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Title: Practical English Composition: Book II. - For the Second Year of the High School
Author: Miller, Edwin L.
Language: English
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Directions for Correcting a Theme


When a theme is returned to you, number each correction, and draw a
heavy circle about the number. Then take another sheet of paper, and
using the numbers that correspond to those on your theme, state in each
case the error you made; then correct it, and give your reason for
making this correction: for instance, if the mistake is marked W,
i.e. a word misused, state whether the word to which the critic
objected is not in good usage, or is too often repeated, or does not
give the idea intended. Next, supply the proper word and show that it
fits the place. Answer any questions asked by the critic and follow out
any suggestion given. Put the sheet of corrections in proper form for a
M.S. Fasten the sheet to your original theme and hand both to the
teacher in charge of the laboratory. No credit will be given for any
written theme until the mistakes are corrected.

The following signs are used to indicate mistakes in a theme:

C--Capital needed.

lc--No capital needed.

A--Mistake in use of the apostrophe.

S--Word misspelled.

P--Mistake in punctuation.

G--Mistake in grammar.

W--Wrong word used.

Cons--The construction of the sentence is poor.

D--The statement is ambiguous.

O--Order. This may refer to arrangement of words in a sentence, of
sentences in a paragraph, or of paragraphs in a theme.

U--The sentence or paragraph lacks unity.

X--Discover the mistake for yourself.



                               PRACTICAL
                          ENGLISH COMPOSITION

                                BOOK II
                FOR THE SECOND YEAR OF THE HIGH SCHOOL

                                  BY
                         EDWIN L. MILLER, A.M.

               PRINCIPAL OF THE NORTHWESTERN HIGH SCHOOL
                           DETROIT, MICHIGAN


                        BOSTON NEW YORK CHICAGO
                       HOUGHTON MIFFLIN COMPANY
                     The Riverside Press Cambridge



                  COPYRIGHT, 1916, BY EDWIN L. MILLER
                          ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

                          THE RIVERSIDE PRESS
                        CAMBRIDGE. MASSACHUSETTS
                               U . S . A



PREFACE


This volume is the second in a series of four, each of which has been
planned to cover one stage in the composition work of the
secondary-school course. These books have been designed to supply
material adapted as exactly as possible to the capacity of the pupils.
Most of the exercises which they contain have been devised with the idea
of reproducing in an elementary form the methods of self-instruction
which have been employed by successful writers from Homer to Kipling.
Nearly all of them have been subjected to the test of actual classroom
use on a large scale. They may be used independently or as supplementary
to a more formal textbook. Each volume contains rather more work than an
ordinary class can do in one hundred recitations.

In each volume will be found exercises that involve each of the four
forms of discourse; but emphasis is placed in Book I on description, in
Book II on narration, in Book III on exposition, and in Book IV on
argumentation. Similarly, while stress is laid in Book I on
letter-writing, in Book II on journalism, in Book III on literary
effect, and in Book IV on the civic aspects of composition, all of these
phases of the subject receive attention in each volume.

In every lesson of each book provision is made for oral work: first,
because it is an end valuable in itself; second, because it is of
incalculable use in preparing the ground for written work; third,
because it can be made to give the pupil a proper and powerful motive
for writing with care; and, fourth, because, when employed with
discretion, it lightens the teacher's burden without impairing his
efficiency.

Composition is not writing. Writing is only one step in composition. The
gathering of material, the organization of material, criticism,
revision, publication, and the reaction that follows publication are
therefore in these volumes given due recognition.

The quotation at the head of each chapter and the poem at the end are
designed to furnish that stimulus to the will and the imagination
without which great practical achievement is impossible. On the other
hand, the exercises are all designed on the theory that the sort of
idealism which has no practical results is a snare. Indeed, the books
might be characterized as an effort to find a useful compromise between
those warring types of educational theory which are usually
characterized by the words "academic" and "vocational."

The specific subject of this volume is newspaper writing. The author has
himself had enough experience in practical newspaper work to appreciate
the difficulties and to respect the achievements of the journalist. He
knows that editors must print what people will buy. It seems probable,
therefore, that instruction in the elementary principles of newspaper
writing, in addition to producing good academic results, may lead pupils
to read the papers critically, to discriminate between the good and the
bad, and to demand a better quality of journalism than it is now
possible for editors to offer. If this happens, the papers will improve.
The aim of this book is therefore social as well as academic. It is also
vocational. Some of the boys and girls who study it will learn from its
pages the elements of the arts of proof-reading and reporting well
enough to begin, by virtue of the skill thus acquired, to earn their
bread and butter.

For the chapters on advertising I am indebted to Mr. Karl Murchey, of
the Cass Technical High School of Detroit, Michigan. Mr. John V.
Brennan, Miss Grace Albert, and Miss Eva Kinney, of the Detroit
Northwestern High School, have rendered me invaluable help by
suggestions, by proof-reading, and by trying out the exercises in their
classes. Mr. C. C. Certain, of Birmingham, Alabama, and Mr. E. H. Kemper
McComb, of the Technical High School, Indianapolis, by hints based on
their own wide experience and ripe scholarship, have enabled me to avoid
numerous pitfalls. My thanks are due also to Mr. Francis W. Daire, of
the _Newark News_, and Mr. C. B. Nicolson, of the _Detroit Free Press_,
who have given me the benefit of their experience as practical newspaper
men. Above all, I am indebted to my friend, Mr. Henry P. Hetherington,
of the _Detroit Journal_, whose untimely death in June, 1914, deprived
me of a never-failing source of wisdom and a critic to whose ripe
judgment I owe more than I know how to describe.

    E. L. M.



CONTENTS


        I. THE NEWSPAPER                                             1
       II. NEWS ITEMS                                                9
      III. BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES                                     15
       IV. REPORTING ACCIDENTS                                      19
        V. CONSTRUCTIVE NEWSPAPER WRITING                           23
       VI. HUMOROUS ITEMS                                           29
      VII. THE USE OF CONTRAST                                      33
     VIII. THRILLERS                                                38
       IX. BOOK REVIEWS                                             45
        X. REPORTING GAMES                                          52
       XI. REPORTING SPEECHES                                       63
      XII. DRAMATIC NOTICES                                         71
     XIII. INTERVIEWS                                               77
      XIV. THE EXPOSITION OF MECHANICS                              84
       XV. THE EXPOSITION OF IDEAS                                  90
      XVI. EDITORIALS--CONSTRUCTIVE                                 97
     XVII. EDITORIALS--DESTRUCTIVE                                 102
    XVIII. ADVERTISEMENTS                                          108
      XIX. ADVERTISEMENTS (_continued_)                            114
       XX. ADVERTISEMENTS (_concluded_)                            118



   "Whoever wishes to attain an English style, familiar but not
    coarse, and elegant but not ostentatious, must give his days and
    nights to the volumes of Addison."
            SAMUEL JOHNSON.  _Life of Addison._


   "Children learn to speak by watching the lips and catching the
    words of those who know how already; and poets learn in the same
    way from their elders."
            JAMES RUSSELL LOWELL. _Essay on Chaucer._


   "Grammars of rhetoric and grammars of logic are among the most
    useless furniture of a shelf. Give a boy Robinson Crusoe. That
    is worth all the grammars of rhetoric and logic in the world....
    Who ever reasoned better for having been taught the difference
    between a syllogism and an enthymeme? Who ever composed with
    greater spirit and elegance because he could define an oxymoron
    or an aposiopesis?"
            THOMAS BABINGTON MACAULAY.
        _Trevelyan's Life of Lord Macaulay._ Chapter VI.



PRACTICAL ENGLISH COMPOSITION BOOK II



CHAPTER I

THE NEWSPAPER

   "Truth is the highest thing that man may keep."
        CHAUCER.


I. Introduction

The object of this book is to teach high-school boys and girls how to
write plain newspaper English. Next to letter-writing, this is at once
the simplest and the most practical form of composition. The pupil who
does preëminently well the work outlined in this volume may become a
proof-reader, a reporter, an editor, or even a journalist. In other
words, the student of this book is working on a practical
bread-and-butter proposition. He must remember, however, that the
lessons it contains are elementary. They are only a beginning. And even
this beginning can be made only by the most strenuous and persistent
exertions. English is not an easy subject. It is the hardest subject in
the curriculum. To succeed in English three things are required: (1)
Work; (2) _Work_; (3) WORK.


II. The Newspaper

The modern city newspaper is a complicated machine. At its head is
usually a general manager, who may be one of its owners. Directly
responsible to him are the business manager, the superintendent of the
mechanical department, and the managing editor.

The business manager has under him three sub-departments: (1)
Advertising; (2) Circulation; (3) Auditing. To the first of these is
entrusted the duty of taking care of those small advertisements which,
owing to the fact that each occupies only a line or two, are called
"liners"; the management of a corps of solicitors; and the maintenance
of amicable relations with the business men of the community. The
circulation department includes not only the management of local and
foreign circulation, but also the collection of money from subscribers,
dealers, and newsboys. The auditor keeps the books, has charge of the
cash, and manages the payroll.

The superintendent of the mechanical department has three subordinates.
These are the foreman of the composing-room, the foreman of the
pressroom, and the foreman of the stereotyping-room. Each, of course,
always has several assistants and often many.

The managing editor has charge of the collection and distribution of
news. He has no routine duties, but is responsible for the conduct of
his subordinates, for the character of the paper, and for its success as
a business enterprise. The relation of the paper to the public is in his
keeping. Not infrequently he has serious differences of opinion with the
business manager, especially when he publishes news which does not
please important advertisers. Among his chief occupations are devising
methods of getting news and avoiding libel suits. The subordinates who
report directly to him are the writers of special columns, the
cartoonists, the editorial writers, the editor of the Sunday paper, and
the assistant managing editor, or news editor. It is with the latter and
his staff that we are at present chiefly concerned.

The news editor, or night editor, as he is called on a morning paper,
has charge of all the routine that is involved in the production of the
paper. Its make-up is in his hands. An autocrat on space and place, he
is seldom praised, but must take the blame for everything that goes
wrong. Under him are: (1) A telegraph editor, whose business it is to
handle news from outside the State; (2) a State editor, who directs as
best he may a horde of local correspondents who represent the paper in
the rural and semi-rural districts; (3) one or more "rewrite men" or
copy-readers, whose business it is to write out the news sent in by
telephone, to correct the errors of illiterate reporters, and to rewrite
articles when necessary; and (4) the city editor.

This last functionary is frequently the most important man on the paper.
He is responsible for gathering nearly all of the original news that
goes into its columns. To be able to do this he must have a wide and
exact knowledge of the people and the history of the city. He works like
a slave; and the reporters, who are under his direct control, find in
him a stern but appreciative taskmaster.

These reporters, or news-gatherers, lead a strenuous but not unhappy
life. It is somewhat like that of the huntsman, their business being to
stalk news, which is perhaps the biggest and certainly the most elusive
game which the world produces. Their lives are sometimes, their liberty
oftener, and their jobs always, in danger. If one of them permits a
rival paper to get a "scoop," he is apt to find himself in the situation
of the warrior described in Shakespeare's sonnet:

   "The painful warrior, famousëd for fight,
      After a thousand victories once foiled,
    Is from the book of honour razëd quite,
      And all the rest forgot for which he toiled."

Some reporters hunt everywhere; others are assigned to special "beats."
Of the latter the city hall is the most important, but the central
police station yields the largest number of good stories, because it is
there that tales of human folly, crime, and tragedy are most promptly
known. On most papers the law courts, politics, sport, drama, religion,
education, marine affairs, and society provide other "beats."

The organization thus briefly sketched is fairly typical, though by no
means universal. The outline on page 5 may make it a little clearer.


                                                  {Liner Department
                         {Advertising Manager     {Street Men
                         {
                         {                        {Newsboys
                         {                        {Local Dealers
           {Business     {Circulation Manager     {Mailing Department
           {  Manager    {                        {Collections
           {             {
           {             {Auditor                 {Bookkeeping
           {                                      {Treasury
           {Sup't of     {Composing Room
           {  Mechanical {Stereotyping-Room
           {  Dep't      {Pressroom
           {
  General  {             {Editorial
  Manager  {             {  Writers
           {             {Cartoonists
           {             {Special
           {             {  Writers
           {             {           {Editor of          {Artists
           {             {           {  Sunday           {Special Writers
           {Managing     {           {  Paper
           {  Editor     {           {
                         {           {Telegraph
                         {           {  Editor
                         {Assistant  {
                         {  Managing {State Editor
                         {  Editor   {
                         {  or       {Copy-Readers,
                         {  News     {  or Rewrite      {City Hall
                         {  Editor   {  Men             {Police
                                     {                  {Politics
                                     {City Editor, in   {Stock Market
                                     {  charge of six   {Courts
                                     {  to twenty-five  {Sport
                                     {  reporters       {Society
                                                        {Marine
                                                        {Religion
                                                        {Drama
                                                        {Music


Good reporters are not numerous. The reason is that, to succeed in this
work, a man or a woman must be able to gather news and to write. There
are plenty of people who can do either, but few who can do both.

In order to get news one must be physically tireless, fond of adventure,
persistent, unabashed, polite, courageous, and resourceful in the
highest degree. To the successful reporter an impossibility is only an
opportunity in disguise. In his lexicon there is no such word as "fail."
He must know how to make and keep friends. He must have that kind of
originality which is called "initiative." Above all, he must be
scrupulously honest. He must be actuated by a fixed determination to get
the news, the whole news, and nothing but the news.

In order to write well one must be able to spell, punctuate, and
capitalize; know the laws of grammar and how to apply them; be familiar
with the principles of rhetoric; and have a wide acquaintance with
good books. These qualities are not usually found in company with
those which make a successful news-gatherer. A person who has both is
therefore worth his weight in gold to a newspaper. The fact that this
combination of qualities is so rare leads many papers to employ special
rewrite men whose business it is to put into good English the raw
material furnished by the news-gatherer.

One other newspaper functionary remains to be noticed, the writer of
editorials. News items are confined to facts. Editorials contain
expressions of opinion. Everybody reads news, because it speaks for
itself. Editorials are designed to mould public opinion. Unless they are
characterized by extreme good sense or brilliancy, nobody heeds them,
though, if he makes a mistake in one, the writer of editorials is apt to
conclude that everybody reads them. The writer of editorials must
therefore be a person of exceptional qualifications.


III. Class Organization

For the present the teacher of the class studying this book may act as
city editor and the pupils as reporters. Later, perhaps, a more formal
organization may be effected, with pupils as managing editor, assistant
managing editor, city editor, etc.


IV. Newspaper Coöperation

The editor of the local paper will probably be willing to print any
really good material that the class produces. If possible, an
arrangement for this purpose should be made with him. It is also
possible that he may be willing to supplement this chapter by talking to
the class.


V. Topics for Oral Discussion

     1. What Is a Newspaper?
     2. The History of Journalism.
     3. Why is a Study of Journalistic Writing Practical?
     4. The Organization of a Newspaper.
     5. The Managing Editor.
     6. The Composing-room.
     7. The Business Manager.
     8. The Assistant Managing Editor.
     9. The Telegraph Editor.
    10. The State Editor.
    11. The City Editor.
    12. The Reporter.
    13. "Beats."
    14. "Scoops."
    15. Editorials.
    16. The Gospel of Work.


VI. Suggested Reading

Kipling's _The Man Who Would Be King_ and _The Light That Failed_.


VII. Memorize

    A PSALM OF LIFE

    Tell me not, in mournful numbers,
      Life is but an empty dream,
    For the soul is dead that slumbers
      And things are not what they seem.

    Life is real, life is earnest,
      And the grave is not its goal;
    "Dust thou art, to dust returnest,"
      Was not spoken of the soul.

    Not enjoyment and not sorrow
      Is our destined end or way;
    But to act, that each to-morrow
      Find us farther than to-day.

    Art is long, and Time is fleeting,
      And our hearts, though stout and brave,
    Still, like muffled drums, are beating
      Funeral marches to the grave.

    In the world's broad field of battle,
      In the bivouac of Life,
    Be not like dumb, driven cattle!
      Be a hero in the strife!

(_Continued on Page 13._)



CHAPTER II

NEWS ITEMS

   "Facts are stubborn things."
        LE SAGE.


I. Assignment

Find and report some unusual and interesting thing that has been made or
done by boys or girls. Do not get your information from literature. Get
it from life. Above all, don't make it up. It must be fact, not fiction.

When the city editor gives a reporter an assignment, he does not expect
to answer questions. The reporter's business is to give the city editor
copy, not to rely on him for information. The reporter who does not
promptly learn this fact soon ceases to be a reporter.


II. Getting the Facts

In all writing the gathering of material is more important than any
other one thing. In reportorial work it is almost all-important. Almost
anybody can tell a story if he has the facts. Energy, persistent
politeness, and a pair of stout legs are more essential in reporting
than is a large vocabulary. The pursuit of news is always a fascinating
and sometimes a dangerous game. If you do not believe this, read
_Fighting in Flanders_, by E. Alexander Powell; or _The Events Man_, by
Richard Barry. Above everything else, remember that the most
uncompromising adherence to facts is essential.

Do not make the mistake of supposing that newspaper men fail to
recognize the importance of telling the exact truth. They strive
constantly and strenuously to do so. In the office of the _New York
World_ there used to be, and probably still is, a placard on which
Joseph Pulitzer had printed these three words: "Accuracy, ACCURACY,
=ACCURACY=." All reporters strive constantly to be accurate. If they do
not always succeed, it is due to the difficulty of the task. They have
to work fast lest the news grow cold. Usually they write in the midst of
an uproar. When you are disposed to find fault with them by reason of
their carelessness, remember that Sir Walter Raleigh, unable to
determine the facts concerning a quarrel that occurred under his own
window, concluded that his chance of telling the truth about events that
happened centuries previous was small.


III. Writing

In preparing manuscript the typewriter in these days is almost
indispensable. The value to a reporter of a course in typewriting is
therefore obvious. It is also obvious that copy must be letter-perfect.
Before it can be printed, it must be entirely free from mistakes in
spelling, punctuation, capitalization, and the other essentials of good
usage.


IV. Model

The following article is clipped from a New York daily. In what it says
and leaves unsaid it is an excellent model.

    FARTHEST NORTH IS RIGHT HERE IN TOWN

    Hundreds of persons were attracted yesterday to Brook Avenue,
    near One Hundred and Forty-ninth Street, to inspect the
    handiwork in snow of three fourteen-year-old boys.

    They had built a thick-walled cottage, 25 feet high and with
    15 × 16 feet ground dimensions. Roof and walls, inside and out,
    had been smoothed; and a coat of water had turned the snow house
    into a shimmering glaze.

    The interior was divided into four rooms, all bearing out the
    truthfulness of the sign tacked up without, which read: "House
    to let, three rooms and bath." Even the bath, modeled in snow,
    was there. Rugs, tables, chairs, and sofas made the Esquimau
    edifice cozy within; and an oil stove kept eggs and coffee
    sizzling merrily at dinner time.

    The builders were three days at their task. They are Tom Brown,
    of No. 516 East One Hundred and Forty-seventh Street; Arthur
    Carraher, of No. 430 Brook Avenue; and Walter Waller, of No. 525
    East One Hundred and Forty-fifth Street.


V. Notes and Queries

 1. State the reason for the use of each capital letter and each
    mark of punctuation in the model.

 2. Tell whether each sentence is simple, complex, or compound.

 3. Explain the syntax of each adverb in the model.

 4. Point out three words or phrases that have color, character, or
    distinction.

 5. What is the subject of each paragraph?

 6. Are the "Four W's" sufficiently indicated? Point them out.

 7. Study the heading. The art of writing good headings is almost as
    difficult as that of writing good poetry, which it resembles in
    that, as the poet is limited to a certain number of syllables,
    the writer of headlines is limited to a fixed number of letters.


VI. Suggested Time Schedule

_Monday_

Discuss Sections I, II, and III of this chapter. Send the class to the
board and dictate the model as an exercise in spelling, punctuation, and
capitalization. Review last week's work.

_Tuesday_

Recitation on Notes and Queries.

_Wednesday_

Oral Composition: i.e., each pupil will bring to class his news
article--not written but in his head--and be prepared to deliver it to
the class as if he were a reporter dictating to a stenographer or
telephoning his report to his paper.

_Thursday_

Profiting by Wednesday's discussion, the pupils will write their
articles and hand them to the teacher, who will proof-read them and
return them on Monday.

_Friday_

Public Speaking--Organize the class as a club. Let the officers arrange
a program consisting of declamations, debates, essays, dialogues, etc.
This day may also be used for the reading of the best articles that
members of the class have written.


VII. Organization of Material

After you get your story, you must decide on a plan for its discussion.
This will depend largely on its nature. Indeed, the plan and the style
of any piece of writing are to the material as are the clothes to the
body. They must fit the body. The body determines their shape.

The model in Section IV is a bit of exposition composed partly of
description and partly of narration. Its framework is as follows:

    Par. 1. The "Four W's": Who=hundreds of people;
            What=handiwork in snow; When=yesterday;
            Where=Brook Avenue near One Hundred and
            Forty-ninth Street.

    Par. 2. The Exterior of the House.

    Par. 3. The Interior.

    Par. 4. The Architects.


VIII. Some Possible Subjects

     1. The Gas Engine that Jack built.
     2. A Profitable Garden.
     3. How a Boy earned his Education.
     4. A Cabinet.
     5. How to bind Books.
     6. Stocking and keeping an Aquarium.
     7. How to build a Flatboat.
     8. How to make Dolls from Corn-Husks.
     9. Metallic Band Work.
    10. A Sled made of Ice.
    11. Silk Culture.
    12. Chickens.
    13. A Good Notebook.
    14. A Sketch-Book.
    15. A Successful Composition.
    16. Skees.
    17. A Paper Boat.
    18. Toys made in the Manual Training Rooms.
    19. A Hat.
    20. A Dress.
    21. The best subject of all, however, is none of these, but one that
        the pupil finds himself.


