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Title: Kelly Miller's History of the World War for Human Rights
Author: Miller, Kelly, 1863-1939
Language: English
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[Illustration: KELLY MILLER, A.M., LL.D.

Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences, Howard University, Washington
D.C.]



KELLY MILLER'S HISTORY

OF

The World War

FOR

Human Rights

An Intensely Human and Brilliant Account of the World War; Why America
Entered the Conflict; What the Allies Fought For; And a Thrilling
Account of the Important Part Taken by the Negro in the Tragic Defeat of
Germany; The Downfall of Autocracy, and Complete Victory for the Cause
of Righteousness and Freedom.

INCLUDING

A Wonderful Array of Striking Pictures Made from Recent Official
Photographs, Illustrating and Describing the New and Awful Devices Used
in the Horrible Methods of Modern Warfare, together with Remarkable
Pictures of the Negro in Action in Both Army and Navy.

BY

KELLY MILLER, A.M., LL.D.

The Well-Known and Popular Author of "Race Adjustment," "Out of the
House of Bondage" and "The Disgrace of Democracy."

ALSO

Important Contribution by JOHN J. PERSHING, the Famous General,
FREDERICK DRINKER, the Noted War Correspondent, and E.A. ALLEN, Author
of "The History of Civilization."


          Copyright, 1919
          By
          A. JENKINS

          Copyright, 1919
          By
          O. KELLER



THE NEGRO'S PART IN THE WAR

BY PROFESSOR KELLY MILLER, THE WELL-KNOWN THINKER AND WRITER.


This treatise will set forth the black man's part in the world's war
with the logical sequence of facts and the brilliant power of statement
for which the author is famous. The mere announcement that the author of
"Race Adjustment," "Out of the House of Bondage," and "The Disgrace of
Democracy" is to present a history of the Negro in the great world
conflict, is sufficient to arouse expectancy among the wide circle of
readers who eagerly await anything that flows from his pen.

In this treatise, Professor Miller will trace briefly, but with
consuming interest, the relation of the Negro to the great wars of the
past. He will point out the never-failing fount of loyalty and
patriotism which characterizes the black man's nature, and will show
that the Negro has never been a hireling, but has always been
characterized by that moral energy which actuates all true heroism.

The conduct of the Negro in the present struggle will be set forth with
a brilliant and pointed pen. The idea of three hundred thousand American
Negroes crossing three thousand miles of sea to fight against autocracy
of the German crown constitutes the most interesting chapter in the
history of this modern crusade against an unholy cause. The valor and
heroism of the Afro-American contingent were second to none according to
the unanimous testimony of those who were in command of this high
enterprise.

The story of Negro officers in command of troops of their own color will
prove the wisdom of a policy entered upon with much distrust and
misgiving. It is just here that Professor Miller reaches the high-water
mark. Here is a story never told before, because the world has never
before witnessed Negro officers in large numbers participating in the
directive side of war waged on the high level of modern science and
system.

Professor Miller's treatise carries its own prophecy. He logically
enough forecasts the future of the race in glowing colors as the result
of his loyal and patriotic conduct in this great world epoch.

The author wisely queries: "When, hereafter, the Negro asks for his
rights as an American citizen, where can the American be found with the
heart or the hardihood to say him, Nay?"

The work will be profusely illustrated.

PUBLISHERS.
March 27, 1919.



GENERAL PREFACE


While the underlying causes of the greatest war in all history must be
traced far back into the centuries, the one great object of the conflict
which was precipitated by the assassination of the Archduke Francis
Ferdinand of Austria, in Bosnia, at the end of June, 1914, is the
ultimate determination as to whether imperialism as exemplified in the
government of Germany shall rule the world, or whether democracy shall
reign.

Whenever men or nations disregard those principles which society has
laid down for their conduct in modern civilized life, and obligation and
duty are forgotten in the desire for self-advancement, conflict results.

Since the days of Athens and Sparta the world's greatest wars have in
the main been conflicts of ideals--democracy being arrayed against
oligarchy--men fighting for individual rights as against militarism and
military domination.

In the World War, which terminated with the signing of the armistice,
November 11, 1918, which painted the green fields of France and Belgium
red with blood, and swept nations into the most significant and bitter
struggle in all history, the fight was against the Imperial Government
of Germany, by men and nations who claim that humanity the world over
has rights that must be observed.

Germany has brought upon herself the destruction of her government by
ruthlessly trampling upon her neighbors and assuming that "might is
right."

The Imperial Government, led by the House of Hohenzollern, was suffering
from an exaggerated ego. Her trouble was psychological. The men who
study the strange workings and twists of the human mind which land some
men in the institutions for the criminal insane, agree that when any man
becomes obsessed with an idea and "rides a hobby" to the exclusion of
all else, he loses his balance and develops an obliquity of view which
makes him a dangerous creature.

Germany was obsessed with the spirit of militarism and almost everything
else had been sacrificed to this idol. The very first appearance of
Germans in history is as a warlike people. The earliest German
literature is of folk-tales about war heroes, and these stories tell of
the manly virtues of the heroes.

It is true that there are many scientists, poets, and musicians among
the Germans, but their warlike side must never be forgotten. The entire
race is imbued with the military spirit, the influence reaching to every
phase of national life. All that was best in the nation was raised to
its highest efficiency through military training, but in the
accomplishment of its purposes the House of Hohenzollern, which is
responsible for the development of the national fighting arm, neglected
much and produced millions of creatures who are but human machines,
taught to obey orders without consideration as to the effect their acts
might produce, whether right or wrong.

In their criticisms of the Prussian militarism the world democracies
defined militarism as an arrogant, or exclusive, professional military
spirit, developed by training and environment until it became despotic,
and assumed superiority over rational motives and deliberations.

This attitude was reflected in the conduct of the Kaiser, who, as
illustrative of the point, is quoted at the dedication of the monument
to Prince Frederick Charles at Frankfurt-on-the-Oder in 1891, as having
said, "We would rather sacrifice our eighteen army corps and our
forty-two millions inhabitants on the field of battle than surrender a
single stone of what my father and Prince Charles Frederick gained."

His speeches were filled with similar bombastic and extravagant
expressions which were the subject of international comment for many
years. Other countries besides Germany have maintained great armies, but
their maintenance has been but an incidental part of the general
business of the nation and there was no submerging of the spirit which
seeks and demands appropriate public ideals in government and action. So
that while other elements have always tended to produce friction between
neighboring countries, it was adamant, stubborn, military Prussianism
which asserted itself in the middle of 1914 and set the world afire.

Enough is known at this writing to show that the cost in lives, money,
morals and weakening of humanity as a whole, is staggering, and yet the
whole truth can not be realized for years to come. In our own great
struggle, which had for its object the liberation of the Negro, the
scars which our country received have not yet been entirely eliminated.
Portions of the country devastated by the soldiers still bear the marks
of the invasion, but what was lost in money and material things was made
up by the welding together of the two sections of the country. The Union
was made a concrete, humanitarian body of citizens. The battle was for
the right and liberty triumphed. And by the defeat of Germany liberty
again triumphs and the world is made a safe place in which to live.

And just as America fought for liberty in the stirring days of 1776, and
her peoples fought one another in the trying days of 1861-65, so America
was drawn into the World's War that the principles of liberty, for which
she has ever stood, might be perpetuated throughout the world, and that
an international peace might be established, which has for its purposes
the ending of such convulsions as have shaken the world since August,
1914, since the first shots were fired in fair Belgium by German
invaders.



CONTENTS


CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTORY

CIVILIZATION AT ISSUE--THE GERMAN EMPIRE--CHARACTER OF WILLIAM II--THE
GREAT CONSPIRACY--THE WAR BY YEARS--UNITED STATES IN THE WAR--TWO
HUNDRED AND FIFTY MILES OF BATTLE--THE DOWNFALL OF TURKEY--THE
DEMOCRATIC CLOSE OF THE WAR                                           17


CHAPTER II

GEN. PERSHING'S OWN STORY

ORGANIZATION OF HIS GENERAL STAFF--TRAINING IN FRANCE--IN THE AISNE
OFFENSIVE--AT CHATEAU THIERRY--THE ST MIHEIL SALIENT--MEUSE-ARGONNE,
FIRST PHASE--THE BATTLE IN THE FOREST--SUMMARY                        49


CHAPTER III

PRESIDENT WILSON'S REVIEW OF THE WAR

TROOP MOVEMENT DURING THE YEAR--TRIBUTE TO AMERICAN SOLDIERS--SPLENDID
SPIRIT OF THE NATION--RESUME THE WORK OF PEACE--OUTLINE OF WORK IN
PARIS--SUPPORT OF NATION URGED                                        79


CHAPTER IV

THE FLASH THAT SET THE WORLD AFLAME

TEUTON FIND IN A MURDER THE EXCUSE FOR WAR--GERMANY INSPIRED BY
AMBITIONS FOR WORLD CONTROL--THE STRUGGLE FOR COMMERCIAL SUPREMACY A
FACTOR--THE UNDERLYING MOTIVES                                        89


CHAPTER V

WHY AMERICA ENTERED THE WAR

THE IRON HAND OF PRUSSIANISM--THE ARROGANT HOHENZOLLERN
ATTITUDE--SECRETARY LANE TELLS WHY WE FIGHT--BROKEN PLEDGES--LAWS
VIOLATED--PRUSSIANISM THE CHILD OF BARBARITY--GERMANY'S PLANS FOR A
WORLD EMPIRE                                                          97


CHAPTER VI

THE THINGS THAT MADE MEN MAD

GERMANY'S BARBARITY--THE DEVASTATION OF BELGIUM--HUMAN FIENDS--FIREBRAND
AND TORCH--RAPE AND PILLAGE--THE SACKING OF LOUVAIN--WANTON
DESTRUCTION--OFFICIAL PROOF                                          113


CHAPTER VII

THE SLINKING SUBMARINE

A VORACIOUS SEA MONSTER--THE RUTHLESS DESTRUCTIVE POLICY OF
GERMANY--STARVATION OF NATIONS THE GOAL--HOW THE SUBMARINES
OPERATE--SOME PERSONAL EXPERIENCES                                   135


CHAPTER VIII

THWARTING THE U-BOAT

NETS TO ENTANGLE THE SEA SHARKS OF WAR--"CHASERS" OR "SKIMMING DISH"
BOATS--"BLIMPS" AND SEAPLANES--HUNTING THE SUBMARINE WITH "LANCE" BOMB
AND GUN--A SAILOR'S DESCRIPTION                                      154


CHAPTER IX

THE EYES OF BATTLE

AEROPLANES AND AIRSHIPS--THEY SPY THE MOVEMENTS OF FORCESON LAND OR
SEA--LEAD DISASTROUS BOMB ATTACKS--VALUABLE IN "SPOTTING"
SUBMARINES--THE BOMBARDMENT AT MESSINES RIDGE                        170


CHAPTER X

WAR'S STRANGE DEVICES

CHEMISTRY A DEMON OF DESTRUCTION--POISON GAS BOMBS--GAS MASKS--HAND
GRENADES--MORTARS--"TANKS"--FEUDAL "BATTERING RAMS"--STEEL
HELMETS--STRANGE BULLETS--MOTOR PLOWS--REAL DOGS OF WAR              185


CHAPTER XI

WONDERFUL WAR WEAPONS

THE TERRIBLE RAPID-FIRE GUN--ARMORED AUTOMOBILES AND AUTOMOBILE
ARTILLERY--HOWITZERS--MOUNTED FORTS--ARMORED TRAINS--OBSERVATION
TOWERS--WIRELESS APPARATUS--THE ARMY PANTRY                          205


CHAPTER XII

THE WORLD'S ARMIES

THE EFFICIENT GERMAN ORGANIZATION--THE LANDWEHR AND LANDSTURM--GENERAL
FORMS OF MILITARY ORGANIZATION--THE BRAVE FRENCH TROOPS--THE PICTURESQUE
ITALIAN SOLDIERY--THE PEACE AND WAR STRENGTH--AVAILABLE FIGHTING
MEN--FORTIFICATIONS                                                  224


CHAPTER XIII

THE WORLD'S NAVIES

GERMANY'S SEA STRENGTH--GREAT BRITAIN'S IMMENSE WAR FLEET--IMMENSE
FIGHTING CRAFT--THE UNITED STATES' NEW BATTLE CRUISERS--THE FASTEST AND
BIGGEST OCEAN FIGHTING SHIPS--THE PICTURESQUE MARINES: THE SOLDIERS OF
THE SEA                                                              243


CHAPTER XIV

THE NATIONS AT WAR

UNEXPECTED DEVELOPMENTS--HOW THE WAR FLAMES SPREAD--A SCORE OF
COUNTRIES INVOLVED--THE POINTS OF CONTACT--PICTURESQUE AND RUGGED
BULGARIA, ROUMANIA, SERVIA, GREECE, ITALY AND HISTORIC SOUTHEAST EUROPE
                                                                     259


CHAPTER XV

MODERN WAR METHODS

INDIVIDUAL INITIATIVE AS AGAINST MASS MOVEMENTS--TRENCH WARFARE A GAME
OF HIDE AND SEEK--RATS AND DISEASE--SURGERY'S TRIUMPHS--CHANGED
TACTICS--ITALIAN MOUNTAIN FIGHTING                                   281


CHAPTER XVI

WOMAN AND THE WAR

SHE HAS WON "HER PLACE IN THE SUN"--RICH AND POOR IN THE MUNITIONS
FACTORIES--NURSE AND AMBULANCE DRIVER--KHAKI AND TROUSERS--ORGANIZER AND
FARMER--HEROES IN THE STRESS OF CIRCUMSTANCES--DYING MEN'S WORK FOR
MEN--EVEN A "BOBBIE"                                                 298


CHAPTER XVII

THE TERRIBLE PRICE

A NATION OF MEN DESTROYED--MILLIONS IN SHIPPING AND COMMERCE
DESTROYED--WORLD'S MAPS CHANGED--BILLIONS IN MONEY--IMMENSE
DEBTS--NATION'S WEALTH--THE UNITED STATES A GREAT PROVIDER           316


CHAPTER XVIII

THE WORLD RULERS AT WAR

WOODROW WILSON, THE CHAMPION OF DEMOCRACY--THE EGOTISTICAL KAISER--THE
GERMAN CROWN PRINCE--BRITAIN'S MONARCH--CONSTANTINE WHO QUIT RATHER THAN
FIGHT GERMANY--PRESIDENT POINCARE--AND OTHER NATIONAL HEADS          328


CHAPTER XIX

THE WAR'S WHO'S WHO

STRIKING FIGURES IN THE CONFLICT--JOFFRE, THE HERO OF MARNE--NIVELLE,
THE FRENCH COMMANDER--SIR DOUGLAS HAIG--THE KAISER'S
CHANCELLOR--VENIZELOS--"BLACK JACK" PERSHING                         344


CHAPTER XX

CHEMISTRY IN THE WAR

SUBSTITUTES FOR COTTON--NITRATES PRODUCED FROM AIR--YEAST A REAL
SUBSTITUTE FOR BEEF--SEAWEED MADE TO GIVE UP POTASH--A GANGRENE
PREVENTATIVE--SODA MADE OUT OF SALT WATER--AMERICA CHEMICALLY
INDEPENDENT                                                          361


CHAPTER XXI

OUR NEIGHBORING ALLY

CANADA'S RECRUITING--RAISE 33,000 TROOPS IN TWO MONTHS--FIRST
EXPEDITIONARY FORCE TO CROSS ATLANTIC--BRAVERY AT YPRES AND
LENS--MEETING DIFFICULT PROBLEMS--QUEBEC AROUSED BY CONSCRIPTION     371


CHAPTER XXII

THE HEROIC ANZAC

FORCES THAT STIRRED THE WORLD IN THE GALLIPOLI CAMPAIGN--FAMOUS AS
SAPPERS--THE BLASTING OF MESSINES RIDGE--TWO YEARS TUNNELLING--30,000
GERMANS BLOWN TO ATOMS--1,000,000 POUNDS OF EXPLOSIVES USED--TROOPS THAT
WERE TRANSPORTED 11,000 MILES                                        390


CHAPTER XXIII

AMERICA STEPS IN

PRESIDENT WILSON'S FAMOUS MESSAGE TO CONGRESS--THE WAR RESOLUTION--APRIL
6, 1917, SEES THE UNITED STATES AT WAR--REVIEW OF THE NEGOTIATIONS
BETWEEN GERMANY AND AMERICA--THE U-BOAT RESTRICTED ZONE ANNOUNCEMENT OF
GERMANY--PREMIER LLOYD GEORGE ON AMERICA IN THE CONFLICT             399


CHAPTER XXIV

UNCLE SAM TAKES HOLD

MAKES WORLD'S BIGGEST WAR LOAN--SEIZE GERMAN SHIPS--INTRIGUE
EXPOSED--GENERAL PERSHING AND STAFF IN EUROPE--THE NAVY ON DUTY IN NORTH
SEA--FIRST UNITED STATES TROOPS REACH FRANCE--GERMANY'S ATTEMPTS TO SINK
TROOP SHIPS THWARTED BY NAVY'S GUNS                                  427


CHAPTER XXV

A GERMAN CRISIS

THE DOWNFALL OF BETHMANN-HOLLWEG--THE CROWN PRINCE IN THE LIME
LIGHT--HOLLWEG'S UNIQUE CAREER--DR. GEORG MICHAELIS APPOINTED
CHANCELLOR--THE KAISER AND HOW HE GETS HIS IMMENSE POWER             444


CHAPTER XXVI

UNCLE SAM AND THE NEUTRALS

PRESIDENT WILSON PUTS EMBARGO ON FOOD SHIPMENTS--SCANDINAVIAN COUNTRIES
FURNISHING SUPPLIES TO GERMANY INSPIRES ORDER--THE DIFFICULT POSITION OF
NORWAY, DENMARK, HOLLAND AND SWITZERLAND                             452


CHAPTER XXVII

THE ACTIONS OF THE WAR

FROM BOSNIA TO FLANDERS--MARNE THE TURNING POINT OF THE CONFLICT--THE
CONQUESTS OF SERVIA AND RUMANIA--THE FALL OF BAGDAD--RUSSIA'S WOMEN
SOLDIERS--AMERICA'S CONSCRIPTS                                       463


CHAPTER XXVIII

AMERICAN FORCES BECOME FACTOR

UNITED STATES SOLDIERS INSPIRED ALLIED TROOPS--RUSSIAN GOVERNMENT
COLLAPSES--ITALIAN ARMY FAILS--ALLIED WAR COUNCIL FORMED--FOCH COMMANDS
ALLIED ARMIES--PERSHING OFFERS AMERICAN TROOPS--UNDER FIRE--U-BOAT BASES
RAIDED BY BRITISH                                                    473


CHAPTER XXIX

AMERICANS TURN WAR'S TIDE

BRILLIANT AMERICAN FIGHTING STOPS HUN ADVANCE--FRENCH AND BRITISH
INSPIRED--FAMOUS MARINES LEAD IN PICTURESQUE ATTACK--HALT GERMANS AT
CHATEAU-THIERRY--USED OPEN STYLE FIGHTING--THOUSANDS OF GERMANS
SLAIN--UNITED STATES TROOPS IN SIBERIA--NEW CONSCRIPTION BILL
PASSED--ALLIED SUCCESSES ON ALL FRONTS                               489


CHAPTER XXX

VICTORY--PEACE

THE GERMAN EMPIRE COLLAPSES--FOCH'S STRATEGY WINS--AMERICAN INSPIRATION
A BIG FACTOR--BULGARIA, TURKEY AND AUSTRIA QUIT WAR--MONARCHS
FALL--KAISER ABDICATES AND FLEES GERMANY--ARMISTICE SIGNED--NOVEMBER 11,
PEACE                                                                497


THE NEGRO IN THE WORLD WAR                                           507


[Illustration: WOUNDED AMERICAN SOLDIERS ENTERTAINING THEMSELVES.

During the period of convalescence the wounded were well cared for. They
earned and deserved the best possible treatment and care.]

[Illustration: FIFTH AVENUE, NEW YORK, CHEERS NEGRO VETERANS.

The 369th Colored Infantry acclaimed by thousands upon their return from
France. Their record is one of the bravest of any organization in the
war.]

[Illustration: ONE OF THE WOUNDED AND HIS MOTHER.

A member of the famous 369th Colored Infantry, who was wounded in the
fighting, and his proud mother. He sacrificed a leg for the cause of
righteousness and World Peace.]

[Illustration: CHEERFULLY DOING THE WORK REQUIRED.

Transporting tan bark, to be used in connection with tanning leather. No
slackers. The colored women did willingly and efficiently their part in
helping win the war.]

[Illustration: NEGRO SOLDIERS LOOKING FOR THE ENEMY.

Negro troops from many parts of the world were engaged in the war. It
has been estimated that as many as 700,000 Negro soldiers were in the
French Army alone.]

[Illustration: ENTERTAINING CONVALESCENT AMERICAN SOLDIERS AT AUTHEIL.

Negro musicians were in great demand in France. This picture shows
Lieut. Europe's noted colored band.]

[Illustration: THE BAND IN La BOURBOULE, FRANCE.

The arrival of the colored musicians created great excitement. This band
heralded the coming of soldiers to rest up.]

[Illustration: A SNIPER AT WORK.

This papier-maché camouflage, made to imitate a dead horse, furnished
good protection for the sharpshooter.]

[Illustration: SENEGALIANS ON THE SOMME FRONT.]

[Illustration: FRENCH ZOUAVES TAKEN PRISONERS BY GERMANS.

They were formerly artists in a Paris cafe-concert.]

[Illustration: WOUNDED COLORED SOLDIERS ON THE MACEDONIAN FRONT.

They were with the ambulance X.A., and the major surgeon is distributing
cigarettes.]

[Illustration: Private Henry Johnson

Private Needham Roberts

Of the New York National Guards (now the 369th) who have been decorated
by the French for routing 24 Germans and preventing the carrying out of
a well-developed plan to assail one of the most important points of
resistance on the American front. They have been awarded the War Cross
by the French.]

[Illustration: COLORED SOLDIERS BUILDING ROADS "OVER THERE."]

[Illustration: COLORED SOLDIERS IN THE TRENCHES "OVER THERE."

(Note the tin hats.)]

[Illustration: HOTEL BOOKER T. WASHINGTON "OVER THERE."

The Negro Soldiers are surely fighting for Democracy. It is coming to
them by leaps and bounds.]

[Illustration: COLORED SOLDIERS LEAVING AN AMERICAN PORT FOR "OVER
THERE."

(See them dancing on the right.)]

The Late Major Walker, of the First Colored Battalion, District of
Columbia National Guard

[Illustration:

The late Major James E. Walker was born in Virginia, September 7, 1874.
He was educated in the public schools of Washington, D.C., and was
graduated from the M. Street High School in 1893, and the Miner Normal
School in 1894. For twenty-four years he was in the public school
service, and since 1899 was supervising principal. In 1896 he was made
Lieutenant in the First Separate Battalion of the National Guard of the
District of Columbia. In 1909 he was made Captain and in 1912, through
competitive examination, was commissioned Major. His command was called
out to guard the White House, and while on this duty Major Walker's
health became impaired. He was sent to the U.S. Hospital at Fort Bayard,
New Mexico, for treatment, where he died April 4, 1918.]

[Illustration: THE FIGHTING U.S.A. MARINE BRIGADE IN BELLEAU WOOD.

Here the Germans were not only stopped in their march toward Paris, but
"knocked out." The furious and fast fighting of the Marines proved their
superiority. The Hun was badly beaten. The soldier applying the bayonet
is an American Negro.]

[Illustration: AFRICAN TROOPS IN FRANCE. THEY FOUGHT FOR THE ALLIES.

A war dance, relieving the monotony and for the benefit of British and
French troops. These colored soldiers gave a good account of
themselves.]

[Illustration: KAMERAD! KAMERAD!

Three colored Canadians imitating the Germans, whom they captured in
this dugout near the Canal du Nord, as they put up their hands and
shouted "Kamerad"!]



CHAPTER I.

INTRODUCTORY.

CIVILIZATION AT ISSUE--THE GERMAN EMPIRE--CHARACTER OF WILLIAM II--THE
GREAT CONSPIRACY--THE WAR BY YEARS--UNITED STATES IN THE WAR--TWO
HUNDRED FIFTY MILES OF BATTLE--THE DOWNFALL OF TURKEY--THE DEMOCRATIC
CLOSE OF THE WAR.


The World War, terminated by the signing of the armistice November 11,
1918, was attended with more far-reaching changes than any war known to
history, and is destined to so profoundly influence civilization that we
see in it the beginning of a new age. Somewhat similar wars in the past
were the campaigns of Alexander; the wars that overthrew the Roman
Empire and the Napoleonic wars of a previous century; but this one war
surpasses them all, measured by any scale that can be applied to
military operations. It was truly a World War, thus in a class by
itself. Beginning in Central Europe, twenty-eight nations--nearly all of
the important nations of the world--with a total population of about
1,600,000,000--or eleven-twelfths of the human race--became involved. It
cost 10,000,000 human lives, 17,000,000 more suffered bodily injury; the
money cost was about $200,000,000,000, but who can measure the cost in
untold suffering caused by ruined homes and wrecked lives that attended
it? Or who can measure the property loss, considering that the fairest
provinces of Europe were swept with the bezom of destruction?

Rightly to judge the real significance of such a world struggle, we must
consider conditions that made it possible; study the issue involved
stripped of all misleading statements; review its course and weigh the
nature of the profound changes--geographical, political and
economic--that resulted. We shall find that this war was the
culmination of century-old causes; that two rival theories of
government--impossible to longer co-exist--met in deadly conflict; and
that civilization itself was the stake at issue. We shall see that
beyond the wreck of empires and troubled days of reconstruction now upon
us--through it all approaches a wonderful new age. Autocracy has
crumbled; a higher form of democracy will arise and in peaceful days to
come the nations of the world will rapidly advance in all that
constitutes national well-being.


THE GERMAN STATES.

The early history of Germany is a confused panorama of a thousand years,
during which time Central Europe was a country of numerous separate
states, many of them at times coming together as a more or less closely
knit confederacy under the lead of a powerful state, only to fall apart
into a mass of confused units at a later date. It is interesting to
learn that among the Teutonic knights of that early time, none was more
noted than Count Thassilo Von Zollern who founded the house of
Hohenzollern, that played such an ambitious role in European history,
the house whose downfall was one of the dramatic results of the war.


THE RISE OF PRUSSIA.

At its height the German Empire consisted of a union of twenty-five
Germanic states of various grades and the Reichland of Alsace-Lorraine
under the leadership of Prussia, by far the most important state of the
Empire. The foundation of Prussia's greatness was laid by Frederick the
Great in 1763 when he tore Silesia from Austria in an entirely
unprovoked war. He wished to enlarge the bounds of Prussia, he coveted
Silesia, so he took it. In that deed of spoliation we see manifested the
spirit that has animated official Germany since that date. Not only is
the House of Hohenzollern descended from the Robber Knights of old, but
the same is true of the military caste of Germany generally. Recent
centuries have cast only a thin veneer of modern thought over
essentially medieval conceptions of national rights and duties.


THE DAYS OF BISMARCK.

For a century after the reign of Frederick, Prussia remained the most
prominent Germanic state in Europe. Then we come to the days of
Bismarck. He is regarded as a remarkable statesman. He himself delighted
to be known as the man of "Blood and Iron." Judging from his acts his
one motive in life was to advance the power and influence of Prussia. In
the decade 1860-1870 he instigated three wars,--with Denmark in 1864,
with Austria in 1866, with France in 1870,--not one of which was
justifiable. The war with France was occasioned by deliberately changing
the wording of a telegram--in itself friendly--from the King of Prussia
to Napoleon III, knowing it would result in war. All were short wars,
all resulted in victory for Prussia and consequent increase in
territory. Under the glamour of the great victory over France in 1871
came the formation of the German Empire.


THE GERMAN EMPIRE.

Thus there suddenly arose in Central Europe, in the place of the weak
confederation of earlier years, one empire of great actual strength,
generously endowed as regards territory, and at the head of that empire
was a state that alone of modern states most resembles Rome of early
centuries, that ruled the Mediterranean world, imposing on the conquered
people of that section her language, her laws and her customs. Like her
great prototype, we now know that official Prussia regarded all she had
accomplished to the formation of the empire as simply a station reached
in a career of progress which was to end in a World empire as greatly
surpassing that of Rome in her palmy days as the world of the twentieth
century surpasses the known world of Roman times.


DEVELOPMENT OF THE EMPIRE.

The empire enjoyed a brief span of national life. In less than fifty
years it ceased to exist, a republic of an uncertain nature takes its
place. To outward appearances the development of the empire was a
brilliant one. A colonial empire was established--mostly in
Africa--nearly five times as great in area as the home empire; she had
large possessions in the Pacific and had gained a foothold in China. The
rich potash and iron deposits of Alsace increased her wealth and
marvelously built up her industries and she became one of the greatest
manufacturing nations of modern times. Her population doubled, her
foreign trade increased four fold, her shipping grew by leaps and
bounds. Her army became so perfected that it was acknowledged to be the
greatest military machine the world had ever seen; she was building a
navy that threatened the supremacy of England on the sea.


BUILT ON A FOUNDATION OF SAND.

In spite of this brilliant development, the empire rested on a
foundation of sand. You will never understand the World War unless you
grasp this thought and its justification. The government was autocratic,
though under the form of a constitutional government. The entire
military class in Germany held to theories of government, of national
rights and wrongs that belonged to the middle ages. Theories of
state-craft which the world long since outgrew were proclaimed and
taught, and enforced by every means at command of the government, the
military class, the professors, scientists and theologians of Germany.
Education and religion were state controlled. As a consequence, every
German child from his cradle to his grave was under the influence of
state officials and never allowed to forget reverence for the kaiser,
the glorious military record of Germany, German supremacy in every
department of culture. Such a government was hopelessly behind modern
ideas.


WILLIAM II.

William II was the third emperor of Germany,--also the last. His reign
began, in pomp and ceremony, June 15, 1888, it ended in the darkness and
gloom of night, shortly before the signing of the armistice, November
11, 1918. Other reigns have been longer in duration; none surpassed his
in deeds. When his reign began he said he would lead his people to
"shining days." He did so; but "shining days" ended in despairing night.

Personally, William II was an able man, but he was not well balanced. In
the early days of his reign, Bismarck confided to a friend that it would
some day be necessary for Germany to confine William II in an insane
asylum. We must remember his lineage, his long line of ancestors dating
back to the Robber Knights of the Middle Ages, all used to the exercise
of autocratic power. Medieval conceptions were his by inheritance. He
believed he was divinely commissioned to rule Germany; he said so in his
speeches. He believed he was a man of destiny who was to advance Germany
to the zenith of earthly greatness; he himself, not someone else,
asserted this. He asserted that while Napoleon failed in his great
scheme of conquest, he, by God's help, would succeed. Every prominent
military leader in Germany applauded such beliefs. He said that when he
contemplated the paintings of his ancestors, and the military chiefs of
Germany, who advanced the insignificant Mark of Brandenburg to the rank
of the most powerful state in Europe, they seemed to reproach him for
not being active in similar work. But we now know that he was not idle.


ACTIVITIES IN WHICH HE WAS INTERESTED.

One year after the accession of William II he paid a spectacular visit
to "his friend" (as he called him) Abdul Hamid, Sultan of Turkey, the
head of one of the most cruel, licentious, incompetent, blood-thirsty
governments that ever cursed the world; greeted him with a kiss, put on
a Turkish uniform (fez and all), and assured the Mohammedan world that
he was henceforth their friend. The ignorant Turks actually supposed he
had become a Mohammedan and native papers spoke of him as "His Islamic
Holiness." In the light of history, the meaning of all this is so clear
that he who runs may read, and the wayfaring man, though a fool, need
not err therein. This visit was repeated in 1898. For more than twenty
years every effort was made to extend German influence in Turkey,
because that country with its minerals, its oils, its wonderfully strong
strategical location was vital to the success of a vast scheme of
conquest official Germany with William II as leader was contemplating.


PAN-GERMANISM.

Two years after his accession, there was organized the Pan-Germanic
League. This League soon attracted to its ranks the entire class of
Prussian Junkers, virtually all the military class, and a galaxy of
writers and speakers. The purpose of the league was to foster in the
minds of German people the idea that it was their privilege, right and
duty to extend the power, influence and political dominance of Germany
to all parts of the world, peacefully if possible, otherwise by the
sword. This doctrine was taught openly and boldly in Germany in books
and pamphlets and by means of lectures with such frankness and fullness
of details that the world at large laughed at it as an exuberant dream
of fanatics. Intellectual, military, and official Germany was in
earnest. Her generals wrote books illustrated with maps showing the
stages of world conquest; her professors patiently explained how
necessary all this was to Germany's future; while her theologians
pointed out it was God's will. But the world at large, except uneasy
France, slept on.


OUTWORKINGS OF THE PLOT.

It was this vision that fired the imagination of William II. He was to
be the Augustus of this greater Roman Empire; over virtually all the
earth the House of Hohenzollern was to exercise despotic sway. Then
began preparation for the World's War. With characteristic German
thoroughness and patience the plans were laid. Thoroughness, since they
embraced every conceivable means that would enhance their prospect of
victory, her military leaders, scientists and statesmen were all busy.
Patience, since they realized there was much to do. Many years were
needed and Germany refused to be hurried. She carefully attended to
every means calculated to increase the commerce and industry of the
empire, but with it all--underlying it all--were activities devoted to
preparation for world conquest. Building for world empire, Germany could
afford to take time.


PROBLEMS TO BE SOLVED.

Time was needed to solve the military problems involved. A nation
aspiring to territory extending from Hamburg to Bagdad must firmly
control the Balkan States. That meant that Austria must become, in
effect, a German province; Serbia must be crushed; Bulgaria must become
an ally; and Turkey must be brought under control. In 1913, two of these
desired results were attained. Turkey was to a surprising degree under
the military and economic control of Germany. Austria had become such a
close ally that she might almost be styled a vassal of Germany. She
faithfully carried out the wishes of Germany in 1908 when she annexed
the Serbian states of Bosnia and Herzegovina, a step she felt safe in
taking since (the Kaiser's own words) behind her was the "shining sword
of Germany." It were tedious to enlarge on this point. Let it suffice to
say that in 1914 Germany felt herself ready for the conflict. Enormous
supplies of guns, of a caliber before unthought of, and apparently
inexhaustible supplies of ammunition had been prepared; strategic
railroads had been built by which armies and supplies could be hurried
to desired points; the Kiel Canal had been completed; her navy had
assumed threatening proportions; her army, greatly enlarged, was in
perfect readiness.


THE REAL CAUSES OF THE WAR.

The real cause of the war is now disclosed. It is not necessary to
discuss other possible causes. The pistol shot at Serajevo was the
occasion, not the cause of the war. The simple fact is that on one
pretext or another war would have come anyway, simply because Germany
was ready. In 1913 the speakers of the Pan-German League were going to
and fro in Germany making public speeches on all possible occasions,
warning the people to be ready, telling them "There was the smell of
blood in the air," that the wrath of God was about to be visited upon
the nations that would hem Germany in. We now know from official sources
that Germany was eager for war in the fateful days of July 1914, when
France and England were almost begging for peace. All this is made
exceedingly clear in the secret memoirs of Prince Lichnowski, German
ambassador to England, the published statements of the premier of
Bavaria, also those of the Prince of Monaco, and the records of the
Potsdam council over which the Kaiser presided, secretly convened one
week after the murder of the Prince. There were present the generals,
diplomats and bankers of Germany.


DECISION FOR WAR.

The matter of possible war was carefully considered. To the earnest
question of the emperor, all present assured him that the interests they
represented were ready, with the exception of the financiers who desired
two weeks' time in which to make financial arrangements for the coming
storm. This was given them, and the council adjourned. The emperor, to
divert suspicion, hurried off on a yachting trip while the financiers
immediately commenced disposing of their foreign securities. The stock
markets of London, Paris, and New York during that interval of time bear
eloquent testimony to the truth of these assertions. Two weeks and three
days after the council adjourned, Austria sent her ultimatum to Serbia.
The truth of these statements is vouched for by Henry Morgenthau,
American ambassador to Turkey.

Thus were unleashed the dogs of war. For four long years they rioted in
blood. To advance dynastic ambitions and national greed, millions of
Armenian Christians were tortured, outraged and murdered; hapless
Belgians were ravished and put to the sword, their cities made charnal
heaps; millions of men--the fairest sons of many lands--gave up their
lives, and anguished hearts sobbed out their grief in desolated homes,
while generations to come will feel the crushing financial burdens this
struggle has entailed with its heritage of woe.

We must now gain a general view of the events of the war. Every
well-informed man or woman feels the necessity of such outline
knowledge. It was not only the greatest war in history, but it was our
war. Our liberties were threatened. Rivers and hamlets of France are
invested with new interest. There, our American boys are sleeping; they
died that our Republic might live. We may regard the annals of other
wars with languid interest; those of this war grip our hearts, our
breath comes quicker as we read; we experience a glow of patriotic
pride. We shall let each year of the war tell its story. Of necessity we
can only record the main events, the peaks of each year's achievements.


EVENTS OF 1914.

A state of war was declared to exist in Germany, July 31, 1914. Four
days later Germany had mobilized five large armies with full supplies on
the extended line from Metz northward along the eastern boundary of
France--a distance of about 130 miles. That mobilization was a wonderful
exhibition of military efficiency. From Verdun to Paris, slightly
southwest, is also about 130 miles.

The German plan of campaign may be crudely stated as follows: Regard
that extended line as a flail ready to fall, hinged near Verdun, moved
in a circle until the northern tip, under command of Von Kluck, should
fall with all the energy Germany could put into the blow on Paris. In
the meantime, the other armies would crush back, outflank, defeat, and
capture the small British and hastily mobilized French armies that
confronted them along the entire line. It was believed that a short
campaign would crush France, over-awe Great Britain, and end the war in
the West. It was thought that six weeks would be ample to accomplish
this result.


BELGIAN RESISTANCE.

Germany expected that at the most a day or so would see Belgian
resistance broken and the dash on Paris begun. It was not safe to start
such a forward rush with Belgium unconquered. This was the first of
many, many mistakes made by Germany. It required two weeks to break down
this resistance. Thus the northern end of the flail was held and
movement along the entire line was slowed down or suspended. The
unexpected delay saved France. Let us remember this when we read the
story of Belgium's martyrdom, a story written in blood. Then began the
fulfillment of the threat of William II to the Prince of Monaco "the
world will see what it never dreamed of." And truly the world never
dreamed of the terrible scenes that attended the sack of Louvain (August
26). Not until after the situation in Belgium had been given a bloody
setting did the first dash on Paris begin (August 23).


RETREAT TO THE MARNE.

We are now approaching the "Miracle of the Marne." The line of German
armies along the eastern frontier of France were confronted by the
forces of France, hastily mobilized during the delay occasioned by the
heroic but pathetically futile resistance of Belgium. The first English
army had also assumed a position before the menacing rush of the German
forces. The only thing the Allies could do was to retreat. This
movement, directed by General Joffre, was a remarkably able one. His
plan was to give ground before the advance without risking a decisive
battle until he could rearrange his forces and gain a favorable
position. Only with difficulty was the retreat saved from becoming a
great disaster when the British army was defeated at Mons-Charleroi
(August 21-3). Apparently, the German forces were carrying everything
before them as the retreat continued. The flail, swinging from Metz to
Belgium, was falling with crushing effect along the entire front, the
movement being very rapid at the western but slow at the eastern end. It
was centered at Verdun because it was not safe to leave that fortress
unconquered in the rear.


THE FIRST BATTLE OF THE MARNE.

The Marne is a small river in France, gently coursing from the
water-shed south of Verdun to the Seine near Paris, its general course
convex to the north. It will hereafter rank as one of the storied rivers
of history, the scene of mighty battles, where the red tide of German
success ebbed in its flow. The night of September 4, the German armies
were in position along this river in an irregularly curved line slightly
convex to the south from a point only twenty-five miles east of Paris to
Verdun, one hundred and twenty-five miles, slightly to the northeast.
The evening of that day, General Joffre issued orders for a general
attack all along the line. His message to the French Senate was couched
in words of deep meaning,--he had made, he said, the best disposition
possible. France could only await in hope the outcome. The battle that
began the next day continued for one week and ended with a victory for
the Allies as the German armies were forced back everywhere, a varying
distance, to a line of defense prepared back of the Aisne River, to the
north and east. This was a marvelous result. Just as the world was
waiting with bated breath to hear of the fall of Paris, it heard
instead, that the German army was in retreat. It was truly a miracle.
Why not see in it proof that a Power infinitely greater than that of man
was directing events?


THE MAGNITUDE OF THE BATTLE.

The battle front covered a distance of about 125 miles. The forces
engaged numbered about 1,500,000 men. Thus this battle far exceeds in
magnitude the battle of Mukden, previously considered the greatest
battle of modern times; while the great battle of Waterloo was an
insignificant skirmish in comparison. It is of further interest to learn
that Allied success was largely the result of the use of flying machines
for scouting purposes, which enabled General Joffre to take instant
advantage of tactical mistakes of General Von Kluck. The results were
commensurate with the immensity of the struggle. Paris was saved; the
first period of the war in the west was ended; Germany was rudely
awakened from her dream of easy conquest.


THE BATTLE OF TANNENBERG.

The success of the Allies in the west was in a measure offset by
Teutonic victories in the east. When the invasion of Belgium began,
Russia made immediate efforts to counteract by invasion of East Prussia.
She was successful to the extent of drawing to that section a number of
army corps that would otherwise have taken part in the Marne campaign.
These movements culminated in the battle of Tannenberg, commencing
August 26, 1914. Tannenberg is nearly one hundred miles southeast of
Konigsburg. This was the battle that gave General Von Hindenburg his
fame. He was a native of East Prussia, and acquainted with the country,
but had lived in retirement for some years. Appointed to command, he
made such a skillful disposition of his troops that the Russian army was
virtually annihilated, less than one corps escaped by headlong flight.
According to German authority, 70,000 Russians were captured. General
Von Hindenburg was acclaimed the greatest soldier of the day, and was
immediately appointed field marshal in command of all the German forces
in the east.


EVENTS OF 1915.

The year 1915 was one of meager results, the advantages remaining on the
side of the Central Powers, with this understanding, however: The Allies
were growing stronger because Great Britain was making rapid progress in
marshaling her resources for war. On the west front, the long, irregular
line of trenches, from Switzerland on the south to Ostend on the North
Sea, marking the German retreat after the battle of the Marne, remained
without substantial change. Do not understand there were no battles
along that extended line. Almost daily there were conflicts that in
former wars would have been given a place among the world's great
battles. They are scarcely worth mentioning in the annals of this war.
Back and forth across that narrow line surged the red tide without
decisive changes in position. There were attacks and counter-attacks of
the most sanguinary nature near Calais. The first instance of the use of
gas in war occurred in these battles, at the second battle of Ypres,
April 23, 1915.


ON THE EAST FRONT.

In spite of the great reverse at Tannenberg, Russia was not defeated.
Her armies in Galicia (Northeastern Hungary) were winning important
battles. A determined effort was made in 1915 by Germany to crush Russia
and thus retire her from the war. For days at a time, on the railroads
of East Germany, double headed trains were passing every fifteen
minutes, loaded with troops and munitions withdrawn from the western
front which accounts for the comparative quiet in that section, which in
turn gave Great Britain time to prepare in earnest. And so it was that
during a large part of 1915 Russia had to withstand the shock of war.
Russian soldiers were brave; her generals able, but the whole official
life was more or less corrupt.

The poison of German propaganda was at work. Her ammunition was totally
insufficient. Immense supplies made in France according to
specifications furnished by high officials in Russia did not fit the
guns they were intended to serve. There were already signs of the
approaching utter collapse of Russia as a world power, then more than a
year distant in time. In spite of these drawbacks we read of brilliant
but futile efforts of her poorly equipped army to stem the tide of
Teutonic success that soon began.

Before the close of the year Poland was entirely overrun by German
forces. It seemed for a time as if Petrograd itself must fall. In short,
it was thought that Russia was crushed. Then it was that the Kaiser
wrote to his sister, the Queen of Greece, "having crushed Russia, the
rest of Europe will soon tremble before me." But when 1915 ended a line
of trenches from Riga on the north to Czernowitz on the south still
guarded the frontiers of Russia.


THE DARDANELLES CAMPAIGN.

This campaign began in December, 1914, and continued during 1915. It was
an effort on the part of the Allies to force the Dardanelles, capture
Constantinople, and inflict a crushing blow on Turkey. This effort was a
dismal failure for the Allies, but had all the effect of a decisive
victory for Turkey and her allies. The fact that the attack was failing
had considerable to do with inducing Bulgaria to enter the war on the
side of Germany. The immediate result of this step on the part of
Bulgaria was the complete crushing of Serbia (October 6-December 2),
and this in turn made possible full and free railroad transportation
between Germany on the north and Turkey on the south. The net result was
to greatly strengthen the Teutonic allies. The conduct of Turkey in the
war was marked by most atrocious treatment of the Armenians. Belgium on
the north, Armenia on the south, are blood-stained chapters in the
annals of war.


EVENTS OF 1916.

Apparently believing that Russia was so badly crippled that she could
not again peril Austria-Hungary or wrest Poland from the grasp of
Germany, the latter country gathered her available resources for a
decisive, crushing blow in France. We have several times mentioned
Verdun. It is well to study its location on the map, about 130 miles
slightly north of east of Paris. It is a city of great historic
interest, beautifully located in the Meuse valley with its approach
defended by low-lying ranges of hills through which lead numerous
defiles. At this city, more than a thousand years ago, was concluded the
celebrated treaty of Verdun that settled the disputes between the
grandsons of Charlemagne, and this constitutes a landmark in the early
history of France.

It was Verdun that held back the southern end of the flail wherewith
France was to be crushed in 1914; in the battle of the Marne it held the
eastern or left wing of the long German line, which could not advance
and leave Verdun unsubdued in the rear. The German Crown Prince was in
command near Verdun. His ideal was Napoleon. His private library
contained nearly everything ever written about that great general. He
was exceedingly anxious to pose as the conqueror of France. To
strengthen his dynasty, the Kaiser was also anxious that his son should
take a prominent part. Accordingly it was planned to gather an enormous
army under his command, overwhelm Verdun and smash through to Paris.
Thus Prince Wilhelm would be enrolled among the great commanders of
history. Von Hindenburg was opposed to this plan, he wanted to finish up
his work so happily begun in Russia. But the Crown Prince had his way;
and immense supplies of guns, ammunition, and men were withdrawn from
the eastern front and massed at Verdun.


THE GREAT BATTLE OF VERDUN.

The annals of history record no battle approaching in duration,
artillery fire, and awful sacrifice than the battle that enveloped
Verdun for six months, beginning February 21, 1916. Other battles have
been fought along more extended fronts and thus engaged larger numbers
of troops; but none ever presented in a more acute form the issue of
national life or death. The stand of the heroic Greeks at Thermopylae
denying passage to the hosts of Persia was not more vital to the cause
of civilization than this storied defense of Verdun. The reflective
writer can but notice that in every campaign of the war, when further
success of the German armies meant victory, it was as if an unseen Power
decreed "thus far and no further." It was so at Verdun. The French
soldier, calmly going to death, chanting "They shall not pass," did not
die in vain.


THE BATTLE ITSELF.

The French were taken somewhat by surprise as they had not expected such
an early attack or that its fury would break at Verdun. Of course it was
known that a great force was being assembled, but no one dreamed of the
enormous concentration of guns of all kinds that were made. They
literally cumbered the ground and the shells assembled were in keeping.
The German generals were so confident of success that foreign
correspondents were invited to be present to witness the resistless
onslaught. The evening before the attack began there was a banquet at
the German headquarters, the Kaiser and all his notable generals (but
not Von Hindenburg) were present. The toast was "After four days,
Verdun; then Paris." They estimated that it would take possibly three
weeks to accomplish their ends. Evidently among the uninvited and unseen
guests were Defeat and Death.

The attack that commenced the next day lasted with but slight
interruptions until October. It is interesting to remark that more shot
and shell were used in this battle than the total used during the four
years of the Civil War in America on both sides. Verdun itself was
reduced to ruins. Considerable portions of the fortified area to the
north of Verdun were captured, including the important forts Douamont
and Vaux, but the entire attack failed. The minor successes achieved
were won with an appalling loss of life and were easily retaken by the
French later in the fall. Verdun was renamed by the German soldiers as
"The Grave," and such it truly was to the hopes of victory and peace
that inspired the toast at the Verdun banquet.


CONQUEST OF ROUMANIA.

Roumania is one of the Balkan States. Her entry into the second Balkan
war in 1913 was one of the decisive factors against Bulgaria. After the
entry of Bulgaria into the World War in 1915 the pressure became very
strong on Roumania by Russia to come into the war on the side of the
Allies. The summer of 1916 Russia had reorganized her forces, and the
war in the west was going against Germany at Verdun and along the Somme.
This was deemed an opportune time for Roumania to enter the war and so,
with no principles at stake, Roumania declared war on Austria, August
27, 1916. The response of Germany and Bulgaria to this new menace was
prompt and decisive. Before the end of the year Roumania was crushed,
the capital city, Bucharest, was taken. Roumania was not at all prepared
to wage war on the scale this war had assumed, but the immediate cause
of her easy conquest was the failure of Russia to keep her promises of
assistance. Russia, undermined by German intrigue, with traitors at
court, was already tottering to her fall.


EVENTS OF 1917.

The year 1917 witnessed startling changes in the grouping of the
belligerent powers. The three largest republics in the world--China,
Brazil, and the United States,--were drawn into the war on the side of
the Entente Allies. Other small nations, members of the Pan-American
Union, joined with the United States in this action. Other South
American nations showed their sympathy with the United States by
severing diplomatic relations with Germany. In Europe, Greece made a
formal declaration of war July 2, 1917. Thus all of the Balkan States
were finally involved. To complete the record, we must note that Siam in
Asia and Liberia in Africa also joined the Entente Allies. Never before
in history had there been such an alignment of nations for purposes of
war. It was significant of one thing,--growing resentment against what
had long been recognized as the criminal ambitions of Germany to
dominate the world.


THE UNITED STATES IN WAR.

April 6, 1917, will hereafter be one of the most important dates in the
annals of this republic. Then it was that Congress in a joint resolution
declared a state of war existed between the United States and Germany,
and authorized the President to employ the naval and military power of
our country to carry on the war and pledged all our resources to that
end. We can now see that the hidden currents of national destiny were
tending in an irresistible way to war on the part of the United States.
Every consideration of national safety and every principle that we hold
dear, demanded that we should respond to the call of the President to
arms. Then commenced the wonderful preparations for war on the part of
the United States. Official Germany in conversation with Minister
Gerard, before the rupture of diplomatic relations, laughed to scorn the
thought that the United States could render any military aid worth
considering to her allies. Germany in the fall of 1917 was not laughing.


THE COLLAPSE OF RUSSIA.

The collapse of Russia was the second great event of 1917. It was the
result of a long train of causes. Let it suffice to say that treachery
in high places backed by German propaganda, had undermined the
government. March 15, 1917, the storm broke. The utter overthrow of
autocratic rule in Russia was one of those explosive outbreaks, but few
of which have occurred in history. In a single day the old order of
government passed away never to return in Russia. It was a revolution as
thoroughgoing as its prototype, the French revolution of 1789, and it
soon developed equal scenes of horror. After some months of struggle,
the government of Russia passed under the control of the Bolsheviki and
anarchy followed, outdoing the scenes of the French commune. The
immediate effect on the war was to retire Russia from the conflict, thus
releasing a large army and its supplies for service elsewhere.


THE ITALIAN REVERSE.

Having achieved such signal successes in the east, Russia and Roumania
being both disposed of, the German leaders planned a campaign designed
to crush Italy. In the summer of 1917 the Italian front was along the
Isonza River in Austrian territory. The test of Italian endurance was at
hand. A great force of Austrians and Germans was assembled along the
river. As was usual in all Teutonic drives, endeavors were made by
propaganda work to break down the morale of the Italian troops. This
effort consisted in spreading fearsome accounts of the crushing nature
of the blow about to fall, the folly of further resistance, and the
advantages to be gained by accepting the generous terms of peace their
true friends--their former allies--were ready to grant. This effort had
an effect, but Italy was not Russia.

The drive began October 24th. It was a very pronounced Teutonic success,
though the great object of the drive was not achieved. In three weeks'
time the Italians were forced back from the Isonza to the Piava River
line; nearly 200,000 soldiers had been captured, together with immense
supplies of all kinds. But yet Italy was not crushed, the German forces
were firmly held along the Piava. We should reflect that in the World
War millions were engaged and the loss of one or even two hundred
thousand men did not mean the end of the war.


EVENTS OF 1918.

The Allies could only hope to defend their position on the west front
against the impending offensive on the part of Germany, for which
preparations on a vast scale were being made, until reinforcements from
the United States could reach them sufficient to enable them to take the
offensive in their turn. Germany hastened its preparations through the
winter months of 1917-18, for they knew they must win a decisive victory
to crush the armies of France and England before the United States could
give efficient assistance. It was a race between America and Germany,
and America won. With the assistance of the British and French merchant
marine and such shipping as could be procured at home the American
forces were landed in France in the most astonishing numbers ever
recorded. The fears of Germany, the hopes of the Allies were alike
exceeded by the forces sent across the ocean. The first of July, 1918,
there were one million American soldiers in France. They came just in
time to avert disaster.


GERMAN OFFENSIVE IN 1918.

The initiative was with Germany, and the German command selected the
British army in position along the Scarpe River, north of Cambria, to
the Oise River--a distance of sixty miles--as the object of the first
drive. The assault began the morning of March 21, 1918. Along the entire
front the artillery fire that opened the drive was on the scale never
before approached in war. More than one million men, the choicest troops
of Germany, were ready to assault the British lines and they came on,
wave after wave, and Germany came perilously near success in her efforts
to break through the British lines. The British were driven back beyond
the lines of the battle of the Somme in 1916, important towns were
captured, but their lines still held. The first phase of the great
battle--known in history as the battle of Picardy--was a defeat to
German hopes.


WHEN THE AMERICANS CAME.

From the opening of the great offense of March 21, 1918, to the signing
of the armistice, November 11, 1918, there were few days when there were
not battles raging at several places along the west front extending
from near Metz in a prolonged sweep, west to Rheims, thence in an
irregular curved line convex toward Paris curving to the North Sea near
Dixmude approximately 250 miles in length. There were days and weeks
when battles of great intensity raged at certain sections, then died
away in that vicinity to break in fury elsewhere. Organized efforts on a
large scale in certain directions were called drives. Until July the
initiative was with Germany, that is to say the Allies were on the
defensive. They were waiting for reinforcements from America. Germany
was making desperate efforts to win a decisive victory and force peace
on their terms before effective aid could arrive.


TWO HUNDRED AND FIFTY MILES OF BATTLE.

At this point try to realize what these statements imply. We do not
grasp their meaning. A battle front of two hundred and fifty miles! And
along that line at least ten million men were facing each other with
other millions in reserve. Trench lines were strung along most of the
front. Not simply one line of trenches, but several, with connecting
trenches, the opposing lines being at places only a few hundred yards
apart. As the struggle continued, however, it became more and more a war
in the open.

This series of struggles are undoubtedly the greatest exertion of
military power in the history of the world. Never before had such masses
of munitions been used; never before had scientific knowledge been so
drawn on in the service of war. Thousands of airplanes were patrolling
the air, sometimes scouting, sometimes dropping bombs on hostile troops
or on hostile stores, sometimes flying low, firing their machine guns
into the faces of marching troops. Thousands upon thousands of great
guns were sending enormous projectiles, which made great pits wherever
they fell. Swarms of machine guns were pouring their bullets like water
from a hose upon charging soldiers. It was an inferno such as Dante
never dreamed of. The Fifteen Decisive Battles of history of which we
have heard--all put together,--were exceeded day after day in the summer
of 1918 when Germany was making her last desperate effort. Thus for
weeks the red tide of war ebbed and flowed, while civilization trembled
in the balance.


UNIFIED COMMAND.

It was clearly seen by the Allied leaders that appointing a
generalissimo to command all their forces was a necessity. This command
was given to General Ferdinand Foch, who had won fame in the battle of
the Marne and who was recognized as one of the greatest strategists of
the day. Events soon demonstrated the wisdom of this step. No general
ever commanded such armies as he. Napoleon, Von Moltke, Grant and Lee
were great generals, but everything connected with this war was on a
scale never before approached, and we can say that the qualities of
leadership displayed by Marshal Foch were necessarily on a higher plane
of action--and we can say this without in the least detracting from the
just fame of other Allied commanders--as Pershing, Haig, Allenby, Diaz
and others. When the war opened, Germany had much to say about her
unconquerable army; her generals were supposed to be superior in a
military way to any others. The war showed that other soldiers were just
as brave, other generals just as able. The fetish of German military
invincibility was early overthrown.


AMERICAN ASSISTANCE.

No American can read the story of the part America took in the war
without experiencing a glow of patriotic feeling. Every Allied nation
can say the same thing. We came late into the struggle, but no nation in
history ever made such wonderful preparation for war as did our country
in the eighteen months that elapsed from the declaration of war to the
signing of the armistice. Our preparations in France, representing only
a part of our total effort, were on such an enormous scale, that neutral
nations--as Sweden and Spain--sent trusted officials to investigate if
it were possibly true that America was making such colossal
preparations; could it be that men by the hundreds of thousands were
disembarking on European soil every week? Were such forces drilled? Were
supplies sent them? It was almost unbelievable. Surely, it must be
American brag. They came, they saw, they departed convinced but in
bewildered wonderment. It was the slowly growing realization of what
this preparation meant that spurred Germany on during the early summer
of 1918. But it was too late. Already the handwriting of defeat was
outlining in letters of fire on the wall.


AGAIN THE MARNE.

May 27, 1918, the Germans opened a drive towards Paris. It resulted in a
deep bulge in the line from Rheims west to Soissons, once more the
German line in that section had reached the Marne. It was a time of
great anxiety in the Allied world. The German tide was rolling on about
seven miles a day toward Paris about fifty miles distant to the
southwest. The German commanders felt sure of success and were talking
about the "strong German peace" they would enforce. The war minister
assured the Reichstag that they must exact at least $50,000,000,000 as
indemnity, while their economic writers devised an elaborate plan
whereby all the trade of the world was to pay tribute to Germany. It
was another case of "Thus far and no farther."


CHATEAU THIERRY.

Chateau Thierry was a thriving city, about 6,000 in population, on the
Marne River, approximately 50 miles northeast of Paris. It is in a
fertile valley. There amid fields of ripening wheat the advancing troops
of Germany were suddenly confronted by American marines, hurried to the
scene of action in motor driven vehicles of all descriptions from Paris.
The forces that faced them, bent on forcing a passage to Paris were
composed of the best Prussian guards and shock troops. They felt
perfectly confident they could drive the Americans back. But the
amateurs went into the battle (the afternoon of June 2) as calmly as if
going to drill on the parade ground. Instead of being driven from the
field they repulsed the seasoned veterans of Germany. It was at a cruel
loss to themselves, 1,600 dead, 2,500 wounded out of 8,000 that came
from Paris on that journey of victory and death; but they never
faltered. This was not a battle of great dimensions but it is among the
most important battles of the war. It saved Paris; but that is not all.
When the news of that battle was flashed up and down the west front, not
an Allied force but was thrilled, enthused, given new courage; the
message that the Americans had stopped the Germans at Chateau Thierry,
electrified Paris. Strong men wept as they realized that the forces of
the Great Republic, able and brave, stood between France and the
ravening wolf of Germany.


OTHER VICTORIES.

In the limited space at our command we can only give a general
description of the remaining weeks of warfare in which American forces
participated. Before advancing at Chateau Thierry the Germans had
fortified their position in Belleau Woods which they had previously
occupied. In the black recesses of this woods they established nest
after nest of machine guns and in the jungle of matted underbrush, of
vines, of heavy foliage they had placed themselves in a position they
believed impregnable. The battle of Chateau Thierry was not rendered
secure until the Germans were driven from Belleau Woods. And so for the
next three weeks the battle of Belleau Woods raged. Fighting day after
day without relief, without sleep, often without water, and for days
without hot rations, the marines met and defeated the best divisions
Germany could throw into the line. According to official decree in
France the name of that woods is now "Woods of the American Brigade." In
September, came the wonderful work of reducing the St. Mihiel salient to
the south and to the east of Verdun, a German wedge that had withstood
every effort to drive it back for four years. We can only mention the
series of battles that took place in the Forest of the Argonne. When the
armistice was declared American forces had fought their way to Sedan.
That was the place that witnessed the deep humiliation of France in the
war of 1870 with which the German Empire began. Germany was only saved
from a deeper humiliation near Sedan in this war that ended that empire,
by the prompt signing of the armistice.


THE DOWNFALL OF TURKEY.

We must notice even in a hurried review of the war the downfall of
Turkey, the release of ancient Mesopotamia, Palestine, and large parts
of Asia Minor, and freeing the ancient Christian nation of Armenia from
the dreadful despotism of Turkish misrule. It is impossible to go into
the details of the successive movements leading to this happy result.
The forces of Great Britain, under command of General Maud, later
General Allenby, must be given the credit. We must not forget that
Mesopotamia was the cradle land of early civilization. There are the
plains of Shinar, there are the ruins of Babylon and Nineveh. Now, that
Turkish rule has been overthrown, we may look to see that entire country
once more a scene of smiling fertility.

And consider the case of Palestine, the land of Biblical history, the
home of Abraham, and the scene of Old Testament activities; finally
there is the land forever hallowed by the ministrations of Jesus of
Nazareth. It was the goal of the religious wars of the Crusades. For
more than six centuries it groaned under Turkish misrule. The tide of
British success began in 1917. In December of that year (9th) Jerusalem
was taken by the British forces under command of General Allenby. During
1918 all Palestine was freed. September 20, 1918, Nazareth, the boyhood
home of Jesus, was taken. The future of Palestine with its wealth of
Biblical history is a wonderful theme for contemplation. Given the
blessings of a twentieth century government there is no reason why
Palestine should not once more become a land "flowing with milk and
honey."


THE APPROACHING END.

The ending of the war was almost as dramatically sudden as its
beginning. As late as July 15, 1918, according to statements of German
leaders, they still believed they were to be successful; less than four
months later at Senlis, France, their representatives signed an
armistice, the terms of which were the most drastic and humiliating ever
inflicted on a prominent nation; while the Kaiser and Crown Prince had
fled for safety to Holland, a nation they had asserted existed only by
the long sufferance of Germany. Before the fatal day (November 11,
1918) of the armistice--like the falling of a house of cards--had
occurred a succession of abject surrenders, as one by one of the nations
composing the Teutonic Alliance had fallen before the crushing blows of
the Entente forces.

The middle of July the great German offensive was held. It was expected
by the German leaders that, as in the past, there would now ensue a
period of comparative quiet along the west front during which Germany
could rearrange her forces, perhaps to open an attack elsewhere. Marshal
Foch--ably seconded by General Pershing and General Haig--thought
differently. There were one million American soldiers on the fighting
line, other millions were coming, Great Britain had thrown into France
her reserve army held in England to meet unforeseen emergencies. Then
was the time to begin a counter-attack. Accordingly, just as a German
official was explaining to the Reichstag that General Foch had no
reserves to withstand a fresh onslaught that Germany would soon
begin,--the blow fell. A great counter-attack was initiated by the
French and Americans along the Marne-Aisne front July 18, 1918.


THE ALLIES TAKE THE INITIATIVE.

From that day to the signing of the armistice the initiative remained
with General Foch. Up and down the long line, now here, now there; the
British and Belgians on the north, the French and Americans on the
south, first one, then the other, then together, the Allies drove
forward with hammer blows on the yielding German armies. That subtle
force, so hard to define, the morale of the invaders, was broken down.
Their confidence was gone. They knew they were defeated. The one hope of
their leaders was to get safely back to Germany, and soon a general
retreat was in progress. But to remove armies aggregating several
million men, with guns and supplies, from a contracted area, in the face
of a victorious and aggressive enemy, without the retreat degenerating
into a rout is almost impossible; it requires generalship of highest
order. Day by day the remorseless jaws of the Allied military machine,
hinged to the north of the Aisne,--British and Belgian forces on the
north, French in the center, Americans on the south and east,--were
closing, and when the American forces fought their way through the
Argonne to Sedan (forty miles northeast of Rheims) the case was
hopeless. Only the armistice saved Germany from the humiliation of a
surrender, on a scale vastly greater than the surrender of the French
armies near that same point in 1870.


THE COLLAPSE OF THE TEUTONIC ALLIES.

With Germany herself falling, it is not strange that the nations leagued
with her also went down to defeat. They had been almost forced into the
war by Germany; not one of them could carry on a war when deprived of
counsel and help from Germany. Only the threat of force kept Austria in
the war. As the counter-attack in France gained in force, as the retreat
continued, it was recognized on all hands that the end was approaching.
The will to war--the morale--was completely broken down; and so on every
side the Allied forces gained great victories with surprising ease.

Bulgaria was the first nation to surrender. This was the conclusion of a
succession of great victories beginning September 16, 1918, ending by
the surrender ten days later. The case with Turkey was hopeless after
Bulgaria fell. No reinforcements or supplies could reach them from
Germany. The English forces under General Allenby were carrying
everything before them. Turkey surrendered October 31, 1918.
Austria-Hungary was the third power to surrender. This came as the
culmination of one of the greatest drives of the war.


GREAT ITALIAN VICTORY.

In 1917--as we have seen,--Italy suffered a great reverse, losing
200,000 soldiers and immense supplies. In August, 1918, Austria renewed
the attack. In his proclamation to his soldiers, the Austrian commander
bade them remember "the white bread, the fat cattle, the wine" and
supplies they had won the year before. Surely as great rewards awaited
them this time, and learned professors assured them and the entire
nation that they belonged to a "conquering superior race" and so could
be confident of further victory. The drive was a "hunger offensive" on
the part of hard-pressed Austria. It was a dismal failure. It is
interesting to know that American airplanes, piloted by Americans,
rendered great assistance in repulsing this attack. Then came the
counter-attack. In this drive American forces assisted. The drive began
October 27th; it was attended by a series of most astonishing victories.
The drive culminated in the abject surrender of Austria, November 3,
1918. The victories can only be explained by the fact that the morale of
the Austrian troops had completely broken down, more than 500,000
prisoners being taken, together with enormous supplies.


THE GERMAN ARMISTICE.

With their armies perilously near rout on the western front, with a
great military disaster confronting them, with everyone of her allies
forced to surrender, with revolution threatening at home, there was
nothing left for Germany to do but to make the best terms possible.
Their commissioners met General Foch at Senlis and the drastic
armistice terms were signed at 5 o'clock, Paris time, the morning of
November 11, 1918, and the last shots in the war were fired at 11
o'clock, that forenoon, Paris time. The war had lasted (from the date of
the declaration of war on Serbia) four years, three months and thirteen
days. On subsequent pages we shall consider more in detail this
skeletonized story, study the enormous political, geographic and
economic changes it has necessitated, and mentally view the new age in
history at hand.

[Illustration: PRESIDENT WOODROW WILSON.

President Wilson's latest photograph.]

[Illustration: GENERAL JOHN J. PERSHING.

This is the latest and best photograph of General Pershing.]

[Illustration: MARSHAL FERDINAND FOCH.

This is the latest photograph of Marshal Ferdinand Foch, Supreme
Commander of the Allied Armies, as he appears since the termination of
the war. A comparison of this photograph with earlier ones shows the
effect of the war on the famous general.]

[Illustration: Showing the actual drafting by the Allied
Plenipotentiaries of the armistice terms which ended the great world
war. Left side of table from left to right: second man, General di
Robilant; Italian Foreign Minister Sonnino; Italian Premier Orlando;
Colonel Edward H. House; General Tasker H. Bliss; next man unknown;
Greek Premier Venizelos, and Serbian Minister Vesnitch. Right side of
the table from left to right: Admiral Wemyss (with back turned); General
Sir Henry Wilson; Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig; General Sackville
West; Andrew Bonar Law; British Premier Lloyd George; French Premier
Georges Clemenceau, and French Foreign Minister, Stephen Pichon.]

[Illustration: SENLIS, FRANCE, WHERE THE ARMISTICE WAS SIGNED.

Amid the ruins wrought by the Huns the envoys of Germany signed the
truce terms that victoriously ended the struggle for democracy.]

[Illustration: FAMOUS FIGHTERS--"THE BLACK WATCH."

Some of the best fighters in the British Army, resting by the roadside
after having driven the Germans back in the "Fight of the Woods," near
Rheims.]

[Illustration: CLERKS IN NAVY DEPARTMENT.

Washington, D.C.]

[Illustration: FIRST COLORED BATTALION, DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA, NATIONAL
GUARD.

On Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington, D.C., Parading the National Capital
before going to France.]

[Illustration: SERGT. HENRY JOHNSON, OF ALBANY, N.Y., THE OUTSTANDING
HERO.

Single-handed he routed 36 Huns, killing 4 of them and wounding the
remainder. When his ammunition ran out he used a bolo knife. Sergt.
Johnson, of the 369th Colored Infantry (old 15th of N.Y.), was the first
man in his regiment to win the French War Cross.]

[Illustration: GROUP OF 369TH COLORED INFANTRY WITH THEIR WAR CROSSES.

One hundred and sixty-nine men of this regiment (old 15th N.Y.) won
valor medals. They were nicknamed "Hell Fighters." Top--Fred Rogers.
Lower row--George Chapman, Lawrence McVey, Isaac Freeman. Upper row--Wm.
Bunn, Herbert Mills, Hugh Hamilton, Clarence Johnson.]

[Illustration: COL. HAYWARD AND GROUP OF REAL FIGHTERS.

All winners of the Croix de Guerre. When a French general gave orders to
retire, Col. Hayward replied: "My men never retire: they go forward or
die, and we are going through here or hell. We don't go back."]

[Illustration: LIEUTENANT ROBERT S. CAMPBELL, U.S. ARMY.

The first man in the 92nd American Division (Negroes) to receive the
distinguished service cross for bravery in the fighting in the Argonne.
He was a member of Co. I, 368th Infantry.]

[Illustration: GUARDING THE FLAG.

The flag of the old 15th (decorated by the French) and Old Glory.]

[Illustration: AT THE Y.M.C.A. ON FRENCH FRONT.

This group of soldiers is being served at a "Y" tent.]

[Illustration: NEGRO SOLDIERS ON THE MARCH IN FRANCE.

Along this beautiful stream it was tramp, tramp, tramp the soldiers were
marching on to do their duty and help bring the victory which meant
"World Peace."]

[Illustration: HOME AGAIN. OH, HOW JOYFUL!

Back from France, and what a grand reception awaited them! Conquering
heroes on the battlefield and the warmth and enthusiasm over their
homecoming are beyond words to describe.]



CHAPTER II.

GENERAL PERSHING'S OWN STORY OF THE VICTORIOUS AMERICAN ARMY

ORGANIZATION OF HIS GENERAL STAFF--TRAINING IN FRANCE--IN THE AISNE
OFFENSIVE--AT CHATEAU THIERRY--THE ST. MIHIEL SALIENT--MEUSE-ARGONNE,
FIRST PHASE--THE BATTLE IN THE FOREST--SUMMARY.


This is a brief summary of the organization and operations of the
American Expeditionary Force from May 26, 1917, until the signing of the
armistice, November 11, 1918. Immediately upon receiving my orders I
selected a small staff and proceeded to Europe in order to become
familiar with conditions at the earliest possible moment.

The warmth of our reception in England and France was only equaled by
the readiness of the commanders in chief of the veteran armies of the
Allies and their staffs to place their experience at our disposal. In
consultation with them the most effective means of co-operation of
effort was considered. With French and British armies at their maximum
strength, and all efforts to dispossess the enemy from his firmly
intrenched positions in Belgium and France failed, it was necessary to
plan for an American force adequate to turn the scale in favor of the
Allies. Taking account of the strength of the Central Powers at that
time, the immensity of the problem which confronted us could hardly be
over-estimated. The first requisite being an organization that could
give intelligent direction to effort, the formation of a General Staff
occupied my early attention.


ORGANIZATION OF GENERAL STAFF.

A well organized General Staff through which the commander exercises his
functions is essential to a successful modern army. However capable our
division, our battalion, and our companies as such, success would be
impossible without thoroughly co-ordinated endeavor. A General Staff
broadly organized and trained for war had not hitherto existed in our
army. Under the Commander-in-Chief, this staff must carry out the policy
and direct the details of administration, supply, preparation, and
operations of the army as a whole, with all special branches and bureaus
subject to its control. As models to aid us we had the veteran French
General Staff and the experience of the British who had similarly formed
an organization to meet the demands of a great army. By selecting from
each the features best adapted to our basic organization, and fortified
by our own early experience in the war, the development of our great
General Staff system was completed.

The General Staff is naturally divided into five groups, each with its
chief who is an assistant to the Chief of the General Staff. G.1 is in
charge of organization and equipment of troops, replacements, tonnage,
priority of overseas shipment, the auxiliary welfare association and
cognate subjects; G.2 has censorship, enemy intelligence, gathering and
disseminating information, preparation of maps, and all similar
subjects; G.3 is charged with all strategic studies and plans, movement
of troops, and the supervision of combat operations; G.4 co-ordinates
important questions of supply, construction, transport arrangements for
combat, and of the operations of the service of supply, and of
hospitalization and the evacuation of the sick and wounded; G.5
supervises the various schools and has general direction and
co-ordination of education and training.

The first Chief of Staff was Colonel (now Major-General) James G.
Harbord, who was succeeded in May, 1918, by Major-General James W.
McAndrew. To these officers, to the deputy Chief of Staff, and to the
assistant Chiefs of Staff, who, as heads of sections, aided them, great
credit is due for the results obtained not only in perfecting the
General Staff organization but in applying correct principles to the
multiplicity of problems that have arisen.


ORGANIZATION OF THE FORCES.

After a thorough consideration of Allied organizations it was decided
that our combat division should consist of four regiments of infantry of
3,000 men, with three battalions to a regiment and four companies of 250
men each to a battalion, and of an artillery brigade of three regiments,
a machine gun battalion, an engineer regiment, a trench-mortar battery,
a signal battalion, wagon trains, and the headquarters staffs and
military police. These, with medical and other units, made a total of
over 28,000 men, or practically double the size of a French or German
division. Each corps would normally consist of six divisions--four
combat and one depot and one replacement division--and also two
regiments of cavalry, and each army of from three to five corps. With
four divisions fully trained, a corps could take over an American sector
with two divisions in line and two in reserve, with the depot and
replacement divisions prepared to fill the gaps in the ranks.

Our purpose was to prepare an integral American force which should be
able to take the offensive in every respect. Accordingly, the
development of a self-reliant infantry by thorough drill in the use of
the rifle and in the tactics of open warfare was always uppermost. The
plan of training after arrival in France allowed a division one month
for acclimatization and instruction in small units from battalions down,
a second month in quiet trench sectors by battalions, and a third month
after it came out of the trenches when it should be trained as a
complete division in war of movement.


SCHOOLS OF INSTRUCTION.

Very early a system of schools was outlined and started, which should
have the advantage of instruction by officers direct from the front. At
the great school center at Langres, one of the first to be organized,
was the staff school, where the principles of general staff work, as
laid down in our own organization, were taught to carefully selected
officers. Men in the ranks, who had shown qualities of leadership, were
sent to the school of candidates for commissions. A school of the line
taught younger officers the principles of leadership, tactics, and the
use of the different weapons. In the artillery school, at Saumur, young
officers were taught the fundamental principles of modern artillery;
while at Issoudun an immense plant was built for training cadets in
aviation. These and other schools, with their well-considered
curriculums for training in every branch of our organization, were
co-ordinated in a manner best to develop an efficient army out of
willing and industrious young men, many of whom had not before known
even the rudiments of military technique. Both Marshal Haig and General
Petain placed officers and men at our disposal for instructional
purposes, and we are deeply indebted for the opportunities given to
profit by their veteran experience.


AMERICAN ZONE.

The eventual place the American army should take on the western front
was to a large extent influenced by the vital question of communication
and supply. The northern ports of France were crowded by the British
armies' shipping and supplies while the southern ports, though
otherwise at our service, had not adequate port facilities for our
purposes and these we should have to build. The already overtaxed
railway system behind the active front in northern France would not be
available for us as lines of supply and those leading from the southern
ports of northeastern France would be unequal to our needs without much
new construction. Practically all warehouses, supply depots and
regulating stations must be provided by fresh constructions. While
France offered us such material as she had to spare after a drain of
three years, enormous quantities of material had to be brought across
the Atlantic.


VAST PREPARATIONS NECESSARY.

With such a problem any temporization or lack of definiteness in making
plans might cause failure even with victory within our grasp. Moreover,
broad plans commensurate with our national purpose and resources would
bring conviction of our power to every soldier in the front line, to the
nations associated with us in the war, and to the enemy. The tonnage for
material for necessary construction for the supply of an army of three
and perhaps four million men would require a mammoth program of
shipbuilding at home, and miles of dock construction in France, with a
corresponding large project for additional railways and for storage
depots.

All these considerations led to the inevitable conclusion that if we
were to handle and supply the great forces deemed essential to win the
war we must utilize the southern ports of France--Bordeaux, La Pallice,
St. Nazaire, and Brest--and the comparatively unused railway systems
leading therefrom to the northeast. Generally speaking, then, this would
contemplate the use of our forces against the enemy somewhere in that
direction, but the great depots of supply must be centrally located,
preferably in the area included by Tours, Bourges, and Chateauroux, so
that our armies could be supplied with equal facility wherever they
might be serving on the western front.


SKILLED HELP.

To build up such a system there were talented men in the Regular Army,
but more experts were necessary than the army could furnish. Thanks to
the patriotic spirit of our people at home, there came from civil life
men trained for every sort of work involved in building and managing the
organization necessary to handle and transport such an army and keep it
supplied. With such assistance the construction and general development
of our plans have kept pace with the growth of the forces, and the
Service of Supply is now able to discharge from ships and move 45,000
tons daily, besides transporting troops and material in the conduct of
active operations.


WORK OF THE DEPARTMENTS.

As to organization, all the administrative and supply services, except
the Adjutant General's, Inspector General's, and Judge Advocates
General's Departments which remain at general headquarters, have been
transferred to the headquarters of the services of supplies at Tours
under a commanding general responsible to the commander-in-chief for
supply of the armies. The Chief Quartermaster, Chief Surgeon, Chief
Signal Officer, Chief of Ordnance, Chief of Air Service, Chief of
Chemical Warfare, the general purchasing agent in all that pertains to
questions of procurement and supply, the Provost Marshal General in the
maintenance of order in general, the Director General of Transportation
in all that affects such matters, and the Chief Engineer in all matters
of administration and supply, are subordinate to the Commanding General
of the Service of Supply, who, assisted by a staff especially organized
for the purpose, is charged with the administrative co-ordination of all
these services.


TRANSPORTATION AND ENGINEER'S DEPARTMENT.

The transportation department under the Service of Supply directs the
operation, maintenance, and construction of railways, the operation of
terminals, the unloading of ships, and transportation of material to
warehouses or to the front. Its functions make necessary the most
intimate relationship between our organization and that of the French,
with the practical result that our transportation department has been
able to improve materially the operations of railways generally.
Constantly laboring under a shortage of rolling stock, the
transportation department has nevertheless been able by efficient
management to meet every emergency.

The Engineer Corps is charged with all construction, including light
railways and roads. It has planned and constructed the many projects
required, the most important of which are the new wharves at Bordeaux
and Nantes, and the immense storage depots at La Pallice, Montoir, and
Gievres, besides innumerable hospitals and barracks in various ports of
France. These projects have all been carried on by phases keeping pace
with our needs. The Forestry Service under the Engineer Corps has cut
the greater part of the timber and railway ties required.


PURCHASES IN EUROPE.

To meet the shortage of supplies from America, due to lack of shipping,
the representatives of the different supply departments were constantly
in search of available material and supplies in Europe. In order to
co-ordinate these purchases and to prevent competition between our
departments, a general purchasing agency was created early in our
experience to co-ordinate our purchases and, if possible, induce our
Allies to apply the principle among the Allied armies. While there was
no authority for the general use of appropriations, this was met by
grouping the purchasing representatives of the different departments
under one control, charged with the duty of consolidating requisitions
and purchases. Our efforts to extend the principle have been signally
successful, and all purchases for the Allied armies are now on an
equitable and co-operative basis. Indeed, it may be said that the work
of this bureau has been thoroughly efficient and business-like.


ARTILLERY, AIRPLANES AND TANKS.

Our entry into the war found us with few of the auxiliaries necessary
for its conduct in the modern sense. Among our most important
deficiencies in material were artillery, aviation, and tanks. In order
to meet our requirements as rapidly as possible, we accepted the offer
of the French Government to provide us with the necessary artillery
equipment of seventy-fives, one fifty-five millimeter howitzers, and
one-fifty-five GPF guns from their own factories for thirty divisions.
The wisdom of this course is fully demonstrated by the fact that,
although we soon began the manufacture of these classes of guns at home,
there were no guns of the calibers mentioned manufactured in America on
our front at the date the armistice was signed. The only guns of these
types produced at home thus far received in France are 109 seventy-five
millimeter guns.

In aviation we were in the same situation, and here again the French
Government came to our aid until our own aviation program should be
under way. We obtained from the French the necessary planes for
training our personnel, and they have provided us with a total of 2,676
pursuit, observation, and bombing planes. The first airplanes received
from home arrived in May, and altogether we have received 1,379. The
first American squadron completely equipped by American production,
including airplanes, crossed the German lines on August 7, 1918. As to
tanks, we were also compelled to rely upon the French. Here, however, we
were less fortunate, for the reason that the French production could
barely meet the requirements of their own armies.


OUR OBLIGATIONS TO FRANCE.

It should be fully realized that the French Government has always taken
a most liberal attitude and has been most anxious to give us every
possible assistance in meeting our deficiencies in these as well as in
other respects. Our dependence upon France for artillery, aviation, and
tanks was, of course, due to the fact that our industries had not been
exclusively devoted to military production. All credit is due our own
manufacturers for their efforts to meet our requirements, as at the time
the armistice was signed we were able to look forward to the early
supply of practically all our necessities from our own factories.


CAMP WELFARE WORK.

The welfare of the troops touches my responsibility as
Commander-in-Chief to the mothers and fathers and kindred of the men who
came to France in the impressionable period of youth. They could not
have the privilege accorded European soldiers during their periods of
leave of visiting their families and renewing their home ties. Fully
realizing that the standard of conduct that should be established for
them must have a permanent influence in their lives and on the
character of their future citizenship, the Red Cross, the Young Men's
Christian Association, Knights of Columbus, the Salvation Army, and the
Jewish Welfare Board, as auxiliaries in this work, were encouraged in
every possible way. The fact that our soldiers, in a land of different
customs and language, have borne themselves in a manner in keeping with
the cause for which they fought, is due not only to the efforts in their
behalf but much more to other high ideals, their discipline, and their
innate sense of self-respect. It should be recorded, however, that the
members of these welfare societies have been untiring in their desire to
be of real service to our officers and men. The patriotic devotion of
these representative men and women has given a new significance to the
Golden Rule, and we owe to them a debt of gratitude that can never be
repaid.


COMBAT OPERATIONS.

During our periods of training in the trenches some of our divisions had
engaged the enemy in local combats, the most important of which was
Seicheprey by the Twenty-sixth on April 20, in the Toul sector, but none
had participated in action as a unit. The First Division, which had
passed through the preliminary stages of training, had gone to the
trenches for its first period of instruction at the end of October and
by March 21, when the German offensive in Picardy began, we had four
divisions with experience in the trenches, all of which were equal to
any demands of battle action. The crisis which this offensive developed
was such that our occupation of an American sector must be postponed.


TROOPS PLACED UNDER MARSHAL FOCH.

On March 28 I placed at the disposal of Marshal Foch who had been agreed
upon as Commander-in-Chief of the Allied armies, all of our forces to
be used as he might decide. At his request the First Division was
transferred from the Toul sector to a position in reserve at Chaumont en
Vexin. As German superiority in numbers required prompt action, an
agreement was reached at the Abbeville conference of the Allied premiers
and commanders and myself on May 2 by which British shipping was to
transport ten American divisions to the British army area, where they
were to be trained and equipped, and additional British shipping was to
be provided for as many divisions as possible for use elsewhere.


THE CANTIGNY OPERATIONS.

On April 26 the First Division had gone into the line in the Montdidier
salient on the Picardy battlefront. Tactics had been suddenly
revolutionized to those of open warfare, and our men, confident of the
results of their training, were eager for the test. On the morning of
May 28 this division attacked the commanding German position in its
front, taking with splendid dash the town of Cantigny and all other
objectives, which were organized and held steadfastly against vicious
counter-attacks and galling artillery fire. Although local, this
brilliant action had an electrical effect, as it demonstrated our
fighting qualities under extreme battle conditions, and also that the
enemy's troops were not altogether invincible.


THE GERMAN AISNE OFFENSIVE.

The Germans' Aisne offensive, which began on May 27, had advanced
rapidly toward the River Marne and Paris, and the Allies faced a crisis
equally as grave as that of the Picardy offensive in March. Again every
available man was placed at Marshal Foch's disposal, and the Third
Division, which had just come from its preliminary training in the
trenches, was hurried to the Marne. Its motorized machine gun battalion
preceded the other units and successfully held the bridgehead at the
Marne, opposite Chateau-Thierry. The Second Division, in reserve near
Montdidier, was sent by motor trucks and other available transport to
check the progress of the enemy toward Paris. The Division attacked and
retook the town and railroad station at Bouresches and sturdily held its
ground against the enemy's best guard divisions. In the battle of
Belleau Wood, which followed, our men proved their superiority and
gained a strong tactical position, with far greater loss to the enemy
than to ourselves. On July 1, before the Second was relieved, it
captured the village of Vaux with most splendid precision.

Meanwhile our Second Corps, under Maj. Gen. George W. Read, had been
organized for the command of our divisions with the British, which were
held back in training areas or assigned to second-line defenses. Five of
the ten divisions were withdrawn from the British area in June, three to
relieve divisions in Lorraine and the Vosges and two to the Paris area
to join the group of American divisions which stood between the city and
any farther advance of the enemy in that direction.


OPERATIONS NEAR RHEIMS.

The great June-July troop movement from the States was well under way,
and, although these troops were to be given some preliminary training
before being put into action, their very presence warranted the use of
all the older divisions in the confidence that we did not lack reserves.
Elements of the Forty-second Division were in the line east of Rheims
against the German offensive of July 15, and held their ground
unflinchingly. On the right flank of this offensive four companies of
the Twenty-eighth Division were in position in face of the advancing
waves of the German infantry. The Third Division was holding the bank of
the Marne from the bend east of the mouth of the Surmelin to the west of
Mezy, opposite Chateau-Thierry, where a large force of German infantry
sought to force a passage under support of powerful artillery
concentrations and under cover of smoke screens. A single regiment of
the Third wrote one of the most brilliant pages in our military annals
on this occasion. It prevented the crossing at certain points on its
front while, on either flank, the Germans, who had gained a footing,
pressed forward. Our men, firing in three directions, met the German
attacks with counter-attacks at critical points and succeeded in
throwing two German divisions into complete confusion, capturing 600
prisoners.


BEGINNING OF THE COUNTER ATTACK.

The great force of the German Chateau-Thierry offensive established the
deep Marne salient, but the enemy was taking chances, and the
vulnerability of this pocket to attack might be turned to his
disadvantage. Seizing this opportunity to support my conviction, every
division with any sort of training was made available for use in a
counter offensive. The place of honor in the thrust toward Soissons on
July 18 was given to our First and Second Divisions in company with
chosen French divisions. Without the usual brief warning of a
preliminary bombardment, the massed French and American artillery,
firing by the map, laid down its rolling barrage at dawn while the
infantry began its charge. The tactical handling of our troops under
these trying conditions was excellent throughout the action. The enemy
brought up large numbers of reserves and made a stubborn defense both
with machine guns and artillery, but through five days' fighting the
First Division continued to advance until it had gained the heights
above Soissons and captured the village of Berzy-le-sec. The Second
Division took Beau Repaire farm and Vierzy in a very rapid advance and
reached a position in front of Tigny at the end of its second day. These
two divisions captured 7,000 prisoners and over 100 pieces of artillery.


THE SOISSONS ATTACK.

The Twenty-sixth Division, which, with a French division, was under
command of our First Corps, acted as a pivot of the movement toward
Soissons. On the 18th it took the village of Torcy, while the Third
Division was crossing the Marne in pursuit of the retiring enemy. The
Twenty-sixth attacked again on the 21st, and the enemy withdrew past the
Chateau-Thierry-Soissons road. The Third Division, continuing its
progress, took the heights of Mont St. Pere and the villages of
Charteves and Jaulgonne in the face of both machine gun and artillery
fire.

On the 24th, after the Germans had fallen back from Trugny and Epieds,
our Forty-second Division, which had been brought over from the
Champagne, relieved the Twenty-sixth and, fighting its way through the
Foret de Fere, overwhelmed the nest of machine guns in its path. By the
27th it had reached the Ourcq, whence the Third and Fourth Divisions
were already advancing, while the French divisions with which we were
co-operating were moving forward at other points.

