.

The temporary government of the islands is intrusted to the military
authorities, as already provided for by my instructions to the Secretary
of War of December 21, 1898,[34] and will continue until Congress shall
determine otherwise. The commission may render valuable services by
examining with special care the legislative needs of the various groups
of inhabitants and by reporting, with recommendations, the measures
which should be instituted for the maintenance of order, peace, and
public welfare, either as temporary steps to be taken immediately for
the perfection of present administration or as suggestions for future
legislation.

In so far as immediate personal changes in the civil administration may
seem to be advisable, the commissioners are empowered to recommend
suitable persons for appointment to these offices from among the
inhabitants of the islands who have previously acknowledged their
allegiance to this Government.

It is my desire that in all their relations with the inhabitants of
the islands the commissioners exercise due respect for all the ideals,
customs, and institutions of the tribes and races which compose the
population, emphasizing upon all occasions the just and beneficent
intentions of the Government of the United States.

It is also my wish and expectation that the commissioners may be
received in a manner due to the honored and authorized representatives
of the American Republic, duly commissioned, on account of their
knowledge, skill, and integrity, as bearers of the good will, the
protection, and the richest blessings of a liberating rather than
a conquering nation.

WILLIAM McKINLEY.

[Footnote 33: See pp. 219-221.]

[Footnote 34: See pp. 219-221.]





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