IX. Suggested Reading

Elbert Hubbard's _A Message to Garcia_.


X. Memorize

    A PSALM OF LIFE (_continued from Page 7_)

    Trust no future, howe'er pleasant!
      Let the dead Past bury its dead!
    Act, act in the living Present!
      Heart within and God o'erhead!

    Lives of great men all remind us,
      We can make our lives sublime,
    And, departing, leave behind us
      Footprints on the sands of time;

    Footprints that perhaps another,
      Sailing o'er life's solemn main,
    A forlorn and shipwrecked brother,
      Seeing, shall take heart again.

    Let us, then, be up and doing,
      With a heart for any fate;
    Still achieving, still pursuing,
      Learn to labor and to wait.
        HENRY WADSWORTH LONGFELLOW.

TO TEACHERS. At this point a review of Chapter V, "Proof-Reading" and
Chapter VI, "The Correction of Themes," of _Practical English
Composition_, Book I, will be found an invaluable exercise.



CHAPTER III

BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES

   "Lives of great men all remind us
    We can make our lives sublime."
        LONGFELLOW.


I. Assignment

Write a biographical note of about two hundred words concerning a
citizen who has just come into public notice.


II. Obtaining the Facts

If the subject of the note is already distinguished, the facts can
usually be collected from books and periodicals. Poole's _Index of
Periodical Literature_ will point the way. Most newspapers keep an
indexed mass of biographical material, which, of course, is at a
reporter's disposal. When these sources fail, the man himself must be
interviewed, which is a task that requires tact, politeness,
persistency, a good memory, and a clear idea of the character and
quantity of the information needed.


III. Models

    I

    James McHenry was born in Ireland, 1753; came to Philadelphia,
    1771; studied medicine under Dr. Benjamin Rush; served in the
    Revolutionary War as surgeon; became Washington's secretary,
    1778; sat in Congress, 1783-86; was a member of the
    Constitutional Convention; was Secretary of War under Washington
    and Adams, 1796-1801; and died in Baltimore, 1816. His most
    conspicuous public service was rendered in inducing Maryland to
    ratify the Constitution. Fort McHenry, the bombardment of which
    in 1814 inspired Francis Scott Key to write the _Star-Spangled
    Banner_, was named in McHenry's honor.

    II

    Alexander Hamilton is one of those great Americans of whose
    services to the nation no American can afford to be ignorant. As
    a soldier in the Revolution, no man possessed more of
    Washington's confidence. To him as much as to any one man was
    due the movement that resulted in the formation of the
    Constitution; he took a leading part in the debates of the
    Convention; and the ratification of the Constitution was brought
    about largely by the _Federalist_, a paper in which he so ably
    interpreted the provisions of that instrument that it has ever
    since been regarded as one of the world's political classics. As
    Secretary of the Treasury under Washington he performed wonders;
    Daniel Webster said of his work in this office: "He rent the
    rock of the national resources, and abundant streams of revenue
    gushed forth. He touched the dead corpse of Public Credit, and
    it sprung upon its feet." He was born in Nevis, one of the West
    Indies, in 1757, and was mortally wounded by Aaron Burr in a
    duel, 1804, at Weehawken, New Jersey.


IV. Organization of Material

Models I and II illustrate two types of biographical notes. That about
James McHenry consists of three sentences, which give: (1) A
chronological survey of his life; (2) a statement of his chief public
service; (3) the fact by which he is most likely to be remembered by the
casual reader. It is a good brief form to use in writing about most men
and women. Model II is better if the subject is remarkable for many
achievements. Its structure is as follows: (1) A keynote sentence; (2),
(3), (4) three illustrations of the fact stated in (1); (5) dates. The
same principles apply to notices of living people. In writing use one
model or the other; do not deviate from them, unless you first find a
better model, and can persuade your teacher that it is better.


V. Exercises

 1. Reduce some biography which you have read and enjoyed to a
    biographical note of two hundred words.

 2. Write a biographical note of two hundred words about a living
    person of national reputation.

 3. Write a biographical note of two hundred words about a living
    person of state or city reputation.

 4. Write a biographical note about the school janitor, the school
    engineer, a member of your own family, your hired man, your
    maid, or any other interesting person from whom you can extract
    the desired information.


VI. Suggested Reading

Carl Schurz's _Life of Abraham Lincoln_.


VII. Memorize

THE SEVEN AGES OF MAN

                      All the world's a stage,
    And all the men and women merely players.
    They have their exits and their entrances;
    And one man in his time plays many parts,
    His acts being seven ages. At first the infant,
    Mewling and puking in the nurse's arms.
    And then the whining school-boy, with his satchel
    And shining morning face, creeping like snail
    Unwillingly to school. And then the lover,
    Sighing like furnace, with a woful ballad
    Made to his mistress's eyebrow. Then a soldier,
    Full of strange oaths and bearded like the pard;
    Jealous in honor, sudden and quick in quarrel,
    Seeking the bubble reputation
    Even in the cannon's mouth. And then the justice,
    In fair round belly with good capon lined,
    With eyes severe and beard of formal cut,
    Full of wise saws and modern instances;
    And so he plays his part. The sixth age shifts
    Into the lean and slippered pantaloon,
    With spectacles on nose and pouch on side;
    His youthful hose, well saved, a world too wide
    For his shrunk shank, and his big manly voice,
    Turning again toward childish treble, pipes
    And whistles in his sound. Last scene of all,
    That ends this strange eventful history,
    Is second childishness and mere oblivion,
    Sans teeth, sans eyes, sans taste, sans everything.
        SHAKESPEARE, _As You Like It_, Act II, Scene 7.



CHAPTER IV

REPORTING ACCIDENTS

    "The truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth."


I. Assignment

Report an accident which you have seen. The object of this exercise and
those which are to follow is threefold:

 1. Vocational--to begin to teach the art of reporting, and hence
    perhaps lay a foundation for students' earning a living.

 2. Ethical--to show all the pupils how a report should be made and
    thus give them a standard by which to measure newspapers.

 3. Artistic--to teach all how to write modern English clearly,
    simply, and correctly.


II. Model

This is a report of an accident on a city street, witnessed by a
reporter, and telephoned to a colleague at the newspaper office.

    With a crash that could be heard for blocks, a high-powered
    touring car, owned and driven by Mrs. William J. Sheldon, wife
    of the millionaire gum manufacturer, who lives at East Boulevard
    and Clifton Drive, collided late last night with a heavy milk
    wagon at Payne Avenue and East 30th St. Both Mrs. Sheldon and
    John Goldrick, 656 East 105th St., driver of the milk wagon,
    escaped injury, except for a few minor cuts and bruises.

    Mrs. Sheldon was driving east on Payne Avenue on the way to the
    Pennsylvania Station at Euclid Avenue to meet her husband, who
    was coming from New York. The street at Payne Avenue and East
    30th St. had just been flushed; and, when Mrs. Sheldon
    endeavored to turn out toward the car tracks to avoid hitting
    Goldrick's wagon, which was just turning into Payne Avenue, the
    car skidded and side-swiped the wagon.

    One wheel of the machine and the mud guard were torn loose,
    while glass from the shattered wind-shield rained over Mrs.
    Sheldon as she strove desperately to twist the wheel. Goldrick
    was hurled from his seat, landing in the back of the wagon,
    which was piled high with cases of milk bottles. The horses were
    thrown from their feet by the shock.

    Mrs. Sheldon and Goldrick were extricated from the wreckage and
    conveyed to the office of Dr. W. A. Masters, Payne Avenue and
    East 32d St., where their injuries were dressed. Later they were
    taken to their homes.


III. Suggested Time Schedule

       _Monday_--Dictation of Model and Study of Last Week's Errors.
      _Tuesday_--Notes and Queries.
    _Wednesday_--Oral Composition--e.g., Telephoning.
     _Thursday_--Written Composition.
       _Friday_--Public Speaking.


IV. Notes, Queries, and Exercises

 1. How many paragraphs are there in the report in Section II?

 2. What is the subject of each?

 3. The object?

 4. Point out the "Four W's."

 5. State why each capital and each mark of punctuation in the model
    is used.

 6. Tell whether each sentence is simple, complex, or compound.

 7. Find in the model an adverbial phrase, an adverb, a noun used
    adverbially, a noun in apposition, a clause modifying a verb, a
    participle modifying the subject of a verb, a non-restrictive
    clause, and a clause used as an adjective.

 8. Point out four words or phrases that give color to the story.

 9. Write an appropriate heading for the model.


V. Oral Composition

Prepare a report of some accident which you have yourself seen or which
has been described to you by an eye-witness. Be sure to get into the
report in the proper order the "Four W's," the cause, and the result.
Note that a good story usually consists of three parts:

    1. The Previous Situation.
    2. What Happened = The Climax.
    3. The Result = The Dénouement.

These are all in the model, but 2 is put first because it is most
important. Observe the order of the model. Each member of the class will
have a chance to make his report orally, and it will be subjected to the
analysis of the class and teacher, who will blame or praise it according
to its deserts. The reporter must defend himself, if attacked. Each
pupil will therefore in turn play the rôle of a reporter, telephoning a
story to headquarters while the class and teacher enact the part of the
city editor.


VI. Written Composition

After the process outlined in Section IV of this chapter has shown the
reporter how to go about the job, the report is to be written,
proof-read by the teacher, corrected by the reporter, and rewritten
until it is letter-perfect.


VII. Suggested Reading

Kipling's _007_ in _The Day's Work_.


VIII. Memorize

    SUNSHINE

      Think every morning when the sun peeps through
      The dim leaf-latticed windows of the grove
    How jubilant the happy birds renew
      Their long melodious madrigals of love;
    And, when you think of this, remember too
      'Tis always morning somewhere, and above
    The awakening continents from shore to shore
    Somewhere the birds are singing evermore.
        LONGFELLOW, _The Birds of Killingworth_.



CHAPTER V

CONSTRUCTIVE NEWSPAPER WRITING

   "The drying up a single tear has more
    Of honest fame than shedding seas of gore."
        LORD BYRON.


I. Introduction

The worst thing about most news articles is that they tell of
destruction, failure, and tragedy instead of construction, success, and
happiness. If one were to judge from the papers, one would be forced to
conclude that the world is rapidly advancing from civilization to
barbarism. To test the truth of this assertion, you have only to examine
almost any current newspaper. A man may labor honorably and usefully for
a generation without being mentioned; but if he does or says a foolish
thing, the reporters flock to him as do cats to a plate of cream. The
reason is obvious. Tragedy is more exciting than any other form of
literature; it contains thrills; it sells papers. However, aside from
the fact that the publication of details concerning human folly and
misfortune is often cruel and unjust to the sufferers, its influence
upon the public is debasing in the same way, if not in the same degree,
as public executions were debasing.

Newspaper writing should, therefore, deal with progress rather than with
retrogression. Most newspaper men admit that this is true, but declare
that the public will not buy the kind of papers which all sensible
people approve. Just as soon as such papers can be made to pay, they
say, we shall have them. One of the objects of this course is to create
a taste for constructive rather than destructive newspapers.

As an exercise tending to produce this result, the student should each
day examine the local paper for the purpose of ascertaining how many
columns of destruction and how many of construction it contains. The
result should be reported to the class and thence to the papers as news.

There are three kinds of items which boys and girls can write and which
are constructive. These are:

    1. Items dealing with progress.
    2. Humorous stories.
    3. Items based on contrast.

The work this week will be on the first of these.


II. Models

    I

    ST. LOUIS, Feb. 22.--L. C. Phillips will plant 1,000 acres of
    his southeast Missouri land in sunflowers this year as a further
    demonstration that this plant can be cultivated with profit on
    land where other crops may not thrive so well. Phillips has been
    experimenting for several years in the culture of sunflowers,
    whose seed, when mixed with other seed, makes excellent chicken
    and hog feed. Last year he planted nearly 100 acres in
    sunflowers. The cost of planting and harvesting is about $6 an
    acre, he says, and the returns from $35 to $48.

    II

    HALIFAX, N.S., Dec. 25.--One of the most extraordinary
    endowments bestowed by nature on any land is enjoyed by the
    fortunate group of counties round the head of the Bay of Fundy,
    Nova Scotia.

    Along the shores of this bay there are great stretches of meadow
    land covered with rich grass and dotted with barns. These
    meadows have been brought into existence by the power of the
    tides in the Bay of Fundy, which have no parallel elsewhere on
    the globe. There is sometimes a difference of sixty feet between
    the levels of the water at low and at high tide. The tide sweeps
    in with a rush, carrying with it a vast amount of solid material
    scoured out of its channel.

    The accumulated deposits of the ages have produced a soil
    seventy or eighty feet deep. Owing to its peculiarities, this
    meadow land retains its fertility in a marvelous way, producing
    heavy crops of hay annually without diminution and without
    renewal for an indefinite number of years.

    When renewal is desired it is only necessary to open a dike,
    which allows the tide to flood the land again and leave a fresh
    deposit of soil.

    III

    WASHINGTON, Dec. 25.--Michigan holds sixth place among the
    States in the value of its mineral production, with an output in
    1912 valued at $180,062,486, according to the United States
    Geological Survey, its prominence being due to its great wealth
    in copper and iron. Ranking second only to Minnesota in the
    production of iron ore, it is third in the production of copper,
    being exceeded only by Arizona and Montana. It also stands first
    in the production of salt, bromine, calcium chloride, graphite,
    and sand lime brick.

    In 1911 Michigan's production of iron ore was 8,945,103 long
    tons, valued at $23,810,710, and in 1912 it increased to
    12,717,468 long tons, valued at $28,003,163.

    The production of copper in Michigan, the value of which in the
    last two years has exceeded that of the output of iron ore,
    amounted in 1912 to 218,138,408 pounds, valued at $135,992,837,
    a decrease in quantity, but an increase in value of over
    $8,000,000.

    The mining of copper in Michigan is of prehistoric origin, the
    metal having been used by the North American Indians before the
    advent of the white man. The records since 1810, or for a little
    more than 100 years, show that the total production of copper in
    Michigan from that date to the close of 1912 has amounted to
    over 5,200,000,000 pounds, which is about 30 per cent of the
    total output of the United States.


III. Oral Composition

All three of these items are evidently condensations of longer articles.
The writers have boiled down a vast amount of material into the form in
which it here appears. The student will find similar material in
abundance in _The Literary Digest_, in _The Scientific American_, in
_The National Geographical Magazine_, in many government reports, and in
almost any daily newspaper. In preparing for this exercise he should
observe the following steps:

 1. Find his material.

 2. Boil it down, to the size desired, which is a most useful
    exercise of the judgment.

 3. Make a careful framework, in doing which the models will be
    useful.

 4. Get the whole so well in mind that he can present it fluently.
    Hesitation should not be tolerated.


IV. Suggested Time Schedule

       _Monday_--Dictation.
      _Tuesday_--Notes and Queries.
    _Wednesday_--Oral Composition.
     _Thursday_--Written Composition.
       _Friday_--Public Speaking.


V. Notes, Queries, and Exercises.

 1. Write an appropriate heading for each item.

 2. Point out the "Four W's" in each.

 3. Tell whether each sentence is simple, compound, or complex.

 4. Explain the syntax of the nouns in Model I, the pronouns in II,
    the verbs in III.

 5. Explain the location of St. Louis, Halifax, Nova Scotia, the Bay
    of Fundy, Washington, Michigan, Minnesota, Arizona, and
    Montana.

 6. Where is the copper country of Michigan? The salt, bromine,
    calcium, chloride, graphite, and brick regions?

 7. Explain the etymological signification of "demonstration,"
    "extraordinary," "accumulated," "Nova Scotia," "annually,"
    "geological," "Arizona," "Montana," "advent."

 8. How many words does Model I contain? II? III?

 9. Discover and write out the framework of each model.

10. Find one subject on which you could make an item like Model I.
    Do the same for II and III.


VI. Written Composition

Remember that you are writing for the compositor. Every letter must be
right. If you do a good piece of work it is altogether probable that
your composition will get into one of the local papers.


VII. Suggested Reading

Mark Twain's _Tom Sawyer_, _Huckleberry Finn_, _Pudd'nhead Wilson_, or
_Roughing It_.


VIII. Memorize

    GOETHALS, THE PROPHET ENGINEER

    A man went down to Panama
      Where many a man had died
    To slit the sliding mountains
      And lift the eternal tide:
    A man stood up in Panama,
      And the mountains stood aside.

    For a poet wrought in Panama
      With a continent for his theme,
    And he wrote with flood and fire
      To forge a planet's dream,
    And the derricks rang his dithyrambs
      And his stanzas roared in steam.

    Where old Balboa bent his gaze
      He leads the liners through,
    And the Horn that tossed Magellan
      Bellows a far halloo,
    For where the navies never sailed
      Steamed Goethals and his crew;

    So nevermore the tropic routes
      Need poleward warp and veer,
    But on through the Gates of Goethals
      The steady keels shall steer,
    Where the tribes of man are led toward peace
      By the prophet-engineer.
        PERCY MACKAYE.[1]

[1] "He [Goethals] received last week three medals--one at Washington,
at the hands of President Wilson, from the National Geographical
Society; another in New York, at the hands of Dr. John H. Finley, head
of the New York State Educational System, from the _Civic Forum_; and a
third, also in New York, at the hands of Hamilton W. Mabie, from the
National Institute of Social Sciences. At the presentation of the _Civic
Forum_ medal, a poem written for the occasion was read by its author,
Mr. Percy MacKaye." (_The Outlook_. March 14, 1914.) This poem is here
quoted, by permission, from Mr. MacKaye's volume, _The Present Hour_.
Published by The Macmillan Company, New York.



CHAPTER VI

HUMOROUS ITEMS

    "To laugh, if but for an instant only, has never been granted to
    man before the fortieth day from his birth."--PLINY.


I. Introduction

Laughter, when it hurts nobody, is wholesome. It is the handmaid of
happiness. It enriches life. Pleasant but not silly humor and wit are
therefore altogether desirable in a paper. Few days in anybody's life
are devoid of incidents that tickle the fancy. Material for good
humorous stories is abundant everywhere. The faculty of recognizing it
when it is seen, and the ability to present it effectively, however,
need a little training. To make a beginning in these directions is the
object of the exercises that follow.


II. Assignment

Find, but not in a book or a paper, a humorous story, and tell it, first
orally, then in writing.


III. Models

    I

    Called on to decide the ownership of a hen claimed by George
    Bass and Joseph Nedrow, of Arnold City, Justice of the Peace
    John Reisinger hit upon a "Solomonesque" solution. "Take this
    fowl to Arnold City," he directed his constable, "and release it
    near the poultry yards of these two men. In whose hen house it
    goes to roost, to him it belongs." The constable, accompanied by
    Bass and Nedrow, did as directed. When liberated, the bird
    promptly flew into the chicken yard of Charles Black, where the
    constable decided it would have to stay under the justice's
    ruling. The costs in the case amount to ten times the value of
    the hen.

    II

    James M. I. Galloway, veterinary surgeon of Kirkintilloch,
    Scotland, arrived yesterday from Glasgow with photographs of a
    cow with a wooden leg on the starboard quarter, which the
    veterinary says is almost as good to the cow as an ordinary leg
    of beef and much more effective in knocking out folks who try to
    milk her on the wrong side.

    Other veterinaries laughed at Galloway, who is young and of an
    experimental temperament, when he decided to save the life of
    this cow after the leg had been cut off by a locomotive. He
    insisted, however, on fitting the wooden leg, which he regards
    as much more useful than wooden heads on Scotch veterinaries.

    The only time the wooden leg gets the cow into trouble is when
    she stands too long in a damp field and the leg sinks in a foot
    or so.

    III

    The written orders of Mr. J. W. Brooks, a once celebrated
    American railroad manager of Michigan, were, it is said, almost
    beyond deciphering. On a certain occasion, when a double track
    had been laid on one of his roads, it was reported at
    headquarters that the barn of an old farmer stood partly upon
    land which the company had bought, and dangerously near to
    passing trains. Mr. Brooks, who was just getting ready for a
    trip down the Mississippi, wrote to the farmer that he must move
    his barn from the company's land at once. If he delayed he would
    be liable to a suit for damages. The old farmer duly received
    the letter, and was able to make out the manager's signature,
    but not another word could he decipher. He took it to the
    village postmaster, who, equally unable to translate the
    hieroglyphics, was unwilling to acknowledge it. "Didn't you sell
    a strip of land to the railroad?" he asked. "Yes." "Well, I
    guess this is a free pass over the road." And for over a year
    the farmer used the manager's letter as a pass, not one of the
    conductors being able to dispute his translation of the
    instrument.


IV. Notes and Queries

 1. A good story always has three parts: (1) A Situation; (2) a
    Climax; (3) a Solution. Do the models possess these elements? If
    they do, point them out.

 2. Point out the "Four W's" in each.

 3. Tell whether each sentence is simple, complex, or compound.

 4. Tell why each mark of punctuation is used.

 5. Tell why each capital letter is used.

 6. Explain the syntax of the adjectives in I, the adverbs in II,
    the prepositions in III.

 7. Explain the etymological signification of the following words:
    "solution"; "fowl"; "constable"; "photographs"; "veterinary";
    "locomotive"; "decipher"; "liable"; "translate";
    "hieroglyphics"; "conductors."