The Third Division had made its advance into Roncheres Wood on the 29th
and was relieved for rest by a brigade of the Thirty-second. The
Forty-second and Thirty-second undertook the task of conquering the
heights beyond Cierges, the Forty-second capturing Sergy and the
Thirty-second capturing Hill 230, both American divisions joining in
the pursuit of the enemy to the Vesle, and thus the operation of
reducing the salient was finished. Meanwhile the Forty-second was
relieved by the Fourth at Chery-Chartreuve, and the Thirty-second by the
Twenty-eighth, while the Seventy-seventh Division took up a position on
the Vesle. The operations of these divisions on the Vesle were under the
Third Corps, Maj. Gen. Robert L. Bullard, commanding.


BATTLE OF ST. MIHIEL.

With the reduction of the Marne salient we could look forward to the
concentration of our divisions in our own zone. In view of the
forthcoming operation against the St. Mihiel salient, which had long
been planned as our first offensive action on a large scale, the First
Army was organized on August 10 under my personal command. While
American units had held different divisional and corps sectors along the
western front, there had not been up to this time, for obvious reasons,
a distinct American sector; but, in view of the important parts the
American forces were now to play, it was necessary to take over a
permanent portion of the line. Accordingly, on August 30, the line
beginning at Port sur Seille, east of the Moselle and extending to the
west through St. Mihiel, thence north to a point opposite Verdun, was
placed under my command. The American sector was afterwards extended
across the Meuse to the western edge of the Argonne Forest, and included
the Second Colonial French, which held the point of the salient, and the
Seventeenth French Corps, which occupied the heights above Verdun.


PREPARATION FOR THE ATTACK.

The preparation for a complicated operation against the formidable
defenses in front of us included the assembling of divisions and of
corps and army artillery, transport, aircraft, tanks, ambulances, the
location of hospitals, and the molding together of all of the elements
of a great modern army with its own railheads, supplied directly by our
own Service of Supply. The concentration for this operation, which was
to be a surprise, involved the movement, mostly at night, of
approximately 600,000 troops, and required for its success the most
careful attention to every detail.

The French were generous in giving us assistance in corps and army
artillery, with its personnel, and we were confident from the start of
our superiority over the enemy in guns of all calibers. Our heavy guns
were able to reach Metz and to interfere seriously with German rail
movements. The French Independent Air Force was placed under my command
which, together with the British bombing squadrons and our air forces,
gave us the largest assembly of aviation that had ever been engaged in
one operation on the western front.


LOCATION OF THE TROOPS.

From Les Eparges around the nose of the salient at St. Mihiel to the
Moselle River the line was roughly forty miles long and situated on
commanding ground greatly strengthened by artificial defenses. Our First
Corps (Eighty-second, Ninetieth, Fifth, and Second Divisions), under
command of Maj. Gen. Hunter Liggett, restrung its right on
Pont-a-Mouson, with its left joining our Third Corps (the Eighty-ninth,
Forty-second, and First Divisions), under Maj. Gen. Joseph T. Dickman,
in line to Xivray, were to swing in toward Vigneulles on the pivot of
the Moselle River for the initial assault. From Xivray to Mouilly the
Second Colonial French Corps was in line in the center and our Fifth
Corps, under command of Maj. Gen. George H. Cameron, with our
Twenty-sixth Division and a French division at the western base of the
salient, were to attack three difficult hills--Les Eparges, Combres, and
Amaramthe. Our First Corps had in reserve the Seventy-eighth Division,
our Fourth Corps the Third Division, and our First Army the Thirty-fifth
and Ninety-first Divisions, with the Eightieth and Thirty-third
available. It should be understood that our corps organizations are very
elastic, and that we have at no time had permanent assignments of
divisions to corps.


MOVEMENT OF THE TROOPS.

After four hours' artillery preparation, the seven American divisions in
the front line advanced at 5 A.M. on September 12, assisted by a limited
number of tanks manned partly by Americans and partly by the French.
These divisions, accompanied by groups of wire cutters and others armed
with bangalore torpedoes, went through the successive bands of barbed
wire that protected the enemy's front line and support trenches, in
irresistible waves on schedule time, breaking down all defense of an
enemy demoralized by the great volume of our artillery fire and our
sudden approach out of the fog.

Our First Corps advanced to Thiaucourt, while our Fourth Corps curved
back to the southwest through Nonsard. The Second Colonial French Corps
made the slight advance required of it on very difficult ground, and the
Fifth Corps took its three ridges and repulsed a counter-attack. A rapid
march brought reserve regiments of a division of the Fifth Corps into
Vigneulles in the early morning, where it linked up with patrols of our
Fourth Corps, closing the salient and forming a new line west of
Thiaucourt to Vigneulles and beyond Fresnes-en-Woevre. At the cost of
only 7,000 casualties, mostly light, we had taken 16,000 prisoners and
443 guns, a great quantity of material, released the inhabitants of many
villages from enemy domination, and established our lines in a position
to threaten Metz. This signal success of the American First Army in its
first offensive was of prime importance. The Allies found they had a
formidable army to aid them, and the enemy learned finally that he had
one to reckon with.


PREPARATION FOR THE ARGONNE OFFENSIVE.

On the day after we had taken the St. Mihiel salient, much of our corps
and army artillery which had operated at St. Mihiel and our divisions in
reserve at other points, were already on the move toward the area back
of the line between the Meuse River and the western edge of the forest
of Argonne. With the exception of St. Mihiel, the old German front line
from Switzerland to the east of Rheims was still intact. In the general
attack all along the line, the operation assigned the American army as
the hinge of this Allied offensive was directed toward the important
railroad communications of the German armies through Mezieres and Sedan.
The enemy must hold fast to this part of his lines or the withdrawal of
his forces with four years' accumulation of plants and material would be
dangerously imperiled.

The German army had as yet shown no demoralization and, while the mass
of its troops had suffered in morale, its first-class divisions and
notably its machine gun defense were exhibiting remarkable tactical
efficiency as well as courage. The German General Staff was fully aware
of the consequences of a success on the Meuse-Argonne line. Certain that
he would do everything in his power to oppose us, the action was planned
with as much secrecy as possible and was undertaken with the
determination to use all our divisions in forcing a decision. We
expected to draw the best German divisions to our front and to consume
them while the enemy was held under grave apprehension lest our attack
should break his line, which it was our firm purpose to do.


LINE OF BATTLE.

Our right flank was protected by the Meuse, while our left embraced the
Argonne Forest, whose ravines, hills, and elaborate defense screened by
dense thickets had been generally considered impregnable. Our order of
battle from right to left was the Third Corps from the Meuse to
Malancourt, with the Thirty-third, Eightieth, and Fourth Divisions in
line, and the Third Division as corps reserve; the Fifth Corps from
Malancourt to Vauquois, with Seventy-ninth, Eighty-seventh, and
Ninety-first Divisions in line, and the Thirty-second in corps reserve;
and the First Corps, from Vauquois to Vienne le Chateau, with
Thirty-fifth, Twenty-eighth, and Seventy-seventh Divisions in line, and
the Ninety-second in corps reserve. The army reserve consisted of the
First, Twenty-ninth, and Eighty-second Divisions.


BATTLE OPERATIONS.

On the night of September 25 our troops quietly took the place of the
French who thinly held the line in this sector which had long been
inactive. In the attack, which began on the 26th, we drove through the
barbed wire entanglements and the sea of shell craters across No Man's
Land, mastering all the first line defenses. Continuing on the 27th and
28th, against machine guns and artillery of an increasing number of
enemy reserve divisions, we penetrated to a depth of from three to seven
miles, and took the village of Montfaucon and its commanding hill and
Exermont, Gercourt, Cuisy, Septsarges, Malancourt, Ivoiry, Epinionville,
Charpentry, Very, and other villages. East of the Meuse one of our
divisions, which was with the Second Colonial French Corps, captured
Marcheville and Rieville, giving further protection to the flank of our
main body. We had taken 10,000 prisoners, we had gained our point of
forcing the battle into the open and were prepared for the enemy's
reaction, which was bound to come, as he had good roads and ample
railroad facilities for bringing up his artillery and reserves.


GREAT DIFFICULTIES OVERCOME.

In the chill rain of dark nights our engineers had to build new roads
across spongy, shell-torn areas, repair broken roads beyond No Man's
Land, and build bridges. Our gunners, with no thought of sleep, put
their shoulders to wheels and dragropes to bring their guns through the
mire in support of the infantry, now under the increasing fire of the
enemy's artillery. Our attack had taken the enemy by surprise, but,
quickly recovering himself, he began to fire counter-attacks in strong
force, supported by heavy bombardments, with large quantities of gas.
From September 28 until October 4 we maintained the offensive against
patches of woods defended by snipers and continuous lines of machine
guns, and pushed forward our guns and transports, seizing strategical
points in preparation for further attacks.


OTHER UNITS WITH ALLIES.

Other divisions attached to the Allied armies were doing their part. It
was the fortune of our Second Corps, composed of the Twenty-seventh and
Thirtieth Divisions, which had remained with the British, to have a
place of honor in co-operation with the Australian Corps on September
29 and October 1 in the assault on the Hindenburg Line where the St.
Quentin Canal passes through a tunnel under a ridge. The Thirtieth
Division speedily broke through the main line of defense for all its
objectives, while the Twenty-seventh pushed on impetuously through the
main line until some of its elements reached Gouy. In the midst of the
maze of trenches and shell craters and under cross-fire from machine
guns the other elements fought desperately against odds. In this and in
later actions, from October 6 to October 19, our Second Corps captured
over 6,000 prisoners and advanced over 13 miles. The spirit and
aggressiveness of these divisions have been highly praised by the
British army commander under whom they served.


OPERATIONS NEAR RHEIMS.

On October 2-9 our Second and Thirty-sixth Divisions were sent to assist
the French in an important attack against the old German positions
before Rheims. The Second conquered the complicated defense works on
their front against a persistent defense worthy of the grimmest period
of trench warfare and attacked the strongly held wooded hill of Blanc
Mont, which they captured in a second assault, sweeping over it with
consummate dash and skill. This division then repulsed strong
counter-attacks before the village and cemetery of Ste. Etienne and took
the town, forcing the Germans to fall back from before Rheims and yield
positions they had held since September, 1914. On October 9 the
Thirty-sixth Division relieved the Second and, in its first experience
under fire, withstood very severe artillery bombardment and rapidly took
up the pursuit of the enemy, now retiring behind the Aisne.


RESULTS OF AMERICAN OPERATIONS.

The Allied progress elsewhere cheered the efforts of our men in this
crucial contest as the German command threw in more and more
first-class troops to stop our advance. We made steady headway in the
almost impenetrable and strongly held Argonne Forest, for, despite this
reinforcement, it was our army that was doing the driving. Our aircraft
was increasing in skill and numbers and forcing the issue, and our
infantry and artillery were improving rapidly with each new experience.
The replacements fresh from home were put into exhausted divisions with
little time for training, but they had the advantage of serving beside
men who knew their business and who had almost become veterans
overnight. The enemy had taken every advantage of the terrain, which
especially favored the defense by a prodigal use of machine guns manned
by highly trained veterans and by using his artillery at short ranges.
In the face of such strong frontal positions we should have been unable
to accomplish any progress according to previously accepted standards,
but I had every confidence in our aggressive tactics and the courage of
our troops.


PROGRESS UNDER DIFFICULTIES.

On October 4 the attack was renewed all along our front. The Third Corps
tilting to the left followed the Brieulles-Cunel road; our Fifth Corps
took Gesnes, while the First Corps advanced for over two miles along the
irregular valley of the Aire River and in the wooded hills of the
Argonne that bordered the river, used by the enemy with all his art and
weapons of defense. This sort of fighting continued against an enemy
striving to hold every foot of ground and whose very strong
counter-attacks challenged us at every point. On the 7th the First Corps
captured Chatel-Chehery and continued along the river to Cornay. On the
east of Meuse sector one of the two divisions co-operating with the
French captured Consenvoye and the Haumont Woods. On the 9th the Fifth
Corps, in its progress up the Aire, took Fleville, and the Third Corps,
which had continuous fighting against odds, was working its way through
Brieulles and Cunel. On the 10th we had cleared the Argonne Forest of
the enemy.


FORMATION OF SECOND ARMY.

It was now necessary to constitute a second army, and on October 9 the
immediate command of the First Army was turned over to Lieut. Gen.
Hunter Liggett. The command of the Second Army, whose divisions occupied
a sector in the Woevre, was given to Lieut. Gen. Robert L. Bullard, who
had been commander of the First Division and then of the Third Corps.
Major General Dickman was transferred to the command of the First Corps,
while the Fifth Corps was placed under Maj. Gen. Charles P. Summerall,
who had recently commanded the First Division. Maj. Gen. John L. Hines,
who had gone rapidly up from regimental to division commander, was
assigned to the Third Corps. These four officers had been in France from
the early days of the expedition and had learned their lessons in the
school of practical warfare.

Our constant pressure against the enemy brought day by day more
prisoners, mostly survivors from machine gun nests captured in fighting
at close quarters. On October 18 there was very fierce fighting in the
Caures Woods east of the Meuse and in the Ormont Woods. On the 14th the
First Corps took St. Juvin, and the Fifth Corps, in hand-to-hand
encounters, entered the formidable Kriemhilde Line, where the enemy had
hoped to check us indefinitely. Later the Fifth Corps penetrated further
the Kriemhilde Line, and the First Corps took Champigneulles and the
important town of Grandpre. Our dogged offensive was wearing down the
enemy, who continued desperately to throw his best troops against us,
thus weakening his line in front of our Allies and making their advance
less difficult.


AMERICANS IN BELGIUM.

Meanwhile we were not only able to continue the battle, but our
Thirty-seventh and Ninety-first Divisions were hastily withdrawn from
our front and dispatched to help the French army in Belgium. Detraining
in the neighborhood of Ypres, these divisions advanced by rapid stages
to the fighting line and were assigned to adjacent French corps. On
October 31, in continuation of the Flanders offensive, they attacked and
methodically broke down all enemy resistance. On November 3 the
Thirty-seventh had completed its mission in dividing the enemy across
the Escaut River and firmly established itself along the east bank
included in the division zone of action. By a clever flanking movement,
troops of the Ninety-first Division captured Spitaals Bosschen, a
difficult wood extending across the central part of the division sector,
reached the Escaut, and penetrated into the town of Audenarde. These
divisions received high commendation from their corps commanders for
their dash and energy.


REGROUPING FOR FINAL ASSAULT.

On the 23d the Third and Fifth Corps pushed northward to the level of
Bantheville. While we continued to press forward and throw back the
enemy's violent counter-attacks with great loss to him, a regrouping of
our forces was under way for the final assault. Evidence of loss of
morale by the enemy gave our men more confidence in attack and more
fortitude in enduring the fatigue of incessant effort and the hardships
of very inclement weather.

With comparatively well-rested divisions, the final advance in the
Meuse-Argonne front was begun on November 1. Our increased artillery
force acquitted itself magnificently in support of the advance, and the
enemy broke before the determined infantry, which, by its persistent
fighting of the past weeks and the dash of this attack, had overcome his
will to resist. The Third Corps took Aincreville, Doulcon, and
Andevanne, and the Fifth Corps took Landres et St. Georges and pressed
through successive lines of resistance to Bayonville and Chennery. On
the 2d the First Corps joined in the movement, which now became an
impetuous onslaught that could not be stayed.


SUCCESSFUL ACCOMPLISHMENT.

On the 3d advance troops surged forward in pursuit, some by motor
trucks, while the artillery pressed along the country roads close
behind. The First Corps reached Authe and Chatillon-Sur-Bar, the Fifth
Corps, Fosse and Nouart, and the Third Corps Halles, penetrating the
enemy's line to a depth of twelve miles. Our large caliber guns had
advanced and were skillfully brought into position to fire upon the
important lines at Montmedy, Longuyon, and Conflans. Our Third Corps
crossed the Meuse on the 5th and the other corps, in the full confidence
that the day was theirs, eagerly cleared the way of machine guns as they
swept northward, maintaining complete co-ordination throughout. On the
6th, a division of the First Corps reached a point on the Meuse opposite
Sedan, twenty-five miles from our line of departure. The strategical
goal which was our highest hope was gained. We had cut the enemy's main
line of communications and nothing but surrender or an armistice could
save his army from complete disaster.


TROOPS ENGAGED.

In all forty enemy divisions had been used against us an the
Meuse-Argonne battle. Between September 26 and November 6 we took
26,059 prisoners and 468 guns on this front. Our divisions engaged were
the First, Second, Third, Fourth, Fifth, Twenty-sixth, Twenty-eighth,
Twenty-ninth, Thirty-second, Thirty-third, Thirty-fifth, Thirty-seventh,
Forty-second, Seventy-seventh, Seventy-eighth, Seventy-ninth, Eightieth,
Eighty-second, Eighty-ninth, Ninetieth, and Ninety-first. Many of our
divisions remained in line for a length of time that required nerves of
steel, while others were sent in again after only a few days of rest.
The First, Fifth, Twenty-sixth, Forty-second, Seventy-seventh,
Eightieth, Eighty-ninth, and Ninetieth were in the line twice. Although
some of the divisions were fighting their first battle, they soon became
equal to the best.


OPERATIONS EAST OF THE MEUSE.

On the three days preceding November 10, the Third, the Second Colonial,
and the Seventeenth French Corps fought a difficult struggle through the
Meuse Hills south of Stenay and forced the enemy into the plain.
Meanwhile, my plans for further use of the American forces contemplated
an advance between the Meuse and the Moselle in the direction of Longwy
by the First Army, while, at the same time, the Second Army should
assure the offensive toward the rich iron fields of Briey. These
operations were to be followed by an offensive toward Chateau-Salins
east of the Moselle, thus isolating Metz. Accordingly, attacks on the
American front had been ordered and that of the Second Army was in
progress on the morning of November 11, when instructions were received
that hostilities should cease at 11 o'clock A.M.

At this moment the line of the American sector, from right to left,
began at Port-Sur-Seille, thence across the Moselle to Vandieres and
through the Woevre to Bezonvaux, in the foothills of the Meuse, thence
along to the foothills and through the northern edge of the Woevre
forests to the Meuse at Mouzay, thence along the Meuse connecting with
the French under Sedan.


RELATIONS WITH THE ALLIES.

Co-operation among the Allies has at all times been most cordial. A far
greater effort has been put forth by the Allied armies and staffs to
assist us than could have been expected. The French Government and army
have always stood ready to furnish us with supplies, equipment, and
transportation, and to aid us in every way. In the towns and hamlets
wherever our troops have been stationed or billeted the French people
have everywhere received them more as relatives and intimate friends
than as soldiers of a foreign army. For these things words are quite
inadequate to express our gratitude. There can be no doubt that the
relations growing out of our associations here assure a permanent
friendship between the two peoples. Although we have not been so
intimately associated with the people of Great Britain, yet their troops
and ours when thrown together have always warmly fraternized. The
reception of those of our forces who have passed through England and of
those who have been stationed there has always been enthusiastic.
Altogether it has been deeply impressed upon us that the ties of
language and blood bring the British and ourselves together completely
and inseparably.


STRENGTH.

There are in Europe altogether, including a regiment and some sanitary
units with the Italian army and the organizations at Murmansk, also
including those en route from the States, approximately 2,053,347 men,
less our losses. Of this total, there are in France 1,338,169 combatant
troops. Forty divisions have arrived, of which the infantry personnel of
ten have been used as replacements, leaving 30 divisions now in France
organized into three armies of three corps each.

The losses of the Americans up to November 18 are: Killed and wounded,
36,145; died of disease, 14,811; deaths unclassified, 2,204; wounded,
179,625; prisoners, 2,163; missing, 1,160. We have captured about 44,000
prisoners and 1,400 guns, howitzers and trench mortars.


WARM APPRECIATION.

The duties of the General Staff, as well as those of the army and corps
staffs, have been very ably performed. Especially is this true when we
consider the new and difficult problems with which they have been
confronted. This body of officers, both as individuals and as an
organization, have, I believe, no superiors in professional ability, in
efficiency, or in loyalty.

Nothing that we have in France better reflects the efficiency and
devotion to duty of Americans in general than the Service of Supply,
whose personnel is thoroughly imbued with a patriotic desire to do its
full duty. They have at all times fully appreciated their responsibility
to the rest of the army and the results produced have been most
gratifying.


SPECIAL WORK OF DEPARTMENTS.

Our Medical Corps is especially entitled to praise for the general
effectiveness of its work both in hospital and at the front. Embracing
men of high professional attainments, and splendid women devoted to
their calling and untiring in their efforts, this department has made a
new record for medical and sanitary proficiency.

The Quartermaster Department has had difficult and various tasks, but
it has more than met all demands that have been made upon it. Its
management and its personnel have been exceptionally efficient and
deserve every possible commendation.


SPLENDID TECHNICAL SERVICE.

As to the more technical services, the able personnel of the Ordnance
Department in France has splendidly fulfilled its functions, both in
procurement and in forwarding the immense quantities of ordnance
required. The officers and men and the young women of the Signal Corps
have performed their duties with a large conception of the problem and
with a devoted and patriotic spirit to which the perfection of our
communications daily testify. While the Engineer Corps has been referred
to in another part of this report, it should be further stated that the
work has required large vision and high professional skill, and great
credit is due their personnel for the high proficiency that they have
constantly maintained.

Our aviators have no equals in daring or in fighting ability and have
left a record of courageous deeds that will ever remain a brilliant page
in the annals of our army. While the Tank Corps has had limited
opportunities its personnel has responded gallantly on every possible
occasion and has shown courage of the highest order.

The Adjutant General's Department has been directed with a systematic
thoroughness and excellence that surpassed any previous work of its
kind. The Inspector General's Department has risen to the highest
standards and throughout has ably assisted commanders in the enforcement
of discipline. The able personnel of the Judge Advocate General's
Department has solved with judgment and wisdom the multitude of
difficult legal problems, many of them involving questions of great
international importance.


TRIBUTE TO THE PERSONNEL OF THE VARIOUS BRANCHES.

It would be impossible in this brief preliminary report to do justice to
the personnel of all the different branches of this organization which I
shall cover in detail in a later report.

The navy in European waters has at all times most cordially aided the
army, and it is most gratifying to report that there has never before
been such perfect co-operation between these two branches of the
service.

As to Americans in Europe not in the military services, it is the
greatest pleasure to say that, both in official and in private life,
they are intensely patriotic and loyal, and have been invariably
sympathetic and helpful to the army.

Finally, I pay the supreme tribute to our officers and soldiers of the
line. When I think of their heroism, their patience under hardships,
their unflinching spirit of offensive action, I am filled with emotion
which I am unable to express. Their deeds are immortal, and they have
earned the eternal gratitude of our country.



CHAPTER III.

PRESIDENT WILSON'S REVIEW OF THE WAR.

TROOP MOVEMENT DURING THE YEAR--TRIBUTE TO AMERICAN SOLDIERS--SPLENDID
SPIRIT OF THE NATION--RESUME THE WORK OF PEACE--OUTLINE OF WORK IN
PARIS--SUPPORT OF NATION URGED.


On December 2, 1918, just prior to sailing for Europe to take part in
the Peace Conference, President Wilson addressed Congress, reviewing the
work of the American people, soldiers, sailors and civilians, in the
World War which had been brought to a successful conclusion on November
11th. His speech, in part, follows:

"The year that has elapsed since I last stood before you to fulfill my
constitutional duty to give to the Congress from time to time
information on the state of the Union has been so crowded with great
events, great processes and great results that I can not hope to give
you an adequate picture of its transactions or of the far-reaching
changes which have been wrought in the life of our Nation and of the
world. You have yourselves witnessed these things, as I have. It is too
soon to assess them; and we who stand in the midst of them and are part
of them are less qualified than men of another generation will be to say
what they mean or even what they have been. But some great outstanding
facts are unmistakable and constitute in a sense part of the public
business with which it is our duty to deal. To state them is to set the
stage for the legislative and executive action which must grow out of
them and which we have yet to shape and determine.


TROOP MOVEMENT DURING THE YEAR.

"A year ago we had sent 145,918 men overseas. Since then we have sent
1,950,513, an average of 162,542 each month, the number in fact rising
in May last to 245,951, in June to 278,760, in July to 307,182 and
continuing to reach similar figures in August and September--in August
289,570 and in September 257,438. No such movement of troops ever took
place before, across 3,000 miles of sea, followed by adequate equipment
and supplies, and carried safely through extraordinary dangers of
attack, dangers which were alike strange and infinitely difficult to
guard against. In all this movement only 758 men were lost by enemy
attacks, 630 of whom were upon a single English transport which was sunk
near the Orkney Islands.

"I need not tell you what lay back of this great movement of men and
material. It is not invidious to say that back of it lay a supporting
organization of the industries of the country and of all its productive
activities more complete, more thorough in method and effective in
results, more spirited and unanimous in purpose and effort than any
other great belligerent had ever been able to effect. We profited
greatly by the experience of the nations which had already been engaged
for nearly three years in the exigent and exacting business, their every
resource and every proficiency taxed to the utmost. We were the pupils.
But we learned quickly and acted with a promptness and a readiness of
co-operation that justify our great pride that we were able to serve the
world with unparalleled energy and quick accomplishment.

[Illustration: PHOTOGRAPHED IN A VILLAGE IN GERMANY.

A member of the 369th (old 15th N.Y.) brought this picture back with
him. He is wearing the smile which tells the story. The war is over.]

[Illustration: LIEUT. "JIMMY" EUROPE AND HIS FAMOUS BAND.

This band was hailed with enthusiasm by the French. Five kettle drums in
this band were presented by the French as a mark of esteem. Another
drum, beaten by Willie Webb, of Louisville, Ky., was a trophy left by
the Germans when they retreated.]

[Illustration: GETTING READY FOR THEIR DAILY BATH.

Negro troops in a transport going over. No inconvenience marred their
good cheer.]

[Illustration: IN LINE FOR REVIEW.

Members of the 15th Infantry being reviewed. A sturdy and determined
line of fighting men.]

[Illustration: A QUARTETTE WHICH GAVE GOOD ENTERTAINMENT.

These colored members of the 301st Stevedore Regiment were attached to
the 23rd Engineers in France.]

[Illustration: LINED UP AND READY FOR ACTION.

Members of the 15th Infantry. Note the serious and determined expression
in their faces. They mean business and will obey orders.]

[Illustration: AT THE SIGNAL BOX READY TO SOUND THE GAS ALARM.

These men had a great responsibility placed upon them. The sounding of
the Gas Alarm quickly and accurately, when gas was detected, meant
saving the lives of many men.]

[Illustration: BOTH WORKING FOR THE Y.M.C.A.

Mr. Kelly and his colored driver at work during the last German
offensive.]

[Illustration: BAPTIZING NEGRO SOLDIERS AT CAMP GORDON.

A religious and very effective scene. These Christian men had faith and
confidence in their religion.]

[Illustration: COLORED TROOPS IN PUERTO RICO.

A brilliant Fourth of July parade through Allen Street, San Juan, Puerto
Rico.]

[Illustration: NEGRO SHARPSHOOTERS.]

[Illustration: NEGRO CHILDREN WEAVING CLOTH.

Recently photographed in Kamerun, the last of the German provinces in
Africa to surrender to the Allies. Illustrating child labor at the
lowest possible cost.]

[Illustration: AFRICAN NEGROES IN KAMERUN, SHOWING NATIVE HEADDRESS.

These pictures were photographed in Fumban, the largest and most densely
populated section of Kamerun, one of Germany's colonies in Africa
captured by the Allies.]

[Illustration: NATIVE CHILDREN SPINNING COTTON IN KAMERUN, AFRICA.

Kamerun was the last German province in Africa to hold out against the
Allies. This picture was taken by the Allies since they captured the
Colony. The natives were never before photographed.]

[Illustration: Africa and the World Democracy

HOW AFRICA WAS DIVIDED UP AMONG THE NATIONS OF EUROPE BEFORE THE WAR]

                                           _Area_
          _Country_                    _Sq. Miles_              _Populat'n_
          British Empire                 3,700,000               52,325,000
          France                         4,641,000               29,577,000
          Germany                          931,000               13,420,000
          Portugal                         749,000                8,244,000
          Italy                            593,000                1,579,000
          Belgium (Belgian Congo)          909,000               15,000,000
          Spain                             88,000                  660,000

                                      INDEPENDENT STATES
          Abyssinia                        432,000                8,000,000
          Liberia                           40,000                1,800,000

[Illustration: AFRICAN TROOPS BEING TRAINED IN FRANCE.

These husky fighters are bound to deliver the goods.]


TRIBUTE TO AMERICAN SOLDIERS.

"But it is not the physical scale and executive efficiency of
preparation, supply, equipment and dispatch that I would dwell upon, but
the mettle and quality of the officers and men we sent over and of the
sailors who kept the seas, and the spirit of the Nation that stood
behind them. No soldiers, or sailors, ever proved themselves more
quickly ready for the test of battle or acquitted themselves with more
splendid courage and achievement when put to the test. Those of us who
played some part in directing the great processes by which the war was
pushed irresistibly forward to the final triumph may now forget all that
and delight our thoughts with the story of what our men did. Their
officers understood the grim and exacting task they had undertaken and
performed with audacity, efficiency, and unhesitating courage that touch
the story of convoy and battle with imperishable distinction at every
turn, whether the enterprise were great or small--from their chiefs,
Pershing and Sims, down to the youngest lieutenant; and their men were
worthy of them--such men as hardly need to be commanded, and go to their
terrible adventure blithely and with the quick intelligence of those who
know just what it is they would accomplish. I am proud to be the
fellow-countryman of men of such stuff and valor. Those of us who stayed
at home did our duty; the war could not have been won or the gallant men
who fought it given their opportunity to win it otherwise; but for many
a long day we shall think ourselves 'accursed we were not there, and
hold our manhoods cheap while any speaks that fought' with these at St.
Mihiel or Thierry. The memory of those days of triumphant battle will go
with these fortunate men to their graves; and each will have his
favorite memory. 'Old men forget; yet all shall be forgot, but he'll
remember with advantages what feats he did that day!'

"What we all thank God for with deepest gratitude is that our men went
in force into the line of battle just at the critical moment, and threw
their fresh strength into the ranks of freedom in time to turn the whole
tide and sweep of the fateful struggle--turn it once for all, so that
henceforth it was back, back, back for their enemies, always back, never
again forward! After that it was only a scant four months before the
commanders of the Central empires knew themselves beaten, and now their
very empires are in liquidation!


SPLENDID SPIRIT OF THE NATION.

"And throughout it all how fine the spirit of the Nation was; what unity
of purpose, what untiring zeal! What elevation of purpose ran through
all its splendid display of strength, its untiring accomplishment. I
have said that those of us who stayed at home to do the work of
organization and supply will always wish that we had been with the men
whom we sustained by our labor; but we can never be ashamed. It has been
an inspiring thing to be here in the midst of fine men who had turned
aside from every private interest of their own and devoted the whole of
their trained capacity to the tasks that supplied the sinews of the
whole great undertaking! The patriotism, the unselfishness, the
thoroughgoing devotion and distinguished capacity that marked their
toilsome labors, day after day, month after month, have made them fit
mates and comrades of the men in the trenches and on the sea. And not
the men here in Washington only. They have but directed the vast
achievement. Throughout innumerable factories, upon innumerable farms,
in the depths of coal mines and iron mines and copper mines, wherever
the stuffs of industry were to be obtained and prepared, in the
shipyards, on the railways, at the docks, on the sea, in every labor
that was needed to sustain the battle lines men have vied with each
other to do their part and do it well. They can look any man-at-arms in
the face, and say, we also strove to win and gave the best that was in
us to make our fleets and armies sure of their triumph!


PATRIOTIC WOMEN OF AMERICA.

"And what shall we say of the women--of their instant intelligence,
quickening every task that they touched; their capacity for
organization and co-operation, which gave their action discipline and
enhanced the effectiveness of everything they attempted; their aptitude
at tasks to which they had never before set their hands; their utter
self-sacrificing alike in what they did and in what they gave? Their
contribution to the great result is beyond appraisal. They have added a
new luster to the annals of American womanhood.

"The least tribute we can pay them is to make them the equals of men in
political rights, as they have proved themselves their equals in every
field of practical work they have entered, whether for themselves or for
their country. These great days of completed achievement would be sadly
marred were we to omit that act of justice. Besides the immense
practical services they have rendered, the women of the country have
been the moving spirits in the systematic economies by which our people
have voluntarily assisted to supply the suffering peoples of the world
and the armies upon every front with food and everything else that we
had that might serve the common cause. The details of such a story can
never be fully written, but we carry them in our hearts and thank God
that we can say we are the kinsmen of such.


RESUME THE WORK OF PEACE.

"And now we are sure of the great triumph for which every sacrifice was
made. It has come, come in its completeness, and with the pride and
inspiration of these days of achievement quick within us we turn to the
tasks of peace again--a peace secure against the violence of
irresponsible monarchs and ambitious military coteries and made ready
for a new order, for new foundations of justice and fair dealing.

"We are about to give order and organization to this peace, not only
for ourselves, but for the other peoples of the world as well, so far as
they will suffer us to serve them. It is international justice that we
seek, not domestic safety merely....

"So far as our domestic affairs are concerned the problem of our return
to peace is a problem of economic and industrial readjustment. That
problem is less serious for us than it may turn out to be for the
nations which have suffered the disarrangements and the losses of war
longer than we. Our people, moreover, do not wait to be coached and led.
They know their own business, are quick and resourceful at every
readjustment, definite in purpose and self-reliant in action. Any
leading strings we might seek to put them in would speedily become
hopelessly tangled because they would pay no attention to them and go
their own way. All that we can do as their legislative and executive
servants is to mediate the process of change here, there and elsewhere
as we may. I have heard much counsel as to the plans that should be
formed and personally conducted to a happy consummation, but from no
quarter have I seen any general scheme of reconstruction emerge which I
thought it likely we could force our spirited business men and
self-reliant laborers to accept with due pliancy and obedience.


ORGANIZATION FOR WAR.

"While the war lasted we set up many agencies by which to direct the
industries of the country in the services it was necessary for them to
render, by which to make sure of an abundant supply of the materials
needed, by which to check undertakings that could for the time be
dispensed with and stimulate those that were most serviceable in war, by
which to gain for the purchasing departments of the government a certain
control over the prices of essential articles and materials, by which
to restrain trade with alien enemies, make the most of the available
shipping and systematize financial transactions, both public and
private, so that there would be no unnecessary conflict or confusion--by
which, in short, to put every material energy of the country in harness
to draw the common load and make of us one team in accomplishment of a
great task.

"But the moment we knew the armistice to have been signed we took the
harness off. Raw materials upon which the government had kept its hand
for fear there should not be enough for the industries that supplied the
armies have been released, and put into the general market again. Great
industrial plants whose whole output and machinery had been taken over
for the uses of the government have been set free to return to the uses
to which they were put before the war. It has not been possible to
remove so readily or so quickly the control of foodstuffs and of
shipping, because the world has still to be fed from our granaries and
the ships are still needed to send supplies to our men oversea and to
bring the men back as fast as the disturbed conditions on the other side
of the water permit; but even there restraints are being relaxed as much
as possible, and more and more as the weeks go by.

"Never before have there been agencies in existence in this country
which knew so much of the field of supply of labor, and of industry as
the War Industries Board, the War Trade Board, the Labor Department, the
Food Administration and the Fuel Administration have known since their
labors became thoroughly systematized; and they have not been isolated
agencies; they have been directed by men which represented the permanent
departments of the government and so have been the centers of unified
and co-operative action. It has been the policy of the Executive,
therefore, since the armistice was assured (which is in effect a
complete submission of the enemy) to put the knowledge of these bodies
at the disposal of the business men of the country and to offer their
intelligent mediation at every point and in every matter where it was
desired. It is surprising how fast the process of return to a peace
footing has moved in the three weeks since the fighting stopped. It
promises to outrun any inquiry that may be instituted and any aid that
may be offered. It will not be easy to direct it any better than it will
direct itself. The American business man is of quick initiative....


OUTLINE OF WORK IN PARIS.

"I welcome this occasion to announce to the Congress my purpose to join
in Paris the representatives of the governments with which we have been
associated in the war against the Central Empires for the purpose of
discussing with them the main features of the treaty of peace. I realize
the great inconveniences that will attend my leaving the country,
particularly at this time, but the conclusion that it was my paramount
duty to go has been forced upon me by considerations which I hope will
seem as conclusive to you as they have seemed to me.

"The Allied governments have accepted the bases of peace which I
outlined to the Congress on the 8th of January last, as the Central
Empires also have, and very reasonably desire my personal counsel in
their interpretation and application, and it is highly desirable that I
should give it, in order that the sincere desire of our government to
contribute without selfish purpose of any kind to settlements that will
be of common benefit to all the nations concerned may be made fully
manifest. The peace settlements which are now to be agreed upon are of
transcendent importance both to us and to the rest of the world, and I
know of no business or interest which should take precedence of them.
The gallant men of our armed forces on land and sea have consciously
fought for the ideals which they knew to be the ideals of their country;
I have sought to express those ideals; they have accepted my statements
of them as the substance of their own thought and purpose, as the
associated governments have accepted them; I owe it to them to see to
it, so far as in me lies, that no false or mistaken interpretation is
put upon them, and no possible effort omitted to realize them. It is now
my duty to play my full part in making good what they offered their
life's blood to obtain. I can think of no call to service which could
transcend this....


SUPPORT OF NATION URGED.

"May I not hope, gentlemen of the Congress, that in the delicate tasks I
shall have to perform on the other side of the sea in my efforts truly
and faithfully to interpret the principles and purposes of the country
we love, I may have the encouragement and the added strength of your
united support? I realize the magnitude and difficulty of the duty I am
undertaking. I am poignantly aware of its grave responsibilities. I am
the servant of the Nation. I can have no private thought or purpose of
my own in performing such an errand. I go to give the best that is in me
to the common settlements which I must now assist in arriving at in
conference with the other working heads of the associated governments. I
shall count upon your friendly countenance and encouragement. I shall
not be inaccessible. The cables and the wireless will render me
available for any counsel or service you may desire of me, and I shall
be happy in the thought that I am constantly in touch with the weighty
matters of domestic policy with which we shall have to deal. I shall
make my absence as brief as possible and shall hope to return with the
happy assurance that it has been possible to translate into action the
great ideals for which America has striven."


PRESIDENT WILSON'S DIPLOMATIC MISSION.

In accordance with this message, President Wilson broke the traditions
of more than a century, and took upon himself the deep responsibility of
a diplomatic mission. He went as the representative of one of the great
belligerent powers to confer with the premiers and leading diplomats of
Europe to frame, not only a peace of justice to terminate the World War,
but--if possible--to organize a League of Nations, henceforth making
such cataclysms an impossibility.



CHAPTER IV.

THE FLASH THAT SET THE WORLD AFLAME.

TEUTONS FIND IN A MURDER THE EXCUSE FOR WAR--GERMANY INSPIRED BY AMBITIONS
FOR WORLD CONTROL--THE STRUGGLE FOR COMMERCIAL SUPREMACY A FACTOR--THE
UNDERLYING MOTIVES.


The assassination of the Archduke Francis Ferdinand, heir apparent to
the throne of Austria, together with his wife, in Bosnia, during the
last days of June, 1914, is commonly regarded as the blow which forged
the chain that bound the European powers in bloody warfare. The tragedy
was the signal for putting on the world stage the greatest war play of
all times.

When Austria, regarding the murder of the Archduke as a National
affront, precipitated the conflict which has convulsed the universe, she
marked the way easy for Imperial Germany to put into effect a
long-contemplated plan for territorial expansion, and to wage a warfare
so insidious, so brutal and so ruthless in its character as to amaze the
civilized world.

Word-pictures were drawn, so to speak, of a mighty nation striving to
burst iron bands that were slowly strangling her, and her perfectly
natural wish to find outlets for her rapidly growing population and
commerce. Germany sought to obtain "a place in the sun," to use one of
the Kaiser's most unfortunate expressions, and the world soon found that
the "place" included the territory embracing a few ports on the English
channel, with control of Holland and Belgium, Poland, the Balkan
countries, a big slice of Asia Minor, Egypt, English and French colonies
in Africa, not to mention remote possibilities.

Germany's ambitions may have been laudable, but her methods of trying to
satisfy these ambitions were not such as to either gain for her the
"solar warmth" which she sought to win, or gain for her the friendship
of the nations of the civilized world. The drama which Germany directed
moved swiftly in this wise:

Austria claimed that Servia, as a Nation, was responsible for the
assassination of the Archduke in Bosnia. She sent an ultimatum to
Belgrade, making demands which the Servians could not admit. Thereupon
Austria declared war and moved across the Danube with her army.


THE FOUR GROUPS.

Austria's attack threatened to disturb the balance of power, because at
the time the continent was divided into four groups: The close alliance
of the central powers--Germany, Austria and Italy--referred to as the
Triple Alliance or Dreibund; the Triple Entente, or understanding
between Great Britain, France and Russia; the smaller group whose
neutrality and integrity had been guaranteed, or at least
recognized--Belgium, Denmark, Holland and the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg,
sandwiched in between Germany, France and Belgium, together with
Switzerland. The fourth group included the Balkan nations: Bulgaria,
Servia, Montenegro, Greece, Turkey and Roumania, all drawn close to
Russia; Norway and Sweden, and the Iberian nations, Spain and Portugal.
The increase in the power of one of these groups would at any time have
been sufficient to precipitate a war, but in the movement of Austria
against Servia there entered a racial element. There was a threatened
drawing of another Slavonic peoples into the Teutonic system. Besides
this, the action let loose the flood of militarism which civilization
had been holding in check.

With this situation in mind, it is easy to understand how Germany could
precipitate a world conflict by attempting to keep open the way to the
near East, and controlling the markets as against Britain, France and
Russia. Back of all this was the question of commercial supremacy,
Germany showing her intention of keeping the way open to the near East
and dominating the markets as against Britain, France and Russia.

Russia could not stand by and see one of her Slavonic wards crushed, and
France, which held the Russian national debt, prepared to support her
debtor, whereupon Germany, threatened on both sides, struck. In doing so
the Kaiser ignored the rights of the small neutral states, invaded
Belgium and brought his armies within threatening distance of England.
France prepared to defend her country against Germany, and England,
alarmed by the move of Germany and sympathizing with Belgium, struck
back to avert the disaster which she felt must follow the German
movement, which had been threatening for years.


REGARDED EACH OTHER WITH SUSPICION.

All attempts to maintain a balance of power between the European
countries were from time to time jeopardized by various developments.
The elements in the continental group struggled against each other, and
the Nations, while seemingly at rest, regarded each other with
suspicion. One of the underlying forces that the world knew must at some
time be felt was of racial origin. The historical explanations of the
war would involve the retelling of almost everything that has happened
in Europe for more than a century.

But it is necessary to the long train of evil consequences which have
followed the interference of other powers in the settlement of affairs
between Russia and Turkey after the war of 1877, when Russia was
victorious. Russia and Turkey had agreed upon a large Bulgaria and an
enlarged and independent Servia, but at the Berlin Congress, which
Austria had taken the initiative in calling, Austria showed that she
wished to have as much as possible of this Christian territory of
Southeastern Europe kept under the domination or nominal authority of
Turkey. Austria feared Russia's influence with the new countries of
Servia, Roumania, Bulgaria and Montenegro, and therefore she desired to
have this territory remain Turkish by influence, to the end that she
might some day acquire part or all of it for herself.

One of the articles of the agreement of Berlin turned Bosnia and
Herzegovina over to Austria for temporary occupation and management.
Austria was a trustee of the country which lies between Servia and the
Adriatic sea, and while Austria's management was efficient, Servia
looked forward to the time when a union could be effected with Bosnia,
which would provide Servia with an outlet to the sea.


THE SERVIANS EMBITTERED.

But when Russia fell humiliated by the Japanese and the Young Turks
reformed their government, and there was prospect that the Turks might
demand the evacuation of Bosnia by Austria, the powers that had engaged
in the Berlin treaty were informed that Austria had decided to make
Bosnia and Herzegovina a part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The
Servians were embittered, because this stood in the way of their
attaining their ideals, and their country was landlocked.

With this bitterness rankling in her national breast, Servia joined
forces with Bulgaria, Greece and Montenegro to drive the Turks out of
Europe. The larger powers, including Austria, tried to prevent the
action, but the heroic Balkan struggle is a matter of history. Servia
was to have secured as a share of the conquered territory a portion of
Albania, on the Adriatic. This would have compensated her for the loss
of Bosnia, but the great powers, led by Austria, stepped in, and a plan
was devised of making Albania an independent state or principality, with
a German prince to rule over it.

The Servians were bitter, and both Servia and Greece demanded of
Bulgaria portions of the territory acquired in the war and which had
originally been assigned to Bulgaria as her share. Bulgaria stood upon
her technical rights and precipitated the last Balkan war, which was
really made possible, or probable, by the Austrian policy. When the war
was concluded Servia had acquired more territory to the south, but she
remained a landlocked country, with Bosnia, Montenegro and Albania
stretching between her and the Adriatic sea.

This was the situation when the assassination of the Archduke Ferdinand
and his wife occurred in Bosnia. The Archduke was, in effect, a joint
ruler with the Emperor Franz Joseph, who was nearly 84 years of age, and
the entire world realized that great events were likely to follow the
killing of the heir apparent to the Austro-Hungarian throne. The murder
was committed by a young Servian fanatic, and Austria determined to hold
Servia responsible for the murder, and therefore presented her
now-famous ultimatum.


NO CAUSE FOR WAR.

Students of history hold that if there had been a proper respect for the
commendable desire of the Christian peoples in European Turkey to throw
off the Turkish yoke and become self-governing states, there would have
been no cause for war, so far as relates to Servia and the situation
which precipitated the conflict. There would have been developed a
series of peaceful and progressive countries of the non-military type of
Denmark, Sweden and Holland.

A wiser treatment of the Balkan problem might have averted the war, but
it could not have set aside racial differences, nor could it have ended
the curse of militarism or set at rest the distrust and fear which it
promotes.

The end of European militarism might have come about, however, through a
better understanding between Germany and France. This might have been
arrived at years ago if Germany had opened the Alsace-Lorraine question,
and had rearranged the boundary line between the two countries so that
the French-speaking communities lost in the Franco-Prussian war be ceded
back to France. The cost of maintaining the feud over Alsace-Lorraine
has been a burden to both France and Germany, and the progress which
Germany has made in world affairs, despite the burden of militarism
which she has earned, is one of the marvels of the century. And the
situation compelled France to maintain a defensive military organization
which was as great a burden to her and barrier to world peace as the
military burden of Germany.


STRAIN BETWEEN GERMANY AND RUSSIA.

Whether Germany conspired to bring on the war so that she could wage a
campaign of aggression has not yet been made clear, but the strain
between Germany and Russia had been growing for some time, and the
assassination of the Teutonic heir, Francis Ferdinand, by a ward of
Russia, created an occasion which gave Germany an opportunity to fight,
without being compelled to directly precipitate the conflict. Russia
could do naught else but come to the aid of Servia, and Germany by
reason of her alliance with Austria must aid the latter country.

Germany anticipated the entry of Italy into the conflict as the third
member of the Triple Alliance, but Italy did not regard Germany's action
as defensive and declined to aid Austria. Germany had made overtures to
Great Britain, but England had an understanding with France, which was
in the nature of a limited alliance, and Germany might have kept England
out of the struggle; but Germany proceeded with a plan to invade France
by way of Belgium, which was in violation of international agreement
establishing Belgium's neutrality and independence. Germany had nothing
to gain by choosing the Belgium route, for the fact is that even had the
Belgian government approved the movement, there must have been a French
counter-movement, which would have made Belgium the theatre of war just
the same.

Pan-Germanism has been described as one of the underlying motives in the
world war, and Pan-Slavism has always opposed Pan-Germanism.
Pan-Germanism is described as a well-defined policy or movement which
seeks the common welfare of the Germanic peoples of all Europe and the
advance of Teutonic culture, while Pan-Slavism, represented by Russia,
seeks in the main the uniting of all the Slavonic folk for common
welfare. The contact between these two has always been seething, and the
racial differences made burdensome the arbitrary alignment and political
geography arranged by the Berlin Congress.


OUTLETS TO THE WORLD'S MARKET.

The commercial side, however, was a big factor, for Germany sought world
markets for its products. In the near East are the grain fields of
Mesopotamia, and in the far East are the vast markets of India and
China. The great banking and financial interests of Europe have been
seeking the conquest of Asia for nearly half a century. German capital
built railroads through Asia Minor, but English capital controls the
Suez Canal. Russia welded the Balkan states until the Slavonic wedge
from the Black sea to the Adriatic barred Germany's way to the Orient.
England threatened the Kaiser's expansion on the sea; while Russia, on
one side, with France her strong ally, closed the Germans in on opposite
sides. So Germany must have outlets to the world markets.

The religious element was also a factor in the affairs of Europe, for
the territory has been divided into four large religious groups for
centuries. Moslems counted several millions of Turks, Bosnians and
Albanians in Europe, the Protestants among the Germans, English, Swiss
and Hungarians number about 100,000,000, while the Roman Catholics in
all the Latin countries, Southern Germany, Croatia, Albania, Bohemia,
and in Russian Austria and Russian Poland are about 180,000,000. The
Greek Catholics in Russia, the Balkan countries and a few provinces in
the Austrian Empire number more than 110,000,000.

The differences in religion have precipitated many European struggles,
but for more than a century the countries have been forced to assume an
attitude of tolerance, so that churches other than those established by
the State have thrived; But just what influence religions may have had
in the various incidents of the war it is difficult to determine.

The outstanding fact is that but for the arrogant, militaristic policy
of Imperial Germany, the differences between nations might have been
settled, and almost indescribable horrors of the war would never have
been experienced.



CHAPTER V.

WHY AMERICA ENTERED THE WAR.

THE IRON HAND OF PRUSSIANISM--THE ARROGANT HOHENZOLLERN
ATTITUDE--SECRETARY LANE TELLS WHY WE FIGHT--BROKEN PLEDGES--LAWS
VIOLATED--PRUSSIANISM THE CHILD OF BARBARITY--GERMANY'S PLANS FOR A
WORLD EMPIRE.


Not merely to prevent Germany from opening avenues of commerce to the
seas nor to throttle the ambitions of the Kaiser was America drawn into
the vortex of war with France, England, Russia, Belgium, Italy and other
nations; but that the iron hand of Prussianism, as exemplified in the
conduct of the German Government, might be lifted from the shoulders of
men, and the world given that measure of peace and security which modern
civilization demands.

Germany by her ruthless submarine warfare brought desolation to many
American homes. She sank without a pang of conscience the great
transatlantic steamship Lusitania, and, while pretending friendship for
the United States and pleading no intent to disregard American rights,
broke her own pledges and repeated her overt acts, ignoring
international law and the rights of all neutrals at sea.

She began her outlawry by the invasion of Belgium, which was followed by
conduct on the part of the German forces which clearly marked them
descendants of the "wolf tribes" of feudal days, fighting with the motto
before them of, "To the victor belong the spoils."

But all of Germany's diabolical acts involving the peace and security of
America and American citizens might have been the subject of
international adjudication but for the arrogance of the ruling forces of
the Teutons. In a broad sense, Prussianism is credited with
responsibility for the devastating war and for the policy which drew
America into the conflict.

The country, led by President Woodrow Wilson, who temporized to an
extent that for a time made him the subject of bitter criticism, found
that war was being forced upon it by an autocratic and ambitious German
Government--that of the Hohenzollern dynasty--which possessed an insane
ambition to dominate the earth, leaving to America no alternative but to
borrow the piratical terrorism of Imperialistic Germany, with temporary
abandonment of its own constitutional free government, and join the
Allies to defend it.

In the sense which Prussianism or militarism is here used it denotes a
mental attitude or view. It is a condition of mind which is partisan,
exaggerated and egotistical, and is developed by environment and
training. Just as the professional spirit in any other occupation leads
to an exhibition of exaggerated importance, the despotic doctrine of
militarism assumes superiority over rational motives and deliberations.
Everything must be sacrificed to perpetuate and maintain the honor and
prestige of the military.


WHAT MILITARISM IS.

What that militarism is and what it has done to America, and to the
whole world, is best summed up in the words of Secretary Lane, of the
Department of the Interior, at Washington, who in an address before the
Home Club of the Department on June 4, 1917, just when America was
beginning to send forces to Europe, said:

"America is at war in self-defense and because she could not keep out;
she is at war to save herself with the rest of the world from the nation
that has linked itself with the Turk and adopted the methods of Mahomet,
setting itself to make the world bow before policies backed by the
organized and scientific military system.

"Why are we fighting Germany? The brief answer is that ours is a war of
self-defense. We did not wish to fight Germany. She made the attack upon
us; not on our shores, but on our ships, our lives, our rights, our
future. For two years and more we held to a neutrality that made us
apologists for things which outraged man's common sense of fair play and
humanity.

"At each new offense--the invasion of Belgium, the killing of civilian
Belgians, the attacks on Scarborough and other defenseless towns, the
laying of mines in neutral waters, the fencing off of the seas--and on
and on through the months, we said:

"'This is war--archaic, uncivilized war, but war. All rules have been
thrown away; all nobility; man has come down to the primitive brute. And
while we cannot justify, we cannot intervene. It is not our war.'


IN WAR TO DEFEND RIGHTS.

"Then why are we in? Because we could not keep out. The invasion of
Belgium, which opened the war, led to the invasion of the United States
by slow, steady, logical steps. Our sympathies evolved into a conviction
of self-interest. Our love of fair play ripened into alarm at our own
peril.

"We talked in the language and in the spirit of good faith and
sincerity, as honest men should talk, until we discovered that our talk
was construed as cowardice. And Mexico was called upon to cow us.

"We talked as men would talk who cared alone for peace and the
advancement of their own material interests, until we discovered that we
were thought to be a nation of mere moneymakers, devoid of all
character--until, indeed, we were told that we could not walk the
highways of the world without permission of a Prussian soldier, that our
ships might not sail without wearing a striped uniform of humiliation
upon a narrow path of national subservience.

"We talked as men talk who hope for honest agreement, not for war, until
we found that the treaty torn to pieces at Liege was but the symbol of a
policy that made agreements worthless against a purpose that knew no
word but success.

"And so we came into this war for ourselves. It is a war to save
America, to preserve self-respect, to justify our right to live as we
have lived, not as some one else wishes us to live. In the name of
freedom we challenge with ships and men, money and an undaunted spirit,
that word 'verboten' which Germany has written upon the sea and upon the
land.

"For America is not the name of so much territory. It is a living
spirit, born in travail, grown in the rough school of bitter
experiences, a living spirit which has purpose and pride and conscience,
knows why it wishes to live and to what end, knows how it comes to be
respected of the world, and hopes to retain that respect by living on
with the light of Lincoln's love of man as its old and new testaments.


AMERICA MUST LIVE.

"It is more precious that this America should live than that we
Americans should live. And this America as we now see has been
challenged from the first of this war by the strong arm of a power that
has no sympathy with our purpose, and will not hesitate to destroy us if
the law that we respect, the rights that are to us sacred, or the spirit
that we have, stand across her set will to make this world bow before
her policies, backed by her organized and scientific military system.
The world of Christ--a neglected but not a rejected Christ--has come
again face to face with the world of Mahomet, who willed to win by
force.

"With this background of history and in this sense, then, we fight
Germany:

"Because of Belgium--invaded, outraged, enslaved, impoverished Belgium.
We cannot forget Liege, Louvain and Cardinal Mercier. Translated into
terms of American history these names stand for Bunker Hill, Lexington
and Patrick Henry.

"Because of France--invaded, desecrated France, a million of whose
heroic sons have died to save the land of Lafayette. Glorious, golden
France, the preserver of the arts, the land of noble spirit. The first
land to follow our lead into republican liberty.

"Because of England--from whom came the laws, traditions, standards of
life and inherent love of liberty which we call Anglo-Saxon
civilization. We defeated her once upon the land and once upon sea. But
Australia, New Zealand, Africa and Canada are free because of what we
did. And they are with us in the fight for the freedom of the seas.

"Because of Russia--new Russia. She must not be overwhelmed now. Not
now, surely, when she is just born into freedom. Her peasants must have
their chance; they must go to school to Washington, to Jefferson and to
Lincoln, until they know their way about in this new, strange world, of
government by the popular will; and

"Because of other peoples, with their rising hope that the world may be
freed from government by the soldier.


GERMANY'S CRIMES AGAINST US.

"We are fighting Germany because she sought to terrorize us and then to
fool us. We could not believe that Germany would do what she said she
would do upon the seas.

"We still hear the piteous cries of children coming up out of the sea
where the Lusitania went down. And Germany has never asked forgiveness
of the world.

"We saw the Sussex sunk, crowded with the sons and daughters of neutral
nations.

"We saw ship after ship sent to the bottom--ships of mercy bound out of
America for the Belgian starving; ships carrying the Red Cross and laden
with the wounded of all nations; ships carrying food and clothing to
friendly, harmless, terrorized peoples; ships flying the Stars and
Stripes--sent to the bottom hundreds of miles from shore, manned by
American seamen, murdered against all law, without warning.

"We believed Germany's promise that she would respect the neutral flag
and the rights of neutrals, and we held our anger and outrage in check.
But now we see that she was holding us off with fair promises until she
could build her huge fleet of submarines. For when spring came she blew
her promise into the air, just as at the beginning she had torn up that
'scrap of paper.' Then we saw clearly that there was but one law for
Germany, her will to rule.

"We are fighting Germany because she violated our confidence. Paid
German spies filled our cities. Officials of her Government, received as
the guests of this nation, lived with us to bribe and terrorize, defying
our law and the law of nations.

"We are fighting Germany because while we were yet her friends--the only
great power that still held hands off--she sent the Zimmermann note
calling to her aid Mexico, our southern neighbor, and hoping to lure
Japan, our western neighbor, into war against this nation of peace.


GOVERNMENT THAT HAS NO CONSCIENCE.

"The nation that would do these things proclaims the gospel that
government has no conscience. And this doctrine cannot live, or else
democracy must die! For the nations of the world must keep faith. There
can be no living for us in a world where the State has no conscience, no
reverence for the things of the spirit, no respect for international
law, no mercy for those who fall before its force. What an unordered
world! Anarchy! The anarchy of the rival wolf packs!

"We are fighting Germany because in this war feudalism is making its
last stand against oncoming democracy. We see it now. This is a war
against an old spirit, an ancient, outworn spirit. It is a war against
feudalism--the right of the castle on the hill to rule the village
below. It is a war of democracy--the right of all to be their own
masters. Let Germany be feudal if she will! But she must not spread her
system over a world that has outgrown it. Feudalism plus science,
thirteenth century plus twentieth; this is the religion of the mistaken
Germany that has linked itself with the Turk; that has, too, adopted the
method of Mahomet: 'The State has no conscience,' 'the State can do no
wrong.' With the spirit of the fanatic, she believes this gospel and
that it is her duty to spread it by force.

"With poison gas that makes living a hell, with submarines that sneak
through the seas to slyly murder non-combatants, with dirigibles that
bombard men and women while they sleep, with a perfected system of
terrorization that the modern world first heard of when German troops
entered China, German feudalism is making war upon mankind.


LIVE IN HAUNTED TERROR.

"Let this old spirit of evil have its way and no man will live in
America without paying toll to it, in manhood and in money. This spirit
might demand Canada from a defeated, navyless England, and then our
dream of peace on the north would be at an end. We would live, as France
has lived for forty years, in haunting terror.

"America speaks for the world in fighting Germany. Mark on a map those
countries which are Germany's allies, and you will mark but four,
running from the Baltic through Austria and Bulgaria to Turkey. All the
other nations, the whole globe around, are in arms against her or are
unable to move. There is deep meaning in this.

"We fight with the world for an honest world, in which nations keep
their word; for a world in which nations do not live by swagger or by
threat; for a world in which men think of the ways in which they can
conquer the common cruelties of nature instead of inventing more
horrible cruelties to inflict upon the spirit and body of man; for a
world in which the ambition or the philosophy of a few shall not make
miserable all mankind; for a world in which the man is held more
precious than the machine, the system or the State."

In his denunciations of the Imperial German Government President Wilson
and his advisers have indicted the House of Hohenzollern, of which
Emperor Wilhelm is the head, and which has developed the unbending
military spirit which has resulted in Germany being counted an outcast
among the nations of the world.

America, it must be noted, has no antipathy for the Germans as a race,
but modern civilization opposes that form of Government which has
permitted the cruel characteristics of the "wolf tribes" of feudal times
to be carried down through the generations, and capitalized by the
Imperial powers to bring terror to the hearts of all who do not bow to
the iron hand of the Kaiser and his ilk.


GERMANY A WARLIKE RACE.

The thing from which this Prussianism--this militarism--grew is easily
traceable down the German ages. The very first appearance of the Germans
in history is as a warlike race. The earliest German literature is
composed of folk tales about war heroes--their ideals and manly virtues.
And this ideal in one form or another, under varying circumstances and
conditions, persisted throughout the centuries.

It is not merely that military service has been compulsory in Germany,
but that almost everything else has been subjugated to the development
of the army. While Germany has given to the world a generous quota of
scientists, industrial geniuses, musicians and poets, the whole race is
imbued with the warlike spirit and its influence is manifest in every
phase of national life. Practically all that is best in the nation in
the way of efficiency has been inspired or may be traced to the military
discipline to which the people have been subjected for years. They have
been created human machines, trained to obey orders and to perform the
services to which they are assigned without protest and without
question.

The history of Germany began with Henry, the Fowler, about A.D. 929,
who was essentially the first sovereign. He developed the system of
margraves or wardens to guard the frontiers of the kingdom, fortified
his towns and required every ninth man to take up arms for his country.
Robbers were forced to become soldiers or be hanged, and as lawlessness
was rampant there was no dearth of material to fill up the ranks of the
army.

The margraves, or military leaders under them, grew in importance and
influence until the offices tended to become hereditary. Gradually the
country was divided into principalities, each of which maintained a
force of arms. This limited form of military rule maintained for several
centuries of troublesome times, or until about 1412, when Emperor
Sigismund appointed Burgrave Frederick, of Nuremberg, "Stratt-halter,"
or vice-regent.


BIRTH OF THE MILITARY SPIRIT.

This appointment marked the establishment of the Hohenzollerns in
Brandenburg, and, in fine, fixes the birth of the military spirit in
Germany.

Other princes of the German Reich maintained armies, but the
Hohenzollerns were destined to imprint upon the nation the military
ideal. In the beginning history says that Burgrave Frederick tried all
the arts of peace, but it was only with the army of Franks and some
artillery that he was able to batter down the castles of the robber
lords and bring order into Brandenburg.

Thomas Carlyle gives a list of twelve electors who strove in turn to
consolidate the power of Prussia, so that when Frederick the Great
became King of Prussia he found much of the work done. Among the rulers
of these strenuous days to whom the Kaiser Wilhelm may point as having
handed down to him the warlike spirit are Kurfuerst Joachim I, of
Brandenburg (1529), who introduced Roman law and established a supreme
court for all the provinces at Berlin; Kurfuerst Joachim II, of
Brandenburg (1542), whom history describes as an unscrupulous despot,
fond of luxury and display, and who changed his religion because it was
an advantage politically for him to do so; Margrave Georg Frederick von
Ansbach (1564), who caused the eyes of sixty peasants to be bored out
upon winning the Peasants' war, and Kurfuerst Frederick William der
Grosse, of Brandenburg (1652), known as the "Great Elector," a fighter,
who had two clearly defined aims: to build up agriculture and maintain a
big army.

For years the Hohenzollerns and their aides were fighting unfriendly
neighbors and quarrelsome princes, and when after the lapse of time the
Thirty Years' War finally turned Germany into a field of blood, the
Great Elector emerged from the strife with the support of about 25,000
well drilled soldiers, and freed his country from foreign foes.


HELD EUROPE AT HIS MERCY.

The establishment of the power of the Junkers--the autocrats of
Prussianism--is credited to Frederick the Great, who was the great
drillmaster who organized the Prussian army on lines of efficiency and
economy. It is related that Frederick, afterward "The Great," was taken
from his women teachers at the age of seven years and subjected to rigid
military discipline. He commanded a company of cadets, composed of the
sons of nobles who were compelled to drill for him, and at the age of
fourteen he was a captain in the Potsdam Guards, and when, in 1740, he
became king, he took the army and held all Europe at his mercy. His
successor, Frederick William II, was incapable, and the French
revolution found Germany in a state of discord.

When Frederick William III acceded to the throne in 1797 he started to
reorganize the army. Frederick William I had divided the country into
districts, or cantons, and here began the system of compulsory military
training. All males born were enrolled and liable to service when of
age. The army was recruited by districts and every district had its
regiment, though later exemptions were allowed. Under Frederick William
III, Scharnhorst, a Hanoverian, was the military reorganizer, and he
began the work with the slogan "All dwellers of the State are born
defenders of the same."

Instead of depending for its development on king, the army was directed
by genius of best men developed by the system. After the formation of
the German Empire in 1871, which placed the king of Prussia at its head,
the Constitution of the German Empire made every German a member of the
active army for seven years. Service with colors three years and with
the reserve four. In 1875 there were eighteen army corps, of which
twelve were Prussian. The strength by law in 1874 was 400,000.


PEACE STRENGTH INCREASED.

In 1881 the established peace strength was increased by thirty-four
battalions of infantry, forty batteries of field artillery and other
forces, and in 1886 Bismarck, recognizing the power of Prussianism and
its military influence, was compelled to dissolve the Reichstag, but
after the election in 1887 thirty-one other battalions and twenty-four
batteries were added. Two complete army corps were added in 1890, and in
1893 the color service, or length of time when reservists were subject
to duty under colors only, was decreased by two years, bringing the
peace strength up to more than half a million and the reservists up to
4,000,000. Step by step the strength of the military force was increased
until after the adoption of the law of 1913, when provision was made for
699 battalions of infantry; 633 batteries of field artillery; 44
battalions of engineers; 55 battalions of garrison artillery; 31
battalions of communications and 26 battalions of train troops--a grand
total of 870,000 actually in service in peace strength.

The German Empire is composed of twenty-six states--Prussia, Bavaria,
Wurttemberg, Baden, Saxony, Hesse, Mecklenburg-Schwerin,
Mecklenburg-Sterlitz, Oldenburg, Brunswick, Saxe-Weimer-Eisnach,
Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, Saxe-Meiningen, Saxe-Altenburg, Waldeck, Lippe,
Schaumburg-Lippe, Reuss (elder line), Reuss (younger line), Anhalt,
Schwarz-Rudolstadt, Schwarzburg-Sonderhausen, Hamburg, Bremen, Lubeck
and Reichsland--the Alsace-Lorraine. The area is less than that of the
State of Texas while the population according to the most recent
statistics is about 65,000,000.

Every male person between the ages of eighteen and forty-five is liable
for military service. Reservists under the rules in force when the war
started were subject to two musters annually and two periods of training
not to exceed eight weeks in duration.


EGOTISTICAL AND EXAGGERATED UTTERANCES.

That the present Emperor is imbued with the harsh military spirit of his
ancestors is illustrated by his many egotistical and exaggerated
utterances. In dedicating the monument of Prince Frederick Charles at
Frankfurt-on-the-Oder in 1891, he is quoted as having said:

"We would rather sacrifice our eighteen army corps and our 42,000,000
inhabitants on the field of battle than surrender a single stone of what
my father and Prince Frederick gained." The thrills which such
expressions arouse are born of an inveterate emotional habit, and are
responsible for the obliquity of view and conduct which has made Germany
an outcast among civilized nations.

But Germany was not satisfied with what she had obtained by her
crusading. Developments of the war prove conclusively that the Kaiser
has followed out the blood and iron politico-economic methods of
Bismarck for the development of Prussian power and that while at times
Germany has been reported to be maneuvering for peace, her peace moves
have in reality been war moves, and that a truce would only give the
Imperial Government time in which to further Prussianize and prepare
for a greater world war the territory to the southeast which she has
conquered under the guise of a friendly alliance.

It will be recalled that President Wilson declared that "America must
fight until the world is made safe for democracy." This declaration
refers immediately to the plans which Germany had developed for its
conquest. Based upon reports received by agents of the United States, of
England, of France and other countries, Germany aimed to form a
consolidation of an impregnable military and economic unit stretching
from the North Sea to the Mediterranean, cutting Europe permanently in
half, controlling the Dardanelles, the Agean and the Baltic, and
eventually forming the backbone of a Prussian world empire.


LEAGUE AT WORK SINCE 1911.

In her southeastern conquests, it is apparent, Germany followed almost
in toto the long established plan of the Pan-German League, whose
propaganda had been regarded outside of Germany as the harmless activity
of extremists, too radical to be taken seriously. Coupled with this
plan, as an instrument of economic consolidation, the German officials
used with only slight modification the system of customs union expansion
which aided Prussia in former years to extend her domination over the
other German States now making up the empire.

As early as 1911 the Pan-German League is said to have circulated a
definite propaganda of conquest, with printed appeals containing maps of
a greater Germany, whose sway from Hamburg to Constantinople and then
southeastward through Asiatic Turkey was marked out by boundaries very
coincident with the military lines held today, under German officers, by
the troops of Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria and Turkey. Adhesion of
the German Government itself to such a plan was not suspected by the
other Powers, although the propagandists were permitted to continue
their activities unhindered and to spread their appeals in a country of
strict press supervision. How closely the German Government did adhere
to the plan in reality has been demonstrated clearly by the course of
the war.

Following the footsteps of Bismarck, who used the Franco-Prussian war
alliance to bring Baden, Bavaria and Wurttemburg into the German
confederacy and then into the German Empire, Emperor William chose war
as the means of establishing the broad pathway to the southeast which
was essential for realization of the dream of a great Germany.


VERGE OF DISSOLUTION.

The subjugation of Austria-Hungary, which would have presented a
different task under ordinary conditions, became in these circumstances
comparatively very simple. A polyglot combination of States, having
little in common and apparently held together only by the decaying
genius of the aged Emperor Franz Joseph, the dual monarchy was regarded
everywhere as on the verge of dissolution. Her helplessness before
Russia's army became apparent early in the war, and the eagerness with
which Germany seized the opportunity thus presented is pointed to as
emphasizing the far-sightedness of the German plans.

Austria-Hungary's submission is declared to be complete, both in a
military and economic sense. The German officers commanding her armies,
abetted by industrial agents, scattered throughout the country by
Germany, hold the Austrian and Hungarian population in a union which
neither the hardships of war, the death of the Emperor nor the
inspiration of the outside influences, such as the Russian revolution,
can break.

Bulgaria's declaration of war on the side of Germany was actuated by a
German diplomatic coup, which in itself is regarded now as further
evidence that a clear road through to the Dardanelles was considered in
Berlin as a primary and imperative purpose of the war.

In the case of Turkey, German domination is even more complete than in
Austria-Hungary and Bulgaria. Not only have German officers led in
defending Turkish territory and in eradicating inharmonious elements,
such as the Armenians and Syrians, but German industrial organizations
have taken a firm grip on Turkish industry and a large delegation of
German professors have been spreading German kultur among the
population.

The developments threw a new light on many events before the war. Among
them the long-unexplained declaration of Emperor William at Damascus in
1898 that all Mohammedans might confidently regard the German Emperor as
"their friend forever." There also is a complete understanding now of
Germany's eagerness to obtain, in 1899, a concession for the Bagdad
railroad, an artery of communication now indispensable to the German
operations.

These are the things and conditions to which the Allies referred when in
replying to one of President Wilson's peace notes they declared that war
must accomplish the "liberation of Italians, of Slavs, of Rumanians and
of Tzecho-Slovacs from foreign domination; the enfranchisement of
populations subject to the bloody tyranny of the Turk; the expulsion
from Europe of the Ottoman Empire, and the restoration of Servia,
Montenegro and Rumania."

America entered the war to fight for Democracy. On the surface the
United States pledged itself to protect its ships and make secure the
lives of its citizens on the highways of the world, but the principles
for which the manhood of the country were called to fight have been
summarized as follows:

That the nations of the world shall co-operate and not compete. The
paradox of history is that every struggle leads to firmer unity. Wars
cemented France, unified the British Empire, consolidated the American
Union.

That national armaments be limited to purposes of internal police, no
nation be allowed to have a force sufficient to be a menace to general
peace, and a League of Peace be formed which shall have at its hand
sufficient armed power to compel order among the States.

That nations be governed by the people that compose them, and for the
benefit of those people, and not of a ruling class.

That every nation be governed with an eye to the welfare of the whole
world as well as to its own prosperity or glory, and patriotism properly
subjected to humanity.

That the power of government be dissociated from advancing the profits
of capital, and made always to mean the welfare of labor.

That security of life, freedom of worship and opinion, and liberty of
movement be assured to all men everywhere.

That no munitions or instruments of death be manufactured except under
control of the International Council of the World.

That the seas be free to all.

That tariffs be adjusted with a view to the general welfare and not as
measures of national rivalry.

That railways, telegraph, and telephone lines, and all other common and
necessary means of intercommunication be eventually nationalized.

That every human being in a country be conscripted to devote a certain
part of his or her life to national service.

That both labor unions and combinations of capital be under strict
government control, so that no irresponsible group may conspire against
the commonwealth.

That every child receive training to equip him or her for self-support
and intelligent citizenship.

That woman shall enjoy every right of citizenship.

That the civil shall always have precedence over the military authority.

And that the right of free speech, of a free press, and of assembly
shall remain inviolate.



CHAPTER VI.

THE THINGS THAT MADE MEN MAD.

GERMANY'S BARBARITY--THE DEVASTATION OF BELGIUM--HUMAN FIENDS--FIREBRAND
AND TORCH--RAPE AND PILLAGE--THE SACKING OF LOUVAIN--WANTON
DESTRUCTION--OFFICIAL PROOF.


The conduct of Germany in ignoring international treaties and invading
Belgium first aroused the antagonism of the United States and the rest
of the civilized world, and furnished the primary glimpse of how
Imperialism made light of human rights. What the Kaiser and his arrogant
followers did is fully set forth in the report which a special envoy,
appointed by King Albert of Belgium, laid before President Wilson on
September 16, 1914.

The mission consisted of Henry Carton de Wiart, Minister of Justice;
Messrs. de Sadeleer, Hymans and Vandervelde, Ministers of State, and
Count Louis de Lichtervelde, serving as secretary of the mission. On
being received by President Wilson, Mr. de Wiart, for the mission,
outlined for the world and for America, the situation in part as
follows:

"His Majesty, the King of the Belgians, has charged us with a special
mission to the President of the United States. Let me say how much we
feel ourselves honored to have been called upon to express the
sentiments of our King and of our whole nation to the illustrious
statesman whom the American people have called to the highest dignity of
the commonwealth.

"Ever since her independence was first established, Belgium has been
declared neutral in perpetuity. This neutrality, guaranteed by the
Powers, has recently been violated by one of them. Had we consented to
abandon our neutrality for the benefit of one of the belligerents, we
would have betrayed our obligations toward the others. And it was the
sense of our international obligations as well as that of our dignity
and honor that has driven us to resistance.

"The consequences suffered by the Belgian nation were not confined
purely to the harm occasioned by the forced march of the invading army.
This army not only seized a great portion of our territory, but it
committed incredible acts of violence, the nature of which is contrary
to the laws of nations.

"Peaceful inhabitants were massacred, defenseless women and children
were outraged; open and undefended towns were destroyed; historical and
religious monuments were reduced to dust and the famous library of the
University of Louvain was given to the flames.

"Our government has appointed a Judicial Commission to make an official
investigation, so as to thoroughly and impartially examine the facts and
to determine the responsibility thereof, and I will have the honor,
Excellency, to hand over to you the proceedings of the inquiry.


THE UNITED STATES' ATTITUDE.

"In this frightful holocaust which is sweeping over Europe, the United
States has adopted a neutral attitude.

"And it is for this reason that your country, standing apart from either
one of the belligerents, is in the best position to judge, without bias
or partiality, the conditions under which the war is being waged.

"It is at the request, even at the initiative of the United States, that
all civilized nations have formulated and adopted at the Hague a law
regulating the laws and usages of war.

"We refuse to believe that war has abolished the family of civilized
powers, or the regulation to which they have freely consented.

"The American people has always displayed its respect for justice, its
search for progress and an instinctive attachment for the laws of
humanity. Therefore, it has won a moral influence which is recognized by
the entire world. It is for this reason that Belgium, bound as she is to
you by ties of commerce and increasing friendship, turns to the American
people at this time to let you know the real truth of the present
situation. Resolved to continue unflinching defence of its sovereignty
and independence, it deems it a duty to bring to the attention of the
civilized world the innumerable grave breaches of rights of mankind, of
which she has been a victim.

"At the very moment we were leaving Belgium, the King recalled to us his
trip to the United States and the vivid and strong impression your
powerful and virile civilization left upon his mind. Our faith in your
fairness, our confidence in your justice, in your spirit of generosity
and sympathy, all these have dictated our present mission."


THE INVESTIGATING COMMITTEE.

In the report handed to President Wilson, the preface sets forth that
the committee appointed to investigate the conduct of the German
invaders, and all of the surrounding circumstances, consisted of Messrs.
Cattier, professor at the Brussels University; Nys, counselor of the
Brussels Court of Appeals; Verhaegen, counselor of the Brussels Court of
Appeals; Wodon, professor at the Brussels University; Secretary, Mr.
Gillard, Director of the Department of Justice. Afterwards, when the
invasion made it necessary to transfer the seat of the government from
Brussels to Antwerp, a sub-committee was appointed there, consisting of
Mr. Cooreman, Minister of State; Members, Count Goblet d'Aviella,
Minister of State, Vice President of the Senate; Messrs. Ryckmans,
Senator; Strauss, Alderman of the City of Antwerp; Van Cutsem, Honorary
President of the Law Court of Antwerp. Secretaries, Chevalier Ernst de
Bunswyck, Chief Secretary of the Belgian Minister of Justice; Mr. Orts,
Counselor of the Legation.

In brief the report submits first, that in violation of the perpetual
treaty of June 26, 1831, Germany notified Belgium that France was about
to march upon Germany, and that Germany proposed to frustrate such a
move by sending its soldiers through Belgium; that the German government
had no intention of making war against Belgium, and that if Belgium
made no opposition it would evacuate Belgium after hostilities ceased,
and during the period the German forces were in the country, would buy
everything needed for its army. Belgium replied that it had assurance
from France that France had no intention of invading Belgium, and that
if France attempted to pass through Belgium would oppose such an act
with force. It informed the German Imperial Government that it would
similarly oppose any move on the part of Germany to pass through.

Nevertheless Germany proceeded at once through Belgium. Quoting articles
from the Hague treaty, the commission's report reads:


THE DAYS OF BARBARISM.

"In the days of barbarism, the population of a territory occupied by the
enemy was deprived of all judicial capacity. At that time," as Ghering
writes ironically, "'the enemy was absolutely deprived of rights;
everything he owned belonged to the gallant warrior who had wrenched it
away from him. One had merely to lose it.'

"In our days the rules of warfare clearly establish the difference
between the property of the government of the territory occupied and the
property of individuals. While the present doctrine allows the conqueror
to seize, in a general way, everything in the way of movable property
belonging to the State, it obliges him, on the other hand, to respect
the property of individuals, corporations and public provincial
administrations.

"The Hague Convention, signed October 18, 1897, by all the civilized
States, among others by Germany, contains the following stipulations
regarding laws and customs of warfare on land:

"'Art. 46. The honor and right of the family, the life of the individual
and private property, as well as religious convictions and the exercise
of worship, must be respected. Private property cannot be confiscated.

"'Art. 47. Pillaging is formally prohibited.

"'Art. 53. When occupying territory, the army can only seize cash as
well as funds and securities belonging entirely to the State; also
depots of arms, ways and means of transportation, warehouses and
provisions, and in a general way all movable property belonging to the
State and liable to be used for warlike operations.

"'Art. 56. Property of municipalities, property of establishments
consecrated to worship, to charity and instruction; to art and science,
even though belonging to the State, will be treated as private
property.'

"In defiance of these conventional rules, voluntarily and solemnly
accepted by Germany, she has committed, from the beginning of her
invasion of Belgian soil, numerous attacks upon private property."


GERMAN CUPIDITY.

At Hasselt, the report shows that on August 12, 1914, the Germans
confiscated the funds of the branch of the National Bank, which amounted
to 2,075,000 francs. At Liege, on entering the city, they forcibly
seized the funds of a branch of the same bank, amounting to 4,000,000
francs. Moreover, upon finding at that branch bundles of bank notes of
5-franc denomination, representing an amount of 400,000 francs, and
which were not yet signed, they forced a printer to sign those bank
notes by means of a rubber stamp, which they had also seized, and
afterwards put the notes in circulation. The bank, it is explained, was
a shareholders' corporation, the capital having been obtained by
subscription from private parties and was in no wise an institution of
the State.

The enormity of this offence is made apparent by the fact that in the
war of 1870, when the Prussians entered Rheims in the Franco-Prussian
war, and they wanted to confiscate the funds of the branch of the
National Bank of France, Crown Prince Frederick ordered that funds which
were found at the bank could not be seized so long as they were not used
for the maintenance of the French army, it having been contended by
directors of the institution that the bank was not a State, but a
private bank. But more than this Germany levied supplies from every
Belgian city and tried to levy upon the city of Brussels the sum of
50,000,000 francs and the province of Brabant 450,000,000 francs.


TREATY OBLIGATIONS.

Categorically, the violation and disregard of every phase of the Hague
treaty is described. In spite of the strict provision that undefended
cities, villages and dwellings are not to be bombarded, and where
bombardment is necessary the commanding officer of the attacking party
must warn the authorities that such bombardment is to take place, German
aeroplanes and dirigibles bombarded relentlessly from the beginning. In
Antwerp a Zeppelin threw explosive bombs at the Royal Palace, but the
missiles went astray, demolishing private residences, killing eight
persons and injuring many. Servants were killed in their beds in one
private house when the bombs tore away the top of the building.

"In the Place du Poids Public a bomb fell on the pavement. Fragments
scattered all over the place. Not a house facing the square was
untouched. A policeman was cut to pieces, all that was found of him
being a leg covered with a few rags of his uniform. Five other persons
who opened their windows were blown to atoms. The bed-rooms of two
houses facing one another were visited. In the first there were three
corpses. Blood was scattered all over the place. The floor was covered
with fragments of windows and with blood-soaked underwear. On the
ceiling and walls, parts of intestines and brains were visible. In the
other house two old persons had been killed while looking down upon the
street. Later Antwerp was bombarded, as was Heyst-op-den-Berg and the
city of Malines, which was undefended, and where there was not a Belgian
soldier. At Malines the batteries fired shell after shell in the
direction of the Cathedral of Saint Rombault, a beautiful edifice, which
was hit many times and badly damaged, though there was no military
reason for the assault as the town was practically abandoned."

The commission turned over to President Wilson explosive bullets used by
the Germans at Werchter, and submitted briefs from physicians who
treated wounds made by the explosive bullets.


DETAILED ATROCITIES OUTLINED.

A few details of the atrocities are outlined as follows:

"German cavalry, occupying the village of Linsmeau, were attacked by
some Belgian infantry and two Gendarmes. A German officer was killed by
our troops during the fight, and subsequently buried at the request of
the Belgian officer in command. None of the civilian population took
part in the fight. Nevertheless, the village was invaded at dusk on
August 10 by a strong force of German cavalry, artillery and machine
guns. In spite of the assurance given by the Burgomaster that none of
the peasants had taken part in the previous fighting two farms and six
outlying houses were destroyed by gunfire and burned. All the male
population were compelled to come forward and hand over what they
possessed. No recently discharged firearms were found, but the invaders
divided the peasants into three groups. Those in one group were bound
and eleven of them placed in a ditch, whither they were afterward found
dead, their skulls fractured by the butts of German rifles.

"During the night of August 10, German cavalry entered Velm in great
numbers; the inhabitants were asleep. The Germans, without provocation,
fired upon Mr. Deglimme-Gever's house, broke into it, destroyed
furniture, looted money, burned barns, hay, corn stacks, farm
implements, six oxen, and the contents of the farmyard. They carried off
Mme. Deglimme half-naked, to a place two miles away. She was then let go
and was fired upon as she fled, without being hit. Her husband was
carried away in another direction."

Farmer Jeff Dierckx, of Neerhespen, bears witness to the following acts
of cruelty committed by German cavalry at Orsmael Neerhespen, on August
10, 11 and 12:


SHOCKING BARBARITIES.

"An old man of the latter village had his arm sliced in three
longitudinal cuts; he was then hanged head downward and burned alive.
Young girls have been raped and little children outraged at Orsmael,
where several inhabitants suffered mutilations too horrible to describe.
A Belgian soldier belonging to a battalion of cyclist carbineers who had
been wounded and made prisoner was hanged, while another who was tending
his comrade was bound to a telegraph pole and shot."

The sacking of Louvain, which was one of the vile acts of the Germans
during the early days of the war, is described briefly in the report of
the commission as follows:

"The Germans entered Louvain on Wednesday, August 19, after having set
fire to the towns through which they passed.

"From the moment of their having entered the city of Louvain, the
Germans requisitioned lodgings and victuals for their troops. They
entered every private bank of the city and took over the bank funds.
German soldiers broke the doors of houses abandoned by their
inhabitants, pillaged them and indulged in orgies.

"The German authorities took hostages; the mayor of the city, Senator
Vander Kelen, the Vice Rector of the Catholic University, the Dean of
the City; magistrates and aldermen were also detained. All arms down to
fencing foils had been handed over to the town administration and
deposited by the said authorities in the Church of St. Peter.

"In the neighboring village, Corbeck-Loo, a young matron, 22 years old,
whose husband was in the army, was surprised on Wednesday, August 19,
with several of her relatives, by a band of German soldiers. The persons
who accompanied her were locked in an abandoned house, while she was
taken into another house, where she was successively violated by five
soldiers.


LUSTFUL CRUELTY OF THE GERMANS.

"In the same village, on Thursday, August 20, German soldiers were
searching a house where a young girl of 16 lived with her parents. They
carried her into an abandoned house and, while some of them kept the
father and mother off, others went into the house, the cellar of which
was open, and forced the young woman to drink. Afterwards they carried
her out on the lawn in front of the house and violated her successively.
She continued to resist and they pierced her breast with bayonets.
Having been abandoned by the soldiers after their abominable attacks,
the girl was carried off by her parents, and the following day, owing to
the gravity of her condition, she was administered the last rites of the
church by the priest of the parish and carried to the hospital at
Louvain."

Upon entering villages occupied by the Germans after they were driven
back to Louvain, the report says the Belgian soldiers found that the
German soldiers had sacked, ravaged and set fire to the villages
everywhere, taking with them and driving before them all the male
inhabitants. "Upon entering Hofstade, the Belgian soldiers found the
corpse of an old woman who had been killed by bayonet thrusts; she still
held in her hand the needle with which she was sewing when attacked; one
mother and her son, aged about 15 years, lay there pierced with bayonet
wounds; one man was found hung.

"In Sempst, a neighboring village, were found corpses of two men
partially burned. One of them was found with legs cut off to the knees;
the other was minus his arms and legs. A workman had been pierced with
bayonets, afterward while he was still living the Germans soaked him
with petroleum and locked him in a house which they set on fire. An old
man and his son had been killed by sabre cuts; a cyclist had been killed
by bullets; a woman coming out of her house had been stricken down in
the same manner."


A LAME EXCUSE OFFERED.

Concerning the sacking of Louvain itself, the report says that one
detachment of the Germans met another detachment while in full flight
from the Belgian soldiers, and attacked one another. This was the basis
for the pretext that they had been attacked by the citizenry of Louvain
and was responsible for the bombardment of the city. The bombarding
lasted until 10 o'clock at night, and afterward the German soldiers set
fire to the city.

"The houses which had not taken fire were entered by German soldiers,
who were throwing fire grenades, some of which seem to have been
provided for the occasion. The largest part of the city of Louvain,
especially the quarters of 'Ville Haute,' comprising the modern houses,
the Cathedral of St. Peter, the University Halls, with the whole library
of the University with its manuscripts, its collections, the largest
part of the scientific institutions and the town theatre were at the
moment being consumed by flames.

"The commission deems it necessary, in the midst of these horrors, to
insist on the crime of lese-humanity which the deliberate annihilation
of an academic library--a library which was one of the treasures of our
time--constitutes.

"Numerous corpses of civilians covered the streets and squares. On the
routes from Louvain to Tirlemont alone one witness testifies to having
seen more than fifty of them. On the threshold of houses were found
burnt corpses of people, who, surprised in their cellars by the fire,
had tried to escape and fell into the heap of live embers. The suburbs
of Louvain were given up to the same fate. It can be said that the whole
region between Malines and Louvain and most of the suburbs of Louvain
have been devastated and destroyed.


BASE INDIGNITIES TO CLERGYMEN.

"A group of 75 persons, among whom were several notables of the city,
such as Father Coloboet and a Spanish priest, and also an American
priest, were conducted, during the morning of Wednesday, August 26, to
the square in front of the station. The men were brutally separated from
their wives and children, after having received the most abominable
treatment after repeated threats of being shot, and were driven in front
of the German troops as far as the village of Campenhout. They were
locked, during the night, in the church. The following day, at 4
o'clock, a German officer came to tell them that they might all confess
themselves and that they would be shot half an hour later. When,
finally, they were released, the report continues, they were recaptured
by another German brigade and compelled to march to Malines, where they
were finally liberated.