 8. Find on the map Uniontown, Arnold City, Kirkintilloch, Michigan,
    and the Mississippi River.

 9. Explain the reference in "Solomonesque."

10. What are "costs"?

11. Find a metaphor in II.


V. Suggested Time Schedule

As usual, except that on Friday one number of the program may be a
magazine composed of the best stories written during the week by pupils.


VI. Oral Composition

Be sure that your story has a good point; is free from slang; and
possesses a beginning, a middle, and an end.


VII. Written Composition

_Suggestion_: Imagine that the classroom is the local room of a daily
paper, the pupils reporters, and the teacher the editor. The stories may
be written in class.


VIII. Memorize

    THE GRASSHOPPER AND THE CRICKET

    The poetry of earth is never dead:
      When all the birds are faint with the hot sun,
      And hide in cooling trees, a voice will run
    From hedge to hedge about the new-mown mead;
    That is the Grasshopper's;--he takes the lead
      In summer luxury;--he has never done
      With his delights, for when tired out with fun
    He rests at ease beneath some pleasant weed.
    The poetry of earth is ceasing never:
      On a lone winter evening, when the frost
        Has wrought a silence, from the stove there shrills
    The Cricket's song, in warmth increasing ever,
      And seems to one in drowsiness half lost
    The Grasshopper's among some grassy hills.
        JOHN KEATS.



CHAPTER VII

THE USE OF CONTRAST

    "Give unto them beauty for ashes, the oil of joy for mourning,
    the garment of praise for the spirit of heaviness."--ISAIAH.


I. Introduction

Antithesis, or contrast, is one of the two most effective devices at the
disposal of any artist, whether he works with words or colors. Its
skillful use often enables a newspaper writer to make a good item out of
trifling material. The object of this week's work is to teach a little
of the art of using antithesis effectively in reportorial work.


II. Models

    I

    LONDON, Dec. 25.--Mrs. Rebecca Clarke, who is 109 years of age,
    presided this morning at the wedding breakfast of her baby son,
    Harry, who is 67. This is Mr. Clarke's second venture on the
    matrimonial sea. His two brothers are sprightly bachelors of 70
    and 73 years. Mrs. Clarke toasted the newly married couple and
    ate the first slice of the wedding cake. She attended the
    Christmas wedding celebration in the evening.

    II

    Commuters in Yonkers took advantage of the Christmas holiday to
    mow their lawns. The grass has been getting longer and longer,
    owing to the spring weather, until it just had to be cut.

    Players on the Dunwoodie Country Club course, also at Yonkers,
    had to keep moving to keep warm yesterday, but they played on
    greens which had been mowed only a few days ago, and those who
    were fond of flowers stopped now and then to pick a buttercup.

    The greens keeper at Dunwoodie says that the greens have been
    mowed four times since the latter part of September, when in
    ordinary seasons the grass is mowed for the last time until
    spring. The condition of the course is about the same as in May,
    according to the greens keeper.

    Up in Bronx Park the grass has not been mowed recently, but it
    is unusually long for the time of year, and so it is in the
    other city parks. The same condition prevails in the nearby
    cemeteries. Out in New Jersey a fine crop of grass is in
    evidence.

    Farmers in the vicinity of New York are saving on their usual
    bills for winter fodder, for with the spring weather and the
    long grass the animals can pick up a living out of doors.

    III

    NEW YORK, Dec. 31.--An order for $2,000,000 worth of shrapnel,
    to be used in the war in Europe, has been rejected by the
    Commonwealth Steel Company of Granite City, Ill., it was learned
    to-day, because Clarence H. Howard, president of the
    organization, believes warfare should not be recognized.

    Mr. Howard, who lives in St. Louis, is known all over the
    country as the "Golden rule steel man," because he tries to run
    his plant in accordance with the Golden Rule by sharing profits
    with the employes.

    He is stopping at the Biltmore Hotel. Although he talked freely
    of the trouble in Europe, he frowned at the report about the
    $2,000,000 shrapnel order, and then said with blazing eyes:

    "Why, our company would not accept an order for $15,000,000
    worth of shrapnel! The war itself is a bitter shame. It is
    something that does not belong in the general scheme of
    enlightened humanity. If men would only think in unison, and
    think purely and strongly for the abolition of war, it would
    stop. There should be a general movement in the United States in
    this direction.

    "When I was a youngster I left my home in Centralia, Ill., to
    win my own way in the world, and my mother gave me five
    maxims--one for each finger--which I since have followed with
    great profit. They are:

    "'Seek company among those whom you can trust and association
    with whom will make you better.

    "'Never gamble or go where gambling is done.

    "'Never drink or go where drinking is done.

    "'As to smoking, it isn't so bad as drinking or gambling, but
    take my advice and let it alone.

    "'When in doubt about where to go, stop and ask if it would be a
    good place to take your mother.'

    "Platitudes, eh! Some might call them that; but they have
    brought me happiness, and they have brought happiness to others.
    Not long ago I sat down and figured how much I had saved by not
    drinking, gambling, or the like. I figured it out at $1,000 a
    year, and it had been 30 years since my mother gave me the
    advice."


III. Notes

 1. The contrast in Model I consists in the incongruity between the
    ages of the people and their occupations; in II the contrast is
    obviously the same as that alluded to in Byron's famous line,

        "Seek roses in December, ice in June";

    in III Mr. Howard's ideas, ideals, and conduct are in contrast with
    those of some men.

 2. Antithesis between the actual and the normal is always
    interesting.


IV. Queries and Exercises

 1. Explain the syntax of all nouns, adverbs, and infinitives in the
    models.

 2. Find a metaphor in I.

 3. Discuss the meaning and etymology of the following words:
    matrimonial, commuters, Christmas, December, animals.

 4. Is "nearby" a better word than "adjacent"?

 5. Where is Yonkers?

 6. Tell whether the sentences are simple, compound, or complex.

 7. What is the subject of each paragraph in II and III?

 8. Write double headings for I and II. "Double" means in two parts.
    For example:

    | SHAKESPEARE                     |
    |   CELEBRATION                   |
    |     PLANS ADVANCE               |
    |                                 |
    | President of Drama League Tells |
    |   of Interest in Tercentenary   |
    |   Observances                   |

    Remember that you can use only a fixed number of letters in each
    line.

 9. Define antithesis and metaphor. Find an example of each in
    to-day's paper.


V. Composition

 1. _Choosing a Subject._ Select an incident that has come within
    the circle of your own observation; that has never, as far as
    you know, been described in print; and that is sufficiently
    unique to present a good contrast to the usual course of events.

 2. _Collecting Material._ Get as many concrete details as possible.
    Generalities never glitter. They are useful only to cure
    insomnia.

 3. _Arranging Material._ Look out for the "Four W's." Make a
    framework that is definite. It should be determined, in the last
    analysis, not by the model but by the material.

 4. _Oral Composition._ Rehearse your article to your mother or to
    any other person whom you can induce to listen.

 5. _Written Composition._ "Festinâ lente." "Hasten slowly." When a
    French student takes his college entrance examinations, he is
    plucked if he misspells one word, misplaces one capital letter,
    or makes a single mistake in punctuation. Lord Bacon somewhere
    says: "Let us proceed slowly that we may sooner make an end."
    Sheridan wrote:

    "You write with ease to show your breeding,
    But easy writing's curst hard reading."

    Care in No. 5 will eliminate No. 6.

 6. _Revision and rewriting._


VI. Suggested Reading

Coleridge's _The Rime of the Ancient Mariner_.


VII. Memorize

    MUSIC

    Let me go where'er I will,
    I hear a sky-born music still:
    It sounds from all things old,
    It sounds from all things young,
    From all that's fair, from all that's foul,
    Peals out a cheerful song.

    It is not only in the rose,
    It is not only in the bird,
    Not only where the rainbow glows,
    Nor in the song of woman heard,
    But in the darkest, meanest things
    There alway, alway something sings.

    'Tis not in the high stars alone,
    Nor in the cup of budding flowers,
    Nor in the redbreast's mellow tone,
    Nor in the bow that smiles in showers,
    But in the mud and scum of things
    There alway, alway something sings.
        OLIVER WENDELL HOLMES.

TO TEACHERS. At this point a review of Chapter XII, "Vade Mecum, or
Catechism," of _Practical English Composition_, Book I, will be found an
invaluable exercise.



CHAPTER VIII

THRILLERS

   "'Tis strange, but true; for truth is always strange,
    Stranger than fiction."
        BYRON.


I. Assignments

 1. Relate the most exciting adventure that has occurred to you. Use
    the third person. Reporters usually are not allowed to use the
    pronoun "I."

 2. Relate the most exciting adventure that has befallen any person
    whom you personally know well enough to interview on the
    subject.

 3. If you can obtain material in neither of the foregoing ways, get
    a story from the movies, after the manner suggested in the
    following dispatch:

    TEACH REPORTING BY "MOVIES"

    _Journalism Instructors at Columbia Use Films to Develop
    Students' Faculty of Observation._

    Reporters' "copy" telling in graphic style of the Balkan War
    poured into the "city room" of the newspaper plant at the
    Columbia University School of Journalism yesterday. The reason
    was that moving pictures had been adopted as a means of giving
    to the students an opportunity to exercise their powers of
    observation and description in such a fashion as would be
    required of them in real newspaper work.

    The idea of using a moving picture machine to train future
    newspaper reporters in accuracy of observation was originated by
    Professor Walter B. Pitkin, and was approved immediately by Dr.
    Talcott Williams, director of the school. Dr. C. E. Lower,
    instructor in English, is the official operator, but this work
    will probably be given later to a student.

 4. A last resort is literature. In Stevenson, Poe, or Conan Doyle,
    you can probably find a story that can be translated into a
    sufficiently thrilling newspaper dispatch.


II. Models

    I

    Colonel Folque, commander of a division of artillery at the
    front, recently needed a few men for a perilous mission, and
    called for volunteers. "Those who undertake this mission will
    perhaps never come back," he said, "and he who commands will be
    one of the first sons of France to die for his country in this
    war."

    Volunteers were numerous. A young graduate of a polytechnic
    school asked for the honor of leading those who would undertake
    the mission. It was the son of Colonel Folque. The latter paled,
    but did not flinch.

    His son did not come back.--_Boston Herald_.

    II

    Villagers in fear of death were scuttling out of little homes
    like rats driven from holes by flood.

    One person in the village remained at her accustomed post and
    from time to time recorded into the mouth of a telephone
    receiver the progress of the conflict, while a French general at
    the other end of the wire listened. Presently her communications
    were interrupted. "A bomb has just fallen in this office," the
    girl called to the general. Then conversation ceased.

    It is always that way with the telephone girl when tragedy
    stalks abroad and there is necessity to maintain communication
    with the outside world. The telephone girl of Etain may be
    lionized in lyric literature. She deserves it. The telephone
    girl of Etain may find brief mention in history. She deserves
    that much at least. And yet the telephone girl at Etain is but
    one of her kind the world over.--_Sioux City Journal_.


III. Oral Composition

 1. Point out in each story the situation, the climax, and the
    _dénouement_.

 2. Discuss the meaning of "polytechnic," "lionized," "lyric."

 3. Discuss the etymology of "volunteers," "mission," "graduate,"
    "telephone," "literature."

 4. Describe Etain.

 5. Find in the models examples of antithesis, alliteration, and
    simile.


IV. Written Composition

 1. Do not exceed the length of the models.

 2. Be sure that your story is in three paragraphs, arranged thus:
    (1) Situation; (2) Climax; (3) Dénouement.

 3. Put your story in the form of a news article with a heading.
    Don't forget the "Four W's."


V. Model

    NEW YORK, November 21. The mystery of the disappearance of Mrs.
    Pauline Edwards on November 18 was cleared up to-day. A party of
    police visited her home at 96 East Twenty-third St. at 9 A.M.
    for the purpose of making a final examination of the premises.
    They found Mr. Allan Edwards, her husband, at home, and
    compelled him to accompany them on their tour of inspection.
    Careful scrutiny of all the rooms having failed to reveal any
    evidence of foul play, they were about to leave the cellar,
    which they had visited last, when Edwards, who was apparently
    under the influence of liquor or strong excitement, called their
    attention in abusive language to the construction of the walls,
    at the same time rapping heavily with a cane upon the bricks of
    the foundation of a chimney. His blows were answered by a sound
    from within the chimney. It seemed at first like the sobbing of
    a child and then swelled into an indescribable scream, howl, or
    shriek. The wall was broken down, revealing the bloody corpse
    of Mrs. Edwards. It stood erect. On its head sat a black cat.

    On being arraigned before Police Justice O'Toole, Edwards
    confessed his guilt and told the story of his life. He comes
    from an excellent family, is a graduate of the University of
    Utopia, and had a thriving business until, several years ago, he
    became addicted to drink. During the summer of 1913, in a
    drunken frenzy, he gouged out one eye of a cat named Pluto, who
    had formerly been one of his pets. More recently he had
    destroyed this animal by hanging it with a clothes line in his
    yard. Remorse for this cruel deed caused him about two months
    ago to domesticate another cat, which was exactly like the first
    except that, whereas the first was entirely black, the second
    had on its breast a white spot, shaped like a gallows.

    This circumstance, the fact that the animal had only one eye,
    and his own nervous condition soon made Edwards loathe and fear
    the new cat. On the morning of November 17, he and Mrs. Edwards
    went to the cellar to inspect their supply of coal. The cat
    followed them down the steep stairs and nearly overthrew
    Edwards, who thereupon seized an axe and would have slain it,
    had not Mrs. Edwards interposed. In his fury at being thwarted,
    he buried the axe in her skull. As the cellar had been newly
    plastered, he had no difficulty in removing some bricks from the
    chimney, in concealing the remains in its interior, and in
    repairing the wall in such a way that it did not differ in
    appearance from the rest of the cellar.

    Dr. Felix Leo, Professor of Zoölogy at Columbia, on having these
    facts told him this morning, said he thought it unlikely that
    Cat Number Two was the same individual as Cat Number One, though
    the story of Androcles and the lion, if true, would indicate
    that animals of the feline species sometimes remember and
    reciprocate a kindness. "Why, then," said the doctor, solemnly
    closing one eye, "may we not suppose that a cat would have the
    will and the intelligence to revenge an injury?"

    The theory of Edwards, who is now confined in a padded cell in
    the Tombs, is different. He maintains that the two cats are one
    and the same, and that the body of the beast is occupied by that
    ubiquitous spirit who is variously known as Satan, Hornie,
    Cloots, Mephistopheles, Pluto, and Old Nick.


VI. Analysis of Model

This story is simply a translation into newspaper English of Edgar Allen
Poe's story entitled _The Black Cat_. Its three parts are as follows:

 1. _Situation._ A man is converted by drink into such a beast that
    he first tortures and kills a pet and afterwards in his frenzy
    murders his wife, concealing her body in a chimney.

 2. _Climax._ His crime is revealed by the wail of the cat, which he
    had supposed dead but had walled up with the corpse.

 3. _Dénouement._ He is to be executed.

   Poe puts the _dénouement_ first, the situation second, and the
   climax last, which is a common and effective method in tales of
   horror and mystery. The newspaper method is to put the climax
   first, the _dénouement_ second, and the situation last. This
   arrangement, which is as old as Homer's _Odyssey_, is thus
   alluded to by Byron:

       "Most epic poets plunge in _medias res_,
          (Horace makes this the heroic turnpike road),
        And then your hero tells, whene'er you please,
          What went before--by way of episode."

    For newspaper purposes this method is desirable because it makes
    a good lead. That is, the first paragraph, and if possible the
    first sentence, tells the biggest fact about the case. Readers'
    attention being thus caught and economized, they get the habit
    of buying papers.


VII. Assignments

 1. Write headlines for the models in this chapter.

 2. Rewrite the Models in Section II on the plan of that in
    Section V.

 3. Rewrite on the same plan one of Poe's other detective stories,
    one of Conan Doyle's Sherlock Holmes tales, Stevenson's _Dr.
    Jekyll and Mr. Hyde_ or _The Wrecker_, one of Cooper's novels,
    or any other thrilling story.


VIII. Cautions

 1. Be sure that you have your three situations in the right order.

 2. Be exceedingly particular about the Four W's. Make them stand
    out vividly in each situation.

 3. Use the shortest words that will convey your meaning.

 4. Use adjectives and adverbs sparingly. How many does the model
    contain?


IX. Suggested Reading

Jules Verne's _Mysterious Island_; Robert Browning's _Hervé Riel_;
Tennyson's _Revenge_; Whittier's _Barbara Frietchie_; Samuel Rogers's
_Ginevra_.


X. Memorize

    THE WAR-SONG OF DINAS VAWR

    The mountain sheep are sweeter,
    But the valley sheep are fatter;
    We therefore deemed it meeter
    To carry off the latter.
    We made an expedition;
    We met an host and quelled it;
    We forced a strong position,
    And killed the men who held it.

    On Dyfed's richest valley,
    Where herds of kine were browsing,
    We made a mighty sally,
    To furnish our carousing.
    Fierce warriors rushed to meet us;
    We met them, and o'erthrew them:
    They struggled hard to beat us,
    But we conquered them, and slew them.

    As we drove our prize at leisure,
    The king marched forth to catch us:
    His rage surpassed all measure,
    But his people could not match us.
    He fled to his hall-pillars;
    And, ere our force we led off,
    Some sacked his house and cellars,
    While others cut his head off.

    We there, in strife bewildering,
    Spilt blood enough to swim in:
    We orphaned many children,
    And widowed many women.
    The eagles and the ravens
    We glutted with our foemen;
    The heroes and the cravens,
    The spearmen and the bowmen.

    We brought away from battle,
    And much their land bemoaned them,
    Two thousand head of cattle,
    And the head of him who owned them:
    Ednyfed, King of Dyfed,
    His head was borne before us;
    His wine and beasts supplied our feasts,
    And his overthrow, our chorus.
        THOMAS LOVE PEACOCK.



CHAPTER IX

BOOK REVIEWS

   "A good book is the precious life blood of a master spirit."
        JOHN MILTON.


I. Assignments

 1. Write a review of a book of travels.
 2. Write a review of a biography.
 3. Write a review of a novel.


II. Models

    I

    FRASER, JOHN FOSTER. _The Amazing Argentine._ Pp. 291,
    illustrated. New York: Funk & Wagnalls Company. $1.50 net.

    This volume should go far to dissipate any idea that there is
    not much of any consequence south of the Rio Grande besides the
    Panama Canal. In the story of his journeyings over the length
    and breadth of this enormous country--twice the size of
    Mexico--Mr. Fraser paints us a picture of a progressive people,
    and a country that is rapidly assuming a position as the
    foremost producer of the world's meat-supply. Stretching from
    the Atlantic to the Andes Mountains and from north of the Tropic
    of Capricorn to the Straits of Magellan, it supports 30,000,000
    cattle, over 80,000,000 sheep, and 8,000,000 horses. The
    railroads, in which the British have invested £300,000,000, are
    among the best equipped in the world, and carry annually
    40,000,000 tons of freight, with approximate receipts of
    £25,000,000. The export trade is advancing by leaps and bounds,
    and in 1912 the value of wool exports was £50,000,000,
    live-stock products £35,000,000, and agricultural produce
    £53,000,000; while the extent of the frozen-meat business
    may be gaged from the fact that £11,000,000 is invested in
    freezing-houses. The book is a distinct help to Americans in
    showing them a little more of the great country that is opening
    up to their enterprise.--_The Literary Digest_, October 17,
    1914.[2]

[2] Reprinted by permission of Funk & Wagnalls Company.

    II

    LE SUEUR GORDON. _Cecil Rhodes._ 8vo, pp. 345. New York:
    McBride, Nast & Co. $3.50.

    Cecil Rhodes must be looked upon as the Clive of South Africa.
    He found that country a land of wilderness and savagery. He
    transformed it into a fair and industrious province. He
    possessed the unscrupulous and relentless spirit of such
    conquerors as Julius Cæsar, and he was at the same time a
    financier of the widest resource. But some nefarious or alleged
    nefarious transactions which stained his name as a business man
    and a politician deprived him of royal recognition. He was not
    only denied a title, but even failed to obtain a decoration, and
    it was not until his death that a magnificent monument was
    unveiled to his memory in the heart of Rhodesia, a province
    which he had created and which was named after him.

    Cecil John Rhodes (1853-1902) was born, like so many eminent
    Englishmen, in the house of a clergyman. Into the forty-nine
    years of his life he compressed a very stirring chapter of
    British victory. There was something of the buccaneer in his
    character when he prompted the notorious Jameson Raid and
    eventually brought the British Government into conflict with the
    cunning and ambition of Kruger--Oom Paul, as he was styled. For
    the bitter and bloody Boer War the blame has always been laid
    upon the shoulders of Rhodes.

    Rhodes was an Oxford man and an omnivorous reader. He began by
    working in the diamond-mines at Kimberley as a common laborer;
    he ended by becoming manager of the Chartered Company, and
    amassing a vast fortune.--_The Literary Digest_, April, 1914.[3]

[3] _Ibid._

    III

    _Sense and Sensibility._ A Novel. By Jane Austen. London:
    Egerton. 1811.

    Though inferior to _Pride and Prejudice_, this work is about as
    well worth reading as any novel which, previous to its
    publication, had been written in the English language. Its
    interest depends, not on its descriptive and narrative power,
    but on character portrayal and humor.