"An eye witness testified that he met nothing except burned villages,
crazed peasants, lifting to each comer their arms, as mark of
submission. From each house was hanging a white flag, even from those
that had been set on fire, and rags of them were found hanging from the
ruins. The fire began a little above the American College, and the city
is entirely destroyed, with the exception of the town hall and the
depot. Today the fire continues and the Germans, instead of trying to
stop it--seem rather to maintain it by throwing straw into the flames,
as I have myself seen behind the Hotel de Ville. The Cathedral and the
theatre have been destroyed and fallen in, and also the library. The
town resembles an old city in ruins, in the midst of which drunken
soldiers are circulating, carrying around bottles of wine and liquor;
the officers themselves being installed in arm chairs, sitting around
tables and drinking like their own men.

"In the streets dead horses are decaying, horses which are completely
inflated, and the smell of the fire and the decaying animals is such
that it has followed me for a long time."

And the policy which developed such outrageous conduct on the part of
the Kaiser's soldiers in the early days of the war, against which
Belgium protested to the world, inspired brutal acts, ruthlessness and
cruelty at every stage and during every period of the war. Nowhere is
there written a single line which tells of the humanitarian acts of the
German soldiers. Those who fight against them acknowledge their stoical
bravery, the efficiency of the army, the navy and the people as a whole,
but there is no reflection of refined instincts in any of the acts of
Germany or the Germans.


THE AMERICAN MINISTER'S REPORT.

Of those conditions which existed in Belgium when the German soldiers
overran the country, America's own minister to the devastated country,
Brand Whitlock, sent a report to the State Department in the beginning
of 1917, when President Wilson was protesting against the treatment
accorded the helpless people of Belgium by the Germans.

Mr. Whitlock tells how the Germans determined to put the Belgians thrown
out of employment to work for them. "In August," says the report,
dealing with the treatment of the helpless Belgians, "Von Hindenburg was
appointed supreme commander. He is said to have criticised Von Bissing's
policy as too mild, and there was a quarrel; Von Bissing went to Berlin
to protest, threatened to resign, but did not. He returned, and a German
official said that Belgium would now be subjected to a more terrible
regime, would learn what war was. The prophecy has been vindicated.

"The deportations began in October in the Etape, at Ghent and at
Bruges. The policy spread; the rich industrial districts at Hainaut, the
mines and steel works about Charleroi were next attacked, and they
seized men in Brabant, even in Brussels, despite some indications and
even predictions of the civil authorities that the policy was about to
be abandoned.

"As by one of the ironies of life the winter has been more excessively
cold than Belgium has ever known it and while many of those who
presented themselves were adequately protected against the cold, many of
them were without overcoats. The men, shivering from cold and fear, the
parting from weeping wives and children, the barrels of brutal Uhlans,
all this made the scene a pitiable and distressing one.


RAGE, TERROR AND DESPAIR.

"The rage, the terror and despair excited by this measure all over
Belgium were beyond anything we had witnessed since the day the Germans
poured into Brussels. The delegates of the commission for relief in
Belgium, returning to Brussels, told the most distressing stories of the
scenes of cruelty and sorrow attending the seizures. And daily, hourly
almost, since that time, appalling stories have been related by Belgians
coming to the legation. It is impossible for us to verify them, first
because it is necessary for us to exercise all possible tact in dealing
with the subject at all, and secondly because there is no means of
communication between the Occupations Gebiet and the Etappey Gebiet.

"I am constantly in receipt of reports from all over Belgium that tend
to bear the stories one constantly hears of brutality and cruelty. A
number of men sent back to Mons are said to be in a dying condition,
many of them tubercular. At Molines and at Antwerp returned men have
died, their friends asserting that they have been victims of neglect and
cruelty, of cold, of exposure, of hunger.

"I have had requests from the burgomasters of ten communes asking that
permission be obtained to send to the deported men in Germany packages
of food similar to those that are being sent to prisoners of war. Thus
far the German authorities have refused to permit this except in special
instances, and returning Belgians claim that even when such packages are
received they are used by the camp authorities only as another means of
coercing them to sign the agreements to work.


A MORTAL BLOW TO BELGIANS.

"By the deportation of Belgians to work in Germany," says Mr. Whitlock's
report, "they have dealt a mortal blow to any prospect they may ever
have had of being tolerated by the population of Flanders; in tearing
away from nearly every humble home in the land a husband and a father or
a son and brother; they have lighted a fire of hatred that will never go
out; they have brought home to every heart in the land, in a way that
will impress its horror indelibly on the memory of three generations, a
realization of what German methods mean, not as with the early
atrocities in the heat of passion and the first lust of war, but by one
of those deeds that make one despair of the future of the human race, a
deed coldly planned, studiously matured, and deliberately and
systematically executed, a deed so cruel that German soldiers are said
to have wept in its execution, and so monstrous that even German
officers are now said to be ashamed."

And if these acts were not sufficient to convince the world that Germany
"is without the pale" so far as civilized warfare is concerned her
conduct in wantonly destroying property in Flanders while in retreat
could permit of no other conclusion.

After the violation of Belgium and the destruction of the Lusitania and
the adoption of the policy of sinking neutral ships on sight for
military advantage, or "necessity," why shouldn't the soldiers pollute
wells, kill trees, carry off the girls, smash the household furniture
not worth taking away and smear the pictures on the wall, just for
revenge or in the sheer lust of destruction?

It makes no difference, so far as the principles of humanity are
concerned, whether the German army is in victory or suffering defeat,
advancing or retreating. The treatment accorded the evacuated cities of
the Somme district was foretold by the treatment of the cities occupied
early in the war. Here is the wording of an order posted during the
victorious invasion of Belgium:

"Order--To the people of Liege. The population of Andenne, after making
a display of peaceful intentions toward our troops, attacked them in the
most treacherous manner. With my authority the general commanding these
troops has reduced the town to ashes and has had 110 persons shot. I
bring this fact to the knowledge of the people of Liege in order that
they may know what fate to expect should they adopt a similar attitude.

          GENERAL VON BULOW.
          Liege, Aug. 22, 1914."


CRUEL EXTREME OF PUNISHMENT.

And yet this order showed only a cruel extreme of punishment where some
punishment was to be expected. It was left for the retreating Germans of
1917 to destroy, without provocation and without purpose, motived by
revenge and obsessed by the Nietschean doctrine of "spare not."

Before Bapaume was evacuated it was deliberately converted into a mass
of muck. There is no Bapaume now. It is perfectly understandable that
the retreating soldiers should destroy their trenches and put up the
question, "Tommy, how do you like your new trenches?" But why smear
filth over the photograph of three little girls, a family treasure? All
around Bapaume the villages were looted and the night the deliverers
entered the destroyers made the sky lurid with the fires of towns and
hamlets. Some 300 in the evacuated region were burned.

At Nesle, Roye and Ham there was not time enough to destroy everything.
The house of a doctor at Nesle, a specially attractive home, was not
blown down for strategic purposes, but some soldiers did find time to
drive axes through the mahogany panels of the beds and smash the clocks
and mirrors. They were angry at being compelled to leave the house.

Villages like Cressy, near Nesle, where a shell never fell in the course
of the war, have been completely destroyed.


PERONNE A HOPELESS RUIN.

There is not a habitable house left in Peronne. The sixteenth century
church of St. Jean is but a relic. W. Beach Thomas wrote after the
retreat that nothing was left that was valuable enough to be worth
collection by a penny tinker or a rag-and-bone merchant. Foul what you
cannot have, was the motto.

The famous ruins of the Feudal Castle of Coucy, one of the finest relics
of architecture of its period, was wantonly blown up by the Germans on
retreat. It was built in the thirteenth century by Enguerrand III and
passed to the French crown in 1498, and was one of the great historic
landmarks of Northern France.

Coucy was one of the noblest relics of the Middle Ages, respected by the
most barbarous wars of the past, whose donjon (greatest in all Europe)
dates almost from Charlemagne, harmless, time-wrecked, illustrious
Coucy!

To give an idea of Coucy's importance, the French, in their first
astonishment and sorrow, proposed to make reprisals on Hindenburg,
should it take ten years. Of course, they will not; it is not their way.

Coucy is a mountain of blasted stones. Shoun Kelly, American, owned one
of the outer towers of the great castle and the story of its ownership
is the American antithesis of German ravage. Americans were always
faithful tourists to Coucy; but among them, one loved more than all the
glorious old ruin and its story which began with Enguerrand, the Sire
of Coucy, in the year 1210. This was the late Edmund Kelly, of New York
and Paris, international lawyer and for many years counsel of the
American Embassy in Paris. He meditated on the motto of old Enguerrand:
"I am not king, nor prince, nor duke, nor even count: I am the Sire of
Coucy!" In fact, the Sire made a record for standing off local kings.

"He was a good American ahead of his time," said Lawyer Kelly; and he
took to reading up the ancient chronicles, how Enguerrand's descendants
stood off royalty for some 200 years, until finally bought out by the
wealthy Louis of Orleans, and all the later glories of the place.
Mazarin dismantled Coucy, but left it standing in its beauty; and Lawyer
Kelly discovered it to be a State museum, impossible to be purchased, in
these latter days, even by a millionaire. Not being one, he preferred it
so, loving Coucy more than ever, the cultured American did the next best
thing.


A LITTLE TOWN REDUCED.

The little town, once so rich, had dwindled since Mazarin. On the castle
side stood two massive towers of the inner defense, belonging to the
town. Mr. Kelly asked Mayor and department legislature to make a price
on the nearest. As soon as he had bought his tower, he used loving care
restoring it. He pierced windows through walls 16 feet thick. He built
rooms in three stories, furnishing them in massive antique style. The
tower roof was his shady terrace, covered with a little grove of
century-old trees! From it he dominated Coucy. All its soul of beauty
lay beneath his view.

All was systematically blown up, the town, the towers, the castle, by
retreating Germans in their rage. Just masses of crumbled stones. The
German papers boast that it took 28 tons of high explosives, and any one
can see, this hour, the plain of Coucy covered with a white layer of
powdered limestone, for miles around.

What for? To clear a battlefield, they say. It is not true. Nothing is
cleared. The masses of crumbled stone remained, when they fled their
"battlefield."

The donjon was very high. It stood on a kind of bluff or elevation,
overlooking the country, and before the days of aeroplanes it might have
been used for observation. The donjon walls were 16 yards thick, not
feet, but yards! No other tower in Europe had those dimensions. They
tell a story about Mazarin. He deemed so strong a place, so near to
Paris, might be dangerous to the Crown; so he dismantled Coucy
militarily, without destroying its architectural beauty. The donjon
worried him in those days when artillery could make no impression on its
massive thickness. So Mazarin put 16 barrels of powder inside the tower,
and set them off. The tower just converted itself into gun barrel! The
powder blew out all the stories and the roof--shot them up like a gun
pointed at the sky! But the tower stood, exactly as before.


OF MASSIVE ARCHITECTURE.

The masonry was admittedly the heaviest achieved by the Middle Ages.
From the donjon extended three great vaulted halls. Massive buildings
continued. There was a Gothic chapel, a Tribunal Hall, the Hall of the
Nine Peers (whose statues remained), the Hall of the Nine Countesses
(whose medallion-portraits were carved on the monumental chimney). There
was a Romanesque chapel (relic from Charlemagne, like the original
donjon), the separate Fortified Chateau of the Chatelain (the Sire's
First Officer), and so on, and so on.

The retreating Germans have not only blown up Coucy, but that other
priceless relic, the Tower of the Grand Constable and the entire
historic Chateau of Ham, and equally the Castle of Peronne, a jewel of
beauty--all in one corner of the Vallois! On the smoking wreck of
Peronne, they left a humorous placard:

"Nicht aergen! Tur wundern! Don't be angry, just wonder!" Noyon and
Peronne are sacked and ruined. At Chauny 1800 houses out of 2500 were
deliberately burned, and at a distance they bombarded the remainder,
full of old folks and children whom they had parked there. All the
public buildings, churches, hospitals and poorhouse were blown up. Three
hundred towns and villages were burning at one time in this small
section of the Cradle of France. Hindenburg was at Roisel when they
rounded up the populations, went through their pockets for their money
(giving "receipts"), took their clothes off their backs (so that all the
American relief agencies in Paris were overwhelmed with telegrams of
appeal) and burgled all the safes in banks and business houses before
setting fire to the town and blowing up the main street!


ACCORDING TO THE PRINCIPLE OF WAR.

The German official communique said that it was "all done uniquely
according to the technical principles of modern war." At Berlin they
caused an American correspondent to cable these words to his papers:
"The enemy will find great difficulty to take shelter on a battlefield
where everything has been completely razed. We regret the destruction of
a beautiful region of France, but it was necessary to transform it into
a clear field of battle before we quit it."

They blew up the precious Romanesque Church of Tracy-le-Val (which dates
before the Gothic). The church was situated in the midst of the great
forest of Laigue; they blew up the church--and left the forest standing!
No battlefield was cleared, but they hacked the bark to kill great noble
trees by thousands. They made no effort to clear the forest; but weeping
old French peasants told how half a German regiment was occupied three
days in barking trees to prevent the sap from mounting. The crushed
pearl of architecture lies in a dying forest.

At Le Novion, torch in hand, they burned 223 houses; but all the gutted
walls are standing.

What technical principles of war command the wholesale destruction of
young fruit trees? In 20 orchards, by count, in sweet Leury (hidden at
the bottom of a valley) every peach, plum, apricot and pear tree has
been assassinated--hacked and standing, when the trunks are thick, and
sprawling, severed by one blow of a sharp hatchet, young trees from the
thickness of your wrists to your thumb. The French, with loving care,
trained peach and pear trees against sunny walls, as if they were
grapevines. The slender trunks are cut--and the garden walls left
standing.


DESECRATION OF TREES.

The soldiers spared neither the orchards nor the single trees that took
a generation to grow, and would have borne fruit for generations to
come. Reapers and binders and other farming machines were collected and
broken to pieces. One might see a measure of advantage that the
deliverers would gain from these things if not destroyed, but it is an
awful war doctrine that refuses to discriminate between the immediate
and the eventual, the direct and the indirect, the important and the
negligible advantage that would impoverish posterity to get a dime in
cash. No military advantage is sufficient motive for such wanton
ravishment. It is military fanaticism.

Ambassador Sharp, after a 100-mile trip through the evacuated territory,
declared that never before in the history of the world had there been
such a thorough destruction by either a vanquished or victorious army.

One thing alone was left, after the red-brick villages had been turned
into heaps and the murdered fruit trees into black fagots, on the hill
outside of St. Quentin. This was the log hut and shooting box of the
Kaiser's son, Eitel Friederick. Its white-barked beech was unburnt, its
glass windows unbroken, its inside adornments unlooted, the tables and
chairs of its terrace beer garden remained. All around the works of man
and God were destroyed. The contrast made this destroyer's lodge a sort
of boast of his destruction.

The shocking ruin to human life in the evacuated region is of even
greater moment. The half-starved civilians of Bapaume were forced to
make trenches there and later for the defense of Cambrai also. All men
and boys strong enough to work were taken along with the retreating
forces. Near Peronne some hundreds of old men, women and children were
found locked in a barn. One woman pathetically asked of an English
officer, "Are you many?" And he was able to answer, "We are two millions
now," and see her anxiety turned to relief and joy. Children who had
been slowly starving for a year wandered about the ruins of their homes,
but soon found reasons for smiling at the soldiers who had rescued them.


NEITHER MEAT NOR MILK.

These children had had no meat for months and no milk for a year and had
almost forgotten the taste of butter. They probably never received a
quarter of the rations Americans sent. Girls were compelled to attend
the market gardens, and then the Germans took all the produce. The
region was desolated and left inhabited by women and children moribund
with misery and starvation.

At Noyon, where the Germans had concentrated 10,000 Belgian refugees,
they promised to leave the American Relief Committee with sufficient
supplies to feed them. But the last patrols completely sacked the
American relief storehouses of all eatables and then dynamited the
building. And it was from this place that fifty young women, from 18 to
25 years of age, were taken by the officers. Their distracted mothers
were told that they were to be used as "officers' servants."

At Ham, when a mother of six children, seeing her husband and two eldest
daughters being carried away, remonstrated, she was told that as an
alternative she might find their bodies in a canal in the rear of the
house.

Nothing could be more significant of the Government's attitude than the
incident told by James W. Gerard. The people of a town were imprisoned
or fined for their conduct toward a delayed train of Canadian prisoners.
When he heard it he thought that at last the Government was going to put
a stop to the maltreatment of prisoners. But he learned on investigation
that the townsfolk had been punished for giving a little food and drink
to the starving and fainting prisoners.

And yet the most singularly brutal phase of this destruction of nature
and wealth and art and life is the German defense of it. War is always
hell and most of the awful things in this war have had their
counterparts in other conflicts, though the Teutonic element has brought
some peculiar refinements of cussedness and has given a thoroughness and
"pep" and "kick" to the war business.


BETTER PREPARED NEXT TIME.

German writers, instead of making excuses for turning the nation into a
war machine for forty years, complain that Germany was not prepared as
she should have been and would be better prepared next time. Her
professors do not regret that the soldiers at the front are so
unrestrained in cruelty, but urge that they are too soft and kind to
make effective war. The German correspondents all write enthusiastically
of the devastation of the country they are leaving and of the desert
created by German genius. Editors speak of the mercy which tempered the
necessary hardness towards this once beautiful stretch of country and
its inhabitants. The destruction of property which can serve no military
purpose is defended on the ground that it is legitimate from a strategic
point of view.

This all amounts to saying everything must give way to the
considerations of war. It is taking the argument in the fable of the
wolf and the lamb as serious philosophy and accepting the position of
the wolf. They fail entirely to see the humor of the fable, and hence
the fallacy of the wolf's argument.

The greatest hope of civilization, which trembled for a time before the
spectre of German barbarity, is that frightfulness cannot endure the
long and full test. The great initial advantages are more than offset by
new opponents. The gain of the invasion of Belgium was canceled by
England coming into the war. The advantage against England of the U-boat
campaign was more than canceled by the entrance of the United States in
the war.

Irvin Cobb says that the trouble with the Germans is that they are not
"good sports and lack a sense of humor. It is impossible to conceive of
a group of German officers playing football or baseball or cricket and
abiding by the rules of the game. If Barbara Frietchie had said to a
Prussian Stonewall Jackson, 'Shoot, if you must, my gray old head,' he'd
have done it as a matter of course."



CHAPTER VII.

THE SLINKING SUBMARINE.

A VORACIOUS SEA MONSTER--THE RUTHLESS DESTRUCTIVE POLICY OF
GERMANY--STARVATION OF NATIONS THE GOAL--HOW THE SUBMARINES
OPERATE--SOME PERSONAL EXPERIENCES.


Almost the entire story of the world war is written around the
development of the submarine. One can scarcely think of the terrible
conflict without bringing to mind the wonderful "underseas" boat which
has made infamous Germany famous. The truth is that, in so far as
America is concerned, the conflict was precipitated by the ruthless
submarine warfare which Germany waged as part of her plan to starve out
England, France, Belgium--and all nations which opposed her.

The slinking submarine proved an efficient instrument, whose activities
clearly indicated the diabolical intent and purpose of Germany to make
the whole world suffer, if necessary, to the end that she might gain her
point and perpetuate the Hohenzollern dynasty. It was not so much that
her submarines wrought havoc--for death and disaster stalk always with
war--but the methods by which Germany waged their warfare and
disregarded all the rules which had been laid down for the guidance of
civilized countries at war proved conclusively that even the innocent
could expect no quarter from her.

The story of the sinking of the brave ocean steamship Lusitania on May
7, 1915, contains in its brief recital a typical illustration of
Germany's lack of humanitarian instincts. The vessel, torpedoed off the
coast of Ireland, went to the bottom of the ocean, carrying to death
more than 1150 persons, many of them prominent Americans. With an
audaciousness which has no counterpart in the history of civilized
warfare, German agents in the United States had caused advertisements
to be printed in the public press, warning citizens against sailing on
the vessel, and advised that she was in danger of being destroyed.

The world stood aghast and believed it impossible that Germany should
carry out her threat, but they were soon to be disillusioned. Because
the handsome vessel passed through a zone of the seas which the Teuton
war lords declared blockaded, they sent a torpedo from an underseas boat
into her bowels. The horrors of that event are still fresh in the minds
of millions. No such ruthless and wanton destruction of innocent human
beings had been accomplished by a so-called civilization at war.


THE DUTIES OF WAR CAST ASIDE.

Articles of The Hague agreement defining the rights and duties of
nations at war, and which Germany had accepted, were thrust aside and
disregarded by Imperial Germany. The Hohenzollern dynasty was above
rules and regulations. International law and the rights of
non-combatants at sea were as nothing. That all nations had agreed that
the enemy ship must give the captain of the vessel attacked opportunity
to land innocent passengers was forgotten. There had not been a word of
warning.

And Germany, and the adherents of the Imperial Government, expressing
regret that Americans should have been sacrificed, professed deep sorrow
on one hand and on the other shouted with glee. America protested
vigorously, quoting the laws and demanding that Germany recognize
them--not merely that she leave American vessels alone--and give
assurance that no such further acts would be committed.

Contending that the sinking of the ship was justifiable, in the
exigencies of war, Germany ceased for a short time her wanton sinking of
boats without warning. For almost a year her underseas crafts had been
preying upon the small British coasting vessels, and sunk hundreds of
fishing boats, trawlers and steamships. England's mercantile marine was
the object of the Teuton's attacks, and no one had anticipated any
danger to Americans or American interests.

Germany had no reasons for desiring to attack American boats and she
promised to mend her ways. There followed a brief period in which no
vessels were sunk on which were Americans, and then without warning the
campaign against all vessels was renewed. A dozen were sunk on which
were American seamen or non-combatant passengers, none of whom was given
warning or time to land before a torpedo sent the boat to the bottom of
the ocean. Threats on the part of President Wilson to take action
against Germany finally brought another cessation.


GROWING DISTRESS AND AMAZEMENT.

"The sinking of the British passenger steamship Fabala and other German
acts constitute a series of events which the Government of the United
States has observed with growing concern, distress and amazement," said
President Wilson in a note on the submarine warfare. "This Government
cannot admit the adoption of such measures or such a warning of danger
as in any degree an abbreviation of the rights of American shipmasters
or American citizens, bound on lawful errands as passengers on merchant
ships of belligerent nationality. It must hold the Imperial German
Government to a strict accountability for any infringement of those
rights, international or incidental.

"The objection to their present method of attack lies in the practical
impossibility of employing submarines in the destruction of commerce
without disregarding those rules of fairness, reason, justice and
humanity which all modern opinions regard as imperative.

"American citizens act within their indisputable rights in taking their
ships and traveling wherever their legitimate business calls them upon
the high seas.

"No warning that an unlawful and an inhuman act will be committed can
possibly be accepted as an excuse or palliation for that act, or as an
abatement of the responsibility for its commission. * * *

"The Imperial German Government will not expect the Government of the
United States to omit any word or any act necessary to the performance
of its sacred duty or the inalienable rights of the United States and
its citizens, and of safeguarding their free exercise and enjoyment."


WHOLESALE DESTRUCTION OF VESSELS.

Apparently Germany modified her submarine policy for a period of upward
of a year, or until in February, 1917, when to the astonished world she
threw aside all pretense and declared her intention of destroying any
vessel which attempted to cross or sailed into a zone which she
established along the English coast and around English and French ports.
America's further protests availed not; her citizens, many of them, went
to the bottom of the seas, and some of them suffered almost unbelievable
cruelties or neglect, when the captain of a German sea raider with some
humanitarian instincts permitted these innocent passengers or seamen to
be rescued from the torpedoed vessels on which they were.

Even the Red Cross vessels and Belgian relief ships carrying supplies
and food to the maimed or sick at war and the starving children of
Belgium did not escape the torpedo from the submarine. English hospital
ships were attacked, and men unable to protect themselves were subjected
to danger because the Germans feared that something might be carried on
the boat which would prove valuable to the Allied forces in making war.

Dozens--even hundreds of vessels of all sorts--were sunk from week to
week. Food and supplies for the Allied forces were destroyed, until both
England and France were threatened with starvation.

All this was the work of the submarine.

One smiled twenty-five years ago when he read that highly imaginative
story of Jules Verne, "Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea," and
wondered if it would ever be possible for man to create such a marvelous
underseas craft as that which the famous French writer described. Today
the imaginative detail of the submarine which the novelist described has
been crystallized, and the world has learned that dreams sometimes come
true.

Marvelous things have been developed by the war which is involving the
peace and security of the world, but no single device has had such an
effect upon the warfare and upon the methods of waging it as the
diabolical submarine, which, like an assassin in the night, sneaks upon
the great ships along the water highways of the world and sends them
with their human freight to the bottom of the ocean.


TORPEDO'S DEADLY WORK.

A giant cigar-shaped missile, whose nose is pointed with guncotton and
filled with high explosives--and which the world knows as the
torpedo--launches forth from the submarine, and speeding under the drive
of a propeller at the stern steers its way into the side of the
battleship or great steamship. The torpedo plunges into the bowels of
the vessel. There is a tremendous explosion, and the water-tight
compartments of the vessel are torn open; the boat fills, and the pride
of the seas is no more.

Had the vessel's master and her crew any warning? No; unless the
vigilant officer on the bridge should note a thin pole with a hooked end
projecting above the surface of the ocean some miles away, and turning
his glasses upon it discover that it is the "eye" of a submarine--the
periscope--which is protruding above the surface. Then he may turn his
larger vessel and ram the submarine, or change the course of his craft
so that the torpedo launched by the submarine will miss its mark, or
perhaps expert gunners may turn the muzzles of their rapid-fire guns
upon the underseas craft and riddle it before it can get far enough
below the surface of the water to make the attack upon it futile.


EFFICIENCY OF THE SUBMARINE.

The enormous inroads on the world's shipping made by German submarines
during the war shows the efficiency of this diabolical device. In the
first two years and a half of the war statistics were compiled to show
that more than 10 per cent of the world's merchant marine was destroyed
by Germany's underseas craft of the U-boat type. Incidentally, the name
U-boat as applied to submarines developed because Germany, instead of
naming these slinking boats, as is the custom with surface-cruising
vessels, painted upon the conning tower or nose of the craft the letter
U, representing the word "underseas," coupled with the numeral denoting
the number of the boat. Thus those who sail the ocean highways came to
recognize the fact that a conning tower or low, sharp-nosed craft
bearing the mystic characters U-9 was a German underseas boat No. 9.

The statistical records at the end of April, 1917, showed that nearly
3000 vessels of almost 5,000,000 gross tons were destroyed by the
U-boats in the war. More than half of the vessels sunk belonged to
England. Norway and France were the next greatest sufferers from the
submarine warfare. In one week after Germany announced her intention to
give no quarter, but to sink any vessel which came within the range of
the U-boat torpedoes, the toll of ships lost was more than 400,000 tons.

At the beginning of the war the submarine was to all intents and
purposes a novelty--a boat of recognized possibilities, but existing
very largely in the experimental stage. Its use was very largely ignored
by naval men, although it was conceded that when properly developed it
would prove a wonderful agency of destruction. The proud commanders of
the great battleships, with their 10, 12 and 14 inch guns, which sent
great shells miles across the ocean, looked down upon the little
underseas boat, and applied to it the sobriquet of "tin sardine."

But the "tin sardine" has grown up, and the commander of the monster war
vessel is at the mercy of the little craft which he ridiculed. A short
time ago Holland, the American inventor of the modern submarine, died of
a broken heart. His type was necessarily an experimental one. He built
five boats before he was able to sell one to the United States
Government, and this latter one, after being bought by a junk dealer,
who intended to break it up for its metals, was finally rescued from
such an inglorious end by the city of New York, which has placed it in
her municipal museum.


PRINCIPLE OF THE SUBMARINE.

Germany has developed the highest type of submarines, which she has used
to the fullest advantage. The principle of the submarine is that of a
floating bottle. An empty bottle, as every one knows, will float on the
surface, but submerges as soon as it is filled with water. The submarine
has, as part of its constructive features, a number of compartments
which, as they are filled or emptied of water, enables the craft to
submerge or rise.

At the bow and stern, respectively, there are two horizontal rudders,
and as these are manipulated at various angles so the bow points either
upward or downward, and with a steady gliding motion the submarine
slides under or is brought to the surface.

This, in brief, is the story of the submarine. Its history is another
matter; its radius of action and results achieved one of the marvels of
the ages. A long-sheathed body, the shape of a cigar with the butt end
to the fore, the inside filled with machinery and compactness the order
of the day, might be regarded as a fair description from a physical
standpoint. It has spread terror to all corners of the earth, and,
taken in proportion to its size and steaming radius, may well be said to
be the superior of the super-dreadnought.

The manner in which the submarine is operated is difficult to describe.
It leads a sort of dual existence. When cruising along the surface
"awash," it is propelled like a motorboat, the power being provided by a
gasoline engine; but when it dives or submerges it is operated
underwater by electric motors, and the steering, pumping, handling,
loading and firing of the torpedoes is done pneumatically and
electrically. The interior of the submarine is a marvel of mechanical
complexity and scientific detail. There are gauges to show the water
pressure, to indicate the speed, to show the depth; sensitive devices by
which the commander can tell of the approach of vessels; wheels, cranks,
levers and instruments which are used in driving and controlling this
almost human mechanical agency of the seafighter.


SUBMARINE AN ANOMALY IN WARFARE.

The submarine is the sudden and amazing problem of the naval world.
While naval men assert with confidence that it can never win the mastery
of the seas, in the same breath they will admit that it may easily
prevent the older and better known types of ships from establishing the
mastery that was once theirs. It is an anomaly in warfare.

Many are the tales of horror told by survivors of ships which have been
torpedoed by the undersea boats of the Teutons. The lordly Lusitania, on
board of which were some of the leading lights of literature and some of
the world's wealthy men, was sent to the bottom without the least
warning. Neutral shipping has been devastated, and men, women and
children have been murdered by the hand of the Kaiser, as exemplified in
the lurking submarine.

One of the dastardly tragedies of the war was the sinking of the Lars
Kruse, a ship flying the Danish flag and which had been chartered by
the Belgian Relief Commission. This was sunk in the early part of
February, 1917, and the crew of nineteen men, together with the captain
and other officers, with the exception of the first mate and Axel
Moeller, the first engineer, perished in the bitter cold sea. No warning
was given by the attacking submarine; indeed, no sight of it was had by
the crew. Delivering its torpedo as it lay submerged, it silently stole
away into the night after the murders had been done.

In the maritime court in Copenhagen Mr. Moeller tells of the sinking of
the ship. Dressed as the regulations of the German autocrat demanded,
with the balloon, flag and bunting displayed at each of the mastheads,
together with other marks of identification, the ship was steaming along
in the bright moonlight when she was struck, according to the testimony
of the engineer.


SHIP NOT STRUCK BY A MINE.

The fact that the ship was hit near the fourth hatch alone combats the
theory that she was struck by a mine. In this latter case the mine would
have struck her nearer the bow. The ship was near the mouth of the
English channel when hit. In an instant she started to settle, and the
crew at once lowered away the single lifeboat.

The boat had hardly started over the side, however, before the ship
lurched, and with a mighty heave went down stern first. She seemed to
turn a back somersault, according to the engineer, and because of the
fact that the lifeboat was not clear it was dragged under. The men
succeeded in cutting the ropes, however, and the lifeboat came to the
surface, although bottom side up. Engineer Moeller was struck on the
head as the boat came to the surface, but, although he was momentarily
stunned, the icy water quickly revived him.

Striking out for the lifeboat, the engineer soon had a tight grip on her
side. A man struggling in the water grasped his wrist, but by a quick
movement he wrenched himself free, and then, climbing upon the boat,
reached out and caught the man by the hand. Then began a slow struggle
to get him aboard, but the men were unequal to the task, and the man in
the water sank. Part of the skin and flesh of his hand remained in the
fingers of Moeller, showing the desperation with which he had clung to
the man's hand.

Three other men, who were fast becoming exhausted, were assisted upon
the boat, where they lay sprawled across its bottom. Four others were in
the water, making a total of seven who were alive.

Water and air were freezing cold, and Moeller, who was in the water,
together with three others, held to the gunwales with stiffened fingers.
Within the hour one of the sailors gave up the struggle, and with a
farewell to the others slid quietly into the depths.


PASSENGERS' AGONIZING SUFFERINGS.

Finally Moeller climbed upon the upturned boat, where he lay listening
to the shrieks of his companions. He said that their cries were most
pitiful. The cabin boy was the next victim. He cried pitifully for a
time, but finally became silent and slid into the water. One after
another, the men died of exposure and slipped into the peaceful sea.

After a time the only persons remaining, besides the third mate, were
the two who had thrown themselves across the bottom of the boat. Finally
one of them gave up the struggle, and the other, in an effort to combat
the cold, pulled the clothes from his dead body and wrapped them about
himself. The boat settled a little, and finally both were corpses, lying
with feet and hands dipping into the sea. The engineer said that he did
not have the heart to push their bodies into the water, although he knew
they were dead.

Finally the third mate was the only other man alive. The clothes of the
engineer were frozen fast to his body, and he felt that he was dying of
cold. The third mate started to get a sort of bluish black from the
cold, and with a gasping cry he attempted to sit up straight. Then
reason left him, and for a couple of hours he shouted and shrieked, and,
as the sun began to streak the sky and dawn brought slight comfort, the
demented man raved and swore.

Then a flash of reason seemed to return to him and he spoke to Moeller.

"I'm going," he said. "Give my love to my wife."

The man had been married just before starting on this ill-fated voyage.
With this farewell message on his lips he died. When Moeller returned to
his home he found that it was impossible to deliver the message to the
wife of the dead man, because of the fact that worry had driven her
insane.


TROUSERS USED AS SIGNAL.

Shortly after the death of his companion Moeller saw the smoke of a
steamer on the horizon. Summoning all his strength, he tore the trousers
from the limbs of one of the dead men, and, using them as a means of
signaling, swung them about his head to attract attention. As the
engineer made every effort to attract the attention of those aboard the
steamship, he saw a sneaking submarine slowly edging toward her. This
made him shout all the louder, thinking thereby to warn the captain of
the ship of his danger. His efforts were vain, however, and in a short
time the ship had gone to the bottom and the crew was adrift in the
lifeboats. The sunken ship proved to be a Russian steamer.

In his efforts to attract the attention of the intended victim of the
U-boat, the drifting man had attracted the attention of the captain of
the submarine, and it was this boat to which his cold-stiffened body was
hauled a few minutes later. It was a time before his numb body could be
thawed out.

Seeming to know from which ship he had been cast off, the engineer was
closely questioned by the captain of the submarine. As the captain
talked he made motions, as though to shut out from before his eyes a
horrible sight. He told Moeller afterwards that the most horrible sight
he had ever seen was the overturned boat with the two corpses laying on
it, and the lone man signaling for help. The victim was black from cold,
and his legs were rubbed by members of the crew. Port wine was given
him, and later food and coffee.

Then the captain continued his questioning. He knew the name of the boat
on which Moeller had been engineer, and from his intimate knowledge of
the sinking of her, the engineer felt sure it was his submarine that had
done the work.


SUBMARINE TOWS RUSSIAN SHIP.

Turning his attention to the lifeboats of the Russian ship which he had
just torpedoed, the captain of the submarine promised to tow them to the
French coast. He had been towing them but two hours, however, when he
came below and told Moeller that he had sighted a French destroyer, and
that he would have to make his escape. He gave the engineer his choice
of staying on the submarine, in which case it would be fourteen days
before he touched port, after which he was promised his freedom, or the
privilege of getting aboard one of the lifeboats, and taking his chances
of rescue by the destroyer.

Electing to take his chances in the lifeboat, Moeller was fitted out
with new clothing, the outfit being topped off with a fur-lined
overcoat. It turned out, however, that the captain had taken this
clothing from the stores of the Russian steamer before sinking her, and
the engineer learned when he got into the lifeboat that he was wearing
the greatcoat of one of the shivering Russians.

Just before submerging the U-boat set off a couple of red-light bombs,
for the purpose of attracting the attention of the crew of the
destroyer, and submerged. The drifters were picked up by the destroyer,
which steamed for France. The captain of the U-boat had promised Moeller
that he would not attack the destroyer, although he had been trailing
her for two weeks. The U-boat was sunk before she reached port, and all
perished.

An American importer who, because of his German name and the intimate
relations he enjoyed with certain important men in Berlin, had been
taken to the hearts of some of the leaders, became a factor in
pro-German activities in Cuba. He was taken into the confidences of many
of the officials and learned the plans of the Tirpitz group.

Deciding that his allegiance was American, he returned to the United
States. In his possession were many of the inner secrets of the German
Government, and these were given to the officials in Washington. His
information with reference to the submarine has been of great value to
the government.

For the sake of convenience we will call the man Johann Schmidt. This is
his story:


THE U-BOAT TYPE OF SUBMERSIBLE.

Germany's most successful and highly developed class of submarine has
been, of course, the U-boat type of submersible. These are the terrors
of the sea which have succeeded in crossing the Atlantic, and have been
developed both as the fighting and as the commercial U-boat.

Herr Schmidt reported that Germany was constructing submarines 25 per
cent larger than anything the United States had ever seen or heard of.
His information was to the effect that Germany had a building capacity
for ten submarines a week. The ability to produce these boats with such
rapidity is due to the process of standardization--the practice of
modern efficiency which has made it possible for American factories to
turn out such big quantities of automobiles in a limited period.

All parts of the German U-boats are made in standard sizes and from the
same original pattern. Consequently, these parts are turned out by
machinery in replica, and the building of the finished boats is merely a
matter of assembling them at points to which the various parts have been
shipped. The Diesel oil engine, which is regarded as the ideal
power-producing engine for submarines, has been developed to its highest
state of efficiency by Germany, and is made at the famous Krupp gun
works, the great engine works in Augsburg, Emden and Nuremburg, and
other less well-known places in Germany.

It has been estimated that Germany has anywhere from 250 to 500
submarines, and it is said that the aim is to produce 1000 of these
craft, to absolutely destroy the commerce of the seas and starve into
submission England and France.


HOW SUBMARINES WORK.

According to Herr Schmidt, the submarines work in groups of four.
Because of the limited capacity of the boats for carrying provisions,
supplies and fuel, it is necessary for them to have supply bases, to
which they can return and secure torpedoes. In operation each group
consists of four submarines, traveling along in a diamond-shaped
formation, one in front, one on either flank and one in rear. Eight
miles separate the boats. The leading submarine carries the extra
gasoline and supplies and acts as a scoutship; she sights a vessel,
reports its speed and direction and then submerges--her task is done.

The two torpedo carriers on either flank immediately change their
courses so as to converge on the prey, and they arrive one on either
side of her--they get her in between them. The boat in the rear keeps
them informed as to the doomed ship's progress, and submerges at the
last moment. She carries the extra crews for the fighting pair. The
U-boats are fairly well protected against the onslaught of the light
torpedo-boat destroyers and chasers, because the decks are protected by
several feet of water at almost all times, while the commanding tower is
covered with from two to three inches of the best steel armor plate.

It is related that at the outset of the U-boat menace, England ordered
its commanding officers to ram the U-boats on sight. The length to which
the Germans will go in an effort to win is illustrated by the fact that,
in consequence of this order, a Von Tirpitz council presented this
answer: Attacking submarines were equipped with explosive mines
containing 300 to 400 pounds of nitroglycerin or guncotton. To the top
of this mine was fastened a fake periscope. This devilish device was
attached to the submarine by a light cable, and towed along the surface
of the water 1000 feet or more behind the submarine. The result that
would follow any attempt on the part of a commander to run down one of
these decoys is readily imagined.


DESCRIPTION OF A PERISCOPE.

The periscope is distinctly a submarine device which is worthy of brief
description. It is, in effect, a long tube, with an elbow joint at the
top and a similar one at the bottom. At the elbow joints at both ends
are arranged reflectors. The reflector in the upper end catches the
object which comes within the range of vision, and reflects the image
down the tube to the mirror at the lower elbow, where the pilot sees it.
The principle of the periscope is the same as that of the "busybody,"
familiar to householders, and which is placed on the sill of an upper
window, so that a person inside the house may see who is at the front
door.

The Germans have recently devised a new form of periscope, designed to
make the device invisible to the lookout of approaching boats. This
device consists of two mirrors, put together like a "Y" lying on its
side, the wide part in front. These skim through the waves and converge
the image upon the low periscope's lens, which shoots the light down the
tube to the receiving apparatus below. When looked at from a distance
the mirrors reflect the surface of the sea, so that a lookout sees
nothing but the waves as they are reflected in the mirror.

The Germans use the bottom of the sea as regular "land" for their supply
bases, and when the submarines go to the surface it is precisely like an
aeroplane mounting the air. The submarine fleet boasts also of "mother
boats." They lie on the bottom of the ocean, in designated places, and
rise at night to hand out their supplies. Crews are changed and tired
men go back to the bottom to rest up, while fresher comrades take their
places.

So, too, the submarine, with its ability to rest on the bottom of the
sea, has become an efficient boat for mine laying. The mine layers work
from the undersea boats without fear of disturbance, the divers walking
out from the submarines to the floor of the sea without being seen or
without ever coming to the surface.


TALES OF REMARKABLE EXPLOITS.

American citizens landed from vessels sunk by German submarines tell
remarkable tales of the strenuous exploits of the U-boats. In one case
three undersea boats appeared simultaneously alongside the ship, one
being a submarine cruiser, 800 feet long, and the others old-fashioned
submarines, with a length of about 120 feet.

In another case a German submarine wore an elaborate disguise of a
fishing boat. This submarine carried a gun which had a range of nearly
five miles.

In at least two cases the crews of vessels sunk by submarines were
rescued from open boats by passing ships, only to suffer a repetition of
disaster when the ship on which they had taken refuge fell prey to an
underwater boat.

A seaman from Pensacola, who was a member of the crew of a Swedish
sailing vessel, said:

"We were almost within sight of land late in the afternoon when we
observed a Norwegian sailing vessel in an encounter with a submarine
eight miles away. Apprehending that our turn would come next, we
prepared a lifeboat. A 300-foot submarine came up to us in due course
and fired three warning shots from its heavy gun.

"We pulled our boat over to the lifeboat from the Norwegian ship
previously sunk, and a dozen hours later were picked up by a British
steamer. We had only a brief stay on the British boat, as she was
torpedoed the same morning. After a few hours in the boats we were found
by a British patrol and landed."

A Baltimore seaman from a Danish sailing vessel said:


THE SHIP ABANDONED.

"We abandoned ship in response to three shots from a submarine.
Thereupon the submarine fired twenty-two shots into the hull of the
ship, sinking her. We tried to speak with the submarine commander, but
he told us he was in a hurry, as he had to attend to a Norwegian bark
which was waiting a short distance off.

"We pulled for the nearest land, and all our twenty-five men got ashore
safe, although both lifeboats were badly smashed up in the surf as we
were beaching them."

A Philadelphian described the manner in which his steamer escaped being
sunk.

"We were attacked by a submarine disguised as a fishing vessel," he
said. "She opened fire on us at five miles, sending fifteen shots at us,
and smashing our wireless. She pursued us for an hour. We did not use
our gun. Finally a British patrol boat appeared. The submarine
submerged, disguise and all, presenting a ludicrous sight as the
carefully prepared equipment simulating a fishing boat sank beneath the
waves."

The captain of an American sailing ship which was sunk said:

"Submarines are lying along the sea lanes in regular nests. They keep
well under the water most of the time, coming up now and then for
periscopic observations, or on hearing the approach of merchant craft,
which often can be identified readily by the sound of the engines. By
thus conserving fuel the submarines are able to remain away from their
base a long time, and also they find means of renewing their stores from
ships which they sink.

"The U-boat which sank us had been out for six weeks. She had one
British captain on board. She renewed all her supplies from our boat and
took all the nautical instruments. The submarine gave us a sharp signal
to halt, with a shell from a distance of two miles. It was good
marksmanship. The shot hit the ship squarely, but caused no casualties.
We stopped and took to the boats. The submarine came up in leisurely
fashion, sank the ship with bombs and passed the time of day with our
boats. She had a crew of thirty-seven, and was 250 feet long."

"We were picked up by a Norwegian sailing vessel, on which we spent six
days. She was then attacked by a 120-foot submarine. We all took to the
Norwegian's boats. The submarine commander declined to look at the
Norwegian captain's papers. We had another twenty-four hours in open
boats, and then were picked up by a British patrol and landed."



CHAPTER VIII.

THWARTING THE U-BOAT.

NETS TO ENTANGLE THE SEA SHARKS OF WAR--"CHASERS" OR "SKIMMING-DISH"
BOATS--"BLIMPS" AND SEAPLANES--HUNTING THE SUBMARINE WITH "LANCE," BOMB
AND GUN--A SAILOR'S DESCRIPTION.


The advantage which Germany gained by the development of what has been
termed the super-submarine placed the other nations where it became
absolutely necessary for them to concentrate their energies in an effort
to counteract the devastation which the U-boats brought upon the seas.
England tried first to protect the English channel and many of its ports
with mines, floating bombs and submarine nets, and while the latter
served as barriers which prevented the submarines penetrating into some
of the important waters and harbors, they could act merely in a
protective sense.

The submarine net is a specially devised net with heavy iron or wire
meshes, similar to a fishing net. These nets--miles in length--were born
of the nets originally devised to sweep harbors clear of mines. They are
carried between two boats described as trawlers, which are a form of
sea-going tug with powerful engines, that can draw a heavy load. A heavy
cable runs from trawler to trawler, and from this the chain net is
suspended in the water. It is heavily weighted at the bottom so as to
hold it in a perpendicular position. The trawlers steaming along, side
by side, sweep up with the net anything which may be placed in the water
for the purpose of blowing up or injuring vessels.

The submarine nets in some places have been anchored to form a regular
barrier against the passage of submarine boats, and in this way were
effective, but their use could in no way restrict the underseas boats in
their work upon the open seas.

The most effective plan of overcoming the dire consequences of the
U-boat warfare was found, therefore, to lie in the use of submarine
chasers and airships, the two operating together in conjunction with the
battleships, cruisers and torpedo boat destroyers.

The submarine chaser is a light-draught, high-powered, skimming-dish
type of husky motorboat, mounting rapid-fire, 3 or 4-inch guns. In order
to prove effective against the submarine it is necessary to have many of
these boats, and it is a matter of particular interest that the
marvelous resources of the United States at the time of her entrance
into the war enabled her to immediately begin a campaign for the
construction of chasers, which would be able to guard the seas in the
channels of traffic and along the ports into which the submarine might
attempt to sneak.


NO EXPERT NAVAL KNOWLEDGE REQUIRED.

The operation of the chaser does not require the degree of technical
skill and knowledge of naval strategy required in the handling of ships
of the naval type. A fleet of chasers is manned largely by naval
reserves, who have a certain amount of training, but who are neither
navigators nor experts in naval affairs. The operations are, however,
directed by the naval authorities.

The submarine chaser is effective because it draws very little water,
has high speed, can be quickly turned and diverted from its course and
does not present any great depth of hull at which the submarine can fire
a torpedo. It would be possible for a torpedo to pass under a chaser
without hitting it--if the submarine cared to waste such an expensive
weapon on so small an adversary. When the submarine attempts to come to
the surface and use the rapid-fire gun with which she is armed she is at
a disadvantage, because it takes her several minutes to emerge.
Additional time is required to swing the gun up through its automatic
hatch while the men scramble to the deck to man it.

The chaser, with a speed of approximately 35 to 40 miles an hour, will
travel somewhere between a mile and a half to two miles in this period.
Its gun has been ready from the start, and the chaser has had half a
dozen shots or so with only a single hit needed to put the submarine out
of commission. Even if the submarine is at the surface and has her gun
mounted ready for action, she is at a disadvantage with the chaser. The
chaser, taking advantage of her speed and small size, goes skimming
across the water at the rate of 40 miles an hour, and it takes a mighty
fine gunner to be able to hit a small craft, going in a zigzag course
over the water at such speed.

The chaser may continue to circle the submarine awaiting her opportunity
which will of necessity come when the U-boat attempts to submerge. The
submarine must go through the regular form of running back her gun, and
battening down the water-tight hatches, before she can submerge, and the
latter process again takes several minutes. Therefore while the
submarine is preparing to dip, the chaser can run upon her and let loose
the fire from its rapid-fire gun.


A POOR SURFACE FIGHTER.

The submarine, by very virtue of the qualities which make it a good
submarine, is a poor boat for surface fighting. It can carry no very
heavy armament, and it is not heavily armored. The problem of stowing
away all the heavy machinery, supplies, torpedoes and devices necessary
for her operations and maneuvering has presented about all the
difficulties the constructors have been able to handle. The highest
speed of the submarine is not in excess of 20 miles an hour. The
submarine must be light and easy to handle. It gains in steadiness and
certainty of operation with increased size, but it loses in capacity for
quick and delicate maneuvering.

In addition the submarine has what is termed a strategic vulnerability.
A shot which might mean nothing more serious than a hole in the side to
a surface boat would end the submarine's usefulness for underseas work
and convert her into a helpless hulk of surface craft.

The submarine is an easy quarry for a chaser, for even when submerged
and moving along, the U-boat creates a distinct wave on the surface of
the water which can be followed by the chaser. The little boats are just
what their name implies--chasers--and besides having the qualities
already described they may conceal themselves behind large steamers, and
when the submarine in preparing to launch a torpedo makes its presence
known the chaser may speed from its hiding place and drive the underseas
craft away, even if it does not succeed in injuring it.


OPERATING IN CONNECTION WITH AN AEROPLANE.

The chasers also have a special facility of operation in connection with
the aeroplane or seaplane, principally because of their high speed; and
next to the chaser the aeroplane is one of the submarine's worst
enemies. Used in conjunction with the regular torpedo boat destroyers of
the navy, the chaser and the aeroplane promise in future wars to
minimize the effectiveness of the underseas craft. This is proven by the
fact that immediately after the United States naval forces joined those
of the Allies in European waters, the disasters resultant upon submarine
attacks were greatly reduced. The speedy destroyers, while not actually
sinking many submarines, by their vigilance prevented the submarine from
operating.

Large types of the chasers ordered in this country by the Russian
Government are 72 feet long by 11 feet 3 inches wide and draw 3 feet 3
inches of water. Each boat carries three of the 8-cylinder 6-3/4 x 7-3/4
Duesenberg, 350 to 400 horsepower motors. The boats carry an 18-inch
torpedo tube amidships and a 47-millimetre rapid-fire gun on the forward
deck. They are controlled from the bridge deck with a sheltered cabin
for the quartermaster, with controls from either the shelter or bridge
deck. They have a guaranteed speed of twenty-eight knots.

Deck arrangements consist of the following: A hatch to the fo'castle,
followed by; the emplacement for the rapid-fire gun. Following this is
the steering shelter containing duplicate controls, &c., for the engine
room and for the steering. Immediately aft of the steering shelter is
the bridge deck, located on top of the engine room trunk house. The
entire after half of the vessel is a clear sweep of deck with the
exception of a booby hatch to crews' quarters well aft.

The boats are arranged for wireless with foremast and jigger mast. Rail
stanchions in the way of the torpedo tube are hinged down, giving clear
sweep to the tube for firing purposes.


PROVISION FOR OFFICERS AND CREW.

Below decks ample space has been provided for the crew and officers. The
forepeak is arranged for chain lockers and bosun's gear lockers,
followed by ship's galley, which has two pipe berths. Next to the galley
is located the officers' cabin and wireless room, which is entered by a
hatch from the steering shelter. This cabin accommodates two officers
and includes lavatory, officers' desks, wireless desk and folding mess
table.

Next aft is the machinery space, in which are located the three eight
cylinder Duesenberg motors, a three k.w. universal lighting set, the
necessary oil tanks, batteries and a work bench. The next compartment
contains fuel tanks, with 1300 gallons capacity. Aft of this compartment
is located the crew's quarters, berthing eight men, with lavatory
attached. The hull is divided into six water-tight compartments by steel
bulkheads.

The hull is of wooden construction, as developed for this service by the
builders.

The 72-footers develop a speed of twenty-eight knots and have a cruising
radius exceeding 1200 miles. The design of the hull is the concave
bottom, square bilge type, developed for this particular service. It
furnishes a steady gun platform, which, with the necessary speed, is
the most vital feature of a submarine chaser.

The demand for speed and stability was borne out by the experience of
the Russian and Italian navies in their active work and no consideration
at all is given propositions from these two countries which do not range
well about twenty-five knots.

Exceptional success was attained by the Russian Black Sea and by the
Italian high speed fleets in actual use and their demand for exceptional
speed was based on experience.

It is a well known fact that the Russian government was successful in
patrolling its shores and in protecting its harbors and shipping. The
Italian government also was exceptionally successful in maintaining its
mercantile fleet in comparative safety and in protecting its harbors
against the offensive work of enemy submarines. The entire Italian fleet
of submarine chasers consists of high speed, high powered motor patrol
boats, most of which were equipped with American made motors.


CATALOGUED AS "PATROL BOATS."

In a general way the "chasers" are catalogued in naval circles as
"patrol boats." England has thousands of them, ranging from motorboats
to naval auxiliaries, raking the English Channel, the North Sea and the
waters all about the British Isles. As a rule the boats work in groups
of five or six, one boat serving as a flagship--and often there is a
"blimp" attached to the fleet. The armament of these small vessels is
distinctive. Each carries, besides a deck gun, a "depth charge," half a
dozen lance bombs and arms for each member of the crew. The deck gun
fires a shell that weighs about thirteen pounds.

The "depth charge" is a submarine bomb, so constructed that it is
discharged at any determined depth of water when thrown overboard. If
the water is 100 feet deep the bomb will explode at that depth. The
bombs are used to drop in places where the submarine has been located
or is expected of lurking in the bottom of the sea. While the exploding
bomb may not strike the underseas boat it will create havoc on board the
underwater craft if discharged in close proximity, the extra water
pressure exerted causing disarrangement of the delicate mechanism, if
not rendering the boat unfit for service.

Some of the patrol boats of the English have been armed with "lance
bombs." These are bombs of highly explosive character which are fastened
to the end of a long pole or staff. They are used just as a harpoon is
used when by chance a submarine may emerge from the water in too close
proximity to the chaser. It is not of record that any U-boats have been
sunk with these strange javelins, but official reports show that the
boats are armed with them for emergencies.


CHASER TROUBLES THE SUBMARINE.

What with dragging bombs through the water, and setting traps and nests
for the submarines, the chasers make great trouble for the underseas
craft, but the ingenious Germans are constantly on the alert, and it has
been proved that in one or two instances at least the submarines cut
their way through the heavy chain nets which were set to catch them near
Havre. It was said that the submarine was provided with steel knives or
wire cutters, and shears operated by electricity or pneumatic pressure,
which enabled the boat to cut its way through the barrier of chains and
wires.

As a means of visualizing the operations of the "chaser" and giving some
idea of the excitement which attends the attempt to run down the
underseas craft, the following description by an English sailor is
interesting. The chase occurred off the Isle of Wight:

"Offshore a short distance was a patrol boat lying very low and flying
distress signals. We had run over to her and learned that about an hour
before the periscope of a submarine had been stuck up not far from her,
then the craft had submerged, appeared again about a mile away, and
fired four shots, which let in enough water slowly to sink the patrol,
which before the war had been nothing but a dirty little trawler.

"Finding the crew of the patrol could take care of themselves in their
small boats and learning that the submarine had run over to the
westward, where we knew chain net traps to be laid, we circled in that
direction.

"Our powerful motors thrummed evenly. The water seemed to part ahead of
us, and the gunners squinted along the surface, looking for the glimpse
of a periscope or the first sign of the hull of the U-boat if she should
be proceeding awash.


CREW THRILLED WITH JOY.

"Suddenly, off to the west, we made out her periscope. Intense joy
thrilled our little crew. She was inshore from us. She was between our
circular course and the chain nets--in the trap. The periscope we had
seen might be a dummy, for a submarine frequently casts loose a phoney
periscope to draw fire, but, at any rate, she must have been between us
and the nets if she cut it loose.

"Presently, probably after a look around, the periscope suddenly
disappeared, and we knew it was a real one with a German U-boat on the
end of it. Like a flock of falcons we were swooping down on the prey.

"Abruptly the lead boat comes to a dead stop and lists heavily to
starboard. Evidently something is wrong. We see men crawl out over the
stern and fish around with boat hooks and poles. Cold as it is, one man
goes overboard and remains under water so long we could not believe he
would come up alive. The boat had fouled the chain nets.

"Circling round in an ever smaller radius, we search the water for a
periscope, a shadow, or the conventional 'streak of dirty grease' or
'line of bubbles.'

"All of us have towing torpedoes out. These are bombs on long cables
which are towed astern and sink to a certain specified depth. If the
cable fouls anything at all, as the boat goes ahead, the bomb pulls up
to it, and, when it bumps, it explodes.

"We are in line. Suddenly there is a crash and a roar just ahead of us.
I am thrown off my feet. Barrels of water splash down into our cockpit
and roll off the decks. The bow lifts itself clean for a second. I think
that the submarine has blown us up. Perhaps I am dead already.

"Then we settle down again, and except for a scared look on the faces of
a couple of men and rather nervous, forced jests on the lips of others,
we are plowing ahead just as before.

"Nothing has happened except the towing torpedo of the boat in front of
us in the line fouled a submerged spar, or a bit of wreckage, and
exploded right under our bow. 'If we had been a few yards closer we
would never have been there any more.'


FOULS A SUBMERGED SPAR.

"As we realized what had happened, our tongues were loosened, and, if
the crew of the boat ahead could have heard what we said about them, we
would have lost their friendship most assuredly.

"Way inshore, after a circling chase of perhaps twenty minutes, the
submarine came up. She was in such shallow water that she probably was
having trouble in operating submerged. She was gone then.

"What followed was very business-like. It illustrates the attitude the
British have come to take toward the submarines because of their
flagrant violations of every form of international law and decency. It
is the attitude which any country, obliged to fight against them, will
assume. To the British mind, submarines must be exterminated, just as
one would exterminate a nest of poisonous vipers, or a nest of hornets.
People ask me how many submarines are being captured now. Very few! Many
are destroyed, but few captured.

"No sooner did the hull of the submarine show itself than we began to
hammer her with our three-inch guns. She opened fire, but her shots went
wild, and, in a few seconds, she disappeared.

"As fast as we could, we ran over to where she had gone down. If the
principles which obtain on land, in the air or in the navy at large,
existed in submarine warfare, we would have gone over to see if we could
rescue any of the wounded, but it was a U-boat and we simply made sure
that there was nothing left of the craft.

"About where she went down, a quantity of gas and air bubbles were
rising, and the dirty patch of oil was once more in evidence. That was a
pretty certain sign the career of one U-boat was at an end, for the sea
must have been pouring into her, and even though all her crew did not
drown, once the salt water reached the storage batteries, the chloride
would do the work.


WERE TAKING NO CHANCES.

"But we are taking no chances. We circle round and round the spot and
drop depth bombs--deadly machines. These are powerful explosives which
are set so they will detonate at a certain depth. We first sounded the
bottom and then set our bombs for ten fathoms. Suddenly I hear a cry
from the boat behind us. One of the crew reaches out, grabs the collar
of a man who has just dropped a depth bomb over the stern and yanks him
unceremoniously into the cockpit. At a glance I see what has happened.

"The engineer has stalled his motor--just as the bomb was let go. It
sinks slowly, and there is a slight momentum left in the
submarine-chaser. We hold our breath and watch in suspense, expecting
any second to see our comrades hurled into the air among a mushroom of
water and splinters.

"There is no way to help them. Suddenly there is a muffled roar, a
column of water rises to what seems a hundred feet, and falls back,
drenching every one who is near it. But our comrades are unhurt. The
momentum of their boat has carried them just far enough to save them
from being blown to atoms. That is the second narrow escape for our
little squadron in this chase after a single submarine.

"But our work is done. There is no doubt now about the fate of the
U-boat. It is not necessary for one of the depth bombs actually to come
in contact with the submerged craft to destroy it. When under water, a
submarine's rigidity is multiplied. Its elasticity is next to nothing.
An explosion as powerful as that of a depth bomb near it, is almost
certain to cripple it if not destroy it. It is the same principle as
that which kills fish in a pond when dynamite is exploded beneath the
surface of the water. The shock is sufficient to kill the men in the
U-boat, and so we glide along homeward, secure in the knowledge that
even if our gunfire did not finish the enemy, the bombs have done the
work. On the surface, we notice swarms of dead fish."


THE HAWK-EYED AEROPLANE.

The last wrinkle developed for submarine hunting was the aeroplane. Like
a fish-hawk it can see its prey beneath the water by flying high in air.
Another step just a bit in advance of aeroplane scouting for submarines
is the use of a small dirigible for the same purpose. But the cleverest
development of the aeroplane-submarine idea involved the use of
seaplanes for the purpose of launching submarine torpedoes at enemy
ships.

Here's how this is practiced. As most folks know, the seaplane differs
from the land-flying craft in that it rides on floats instead of wheels.
These floats permit the seaplane to come to rest on the waves, and to
launch itself again. Between these floats, which resemble a pair of
broad home-made sleds, may be slung a torpedo. The same type of missile,
this, that is used by the submarine and the destroyer--a long,
cigar-shaped cylinder, operated by compressed air driving a propeller,
and equipped with a warhead filled with guncotton. The torpedo is held
by slings, delicately adjusted so that they can be released in an
instant.

The great seaplane, swinging the missile of death between its giant
floats, climbs the skies in search of an enemy ship. From a distance of
miles, perhaps, the seaplane looks like a gull. To the observer in the
plane, however, sweeping the horizon with his binoculars, a ship is
plainly and easily seen.


NOT TO BE OUT-DISTANCED.

Off in the distance is spied a ship suspected of being an enemy
transport. It isn't hard to determine--the ship cannot steam away from
them, no matter how swift its engines. A seaplane can go so fast that it
makes the fastest torpedo boat destroyer look as if it were standing
still. The attacked transport may try to bring its anti-aircraft guns to
bear, if luckily it is equipped with them. Failing this, the soldiers
will man the decks with their rifles ready. Then there is a duel of
skill and daring between the men on the cruiser and the lone fighters in
the seaplane.

The seaplane must swoop sufficiently close to the water to release the
torpedo and let it drop without damage. And this must be done from a
sufficient distance to safeguard the seaplane from the vessel's guns.
The superior speed and mobility of the seaplane gives it a great
advantage over the ship attacked.

Another of the weapons or instruments of warfare devised largely for use
in destroying the evil submarine is the "blimp." This is nothing more
nor less than a small dirigible balloon, hundreds of which the United
States government started to build when it entered the war.

The blimp is an aerial sea-scout. Its principal employment is for
observation. It is a watcher of enemy movements on the water. But it is
also serviceable for attack, and especially for assailing submarines.

The British used blimps for the latter purpose, and to great advantage.
The dirigible sausage-balloon, when a submarine is descried, can hover
over it (as an aeroplane cannot), remaining as nearly stationary as may
be desired, and waiting for an opportunity to drop a bomb with accurate
aim.

If the submarine be under water, and its presence betrayed by the
peculiar surface-ripple that marks its wake, a bomb with a delay-action
fuse can be dropped upon it, the projectile not exploding until it
reaches a depth of fifty feet or so. In case the first bomb does not
score a hit, there are others to follow, with better luck perhaps.


THE IMPORTANCE OF THE "BLIMP."

Thus, it will be seen that the blimp is an important auxiliary of the
flying-machine in the pursuit of the submarines. Both together, in this
exciting sport, supplement the swift power-boats called
"submarine-chasers."

For some time the Navy Department has trained enlisted men and officers
for this work, chiefly at a Gulf port, where a school--it is no war
secret--of aviation and ballooning has been maintained. Six officers and
40 men are required for each coast station.

The Navy Department adopted for the blimp a standardized pattern, with
definite published specifications, in accordance with which contractors
turned them out in numbers. It is a sausage-shaped balloon 160 feet
long, with a great diameter of 31-1/2 feet, and containing, when
inflated, 77,000 cubic feet of hydrogen gas.

The fabric of the "envelope"--that is to say, of the gas-bag--is coated
both outside and inside with rubber. It is required that the balloon
shall not lose more than 1 per cent of its gas-content in 24 hours. When
inflated it must be able to carry (including its own weight) a total of
5275 pounds.

If the "Zeppelin" be excepted, the blimp is the most highly-developed
and scientific heavier-than-air flying machine ever devised. It has a
cruising speed of 35 miles an hour, but at a pinch can travel ten miles
an hour faster. At the "cruising" rate, it carries enough gasoline to
keep going for sixteen hours; at 45 miles, its load of "petrol" will
suffice for ten hours.

Even the best war balloons of a few years ago were at the mercy of the
winds. It is not so with the blimp. Barring storms, it is able to
navigate the air as it wishes. It can rise safely to an altitude of a
mile and a half. To furnish fuel for its engine of 100 horsepower it
carries, in two tanks, 100 gallons of gasoline.


DESCRIPTION OF THE "BLIMP."

In effect, the blimp is a combination of balloon and aeroplane. Like the
latter, it is provided with "skids" (resembling sled runners and made of
ash wood), or sometimes with bicycle wheels, for safe landing on terra
firma. When designed for sea scouting, floats--cylinders of waterproof
fabric stuffed with vegetable fibre--are attached to the skids, or to
the wheels, so that the airship, in calm weather, may be able to rest,
like a sea bird, on the waves, if desired.

The blimp's balloon envelope must contain two smaller balloons, together
holding 19,250 feet of hydrogen gas. The idea, of course, is that if
anything happens to the major balloon--puncturing by gunfire or by other
mishap--the "balloonets" inside of it will keep the machine afloat.

The wingless aeroplane is suspended from the balloon by cables of
galvanized wire. There is a special arrangement by which the
"pilot"--the man who steers and operates the airship--can at any time
measure the pressure of hydrogen in the balloon, thus knowing what he
has to count on in the way of carrying power.

The front part of the blimp's car is occupied by the engine and
radiator, behind which is a bulkhead of sheet steel. In the rear of this
bulkhead sits the pilot, and behind him the "observer," who makes
sketches and takes notes of anything important that he sees. Behind the
observer are the tanks for fuel oil and 300 gallons of water ballast.
The body of the car is covered with aeroplane linen, save for the
engine, which is sheathed with sheet aluminum.

In order to hold whatever position in the air may be desired, the blimp
is equipped with two horizontal fins and three vertical fins. Not every
blimp, that is to say, but the pattern approved and required of
contractors by the Navy Department. These fins are made of wood and
light steel tubing, reinforced with wire, covered with aeroplane linen
rubber painted and finished with varnish.


THE "BLIMP" WELL EQUIPPED.

There are also two horizontal rudders and two vertical rudders, for
steering up and down or sidewise. They work on ball bearings. A blimp,
one should understand, is a fish in the ocean of air, a swimmer--just as
the aeroplane is a flyer, like the bird.

The blimp's "car" carries an electric storage battery to furnish lights.
The same battery energizes a searchlight for night scouting. A wireless
apparatus, for transmitting information to the shore station, is part of
the equipment.

The blimp, as already stated, is a sea scout. It is meant to be operated
from a base on shore--which base is in constant communication by
telegraph and wireless with the great radio stations that are strung all
along our coasts at intervals of 200 miles. These stations, in turn, are
in communication with the huge wireless outfit at Arlington (across the
Potomac from Washington), whose "antennae," uplifted on tall steel
towers, receive instantaneous war news from half the world.

Thus if (just for illustration) a blimp spies a hostile submarine, the
news is instantly transmitted to the Navy Department. The department
orders its "chasers" and warplanes nearest to the scene to go after the
undersea boat. Within a few minutes the pursuit has started, and the
U-boat finds itself in much the same situation as a fox hunted by
hounds. In this case, however, the hounds are in the air, as well as
"quartering" the aqueous terrain.

The United States' blimps are modeled on European patterns. But they are
to have special improvements of their own. To make sure of their
efficiency and structural correctness, each contractor, in offering bids
to furnish them, was required to exhibit a model, exactly like the
sausage balloons he proposed to make, but of toy size--one-thirtieth the
length of the full-sized, completely equipped aerial sea scout.



CHAPTER IX.

THE EYES OF BATTLE.

AEROPLANES AND AIRSHIPS--THEY SPY THE MOVEMENTS OF FORCES ON LAND OR
SEA--LEAD DISASTROUS BOMB ATTACKS--VALUABLE IN "SPOTTING"
SUBMARINES--THE BOMBARDMENT AT MESSINES RIDGE.


Just as the submarine has revolutionized warfare on the seas and
presented new problems for the naval experts to solve, so the aircraft
of the last decade has had its effect upon the operation of land forces.
Probably the aeroplane and the dirigible balloon have had a greater
influence on the conduct of battles and military campaigns as a whole
than any other device utilized in connection with the war.

It is significant, too, that just as America produced the first
submarine, and then failed as a nation to develop it to its highest
state of efficiency for military use, so American inventors were
pioneers in the construction and successful operation of aeroplanes, or
airplanes, which were first developed to their greatest efficiency and
utility by the French and Germans.

Some of the most striking events of the war centre around the use of the
airplanes or dirigibles, and aside from the picturesqueness and
thrilling atmosphere that seem to surround their use, the operator of
the aircraft has proved himself one of the most valuable servants in
modern warfare. He has reduced the proudest cavalry to second place in
the matter of reconnoissance, and has rendered services which have
heretofore been impossible.

The airman sails out over the lines of battle, so far above the earth
when necessary as to be out of range of the most powerful guns, and with
glasses looks down upon the whole country. His machine, whether it be a
dirigible balloon or airplane, is equipped with a wireless telegraph
instrument with which he is able to send brief messages back to his own
line or military headquarters. He can and does mark the changed
positions of the contending forces, note the entrenchments and
reinforcements, follow movements, and last but not least, as was
noticeable in one of the desperate attacks upon the German position in
June, 1917, swoop down upon the enemy, attack the lines and forces with
bombs, and rain bullets upon them from rapid-fire guns.

No longer can the enemy mask its heavy batteries or conceal them beneath
earthen mounds, plant them in corners of the forests or in clumps of
bushes without their being located. The "eyes of the sky," as the planes
are now termed, can spy them out. And when the airman has communicated
to his military commanders the positions of the opposing batteries, he
acts as a director in instructing the friendly gunners in finding the
range and cleaning out the enemy.


THE AIR SCOUT'S USEFULNESS.

The air scout can detect the enemy's lines of communication and raid it
with bomb attacks. Even when the land forces cannot reach the enemy with
gunfire he can rain missiles of all sorts upon them. Sometimes the
airman flies over the enemy lines and drops glittering tinsel or bright
metal devices, which falling to the ground serve as marks for the
artillerymen in finding the range.

Where the cavalry scout or creeping scout of days gone by could never
have proved successful, the airman has easily accomplished his purpose.
He has carried messages from one frontier to another in hours, when it
would have taken days for a scout on horseback or on foot to have
rendered the service, if they could have accomplished it at all. He has
eliminated distance.

Trench warfare developed in the world-war in a way that has never before
been deemed necessary or possible, but the miles of trenches which
conceal the men from the fire of the enemy are plainly visible to the
airmen. And armed with cameras having powerful telescopic lenses they
can photograph the entire scene and send to their own military
headquarters not mere indicated plans of the battle lines, but exact
photographs.

The war has shown conclusively that once the formation of the battle
line has been decided upon it is, in a measure, a fixture. It may be
subject to rearrangement, but this is when the force of battle demands,
or for strategic purposes, but such an arrangement requires a great deal
of time and much work. The battle fronts on the borders of France and
Belgium have ranged from 100 to nearly 300 miles in length, with nearly
3,000,000 strung out in opposing lines along the entire distance.


LIKE AN IMMENSE GRIDIRON.

The ground has been dug up and trenched until the surface of the earth
looks like an immense gridiron. The soldiers almost live within the
trenches and dugouts beneath the ground. Telephone and telegraph wires
run through the trenches and even railroad tracks are laid so that small
engines go whirring through the ditches like "dinky" locomotives in a
coal mine.

And the "eyes in the skies" make it possible for the commanders to know
each other's strength and the disposition of the forces at all times.

Particularly has the air scout proved valuable in enabling commanders to
execute their final orders without grievous error. There is danger of
possible misjudgment because of the great length of the firing lines.
The airmen verify positions and make last minute reports, taking minutes
to perform services that cavalry forces or other scouting parties would
have taken hours or days to render.

Operated in conjunction with cavalry scouts, and motor and cycle squads,
the airplane is a destruction-directing and defensive force. And it was
the large fleet of aircraft that aided Germany in making such rapid
advance in its drive toward Paris in the early days of the war. The
scouts reconnoitering in the early dawn were able to report the
situation and give the commanders time to move their forces before the
Belgians and French were aware of what was being done.

Germany had probably the largest fleet of airplanes at the beginning of
the conflict and is said to have possessed upward of 500, of various
sorts, and this does not include the famous Zeppelins or dirigible
balloons. She also had something like two dozen factories which could
turn out flying machines, and had been at work on the development of her
aircraft long enough to have her patterns and methods of manufacture
somewhat, if not entirely standardized. During the third year of the war
it was estimated that she had more than quadrupled her force of flying
machines.


GERMANY'S PREPAREDNESS.

Germany's preparedness in this as well as in other directions was what
enabled her to obtain such a tremendous advantage in the beginning of
the war. Later England and France concentrated on the development of
aeroplane squads or corps, and when the United States entered the war
one of the first detachments sent into France consisted of 100 aviators.
How rapidly the aeroplane forces were developed is indicated by the
statement made in the beginning of 1916 that the air forces of the
Allies were represented by 3380 aeroplanes of various types and 64
dirigible balloons, while Austria and Germany had 2000 aeroplanes and 70
dirigibles.

The dirigibles--the type of airship commonly referred to as
Zeppelins--have the advantage over the heavier-than-air machines of
being almost silent in their operations, while at the same time they can
remain for a longer time suspended in air over a camp or battleground
without being detected. The Zeppelin is the development of the old
balloon, made, however, in a conical shape with a long basket or car
attached. They are driven by propellers similar to those used with
aeroplanes, but as the power generated by the engines is merely used to
drive the machines and has nothing to do with maintaining their position
in the air, the motors do not have to be so powerful. They are steered
by rudders.

Some of the largest Zeppelins which have been leading factors in night
raids conducted by the Germans on London and English coast resorts are
capable of maintaining a speed of 60 miles an hour. One of these immense
Zeppelins was reported to have covered 1300 miles in less than forty
hours, covering the German borders, and still keeping in touch with its
base. The Zeppelins, because of their large size, can carry large
quantities of bombs, wireless apparatus, signals and electric
searchlights. They can rise to a height that places them fairly beyond
the range of the aerial guns used for fighting the air forces of the
army.


MANY KINDS OF BOMBS.

The bombs used are as diversified as the crafts on which they are
carried. The French aviators at one time dropped long steel billets or
arrows which had swedged heads and sharpened points. These missiles,
dropped from the height of a thousand feet or more, attained a velocity
and force which made them dangerous weapons of the minor sort.

The bombs, in the main, however, consist of jacketed shells containing
high explosives, some of which are constructed on what is called the
delayed-action principle. Such bombs explode after penetrating the fort
or object which they strike, instead of going off by contact. Germany is
said to have developed some of these that were of such size and power as
to penetrate an armored ship. As much as 50 pounds of explosives or
chemicals is declared to have been carried in some of the larger ones.

The big dirigibles mount machine guns of superior range. Some of them
have been armored to an extent, and to make them less easily detected
they have been painted tints and colors to harmonize with the clouds and
sky. Special kinds of gas have been used to fill the envelopes or bags,
and instead of one large bag they consist of a series of bags enclosed
in an envelope or casing, so that if a bullet would penetrate the
envelope it would only destroy one of the gas bags, and not cause the
whole thing to collapse.

Besides having proved of great value in the land campaigns, the aircraft
has shown itself to be one of the most effective devices of warfare for
use against the submarine, and all manner of naval craft. From the
heavens they can see the submarine under the water, and as either the
dirigible or the aeroplane can develop a speed greater than that of any
battleship or cruiser, it is not difficult for it to soar over the
vessel and drop bombs upon it. Even gas bombs have been used in the
raids by the aircraft.


ACCURACY THE GREAT DIFFICULTY.

The difficulty in the use of bombs has been in accurately directing the
death-dealing devices when the airship or aeroplane is in motion. To
assist in this work aerial range finders have been devised. These are
constructed on the principle of the finder on a camera, with graded
scale markings to indicate the allowance that must be made for speed and
motion. Complete apparatus has been built up for launching the
projectiles from the large dirigibles, and to insure the missiles
traveling properly vanes have been attached to some of them.

In a test made under the auspices of the French Government and the
Aerial Club of France, a few years ago, one of the bomb-launching
machines on an aeroplane scored eleven bull's-eye shots in a target ten
yards in diameter, from an altitude of more than 2000 feet, while the
aeroplane was going at a speed of more than 65 miles an hour.

Though there has not been any widespread use of the plan the air has
been "mined" in an experimental way to protect certain sections against
night raids by the airmen. Mining the air consists of locating small
balloons over an area, each balloon being attached to the other with
wires. The small balloons have attached to them explosive bombs which
would destroy the larger aircraft if it was to run into this nest of air
vessels in the dark.

Reverting to the use of aircraft in naval warfare it may be said that to
the aeroplane the relatively fast fleet is virtually stationary. About
the only case parallel to the aeroplane looking over the hill and down
on concealed enemy positions would be in rising above the smoke screen
thrown out by destroyers.


THE SMOKE SCREEN.

The smoke screen, by the way, which has been used by the British with
marked success in many instances, is an American invention. The low,
swift craft are equipped with special oil burners which throw off dense
volumes of heavy smoke, which float low over the surface of the water,
concealing the maneuvers of the larger boats and protecting them from
the skill of enemy gunners. Its effectiveness, of course, is influenced
by the direction and strength of the wind. Used generously by small
craft convoying a ship through a submarine area, it should be of great
value.

A battleship can see about as far as it can shoot, anyhow. Except for
smoke screen, or the famous "low visibility," which means foggy weather
or darkness, no enemy within range can be concealed.

What the fleet commander wants to know is how those enemy vessels beyond
the horizon, which may be within range of his guns tomorrow, the day
after, or next week, may be distributed, and how many of them there are.
This is where the speed of the airplane comes in.

A machine which can travel 100 miles an hour covers a thousand miles in
10 hours. Locating an approaching enemy fleet this distance away, it
brings back the news of the approach in 10 hours. It takes the fleet,
traveling at 15 miles an hour, two days and 18 hours to cover this
distance. The aeroplane can beat it by two days and eight hours.

But the aeroplane flying high enough to give it the widest practical
range of vision is able to see only over a path 75 miles wide under the
most favorable weather conditions. Haze will cut this down considerably.
This means that for anything like complete scouting work a fleet must be
equipped with a large number of them.


PROPORTION OF FIGHTING PLANES.

Then, too, there must be a generous proportion of fighting planes to
spread out in a very wide circle beyond the fleet. It will be
appreciated that this circle must be a mighty wide one if the enemy
planes be kept far enough away to prevent their counting the number and
type of ships in the command. There is required also a large detail to
guard against the submarines. While an aeroplane can see quite deep in
the sea, this penetrating vision is limited to the water directly
beneath it. It can see straight down in the water, but not off to the
side at an angle.

If such a thing is possible, air control at sea is more important than
over the land, and of first value is the fighting plane. In this
connection there is an aeroplane gun which works well. It is a
double-ender. That is, there is a breech in the middle, and the two ends
are muzzles. In air fighting it is seconds and fractions of seconds that
count, and the advantage of this gun lies in that it can be fired in
opposite directions, thus cutting down the length of the arc through
which it has to be swung to be brought to bear on the enemy.

Of exceptional value to the United States navy is the super-American
type of planes which the Curtiss factories have developed and which have
done such wonderful service for the British. In this type the fuselage
is entirely enclosed, built with a hull much along the lines of the
motorboat or hydroplane. The 'plane may thus come to rest safely in the
open sea.

It weighs nearly 6000 pounds and can carry a useful load of more than
2000 pounds. The boat is slung well below the planes, eight feet below
the lower one, which has a span of 66 feet. Eight feet above this is the
upper plane, which overlaps the lower plane by 13 feet on each side. The
complete span of the upper plane is 92 feet. It can carry six to eight
men, if necessary, altogether a huge, sturdy, dependable machine with
two powerful motors.

And what was done to give America the equipment of 'planes which we
needed?


RESOURCES AT GOVERNMENT'S COMMAND.

Fifteen aeroplane manufacturers, with a combined capital of $30,000,000
and a total capacity of 175 machines a week, organized and placed all
their resources at the command of the government. The organization
provided for the interchange of ideas and plans and for the
standardization of manufacture, which resulted in a material increase in
output.

One hundred and seventy-five machines a week should give us, in a year,
9100. And there are other conditions which may modify the estimate both
favorably and unfavorably. There is, for instance, a limit to the amount
of seasoned lumber available in this country of the peculiar type and
quality needed for airplane construction. Provision must be made for the
future in this respect. All-steel machines have been made and used in
Europe to some extent, but no metal alloy has been developed which is
likely to take the place of wood in general construction. The
manufacturers developed some interesting things along these lines which
were not given to the public.

In the Spring of 1917 the fighting in the air took on an entirely new
interest abroad, because of the German policy of painting their machines
most grotesque patterns. They seemed to have taken this idea from the
old American Indian custom of painting their faces to frighten their
opponents, or else the fancies of the German airmen were allowed to run
riot with vivid color effects.

British pilots daily brought home from over the lines new reports of
fantastic creations encountered amid the clouds. The gayest feathered
songsters that came north with the Spring did not rival the variegated
hues of the harlequin birds that rose daily from the German airdromes.
The coming of this fantastic order of things in the air was first
heralded by a squadron of scarlet German planes. It then was noticed
that some of the enemy machines were striped about the body like
yellowjackets.


GAUDY TASTES OF AIRMEN.

Nothing appeared too gaudy to meet the tastes of the enemy airmen, who
seemed to have been given carte blanche with the paint brush. There were
green planes with yellow noses, silver planes with gold noses,
khaki-colored planes with greenish-gray wings, planes with red bodies,
green wings and yellow stripes, planes with red bodies and wings of
green on top of blue, planes with light blue bodies and red wings.
Virtually all the gaudiest machines were in red body effects, with every
possible combination of colors for their wings. Some had one green wing
and one white; some had green wings tipped with various colors.

One of the most fantastic met had a scarlet body, brown tail and
reddish-brown wings, with white maltese crosses against a bright green
background. One machine looked like a pear flying through the air. It
had a pear-shaped tail and was painted a ruddy brown, just like a large
ripe fruit. One of the piebald squadrons encountered was made up of
white, red and green machines. There still were others palpably painted
for what became known as "camouflage" purposes, as guns, wagons and
tents often are painted to blend with the landscape and thus avoid
detection.

This lavish use of paint, however, did not reduce the heavy daily loss
inflicted on the Germans by the British flyers. But it must not be
imagined that the Germans did not put up a stalwart fight. Just as their
resistance was strengthened on land, so it was increased in the air.
Just as the Germans threw in new divisions of infantry and new batteries
of artillery to check the Allies' offensive, so they sent aloft hundreds
of new machines to contest for the mastery of the air, an important
phase of modern war.

The manner in which the British flying corps dominated the air during
the battle of Messines Ridge in June, 1917, and completely smothered the
German aviation service for the time being is one of the most thrilling
and remarkable stories of the entire war.

Hundreds of British planes were well behind the German lines when the
battle broke into its fury at dawn. They had stolen over during the
darker intervals of the brief night when the moon was hidden by storm
clouds. Other hundreds went aloft with the first faint streaks of coming
day and, guided by the flashes of the guns, flew into the thick of the
fighting.


COMBED BY MACHINE GUNS.

During the night British machines combed enemy railway stations, trains,
ammunition dumps and troops coming up on the march. Others hovered above
German airdromes and circled low among airplane sheds and fired hundreds
of rounds from machine guns into them and prevented the enemy machines
from coming out. Later in the day, while the fighting was most intense,
British airmen dropped about three tons of bombs on the German flying
grounds as a further deterrent, which proved highly effective.

In addition to shutting the German airmen out of any early participation
in the battle, the British airplanes were in a large degree responsible
for the fact that the Germans could not launch a counter-attack of
appreciable strength until forty hours after the battle for the ridge
began and every bit of ground desired by the British in this particular
operation had been taken and secured.

Far back of the German lines the British planes searched out troops in
every hamlet, town and village. In several places they saw them
gathering or marching in the main streets, whereupon they flew down low
at times and opened a fire which scattered the gray-clad soldiers in all
directions. All pilots report that their accurate fire had a most
demoralizing effect upon the hostile troops. Convoys and ammunition and
supply columns were attacked while on the march and the disorganized men
left their teams and automobiles on the roads while they sought shelter
in nearby ditches.


AIRPLANES ATTACK TROOPS.

Airplanes attacked troops in the support trenches and sent them
scurrying to the cover of their dugouts. One pilot made so many of these
attacks that he finally ran out of ammunition, but he delivered his last
stroke by letting go his signal rockets at a platoon of soldiers who,
evidently mistaking this for some particularly horrible new style of war
frightfulness, fled in all directions.

German troops were fired upon in the more distant back areas as they
were entraining for the front. Many of the enemy retreating from the
British attack and hiding in shell holes were seen by the low-flying
airmen and pelted with bullets.

One British pilot patrolled a road for half an hour before he saw
anything to shoot at. Then a German military automobile with three
officers sitting in the back seat came along. The Britisher dived at
them from a height of three hundred feet, firing at them as they came.
He flew so low eventually that the wheels of his under carriage barely
missed the automobile, which swerved into a ditch while going at about
forty miles an hour and crashed into a tree.

This same pilot later came across an active field gun battery and
charged it, scattering the gun crew and hitting a number of them. Still
further along he attacked a column of Germans marching in fours. The
column broke when he opened fire, scattering to both sides of the road.
At no time during his stay inside the German lines was this pilot more
than 500 feet from the ground.


ON CONTACT PATROL WORK.

Large numbers of British machines were on contact patrol work, flying
low over the advancing lines of infantry, constantly watching their
movements, their progress, any temporary reverse, any attempt to form
counter-attacks and all the while sending detailed reports back to corps
and army headquarters.

Of the fourteen planes lost during the day of the battle, a majority
were those contact machines. They had to fly through a frightful storm
of their own as well as the enemy's artillery fire, and they succumbed
to chance blows from these exploding missiles.

Late on the day of the battle, when the enemy machines had finally
arrived from more distant airdromes, there was some good fighting in the
air, some of it at close quarters with collisions barely avoided. Twenty
enemy machines were accounted for in the fighting, some flopping about
until they broke up in the air and others being driven down on their
noses in yellow buttercup fields so far back of the fighting line that
no shell had ever marred the symmetry of the landscape.

Some of the most marvelous work was done by artillery airships. One
squadron of these alone, acting with several batteries of British
heavies, succeeded in silencing seventy-two German batteries before six
o'clock on the morning of the attack which began at 3.10 o'clock in the
morning. These planes also directed the firing on the enemy's guns en
route to the front, some of the big weapons being drawn by caterpillar
tractors. Wherever a thousand or more troops were observed forming for
possible counter-attacks the artillery planes directed "shoots" upon
them.

So complete was the British domination of the air along the front of
attack that not a single one of the British artillery observing
aeroplanes was lost during the week that the intense bombardment was
going on. During the battle British aeroplanes also attacked and
silenced a number of enemy machine-gun positions.

The growth of the aeroplane industry has developed as many makes of
machines as there are makes of automobiles, but in a general way
aeroplanes are divided into four classes--monoplanes, biplanes,
triplanes and hydroplanes. About 90 per cent of all designs are
monoplanes and biplanes, and the types are distinguished by their single
set of wings or planes or the double planes or wings. Both types have
their advantages in use, the biplane being regarded as more stable for
certain scouting purposes than the monoplane. It can carry heavier
weights--has greater lifting power--but is not capable of as great speed
or as easily maneuvered.


MACHINE ON PRACTICAL BASIS.

The War has placed the machine on an intensely practical basis. The
manufacturers have learned that machines constructed along certain lines
will travel at such and such a speed and have a certain lifting
capacity, will rise under a particular speed and may be expected to do
certain things under certain circumstances, but with all the advance
which has been made in the construction of the air machines, the
designers do not yet understand all the "factors" that enter into the
"why" of the case.

The makers have, however, succeeded in standardizing their machines to a
degree. The story of how the aeroplane flies is a highly technical and
scientific one, but the basic principle is the reaction of air and an
inclined surface in motion. It might be likened to a stone skipping
across the surface of a pond, if the imagination can conceive of the
water as being air. It is simplicity itself to drive an inclined plane
against the air with such force that the impact will produce a lifting
power. In raising an ordinary kite, for instance, the boy runs into the
teeth of the wind. His kite is so attached to a string as to stand at an
angle, and as he runs the pressure against the air drives the kite
upward. In the aeroplane the propellers drive the machine into the air
with such force that the planes, standing at an angle, guide the machine
upward.

There are innumerable problems to be solved--those of buoyancy, delicacy
of balance and many others--but the designers themselves have not been
able to determine upon a precise formula for their solution. It is
sufficient that the aeroplane has reached a degree of practicability in
construction and use which insures its permanent existence, and has
given the military and the naval forces one of the greatest agencies in
the world for protecting themselves and watching their enemies.



CHAPTER X.

WAR'S STRANGE DEVICES.

CHEMISTRY A DEMON OF DESTRUCTION--POISON GAS BOMBS--GAS MASKS--HAND
GRENADES--MORTARS--"TANKS"--FEUDAL "BATTERING RAMS"--STEEL
HELMETS--STRANGE BULLETS--MOTOR PLOWS--REAL DOGS OF WAR.


Things new and passing strange--thousands of them--have been brought
into being by the great world war. Human minds have developed things
undreamed of by science or fiction--things that a few years ago would
have been considered too strange and fantastic for even the professional
romancer to weave into the tissues of his stories.

Every known science has been called upon to produce its quota of new
things which might be used for the destruction or the protection of men
at war. The wonders of chemistry have always lent descriptive
inspiration to the pen of writers, but mankind to get a vivid conception
of the horrors of chemistry has had to wait for the great world war.

The conflict which has involved the entire world might almost be termed
a warfare of chemists. Without their diabolical products, ranging all
the way from high explosives to poison gases, it would have few of the
characteristics of ultra-frightfulness that render it unique in the
history of international struggles.

But of all the instruments of destruction used in this war, there is
none more horrifying than the so-called "incendiary bomb," which sets
instant fire to whatever it touches and which spreads flame in a manner
so terrific that three or four such gravity-projectiles dropped from an
aeroplane burned up the whole of a peaceful Dutch village in a few
minutes.

Now, what is the fearsome stuff with which such bombs are loaded? A new
chemical compound? Not at all. What they contain is simply the mixture
of two of the most harmless things in the world--oxide of iron (which
is simply iron rust) and powdered aluminum.

When these two innocent substances are mixed together the result is a
compound truly infernal in its potentialities for mischief. It is not an
explosive but if set on fire it burns with an intensity that is
positively appalling. Nothing will put it out; no quantity of water has
any effect upon the raging flames it engenders.

This is the material used for loading incendiary bombs. It is ignited in
such projectiles by a mercury-fulminate cap that sets off a fuse
containing powdered magnesium--the stuff photographers employ for
flashlights.


THIN SHELLS OF STEEL.

These bombs are thin shells of steel or iron--mere containers for the
mixture before described. They are so contrived that the fuse is
instantly ignited when they strike.

Whereupon the shell is melted by the heat generated within it and a
flood of fiercely burning metal is scattered in all directions. All of
this seems rather extraordinary, and it is worth explaining.

Oxygen has an affinity for iron, readily combining with the
latter--which is the reason why iron is liable to rust. This rust is a
chemical compound of iron and oxygen; in other words, oxide of iron. But
oxygen has a much greater affinity for aluminum. And so, when the two
metals are powdered and mixed together and heat is applied the oxygen
flies out of the iron rust and combines with the aluminum.

The process is started in the bomb by the burning magnesium. And then
the oxygen passes out of the iron and into the aluminum so rapidly that
an enormously high temperature is developed. It runs up to 3500 or 4000
degrees Fahrenheit--which means, of course, a tremendous combustion. The
mixture of aluminum and iron burns like so much tinder--though such a
way of putting it is absurdly feeble.

The present war has been conspicuously marked by reversions to ancient
methods of fighting. In this line the incendiary bomb offers an
excellent illustration. It is in effect merely an adaptation of an idea
utilized by the Saracens--we should call them Turks nowadays--in their
warfare with the Crusaders of the Middle Ages.


DREAD INSTRUMENT OF WAR.

The instrument of war most dreaded by the Crusaders, as they found it in
the hands of the Turks, was the incendiary bomb--a projectile that flew
through the air "like a fiery dragon" as they described it, and set fire
to whatever it touched. Sometimes it was provided with iron barbs, by
which it clung to buildings.

This was one of the ways in which the Saracens employed the celebrated
"Greek fire"--an inflammable compound that is understood to have been a
mixture of petroleum, saltpeter and pitch. The chief horror of it, from
the Crusaders' point of view, was that it was unquenchable. Mere water
had no effect upon it. Hence they were sure that it must be of
diabolical origin.

But the up-to-date incendiary bomb is a great improvement on its
original of the Middle Ages. The modern contrivance is thoroughly
scientific, and it does its destructive business with certainty and
dispatch.

No less effective are the gas bombs which were introduced by the German
soldiers at Rheims, and which when exploding near the trenches occupied
by the French and English threw off vapors and poisonous gases which
killed or overwhelmed thousands of brave men. These devices used in
violation of all rules of civilized warfare sent hundreds to the
hospitals. Seventy-five victims were taken at one time from the trenches
to the hospital at Zuydcoote, north of Dunkirk, where it was found that
some of those who had inhaled the fumes turned a violet tinge.

Altogether it was estimated that from 3000 to 5000 men were affected by
the gas fumes in this first onslaught and at least 10 per cent of those
who were overcome succumbed to the deadly fumes. Many of those who
inhaled the poisons expectorated blood and for days afterward were
racked by terrible coughing. In many cases fever developed in a few days
ending with pneumonia. When the men were not sufficiently poisoned to
cause death they were so affected that their usefulness as soldiers was
ended for all time. The poison made them confirmed invalids.


INTRODUCTION OF GAS MASK.

Naturally human ingenuity was called into play to protect men against
the poisons and the gas mask came into being. These were of many types.
The early creations consisted primarily of a nose and mouth covering
with a receptacle for inclosing a sponge or gauze soaked with a chemical
which possessed the power to neutralize the gas fumes. Such devices have
been used by fire fighters in large cities the world over where the men
battling to save buildings have been compelled to enter smoke-filled
rooms and cellars. Other types which have proven more effective are
designed after the fashion of the diving apparatus, and having a small
tank of compressed oxygen with feeding tubes running to the mask. The
oxygen combines with the contaminated air breathed through absorbent
cotton or sponge and provides the wearer with the proportion of oxygen
necessary to existence. And even the horses have been provided with such
masks.

But to go back to bombs. All through France and Belgium, and wherever
the Prussian soldiers found their way, there was evidence of the use of
hand grenades which were thrown against the sides of or into buildings
to set them in flames. Some of these devices, made of sheet metal, were
in their action similar to the "Fourth of July torpedoes" familiar to
every American school boy. When thrown they exploded throwing oil and
chemicals over walls and floors. Some of them seem to have been loaded
with bullets and were in effect hand shrapnel.

Then there developed from the primary use of these nefarious weapons the
recognized hand grenade, which is actually hand-shrapnel, plied by men
at close quarters. Thousands of these have been thrown by the armies in
their charges on the trenches. And then, to offset the use of these
devices in the offensive, there came into being also the smoke bombs.
These when exploding throw up great clouds of black smoke which hang
over everything.


EFFECTIVE IN A HUNDRED WAYS.

The use of such bombs has proved effective in a hundred ways. They have
been used to create a perfect shield of smoke to conceal the movements
of troops, or prevent the enemy from finding the range with their long
distance guns. Similarly bombs which contained burning chemicals have
been used to hold in check the approaching enemy forces.

Half way between the great gun and the hand grenade stand among war
weapons the trench mortars. The first of these were used by the Japanese
in their war with Russia. The Japanese mortars were mere logs hollowed
out and strengthened by wrappings of bamboo rope. The projectiles fired
from these were empty provision tins filled with high explosives, scraps
of metal, bits of stone or whatever, in the emergency, could be found to
fill them.

The mortars are pitched at an angle and the projectiles are shot with a
skyrocket effect, to land in the trenches or camp of the enemy. The
Germans developed the idea and the perfected mortars are of steel, and
capable of throwing bombs weighing several hundred pounds.

And then the great moving fort which has been called "the tank!" Those
snorting, fire-spitting dragons which were depicted for us in childhood
can scarcely bring to our mind a greater element of the fanciful, the
horrible, and the powerful than the steel hulks which came into being in
this war under the name of "tanks."

We see them in our mind's eye spitting fire as they crossed No Man's
Land, amid the smoke and dust of bursting shells. Keeping steadily on
their courses they dived into huge craters made by exploding shells;
stretched themselves across trenches, brushed trees and boulders aside,
and kept steadily on their courses. German wire entanglements were as so
many pieces of string before their huge frames. Nothing deterred them.
They moved forward into the face of the enemy, reaching the first line
of German trenches. There the soulless devices sat complacently astride
the trenches, and turning their guns along the ditches swept them in
both directions.


THE TANK DEFIES ALL OBSTACLES.

The tanks which were introduced by the English, move along on revolving
platforms, so to speak. These platforms enable the tank to overcome all
obstacles as the caterpillar tread is curved up in the arc of a huge
circle at the front which gives the vehicle its wonderful tractive
powers. This large curvature acts as a huge wheel with a tremendously
long leverage equal to the radius of the circlet or the spokes of the
imaginary wheel of the same diameter. Only that portion of the assumed
wheel which would come in contact with the ground acts as the lever, and
it is just this portion that is reproduced in the front end of a
caterpillar belt.

Although varying in size and details, all tanks have the common
characteristic of being divided into three main compartments between the
two side caterpillar frames. The first is the observation compartment in
which the driver and his helper are perched high above the ground to
direct the movements of the huge steel beast.

In the middle is the ammunition room from which the guns carried in the
two side turrets are fed. At the rear is the engine room. From two or
four gasoline engines are used--these driving the rear axle and its
integral sprockets over which the caterpillars run. The latter run an
idler pulley or sprockets at the extreme front ends and are supported by
means of rollers attached to the upper portion of the frame on each side
when passing over the top. This movement of the caterpillar belts is
exactly analogous to that of the ordinary variety of garden insect with
the same name which similarly lays down his own track by humping his
back continuously and regardless of the land surface.

The tanks are steered by a pair of small ordinary wheels at the rear.
These are supported in a pivot on a frame extended from the rear. They
are merely for steering, and support none of the weight of the tank
except when bridging wide trenches or dips in the surface. Steering can
be accomplished by making one caterpillar go faster than the other by
manipulating clutches on the driving mechanism.


TANK'S "CATERPILLAR" FEATURE.

The "caterpillar" feature of the tank had its origin in the caterpillar
belts or shoes which were first used on the great field guns and
mortars--those tremendous weapons which shoot bombs and shells weighing
tons and containing 500 or more pounds of guncotton or explosive which
on contact is discharged, rending everything for yards around.

These guns, as well as the smaller field guns, have had attached to them
great shields of steel behind which the gunners stand, so that they are
protected against the old-fashioned sharpshooters whose duty it was to
pick off the gunners.

The caterpillar or wheel belts on the big guns consist of flat blocks,
or shoes, wider than the tires of the wheels. They are hinged and
fastened together so as to form a great chain, and when placed on the
wheels present broad surfaces to the ground and keep the gun carriages
from sinking into the soft earth. With a set of these shoes a heavy gun
can be drawn over soft and irregular ground, which would be almost
impassable where the gun is mounted on wheels of ordinary width.

Before these belts were devised it was necessary for every gun crew to
carry a supply of beams, jackscrews and devices to be used in
extricating the heavy guns when they got fast in the mud. Now every gun
has these belts which can be put on or detached in a few minutes.

Paradoxically, this is the day of the big gun's greatest effectiveness,
and the day of its greatest limitations. The war has taught us more in
two years about gunnery and the effect of various types of ordnance
under varying conditions than could have been learned in twenty years of
theoretical research--for actual experience proves where theoretical
research merely gives ground on which to base an opinion.


NATIONAL RESOURCES TO DISLODGE A MAN.

One of the things that we have learned is that when man takes unto
himself the humble pick and shovel and proceeds to dig a hole for
himself in the ground, we can get him out of that hole only by drawing
on the combined resources of a nation, by constructing one of the most
complex and expensive instruments in the world, and with it hurling at
man dug-in a projectile weighing a good part of a ton.

The blunder, perhaps unavoidable, which stands out with equal emphasis
among the preliminary preparations of all the nations engaged in the
struggle was the underestimation of the artillery power required for the
conduct of a successful military campaign under modern conditions of
warfare. It was an underestimation so great that in the light of
developments it will some day prove ridiculous.

At the opening of the war two opposed theories of artillery
effectiveness were held by the combatants. The French swore by the
medium calibre, rapid-fire, low-trajectory field piece. The Teutons had
devoted their best efforts to the development of guns so big that their
opponents were tempted, before they learned better, to regard them as
too unwieldy for effective field service. Both were right, the French in
the full sense and intention of the term, the Teutons by pure accident.

It should be explained here that the word Teuton is used advisedly, for
in reality it is to the Austrians before the Germans that the
development of the 11-inch and bigger field gun, with its special
carriage and caterpillar-tread wheels owes its existence. It was
Austrian guns and Austrian gunners that first made the heavy artillery
of the Teuton armies famous.

The French field piece performed all that was expected of it, but it was
handicapped by unforeseen conditions of warfare. The heavy Teuton guns
performed their mission in the very introductory stages of the war, then
failed, and later, by the irony of fate, proved to be the very things
required when the unforeseen war conditions developed.


A WONDERFUL GUN.

The Germans and Austrians believed that they could develop a big gun
which could be given sufficient mobility for use in the field, and with
commendable and methodical application they proceeded to do so. The
theory was, first, that it could batter down any permanent
fortifications that man could build, and when it was pitted against the
concrete ramparts of Liege and Namur it blew them out of existence in a
few hours. The Teutons had scored, and scored so heavily that the Allies
barely escaped the fate the Germans had prepared for them in an
overwhelming sweep on Paris. That they did escape this fate is no doubt
in a large measure due to the fact that the second effectiveness claimed
by the Teutons for their heavy ordnance failed in its full
accomplishment. Used in open fighting, the great explosive shells hurled
by these guns did not do the damage expected to the wide, open firing
lines of the Allies, nor did they produce the moral effect expected. The
great shells tore tremendous craters in the ground, from which the
force of the explosion was expended upward in a sort of cone-shape,
shooting above the heads of any troops in the vicinity except those
immediately adjacent to the explosion. In the meantime the field pieces
of the French, with their extreme mobility and rapidity of fire, were
scattering death and destruction with their straight shrapnel fire in
the solid formations which were so popular with the Germans in the early
stages of the war, and which today they do not seem to be able to drop
entirely.

So far the French piece did all expected of it. The German piece had
proved its ability only to blow up permanent fortifications, and this
was nullified immediately by the action of the French in abandoning the
concrete shelters and moving their own guns into newly and
quickly-constructed trench forts.


A THING UNDREAMED OF.

But the thing that neither side had dreamed of was the settling down of
the war on the west front into an eternal line of opposing trenches to
face each other for years. That it did so was due to the monumental
blunders on the part of the German staff in allowing itself to be
outmaneuvered and beaten back from the gates of Paris by numerically
inferior forces, and still further outmaneuvered in the extension of the
lines northward in that famous series of flanking movements which
finally reached the sea.

It was their success in driving the German army to earth when it was
stronger than they were that saved the Allies, and gave them the
breathing time required in which to further their preparations and train
new troops, and likewise it is this same mode of trench warfare which
has made their task so difficult when they have taken the offensive.

Against ordinary trench lines, as known in the early stages of the war,
the French field pieces were more effective than the heavy cannon of the
Teutons, just as they had been in the open. Shooting in flat trajectory
across the trench, and exploding just above it, the shrapnel scattered
more death downward than the heavy projectile could scatter upward after
it had buried itself in the soft earth.

But with the continuous line of trenches stretching from Switzerland to
the sea, with consequent impossibility of out-flanking, demonstrated by
the Germans to their sorrow in repeated repulses of their drives to cut
through to Calais, each side felt justified in replying to the artillery
of the other by digging deeper and more permanently, with many feet of
shelter overhead. This ended the effectiveness of shrapnel except for
the repulse of attacks, and again the heavy guns swung into the position
of pre-eminence.


A SITUATION ALMOST BEYOND CONTROL.

It was at this stage, however, that both sides realized how totally
inadequate the supply of these heavy guns and ammunition was to cope
with the situation. While the heavy gun was more effective in blasting
out the enemy from his dugouts than the field piece, it required many
times the artillery power which either side possessed to handle the job.

Then commenced the race of the ammunition and gun factories to turn out
their products by the ton where they had been turned out by the pound
before; a race in which the Allies took and held the lead.

With the greatly increased number of heavy guns it became possible to
develop the famous curtain of barrage fire, also known as drum fire,
with this type of ordnance, as well as with shrapnel.

It is with this form of attack that the Allies blasted their way slowly
but steadily through the strongest networks of trenches which the
Germans were able to build.

Along a given section of the front, or rather just behind it, the guns
were placed singly or in pairs, widely scattered, some close to the line
and some well back from it, all concealed as far as possible from enemy
aviators. There were also many dummy batteries, so that if the enemy
air scout saw a gun or group of guns, he had no way of telling whether
they were real or imitation.

In such an instance before the actual advance of the troops the fire of
all these guns is concentrated along parallel lines to the enemy
trenches, first, second and sometimes third. Each gun has its work
mapped out for it in advance on a map covered with tiny squares. The
actual point may be well beyond view of the gunners. The shell is landed
in its appointed square solely on mathematical calculation. The
commander of each gun knows, for instance, that he must fire into this,
that or the other square for so many minutes or hours, and exactly at a
given minute change his fire to another source.


RAIN OF SHELLS LIKE STREAMS OF WATER.

In effect on the enemy a continuous rain of shells, comparable to
streams of water from hundreds of hoses is poured in a line right down
the trench. At the same time a parallel line of fire is concentrated at
a given distance back of the enemy's first trench and in front of the
second, or in it. This means that the troops in the first line must not
only take their bombardment without hope of retreat or escape, but that
it is impossible to get reinforcements to them through the second
curtain.

When it is calculated that the first line has been destroyed or
demoralized, the troops leap from their trenches and advance strictly
according to schedule over the ground between the opposing trenches.
Their arrival at the enemy's first trench is timed to the second, and
just as they are on the verge of plunging into their own curtain of fire
this latter is gradually thrown forward, forming a screen between the
newly captured trench and the enemy's second line. This means two
curtains of fire through which the enemy would have to advance to
counter-attack.

Time is given to rout out what remains of the enemy from the first line
dugouts, and then the troops advance again. In the meantime the curtain
of fire has preceded them as before, moving up to the line of drum fire
which has been playing on the second line of trenches or just in front
of it. If any of the enemy have attempted to flee before the attack from
the first line they are caught between these two barrages which are
gradually brought together.

When the first and second lines of fire have been brought together they
are poured with redoubled fury into the second line of the enemy
trenches, and then moved forward again just as the advancing troops
reach this line.


DEPENDING ON LOCAL CONDITIONS.

The performance is made continuous so far as possible under the
conditions peculiar to the given section in which the attack is being
made. Sometimes it is possible to advance over three, four or five
trenches in a single attack. At others it is as much as can be
accomplished to capture one, which must be consolidated before further
advance is made. It depends on the strength of the trenches, the nature
of the ground, the distance apart that they are, and, of course, the
amount of artillery fire which the enemy is able to concentrate in
return.

When a sufficient advance has been made, it also becomes necessary to
suspend operations for a time while the guns behind the lines are moved
forward to new positions.

This is always the period of the counter-attack in force by the enemy,
who seizes the opportunity when a certain proportion of the artillery is
unable to fire because it is being moved. And it is during this period
that the infantry have to do their hardest fighting, which consists, not
in making the advance over no-man's land to the enemy trench, but in
holding that trench afterward when the bringing up of their own
artillery behind them to more advanced positions robs them of some of
the support of the drum fire.

Still another factor of delay at this period is the time required by
the air scouts to find the rearranged positions of the enemy guns after
the advance, for these must be taken care of also before a new advance
can be made.

An explanation of this form of attack shows why news dispatches have
told first of an advance of the British, followed by a period of quiet,
during which an attack by the French in some other section of the line
was in progress. Then suddenly the scene of action switched back to the
British lines again while the French were consolidating their new
positions preparatory to pushing the general advance a step farther.


GERMAN EQUIVOCATION.

It also explains just what has happened when the Germans state that the
"enemy penetrated our first trenches in a small sector, but his attack
broke down before our second line." When the next attack is ready, of
course, the former second German line is referred to as the "first," and
so, on paper, as far as the uninitiated are concerned, the German
publicity office is able to build up a continuous series of enemy
attacks which "break down," and somehow never, never "penetrate our
invincible line." Actually an advance of this nature is extremely slow,
but it is sure, and it is made at the expense of tons upon tons of
ammunition rather than at the expense of lives, for ammunition can be
made faster than soldiers.

Even the old battering ram of feudal times with which the ancestors of
Kaiser William used to knock down the castles of the baron robbers has
been approximated by his warring tribes. With the retreat of the German
troops from Flanders the Allied forces found crude battering rams such
as have been shown in the stirring "movies" when the ancient warriors
stormed the gates of the city.

One of such devices was in the form of an upright frame made of heavy
timbers. An immense log was suspended from the cross-piece by a heavy
chain. An iron band circled one end of the log which was used for
battering purposes and at the opposite end were handles, used by the
operators in their nefarious work. The ram was used to batter in the
doors of houses which had been locked or barricaded against the German
soldiers. In their most destructive moods, it is charged that they used
these devices to destroy the standing walls of houses and cottages after
they had been gutted by fire. The Germans would not permit even so much
as a wall to stand which might be used by the poor peasant in
rehabilitating himself and building a new home.


NEW METHOD OF WARFARE.

The new method of warfare, with men working in trenches and dugouts and
millions of shells breaking over head, while missiles rain all about,
necessitated the development of some device to protect the heads of the
fighters. Therefore the steel helmet.

It has been shown that, due to trench warfare, about seventy-five per
cent of the wounded on the western front had been hit with shrapnel or
pieces of shell traveling at a low velocity and therefore had torn
wounds and in many cases smashed bones. About three per cent of the
wounds were in the head and about fifteen per cent in the face or neck.
This led to the adoption by the French of a steel helmet called after
its inventor, Adrian. The helmets were first used in May, 1915. That
their use is justified is shown by statistics. Among fifty-five cases of
head wounds, forty-two happened to soldiers without helmets.

Twenty-three of these had fractured skulls, while the remaining nineteen
had bad scalp wounds. Of the thirteen who wore helmets, not one had a
skull fracture. Five had slight wounds only, while none of those who had
worn a helmet died. Quite a number of those who had not did.

In the Academy of Medicine Dr. Roussey brought up the point that due to
the helmet the number of cases of sudden death from wounds in the head
had been so decreased that the number of wounded with head injuries
treated in the hospitals had materially increased.

The French helmet proved such a success that Belgium, Serbia, Russia and
Roumania equipped their troops with the same model. The French helmet
has a bursting bomb as insignia on its front and is light blue or khaki
color, depending on whether it is worn by the metropolitan, the French
home army or the French colonial army.


THE BELGIAN HELMET.

The Belgian helmet is khaki-colored, with the Belgian lion on the front;
the Italian, greenish blue, with no insignia; the Serbian,
khaki-colored, with the Serbian coat of arms; the Russian,
khaki-colored, with the Russian coat of arms, and the Roumanian,
blue-gray, with the Roumanian coat of arms.

The French have made more than 12,000,000 helmets, using about 12,000
tons of steel. In other words, a ton of steel will make 1,000 helmets.
The British also equipped their troops with a steel helmet, which has no
ridge running from front to rear, as has the Adrian, no decorations, and
a rather wide brim, which runs all the way round. It is of a khaki
color.

The Germans issued to a certain number of their men, generally those
most exposed in trench fighting, a steel helmet considerably heavier
than any of the allied helmets. It has a much higher crown, and comes
down more over the eyes and the sides and back of the head.

All these helmets are supported by means of a leather skull cap inside,
which fitting closely to the head, distributes the weight over the whole
of the skull, instead of simply around the edge of it, as is the case
with ordinary headgear.

Of course, these helmets will not protect against high velocity
projectiles. However, as they do protect the wearer from low velocity
projectiles, and as these are, because of infection, often as fatal as
severe wounds, it can easily be seen how much good has been
accomplished.

A French writer in La Nature shows that 332 out of 479 abnormal wounds
were caused by shrapnel and pieces of shell having a low velocity.

In 13 out of 15 cases of lung wounds, the projectiles did not have
velocity enough to completely traverse the body and come out.

In 71 cases of joint wounds, 66 were due to low velocity shrapnel and
only 5 to high velocity bullets. Practically every one of these wounds
could have been prevented by breast and body pieces and knee and elbow
caps of armor.


LOW VELOCITY MOST EFFECTIVE.

As for every man who afterward dies from a wound made by a high velocity
bullet there are about ten who die from wounds made by the low velocity
shrapnel and shell fragments, the importance is seen of protection
against these low velocity wounds if it can be had.

The wearing of armor means the lessening of the mobility of the soldier.
In the open field lessening of mobility means a decrease in efficiency,
which cannot be tolerated. However, in trench warfare the mobility of
the individual does not count for so much, as even during an attack he
does not have to go far, and generally does it at a walk in the rear of
the barrage fire of his own artillery.

Efficiency in warfare, as indicated by the keeping of such records, has
set the brains of the world at work, and armor is used to a limited
degree for the protection of men in greatly exposed fronts or open
positions.

The Japanese in modern times were first to resort to the forerunner of
armor. They used shields of steel and in the siege of Port Arthur such
shields were strapped to the front of the body. The Germans in the
charges have frequently used double shields, advancing in groups of four
behind a steel protector carried by two men, leaving the other two free
to fire at the enemy through port holes in the armor shields.

None of the armors has, however, proved its resistance to the high
velocity bullets which the powerful field guns rain against it.
Experiments are being made continuously along these lines, and Guy Otis
Brewster, of New Jersey, has developed a bullet-proof jacket and
headgear which it is said approximates perfection.

In the presence of ordinance officers from the Picatinny Arsenal he
invited an expert military marksman to fire at him from a distance of 60
yards. A Springfield rifle was used, with regulation ammunition. The
steel bullet had a velocity of 2740 feet a second. Only one shot was
fired, but it failed to penetrate the armor.


COMPOSITION A SECRET.

The composition of the latter is a secret, beyond the fact that it
consists in part of steel. Jacket and headgear weigh 30 pounds; but the
material is so flexible that the soldier wearing such an outfit can
kneel, lie down, rise and run, charge from the trenches, use the
bayonet, or throw hand grenades, without impediment to his movements.

It has been denied that dum-dum bullets, placed under ban by all
civilized nations, have been used by the Germans, but there is no doubt
that explosive bullets have been used. The report of the Belgian
Commission, which investigated the horrors when the Germans first
invaded King Albert's country, contains testimony which proves
conclusively that such missiles were used. These bullets were, in
effect, small shells containing an explosive chemical which was set off
by contact. Photographs taken of wounds show the effect which these
bullets produced.

More than that, the Russians charged that along the northern frontier
the Germans fired glass bullets, although there is nothing to sustain
the belief that such missiles were generally used. The dum-dum bullet
is a soft-nosed missile which, when it strikes a bone, flattens out and
splatters, creating a jagged wound which it is almost impossible to
treat or heal. The Germans, in ordinary, use a steel jacketed bullet
which possesses high penetrative powers, while the French at the
beginning of the war were using the ordinary lead bullet.


AN AMERICAN BULLET.

Among the recent developments is a bullet which had its origin in one of
the United States arsenals for manufacturing ammunition. This is a steel
bullet covered with lead. The effect of such a combination on the
penetrating quality of the bullet may be readily understood by anyone
who has ever tried the experiment of driving an ordinary needle into a
board through a cork. If the cork is placed on the board and the needle
pressed down through the cork until it touches the board, a powerful
blow from a hammer will force the needle into the board without
breaking. In the application of this principle to the manufacture of the
bullet, experiments proved that the soft lead acted as a guide or
sustainer which permitted the inner steel to penetrate without
deviation.

And just as these oddities of warfare have been created to meet arising
situations, others have been created to care for the sick and
injured--those who have fallen victims of the agencies of destruction.
Who ever heard of a sand sled?

Such sleds have been used effectively on the Eastern fronts to carry
wounded soldiers to the hospitals. They are long, staunchly constructed
sleds similar to those used on the farms in America for hauling plows,
cultivators and other agricultural implements across the fields which
have been furrowed.

The sleds have broad runners which do not sink into the sands and can be
drawn easily. In winter these same sleds have served to haul the wounded
and sick over miles of snow and ice on the Russian frontier.

Then, though it is not a weapon of offense, there is the tractor plow
which works at night. It is a war device to the extent that as England's
need for food has been great and constant the tractor plow has been used
to solve the problem of working the ground. On the estate of Sir Arthur
Lee, the director-general of food production in England, great
agricultural motors equipped with acetylene searchlights were kept at
work in the fields day and night.

Dogs too have been ushered into the arena. No longer may the old English
expression, "Let Slip the Dogs of War," be regarded as a mere figure of
speech. The war dogs, and particularly the animals used by the Red Cross
on the battlefields, have assumed a regular status in the armies of the
world. In the European armies are thousands of dogs which have been
trained to act as messengers or spies, or to seek out on the
battlefields the wounded. The Germans use a canine commonly known as
"Boxers." These animals are a cross between the German mastiff and the
English bulldog, and on the fields of Europe they have proved to be
"kings" among the Red Cross dogs. The animals are first taught to
distinguish between the uniforms of the soldiers of their own country
and those of the enemy. Then they learn that the principal business in
life for them is to find and aid wounded soldiers.

The animals are trained to search without barking and to return to
headquarters and urge their trainers to follow them with stretcher
bearers. Sometimes the dogs bring back such an article as a cap, tobacco
pouch or handkerchief. The dogs of the Red Cross carry on their collars
a pouch containing a first aid kit, by means of which a wounded soldier
may staunch the flow of blood or help himself until assistance arrives.

It is reported that one of these dogs rescued fifty men on the Somme
battlefield in France. The animal known as Filax of Lewanno, is a
typical German sheepdog. Such dogs weigh from 50 to 65 pounds and are
very powerful, but the Irish terriers and Airedales have also been
trained to do effective work, as have the Great Danes and St. Bernards.



CHAPTER XI

WONDERFUL WAR WEAPONS.

THE TERRIBLE RAPID-FIRE GUN--ARMORED AUTOMOBILES AND AUTOMOBILE
ARTILLERY--HOWITZERS--MOUNTED FORTS--ARMORED TRAINS--OBSERVATION
TOWERS--WIRELESS APPARATUS--THE ARMY PANTRY.


It is a long step from the old, smooth bore, flintlock rifle of the
Revolutionary days to the modern magazine gun, with its long-pointed
cartridges; and it is almost as great a step from the crude iron cannons
and smooth bore mortars of the Civil War, with their canister and grape
shot, down to the huge, 42 centimeter guns which have boomed their way
through France and Belgium.

The patriotic citizen who is unfitted for military service no longer
sits at home and aids the armed forces of his country by melting pewter
spoons into bullets, or cutting patches of cloth to serve as wads to
pack down into the muzzle of guns. The powder horn and the bullet mould
are devices of the past. The whole world working in the old-fashioned
way could not have in the course of the "war-of-nations" made sufficient
bullets to supply the forces for a single week.

Those who must sacrifice in the stress of war now turn their silverware
and precious metals into nuggets that may be sold to produce revenue, so
that the armed forces may purchase the machine-made cartridges and
weapons required to fight the enemy.

Modern warfare has developed the climax in armament and the world has
learned more within the last few years about the devilish instruments of
destruction which human ingenuity has devised than was known in all the
ages before. Since Germany and Austria were the first into
action--actually precipitated the great conflict--and as by their years
of preparation they were ready for the emergency, it best serves the
purposes of those who seek enlightenment on the subject of armaments
and weapons to deal with the equipment of the Teuton forces.

Other nations--England, France and the United States in
particular--have, in some directions, surpassed the Germans in
developing efficient weapons, but in the main, when Germany plunged into
the war, she had all around what was conceded to be the best equipment
that science and mechanics could supply.


INFANTRY AND FIELD ARTILLERY.

While stories told of the awful havoc wrought by the German siege guns
in reducing the forts and fortifications in France and Belgium are true,
it is also true that the bulwark of the military organization is the
infantry and field artillery. The big guns may level the forts and
reduce them to powder, driving off the opposing forces, but the infantry
must advance and the small arms and rapid-fire guns must keep the
opposing forces from resuming the position which they had abandoned.

The difficulty of handling the big guns has always been a problem,
except in fortifications and at fixed points of defense, and it has only
been within a few years that a solution of the trouble has been found.
The solution lay in the use of tractors, or the tractor principle, which
every person familiar with farming and the "traction engine" can
recognize.

Germany and Austria, as in many other matters, solved the problem by
building mortars for field service which outclassed the heaviest
artillery of the old type, and mounting them on tractors. It would
require a team of probably forty horses to pull one of the German
42-centimeter guns over the rough ground, and then a relay would be
required every few hours. An immense number of horses would be required
and the transportation would be slow, and not certain at best.

Early in the war Austria sent to the front a battery of 80-centimeter
howitzers, and from the famous Krupp gun works there were 21 and
28-centimeter howitzers. Later came the 42-centimeter guns, which are
classed as automobile field artillery. These are the weapons which
leveled the forts at Liege and were used to bombard Fort Maubeuge.

The immense howitzers, with their caterpillar wheels, are taken apart
and transported to the scene of action in sections, or units. An
automobile tractor carries the artillery crew and tools and furnishes
the motive power. The second car carries the platform and turntable on
which the gun is mounted, and the third hauls the barrel, or gun proper.


THE MOVING OF HEAVY WEAPONS.

The weapons can be moved anywhere, though they weigh as much as forty
tons in some cases. Sometimes it is necessary to build special roads
where fields must be crossed, but on the highways there is little
trouble. The big howitzers are built on the principle of the large
caliber guns used on battleships--that is, there is a system of recoil
springs and air cushions to take up the shock when the gun is fired, so
that the terrific energy, when the charge is exploded, shall not be
borne by the breech of the gun. The howitzers can be turned in any
direction, and the gearing attached to the mounting is such that the
barrels can be pitched at any angle.

Such guns fire an explosive shell weighing from 500 to 1000 pounds, and
because of their form of construction--they have shorter barrels than
the naval guns--which reduces the surface of the barrel subject to
erosion, they are longer lived than the long guns. The endurance of the
guns is a factor because it is difficult to get repairs for such great
weapons on the field of battle.

At the outbreak the contending forces are said to have had 4,000 guns in
the field artillery. Among the devices of interest identified with the
artillery is the armored automobile, which has been described as the
"cavalry" of motor driven artillery. The advent of the armored
automobile in the war changed many features of campaigning and helped to
revolutionize military methods. The armored automobile is an ordinary
chassis with a body made of chilled steel.

Many types have been devised, including turreted automobile, mounting
one or two rapid fire guns which can be turned in any direction. The
armored motors have high-powered engines, and the chassis chosen for
these new instruments of war are of the heaviest types. Some have been
constructed especially for the purpose. One of these, used by the
Germans, had a "barbette" top, which looked like the shell of a
tortoise, fitted down over the chassis. Guns protruded from holes in the
front, back and sides.


VALUE OF ARMORED CARS.

The armored cars have proved extremely valuable for scouting purposes.
They can sneak through and complete scouting where mounted men would be
detected, and besides, are better able to protect themselves against
attack. The cars also possess the ability to speed away out of range of
enemy detachments.

The army officer, too, has taken to the armored automobile, and put
aside his horse. You cannot kill an automobile; and the armor laughs at
the bullets from small caliber guns. The officers can, with the
high-speed armored cars, travel from one end of a line to the other and
in a few hours make surveys and complete observations which would take
days were horses used.

Very few of the light-armored cars used by the officers are armed, the
attache or aide of the officer carrying a rifle. Some of the armored
cars used for scouting and by the officers have, in the case of Germany,
been provided with sharp knives attached to the front of the machine.
These are steel blades vertically attached to the frame and hood, and
are designed to cut wires which the enemy may have stretched across
highways or passages to hinder progress.

The armored covering on some of these cars is little more than a steel
box, with "port" holes all around. There is no hoop dome or cupola, and
the men are supposed to protect themselves by keeping their heads below
the sides of the box. Besides the driver, some of the cars carry two or
three men, who are further protected against the bullets of the enemy
and the chance missile from the sharpshooter by steel headpieces or
helmets.

The Belgians have a type of car of heavy design, equipped with huge
headlights, as well as a searchlight to operate at night. The car has a
rapid fire gun mounted in a cupola-formed revolving turret. In the
matter of automobiles in the army, Italy outranked Germany at the
beginning of the war. While Germany had Mercedes and Opel trucks,
mounting five to seven rapid fire guns, which, with their steel armor
and solid tire disc wheels, were actually miniature forts, the Italians
had more formidable mounted creations of the same sort.


ITALY'S SINGULAR POSITION.

As a matter of fact, Italy's position in regard to motors is unique
among the other countries in the war. Not only are the transportation
conditions different, but the motorcar industry in the country is on a
different basis. It is said to have been the only one of the countries
which was able to meet the demand put upon it for motors without going
into some other land to augment its supply. Italy did not buy a single
American motor vehicle for war purposes. There are cars of foreign makes
in the army and with the Red Cross, but these vehicles were in the
country--purchased for private use--when the war broke out and were
requisitioned.

The big guns of the army are handled by motor tractors, 95 per cent of
the army mail service is motorcar service and 95 per cent of the
drinking water for the fighting forces is delivered by motortruck.
Profiting by the lessons of the other countries called to war, Italy had
time in which to prepare for emergencies, and when the order for
mobilizing forces was issued the motorcar factories were speeded up and
the workers were permitted to stay on the job, instead of being called
out to fill up the ranks of the army.

Compared with the resources of America, the Italian motor industry is
not large; but the product is uniform and practically all of the
factories are conveniently located for distributing the machines to the
army on the frontier and readily providing repairs and parts. The
physical conditions of the country necessitated the use of certain types
of trucks and motors and the dropping of some of the practices of other
countries in motor usage.

The rugged, irregular country, with its narrow roads, makes
impracticable the use of trucks larger than three and one-half tons, and
"trailers," largely employed by the French, German and Belgian armies,
were found not satisfactory. What is described as the Isotta Fraschini
heavy model armored artillery car of Italy is considered one of the most
effective of the "motor forts" or "land cruisers" developed during the
war.


THE WHEELED FORT.

The wheeled fort has a battery of four rapid fire guns and a revolving
turret. Besides being full armored and turreted, the car has steel
wheels of the disc type, and is as formidable in appearance as it has
proven in practice. France has a type of the completely enclosed armored
motorcar which affords its crew unobstructed view on all sides through
lattice panels. Even the windshield is made on this plan. This car also
has a revolving turret and carries a 5-centimeter rapid fire gun and
possesses high speed.

All of the powers have armored automobiles, and in Germany, England and
France the exigencies of conflict impelled the Governments to
practically commandeer all of the automobiles in the countries for war
purposes. Many of these cars were turned into armored cars of the
lighter type, and the number of such automobiles in use runs far into
the thousands. The United States has not made much fuss about it, but
has had armored cars in the regular army for several years.

The experience gained in the campaign in Europe indicates that the
military authorities believe the high-powered, speedy cars, clad with
armor of medium weight and mounting one or two machine guns, are the
most valuable of all the "sheathed" cars. They can appear suddenly,
maintain a withering fire for a short period and then disappear
suddenly.

As an instance of what the armored car accomplishes, it is recited that
when the German troops sought to invade the Belgian town of Alost a
detachment was sent through the streets in armored cars. The houses were
barricaded and the Germans feared snipers. There were no snipers when
the motorcars returned. More than a thousand Belgians were mowed down in
the streets by the rapid fire guns of the armored cars.


IMPORTANCE OF THE AUTOMOBILE.

Evidence of how greatly the automobile is appreciated in its relation to
the modern army service is found in the fact that when America entered
the war and began the mobilization of its forces and resources, the
Quartermaster at Chicago was ordered to obtain bids for the delivery of
35,000 motortrucks of one and one-half tons capacity and 35,000 trucks
of three tons capacity. Bids were also asked on 1000 five-passenger
automobiles, 1000 runabouts, 1000 automobiles, in price ranging from
$1500 to $2000, several hundred motortrucks of half, three-quarter and
one ton capacity and 5000 motorcycles, and the same number of
motorcycles with auxiliary passenger capacity, or side cars.

The motortruck, too, in modern warfare is a shoeshop. The care of the
feet is an important matter in the army, and the men, besides being
provided with good footwear, must have that footwear kept in serviceable
and comfortable condition. It is some job to keep the shoes of half a
million or more men in repair, and the United States Quartermaster
Department, in connection with their mobilization, included in its
equipment portable motor-power machines to nail on half soles for troops
in garrison and campaign. Such a machine will nail on a pair of soles in
five minutes. It weighs but 27 pounds and can be transported with the
troops on a motorcar, and may be used anywhere to keep the shoes in
serviceable shape until the troops can reach permanent camps, where new
footwear can be provided.


FRANCE'S TRANSPORTATION RESOURCES.

At the outset of the war France is said to have had 100,000 passenger
cars, 25,000 motorbuses, taxicabs and motorcycles and 10,000 motortrucks
available for military use, and was able to give the various departments
of her military organization excellent transportation service. Besides
this, she had squads of automobile aeroplane cannon, and about 84
12-centimeter and 15 5-centimeter Rimailho howitzers of the armored
artillery type. Russia is said to have been weak in automobile
equipment, having less than a thousand trucks in the Empire available
for military use; but this number was rapidly increased, upward of half
a thousand having been purchased within a short time.

Austria and Germany together are said to have had something like 1500
trucks and about 20,000 passenger cars available for army use. At the
start Germany alone had 250 armored automobiles, several score of
searchlight automobiles, or night scout cars, probably 8000 motorcycles
and more than 500 motor-driven field guns, besides the big tractors used
to draw the heavy howitzers. Aside from this, practically all the motor
vehicles in the country were commandeered, numbering upward of 75,000.

While they are stationary devices, the forts which were stormed by the
Germans at Liege and Antwerp are properly part of the military equipment
used in the war. These forts, known as turret forts, are described on
preliminary inspection as looking like a row of huge tortoise or turtle
shells rising a few feet above the ground. The shell is, however, a
shell of chilled steel. Through it the guns protrude and are operated
very much like the guns on a battleship, the turret revolving. Under the
dome are vaults and the compartments of concrete, containing the
mechanism for moving the turrets, operating the guns, lifting the big
shells and handling the ammunition generally.

The fortifications, which at Antwerp included nine intrenched sections,
were regarded as almost impregnable; but when they were built there were
no such field guns as the famous 42-centimeter guns which the Germans
brought to the attack. The forts themselves had no guns larger than a
7-inch caliber.


FRANCE'S ARMORED FIGHTING MACHINES.

In the matter of movable guns, the French and Germans both had them
mounted on armored trains. One such train used by the French included
armored locomotive, flat cars on which were mounted the guns in
"barbettes," or steel turrets, and completely protected armored cars,
used to transport troops or detachments of men.

A feature of the train was the observation tower. It was mounted upon
what would ordinarily be the cab of the locomotive. Such towers have in
one form or another become very common in the war. One type resembles
the motortruck ladder and platform devices used by the man who repairs
electric lights and wires in our city streets. Another is patterned
after the hook and ladder truck of the fire department. The tower, or
ladder, is raised after the fashion of the ladders in fighting a fire. A
couple of soldiers turn a crank, and the ladders are raised to a
perpendicular position and extended high into the air on the sliding or
telescope principle.

The German and Austrian engineers also utilize observation ladders of a
less complicated mechanical nature. In use, and with a soldier perched
on top of them, they remind one of the toy devices with which we played
as children, using the slotted acrobats to do wonderful things atop the
"ladders." The ladders are carried in short sections, which may be
fastened together in a variety of ways, but a good idea of the manner in
which the ladders are used may be obtained if you can imagine a letter Y
made of ladders and turned upside down, with a soldier standing on top
of it.


THE IMPORTANCE OF OBSERVATIONS.

And making observations is a highly important matter in modern warfare;
more important than it was in the old days. The long-range guns are
aimed and their fire directed by observation and calculation. The gunner
cannot see the target he is required to hit. His job is a mechanical
one--perhaps it would be better to say scientific--for he must read
mathematical calculations and interpret them into accurate gun action.
The guns may be on one side of a hill and the enemy on the other, and
they may be miles apart, yet the gunner must be able to get the range.
His efforts are directed by observers in aeroplanes or balloons, and the
range is established by calculations, so that the gunner must be
proficient in geometry, trigonometry and mathematics generally.

Not all the great guns in the war when it started were owned by the
Germans, for England had 100-ton Armstrong pieces which were capable of
hurling a 2,200-pound projectile; but it was the modification of the
design of the large caliber guns and the method of mounting them, which
permitted them to be drawn wherever needed, that gave Germany such an
advantage.

Most of the big guns are in the navy--on the huge dreadnoughts and
battleships--and therefore the fortifications at Helgoland, which are
designed to resist the bombardment of the heaviest naval guns, must be
regarded as equipment. Helgoland is the protecting fort of Germany's
most vulnerable point. It is the Gibraltar of Germany, and protects the
entrance to the Kiel Canal from the North Sea. If the British could get
past the fortifications to the Kiel Canal, it could establish a close-in
blockade which would render Germany helpless in a short time.

Helgoland is an island fortress in the North Sea, in the center of which
is a mortar battery mounting 11-inch and 16-inch guns, capable of
puncturing the decks of the battleship which comes within range; and
these batteries have a range of from six to eight miles. The batteries
are ranged in tiers, one above the other, to a height of almost 180 feet
above the sea level, the heavy guns and pieces being placed below and
the lighter ordnance in the upper tiers. The guns range from 17.7-inch
caliber down to 8.2-inch. Germany calls Helgoland the "fortress
impregnable," and the developments of the war seem to indicate that the
description fits.


SMALL GUNS OF VARIED INTERESTS.

In the smaller guns used in warfare there are many varieties of
interest. The United States prior to and with their entrance into war,
particularly during the period of the trouble along the Mexican border,
experimented with almost every known make of rapid fire machine and
field gun, and there was for a time much criticism because the
government did not adopt for army use the Lewis gun, which was adopted
by some of the foreign countries.

The German army rifle carried by all the infantry is of the Mauser type,
first introduced in 1888 and gradually improved until 1898. The weapon,
because of the adoption of the improved model in 1898, has come to be
known as the "ninety-eight gun." It is a quick-firing weapon, from which
20 to 30 shots a minute may be projected by the soldier. The gun is
universally used and has a caliber of 7.9 millimeters, which provides
for the use of the smallest bullet which will work sufficient injury on
the enemy to make its use profitable.

Experience in the Russian-Japanese war proved to the military
authorities that the use of a smaller caliber was not advisable. It was
found that the smaller bullet could, and in many cases did, pass through
a man's body without actually rendering him useless, and that in a large
percentage of cases--more than one-third--the wounded were back with
their troops within a few months.

In the United States all of the forces are now provided with standard
arms or weapons. The army, the Marine Corps and the organized militia of
the States, absorbed into the body proper of national troops, have the
same firearms--the same service rifles, the same machine guns and field
guns and the same automatic pistols. One kind of cartridge--containing a
cylindro-conical bullet of copper-nickel, with a lead core--serves for
all rifles and for the machine guns as well.


OLD FLINTLOCK IN WAR.

Many people, perhaps, will be surprised to learn that the Mexican war
was fought mainly with the antiquated flintlock muskets. When the
trigger was pulled the flint came down hard upon a piece of steel, and
the resulting spark was thrown into the "pan," igniting a pinch of
powder. The fire ran into the powder charge and the gun went off. Round
balls were used, and the loading was done with the help of a ramrod.

There were already percussion rifles in those days, but General Winfield
Scott, who bossed the Mexican war, declared that he would have nothing
to do with those new-fangled weapons. The old smooth-bore flintlock was
good enough for him. In truth, the percussion gun of that period was not
as reliable as might have been wished. The cap was liable to get wet and
to fail to go off, whereas a good flint could be counted upon to yield a
spark every time.

It was not until 1858 that the percussion rifle, still a muzzle-loader,
was generally used by the United States army. The Springfield, which was
the first breech-loader (one cartridge inserted at a time) came along
in 1870. In 1892 it was replaced by the first of our magazine rifles,
the Krag, and simultaneously we adopted smokeless powder, a European
invention.

The regulation United States service rifle is a great improvement on the
Krag. It is loaded with "clips," holding five cartridges each. The
velocity of the bullet is greater, and the accuracy and rapidity of fire
are superior.


FIGHTING RANGE 800 YARDS.

In the Mexican war the ordinary fighting range, with the smooth-bore
flintlock, was about 250 yards. In the Civil War, with the percussion
muzzle-loader, it was 350 to 400 yards. With the new service rifle, the
fighting range is 700 to 800 yards, and the infantryman is able to fire
at least twenty times as many shots in a given number of minutes as was
possible fifty years ago.

The field artilleryman carries no rifle, but is provided with a
45-caliber automatic pistol and twenty-one cartridges. The men who
compose the machine-gun platoons have no rifles, but each one of them is
armed with the same sort of service pistol and a bolo. The latter is a
weapon new to our army, adopted as a result of military experience in
the Philippines. It is in effect a machete (a sugar cane chopping
knife), shortened and made heavier. At close quarters it is a formidable
weapon.

The bolo embodies the best principles of the various razor-edged
fighting blades of the Filipinos, and was first adopted as a side arm of
the Marine Corps officers. The bolo, which is much heavier than an
ordinary sword, measures 24 inches from tip of handle to tip of blade,
and is forged from a piece of file steel.

For many years the Marine Corps, except upon dress occasions, has had no
cutting weapon. It is not strange, therefore, that many of the officers
of the corps, while on duty in the Philippines, adopted for use in the
field that weapon of the Moro tribesmen.

The introduction of the bolo as the field arm of the Marine Corps--the
sword having given place to the pistol several years ago in this branch
of the service--robs the time-tried and traditional Mameluke saber of
the corps of the distinction of being the only cutting weapon in the
equipment of this division of the Government's sea fighters.

The Mamelukes are inseparably associated with the military history of
Egypt, the first country in which a regular military organization was
established, and a country in which the fighting element was the most
honored and powerful of all classes. This type of blade was adopted by
our Marine Corps in 1825, and later by the officers of the Royal Horse
Artillery of England.

Until recently the allowance of machine guns in our army has been two to
a regiment, but abroad four to six are used.


AUTOMATIC MACHINE RIFLES.

These guns are automatic machine rifles, firing ordinary rifle
cartridges, which (in the Benet-Mercie weapon, a French invention which
we have adopted) are supplied in brass clips of thirty. A small part of
the gas generated by the explosion of the individual cartridge operates
the mechanism, discharging the bullet, throwing out the empty shell and
making ready for the next shot.

A machine gun is designed to enable one man to fire the equivalent of a
volley, or series of volleys, discharged by an entire platoon (one-third
of a company) of infantrymen. As at present developed, it represents a
step toward the evolution of a shoulder-rifle that will throw a
continuous stream of bullets.

The latest government rifle--the weapons of the individual soldiers--are
manufactured at the Springfield (Mass.) Armory, which is the
government's great small-arms factory, and at the Rock Island (Ill.)
Arsenal--the facilities of the latter having hitherto been held in
reserve for emergency purposes. The rifle cartridges are turned out at
the Frankford Arsenal, in Philadelphia, and at private plants in Lowell,
New Haven, Bridgeport and Cincinnati. These concerns and another near
St. Louis also make the cartridges for the automatic pistols.

At the outbreak of the world war we had 150 batteries of light field
guns and 45 batteries of heavy artillery (four guns to each battery),
including cannon provided for by Congress, and since then delivered.
There was an inadequate supply of ammunition for the heavy guns.


MUNITION SUPPLY AUGMENTED.

The ammunition supply was immediately augmented and field guns of
various calibers turned out as fast as possible, including 9-inch
howitzers.

A 3-inch field gun fires projectiles weighing 15 pounds, with a muzzle
velocity of 1700 feet per second.

A 4.7-inch field gun fires projectiles weighing 60 pounds, with the same
velocity.

A 6-inch howitzer fires projectiles weighing 120 pounds, with a muzzle
velocity of 900 feet per second.

The principal difference between the field gun and the howitzer is that
the latter can be pointed at a high angle, to assail infantry protected
by intrenchments, or for other purposes.

While reference has been made to siege guns, which were used by the
Germans in their attacks on the Belgian and French forts, the fact is
that the large caliber mortars and howitzers are what wrought the havoc.

The large caliber howitzers and mortars throw shells containing huge
charges of explosives, and are more adaptable in their application than
the ordinary siege guns or cannons.

One novelty which had not been used up to the entrance of the United
States into the war is a device invented by a Los Angeles man, which
makes a "periscope gun" of any ordinary service piece.

In trench warfare, as developed abroad, the periscope has been used by
the men in the trenches to observe the movements of the opposing forces
and watch for scouts without exposing themselves to the fire of
"snipers" or sharpshooters, who are always looking for a head or mark to
aim at.

The new device comprises two mirrors attached to the gun by a metal
frame in such manner that one mirror is above the range of vision and
reflects the image to be fired at upon the other mirror below the stock
or butt of the gun. The attachment enables the soldier sitting in a
trench or shelter to accurately aim his gun and conveniently shoot while
his head is kept below the safety line, or top of the parapet, or
properly built trench.


THE TRENCH PERISCOPE.

With this attachment, approved by the United States Ordnance Department,
a rifleman, from his concealed point of vantage, can survey a 30-foot
field at 200 yards. The attachment can be removed at will and the metal
bars and parts can be easily carried. The device adds about one and
one-half pounds to the weight of the gun.

In the same category with the aeroplane, the automobile, the submarine,
the torpedo, in their effect upon the method of waging modern warfare
are the telephone and the wireless telegraph. There were no telephones
and no wireless instruments in the days of our own Civil War, and the
stories related of the bravery and astuteness displayed by orderlies,
messengers and scouts of those days will not be repeated.

Today the army carries a complete telephone system and wonderful
wireless apparatus. The commander sits in his headquarters and
communicates with his officers in all parts of the field, reaching
points miles distant. Wires are strung through trenches, along fences
and wherever needed, and telephone "booths" are set up wherever it is
found necessary. Switchboards are mounted on motor cars and encased in
armor plate. The "repair" wagons are motor vehicles, and lines cut or
destroyed are quickly repaired or replaced.

Aerial stations for the wireless are carried, and are of many varieties.
Some of them are similar to the observation towers and ladders. The
French army regulations provide for wireless service between the general
staff headquarters and the army corps, connecting these with the heavy
cavalry divisions and lines of communication. The wireless companies in
the French army are made up of 10 officers and 293 men.

Nearly all of the other nations have patterned their wireless companies
after the French. The company carries 302 miles of wire and cable and
about 96 sets of instruments. The rate of operation is more than 400
words a minute. The mast for the aerial station is made in sections, on
the telescope plan, and can be erected by a trio of men in a few
minutes. The whole outfit for a station weighs about 750 pounds and the
range of service is about 200 miles.


"KNAPSACK" STATIONS.

There are, in addition to the field stations, "knapsack" stations, which
are divided into sections so that four soldiers can carry an outfit. The
sections weigh about 20 pounds each. The small station set up with this
apparatus has a range of from 5 to 10 miles and in service replaces the
orderlies and such visual signs and signalling, as was used before the
wireless came into existence. Such an outfit can forward more
information in a few minutes than a whole squadron of orderlies could
riding at full speed.

The aeroplanes carrying a wireless outfit can communicate with the field
stations, and have rendered wonderful service on the battlefields. The
cavalry also carry wireless outfits, and in the Allied armies the second
regiment of every cavalry brigade has a wireless detachment of 4
troopers, 1 cyclist and 3 horses, besides a wagon. There is also a
division with tools and material for both destroying and repairing
lines.

The French army also has automobile wireless stations. The automobile
outfit is complete in every particular and is not augmented. It carries
its own crew and has a traveling radius of several hundred miles. The
car containing the station is completely enclosed and the walls are
deadened so that the noise made by the apparatus may not betray the
presence of the station to the enemy scouts.

The practical application of portable wireless outfits to military usage
is probably less than four years old, but the portables can transmit
messages over a radius of 200 to 250 miles. Expressed in technical
terms, the portable stations have a capacity of about 200 mile
wave-lengths.

The one weakness of the wireless is that the enemy can purloin secrets,
though adroitness in manipulation can overcome some of this difficulty.


A WORD ABOUT "HEAVY ARTILLERY."

It would not do to mention armaments and weapons without a word about
the "heavy artillery" of the commissary department, for this branch of
the army service is represented by formidable field kitchens, which are
again carried on trucks or motor cars. The officers' field kitchen
follows the advance of the officers to the field of action. Some of
these kitchens, particularly those of the Kaiser and the Crown Prince in
the German army, are described as almost luxurious. They contain
complete equipment--range, bake-oven, pantry, ice-box, china closet and
every device needed for preparing a complete meal.

Supplies are hurried after the troops in motor trucks from stations
where the supplies are delivered by rail and soups and sturdy meals are
prepared which were lacking in the campaigns through which the soldiers
of the Civil War passed. The pioneer mobile military field kitchen which
has been the subject of widespread comment was developed by the German
army.

It consists of a four-wheeled vehicle drawn by two horses, though
motors have supplanted the horses in some cases. The front carriage is
detachable from the rear and is actually a separate contrivance. On the
rear truck is a 200-quart copper, double, or jacketed vat. Also a
70-quart coffee tank. Both receptacles have separate fireboxes and ash
pits. One section carries extra rations for the men, the daily quota of
provisions, extra rations for horses, folding canvas water pails and
utensils.

The actual food is cooked within the vat or caldron inside the water
jacket, so that the heat does not come in contact with the food direct,
thus preventing burning. The food will cook slowly for hours when once
the water is heated, and will remain hot for a long time. The men can
get water in an emergency and hot coffee is always ready for the
sentries and men on guard duty to carry with them at night. Of course a
bottle of the thermos type is used by these men so that they can have
hot coffee when on the line of duty. The kitchen outfits are complete
and so arranged that they can be rushed over rough ground without
spilling their contents.

Electric flash lights, batteries for setting off dynamite and other
explosives used for blowing out trenches and other fortifications,
searchlights, mirror signaling devices, illuminating bombs, which are
shot high in the air to explode and illuminate the field for hundreds of
yards, signal bombs, and many ingenious contraptions never dreamed of
are part of the army's equipment used on the battlefields of the
greatest war that the world has ever known.



CHAPTER XII.

THE WORLD'S ARMIES.

THE EFFICIENT GERMAN ORGANIZATION--THE LANDWEHR AND LANDSTURM--GENERAL
FORMS OF MILITARY ORGANIZATION--THE BRAVE FRENCH TROOPS--THE PICTURESQUE
ITALIAN SOLDIERY--THE PEACE AND WAR STRENGTH--AVAILABLE FIGHTING
MEN--FORTIFICATIONS.


No one scoffs at the military organization which Germany has developed
through the years--yes, almost centuries--of moulding and training, for
Germany has proved herself efficient, even if egotistical and
domineering. She built up what at the beginning of the war was
recognized as the most powerful, most efficient and well balanced
military organization the world has ever known. And it was not an army
in the sense that America has been taught to think of armies. It was a
trained nation for war--a nation armed--rather than a small, compact
fighting machine.

The strength of the German army on October 1, 1913, has been given in
fairly authentic reports as 790,788 men and 157,916 horses. Of the men
30,253 were officers and 2,483 sanitary officers. There were 104,377
non-commissioned officers and 641,811 common soldiers. The general
divisions were 515,216 infantry and 85,593 cavalry, 126,042 artillery,
and the rest in the general service, including the commissary and
quartermasters' departments, as these are known in America. The
estimated army on a war footing is more than four times this number and
approximates about 4,000,000, while the entire available force was given
at probably 8,000,000.

The infantry is designated as the main body of the army. The infantrymen
carry the "98" gun, already referred to, which is an improved Mauser,
and the non-commissioned officers and ambulance drivers carry revolvers.
There are several classes of infantrymen, a distinction being made
between the sharpshooters, and some of the others, variously known as
grenadiers, musketeers and fusileers.

The cavalry is armed with lance, saber and carbine. There are
distinctions in this branch of the service, too, among the cavalry units
being cuirassiers, hussars, uhlans and dragoons. The field artillery
carries batteries of cannon and light howitzer, and the drivers are
armed with a sword and revolver. The cannoneers have a short knife or
dagger as well as the revolver.

The communication troops are what parallel the engineers in the United
States army. They build the roads, put up the telegraph lines and
telephone service, construct bridges and make the travel possible.


STRENGTH OF GERMAN ARMY.

While the full strength of the German army is given at 4,000,000 on a
war footing, the total availables from the nation's reserve is double
that sum. These forces are gathered from three sources: the first line,
with an estimated strength of 1,750,000; the Landwehr 1,800,000, and the
Landsturm 4,500,000.

All who enter the service pass into the Landsturm after 19 years and
remain until they are 45. The cavalry service is three years with the
colors and four years in the army reserve. The horse artillery are
subject to the same service, while those in other branches serve two
years with the colors and five with the army reserve. The soldier passes
from the army reserve into what is described as the Landwehr, where
artillerymen and cavalrymen remain three years; those of other branches
of the military five years. The soldier passes from the first division
or class of Landwehr to the second, where he remains until his 39th
birthday.

The Landsturm of the first class includes those between the ages of 17
and 39, who have not reached the age of service, and those who have not
been called into active service because the ranks were full and there
was no room for them in the regular army. The second class includes
those who have passed through the other branches and whose ages are
between 39 and 45.

There is a wide difference between the military organizations of the
different countries. Whereas the United States army regiment
approximates 1500 men, the German army regiment contains almost 3000. In
the German army six battalions form an infantry regiment. Two regiments
form a brigade, two brigades a division, and two divisions an army
corps. There are 10 divisions composed of 3 brigades each, but of course
the whole organization was augmented when war broke out. Adding the
necessary auxiliary troops, viz: an artillery brigade of 12 batteries
composed of 6 guns each--or 4 in the case of the horse Batteries--a
regiment of cavalry of 4 squadrons, an engineer battalion, sanitary
troops, etc., a German 3-brigade division at war strength numbers about
21,000, and an army corps--to which are further attached 4 batteries of
howitzers and a battalion of rifles--about 43,000 combatants. The
cavalry division is composed of 3 brigades of 2 regiments each and 2 or
3 batteries of horse artillery, a total of 24 squadrons and 8 to 12
guns.

In a general way it may here be interpolated that the organization of an
army is given in the military manuals as follows:


INFANTRY.

A squad is 8 men under the command of a corporal.

A section is 16 men under the command of a sergeant.

A platoon is from 50 to 75 men under a lieutenant.

A company is 3 platoons, 200 to 250 men, under a captain.

A battalion is 4 or more companies under a major.

A regiment is 3 or more battalions under a colonel, or a
lieutenant-colonel.

A brigade is 2 or 3 regiments under a brigadier-general.

A division is 2 or more brigades under a major-general.

An army corps is 2 or more divisions, supplemented by cavalry,
artillery, engineers, etc., under a major-general or lieutenant-general.


CAVALRY.

A section is 8 men under a corporal.

A platoon is 36 to 50 men under a lieutenant, or junior captain.

A troop is 3 to 4 platoons, 125 to 150 men, under a captain.

A squadron is 3 troops under a senior captain, or a major.

A regiment is 4 to 6 squadrons under a colonel.

A brigade is 3 regiments under a brigadier-general.

A division is 2 or 3 brigades under a major-general.


ARTILLERY.

A battery is 130 to 180 men, with 4 to 8 guns, under a captain.

A group or battalion is 3 or 4 batteries under a major.

A regiment is 3 or 4 groups (battalions) under a colonel.

When regiments are combined into brigades, brigades into divisions, and
divisions into army corps, cavalry, artillery, and certain other
auxiliary troops, such as engineers, signal corps, aeroplane corps,
etc., are joined with them in such proportions as has been found
necessary. Every unit, from the company up, has its own supply and
ammunition wagons, field hospitals, etc.


THE UNITED STATES ARMY.

Prior to 1915 the regular United States army was a mere police body as
compared with the armed forces of other countries. It was concededly
highly efficient, but for the purpose of entering into conflict with
such forces as those presented by Germany, France and some of the other
European countries it was admittedly inadequate.

The entire force consisted of 5,004 officers and 92,658 men. The forces
were divided into 15 regiments of cavalry and 765 officers and 14,148
men; 6 regiments of field artillery, with 252 officers and 5,513 men;
the coast artillery with 715 officers and 19,019 men, and 30 regiments
of infantry, with 1,530 officers and 35,008 men. The Philippine scouts
had 182 officers and 5,733 men; the Military Academy 7 officers and
6,266 men and the Porto Rico regiment of infantry with 32 officers and
591 men.

The signal corps had 106 officers and 1,472 men, and the engineer corps
237 officers and 1,942 men. There were also about 6000 recruits in the
various branches of the service under training.

The marine corps, under the direction of the Secretary of the Navy, had
346 officers and 9,921 enlisted men.


THE REGULAR ARMY.

The regular army was supplemented by the National Guards of the various
States which had 7,578 regiments with 9,103 commissioned officers and
123,105 enlisted men, or a total organization of 132,208. The "reserve
militia," which was in fact little more than a name, consisted of the
availables for service between the ages of 18 and 45 years, and
estimated on the basis of population, numbered about 20,000,000.

Before there was any real indication that the country would become
actively involved in the world war steps were taken to reorganize and
develop an efficient army, and under the Act which became effective on
July 1, 1916, and which provides for the establishment of basic units
for the army, the War Department orders and regulations fixed the basis
of the organization as follows:

Sixty-four infantry regiments, 25 cavalry regiments, 21 regiments of
artillery, a coast army corps, the brigade division, army corps, and
army headquarters, with their detachments and troops. A general staff
corps, adjutant general's department, inspector general department,
judge advocate general department, quartermaster corps, medical
department, corps of engineers, and ordnance department, signal corps,
officers of the bureau of insular affairs, militia bureau and detached
officers.

The law specifies that the total armed force shall include the regular
army, volunteer army, officers' reserve corps, enlisted reserve corps,
and the National Guard of the various States, subject to call for duty
within the borders of the United States.

The reorganization of the army was being effected at the time Uncle Sam
was called to fight for humanity, and only an approximation of the
condition can be made, for about two-thirds of the National Guard had
been taken into the regular service incident to the trouble with Mexico,
when the Guardsmen were summoned to the border to protect the country,
and recruiting was proceeding in all branches of the service to bring
all the regiments up to a war footing.


UNITS ON WAR FOOTING.

The various units, on a war footing, are: Infantry regiment, 1,800 men;
cavalry regiment, 1,250 men; field artillery, light regiment, 1,150;
field artillery, horse regiment, 1,150; field artillery, heavy regiment,
1,240; field artillery, mountain regiment, 1,100; engineers, pioneer
battalion, 490; engineers, pioneer battalion, mounted, 270; engineers,
pontoon battalion, 500; signal troops, field battalion, 160; signal
troops, field (cavalry) battalion, 170; signal troops, aero squadron, 90
men. Trains--infantry division: ammunition, 260; supply, 190; sanitary,
530; engineer, 10. Cavalry: ammunition, 60; supply, 220; sanitary, 300.

A division of infantry consists of 3 brigades of infantry, 1 cavalry
regiment, 1 artillery brigade, 1 regiment of engineers, 1 field signal
battalion, 1 aero squad, 1 ammunition train, 1 supply train, 1
engineer's train and 1 sanitary train, and comprises approximately
22,000 men and 7,500 horses and mules, and 900 vehicles, including guns.
The latter figures are, however, changed by reason of the introduction
of motor trucks, and automobiles, there being a consequent reduction in
the number of horses and mules and a slight increase in the number of
men.

A cavalry division consists of 3 cavalry brigades, 1 regiment of field
artillery, 1 battalion of mounted engineers, 1 field signal battery,
mounted; 1 aero squadron, 1 ammunition, 1 supply, 1 engineer and 1
sanitary train.

A brigade, in the main, consists of three regiments, the infantry having
5,500 men, cavalry brigade 2,500 and artillery brigade 2,500 men.

Under the reorganization plan the United States army would have about
293,000 in the service, but with the advent of the country's entrance
into the conflict of world powers Congress passed the Conscription bill
authorizing the drafting, for military purposes, all young men between
the ages of 21 and 31 in the country.


MILLIONS NOT IN THE COUNTRY'S SERVICE.

The registration of those subject to call under this bill showed that
there were about 11,000,000 men in the country, not in the army, navy or
supporting branches, available. The bill designed to produce, within a
year from the time of the signing of the law by President Wilson, of a
national army of more than 1,000,000 trained and equipped men, backed by
a reserve of men and supplies and by an additional 500,000 under
training.

Meantime the State authorities were authorized to fill up the National
Guard units and regiments to full war strength, so that with the regular
army there would be a total of 622,954--293,000 regular and 329,954
guardsmen, to be taken over by the War Department. This was the physical
state of the army when the country found it necessary to ship men into
France to assist the Allies in their fight against the German and
Austrian forces, and General Pershing was sent to command the American
troops.

The United States army and all of the military branches are armed with
the Springfield magazine rifle, which holds five cartridges. It shoots a
pointed bullet of tin and lead and is of .30 inch caliber. The Colt
automatic pistol is used as the service weapon by officers and those
requiring this sort of arm. It is a .45 caliber pistol with a magazine
holding seven cartridges, which can be fired successively by simply
holding the trigger back.


THE FRENCH ARMY.

Military spirit in France has had an almost incredible resurrection
within the past few years. The increase in the standing army of Germany
was watched closely, and as new units were added to the standing army of
the latter country France retaliated by lengthening the term of military
service from two to three years. This accomplished practically the same
purpose without causing a ripple of excitement, and as France determined
to recover her lost provinces of Alsace and Lorraine her fight is to the
limit of her endurance.

There were, at the outbreak of war, 869,403 men in the National Army of
France, which was composed of the Metropolitan army, having a total of
753,403 men, of the Colonial army, numbering 116,000 men. These figures
do not include the personnel of the Gendarmerie, or military police,
which numbered 25,000 men.

Military service is compulsory in France and all males between the ages
of 20 and 48 years must serve three years in the army, the only cause
for exemption being physical disability. Following the active service
the soldier passes to the reserve for 11 years, after which he is seven
years in the Territorial army and seven years in the Territorial
reserve. The training in the active reserve consists of two periods of
training and maneuvers which last for four weeks each, in the
Territorial army one period of two weeks, and in the Territorial
reserve, no fixed period. There are more than 2,000 reservists per
battalion produced by the length of the reserve service, and when the
troops are mobilized the active units can be easily maintained at full
war strength. The number available in this way gives enough men for each
battalion and regiment in the field with enough men left over for
routine home guard work.


FRENCH MILITARY DIVISIONS.

There are two infantry regiments, composed of from six to eight
battalions, to the brigade, in the French army, with two brigades to a
division and two divisions to an army corps. A field artillery regiment,
consisting of nine batteries of four guns each, is attached to each
division. With nine field and three howitzer batteries and six
reinforcing batteries added under mobilization, each corps on a war
footing has 144 guns. There is also added to every army corps in the
field one cavalry brigade of two regiments, one cavalry battalion,
engineer companies and sanitary and service troops. The cavalry
divisions are composed of three brigades of two regiments each--together
with three batteries of horse artillery. There is in an army corps, when
mobilized, approximately 33,000 combatants, and in a cavalry division
4,700 men. An aeronautical corps in the French army consists of 334
aeroplanes and 14 dirigibles.

In the Reserve army at the time of mobilization there were two divisions
in each region, corresponding to those in the active army. When they
were mobilized the 36 reserve divisions contained virtually the same
organization and strength as the troops of the line. There were a large
number of troops for garrisoning the various fortresses when the
regional regiments, engineers and foot artillery were utilized for this
work.

The Territorial army also consists of 36 divisions and garrison troops.
When the remaining men of the Reserve and Territorial armies were
summoned to the depots they were available to maintain the field army at
full strength.

In the French field army there were 20 army corps, a brigade consisting
of 14 battalions, and 10 divisions of cavalry, when war was declared.
When this was raised to its full war strength the active army numbered
1,009,000 men, the reserves and depots 1,600,000, the Territorial army
818,000, and the Territorial Reserve 451,000, a grand total of 3,878,000
soldiers. At this critical time, therefore, France had at her command
about 5,000,000 trained men.

Lebel magazine rifles of .315 inches caliber are used by the infantry,
while the cavalry uses the Lebel carbine. The field piece is a
rapid-fire gun of 7.5 centimeters, or 2.95 inches, of the model of 1907,
and is provided with a shield for the protection of the gunners. A
howitzer of 12 or 15.5 centimeters is the type used by the French army.

The French artillery is generally admitted to be in a class by itself,
and the commissariat is excelled by none other. The infantry is most
deceptive in appearance, but the ability of the French to march and
attack has never been surpassed.


THE RUSSIAN ARMY.

There are 1,284,000 men in the Russian army in times of peace, while the
war strength is 5,962,306. The young man of Russia is compelled to enter
the army at the age of 20 years, the military service being compulsory
and universal, terminating at the age of 43 years. The period of service
in the active army is three years in the case of the infantry and
artillery, and four years in other branches of the service. The soldier
then passes to the reserve, where he serves for 14 or 15 years, during
which period he receives two trainings of six weeks each. After 18 years
in the active and reserve armies he is transferred to the Territorial
army for five years. There also exists a modified system of volunteers
for one year who supply the bulk of officers required for the reserve
upon mobilization.

The Russian army is divided into three forces, the army, of the
European Russia, the army of the Caucasus and the Asiatic army. There
are 1,000 men in a Russian battalion, 4 battalions constituting a
regiment, 2 regiments a brigade and 2 brigades a division.


RUSSIAN FIELD BATTERIES.

The field batteries are composed of 8 guns, the horse batteries of 6.
The ordinary army corps is made up of 2 divisions, a howitzer division
and one battalion of sappers, and has a fighting strength of
approximately 32,000 men. The rifle brigades form separate organizations
of 8 battalions with 3 batteries attached. The Cossacks, who hold their
lands by military tenure, are liable to service for life, and provide
their own equipment and horses. At 19 their training begins; at 21 they
enter the active regiment of their district; at 25 they go into what is
termed the "second category" regiment, and at 29 the "third category"
regiment, followed by 5 years in the reserve. After 25 years of age,
their training is 3 weeks yearly. In European Russia the field army
consists of the Imperial Guard and Grenadier Corps, 27 line army corps
and 20 cavalry divisions; in the Caucasus of 3 army corps and 4 cavalry
divisions. The Asiatic army is composed of Russians with a few Turkoman
irregular horse, and is mainly stationed in East Siberia. Since the
Russian-Japanese war these forces have been increased and reorganized
into a strong army which, at the outbreak, was capable of mobilizing,
together with auxiliary troops, more than 200,000 men.

The small-arm of the infantry is the "3-line" rifle of the 1901 model.
It has a magazine holding five cartridges, a caliber of .299 inches, a
muzzle velocity of 2,035 foot seconds, and is sighted to 3,000 yards.
The arm of the cavalry and Cossacks has a barrel 2-3/4 inches shorter,
but uses the same ammunition, and is provided with a bayonet which no
other mounted troops use. The field piece is a Krupp rapid-fire,
shielded gun, of the 1902 model, with a muzzle velocity of 1,950 foot
seconds, the shell weighing 13-1/2 pounds.


AUSTRIA-HUNGARIAN ARMY.

There are 472,716 men in the army of Austria-Hungary during times of
peace, with a war strength of 1,360,000 soldiers. Military service is
universal and compulsory, beginning at the age of 19 years, and ending
at the age of 43 years. The term of service in the common or active arm
of the service is for two years in the case of the infantry and three
years in the cavalry and horse artillery.

There is a Landwehr, or first reserve, in which the term of service is
10 years in the infantry, and seven for the cavalry or horse artillery,
which service is followed by that in the Landsturm, or second reserve,
in which the soldier serves until his forty-second birthday. Hungary
possesses a separate and distinct Landwehr and Landsturm, which
constitute the Hungarian National army. There is also a supplementary
reserve intended to maintain the units of the common army at full
strength.

The Empire is divided into 16 army corps districts, each presumed to
furnish a complete army corps of two divisions to the active army. Every
infantry division is composed of two brigades of 8 battalions each, 1
artillery brigade and 10 batteries of six guns, a regiment of cavalry,
and a rifle battalion. The army corps also contains a regiment of field
artillery or howitzers, a pioneer battalion and a pontoon company, and
numbers about 34,000 combatants.

There are 6 permanent cavalry divisions, each made up of 2 brigades--24
squadrons, 3 batteries of horse artillery and a machine-gun detachment
numbering about 4,000 men. It is estimated that the war strength is,
active army, 1,360,000; Austrian Landwehr, 240,000; Hungarian Landwehr,
220,000; Landsturm, 2,000,000 and reserve of 500,000, or a grand total
of 4,300,000.

The infantry carries the Mannlicher magazine rifle, .315-caliber and a
cavalry carbine of the same make. The field gun is a Krupp which uses a
14-1/2-pound shrapnel and the field howitzer is a 10.5 centimeter piece
which fires a 30-pound shell. The Hungarian cavalry is accounted fine,
but the main force is not regarded as efficient as the German or French.


THE ITALIAN ARMY.

The army of Italy on a peace footing is only about 250,860 men,
exclusive of the troops in Africa, but the country is able to mobilize a
large force, and some of its branches of service are the most efficient
in the world. Service is compulsory and general, beginning at the age of
20 years. After two years in the standing army there are six years in
the reserve, four years in what is known as the mobile militia and seven
years in the territorial militia.

There is compulsory training in both the reserve and the territorial
militia, ranging from two weeks to six weeks. In organization each
division of the army consists of 2 brigades composed of 2 regiments,
comprising 3 battalions, together with a regiment of field artillery,
with 5 batteries. The division has a war strength of 14,156 officers and
men and 30 guns. The cavalry division comprises 2 brigades of 4
regiments and 2 horse batteries. Each army corps has two divisions in
which are included a regiment of field artillery, 3 heavy batteries, a
regiment of cavalry and one of light infantry.

There is available for army service the military police, known as the
Carabinieri, besides the aeronautical corps, with half a dozen or more
companies, 30 aeroplanes and a dozen airships. There are also the
frontier troops organized for defense of the mountains, and which troops
waged heroic and picturesque warfare in the mountain passes. There are
in these troops 8 regiments of Alpine infantry, comprising 26
battalions, and 2 regiments of 36 mountain batteries.

The army strength approximates 2,600,000, made up of 700,000 active
army, 400,000 mobile militia, which is the second line of defense, and
the territorial militia, about 1,500,000. The infantry is armed with a
magazine rifle of 6.5 millimeters caliber known as the Mannlicher
Carcano, but up to the beginning of the war the territorials used a
different type.


GREAT BRITAIN'S ARMY.

The military establishment of Great Britain consists of the Regular army
and the Territorial army, aside from the Indian army and the local
forces in the various colonies. These armies are recruited from youth
between the ages of 18 and 25 years, who are recruited by voluntary
enlistment. The enlistment period is for 12 years, although it can be
prolonged under certain circumstances to 21 years.

Three to nine years is the period with the colors, and the remainder of
the enlistment is with the Army Reserve. Many men elect to serve seven
years with the colors and five with the reserve. Recruits are subjected
to five months' training, and each year are called out for six weeks,
supplemented by six days' musketry practice for the infantry.

The Home army consists of 9,740 officers and 172,610 men, the Army
Reserve of 147,000 and the Special Reserve of 80,120, and the
Territorial army of 313,485, a total of 724,955 men. Raised to war
strength, these forces would number 29,330 officers, 772,000 men and
2,072 guns, the batteries being of six guns, except the heavy batteries
and those of the Territorial army, which have four. During the Boer War
England put more than 1,000,000 men in the field.

The United Kingdom is divided into seven "commands," and the London
district, all of which include from two to three territorial divisions,
and one to four territorial cavalry brigades, in addition to detachments
of varying size from the Regular army. Two nearly full divisions are
stationed at Aldershot and in Ireland, one complete division in the
Southern and one in the Eastern "command." There are also six aeroplane
squadrons, each with 18 aeroplanes.

The Lee-Enfield rifle, caliber .303, is the arm of the infantry and
cavalry. In the Regular army the field artillery has an 18-pounder
Armstrong gun, the horse artillery a 13-pounder, the field howitzers are
40-pounders, and the heavy batteries are armed with 60-pounders.

The Territorial army was organized along the lines of the American
militia, and could scarcely be expected to distinguish itself when
pitted against the German regulars.


BELGIAN ARMY PEACE FOOTING.

The Belgian army peace footing is 3,542 officers and 44,061 men, with a
war strength estimated at from 300,000 to 350,000. The infantry is armed
with the Mauser rifle, the artillery with a shielded Krupp quick-fire
piece of 7.5-centimeter caliber.

In 1913 the Netherlands had in its standing army 1,543 officers and
21,412 men and 152 guns. On a war footing it could probably be raised to
270,000 men. The small arm is the Mannlicher rifle and carbine, the
field gun is the same as that of Belgium.

Servia has 10 divisions, divided into 4 army corps. The peace footing is
160,000, and the war strength about 380,000. The rifle is the Mauser
model of 1899, and the field piece a quick-firing gun of the French
Schneider-Canet system.

Bulgaria has a peace army of about 3,900 officers and 56,000 men. It is
armed with the Mannlicher magazine rifle, the Mannlicher carbine, the
Schneider quick-fire gun and a light Krupp for the mountain batteries.
On a war footing the country musters 4 army corps and 550,000 men.

Roumania's army is about 5,460 officers and 98,000 men. On a war footing
it has 5 army corps and 580,000 men. The infantry uses the Mannlicher
magazine rifle and the cavalry the Mannlicher carbine. The field and
horse batteries are armed with the Krupp quick-fire gun of the model of
1903.

In 1912 Greece had a peace establishment of 1,952 officers and 23,268
men, but the recent war has caused her to augment them to 3 army corps,
and her war footing is not far from 250,000 men. The infantry is armed
with the Mannlicher-Schonauer rifle of the 1903 model and the field
artillery with Schneider-Canet quick-fire guns.

Japan has a peace strength of 250,000 men, with a reserve of 1,250,000,
and a total war strength of 1,500,000 men, out of a total available
force capable of fighting of approximately 8,239,372 men.


SPAIN'S STANDING ARMY.

The standing army of Spain is 132,000 men. The reserves are estimated at
1,050,000, and the total war strength at 1,182,000. The total available
unorganized force is 2,889,197 men.

The army of Denmark on a peace footing is 13,725 men, with a reserve of
71,609. The total war strength is a little more than 85,000 men, and the
total fighting population is approximately 470,000.

Sweden has a peace strength in excess of 75,000 men, and a reserve of
more than 500,000, giving an estimated war strength of 600,000 men. The
total available unorganized force is about 500,000.

Norway has a standing army a little larger than that of Denmark--about
18,000 men--with 90,000 reserves, giving a total war strength of about
110,000 men. The unorganized force available is about 360,000 men.

Portugal has a peace strength of 30,000 men, with a reserve of 225,000,
making a total war strength of more than one-quarter of a million. The
unorganized fighting material is more than 800,000.

Turkey, which reorganized its forces within recent years, has a peace
strength of 210,000 men, about 800,000 reserves, giving a war strength
of over a million, and has a total available unorganized force to call
upon of more than 3,000,000.

The little army of Montenegro is a permanent body of about 35,000 men.
There are no trained reserve forces, but there is an available fighting
population of 68,000, outside of the army, to call upon.


CHINA'S MILITARY RESOURCES.

Recent events throw some doubt on the figures regarding China's military
resources, but the last available figures credited the great Republic of
the East with a force of 400,000 men, augmented by 300,000 reserves.
With this total war strength of 700,000 soldiers, estimates of the
available unorganized fighting material reaches the stupendous figure of
63,000,000.

Brazil has a peace strength of 33,000, with more than 500,000 reserves,
with more than 4,000,000 unorganized available material.

As relating to the armed strength of the nations abroad, some reference
to the system of fortifications which protect the various countries is
interesting at this point. Following years--in fact, centuries--of
study, Central Europe has been strongly fortified with a system of
embattlements which have reached the limits of human ingenuity.

In the east of France, along the frontier where France, Switzerland and
Germany meet, there are the first-class fortresses of Belfort, Epinal,
Toul and Verdun in the first line, reinforced by Besancon, Dijon,
Langres, Rheims, La Fere and Maubeuge in the second line, with smaller
fortifications close to the German frontier at Remirement, Luneville,
Nancy and other points. Along the Italian frontier the fortresses are
situated at Grenoble, Briancon and Nice, with Lyons in the rear. There
are strong forts at all naval harbors, the defense of Paris consisting
of 97 bastions, 17 old forts and 38 forts of an advanced type, the
whole forming entrenched camps at Versailles and St. Denis.

On that line of the German frontier which faces France there are the
fortresses of Neu-Breisach, Strassburg, Metz and Diedenhofen, in the
first line, with Rastatt, Bitsch and Saarlouis in the second line, and
Germershein in the rear. Situated opposite Luxemburg is Mainz, with
Coblentz and Cologne opposite Belgium and Wesel opposite Holland.

All along the northern coast, from Wilhelmshafen to Memmel, the German
coast is strongly fortified. Memmel is the pivot point of the northern
and eastern frontier, the latter frontier being protected by Konigsberg
and Allenstein, of the first line, and Danzig, Dirschau, Graudenz, Thorn
and the Vistula Passages, of the second line. South of this point are
Posen, Glogau and Breslau, which face Poland, while beginning at Neisse
the strong defense against Austria consists of fortifications at Glatz,
Ingolstadt and Ulm, the approaches to Berlin being guarded by Magdeburg,
Spandau and Kustrin.


POLISH QUADRILATERAL.

Along the line of the Russian frontier which guard that country from
attacks by the Germans are the fortresses of Libau, on the Baltic;
Kovna, Ossovets and Ust-Dvinsk, in the Vilna district, and in Poland
there are situated Novo-Georgievsk, Warsaw and Ivangorod, on the
Vistula, and Brest-Litovsk, on the Bug--four strongholds known as the
Polish Quadrilateral. Guarding Petrograd are the smaller fortifications
of Kronstadt and Viborg, with Sweaborg midway down the Gulf of Finland
near Helsingfors. Sebastopol and Kertch, in the Crimea, and Otchokov,
near Odessa, are the fortifications which guard the Black Sea.

Along the Austrian frontier are the strong embattlements of Cracow and
Przemysl, on the road to Lemberg in Galicia. These forts face Poland. In
Hungary there are Gyula-Fehervar and Arad, on the Maros River, and which
guard the approach from the angle of Roumania. On her frontier facing
Servia there are Alt-Orsova and Peterwardein, on the Danube, and
Sarajevo, in Bosnia, with Temesvar and Komorn blocking the approach to
Vienna from the southeast. On the Adriatic are Cattaro, on the edge of
Montenegro, and the naval arsenals of Pola and Trieste. All the Alpine
passes of the Tyrol are fortified, but neither Vienna nor Budapest has
any defenses.

The fortifications of Italy, aside from those on her coasts, extend in a
line from Venice, through Verona, Mantua and Piacenza to Alessandria and
Casale, which face the French frontier.



CHAPTER XIII.

THE WORLD'S NAVIES.

GERMANY'S SEA STRENGTH--GREAT BRITAIN'S IMMENSE WAR FLEET--IMMENSE
FIGHTING CRAFT--THE UNITED STATES' NEW BATTLE CRUISERS--THE FASTEST AND
BIGGEST OCEAN FIGHTING SHIPS--THE PICTURESQUE MARINES: THE SOLDIERS OF
THE SEA.


Just as Germany at the outset of the war had the most efficient and,
broadly speaking, the greatest army in the world, so England had the
greatest navy in the world. As a matter of fact, Great Britain's
domination of the seas was very largely responsible for the development
of the super-submarine by Germany, and the putting into effect of the
submarine warfare which proved so disastrous to the Allies. This for the
reason that Germany, having sought for means to offset Great Britain's
power and control of the seas, turned to the underseas craft.

Up to the accession of Emperor William II--the Kaiser--Germany's navy
was little more than a joke. In 1848 the National Parliament voted six
million thalers for the creation of a fleet, and some boats were
constructed. But the attempts to weld Germany, then little more than a
federation, into a nation having failed, the fleet was put up at
auction, and actually sold in 1852. Prussia, a separate state, had
started a fleet of her own and purchased the German boats.

This fleet, just before the American Civil War, consisted of four
cruisers, carrying 28 cannon, and one cruiser having 17 cannon, besides
which there were 21 "cannon boats," carrying two and three cannons each.
The Prussian fleet merged into the North German Confederation in 1867,
and in turn became part of the fleet of the new German Empire in 1871.

In the war with France the German fleet played no part. There were one
or two clashes between French and German small boats, but that was all.
Even the successful outcome of the war did not inspire Germany to build
up a navy. Plans for the greater navy were first outlined about 1882,
but for a period of seven years not a battleship was built,
concentration being placed upon the torpedo boat. The idea of developing
the torpedo boat fleet belong to the present Grand Admiral von Tirpitz,
then a young officer. The fleet became the best in the world, but its
usefulness was soon checked by the new inventions, searchlights, gatling
guns, etc.