    Though both lovable girls, the two heroines, Elinor and
    Marianne, are as imperfect and as different as sisters are apt
    to be in real life. Vulgar match-making Mrs. Jennings, as Austin
    Dobson calls her, like many a flesh-and-blood dowager, at first
    repels us by her foolish prattle and finally wins our respect by
    her kindness. Sir John Middleton, with his horror of being
    alone; Lady Middleton, with her horror of impropriety; Miss
    Steele, who can always be made happy by being teased about the
    Doctor; Lucy Steele, pretty, clever, not over-fastidious in her
    principles, and abominably weak in her grammar; Robert Ferrars,
    whose airs are justly punished by his marriage to Lucy; Mrs.
    Ferrars, who contrives to be uniformly unamiable; Mrs. John
    Dashwood, fit daughter to such a mother; and Mr. John Dashwood,
    fit husband to such a wife--together form a gallery of portraits
    of which any author might be proud.

    The book, too, is rich in humor. Among other delightful things
    we read of a will which, like almost every other will, gave as
    much disappointment as pleasure; of a child of three who
    possesses the usual charms of that age, an imperfect
    articulation, an earnest desire of having his own way, many
    cunning tricks, and a great deal of noise; of apricot marmalade
    applied successfully as a remedy for a bruised temple; of a
    company who met to eat, drink, and laugh together, to play at
    cards or consequences, or any other game that was sufficiently
    noisy; of a husband who is always making remarks which his wife
    considers so droll but cannot remember; of Constantia wine,
    which is equally good for colicky gout and broken hearts; of a
    face of strong natural sterling insignificance; of a girl who
    was pleased that a man had called and still more pleased that
    she had missed him; of a woman of few words, for, unlike people
    in general, she proportioned them to the number of her ideas;
    of a newspaper item that interested nobody except those who knew
    its contents before; and of a man who was perfectly the
    gentleman in his behavior to guests and only occasionally rude
    to his wife and mother-in-law.

    It is true that the two heroes are not very heroic, Edward
    Ferrars being only a curate and Col. Brandon a poor old man of
    36 with a flannel waistcoat; but the latter is pretty thoroughly
    the gentleman and the former gives up a fortune of 30,000 pounds
    in order to marry a girl whom he does not love, thereby
    furnishing, if not an example of good sense, at least an
    agreeable contrast to Marianne's lover, Willoughby, who marries
    a girl whom he does not love in order to get the money which he
    is too genteel to earn.

    On the whole, it is a wonderful book to have been written by a
    girl of twenty-one.[4]

[4] Reprinted, by permission of The Macmillan Company, from the
introduction of _Sense and Sensibility_, edited by Edwin L. Miller.


III. Notes, Queries, and Exercises

 1. Among the important functions of a newspaper is the task of
    announcing the appearance of new books, describing their
    contents, and commenting on their merits. The style of such
    notices should, above everything else, be clear. Most of them
    are unfortunately disfigured by a jargon which repels readers
    instead of inducing them to peruse the books reviewed.

 2. What information should the heading of a book notice furnish?

 3. Model I is an excellent example of what a review in a single
    paragraph should be. The first sentence bridges the intellectual
    and geographical space between the United States and Argentina,
    between the reader and the subject, which is just what an
    introduction should do. The second sentence describes the
    country in general terms, ending in a clause that leads directly
    to the most striking single fact about Argentina, its importance
    as an agricultural country. The three sentences that follow give
    concrete facts in support of this clause. The final sentence
    drives home the point stated in the first.

 4. Discuss the meaning and etymology of "dissipate," "Rio Grande,"
    "annually," "approximate," "exports," "enterprise."

 5. Point out one restrictive and one non-restrictive clause.

 6. Describe orally the location and character of the Rio Grande,
    Mexico, the Panama Canal, the Atlantic, the Andes, the Tropic of
    Capricorn, the British, and the Straits of Magellan.

 7. What figure of speech have we in the phrase, "the Amazing
    Argentine?"

 8. In Model II we have an illustration of a biographical review in
    three paragraphs. It presents a vivid picture of Cecil Rhodes in
    spite of the fact that it is not well organized. Try the
    experiment of rewriting it according to this plan:
    Par. I--Introduction, or Bridge; Par. II--Rhodes's Services to
    Mankind; Par. III--Rhodes's Faults; Par. IV--Rhodes's Private
    Life.

 9. Find in the model an example of alliteration and an example of
    antithesis.

10. Explain the allusions in "Clive," "Julius Cæsar," "buccaneer,"
    "Jameson Raid," "Kruger," "Boer War," and "Oxford."

11. Define "financier," "nefarious," "politician," "notorious,"
    "ambition," and "omnivorous." From what language do these words
    come?

12. Analyze Model III as I and II have already been analyzed for
    you.

13. Find in III an antithesis and an alliteration.

14. Which of the books do you wish most to read? Why?

15. Do these models observe the law of presenting concrete rather
    than abstract statements?

16. Make a list of the books you have read, putting in one column
    the books of travel, into another the biographies, and into a
    third the novels.

17. Choose one of these as the subject of a review which you are to
    write.


IV. Oral Composition

In preparing for this observe the following points:

(a) Remember that your main purpose is to persuade others to read
    the book.

(b) In your first paragraph make a bridge from the minds of your
    audience to the book.

(c) In the body of your review describe concretely the one most
    interesting feature of the work.

(d) In your last paragraph restate the idea of the first but do
    it in some other form.


V. Written Composition

Concentrate your attention on perfection of sentence structure.


VI. Suggested Time Schedule

                _Week I_                      _Week II_

    _Monday_   --Dictation                    Oral Composition.
    _Tuesday_  --Dictation.                   Oral Composition.
    _Wednesday_--Notes, Queries, Exercises.   Written Composition.
    _Thursday_ --Notes, Queries, Exercises.   Revision.
    _Friday_   --Speaking.                    Program.


VII. Suggested Reading

 1. Macaulay's _Frederic the Great_, _Clive_, and _Hastings_.
 2. Mark Twain's _Roughing It_.
 3. Scott's _Ivanhoe_.


VIII. Memorize

    GUILIELMUS REX

    The folk who lived in Shakespeare's day
    And saw that gentle figure pass
    By London Bridge, his frequent way--
    They little knew what man he was.

    The pointed beard, the courteous mien,
    The equal port to high and low,
    All this they saw or might have seen--
    But not the light behind the brow!

    The doublet's modest gray or brown,
    The slender sword-hilt's plain device,
    What sign had these for prince or clown?
    Few turned, or none, to scan him twice.

    Yet 'twas the king of England's kings!
    The rest with all their pomps and trains
    Are mouldered, half-remembered things--
    'Tis he alone that lives and reigns!
        THOMAS BAILEY ALDRICH.



CHAPTER X

REPORTING GAMES

   "It is not strength but art obtains the prize,
    And to be swift is less than to be wise."
        _Iliad._


I. Assignment

If it is fall, report a football game; if winter, a basket-ball game; if
spring or summer, a baseball game.


II. Material

In order to be able to report a football game, one must understand the
rules of the game, be familiar with the _personnel_ and history of the
opposing teams, and know the names of the officials. The task therefore
resolves itself into three parts:

    1. Learning the rules of the game.
    2. Studying the teams and officials.
    3. Attending the game and taking notes.

Those members of the class who are familiar with the rules may be
assigned the task of explaining them to the others; this is an excellent
exercise in oral composition. It should include: (1) A short history of
football; (2) A description of the field; (3) a description of the
equipment of a team; (4) an account of the organization of a team; (5) a
description of the way a game is played; (6) an explanation of the
rules. _Spalding's Football Guide_ contains all of the information
necessary, though it may be supplemented by encyclopædias. It is
suggested that this exercise be organized for presentation as a
program.

The study of the opposing teams may be managed in the same way. It
should include: (1) Their past history; (2) their _personnel_; (3) some
account of the officials and their qualifications.

Quick and accurate observation of what happens during a game is
essential. A good scheme for recording everything as it occurs is to
make a chart of the field in a notebook, and, as the game progresses, to
mark on it the progress of the ball, using a blue pencil when it is in
the possession of one side and a red pencil when the other has it. On
this chart brief notes of the methods by which the ball is advanced may
also be made.


III. Composition

Football reports vary in length from a bare statement of the result of a
game to many columns, the determining factor in this particular being
the amount of public interest. The style is sometimes rendered
picturesque by a skillful use of metaphor, antithesis, and slang, but
more often is severely plain. The latter method is the only safe one for
beginners. Except in the hands of a genius, the former is sure to result
in silly vulgarity. The models which follow are of convenient length and
in style are admirable, being clear, correct, and free from vulgarity.


IV. Models

    I

    MICHIGAN, 15; M.A.C., 3

    Michigan defeated the Michigan Agricultural College at Lansing
    on Saturday, Oct. 14, in a game which marked the first defeat of
    the Aggies on their home field. The Wolverines went into the
    late minutes of the third quarter without a score and with
    3 points against them, and, by the kind of football that has
    made Yost teams famous, played the "farmers" to a standstill.
    Michigan was returned a winner by a score of 15 to 3. The game
    brought out Jimmie Craig in the new rôle of halfback and assured
    him a permanent berth behind the line. Six hundred Michigan
    rooters attended the game.

    The summary:

      _Michigan_, 15        _Position_      _M.A.C._, 3

      Garrels               L.E.           {Stone (Capt.)
                                           {Davis

      Conklin (Capt.)       L.T.           {Bekeman
                                           {Day

      Bogle                 L.G.            McLaughty

      Paterson              C.              McWilliams

      Allmendinger}         R.G.           {Culver
      Quinn       }                        {Martin

      Pontius               R.T.            Gifford

      Wells                 R.E.            Gorenflo

      Craig   }             Q.              Riblet
      McMillan}

      Torbet    }
      Herrington}           L.H.            Hill
      Craig     }

      Carpell               R.H.            Markem

      Thomson               F.B.           {Bullard
                                           {Julian

    _Officials_--Referee, Hackett, West Point; Umpire, Eckersall,
    Chicago; Field Judge, Allen, Northwestern; Head Linesman,
    Yeckley, Penn. State. _Time of Periods_--10 minutes.

    II

    MICHIGAN, 19; OHIO STATE, 0

    Michigan's defeat of O.S.U. on Ferry Field Saturday, October 21,
    was due largely to the superior endurance of the Wolverine team.
    State outplayed Michigan in the first quarter of the game, but
    Michigan soon settled to the task and rolled up 19 points
    against no score for the visitors. Foss, the Ohio quarterback,
    was the individual star of the game.

    The summary:

      _Michigan_, 19        _Position_     _O.S.U._, 0

      Conklin (Capt.)       L.E.          {Trautman
                                          {McCoy

      Bogle }               L.T.           Barriklow
      Roblee}

      Bogle}                L.G.           Raymond
      Quinn}

      Paterson              C.             Geib

      Allmendinger}         R.G.           Geisman
      Garrels     }

      Pontius               R.T.           Markley (Capt.)

      Wells                 R.E.          {Pavey
                                          {Stover

      McMillan}             Q.             Foss
      Pickard }

      Craig                 L.H.           Smith, L.J.

      Carpell}              R.H.           Cox
      Huebel }

      Thomson               F.B.           {Wright
                                           {Willaman

    _Officials_--Referee, Thompson, Georgetown; Umpire, Hoagland,
    Princeton; Field Judge, Lieut. Nelly, West Point; Head Linesman,
    Macklin, Penn. _Time of periods_--15 minutes.

    III

    MICHIGAN, 9; VANDERBILT, 8

    Michigan was played to a standstill in the game with McGugin's
    Vanderbilt eleven on Ferry Field Saturday, Oct. 28, and it was
    by the closest of margins that the Wolverines won out by a 9 to
    8 score. A field goal was scored by each team and each team made
    a touchdown, but Michigan was more fortunate than her southern
    rivals in that McMillan made a perfect punt-out and Conklin
    kicked goal, while Captain Roy Morrison of Vanderbilt fell down
    on the same play and lost his team the chance to try for a goal
    from touchdown when he overkicked on the punt-out. Yost was far
    from satisfied by the showing of the Michigan team.

    The summary:

      _Michigan_, 9         _Position_      _Vanderbilt_, 8

      Conklin (Capt.)       L.E.            K. Morrison

      Bogle                 L.T.           {Freeland
                                           {Covington

      Quinn                 L.G.            Metzger

      Paterson              C.              Morgan

      Garrels               R.G.            C. Brown

      Pontius               R.T.            T. Brown

      Wells                 R.E.            E. Brown

      McMillan              Q.              R. Morrison (Capt.)

      Craig                 L.H.            Hardage

      Carpel                R.H.           {Collins
                                           {Curlin

      Thomson               F.B.            Sikes

    _Officials_--Referee, Bradley Walker, Virginia; Umpire,
    Eckersall, Chicago; Field Judge, Lieut. Nelly, West Point; Head
    Linesman, Heston, Michigan.

        G. E. ELDERIDGE.
    _Michigan Alumnus, November, 1911._


V. Queries and Topics for Oral Composition

 1. What knowledge is necessary in order to report a football game?

 2. How old is the game of football?

 3. Wherein do Rugby, soccer, Canadian, and American football
    differ?

 4. Describe the field on which American football is played.

 5. Describe the shoes, costumes, headgear, and ball used in the
    game.

 6. What is a stadium?

 7. Describe the functions of each player on a team.

 8. Explain the following terms: "kickoff," "tackling," "end run,"
    "line buck," "interference," "blocking," "holding," "off side,"
    "punt," "drop kick," "forward pass," "fair catch," "downs,"
    "scrimmage," "touchdown," "touchback," "safety," "goal from
    touchdown," and "goal from field."

 9. How many yards must a team carry the ball in four downs in order
    to keep it?

10. How much does a touchdown count? A safety? A field goal? A goal
    from touchdown?

11. How would you go to work to find out the past history of a team
    and the character of its personnel?

12. What method of taking notes is recommended?

13. How long should the report of a game be?

14. In what style should it be written?

15. How many words does each model contain?

16. Observe how the writer seizes on the one or two salient points
    of each game, omitting what is unessential. This requires
    judgment and the effort to do it is a good training in judgment.

17. Tell whether each sentence is simple, complex, or compound.

18. Explain why each mark of punctuation is used.

19. Find a metaphor in the models.


VI. Exercise

Write a report of Saturday's game.


VII. Suggested Time Schedule

             _Week I_                              _Week II_

       _Monday_--(a) Review past errors.         Queries.
                 (b) Assign work on Sections
                 II and III of this chapter.
      _Tuesday_--Program on Section II.          Queries.
    _Wednesday_--Program on Section III.         Oral Composition
     _Thursday_--Dictation of Models.            Written Composition
                                                 and Reviews.
       _Friday_--Dictation of Models.            Public Speaking.


VIII. Suggested Reading

Thomas Hughes's _Tom Brown at Rugby_; Homer's _Iliad_, Book XXIII;
Virgil's _Æneid_, Book V.


IX. Model II.

    NEW YORK, October 9, 1913.--Cornelius McGillicuddy's Murder
    Association, incorporated, convened at the Polo grounds this
    afternoon, transacted routine business, and adjourned.

    On motion of Brother Edward Collins, supported by Brother J.
    Franklin Baker, and carried by acclamation, it was voted to
    resume the task of tearing the hide off the Giants. Messrs.
    Collins and Baker were appointed a special committee of two to
    carry out the work and seven others were assigned to assist
    them.

    After the meeting refreshments consisting of singles, doubles,
    triples, and home runs were served; and a good time was had by all,
    excepting John J. McGraw and his employes and friends numbering
    upward of 25,000. The latter class was unanimous in declaring the
    Mackmen a bunch of vulgar, common persons who play professional
    baseball for a living and thus are not entitled to associate with
    amateurs, such as some of the New York players.

    To get to the point of things, Philadelphia had what some of the
    fans called "one of them afternoons." There is no use trying to
    describe all the details of this so-called contest, for it is
    demoralizing to the young to see such things in print. Many
    criminals have confessed on the scaffold that they got their
    start watching the Athletics assault some honest young pitcher
    who was trying to support his aged mother. They say that, if the
    Macks can get away with their rough work, anything ought to go.

    Eight to two was the score to-day, if anybody cares. We can't
    just figure out where New York got the two, but it was there on
    the score board and must have happened. Also there is a
    well-grounded belief that McGraw has subsidized the scoreboard
    boy so that he cheats the visitors somewhat. But, anyhow, it is
    reasonably certain that the Mackmen had plenty, while New York
    was several shy of the total that would have cheered the heart
    of Gotham, if indeed Gotham has a heart.

    Connie Mack and John J. McGraw each had to do some guessing
    to-day in the matter of picking a pitcher. Lean Connie picked up
    the right answer and Fat John did not. There's the whole story.
    The Philadelphia boss shook up the names of his young pitchers
    in a hat, shut his eyes, and drew out the name of Joe Bush.
    McGraw, by and with the consent and advice of his entire club,
    picked Jeff Tesreau. At least it was popularly believed, during
    and before the game started, that John had given his mound corps
    a careful slant and chosen Jeff as the best bet. Afterward some
    of the experts believed that the New York manager, by way of
    showing a delicate bit of courtesy to a guest, had accorded
    Connie the privilege of naming New York's gunner. Certainly
    Tesreau was the best player Philadelphia had and the Athletics
    were seriously crippled when he retired in the seventh, just
    after Baker had knocked Doyle's right leg out into the field.

    About all that Tesreau had was a fine physique and a mouthful of
    slippery elm. Almost before the umpires and managers had ceased
    to chat over the rules, the Macks had lumped three hits, and
    with a wild heave by Artie Fletcher had scored three runs, which
    was one more than the Giants got all day. In the next inning
    some more hammering gave another pair of markers. Then Tesreau
    settled down and went along fairly well until the seventh. The
    Athletics had another rush of hits to the outfield in this
    inning and Otis Crandall came in to finish up the contest, or
    scandal, whichever you choose to term it. By this time Connie's
    men were getting hungry for supper, so they made only one tally
    off Crandall, this coming when Wallie Schang bakered one into
    the right field stand.

    Of course, under such conditions, Joe Bush didn't have a real
    test. Connie Mack himself, or his crippled batboy, could have
    pitched the game and won it from the second inning on. Joe just
    kept slamming them over and, though he had a couple of wild
    spells that gave the Giants a chance to figure in the game, he
    always was able to pull himself together before there was any
    real danger.

    Nobody here had heard much about this Joe Bush previous to
    to-day. Even the experts, who see all things that are and a lot
    that aren't, didn't have the dope on him. They had heard of
    Donie Bush and Anheuser Busch and Bush leaguers, but Joseph was
    a new one. For the information and guidance of those who may be
    interested, we furnish the data that he came From the Missoula
    Club of the Union--or is it Onion--Association last fall, and is
    a right hander.

    Bush has the reputation of being almost as speedy as Walter
    Johnson on his good days and this was one of them. In the early
    stages of the game he depended almost entirely on his fast ball
    but later began to unbelt a few curves which had the right sort
    of a fold to them. Although in a hole with many batters, he
    passed only four and hit one. Great fielding helped him at
    times, the Macks pulling off a double play in each of three
    innings in which New York appeared to have something started.

    Any child wonder who can come all the way from Missoula to
    Broadway in one year and win a world's series game is of course
    entitled to much credit, but this boy certainly fell into a
    particularly soft spot. With the Macks' billion dollar infield
    killing base hits for him and the attack getting him eight runs,
    he would have had a hard time slipping the game to McGraw if he
    had sold out before hostilities started. Bush permitted the
    Giants, who were commonly reported to be moaning for the gore of
    Mack's youngsters, just five hits. Two of these were bunched in
    one inning and resulted in one of the runs. The others straggled
    through.[5]

[5] Reprinted by permission of the author, Mr. G. A. Batchelor, of the
_Detroit Free Press_.

                         _The Score_

      PHILADELPHIA        AB  R  H TB BB SH SB PO  A  E

      E. Murphy, r.f.      5  1  2  2  0  0  0  2  0  0
      Oldring, l.f.        5  3  2  2  0  0  1  0  0  0
      Collins, 2b.         5  2  3  5  0  0  1  5  4  0
      Baker, 3b.           4  1  2  2  0  0  1  3  1  0
      McInnis, 1b.         4  0  0  0  0  0  0  9  0  0
      Strunk, c.f.         4  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0
      Barry, s.s.          4  0  1  1  0  0  0  2  3  0
      Schang, c.           4  1  1  4  0  0  0  5  2  1
      Bush, p.             4  0  1  1  0  0  0  0  1  0
                          -----------------------------
         Total            39  8 12 17  0  0  3 27 11  1

      NEW YORK            AB  R  H TB BB SH SB PO  A  E

      Herzog, 3b.          4  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0
      Doyle, 2b.           4  0  1  1  0  0  0  5  1  0
      Fletcher, s.s.       2  0  1  1  1  0  1  2  2  1
      Burns, l.f.          4  0  0  0  0  0  0  3  0  0
      Shafer, c.f.         3  1  1  2  1  0  0  2  0  0
      Murray, r.f.         3  1  1  1  1  0  1  4  0  0
      McLean, c.           2  0  1  1  0  0  0  3  1  0
      Wilson, c.           2  0  0  0  0  0  0  2  0  0
      Merkle, 1b.          2  0  0  0  1  0  0  3  0  0
      Wiltse, 1b.          0  0  0  0  0  0  0  2  0  0
      Tesreau, p.          2  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0
      Crandall, p.         1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  2  0
      [A]Cooper            0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0
                          -----------------------------
         Total            29  2  5  6  4  0  3 27  6  1

      [A] Ran for McLean in fifth.

      Philadelphia         3  2  0  0  0  0  2  1  0--8
      New York             0  0  0  0  1  0  1  0  0--2

      Two-base hit--Shafer. Three-base hit--Collins. Home run--Schang.
      Struck out--by Tesreau, 3; by Crandall, 1; by Bush, 3. Double
      plays--Collins-Barry; Bush-Barry-McInnis; Doyle (unassisted);
      Schang-Collins. Time--2:11. Umpires--Rigler at plate, Connolly
      on bases, Klem and Egan in field.