Germany's fleet legislation of 1898 for the first time looked ahead and
established rules for future building. The Spanish-American and the Boer
wars disquieted Germany, and about 1900 the fleet was doubled by
legislation. In 1906 the campaign of submarines, torpedo boats and
greater battleships began. Part of the program required that 12 torpedo
boats be built each year. Additional legislation for the construction of
cruisers and battleships was effected in 1908, and in 1912, until at the
beginning of the war, Germany had 38 ships of the line, 14 armored
cruisers, 38 protected cruisers, 224 torpedo boats and 30 submarines.
There were no torpedo-boat destroyers, the small cruisers taking their
places. The naval organization contained 73,000 officers and men. The
largest boats are the dreadnoughts, which are divided into several
classes. One of the last of these built by Germany was the Derfflinger,
which had a displacement of 28,000 tons.

The personnel of the German navy prior to the war was 79,197 officers
and men.


THE BRITISH NAVY.

Because of the fact that the territory of Great Britain is scattered
over the face of the globe and that it is necessary to use the highways
of the sea for reaching her various possessions, the navy of that
country is undoubtedly the greatest collection of fighting ships ever
gathered together under one flag.

In order to take care of her population of 1,625,000,000 she has
gathered together a navy consisting of 60 modern battleships, 9 battle
cruisers, 34 armored cruisers, 17 heavy protected cruisers, 70 light
cruisers, 232 destroyers, 59 torpedo boats of the latest type, 75
submarines, together with 50 sea-going auxiliaries of the fleet, which
are used as mother ships to destroyers, mine-layers, distilling ships,
oil ships, repair and hospital ships, with 145,000 officers and men.

The first group, completed between 1895 and 1898, includes six
battleships, all of 14,900 tons displacement, 12,000 horsepower and
2,000 tons coal capacity. The speed is 17.5 knots, the armor belt being
from 10 to 14 inches at the big guns and with a mean armor belt of 9
inches. The armament consists of 4 12-inch guns, 12 6-inch rapid fire,
16 3-inch rapid fire, 12 3-pounder rapid fire, 2 light rapid fire and 2
machine guns. They have one torpedo tube above water and two under
water.


MONSTERS OF THE SEA.

A later group of six was built in 1900 and 1902. These monsters of the
sea are of 12,950 tons displacement, 13,500 horsepower and have 2,300
tons coal capacity. They have a speed of 18.25 knots, 6 inches of armor
belt and from 8 to 12 inches protection for her big guns. The armament
consists of 4 12-inch rapid fire guns, 12 6-inch rapid fire, 10 3-inch
rapid fire and 2 light rapid fire and 2 machine guns. There are four
torpedo tubes.

Gradually England developed larger and larger vessels from this point,
increasing the displacement in each group from 16,350 tons in 1906 to
20,000 in 1911, and finally to 25,700, when the Queen Elizabeth and
Warspite were completed in 1915. These boats--England's
super-dreadnoughts--are of 58,000 horsepower (turbine), 4,000 tons oil
capacity. They have a speed of 25 knots, 13.5 inches of armor belt and
from 8 to 13.5 inches protection for the big guns. The armament consists
of 8 15-inch, 16 6-inch and 12 3-inch rapid fire guns. They have five
torpedo tubes. There were 150,609 officers and men in the navy when
England entered the war.


THE FRENCH NAVY.

At the beginning of the war the French navy ranked fourth among the
navies of the world. She had 18 battleships of the older types, and
which ranged in date of launching from 1894 to 1909. There were building
at that time eight ships of about 23,095 tons displacement. Although
France had no battle cruisers, she had 19 armored cruisers. The heavier
of these ships had a designed speed of 23 knots, and carried from 2100
to 2300 tons of coal. Their main batteries consisted of 2 7.6-inch rapid
fire and 8 6.4-inch rapid fire guns.

Two protected cruisers, the D'Entrecasteaux and the Guichen, and 10
light cruisers of no fighting importance completed the list of French
ships.

France was, however, strong, so far as numbers go, in destroyers,
torpedo boats and submarines, there being 84 destroyers, with
displacements of 276 to 804 tons and speeds of 28 and 31 knots. She
possessed 135 torpedo boats and 78 submarines, but many of these were of
small size. One hundred and one of her torpedo boats had displacements
of about 95 tons, and 20 of the submarines had displacements of 67 tons.

Of the submarines, there were 33 which had a displacement of 390 tons, 2
of 410 tons, 6 of 550 tons, 2 of 785 tons and 7 of 830 tons. This
displacement, which was surface, is usually 70 per cent of the
submerged. The larger submarines carry from six to eight torpedo tubes.
In the early part of 1916 the French Government had 12 submarines
building, these latter having surface displacement of 520 tons and
having Diesel motors of 2000 horsepower. The speed of these submarines
is 17-1/2 knots on the surface and 8 knots submerged.

Attached to the French fleet are 16 auxiliaries, used as mine-layers,
submarine destroyers and aeroplane mother ships, of from 300 to 7,898
tons.

There were 61,240 officers and men in the navy of France when war was
declared.


THE RUSSIAN NAVY.

With the ending of the Russo-Japanese war the Russian navy was given an
overhauling. There were but three of the old battleships of the Russian
navy left after this fateful struggle, these being the Tri Sviatitelia,
the Panteleimon and the Czarevitch. The Russian Government labored
diligently to build up her navy, and is still doing her utmost to
readjust that branch of her service.

With the outbreak of the great war she had six armored cruisers, none of
which was in the Black Sea. These averaged in tonnage from 7,900 to
15,170 tons displacement. There were eight cruisers of from 3,100 to
6,700 tons, and of no fighting value whatever.

Russia had but 14 torpedo boats, all small and of little value. She had
a fairly good fleet of destroyers and submarines, having 91 of the
former and 55 submarines.

There were 36,000 officers and men in the service when hostilities
opened.


THE AUSTRIAN NAVY.

When the war was declared Austria, Germany's supporter, had nine
battleships ready. These were completed since 1905, as follows: In 1906
and 1907 there were finished three battleships which displaced 10,433
tons, had 14,000 horsepower and 1315 tons coal capacity. They had a
speed of 19.25 knots, 6 to 8.25 inches of side armor and 9.5 inches
protection for the big guns. The armament consisted of 4 9.4-inch, 12
7.6-inch rapid fire, 14 3-inch rapid fire and 16 smaller guns. They had
two torpedo tubes.

In 1910 three other ships were added to the navy. These were slightly
larger than those described just above, having a displacement of 14,268
tons, with engines of 20,000 horsepower. They had three torpedo tubes.

Three ships of 20,000 tons displacement were launched in 1912 and 1913.
They had a speed of 20 knots and four torpedo tubes. Three other
battleships had been built up until 1906, and these, together with 10
light cruisers, were in the Austrian navy at the breaking out of
hostilities.

The torpedo boat destroyers, of which there were 18, must not be
forgotten. Twelve of these were of 384 tons, capable of making 28-1/2
knots. These carried 4 12-pounders and 2 21-inch torpedo tubes. They
were built for oil fuel.

There were six submarines in this navy, these being of moderate size,
ranging from 216 to 235 tons displacement on the surface.


THE JAPANESE NAVY.

There were 9 first-class battleships in the Japanese navy at the
beginning of the world war. Of battle cruisers there were 5, while of
the older battleships 13 were ready for orders. Twelve first-class
cruisers were ready for duty, and there were 9 second-class cruisers and
9 third-class cruisers. Of gunboats there were 5, 60 destroyers, 37
torpedo boats and 15 submarines. The personnel of the Japanese navy
consisted of 47,000 officers and men.


THE ITALIAN NAVY.

Italy was ready for her part on the seas with 7 first-class battleships,
8 of the older type, 9 first-class cruisers, 5 second-class cruisers, 10
third-class cruisers, 5 gunboats, 46 destroyers, 75 torpedo boats and 20
submarines. There were 36,000 officers and men to handle these ships.


THE TURKISH NAVY.

When hostilities were declared Turkey had a navy consisting of 2
first-class battleships, 3 battleships of an older type, 2 first-class
cruisers, 2 second-class cruisers, 4 third-class cruisers, 8 gunboats, 2
monitors, 10 destroyers and 8 torpedo boats. The officers and men in the
Turkish navy numbered 30,000.


THE UNITED STATES NAVY.

The United States navy, which has made an enviable reputation for itself
wherever and whenever the boats and men have been engaged, ranked third
at the beginning of the war. While not of the heaviest type, the boats
were of the most improved models, and maintained on a basis that
justified the belief that they would stand up in the face of the
severest opposition.

There were 12 modern battleships, 30 of an older type, 10 armored
cruisers, 5 first-class cruisers, 4 second-class cruisers, 16
third-class cruisers, 30 gunboats, 9 monitors, 74 destroyers, 19 torpedo
boats and 73 submarines, manned by 55,389 officers and men. The
California, Idaho, Arizona, Mississippi and Pennsylvania are the latest
battleships of the navy, and are of the super-dreadnought type. All of
these battleships have a displacement of more than 31,000 tons, and have
the most complete equipment that it is possible to command. The
batteries consist of 4 13-inch and 14 6-inch guns, 4 6-pounders,
together with 4 21-inch torpedo tubes. There is a variation in the
batteries, but all have approximately the same kind of armament.

One of these huge vessels is about 625 feet long, and has a speed of
from 21 to 23 knots. The Pennsylvania, one of the largest, is of 31,500
horsepower, and cost approximately $7,250,000. In addition to this,
Congress had authorized the construction of what is designed to be the
supreme type of fighting vessel. The plans for these vessels call for
the construction of vessels approximately 875 feet long and nearly 90
feet wide. Some idea of what enormous vessels these must be may be
gained when it is seen that the cruisers are 250 feet longer than the
super-dreadnought.

The battle cruisers have six decks, extending from end to end, and are
so extensive that they almost constitute a battlefront.

This comparison to a battlefront on land becomes interesting when
consideration of it is further pursued. There are even railroads to
fetch ammunition to the guns, though they run vertically instead of
horizontally. The general headquarters is in the conning tower, to which
all lines of "field communication" lead--telegraphs, telephones, etc.

The "observation posts," for directing and correcting the range and aim
of artillery, are at the tops of the two wire "bird-cage" masts. This
work is helped (as on land) by kite balloons and aeroplanes, which, as
part of its fighting equipment, the battle cruiser carries. To blind the
enemy ships, under suitable circumstances, the big guns create a
"barrage" of water, by directing their fire at the sea in front of the
hostile vessels, throwing over them a mass of spray.


AMPLE PROVISION FOR THE WOUNDED.

On board the battle cruiser is a fully equipped field hospital,
supplemented by battle dressing stations near the guns, for the
emergency treatment of the wounded. To the musicians of the ship's band
is assigned the duty of carrying wounded men to the dressing stations
and the hospital, the latter being on one of the lower decks, beneath
the water level.

The battle cruiser, built long and narrow, has a great speed. The four
monster propellers are driven by electricity, which is generated by
engines fed with fuel oil. The speed attained is 35 knots an hour, which
means the same speed as a train traveling at the rate of 40 miles an
hour, since the sea mile, or knot, is longer than the land mile.

In order to obtain this enormous speed it was necessary for the
designers of the battle cruisers to sacrifice armor protection. The
armor on these ships is but an eight-inch belt. The real object of the
battle cruiser is to use its superior speed and overwhelming gun power
to overtake and destroy the enemy's ships of the second line, the
auxiliaries and scouts.

Each of these vessels has a displacement of 34,800 tons--meaning, in
plain language, that they weigh that much, hence displace that much
water when launched. The biggest British battle cruiser, which is the
largest battle cruiser afloat, is the British Tiger, which has a
displacement of 28,500 tons, and is less in length by 150 feet than
these mighty battle cruisers. The Tiger is much less formidably armed,
carrying eight 13 1/2-inch guns. The largest German battle cruiser is
the Derfflinger, of 26,200 tons, and armed with eight 12-inch rifles.

Our latest commissioned dreadnought, the Arizona, has engines of 31,400
horsepower. The engines of that monster passenger steamship, the
ill-fated Lusitania, were of 70,000 horsepower. Those of the Tiger boast
120,000 horsepower. But each of our six battle cruisers has 180,000
horsepower to drive her through the water.


HUGE FIGHTING CRAFT.

These huge fighting craft are the most expensive ships ever built. Each
of them cost about $20,000,000, the money outlay being something like
$16,500,000, exclusive of armor and guns. And for each battle cruiser
must be provided, in the way of personnel, 1,153 enlisted men, 64
marines and 58 officers.

While the American Navy had but 55,389 men when the war opened it was
quickly increased, and under the Army bill, which provided for the
reorganization and increasing of the land forces, the naval forces were
also increased.

The bill increasing the authorized enlisted strength of the navy to
150,000 did not provide for any additional officers above the rank of
lieutenant. The increase in the enlisted force amounts to 57,000, the
authorized strength at the time of the law's passage being 93,000. Based
on the increase, the allowance of officers would be 747 lieutenants and
954 lieutenants junior grade and ensigns.

The increase in the enlisted strength of the Marine Corps from 17,400 to
30,000, or by 12,600, also gives an additional allowance of 504
officers to the corps, which, under the bill, are distributed among the
grades of major, captain, first lieutenant and second lieutenant.

The Marine Corps is one of the most picturesque military organizations
in the world. There is, probably, no other such body of trained
soldiery. While they are under the control of the Navy Department, they
can be detached from that branch of the service and assigned for duty
with any other branch of the military forces of the country.


POLICEMEN OF THE SEA.

They are the policemen of the sea; they are artillerymen, infantrymen,
cavalry, engineers, and soldiers, first, last and all the time. They are
the first troops in action, and there is no restriction as to the kind
of military duty they are called upon to perform.

The Marines served on shore and on board vessels of the navy throughout
the Revolutionary War, two battalions having been authorized by the
Continental Congress November 10, 1775. The present organization really
dates from July, 1798, when Congress passed an act approving the
establishment of an organization to be known as the Marine Corps,
consisting of 1 major, 4 captains, 16 first lieutenants, 12 second
lieutenants, 48 sergeants, 48 corporals, 32 drums and fifes and 720
privates.

Every one of the 15,000 men who composed the more than a century old
Marine Corps when the war broke out was ready and on his toes when the
call for action came. There was nothing in the way of scientific
preparedness that got by them. In the matter of trench helmets, for
instance, when it was time for the American nation to come to the front
in the great world war, the Marines had a helmet so much of an
improvement on the one used by the Allies that there was no comparison.

Armored motorcars, likewise, of the most improved type, belonged to the
Marine Corps when the call for action came. These cars are capable of
making 45 miles an hour, and there were plenty of them for service in
the Marine Corps. Some interesting equipment never used before the big
war composed part of the quartermasters' stores in the Marine Corps.

It's a marvel what these chaps can do with a big naval gun--one of those
big brutes which are bolted down to the deck of a warship. It doesn't
look like a thing to be picked up and carted around the country. That's
precisely what the heavy artillery companies do, however. It takes them
but a few minutes to sling one of these five-inchers over the side of a
ship, land it, and take it wherever it is needed. They do this with the
aid of a single-spar derrick, some little narrow-gauge trucks and a
portable narrow-gauge railroad.


TRANSPORTATION OF BIG GUN.

The method is to lay down the railroad--it can be done very swiftly by
men carefully trained in the art of laying tracks over all kinds of
ground--put the gun and its mount, with a specially prepared base of
extremely heavy timbers, on the tracks, and trundle it to the place
where it is needed to pour a rapid fire into the enemy.

Here a pit has been dug, in which is laid down the heavy timber base,
riveted together with heavy steel bolts. Then it is well packed with
dirt and stone, and the gun carriage made fast ingeniously. The
single-stick derrick has been erected alongside, guyed out in four
directions with heavy ropes, which are made fast to the ground by means
of "dead men," and manipulated by very live gangs of husky marines. A
chain block of powerful type is used to pick up the gun carriage and put
it in place, and afterwards to swing the gun into its sockets on the
carriage.

Later the breech locks and sights are added, and the big five-inch,
40-caliber naval gun is ready to go into action. These big and heavy
guns, suitable for long range work with high explosive shells, can be
taken a quarter of a mile or so from the ship which carried them, over
rough ground, set up and put in operation in a few days' time.

But the heavy artillery base is only one of the Marines' work. They have
big howitzers, of the more modern type, most of which are kept at
Annapolis, where they can be loaded aboard ship in short order. Men and
machines can be mobilized at the strategic points in a very short time.


EVERY MAN'S SERVICE.

The Marine service is unique in many respects. For one thing, it is
every man's service. The proportion of officers who have risen from the
ranks or who have been commissioned from civilian life is higher in the
Marine Corps than in either the Army or the Navy. This, of course, makes
for democracy in the corps. An enlisted man, who does not wait until he
is too far up in the 20's to enlist, has a very fair chance of earning
his commission. Another thing--and this is of prime importance to the
ambitious fellow--promotion goes by merit. In the army and navy the
young officer is promoted by seniority.

Things are a bit different in the Marine Corps. In this organization a
man doesn't absolutely have to wait for his number to come around. If he
distinguishes himself above his fellows, he may be promoted without much
regard for age or length of service. He goes up as he is able to, by his
active ability and his readiness to work hard and effectively for Uncle
Sam. There are advocates, of course, of both systems. There are merits
which both systems can justly claim. But it goes without saying that
this possibility of promotion keeps everybody in the Marine Corps on the
jump.

Even the enlisted men who are too old to get commissions have something
to work for. Not very long since Congress authorized the appointment of
"warrant officers" in the Marine Corps. The Navy had this grade for many
years. It is new in the Marine Corps, and is an added incentive to hard
work.

Another incentive--and perhaps the strongest one--that draws young
fellows of the up-and-doing sort into the Marine Corps is that of active
service. The Marines boast that they are always on the job; that no
matter how peaceful the time, the Marines are sure to see "something
stirring" right along. It is a saying--and a true one--in the Marine
Corps that every marine who has served the ordinary enlistment in the
corps since the Spanish-American war has smelt powder. Ever since the
fuss with Spain the marines have been covering themselves with glory. In
that little war of 1898 the Marines were the first to land in Cuba. They
held Guantanamo for three months. In 1890 they saw service in the
Philippines; the next year in China. In 1902 the Marines took part in
the fighting against Aguinaldo, the wily Filipino leader. In 1903 they
put down the rebellion in Panama, captured Colon and opened up the
Panama railroad. In 1906 they helped quiet the uprising of that summer
in Cuba. They were in Nicaragua in 1909. From 1911 to 1913 they did more
duty in Cuba, with a whirl in Nicaragua again in 1912. They helped hold
Vera Cruz for three months in 1914. Next year they went to Haiti, where
they have been moderately busy from time to time since. Santo Domingo
saw them in 1916.


AN UNAPPROACHABLE RECORD.

Neither the army nor the navy can claim anything to beat it--you
couldn't tell a marine that the rival branches of the service can claim
anything to equal it. And as for the modern implements of warfare--the
European armies have no advantage over the marines for testing out new
devices. They had armored cars, for instance, as far back as 1906; they
began to use motor trucks for military purposes as early as 1909. Every
marine expedition is equipped with its quota of armored trucks. They
would as soon think of voyaging over the seas to put down an incipient
revolution without their armored cars and motor trucks as they would of
going to meet the enemy without their rifle.

There used to be an old joke about "Horse Marines." A sailorman on a
horse is an incongruous thing--a sight to make you hold your sides. But
the marines are not plain sailormen. They are "soldier and sailor, too,"
and as soldiers they have turned the joke on the old saw about "horse
marines." There are "horse marines" these days, and mighty good cavalry
they make.

The marine can ride with the best of the cavalrymen. And in the fracas
in Domingo there were two cavalry companies of marines organized.


THE MANY-SIDED MARINE.

It takes a bit longer to make an efficient marine than to make an
infantryman. This because the marine is a man of many specialties. He
is, of course, in season and out of season, an international policeman.
That's his job in time of peace. But when he fares abroad to fight his
country's battles he may be called upon to do almost any kind of work.
He may be an artilleryman; a signalman; an airman. He may be, and
usually is, anything that his country needs at that particular time. And
he is trained to meet the emergency.

The new recruit, in ordinary times, is sent for his first instruction to
Port Royal, down in Georgia. There he has nothing to do but drill,
drill, drill, until he can do the infantry evolutions in his sleep. He
learns to drill, he learns to keep clean--the Marines are something of a
dandy corps--and he learns to take care of himself no matter what
happens. He is taught to be a soldier and a man. He learns to walk
straight, shoot straight, think straight. And then he goes for a spell
to sea--for after all, he needs sea legs as well as land legs.

But these two tricks of duty by no means end the marine's schooling.
When he has become an efficient all-around man he may specialize. He
may, if he chooses, go into the signal corps and learn the multitude of
details connected with this ultramodern arm of the service. He learns to
send messages by every possible means. He learns to operate a radio.
And, it might be mentioned in passing, the Marine Corps is equipped with
the very finest of radio apparatus. They have big trucks which carry the
outfit and supply the power for either sending radio messages or
operating huge electric searchlights. Or he may go into aviation.

[Illustration: INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARIES BEFORE THE WAR.

This map shows the boundary lines between nations as they were at the
beginning of the war, as also the coast lines of Europe. The latter are
brought out in bold relief.]



CHAPTER XIV.

THE NATIONS AT WAR.

UNEXPECTED DEVELOPMENTS--HOW THE WAR FLAMES SPREAD--A SCORE OF COUNTRIES
INVOLVED--THE POINTS OF CONTACT--PICTURESQUE AND RUGGED BULGARIA,
ROUMANIA, SERVIA, GREECE, ITALY AND HISTORIC SOUTHEAST EUROPE.


The real history of the greatest war of all times is the history of the
entire world, touching every phase of existence in a manner that has
never been approximated by any other conflict. The motives and
ramifications are so great that it is almost impossible for the human
mind to grasp the significance of many things of importance which, at a
glance, seem to be but incidents.

The world looked on expectantly when the war started, because there was
a general knowledge of the conditions existing in Europe and the
undercurrent was felt by students of international affairs. But that
Russia would revolt and the Czar abdicate, as he did in March, 1917, and
the iron-ruled country would set up a government of its own--would join
the circle of democracies--was not even hinted at. Neither was it
intimated that Constantine I, King of Greece, would abdicate in favor of
his son, Prince Alexander, as he did in the following June, under
pressure, because of his sympathy for Germany.

Neither was there a suspicion that the fire started by the flash of a
pistol and the bursting of a bomb in Bosnia would spread until sixteen
countries were arrayed against Germany and Austria, supported by the
Bulgarians and the Turks. And to these must be added the entrance into
the conflict of Canada, Australia, New Zealand, possessions of Great
Britain, and smaller possessions of other countries. The flames swept
over the face of the earth in this fashion:

Starting with the movement of Austria against Servia, after the
assassination of the Archduke Ferdinand, there lined up as a
consequence of the alliances formed between the powers, the countries
referred to in preceding chapters. The triple alliance was originally an
agreement between Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy, to strengthen
their positions, and the Triple Entente consisted of agreements between
France, England and Russia.


INVASION OF BELGIUM.

Briefly, the invasion of Belgium by Germany, and her ambitions in the
southeast, where Russia had what amounted to protectorate relations,
drew first France, England and Russia into the strife, and step by step
there became involved nation after nation. The steps, marked by the
declarations of war, were as follows: On July 28, 1914, Austria declared
war on Servia, and on August 1 Germany made the declaration against
Russia. Next Germany turned upon France, on the third day of August, and
also on Belgium, whereupon, on the following day, Great Britain declared
war on Germany; a day later Austria-Hungary issued the mandate against
Russia, and two days later, or on August 8, Montenegro declared war on
Austria. Austria accepted the challenge, and then Servia took up the
cudgel against Germany. France made formal declaration of war on
Austria-Hungary and by the end of August Montenegro had declared against
Germany; Great Britain on Austria; Japan on Germany; Austria on Japan;
Austria on Belgium. Later, or early in November, Russia declared herself
against Turkey, as did France and Great Britain.

For six months the battle raged and the rest of the world regarded the
result with grave concern until in May of 1915 Italy, having renounced
her alliance with Germany and Austria, declared war first on Austria,
then on Turkey. In the fall of 1915 Servia took up arms against
Bulgaria, as did Great Britain, France, Italy and Russia. Then Germany
declared against Portugal, whose government replied in kind; Austria
followed Germany in the alignment and finally, in August, 1916, there
were exchanges of sharp "courtesies"--the complete severance of all
diplomatic relations and open warfare--between Roumania and
Austria-Hungary; then between Bulgaria and Roumania, with the consequent
alignment of the Central Powers. Italy had also made her declaration
against Germany specific. So for nine months the war waged with terrible
bitterness until on April 6, the United States, by the proclamation of
President Wilson, was finally at war with Germany.


IN THE NATURE OF MERE FORMALITIES.

These steps were, in many instances, in the nature of formalities, for
the relationships of some of the countries involved placed them in the
position of practically being at war before formal announcement was
made. The position then, was that Germany, Austria-Hungary and Turkey
were supported by Bulgaria, who was anxious to get redress for having
been cheated out of what she regarded as her rightful possessions in the
settlement of the Balkan war question. Those aligned on the other side
were England, France, Russia, Montenegro, Italy, Belgium (which had been
making defensive warfare in keeping with her desire to be true to her
neutral pledges); Servia, Roumania, Japan, Portugal, the United States,
the little principality of Monaco, which is best known as the seat of
Monte Carlo, the great gambling center of Europe, and San Marino, a
similar "patch" on the map of Europe. Brazil, Guatemala, and the little
Republic of Cuba also aligned themselves against Germany in support of
the Allies, though there was no actual engagement of their forces. Thus
there could be counted as at war against the Central Powers in June,
1917, sixteen countries.

Most interesting of all the countries involved were those belonging to
the Balkan group and centering in southeastern Europe. The Balkan
nations, Bulgaria, Servia, Montenegro, with Greece, paved the way for
their entrance into the conflict when they formed an alliance, in 1912,
for common protection, particularly for the enforcement of one of the
provisions of the Berlin Treaty, guaranteeing local government to the
Bulgar and Serbian colonies in Macedonia. Montenegro began war on Turkey
in October, and Bulgaria, Servia and Greece joined and drove the Turks
out of many of their strongholds.

[Illustration: OUTLINE MAP OF GERMANY AND THE STATES FORMING THE EMPIRE.

This drawing shows the location of the twenty-five States which were
included within the boundaries of the German Empire at the beginning of
the war.]


"COMIC OPERA" SOLDIERS.

In a month of fighting the little countries, in the picturesque
southeastern section, whose soldiers have been depicted as "comic opera"
soldiers, had rent Turkey; Greece had captured the famous Macedonian
city of Salonica, once known as Thessalonica, where was located the
church in which was addressed St. Paul's Epistle to the Thessalonians;
while the Servians had captured Monastir, one of the most important
centers in Macedonia, and the Bulgarians had driven the Turks almost to
the famed city of Constantinople. The Servian soldiers finally marched
to the Adriatic sea, and Albania raised a flag of its own and asked
Austria-Hungary and Italy to recognize its independence and grant it
protection.

Within little more than two months Turkey had been deprived of the
greater portion of her possessions in Europe and a treaty of peace was
signed between the allied countries and the Turks. By this agreement
Albania became in effect a suzerainty, protected by Austria. But the
agreement between Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy--the Triple
Entente--gave those countries a combined power which, when it came to
fixing the terms of peace, left the small allied countries of victory at
a disadvantage, and while Montenegro and Greece gained some territory,
as did Servia, Bulgaria lost what she had gained in the war. Turkey lost
90 per cent of her Empire in Europe, which so aroused the country that
the rising of the young Turks followed and the government was
reorganized. The enforced terms of settlement, however, set the little
countries at each other's throats.

The field of the Balkan battles is the very center of the world's
history. Along the Adriatic, Ionian and Agean seas are lands and
territories peopled with races that mark their ancestry back to the very
darkest ages. The protected country of Albania, with its rocky surface,
numbers among its peoples descendants of the Arnauts, whose very origin
is a mystery. They were present before the days of Greece and Rome. The
Ottoman Turks, the Bulgars from the plains of the Volga and the Ural
Mountains, the Serbs, the Roumanians, Russians, Italians, the Slavs,
Tartars.


A REGION OF MOUNTAINS.

Albania is a mountainous region along the Adriatic coast, peopled with
descendants of the ancients who maintain their characteristics. They are
said to be descendants of the Pelasgian races, which inhabited the
territory before the Greeks builded their Athens.

The Albanians are wild, daring mountaineers, and though the people have,
to all intents and purposes, been under Turkish rule for centuries, they
have never recognized the sovereignty of the Sultan. It was originally
part of the Turkish Empire in Europe, having been taken by Turkey, in
1467, and is a fertile, but wild country.

The same picturesque people that make up the population of Albania
constitute the populace of the little country of Montenegro, which was
once part of the Turkish possession. Montenegro contained about 3486
square miles of territory before its acquisitions in the Balkan wars.
Aided by Russia, the country obtained its independence from Turkey in
1878, and in 1910 became a kingdom. Its present area is about 5650
square miles and the population 520,000. The capital is Cettinje.

Bulgaria was also once a part of the Turkish possessions, and under the
Treaty of Berlin, in 1878, became a suzerainty. It is a famous pastoral
country, inhabited by a people for years held under the Ottoman heel.
They are racially Turanians, and kin of the Tartar and Huns, who came
into their present fertile country from the vast plains of eastern
Russia. They made their way thither more than a thousand years ago, and
battling at the very gates of Constantinople, by their fierce crusades,
secured the grants from the Byzantine Empire of the territory, which
constitutes the Bulgaria of today. The population is nearly 5,000,000,
and the country contains about 43,000 square miles.


WHY ITALY ENTERED THE WAR.

Italy's reasons for entering the war, aside from her demands for
territory, in exchange for continuance of neutrality, have to do with
matters of years gone by, when she began the struggle for her liberation
from the Austrian domination. Italy desired, among other things, to
acquire Trentino, Goritz, and other adjacent territory controlled by
Austria, but Italian in every attribute. Trentino is a rocky region, and
strategically valuable to the country possessing it, which was proved by
the terrible struggle which the Italians were forced to make in their
attacks against the Austrian forces.

The city of Trent is the capital of Trentino, famous in history, and the
seat of the long church council in 1545-46. It was in turn controlled by
Roman, Goth, Hun, Lombard and Holy Roman Empire. It is the site of many
historic buildings, notably the cathedral of Trent, which is a fine
example of Lombard architecture, and the church of Santa Maria Maggorie,
where the famous Council of the Roman Catholic Church was held. There
are old towers, and libraries rich in manuscripts.

Trentino is famous for its mountain passes, over which the Italians have
been compelled to drag their heavy artillery and implements of war. The
Alpini, the mountaineer soldiers of Italy, are among the most
picturesque in the world. They have scaled the almost perpendicular
faces of the Alps, climbing from crag to crag with their bodies roped
together, dragging machine guns in pieces strapped to their shoulders.
Tolmino, Trieste, Istria, Dalmatia, Avlona, the prime harbor of Albania
(seized by Italy in the fall of 1916). These are little spots in the
territory logically Italian, which Italy covets.

[Illustration: OUTLINE MAP OF THE AUSTRIA-HUNGARY EMPIRE.

Drawn and engraved especially to show the Provinces comprising the
Empire, and their locations as they were at the beginning of the war.
This is a country of many nationalities and languages.]


DIVIDED INTO SIXTEEN DEPARTMENTS.

Italy, since its consolidation into one kingdom in 1870, has been
divided into sixteen departments comprising sixty-nine provinces. The
country has a total area of 110,623 square miles, and a population of a
little more than 35,000,000. The Roman Catholic Church is irrevocably
linked to the history of Italy and Rome, its capital, marked the
farthest advance of civilization in the ancient days. It possesses four
distinct zones, ranging from the almost arctic cold of the mountain
belts to an almost tropical heat in the southern lowlands. It is one of
the picturesque countries of the world, a center of art, industry and
travel.

Servia, which is separated from Austria-Hungary by the Danube, is of
precisely the same character as the other rich, mountainous region. The
country was subjugated by the Turks, who retained possession of it until
1717. Austria then wrested control from the Turks, and held it until
1791, when Turkey again dominated it. In 1805 the Servians revolted, and
secured temporary independence, only to again come under the Ottoman
rule. Again it secured freedom in 1815, and by the Treaty of Paris,
independent existence was secured for it. Turkey became only a nominal
authority. It became a kingdom in 1882, after having become absolutely
independent with the Berlin Treaty.

The people are Slavonic, and kin to the Croats of ancient history. They
are described as having come from Poland and Galicia, moving down the
Danube, into what is the present kingdom. In the fourteenth century the
Servian empire comprised the whole Balkan peninsula, from Greece to
Poland, and from the Black Sea to the Adriatic. But Servia warred with
Turkey, and her troops were defeated in the great battle at Kossovo, and
the Ottoman power became supreme. The country has an area of about
34,000 square miles and a population of 4,600,000.


LITTLE BOSNIA'S FUTURE.

Bosnia, where was assassinated the Archduke Francis Ferdinand, of
Austria, was a Turkish province, west of Servia, and under the treaty of
Berlin was to be administered for an undefined period by the Austrian
government. The little section contains about 16,000 square miles and
has a population of about 1,750,000, largely of Slavonic origin. They
are partly Mohammedans, partly Roman Catholics and Greek Catholics. In
the middle ages Bosnia belonged to the Eastern Empire. Later it became a
separate kingdom, dependent upon Hungary, only to be conquered by the
Turks. It is the mountainous, rugged country of the Julian and Dinaric
Alps, but has many fertile valleys, and is well watered by the river
Save, and its numerous tributaries.

Greece, the modern kingdom, is one of the countries that for centuries
were politically included within the limits of the Turkish Empire. In
its present form it represents but a portion of that country, famous in
history, as the Greece of the Ancients--that classic land which holds
the most conspicuous place in the pages of ancient history--but still it
is inclusive of the greatest names belonging to the glorious past. It is
the country of Athens, Sparta, Corinth, Thebes and Argos. It is
separated from Turkey by a winding boundary, extending from the Gulf of
Arta on the west to the Gulf of Salonica on the east.

The earliest settlers were the Pelasgi, who were in course of time
replaced by the Hellenes. They, in turn, were succeeded by the
Phoenicians, who swayed the country. Athens, Sparta, Thebes and Corinth
came into existence and became the centers of political government, of
the most progressive advancement in civilization. Civil discords brought
on first the Peloponnesian War, about 434 B.C., and made them prey to
the Macedonians. Successively invaded by Goths, Vandals and Normans the
country came into the possession of the Turks in 1481, though for two
centuries the power of the Turk was questioned by the Venetians. Revolt
was had from the Ottoman yoke in 1821, and independence was secured by
the interference of foreign powers after the defeat of the Turk at the
Navarino, in 1827. Through the succeeding years it has been a protected
monarchy.


ONE OF THE BALKAN GROUP.

Roumania, the largest of the Balkan group, lying between Russia on the
north, and Bulgaria on the south, is the home of the Gacians,
descendants of the warlike tribes who for years held their own against
Greek and Roman. After the fall of Rome the province became a melting
pot, through which the hordes of invaders, passing from Russia to Asia,
were in a sense made one people. The Goths, the Huns, the Lombards, the
Bulgars and the Magyars traversed the region, leaving many settlers. It
became divided into two provinces, Moldavia and Wallachia, known as the
Danubian provinces.

Both provinces were conquered by the Turks in the fifteenth and
sixteenth centuries, and under Peter the Great the Russians attempted
the conquest of the provinces. In 1859 the two provinces were united
under a prince whose independence both Turkey and Russia recognized, and
in 1881 the country declared itself a kingdom. The province of Wallachia
derives its name from the people who early settled there, the Wallachs.
The Roumanians claim descent from Vlachi, a colony of Romans, who
settled in Thrace, and, in the twelfth century, emigrated to the Danube.
The name Roumania is derived from the word Roman, the country having
originally been "the Land of the Roumani." Roumania has a population of
about 7,600,000 and comprises 64,000 square miles.

Macedonia, famous country of Greece in the time of Philip, father of
Alexander the Great, embraced the entire region from the Scardian
Mountains to Thessaly, and from the Epirus and Illyria to the river
Nestos, taking in what is now part of Salonica. It was reduced by the
Persians and subsequently Alexander the Great made it the nucleus of a
vast and powerful empire along with Greece. Ultimately it passed under
Roman sway, until it was ceded, in 1913, to Greece.


AN OBJECT OF CONTENTION.

Alsace-Lorraine is worthy of note, as comprising one of the territories
which for centuries have been the cause of conflict between Germany and
France. It is pointed to as the physical evidence of the humiliation of
France at the hands of the Germans, in 1870, and has for nearly one-half
a century been a German imperial territory. The surrender of Alsace and
part of Lorraine was made the principal condition of peace on the
settlement of the war of 1870. Bismarck, it is said, might have been
content with a language boundary, taking only that portion of the
country in which lived those who spoke the German tongue.

For strategic purposes, however, Alsace and Lorraine, with the exception
of one district, were taken. The strip of country was to be governed by
the power of the German Emperor until the constitution of the German
Empire was established. Many of the inhabitants opposed the Prussian
domination, and a vote was taken on who would declare themselves Germans
and remain in the territory, or French and leave. More than 40,000 left
the country and went into France.

The German language was made compulsory in the schools, the courts and
the legislative body. The French never forgot their loss, and revenge
for that loss has been a subject of consideration in their foreign
policy ever since the war of 1871. Alsace and Lorraine contain about
5600 square miles, and together have a population of about two million.
About 85 per cent of the people speak German.

[Illustration: OUTLINE MAP OF TURKEY IN ASIA.

A country where civilization was first born and which is now undergoing
a new birth of a new civilization. The location of the Garden of Eden
was between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The drawing shows the
country which is mentioned largely in Bible history.]


PICTURESQUE TURKEY.

Turkey, one of the picturesque and ancient countries which is aligned
with the Germans, is a Mohammedan state of the Ottoman Empire in
southeastern Europe and western Asia, whose holdings in Europe have been
steadily decreasing, especially during recent years. The immediate
possessions of Turkey, or those directly under the Sultan's rule at the
time this country became involved in the great world war, extended from
Montenegro, Bosnia, Servia and eastern Roumelia on the north, to the
Agean Sea and Greece on the south, and from the Black Sea to the
Adriatic, the Straits of Otranto and the Ionic Sea. In September, 1911,
the Italian government sent a long list of claims made by Italy against
Turkey for economic and commercial discrimination against Italian
commerce, and the person of Italian citizens all over the world. A reply
was demanded within twenty-four hours, and failing to receive a reply
considered satisfactory, Italy immediately sent warships to Tripoli,
bombarded and captured the city. This meant that Turkey has lost one of
her most important seaports, consequently weakening her position.

The immediate possessions of Turkey in Europe, at this time, had an area
of 65,350 square miles, with a population of 6,200,000. In Asia Turkey
had possessions of 693,610 square miles, with a population of
16,900,000, while in Africa about 398,000 square miles belonged to the
Turkish Empire, on which lived 1,000,000 persons. This gave Turkey an
area of about 1,157,860 square miles, with a population of 24,100,000. A
number of islands in the Agean Sea belong to Turkey, and Egypt is also
nominally part of the kingdom of the Sultan.

[Illustration: A DASTARDLY CRIME WHICH AUTOCRACY CANNOT DENY.

Aerial photograph by a British pilot showing four huts of a British
hospital in France, in which were helpless men who were blown to bits.
All plainly shown in the foreground.]

[Illustration: A BRITISH TOMMY ON WAY TO TRENCHES.

This photograph shows a soldier crossing through a trench--which is
camouflaged. The screen prevents his being seen.]

[Illustration: AN ATTACK BY AMERICANS.

Company H and Company K of the 336th Infantry, 82nd Division are
advancing on enemy positions in France and driving them out while the
307th Engineers of the 82nd Division are clearing the way by blowing up
wire entanglements.]

[Illustration: GENERAL BULLARD.]

[Illustration: GENERAL LIGGETT.]

[Illustration: GENERAL DICKMAN.

American Army Commanders who out-generaled the Germans. They were well
supported by the fearless and determined fighters, the U.S.A. troops.]

[Illustration: A RELIGIOUS MEETING ON THE FIELD.

American, British, French, Belgian and Portuguese troops are represented
in this gathering of defenders of Liberty listening to a sermon on the
western front.]

[Illustration: THE HOLY LAND AND THE WAR.

Christmas Day at Bethlehem. Latin procession to the Church of
Nativity.]

[Illustration: FIGHTING IN PALESTINE EAST OF THE JORDAN.

Infantry were in the act of occupying an important hill when they were
met with a strong counter-attack. The timely arrival of machine guns and
supports the situation.]

[Illustration: SIGNING OF THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE BY
MID-EUROPEAN NATIONS.

Professor H.A. Miller, Director; Thos. Naroshevitshius (Lithuaniana);
Christos Vassilkaki (Unredeemed Greeks); Christo Dako (Albanians);
Charles Tomazolli (Italian Irredentists); Nicholas Ceglinsky (Ukranian);
Dr. Hinko Ninkovich (Jugoslavs); T.M. Helinski (Poles); Dr. T.G. Masaryk
(Prime Minister of Cezhoslovakia); G. Pasdermadjian (Armenians); Capt.
Vasile Solca (Roumanians): Gregory Zsatkovich (Uhro-Rusins); Ittamar
Ban-Avi (Zionists). Signed Independence Hall, Phila, Oct. 26.]

[Illustration: GENERAL ALLENBY.

One of the notable events in the history of the war was the surrender of
Jerusalem to the British Army under the command of General Allenby.]

[Illustration: GENERAL TOWNSHEND.

The British officer who was taken prisoner at Kut-el-Amara, and who
afterwards became the peace negotiator.]

[Illustration: OFFICE OF A FIELD CASHIER.

This spot was formerly one of the pillbox strongholds of the famous
switch in the Hindenburg line. It was afterwards run by the Canadians.]

[Illustration: Negro Band of the 814th Infantry Leaving the Celtic After
Her Arrival.]

[Illustration: 8th Reg., FRENCH WAR-CROSS WINNERS.

Top Row: 1st-Lieut. Hurd, Lieut-Col. Duncane, Major White, Capt.
Crawford, 1st-Lieut. Warfield and Capt. Smith. Bottom Row: Capt. Allen,
Lieut. Browning, Capt. Warner and 1st-Lieut. Tisdale.]

[Illustration: Captain John H. Patton, 370th U.S. Infantry (formerly 8th
Illinois Infantry).

Regimental Adjutant to September 11, 1918. Commanding 2nd Battalion from
September 11, 1918 to December 17, 1918. Saint Mihiel Sector from June
21, 1918 to July 3, 1918. Argonne Forest from July 16, 1918, to August
15, 1918. Battles for Mont des Signes September 16 to September 30,
1918. Oise-Aisne offensive September 30 to November 11, 1918. Awarded
the French Croix de Guerre (Division Citation for meritorious service
covering the period September 11 to November 11, 1918.)]

[Illustration: Homecoming of 370th (old 8th Regiment), parade passing
the reviewing stand, Michigan ave., opposite Art Institute, Chicago Ill.
Line of march broken by the great mass of people eager to march with the
soldiers, the greatest gathering ever assembled on Chicago's great
boulevard.]

[Illustration: Officers of the 370th (old Illinois 8th Regiment)

Reading left to right: 2nd-Lieut. Lawson Price, 2nd-Lieut. L.W. Stearls,
2nd-Lieut. Ed. White, 2nd-Lieut. Eliass F.E. Williams, 1st-Lieut. Oaso
Browning, Capt. Louis B. Johnson, 1st-Lieut. Frank Bates and 1st-Lieut.
Binga Desmond.]

[Illustration: Left to right: Col. Franklin Dennison, Col. J. Roberts
and Lieut. Col. Otis B. Duncan of 370th (old Illinois 8th Regiment).]

The population is a motley assortment of races, nationalities and
creeds. About 38 per cent being Ottomans or Turks. The Slavic and Rouman
races come next in importance, then the Arabs, the remaining population
consisting of Moors, Druses, Kurds, Tartars, Albanians, Circassians,
Syrians, Armenians, and Greeks, besides Jews and Gypsies.


PHOENIX OF THE GREEK EMPIRE.

The Ottoman Empire arose from the ruins of the old Greek Empire, early
in the fifteenth century, Constantinople being made its capital in 1453,
after its capture by Mohammed II. At the accession of Mohammed IV, in
1648, the Turkish Empire was at the zenith of its power. Internal
corruption caused loss of power, and in 1774, a large slice of territory
was ceded to Russia. In 1821 Greece became independent. The Crimean War,
in 1854-56, checked Russia for a while, but in 1875 the people of
Herzegovina rebelled. A year later the Servians and Montenegrins
revolted, and in 1877 Russia began hostile operations in both parts of
the Turkish Empire. At this time Roumania declared her independence.
After the fall of Kars and of Plevna, the Turkish resistance completely
collapsed, and in 1878 Turkey was compelled to agree to the Treaty of
San Stefano.

Within the year the Treaty of Berlin declared Roumania, Servia and
Montenegro independent; Roumanian Bessarabia was ceded to Russia,
Austria was empowered to occupy Bosnia and Herzegovina; and Bulgaria was
made a principality. The main events in the history of the Ottoman
Empire since the Treaty of Berlin were the French invasion of Tunis in
1881, the Treaty with Greece, executed under pressure of the Great
Powers in 1881, by which Greece obtained Thessaly and a strip of Epirus;
the occupation of Egypt by Great Britain in 1882; the revolution of
Philippopolis in 1885, by which eastern Roumelia became united with
Bulgaria. In 1908 Bulgaria declared its independence and the Young Turk
Party extorted a constitution and a parliament from Abdul-Hamud II, who
was deposed in 1909 by the unanimous vote of the national assembly.
Mohammed V, eldest brother of the deposed Sultan succeeded to the
throne.

Russia, "the Great Bear," whose part in the war brought on internal
strife and revolution which robbed Czar Nicholas of his throne, traces
its history back for more than ten centuries, when the Norse invaded the
territory and founded Veliki Novgorod, for many years one of the chief
Russian cities. The Norse, to use the modern vernacular, "put Russia on
the map" when the Russian army fought its way to the very walls of
Constantinople. Much of the early history of the country is legendary,
and one of the famous stories is that after Igor, who commanded the
great armies, was put to death by rebellious subjects, his widow sought
out the territory where her husband had lost his life and pretending to
make peace with them, requested every householder to give her a pigeon.


WINGED FIREBRANDS.

When they gladly complied with her request she sent the tame birds back
home with flaming firebrands tied to their tails, and they entered their
lofts or rests and started fires which destroyed the city of Korosten.
The ascendancy of the Romanoff dynasty, which maintained in Russia
through the centuries, was established through the atrocities of Ivan
the Terrible, who is said to have absolutely destroyed the descendants
of the Rurik, the first Norse chieftain. Ivan the Terrible was the first
Czar of Russia. He conquered Servia and his domestic infamies and
intrigues are among the historical scandals of the country.

Through every reign in Russian history there ran stories of terrible
crime, cruelties, infamies, immoralities and degradation. Following the
death of Ivan the Terrible came Fedor, one of his sons, who was a
weakling in the hands of the Duma of five, one of whom was Boris
Godounoff. Fedor reigned but a few years, and Godounoff was elected
Czar. He was ambitious, and was founder of the system of serfdom, and
also of the Russian State Church, and like many of the other rulers of
Russia, met death through infamy, supposedly having been poisoned.

[Illustration: OUTLINE MAP OF THE BALKAN STATES.

This drawing shows the boundary lines as they were at the beginning of
the war. It also shows the location of the principal city of each
country. This part of the world has always been of great importance
since the earliest history of man and nations--a continuous struggle
between nations to control this gateway into southwestern Asia.]


BASE IMPOSTER SLAIN.

Boris Godounoff was succeeded by his son Feodor, but he was seized by a
pretender, and with his mother, thrown into prison, where they were
murdered. The discovery of the plot, which was laid at the door of the
King of Poland, produced an uprising and Czar Dimitry the Impostor was
slain. Vasili Shouyskie, leader of the mob that slew Dimitry, was
proclaimed Czar, but pretenders sprang up, and one of these, who posed
as a false Dimitry, invaded Russia from Poland, and established a rival
imperial court at Toushin, and some of the Russian cities swore
allegiance to him.

Vasili Shouyskie held out at Moscow, and after a time Dimitry's cause
failed, whereupon Sigsmund, of Poland, invaded Russia, and put forward
his son Vladislav. Vasili, roused to anger, committed acts which
provoked Moscow, and in 1610 he was compelled to abdicate, and a council
of nobles was formed to run the government until a Czar could be chosen.
Vladislav was finally selected, but Feodor Romanoff sought to prevent
his being crowned. There was a period of anarchy, cities were burned,
and chaos was complete.

The dignitaries of the church and state finally set to work and
supported the candidacy of Mikhial Feodorovitch Romanoff, who was the
first Romanoff Czar. He reorganized the empire, and reigned for
thirty-three years. His successor, Alexis, the direct heir, reigned for
thirty-one years, and cultivated friendly relations with Ukraine and the
Cossack country. He was followed by Feodor II, and then came Peter the
Great. There were two claimants to the throne, Ivan and Peter, both sons
of Alexis by separate wives, and the difficulty was settled by letting
the two reign jointly under the regency of Sophia, a sister of Ivan.

When Ivan died Peter assumed the reins, and it was he who gave Russia a
frontage on the Black Sea, and on the Baltic, and built St. Petersburg.
He did much for the development of Russia, creating a navy and a
merchantile marine.

Catherine the First, his widow, followed him in reign, and at her death,
Peter II occupied the center of the stage. At his death there was chaos
again and counter claims. Anna of Courtland, a daughter of Ivan, brother
of Peter the Great, was finally elected sovereign, but she was a mere
puppet, vesting her authority in a High Council.


FAMILY'S WRETCHED CAREER.

During her reign her lover, named Biren, held sway and distinguished
himself by sending thousands of political exiles to Siberia. At the
death of Anna, Ivan IV, her grandnephew, reigned, but was deposed and
sent to prison for life, while Elizabeth, youngest daughter of Peter the
Great, succeeded him. She permitted the government to be run on
comparatively honest lines by favorites, and while they ruled she drank
herself to death.

Her nephew, Peter III, succeeded her. He was incompetent and a tool in
the Prussian hands. His wife was a German princess, and led a movement
which ended in his being deposed, imprisoned and murdered.

Catherine, widow of the murdered Peter, succeeded. She was known as
Catherine the Great, and is credited with having been the most infamous
of women in all history. Catherine was succeeded by Paul, who was
assassinated by his own courtiers when he was on the point of joining
Napoleon Bonaparte in his conquest of India.

His son was Alexander I, who added Finland and Poland to Russia, and
founded the Holy Alliance. He was followed by his son Nicholas, who
ruled for 30 years, and crushed the Poles and Hungarians, but died of a
broken heart in the Crimean War.

Next came Alexander II, who gained fame as liberator of the serfs, and
died the victim of a Nihilist bomb thrower. Alexander III succeeded him,
and then came Nicholas II, the last Czar, whose reign lasted 22 years.
The beginning of the end was marked by the request of the workingmen in
1905 for an increase in civil rights. They were fired upon, and there
was general disorder, until the Czar proclaimed a constitution, and
established a Duma, or national parliament, which met for the first time
in 1906.


BETRAYAL OF RUSSIA'S MILITARY PLANS.

The outbreak of the war was marked by the personal decree of the Czar to
change the name of the capital, St. Petersburg, to Petrograd, but his
evident intent to eliminate evidences of German influence did not stop
the betrayal of Russia's military plans by German spys within the court
circles, and it was charged that supplies were withheld from the Russian
army by those within the charmed circle, who were friendly to Germany.

Russia was a party to the Franco-Russian and Anglo-Russian agreement,
which constituted the basis of the Triple Entente, but conditions were
such that the soldiers refused to fight, and the situation culminated in
the uprising which ended with the abdication of the Czar, in behalf of
his brother, who, however, declined to accept the throne, unless he
should be elected by the votes of the Russian people. The Duma thereupon
decided to organize a republican form of government, and so the Russian
Republic came into being in March, 1917.

Spain, a fertile country in the southwestern part of Europe, has played
a prominent part in the development of the world. She has a coastline
extending nearly 1500 miles, and there are about 200,000 square miles
included in her territory. The coastlands and the southern section of
the country are especially rich in fruits and agriculture. Although
watered by many rivers, the land, for the most part, is artificially
irrigated.

Up until 1898 Spain held possession of magnificent colonies in Cuba and
Porto Rico and the Philippines, but now her colonial possessions are
confined to a strip on the west coast of the Sahara, and the island of
Fernando Po, with some smaller possessions on the Guinea coast in
Africa. Their total area is about 434,000 square miles, the total
population being 10,000,000.


SPAIN, PAST AND PRESENT.

Spain formerly composed the ancient provinces of New and Old Castile,
Leon, Asturias, Galicia, Estremadura, Andalusia, Aragon, Murcia,
Valencia, Catalonia, Navarre and the Basque Provinces. These, since
1834, have been divided into 49 provinces. The capital of Spain is
Madrid, and the present constitution dates from 1876. There is a
Congress, which is composed of deputies, each one representing 50,000 of
the population.

The Roman Catholic faith is the established form of religion, and the
priesthood possesses considerable wealth and power, although the
dominant influence once possessed has been curtailed of recent years.
The peace strength of the army is about 83,000, and what navy she has is
practically new, as the Spanish navy was annihilated in the war with the
United States in 1898.

During recent years the republican tendencies among the people have
found vent in socialism. The Spanish socialist leaders belong mostly to
the intellectuals, and here again is the weakness of the movement,
whether considered as a means of giving Spain a republic or of
liberating her political system under monarchical form. Some of the
intellectual leaders among the socialists headed straight for
philosophic anarchy, while others expended their energies in building
castles in the clouds.

The substantial socialism of the recent period was, however, based on
the workingmen's movement. Before the outbreak of the great war the
tendency was to affiliate with the groups in other countries of Europe
which advocated socialism as an international creed. But when the German
socialists placed their country above internationalism, and the French
socialists did the same, and the Italian socialists joined in the
agitation to force the government into war to get back territory lost to
Austria, the international basis of Spanish socialism disappeared.



CHAPTER XV.

MODERN WAR METHODS.

INDIVIDUAL INITIATIVE AS AGAINST MASS MOVEMENTS--TRENCH WARFARE A GAME
OF HIDE AND SEEK--RATS AND DISEASE--SURGERY'S TRIUMPHS--CHANGED
TACTICS--ITALIAN MOUNTAIN FIGHTING.


Warfare such as carried on in the Great World War is so different from
that of any other of the great wars which the world has seen, that it
might be described as a method of fighting distinctively unique.
Undoubtedly, more ancient methods, and even ancient weapons, have been
employed than were used in any of the wars which have changed, from time
to time, the boundary lines of nations. The fighting of mass against
mass has been practically obliterated, and modern evolutions where the
plan is man to man have developed a mode of fighting where terrible
execution has resulted.

Undoubtedly this means of fighting has developed the personal initiative
of the soldiers, and the modern fighting machine of the nations is of a
high standard, which, together with death-dealing weapons, has resulted
in terrible havoc. Massed movements, such as carried on in the War of
the Rebellion, have been practically done away with, and although there
have been long and costly sieges, they have been carried on by tedious
trench fighting, airships, hand grenades, and massive shells fired from
guns of great caliber, and with a range which is really marvellous.

Shells are fired, shrapnel in some cases, explosive shells in others,
which are timed to the second, so that when fired from guns many miles
from the objective point, they explode at a measured distance from the
earth. They are exploded within a gauged distance of the target, and the
execution is done over a measured area. On the shells are indicators.
Within the shrapnel shells are hundreds of small shot. As the shell
explodes the shots are scattered over the enemy, and death and
destruction are unavoidable.

With bomb shells, fired from guns of the largest caliber, there are also
indicators which are timed to the second. The range and time of
explosion previously figured out by officers, the shell explodes where
it is intended that it shall, and the work of the great explosive is
done with resultant damage.


WAR'S MANY DEVELOPMENTS.

The war has developed many of the new methods of fighting and revived
many of the old means of warfare. Cavalry has not been as active in the
relation in the great war as in any of the wars of comparatively recent
date, because of the extensive trench warfare which has formed so much
of the fighting plan. Fighting has been a question of trench raids, and
barrage fire, followed by the infantry charge through shell holes. The
impression brought home to the modern observer is that the older
recognized methods of warfare are gone for good.

The thing which war changed in the work of the cavalryman is in the
nature of an addition, rather than a subtraction from his duties and the
training he must have. The day of cavalry--as cavalry and nothing
else--has passed. For today the cavalryman must be familiar not only
with the sword, lance and revolver, but with the rifle as well. It has
been demonstrated that such long periods of trench warfare may develop
that it becomes necessary for him to dismount and make himself valuable
in the scheme of military economy by fighting as infantry until such
time as the enemy line is broken and he can again take to his horse and
the work of harrying the retreating foe.

The war has been full of surprising results as regards cavalry. It was
popularly supposed that in facing such terrible modern weapons as the
repeating rifle of long range, the machine gun and the automatic field
pieces which have become so well known as the French "75s," any body of
cavalry which attempted to charge the enemy would be annihilated.


CAVALRY'S SUCCESSFUL CHARGES.

Yet all through the early stages of the war one reads of desperate, and,
what is more to the point, successful charges made by British cavalry
against batteries of German field pieces. There was one instance in
France, just back of the Belgian frontier, where a charge of British
lancers against a German battery, which had a commanding position, saved
the day for a greatly-outnumbered allied detachment, which was
conducting that most difficult of all maneuvers, a rear guard action,
covering the retreat of the body of the army. The charge of the lancers
took the Germans so by surprise, and was executed with such speed, that
despite the heavy fire they poured into the advancing horsemen the
latter were at work among them with spear and saber before
reinforcements could be brought up. Then the cavalry, dismounting and
unslinging their carbines, defended the position with such tenacity that
the German advance was delayed several hours, sufficient for the rest of
the allied forces to make good its withdrawal and the consolidation of
the new lines chosen for defense.

This idea of cavalry serving in the double role of infantry and cavalry
is a distinctly American development, a trick which the Federal and
Confederate armies taught the world during the Civil War, and of which
the British made excellent use in South Africa against the Boers. The
fact which this war has established, however, is that the older use of
cavalry, in the charge against infantry, artillery and even entrenched
positions is still of great value. The idea had developed from the
tactics so largely employed in the Civil War of using the cavalry as
mounted infantry, that the increased deadliness of modern weapons would
make this use of cavalry the sole use.

Now, however, it seems that not even the lance is to be discounted.
Given the opportunity to reach his objective, the lance becomes a
terrible weapon in the hands of the horseman. In hand-to-hand fighting
the man with the rifle and bayonet has some chance against the mounted
man with the saber. While fighting upward from a lower level he has a
pretty long reach, and the advantage of being completely in control of
his own movements, whereas even the most expert horseman cannot control
the step and movement of his mount as well as a man can control his own.
Barring fire, however, the infantryman has no chance against the lance,
with the speed and momentum of the mounted man behind it.

So, for this reason, though they are cumbersome weapons under ordinary
circumstances, and make a detachment equipped with them much more likely
to be seen, lances were retained by many of the British cavalry
regiments, just as the German Uhlans retained them.


CAVALRY'S IMPORTANT SERVICE.

One of the most important services which cavalry fulfills in modern
warfare is that of drawing the enemy's fire at the time his positions
are being approached. This is done to obtain some idea of his force and
the disposition of his guns.

Cavalry detachments are sent scurrying across the front, as though
threatening an attack, deliberately furnishing a mark for the enemy
gunners that this object of ascertaining his strength may be attained.

The more ordinary work of scouting, advance guard work, and riding wide
on the flanks of an advancing force are parts of the cavalryman's work
which are more familiar.

In the European conflict with tremendous concentration of troops and
continued occupation of the same territory the foraging feature of
cavalry work disappeared. It is no longer possible for an army to "live
on the country as it goes." Food and supplies must be brought up from
depots in the rear through an entirely separate and specialized
department of the military organization, which does its work with a
celerity certainly undreamed of in former days, even as late as our own
war with Spain.

In the modern campaign trenches have been developed to such an extent
that it is really marvellous how the soldiers live, and to what an
extent the "underground fortresses" have been used for living as well as
fighting purposes.

In a letter written by a French soldier who took part in a successful
raid upon a German trench, he adequately describes the luxuries enjoyed
by the German soldiers in the front line trenches in the Marne. The
letter was written by a youth who had been wounded in the fight, and was
mailed in April, 1917.


LUXURIOUS DUGOUTS.

"We are now living in German lines and dugouts--a magnificent work we
have just now taken--cement and steel are used with profusion, and
electricity in every dugout, even in their front lines. Unharmed
casements and machine guns in cemented shelters and light railways and
immense reserves of food--thousands of bottles of claret.

"But also, at the middle of each staircase, in the wall, a box with
about seventy pounds of cheddite--to blow the shelter up in case of
retreat. They knew they might have to go back, as they are doing now.
America will gain victory, as until the present moment only the bravery
of our soldiers can put them back, with much exertion and frequent loss.

"Our men are magnificent in spite of death. We hope your help may be
quick and decisive. I think your flying corps especially may be useful,
the more as yesterday, with four fellows, I was run through the field,
and in a destroyed trench by a German Albatross shooting a machine gun,
and flying very low, he missed us quite near. On the other hand, we have
just a few days hence seen a sausage balloon destroyed by our men.
Anyhow your help may be decisive.

"I believe your joy is great about the Russian revolution. At home they
are happy, too--only let us hope the Russian army may attack this
summer--to help us.

"I need not tell you the impression made by your American decision here.
We now know victory is sure. Let us hope it may be this year--though you
may easily guess such is not my belief--next year.

"I hope my next letter be sent from farther in the German lines--perhaps
from a place they have not had time to destroy."

Shorn of all technicalities, the plain method of warfare which has
developed as the result of the trench building is that each force
establishes lines along miles of front with trenches in rows, one after
the other, at measured intervals. The soldiers are thus "entrenched."
One force seeks to drive the other from its position.


MANY DEADLY DEVICES.

The force of batteries is directed against the entrenchments, hand
grenades, bombs, shells, gases and every device which has fallen to the
use of armies is projected at the ditches in which are hidden the enemy
soldiers. When, by the concentration of attack the trenches are
destroyed or the soldiers driven from their first position, the opposing
force has gained if it has succeeded in advancing its own soldiers to
occupy and reconstruct the trenches or defences from which the enemy was
driven.

The soldiers carry, in addition to the ordinary weapons, a trench spade,
and in most cases large knives, which are used to cut away brush or dig
in the earth when emergency demands. The close confinement in the
trenches tends to develop disease, and the sanitary force of the modern
army is a thing that was undreamed of in the olden days. More men died
from disease during the Civil War than were killed by bullets or in
hand-to-hand encounter.

The percentage of those who die from camp fever has been reduced to a
minimum. Napoleon said that armies travel on their stomachs, but the
European War and the Russian-Japanese War have proven, as did our
campaigns in Cuba and Mexico, that soldiers live by reason of the health
which they are permitted to maintain. Some idea of the conditions which
developed in the trenches may be gained from a study of the various
hospital reports, and investigations which have been made by physicians.


INFECTED WITH ASIATIC JAUNDICE.

Dr. Hideyo Noguchi, of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research,
completed a series of experiments which showed that apparently healthy
wild rats in the European war zone became infected with Weil's disease,
or "infectious jaundice," common in Asia. Weil's disease is
characterized by sudden onsets of malaise, often intense muscular pain,
high fever for several days, followed by jaundice, frequently
accompanied by complications. It becomes more virulent as it is
successively transmitted from one victim to another. This is supposed to
explain the much greater mortality, about 38 per cent. in Japan, as
compared with from 2 to 3 per cent. among European soldiers.

The study of the disease was made possible by the successful importation
from Japan and Flanders of guinea pigs and rats which had been
inoculated with the causative organism in those two countries.
Experiments previously made showed that the germ of the disease was
carried in the kidneys of a large percentage of apparently healthy wild
rats caught near the districts where the disease had been epidemic.
Experiments in Europe demonstrated the presence of the germ in rats not
only near the infected zones, but also in captured localities some
distance from trenches.

For purposes of comparison Dr. Noguchi collected a number of rats in
this country and removed their kidneys. His report states that by
inoculating the emulsion made of the kidneys of 41 wild rats into 58
guinea pigs during a period of three months, he had been able to produce
in three groups of guinea pigs typical cases of infectious jaundice
altogether identical with the findings in the guinea pigs which died of
the injection of the Japanese and Belgian strains of the disease. The
germs taken from wild rats caught near New York produced death in guinea
pigs within nine to twelve days.


AMERICA'S GREAT SERVICE IN WAR ZONE.

In studying the conditions and helping to fight the dangers encountered
in the battlefields and camps of Europe, no country in the world
rendered a greater service than America. Long before the country entered
the war hundreds of American nurses, ambulance drivers and surgeons were
on the battlefields and in the hospitals of Belgium, France and England.
Men who were leaders in the medical and surgical world gave their
services to the Allies, and almost every hospital in the United States
sent some of its staff.

Through the efforts and study of Dr. Alexis Carrel, of New York, deaths
from wounds received in battle were reduced almost 90 per cent. by a
system of treatment which he devised. Dr. Carrel began his work in 1914,
at Compiegne, in connection with the military hospital, and in
collaboration with the Dakin Research Laboratory, under the auspices of
the Rockefeller Foundation.

Using a solution of sodium hypochlorite, the plain method of treating
wounds which proved such a great boon, was described at the Congress of
Surgeons in Philadelphia in 1916, where many of the wonders of war
surgery were described. By means of a rubber tube, which is run through
or into the wound, the injury is flushed continuously by the solution,
for a period of hours or minutes, according to the nature and character
of the wound.

The inflammation is reduced, the wound cleaned, and blood poisoning is
averted. Under the treatment the soldier's stay in a hospital is
reduced weeks and even months, and, as has been stated with authority,
where in the old days twenty operations would have been necessary, the
modern methods have reduced the percentage to a point where the twenty
has become as one.

The story of surgery itself and what it has done in modern warfare would
make a wonderful volume. The shattered bones of the legs and arms have
been spliced, and laid side by side in open wounds, to knit together and
practically form a new limb. Artificial hands, feet, and legs have been
made by ingenious mechanics, which are so perfect that those who have
been deprived of their natural facilities can use them with a degree of
facility never before believed possible.


RESULT OF SCIENTIFIC SURGERY.

Armless men and legless men have worked in the munition factories of
both France and of England, and the fact that they are able to do so is
due to the genius of surgeons and of scientists. Thoroughness and
preparation, coolness in execution and scientific accuracy in all
directions is the modern necessity in warfare.

What this means in modern battle, as demonstrated in the last important
conflict in the clearing of German East Africa by British forces, was
described by Reuters' correspondent in an account of the battle of
Rufiji River.

This was the last campaign personally commanded by Major General Jan
Christian Smuts, the former Boer commander, and resulted in giving the
British control of all the coastline and the inhabitable portion of
German East Africa.

For two weary months the army lay upon its weapons, consolidating,
reorganizing, rebuilding railway lines and piling up great dumps of food
and ridding itself of its sick and wounded. Then it moved forward from
Morogoro. The object of the advance was the ejection of the enemy from
his trenches on the Mgeta River and the seizure of the passages of the
Rufiji River.

The battle was directed and controlled from an observation hill at
Dathumi, but General Smuts spent little time on the hill. He had made
all the dispositions and issued his orders. Nothing remained for him to
do and he was back in his camp calmly reading a book.

In the straw hut the brigadier general sat at a table on which was an
oriented map showing the strategic and geographical points of the plans
which lay before us, at his elbow the telephone and just below the hut
the wireless instrument incessantly emitted sparks. Higher up the slope
of the hill were the observing stations of the battery commanders.


SIGNALED BEGINNING OF BATTLE.

The burning of huts at Kiruru signaled the beginning of the battle. The
brigadier general, a polite little man who has lectured at the staff
college for twenty years and who knows the last word in the science of
warfare, especially of artillery, called the howitzer battery by
telephone.

"Open fire a little to the right of the palm tree," he said. "You have
the elevation and direction. The Nigerians will be on the move." Just
behind the palm tree and a little to the right a great brown cloud of
mud and smoke rose high in the air. From the plain came the boom of
heavy guns and all along the river branch rose clouds of smoke, mud and
dust.

The staff officer handed in a telegram reading: "The infantry are now
about to advance; they ask artillery support."

"Bring the field guns into action," said the general.

It was all so very matter of fact. This little man, who was about to let
loose upon the German trenches a hell's broth of fire and disaster,
acted as if he were in his own drawing room, deciding how many lumps of
sugar he would take with his tea.

Down below on the plain the howitzers were lobbing 60-pound shells into
the German Askaris, the Nigerians were advancing by sharp rushes and the
rat-tat of the machine guns and the crackle of musketry broke very
faintly. Airplanes sailed above us. A message came from the Nigerians,
"We are going to take the enemy's trenches; please lift gunfire." The
order was passed along, "All guns lift two degrees."

Little black dots, like tiny ants, are running where the shells are
bursting. The Nigerians are rushing the trenches. The forward observing
officer reports that the enemy is retiring. The 15-pounders, man-killing
guns, shower shrapnel on the German line of retreat.


SUGGESTS A CUP OF TEA.

The infantry report having occupied the German first line trenches,
halting for one hour to consolidate. The brigadier-general commented on
the difficulty of observation in the humid atmosphere and suggested a
cup of tea. It seemed that nothing more would happen until after lunch,
so I visited the commander-in-chief. He was occupied for the moment with
a volume by George Gisslog and was satisfied with the reports he had
received. By dark the whole of the German entrenchments were in our
hands.

A volume could be written alone on the changes in tactics which have
been developed and practiced by the military geniuses of the contending
forces. In the European War the range of artillery and infantry fire was
three times what it was in the Franco-Prussian War. The flattening of
the trajectory, which means making the bullets go more nearly on a
straight line instead of traveling in an arc, has made the fire so
effective as to compel the soldiers to "travel on their stomachs." To
crawl along the ground like alligators, or advance like moles digging
their way into the earth.

The tremendous range of the modern rifle, single arm, or rapid-fire gun,
and the development of more powerful explosives for ammunition have
wrought this change. The bullet will travel a longer distance at a
horizontal position than in the old days when ordinary black powder and
a smooth-bore gun were used, and so at hundreds of yards distance the
soldiers can aim direct to kill, without making elevation allowances.

The machine gun has made it possible for the men to fire from four to
five shots for every one that was fired in the Franco-Prussian War and
probably ten for every one that was fired in the Civil War. The only
time the soldiers exposed themselves on the army frontiers were when
they were storming trenches, and this was not attempted until the trench
had suffered bombardment so it was made untenable.


DIFFICULT MOUNTAIN FIGHTING.

Probably nothing in the warfare of nations has been more colorful and
replete with surprises than the campaign waged by the Italian soldiers
on the Alpine passes between Italy and the Austrian strongholds, and in
the discussion of modern warfare, a brief description of some of the
work of these intrepid mountain fighters is interesting.

Much of this fighting has been the most difficult known in the annals of
modern warfare, save, perhaps, that done by the famous Younghusband
British Expedition to Thibet. And that, by comparison, was a very small
matter.

The mere height--altitude--at which the Italian warfare against the
Austrians was carried on has been sufficient to entail enormous
difficulties and a great additional strain, due actually to difficult
breathing in a rarefied atmosphere.

The warfare in the clouds which has characterized the struggle along the
Isonzo front has been conducted at an altitude seldom less than 8,000
and often rising to 12,000 feet, which is well within the realm of
eternal snow.

Naturally, therefore, most of the fighting was done in bitter cold. To
this fact add the other that the Italian soldiers who carried it on were
almost exclusively men who had not been accustomed to the cold. They had
been drawn from among dwellers in a semitropical climate, and one gets
an idea of the immense accomplishments of this army which struggled in
the skies.

The average American knows the Italian as immensely industrious, but
perhaps is disinclined to credit him with great constructive ability or
engineering genius. He would change his estimate of him if he could see
him fight and study his battlefield. The Italian warfare of the mountain
peak and gorges has been a warfare of construction, even more than it
has been a warfare of destruction, and has been rendered possible only
by the exercise of engineering genius comparable with that which sent
our world-beating American railways through the famous Rocky Mountain
passes!


HALTED BY INTIMIDATION.

The fact that Italy's warfare has been invariably against positions
stronger than her own is the result of the fact that while, since 1866,
Austria continually strengthened her frontier with fortifications, most
of them of ferro-concrete, the Italians were not able to fortify at all.
Every step in that direction brought forth threats of war. These began
at a time when Italy was in no condition to fight, before, as a unified
nation, she became a world-power.

Being weak, she was prevented from making any preparations for defense
against a foe which continually was obviously getting ready for attack
upon her. The mere commencement of preparations might have precipitated
war. But Austria continually prepared. Besides, the Italians ever have
been a peace-loving nation.

As a natural and inevitable consequence of all these conditions all the
dominating positions along the Austro-Italian frontier were strongly
fortified by the Austrians. They have long occupied the crest of every
mountain in such a way that their guns could rake any Italian approach
from below, along a front of 450 miles--about the distance from New York
to Buffalo, and almost the same as that of the whole French-British-Belgian
eastern front in this war.

During the winter of 1916, one of the most exceptionally hard winters
known in the annals of the Italian Weather Service, the Italians not
only have been fighting for their sunny homeland, but have been fighting
in a region of eternal snow.

This snow was an obstacle extremely hard to overcome. It may be said
never to have been less than six yards deep on the Isonzo front, so the
task of the consolidation of positions, enabling troops at once to
resist attack and protect themselves from assault from the rear, was
highly difficult.


TYPICAL ROAD BUILDERS.

The Italians were ever road-builders, descendants, as they are, of those
Romans who built roads for all Europe. While the Austrians were fully
supplied with roads of the best and most modern character, there were
hundreds of miles on the Italian side where there were not even
mule-tracks.

Here was a vast problem.

Literally millions of soldiers were not free to fight, but had been
drafted for the road-building work. Carrying picks and shovels, managing
steam-shovels, working electric hoists, stringing supporting cables,
they were as truly fighting men, however, as any who ever bore rifles or
worked machine-guns.

Miles of the roads were rebuilt under Austrian fire, by men who built
them well enough, even in the great 8,000-foot heights, that they could
bear heavy artillery of vast weights without suffering damage. They
built them in such easy gradients that heavy artillery could be moved
speedily, the guns and motor-lorries that passed over them frequently
weighing as much as fifteen tons.

Nor did the problem end with the construction of these marvel-roads. It
was necessary to transport very heavy war material across stretches
where the building of any roads whatever was a sheer impossibility.
Often it was necessary to take heavy guns as far as might be upon
sleighs and then drag them for considerable distances by hand; quite as
often it was imperative that across chasms great cables should be rigged
on which the guns might be swung, sometimes hundreds or even thousands
of feet above the valleys beneath, from one height to another.

The "wireways" by which much of this unique transportation was
accomplished are of Italian invention, as were other notable and
essential engineering devices of this great war of mountain
transportation.

Such contrivances, known as "teleferrica," were introduced for the first
time during the winter of 1916, and by summer there were about 200 along
the mountainous front. They not only supplied very advanced positions
with armament, ammunition and food, but transported men back and forth
between them and lower points.


SYSTEM ONE OF TACKLES.

The system was one of tackles (where guns and other heavy freight were
to be moved) or cars (like cradles, where men were to be moved),
operated by motor-pulleys directly connected up with great electric
power. One of the most astonishing and picturesque uses to which these
aerial wireways were put was the movement downward of men wounded at the
advanced posts with which the teleferrica communicate.

To see wounded men going down these wireways, mere dots, each
representing a suspended stretcher upon which a suffering human being is
strapped securely, was described as one of the most amazing spectacles
of the whole war. The experience, to some wounded men, swinging
sickeningly, dizzyingly alone in midair, was probably more terrifying
than actual fighting, although there were few, if any, accidents
connected with the wireways.

Not infrequently these wireways were within direct range of the enemy
fire, and that complicated matters. So far as is known, there has been
no instance of a cable cut by gunfire, but in several districts it was
necessary that the men, going to their duty and the wounded going
backward, having done theirs, must needs be protected in armored
baskets, somewhat like those which often are swung beneath observation
balloons on the various fronts.


PROBLEMS OF TRANSPORTATION.

The problems of transportation, great as they are, are by no means the
only unique difficulties presented to these brave mountain fighters. In
this extraordinary warfare mining by means of high explosives was
carried on upon a hitherto unequaled scale. Such work with high
explosives was not only continually necessary in the construction of
roads and fortifications in a region of solid rock, but sometimes proved
the only effective means of attack upon the enemy.

The mine was used as an offensive weapon by both sides, and often with
very terrible results.

Perhaps the most extraordinary of the campaign was the mine laid by the
Italians after infinitely difficult and very extensive tunneling in
solid rock at the Cima del Col di Lana.

This immense effort with explosives blew off the whole top of a
mountain--and that mountaintop was thickly occupied by Austrians at the
time of the explosion of the mine. None on the Italian side knows
exactly what the Austrian casualties were, but it is certain that
through this one explosion more than an entire company--that is, more
than 400--of the enemy's soldiers were destroyed.

An interesting detail of this operation is the fact that while the
Italians were tunneling for this great mine they were perfectly aware
that the Austrians also were at work upon a similar effort. It amounted
to a race with death, and the Italians won it.

Correspondents agree that the thing which most impresses the visitor to
the mountain fronts of the Italian army is the immense patience which
it has shown in the face of the difficult tasks of this astonishing
campaign. Italians usually are regarded as temperamental creatures, but
"dogged" has been the word which has meant most in this campaign.

Some of the movements of troops across exposed snow-covered spaces have
been marvels of incredible patience. To escape observation the soldiers
have been clad in white clothing, but in addition to this it has been
necessary for them to lie flat upon their faces in the snow, moving
very, very slowly, accomplishing their transfers from point to point
literally at snail speed.

With regard to such work, as with regard to the Italian wounded, one
thing is remarked by all the officers and those who have been privileged
even for a short time to share the hardships of the Italian "common
soldier." He never complains. Healthy or hurt, weary or fresh, he takes
war with a smile full of flashing teeth and with eyes glittering with
interest and good nature.



CHAPTER XVI.

WOMAN AND THE WAR.

SHE HAS WON "HER PLACE IN THE SUN"--RICH AND POOR IN THE MUNITIONS
FACTORIES--NURSE AND AMBULANCE DRIVER--KHAKI AND TROUSERS--ORGANIZER AND
FARMER--HEROES IN THE STRESS OF CIRCUMSTANCES--DOING MEN'S WORK FOR
MEN--EVEN A "BOBBIE."


If it were ever really necessary for woman to "win a place in the sun"
she has done so by her activities with relation to the war. We have
regarded woman with a high degree of sentimentality, and to her pleas
for recognition in world affairs have shrugged our shoulders and
intimated that she was fit to bear children, nurse the sick, do
household chores and cook, cook, cook; but physically, mentally and by
training she was unfit to perform the greater world duties.

But the world war has proved that all the tasks which men claimed women
were unfitted to perform can as well be done by what we have been
pleased to term the "weaker sex."

The war has proved a truism that old saying, "The hand that rocks the
cradle rules the world," and also that the burden of war falls upon
women. It is they who give up their sons to their country and send their
husbands and boys to the front to serve as fodder for the cannon.

In England the work of women in the war secured for them a degree of
recognition in Parliament which all of their agitation and militant
tactics failed to produce.

National extremity was woman's opportunity; frank invitation to new
lines of work was followed by hearty appreciation on the part of the
men; and a proposition to extend suffrage to 6,000,000 English women was
based avowedly upon the general gratitude felt for their loyal and
effective service in the war. And it is war service, for modern warfare
has greatly enlarged the content of that term. In the modern conception
those who make munitions or in other ways release others for the front
are doing war service as truly as those who bear arms.

Instead of yielding to fame a few isolated Mollie Pitchers, the war
brought a largely neglected half of the nation's military strength into
practical service. Indeed, though woman dreads war more than man does,
if it comes to actual defense of land and home and young, we find, with
Kipling, that "the female of the species is more deadly than the male."


THE WORK OF WOMEN.

The work of the women in the munitions factories in England has
deservedly attracted large attention, and, doubtless, British historians
will for centuries tell how, when England found herself utterly at a
loss before her enemies because of a lack of effective ammunition, the
women responded "as one man" to meet the need and save the Union Jack
from being forced to the shore. It was a repetition, multiplied 10,000
times, of the Presbyterian parson at Springfield, N.J., supplying
Washington's army with Watts hymn books when it was retreating to serve
as paper wadding for the rifles.

The innovation of the task, the large scale on which it was carried out
and the striking success of it make it a major event of the war, even to
be compared with the battle of the Marne. And shall not American
historians ascribe to the scores of young girls who lost their lives in
an explosion at Eddystone, Pa., making munitions, the honor of being the
first martyrs of the German-American War?

It was not alone the working girls of England who tired their arms and
calloused their hands on the heavy shells. When the work was at its full
capacity, a proposition was sent to the women of leisure to undergo
three weeks of training in a munitions factory and then take up the work
at the week-ends to relieve the regular workers, the women shell
machinists, whose strength and skill could best be maintained by saving
them from Saturday and Sunday overtime.

There was a strange incongruity in paying them less than the men for the
same work. They worked in eight-hour shifts and were required to stand,
except during a single half-hour interval. The prospectus of instruction
suggested short skirts, thick gloves and boots with low heels, adding
that evening dress would not be necessary.

Hotel accommodations were attempted for these "lady" workers, but this
proved inadequate, and part of them went to the lodgings with the
regular workers. Short skirts were only the first step that promptly led
to overalls, and when these English ladies, whom the girls called
"Miaows," got well grimed with dust and grease, utterly tired out with
handling 12-pound shells and hungry enough to prefer coarse food, they
understood the workgirls as never before, and the men, too, and they had
a new birth of patriotism. One lady said she found great relief and
enthusiasm by thinking of the shells as so many dead Boches or live
Tommies.


VARIED OCCUPATIONS OF WOMEN.

Making ammunition and hospital supplies, handling luggage and trunks in
baggage rooms, driving motors, conducting trolley cars, carpentry work
on wooden houses for the front, are but a few of the occupations in
which European women engaged in war service. They have served as lift
attendants, ticket sellers, post office sorters, mail carriers,
gardeners, dairy lassies, grocery clerks, drivers of delivery wagons and
vans, commissionaires. More than a million were added to the industrial
workers in England during the first two years of war.

America coming later into the war, its women naturally followed the lead
of the English and French along many lines tried and proved to be worth
while, but our matrons and maids, famed for their independence and
initiative, developed also new lines of patriotic effort. As soon as it
was evident that German ambitions included designs upon America, the
strong feminine instinct for preservation began to assert itself.
Pacifism had no special appeal to the gentler sex at such a time. She
got behind the recruiting as if it were her own job, and much of the
success of it was due to her efforts.

The Woman's Section of the Navy League may well be described by quoting
from its own statement of motive and purpose. "Every mother with sons,
every wife with husband, every sister with a brother, feels her heart
stand still with the horror of what war may bring to her."


WOMAN'S MANY SERVICES.

These women spread information to arouse interest in the condition of
the United States naval forces, aided recruiting for the Naval Reserve,
assisted in procuring enrollments for the Naval Coast Reserve, and
drawing on their resources provided many needed articles of clothing,
equipment and comfort not furnished by the Government. A knitting
committee makes sleeveless jackets, helmets, wristlets and mufflers.
Comfort kits, games, blankets, underwear, rubber hats, coats and boots
are made or bought by the Comfort and Supplies Committee.

The two poles of patriotic service are the production of food and
fighting at the front; a world of activity bulges between them. European
women are accustomed to farm labor. Millions of peasant women, serfs,
all but in name, under the late Russian regime; Balkan women, German and
French wives and girls, and, to some extent, the mothers and daughters
of the English poor, would have understood Markham's poem better if he
had called it, "The Woman With the Hoe."

In the war food crisis the women of America matched the women of the
enemy and vied with those of their own allies in persuading mother earth
to yield her bounty. In heavy shoes, trousers of jean, rolled-up sleeves
and a straw hat, the girls of America here and there turned to the land
and took hold of the tasks of the farm.

So far we have mentioned only the work at home that women took up for
the war, but this is only a part; the other pole finds them near. The
invaluable service of Red Cross nurses, their zeal and sacrifice and
sometimes martyrdom, from Elizabeth Fry and Florence Nightingale to
Edith Cavell, have been women's glory for more than half a century. This
war multiplied the need many times and veritable regiments of them
responded. Their emblem became the symbol universal of mercy, charity
and good will.

In addition to the 50 trained nurses for a base hospital, there are 25
hospital aids, who serve without pay. America has 8000 registered Red
Cross nurses and scores of thousands are in training for aids.

The effective and helpful work of women in all lines of endeavor, aside
from home and family life, has never before been shown so impressively
as now. Their energy, willingness, faithfulness and capability in every
activity are unsurpassed.


WOMAN BENT ON DOING HER UTMOST.

But woman shares the lot of mankind on earth, and in the issues of life
and death, land and home, she fears to do less than her most, and we
would fear to have her do less.

The woman for ages has been the war nurse, but the American woman has
gone a step further and qualified as the war physician. When the war
clouds first hovered over America more than 200 women physicians
formally offered their services to the Government. At the graduation
exercises of a women's medical college, when America first entered the
war, a prominent official made the statement that 3,000 women physicians
could find unlimited work of mercy behind the first line of firing in
Europe.

The surgeon general of the United States army did not await an actual
call to arms to notify a physician that the proffer of the services of
women physicians would be accepted when the need came.

"When I spoke to the women," said this physician, "I asked them this
question:

"'Can I tell the Government that it may count upon each and all of you
for any work within your power?'

"Their answer was unanimous. It was 'Yes.'"

There is a law prohibiting women from going aboard battleships when they
are under way, but such an obstacle has not stood in the way of woman's
desire to help where she can when her country calls, and so Miss Loretta
Walsh became a member of the United States navy--the first woman
enlisted in that branch of the service, with the exception of the
nurses' corps. Her title was chief yeoman.

Women announced their readiness to assist in another way--in
economizing--one organization having adopted the following resolutions:


RESOLUTION ON ECONOMICS.

"Resolved, That all patriotic women be urged to use their influence on
fashions in dress to keep them as economical as possible, and to
register their disapproval of such styles as the melon and peg-top
skirt, or any other styles that imply extravagant changes in the
wardrobe, to the end that the time and money thus saved from clothes may
be devoted to the needs of the nation."

How often have we heard: "When war comes, when our homes are threatened,
when peril stalks abroad in the land, who shoulders the musket and goes
out to fight? The man! The man!"

But woman, knowing better than man the impulses of her own heart, only
awaited the opportunity to show what she could do, though, much more
than man, she loves peace, detests strife. But she did not await an
actual call to arms to show the patriotic spirit with which her soul was
fired. Whatever her Government was willing she should do, to that was
she prepared to give her best efforts.

Lady Frances Balfour, president of the London Society of National Union
of Women Suffragists and president of the Travelers' Aid Society, worked
as hard to win the war as any Tommy in the trenches.

A daughter of the eighth Duke of Argyll and the widow of a soldier, she
played an important part in Scotch and English public life for many
years, and has done much to advance the cause of British women.

An authentic view of the situation as it developed with reference to the
reception of women into the everyday work and what American women might
do is contained in the following interview with Lady Balfour:


WOMAN AS WAGE EARNER.

"We are doing everything," she said. "We are filling nearly every post.
If the House of Lords had not vetoed the bill we would be solicitors,
but that must wait for a time. British women are now meeting with
success because for the first time they are receiving a proper wage and
are able to live in a way to do their best work. The old sweat shop wage
has gone, and I hope never to return. Women will never return to the
conditions which existed before the war.

"American women start with a great advantage. They have already the
entree in the business world and fill many clerical places, whereas our
women and girls had to break down the barriers of conservatism existing
in a great number of banks. There was the same objection to women
workers among the farmers of the South of England, though in Scotland
the woman has always done her part on the farm.

[Illustration: GENERAL PETAIN. GENERAL MANGIN. GENERAL D'ESPEREY.

Three French Generals who fought their way to fame. In many a battle
they saved the day, and through their heroic deeds France was saved from
the Hun.]

[Illustration: ENGLISH BOMBING PLANE ON THE AISNE FRONT.

Preparing the departure for a bombing expedition. The bombs and their
holders can be seen in the foreground.]

[Illustration: UNITED STATES COLORED LABOR TROOPS BOARDING A TRANSPORT.

An American Negro battallion entering a pier ready to board a transport.
These husky doughboys perform their tasks with a vim and a will.]

[Illustration: FIRST LOOK AT FRANCE FROM A TRANSPORT.

United States soldiers seeing France as the transport arrives in sight
of land. This vessel was formerly a Hamburg-America (German) liner.]

[Illustration: BRITISH TANKS ADVANCING ACROSS THE HINDENBURG LINE.

This battery of tanks shows the new superstructure on their fronts,
which is used to carpet the slippery mud which the caterpillar wheels do
not grip.]

[Illustration: MAMMOTH BRITISH GUN "KILL JOY."

Used by the British forces in Flanders. No gun of more power was used by
any belligerent. It is greater than the "Busy Berthas" of the Germans.]

[Illustration: A RAPID FIRING GUN ON A FRENCH AEROPLANE.

This remarkable picture from a close-up photograph shows the little
Nieuport "scout" plane. The electric gun is worked from the pilot seat
by a wire. It produced great havoc among German birdmen.]

[Illustration: THE GUN WITH THE PUNCH. A FRENCH 320 M.M.

Photographed While in Action--Loading.

One of the largest and most effective guns used in the war. An idea of
its immense size is gained in comparison with the men. It is moved about
on a specially constructed railway.]

[Illustration: THE RETURN OF THE HOLY SCROLL IN JERUSALEM.

General E.H.H. Allenby, Commander-in-Chief of the British Army in the
Holy Land, is seen seated at the left. The ceremony was very
impressive.]

[Illustration: THE GUN WITH THE PUNCH.

Huge American railway artillery of 16-inch calibre for the U.S. Army.
This big gun can be put into position in 15 minutes and will fire all
around the horizon. The ammunition car for shell and powder is
attached.]

[Illustration: A MONSTER BRITISH HOWITZER NICKNAMED "GRANNY."

One of the guns which blasted the way along the Menin Road in the big
offensive. "Shells hastily delivered and with a punch," that's all
Granny had to say. Any German trooper will vouch for its accuracy.]

[Illustration: THE HANDLEY PAGE SUPER AERIAL BOMBING DREADNAUGHT.

Designed by Mr. Handley Page, a British manufacturer. It was claimed
that this giant plane could cross the ocean under its own power.

AUSTRALIAN INFANTRY MARCHING UNDER INSPECTION.

The Anzacs, famous for their brave and daring accomplishments, and among
the best of fighters.]

[Illustration: WELCOME HOME, ALL HAIL TO THE CONQUERING HEROES.

When New York's Negro Soldiers marched amid the cheering crowd, Harlem
was mad with joy over the return of its own.]

[Illustration: SOME OF THE WOUNDED IN THE NEW YORK PARADE.

The 369th Colored Regiment was cited as a whole for bravery in
action--at Champagne, Chateau Thierry, Mihiel Salient or in the Argonne,
wherever there was hard fighting to be done.]

[Illustration: MANUAL OF ARMS OF THE UNITED STATES.

Showing the different positions in the drill.]

[Illustration: GROUP OF RUSSIAN SAILORS. They are the first to come to
New York since the United States entered the war.]

[Illustration: SERBIAN CORPS ORGANIZED IN THE UNITED STATES.

Hundreds of Serbians organized an army and went to France and joined the
offensive. The photo shows the men leaving San Francisco, where they
were mobilized. The United States paid for the transportation of the
men.]

"Girls are beginning on the farm at 18 shillings ($4.50) a week; before
the war men farm hands worked for 11 shillings ($2.75). Our women are
milking cows, running steam plows, digging in the fields and giving
complete satisfaction. I dare not venture to predict what will happen in
the future, but we can face it with confidence, I am certain. Now we are
inspired with the spirit of patriotism; we feel we owe our best to our
country; we are ready to suffer hardship just as our brave men are doing
in the trenches.


BRITISH WOMEN'S PATRIOTISM.

"The patriotism of British women had stood a hard test; I hope American
women have an easier trial. Lloyd George says he hopes America will
profit by the mistakes of Britain. For more than a year the government
of this country snubbed and discouraged our women. The government does
not pay women at the same rate as men; it does not give them the same
war bonus. There came a time when the government realized the war could
not be won without the women. Then it issued frantic calls for help, and
the women responded nobly, just as they would have done months before. I
hope your American Government will recognize the value of woman's help
from the very start.

"Unfortunately I must judge your women largely by those who come over
here for the season in peace days. As I remember they spent a great deal
of time and money at the hairdressers, manicures, dressmaking
establishments and hotels. But I am certain the great majority of
Americans care more for their homes and country and less for display. I
feel that they should concentrate on the production of food. We need all
we can get and then we shall not have as much as we require. Money, food
and ships are the things most needed.

"Your women have been wonderfully generous in giving us money,
supporting hospitals and sending us supplies. We can use some of your
nurses and women doctors. We have a hospital here in London holding
nearly 1000 soldiers and it is run entirely by women. Our Scottish
women's hospitals have done grand work in the various theaters of war.
Not only the nurses, but the doctors and ambulance drivers are women. We
have supplied about 72,000 women for this work alone."

"How have women regarded the discipline of army life?" was asked.

"Wonderfully!" said Lady Frances. "It has been good for them. Just see
our women 'bus conductors. They work hard, handle all kinds of people,
but I never heard them say they are unable to meet the emergencies which
arise. And for the most part they are women who come from very humble
surroundings. You hear that women have broken down in health under their
work, but it seems to me I have read frequently about American business
men suffering from nervous breakdowns and overwork."


SUCCESS BUILT ON RUINS OF FAILURE.

No great victories, either in war or in the ordinary relations of life,
are attained without initial blunders. Many a splendid success is built
upon the ruins of failure, and this is a fact that the women of Europe
learned after the first hysteria occasioned by the marching soldiers,
the beat of drums and all the excitement incident to real warfare.
American women, when they joined hands with the Allies against
Prussianism and all that it meant, builded splendid records of their
usefulness upon the mistakes that these women made.

In the summer of 1914 every girl and woman clamored to be a nurse. Women
with a great deal of money and no experience opened "hospitals" that
were about as fit for the reception and treatment of wounded men as a
henroost is capable of housing an eagle. They all wanted to be in the
"Red Cross" or "V.A.D." (Voluntary Aid Department) and wear caps and
bandage wounds.

Then there were the amateur nurses who didn't know much about nursing,
"but would love to try." The daughter of a duke tried to go through a
probationary course at St. Bartholomew's Hospital because she thought
the uniform "perfectly sweet." But of course this element of
"fluffiness" exists on the outside of any great movement. It has to be
blown away so that the hard surface of genuine and practical endeavor
can be seen and felt. And that is what happened to England. The "fluff"
disappeared and women knew where they were, and men realized that women
possess a force, a firm and splendid resolve, that gives them the right
to step beside men in the march toward victory.

Another craze that amounted to a vice was the furious and ill-considered
efforts of totally unskilled women to make shirts and hospital garments
for soldiers. If some of the results had not been pathetic one could
almost be overcome with the comicality of the whole business. Soldiers'
shirts were turned out by a circle of busily sewing ladies that would
not fit a dwarf, while probably the next batch of garments dispatched
with patriotic fervor to a regimental depot might have been designed for
a race of giants.


NATIONAL SERVICE FOR WOMEN.

National service for women as well as for men proved a very substantial
portion of Great Britain's strength, but before national service had
been generally thought of an organization called the Women's Service
Bureau had been formed by a group of influential and intelligent women
who were imbued with the idea that only by careful and systematized
registration and selection could the matter of feminine war work be
successfully arranged.

Lady Frances Balfour was the first president of the Women's Service
Bureau, which with the London Society for Suffrage established 62
branches in the city of London and its suburbs.

What the women at the head of this society realized was the necessity
for giving the right women the most suitable employment and also to give
every applicant for work helpful and practical advice. The need for
women's labor in the many trades and professions hitherto closed to
them, and for their increased co-operation in those in which they
already took part, has been forced home even to unwilling minds.

Here and there on the battlefields of Europe--in Bulgaria, Servia,
Roumania, France, Belgium and Russia--have been noted occasionally the
presence of a woman warrior, a modern Joan of Arc. It was not expected,
however, that in America woman would do more than perform the service
work which fell to the lot of the Red Cross nurses and the women
practicing conservation and effecting organization in England.

But the women of America were not satisfied with "petticoat
preparedness." They rushed to the khaki suits and to the colors with
unexpected enthusiasm. One khaki-clad woman walked from San Francisco to
New York, making recruiting speeches on the way.

The infantry, the cavalry, the navy, the marines could all point to
their girls in khaki.


ALL KINDS OF WOMEN ENLISTED.

As the women enlisted for all kinds of service, so it may be said all
kinds of women enlisted--that is, women of all ranks of life--some from
society, some from the mills, others from the offices, the shops, the
stage, the restaurants and the colleges.

Many years ago the country rang with the name of Tippecanoe, and one of
the men who bore arms on the western frontier was William Henry
Harrison. The years went by and Benjamin Harrison came to the White
House as President.

The Harrison blood showed in the preparedness work, and Old Tippecanoe's
great granddaughter helped to make the women of the country fit for the
burden of war.

There isn't anything on earth that shows so strongly in the blood as the
soldier element, and Elizabeth Harrison, whose great ancestor faced the
perils of the frontier warfare, was a leader by force of her inherited
ability as a leader. She was elected drill sergeant for the college
girls of the New York University.

When the war clouds came she was following inherited bent. All of the
Harrison men had been among the country's greatest lawyers and Miss
Harrison was studying for the bar.

But just as the warwhoop of the West called Tippecanoe from his books
and briefs to bullets and battles, so the daughter of the former
President dropped Blackstone and Kent to take up the Drill Regulations
and the elementary text books of the army.

She knew that the way to make women fit for their part of war service
was to make them strong and healthy and to give them an idea of the
things that men-at-arms have to do.


NOTED WOMEN IN THE WORK.

So Miss Harrison was one of the first workers in the movement to teach
women the elements of war. Many women of importance in the social and
financial world took up the task with a will, and there was a girl for
every signal flag, a maid for every wireless station, and an angel for
every hospital ward in the making as the men pursued the task of
providing guns and the men behind the guns.

Miss Harrison and the girls she drilled at the University wore
regulation field service uniform, khaki breeches, coat, heavy shoes and
puttees, and a large hat of military cut.

The American Woman's League for Self-Defence and Preparedness was the
first woman's military organization in America, according to its
president, Mrs. Ida Powell Priest, who is descended from an old Long
Island family, Thomas Powell being one of her ancestors.

The first cavalry troop, of which Ethel M. Scheiss was first senior
captain, drilled regularly. Their first appearance mounted caused a mild
sensation on Broadway. They were most impressively stern soldierettes as
they trotted and galloped their horses.

Everywhere the girl in America strove with helpful earnestness to do
"her bit." Every strata of society called out its members in a wonderful
plan of feminine preparedness. Besides the thousands of women members of
the Red Cross some of the most prominent organizations officered and
planned by women include The National League for Women's Service, which
has branches in every large city in the United States. They enrolled
women as motor car drivers, telegraphers, wireless operators,
agriculturists and skilled mechanics.

Miss Anne Morgan, as head of this organization, devoted an enormous
amount of energy to the success of the work.


OTHER SOCIETIES ORGANIZED.

Other societies organized were the National Special Aid Society, Service
of Any Kind, Militia of Mercy, which sends and provides bandages and
other necessities and comforts for the soldiers; Girl Scouts of America,
first aid, signalling and drills; Daughters of the American Revolution;
the Suffrage Party and the Anti-Suffrage Society; the International
Child Welfare League and the Girls' National Honor Guard. The Federation
of Women's Clubs all over the United States also organized for any
patriotic service that women could perform.

A practical way of doing something to help France and Servia was offered
early in the war by the splendid initiative of Dr. Elsie Inglis and the
Scottish Federation of Women's Suffrage Societies, who organized
hospitals for the wounded, the staffs of which were all women, and
called on other societies for their support.

The London society responded first by subscriptions from individual
members, then by giving beds, then (in February, 1915) by offering
itself as London agent for the hospitals and undertaking all the
practical work, in the sending out of personnel and equipment, which had
to be transacted in London.

It is only by carefully systematized organization that great work of
this kind can be carried on. The slapdash, haphazard of hysterical
excitement can have no legitimate place in a movement that provides
stepping stones toward the salvation of the civilized world.

One of the things which will live long in the history of womankind was
the wonderful work done by the magnificently courageous units of Lady
Paget's nursing force, which went out to Servia, when that country was
laid waste not only by the German beasts, but also by disease.

It was not the fault of those brave women and men that things happened
at Uskub and in other Servian towns that do not bear repeating.

It was just the lack of thorough preparedness for a war which was much
worse than humanity had thought possible that deepened the tragedy of
their situation. In Servia, in fact, the career of the hospitals was
quite checkered and the service rendered proportionately more vital.


LONDON-WALES UNIT.

At the time of the Austro-German invasion in the autumn of 1915, the
London-Wales Unit was at Valjevo, one of the five Scottish women's
hospitals working in the country. It was under the command of Dr. Alice
Hutchinson and was very highly organized. Doctor Inglis had herself gone
on to Servia to take general charge of the hospitals there in the spring
of 1915. From the time that a typhus epidemic was overcome by women
doctors early in the year to the time of the invasion all seemed to be
going well. Then came three weeks of great pressure of work and of rapid
moves from place to place as the enemy advanced into the country.
Finally, it became a necessity for the personnel of the different units
either to retreat with the Servian army over the mountains into
Montenegro or to fall in the hands of the enemy.

The story of the retreat is now very generally known. The journey was
one long series of forced marches. Mountains 7000 feet high had to be
traversed in blinding snow, almost the whole journey had to be made on
foot and it was six weeks before the little band reached the coast.
Doctor Inglis meanwhile, with her group of nurses and orderlies, and
Doctor Hutchinson, with the London-Wales Unit, had gallantly stayed
behind and continued to attend to their Servian wounded and to organize
help for them till the work was forcibly stopped by the advancing
Austrian army.


UNIT TAKEN PRISONERS.

After being ordered out of Valjevo, Doctor Hutchinson made several
attempts to organize hospitals in the line of retreat. She was at
Vrnyachka Banja when the Austrians entered the town on November 10,
1915. She and her unit were taken prisoners and interned, first near the
Servian frontier and then in Hungary for three weary months. The
cheerful courage with which the members of the unit bore hardship and
uncertainty and hope deferred has been related by Doctor Hutchinson in a
memorable narrative. Their conditions would have been still more
intolerable and their release would have been still longer delayed if
Doctor Hutchinson herself had not known a great deal more about the
Geneva Convention than the Austrian authorities had ever dreamed. She
was thus able to assert herself on behalf of those under her in a way
which taught her captors something new about British women. At the
beginning of February the unit was at last allowed to cross the frontier
into Switzerland. It reached England on February 12. It was only the
perfection of its organization that carried this brave body of women
through amazing hardships.

Abroad women chauffeurs became almost as common in the war as men; the
public in Paris and London refused to regard the appearance of a woman
on the streets in cap, "knickers" and puttees or heavy boots as unusual,
and in need they in many instances not only drove "taxi," but guided
ambulances in the hospital service.

The Red Cross in America, in the matter of preparedness, organized a
class for women chauffeurs. One of these, started in Philadelphia, had
among its instructors Mrs. Thomas Langdon Elwyn and Miss Letitia McKim,
both of whom drove ambulances for the Allies in England.

The National League for Woman Service, working in conjunction with the
Council of National Defense, canvassed the country through its Bureau of
Registration and Information to provide statistics for mobilizing the
entire woman-force of the Nation; all of which was done with the
approval of the Secretary of Labor.

Perhaps the outstanding incident of industrial employment among women
was that of several women in France as locomotive engineers. It is true
that they operated only the shunting engines about the yards at the
military camps, but it was noted in dispatches in every quarter of the
globe that Mesdames Louis Debris and Marie Viard, whose husbands were
killed in the war, were piloting the engines which their husbands had
formerly driven.


WOMAN'S INGENUITY.

And woman has proved her ingenuity. In the damp trenches of the
battlefields abroad the men need protection from the dampness and cold,
which ordinary clothing will not provide. It was found that the
leather-lined huntsmen's coats, and the sort of garments worn by the
chauffeur, the aviator and the mountaineer served the men in the
trenches well, and particularly along the Russian frontier and in the
cold mountainous regions.

But the price of leather soared, with the demand for millions of pairs
of shoes, saddles, harness, headgear, and whatnot, and leather-lined
coats were at a premium. The women were not to be denied, and through
the Suffrage organizations which turned in to prepare America for the
struggle and to render assistance to the Allies, the unique plan was
adopted of making linings for the airmen and soldier's coats of old kid
gloves.

One group of women in a single section of Philadelphia gathered a
thousand pairs of old gloves in a canvass. The seams were ripped and the
gloves cut down one side and laid open. The fingers of one glove so
treated were dovetailed between the fingers of another glove so cut, and
stitched together. Thus one glove was sewed to another until a section
of leather was formed sufficient to make a lining for a coat. And many
such were devised and incorporated in the garments sent to the front by
the various agencies dominated by the women of the land.


WOMEN AS POLICEMEN.

While women to a limited degree were rendering service as "policemen" in
certain sections of the United States and on Continental Europe the war
was responsible for the development of an organized force in London,
which will probably remain a permanent organization to the end of time.
Miss Darner Dawson is chief of the London woman "bobbies," and M.S.
Allen is chief superintendent.

The force was organized in 1914, shortly after the outbreak of the war
and has relieved the men of a large amount of responsibility. The force
is uniformed, the women wearing military costumes with visored caps.
They operate under the supervision, or with the authority of Sir Edward
Henry, Chief Commissioner of the Metropolitan police, and serve for duty
at the munition plants where women workers are employed, besides doing
regular patrol duty and welfare work.

The service in London is in the nature of a training for special service
and the women after sufficient experience are sent to suburbs and small
towns to do police duty. They are highly spoken of and declared to be
very efficient, rendering service in the barrooms and looking after
women in a manner that the regular "bobbies" cannot approximate.

It was declared in England, by way of closing the comment on this phase
of the war that no one thing so stimulated the enlistments for service
as the execution of Miss Edith Cavell, the English nurse who was shot as
a spy by Germany. That her name will go down in history as a martyr to
the cause of liberty and humanity goes without saying.

Miss Cavell had been a nurse in Brussels, and after the occupation of
the Belgian capital by the Germans, she remained where she used her
private hospital for the nursing of wounded soldiers; not excluding the
Germans. It had been intimated that she had better cross the border, but
she insisted on remaining at her post. Ultimately she was accused of
being one of the instigators of a plot to smuggle English, French and
Belgian soldiers across the lines, and of serving the enemies of
Germany.

To the German mind she was more than a spy; Her conduct was
reprehensible, because in the capacity of nurse she had won a degree of
confidence. She was therefore held as a spy and traitor. And though
Brand Whitlock, America's Minister to Belgium, and other diplomats
sought to save her, she was shot by the ruthless Germans.



CHAPTER XVII.

THE TERRIBLE PRICE.

A NATION OF MEN DESTROYED--MILLIONS IN SHIPPING AND COMMERCE
DESTROYED--WORLD'S MAPS CHANGED--BILLIONS IN MONEY--IMMENSE
DEBTS--NATION'S WEALTH--THE UNITED STATES A GREAT PROVIDER.


The human tongue seems almost devoid of power to convey to the human
mind what the war has actually cost the world in lives, money, property,
ideals and all that is dear to humanity. In all the world there is not a
human being who has not contributed something to the awful cost and the
loss due to the destruction of property, the stopping of industry, the
waste of energy and the curtailment of human endeavor in the interest of
civilization, and the effects which the struggle has had upon the world
cannot even be approximated in dollars and cents.

We have been taught to regard war as a terrible thing and to realize
that thousands must be slain, but in no war in the history of the world
has there been as many troops engaged as have been killed in the
European war on the battlefields of Belgium and France.

At the beginning of the year 1917 it was estimated that the total
casualties of the war were 22,500,000. In a report based on figures
compiled in Washington it was stated: The human estimated waste and
financial outlay are staggering. The combined casualties of the war,
partly estimated because all belligerents do not publish lists, are
22,500,000. The figures included killed, permanently injured, prisoners
and wounded returned to the front. Of this number the Central Powers
were estimated to have suffered permanent losses in excess of 4,000,000,
and the entente perhaps twice that number, Russia being by far the
heaviest loser.

The financial outlay, based in part on official reports and statements
and in part on estimates, was placed at approximately $80,000,000,000,
divided $50,000,000,000 to the entente and $30,000,000,000 to the
Central Powers. The entente lost more than 3,500,000 tons of merchant
shipping and approximately 800,000 tons of naval vessels. On the other
side the loss of naval tonnage was approximately 250,000 tons, and
merchant ships aggregating 211,000 tons were reported captured or
destroyed.


IMMENSE LOSS TO COMMERCE.

Of the foreign commerce the Central Powers had lost $10,000,000,000 in
the two and a half years of war, including imports and exports. The loss
of commerce of Great Britain and her allies with the Central Powers
probably was in the neighborhood of $7,000,000. This was largely made up
at least on the import side by increased trade with the United States
and other neutral countries and enlarged trade with the colonies.

Germany lost virtually all her African colonies and all her possessions
in the Pacific Ocean, an aggregate of more than 1,000,000 square miles.
Turkey also lost a large area of territory held at the outbreak of the
war, while Austria lost most of Bukowina and Galicia. To offset the
territory losses of the Central Powers, the entente have lost in Europe
approximately 300,000 square miles. Of this large area, all of it
thickly populated in normal times, 175,000 square miles were wrested
from Russia on the eastern battlefield.

The staggering losses in men include the vast number on both sides
wounded in such a way as to permanently cripple them and render them
unfit for military service. The figures are based on official reports
and estimates by military experts.

Germany's permanent losses were placed at 1,500,000 men, including about
1,000,000 in killed. The permanent losses of Austria-Hungary were placed
at about 1,000,000 more than those of Germany, owing to the fact that so
much of the hard fighting on the eastern front was in the
Austro-Hungarian theater. The losses of the Austro-Hungarians during the
drive of General Brusiloff in 1916 were frightful. Large numbers of
Austrians were taken prisoner by Brusiloff.

Russia's casualties for the first year of the war were estimated by
military experts at more than 3,500,000 men, and these were doubled in
the succeeding year, according to estimates by American military
experts. Russia returned to the fighting line a smaller percentage of
wounded than any of the other great Powers.


GREAT BRITAIN'S CASUALTIES.

Great Britain's casualties were placed in excess of 1,250,000 despite
the limited front of British operations in France in the early stages.
The aggregate of Italy's casualties was estimated at 1,500,000, while
Belgium's were placed at 200,000, Servians at 400,000, Montenegro's at
150,000 and Rumania's at more than 300,000.

While the area of the territorial losses of the Central Powers was
nearly four times as great as that of the entente group, with the
exception of the occupied portions of Bukowina and Galicia, the value of
the territory included in them is comparatively small. For example,
Germany's African colonies were sparsely settled, largely by natives,
with virtually all development in the future. Despite this fact, their
loss was a severe blow to Germany.

The territorial losses of the entente covered all but a small corner of
Belgium, a highly developed, thickly populated industrial country; a
large slice of northern France, virtually all of Servia, all of
Montenegro, more than three-fourths of Rumania and 175,000 square miles
of Russia, the major part of it in the grain-growing section.

According to military experts on the "war map" of Europe as it stood at
that time, the Central Powers had won the war. But when their enormous
loss of foreign commerce and territory is considered, their "victory"
was shown to have most decided limitations, especially because of their
admission that they eventually would have to give up all occupied
territory in view of the frightful cost in men and money.


FIGURES POSITIVELY STAGGERING.

Supplementing these statements, as showing the progress of the war, it
was stated just before the United States took its memorable step to
break off diplomatic relations with Germany, members of the National War
Council estimated the total casualties of the war at that time as in
excess of the population of the United Kingdom, which in 1911 was more
than 45,000,000. This of course included those maimed, injured or so
stricken that they were unfit for future service. The number actually
killed was estimated at more than 7,000,000.

Staggering as these figures are they are easily conceivable when it is
remembered that the German front lines covered more than 500 miles with
Allied troops opposing them, and that in a single battle millions of
shells were fired by one side or the other. In one battle it was
officially reported that 4,000,000 shot and shell were used, and in
another the English mined the German trenches for a distance of several
miles and blew out the strongholds, using more than 1,000,000 pounds of
high explosives.

One of the great 42-centimeter guns of the Germans is said to have used
a charge of guncotton involving the use of a full bale of cotton to make
the explosive--and a bale of cotton contains 500 pounds. The shrapnel of
the heavy field artillery of the United States contains 717 balls or
bullets about the size of a common marble, and the shell, so timed that
it explodes just before it touches the ground, scatters the bullets or
balls over an area estimated at one yard for every bullet, or more than
700 yards. With thousands of such shells being rained over the
entrenchments is it any wonder that the list of wounded and killed was
great?

Thousands were killed by poisoned gases, and where they were not killed
a very large percentage of those affected suffered consequences which
rendered them unfit for battle--turned them into invalids. The gas bombs
produced hemorrhages of the lungs and bowels in thousands of cases and
left those who inhaled the fumes in an anemic and permanently disabled
condition. And what of the thousands who succumbed to fevers, and who
because of the terrible shock became mental and physical wrecks and were
made unfit for further duty on the actual firing lines?


A MATTER OF DOLLARS AND CENTS.

When it comes to the cost in dollars and cents it is possible to tell
something of what they mean with reference to war construction and
maintenance, although no one can estimate what it represents in
destruction. No one has yet devised an accounting system to determine
the percentage of "depreciation" through wear and tear on guns and
devices that cost thousands of dollars each, but everybody knows that
guns wear out and that some of the larger ones have a very decided limit
on the number of times they can be fired without being rebored or
rifled.

Railroads which have taken years to build and develop have been
destroyed, telephone and telegraph lines put out of commission, great
castles and temples razed, works of art burned, whole cities devastated,
green fields turned into great craters torn up by bombs and shells,
factories dismantled, herds of cattle fed into the maw of the armies,
and the ruthless Germans even went so far as to wantonly cut down and
destroy whole forests and magnificent shade trees which it took
generations to grow.

How the indebtedness of the nations grew during the progress of the war
is shown in the following statement issued by some of the financial
institutions of the country in the Spring of 1917:

"Indebtedness of the seven principal nations engaged in the European war
has crossed $75,000,000,000. In the middle of 1914 the indebtedness of
these seven nations was $27,000,000,000."

Financing on an extensive scale followed this state of affairs. France
issued a second formal war loan, Germany a fifth loan and Russia a sixth
loan. Great Britain issued temporary securities in enormous sums.

The war cost $105,000,000 every twenty-four hours, according to the
statistics, expenditures of the Entente Allies being fully double those
of the Central Allies.


COMPARATIVE WAR EXPENSES.

Without for one moment taking into consideration the billions which were
thrown into the war-pot by America the figures are staggering. An
interesting comparison is found in the cost of the previous great world
wars. The American Civil War, the greatest conflict in prior history
cost $8,000,000,000, a sum equalled every three months in the conduct of
the European war.

                                                         Approximate cost.
          Napoleonic Wars, 1793-1815                       $6,250,000,000
          American Civil War, 1861-1864                     8,000,000,000
          Franco-Prussian War, 1870-1871                    3,000,000,000
          South African War, 1900-1902                      1,250,000,000
          Russo-Japanese War, 1904-1905                     2,500,000,000
          European War, 1914-1917 (3 years)                75,000,000,000

It was further estimated that after the year 1917, the payment of
$3,800,000,000 a year would be required to pay the interest on the debt,
and that the total Government expenditures in Europe for bond interest
and support of the various branches of the Governments would require in
the neighborhood of 20 per cent of the people's income.


POPULATION AND WEALTH OF COUNTRIES.

Another comparative table that is important to any one desiring to study
the costs and their effects is that relating to population and wealth of
the principal countries. The latest available figures are:

                                    Population             Wealth
          United States            101,577,000        $187,739,071,090
          British Empire           394,930,000         130,000,000,000
          Germany                   67,810,000          80,000,000,000
          France                    39,700,000          50,000,000,000
          Russia                   187,379,000          40,000,000,000
          Austria-Hungary           53,000,000          25,000,000,000
          Spain                     20,000,000           5,400,000,000
          Belgium                    7,500,000           9,000,000,000
          Portugal                   5,958,000           2,500,000,000
          Italy                     37,048,000          20,000,000,000

Taxes have been the main sources for raising money to carry on the war.
In Germany taxes on all incomes from the Kaiser to the ordinary business
man were kept at the highest rate, the Kaiser paying $500,000 on his
fortune of $35,000,000 during the early part of the struggle. This was
in addition to his income tax which amounted to $440,000, making a total
annual tax of nearly $1,000,000. The Krupps are said to have been
assessed at $3,000,000.

When the new military service laws were approved in Paris, which was
about the middle of July, 1913, the French Cabinet was at its wit's end
to provide the financial end of the tremendous military budget.
Investment markets were sluggish, and there were thousands of notes
whose values were rapidly depreciating. The French Government was unable
to float a loan of $200,000,000 which was necessary for making
preparations.

Then in her desperation Paris closed her doors to all foreign loans.
The Viviani Ministry practically duplicated the plan of its predecessor
in proposing an issue of $360,000,000 3-1/2 per cent bonds, which were
redeemable in 25 years.

One year previously to this financial struggle the Belgian Government
had started to raise $62,800,000 in order that the people of this
country might prevent its being used as the battleground for the world
war which they had seen away off in the future. This money was raised
for the purpose of making Antwerp an impregnable fortress.


IMMENSE SUM FOR ARMY AND NAVY.

Russia had taken steps to raise $3,700,000,000 which the Russian
Minister of Finance had informed the Budget Committee must be spent in
the next five years on the army and navy. During the first year of the
war there was $500,000,000 spent by this country in military and naval
defence. This does not include the cost of those strategic railroads of
which so many were constructed by the Russian Government, and which cost
so many hundreds of thousands of dollars.

Previous to the time Great Britain declared war on Germany the House of
Commons had voted $525,000,000 for Emergency purposes, and within a
couple of days of this appropriation an additional $500,000,000 was
granted by the British Parliament.

One of the things accomplished by war was to bring out the fact that the
resources of individuals are far greater than is ordinarily suspected.
In 1870 Bismarck imposed an indemnity of $1,000,000,000 on France, never
believing that country could meet the great debt, but with the help of
all the inhabitants the debt was lifted within a few months.

When countries are at war the cost of continuing fighting does not stop
with those actually engaged. The trade of the world is affected, and
this means loss in all quarters of the globe. Of the import trade of the
United States more than $500,000,000 was directly with those nations
engaged in the war at the opening of hostilities. This was out of a
total of $1,850,000,000. A great part of this commerce is classed as
among that which yields the greatest import tax, which means that
internal taxes must be imposed on the people to make up for the money
necessary to meet with the yearly loss occasioned during the continuance
of the war.


ANNUAL NATIONAL INCOME.

In the United States there is an annual national income of
$50,000,000,000, the total bank resources being $35,000,000,000, the
individual deposits being $24,000,000,000, with cash held by the banks
totaling $2,500,000,000, total gold stock in the country being
$3,000,000,000, and available additional commercial credits on the basis
of cash holdings totaling $6,000,000,000.

The borrowing power of the American Government does not total less than
$40,000,000,000, from domestic sources, and this does not disturb the
ordinary financial and economical affairs of the nation.

During the first five months in 1917 the Government of the United States
reached a record for expenditures never before equalled in American
history. The total amount expended was $1,600,000,000.

The chief item of the increase--$607,500,000--was the purchase of the
obligations of foreign Governments in exchange for loans advanced to the
Allies. The sum did not represent by approximately $140,000,000 the
total amount authorized in loans. An increase of approximately
$245,000,000 in the ordinary disbursements of the Government, chiefly
due to military and naval needs, also was recorded and another item
going to swell the grand total of expenditures was the payment of
$25,000,000 for purchase of the Danish West Indies.

War loans of the six chief European belligerents, early in 1917,
aggregated approximately $53,113,000,000.

Loans of the chief Entente nations, Great Britain, France, Russia and
Italy, were placed at about $36,300,000,000; those of Germany and
Austria-Hungary, not including the sixth German loan reported to have
yielded about $3,000,000,000, at $18,800,000,000.

The amounts of the various loans were placed at:

Great Britain, to March 31, 1917, $18,805,000,000; France, to February
28, $10,500,000,000; Russia, to December 31, 1916, $7,896,000,000;
Italy, to December 31, 1916, $2,520,000,000; Germany, to December 31,
1916, $11,226,000,000; Austria, to December 31, 1916, $5,880,000,000;
Hungary, $1,730,000,000.

The total included the advances made by the United Kingdom and France to
the smaller belligerent countries allied with them.


SOME IDEA OF NATIONAL FINANCING.

Some idea of what all this financing means to a country may be judged by
the statement of the Chancellor of the Exchequer, who in October, 1916,
replying to questions regarding the English loans in the House of
Commons, declared that England was paying at that time about $10,000,000
a day in the United States, for every working day in the year.

When the English mission visited the United States in May, 1917, after
the country had entered the war, there was handed to Arthur James
Balfour, ex-Premier of England, a check for $200,000,000, said to have
been one of the largest single checks ever paid in this country. It was
a loan for war purposes. In the month of June it was stated that the
total advance made to the Allies was $923,000,000, among the loans made
then was one of $75,000,000 to Great Britain, and $3,000,000 to Servia.
The Servian loan, the first made by the United States to that country,
was mainly for the improvement of railway lines. A small portion was
used for the relief of the distressed population, and Red Cross work.

It was stated that the allied countries would spend in America, in the
neighborhood of $200,000,000 a month for the year; which brings
attention to the resources which America turned in against Germany when
she joined the allied forces. To meet the demands made upon it the
Government borrowed at once $3,000,000,000 by popular subscription--a
matter of history of which the nation is proud.

From its funds the country loaned Russia $100,000,000, which was the
first loan made by the United States to that Government. A credit of
$45,000,000 to Belgium was also established by the Secretary of the
Treasury. This also was Belgium's first participation in the loan of the
Allies.


COUNTRY'S NATURAL RESOURCES.

Aside from the financial resources of the United States, the country is
undoubtedly the richest in agricultural, mineral and other natural
resources. It annually produces more than 3,500,000,000 bushels of corn,
wheat touching the high point of 1,500,000,000 bushels; 1,600,000,000
bushels of oats; 250,000,000 bushels of barley; 40,000,000 bushels of
rye; 22,000,000 bushels of buckwheat; 425,000,000 bushels of potatoes;
77,000,000 tons of hay; 30,000,000 bushels of flaxseed; 7,000,000,000
pounds of cotton; more than 1,000,000,000 pounds of tobacco; 2,000,000
long tons of sugar and 275,000,000 pounds of wool.

There are nearly 70,000,000 swine, and as many cattle, more than
25,000,000 head of horses and mules, and 62,000,000 sheep. Coal is mined
at the rate of more than 500,000,000 tons yearly, and the copper mines
yield 1,250,000,000 pounds of metal. Petroleum wells yield 225,500,000
barrels yearly. There are 270,000 manufacturing plants with a yearly
output of more than $25,000,000,000. The products of the farm total more
than $11,000,000,000 annually.

As to Germany's position, economists all over the world have considered
her position as not only lacking soundness, but as crazy--crazy in that
no attention whatever has apparently been paid to what are recognized
as firmly fixed economic laws. The world has been at a loss to
understand Germany's attitude, and it can only be explained by assuming
that Germany was perfectly well aware of the entire unsoundness of her
commercial and financial position, and was willing, or, in fact, had to
risk everything with the hope of acquiring sufficient indemnity,
resulting from the war, to bring her financial affairs to a sound basis.
Germany's entire structure from the close of the Franco-Prussian war
evidently was built upon rotten foundations.



CHAPTER XVIII.

THE WORLD RULERS AT WAR.

WOODROW WILSON, THE CHAMPION OF DEMOCRACY--THE EGOTISTICAL KAISER--THE
GERMAN CROWN PRINCE--BRITAIN'S MONARCH--CONSTANTINE WHO QUIT RATHER THAN
FIGHT GERMANY--PRESIDENT POINCAIRE--AND OTHER NATIONAL HEADS.


No matter what the human frailties may be there are always men who rise
in the stress of circumstances to unexpected heights. They thrive upon
difficulties and in the emergencies become protectors and saviors of
men. In the world's greatest melting-pot--the burned and blood-stained
battlefields of Europe--there were tried and tested millions of men of
all nationalities and characteristics, and though the experience was one
of bitterness, there was found in it the satisfaction that in their own
way millions of men proved themselves great.

Out of the hordes that rode over mountains, sailed the seas or picked
their way through trenches and across the scarred surface of the earth
there looms the figures of some whose names will go down in history for
all time. Their names will be written indelibly upon the pages of life
and they will be known for ages after the evidences of the great strife
have been obliterated and the peace for which the world struggled has
been made a permanent thing.

Among those whose names will be forever linked with the terrible war as
a leader of men--whose figure stands out against the mass of
humanity--is Woodrow Wilson, President of the United States of America.
Though he neither faced bullets nor tramped the historic byways of
Europe in the terrible struggle, he was to all intents and purposes the
commander-in-chief of all the world forces seeking to break the
autocratic domination of the Hohenzollerns of Germany and give
democracy its place among the nations of the world which its character
justifies.

President Wilson, when he was elevated to the highest position in
America which the Nation could bestow, was recognized as one of the
greatest essayists and students of history, political economy,
constitutional law and government in the country. And those who made
light of his "book-learning" and referred to him as "the school-master
president," came to know that his training and the very character of his
life's work fitted him better than probably any other man in America to
deal with the great national and international problems which
confronted, which culminated with or grew out of America's entrance into
the great war.


WILSON'S MANY HONORS.

He was born in Staunton, Va., in 1856, the son of Rev. Joseph Woodrow
Wilson, and received his early education at Davidson College, N.C.
Subsequently he received a degree at Princeton University and graduated
in law at the University of Virginia, later practicing law at Atlanta.
After this he received degrees at Johns Hopkins, Rutgers, University of
Pennsylvania, Brown, Dartmouth, Harvard and Yale Colleges, and was
professor of history and political economy, first at Bryn Mawr College
and later at Wesleyan University, and finally professor of jurisprudence
and political economy, then jurisprudence and politics and afterward
president at Princeton University, from which post he was elected
Governor of the State of New Jersey in 1913. He resigned from the
Governorship and was elected President of the United States for a term
beginning March, 1913, and was re-elected in November, 1916, for a
second term beginning March, 1917, both times on the Democratic ticket.

As against the figure of President Wilson there stands that of the
Emperor William of Germany, whose policies indirectly precipitated the
war and impelled the alignment of nations to defend themselves against
his autocratic domination. For years the head of the House of
Hohenzollern, descendant of the ancient margraves of Germany who have
battled with the old Romans, made it manifest in speech and by action
that his ambition was to create a world empire.


GERMANY MUST BE RECKONED WITH.

Once at the launching of one of the great German warships he said: "The
ocean teaches us that on its waves and on its most distant shores no
great decision can any longer be taken without Germany and without the
German Emperor. I do not think that it was in order to allow themselves
to be excluded from big foreign affairs that, thirty years ago, our
people, led by their princes, conquered and shed their blood. Were the
German people to let themselves be treated thus, it would be, and
forever, the end of their world-power; and I do not mean that that shall
ever cease. To employ, in order to prevent it, the suitable means, if
need be extreme means, is my duty and my highest privilege."

In a famous interview in the London "Daily Mail" in 1908, discussing the
attitude of Germany toward England, the Kaiser was quoted as follows:

"You English," he said, "are mad, mad, mad as March hares. What has come
over you that you are so completely given over to suspicions quite
unworthy of a great nation? What more can I do than I have done? I
declared with all the emphasis at my command, in my speech at Guildhall,
that my heart is set upon peace, and that it is one of my dearest wishes
to live on the best of terms with England. Have I ever been false to my
word? Falsehood and prevarication are alien to my nature. My actions
ought to speak for themselves, but you listen not to them but to those
who misinterpret and distort them. That is a personal insult which I
feel and resent. To be forever misjudged, to have my repeated offers of
friendship weighed and scrutinized with jealous, mistrustful eyes,
taxes my patience severely. I have said time after time that I am a
friend of England, and your Press--or at least a considerable section of
it--bids the people of England refuse my proffered hand, and insinuates
that the other holds a dagger. How can I convince a nation against its
will?"

And then as if to impress upon the world the belief that he was chosen
of God, the Kaiser repeatedly gave voice to such bombastic utterances as
when to his son in Brandenburg, he declared: "I look upon the people and
nation handed on to me as a responsibility conferred upon me by God, and
that it is, as is written in the Bible, my duty to increase this
heritage, for which one day I shall be called upon to give an account;
those who try to interfere with my task I shall crush."


THE "GOD-APPOINTED" HOHENZOLLERNS.

Again he expressed the same sentiment when he said: "It is a tradition
of our House, that we, the Hohenzollerns, regard ourselves as appointed
by God to govern and to lead the people, whom it is given us to rule,
for their well-being and the advancement of their material and
intellectual interests."

And finally in his address to the people in August, 1914, he said at the
beginning of war: "A fateful hour has fallen for Germany. Envious
peoples everywhere are compelling us to our just defence. The sword has
been forced into our hands. I hope that if my efforts at the last hour
do not succeed in bringing our opponents to see eye to eye with us and
in maintaining the peace, we shall, with God's help, so wield the sword
that we shall restore it to its sheath again with honor.

"War would demand of us an enormous sacrifice in property and life, but
we should show our enemies what it means to provoke Germany. And now I
commend you to God. Go to church and kneel before God, and pray for His
help for our gallant army."

This is the picture of "Kaiser Bill" whose egotism gave expression to
itself in 1910 when in a speech he said: "Considering myself as the
instrument of the Lord, without heeding the views and opinions of the
day, I go my way."


EMPEROR WILLIAM'S CHILDREN.

William II, Emperor of Germany and King of Prussia, was born
January 27, 1859, succeeding his father, Emperor Frederick the
III, in June, 1888. He married the Princess Augusta Victoria, of
Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg, and had the following
issue: Frederick William, Crown Prince, born May 6, 1882; William
Eitel-Frederick, born 1883; Adalbert, born 1884; August, born 1887;
Oscar, born 1888; Joachim, born 1890, and Victoria Louise, born 1892.

Crown Prince Frederick William is one of the remarkable figures of the
war. A profound admirer of Napoleon he has always made a close study of
that great French soldier, and has long been one of the leaders of the
war-seeking element in Germany. The Crown Prince, who was born in 1882,
is tall, slim and impulsive. The late Queen Victoria, his great
grandmother, was his godmother.

After he had completed a military course he attended Bonn University,
and on the completion of his college course he set out on extensive
travels. After his return he was placed in the offices of the Potsdam
provincial government so that he might study local administration. After
completing this study he was given a course in the intricate routine
through which two-thirds of the German people are governed, by being
placed in the Prussian Ministry of the Interior. Naval administration
has also been a part of the studies of the Crown Prince, in fact he was
deeply engrossed in that study when the war was declared.

The Crown Prince married Duchess Cecilie of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, in
1905.

King George V, of Great Britain, the only surviving son of the late King
Edward, was born in 1865. He was the second son of the king, his brother
Prince Albert, the heir to the throne, dying suddenly in 1892 and
bringing the second son, who had been destined for the navy, into direct
succession. In 1893 Princess Mary of Teck, who was to have married
Prince Albert, was married to Prince George, and there is one daughter,
Princess Mary, and five sons--Edward, Prince of Wales, and Princes
Albert, Henry, George and John.


THE DUKE OF CONNAUGHT.

Prince Arthur, the Duke of Connaught, who is now Governor General of
Canada, is an uncle of the King. He was married to Princess
Louise-Margaret of Prussia, the daughter of Prince Frederick-Charles of
Prussia and Princess Marie-Anne of Anhalt. He has three children;
Margaret, the oldest, is the Crown Princess of Sweden; Prince Arthur is
married to his cousin, Princess Alexandra, Duchess of Fife, and Princess
Victoria-Patricia, who is unmarried.

King Edward had three brothers and five sisters, two brothers falling
heir in turn to the Duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha.

King George V is uncle by blood to Olaf, Crown Prince of Norway, and by
marriage with Queen Mary, to three Princes and three Princesses of Teck.
He is brother-in-law to King Haakon VII of Norway and Prince of Denmark,
Duke Adolph of Teck, and Prince Alexander of Teck. He is a first cousin
on his father's side to Emperor William II of Germany, and his brothers
and sisters, among whom, principally, is the Queen of Greece; to
Ernst-Louis, Grand Duke of Hesse, and his four sisters, one of whom is
the wife of Prince Henry of Prussia, and another is Alice, former
Czarina of Russia. The first and second cousins of the King run well up
into the hundreds.

The Royal Family of Belgium was founded when, in 1831, the people
elected King Leopold I to rule the destinies of that country. The king
was married to Princess Louise of Orleans, after which practically all
the marriages of the family were with the southern group of royal
houses.

There were three children born to the couple, the oldest son succeeding
to the throne as King Leopold II. The latter married Archduchess Marie
Henriette of Austria. One son, and three daughters were born, the son
dying when he was 23 years old. The oldest of the daughters became the
wife of Prince Philip of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, the second wedding Crown
Prince Rudolph of Austria-Hungary, who died in youth, and the third
becoming the wife of Prince Napoleon Bonaparte. The daughter of Leopold
I is the widow of the ill-fated Emperor Maximilian of Mexico, who was
executed there in 1867.


SECOND SON OF LEOPOLD I.

The second son of Leopold I was Philip, the Count of Flanders, who was
married to Princess Marie of Hohenzollern, sister of the Prince Leopold
of Hohenzollern and King Charles of Roumania. The son to this marriage
is King Albert of Belgium, who succeeded his uncle, Leopold II, in 1909.
The Queen of Belgium is Princess Elizabeth of the Ducal House of
Bavaria. Through her King Albert is allied to the Crown Prince of
Bavaria, the Grand Duchess of Luxemburg, the Duke of Parma, the late
Franz Ferdinand of Austria, and the present heir-apparent, Archduke
Charles Francis Joseph. The King and Queen have two sons, Leopold, born
in 1902, and Charles Theodore, who is two years younger. There is also a
daughter, the Princess Marie-Josephine, born in 1906.

King Nicholas I, ruler of the picturesque little country of Montenegro,
which was the scene of much bitter fighting, was born October 7, 1841,
and proclaimed Prince of Montenegro, as successor to his uncle Danilo I,
in 1860. He became king in 1910. Nicholas I married Milena Petrovna
Vucotic. The children are Princess Militza, who married the Russian
Grand Duke Peter Nikolaievitch; Princess Stana, who married George, Duke
of Leuchtenberg, but which marriage was dissolved, the Princess
subsequently marrying the Russian Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaievitch. The
other children are Prince Danilo Alexander, heir-apparent; Princess
Helena, who married Victor Emmanuel, King of Italy; Princess Anna, who
married Prince Francis Joseph of Battenberg; Prince Mirko, who married
Natalie Constantinovitch; Princess Zenia, Princess Vera and finally
Prince Peter, who was born in 1889.


KING OF SERVIA.

Peter I, King of Servia, one of the figures of the war, is the son of
Alexander Kara-Georgevitch. He was born in Belgrade in 1844, and was
proclaimed King after the murder of King Alexander and Queen Draga. He
ascended the throne on June 2, 1903. He was married in 1883 to Princess
Zorka, of Montenegro, who died in 1890. He has two sons and a daughter;
George, who was born in 1887, and who renounced his right to the throne
in 1909; Alexander, born in 1889, and Helen, who was born in 1884.
Because of his ill health King Peter, for a long time, delegated
authority to his son Alexander for the purpose of government.

Nicholas II, the last Czar of Russia, who abdicated in June, 1917, was
born May 18, 1868, and succeeded his father, Emperor Alexander III, on
November 1, 1894. He married Princess Alexandra Alice, daughter of
Ludwig IV, Grand Duke of Hesse, and has four daughters and one son:
Olga, Tatiana, Marie, Anastasia and Alexis.

The family is descended in the female line from Michael Romanof, first
elected Czar in 1613, and, in the male line, from Duke Karl Frederick of
Holstein-Gottorp. As the result of intermarriages and connections with
the royal houses of Germany, they are practically Germans by blood.

It was in fact the German influence, which is said to have been the
immediate cause of the revolt in the great country.

The revolution may be said to have had its inception when a small group
of men opposed to the German influence at court assassinated the monk
Gregory Rasputin, who had a great influence over the Czar.


A REACTIONARY CABINET INSTALLED.

Czar Nicholas in anger dismissed Premier Trepoff and installed a
thoroughly reactionary Cabinet. Trepoff had been in office only a short
time, having followed M. Sturmer, who had bitterly fought the Duma. It
had been commonly reported that the real power in the Russian Government
after Sturmer went out was in the hands of the Minister of the Interior,
M. Protopopoff. Sturmer had been called to the premiership to succeed M.
Goremykin, who was in office when the war began.

The fact that Michael Rodzianko, president of the Duma and one of the
leading advocates of liberalization of the Government, was named as the
chief figure in the provisional government, showed that the movement is
in the hands of the same forces which had demanded the overthrow of the
bureaucracy and a more energetic prosecution of the war.

There were many changes in the Russian Government during the war,
although the censorship was enforced so rigidly that the significance of
the rapid shifts was apparent. Vague reports reached the outside world
of high councilors of State who were obstructing instead of assisting
the work of carrying on the war, and the strength of German influence at
Petrograd. The most conspicuous case of this sort was that of General
Soukhomlinoff, former Minister of War, who was dismissed from office and
imprisoned as a result of charges of criminal negligence and high
treason.

M. Sazonoff, Russia's Foreign Minister at the beginning of the war and
an ardent believer in the prosecution of the war, was deposed early in
the reactionary regime and sent as envoy to London. It was suggested
that the motive for this was not to honor an anti-German, but to get him
out of Russia.


MEMBERS OF THE RUSSIAN CABINET.

The members of the Russian Cabinet, as announced for the Provisional
Government, were:

Prince Georges E. Lvov, well known as president of the Zemstvos' Union,
Prime Minister.

Alexander J. Guchkoff, Minister of the Interior.

Paul Milukoff, well known as a Constitutional Democrat leader, Minister
of Foreign Affairs.

M. Pokrovski, Minister of Finance.

General Manikovski, chief of the Artillery Department, War Minister.

M. Savitch, Minister of Marine.

M. Maklakoff, Minister of Justice.

M. Kovalevski, Minister of Education.

M. Nekrasoff, Minister of Railways.

M. Konovaloff, Moscow merchant, Minister of Commerce and Industry.

M. Rodischneff, Secretary for Finland.

M. Kerenski, Minister without portfolio.

The executive committee of the Imperial Duma, as the provisional
Government styles itself, is composed of twelve members, under M.
Rodzianko, including two Socialists, two Conservatives, three Moderates,
five Constitutional Democrats and Progressives.

Constantine I, King of Greece, who abdicated in favor of his son, Prince
Alexander, on June 11, 1917, under pressure from the Allied countries,
was born in 1868. His father, King George, was assassinated at Salonica
on March 18, 1913. The abdication of King Constantine in June, 1917, was
due to his opposition to the forces in the government which desired to
join the Allies in the war against Germany. The influence in favor of
the Germans in the royal family of Greece was Queen Sophia, a sister of
the Kaiser.

For a time Constantine was a veritable idol in Greece. In 1896 when his
country was drifting into war with Turkey, he sounded a warning that the
Greek army was unprepared for a campaign. The infantry was armed with
condemned French rifles; the cartridges were 15 years old; there was no
cavalry; the artillery was obsolete, and the officers few. When the
country went to war despite his warning, the result was a disastrous
defeat. A similar situation developed when King George tried to oppose
the popular clamor for the annexation of Crete. The King knew that
Turkey was waiting for another opportunity to crush Greece, and there
was a second uprising.


CONSTANTINE BECOMES AN IDOL.

Constantine had been in command of the military forces, and King George
was obliged to dismiss him as Generalissimo. In the Balkan war of 1912,
however, when he led an army of 10,000 Greeks to the capture of
Salonica, causing 30,000 Turks to lay down arms, he became an idol. On
ascending the throne, it was said that he aimed to restore the grandeur
of the ancient Hellenic Empire, and that he was a firm believer in the
old national prophecy that, under the reign of a "Constantine and a
Sophia," the Eastern Empire would be rejuvenated and the cross restored
on Saint Sophia in Constantinople, supplanting the Crescent of the Turk.
In fact, after the Balkan war, when Greece added a section of Turkish
territory to her domain, and the islands of Crete were annexed, King
Constantine hoisted the ancient Hellenic flag over the fort.

The climax in Grecian affairs was precipitated when Turkey entered the
great World War on the side of Germany. The question of intervention on
the part of Greece arose, and King Constantine insisted on strict
neutrality being observed. The cabinet, headed by Premier Venizelos,
which was for war on the side of the Allies, tendered its resignation.
When the operations began against the Dardanelles the Government
believed that the time had come for Greece to enter the war. The King
refused to countenance the plan, arguing that the sending of forces to
the Dardanelles would dangerously weaken the Greek defences on the
Bulgarian frontier. Queen Sophia was regarded as bitterly opposed to the
country joining the Allies, and was reported to have threatened several
times to leave the country.

The criticism directed against Constantine was severe because, under the
terms of the treaty made in the Balkan war, Greece was committed to ally
herself with Servia if that country were attacked by another power.
Austria did invade Servia, but Constantine asserted that the treaty
applied only to an attack by another Balkan nation.


ACCUSED OF EVASION.

The occupation by troops of the Entente Powers of a part of Macedonia,
and the seizure of Salonica as their base, involved the King of Greece
in a long series of clashes with the Entente commanders, and he was
accused of evasion and attempting to gain time in the interests of
Germany. A temporary understanding was obtained, but meantime the
provisional government, headed by Venizelos, had been growing in
strength, and obtained the recognition of the Entente Powers.

The Allies laid an embargo on the supplies of Greece, and Constantine
was denounced by the people of Crete and other territory, who demanded
his dethronement. This was the situation, in a general way, which led to
his abdication and his retirement to Berlin, with the Queen, in the
summer of 1917.

Alexander, who succeeded his father, was a second son, born August 1,
1893. He was a captain in the First Regiment, artillery, in the Greek
army.

Victor Emmanuel, King of Italy, who threw the weight of his country with
the Allies, repudiating the treaty with Germany and Austria-Hungary
which established what was known as the Triple Entente, was born in
1869, the only son of King Humbert, second King of United Italy, who was
murdered at Monza, in July, 1900. Victor Emmanuel married Princess
Elena, daughter of Nicholas, King of Montenegro, and has four children:
Princess Yolanda, Princess Mafalda; Prince Humbert, heir-apparent, and
Princess Giovanna. The mother of King Emmanuel--Dowager Queen
Margherita--is a daughter of the later Prince Ferdinand of Savoy.


TRAGEDY THE PATHWAY TO THRONE.

Charles I, the Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary, was born in 1887
and succeeded his grand uncle, Francis Joseph I, in November, 1916. His
way to the throne lay through tragedy, for he came into the crown
immediately through the assassination of the Archduke Francis Ferdinand,
heir-apparent, and his morganatic wife Countess Sophie Chotek, in
Bosnia, and which crime was the signal for the war. Nor would Charles
have been entitled to succeed to the throne but for the fact that the
Archduke Rudolf, heir-apparent to the throne, committed suicide in 1889.

The right of succession went with his death to the second brother of the
then Emperor Francis Joseph, or Archduke Charles Louis, father of the
assassinated Archduke Francis Ferdinand. It passed then after the
tragedies to Archduke Otto, brother of Francis Ferdinand, Charles I
being the son of the Archduke Otto. The young Emperor married Princess
Zita of Bourbon Parma in 1911. She is the daughter of Duke Robert of
Parma, and sister of the first wife of Czar Ferdinand of Bulgaria. The
Emperor has four children: Francis Joseph Otto, Adelaide Marie, Robert
Charles Ludwig and Felix Frederic August.

Ferdinand of Bulgaria, Czar, is son of the late Prince Augustus of
Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and late Princess Clementine of Bourbon-Orleans,
daughter of King Louis Philippe. He was born in 1861 and succeeded
Prince Alexander, who abdicated. He married Marie Louise, daughter of
Robert of Parma, and after her death married Princess Eleanore of
Reuss-Kostritz. There are four children by the first marriage: Prince
Boris, heir-apparent; Prince Cyril, Princess Eudoxia, Princess Nadejda.

Alfonso XIII, King of Spain, was born May 17, 1886, his father, King
Alfonso XII, having died nearly six months previous to his birth. Maria
Christina, mother of the heir to the Spanish throne, was an Austrian
princess. In 1906 King Alfonso XIII married the English Princess
Victoria Eugenie, daughter of the late Henry of Battenberg and Princess
Beatrice, a daughter of the late Queen Victoria.


KING ALFONSO'S SONS.

King Alfonso XIII has four sons: Alfonso, Prince of the Asturias, heir
to the Spanish throne; Prince Jaime, who is deaf and dumb; Prince Juan,
and Prince Gonzalo. There are two daughters, Princess Beatrice, and
Princess Maria Christina.

The King's sisters were Maria de las Mercedes, who married Prince Carlos
of Bourbon, in February, 1901, and died in 1904, and Infanta Maria
Teresa, who died suddenly from the effects of childbirth. She was the
wife of Prince Ferdinand, who afterward remarried Dona Maria Luisa Pie
de Concha, who was created Duchess of Talavera de la Reina, and given
the courtesy title of Highness by Alfonso. Don Carlos, who was born in
1848, and was the pretender to the Spanish throne, was a second cousin
to the King. He died in 1909, leaving a son, Prince Jamie, born in
1870, and who is the present pretender, and four daughters.

The Spanish reigning family are the Bourbons, descendants of King Louis
XIV of France.

Ferdinand, King of Roumania, was born in 1865, and is a nephew of the
late King Carol, who died in 1914. In 1893 he married Princess Marie of
Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, and two sons and four daughters were born to the
royal couple as follows: Charles, who was born in 1893, and who is
heir-apparent; Nicholas, Elizabeth, Marie, Ileana and Mircia, the latter
dying when four years old.


POINCAIRE'S VERSATILITY.

President Poincaire, of France, is a bearded, pale-faced, short, and
rather stout man, who leaves upon those who come in contact with him, an
impression of his mental ability. He was born in 1860, and is regarded
as one of the few strong characters who have held the office of
President since the war which brought about the third Republic. He is an
author of widely read books, and has won a place in the French Academy.
As a lawyer he was a leader at the bar, and before being chosen
President, in 1913, he served as Minister of Finance, and as Minister of
Public Instruction. While serving as Minister of Finance he is credited
with having put on the statutes admirable laws regulating and equalizing
the taxations of millions. President Poincaire is a patron of art, and
has been counsel of the Beaux Art, of the National Museum and President
of the Society of Friends of the University of Paris.

The Sultan of Turkey, the outstanding nation in the conflict, not
Christian, was chosen ruler and took the Osman sword on May 10, 1909,
and was designated Mohammed V. His name is Mohammed Reshad Effendi, and
he succeeded Abd-ul-Hamid, who was deposed. The latter became Sultan in
1876, succeeding Abd-ul-Aziz, who was preceded by Abd-ul-Mejid.

The history of the Ottoman Empire is filled with mystery, romance and
stories of intrigue, cruelty and barbarities, involving internal wars,
uprisings, almost continuous struggles with practically all of the
European countries and massacres that aroused the whole world. Legend
assigns Oghuz, son of Kara Khan, father of the Ottoman Turks, whose
first appearance in history dates back to 1227 A.D.

The reign of Abd-ul-Aziz in the latter part of the last century was
marked by many massacres and the extravagant conduct of affairs by the
Sultan, who visited England in 1876 and was honored by Queen Victoria,
who bestowed upon him the Order of the Garter. He was deposed and
Abd-ul-Hamid succeeded. He made feeble attempts to reorganize the
Government, but his efforts were fruitless and following wars and
uprisings and further internal troubles and the loss of territory he was
deposed and the present Sultan was chosen.



CHAPTER XIX.

THE WAR'S WHO'S WHO.

STRIKING FIGURES IN THE CONFLICT--JOFFRE, THE HERO OF
MARNE--NIVELLE, THE FRENCH COMMANDER--SIR DOUGLAS HAIG--THE
KAISER'S CHANCELLOR--VENIZELOS--"BLACK JACK" PERSHING.


One of the most striking figures among those whose names are irrevocably
linked with the history of the world fight for democracy, is that of
Joseph Joffre, Marshal of France, former Commander of the French forces
and victor of the famous battle of the Marne, who led the French Mission
to the United States, after America entered the war.

The Commander-in-Chief of all the French armies, a man of humble birth,
saw the light of day at Perpignan, near the Pyrenees, in 1852.

The future General early showed a deep interest in mathematics and
obtained the degree of Bachelor of Science at the College of Perpignan
at the early age of 16. He was a student at the Polytechnic Institute
when the Franco-German War of 1870 broke out. Joffre was placed in
charge of a large part of the defense of Paris and drew the plans of the
fortifications in the direction of Enghein. At the age of 19 he was
promoted to Captaincy in the presence of Marshal MacMahon and his whole
staff.

Marshal Joffre traveled much and spent a great many years fighting
France's colonial wars. He served in the Formosa campaign of 1885;
constructed a chain of forts at Tonkin, Cochin-China; was decorated for
distinguished bravery in leading his troops in action there in the
eighties; was Chief Engineer of the Engineering Corps at Hanoi, and
undertook the building of a railroad from Senegal to the Niger River in
1892.

Joffre fought through the Dahomey Campaign in 1893; saved the day for
the French in a brilliant rear-guard action and entered Timbuctoo as a
conqueror. Later he proceeded to Madagascar, where he constructed
fortifications and organized a naval station.

Recalled to France, General Joffre became a Professor in the War College
and obtained his stars in 1901. He later entered the Engineering
Department of the War Ministry; then became Military Governor of Lille.
Later he was promoted to be a Division Commander in Paris and then
commander of the Second Army Corps at Amiens. He gained the honor in
1911 of a unanimous vote of the Superior Council of War making him
Commander of all the military forces of France.


A FAMOUS WAR RECORD.

His record in the World War is well known. Every one has read of his
masterly conduct of the retreat from the Belgian border; of his work in
regrouping the shattered and retiring French forces; of his ringing
appeal to the men to strike back at the moment he had determined upon.
At the Marne he saved France and perhaps the world.

Joffre is unsympathetic and grim when at work. He has no patience for
anything but the highest efficiency. At a single stroke he cashiered a
score of Generals who did not measure up to his standards. He is a
master builder, organizer and strategist. Though rather taciturn he is
loved both by the officers and poilus. Among the latter he became known
as "Papa" Joffre.

He showed by his appointments and acts that a new inspiration--an
inspiration of patriotism--controlled the Republic. Joffre's accession
to supreme command symbolized that France had experienced a new birth,
that the army was well organized and that the man who for three years
had been silently performing the regeneration of the land forces had
rightly been placed over the forces he had reformed.

Almost unknown to the masses, Joffre was placed at the head of the
French troops in the summer of 1914. Among his associates he was known
as an authority on aeroplanes, automobiles, telegraphs and the other
details of modern warfare. Above everything else he stood for efficiency
and preparedness, and lacked the qualities of the French soldier of
literature. To be prepared for instant war had been his effort for three
years, and when that time came France found herself nearly as well
prepared for the conflict as was Germany, which had prepared for
twenty-five years.


ADJURATION TO SCHOOL CHUMS.

One of his few published speeches, made to his old school chums, is on
this theme. "To be prepared in our days," he said, "has a meaning which
those who prepared for and fought the wars of other days would have
great difficulty in understanding. It would be a sad mistake to depend
upon a sudden burst of popular enthusiasm, even though it should surpass
in intensity that of the volunteers of the Revolution, if we do not
fortify it by complete preparation.

"To be prepared we must assemble all the resources of the country, all
the intelligence of her children, all their moral energy and direct them
toward a single aim--victory. We must have organized everything,
foreseen everything. Once hostilities have begun no improvisation will
be worth while. Whatever lacks then will be lacking for good and all.
And the slightest lack of preparation will spell disaster."

What Joffre said to his chums he had done for the French army, and
President Poincare, after the Battle of the Marne, summed up his
qualities which made it a French victory in this message to Joffre: "In
the conduct of our armies you have shown a spirit of organization, order
and of method whose beneficent effects have influenced every phase, from
strategy to tactics; a wisdom cold and cautious, which has always
prepared for the unexpected, a powerful soul which nothing has shaken,
a serenity whose salutary example has everywhere inspired confidence and
hope."

These words of the President of the French Republic are an epitome of
the character and the military record of Joffre. He is representative of
the real France, not the France of Paris and scandals. He is of the
peasantry, and he and his kind, men of character, brought about the
glorious France of the war.

Among those who accompanied Joffre on his visit to the United States was
Rene Viviani, ex-Premier of France and Minister of Justice. He was born
in Algeria in 1862, his family being Corsican, and originally of Italian
blood.


VIVIANI A SOCIALIST LEADER.

M. Viviani became a lawyer in Paris and built up a large practice. In
1893 he entered the Chamber of Deputies as a Socialist. Together with
Briand, Jaures and Millerand he was long a leader of the parliamentary
delegation of Socialists. On June 1, 1914, one month before the outbreak
of the war, M. Viviani became Prime Minister. He showed himself a
brilliant leader and tireless worker. His speeches embodying the spirit
of fighting France were read and admired the world over. Many persons
consider Rene Viviani France's greatest orator. Volumes of his speeches
have had a wide sale.

M. Viviani was succeeded in the Premiership by M. Briand, and recently
he became Minister of Justice in the Ribot Cabinet. He is a man of great
culture. Though an excellent Latin and Greek scholar, he speaks no
English. Rene Viviani has had some experience as a newspaper man, as a
special writer and as managing editor of the Petite Republique. His
younger son, aged 22, was killed in the war. His older son has been
wounded but is back at the front.

Another member of the French mission was M. de Hovelacque, the French
Inspector General of Public Instruction. He is well known in the United
States because of his marriage to Miss Josephine Higgins, of New York
State.

The Right Honorable Arthur Balfour, ex-Premier of England, who came to
America to join in the conferences at which the policies for carrying
the war were outlined after America became an Ally, is described as one
of the most intellectual statesmen in England, and one who, although he
won all the honors his country could give him, never realized his own
possibilities. At sixty-nine, at the height of his mental development,
he occupies a place in the English cabinet, a place which was given him
because of his great hold upon the autocracy of England.


BALFOUR'S INTELLECTUAL ABILITY.

As the Premier of England, as Secretary of Ireland and as the leader of
the House of Commons Mr. Balfour displayed great intellectual agility,
but at no time was credited with having displayed the industry which
spurred on such men as Lloyd George to success. He is of the aristocracy
and his position in English politics came to him as the nephew of Lord
Salisbury.

He was born in 1848 and educated at Eton and Cambridge and entered the
House of Commons at the age of 26. Mr. Balfour was known in his early
years as a philosophically and religiously inclined young man, and it
occasioned some surprise when he followed the traditions of his family
by entering politics.

Some years after taking his seat he joined what was known as the Fourth
Party, a conservative rebel faction, consisting of three members, Lord
Randolph Churchill, Sir Henry Drummond Wolff and Sir John Gorst. This
group constituted a sort of mugwump element that voted independently on
every party question and that tried to rouse the Conservatives from
their party prejudices and narrow leanings.

To Mr. Balfour belonged the distinguished honor of attending the Berlin
Conference of 1878 as private secretary to Lord Salisbury. In 1885 he
became President of the Local Government Board. The Conservatives were
thrown out of power for a short time at this juncture, but when they
were restored in 1886 Balfour became Secretary for Scotland. Shortly
after he was promoted to be Chief Secretary for Ireland.

Despite his gentle manners and quiet ways, the new Chief Secretary ruled
the then disturbed Ireland with an iron hand. He was known as "Bloody
Balfour" by the Irish agitators until he began to show his milder ways
upon the restoration of peace. He remained in Ireland until 1891. He had
endured abuse and faced threats and had come away triumphant. From
Ireland Mr. Balfour went to England as First Lord of the Treasury.

Arthur James Balfour showed his friendship for the United States when,
in 1897, as Acting Secretary for Foreign Affairs, he refused to give
England's consent to a continental proposal that Spain be permitted to
govern Cuba as she chose.


LIBERALS COME INTO POWER.

When Lord Salisbury died in 1902 Mr. Balfour succeeded him as Prime
Minister. He remained in that office until 1905, when the Liberals came
into power. In the coalition Ministry formed since the outbreak of the
European War, he was nominated First Lord of the Admiralty. He showed
remarkable ability in this office. Upon the resignation of Mr. Asquith's
Cabinet, Mr. Balfour became Secretary for Foreign Affairs. He is an
enthusiastic sportsman and has written a book on golf.

The other English envoys who accompanied Mr. Balfour to Washington were
Rear Admiral Sir Dudley Rawson Stratford de Chair, and Lord Walter
Cunliffe, Governor of the Bank of England.

Rear Admiral de Chair was born August 30, 1864. He entered the Royal
Navy at the age of 14, and received his early training aboard His
Majesty's Ship Britannia. He served in the Egyptian war and was naval
attache at Washington in 1902.

Admiral de Chair commanded the Bacchante, Cochrane and Colossus
successively in the years between 1905 and 1912. From 1912 to 1914 he
acted as Assistant Controller of the Navy and subsequently he was the
Naval Secretary to the First Lord of the Admiralty. At the outbreak of
the war he became Admiral of the training services and of the Tenth
Cruiser Squadron. Admiral de Chair is a member of the Royal Victorian
Order and a Companion of the Bath.


LORD WALTER CUNLIFFE.

Lord Walter Cunliffe, Governor of the Bank of England, is 52 years old.
He received his education at Harrow and at Trinity College, Cambridge,
from which he graduated with the degree of Master of Arts. He is a
Lieutenant of the City of London.

Lord Cunliffe has been active in the banking field for many years and is
a member of the firm of Cunliffe Brothers. He is a Director of the North
Eastern Railway Company and has been a Director of the Bank of England
since 1895. He became Deputy Governor of the bank in 1911 and has been
Governor since 1913. Lord Cunliffe is the first Governor of the Bank of
England to receive the honor of re-election after serving his term of
two years. In 1914 he was created the First Baron of Headley.

Among the dominating characters of the war and upon whose judgment and
ability the destinies of France and the Allies depended for a long
period is General Robert Nivelle, Commander of the French armies, and
who succeeded General Joffre. General Nivelle is a man of silence; he
speaks little. General Nivelle is four years younger than Joffre.

As a boy of fourteen he could not take part as did Joffre and Gallieni
and Pau and Kitchener also, in the tragical war of 1870. Joffre studied
at the Ecole Polytechnique, in Paris; Gallieni, at Saint Cyr, without
the walls; Nivelle studied at both; he may claim to belong to all arms,
artillery, infantry--even cavalry. And, in his youth, he was not only a
magnificent all-round athlete, as indeed he still is, but also a
headlong rider of steeplechases, in which, had he been fated to break
his neck, his neck would infallibly have been broken. This is a trait he
shares with General Brussiloff, and, like the great Russian General, he
was famous for the skill with which he tamed and trained cavalry mounts.


SERVES AS JUNIOR OFFICER.

As a junior officer Nivelle saw service in the French General Staff; his
part in the expedition to China we have recorded; he also served in
Northern Africa. So that, like Joffre, Gallieni, Lyantey, Roques and so
many leaders of French armies, Nivelle gained an invaluable element of
his training in the out-of-the-way corners of France's vast colonial
empire, which has outposts in every continent and measures nearly five
million square miles.

At the outbreak of the World War Nivelle, with the rank of Colonel,
commanded the Fifth Regiment of Artillery, which is the artillery
element of the Seventh Army Corps, the corps of Besancon and the old
Franche-Comte, under the Jura Mountains, at the corner of Switzerland
and Alsace.

It was, in fact, in the section of Alsace invaded and retaken by the
French army of General Pau--who lost an arm in Alsace in the war of
1870--that Nivelle struck the first of many hard blows which made him
Field Commander of the splendid army of France. He directed the guns of
his Fifth Regiment with such deadly accuracy against a group of German
guns that he first scattered their gunners in flight and put them out of
action, and then led them off in triumph, twenty-four guns in all, the
first great trophy won by the arms of France.

In the battle of the Ourcq, fought with superb tenacity and dash by
Manoury and his men, the first decisive blow of the great battle, the
first definite victory, was gained; General von Kluck's right wing was
smashed in and out-flanked, with the result that the whole German line
was dislocated and sent hurtling backward.

In that battle and victory Colonel Nivelle, as he then was, had his
part; but it was on the Aisne, a few days later, that a strikingly
brilliant act brought him into especial prominence. The Seventh Corps
was attacked by exceedingly strong enemy forces and forced backward over
the Aisne. Colonel Nivelle, commanding its artillery, saw his
opportunity, and, himself leading on horseback, brought his batteries
out into the open, right between the retreating Seventh Corps and the
strong German forces that were pursuing them, already sure of victory.


VICTORY TURNED TO SLAUGHTER.

With that calm serenity which is his dominant characteristic in action,
he let the Germans come close up to his guns in serried masses. Then he
opened fire, at short range, with deadly precision, so that the expected
victory was turned into a slaughter. The broken German regiments,
fleeing to the woods beside the Aisne for safety, ran upon the bayonets
of the rallied Seventh Corps, inspired to splendid valor by the
magnificent action of their artillery. Of 6000 Germans who made that
charge few indeed returned to their trenches.

This was on September 16, 1914. Before the New Year the Artillery
Colonel had been made a General of Brigade, and in January, 1915, the
new General distinguished himself by stopping the tremendous and
unforeseen German drive against Soissons. He was forthwith recommended
for further promotion, and on February 18 was gazetted General of
Division. Shortly after this be gained new laurels by capturing from the
Germans the Quenevieres salient.

This great commander was the son of Colonel Nivelle--and an English
mother, a former Miss Sparrow, whose family lived at Deal, on the
English Channel. In his married life General Nivelle has been
exceedingly happy.

The dominating figure in the English army when America entered the fray
was Sir Douglas Haig. He succeeded Sir John French.

Sir Douglas Haig was born under so favorable a star that he has long
been known as "Lucky" Haig. Not that he has depended upon his luck to
push him ahead in the army, for his record as a student and a worker
wholly disproves this. But nevertheless fortune has showered many favors
upon him. Among these favors the first and by no means the least is his
very aristocratic lineage and the consequent high standing he has had in
royal and influential circles.


HAIG'S FAMILY TREE.

Haig's family tree dates back at least six centuries and he comes of the
very flower of Scotch stock. The virtues of the "Haigs of Bamersyde"
were extolled by the poets of the thirteenth century. And to discuss
this feature of his career without giving due credit to the position and
influence of his wife would be ungallant as well as unfair. She was the
Hon. Dorothy Vivian, daughter of the third Lord Vivian, and
maid-of-honor to Queen Alexandra, and the pair were married in
Buckingham Palace.

He did not enter the army until after his graduation from Oxford and
then he took service in the cavalry, the usual choice of the English
"gentleman." When twenty-four years old, he received his commission as a
Lieutenant in the Queen's Own Hussars, one of the ultra-fashionable
regiments. Six years later he was made a Captain and then decided to
take a regular military course at the Staff College.

In 1898 he took part in Kitchener's campaign up the Nile and in the
Soudan as a cavalry officer. He was then thirty-seven years old. He
distinguished himself in several engagements, was "mentioned in the
dispatches," was awarded the British medal and the Khedive's medal and
was promoted to Major.

His career in the Boer war, which followed that in Egypt, was
characterized by distinguished services and numerous rapid promotions.
It was during this latter war that Haig became attached to the staff of
Sir John French, whom he succeeded in France and Flanders. He came out
of the war in South Africa a full-fledged Colonel, and with a fresh
supply of medals and "mentions." Then he was sent to India as Inspector
General of Cavalry.


DIRECTOR OF MILITARY TRAINING.

He remained in the Indian service three years, and then was given a post
at the war office in London, with the title of "Director of Military
Training." He remained in London three years, when he was sent to India
as Chief of the Staff of the Indian Army. Three years later he returned
to England and was given what was known as the "Aldershot Command,"
which, in fact, was the command of the real active British army. He had
this post when the war broke. His assignment as Commander of the First
Army Corps under Sir John French soon followed.

The man, who next to the Kaiser had more to do with Germany's plans for
world domination, is Dr. Theobold von Bethmann-Hollweg, Imperial
Chancellor of Germany.

The elevation of Hollweg to the Chancellorship came when Prince Bulow
stood in the way of complete domination of Germany's policies by the
militarists, headed by the Kaiser. Prince Bulow was dismissed and
Bethmann-Hollweg became Chancellor in 1909. From that time on he
dedicated his life to the achievement of a single aim--the completion of
Germany's plans of aggression.

Bethmann-Hollweg comes from an old Prussian family ennobled in 1840. He
was born about 1855 and was a student with the Kaiser at the University
of Bonn. He studied law at Gottingen, Strassburg and Berlin, and for
several years followed the law and was appointed a judge at Potsdam.


APPOINTED PRUSSIAN HOME SECRETARY.

In 1905 he was appointed Prussian Home Secretary, and it was then that
his name first became familiar to the man in the street in Berlin.
Shortly afterward he was appointed Assistant Chancellor of Prince Bulow,
who was then Chancellor.

It was during his service as Home Secretary that Bethmann-Hollweg became
largely converted to all that the most advanced Prussian militarism
stood for. Ultimately he became a far more ardent Pan-German even than
Prince Bulow. In a speech at Munich in 1908 he declared that though
Germany was then happily free of all immediate anxiety so far as her
foreign relations were concerned, her present and future position as a
great Power must ultimately rest on her strong arm and though the
strength of her arm was greater than it ever had been it must grow yet
stronger.

It was a speech after the Kaiser's own heart--provocative and boasting
to a degree. It had, as a matter of fact, it is said, been prepared by
the Emperor, and was delivered by the Kaiser's order for the special
benefit of Prince Bulow, who had at that time fallen out of favor with
the Emperor.

Grand Admiral Von Tirpitz is said to be the man who made the German
navy. Having won the recognition of the Kaiser in 1894 he was promoted
to Chief of Staff in the German navy, and was placed in command of Kiel.
He was made Secretary of State in 1898 and immediately began the
building up of the navy. New and modern methods of engineering were
developed and finally he made such an impression with the Kaiser that he
was ennobled. Von Tirpitz was the principal advocate of Germany's plans
during a decade for having the navy powerful enough to equal the
combined powers of any three great naval powers.

Sir John Jellicoe, Vice Admiral and Commander-in-Chief of the British
Naval Home Fleet had served more than forty years in the navy when the
war broke out. He was a Lieutenant at the bombardment of Alexandria and
was a member of the Naval Brigade which participated in the battle of
Tel-el-Kebir, for activity in which he was presented with the Khedive's
Bronze Star for gallant service. He was in command of the naval brigade
which went to China in 1898 to help subdue the Boxers and was shot at
Teitsang, where he was decorated by the German Emperor, who conferred
upon him the Order of the Red Eagle. He was Rear-Admiral of the Atlantic
Fleet in 1907-08, and Commander of the Second Home Squadron in 1911-12.
To Admiral Jellicoe is given credit for having developed a high degree
of efficiency among the gunners in the English navy.


ADMIRAL HUGO POHL.

Admiral Hugo Pohl, of the German navy, was born at Breslau in 1855. He
became a Lieutenant in the Imperial German navy when but 21 years of
age. He gained rapid promotion, and within a few years was Commodore in
charge of the scouting ships. He had charge of setting up the now famous
German naval stations from Kiel to Sonderberg in Schleswig in 1908 and
was afterwards made Vice Admiral. He wears the medal of the Order of the
Crown, bestowed upon him by the Kaiser for admirable service.

One of the men whose names will be forever linked with the war,
particularly with relation to the adoption of new methods of warfare, is
that of Count Zeppelin, who died on March 8, 1917, and who was the
father of the Zeppelin or dirigible balloon. The idea for the big
airship did not originate with Count Zeppelin, but with David Schwartz,
a young Austrian, who built his first dirigible in 1893. He tried to
arouse interest in his aircraft in Russia, but failed and finally went
to Berlin, where he interested the then Baron Zeppelin. A balloon was
made, but Schwartz fell ill and died. Zeppelin was later accused of
attempting to steal the young Austrian's patents, and the courts made an
award to Schwartz's widow of $18,000.

Count Zeppelin's first airship came out about 1898. It was 300 feet long
and had an aluminum frame. Short cruises were made in 1899 and 1900, and
the craft maintained a speed of about sixteen miles an hour. A second
airship was completed in 1905, and later a third aircraft was finished.
This dirigible made a cruise of 200 miles at an average speed of twenty
miles. The success led Count Zeppelin to make his most ambitious attempt
and he tried to cross the Alps carrying sixteen passengers.


IN THE AIR THIRTY-SEVEN HOURS.

He succeeded and passing through hailstorms, crossing eddies and
encountering cross-currents he traveled 270 miles at an average speed of
twenty-two miles an hour. Subsequently he made a flight to England,
remaining in the air thirty-seven hours. Fate played him false, however,
in many of his ventures and he returned home after making remarkable
voyages, only to have his craft destroyed at its very landing place.

The German Government and the Kaiser joined in giving him a grant of
money to carry on his work, and a plant was built at Frederichshafen.
But while Count Zeppelin's name will be forever identified with
aeronautics the successes which he attained were not enduring, for the
Zeppelins proved not entirely satisfactory in military warfare in
competition with the aeroplane.

In the counsels of Greece the outstanding figure from the beginning of
the war was Eleutherois Venizelos. He is credited with being responsible
for the national revival in Greece when the country seemed doomed after
the Turkish war of 1897. He was the leader of the country in the
movement to join the Allies in the fight against German domination and
he swayed the nation and held them as few men have. He was born in the
Island of Crete in 1864, and according to tradition, his family
descended from the medieval Dukes of Athens. He was educated in Greece
and Switzerland and became active in Cretan politics, and won
recognition as the strong man of the "Great Greek Island."


TRANSFORMS A NATION.

In less than three years after the distress in which the country found
itself in 1909 he transformed the nation into one of solidarity. There
had been meaningless squabbles of corrupt politicians and a sordid
struggle for preferment. The army was degenerating and the popular fury
became so great that there was an uprising of the army, which under the
title of the "Military League," ousted the Government and took control
of the country. The heads of the League brought forward Venizelos. The
League dissolved and reforms were instituted which started the country
on a new path, and when the Balkan war broke in 1912 Greece made a
record and emerged in many respects the leader of the Balkan states.

Sir John French is one of the English commanders who have rendered
yeoman service in the war. He is one of the most striking military
figures in England. He has seen service in India, Africa and Canada, and
was one of the uniformly successful commanders in the Boer war. At the
Siege of Kimberly he was shut up in Ladysmith with the Boer lines
drawing closer. He managed to secrete himself under the seat of a train
on which women were being carried to safety. Outside the lines he made
his way to the Cape, where he was put in charge of cavalry and in a
terrific drive he swept through the Free State and reached Ladysmith in
time to save the day.

He originally entered the navy, but remained for a short time. He
commanded the 19th Hussars from 1889 to 1903 and then rose steadily in
rank until he was made General Inspector of the Forces and finally Field
Marshal in 1903.

There should be no discrimination in naming those who have represented
America in the country's activities at war, but because they came into
the world's line of vision by being sent abroad for service there are
some American commanders whose names will ever be remembered.

Vice-Admiral William S. Sims is one of these. He is a Pennsylvanian who
was born in Canada. His father was A.W. Sims, of Philadelphia, who
married a Canadian and lived at Port Hope, where Admiral Sims first saw
the light of day. He went to Annapolis when he was 17 years of age and
was graduated in 1880. After this he secured a year's leave of absence
and went to France, where he studied French. Subsequently he was
assigned to the Tennessee, the flagship of the North Atlantic Squadron
and passed through all grades of ships. He received promotion to a
Lieutenancy when he was about 30 years of age. For a time he was in
charge of the Schoolship Saratoga, and later was located at Charleston
Navy Yard, and also with the receiving ship at the League Island Navy
Yard, Philadelphia. After this he went to Paris as Naval Attache at the
American Embassy. He was similarly Attache at the American Embassy at
St. Petersburg.

Admiral Sims was relieved of his European assignment in 1900 and joined
the Asiatic fleet, and while abroad studied the methods of British
gunnery. When he returned to America later he inaugurated reforms which
increased the efficiency of the gunnery in the service 100 per cent. His
successful efforts led to his appointment as Naval Aide to President
Roosevelt. He made a report on the engagement between the British and
German naval fleets at Jutland which was startling, and declared that
the British battle cruisers had protected Great Britain from the
invasion of the enemy.

When he reached the European waters in command of the United States
naval forces, with a destroyer flotilla, and the British officers who
greeted him asked when the flotilla would be ready to assist in chasing
the submarine and protecting shipping, Admiral Sims created a surprise
by tersely replying: "We can start at once." And he did. Admiral Sims
married Miss Anne Hitchcock, daughter of Former Secretary of the
Interior. The couple have five children.

Major General John J. Pershing, of the United States Army, Commander of
the forces in France and Belgium, is one of the most picturesque figures
in American military circles. "Black Jack" Pershing is what the officers
call him, because he was for a long time commander of the famous Tenth
Cavalry of Negroes, which he whipped into shape as Drillmaster, and
which saved the Rough Riders from a great deal of difficulty at San Juan
Hill in the Spanish-American War. He was also at the battle of El Caney
where he was given credit for being one of the most composed men in
action that ever graced a battlefield. He served with signal results in
the campaign against the little "brown" men in the Philippines; was in
charge of the expedition which chased Villa into Mexico.

General Pershing was born in 1864 in Laclede, Missouri, and is tall,
wiry and strong. Every inch of his six feet is of fighting material. He
is a man of action and has a penchant for utilizing the services of
young men rather than staid old officers of experience. Pershing is a
real military man, and has been notably absent from such things as
banquets and other functions where by talking he might get into the lime
light. It is true that he was jumped over the heads of a number of
officers by President Roosevelt, but he has carved his way by his own
efforts, and no man could have more fittingly been sent to take charge
of the American forces abroad than "Jack" Pershing.



CHAPTER XX.

CHEMISTRY IN THE WAR.

SUBSTITUTES FOR COTTON--NITRATES PRODUCED FROM AIR--YEAST A REAL
SUBSTITUTE FOR BEEF--SEAWEED MADE TO GIVE UP POTASH--A GANGRENE
PREVENTATIVE--SODA MADE OUT OF SALT WATER--AMERICA CHEMICALLY
INDEPENDENT.


It is when men are put to the test that they develop initiative and are
inspired to great things. In the stress of circumstances there were
created through and in the great war many unusual devices and much that
will endure for the benefit of mankind in the future. It is probable
that the advancements made in many lines would not have been attained in
years but for the necessity which demanded the exertion of men's
ingenuity, and in no field was this advancement greater than in that of
chemistry.

Any struggle between men is, in the last analysis, a battle of wits, but
it remained for those planning and scheming to defeat their fellow men
or protect themselves in the world conflict to make for the first time
in history the fullest use of the chemist's knowledge. Largely the
successes of the war have been due to the studies and activities of the
chemists, working in their laboratories far from the actual field of
strife.

Not only has their knowledge been turned to the creation of tremendously
destructive explosives, the like of which have never before been known
in warfare, but the same brains which have been utilized to assist man
in his death-dealing crusades have been called upon to thwart the
efforts of the warring humans and save the lives of those compelled to
face the withering fire of cannon, the flaming grenade and the
asphyxiating gas bomb.

In the food crisis which confronted the nations, chemists drew from the
very air and the waters of the river and sea, gases and salts to take
the place of those which became limited in their supply because of the
demands of the belligerents.

The chemist is one of those who fights the battles at home. The
resisting steel, the penetrating shell, the poisonous gas, the
power-producing oil, the powerful explosive--all these are his
contributions to the war's equipment, but he also is the magician who
waves the wand and out of the apparently useless weeds and vegetable
matter produces edibles. He turns waste products into valuable chemicals
or extracts needed chemicals from by-products.


GERMANY'S GREAT PRIVATION.

Germany, deprived of many imports by the sea power of England, first
transformed herself into a self-supporting nation through the agency of
the chemist. Substitutes had to be provided for food products which the
Germans could not get, and it is said that the ability of the Kaiser and
his henchmen to withstand the attacks of the Allied forces was due as
much to the service rendered by the chemists as by the army and navy.

Not only were artificial foodstuffs manufactured, but natural food
products previously neglected were prepared for use. What had been
regarded as useless weeds were found to possess food value. A dozen
wild-growing plants were found that might be used as a substitute for
spinach, while half a dozen others were shown to be good substitutes for
salads. Starches were obtained from roots, and cheap grades of oils and
fatty wastes of all sorts were turned into edibles.

Up until the advent of the present war cotton formed the base of most of
the so-called propellant explosives used in advanced warfare. Such
terrible explosives as trinitrotoluene occasionally mentioned in the
published war reports, as well as many others, have as the principal
agent of destructive force guncotton, which is ordinary raw cotton or
cellulose treated with nitric or sulphuric acid, though there are, of
course, other chemicals used in compounding the various forms of deadly
explosives.

At the same time there are innumerable explosives which are of a
distinct class. Lyddite, mentioned occasionally as one of the modern
death-dealing explosives, has for a base picric acid. The Lyddite shells
referred to occasionally in various articles about the war are shells in
which Lyddite is used as the explosive. The largest percentage of
explosives used in modern gunnery are those formed of nitrated
cellulose--guncotton.


TWO GREAT FACTORS.