X. Exercises

 1. In this report we have a good example of baseball reporting as a
    literary art. The writer, Mr. E. A. Batchelor, of the _Detroit
    Free Press_, uses metaphor and antithesis with effect. The
    framework, as is usual in good comic writing, is excellent.
    Observe it:

    1. Four W's--Par. 1.
    2. Business Meeting--Par. 2.
    3. Refreshments--Pars. 3-12, inclusive.
         What New York suffered--Par. 3.
         What Philadelphia did--Par. 4.
         The Score--Par. 5.
         The Pitchers--Pars. 6-10.
           Their Choice--Par. 6.
           What New York's didn't do--Pars. 7-8.
           Joe Bush--Pars. 9-12.

 2. _Use of Metaphor._ (a) Analyze the metaphor in "Murder
    Association." (b) Point out the words in the first three
    paragraphs that serve to sustain and amplify the comparison.
    (c) Explain the metaphors that lurk in "rush of hits to the
    outfield," "bakered," "unbelt," "in a hole," "straggled
    through."

 3. _Antithesis._ In Par. 3 the first sentence contains a fine
    contrast, "A good time was had by all, excepting," etc., "all"
    including fewer persons than there are in the group excepted. It
    is an old but good trick. In the same paragraph note also the
    contrast between professionals and amateurs. The rest of the
    story contains at least a half-dozen antitheses in addition to
    those already mentioned. Find them.

 4. _Topics for short expository speeches_: Cornelius McGillicuddy;
    J. Franklin Baker; the Giants; John J. McGraw; The Spelling of
    the Word "Athletics"; How Baseball is Played; Gotham; Joe Bush;
    Jeff Tesreau; Doyle; A Mouthful of Slippery Elm; Otis Crandall;
    Wallie Schang; Donie Bush; Missoula; Curves; Broadway; The
    Macks' Billion Dollar Infield.

 5. _Translate_: "The fans"; "one of them afternoons"; "if the Macks
    can get away with their rough work, anything ought to go";
    "shy"; "a careful slant"; "his best bet"; "slamming them over";
    "pulling off a double play"; "something started"; "slipping the
    game to McGraw."

 6. _Subject for Debate_: Resolved--that the use of slang should be
    avoided.

 7. Make a study of the art of reporting baseball games, following
    the hints for football already given, and report a school game.
    The boys in the class can be relied upon to furnish all of the
    technical information that will be needed.


XI. Memorize

    ENDYMION

    A thing of beauty is a joy for ever:
    Its loveliness increases; it will never
    Pass into nothingness; but still will keep
    A bower quiet for us, and a sleep
    Full of sweet dreams, and health, and quiet breathing.
    Therefore, on every morrow, we are wreathing
    A flowery band to bind us to the earth,
    Spite of despondence, of the inhuman dearth
    Of noble natures, of the gloomy days,
    Of all the unhealthy and o'er-darkened ways
    Made for our searching: yes, in spite of all,
    Some shape of beauty moves away the pall
    From our dark spirits. Such the sun, the moon,
    Trees old and young, sprouting a shady boon
    For simple sheep; and such are daffodils
    With the green world they live in; and clear rills
    That for themselves a cooling covert make
    'Gainst the hot season; the mid forest brake,
    Rich with a sprinkling of fair musk-rose blooms:
    And such too is the grandeur of the dooms
    We have imagined for the mighty dead;
    All lovely tales that we have heard or read:
    An endless fountain of immortal drink,
    Pouring unto us from the heaven's brink.
        JOHN KEATS.



CHAPTER XI

REPORTING SPEECHES

   "Words are like leaves, and where they most abound
    Much fruit of sense beneath is seldom found."
        POPE.


I. Assignment

Report a speech, lecture, or sermon in two hundred words.


II. Explanation

It is easy to obtain the material for this assignment because one has
only to attend, listen, and take notes. Indeed, in some instances,
speakers are ready and willing to furnish reporters with copies of what
they intend to say. The part of the task which requires skill is what is
known as boiling down, condensing, or reducing the report to the
dimensions required by editors. This involves: first and foremost, a
determination not to misrepresent in any way what is said; second, the
ability to select the essential points; third, an eye for such detail as
may be used to spice the report without making it too long. Too many
reporters, in their anxiety to make a good story, observe only the last
of these requirements, and in consequence are unjust to speakers. In the
arrangement of the material, it is well to begin with a statement of the
main point of the speech and to follow it with such details as space
permits.


III. Speech Construction

Every good speech, however long, has only one main point. Its details
serve only to illustrate and enforce this central theme. The reporter
needs to bear this in mind. He must discover the central point, or
thesis, before he can write a good report. A knowledge of the principles
underlying speech construction is therefore of great value to him, even
if not essential. Fortunately, these are comparatively simple. Nearly
every good speech, from Demosthenes down, has consisted of the following
parts in the following order:

 1. _Exordium, or Introduction._ A bridge from the audience to the
    subject, designed to conciliate and interest.

 2. _Status, or Plan._ An outline of what the speaker intends to
    say.

 3. _Statement of Facts._ A presentation of the situation on which
    the orator intends to found his argument.

 4. _Argument._ Here is presented in detail the plan or conclusion
    which the speaker has in mind, with the reasons in favor of it.

 5. _Refutation._ A reply to objections which have been or may be
    urged against the plan.

 6. _Peroration, or Conclusion._ This may be a summary of the
    speech, a good-humored bit of color, a picture of the benefits
    to be derived from the adoption of the orator's plan, or an
    impassioned appeal for action.

Sermons and political speeches are usually argumentative and hence of
this type. Sometimes, however, an orator and his theme are so well known
that he omits all except 3 and 4; occasionally all except 4 disappear.
Lectures often contain only 3, as their purpose is only to convey
information. Usually, however, a speech without an argument is like a
gas engine without gas; it has no "go." The speech that does not aim to
get people to do something is usually flat, stale, and unprofitable.


IV. Models

    I

    LONDON, March 22, 1775.--Conciliation as a means of allaying the
    present discontent in the American colonies was advocated in the
    House of Commons to-day by Mr. Edmund Burke. He proposed that
    Parliament abandon the idea of taxing the colonies, and instead
    place on the statute book an act acknowledging that the various
    colonial legislative bodies have the power to grant or refuse
    aids to the crown. Though his speech, which lasted over three
    hours, was heard with respect, the measures which he proposed
    were defeated by a strict party vote, 270 to 78.

    Mr. Burke spoke with a dignity and power which have not been
    surpassed even by the Earl of Chatham. His mastery of the
    subject was so complete and the form of his speech so perfect
    that competent judges pronounce it a classic. His speech is to
    be printed at once as a pamphlet.

    In outline Mr. Burke said: "As I have studied this American
    question for years, have held fixed opinions on it since 1766,
    and have nothing to gain except disgrace if I suggest a foolish
    solution of the problem, I believe that you will hear me with
    patience. My speech will consist of the discussion of two
    questions: (1) Should we attempt to conciliate the Americans?
    (2) If so, how? America is already powerful by virtue of
    population, commerce, and agriculture. The chief characteristic
    of the American people is their fierce love of freedom. There
    are only three ways to deal with this spirit: (1) To remove it
    by removing its causes; (2) to punish it as criminal; (3) to
    comply with it as necessary. Its causes are irremovable, being
    the love of independence which caused their ancestors to leave
    England; their religion in the North, which is the Protestantism
    of the Protestant religion; the fact that in the South they hold
    slaves; the general diffusion among them of education; the
    circumstance that they speak English and that an Englishman is
    the unfittest man on earth to argue another Englishman into
    being a slave; and the 3000 miles of ocean, between us and
    them. It cannot be treated as criminal, there being no way to
    draw up an indictment against a whole nation. Indeed, you have
    already tried to do this and failed. There remains no way of
    treating the American spirit except to comply with it as
    necessary. I propose, therefore, to erect a Temple of British
    Concord with six massive pillars by granting to America in six
    propositions the identical rights which for generations have
    been by acts of Parliament secured to Ireland, Wales, Chester,
    and Durham, except that, owing to the distance of America from
    England, each colony, instead of sending members to Parliament,
    shall have the power, through its own legislature, to grant or
    refuse aids to the Crown. If adopted, these measures, I believe,
    will substitute an immediate and lasting peace for the disorders
    which Lord North's measures have created. The unbought loyalty
    of a free people, thus secured, will give us more revenue than
    any coercive measure. Indeed, it is the only cement that can
    hold together the British Empire."

    II

    EDINBURGH, Sept. 20, 1887.--Edmund Burke was the theme of a
    lecture delivered last night before the Edinburgh Philosophical
    Society by Mr. Augustine Birrell. "Nobody is fit to govern this
    country who has not drunk deep at the springs of Burke," said
    Mr. Birrell, and he backed up this contention with a wealth of
    wit and argument which delighted and convinced his audience.

    The following is a summary of his lecture: "To give a full
    account of Burke's public life is no part of my plan. I propose
    merely to sketch his early career, to explain why he never
    obtained a seat in the cabinet, and to essay an analysis of the
    essential elements of his greatness. Born in 1729 in Dublin, he
    grew up with a brother who speculated and a sister of a type who
    never did any man any serious harm; acquired at school a brogue
    which death alone could silence; at Trinity College, Dublin,
    became an omnivorous reader; came in 1750 to London to study
    law, armed with a cultivated curiosity and no desperate
    determination to make his fortune; immediately, like the
    sensible Irishman he was, fell in love with Peg Woffington; for
    six years rambled everywhere his purse permitted, read
    everything he could lay his hands on, and talked everlastingly;
    in 1756 published an 'Essay on the Sublime and Beautiful,' and
    married Miss Jane Mary Nugent; in 1758 dared at David Garrick's
    dinner table to contradict Dr. Johnson; in 1765 became a member
    of Parliament; and for the next sixteen years was the life and
    soul of the Whig party. When that party, in 1782, finally came
    into power, Burke's only reward, however, was a minor office, a
    fact which, in view of his great merits, has amazed posterity.
    The explanation is that his contemporaries probably knew him,
    not as a commanding genius, but as an Irishman who was always in
    debt, whose relatives were rather disreputable, whose judgment
    was often wrong, and whose temper was violent. His significance
    for us grows from the fact that he applied the imagination of a
    poet of the first order to the business of life. He saw
    organized society steadily and saw it whole. Perceiving that
    only a thin crust of conventionality protects organized society
    from the volcanic heats of anarchy, he was afraid of reformers.
    He could not agree to dispense with the protection afforded by
    the huge mountains of prejudice and the ancient rivers of
    custom. He was the High Priest of Order. He loved justice and
    hated iniquity. The world needs his wisdom to-day."

    Mr. Birrell's lecture was full of good phrases. For instance:

    1. We have the spectacle of Burke in his old age, like another
       Laocoön, writhing and wrestling with the French Revolution.

    2. Lubricating religious differences with the sweet oil of the
       domestic affections.

    3. Quaint old landladies wonder maternally why he never gets drunk,
       and generally mistake him for an author until he pays his bill.

    4. I love him for letting me warm my hands at it (his wrath at
       Gerard Hamilton) after a lapse of a hundred and twenty years.

    5. His letters to Arthur Young on the subject of carrots still
       tremble with emotion.

    6. This is magnificent, but it is not farming.


V. Queries

 1. What part of the task of reporting a speech is easy? Why?

 2. Wherein lies its difficulty?

 3. What are the three essentials of a good report?

 4. What is the commonest fault in reporting speeches?

 5. What arrangement of material is suggested?

 6. How many main ideas should a speech contain?

 7. Name and describe the six parts of a speech.

 8. Are any of them ever omitted? When, how, and by whom?

 9. Discuss the value of argument in a lecture.

10. Who was Demosthenes?

11. When did the battle of Lexington occur?

12. Discuss the etymology of "Parliament."

13. Explain the subject of each paragraph in Model I.

14. Divide Paragraph 3, Model I, into the six parts of a complete
    speech.

15. What are the important places in a sentence? Did the writer of
    these models recognize this fact?

16. Find a metaphor in Model I. An alliteration. An antithesis.

17. Point out the Four W's, and discuss the sentence structure.

18. What is the subject of each paragraph in Model II?

19. Write a note of fifty words on Augustine Birrell.

20. Explain the nature and location of Ireland, Wales, Chester,
    Durham, Dublin, Edinburgh, London.

21. Who were David Garrick and Dr. Johnson?

22. Why did Burke stand no higher with his contemporaries?

23. Explain the nature of Burke's importance to the world to-day.

24. Have the British adopted his principles in the management of
    Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa?

25. Explain the figure of speech in each quotation in the last
    paragraph of Model II.

26. Find in Paragraph 2 of Model II a metaphor and an antithesis.

27. How many of the six parts of a speech can you find in Lincoln's
    Gettysburg speech?


VI. Composition

Hear and report a speech. If this appears to be undesirable or
impossible, the teacher may read one to the class. The following are
suggested:

    1. Macaulay's _Speech on Education_.
    2. One of the lectures in Thackeray's _English Humorists_ or
       _Four Georges_.
    3. Phillips's _Toussaint L'Ouverture_.
    4. Webster's _Bunker Hill Speeches_.
    5. Lincoln's _Peoria Speech_ against Douglas.
    6. One of Birrell's _Obiter Dicta Lectures_.

       Others equally good will probably suggest themselves.


VII. Suggested Time Schedule[6]

               _Week I_                _Week II_

       _Monday_--I, II, III.          V, 15-27.
      _Tuesday_--IV, 1.               Oral Composition.
    _Wednesday_--IV, 2.               Oral Composition.
     _Thursday_--V, 1-14.             Written Composition.
       _Friday_--Speaking.            Speaking.

[6] SUGGESTIONS TO TEACHERS:

 1. Inspect notebooks frequently.

 2. Do not forget home-reading.

 3. Be careful to assign a definite task each day.

 4. Do not forget the minutes of the previous meeting.

 5. Call on everybody every day, even if it is only to recite one
    line of a poem.

 6. Don't do the reciting yourself. Give the class a chance. Make
    them assume responsibility. Require them to rewrite themes until
    they are perfect in technique, but do not bother too much to
    point out their errors. Let the pupils discover them.

 7. Chapters V, VI, and XII of Book I should be reviewed at frequent
    intervals until their contents become as familiar as the
    alphabet. This result can be obtained only by time and
    persistency. Before it is reached, the average pupil will have
    learned and forgotten over and over again the material involved.
    These chapters may sometimes be reviewed as wholes, but it is
    also well to take a small section of each daily.


VIII. Memorize

    THE DESTRUCTION OF SENNACHERIB

    The Assyrian came down like the wolf on the fold,
    And his cohorts were gleaming in purple and gold;
    And the sheen of their spears was like stars on the sea,
    When the blue wave rolls nightly on deep Galilee.

    Like the leaves of the forest when Summer is green,
    That host with their banners at sunset were seen;
    Like the leaves of the forest when Autumn hath blown,
    That host on the morrow lay withered and strown.

    For the Angel of Death spread his wings on the blast
    And breathed in the face of the foe as he passed;
    And the eyes of the sleepers waxed deadly and chill,
    And their hearts but once heaved and forever grew still!

       *       *       *       *       *

    And the widows of Ashur are loud in their wail,
    And the idols are broke in the temple of Baal;
    And the might of the Gentiles, unsmote by the sword,
    Hath melted like snow in the glance of the Lord.
        LORD BYRON.



CHAPTER XII

DRAMATIC NOTICES

   "To hold the mirror up to Nature."
        SHAKESPEARE.


I. Assignment

Write a notice of one of the plays now on the local stage.


II. Explanation

To keep its readers informed of the character of the plays being
presented at local theaters is one of the functions of the newspaper. If
the play is a classic, only the quality of the acting need be discussed.
If it is new, the notice should also include a description of the play
and of its merit. Fortunately, this can always be determined by one
simple test--a test suggested by no less a critic than William
Shakespeare: Does it hold the mirror up to nature? Does it give, in
other words, an accurate picture of life? The stage, it may be added,
always has been and is now infested by many so-called plays which are
not plays at all, but mere conglomerations of more or less (usually
less) moral and amusing jokes and antics. The events which some of them
depict could occur neither on the earth, in the sky above the earth, nor
in the waters underneath the earth. From others it would be impossible
to cut out any character or scene without improving the whole. They fill
the theater with people and the manager's pocket-book with money, but
they are not plays.


III. Models

    I

    _The Melting Pot_ comes to New York with a Chicago indorsement
    and the authority lent by the name of Mr. Israel Zangwill, as
    author. Mr. Zangwill's theme is that the United States is a
    crucible in which all the races and nationalities of the world
    are to be fused into one glorious people.

    As a play _The Melting Pot_ has the intellectual tone to be
    expected from Mr. Zangwill. It also has really poetic touches.
    In humor it is less successful. In dramatic construction it is
    faulty, as are so many of the contemporary plays which try to
    teach or preach something.

    The play brings back to New York after a long absence that
    excellent actor, Mr. Walker Whiteside.--METCALFE in _Life_
    (abbreviated).[7]

[7] Reprinted by permission of _Life_.

    II

    Of _David Copperfield_, Dickens's favorite among his own works,
    there have been dramatizations almost innumerable. The latest,
    called the _Highway of Life_, by Louis N. Parker, author of
    _Pomander Walk_ and _Disraeli_, has been done with extreme
    reverence for the text and with an elaborate scenic investiture
    that would have made glad the heart of the novelist, enamored as
    he was of the theater.

    It was to have been the autumn offering at His Majesty's in
    London, with Sir Herbert Tree doubling as _Micawber_ and _Dan'l
    Peggotty_. The war caused a change of plans, so the first
    performance on any stage took place at Wallack's in New York.
    Lennox Pawle, Mr. Parker's son-in-law, realized a long-cherished
    ambition to step forth as _Micawber_. Fresh from his
    multimillionaire of _The Money Makers_, came Emmet Corrigan for
    _Dan'l Peggotty_. _Betsey Trotwood_ fell to Eva Vincent. The
    Lieblers were especially happy in their selection of a _Mrs.
    Micawber_ in the person of Maggie Holloway Fisher. She spent
    days digging out and fashioning the costume she wears, and no
    one ever murdered a song more successfully than she at David's
    dinner-party. An astonishingly faithful imitation of her
    languishing airs is given by Philip Tonge, when, as _Traddles_,
    he reads _Micawber's_ letter. J. V. Bryant, the _Copperfield_,
    and Vernon Steele, the _Steerforth_, are both English. O. P.
    Heggie deserves more than a passing word of commendation for the
    things he refrains from doing as _Uriah Heep_. He is not forever
    going through that waterless washing of the hands.

    There are ten different sets of scenery in _The Highway of
    Life_, all charming or effective as the case may be. For the
    background of Mr. Wickfield's garden at Canterbury we have a
    glimpse of the famous cathedral, and from _Betsey Trotwood's_
    domain we get a view of the chalk cliffs and downs at Dover. A
    happy conceit throws shadow pictures of the principal characters
    upon a sheet as they cross the stage just before the first
    curtain rises.--MATTHEW WHITE, JR., in _Munsey's_
    (abbreviated).[8]

[8] Reprinted by permission of _Munsey's_.


IV. Notes and Queries

 1. What is the subject of each paragraph in Model I?

 2. Explain the function of each sentence in Model I.

 3. Discuss the meaning and etymology of the following terms:
    Chicago indorsement; theme; crucible; fuse; contemporary.

 4. Who is Israel Zangwill?

 5. Tell the story of David Copperfield.

 6. Why does Matthew White not tell it?

 7. Discuss the uses of the apostrophe.

 8. Discuss the meaning and etymology of: dramatization; extreme;
    elaborate; investiture; novelist; enamored; theater; doubling;
    ambition; sets.

 9. What is the subject of each paragraph in Model II?

10. Find at least two metaphors in the models.


V. Gathering Material

Material for this exercise may be secured in three places:

 1. At the theater.

 2. At a school play.

 3. By reading, in case there is no chance to see a play, one of the
    following:

    Fitch, W. C. _Barbara Frietchie_, or _Nathan Hale_.
    Gilbert, W. S. _The Mikado_, or _Pinafore_.
    Goldsmith, O. _She Stoops to Conquer._
    Maeterlinck, Maurice. _The Bluebird._
    Phillips, Stephen. _Ulysses._
    Shakespeare, W. Any play.
    Shaw, G. B. _Cæsar and Cleopatra._
    Sheridan, R. B. _The Rivals_, or _The School for Scandal_.
    Tarkington, Booth. _The Man from Home._


VI. Organization

From the following list of paragraph topics, select those which are best
worth discussing in connection with the play which you desire to review.

Select those about which you can get the fullest information.

     1. The Four W's.
     2. The Story.
     3. The Theme.
     4. Poetry.
     5. Humor.
     6. Construction.
     7. Philosophy.
     8. The Actors.
     9. The Scenery.
    10. Character Portrayal.

If the play is noteworthy for its poetry, its wit, or its philosophy,
these should be illustrated by one or two quotations. If the chief
interest is in the story, tell the story. If its strength is derived
from the skill of the actors, from the setting, or from character
portrayal, devote your attention to a clear exposition of these phases
of the play. Do not permit your notice to be shorter than I nor longer
than II.


VII. Suggested Time Schedule

       _Monday_--Discussion of Mistakes in former Themes.
      _Tuesday_--Study of Models through Dictation.
    _Wednesday_--Gathering of Material--Organization.
     _Thursday_--Oral Discussion of First Drafts.
       _Friday_--1. Present finished work to teacher.
                 2. Program.


VIII. A Shakespeare Program

If, for any reason, it seems unwise to send pupils to a play, they might
be requested (1) to present the following program, or some modification
of it, as typical of Shakespeare's best work, and (2) to write notices
or critiques thereon. It is perhaps unnecessary to add that no more
profitable or delightful exercise can be devised for a class.

    1. Mendelssohn's _A Midsummer Night's Dream_ Music.
    2. Antony's Oration (with mob).
    3. Songs from _As You Like It_.
    4. Quarrel of Brutus and Cassius.
    5. The Seven Ages of Man.
    6. Hamlet's Soliloquy.
    7. The Trial Scene from _The Merchant of Venice_.
    8. Songs from Various Plays.
    9. The Rude Mechanicals, from _A Midsummer Night's Dream_.


IX. Memorize

    THE ART OF ACTING

    _Hamlet._ Speak the speech, I pray you, as I pronounced it to
    you, trippingly on the tongue: but, if you mouth it, as many of
    your players do, I had as lief the town-crier spoke my lines.
    Nor do not saw the air too much with your hand, thus, but use
    all gently; for in the very torrent, tempest, and, as I may say,
    the whirlwind of passion, you must acquire and beget a
    temperance that may give it smoothness. O, it offends me to the
    soul to hear a robustious periwig-pated fellow tear a passion
    to tatters, to very rags, to split the ears of the groundlings,
    who for the most part are capable of nothing but inexplicable
    dumb-shows and noise: I would have such a fellow whipped for
    o'erdoing Termagant; it out-herods Herod: pray you, avoid it.

    _First Player._ I warrant your honour.

    _Hamlet._ Be not too tame neither, but let your own discretion
    be your tutor: suit the action to the word, the word to the
    action; with this special observance, that you o'erstep not the
    modesty of nature: for anything so overdone is from the purpose
    of playing, whose end, both at the first and now, was and is, to
    hold, as 'twere, the mirror up to nature; to show virtue her own
    feature, scorn her own image, and the very age and body of the
    time his form and pressure. Now this overdone, or come tardy
    off, though it make the unskillful laugh, cannot but make the
    judicious grieve; the censure of the which one must in your
    allowance o'erweigh a whole theatre of others. O, there be
    players that I have seen play, and heard others praise, and that
    highly, not to speak it profanely, that, neither having the
    accent of Christians nor the gait of Christian, pagan, nor man,
    have so strutted and bellowed that I have thought some of
    nature's journeymen had made men and not made them well, they
    imitated humanity so abominably.

    _First Player._ I hope we have reformed that indifferently with
    us, sir.

    _Hamlet._ O, reform it altogether. And let those that play your
    clowns speak no more than is set down for them; for there be of
    them that will themselves laugh, to set on some quantity of
    barren spectators to laugh too; though, in the mean time, some
    necessary question of the play be then to be considered: that's
    villainous, and shows a most pitiful ambition in the fool that
    uses it. Go, make you ready.
        WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE, _Hamlet_, Act III, Scene 2.



CHAPTER XIII

INTERVIEWS

   "To be a well-favored man is the gift of fortune; but to write
    and read comes by nature."--SHAKESPEARE.


I. Introduction

For most of his material a reporter must rely upon his success as an
interviewer. This, it has already been pointed out, requires courage,
tact, persistence, and some knowledge of human nature. Its performance
is beyond the powers of most boys and girls, and besides, if they tried
it, they would annoy people. As a substitute, the exercises that follow
have been devised. They involve interviews, it is true, but only with
the members of a pupil's own family.

There are two ways to manage an interview. One may go directly at it,
which is sometimes the best method, or one may approach the subject
cautiously. It depends on the disposition of the person interviewed. The
direct method will probably work well with mother, who is never out of
sorts, but as to father--well, the case may be different; while sisters,
brothers, cousins, aunts, and uncles present endless problems and
opportunities.

Before interviewing anybody, it is a good plan always to write down the
questions you wish to ask. But do not read them to the person
interviewed. Get them so thoroughly into your own mind that you will
forget none of them. As an exercise, make a set of questions such as you
would need to ask in order to learn the facts contained in the
following paragraphs from Franklin's _Autobiography_.


II. Assignments

Write the opening paragraphs of your own biography, covering the topics
suggested below:

    Week 1--My Ancestors.
    Week 2--My Uncles.
    Week 3--My Parents.


III. Model I

    MY ANCESTORS

    One of my uncles furnished me with several particulars relating
    to our ancestors. From his notes I learned that the family had
    lived in the same village, Ecton, in Northamptonshire, for three
    hundred years, and how much longer he knew not (perhaps from the
    time when the name of Franklin, that before was the name of an
    order of people, was assumed by them as a surname when others
    took surnames all over the kingdom), on a freehold of about
    thirty acres, aided by the smith's business, which had continued
    in the family until his time, the eldest son being always bred
    to that business, a custom which he and my father followed as to
    their eldest sons. When I searched the records of Ecton, I found
    an account of their births, marriages, and burials from the year
    1555 only, there being no registers kept in that parish at any
    time preceding. By that register I perceived that I was the
    youngest son of the youngest son for five generations back. My
    grandfather Thomas, who was born in 1598, lived at Ecton till he
    grew too old to follow business longer, when he went to live
    with his son John, a dyer at Banbury, in Oxfordshire, with whom
    my father served an apprenticeship. There my grandfather died
    and lies buried. We saw his gravestone in 1758. His eldest son
    Thomas lived in the house at Ecton, and left it with the land to
    his only child, a daughter. My grandfather had four sons that
    grew up, viz: Thomas, John, Benjamin, and Josiah. I will give
    you what account I can of them.


IV. Queries

 1. Who was Benjamin Franklin? Answer in a five-minute speech.

 2. What is the difference between a biography and an autobiography?

 3. Locate Ecton, Northamptonshire, Banbury, and Oxfordshire.

 4. Point out all of the adjective phrases.

 5. Does Franklin use simple, compound, or complex sentences, and in
    what proportion?

 6. Make a list of the topics he discusses. Can you improve his
    order?

 7. Are his sentences long or short?

 8. Do they lack unity?

 9. Can you find any metaphors or antitheses in the model?

10. Discuss the origin of the name Franklin. What is a surname?
    When did the English assume surnames?


V. Composition

Write an account of your own ancestors, choosing either your father's or
your mother's family. Let the length be about the same as that of the
model. The topics discussed should include the following:

    1. Origin of surname.
    2. European home.
    3. Occupations.
    4. My grandfather.
    5. His sons.

Your father, mother, uncles, aunts, grandfathers, and grandmothers will
furnish you with the material for your composition; and their aid may be
supplemented by the books of genealogy that you will find in the public
library. Remember that the items listed above were suggested to Franklin
by his material; if you have interesting facts or traditions that cannot
be included under the heads which he uses, put them in none the less.
Matter should determine form.


VI. Model II

    MY UNCLES

    Thomas was bred a smith under his father; but, being ingenious,
    and encouraged in learning (as all my uncles were) by an
    Esquire, then the principal gentleman in that parish, he
    qualified himself for the business of scrivener; became a
    considerable man in the county; was a chief mover of all
    public-spirited undertakings for the county or town of
    Northampton, and his own village, of which many instances were
    related of him, and much taken notice of and patronized by the
    then Lord Halifax. He died in 1702, January 6, old style, just
    four years to a day before I was born. The account we received
    of his life and character from some old people at Ecton, I
    remember, struck you as something extraordinary. "Had he died on
    the same day," you said, "one might have supposed a
    transmigration."

    John was bred a dyer, I believe, of woolens. Benjamin was bred a
    silk dyer, serving an apprenticeship at London. He was an
    ingenious man. I remember him well, for when he was a boy he
    came over to my father in Boston, and lived in the house with us
    for some years. He lived to a great age. His grandson, Samuel
    Franklin, now lives in Boston. He left behind him two quarto
    volumes, MS., of his own poetry, consisting of little occasional
    pieces addressed to his friends and relations. He had formed a
    shorthand of his own, which he taught me; but, never practicing
    it, I have now forgot it. I was named after this uncle, there
    being a particular affection between him and my father. He was
    very pious, a great attender of sermons of the best preachers,
    which he took down in his shorthand. He was also much of a
    politician.


VII. Topics for Oral Composition

 1. What is an Esquire? A gentleman? A parish? A scrivener?

 2. Explain the term "old style."

 3. What is meant by transmigration?

 4. What is an apprenticeship? An occasional piece?

 5. Explain the terms "quarto," "folio," and "octavo."


VIII. Written Composition

Write an account of your uncles. Make it as rich as possible in concrete
facts, for facts are the life and soul of composition. Let the length be
about the same as that of the model. Note that Franklin discusses his
uncles in an order determined by the principle that first and last
places are the most conspicuous. He put the uncle about whom he knows
most in last place, so as to have a strong ending, which grows, so to
speak, to a climax; he puts the uncle who is entitled to second place
first in order of discussion; and the uncle who is least important is
mentioned in the middle.

IX. Model III

    MY PARENTS

    Josiah, my father, married young, and carried his wife with
    three children into New England about 1682. The conventicles
    having been forbidden by law and frequently disturbed induced
    some considerable men of his acquaintance to remove to that
    country, and he was prevailed with to accompany them thither,
    where they expected to enjoy their mode of religion with
    freedom. By the same wife he had four children more born there,
    and by a second wife ten more, in all seventeen, of whom I
    remember thirteen sitting at one time at his table, who all grew
    up to be men and women and married. I was the youngest son and
    the youngest child but two, and was born in Boston, New England.
    My mother, the second, was Abiah Folger, daughter of Peter
    Folger, one of the first settlers of New England, of whom
    honorable mention is made by Cotton Mather, in his church
    history of that country, as "a godly, pious, learned
    Englishman." I have heard that he wrote sundry small occasional
    pieces, but only one of them was printed, which I saw now many
    years since. It was written in 1675, in the home-spun verse of
    that time and people, and addressed to those then concerned in
    the government there. It was in favor of liberty of conscience
    and in behalf of the Baptists, Quakers, and other sectaries
    that had been under persecution. The whole appeared to me to be
    written with a good deal of decent plainness and manly freedom.
    The six concluding lines I remember, though I have forgotten the
    two first of the stanza; but the purport of them was that his
    censures proceeded from good will and therefore he would be
    known to be the author:

       "Because to be a libeller
          I hate it with my heart.
        From Sherburne town, where now I dwell,
          My name I do put here;
        Without offence your real friend,
          It is Peter Folgier!"


X. Questions and Topics for Oral Composition

    1. What is the subject of "disturbed," line 3?
    2. Discuss the subject of "conventicles."
    3. To what religious sect did Josiah Franklin belong?
    4. Why did he come to America?
    5. Who was Cotton Mather?
    6. Define "sundry" and "occasional."
    7. What is "homespun verse"? Explain the figure.
    8. Define "sectaries" and "stanza."


XI. Exercises

 1. Rewrite Model III in modern English.

 2. Write an account of your own parents of about the same length as
    Model III.

 3. Before deciding finally on the style of this account of your
    parents, seek in the corresponding sections of several
    biographies for hints. Good ones may be discovered in Boswell's
    _Johnson_, Lockhart's _Scott_, Southey's _Nelson_, Trevelyan's
    _Macaulay_, and Hallam Tennyson's _Tennyson_.


XII. Suggested Reading

O. W. Holmes's _Grandmother's Story of Bunker Hill_ and _Dorothy Q_.


XIII. Memorize

    PROCRASTINATION

    Be wise to-day; 'tis madness to defer;
    Next day the fatal precedent will plead.
    Procrastination is the thief of time.
    At thirty, man suspects himself a fool;
    Knows it at forty, and reforms his plan;
    At fifty chides his infamous delay,
    Pushes his prudent purpose to resolve,
    In all the magnanimity of thought
    Resolves, and re-resolves; then dies the same.
        EDWARD YOUNG.



CHAPTER XIV

THE EXPOSITION OF MECHANICS

   "'Tis not in mortals to command success.
    But we'll do more, Sempronius; we'll deserve it."
        JOSEPH ADDISON.


I. Assignments

 1. Explain the plan of your own house.

 2. Explain the plan of some new house that you pass on your way to
    school.

 3. Explain the structure of a new locomotive, railway car, street
    car, automobile, ship, or aeroplane.

 4. Explain the plan of your schoolhouse.

 5. The papers contain many descriptions of new houses. These are
    usually written with a fine disregard of the laws of
    composition. Find and rewrite one of them. Do the same with a
    description of a ship such as is common in periodicals.


II. Model I

    The new suburban home of John Doe is located in a ten-acre tract
    on the northern side of the Seven-Mile Road, midway between
    Woodward Avenue and the Gratiot E. Turnpike. The material is
    reinforced concrete; the style, Colonial; the roof of green
    shingles; the size, 48 feet by 36 feet.

    From a front entrance porch a central hall 7 feet wide extends
    29 feet to the rear of the house, terminating in a flight of
    stairs broken in the middle by a landing. Above this landing a
    circular window gives plenty of light and at the same time forms
    a decorative feature.

    On the right, as one enters the hall, is a room 9 feet by
    14 feet, which may be used as a den or a reception room. Back of
    this is a living-room, 14 feet by 20 feet, with a fireplace at
    the rear end, and a French door that leads to a side piazza.
    This piazza, which is 20 feet by 7 feet, is covered and is
    equipped with sliding windows.

    On the other side of the hall, in front, is the dining-room,
    16 feet by 14 feet. This room has a fireplace, which faces the
    street, and a French door, which leads to a side porch 8 feet by
    10. The latter is enclosed with glass and is used as a breakfast
    porch. Directly behind this porch is a small sewing-room, and,
    partly behind the sewing-room and partly behind the dining-room,
    is the kitchen, which is 12 feet square. In the northwest corner
    of the house, directly north of the sewing-room and west of the
    kitchen, are a small back porch and an entry large enough for a
    refrigerator. East of the kitchen, between it and the main hall,
    are a passage and service stairways leading to the cellar and
    the upper floors. The kitchen is thus separated from the rest of
    the house, either way, by two doors, which prevents the odors of
    the cooking from escaping.

    The walls of the first floor are finished in oiled and waxed
    gumwood. The floors are oak, except in the kitchen, where hard
    pine is used.

    On the second floor the rear of the space above the main hall is
    occupied by a passage, the front by a bathroom. On the eastern
    side of this passage, above the den, is a bedroom 16 feet by
    14 feet, and back of this, above the living-room, a bedroom
    14 feet by 11 feet. The latter has a fireplace in the north
    wall. On the western side of the passage, in front, above the
    dining-room, is the owner's chamber, 16 feet by 14 feet. From
    its southeast corner a door leads to the bathroom already
    mentioned; on its southwest side is a porch, and in its northern
    wall are two closets and a fireplace. In its rear a passage
    leads to a fourth chamber, 14 feet by 10 feet, which has an
    alcove, 9 feet by 8 feet. This alcove is directly above the
    sewing-room and the chamber is in the northwest corner of the
    house. Between it and the service stairway is a second bathroom.

    On the third floor are three large chambers, an unfinished room
    for storage, and a servants' bath.

    The cellar contains a laundry, a vegetable closet, coal-bins,
    and a hot-water heating-plant.


III. Analytical Discussion

 1. Note the framework:
    (a) "Four W's"--Par. 1.
    (b) First Floor--
            Par. 2. Main Hall.
            Par. 3. Right Side.
            Par. 4. Left Side.
            Par. 5. Floors and Walls.
    (c) Second Floor--Par. 6.
    (d) Third Floor. Par. 7.
    (e) Cellar--Par. 8.

 2. _Words._ Define and explain the etymology of "suburban,"
    "located," "reinforced," "concrete," "Colonial," "reception,"
    "piazza," "porch," "refrigerator," "separated," "except,"
    "servant," "closet," "effect."

 3. _Sentences._ (a) Tell whether they are simple, complex, or
    compound. (b) Do any of them lack unity?

 4. _Paragraphs._ (a) Can you find any violations of paragraph
    unity? (b) Observe that the following particulars are
    mentioned in Par. 1: location, material, shape, color, size. Is
    the same plan used in describing each room? In order to
    determine this, make a list of the items that are mentioned in
    explaining the construction of each.

 5. _Transition._ Point out all of the transition words in the
    model.

 6. _Figures of Speech._ Find a metaphor and an antithesis in the
    model.


IV. Model II

    The _Arizona_ is the latest and greatest addition to the battle
    fleet of the United States.

    Her displacement is 31,400 tons, her length over all 600 feet,
    her maximum breadth 97 feet, and her draft under normal
    conditions 28 feet, 10 inches. Parsons's turbines of 29,000
    horse-power give her a speed of 21 knots. Her fuel supply is
    2322 tons of oil. She carries a crew of 1000 men. Her cost was
    $16,000,000.

    Her armament consists of twelve fourteen-inch and twenty-two
    five-inch guns, four three-pounders for the launches, two
    three-inch guns for salutes, and four twenty-two-inch torpedo
    tubes. The big guns are mounted in four turrets, two forward and
    two aft, each containing three guns. The turrets nearer to the
    middle of the ship are enough higher than the forward and aft
    turrets to permit their guns to be fired directly ahead and
    astern respectively. This arrangement permits the concentration
    of six guns forward, six aft, and twelve on either broadside.

    This vessel is probably armored more heavily than any other
    warship afloat. Her main belt is sixteen inches thick, while the
    _Iron Duke_, one of the latest British dreadnoughts, carries
    only twelve inches.


V. Notes and Queries

 1. Observe the structure:
      Par. 1. General Description.
      Par. 2. Statistics.
      Par. 3. Offensive Power.
      Par. 4. Defensive Arrangements.

 2. Could the same structure be used for the description of a
    freight boat, a passenger steamer, a ferryboat, a schooner, a
    sloop, a brig, a brigantine, a tugboat, a launch, a locomotive,
    a railway carriage, an airship, or an automobile?

 3. What changes, if any, would you suggest?

 4. Explain the terms "displacement," "draft," "normal," "knots,"
    "pounds," "turrets."

 5. Explain the metaphor in "belt." Is it a good one?


VI. Gathering Material

Do not get your material from reading; get it from observation. Don't
steal it; earn it. Catch your fish; don't buy a string of dead ones at
the fish-market, and then lie about the way you obtained them. Few of us
can be original, but we can all be honest and industrious.


VII. Organization

Before you write, make a plan. It is as necessary in composition as in
building. If the nature of your subject or the kind and quantity of your
material render it desirable to deviate from the model, do not hesitate
to do so. As a rule, however, it will be best to follow its plan rather
closely. At all events, work from some plan. Don't get the idea that you
can dash off a finished exposition in a few minutes.


VIII. Writing

Exposition above everything else should be clear. Say what you mean and
mean what you say.


IX. Criticism

The written expositions of house plans may be tested by having the
pupils exchange papers, and asking the recipients to draw the plans from
the compositions.


X. Suggested Reading

Rudyard Kipling's _The Ship that Found Herself_.


XI. Memorize

    CHARITY

    Then gently scan your brother man,
      Still gentler sister woman;
    Though they may gang a kennin' wrang,
      To step aside is human.
    One point must still be greatly dark,
      The moving why they do it,
    And just as lamely can ye mark
      How far perhaps they rue it.

    Who made the heart 'tis he alone
      Decidedly can try us;
    He knows each chord--its various tone,
      Each spring--its various bias.
    Then at the balance let's be mute;
      We never can adjust it;
    What's done we partly may compute,
      But know not what's resisted.
        ROBERT BURNS.



CHAPTER XV

THE EXPOSITION OF IDEAS

   "But words are things, and a small drop of ink,
    Falling like dew upon a thought, produces
    That which makes thousands, perhaps millions, think."
        LORD BYRON.


I. Introduction

The exposition of ideas is difficult and important. It takes many forms,
but only three can be noticed in this chapter: (1) Exposition through
Narration; (2) Exposition through Condensation; (3) Exposition through
Comparison. The three following models illustrate these three forms,
respectively.

II. Model I

    PUFFERS

    The wise men of antiquity loved to convey instruction under the
    covering of apologue; and, though this practice is generally
    thought childish, we shall make no apology for adopting it on
    the present occasion. A generation which has bought eleven
    editions of a poem by Mr. Robert Montgomery may well condescend
    to listen to a fable of Pilpay.

    A pious Brahmin, it is written, made a vow that on a certain day
    he would sacrifice a sheep, and on the appointed morning he went
    forth to buy one. There lived in his neighborhood three rogues
    who knew of his vow, and laid a scheme for profiting by it. The
    first met him and said, "Oh Brahmin, wilt thou buy a sheep? I
    have one fit for sacrifice." "It is for that very purpose," said
    the holy man, "that I came forth this day." Then the impostor
    opened a bag, and brought out of it an unclean beast, an ugly
    dog, lame and blind. Thereon the Brahmin cried out, "Wretch, who
    touchest things impure, and utterest things untrue, callest
    thou that cur a sheep?" "Truly," answered the other, "it is a
    sheep of the finest fleece and of the sweetest flesh. O Brahmin,
    it will be an offering most acceptable to the gods." "Friend,"
    said the Brahmin, "either thou or I must be blind."

    Just then one of the accomplices came up. "Praised be the gods,"
    said this second rogue, "that I have been saved the trouble of
    going to the market for a sheep! This is such a sheep as I
    wanted. For how much wilt thou sell it?" When the Brahmin heard
    this his mind waved to and fro, like one swinging in the air at
    a holy festival. "Sir," said he to the newcomer, "take heed what
    thou dost; this is no sheep, but an unclean cur." "O Brahmin,"
    said the newcomer, "thou art drunk or mad!"