Therefore any shortage in the supply of cotton and cellulose is a
serious matter in war time, for the country which has the most plentiful
supply of ammunition is the one that has the greatest relative
advantage. It was, for instance, stated from Washington several times
after the war started and the United States commercial and industrial
forces were being mobilized, that America could make enough almost
unbelievably powerful explosives to blow Germany off the face of the
European map, were it possible to transport the dangerous materials.
Dozens of new explosive compounds were placed before the Government for
consideration and in application for patents. One of the new ones, it
was said, was so powerful that little more than a pinch of it exploded
beneath such an immense structure as the Woolworth Building, New York,
would destroy the entire edifice.

The curtailment of the supply of cotton to Germany when the war started,
because of England's blockade, and later when America entered the
conflict, threatened disaster to the "Fatherland." The German chemists
began working immediately to supply substitutes for cotton, to be used
both in the manufacture of explosives and fabrics. They developed the
processes of producing cellulose from wood pulp to take the place of
cotton for making guncotton, and certain forms of wood fiber and paper
were used in the textile trades. Willow bark was one of the substances
utilized to a limited degree in making fabrics.

Likewise synthetic--or artificial--camphor to take the place of that
secured from nature's own laboratory--the camphor tree--was also
produced of necessity, for camphor is an ingredient largely used in
making smokeless powder. Before the war most of the camphor was obtained
from Japan.

Compounds--alloyed steel, iron and aluminum--have also been used in the
industrial world to supplant copper. In America we have been educated to
regard copper as the ideal metal for conducting electrical power, but in
Europe aluminum was used successfully in a large way, even before the
war. After the conflict started in all of the countries where there was
a scant supply of copper, substitutes were developed by the
metallurgists and chemists.


POTENCY OF MODERN CHEMISTRY.

The acids and salts used in powder making and the creation of explosives
were also secured from new places. Nitric acid, which is necessary to
the manufacture of guncotton, for many years was made principally with
saltpeter and sulphuric acid. Modern chemists, however, made it from
nitrogen of the very air we breathe, and in Germany it was made during
the war from ammonia and calcium cyanamide, both of which may be
obtained from the air.

Many such methods of obtaining acids were known and tested before the
war, but the processes had not been perfected to such an extent as to
make them commercially profitable. However, the increased prices of
chemicals, due to the excessive demands of war, and the absolute
necessity for producing them inspired the chemists to get the required
results, and Germany by the development of these sources of supply found
the acids necessary for her own use in war, whether for explosive making
or medical purposes.

Great quantities of sugar are used in making powder and explosives, too,
and when the supply became limited the German chemists began producing
in larger quantities the chemical substitute--saccharine. Later even
this sweet was denied the population because the chemicals were needed
for war uses. So in every line Germany found use for everything which
its chemists and chemical laboratories could produce.

The terrible gas and liquid fire bombs which the Germans were first
reported using contained chemical compounds invented for the purpose by
the chemists. Some of the chemicals and the gases produced when the
bombs exploded were so powerful that men and animals in the range of the
fumes were killed instantly. The effect was to paralyze them in some
cases and it was reported that many of the soldiers were found dead
standing upright in the trenches or in the attitudes which they had
assumed at the moment they were overcome.


BASIC PRINCIPLE OF BOMBS.

Nitrous-oxide, or chlorine, in some chemical form is supposed to have
been the base of the bombs, and concerning the liquid fire it was
reported in connection with the dropping of bombs on London from a
Zeppelin, that some of the bombs contained what is chemically known as
Thermit, which is a mixture of aluminum and iron oxide used in brazing
and welding. When ignited the oxygen is freed from the iron and combines
with the aluminum with great rapidity. During the chemical reaction an
intense heat is produced--a heat so great that it almost equals that of
an electric arc.

So in the world of agriculture and industry the German chemists,
recognized leaders of the world, actually made or produced from the air
and other unsuspected sources things without which they could not have
withstood the siege against them for a single year. In the absence of
concentrated foods for cattle and humans, the chemists produced absolute
substitutes. They took the residue or waste from the breweries and
extracting the bitter hops taste from the dried yeast produced a
substitute for beef extract.

So also they secured ammonium sulphate by a direct combination of
nitrogen and hydrogen in the air. At the same time they utilized other
minerals than those usually available for the manufacture of sulphuric
acid and placed the country on an independent footing.

But Germany was not alone in its advancement. The United States, which
found itself without quantities of dye-stuffs and many other chemically
produced things when the war came on, took the lesson unto itself and is
today nearer self-supporting than it ever was in the history of the
nation. The Department of Agriculture has experimented and produced from
yeast, vegetable boullion cubes, which taste like beef extract and
contain greater nutriment.


DOMESTIC DYE-STUFFS.

America, too, has extracted sulphate of ammonium from the air and the
dye-stuffs which we could not get from abroad are being made at home.
Two of the things which America found lacking when war developed were
potash and acetone, both of which are factors in powder and explosive
making. The former is used in the ordinary black gunpowder, but the
latter is necessary in the making of the smokeless powder. England
wanted Cordite, one form of this powder which the British think is the
best propellant in the world. It is made of guncotton and nitroglycerine
and acetone is one of the chemicals required in its manufacture. England
turned to the United States for quantities of this explosive and also
for the acetone, but America did not produce anywhere near enough, and
England wanted this country to make something like 20,000,000 pounds of
the explosive.

A number of mushroom chemical plants were developed by the powder
company to produce the desired acetone--one very much like a vinegar
plant near Baltimore, and another at San Diego, California, where the
munitions maker's chemists refined acetone and potash extracted from
kelp, or sea weed, and besides supplying the powder and the chemicals
which the English needed America developed a permanent industry.


RELIEVED BY AMERICAN INGENUITY.

Carbolic acid, too, was one of the badly needed chemicals of the war,
not only for medical purposes, but also for explosive making. Again the
ingenuity of America asserted itself and Thomas A. Edison produced the
plans for two benzol-absorbing plants which were erected at great steel
works and within a few months these plants were turning out benzol and
Mr. Edison's carbolic-acid plant was being supplied with the raw
material.

And then it was believed that America could not make dyes to take the
place of those which came from Germany. All the United States, it was
said, would have to wear white stockings. The country just could not
produce the dyes necessary, and the product of the American plants was
inferior. But America could make the same dyes. She is making them.
Right now she is making practically as great a variety as Germany ever
sent over here.

A few miles outside of Philadelphia, at Marcus Hook, on the busy
Delaware river where the ships of the world are being made, the Benzol
Products Company turns out large quantities of aniline oil. The aniline
oil, the essential basis of aniline dyes, is made into tints as fair and
perfect as any the wizards of Germany ever conjured out of their test
tubes.

The tale about America's inability was proved to be a fable. The Marcus
Hook plant is one of three which sprang up when the war began. Others
are the Schoellkopf Aniline and Chemical Works at Buffalo and a third is
the Becker Aniline and Chemical Works at Brooklyn. The three are now
merged into one great operating company and Germany will have some
difficulty in getting back her dye trade when she is ready to again
fight for the world markets.

Moreover, the world-famous duPont Company, which has made powder and
chemicals for all the nations, turned in and purchased the Harrison
Chemical Works in 1917, and besides making "pigments" has entered the
coal tar dye industry. The company made an intensive study of the dyeing
industries--cotton, calico printing, wool, silk, leather, paper, paints,
printing inks, &c., and made plans to meet the requirements of each. The
Harrison plant is but one of the immense group operated by the duPont
Company and it has been famous for the manufacture of white lead and
acids.


A CHEMICAL DISCOVERY.

There is in fact no line in which the chemists of America did not rise
to the emergency and the "romances of the industrial" world are not more
entrancing than are those of the medical and other fields. Chemistry,
for instance, discovered an antitoxin for the deadly gangrene, or gas
bacillus, poisoning of the battlefields. The discovery was made by
research workers in Rockefeller Institute.

It is one of the most important discoveries in medical research as
applied to war, having an even greater bearing on the treatment of war
wounds than the Dakin-Carrel treatment of sluicing wounds previously
referred to. The serum works on the same principle as the anti-tetanus
serum used to prevent lockjaw. The gangrene antitoxin is injected to
prevent the development of gangrene poisoning.

The serum was developed by Dr. Carrel Bull and Miss Ida W. Pritchett, of
the Rockefeller Institute, by immunizing horses by the application of
the bacillus germs, then obtaining the resultant serum from the horses.
The new serum displaces, in a measure, the Dakin-Carrel method of
treating wounds. As soon as a soldier is picked up wounded, the plan is
to give him an injection of the serum so that he can be rushed to the
rear ambulances with no fear that the deadly gas infection will develop.

The use of the serum means the wiping out of the big death rate from
infection, with death resulting merely from wounds that are in
themselves fatal. The gas bacillus was discovered by Dr. William H.
Welch, of Johns Hopkins University, 25 years ago. The bacillus
frequently is present in soil and when carried to an open wound
germinates quickly, developing into bubbles of gaseous matter, whence
comes the name "gas bacillus." The bubbles multiply rapidly, a few hours
often being sufficient to cause death.


A WOUND-FLUSHING SYSTEM.

Possible gangrene poisoning has been offset by the Dakin-Carrel system
of constantly flushing the open wounds, but patients are frequently too
far off to be given the advantage of the flushing method and this is
where the serum is chiefly valuable. The ambulance or medical corps
"shoots" the serum into the wounded soldier even before they douse his
wound with iodine.

The progress that has been made along these lines is indicated by the
statement of Lord Northcliffe, who after a visit to the front declared
that the annual death rate in the English army was 3 per cent of 1000
and that the average illness, including colds and influenza, was less
than in London, despite the discomforts of the trenches.

In the past disease has been as destructive as battles. Biology and
pathology, to say nothing of surgery and therapeutics, have made such
strides that disease has been virtually eliminated as a factor in
warfare. War takes medical science into the field, where the control of
large masses of men enables it to develop the highest efficiency.

Even in normal peace conditions biological and pathological science has
been accomplishing results not popularly understood. Individual cures by
surgery and medicine appeal to personal interests, but these are
negligible compared to the prevention of plagues like smallpox, typhus
and tuberculosis. If such diseases had not been successfully combated by
science three out of four of the present civilized population would not
be in existence at all. The organized and intensive application and
developments of science, of preventive medicine, constitute the strictly
neutral work in this war by which all humanity will profit for all time
to come.

In passing it is interesting to note that the great power supplied by
Niagara Falls is being utilized to produce some of the chemical marvels.
One great industry there is making soda by the electrolytic process.
That is, salt brine is pumped from the saline deposits in western New
York and piped to the works. This is run into electric cells and through
these a current of electricity is led. The salt, which is composed of
chlorine and sodium, decomposes under the electric attack. The sodium
goes to one pole and combines with water to form caustic soda, whereas
the chlorine escapes at the other pole. Let us follow the chlorine,
which is a yellowish-green gas, more than twice as heavy as air, and has
found a new use as poison gas in the great war--for which all the world
should be ashamed.

It is collected and compressed to a liquid form and shipped in
containers under pressure for use in chemical works and bleacheries and
for the purification of drinking water. It has been found above all
things effective in destroying noxious bacilli. A surprisingly small
amount of the gas dissolved in the water is enough. In New York city the
water has been chlorinated and no single case of typhoid fever has been
traced to the supply.



CHAPTER XXI.

OUR NEIGHBORING ALLY.

CANADA'S RECRUITING--RAISE 33,000 TROOPS IN TWO MONTHS--FIRST
EXPEDITIONARY FORCE TO CROSS ATLANTIC--BRAVERY AT YPRES AND
LENS--MEETING DIFFICULT PROBLEMS--QUEBEC AROUSED BY CONSCRIPTION.


The world has marvelled at the achievement of Canada at Valcartier camp
near Quebec and the dispatch across the Atlantic Ocean of a fully
equipped expeditionary force of 33,000 men within two months of the
outbreak of war between Great Britain and Germany. But the magnitude of
that feat cannot be appreciated properly until one considers that on
August 4, 1914, Canada had a permanent force of only about 3500 men.

These soldiers, who for the most part were instructors and men on guard
duty, provided a nucleus for a training organization. In addition to its
"standing army," the Dominion had an active militia numbering
approximately 60,000 men. Their training consisted of what has been
aptly called "after-supper soldiering." Members of city regiments
drilled for one night each week, participated in an annual church parade
and spent two weeks every year in summer camp.

The training of the rural regiments consisted almost entirely of the two
weeks in summer camp. Yet from these militia units were drawn a large
proportion of the men in the first Canadian oversea contingent, while
the militia regiments, to a large extent, formed the basis of Canada's
recruiting organization after the outbreak of hostilities.

Enlistments during the first two years in the expeditionary force
numbered approximately 415,000, while probably 150,000 applicants were
rejected as physically unfit.

Immediately upon the declaration of war Major General Sir Sam Hughes,
Minister of Militia, telegraphed the officers commanding the militia
regiments to commence recruiting for oversea service. After the
recruits were signed up and accepted, they lived at home and drilled
during the day at the armories throughout the Dominion.

Meanwhile, Valcartier camp was being prepared for the gathering army.
The building of this great military center almost overnight was an
engineering feat of no mean magnitude. Two weeks after work was started,
troops recruited by the militia regiments began to arrive, and before
the end of a month Valcartier was a tented city of 25,000 soldiers.

There were some complaints, of course. They were inevitable in an
encampment so hastily prepared. But the essentials were there, and when
the contingent sailed from Gaspe, on the coast of Quebec, on October 3,
it was a well-trained, efficient body of soldiers, besides being the
largest army that ever crossed the Atlantic at one time.


AN EFFICIENT COMMANDER.

The contingent was in command of Lieutenant-General Edwin Alfred Hervey
Alderson. He was born at Ipswich in 1859 and began his military career
with the Militia, going to the regular army in 1878. He joined the Royal
West Kent Regiment as Second Lieutenant and rapidly won promotion. He
served in the Transvaal, later in Egypt and participated in actions at
Kassassin and Tel-el-Kebir, receiving the Khedive's bronze star. Service
in South Africa and in India followed, during which General Alderson
successively became Captain, Major and Lieutenant Colonel. He became a
Colonel in 1903 and was placed in charge of the Second Infantry Brigade,
and in 1908 commanded the Sixth Division, Southern Army of India, having
meantime been given the rank of Major General.

After the departure of the first contingent recruiting was continued by
the militia regiments, and during the winter the men were quartered in
exhibition grounds, Y.M.C.As., sheds, etc. In the spring of 1915
existing camps were enlarged and new ones opened.

During this period the recruiting machinery developed from the militia
regiments. Through the latter officers were recommended to command new
battalions. These O.Cs. selected most of their subordinate officers from
their own militia regiments and used the parent organization as a
general basis for recruiting operations, headquarters being located at
the regimental armories.

The keen competition existing between the militia units was maintained
between the new oversea formations, and battalions were raised in a few
weeks. For months enlistments all over Canada averaged more than 1000
men daily, and with recruits coming forward at this rate, there was no
necessity of protracted delay in bringing battalions up to strength.


DIFFICULTY OF RECRUITING.

There was a disposition, especially in military circles, to attribute
the increasing difficulty of the recruiting situation during the winter
of 1915-16 and since to a change of system and the introduction of the
so-called "political colonels." The change, however, was rather the
result of new conditions than the cause of it. Recruiting had slowed
down--largely from natural causes.

A new appeal was needed to reach a class of eligible men who had not yet
enlisted. The recruiting problem apparently had outgrown the facilities
of the militia organizations. Rightly or wrongly, the government
commissioned a number of well-known men, without military experience, to
raise battalions. Their popularity and local confidence in them were the
excuses for their appointment--and the experiment was in the main
successful.

Perhaps there was a suggestion of politics about it, although it may be
stated emphatically that politics had not been a serious influence in
connection with the recruiting, training or leadership of Canada's
oversea forces. That such is the case stands to the enduring credit of
Major General Hughes.

The attempt to "popularize" recruiting was soon found to entail serious
evils. Competition for recruits in an already well-combed field became
very keen. The new political colonels realized that their reputations
were at stake, and in the effort to fill up their battalions various
undignified and regrettable expedients were employed. Cabarets,
bean-counting contests, lotteries and callithumpian methods generally
marked a period in Canada's recruiting history not pleasant to review,
and which brought discredit upon the entire voluntary enlistment system
as a permanent method of filling up armies.


TRAINING SERIOUSLY DELAYED.

Besides the moral influence of such schemes to get men in khaki, the
recruiting efforts of the political colonels had a serious effect in
delaying the training of new men. With their personal reputations as
organizers involved, the commanding officers were reluctant to admit
inability to fill up the ranks of their units, and repeatedly pleaded
for more time.

For months partly recruited battalions made little or no progress with
their training, while the officers devised new recruiting "stunts" and
while men were being sought in the highways and byways.

The situation was complicated by allowing a number of infantry
battalions to recruit in the same area at the same time, with the result
that the new men came in driblets, valuable time was lost and much money
wasted. In some cases it has taken well over a year from the date when
they were authorized before battalions were dispatched oversea--due very
largely to ineffective recruiting methods. Battalions were allowed to
continue the heart-breaking quest for recruits long after they should
have been amalgamated and sent to England. Such amalgamations came
ultimately, battalions retaining their identity when leaving Canada only
when 600 or more strong.

The high cost of recruits was a direct consequence of competition among
battalions recruiting independently in the same territory at the same
time. The government allowance was not adequate to maintain the pace and
had to be supplemented by private funds.

There was in Toronto a certain group of fifty recruits referred to as
the "$10,000 squad," because it is estimated that the cost of recruiting
them averaged nearly $200 each, the money coming from private funds of
officers and their friends. Perhaps the estimate involves some
exaggeration, but many units added to their ranks only at a cost of $50
or more per recruit.

Some idea of the waste of such a system may be secured when it is stated
that, with men coming forward freely, the cost of recruiting is
considerably less than $10 per man, even after allowing a generous bonus
to the recruiting sergeants. More serious than the cost in money was the
delay in training men needed at the front.


A POLITICAL IMPOSSIBILITY.

Canada's experience constitutes a severe indictment of the voluntary
system of recruiting, although sterner measures at the outset were a
political impossibility. The free-will enlistment plan had to be given a
thorough test, and its inadequacy demonstrated and repeatedly emphasized
before public opinion would support resort to compulsion.

English-speaking Canada at least learned that lesson, and it is
extremely doubtful whether the United States would have adopted the
selective draft system at the commencement of its participation in the
war, if it had not been that the experience of Canada and the United
Kingdom established the weakness inherent in the voluntary system.

Besides the camp at Valcartier, a great artillery camp was set up at
Petewawa, where the best facilities existed for long range gun practice.
Ontario saw two camps at Niagara and Camp Borden; Manitoba saw one on
the plains, Alberta another in the picturesque district near Calgary,
while British Columbia had its camp at Vernon.


INADEQUATE RECRUITING.

The volunteer recruiting in Canada, in its incipiency, while resultful,
was soon found to be not adequate. Under it, however, there was a
widespread response that stirs the blood, for men hurried to the lines
from the Yukon and the Peace Rivers; from Hudson's Bay and the farther
hinterlands, from prairie and mountain; white men and the red men;
cowboys and city chaps, harvesters and hunters, mechanics and
mountaineers, backwoodsmen and frontwoodsmen. And also among the
enlisters were thousands of Americans who fought side by side with
Canadian, Briton and Frenchman.

Canada has large German settlements, including 300,000 German and
Austrian settlers in the western provinces. Prompt action was taken on
the outbreak of the war to deal with the alien element that might prove
dangerous and disloyal. Nearly 10,000 were speedily interned, from Nova
Scotia to British Columbia. A large proportion were Austrian laborers
who had been railway navvies. These were placed in western camps and
used in building trails and roads in national parks, or in clearing the
forest for future settlement in Northern Ontario.

Many individuals of known pro-German sympathies were also put out of
harm's way, and some famous trials were held which served to give
salutary warnings to all others that freedom of speech has its
limitations in times of war, and that the rumors that the sinking of the
Lusitania was being celebrated behind closed doors was hardly palatable.

Others, again, were caught in attempts to destroy property and it is to
the credit of police and military vigilance that few succeeded in their
nefarious designs. The internment camp proved a wholesome example, and
the pro-German in Canada took the advice of the United States Government
to its German subjects "to keep their mouths shut." It is also a fact
that the occupants of the detention camps in the Dominion were well fed
and treated, in striking contrast to the disturbing reports that leaked
through as to the way Canadian war prisoners in Germany fared.


CANADA'S WAR FINANCIERING.

Next, the story of how Canada is financing her share of the war, for it
is a costly business. Three domestic war loans, totaling $450,000,000,
were voluntarily subscribed, each in fact being doubly underwritten, and
yet the savings of the people in the banks is (1917) the highest on
record--over a billion and a quarter. Part of the war revenue is being
raised by war taxes on letters, checks, legal documents and some
articles of import. Happily the normal revenue of the country was never
so large nor the trade of the Dominion so buoyant. All these factors are
helping to carry the war burden.

The generosity of the people, under the heavy strain, was most marked.
Many millions were given to the various war help funds, chiefly to the
Red Cross and the Canadian Patriotic Fund, of 700 branches, which
supplements the Government separation allowance to soldiers' dependents
by other grants. Canada had, up to that time, by the way, the highest
paid soldiery in the world, privates getting $33 a month.

It is interesting to note that there are several branches of the
Canadian Patriotic Fund in the United States, which looked after the
families and dependents of Americans who enlisted in the Canadian ranks.

Canadian total givings in cash and kind to their own, as well as to the
Belgians, French, Servian, Armenian and other funds and Governmental
grants of grain and provision, would represent a very much larger figure
than that here mentioned.

The orders placed in Canada averaged $1,500,000 worth for every day in
the year.

The women of Canada in every way render practical patriotic service.
Hundreds of nurses were placed in overseas and home hospitals. The
farmers' wives raised large sums of money as did the school children.
Organizations of all kinds came into existence, not alone collecting
money, but contributing vast quantities of war material and soldiers'
comforts, and sending packages of food and clothing regularly to
Canadian prisoners in German camps.

Still another war problem was the care of the returned wounded soldiers,
and a serious problem it was. The procession of the disabled was a
pathetic one. Military convalescent hospitals were set up in many
centres, in addition to the opening of private homes for the same
beneficent purpose.


CANADA PART OF AMERICA.

Canada may be an English possession, but to us it is part of America,
and certainly no two countries have rested side by side in greater
friendship than the "Dominion" and the United States. You can find no
great fortifications along the 3000 odd miles of border between Canada
and the United States. The countries have lived in peace and harmony and
together, or side by side they have battled for peace on the fields of
Flanders.

All the world knows what Canada has done on the battlefields abroad,
fighting with those troops from Australia, New Zealand, India and lesser
English territory, to drive the ruthless Germans back and crush the
Empire to which they swear allegiance.

The Canadian troops were taken after landing in France to a point within
the country between St. Omer and Ypres, where they served with honor to
themselves, their presence having a salutary effect on the British
soldiery, who had been facing the German forces. At the battle of Neuve
Chapelle the Canadians held part of the line allotted to the first army,
and while not engaged in the main attack, rendered valuable help, their
artillery being very active, and at the battle of Ypres in April, 1915,
they took a notable part.

In the latter part of April, the Canadian division held a line of about
5000 yards, connecting with that of the French troops, and faced the
memorable gas attack of the Germans, which was the first noted in the
war. The asphyxiating gas was projected into the trenches by means of
force pumps and pipes laid under the parapets, the German sappers having
carefully placed these conductors. The bulk of the gas was directed
against the French, largely made up of Turcos and Zouaves, who were
driven back, suffering agonies.


POSITION BRAVELY HELD.

The Canadians suffered to some extent from the poison, and though there
were in the commands lawyers, college professors, business men, clerks
and workers of all sorts, who had been turned into soldiers within a few
months, and without previous military experience, they held their
position bravely. The Canadians were, of course, compelled to change
their position after the French fell back, and the Allied troops were,
to all effects and purposes, routed. But when the Germans, recognizing
the weakened position of the Canadians, attempted to force a series of
attacks, the Canadian division, as a matter of record, fought through
the day and through the night, for forty-eight consecutive hours, and
finally, in a counter-attack, drove the Germans back and regained a
position which had been lost by the British troops in the earlier
conflict.

Later, in the face of a devastating fire, in which many officers were
killed, battalions of the Canadians carried warfare to the first line of
German trenches, and in a desperate hand-to-hand struggle won the
trench. This attack, it is said, secured and maintained during the most
critical moment of the campaign the integrity of the Allied line.

In connection with the experience of the Canadians with the gas fumes,
it is necessary to note that at that time they were unprovided with gas
masks, or means of protecting themselves against the fumes, and the best
they could do was to stuff wet handkerchiefs in their mouths. The fumes,
although extremely poisonous, were not so effective with the Canadians
as on the French lines, largely because of the position of the
Canadians, and the direction of the wind, but in the several attacks a
number of the Canadians were asphyxiated.


HEROES WIN RECOGNITION.

So, all through the Ypres campaign, the Canadians faced the shot, shell
and poisonous gases of the Germans, and won recognition for their heroic
conduct which will stand to the credit of Canada for all time. At
Festubert, Givenchy, and, last but not least, Lens, the Canadians, step
by step, kept pace with the Allied advances.

In their general advance on Lens the Canadians occupied the strongest
outpost in the defense of that place, and pushing their troops on toward
La Coulotte, entered that village. The Germans withdrew in this
neighborhood from a line about one and three-quarters miles long.

The task of the Canadians was to capture German outposts southwest of
Reservoir Hill. The attack was evidently expected. The Germans scuttled,
abandoning ground upon which machine gun fire was immediately turned by
Germans located on the hill. This was speedily followed by heavy
artillery fire, which continued during the night in the vicinity of the
Lens electric station.

The enemy's dugouts were searched, found to be empty, and wrecked.

The German retirement ceased during the night. Patrols sent out opposite
Mericourt and to the south found the enemy's front line strongly held.
The Germans made huge craters at all cross roads in Avion and leading
towards Lens.

Patrols which were sent out reached the summit of Reservoir Hill without
opposition and pushed on down the eastern slope and the strong Lens
outpost was effectively occupied. Meanwhile, south of the Souchez River
the Canadians drove forward on the heels of the retiring Germans.
Railway embankments east of Lens electric station were occupied. The
advance was then continued toward La Coulotte. As night fell strong
parties were sent out to consolidate the positions occupied, while
patrols were sent forward to keep in touch with the Germans.


WANTON DESTRUCTION.

Several days previous the Germans were known to be destroying houses in
the western part of Lens, with the object of giving a wider area of fire
for their guns. It was their intention of clinging to the eastern side
of the city and prolonging the struggle by house-to-house fighting.

Under a protecting concentration of artillery fire, Canadian troops
successfully stormed and captured the German front line before Avion, a
suburb of Lens. By the advance the British line was carried forward to
within one mile of the centre of Lens.

The Canadians, heartened by successes gained in a few days at a
relatively small cost, decided to attack across the open ground sloping
upwards to Avion and the village of Leauvette, near the Souchez River.
They met with opposition of a serious character at only one point, where
a combination of machine gun fire and uncut wires delayed the advance.
The attack was not intended to be pressed home at this particular spot,
as the ground specially favored the Germans, so that the delay did no
harm. The assaulting troops comprised men from British Columbia,
Manitoba, Central Ontario and Nova Scotia.

The attack was made along a two-mile front. On the extreme left, Nova
Scotians pushed their way up the Lens-Arras road to the village of
Leauvette. Here they took a number of prisoners. At the other end of the
line, east of the railway tracks, enemy dugouts were bombed. Their
occupants belonged to the crack Prussian Guards Corps, the Fifth Guard
Grenadiers, who refused in most cases to come out and surrender.

At daybreak, Canadian airplanes, flying low over Avion, saw few Germans
there. Craters which had been made by mine explosions at the crossroads,
seriously hindered them in bringing up troops from Lens for
counter-attacks.


GERMAN AVIATIK DEFEATED.

In an air duel fought at probably the highest altitude at which
aviators, up until that time, had met in combat, nearly four miles, a
Canadian triplane pursued and defeated a German two-seated Aviatik. The
German machine had sought safety by climbing upward and the triplane
pursued. At a height of 20,000 feet the pilot of the German craft either
fell or jumped from it and disappeared at the moment of the first burst
of fire from the gun on the Canadian. The German observer then was seen
to climb out upon the tail of the machine, where he lost his hold and
plunged headlong. The Aviatik turned its nose down and fell.

It is meet that some note be taken of the fact that while the Canadian
soldiers were battling for humanity and the preservation of the British
Empire in Flanders there was being celebrated in their native land the
fiftieth anniversary of the founding of the Dominion. All Canada took
part in the celebration on June 1, 1917, as did large numbers of men
from the United States officers' training camp at Niagara, where
recruits were preparing to receive Commissions in Uncle Sam's Army.

Up until 1867 Canada had been the scene of bitter strife between the
French and British. At that time the provinces were brought quite
closely together, and commenced a new era of prosperity. The foundation
was then laid for a wonderfully prosperous country, one filled with
almost limitless possibilities.

The confederation of Canada had its birth in a meeting of delegates
from all over British North America, which was held in 1864, and these
delegates, after deliberating for nearly three weeks, passed a large
number of resolutions which formed the basis of what eventually became
the Act of Union. In the following January these resolutions were
submitted to the Legislature of Canada and after due debate there was
passed in both chambers of Parliament a measure for the purpose of
uniting the provinces in accordance with the provisions of the Quebec
resolutions. The meeting was in Quebec.


PLAN OF UNION PASSED.

A number of difficulties were encountered, so that it was 1867 before
the plan of union was submitted to the Imperial Parliament, where it was
warmly received and passed without alteration of any description within
a few days. The royal assent was given on March 29, and the act
constituting the new Canada went into effect on July 1, which day has
since become known as Dominion Day, and is the chief of all Canadian
holidays.

The federal Constitution of Canada is contained in an Imperial Act of
Parliament, known as the British North America Act, and it is based very
largely upon that of the mother country. The ministry of the day holds
office at the pleasure of the House of Commons, the members of which are
elected by the people. At the head of the affairs is a Governor-General,
who is appointed by the Crown and paid by the people of Canada. As is
the case with the British sovereigns, he acts with and on the advice of
the ministers for the time being, and also like the King, he can
dissolve the Parliament.

The number of members of the House of Commons is regulated by the
following clauses of the act: "On the completion of the census in the
year 1871, and of each subsequent decennial census, the representation
of the four provinces shall be readjusted by such authority in such a
manner, and from such time as the Parliament of Canada from time to
time provides."

Previous to the passing of the British North America Act, the great
Dominion had consisted of a conglomeration of provinces, some of them of
almost fabulous extent, into which the white man from the West had
penetrated. Tradition has it that some thousand years ago a Norseman, by
name Leif Ericson, coming in his great beaked galley, through the
northern seas, from Greenland, was the first white man to stand on
Canadian soil.

Another five centuries were, however, to pass before John Cabot, sailing
from Bristol, in the days of Henry Bolingbroke, brought the first
British ship into a Canadian port. After him the fishermen of Europe
came in increasing numbers to the great banks, with the result that
little by little, as their tiny vessels touched the American shores, the
great continent began to be known to the people of Europe.


DOMINION'S FOUNDATIONS LAID.

It was not really, however, until the year 1534 that the foundations of
the Dominion may be said to have been sunk. In that year Jacques Cartier
sailed from the port of St. Malo, with two little ships, intending to
attempt the northwest passage to Japan. Francis the First was then
ruling in Paris, and there was great adventure in the air of France.
Cartier did not make the northwest passage, but he did touch the coast
of Canada, or, to be more exact, the coasts of Labrador and
Newfoundland. It was then the 10th of May, and having sailed around the
island, he steered south, and crossing the gulf entered the bay which,
by reason of the great heats of midsummer, he named Des Chaleurs.
Holding along the coast, he came to the little inlet of Gaspe, and here,
at the entrance to the harbor, he erected a huge cross surmounted by the
arms and lilies of France. He could find no passage, however, to the
northwest, and so he turned his ship, and sailed back to St. Malo.

The Court in Paris heard his story with interest. His cause was taken up
by the King; and, as a result, in the succeeding May, he sailed again to
the new world with three well found ships. On the day of Saint Lawrence
he entered the great bay, to which he at once gave the name of the
Saint, and passing on came, in September, to anchor in the Isle of
Orleans.


REAL FOUNDER OF CANADA.

The man, however, with whose name the early history of Canada is most
fully connected, had not as yet been born. Nor was it until the year
1567 that, at Brouage in Saintonge, Samuel de Champlain came upon the
scene. In the year 1603, when Elizabeth was ruling in England, and Henry
of Navarre in France, Champlain came to Canada. He had been a soldier of
le Bearnais, in the great wars with the League, an officer of marine,
and a man with no little knowledge of natural science, as knowledge was
then accounted. He came now in command of an expedition, fitted out by
the merchants of Rouen, with the idea of forming a Canada company, as
England had her Barbary Company, her Eastland Company, her Muscovie
Company, or her Turkey Company. And in this way the French came into
Canada.

Thus there began those American wars between the two countries, divided
at home only by the English Channel, which went on century by century,
largely through the employment of the Indian tribes, until that
September night when Wolfe's boats drifted in, from the fleet to the
shore, and the battle on the Plains of Abraham permanently settled the
question of domination in favor of the British.

The British conquest of Canada did not, however, mean the cessation of
fighting. There came, presently, the war between Great Britain and the
American colonies, one of the most amazing exploits of which was the
marvelous march of Arnold and Montgomery through the forests of Maine
to the St. Lawrence, ending in the wonderful siege, of the year 1775,
and the heroic failure to storm the defenses by scaling the rocks from
the river bed. Eventually the boundary between the United States and the
British possessions was settled by the Treaty of Paris, in 1783, just
twenty years after an earlier Treaty of Paris had recorded the surrender
of Canada by France to Great Britain.


CANADA, FROM COLONY TO DOMINION.

For the last century and a half the story of Canada has been the story
first of a British colony and then of a British Dominion. A great flood
of new colonists had come into the country after the victory of the
States in the War of Independence, when many of the royalists of New
England crossed the border. As a result, there had grown up the two new
provinces of Upper Canada, now known as Ontario, and New Brunswick. The
relations between all the provinces were, however, far from harmonious,
with the result that what between quarrels among themselves and risings
against the British authority, the condition of Canada was anything but
promising, when, after the Rebellion of 1837, Lord Durham was sent over
to try to evolve order out of chaos.

He found the "habitant" still unreconciled to the British rule; he found
a condition of many little Pontiacs, all very much as was that famous
village on the summer evening when Valmond threw the hot pennies to the
children, as the auctioneer and monsieur le cure came down the street;
he found another Canada of British colonists with so little sympathy for
the habitant, that, he declared, the two never met save in the jury box,
and there only to obstruct justice.

It was then that Lord Durham, by a great stroke of statesmanship,
brought peace to Canada. A democratic form of representative government
was bestowed on the people. The division of Quebec into two provinces,
which the habitant had desired when they were one, and resented when
they were two, was annulled, with the result that the ground was
prepared for the union which was to come just thirty years later.

Lord Durham made history and made a nation, for the confederation, when
it came, was the inevitable superstructure built upon the foundations of
his laying, but he ruined a reputation. His contempt for the conventions
of politics, the radicalism of his methods, his failure to make any
obeisance to the governmental deities, official or ex-official, combined
with his almost superhuman tactlessness, gave his enemies every
opportunity they could desire.

He was viciously attacked, and finally throwing up his mission, returned
to England and gave up politics.


REPORT NOT TO BE DISPOSED OF.

The good, however, men do lives after them. Lord Durham's report,
drafted for him by two master hands, those of Charles Buller and Edward
Wakefield, could not be disposed of by perfervid orators or ill-informed
editors. It passes into the category of historic and illuminating state
papers. And, though Lord Durham fell, when, on the first of July, 1867,
the British North America Act became operative, it was the handle of his
trowel that struck that great cornerstone of liberty and empire, and
declared it well and truly laid: the first of the Dominions, now having
a population of approximately 8,000,000.

Thrown upon their own resources, when Great Britain began to draw in its
loans of 1911-12, the people of Canada were temporarily at a loss as to
how to meet the situation; the hardships which followed, however,
prepared them to meet, with resolute determination, the greater problems
that crowded upon them in 1915-16. Canada, through all the past, had
been a dependent and a debtor nation; the war made it self-reliant,
spurred its people on to the development of natural resources, and
assured them, not only that the Dominion could stand alone, but that,
throughout all the future, it can be a pillar of strength to the Empire
and to democracy.

There were times when she was threatened by more than the ordinary
difficulties which come to a nation, as when it became necessary in 1917
to pass a Conscription Act, the Province of Quebec threatened to secede.
Quebec is a French territory, and it was a matter of world-wide comment
that the volunteer enlistments for the Canadian army from the province
were insignificant.

While the French Canadians were proud of France and their cousins across
the seas, they were opposed to being compelled to fight for England, and
the proposal to secede was largely advocated by the French-Canadian
clergy.


RECIPIENTS OF UNSTINTED HONORS.

Among the heroic troops that faced the Germans in Flanders none was more
honored in all Canada and England than the Princess Patricia's Light
Infantry. Out of this battalion, which sailed away from Canada's shores
with the first expeditionary force, scarcely one-fourth of the proud
number lived through the terrible campaigns of Flanders, in which the
Dominion forces participated.

The battalion constituted what was regarded as one of the most efficient
military units in Canada, and in August, 1914, had been presented with
colors wrought by the hand of Princess Patricia, daughter of the
Governor General of Canada, the Duke of Connaught. The Princess,
standing beside her mother, the Duchess of Connaught, in Lansdowne Park,
Ottawa, presented the colors to the little force, wishing them a safe
return, while thousands applauded and the spirit of patriotism ran high.

The "Princess Pats," as they came to be known, had within the
organization a large portion of men of military experience who had seen
service in South Africa and elsewhere, and consequently when they landed
in France they were the first to be sent into the trenches and to
action. In the winter and spring of 1914-15 they had some bitter
experiences and participated in several desperate attacks and defenses,
but it was not until the campaign at Ypres that the organization was
almost annihilated, when it faced one of the most terrific bombardments
of the war, and fought in a section largely cut off from the main line.
Here Lieutenant-Colonel Farquhar, commander of the battalion, lost his
life and nearly all of the officers were wounded.



CHAPTER XXII.

THE HEROIC ANZAC.

FORCES THAT STIRRED THE WORLD IN THE GALLIPOLI CAMPAIGNS--FAMOUS AS
SAPPERS--THE BLASTING OF MESSINES RIDGE--TWO YEARS TUNNELING--30,000
GERMANS BLOWN TO ATOMS--1,000,000 POUNDS OF EXPLOSIVES USED--TROOPS THAT
WERE TRANSPORTED 11,000 MILES.


When the final history of the war is written, and the years have passed
into ages, the story of the Anzac will form a brilliant passage in the
book of nations. The Anzac in the campaigns at Gallipoli, the
Dardanelles, and in Flanders served England with a loyalty and heroism
not excelled by any other force. And what were the Anzacs? They were the
soldiers of Australia and New Zealand. Let A represent Australia, N.Z.,
New Zealand, and A.C., army corps, and you have the basis of the word
Anzac.

Generally in the news dispatches, the Anzacs have been referred to as
Australians. They are described as fearless, daring and fierce fighters,
whose presence added pep to every engagement in which they participated.
No more picturesque group has ever been written into the history of
armies. Composed of men who were bushrangers, cattlemen, miners and
hardy outdoor workers, many of whom served in Egypt, India and wherever
the British flag floats, their character is indicated by the fact that
they have been at times called the "Ragtime Army."

The description of the landing of these troops at the Dardanelles, where
in a rain of artillery fire, they dashed into the Turkish trenches, is
one of the most thrilling of the war. With the shells from the ships
falling upon the Turkish forces the Anzacs chased the Turks step by step
inland, engaging in the most desperate hand-to-hand encounters.

Perhaps the story of that first battle might have been different had not
Turkish reinforcements appeared upon the scene. As it was the British
men of Anzac were temporarily driven back, retiring with terrible loss.
For hours the Australians engaged in solid fighting through a broken and
hilly country, digging at night to establish entrenchments, with a
renewal of the defense at daybreak, and then repeating the program. This
is what the Australians and New Zealanders did, living upon short
rations the while.

In all of the campaigns in which the Anzacs have participated their work
as sappers has been a feature. Sappers, by the way, are those men who,
in modern warfare, burrow in the earth, planting mines, digging
trenches, dugouts and fortifications. The Australians are fitted for
this work for a large percentage of them had civil experience in the
mines, and on extensive contract and excavation work.


AUSTRALIAN AND NEW ZEALAND SAPPERS.

Probably one of the most effective attacks of the English against a
German stronghold in Belgium was made possible through the work of the
Australian and New Zealand sappers. That was the blowing up of the
Messines Ridge in June, 1917. In this action the Anzac shone in a manner
that can never be forgotten.

On June 7, 1917, the British, with one terrible stroke, tore asunder the
strong German position south of Ypres. This stroke was in a little
corner of Belgium, where the armies of the Allies had successfully
outgeneralled the enemy for two and a half years.

During almost two years of this time several companies of Australian,
New Zealand and British sappers were busily but silently engaged in
mining the hills of the Messines-Wytschaete Ridge, on which were the
guns of the Germans which had been raking the troops of the Allies all
this time. Nineteen great mines which contained a total of 1,000,000
pounds of ammonite upon their completion, had been dug into the vitals
of these hills. Great charges of this new and powerful explosive had
been placed in the mines nearly one year before their completion, yet no
one except those actually engaged in the work knew of it. The secret was
kept and the troops of Australia and New Zealand worked directly beneath
the great German fortifications.

Then came the crucial moment. At exactly 3.10 o'clock in the morning of
June 7, the whole series of mines were discharged by electrical contact,
and the hilltops were blown high in the air in one terrific burst of
flame, which poured forth as from craters of volcanoes. The ground for
miles around was rocked as in an earthquake, and the roar emitted was
distinctly heard in England by Lloyd George, the Prime Minister,
listening for it at his country home 140 miles away.


A PRE-ARRANGED SIGNAL.

The explosion of the mines was a pre-arranged signal for the beginning
of a heavy shell fire by the artillery. The whole section affected by
the mines was subjected to a most intense shellfire, and following up
this death-dealing storm came the troops of General Haig, under Sir
Herbert Plumer, who finished the work of the great mines and big guns
with a brilliant charge of men, who used rifle and bayonet most
effectively. Within a few hours the whole of the Messines Ridge was
securely in the hands of the British, and they had captured 7000
prisoners and many guns. The German casualties were estimated at 30,000,
those of the British being about 10,000.

Rushing the whole sector south of Ypres, from Observation Ridge to
Ploegsteert Wood, north of Armentieres, the British forces succeeded in
capturing that position with little loss. Then came the assault of the
rear defenses, which were formed by the ridge itself. The natural
formation of the land greatly helped the Germans in arranging their
defenses, and the fighting was very fierce. The work of British troops,
in which were many Australians and New Zealanders, together with English
and Irish, all under the command of General Sir Herbert C.O. Plumer,
was given great credit in the reports of the commander to the War
Office.

The British War Office summarized the attack as follows in its report of
June 8:

"The position captured by us yesterday was one of the enemy's most
important strongholds on the western front. Dominating as it did the
Ypres salient and giving the enemy complete observation over it, he
neglected no precautions to render the position impregnable. These
conditions enabled the enemy to overlook all our preparations for
attack, and he had moved up reinforcements to meet us. The battle,
therefore, became a gauge of the ability of the German troops to stop
our advance under conditions as favorable to them as an army can ever
hope for, with every advantage of ground and preparation and with the
knowledge that an attack was impending.


GERMAN FORWARD DEFENSE.

"The German forward defenses consisted of an elaborate and intricate
system of well-wired trenches and strong points forming a defensive belt
over a mile in depth. Numerous farms and woods were thoroughly prepared
for the defense, and there were large numbers of machine guns in the
German garrisons. Guns of all calibers, recently increased in numbers,
were placed to bear not only on the front but on the flanks of an
attack. Numerous communicating trenches and switch lines, radiating in
all directions, were amply provided with strongly constructed concrete
dugouts and machine-gun emplacements designed to protect the enemy
garrison and machine gunners from the effect of our bombardment. In
short, no precaution was omitted that could be provided by the incessant
labor of years, guided by the experience gained by the enemy in his
previous defeats on the Somme, at Arras, and on Vimy Ridge.

"Despite the difficulties and disadvantages which our troops had to
overcome, further details of yesterday's fighting show that our first
assault and the subsequent attacks were carried out in almost exact
accordance with the timetable previously arranged. * * *

"Following on the great care and thoroughness in preparations made under
the orders of General Sir Herbert Plumer, the complete success gained
may be ascribed chiefly to the destruction caused by our mines, to the
violence and accuracy of our bombardment, to the very fine work of the
Royal Flying Corps, and to the incomparable dash and courage of the
infantry. The whole force acted in perfect combination. Excellent work
was done by the tanks, and every means of offense at our disposal was
made use of, so that every arm of the service had a share in the
victory."

A good description of the Australian soldier, as he follows up his
victory, was given in a story of an American war correspondent, who
wrote concerning Flanders:


NEW LAND OF WARFARE.

"After these many months of trench warfare there is keen delight for the
Australian soldier in this new land of warfare which the German
retirement has opened up. The fighting is in open country now, over
gently rolling downs of what looks like grass land. It is really most of
it wheat or turnip land which has not been cultivated for a year or two.
The country is as open as the Australian central plains.

"It is quite a new sort of battlefield for the Australians. They march
down to it through valleys almost exactly like the valleys in the
peaceful parts of France. There are whole acres in which one cannot see
a single shell hole. Back across the green country or down the open
roads come men in twos or threes occasionally, sauntering as one might
find them on a country road. They are the wounded helping one another
back to the dressing station. The walking wounded have to help each
other back in these modern battles. It is no longer looked upon as
meritorious for an unwounded combatant to leave the field and help a
wounded comrade to the rear.

"Nearest the front the country becomes more feverish. Angry bursts of
tawny color are seen in a haphazard sort of way dotting the horizon and
the countryside. Here and there are Australians standing behind mounds
of earth with their rifles pointed over the top, bayonets always fixed.
Frequently, when there is no other shelter there are hastily scooped
trenches. A quarter of a mile away another party is lining a roadside,
flat on their stomachs in the ditch, bayonets peeping over the top.
Shells are whizzing by at the rate of two or three a minute, high
explosives bursting on contact behind their backs about as far away as
the other side of a cottage parlor.


PRISONER AND ESCORT.

"Frequently one meets a prisoner being escorted to the rear. There is
something very impressive about these little processions of two men,
prisoner and escort. The prisoner, usually a young German private in
neat gray uniform and steel helmet, walks in front. After him, grasping
his rifle with both hands across his chest, his weatherbeaten brows
puckered as he picks his way over the tumbled stones, comes the living
embodiment of the Australian back country. Nine cases out of ten,
somehow, the soldier who escorts a prisoner seems to be that bit of pure
Australian, either Western Australia or South Australia, the Warrego or
the Burdskin.

"He is an earnest man, intent on executing his errand with dispatch and
exactitude. 'Can you tell me the way to headquarters?' he asks as he
passes. Then he disappears slowly up the street on the heels of his
silent companion.

"These Australians are just as good fighters in this new warfare as they
were at Gallipoli or in the trenches, perhaps even better. They had
their first encounter with German cavalry the other day, but it was only
a feint at a flank and lasted but a few minutes."

Australia is ambitious, some might even say self-centered, and Germany
undoubtedly made the mistake of considering that Australia was awaiting
a chance to become unfriendly to Great Britain when she started to
fight. But no nation ever made a greater mistake. As soon as the House
of Hohenzollern placed the mother country in a perilous position
Australia was at the command of Great Britain. Notwithstanding the fact
that the Australians are primarily peace-loving, most intent on
attending to their own affairs, the response to the call was immediate
and whole-hearted.


AUSTRALIA'S COMMENDABLE PROMPTNESS.

The Australian centers buzzed with activity, and within two months after
war was declared the Australian fleet, which consisted of five unarmored
cruisers, three torpedo-boat destroyers, and three light gunboats, which
had been built and manned at the expense of the Australians, were in
possession of the German Pacific Islands--Samoa, Marshall, Carolines,
Pelew, Ladrones, New Guinea, New Britain--had broken the wireless system
of the Germans, and had captured eleven of the vessels of Germany. She
also forced twenty-five other ships to intern, and prevented the
destruction of a British ship in Australian waters.

Then came the scouring of the seas by the German ship Emden, and her
trip to Australian waters, with the object of carrying on the work of
destruction which had marked her career in South American waters. She
lay in wait for Australian transports, with the result that the
Australian warship Sydney sent her to the bottom but three months after
war had been declared. Shortly after this the Australian fleet drove von
Spree's squadron from the Pacific directly into the trap set by Admiral
Sturdee at the Falkland Islands.

The fact that all the troops of Australia must be transported to
London--a distance via the Suez route of approximately 11,000 miles, and
through the Panama Canal of 12,734 miles--did not keep back these brave
men from quickly enlisting. The great distance made fighting extremely
expensive, but the task was loyally assumed by the military of the far
continent. Universal military service was inaugurated for the first time
by an English-speaking community, and war loans were offered and quickly
accepted. Transports were immediately constructed out of seventy
steamers which were requisitioned.

At the declaration of war in November, 1914, the entire Australian army,
which consisted of 20,000 men, left Australia for Egypt, and at the end
of the first year of the conflict there were 76,000 men in the field. By
July, 1916, nearly 300,000 volunteers had been recruited and had crossed
the seas. The creation, equipment, and supplying of this army by the
people of Australia, a task involving enormous cost and personal
sacrifice, constitutes a thrilling chapter in the history of loyalty.


GEOGRAPHICALLY ALIKE.

To those who think that Australia is a little island situated in the
Pacific ocean it might be interesting to know that this continent, in
size and shape, is almost the exact duplicate of the United States.
There are also outlying provinces, that of Papua, a tropical land,
offsetting Alaska. Then there is the rich little Lord Howe Island, and
Norfolk Island. The surface of Australia is the most level in surface
and regular in outline of all the continents, and is the lowest
continent, with an average elevation of Ohio.

There are 2,974,581 square miles in Australia, while the land area of
the United States is 2,973,890 square miles, a difference of 691 square
miles. This, of course, is only the continental United States. Only
about one-twentieth of the total area of Australia lies in a latitude
farther removed from the Equator than Chattanooga, Tennessee; Clarendon,
Texas; and Albuquerque, New Mexico, and there is less than one-third of
the area of this unique continent which lies in a cooler latitude than
the sugar-cane lands of Louisiana.

The streams of Australia are fewer and carry less water than those of
any other continent. The heart of this great island is dry and barren
and thinly populated. Most of the inhabitants are found within easy
reach of the coastline. The population of this great land, at the census
of 1911, was 4,568,707 persons.

New Zealand is situated a little more than 1200 miles to the east of
Sydney, which is in the southeastern section of Australia. It consists
of three fairly large islands, together with a number of small adjacent
islands. The area is 105,340 square miles, the population being, in
1911, 815,862. The surface of the principal islands is diversified,
being mountainous in some parts, and undulating in others. The best
harbors are in the northern district.



CHAPTER XXIII.

AMERICA STEPS IN.

PRESIDENT WILSON'S FAMOUS MESSAGE TO CONGRESS--THE WAR RESOLUTION--APRIL
6, 1917 SEES THE UNITED STATES AT WAR--REVIEW OF THE NEGOTIATIONS
BETWEEN GERMANY AND AMERICA--THE U-BOAT RESTRICTED ZONE ANNOUNCEMENT OF
GERMANY--PREMIER LLOYD GEORGE ON AMERICA IN THE CONFLICT.


The hoisting of the American flag to the top of the staff as the emblem
of world-wide Liberty followed the action of Congress in authorizing
President Wilson to declare a state of war existed between Germany and
the United States. What the conditions were which developed during the
months in which Germany to all intents and purposes "laughed up her
sleeve" at the United States, ignored our protests against her wanton
disregard of human rights on land and sea, can no better be told than in
the words of President Wilson himself in his message stating the
position which the Government took.

His message to Congress will go down in history, not only as an
instrument of world-wide importance, but as a classic in literature. Its
effect on the Nations was greater than that of any other message issued
by any one country, probably in the history of the world, and while
there were critics who regarded some of President Wilson's utterances as
too idealistic, time proved that his vision was greater than that of
those who criticised him, and within a short time the eyes of the entire
world were turned toward Washington, which became the active centre from
which the campaign for world-wide democracy was waged.

The hands of Liberty stretched out to Russia, Serbia, Italy, France,
Belgium, England, little Montenegro, and they were given help in the
most critical periods of their careers. The President's message was
presented to Congress on April 3, 1917, as follows:

"I have called the Congress into extraordinary session because there
are serious, very serious, choices of policy to be made, and made
immediately, which it was neither right nor constitutionally permissible
that I should assume the responsibility of making.

"On the third of February last I officially laid before you the
extraordinary announcement of the Imperial German Government that on and
after the first day of February it was its purpose to put aside all
restraints of law or of humanity and use its submarines to sink every
vessel that sought to approach either the ports of Great Britain and
Ireland or the western coasts of Europe or any of the ports controlled
by the enemies of Germany within the Mediterranean.


COMMANDERS UNDER RESTRAINT.

"That had seemed to be the object of the German submarine warfare
earlier in the war, but since April of last year the Imperial Government
had somewhat restrained the commanders of its undersea craft in
conformity with its promise then given to us that passenger boats should
not be sunk and that due warning would be given to all other vessels
which its submarines might seek to destroy when no resistance was
offered or escape attempted, and care taken that their crews were given
at least a fair chance to save their lives in their open boats.

"The precautions taken were meager and haphazard enough, as was proved
in distressing instance after instance in the progress of the cruel and
unmanly business; but a certain degree of restraint was observed.

"The new policy has swept every restriction aside. Vessels of every
kind, whatever their flag, their character, their cargo, their
destination, their errand, have been ruthlessly sent to the bottom
without warning and without thought of help or mercy for those on board,
the vessels of friendly neutrals along with those of belligerents.

"Even hospital ships and ships carrying relief to the sorely bereaved
and stricken people of Belgium, though the latter were provided with
safe-conduct through the prescribed areas by the German Government
itself and were distinguished by unmistakable marks of identity, have
been sunk with the same reckless lack of compassion or of principle.

"I was for a little while unable to believe that such things would in
fact be done by any government that had hitherto subscribed to the
humane practices of civilized nations. International law had its origin
in the attempt to set up some law which would be respected and observed
upon the seas, where no nation had the right of domination and where lay
the free highways of the world.

"By painful stage after stage has that law been built up, with meager
enough results, indeed, after all was accomplished that could be
accomplished, but always with a clear view, at least, of what the heart
and conscience of mankind demanded.


SWEEPS RIGHT ASIDE.

"This minimum of right the German Government has swept aside under the
plea of retaliation and necessity and because it had no weapons which it
could use at sea except those which it is impossible to employ as it is
employing them without throwing to the winds all scruples of humanity or
of respect for the understandings that were supposed to underlie the
intercourse of the world.

"I am not now thinking of the loss of property involved, immense and
serious as this is, but only of the wanton and wholesale destruction of
the lives of non-combatants, men, women and children, engaged in
pursuits which have always, even in the darkest periods of modern
history, been deemed innocent and legitimate. Property can be paid for;
the lives of peaceful and innocent people cannot be.

"The present German submarine warfare against commerce is a warfare
against mankind. It is a war against all nations. American ships have
been sunk, American lives taken, in ways which it has stirred us very
deeply to learn of, but the ships and people of other neutral and
friendly nations have been sunk and overwhelmed in the waters in the
same way. There has been no discrimination. The challenge is to all
mankind. Each nation must decide for itself how it will meet it.

"The choice we make for ourselves must be made with a moderation of
counsel and a temperateness of judgment befitting our character and our
motives as a nation. We must put excited feeling away. Our motive will
not be revenge or the victorious assertion of the physical might of the
nation, but only the vindication of human right, of which we are only a
single champion.


ARMED NEUTRALITY IMPRACTICABLE.

"When I addressed the Congress on the twenty-sixth of February last I
thought it would suffice to assert our neutral rights with arms, our
right to use the seas against unlawful interference, our right to keep
our people safe against unlawful violence. But armed neutrality, it now
appears, is impracticable.

"Because submarines are in effect outlaws when used as the German
submarines have been used against merchant shipping, it is impossible to
defend ships against their attacks as the law of nations has assumed
that merchantmen would defend themselves against privateers or cruisers,
visible craft giving chase upon the open sea. It is common prudence in
such circumstances, grim necessity, indeed, to endeavor to destroy them
before they have shown their own intention. They must be dealt with upon
sight, if dealt with at all.

"The German Government denies the right of neutrals to use arms at all
within the areas of the sea which it has proscribed, even in the defense
of rights which no modern publicist has ever questioned their right to
defend. The intimation is conveyed that the armed guards which we have
placed on our merchant ships will be treated as beyond the pale of law
and subject to be dealt with as pirates would be.

"Armed neutrality is ineffectual enough at best; in such circumstances
and in the face of such pretensions it is worse than ineffectual; it is
likely once to produce what it was meant to prevent; it is virtually
certain to draw us into the war without either the rights or the
effectiveness of belligerents.

"There is one choice we cannot make, we are incapable of making; we will
not choose the path of submission and suffer the most sacred rights of
our nation and our people to be ignored or violated. The wrongs against
which we now array ourselves are not common wrongs; they cut to the very
roots of human life.


A CONSTITUTIONAL DUTY.

"With a profound sense of the solemn and even tragical character of the
step I am taking and of the grave responsibilities which it involves,
but in unhesitating obedience to what I deem my constitutional duty, I
advise that the Congress declare the recent course of the Imperial
German Government to be in fact nothing less than war against the
Government and people of the United States; that it formally accept the
status of belligerent which has thus been thrust upon it and that it
take immediate steps not only to put the country in a more thorough
state of defense, but also to exert all its power and employ all its
resources to bring the Government of the German Empire to terms and end
the war.

"What this will involve is clear. It will involve the utmost practicable
co-operation in counsel and action with the Governments now at war with
Germany, and as incident to that, the extension to those Governments of
the most liberal financial credits, in order that our resources may, so
far as possible, be added to theirs. It will involve the organization
and mobilization of all the material resources of the country to supply
the material of war and serve the incidental needs of the nation in the
most abundant and yet the most economical and efficient way possible.

"It will involve the immediate full equipment of the navy in all
respects, but particularly in supplying it with the best means of
dealing with the enemy's submarines. It will involve the immediate
addition to the armed forces of the United States already provided for
by law in case of war at least 500,000 men, who should, in my opinion,
be chosen upon the principle of universal liability to service, and also
the authorization of subsequent additional increments of equal force so
soon as they may be needed and can be handled in training.


WELL-CONCEIVED TAXATION.

"It will involve, also, of course, the granting of adequate credits to
the Government, sustained, I hope, so far as they can equitably be
sustained by the present generation, by well-conceived taxation. I say
sustained so far as may be equitably by taxation because it seems to me
that it would be most unwise to base the credits which will now be
necessary entirely on money borrowed. It is our duty, I most
respectfully urge, to protect our people so far as we may against the
very serious hardships and evils which would be likely to arise out of
the inflation which would be produced by vast loans.

"In carrying out the measures by which these things are to be
accomplished we should keep constantly in mind the wisdom of interfering
as little as possible in our own preparation and in the equipment of our
own military forces with the duty--for it will be a very practical
duty--of supplying the nations already at war with Germany with the
materials which they can obtain only from us by our assistance. They are
in the field and we should help them in every way to be effective there.

"I shall take the liberty of suggesting, through the several executive
departments of the Government, for the consideration of your committees
measures for the accomplishment of the several objects I have mentioned.
I hope that it will be your pleasure to deal with them as having been
framed after very careful thought by the branch of the Government upon
which the responsibility of conducting the war and safeguarding the
nation will most directly fall.

"While we do these things--these deeply momentous things--let us be very
clear, and make very clear to all the world, what our motives and our
objects are. My own thought has not been driven from its habitual and
normal course by the unhappy events of the last two months, and I do not
believe that the thought of the nation has been altered or clouded by
them.


FIRM STAND FOR VINDICATION.

"I have exactly the same things in mind now that I had in mind when I
addressed the Senate on the twenty-second of January last; the same that
I had in mind when I addressed the Congress on the third of February and
on the twenty-sixth of February. Our object now, as then, is to
vindicate the principles of peace and justice in the life of the world
against selfish and autocratic power and to set up among the really free
and self-governed peoples of the world such a concert of purpose and
action as will henceforth insure the observance of those principles.

"Neutrality is no longer feasible or desirable where the peace of the
world is involved and the freedom of its peoples and the menace to that
peace and freedom lies in the existence of autocratic governments backed
by organized force which is controlled wholly by their will, not by the
will of their people. We have seen the last of neutrality in such
circumstances.

"We are at the beginning of an age in which it will be insisted that the
same standards of conduct and of responsibility for wrongdoing shall be
observed among nations and their Governments that are observed among the
individual citizens of civilized States.

"We have no quarrel with the German people. We have no feeling toward
them but one of sympathy and friendship. It was not upon their impulse
that their Government acted in entering this war. It was not with their
previous knowledge or approval.

"It was a war determined upon as wars used to be determined upon in the
old, unhappy days when peoples were nowhere consulted by their rulers
and wars were provoked and waged in the interest of dynasties or of
little groups of ambitious men who were accustomed to use their
fellow-men as pawns and tools.

"Self-governed nations do not fill their neighbor States with spies, or
set the course of intrigue to bring about some critical posture of
affairs which will give them an opportunity to strike and make conquest.
Such designs can be successfully worked out only under cover and where
no one has the right to ask questions.


PRECONCEIVED DECEPTION.

"Cunningly contrived plans of deception or aggression carried it may be
from generation to generation, can be worked out and kept from the light
only within the privacy of courts or behind the carefully guarded
confidences of a narrow, privileged class. They are happily impossible
where public opinion commands and insists upon full information
concerning all the nation's affairs.

"A steadfast concert for peace can never be maintained except by a
partnership of democratic nations. No autocratic Government could be
trusted to keep faith within it or observe its covenants. It must be a
league of honor, a partnership of opinion. Intrigue would eat its vitals
away; the plotting of inner circles who could plan what they would and
render account to no one would be a corruption seated at its very heart.
Only free peoples can hold their purpose and their honor steady to a
common end and prefer the interests of mankind to any narrow interest of
their own.

"Does not every American feel that assurance has been added to our hope
for the future peace of the world by the wonderful and heartening
things that have been happening within the last few weeks in Russia?
Russia was known by those who know it best to have been always in fact
democratic at heart in all the vital habits of her thought, in all the
intimate relationships of her people that spoke their natural instinct,
their habitual attitude toward life.


POLITICAL AUTOCRACY.

"The autocracy that crowned the summit of her political structure, long
as it had stood and terrible as was the reality of its power, was not,
in fact, Russian in origin, character or purpose; and now it has been
shaken off and the great, generous Russian people have been added in all
their native majesty and might to the forces that are fighting for
freedom in the world, for justice and for peace. Here is a fit partner
for a league of honor.

"One of the things that have served to convince us that the Prussian
autocracy was not and could never be our friend, is that from the very
outset of the present war it has filled our unsuspecting communities and
even our offices of Government with spies and set criminal intrigues
everywhere afoot against our national unity and counsel, our peace
within and without our industries and our commerce.

"Indeed, it is now evident that its spies were here even before the war
began; and it is unhappily not a matter of conjecture, but a fact proved
in our courts of justice, that the intrigues which have more than once
come perilously near to disturbing the peace and dislocating the
industries of the country have been carried on at the instigation, with
the support, and even under the personal direction of official agents of
the Imperial Government accredited to the Government of the United
States.

"Even in checking these things and trying to extirpate them, we have
sought to put the most generous interpretation possible upon them
because we knew that their source lay, not in any hostile feeling or
purpose of the German people toward us (who were, no doubt, as ignorant
of them as we ourselves were), but only in the selfish designs of a
Government that did what it pleased and told its people nothing. But
they have played their part in serving to convince us at last that that
Government entertains no real friendship for us and means to act against
our peace and security at its convenience. That it means to stir up
enemies against us at our very doors the intercepted note to the German
Minister at Mexico City is eloquent evidence.

"We are accepting this challenge of hostile purpose because we know that
in such a Government, following such methods, we can never have a
friend; and that in the presence of its organized power, always lying in
wait to accomplish we know not what purpose, there can be no assured
security of the democratic Governments of the world.


NATURAL FOE TO LIBERTY.

"We are now about to accept gage of battle with this natural foe to
liberty, and shall, if necessary, spend the whole force of the nation to
check and nullify its pretensions and its power. We are glad, now that
we see the facts with no veil of false pretense about them, to fight
thus for the ultimate peace of the world and for the liberation of its
peoples, the German peoples included; for the rights of nations great
and small and the privilege of men everywhere to choose their way of
life and of obedience. The world must be made safe for democracy. Its
peace must be planted upon the tested foundations of political liberty.

"We have no selfish ends to serve. We desire no conquest, no dominion.
We seek no indemnities for ourselves, no material compensation for the
sacrifices we shall freely make. We are but one of the champions of the
rights of mankind. We shall be satisfied when those rights have been as
secure as the faith and the freedom of the nations can make them.

"Just because we fight without rancour and without selfish object,
seeking nothing for ourselves but what we shall wish to share with all
free people, we shall, I feel confident, conduct our operations as
belligerents without passion and ourselves observe with proud punctilio
the principles of right and of fair play we profess to be fighting for.


UNDISGUISED WARFARE.

"I have said nothing of the Governments allied with the Imperial
Government of Germany because they have not made war upon us or
challenged us to defend our right and our honor. The Austro-Hungarian
Government has, indeed, avowed its unqualified indorsement and
acceptance of the reckless and lawless submarine warfare adopted now
without disguise by the Imperial German Government, and it has,
therefore, not been possible for this Government to receive Count
Tarnowski, the Ambassador recently accredited to this Government by the
Imperial and Royal Government of Austria-Hungary; but that Government
has not actually engaged in warfare against citizens of the United
States on the seas, and I take the liberty, for the present at least, of
postponing a discussion of our relations with the authorities at Vienna.
We enter this war only where we are clearly forced into it because there
are no other means of defending our rights.

"It will be all the easier for us to conduct ourselves as belligerents
in a high spirit of right and fairness because we act without animus,
not in enmity toward a people or with the desire to bring any injury or
disadvantage upon them, but only in armed opposition to an irresponsible
Government which has thrown aside all considerations of humanity and of
right and is running amuck.

"We are, let me say again, the sincere friends of the German people, and
shall desire nothing so much as the early re-establishment of intimate
relations of mutual advantage between us, however hard it may be for
them, for the time being, to believe that this is spoken from our
hearts.

"We have borne with their present Government through all these bitter
months because of that friendship, exercising a patience and forbearance
which would otherwise have been impossible. We shall, happily, still
have an opportunity to prove that friendship in our daily attitude and
actions toward the millions of men and women of German birth and native
sympathy who live among us and share our life, and we shall be proud to
prove it toward all who are in fact loyal to their neighbors and to the
Government in the hour of test.


TRUE AND LOYAL AMERICANS.

"They are, most of them, as true and loyal Americans as if they had
never known any other fealty or allegiance. They will be prompt to stand
with us in rebuking and restraining the few who may be of a different
mind and purpose.

"If there should be disloyalty it will be dealt with with a firm hand of
stern repression; but if it lifts its head at all it will lift it only
here and there, and without countenance except from a lawless and
malignant few.

"It is a distressing and oppressive duty, gentlemen of the Congress,
which I have performed in thus addressing you. There are, it may be,
many months of fiery trial and sacrifice ahead of us. It is a fearful
thing to lead this great, peaceful people into war--into the most
terrible and disastrous of all wars, civilization itself seeming to be
in the balance.

"But the right is more precious than peace, and we shall fight for the
things which we have always carried nearest our hearts--for democracy,
for the right of those who submit to authority to have a voice in their
own government, for the rights and liberties of small nations, for a
universal dominion of right by such a concert of free peoples as shall
bring peace and safety to all nations and make the world itself at last
free.

"To such a task we can dedicate our lives and our fortunes, everything
that we are and everything that we have, with the pride of those who
know that the day has come when America is privileged to spend her blood
and her might for the principles that gave her birth and happiness and
the peace which she has treasured. God helping her, she can do no
other."

While all the world knew that an actual state of war had existed between
the two countries for months, the resolution declaring war as adopted by
Congress on the plea of President Wilson and signed by the President
shortly after 1 o'clock on the afternoon of April 6, 1917--Good
Friday--was as follows:

"Whereas, The Imperial German Government has committed repeated acts of
war against the government and the people of the United States of
America; therefore, be it


A WAR RESOLUTION.

"Resolved, By the Senate and House of Representatives of the United
States of America, in Congress assembled, that the state of war between
the United States and the Imperial German Government which has thus been
thrust upon the United States is hereby formally declared; and that the
President be, and he is hereby authorized and directed to employ the
entire naval and military forces of the United States and the resources
of the government to carry on war against the Imperial German
Government; and to bring the conflict to a successful termination all of
the resources of the country are hereby pledged by the Congress of the
United States."

Immediately President Wilson issued a proclamation in which he called
upon the people of the country to co-operate and give their support,
pointing out the necessity for doing things other than putting men upon
the firing line. And in his brief proclamation he outlined the entire
comprehensive plan which, within a few months, was well under way.

The placing of the navy upon a war footing; the creating and equipping
of an adequate army; the supplying of ships; creating of loans; the
financing of the Allies; the conservation of food products; the
development of food and material resources; the providing of munitions
and supplies for the fighting forces abroad--all of these things were
pointed to as necessary in the President's proclamation.

Thus America, which had endeavored to remain neutral during months when
Germany was arrogant and insulting, became aligned with the Allies in
the struggle which for nearly three years had been waged in Europe.


NEGOTIATIONS CARRIED ON.

The negotiations between this country and Germany over the question of
submarine warfare as affecting the lives of non-combatants and the
rights of neutrals on the high seas in time of war had been carried on
for two years. They had their origin on February 10, 1915, when,
following the German announcement of February 4 that "the waters around
Great Britain and Ireland, including the whole English Channel, are
declared a war zone on and after February 18, 1915," William J. Bryan,
then Secretary of State, sent the "strict accountability" note to
Berlin.

Through successive stages the exchange of diplomatic papers continued,
with growing feeling on both sides, because of the acts of German
submarines, until the torpedoing of the cross-Channel steamer Sussex, on
March 24, 1916, when the lives of twenty-five American citizens were
imperiled and several suffered bodily injuries or shock. This attack
resulted in the "Sussex note," or so-called "ultimatum" to Germany.

The Sussex note, signed by Secretary Lansing, and sent to Germany April
19, 1916, concluded with the following declaration:

"Unless the Imperial Government should now immediately declare and
effect an abandonment of its present methods of submarine warfare
against passenger and freight-carrying vessels, the Government of the
United States can have no choice but to sever diplomatic relations with
the German Empire altogether."


QUESTIONS GERMANY'S RIGHT.

The first American note to the Imperial Government, of February 10,
1915, disputed the right of Germany to declare such a war zone as it had
announced the week before, and contended for the international procedure
of "visit and search" before attack on or capture of a neutral vessel.
It embodied this phrase:

"If such a deplorable situation should arise (wanton destruction of an
American ship) the Imperial German Government can readily appreciate
that the Government of the United States would be constrained to hold
the Imperial German Government to a strict accountability for such acts
of their naval authorities and to take any steps it might be necessary
to take to safeguard American lives and property and to secure to
Americans the full enjoyment of their acknowledged rights on the high
seas."

In reply the German Government sent a note under date of February 16,
1915, setting forth that the war zone proclamation was in reprisal for
the "blockade" of Great Britain and that if "at the eleventh hour" the
United States should prevail upon Germany's enemies to abandon their
methods of maritime warfare, Germany would modify its order. It charged
misuse of neutral flags and the arming of merchant ships by Great
Britain.

On February 20, in an identic note to Germany and Great Britain, the
American Government suggested that both Powers cease their illegal
activities. Such an agreement this Government proposed as a "modus
vivendi" giving opportunity for further discussion of the points in
controversy. Berlin accepted this note as "new evidence of the friendly
feelings of the American Government," but reserved a "definite
statement" of the position of the Imperial Government until it learned
"what obligations the British Government are on their part willing to
assume."

Subsequently, on March 28, the British steamship Falaba was sunk, with
the loss of 163 lives, including one American. On April 28 the American
steamship Cushing was attacked by an aeroplane, and on May 1 the
American tanker Gulflight was attacked by a submarine and three United
States citizens were lost.

On May 1, also, the German Embassy at Washington caused to be inserted
in many of the leading American newspapers the now famous advertisement
warning Americans and others from taking passage on the Cunard liner
Lusitania, intimating that it would be attacked. This was the day the
Lusitania sailed on her ill-fated voyage. A number of the prominent
passengers received personal notes when they reached the pier, advising
them not to go, but most of them scouted the thought of danger.


SUBMARINE ISSUE AND DIPLOMACY.

After the sinking of the Lusitania, on May 7, off Fastnet, Ireland, with
the loss of more than 1100 persons, among them 115 Americans, the
submarine issue assumed a large and gravely important place in the realm
of diplomacy.

The accumulation of cases affecting Americans was taken up in the first
"Lusitania note" to Germany, which was dispatched May 15, 1915. It
characterized the attacks on the Falaba, Cushing, Gulflight and
Lusitania as "a series of events which the United States has observed
with growing concern, distress and amazement." It pointed to Germany's
hitherto expressed "humane and enlightened attitude" in matters of
international right, and expressed the hope that submarine commanders
engaged in torpedoing peaceful ships without warning were in such
practice operating without the sanction of their Government. The note
closed with these words:

"The Imperial German Government will not expect the Government of the
United States to omit any word or act necessary to the performance of
its sacred duty of maintaining the rights of the United States and its
citizens and of safeguarding their free exercise and enjoyment."

On May 28, 1915, Germany replied with a note which covered a wide range
of argument and was in every respect unsatisfactory. It alleged that the
Lusitania had masked guns aboard; that she in effect was a British
auxiliary cruiser; that she carried munitions of war; that her owning
company, aware of the damages she risked in the submarine war zone, was
in reality responsible for the loss of American lives, and referred to
the fact that the British Admiralty had offered large rewards to ship
captains who rammed or destroyed submarines.


PROMISED TO PAY DAMAGES.

The note met none of the contentions of the United States so far as the
Lusitania and Falaba incidents were concerned, although a supplementary
note did acknowledge that Germany was wrong in the attacks on the
Cushing and the Gulflight, expressed regret for these two cases and
promised to pay damages. While the American reply to the note was being
framed dissension in the Cabinet resulted in the resignation of
Secretary Bryan, who contended for a policy of warning Americans off
belligerent ships. He resigned because he thought he could not sign the
next note to Germany, which he feared would lead the United States into
war.

Meanwhile several sensational incidents cropped up in connection with
the negotiations, chief of which was the sending of a message to the
Berlin Foreign Office by Doctor Dumba, the Austrian Ambassador,
afterward recalled at the request of President Wilson, which was
represented as stating substantially that Mr. Bryan had intimated to the
Ambassador that the vigorous tone of the American notes should not be
regarded in Berlin as too warlike.

Secretary Lansing took office as Mr. Bryan's successor, and his reply to
the German note took issue with every contention Germany had set up in
the Falaba and Lusitania cases, denied flatly the contention that the
Lusitania was armed or was to be treated as other than a peaceful
merchant ship.

The note averred that the declaration of a submarine war zone could not
abbreviate the rights of Americans on lawful journeys, and added: "The
Government of the United States therefore very earnestly and solemnly
renews the representations of its note transmitted to the Imperial
German Government on May 15, and relies in these representations upon
the principles of humanity, the universally recognized understandings of
international law and the ancient friendship of the German nation."


JAGOW'S EVASIVE ANSWER.

To that note Germany did not reply until July 8, and the German
rejoinder was preponderately characterized by American newspapers not as
a note, but as an address by Foreign Minister von Jagow to the American
people. In official circles it was said to come no nearer to meeting the
American contentions than did the former German note.

The nature of the reply was regarded officially as convincing evidence
that Germany was holding the submarine warfare negotiations as a club
over the United States to force this Government into some action to
compel Great Britain to relax the food blockade. President Wilson
steadfastly refused to permit the diplomatic negotiations of the United
States with one belligerent to become entangled with the relations with
another.

To that the United States replied on July 21 that the German note was
"very unsatisfactory," because it failed to meet "the real differences
between the two Governments." The United States, it declared, was keenly
disappointed with Germany's attitude. Submarine attacks without warning,
endangering Americans and other neutrals, were characterized as illegal
and inhuman and manifestly indefensible. The German retaliation against
the British blockade, it maintained, must not interfere with the rights
of neutrals, which the note declared were "based upon principles, not
expediency, and the principles are immutable." It declared that the
United States would continue to contend for the freedom of the seas
"from whatever quarter violated, without compromise and at any cost."
The American note concluded with these words of warning:

"Friendship itself prompts it (the United States Government) to say to
the Imperial Government that repetition by the commanders of German
naval vessels of acts in contravention of those rights must be regarded
by the Government of the United States, when they affect American
citizens, as deliberately unfriendly."


"INFORMAL CONVERSATIONS."

The negotiations at this point seemed to have come to such an impasse
that the exchanges of notes between Washington and Berlin were stopped
and the controversy was brought into the realm of "informal
conversations" between Secretary Lansing and Count von Bernstorff, the
German Ambassador. It was thought that much could be accomplished by
personal contact which was lost in a cold exchange of documents.

Meanwhile the Arabic was sunk on August 19. Coming close on the
unsuccessful Lusitania negotiations and a continuation of submarine
attacks in which Americans had suffered, it seemed that the United
States and Germany had at last reached the point of a break. Then, on
September 1, came the first rift in the threatening situation. Count von
Bernstorff presented this written assurance to Secretary Lansing:

"Liners will not be sunk by our submarines without warning and without
safety of non-combatants, provided that the liners do not try to escape
or offer resistance."

The United States had agreed all along that ships hailed for visit and
search by a war vessel took a risk if they attempted to flee, but it
contended not for the safety of "liners" alone, but for the immunity of
all peaceful merchant vessels. The word "liners" was the perplexing
point in Germany's assurances and a complete agreement on what it
actually meant never was finally reached.

More hopefulness was added to the situation when, on October 5, the
Arabic case was disposed of by Germany disavowing the sinking and giving
renewed assurances that submarine commanders had been again instructed
to avoid repetition of the acts which provoked American condemnation.
Count von Bernstorff delivered to Secretary Lansing this communication:


BERNSTORFF'S COMMUNICATION.

"The orders issued by his Majesty the Emperor to the commanders of
submarines--of which I notified you on a previous occasion--have been
made so stringent that the recurrence of incidents similar to the Arabic
case is considered out of the question. The Imperial Government regrets
and disavows this act and has notified Commander Schneider accordingly."

With that the negotiations reverted to the Lusitania case. Germany
already had agreed to pay indemnity for American lives lost, but the
negotiations were delayed by a seeming deadlock over the words in which
Germany should acknowledge the illegality of the destruction of the
liner. Germany, unwilling to use the word "illegal," substituted a
declaration that "reprisals must not be directed at others than enemy
subjects." A formal communication, including such a declaration and
expressing regret for loss of American lives, assuming liability and
offering reparation in the form of indemnity, was submitted to Secretary
Lansing.

A favorable settlement of the long and threatened controversy seemed to
be in sight when all the progress that had been made was reduced to
nothing by Germany's declaration of a new submarine policy of sinking
without warning all armed merchant ships. That precipitated a new
situation so vitally interwoven with the whole structure of the
Lusitania case that President Wilson declined to close the Lusitania
settlement while the other issue was pending, and there the whole matter
rested while German submarine warfare was contained and new cases
involving loss of American lives piled up.

Finally the accumulation of evidence reached such proportions with the
torpedoing of the Sussex that President Wilson, convinced that
assurances given in the Lusitania and Arabic cases were being violated,
dispatched another note to Germany, and went before Congress, reviewed
the entire situation from the beginning, and made this declaration:


PRESIDENT'S DECLARATION.

"I have deemed it my duty to say to the Imperial German Government that
if it is still its purpose to prosecute relentless and indiscriminate
warfare the Government of the United States is at last forced to the
conclusion that there is only one course it can pursue; and that, unless
the Imperial German Government should now, immediately, declare and
effect an abandonment of its present methods of warfare against
passenger and freight-carrying vessels this Government can have no
choice but to sever diplomatic relations altogether."

It will be noted that the President went further than "liners," and said
"passenger and freight-carrying vessels."

In the note sent at this time the President said:

"No limit of any kind has in fact been set to the indiscriminate pursuit
and destruction of merchantmen of all kinds and nationalities within the
waters constantly extending in area where these operations have been
carried on, and the roll of Americans who have lost their lives on ships
thus attacked and destroyed has grown month by month until the ominous
toll has mounted into the hundreds. Again and again the Imperial German
Government has given this Government its solemn assurances that at least
passenger ships would not be thus dealt with, and yet it has again and
again permitted its undersea commanders to disregard those assurances
with entire impunity."


OPPOSED TO SUBMARINE WARFARE.

During all the negotiations the Berlin Foreign Office looked to Count
von Bernstorff to prevent a break. His attitude was represented as
propitiatory from the viewpoint of the United States and opposed to the
submarine warfare of Von Tirpitz. On several occasions he is said to
have warned his Emperor personally that a continuance of the warfare
against which the United States protested would surely lead to a break.
Meanwhile the Ambassador's own position was embarrassed by the
operations of German sympathizers in the United States plotting against
American neutrality. Some of these operations were traced directly to
the military and naval attaches of the embassy, who were withdrawn.

Germany's final note in the Sussex case, received in Washington on May
5, said that "the German naval forces have received the following
order":

"In accordance with the general principles of visit and search and the
destruction of merchant vessels recognized by international law, such
vessels, both within and without the area declared a naval war zone,
shall not be sunk without warning and without saving human lives, unless
the ship attempts to escape or offers resistance."

Contending that the Imperial Government was unwilling to restrict an
effective weapon if "the enemy is permitted to apply at will methods of
warfare violating the rules of international law," the note expressed
the hope that the United States would "demand and insist that the
British Government shall observe forthwith the rules of international
law." The communication added:

"Should the steps taken by the Government of the United States not
attain the object it (the German Government) desires, to have the laws
of humanity followed by all belligerent nations, the German Government
would then be facing a new situation in which it must reserve to itself
complete liberty of decision."

To any such reservations the United States demurred in no uncertain
terms.


PRESIDENT WILSON'S REPLY.

"The United States feels it necessary to state," said President Wilson's
reply, "that it takes it for granted that the Imperial German Government
does not intend to imply that the maintenance of its newly announced
policy is any way contingent upon the course or result of diplomatic
negotiations between the Government of the United States and any other
belligerent Government, notwithstanding the fact that certain passages
in the Imperial Government's note might appear to be susceptible of that
construction."

In completing the declaration that there must be no misunderstanding
that rights of American citizens must not be made subject to the conduct
of some other Government, the note concluded by saying: "Responsibility
in such matters is single, not joint; absolute, not relative."

The climax came on February 1, 1917, when Count von Bernstorff, German
Ambassador at Washington, handed to Secretary Lansing a note from
Germany on the U-boat policy, supplemented by the "order" and
declaration that the Imperial Government proposed to stop sea traffic in
the "zones" which it marked as prohibited, by every means at its
command. This is the restricted zone order:

"From February 1, 1917, sea traffic will be stopped with every available
weapon and without further notice in the following blockade zones
around Great Britain, France, Italy and in the Eastern Mediterranean.

[Illustration: THE BLOCKADE ZONES.]

"In the North: The zone is confined by a line at a distance of twenty
sea miles along the Dutch coast to Terschelling fireship, the degree of
longitude from Terschelling fireship to Udsire (Norway), a line from
there across, the point 62 degrees north 0 degrees longitude to 62
degrees north 5 degrees west, further to a point three sea miles south
of the southern point of the Farve (Faroe?) Islands, from there across a
point 62 degrees north 10 degrees west to 61 degrees north 15 degrees
west, then 57 degrees north 20 degrees west to 47 degrees north 20
degrees west, further to 43 degrees north, 15 degrees west, then along
the degree of latitude 43 degrees north to 20 sea miles from Cape
Finisterre and at a distance of 20 sea miles along the north coast of
Spain to the French boundary.

"In the south (Mediterranean):

"For neutral ships remains open: The sea west of the line Pt des'
Espiquette to 38 degrees 20 minutes north and 6 degrees east, also north
and west of a zone 61 sea miles wide along the North African coast,
beginning at 2 degrees longitude west. For the connection of this sea
zone with Greece there is provided a zone of a width of 20 sea miles
north and east of the following line: 38 degrees north and 6 degrees
east to 38 degrees north and 10 degrees west to 37 degrees north and 11
degrees 30 minutes east to 34 degrees north and 22 degrees 30 minutes
east. From there leads a zone 20 sea miles wide west of 22 degrees 30
minutes eastern longitude into Greek territorial waters.


NEUTRAL SHIPS' RISK.

"Neutral ships navigating these blockade zones do so at their own risk.
Although care has been taken that neutral ships which are on their way
toward ports of the blockade zones on February 1, 1917, and which have
come in the vicinity of the latter, will be spared during a sufficiently
long period, it is strongly advised to warn them with all available
means in order to cause their return.

"Neutral ships which on February 1 are in ports of the blockade zones
can with the same safety leave them.

"The instructions given to the commanders of German submarines provide
for a sufficiently long period during which the safety of passengers on
unarmed enemy passenger ships is guaranteed.

"Americans en route to the blockade zone on enemy freight steamships are
not endangered, as the enemy shipping firms can prevent such ships in
time from entering the zone.

"Sailing of regular American passenger steamships may continue
undisturbed after February 1, 1917, if

"(a) The port of destination is Falmouth.

"(b) Sailing to or coming from that port course is taken via the Scilly
Islands and a point 50 degrees north, 20 degrees west.

"(c) The steamships are marked in the following way, which must not be
allowed to other vessels in American ports: On ship's hull and
superstructure three vertical stripes one meter wide each to be painted
alternately white and red. Each mast should show a large flag checkered
white and red and the stern the American national flag. Care should be
taken that during dark national flag and painted marks are easily
recognizable from a distance, and that the boats are well lighted
throughout.

"(d) One steamship a week sails in each direction, with arrival at
Falmouth on Sunday and departure from Falmouth on Wednesday.

"(e) United States Government guarantees that no contraband (according
to German contraband list) is carried by those steamships."

Immediately after the signing of the Congressional resolution declaring
America at war, President Wilson ordered the mobilization of the United
States Navy, and the Senate voted an emergency war fund of $100,000,000
for the use of the President. The forces of the United States on land
and sea and in every country under the sun were notified that a state of
war existed.

The entrance of America was regarded throughout the world as one of the
most significant moves in the history of nations, and it filled the
Allied forces with enthusiasm. Typical of the expressions on the part of
the representatives of the Governments at war with Germany was that of
Lloyd George, Premier of England, who said:

"America has at one bound become a world power in a sense she never was
before. She waited until she found a cause worthy of her traditions. The
American people held back until they were fully convinced that the fight
was not a sordid scrimmage for power and possessions, but an unselfish
struggle to overthrow a sinister conspiracy against human liberty and
human rights.

"Once that conviction was reached, the great Republic of the West has
leaped into the arena, and she stands now side by side with the European
democracies, who, bruised and bleeding after three years of grim
conflict, are still fighting the most savage foe that ever menaced the
freedom of the world.

"The glowing phrases of the President's noble deliverance illumine the
horizon and make clearer than ever the goal we are striving to reach.


DEMOCRACY, FREEDOM AND PEACE.

"There are three phrases which will stand out forever in the story of
this crusade. The first is that 'the world must be made safe for
democracy,' the next, 'the menace to peace and freedom lies in the
existence of autocratic governments backed by organized force, which is
controlled wholly by their will and not by the will of their people,'
and the crowning phrase is that in which he declares that 'a steadfast
concert for peace can never be maintained except by the partnership of
democratic nations.'

"These words represent the faith which inspires and sustains our people
in the tremendous sacrifices they have made and are still making. They
also believe that the unity and peace of mankind can only rest upon
democracy, upon the right to have a voice in their own Government; upon
respect for the right and liberties of nations both great and small, and
upon the universal dominion of public right.

"To all of these the Prussian military autocracy is an implacable foe.

"The Imperial War Cabinet, representative of all the peoples of the
British Empire, wish me on their behalf to recognize the chivalry and
courage which call the people of the United States to dedicate the whole
of their resources to the greatest cause that ever engaged human
endeavor."



CHAPTER XXIV.

UNCLE SAM TAKES HOLD.

MAKES WORLD'S BIGGEST WAR LOAN--SEIZE GERMAN SHIPS--INTRIGUE
EXPOSED--GENERAL PERSHING AND STAFF IN EUROPE--THE NAVY ON DUTY IN NORTH
SEA--FIRST UNITED STATES TROOPS REACH FRANCE--GERMANY'S ATTEMPTS TO SINK
TROOP SHIPS THWARTED BY NAVY'S GUNS.