    At this time the third confederate drew near. "Let us ask this
    man," said the Brahmin, "what the creature is, and I will stand
    by what he shall say." To this the others agreed, and the
    Brahmin called out, "O stranger, what dost thou call this
    beast?" "Surely, O Brahmin," said the knave, "it is a fine
    sheep." Then the Brahmin said, "Surely the gods have taken away
    my senses"; and he asked pardon of him who carried the dog, and
    bought it for a measure of rice and a pot of ghee, and offered
    it up to the gods, who, being wroth at this unclean sacrifice,
    smote him with a sore disease in all his joints.

    Thus, or nearly thus, if we remember rightly, runs the story of
    the Sanscrit Æsop. The moral, like the moral of every fable that
    is worth the telling, lies on the surface. The writer evidently
    means to caution us against the practices of puffers, a class of
    people who have more than once talked the public into the most
    absurd errors, but who surely never played a more curious or a
    more difficult trick than when they passed Mr. Robert Montgomery
    off upon the world as a great poet.--THOMAS BABINGTON MACAULAY,
    _Essay on Mr. Robert Montgomery's Poems_.


III. Topics for Discussion

 1. The Fable, which is here illustrated, is a simple story told to
    point a moral or to make clear a complicated situation. Æsop and
    George Ade are perhaps the most interesting authors of
    fables--at least to twentieth-century Americans. An entertaining
    program may be arranged by assigning each member of the class a
    fable of one of these writers for oral reporting. The model
    illustrates well the value of the fable form in newspaper
    exposition.

 2. Note the paragraph structure: (1) Introduction; (2) "Four W's,"
    or Situation 1; (3) Climax, or Situation 2; (4) Dénouement,
    Result, or Situation 3; (5) Moral, or Point.

 3. Define and discuss the etymology of "antiquity," "apologue,"
    "apology," "edition," "fable," "impostor," "accomplice,"
    "confederate," "knave," "ghee," "caution," "puffers."

 4. What proportion of Macaulay's words in Paragraphs 2, 3, and 4
    are monosyllables and dissyllables? Does he here use more or
    fewer big words in proportion than in Paragraphs 1 and 5? What
    is the effect on his style?

 5. What proportion of his sentences are simple? Compound? Complex?

 6. Topics for reports or speeches: Mr. Robert Montgomery; Pilpay;
    The Brahmins; Æsop; Sanscrit.

 7. Explain the allusion in the phrase, "the Sanscrit Æsop."

 8. Explain some episode in American history by means of a fable.

 9. Write an editorial on some question of local and current
    interest, using the fable method to illustrate the situation.


IV. Model II

    A Voltairean view of war may be of interest at this time. Some
    one has called attention to the illuminating discourse between
    Micromegas, gigantic dweller on one of the planets revolving
    about Sirius, and a company of our philosophers, as reported in
    the seventh chapter of the amusing fantasy bearing the name of
    the above-mentioned Sirian visitor. A free translation of a part
    of this conversation is here offered. After congratulating his
    terrestrial hearers on being so small and adding that, with so
    manifest a subordination of matter to mind, they must pass
    their lives in the pleasures of intellectual pursuits and mutual
    love--a veritable spiritual existence--the stranger is thus
    answered by one of the philosophers: "We have more matter than
    we need for the accomplishment of much evil, if evil comes from
    matter, and more mind than we need if evil comes from mind. Do
    you know that at the present moment there are a hundred thousand
    fools of our species, wearing caps, who are killing a hundred
    thousand other animals wearing turbans, or who are themselves
    being massacred by the latter, and that almost everywhere on
    earth this is the immemorial usage?" The Sirian, properly
    shocked, demands the reason of these horrible encounters between
    creatures so puny. "It is all about a pile of dirt no bigger
    than your heel," is the reply. "Not that any one of these
    millions of men marching to slaughter has the slightest claim to
    this pile of dirt; the only question is whether it shall belong
    to a certain man known as Sultan or to another having the title
    of Czar. Neither of the two has ever seen or ever will see the
    patch of ground in dispute, and hardly a single one of these
    animals engaged in killing one another has ever seen the animal
    for whom they are thus employed." Again the stranger expresses
    his horror, and declares he has half a mind to annihilate with a
    kick or two the whole batch of ridiculous assassins. "Don't give
    yourself the trouble," is the rejoinder; "they will accomplish
    their own destruction fast enough. Know that ten years hence not
    a hundredth part of these miserable wretches will be left alive;
    and know, too, that even if they were not to draw the sword,
    hunger, exhaustion, or intemperance would make an end of most of
    them. Besides, they are not the ones to punish, but rather those
    sedentary barbarians who, from the ease and security of their
    private apartments, and while their dinner is digesting, order
    the massacre of a million men, and then solemnly return thanks
    to God for the achievement." The visitor from Sirius is moved
    with pity for a race of beings presenting such astonishing
    contrasts.--_The Dial_, January 1, 1915.[9]

[9] Reprinted by permission of _The Dial_.


V. Exercises

 1. Topics for short speeches: Voltaire; Micromegas; planets;
    Sirius.

 2. What is the moral of this fable?

 3. Discuss the meaning and etymology of "Micromegas,"
    "philosophers," "fantasy," "translation," "terrestrial,"
    "intellectual," "Czar," "annihilate," "ridiculous," "rejoinder,"
    "sedentary."

 4. Find in the model one simple, one compound, and one complex
    sentence.

 5. One loose and one periodic sentence.

 6. Two antitheses.

 7. Explain in one paragraph the point of some old book of current
    interest.


VI. Model III

    Theodor Mommsen's "Law of National Expansion," in view of the
    present war, is interesting. In his _History of Rome_, which was
    published in 1857, he says in substance that a young nation
    which has both vigor and culture is sure to absorb older nations
    whose vigor is waning and younger nations whose civilization is
    undeveloped, just as an educated young man is sure to supplant
    an old man in his dotage and to get the better of a muscular
    ignoramus. That nations, as well as individuals, should do this
    is, in Mommsen's opinion, not only inevitable but right.

    In ancient times the Romans were the only people in whom were
    combined a superior political organization and a superior
    civilization. The result was that they subdued the Greek states
    of the East, which were ripe for destruction, and dispossessed
    the people of lower grades of culture in the West. The union of
    Italy was accomplished through the overthrow of the Samnite and
    Etruscan civilizations. The Roman Empire was built upon the
    ruins of countless secondary nationalities which had long before
    been marked out for destruction by the levelling hand of
    civilization. When Latium became too narrow for the Romans, they
    cured their political ills by conquering the rest of Italy. When
    Italy became too narrow, Cæsar crossed the Alps.

    So far Mommsen. The conclusions drawn from his "law" by some of
    his successors are ingenious. They amount to this: As Rome grew
    in power and culture, so Brandenburg, since the days of the
    Great Elector, has been expanding in spirit and in territory.
    That illustrious prince began by absorbing Prussia. Frederick
    the Great added Silesia and a slice of Poland. Wilhelm I
    obtained Schleswig, Holstein, Alsace, and Lorraine by war, and
    Saxony and Bavaria by benevolent assimilation. The present
    Kaiser has already acquired Belgium by the former and Austria by
    the latter process. Like the Rome of Cæsar, the German Empire is
    now at war on the one hand with decadent civilizations and on
    the other with a horde of barbarians. What Greece and Carthage
    were to Rome, France and England are to Germany, while Russia is
    the modern counterpart of the Gauls, Britons, and Germans of the
    _Commentaries_. Such at least is what certain writers think the
    Germans think.


VII. Notes and Exercises

 1. Note the framework: (Par. 1) Mommsen's Law; (Par. 2)
    Illustration 1--Rome; (Par. 3) Illustration 2--Germany.

 2. Topics for short speeches: Theodor Mommsen; The Rise of the
    Roman Empire; The Greeks; The People of the West; The Samnites
    and Etruscans; Brandenburg; The Great Elector; Prussia;
    Frederick the Great; Silesia; Poland; Schleswig and Holstein;
    Alsace and Lorraine; Saxony and Bavaria; Carthage; Julius Cæsar
    and his _Commentaries_.

 3. Add to the model paragraphs on the expansion of Spain, France,
    Russia, England, and the United States, or on any one of them.


VIII. Suggested Reading

Cæsar's _Commentaries on the Gallic War_. Macaulay's _Frederick the
Great_. Southey's _Life of Nelson_. Parkman's _The Conspiracy of
Pontiac_. Parkman's _Montcalm and Wolfe_. Fiske's _The Mississippi
Valley in the Civil War_.


IX. Memorize

    HUMANITY

    I would not enter on my list of friends,
    Though graced with polished manners and fine sense,
    Yet wanting sensibility, the man
    Who needlessly sets foot upon a worm.
    An inadvertent step may crush the snail
    That crawls at evening in the public path;
    But he that has humanity, forewarned,
    Will tread aside and let the reptile live.
    The creeping vermin, loathsome to the sight,
    And charged perhaps with venom, that intrudes,
    A visitor unwelcome, into scenes
    Sacred to neatness and repose, the alcove,
    The chamber, or refectory, may die;
    A necessary act incurs no blame.
    Not so when, held within their proper bounds,
    And guiltless of offence, they range the air,
    Or take their pastime in the spacious field.
    There they are privileged; and he that hunts
    Or harms them there is guilty of a wrong.
    The sum is this: If man's convenience, health,
    Or safety interfere, his rights and claims
    Are paramount, and must extinguish theirs.
    Else they are all--the meanest things that are--
    As free to live and to enjoy that life,
    As God was free to form them at the first,
    Who, in his sovereign wisdom, made them all.
    Ye, therefore, who love mercy, teach your sons
    To love it too.
        WILLIAM COWPER.



CHAPTER XVI

EDITORIALS--CONSTRUCTIVE

   "Opinion in good men is but knowledge in the making."
        JOHN MILTON.


I. Introduction

An editorial is a newspaper article in which the opinions of the editor
are set forth. News deals with fact. In news articles the opinion of the
writer must be suppressed. The pronouns "I" and "we" have no place in
news. The essence of the editorial, on the other hand, is the opinion of
the writer. On the editorial page, the man who directs the policy of a
paper seeks to interpret the news in accordance with his own views and
to persuade the public to adopt those views.

Editorials are therefore for the most part argumentative. In them the
writer either comments directly on some news item and thus produces what
may be called a constructive editorial, or takes issue with the
editorial opinion of a rival in a controversial editorial, his object
being to destroy the sentiment produced by his rival's article.

The power of the editorial writer for good or for evil is clear. That it
is usually exerted for good is one of the best evidences that the
newspapers of the country are controlled by men who desire to serve the
public well.


II. Assignments

 1. Write an editorial calling attention to some feature of current
    news.

 2. Write an editorial advocating some plan or reform for the good
    of city, state, nation, or mankind.


III. Model I

    We made the point some months ago that our electric light
    companies have been far behind those of Europe in making it
    possible for poor people to get their service. It is interesting
    to note that the Indiana and Michigan Electric Company, which
    operates in South Bend, Ind. (plows, wagons, sewing-machines),
    has started a campaign to do just this thing. About a third of
    the inhabitants of South Bend are laborers from Poland, Austria,
    and the Balkan countries, whose wages average about $1.50 or
    $1.75 per day. The electric company has figured out plans
    whereby houses can be wired at a cost of from $9 to $15 each,
    and lighting service can be given for a minimum of $1 per month.
    A Polish sales agent has been hired to talk to the newcomers,
    write advertisements for their papers, and attend to their
    complaints--in short, to translate electricity into Slovak, etc.
    The men engaged in the work are confident of success and are
    going after it. The effect in giving these people better ways
    and standards of living, in getting them a share in our modern
    American civilization, and a feeling that they are so sharing
    will necessarily be very great. This is solid public service,
    and it is far better than any charity. What is being done on
    this problem in your town?--_Collier's Weekly_, November 28,
    1914.[10]

[10] Reprinted by permission of _Collier's Weekly_.


IV. Comments and Exercises

 1. This is a constructive editorial with just a hint of argument.
    Find the argument.

 2. Note the framework of the paragraph: (Sentence 1) Topic;
    (Sentence 2--Sentence 6) Story; (Sentence 7) Conclusion.

 3. Find the "Four W's."

 4. Remember that the perfect tense denotes an act begun in the past
    and completed in the present. Does its use sufficiently tell
    when a thing is or was done?

 5. Write a similar editorial commenting on some improvement in your
    own town.


V. Model II

    Were we suddenly called upon to face a crisis such as Europe was
    called upon to face with but very little warning, it would find
    us wofully unprepared. In the security of our peace we have
    neglected to build up an organization capable of performing the
    multitudinous services of war, or of any great disaster, either
    political or physical, which may come into a nation's life. The
    thousands of young men in colleges and universities offer a field
    for the development of such a force of trained men in a way that
    would entirely revolutionize our educational as well as our
    defensive system.

    As our athletics are conducted to-day, a few picked men have
    trainers, coaches, rubbers, and waiters for the purpose of
    preparing them for a conflict with a correspondingly small group
    of similarly trained men from other institutions. The remainder
    of the student body, which makes this training possible, is
    meanwhile physically utterly neglected.

    Yet the average young man entering college is quite as much in
    need of physical development and training as of mental. The
    country, too, is in need of disciplined, trained men; and this
    double need can be met--can be met for less money than is
    expended on a single season's football team. A system of
    military drill, under the supervision of experts in military
    discipline and hygiene, with the coöperation of the athletic
    associations of the colleges, and under the auspices of the
    United States Government, would prove of inestimable value to
    every student in the college, and would furnish to the nation a
    groundwork upon which a magnificent national service could be
    established. A spirit of true patriotism and of unselfish public
    service would be instilled in the students. The nucleus of a
    trained military corps would be established from which officers
    and men could be recruited with but little additional training
    in time of war.--_Puck_.[11]

[11] Reprinted by permission of _Puck_.


VI. Comments and Exercises

 1. What is the point of this editorial?

 2. Note the point of each paragraph: (Par. 1) Our colleges might
    furnish the means of remedying our national lack of preparation
    for war; (Par. 2) at present our athletics benefit only a few
    individuals; (Par. 3) if military training were introduced into
    our colleges, it would benefit both individuals and the nation.

 3. A more logical arrangement would be: (Par. 1) The United States
    is not prepared for war; (Par. 2) as now organized, our college
    athletics benefit only a few individuals; (Par. 3) if military
    training were introduced into our colleges, individual students
    and the nation alike would be benefited.

 4. In which arrangement is paragraph unity better observed?

 5. Is the arrangement in the model better in any respect than the
    one suggested?

 6. The following words are hackneyed: "wofully," "utterly,"
    "inestimable," "magnificent," "groundwork." Suggest some synonyms.
    Can any of these words be omitted? Lowell's rule was: "Cut out the
    adjectives and adverbs. Make the nouns and verbs do the work."

 7. Explain the construction of "with but very little warning," "for
    the purpose," "from other institutions," "physically,"
    "utterly," "drill."

 8. What is the difference between "development" and "training"?
    Between "true patriotism" and "unselfish public service"?
    "College" and "university"?

 9. Does this model contain any misstatements of fact?

10. Is the plan feasible or desirable?

11. Could it be extended to secondary schools?

12. Find in the model at least four mixed metaphors. If you do not
    know what a mixed metaphor is, perhaps this classic example of
    one will inform you: "Mr. Speaker, I smell a rat. I see him
    brewing in the air. But, mark me, I shall yet nip him in the
    bud."

13. Discuss the meaning and etymology of "crisis," "disaster,"
    "political," "physical," "nation," "revolutionize,"
    "educational," "athletics," "institutions," "disciplined,"
    "military," "supervision," "experts," "auspices," "spirit,"
    "instilled," "nucleus," "corps," "recruited," "additional."

14. Shall we say "instilled in," "instilled into," or "developed
    in"?

15. Write an answer to Model II.

16. The great merits of Model II lie in its content and its
    construction. The fundamental principle on which it is built
    might be called the "killing-two-birds-with-one-stone idea." Two
    things are wrong; one reform will make both right. Can you think
    of any other subject which might be discussed on the same
    principle?


VII. Suggested Reading

Lamb's _Dissertation on Roast Pig_. Addison's _Hilpa and Shalum_.
Emerson's _Compensation_. Holmes's _The Broomstick Train_.


VIII. Memorize

    METRICAL FEET[12]

    Tro͞che͝e | tr̄ı͞ps frŏm | lo͞ng tŏ | sho͞rt ||;
    Fr͞om lo͞ng | tō lo͞ng | ı͞n s͞ol|e͞mn s̄o͞rt
    Slo͞w Spo͞n|de͞e stālks; || stro͞ng fo͝ot, yĕt | īll ăblĕ
    Ēvĕr tŏ | ke͞ep ŭp wĭth | Da͞cty̆l trĭ|sȳllăblĕ;
    Ĭa͞m|bŭs mōves | frŏm sho͞rt | tŏ lo͞ng;
    Wĭth ă le͞ap | ănd ă bōu͞nd | thĕ swĭft Ān|ăpĕsts thro͞ng.
        SAMUEL TAYLOR COLERIDGE.

[12] Coleridge here illustrates the feet while explaining them, an
admirable device in exposition. "Dactyl" is a fine word; in Greek it
means "finger"; like a finger, a poetic dactyl has three parts, one long
and two short. "Anapest" comes from a Greek verb which means "strike
back"; an anapest is a reversed dactyl. Most English poems are written
in iambi. Longfellow's _Hiawatha_ is in trochees, _Evangeline_ in
dactyls, and _The Destruction of Sennacherib_ (see page 70) in
anapests.



CHAPTER XVII

EDITORIALS--DESTRUCTIVE

   "O great corrector of enormous times,
    Shaker of o'er-rank states, thou grand decider
    Of dusty and old titles, that healest with blood
    The earth when it is sick, and curest the world
    O' the pleurisy of people!"
        BEAUMONT AND FLETCHER.


I. Introduction

In Chapter XVI constructive editorials were discussed. The object of
this chapter is to present a few exercises on destructive editorials.
Their object, of course, is not really to create ruin; it is merely to
clear away rubbish in order to prepare the ground for the edifice of
truth.


II. Assignment

Write an editorial in reply to an editorial in which a false position is
assumed by the writer.


III. Model I

    Vice-President Marshall's declaration, made some time ago at
    Wabash College, that the old man is being shoved off the stage
    everywhere, needs revision, as does the opinion of another
    statesman that men over fifty are atrophied.

    In the last great war between France and Germany the campaign
    was planned and led by elderly men. The Emperor William, then
    King of Prussia, was in his seventy-fourth year; Von Moltke, the
    master strategist of the war, was seventy-one years old; General
    von Roon was sixty-eight; and Bismarck, the master mind in the
    larger field, was in his fifty-sixth year.

    In the next great war in which high military efficiency was
    displayed, Admiral Togo was approaching his sixtieth year when
    he took the field; Prince Oyama, the commander-in-chief of the
    Japanese forces in Manchuria, had passed his sixtieth year;
    Field Marshal Nodzu was sixty-three; Field Marshal Yamagata was
    sixty-six; General Kuroki was sixty; and General Nogi, who took
    Port Arthur after a series of desperate conflicts, carried on
    with unflinching energy and almost breathless rapidity, was
    nearly sixty years of age.

    In the present war Lord Kitchener, the organizing genius of the
    English army, is sixty-four; and Sir John French, commanding the
    English forces in the field, is sixty-two. When Lord Roberts was
    sent to South Africa to snatch victory out of defeat, he was
    sixty-eight years of age.

    On the French side, General Joffre is sixty-two; General Pau is
    sixty-six; General Castelnau, the third in command, is well
    advanced in the sixties; and General Gallieni, who is in command
    of the defenses of Paris, is seventy.

    The German armies are also led by a group of elderly men. Count
    von Huelsenberg has reached the mature age of seventy-eight;
    Field Marshal von der Goltz is seventy-one; General von Kluck
    has reached his sixty-eighth year; General von Emmich was
    sixty-six; and General von Hindenberg is sixty-seven.

    These figures suggest that, while fifty may be the deadline
    among Democratic statesmen, it appears to be a kind of life-line
    among great leaders abroad.--Adapted from _The Outlook_,
    November 11, 1914.[13]

[13] Reprinted by permission of _The Outlook_.


IV. Analysis

Observe the framework. Paragraph 1 states the point to be proved.
Paragraphs 2-5 are composed of examples, arranged thus:

    1. The War of 1871.
    2. The War of 1905.
    3. The Present War.
        (a) France.
        (b) England.
        (c) Germany.

The order, in other words, is at once the order of chronology and that
of climax, which combine to make the facts easy to remember. Paragraph 6
summarizes the argument and clinches it by a sharp antithesis.


V. Exercises

 1. Using a similar framework, write an editorial disproving by
    examples the point made by the writer of the model.

 2. Write an editorial proving by examples any proposition which you
    believe to be true and in which you are deeply interested.

 3. Prove or disprove by example any one of the following
    propositions:

    (a) Left-hand batters are better than right-hand batters.

    (b) Germans are better ball-players than Irishmen.

    (c) Frenchmen cannot play ball.

    (d) Men write better than women.

    (e) Asphalt pavements are more durable than brick pavements.

    (f) Germany has contributed more to the world's culture than
        England.

    (g) College graduates are more successful as statesmen than are
        self-made men.

    (h) Very tall men have ever very empty heads.

    (i) Athletes usually succeed well in after life.

    (j) Dr. Samuel Johnson was a great wit. (For Johnson, substitute,
        if you wish, Geoffrey Chaucer, William Shakespeare, Francis
        Bacon, Samuel Butler, Alexander Pope, Charles Lamb, Sidney
        Smith, Oliver Wendell Holmes, James Russell Lowell, or Mark
        Twain.)

In the model there are twenty-two examples. In your composition there
must be at least ten.


VI. Model II

    WHAT DOES A MAN PRODUCE?

    Among the banners of the unemployed in New York when they came
    in collision with the police was one reading, "We Want All We
    Produce."

    There is a common impression among Socialistic workmen,
    encouraged by some of the new-fangled college professors, that
    the weaver produces all the cloth that comes off the loom he
    tends, and he is robbed if his wages are only a part of the
    value of the cloth. But he is only one of a long line of
    producers, each of whom has to get some of the money for which
    that cloth is sold.

    There was a farmer who grew the raw fiber. There was a railroad
    that transported the fiber. There was a long list of workmen who
    did various things in the preparation of that fiber. It took
    several classes of men to convert that fiber into yarn. Some men
    dug the coal and a railroad hauled it. It took a good many men a
    considerable time to build the loom and the engine and the mill,
    and all of them have got to be paid. The men who have paid all
    these previous classes of workers may reimburse themselves out
    of a part of the proceeds of the bolt of cloth without
    committing any robbery. What are the dividends but the
    reimbursement of the people that have paid the miners and
    mechanics and builders for their work before the cloth was sold?

    The report of the Comptroller of the Currency shows that the
    average return on all the shares and bonds of all the
    corporations in the United States is 4.3 per cent. That doesn't
    look unreasonable. It isn't very much more than savings-bank
    interest. Of course, some corporations make very much more, but
    many must make nothing in order to bring the average down to
    4.3 per cent. Besides, there are a few bonds that do not pay
    4.5 per cent or more, so that the average return on the shares,
    which represent the ownership of the mills and factories, would
    be less than 4.3 per cent.

    What does a man produce? Well, put a man with only his bare
    hands upon a spot of earth, or in a mine hole, or by the side of
    a stream and how much will he produce? What are the chances that
    he will not starve to death before he can produce anything? If
    you give him tools, and "grub-stake" him, in mining lingo, or
    support him until he has produced something and it has been
    marketed, the produce of other men has been given him. They have
    got to be paid for their produce in some way. The man in
    question can't have all he produces without defrauding the men
    who produced the tools and food which he used during the time
    he was getting his product made or extracted.[14]--_Philadelphia
    Record._

[14] Reprinted by permission of the _Philadelphia Record_.


VII. Analysis

 1. What is proved by this editorial?

 2. The method of Model I consists of overwhelming the enemy with an
    avalanche of examples. The method of Model II is to define the
    words used by an opponent and, by analyzing the meaning of what
    he asserts, to prove that he does not see his way through the
    question.

 3. Note the framework: (Par. 1) "Four W's"; (Par. 2) Statement of
    Positions of Opponent and Writer; (Par. 3) Exposition of
    Writer's Position; (Par. 4) Refutation of Opponent's Idea;
    (Par. 5) Conclusion.


VIII. Exercises

 1. Define and discuss the etymology of "collision," "transported,"
    "convert," "considerable," "reimburse," "dividend,"
    "corporations," "factories," "starve," "lingo," "support,"
    "extract," "percentage," "average."

 2. Subject for short expository speeches: "Socialism," "Shares,"
    "Bonds," "Corporations," "Savings Banks," "Interest."

 3. Write an answer to the model.

 4. Write an editorial refuting some current fallacy or what you
    deem such. Use the analytic method of the model.

 5. Examine the editorials in some current paper to determine
    whether they are expository or argumentative, constructive or
    destructive, if their frameworks are as good as those of the
    models, if their matter is as convincing, if their style is as
    good, and if their total effect is better or worse.


IX. Suggested Reading

Thomas Gray's _Elegy in a Country Churchyard_.


X. Memorize

    OLD IRONSIDES[15]

    Ay, tear her tattered ensign down!
      Long has it waved on high,
    And many an eye has danced to see
      That banner in the sky;
    Beneath it rung the battle shout,
      And burst the cannon's roar;--
    The meteor of the ocean air
      Shall sweep the clouds no more.

    Her deck, once red with heroes' blood,
      Where knelt the vanquished foe,
    When winds were hurrying o'er the flood
      And waves were white below,
    No more shall feel the victor's tread,
      Or know the conquered knee;--
    The harpies of the shore shall pluck
      The eagle of the sea!

    Oh, better that her shattered hulk
      Should sink beneath the wave;
    Her thunders shook the mighty deep,
      And there should be her grave;
    Nail to the mast her holy flag,
      Set every threadbare sail,
    And give her to the god of storms,
      The lightning and the gale.
        OLIVER WENDELL HOLMES.

[15] Built about 1800, the frigate _Constitution_ had a career that
aroused popular fancy. She was at the bombardment of Tripoli in 1804;
captured the British frigate _Guerrière_ August 2, 1812; captured the
British frigate _Java_ December 29, 1812; and on February 20, 1815,
captured the British ships _Cyane_ and _Levant_. In 1830, when it was
proposed to break her up, Holmes wrote this poem by way of protest. The
result was that the ship was preserved. She now lies at the Boston Navy
Yard, an object of great historic and patriotic interest. The poem is a
kind of poetic editorial.



CHAPTER XVIII

ADVERTISEMENTS

   "I hold every man a debtor to his profession; from the which as
    men of course do seek to receive countenance and profit, so
    ought they of duty to endeavour themselves by way of amends to
    be a help and ornament thereunto."--FRANCIS BACON.


I. Introduction

In no field is the writer of English more generously rewarded than in
advertising. The annual expenditure for advertising in the United States
is close to $1,000,000,000 and is rapidly increasing. Writers skilled in
presenting goods to the public command very large salaries in the
distribution of this great sum. The profession has been steadily
attaining higher standards and has made a place for its members in
nearly every business house in the country. It is certain, however, that
there is still a vast field open for advertising development.


II. Assignment I

Make a list of the reasons that would induce you to buy a particular
kind of fountain pen; suit of clothes; set of books; stove or range;
lead pencil; candy.


III. Example

(See page 109.)


IV. Definition

An advertisement is an argumentative composition cut down to its
simplest elements, a composition in which single words represent
sentences or even paragraphs of ordinary writing. A sentence in an
advertisement frequently conveys the meaning that in ordinary writing
would be expanded into a long descriptive essay. The principles of
composition-writing apply to advertising in the superlative degree.
Above all things else, an advertisement must be clear, coherent, and
forceful. In addition to these things it must be brief.

            Model Shoes
                make happy, handsome feet.

            Model Shoes
                are made on natural foot-fitting
                lasts and feel right the first time.

            Model Shoes
                are made of carefully selected hides
                tanned by the special process which
                increases their wearing quality
                thirty per cent. Every operation
                from cutting to final packing is
                under the supervision of experts who
                are specially trained in their line.

            Model Shoes
                are designed by shoe artists who
                watch every turn in the smart
                productions of fashionable New York
                and London bootmakers and combine
                the most favored lines with _model_
                comfort into distinctive _model_
                designs.

                     $4.50 at your store
                  _Write for Style Booklet_

                      Model Shoemakers
                        Lowell, Mass.


V. Assignment II

From the reasons that you have listed in Assignment I, pick out the one
that most attracts you in the case of each of the articles named. Give a
reason for your choice. Find a quality in each article that you
especially desire but rarely find.


VI. Forcefulness in Advertising

An advertisement must first of all demand and win attention. The first
word, the first sentence, must be strong enough to arrest the eye of the
average reader, who runs hastily through the advertising matter of a
magazine, newspaper, or other medium. It must catch the reader's
interest, and hold his attention long enough to lead him into the
remainder of the argument.

So far as possible the first sentence, in some cases the first word,
should contain the heart of the message, the one big thing that you have
to say about the article you have to advertise. If you fail to get your
reader's interest with your first sentence, the word or words that
attracted his attention to your advertisement, you have lost him
forever. You will have no opportunity to present to him the argument
that may follow. Your attention words are read by your maximum
audience. Your most attractive argument in its most striking form should
therefore be presented to them at once.


VII. Assignment III

Write a sentence presenting the arguments selected in Assignment II in
the strongest and most attractive sentences that you can devise. Reduce
the sentences to the single words that express the ideas most vividly.


VIII. Humor in Advertising

As an attention feature, a touch of humor is valuable in advertising. It
tends to put the reader into a pleasant frame of mind, a frame of mind
in which he is likely to listen more attentively to what you have to
say. It operates in the same way as the funny story that usually
prefaces the remarks of the after-dinner speaker. The humor, however,
must have a direct and unmistakable bearing on the body of your
advertising. Irrelevant humor is as much a waste of valuable advertising
space as an irrelevant illustration. Advertising space costs too much to
be used for anything but advertising. Grotesque illustrations and
far-fetched puns are no longer found in advertising columns, because
they have been found ineffective.


IX. Illustrations

In advertising practice the attention feature is frequently supplied by
an illustration showing the article advertised in the use that is
emphasized in the body of the advertisement, or in a way to illustrate
the special argument presented. The importance of the attention factor
is indicated by the large amount of space that is occupied by such
illustrations. Some experiments have indicated, however, that a
well-written attention line is fully as effective as an average
illustration.


X. Suggested Reading

Carl Schurz's _Life of Abraham Lincoln_.


XI. Memorize

    IPHIGENEIA AND AGAMEMNON

    Iphigeneia, when she heard her doom
    At Aulis, and when all beside the king
    Had gone away, took his right hand, and said:
    "O father! I am young and very happy.
    I do not think the pious Calchas heard
    Distinctly what the goddess spake; old age
    Obscures the senses. If my nurse, who knew
    My voice so well, sometimes misunderstood,
    While I was resting on her knee both arms,
    And hitting it to make her mind my words,
    And looking in her face, and she in mine,
    Might not he, also, hear one word amiss,
    Spoken from so far off, even from Olympus?"
    The father placed his cheek upon her head,
    And tears dropt down it; but the king of men
    Replied not. Then the maiden spake once more:
    "O father! sayest thou nothing? Hearest thou not
    Me, whom thou ever hast, until this hour,
    Listened to fondly, and awakened me
    To hear my voice amid the voice of birds,
    When it was inarticulate as theirs,
    And the down deadened it within the nest?"
    He moved her gently from him, silent still;
    And this, and this alone, brought tears from her,
    Although she saw fate nearer. Then with sighs:
    "I thought to have laid down my hair before
    Benignant Artemis, and not dimmed
    Her polished altar with my virgin blood;
    I thought to have selected the white flowers
    To please the nymphs, and to have asked of each
    By name, and with no sorrowful regret,
    Whether, since both my parents willed the change
    I might at Hymen's feet bend my clipt brow;
    And (after these who mind us girls the most)
    Adore our own Athene, that she would
    Regard me mildly with her azure eyes,--
    But, father, to see you no more, and see
    Your love, O father! go ere I am gone!"
    Gently he moved her off, and drew her back,
    Bending his lofty head far over hers;
    And the dark depths of nature heaved and burst.
    He turned away,--not far, but silent still.
    She now first shuddered; for in him, so nigh,
    So long a silence seemed the approach of death,
    And like it. Once again she raised her voice:
    "O father! if the ships are now detained,
    And all your vows move not the gods above,
    When the knife strikes me there will be one prayer
    The less to them; and purer can there be
    Any, or more fervent, than the daughter's prayer
    For her dear father's safety and success?"
    A groan that shook him shook not his resolve.
    An aged man now entered, and without
    One word stepped slowly on, and took the wrist
    Of the pale maiden. She looked up, and saw
    The fillet of the priest and calm, cold eyes.
    Then turned she where her parent stood, and cried:
    "O father! grieve no more; the ships can sail."
        WALTER SAVAGE LANDOR.[16]

[16] When the Greeks were about to set sail for Troy, Artemis, being
angry with their commander King Agamemnon, becalmed their ships at
Aulis. The seer Calchas thereupon declared that the goddess could be
propitiated only by the death of Iphigeneia, the daughter of Agamemnon.
This legend forms the theme of tragedies by Euripides, Racine, and
Goethe.



CHAPTER XIX

ADVERTISEMENTS (_continued_)

   "Discretion of speech is more than eloquence; and to speak
    agreeably to him with whom we deal is more than to speak in good
    words or in good order."--FRANCIS BACON.


I. Assignment I

Clip from current newspapers or magazines five advertisements which in
your opinion have effective attention lines. Pick out five
advertisements which in your opinion have ineffective attention lines.
Give your reasons for your choice.


II. Assignment II

(a) Taking the attention arguments selected in the preceding
    chapter, set down all the questions that you might ask as a
    possible customer if you had been attracted by the attention
    line.

(b) In the five examples of effective advertising selected from
    newspapers or magazines, set down the questions that are
    answered in the matter following the attention lines.


III. Coherence in Advertising

An effective advertisement must be a logically developed argument
leading from the attraction of attention to the point where the reader
is convinced that he wants your goods, and beyond that to the point
where he will take some definite physical action to get them.

The steps intervening between attention and action may be sketched in
the briefest terms, may in some exceptional cases be omitted entirely
from the final form of the advertisement, but must be carefully worked
out in the mind of the writer, no step being omitted that is essential
in the chain of reasoning that the ordinary mind must follow.

Obviously the chain of reasoning must start from the attention line. If
you have attracted your reader by saying "Prices Cut," you must tell him
how much the reduction is and why you have made the reduction. If, on
the other hand, you have attracted the attention by saying "Our Goods
are the Best," you must explain the reasons why they are the best. That
the mind of the reader may be held to the line of the argument from
attention to action, all material that has no bearing upon this line of
argument must be excluded.


IV. Exercise

Answer the questions about the various articles set down in
Assignment I, being careful to follow the logical order in which they
would occur and to exclude all material that does not relate directly to
the argument you have selected.


V. Clinching Results

When you have attracted the attention of your reader and carried him
along through a logical argument to the conviction that he wants your
goods, one thing more remains. He must be induced to act upon his
conviction. Up to this point his part has been passive; he has been
asked merely to sit in his easy chair and read what you have to say. Now
he must be aroused to activity; he must be brought to the point of
putting on his hat and coat and going out to buy your goods. The
strongest language form at our command is required here, the direct
urgent imperative. Involuntarily people tend to obey orders that are
given them. The appeal must, of course, be courteous, so as not to
offend; but it must be strong enough to induce action. Compare the
strength of "Sign here for free booklet" with "If you will sign on this
line, we will send you our free booklet."

When your reader has been aroused to action, his way should be made as
easy as possible. Every direction that he may need should be plainly
before him, every convenience that will reduce his action to a minimum.
He should be told clearly how and where he can get the goods that you
have convinced him he wants, your name, your address, your telephone
number, and everything else that will enable him to reach you promptly
and certainly.


VI. Assignment III

Write a compelling sentence for each of the advertisements constructed
in Assignment II (a), adding the necessary conclusion.

Construct a series of five advertisements, each dealing with a single
attractive feature of one of the articles selected in the preceding
work. Each advertisement should carry its argument through from
attention to action.


VII. Suggested Reading

James Parton's _Captains of Industry_.


VIII. Memorize

    THE PULLEY

      When God at first made man,
    Having a glass of blessing standing by;
    Let us (said he) pour on him all we can:
    Let the world's riches which dispersed lie
      Contract into a span.

      So strength first made a way;
    Then beauty flow'd, then wisdom, honour, pleasure;
    When almost all was out, God made a stay,
    Perceiving that alone, of all his treasure,
      Rest in the bottom lay.

      For if I should (said he)
    Bestow this jewel also on my creature,
    He would adore my gifts instead of me,
    And rest in Nature, not the God of Nature;
      So both should losers be.

      Yet let him keep the rest,
    But keep them with repining restlessness:
    Let him be rich and weary, that at least,
    If goodness lead him not, yet weariness
      May toss him to my breast.
        GEORGE HERBERT.



CHAPTER XX

ADVERTISEMENTS (_concluded_)

   "Honesty is the best policy."
        BENJAMIN FRANKLIN.


I. Assignment I

Pick out in a large advertisement for a breakfast food the number of
words of one syllable other than prepositions or articles; the words of
two syllables; of three syllables; of more than three syllables. Reduce
your results to percentages.

Make a similar study of advertisements for a set of books, of chewing
gum, of an automobile, and of a piece of machinery in some technical
publication. Compare results with a similar count in a newspaper
paragraph, an encyclopedia paragraph, and paragraphs from Macaulay,
Dickens, Carlyle, and Kipling.


II. Clearness

Clear, simple language, language that will be readily understood by the
least intelligent of your possible customers, is an essential of good
advertising. Every word that is above the lowest reasonable level of
understanding limits the number of possible customers. The railroad
attorney who was asked to write a notice that would warn people to be
careful at railroad crossings did not dig into his law books for a
polysyllabic sentence like this: "Whereas this is the intersection of a
public highway with the right-of-way of the ---- Railroad Corporation,
each and every individual is hereby advised to exercise extreme
caution." He wrote a sentence which is a classic in its way "Stop! Look!
Listen! Railroad Crossing."


III. Assignment II

In the advertisements selected for Assignment I, count the number of
words in each sentence and strike an average for each. Make a comparison
with sentence length in other writings as suggested.


IV. Adaptation to Audience

The degree to which the simplification of language in an advertisement
should be carried depends upon the audience addressed. It is evident
that a larger and less educated portion of the public is included in the
possible customers for breakfast food and chewing gum than there are in
the portion who would be likely to purchase a set of books. An even
smaller portion of the public would be interested in an automobile or a
piece of automatic machinery. A good advertisement should be framed in
language that will be understood by all possible purchasers of an
article. Many household articles, such as bread, breakfast food, candy,
and confections, are advertised in language that a fourth-grade child
will readily understand.


V. Assignment III

Write an advertisement for an athletic contest in which your school will
take part, addressing it to the students in your school.

Write an advertisement to introduce a new candy or confection among
grammar-school children.

Write an advertisement for boys' hats; for girls' hats; for overalls;
for a magazine devoted to automobiles; for a magazine devoted to
fiction.


VI. Simplicity in Structure

An advertisement must be clear, not only in language and construction,
but in mechanical structure as well. Attention-lines and command-lines
must be short and set up so as to stand out clearly from the body of the
advertisement. The eye takes in automatically from four to six words at
a glance, setting the natural limit of length for strong features in an
advertisement. Artistic arrangement helps an advertisement because
carefully balanced matter is more attractive than inartistic
combinations. A well-balanced advertisement, an advertisement in which
the points are properly subordinated, conveys its meaning to the reader
more easily than a badly distributed statement of the same arguments. In
the last analysis good art is little more than good order, order that is
pleasing to the eye as well as the mind. Good order requires a
distribution of eye-effects that coincides with the distribution of mind
effects.


VII. Assignment IV

Measure ten particularly attractive advertisements, illustrated or
otherwise. Find the line on which the attention is focused and measure
its distance from the top and bottom. Test these distances by the
formulæ:

    A +-------------+ B
      |             |
      |             |
      |             |
    C |-------------| D
      |             |
      |             |
      |             |
      |             |
      |             |
    E +-------------+ F


    (a) AB = 1    inch.
        AC =  .62 inch.
        AE = 1.62 inches.

    (b)   AE : AB :: AE + AB : AE
        1.62 :  1 ::   2.62  : 1.62

    (c) CD :  AC :: CD + AC : AD
         1 : .62 ::   1.62  : 1

This is the so-called "golden rectangle," the most pleasing of all
rectangular forms. The attention-line CD is at the point that makes the
upper section a "golden rectangle." The capital letter "H" is also one
of the most common arrangements in advertising. The square is another
pleasing figure and there are many other forms in which advertising
matter may be balanced.


VIII. Brevity

Advertising occupies space for which a high rate frequently is paid.
Brief statement is therefore a factor of great importance. If a small
space is all that is available, the problem of attracting attention
becomes most important. It should be evident that a few words clearly
and plainly printed are far more effective in a small space than a long
message that is in such fine print that it will strain the eyes of the
reader. In the one case you say something at least to your reader. In
the other, you have no chance to say anything because you have tried to
say too much. When it is necessary to confine your message to a small
space, the attention-sentence, or in some cases the command-sentence, is
the part to use. Many signs seen from the rapidly moving window of a
street-car or railroad train carry only the name of the product
attractively displayed, with a command to use it.


IX. Assignment V

Select one of the articles for which you have written advertising and
write a complete advertising campaign for it, including five newspaper
advertisements, five magazine advertisements, a four-page folder for
distribution, signs for street-cars, signs for posting along highways,
and other devices that you think would be effective.


X. Classified Advertisements

Most newspapers carry columns of classified advertising consisting of
many small advertisements grouped together under various heads. These
are commonly used by the public for getting help; obtaining situations;
buying, selling, and renting real estate; and disposing of miscellaneous
articles. The principles of advertising compositions apply also to these
advertisements. The attention-factor is not so important, however, as
the reader of the advertisements in the classified columns is looking
for the article or service that you to have sell. A glance through the
classified columns of a newspaper will show clearly the increased
attractiveness resulting from the skillful arrangement of details and
the use of clear forceful words.


XI. Assignment VI

Write an advertisement offering a room of your home to rent, using not
more than thirty words; an advertisement applying for work for which you
consider yourself fitted; an advertisement offering for sale a house
with which you are familiar.


XII. Memorize

    SONG FROM "PIPPA PASSES"

    The year's at the spring,
    And day's at the morn;
    Morning's at seven;
    The hill-side's dew-pearled;
    The lark's on the wing;
    The snail's on the thorn:
    God's in his heaven--
    All's right with the world.
        ROBERT BROWNING.





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