Scarcely had the ink had time to dry on the Nation's command to begin
war than Congress voted an appropriation of $7,000,000,000 for war
purposes. This, the largest single appropriation ever made by a
government in the world, was passed without a dissenting vote. Still
later, a deficiency bill of $2,827,000,000 for war expenses was passed.
Other legislative measures provided for the increase of the army and
navy and for "selective conscription," although the latter was passed in
the face of considerable opposition on the part of many who believed
that in a democracy armies should be raised by volunteer recruiting.
Many felt that compulsory service was not in accordance with the ideals
of liberty.

The Conscription Act provided for the registration of every male citizen
or resident in the United States between the ages of 21 and 31 years,
and was enacted on May 19, 1917. Registration of these military
available was made on June 5, when 10,000,000 names were entered on the
rolls as subject to draft by the Government. The principle of "selective
conscription" is that the authorities shall have the right to exempt
from military duty among those registered such persons whose employment
in civil life is necessary to the maintenance of the industries and
business of the country, as well as those who, though physically fit,
have others dependent upon them for support.

One of the first acts of the Government after the declaration of war was
the seizure of the German merchant vessels interned in United States
ports. These vessels had a tonnage of upward of 629,000 tons and were
estimated as being worth in the neighborhood of $100,000,000. The
seizure was notable in that it was the largest ever made by a country at
war.

When the Government went to take charge of the vessels it was found that
the German officers had destroyed parts of the machinery in many of them
in an attempt to put them out of commission. The condition of the boats
was such that all of them had to be put in drydock, and it was several
months before some of them could be put in condition for use.


SIXTY RINGLEADERS ARRESTED.

Immediately the ships had been seized an order was issued by Attorney
General Gregory for the arrest of sixty alleged ringleaders in German
plots, conspiracies and machinations throughout the United States. The
Department of Justice, which had long been gathering evidence in
connection with the suspects, had complete reports about their
activities. They were all German citizens, had participated in German
intrigues, and all were regarded as dangerous persons to be at large.

They were all arrested, bail was refused them, and they were locked up
for safekeeping. This was the first step in the general rounding up of
the conspirators throughout the country. The men were placed in three
groups: Those having previously been arrested charged with violation of
American neutrality in furthering German plots of various sorts and who
were at liberty under bond awaiting the action of higher courts; those
who had been indicted by Federal Grand Juries for similar offenses and
were at liberty under bond awaiting the action of the higher courts, and
persons who, although they had never been indicted or convicted, had
long been under surveillance by the Secret Service, or the investigators
of the Department of Justice.

These arrests were the first of alien enemies made in this country in
more than a century, under the direct order of the Attorney General
without reference to the courts or obtaining warrants. Under an act of
Congress passed in 1798 the President is empowered to adopt this course.
The right had not been invoked, however, since the war with Great
Britain in 1812.


ARREST OF GERMAN PLOTTERS.

The arrests were only the beginning of the work of the Secret Service
Department in a complete investigation of the activities of the
thousands of German reservists, stationed in the United States, and
suspected of being connected with plots which daily were cropping out.
These plots were being exposed constantly. Some were abandoned before
being completely worked out, owing to the fact that the Germans
suspected they were being shadowed. It was estimated that there were in
the United States at the time of the discoveries of conspiracies between
15,000 and 18,000 German reservists in the prime of life, whose energies
were undoubtedly being employed in the spreading of the German
propaganda. It was upon this army that the Secret Service men kept a
close watch, and who were generally found to have within their ranks the
men wanted at various times in connection with the advancement of German
plans.

Many of the Germans arrested were quasi-officials of the German
government. Some of them, it is alleged, were the instrumentalities
through which Captain Boy-Ed and Captain von Papen had carried out their
activities in this country against the Allies. A number of those
arrested were properly classed as spies. Camps were established for the
sailors taken from the interned German vessels, and many of them were
sent to Fort Oglethorpe, Georgia, where they were held.

The far-reaching influence of the German spy system was at this time
laid before the American public, with all of its startling
ramifications. For months there had been stories of German intrigue and
conspiracies, and the Secret Service had unearthed innumerable plots to
destroy ammunition plants and industrial establishments, which would
have the effect of making it difficult for America to supply ammunition
to the Allies.

The most insidious scheme unearthed by the government was that which had
to do with the attempt of Germany to secure the alliance of Mexico and
Japan to make war on the United States.

Japan, through Mexican mediation, was to be urged to abandon her allies
and join in the attack on the United States.

Mexico, for her reward, was to receive general financial support from
Germany, reconquer Texas, New Mexico and Arizona--lost provinces--and
share in the victorious peace terms Germany contemplated.


MACHINATIONS OF GERMAN MINISTER.

Details were left to German Minister von Eckhardt in Mexico City, who by
instructions signed by German Foreign Minister Zimmerman, at Berlin,
January 19, 1917, was directed to propose the alliance with Mexico, to
General Carranza, and suggest that Mexico seek to bring Japan into the
plot.

These instructions were transmitted to von Eckhardt through Count von
Bernstorff, former German Ambassador.

Germany pictured to Mexico, by broad intimation, England and the entente
allies defeated, Germany and her allies triumphant and in world
domination by the instrument of unrestricted submarine warfare.

A copy of Zimmerman's instructions to von Eckhardt, sent through von
Bernstorff, is in possession of the United States government. It is as
follows:

     "Berlin, January 19, 1917.

     "On the first of February we intend to begin submarine warfare
     unrestricted. In spite of this, it is our intention to endeavor to
     keep neutral the United States of America.

     "If this attempt is not successful we propose an alliance on the
     following basis with Mexico: That we shall make war together and
     together make peace. We shall give general financial support, and
     it is understood that Mexico is to reconquer the lost territory in
     New Mexico, Texas and Arizona. The details are left to you for
     settlement.

     "You are instructed to inform the President of Mexico of the above,
     in the greatest confidence, as soon as it is certain that there
     will be an outbreak of war with the United States, and suggest that
     the President of Mexico, on his own initiative, should communicate
     with Japan, suggesting adherence at once to this plan; at the same
     time, offer to mediate between Germany and Japan.

     "Please call to the attention of the President of Mexico that the
     employment of ruthless submarine warfare now promises to compel
     England to make peace in a few months.

     "ZIMMERMAN."


BETHMANN-HOLLWEG'S FALSE STATEMENT.

This document was in the possession of the government at the very time
Chancellor von Bethmann-Hollweg was declaring that the United States had
placed an interpretation on the submarine declaration "never intended by
Germany," and that Germany had promoted and honored friendly relations
with the United States "as an heirloom from Frederick the Great."

Of itself, if there were no other, it is considered a sufficient answer
to the German Chancellor's plaint that the United States "brusquely"
broke off relations without giving "authentic" reasons for its action.

The document supplies the missing link to many separate chains of
circumstances, which until then had seemed to lead to no definite point.
It shed new light upon the frequently reported but indefinable
movements of the Mexican government to couple its situation with the
friction between the United States and Japan.

It added another chapter to the celebrated report of Jules Cambon,
French Ambassador in Berlin before the war, of Germany's world-wide
plans for stirring strife on every continent where they might aid her in
the struggle for world domination, which she dreamed was close at hand.
It added a climax to the operations of Count von Bernstorff and the
German Embassy in this country, which had been colored with passport
frauds, charges of dynamite plots and intrigue, the full extent of which
never had been published.

And last but not least, it explained in a very large degree the attitude
of the Mexican government toward the United States on many points.


UNCLE SAM NOT BOTHERED.

But the efforts of the German enthusiasts, which carried them beyond the
bounds of reasonable safety in the United States, did not bother Uncle
Sam much in the prosecution of his war plans. Within a short period
after the declaration of war the country had written a chapter in
national achievement unrivalled in the history of the world.

American destroyers were mobilized, outfitted and sent to the North Sea
within a few days after the nation entered the conflict. With them went
their own supply vessels and numerous converted craft adapted to naval
use. Their number and the exact duty they have assumed never have been
revealed, but that they have been recognized as a formidable part of the
grand allied fleet was evidenced by the designation of American Vice
Admiral Sims to command all the forces in the important zone off
Ireland.

The fleet began actual duty in the European waters on May 4, and the
presence of the vessels and the American sailors was the subject of
official correspondence. The British admiralty announced the arrival of
the American destroyers as follows:

"The British Admiralty states that a flotilla of United States
destroyers recently arrived in this country to co-operate with our naval
forces in the prosecution of the war.

"The services which the American vessels are rendering to the allied
cause are of the greatest value and are deeply appreciated."

Vice Admiral Sir David Beatty, commander of the British Grand Fleet,
sent the following message to Admiral Henry T. Mayo, commander of the
United States Atlantic Fleet:

"The Grand Fleet rejoices that the Atlantic Fleet will now share in
preserving the liberties of the world and maintaining the chivalry of
the sea."

Admiral Mayo replied:

"The United States Atlantic Fleet appreciates the message from the
British Fleet and welcomes opportunities for work with the British Fleet
for the freedom of the seas."


GENERAL PERSHING IN ENGLAND.

Less than a month later Major General John J. Pershing, with his staff,
were safely in England ready to take command of the first expeditionary
force that ever set foot on the European shores to make war. General
Pershing's personal staff and the members of the General Staff who went
to perform the preliminary work for the first fighting force, numbered
57 officers and about 50 enlisted men, together with a civilian clerical
force.

The party landed at Liverpool on June 8, after an uneventful trip on the
White Star liner Baltic. The party was received with full military
honors and immediately entrained for London, where it was welcomed by
Lord Derby, the Minister of War; Viscount French, commander of the
British home forces, and a large body of American officials.

In London General Pershing was later received at Buckingham Palace by
King George.

He was presented to the King by Lord Brooke, commander of the Twelfth
Canadian Infantry Brigade. General Pershing was accompanied to the
palace by his personal staff of twelve officers. After the audience the
officers paid a formal call at the United States embassy.


PERSHING RECEIVES ROYAL GREETING.

After the formal reception the King shook hands with General Pershing
and the members of his staff, and expressed pleasure at welcoming the
advance guard of the American army. King George chatted for a few
moments with each member of General Pershing's staff. In addressing
General Pershing the King said:

"It has been the dream of my life to see the two great English-speaking
nations more closely united. My dreams have been realized. It is with
the utmost pleasure that I welcome you, at the head of the American
contingent, to our shores."

Major General Pershing's staff has been characterized as "one of live
wires." Most of the officers are West Pointers, but there are among them
some who rose from the ranks, including Major James G. Harbord, chief of
staff.

General Pershing reached France on June 13, where he was given a
tumultuous welcome. He landed at Boulogne in the morning and was met by
General Pelletier, representing the French government and General
Headquarters of the French army; Commandant Hue, representing the
Minister of War; General Lucas, commanding the northern region; Colonel
Daru, Governor of Lille; the Prefect of the Somme and other officials.

Among the latter were Rene Besnard, Under Secretary of War, representing
the Cabinet; Commandant Thouzellier, representing Marshal Joffre, and
Vice-Admiral Ronarch, representing the navy.

The scene in the harbor as General Pershing set foot on French soil was
one of striking beauty and animation. The day was bright and sunny. The
quays were crowded with townspeople and soldiers from all Entente
armies, with French and British troops predominating.

The shipping was gay with flags and bunting, many merchant craft
hoisting American flags, while along the crowded quays the American
colors were everywhere shown as a token of the French welcome.


PERSHING RECEIVES AN OVATION.

A great wave of enthusiasm came from the crowds as General Pershing
stepped upon the quay and as the band played the "Marseillaise" he and
the members of his staff stood uncovered. M. Besnard, in greeting the
American commander in behalf of the government, said the Americans had
come to France to combat with the Allies for the same cause of right and
civilization. General Pelletier extended a greeting to the Americans in
behalf of the army.

General Dumas, commandant of the region in which Boulogne is located,
said:

"Your coming opens a new era in the history of the world. The United
States of America is now taking its part with the United States of
Europe. Together they are about to found the United States of the World,
which will definitely and finally end the war and give a peace which
will be enduring and suitable for humanity."

General Pershing stood at parade as the various addresses were delivered
and acknowledged each with a salute.

British soldiers and marines lined up along the quays had rendered
military honors as the vessel flying the Stars and Stripes, preceded by
destroyers and accompanied by hydroplanes and dirigible balloons,
steamed up the channel. Military bands played "The Star-Spangled
Banner" and the "Marseillaise" as General Pelletier and his party
boarded the boat to welcome General Pershing.

After the representatives of the French authorities had been presented
to the American officers, the party landed and reviewed the French
territorials. The Americans then entered motor cars for a ride around
the city. All along the route they were followed by crowds of people who
greeted General Pershing with the greatest enthusiasm.


PERSHING IN PARIS.

The General and his staff were taken in a special train to Paris, where
General Pershing was received by Marshal Joffre, Ambassador Sharp and
Paul Painleve, French Minister of War. In the French capital General
Pershing and staff were received by the populace with wild enthusiasm,
and for several days they were feted and entertained.

There were, during the short period of entertainment, several incidents
which will long be noted in history, as when General Pershing visited
the Tomb of Napoleon and when he took from its case the sword of the
world conqueror and kissed it, and again when he placed a wreath on the
grave of Lafayette.

Within a few days General Pershing had established the army headquarters
in the Rue De Constantine and began the work preliminary to the campaign
on the firing line.

Second only to the enthusiastic reception tendered General Pershing and
his staff was that accorded the first United States Medical Unit, which
reached London in June. The vanguard of the American army, composed of
26 surgeons and 60 nurses, in command of Major Harry L. Gilchrist, was
received by King George and Queen Mary, the Prince of Wales and Princess
Mary, at Buckingham Palace.

The reception to General Pershing and the Medical branch was, however,
nothing as compared to the popular demonstration which marked the
arrival of the first of the American armed forces on European shores to
participate in war. The vanguard of the army reached France on June 27.
No official announcement was ever made of the number of men in the first
expeditionary force, but it is an incident of modern history that the
United States made a record for the transportation of troops across the
seas scarcely equalled by that of any other country.


ABSOLUTE SECRECY OBSERVED.

All America knew that troops were being sent to France, but no
information had been given as to the time of departure or as to their
destination. The world was, therefore, fairly electrified when the
announcement was made that in defiance of the German submarines,
thousands of seasoned regulars and marines, trained fighting men, with
the tan of long service on the Mexican border, in Haiti, or Santo
Domingo still on their faces, had arrived in France to fight beside the
French, the British, the Belgians, the Russians, the Portuguese and the
Italian troops on the Western front.

Despite the enormous difficulties of unpreparedness and the submarine
dangers that faced them, the plans of the army and navy were carried
through with clock-like precision.

When the order came to prepare immediately an expeditionary force to go
to France, virtually all of the men who first crossed the seas were on
the Mexican border. General Pershing himself was at his headquarters in
San Antonio. There were no army transports available in the Atlantic.
The vessels that carried the troops were scattered on their usual
routes. Army reserve stores were still depleted from the border
mobilization. Regiments were below war strength. That was the condition
when President Wilson decided that the plea of the French high
commission should be answered and a force of regulars sent at once to
France.

At his word the War Department began to move. General Pershing was
summoned quietly to Washington. His arrival created some speculation in
the press, but at the request of Secretary Baker the newspapers
generally refrained from discussion of this point.

There were a thousand other activities afoot in the department at the
time. All the business of preparing for the military registration of
10,000,000 men, of providing quarters and instructors for nearly 50,000
prospective officers, for finding arms and equipment for millions of
troops yet to be organized, of expanding the regular army to full war
strength, of preparing and recruiting the National Guard for war was at
hand.


PERSHING SETS UP HEADQUARTERS.

General Pershing dropped quietly into the department and set up the
first headquarters of the American expeditionary forces in a little
office, hardly large enough to hold himself and his personal staff.
There, with the aid of the general staff, of Secretary Baker and of the
chiefs of the War Department bureaus, the plans were worked out.

Announcement of the sending of the force under General Pershing was made
May 18. The press gave the news to the country and there were daily
stories.

There came a day when General Pershing no longer was in the department.
Officers of the general staff suddenly were missing from their desks. No
word of this was reported. Then came word from England that Pershing and
his officers were there. All was carried through without publicity.

Other matters relating to the expedition were carried out without a word
of publicity. The regiments that were to go with General Pershing were
all selected before he left and moving toward the seacoast from the
border. Other regiments also were moving north, east and west to the
points where they were to be expanded, and the movements of the troops
who were to be first in France were obscured in all this hurrying of
troop trains over the land.

Great shipments of war supplies began to assemble at the embarkation
ports. Liners suddenly were taken off their regular runs with no
announcement. A great armada was made ready, supplied, equipped as
transports, loaded with men and guns and sent to sea, and all with
virtually no mention from the press.

The navy bore its full share in the achievement. From the time the troop
ships left their docks and headed toward sea, responsibility for the
lives of their thousands of men rested upon the officers and crews of
the fighting ships that moved beside them or swept free the sea lanes
before them. As they pushed on through the days and nights toward the
danger zone, where German submarines lay in wait, every precaution that
trained minds of the navy could devise was taken.


A BRILLIANT CLIMAX.

The brilliant climax to the achievement was made public when it was
announced that not only had the last units of the expeditionary force
been landed on July 3, but that the American navy had driven off two
German submarines, probably sinking one of them, when the transport
ships and convoys had been attacked.

The last units of the American expeditionary force, comprising vessels
loaded with supplies and horses, reached France amid the screeching of
whistles and moaning of sirens. Their arrival, one week after the first
troops landed, was greeted almost as warmly as the arrival of the troops
themselves.

Many of the American soldiers crowded down to the wharf to greet the
last ships of the expedition and the American vessels in the harbor,
which had made up previous contingents of the force, joined in the
welcome. The late arrival of the supply ships was due not only to later
departure from America, but also to the fact that the vessels were
slower than those which had come before. The delay caused little
anxiety, although it worked temporary inconvenience to the troops, who
had been waiting for materials with which to work.

Probably the happiest man in port was Rear Admiral Gleaves, commander of
the convoy. From the bridge of his flagship he watched the successful
conclusion of his plans with characteristic modesty and insisted upon
bestowing the lion's share of credit for the crossing on the navigating
officers of his command.


ADVANCE PLANS BRIEFLY SKETCHED.

Sketching briefly the advance plans whereby all units of the contingent
had to keep a daily rendezvous with accompanying warships, he said,
that, thanks to his navigating officers and despite overcast skies,
which made astronomical observations impossible, each rendezvous had
been minutely and accurately kept by each unit. The orders he issued at
the outset, which comprised scores of details, were observed, the
Admiral declared, with such exactness that the contingent units and
convoying warships invariably met each other within half an hour of the
appointed time.

A big contributing factor in the crossing, according to officers of both
branches of the service, was the hearty co-operation between the army
and navy. From the time of the departure until the landing there was not
the slightest suggestion of friction, and co-ordination played its part
distinctively in the success of the expedition.

The startling fact of the entire journey across the sea was that the
Navy had won its first victory in driving off attacking submarines. The
news of the fight was given out by the Navy Department and the Committee
on Public Information, with the announcement of the final landing of the
troops and the safe arrival of the supply ships.

The announcement, sponsored by Secretary Daniels, of the Navy, shows
beyond the shadow of doubt that the Berlin Admiralty had been "tipped
off" that the American expeditionary force was on its way, and had
carefully planned to send the transports to the bottom of the Atlantic.

Realizing that an attack might be expected in the war zone, and that
every precaution would be taken to ward it off, the Germans moved far
out from land, in the hope of catching the American gunners napping.
They were fooled. Uncle Sam's jackies were at the guns when the fleet of
submarines stuck their periscopes above the waves and trained their
torpedo tubes on the lines of transports.


WAVES COVERED WITH SHELLS.

The torpedo boats and other craft opened up and covered the waves with
shells. The Germans soon lost at least one submarine and, having had
enough of the fight, they disappeared. As the little destroyers dashed
straight at the submarines and shot under water explosives in their wake
as they submerged, the transports dashed through the night at top speed
without having been scratched.

The extreme degree to which the Germans had prepared to destroy the
American force is shown by the second part of the official announcement,
which tells how another section of the transport fleet was waylaid under
cover of darkness, but how the American gunners were too quick for the
Germans.

The text of Secretary Daniels' announcement was:

"It is with the joy of a great relief that I announce to the people of
the United States the safe arrival in France of every fighting man and
every fighting ship. Now that the last vessel has reached port, it is
safe to disclose the dangers that were encountered and to tell the
complete story of peril and courage.

"The transports bearing our troops were twice attacked by German
submarines on the way across. On both occasions the U-boats were beaten
off with every appearance of loss. One was certainly sunk, and there is
reason to believe that the accurate fire of our gunners sent others to
the bottom.

"For purposes of convenience, the expedition was divided into
contingents, each contingent including troopships and a naval escort
designed to keep off such German raiders as might be met.

"An ocean rendezvous had also been arranged with the American destroyers
now operating in European waters in order that the passage of the danger
zone might be attended by every possible protection.

"The first attack took place at 10.30 on the night of June 22. What
gives it peculiar and disturbing significance is that our ships were set
upon at a point well this side of the rendezvous, and in that part of
the Atlantic presumably free from submarines. The attack was made in
force, although the night made impossible any exact count of the U-boats
gathered for what they deemed a slaughter.


HIGH SEAS CONVOY.

"The high seas convoy, circling with their searchlights, answered with
heavy gunfire, and its accuracy stands proved by the fact that the
torpedo discharge became increasingly scattered and inaccurate. It is
not known how many torpedoes were launched, but five were counted as
they sped by bow and stern.

"A second attack was launched a few days later against another
contingent. The point of assault was beyond the rendezvous and our
destroyers were sailing as a screen between the transports and all harm.
The results of the battle were in favor of American gunnery.

"Not alone did the destroyers hold the U-boats at a safe distance, but
their speed also resulted in the sinking of one submarine at least.
Grenades were used in firing, a depth charge explosive timed to go off
at a certain distance under water. In one instance, oil and wreckage
covered the surface of the sea after a shot from a destroyer at a
periscope, and the reports make claim of sinking.

"Protected by our high seas convoy, by our destroyers and by French war
vessels, the contingent proceeded and joined the others in a French
port.

"The whole nation will rejoice that so great a peril is passed for the
vanguard of the men who will fight our battles in France. No more
thrilling Fourth of July celebration could have been arranged than this
glad news that lifts the shadow of dread from the heart of America."

Upon receipt of the announcement, Secretary Baker wrote the following
letter to Secretary Daniels, conveying the army's thanks to the navy:

"Word has just come to the War Department that the last ships conveying
General Pershing's expeditionary force to France arrived safe today. As
you know, the navy assumed the responsibility for the safety of these
ships on the sea and through the danger zone. The ships themselves and
their convoys were in the hands of the navy, and now that they have
arrived, and carried, without the loss of a man, our soldiers who are
the first to represent America in the battle for democracy, I beg leave
to tender to you, to the Admiral and to the navy, the hearty thanks of
the War Department and of the army. This splendid achievement is an
auspicious beginning and it has been characterized throughout by the
most cordial and effective co-operation between the two military
services."



CHAPTER XXV.

A GERMAN CRISIS.

THE DOWNFALL OF BETHMANN-HOLLWEG--THE CROWN PRINCE IN THE LIME
LIGHT--HOLLWEG'S UNIQUE CAREER--DR. GEORG MICHAELIS APPOINTED
CHANCELLOR--THE KAISER AND HOW HE GETS HIS IMMENSE POWER.


The active participation of the United States in the war, as distinctly
marked by the sending of troops to France, aside from giving needed
inspiration to the Allied forces, may be said to have had a decided
effect in Germany. While the German subjects are loyal, there has
developed in the country, as in every other country, a large element of
Socialists and progressives.

Something of a climax was reached in the affairs of the Hohenzollern
dynasty just when the United States troops were preparing to take their
places on the battle line in France and when the first of the
conscripted forces of the country were being summoned to the colors.

With a suddenness that startled the entire world, Dr. von
Bethmann-Hollweg, the German Imperial Chancellor, resigned on July 14,
thus ending his career as the spokesman of the Kaiser, which he had
maintained for a surprisingly long period. At the same time Dr. Alfred
Zimmermann, Foreign Minister, who was responsible for the correspondence
which revealed the fact that Germany was trying to induce Mexico and
Japan to form an alliance against the United States, also quit his post.

The resignation of the Chancellor came quite unexpectedly, for von
Hollweg, in the prolonged party discussion and heated debates of the
main committee of the Reichstag which had been in progress, seemed to
have triumphed over his opponents.

His opponents had been clamoring for his head, but he made concessions,
and by the declaration that Germany was fighting defensively for her
territorial possessions evolved a formula which for a time seemed
satisfactory to both those who clamored for peace by agreement and those
who demanded repudiation of the formula, "no annexation and no
indemnities." In this position Dr. von Hollweg was backed by the
Emperor.

The advent of the Crown Prince upon the scene--summoned by his imperial
father to share the deliberations affecting the future of the
dynasty--seems to have changed entirely the position with regard to the
Imperial Chancellor. The Crown Prince at once took a leading part in the
discussions with the party leaders, and his ancient hostility toward Dr.
von Bethmann-Hollweg, coupled with his notorious dislike for political
reform, undoubtedly precipitated the Chancellor's resignation.


APPOINTMENT OF DR. GEORG MICHAELIS.

The resignation of Dr. von Hollweg was followed by the appointment of
Dr. Georg Michaelis, Prussian Under Secretary of Finance and Food
Commissioner.

The fall of Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg removed the last of the
statesmen who were in charge of the great Powers of Europe at the
beginning of the war, and brought to an end a career which in successful
playing of both ends against the middle was almost without parallel in
recent history.

Chancellor von Bethmann-Hollweg, an aristocrat and personal friend of
the Emperor, stood out strongly against democratic agitation before the
war, and at times was sharply outspoken in his defiance of socialism and
his rejection of any move toward making the Chancellor and his
subordinates, the other Ministers, responsible to the Reichstag. Yet in
the early stages of the war he became known as a moderate, and it has
been generally accepted that his influence was usually employed against
the breaking of relations with America and ruthless submarine warfare.


PRESERVES A JUDICIOUS BALANCE.

When the opposition of the parties favoring the most desperate measures
became too strong for him, he conceded a little ground, taking up a
middle position in which he balanced himself for a long time against
both the Conservative Junkers and the National Liberal trust magnates on
the one side and the radical Socialists on the other. Neither side could
claim him; neither could interpret his ambiguous utterances as support
of its policies, and between the antagonisms of the two he maintained
his position until at last he was overthrown by the attack of Erzberger,
leader of the more liberal wing of the Catholic party, the traditional
holders of the middle ground.

Bethmann-Hollweg's agility was demonstrated by the fact that he survived
Asquith and Grey, Viviani, Sazonoff, Berchtold, Salandra, Jagow, and all
the rest of the statesmen who were in power in Europe in August, 1914.

In personality the Chancellor was studious, scholarly and pleasant,
lacking the brilliance of his predecessor, Von Buelow, but generally
regarded as one who was if anything too mild rather than too severe.

Dr. Georg Michaelis, the successor to Hollweg, was the first commoner to
be appointed to that high office, without even a "von" before his name.

The son of a Prussian official, he was born on September 8, 1857, in
Haynan, Silesia. He received a university education, making the law his
profession. In 1879 he became a court referee in Berlin, and in 1884 was
attached to the District Attorney's office in that city. Several years
later he went as professor of law and political economy to the
University of Tokio.

Returning to Germany in 1889, he was chosen District Attorney for
Berlin. His services won much praise and he was afterward sent by the
government as an official in the provisional government at Trevas,
Germany. In 1897 he was transferred to Westphalia, where he was Chief
Councilor for the government there.

In 1900 he was made Provisional President of Liebnitz and in 1902 First
Privy Councilor in Breslau. His work there won him an appointment as
Under Secretary of State in the Department of Finance, which post he
held in connection with his work as Food Commissioner.

Doctor Michaelis was selected for the post of Prussian Food Commissioner
in February, 1917, after all efforts of Adolph von Batocki's
organization--the food regulation board--had failed to lay hands on
large supplies of grain, potatoes and other produce which the Prussian
landlords were holding for the fattening of cattle and swine instead of
making them available for general consumption.


GOVERNMENT ORDERS DISREGARDED.

The orders of Herr Batocki and the Central Government for the surrender
of these supplies were disregarded or evaded at least, if not, as
charged in Germany, with the actual assistance and support of the
reactionary Prussian Minister of Agriculture, Baron von Schorlemer.

Doctor Michaelis was eventually selected as Food Controller as the
result of an agreement between von Bethmann-Hollweg and the military
authorities as a fearless, determined official, who would execute his
mission without fear or favor and produce results if such were possible.
The selection was justified.

The conditions in Germany which marked the ascendancy of the Crown
Prince in the deliberations of the Imperial Government and brought about
the upheaval in the Ministry are the logical result of the system under
which the country is ruled.

There is, in the mind of the public generally, a theory that Germany
with its Bundesrath and Reichstag has a government akin to that of
England and even the United States, but the impression is an erroneous
one. It is true that Germany has a dual system of government and
independent state sovereignties. There is, however, nothing democratic
about the system.

To begin with, the Kaiser is a constitutional monarch in his capacity as
German Emperor, but as King of Prussia he is a self-appointed and
arrogant ruler--all that he advertises himself to be in the way of a
God-chosen ruler.


STATUS OF GERMAN SOVEREIGNTY.

To understand the difference in relationship between the King of Prussia
and the German Emperor it is necessary to realize that the German
constitution describes the Emperor thus: "The presidency of the Union
belongs to the King of Prussia, who bears the title of German Emperor."
On the other hand the King of Prussia, who happens to be the Kaiser, has
his right to rule by birth. When the first king was crowned, about 1701,
he placed the crown upon his own head, and that right has descended to
King William. But as German Emperor the duties of the Kaiser are as
clearly defined as those of the ruler of a modern democracy.

The difference between the Kingdom and the Empire is that the German
Empire is a creation of sovereign states, ruled over by German Grand
Dukes, Princes, and whatnot, who trace their lineage back to the days
when might was right, and who won their power to rule by defeating their
fellow men. At one time there were several hundred of these ruling
princes. When Napoleon got through in Germany there were about
twenty-two left. The German Empire today consists of these twenty-two
states, and three free cities, comprising in all a group of twenty-five
communities. It is a bond or association. It consists, in fact, of the
twenty-five communities, of which it is composed, and represented by
twenty-five kings, dukes, princes, etc., and not by the 65,000,000
population of the communities themselves. The sovereignty rests with
the princes of the several states, who have bestowed a fixed power upon
the Kaiser. As Emperor his office dates back to 1871.

The legislative machinery which has been devised for the use of these
German sovereigns consists of the Bundesrath and the Reichstag.
Sometimes the Bundesrath is likened to our Senate, or to the hereditary
English House of Lords, while the Reichstag is compared to the House of
Representatives or the House of Commons. But comparisons are odious.


THE BUNDESRATH.

The Bundesrath is an assembly in which the German kings, grand dukes,
dukes, princes, etc., come together (by proxy) to direct the affairs of
the Empire. Each of these sovereigns sends a specified number of
delegates, in accordance with the provisions of the constitution. Thus
the Kaiser, as the King of Prussia, sends seventeen delegates, while the
King of Bavaria sends six. The total number of delegates is fifty-eight,
so right in the beginning the Kaiser has a pretty good representation.

The delegations in the Bundesrath vote en masse--that is the "unit rule"
prevails. The seventeen delegates from Prussia must vote as instructed
by the Kaiser, and if there chanced to be but one member present he
still would cast seventeen votes for the delegation. The members of the
Bundesrath are referred to quite frequently as ambassadors. There is no
need for discussion in the body since the delegations vote, in any
event, as a unit.

The power of the German Bundesrath is, however, astonishing. Usually the
lower house is supposed to be the one in which originates legislation,
such as finance, affecting the people. But in Germany it is the
Bundesrath which has the power to tax, and the lower chamber, the
Reichstag, merely has the vetoing power.

This makes the taxing power in Germany primarily the privilege of the
crown.

The financial program is prepared by the Chancellor, who is the direct
representative of the Kaiser, and responsible only to him. In other
governments members of the ministry are appointed by the legislative
bodies, but the Chancellor is personally named by the Kaiser, and is not
even a member of the Reichstag. He has the right, however, to address
this body, as the privilege of a member of the Bundesrath of which, as
the personal representative of the Kaiser, he is the presiding officer.

Since the Bundesrath, as already shown, practically controls the German
Empire, and the King of Prussia, with his seventeen votes in the
Bundesrath holds sway in that body, it is easy to see how the Kaiser is
the dominating figure in the German Empire.


THE KAISER'S DUAL PREROGATIVE.

A unique provision of the German constitution is that fourteen votes in
the Bundesrath can defeat any proposed amendment, and since the Kaiser
controls seventeen votes, as King of Prussia, besides several others, he
has a voting strength which can block any attempt to change the regime.
Also, as King of Prussia, he can instruct his Chancellor to prepare laws
to be introduced in the Bundesrath.

It is the power which the Kaiser possesses, as the King of Prussia,
which gives him his control as the German Emperor. Prussia is the
largest of the German states, and when the Kaiser, as King of Prussia,
says that he is master in Prussia, he speaks the truth.

There is a ministry in Prussia, and the head of this body is usually the
same person who occupies the position of Imperial Chancellor, and the
Kaiser appoints this Minister as well as his associates, whom he can
remove without reference to the Ministry as a body. There are two
chambers in Prussian Ministry commonly known as the House of Peers, and
the House of Representatives.

Just to give the King of Prussia a little more control, he has the right
to appoint all the members of the House of Peers, and also to designate
the number. The House of Representatives, on the face of it, is a
popular body, because the members are supposed to be elected by
universal suffrage. The taxpayers vote for representation in this
chamber, but they do not vote directly nor on equal terms.

Members of the House of Representatives are chosen by an electoral
college, and several hundred of these colleges are selected at each
election. Though taxpayers vote for the electors, all the votes do not
have the same relative value. The taxpayers whose combined taxes
represent one-third of the whole amount of taxes in an electoral
district choose one-third of the members from that district to the
House. Those who pay the next one-third of the taxes choose another
third of the electors, and the remaining body of voters choose the last
third.



CHAPTER XXVI.

UNCLE SAM AND THE NEUTRALS.

PRESIDENT WILSON PUTS EMBARGO ON FOOD SHIPMENTS--SCANDINAVIAN COUNTRIES
FURNISHING SUPPLIES TO GERMANY INSPIRES ORDER--THE DIFFICULT POSITION OF
NORWAY, DENMARK, HOLLAND AND SWITZERLAND.


When America first declared its intentions there were in the United
States thousands who held to the theory that "America in War" simply
meant that we should shut ourselves within our borders, perhaps furnish
supplies to the Allied forces, lend money to England, France, Belgium
and Russia, use our navy to protect our merchant shipping and go about
our business, leaving the fighting to the forces joined in conflict
against Germany.

They were disabused when the English and French Commission and the
representatives of Belgium and Russia made it apparent that it would be
necessary for America to actually raise a fighting army and General
Pershing was sent to France. But they learned, too, that mobilizing the
forces of the country and waging warfare were not simple matters. The
truth was brought home that the whole nation must fight; that it must
use its brains, its money, its resources of every sort, its whole power,
both in an offensive and in a defensive way.

Not only must its soldiers and sailors face the guns of the Teutons, but
the machinery of government must be used to bring the arrogant
Hohenzollerns to their knees. Some startling things were discovered, and
the brains of the diplomatic force of the government were put to the
test. International problems arose which were never before encountered
in the history of nations.

England, with its blockade against Germany, and Germany with its
submarine warfare against British and neutral shipping, developed
problems which had to be solved relative to keeping Germany from
getting supplies which would enable her to withstand the siege, and also
as to the sending of supplies to England, Belgium, France and Russia,
and particularly to our own forces fighting with the Allies in France.


A BIG FACTOR IN WAR.

Unfortunate as it may seem, one of the biggest factors in waging
successful war is to prevent the enemy from getting food supplies. It is
a frequently repeated truism that "an army travels on its stomach," and
in the pleas for conservation and efficient management the leaders in
every country declared frequently that "the war would be won by the last
loaf of bread," or that it was not a question of ammunition, but of
wheat.

One of the serious problems which the government was therefore called to
face within a very short period after the American troops were first
landed in France was that of dealing with the food situation, both at
home and abroad. At that time the German U-boats had sunk merchant ships
having a total of more than 5,000,000 tonnage, and the food situation
was precarious in the Allied countries. Germany, on the other hand,
because of long preparation for the struggle, coupled with efficient
management and practices, was more largely independent of other
countries.

At this time it was learned that Germany was securing large quantities
of foodstuffs through the medium of some of the neutral countries.
America was, therefore, called upon to take steps to prevent the Germans
getting supplies from this country, through the intermediary of Holland
and the Scandinavian countries. As a result the government placed an
embargo on a long list of articles including fuel, oils, grains, meats
and fodder. The embargo, which was made effective by a proclamation of
President Wilson, forbade the carrying of such supplies as were
mentioned from the United States or its territorial possessions to
neutral countries.

The purpose of the embargo was not to prevent the neutral countries from
securing foodstuffs from America for their own consumption, but to
prevent their reselling such supplies at a profit to Germany. The
position of the government was made plain in the statement of President
Wilson, who said:


DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN NEEDS.

"It is obviously the duty of the United States in liberating any surplus
products over and above our own domestic needs to consider first the
necessities of all the nations engaged in war against the central
empires. As to neutral nations, however, we also recognize our duty. The
government does not wish to hamper them. On the contrary, it wishes and
intends, by all fair and equitable means, to co-operate with them in
their difficult task of adding from our available surpluses to their own
domestic supply and of meeting their pressing necessities or deficits.
In considering the deficits of food supplies, the government means only
to fulfill its obvious obligation to assure itself that neutrals are
husbanding their own resources, and that our supplies will not become
available, either directly or indirectly, to feed the enemy."

While the conservation of our resources had a great deal to do with the
issuing of the embargo, the action was partly taken as the result of
information lodged by England that Holland, Sweden and Norway had been
supplying Germany and her allies with food, despite the latter's hostile
action in sinking ships owned by the neutrals. The government made an
investigation and discovered that the shipment to these neutral
countries had become abnormally large. It was reported, particularly,
that many Holland business men had become fabulously wealthy by trading
in the supplies which came from America, and which they resold to
Germany.

The embargo became operative under a method of license procedure, so
that all shipments could be watched by the government authorities. The
order compelled all persons seeking to export goods to make application
for a license to the Secretary of Commerce, or bureaus designated in
various parts of the country.

In support of the contentions that the neutral countries were supplying
Germany, Great Britain furnished the Government with the following table
as representing the minimum of food exports from Scandinavia and Holland
to Germany in 1916: Butter, 82,600 metric tons; meat, 115,800 tons; pork
products, 68,800 tons; condensed milk, 70,000 tons; fish, 407 tons;
cheese, 80,500 tons; eggs, 46,400 tons; potato meal, 179,500 tons;
coffee, 58,500 tons; fruit, 74,000 tons; sugar, 12,000 tons; vegetables,
215,000.

These figures are most impressive, it is asserted, in relation to fats,
the scarcest thing in Germany. Fat, it is claimed, is the only food
seriously lacking now in the diet of the German people. Imports of this
food, the British declare, furnish one-fourth of the daily German fat
ration.


NATIONS WHO SUFFER FROM EMBARGO.

There are five neutral countries whose positions were anything but
enviable during the war, and it is perhaps worth interpolating a little
something about them at this particular point. Norway, Sweden, Holland,
Denmark and Switzerland were the neutrals at the time the embargo was
placed on foodstuffs.

Switzerland, as all the world knows, is one of the most picturesque
countries in Europe, and is a republic in the west central part of the
continent, bounded on the north by Baden, Wurtemburg and Bavaria; on the
east by the Tyrol, on the south by Italy and on the west by France.
There is no national tongue, three languages being spoken within the
boundaries of the republic. Where it comes in contact with the French
frontier, the French language is largely spoken; while Italian is the
language spoken in the southern part, where it is bounded by Italy. In
the northern section the German language is spoken. The country has an
area of 15,992 square miles.

In the main, Switzerland is mountainous, the chief valley being that of
the Rhone, in the southern part. The most level tracts are in the
northwestern section, where there are a number of mountain-locked
valleys. Mountain slopes comprise about two-fifths of the area of the
country, and practically all of the rivers are rapid and unnavigable.
The forests are extensive and consist of large trees. Cereals, along
with hemp, flax and tobacco, are raised, and the pasture lands are
fertile and abundant. Hence, the dairy products, as well as hides and
tallow, are produced in profusion. Fruits of the hardier varieties grow
well and profitably.


A FEDERAL UNION.

The republic consists of twenty-two States or Cantons which form a
Federal Union, although each is virtually independent in matters of
politics. The Swiss Constitution, remodelled in 1848, vests the ruling
executive and legislative authority in a Diet of two houses--a State
Council and a National Council. The former consists of 44 members--two
from each Canton--and corresponds in its functional action with the
United States Senate. The National Council is the more purely
representative body, and is composed of 128 members elected triennially
by popular suffrage. Both chambers combine and form what is called the
Federal Assembly.

The chief executive power is exercised by the so-called Federal Council,
or Bundesgericht, which is elected triennially. Its governing officers
are the President and Vice President of the republic. International and
inter-cantonal questions are discussed before and adjudicated by the
Bundesgericht, which serves as a high court of appeal. The army consists
of 142,999 regulars and 91,809 landwehr; total, 231,808 men of all arms.
Every adult citizen is de facto liable to military service, and
military drill and discipline are taught in all the schools. The
Protestant faith forms the ruling form of religion in 15 of the cantons,
Roman Catholicism prevailing in the rest. Education is well diffused by
numerous colleges and schools of a high grade; and its upper branches
are cared for at the three universities of Berne, Basle and Zurich.

Denmark, whose home possessions comprise 14,789 square miles, is, by the
way, barely one-half the size of Scotland. It consists of a peninsular
portion called Jutland, and an extensive archipelago lying east of it.
It has a number of territorial possessions in the Atlantic ocean, among
them the islands of Iceland, Greenland and the Faroe islands in the
north.


GERMAN AMBITION FRUSTRATED.

One of its possessions in the West Indies was purchased by the United
States almost at the time America entered the war, and created a
situation which was not calculated to inspire the friendship of Germany
for the little country, since it was intimated that Germany would liked
to have had the island for a base. The islands cost the United States
about $25,000,000. Including the colonial possessions, the total area of
the Danish possessions is 80,000 square miles, the population being
2,726,000 persons.

Copenhagen is the capital, the other chief cities being Odense, Aarhuus,
Aalborg, Randers and Horsens. For administrative purposes Denmark is
divided into 18 provinces or districts, besides the capital, nine of
these making up Jutland and the other nine comprising the island
possessions. On the south Denmark is bounded by Germany and the Baltic,
on the west it is washed by the North Sea; while to the north lies
Norway, separated by the Skagerrack, and on the east lies Sweden,
separated by the Cattegat and the Sound.

The line of seaboard is irregular and broken, and the low, flat nature
of the country necessitates the construction of dykes, in many places,
in order to prevent the ocean from making inroads. There are few
rivers, and these are small and not of value commercially. Timber is not
abundant, and minerals are scarce and of little value. The climate is
generally moist and cold, fogs are frequent and the winters generally
severe. Cereals, potatoes, wool and dairy products are the principal
products. Cattle raising is carried on extensively, much of the beef
being exported.

The Danes, physically, are sturdy, and represent the truest physical
characteristics of Scandinavian types. The people are brave, sober and
industrious, and the sailors from this country are among the leading
navigators of the world. The government is a constitutional monarchy,
with the executive power vested in a king and a ministry, who are held
responsible to the Rigsdag, which is the parliament.


LANDSTHING AND FOLKSTHING.

This parliament consists of a Senate, or Landsthing, and a lower house,
or Folksthing. The Evangelical Lutheran Church is the State religion,
but all other persuasions are fully and freely tolerated. Education is
compulsory, and is largely disseminated. The army consists of 60,000
men, while the navy is quite small, having a personnel of about 4000
officers and men.

The authentic history dates from 1385, the year of the accession of
Margaret, the "Semiramis of the North," and wearer of the triple
Scandinavian crowns. The latest monarch, Frederick VIII, came to the
throne in 1906.

Holland, the most picturesque of the neutral countries, aside from
Switzerland with its wonderful scenery, is credited with having profited
very largely by the war. It rests along the North Sea and adjoins the
German Empire on the east and borders Belgium on the South. It contains
about 11 provinces, with a total area of 12,582 square miles and a
population of about 6,000,000.

Always one thinks of windmills, dykes, fat cattle, butter, eggs, ducks
and green farms when Holland is mentioned, and it is in many respects
one of the most highly developed commercial countries in the world. The
country manufactures many articles of world-wide distribution, including
chocolate, linens, fine damasks, pottery, chemical and pharmaceutical
products, and Amsterdam is a center of diamond-cutting.

It has a large mercantile marine and was at one time a tremendous
maritime power, doing an immense trading business in many waters. It
still has rich and extensive colonies, including the Dutch possessions
in the East Indies, comprising the Sunda Islands, except a portion of
Borneo and Eastern Timor, and New Guinea. Java and Madura are two of the
richest of the group and have a population of more than 30,000,000.
There are also possessions in the West Indies and in South America.


A SMALL BUT EFFICIENT ARMY.

The Dutch army has approximately 40,000 officers and men and is regarded
as one of the most efficient armies in the world of its size. There is
also a colonial army in the East Indies with 1300 officers and 35,183
men. Its navy has 4000 officers and men and has about 200 vessels of all
sorts, none of them of the modern dreadnought or super-dreadnought type.

The history of the rich little country is one of the most interesting in
literature. It was originally part of the Empire of Charlemagne.
Subsequently, it became divided into a number of petty principalities,
and by heritage became a possession of the Austrian monarchy. In the
long struggle against the Spanish power it became one of the Seven
United Provinces. The country made rapid progress, and during the 17th
century withstood the power of Louis the XIV of France, but later was
overrun by the French, and finally in 1806 was made a kingdom by
Napoleon, in favor of his brother Louis. Under the Treaty of Paris
Belgium and Holland were united to form the Kingdom of the Netherlands,
and this arrangement remained until 1830, when Belgium broke away.
Holland attempted to reduce the revolting province by force, but the
powers intervened and an adjustment was made. The last King was William,
III, who died in 1890, leaving his daughter Wilhelmina, then but 10
years old, Queen.

Of the neutral countries none endured more than heroic Norway. With a
long coast line practically undefended and with the full force of the
German navy anchored but a few hours away, and a none too friendly
country on her land border, possessing an army greater than her own,
Norway's position was extremely difficult.

Had she flung herself into the war with the Allies when the breach came
she would have been of little help to them, for she would have placed
them in the position of being called upon to help defend her long coast
line. It is probable also that a break with Germany would have let loose
the Swedish army on the side of the Teutons.


BETWEEN TWO FIRES.

The little country was between two fires, and she suffered great strain.
In the first place, while Norway attempted to maintain her export trade
and her shipping, the Allies inspected her import invoices and subjected
her to much annoyance, while Germany, without provocation, ruthlessly
attacked her merchant ships and sent many of them to the bottom of the
ocean.

There were intimations that Germany's real intent was to precipitate a
rupture which would justify her attack on the little country, which she
would be able to subdue with ease and seize the rugged coast and ports
of vantage. But Norway remained neutral, and was not at all pleased with
the embargo placed upon shipments by the United States, though it
developed that the restrictions would not prevent the country from
getting its share of grain and other supplies from America.

Norway is the western portion of the Scandinavian peninsula, and has an
area of about 125,000 square miles. Its northern coast is washed by the
cold waters of the Arctic Ocean, and against the northeast is Lapland,
while Sweden bounds it on the east and the famed North Sea on the south
and the broad Atlantic on the west.

The rugged country is separated from Sweden by the Kiolen, or the Great
Scandinavian chain of mountains, and in the hills and mountains are
found the wonderful Norway spruce and fir trees familiar in commerce.
Its fisheries and shipbuilding industry are also of great importance in
the world of business.


DEMOCRACY OF NORWAY.

The constitution of Norway is one of the most Democratic in all Europe.
Although a monarchy, its executive and legislative power is vested in
the parliament, called the Storthing, and the King has merely a nominal
command over the army and navy, with power to appoint the
governor-general only. The latter has a limited right to veto acts of
the parliament. Hereditary nobility was abolished in 1821.

Under the treaty of Vienna in 1814, and following the defeat of
Napoleon, it was arranged that Denmark must give up Norway, and the two
countries were united under the Swedish Crown. Norway demanded a
separate consular service in 1905, and the Storthing declared the union
with Sweden at an end. Prince Charles of Denmark then became King,
reigning as Haakon VII.

The country has a population of 2,340,000, and her full military force
mobilized for war is only 110,000 men.

Sweden, Norway's next-door neighbor on the Scandinavian peninsula, in
contradistinction to the latter, is a constitutional monarchy, with
extraordinary powers vested in the King, who is assisted in the
administration of affairs by a council of ministers. The Diet, or
legislature, consists of two chambers, or estates, both elected by the
people.

Like Norway, the country is very rugged. Lapland and Finland are at the
northeast, and on the east is the Gulf of Bothnia and the Baltic, and on
the south the Baltic, the Sound and the Cattegat. It joins Norway on the
west. Its area is 172,875 square miles, and its coast line is more than
1400 miles long.

Sweden, while it does not have a first-class navy, possesses a score of
armored vessels of small displacement, besides torpedo boats,
destroyers, etc., and has an army of 40,000 at peace strength. The
country is particularly rich in minerals, and some of the finest iron
ore in the world comes from its mines. Nickel, lead, cobalt, alum and
sulphur are also produced in large quantities; while it gives to the
world, too, immense quantities of lumber and larger quantities of hemp,
flax and hops.

The reigning monarch is King Gustavus V, who succeeded his father, Oscar
II, who died in 1907. The population of the country is about 5,000,000.

Of these neutrals, both Holland and Switzerland did a great deal for the
suffering Belgians when Germany pounded through the country of King
Albert, sending money for the relief of the sufferers and offering
refugees shelter.



CHAPTER XXVII.

THE ACTIONS OF THE WAR.

FROM BOSNIA TO FLANDERS--MARNE THE TURNING POINT OF THE CONFLICT--THE
CONQUESTS OF SERVIA AND RUMANIA--THE FALL OF BAGDAD--RUSSIA'S WOMEN
SOLDIERS--AMERICA'S CONSCRIPTS.


The end of August, 1917, found twenty-one nations in a state of war and
five in what might be termed a condition of modified neutrality, with
nearly 40,000,000 summoned to arms and 5,000,000 killed in bitter
warfare.

This was the fiery reflection of the shots which caused the death of the
Archduke Francis Ferdinand, of Austria, in the quiet little town of
Serajevo, the capital of Bosnia, in June, 1914. And so, with their backs
to the wall, Austria-Hungary, Germany, Turkey and Bulgaria faced Servia,
Russia, France, Belgium, Great Britain, Montenegro, Japan, Italy,
Portugal, Rumania, the United States, Cuba, Brazil, Greece, Siam, China
and little Liberia, while Guatemala, Panama, Haiti, Uruguay and Bolivia
stood by in a position of neutrality, but for the most part indicating a
willingness to help the Allies.

And in those elapsed three years after the Bosnia tragedy an Emperor of
Austria had died; a Czar had stepped from his throne, and a King had
been compelled to toss aside his crown. Prime Ministers and Ministers of
War in all of the principal countries, who held the confidence of their
peoples when the war started, were no more.

Cabinets had been dissolved and new ones set up, statesmen brushed aside
and commanders of the war forces compelled to step out that others might
carry on the battles.

Though it was Austria's ultimatum to Servia which precipitated the
world-wide struggle, it was Germany that took the first step and crossed
the French frontier with its armed forces. After Servia refused to
accede to all of the demands of Austria-Hungary and war had formally
been declared by the latter country, Russia began a partial mobilization
of her armed forces, since she had given warning that she would extend
protection to Servia. Germany retaliated by calling together her warring
forces and declaring war on the Czar; France came to Russia's aid. Then
when Belgium refused to permit the German army to pass through the
country and Germany disregarded international treaties and invaded the
territory, Great Britain declared war upon the Kaiser, and Montenegro
aligned itself with the Allies.


GERMANY'S DESIGNS ON PARIS.

Germany's action and subsequent events prove that the war lords had
planned to capture Paris by a swift attack from the north, before France
could gather her forces to resist and before Russia was prepared to
assist. Belgium, however, proved a stumbling block. The natives,
battling like demons for the protection of their homes and honor, held
the Teuton hordes at Liege for several weeks, or until the famous
fortifications there were reduced, and then the terrible machine of the
Germans swept forward until the soldiers were within fifteen miles of
the French capital.

It was here, within a few hours' march of Paris, that the French and
Allied troops showed their real metal. General Joffre met the German
hordes beside the River Marne and with his troops began the battle which
was to guarantee the security of the French capital and result in the
routing of the army of Von Kluck, regarded as the pick of the Prussian
forces. In the famed battle of the Marne there were fought a number of
separate engagements, which have been termed the battles of Meaux,
Sezanne, Vitry and Argonne.

The German forces were driven back step by step to the north bank of the
Aisne, where the army was able to entrench itself and the Germans and
the Allied forces began digging themselves into the ground in a manner
that had never before been practised in warfare.

While Germany was striking at France, the Russians had invaded Austria,
capturing Tarnapol and Lemberg and investing the great fortress of
Prezemsyl. Austria was compelled to call upon Germany for assistance and
four German army corps, under Von Hindenburg, were drawn from East
Prussia and went to the rescue. Instead of trying to stem the progress
of the Russians, he made a counter offensive with Warsaw as the
objective. Russia was compelled for a time to abandon its positions and
retreat, and Von Hindenburg got within seven miles of Warsaw before the
Russians rode down upon his forces with 100,000 horsemen and compelled
retreat. Von Hindenburg's strategy had, however, been successful, and
his action on the Eastern front at this time marked the first step
toward his pre-eminence as a military commander.


BRITISH AND GERMAN FORCES COMPARED.

During 1915 the Allied forces were able to do little more than hold
their positions. Lord Kitchener had builded up a British volunteer army
in which great hopes were placed, but in the matter of offensive
military tactics they could not cope with the formidable German forces,
nor had the Allies developed an offensive which would win without
terrible sacrifice, and in the encounters the very flower of Great
Britain's manhood, as well as thousands of the best fighting men of
France, were lost to the world forever. It was in this year, when
Germany made use of asphyxiating gas for the first time, that Canada
received its most stinging blow. The famous Princess Pats, the finest
military body of the Dominion, was practically annihilated, and in the
final formidable attack of the year made by the French against the
Germans in September, the latter were driven back several miles, but at
a cost of more than 100,000 French lives.

In this year, too, the Germans succeeded in capturing much territory and
a number of valuable positions which had been taken by the Russians, and
the combined forces of Von Hindenburg and Von Mackensen finally
conquered Poland. Warsaw was evacuated in July, and in August Prince
Leopold led the Bavarian into the Polish capital. On August 19 the great
stronghold of Kovno fell, and the conquest was made complete with the
surrender of Brest-Litovsk.


CONQUEST OF SERVIA.

The conquest of Servia by the Teutons also marked the year 1915. Among
the first shots of the war were those fired by the Austrians when they
bombarded Belgrade, the capital of Servia, and made an attempt to invade
the country. The Servians and Montenegrins almost annihilated Austrian
troops which attempted to cross the Danube into Servia, and the Austrian
invasion fell. But the combined Austro-German forces invaded the country
later as part of the Prussian program to conquer all the territory from
the Baltic to the Bosporus. The Entente Allies made an effort to save
the little country by landing troops at Salonica, but it was too late.
Just before winter set in, the Austro-German forces and the Bulgarian
forces, invading from opposite sides, met, and the conquest of the
country was complete.

It was in 1915, too, that what is conceded to have been one of the most
disastrous and futile campaigns of the war was attempted by England.
Constantinople was to be captured and the Turks crushed, with a view of
opening communication with Russia by way of the Black Sea. The British
fleet was sent out to bombard the Dardanelles, and the now famous
Anzacs--Australian and New Zealand troops--were landed on the peninsula
of Gallipoli to strike at the Turkish capital from behind. The campaign
was waged through the summer, but with little hope of success, and
finally abandoned after the British had lost more than 100,000 of its
most daring, hard-fighting and loyal Colonial soldiers.

After this came "Verdun"--that conflict in which France won immortal
glory and the German's attack upon the French fortress town of Verdun
was successfully repulsed. The battle raged for four months, beginning
in February, 1916. The German troops, with the German Crown Prince in
command, captured two forts close to Verdun, but little by little the
French troops drove them back, and finally, in command of General
Nivelle, with General Petain looking after the defense of Verdun, the
French, co-operating with the British, made an attack on the Somme, and
the Germans were compelled to abandon the Verdun offensive. In the
Verdun campaign the Germans lost more than 500,000 men, while the French
lost not half the number.


RUSSIA'S CONQUEST OF ARMENIA.

Russia's conquest of Armenia was one of the features of 1916. The troops
under General Brussiloff renewed their endeavors in Galicia and for
several months made great progress; then Rumania entered the war and the
Russian forces in Galicia slowed down. In Caucasus, however, Russian
troops gained Erzerum, one of the Turk fortresses, and captured the
seaport of Trebizond, practically gaining Armenia. Like the Germans in
retreat from Flanders, the Turks practiced unspeakable horrors. Their
cruelties were such as to almost exterminate the race.

The tragedy of the Balkans in 1916 was Rumania. With an army of more
than half a million men, she entered the war with the approval of the
Entente and entered Transylvania. But the Germans began a counter-attack
in Dobrudja, and the Rumanians were compelled to withdraw some of their
forces from Transylvania. The German commander then threw his forces
across the remaining Rumanians and drove them across the border, after
which he swung his own troops through the mountain passes into Rumania.
The two German forces invading Rumania met at Bucharest, and the
Rumanian capital was occupied.

Another fiasco was that of the British expeditionary force which was
sent from India by way of the Persian Gulf and up the Tigris river to
Bagdad. General Townsend succeeded in getting within 15 miles of Bagdad,
but he was defeated by a superior Turkish force and compelled to fall
back to Kut-el-Amara. Here his inadequate force, lacking medical and
transport facilities, was fairly starved out before he was relieved. He
was finally compelled to surrender the last week in April, 1916.

Little more than a year after the collapse of this expedition, however,
the famous old city of Bagdad was captured by the English after a
well-directed campaign under General Maude.


ITALY'S HELP TO THE ALLIES.

Italy, having begun active warfare with the Allies in 1915, waged war
along the Austrian border, compelling the Austro-German forces to
concentrate a larger body of troops for duty on the Italian frontier,
and to that extent materially assisted the Allies. At the same time the
Italians fought their way up over the mountains and won more than 500
square miles of territory and took nearly 90,000 prisoners.

The final alignment of the Greeks with the Allies marked the progress of
affairs in the middle of 1917, when Constantine was forced from his
throne in favor of his second son, and Venizelos was returned as
Premier. But the entrance of the Greeks did not materially alter the
situation.

The two most important events of 1917 were the entrance of America into
the conflict and the revolt in Russia, which caused the abdication of
the Czar and turned the great country into a republic. The ultimate in
Russia's history is still to be written, but the change was fraught with
disaster. The people let free, and unaccustomed to self-government,
could not be controlled, and the army became demoralized.

The element which had been loyal to the Romanoffs refused to fight for
liberty, and the Germans, taking advantage of the situation, drove the
Russian troops back over the frontiers and gained all that the Russians
had once taken in conflict. And out of this grew one of the most
picturesque incidents of the entire war. Russian women and girls, filled
with ideals and with a deep sense of the responsibilities which rested
upon the nation, formed a corps, and, dressed in full military costume,
went to the front and attacked the German troops. No soldiers of any
nation have shown more heroism, or more capability, for the women faced
the bullets, and, while they were being mowed down by the German guns,
they urged their men to face the enemy and fight--fight--fight.


BRITISH NAVY AN EFFECTIVE ASSET.

While there have been few of the picturesque battles on the seas, which
the world has long regarded as a necessary adjunct to a successful war,
the work of the British Navy has proved through the period of the
conflict to be one of the most powerful and effective assets of the
Allied forces. Through the operation of the British fleet, later
augmented by an American war fleet, the German ships have been corked up
in their home ports and chased from the seas.

The first naval battle of the war was an engagement between portions of
the British squadron in the Pacific and a superior German force. The
engagement occurred off the coast of Chili in November, 1915. Two
British vessels were lost and a third badly damaged. However, a few
months later, the German squadron, in command of Admiral von Spee, was
met off the Falkland Islands by a second British squadron, and in the
engagement four of the German vessels were sunk and a fifth damaged.
This vessel was later sunk.

The most important naval engagement was the battle of Jutland in May,
1916, when Admiral Beatty met a German fleet in the North Sea. The
German boats made a dash from the Kiel canal and engaged the British off
the coast of Denmark. Both England and Germany claimed victory, the
former declaring that Germany lost eighteen ships, while the German
Government claimed that the British lost fifteen vessels. Berlin
admitted a loss of 60,720 tons and 3966 men, while England conceded a
loss of more than 114,000 tons and 5613 men. But the English fleet which
engaged the German fighting ships was but a small portion of the force
on guard outside of Helgoland and the Kiel Canal, and the effect was to
keep the German navy from venturing forth again.

These are the main events which had punctuated the action of the world's
fighting machines at the close of August, 1917, when America was
preparing to thwart the German U-boats in their destruction of the
world's shipping, and had under actual call to arms more than 1,000,000
men, a minor part of which had been safely landed in France.


WORLD'S AWFUL MARITIME LOSS.

In the three months prior to August the German underseas boats had sunk
464 vessels, or an average of 426,000 tons of shipping a month, while
America, working with her fleets in conjunction with the British Navy to
foil the submarine in its endeavors, was also building more than 12,000
cargo-carrying craft and submarine chasers with which to flood the
traffic lanes of the sea.

Likewise, contracts had been awarded for 10,000 flying machines with
which to drive the "eyes of the German army," as the air machines are
called, from the heavens. Finally, as the Allies in the closing days of
August were driving the German hordes back under avalanches of shells,
629,000 of the youth of America, called to fight under the conscript
act, were preparing to move to camps in a dozen different sections of
the country to train themselves for invading foreign countries and
facing the brutal Teutons. Likewise, some 20,000 picked men were
training to officer these civilian forces, and half a million men of the
National Guards of the various States, formally mustered into the
service of the country, were moving by orders of the Government to
points whence they would find their way to the side of the loyal French
soldiers and the sturdy English, Scotch, Canadian, Australian and virile
Italian fighters.

The records of three years show that the American ambulance drivers;
daring thousands of our countrymen who fought with the French and
English because they believed the war was a just one, and without
compulsion; scores of Red Cross nurses, and aviators who hunted the
Teutons in the air, all Americans, have had their names written high in
the roster of heroes. Americans have always been pioneers and history
makers, and they are making history now.

With the approach of cold weather, and following months of intensive
training under the direction of French and English soldiers, the
American expeditionary forces began actual participation in the great
world war as a unit. Previously their achievements were principally in
connection with the French aviation corps and ambulance sections.


SINKING OF FIRST AMERICAN WAR BOAT.

The first untoward incident involving America's forces on land or sea
was the sinking of the transport Antilles on October 27, 1917, by a
German submarine, when 67 men--officers, seamen and soldiers--were lost.
The vessel was returning from a French port after having landed troops
and supplies. This was the first loss sustained by the United States,
and the event brought home the seriousness of the country's
participation in the war as no previous event had done.

Almost immediately following this the world awoke one morning to learn
that silently and unheralded the American soldiers had marched from
their quarters in a French village to the "front" and in a slough of mud
had entered the trenches, and for the first time in history United
States troops launched shells against the forces of Germany.

The initial shot was fired by artillerists at the break of day on
October 24, and America was formally made an active agent in the horrors
of warfare on "No Man's Land." Ten days later the brave Americans,
occupying a position in the trenches for instruction, early on the
morning of Saturday, November 3, received their baptism of fire, and in
the cause of Democracy 3 soldiers were killed, 5 wounded and 12 captured
by the Boche forces.

Cut off from the main line of the Allied forces, the Americans were
stormed under the protection of a heavy barrage fire by a German raiding
party and engaged in a desperate hand-to-hand encounter. The 20
Americans, with several French instructors, according to official
report, were pitted against 210 picked Germans. A rain of shells from
Boche guns was laid back of the American section so that there was no
retreat. The lieutenant in command made a heroic attempt to reach the
main fighting line, but was caught in the barrage fire and rendered
unconscious from shell-shock.

Previously American scouts had captured a German prisoner--a mail
runner; Lieutenant de Vere H. Harden, of the Signal Corps had been
wounded by a bursting German shell, and a German gunner was reported
killed by an American sharpshooter, as opening incidents of the
skirmish.

And so at the beginning of November, 1917, with the whole United States
giving support to the Government in subscribing upwards of five billions
of dollars to the second Liberty Loan, and all forces working to
conserve food, furnish men, ships, ammunition, clothing and supplies to
her own troops and to her Allies, the world found America true to
traditions, battling for the right and giving her best that liberty
might endure and the burden of Prussianism be lifted from humanity.



CHAPTER XXVIII.

AMERICAN FORCES BECOME FACTOR.

UNITED STATES SOLDIERS INSPIRED ALLIED TROOPS--RUSSIAN GOVERNMENT
COLLAPSES--ITALIAN ARMY FAILS--ALLIED WAR COUNCIL FORMED--FOCH COMMANDS
ALLIED ARMIES--PERSHING OFFERS AMERICAN TROOPS--UNDER FIRE--U-BOAT BASES
RAIDED BY BRITISH.


The influence exerted by the actual presence of the American troops on
the western front was soon apparent. The spirits of the English, French
and Canadian troops were raised and the presence of the Americans was
heralded to the world as an evidence of complete unity on the part of
the Allies that meant ultimate death to Kaiserism.

The advent of Uncle Sam's fighting men on the firing line had, however,
one serious effect, viewed from the Allied standpoint. Germany realized
that every day she delayed in making attack meant the strengthening of
the Allied forces by the arrival of additional United States troops, and
it was seen by the English and French leaders that the Kaiser would make
an early drive to annihilate, if possible, the stubbornly resisting,
though somewhat tired and weakened, lines opposing his brutal soldiery.
Not for months, therefore, was it permitted the world to know anything
about the numerical strength of the American troops sent into France.

Simultaneously with the action of American troops in entering the
resisting line of Allied troops on the western front the Austro-German
troops had swept into the Italian plains, capturing 100,000 prisoners
and upward of 1,000 guns, taking several towns and compelling the
retreat of the Second and Third Italian armies. The Italian forces were
opposed by four times their number, but it was also said that the unity
of the Italian forces was broken by the spreading of German propaganda.

The failure of some of the troops was shown in an official dispatch from
Rome, in which it was stated:

"The failure to resist on the part of some units forming our second
army, which in cowardice retired without fighting or surrendered to the
enemy, allowed the Austro-German forces to break into our left wing on
the Julian front. The valiant efforts of other troops did not enable
them to prevent the enemy from advancing into the sacred soil of our
fatherland. We now are withdrawing our line according to the plan
prepared. All stores and depots in the evacuated places were destroyed."


ITALIAN HEADQUARTERS CAPTURED.

These troops were compelled to fall back along a front almost 125 miles
long and Undine, the Italian headquarters, was captured. Germany had
found the weakest spot in the Italian line and occupied about 1,000
square miles of territory before General Cadorna's forces were able to
establish a line of strong defense.

The retirement of the Italian troops was one of the most picturesque in
the history of the war, and Germany made her gains at terrible cost.

The retirement was accompanied by shielding operations of the rear
guard, which poured a deadly fire into the advancing columns and at the
same time destroyed powder depots, arsenals and bridges with the double
purpose of giving time for the withdrawal of the Italian heavy guns and
of preventing military stores falling into the hands of the enemy.

The Germans encountered stubborn resistance on the Bainsizza plateau,
and heaps of enemy dead marked the lines of their advance. Around Globo
ridge a bersaglieri brigade, outnumbered five to one, held back the
enemy while the main line had an opportunity to get its retreat in
motion. In one of the mountain passes a small village commanding the
pass was taken and retaken eight times during desperate artillery,
infantry and hand-to-hand fighting.

Before the Italians were able to establish a line of resistance they
were compelled to fall back to the Piave, and at some points to a much
greater distance. Meantime the Allies rushed assistance to the retiring
forces, and while the collapse of Cadorna's line was unfortunate, it had
the effect of making it more obvious that there should be more unity of
operation between the Allied forces.

Russia's republic, under the leadership of Premier Kerensky, collapsing
at the same moment, intensified the seriousness of the Allied situation,
and largely at the suggestion of America an Inter-Allied War Council was
formed.


REVOLT IN PETROGRAD.

Premier Kerensky called upon the United States to help Russia bear the
burdens of conflict until the forces could be reorganized by the new
government. Almost immediately there was revolt in Petrograd, and the
radicals under the leadership of Leon Trotsky, president of the
Executive Committee of the Petrograd Council of Soldiers' and Workmen's
Delegates, seized the telegraph wires, the State bank and Marie Palace,
where the preliminary parliament had suspended proceedings in view of
the situation.

The Workmen's and Soldiers' Delegates assumed control of the City of
Petrograd and Kerensky was compelled to flee. The Winter Palace was
bombarded. A General Council of the Soldiers' and Workmen's Delegates
announced the taking over of government authority:

"We plan to offer an immediate armistice of three months, during which
elected representatives from all nations and not the diplomats are to
settle the questions of peace," said Nikolai Lenine, the Maximalist
leader, in a speech before the Workmen's and Soldiers' Congress today.

"We offer these terms," M. Lenine added, "but we are willing to
consider any proposals for peace, no matter from which side. We offer a
just peace, but will not accept unjust terms."

Meantime General Cadorna was relieved of command of the Italian armies
and General Diaz put at the head of the Italian forces, while General
Foch, chief of staff of the French War Ministry, and General Wilson,
sub-chief of the British Staff, were made members of an Inter-Allied
Military Committee serving with General Cadorna to straighten out the
Italian situation. This was the first step looking to the unifying of
the Allied forces which was brought about shortly thereafter by the
formation of the Inter-Allied War Council at Versailles. It was chiefly
at the suggestion of President Wilson that the War Council was called,
the President issuing a stirring appeal in which he pointed out the
necessity of unity of control, if the resources of the United States
were to be of the greatest value to the Allied interests.


SUPREME WAR COUNCIL.

The Supreme War Council, which was made a permanent body, was composed
of the Prime Minister and a member of the Government of each of the
Great Powers whose armies were fighting at the front. Each Power
delegated to the Supreme Council a permanent military representative
whose function was to act as adviser to the Council. As the result of
the deliberations of the War Council, and following the suggestion of
General Pershing, General Foch was made Commander-in-Chief of the Allied
Armies. General Foch was Commander of the French troops at Verdun and a
recognized authority on military strategy.

While the problem of solving the military phases of the situation was
being considered by the Allied War Council the Russian forces under
Kerensky and those under Trotzky, known as the Bolsheviki, clashed again
and again at Petrograd, Moscow and other points, and the hope of the
Allies as to any help from Russia sank. Germany entered into a peace
compact with Ukrainia, and the hand of the Kaiser was seen in the
Russian situation when officers of the German Army were reported in
Petrograd in conference with the representatives of the various Russian
factions. Russia suggested a separate armistice, or a separate peace,
against which both the U.S. and France protested.

The failure of the Russian Government to assume any degree of stability
made it possible for the Germans to withdraw many troops and transfer
them to the Italian and Western Fronts.

One result of the Allied War Council deliberations was to show the
necessity of rapid action on the part of the United States and get
troops into France so that they might take over a definite sector. While
it was estimated that several hundred thousand Americans were in France,
the necessity for a larger force was made apparent by the statement that
90 reserves are required for every 400 fighters on the line.


DROPPED THEIR TOOLS FOR RIFLES.

The first bitter attack in which American troops figured was when a
company of United States engineers, caught between cross-fires, dropped
their tools for rifles and joined the English troops in helping to
repulse the Germans near Cambrai.

A notable event in the progress of the war was the declaration of war
upon Austria by the U.S. on Dec. 8, 1917, Congress adopting a resolution
of war with but one dissenting vote.

Events which brought the seriousness of the war home to America began at
this point to occur rapidly. First the Torpedo Boat Destroyer Jacob
Jones was sunk in the war zone when nearly 30 men were reported lost.
This was followed shortly by a report to the War Department that 17
Americans caught in the cross-fire by the Germans at Cambrai were
missing or killed. The report of the sinking of the Alcedo, a patrol
boat, with the loss of several officers, was also received, as was that
of the sinking of the U.S. Destroyer "Chauncey" rammed in a collision,
when two officers and eighteen men were lost.

One of the high spots of the war and one of the notable events in the
history of the world, was the surrender of the City of Jerusalem to the
British on Saturday, December 8, 1917. Gen. Allenby entered the famed
city and established his troops on the ancient Jerico Road.

The capture of Jerusalem by the British forces marked the end, with two
brief interludes, of more than 1200 years' possession of the seat of the
Christian religion by the Mohammedans. For 673 years the Holy City had
been in disputed ownership of the Turks, the last Christian ruler of
Jerusalem being the German Emperor, Frederick, whose short-lived
domination lasted from 1229 to 1244.


THE FALL OF JERUSALEM.

Apart from its connection with the campaign being waged against Turkey
by the British in Mesopotamia, the fall of Jerusalem marked the definite
collapse of the long-protracted efforts of the Turks to capture the Suez
Canal and invade Egypt. Almost the first move made by Turkey after her
entrance into the war was a campaign against Egypt across the great
desert of the Sinai Peninsula. In November, 1914, a Turkish army,
variously estimated at from 75,000 to 250,000 men, marched on the Suez
Canal and succeeded in reaching within striking distance of the great
artificial waterway at several points. For several months bitter
fighting took place, the canal being defended by an Anglo-Egyptian army
aided by Australians and New Zealanders and French and British forces.

For the greater part of 1915 conflicting reports of the situation were
received from the belligerents, but in December of that year definite
information showed that the Turks had been driven back as far as El
Arish, about eighty-five miles east of the canal. A lull occurred then
which lasted for six months, and in June, 1916, the Turks again advanced
as far at Katieh, about fifteen miles east of the canal. Here they were
decisively defeated, losing more than 3000 prisoners and a great
quantity of equipment.

Another period followed in which the situation was greatly confused
through the vagueness and contradictory character of the official
statements, but in December, 1916, the British stormed El Arish and a
few days later severely defeated the Turks at Maghdabah, about sixty
miles to the south on the same front. Two weeks later the invaders had
been driven out of Egypt and the British forces crossed the border into
Palestine. On March 7 they captured El Khulil, southeast of Gaza.

By November 22 the British had pushed within five miles of Jerusalem, on
the northwest, and on December 7 General Allenby announced that he had
taken Hebron. Jerusalem thus was virtually cut off on all sides but the
east.


HISTORICAL INTEREST TO CHRISTIANS.

In sentimental and romantic aspect the capture of Jerusalem far exceeds
even the fall of fable-crowned Bagdad. The modern City of Jerusalem
contains about 60,000 inhabitants, and is the home of pestilence, filth
and fevers, but in historic interest it naturally surpasses, to the
Christian world, all other places in the world. Since the days when
David wrested it from the hands of the Jebusites to make it the capital
of the Jewish race Jerusalem has been the prize and prey of half the
races of the world. It has passed successively into the hands of the
Assyrians, Babylonians, Greeks, Romans, Persians, Arabs, Turks, the
Crusaders, finally to fall before the descendants of that Richard the
Lion-hearted who strove in vain for its possession more than 700 years
ago.

Early in January, 1918, evidence was forthcoming that Germany was
preparing to make a final drive on the Western Front to break through
and capture some English and French channel ports before America could
be of any great assistance to the Allied forces. As a result Great
Britain determined to call 500,000 more men to hold the Huns, and
Premier Lloyd George issued a stirring appeal to Labor affected by the
Manpower Bill, which provided for the increase taken largely from the
labor forces.

The German intent to launch an offensive was indicated by the withdrawal
of German lines north of Italy when important defensive positions were
abandoned, and dummy soldiers were left in trench to conceal movement to
the rear. Warnings of a great submarine offensive on American boatlines
to France, to be joined with a big drive on land, were received by
Secretary of War Baker, and on February 2, the American troops occupying
a sector of the Lorraine front in France faced the first big bombardment
in what was preliminary to the most bitter drive Germany had attempted
in four years of warfare.


SINKING OF THE TUSCANIA.

True to their promise the German submarines started their portion of the
offensive and sunk the U.S. troopship "Tuscania" a few days later off
the coast of Ireland. The liner carried 2,179 U.S. troops of various
divisions besides a crew of 200. The total number of persons lost was
113. The troops included engineers, members of the aero-squadron, and
regulars.

The Tuscania was the first troopship to be sunk en route to France,
though the Antilles was sunk in October, 1917. This boat, however, it
must be noted, was returning from France. At this time 70 lives were
lost. The comparatively small loss of life on the "Tuscania" was
accepted as evidence of the efficient training and bravery of American
troops under all conditions.

The Tuscania was torpedoed when entering what until that time were
considered comparatively safe waters. The ships were within sight of
land, which was just distinguishable in the dusk of evening when the
torpedo hit the Tuscania amidships. This was at about 7 o'clock.

When the crash came the khaki-clad young heroes of the American army
lined up as though on parade, and sang the "Star Spangled Banner" at the
top of their voices as the Tuscania sank by inches under them. Across
from them their British cousins of the crew came back with the echoing
"God Save the King," which too cool-headed exponents of what occurred in
a crisis of a sea disaster say accounts for the fact the Germans took
only a toll of 113 lives out of the 2,397 souls on board the Cunarder
when she met her fate.


AMERICAN COURAGE PRAISED.

If the singing man is a fighting man, he also is hopeful, and in the
combination of fight and hope there came the baffling of the German
attempt to reduce the American war forces by almost a full regiment.
Taking stock after the disaster, the officers of both the army and navy
praised the courage of the Americans as the chief reason for the saving
of more than 90 per cent of the men on board.

No submarine was seen until the torpedo struck the Tuscania fairly
amidships. A moment later another torpedo passed astern of the vessel.
There was a terrific explosion, and it is believed most of the
casualties were caused by this and by subsequent difficulties in
lowering the boats.

The vessel immediately took a heavy list and the men were called to
their lifeboat stations, but the list prevented the boats from being
properly lowered, some of the upper-deck boats falling to the lower
deck. Many of the men jumped into the water, and the difficulty in
lowering the boats was responsible for many casualties.

The survivors of the Tuscania landed at points in Ireland were received
with great honor in the various communities, and great tribute was paid
to the surviving soldiers by the Mayor of Dublin.

The American troops on the Tuscania were part of the forces being
hurried to France to hold the Germans in check, and at the time American
troops were holding a sector with the French in Lorraine, northwest of
Toul, while American artillery were supporting the French in Champagne.
The date set for the big German drive was announced as January 28, and
the fact that Germany made an open proclamation of the fact that they
proposed to wage offensive warfare was somewhat puzzling to the minds of
those studying the situation. Making her position more impregnable,
Germany halted her armies in Russia upon the acceptance of peace terms
by the Russian delegation at Brest-Litovsk, which were concluded on
March 1, 1918, and daily the activities of the German forces on the
Western Front grew in intensity. On March 6, in anticipation of the
drive, it was for the first time publicly stated that 81,000 troops of
American soldiers were holding an eight mile line on the Lorraine front,
with three full divisions in the trenches. The gathering together of
this force and other American troops in France drew Secretary of War
Baker to the scene of activities. He was the first American Cabinet
officer to cross the ocean after America entered the war.


SEIZURE OF ALL DUTCH VESSELS.

Holland having proved herself unwilling to come to a satisfactory
agreement at this time on the British-American demand regarding the use
of ships, President Wilson ordered the seizure of all Dutch vessels
within the territorial jurisdiction of the United States; the Allies
ordered a similar seizure abroad. The President's proclamation
authorized the navy to take over the vessels to be equipped and operated
by the Navy Department and the Shipping Board. A total of 77 ships were
added to the American Merchant Marine.

Holland's failure to act was on the propositions that the United States
and the Allies should facilitate the importation into Holland of
foodstuffs, and other commodities required to maintain her economic
life, and that Holland should restore her Merchant Marine to a normal
condition of activity.

On March 21 the greatest German offensive of the war actually began on a
front 50 miles long, running west and southwest of Cambrai. The
preliminary German bombardment covered a front from the River Serre
below St. Quentin, and the River Scarpe east of Arras.


FIERCEST BATTLE IN WORLD'S HISTORY.

Field Marshal Haig's report from British headquarters in France
described the German offensive as comprising an intense bombardment by
the artillery and a powerful infantry attack on a front of more than
fifty miles. Some of the British positions were penetrated, but the
German losses were exceptionally heavy.

It was reported at the end of the first day that the fiercest battle of
the world's history was in progress, and that 80,000 Germans were lost
in battle; while Berlin reported the capture of 16,000 Allied prisoners
and 200 guns.

The Associated Press correspondent reported that at least forty
divisions of German soldiers were identified as actively participating
in the attack. No such concentration of artillery had been seen since
the war began. The enemy had 1,000 guns in one small sector--one for
every twelve yards. The Germans in many sections attacked in three waves
of infantry, followed up by shock troops. As a result they suffered very
heavy casualties.

The German massed artillery was badly hammered by the British guns.

In the first stage of their offensive the Germans failed badly in the
execution of their program, as was attested by captured documents
showing what they planned to do in the early hours of their offensive.

By March 24 the attacks of the Germans had been redoubled, and it was
estimated that more than 1,000,000 Huns had been thrown into the
struggle against the British forces on which the attack was
concentrated.

The most notable feature of the attack from the spectacular viewpoint
was the bombardment of Paris by monster German cannon, located in the
forest of St. Gobain, west of Laon, and approximately 76 miles away from
Paris.


BIG GUN ONE HUNDRED FEET LONG.

Though no official description of the big gun was ever given, it was
stated by military authorities that it was approximately 100 feet in
length, and that several were in use, and more being built by the
Germans. At first the statement that a gun could shoot such a distance
was doubted, but when 75 persons were killed in Paris and one of the
shells hit a church doubt no longer existed. It also developed that the
gun was originally an American invention, and that similar weapons were
being built by the United States.

The use of the big gun was in the nature of a "side-issue" to bring
terror to the French, and in line with the policy of frightfulness
instituted by the German militarists. Its use was continued daily.
Meantime the German hordes swept on marching in close formation into the
very mouths of the rapid-fire guns and against the strongly fixed
British lines.

For ten days the hostilities continued, without cessation, with fighting
along a whole front such as had never been known before.

The Germans continued to hurl great forces of infantry into the
conflict, depending largely on weight of numbers to overcome the
increasing opposition offered by the heroically resisting British.

The battle on the historic ground about Longueval was perhaps the most
spectacular of any along the front. It was a battle of machine gunners
and infantry. The Germans were pursuing their tactics of working forward
in massed formation, and the British rapid-firers' squads and riflemen
reaped a horrid harvest from their positions on the high ground.
Notwithstanding their terrible losses, the Germans kept coming on,
filling in the places of those who had fallen and pressing their attack.
The British artillery in the meantime poured in a perfect rain of shells
on the enemy, carrying havoc into their ranks. In this section the
Germans operated without the full support of their guns, because of
their rapid advance.


ENEMY LOSES HEAVILY.

A fierce engagement was also waged about Le Verguier, which the Germans
captured, but not until the British infantry holding the place had
fought to the last man and inflicted extremely heavy losses on the
enemy. The British again fell back, this time to a line through
Hervilly, just east of Roisel and Vermand.

The work of the British airmen during the battle was one of the
brightest pages. Bitter battles in the air were fought by scores of
aviators and the service proved fully its ability to smother the German
airmen at a crucial time.

Within a few days it was stated that at least 130 German airplanes were
brought down. This compilation of losses has reference to only one
section of the battle front, comprising perhaps two-thirds of the line
affected.

An official statement regarding British aerial operations said their
airplanes were employed in bombing the enemy's troops and transport
massed in the areas behind the battlefront, and in attacking them with
machine-gun fire from low heights. Twenty-two tons of bombs were dropped
in this work, and more than 100,000 rounds were fired from the machine
guns.

By March 28 the German losses were estimated at 400,000. The forces of
the Germans were almost overwhelming, the Kaiser sacrificing the
manpower of his nation in a last desperate attack.

In consequence no greater stories of heroism have ever been told than
are related of the English, French and American troops. The Germans were
set for a drive against the English and French channel points with
Amiens as an objective, with the idea of breaking through the British
lines where they join the French.


AMERICAN FORCES OFFERED TO FRANCE.

The earnestness of the Americans in the situation was proclaimed to the
world by the English and French, and General Pershing placed his name
and that of his country and men high on the wall of fame by unselfishly
offering to France at the most critical period the use of his entire
force, to be disposed of and assigned wherever General Foch and his
staff decided to use them. Within a few days thereafter the American
troops which had been in training were marched in to relieve the
stressed English and French.

Everywhere the raging battle was marked by spectacular features not the
least of which were provided by a corps of thirty tanks, which waded
into the German hordes near Ephey and other points, recovering positions
which had been lost by the British.

Canadian armored motorcars also played an important part in checking the
Huns, the cars armed with rapid-fire guns being rushed up to support
weakening troops.

The progress of the Germans was halted on April 3, and in the following
days the British regained several lost positions and the French made
gains. But after a pause, during which several hundred thousand new
troops were brought in, the Huns renewed the offensive, delivering an
attack against the French near Montdidier on a front about 15 miles
long. An attack along a front of similar length was made against the
British on the Somme.

The first battalion of American troops answering to the call of the
French for support reached the British front-line in France, on April
10, on the very anniversary of the entrance of the United States into
the war, and within a few days the Americans began to bear the brunt of
battle, holding the Germans like veterans.

The first big attack of the Germans launched directly against an
American line occurred on April 30, in the vicinity of Villers-Bretonneaux,
below the Somme, where the Huns were repulsed with heavy losses. The German
preliminary bombardment lasted two hours and then the infantry rushed
forward, only to be driven back, leaving large numbers of dead on the
ground in front of the American lines.


AMERICANS BOMBARDED.

The German bombardment opened at 5 o'clock in the afternoon and was
directed especially against the Americans, who were supported on the
north and south by the French. The fire was intense and at the end of
two hours the German commander sent forward three battalions of
infantry. There was hand-to-hand fighting all along the line, as a
result of which the enemy was thrust back, his dead and wounded lying on
the ground in all directions. Five prisoners remained in American hands.

"Tell them back home that we are just beginning," said an American lad
who was in the thick of the fight and severely wounded with shrapnel.
"It was fine to see our men go at the Huns. All of us, who thought
baseball was the great American game, have changed our minds. There is
only one game to keep the American flag flying--that is, kill the Huns.
I got several before they got me."

Details of the engagement show the Americans stuck to their guns while
the Germans were placing liquid fire, gas and almost every other
conceivable device of frightfulness on them. One of them, who lay
wounded in an American hospital, had kept his machine gun going after
the chief gunners had been killed two feet away and he himself had been
wounded, thus protecting a turn in the road known as Dead Man's curve,
over which some of the American couriers passed in the face of a
concentrated enemy fire.

As indicating the violence of the offensive, French ambulance men who
went through the famous battle of Verdun declared today that,
comparatively speaking, the German artillery fire against the Americans
was heavier than in any single engagement on the Verdun front at any
time.

The German barrage began just before sunrise. In an attempt to put the
American batteries out of action the Germans used an unusually large
number of gas shells, but the American artillery replied vigorously,
hurling hundreds of shells across the Teuton lines. Though successful in
resisting the German attack, the Americans lost 183 men captured by the
Huns, according to the British report.

Nothing in the history of naval warfare is more picturesque than the
story of the raid made by English ships on the German submarine bases at
Ostend and Zeebrugge, on the Belgian coast, on April 22. Obsolete
cruisers filled with concrete were run aground and blown up in the
harbors. An old submarine filled with explosives was used to blow up the
piling beside the Mole at Zeebrugge.

One German destroyer was torpedoed, and the British lost a destroyer,
two coastal motorboats and two launches.

A fortnight later the old cruiser Vindictive was taken into the
submarine base at Ostend and sent to the bottom, blocking the channel,
making the attack thoroughly effective.



CHAPTER XXIX.

AMERICANS TURN WAR'S TIDE

BRILLIANT AMERICAN FIGHTING STOPS HUN ADVANCE--FRENCH AND BRITISH
INSPIRED--FAMOUS MARINES LEAD IN PICTURESQUE ATTACK--HALT GERMANS AT
CHATEAU-THIERRY--USED OPEN STYLE FIGHTING--THOUSANDS OF GERMANS
SLAIN--UNITED STATES TROOPS IN SIBERIA--NEW CONSCRIPTION BILL
PASSED--ALLIED SUCCESSES ON ALL FRONTS.


All history contains no greater story of bravery and heroism than that
which echoed around the world concerning the exploits of the American
soldiery in France as the war entered its fifth year.

Casting aside all precedent, ignoring the practices which had been
developed by the English, French and German commands during four years
of stubborn fighting, a little force of Americans--barely a handful, led
by the picturesque Marines--brought the Huns to a standstill in their
drive upon Paris and turned the tide of war.

Once again history repeated itself, for the Germans were turned back at
the beautiful river Marne, where the brave Americans and heroic French
smashed their lines. The spectacular event in which the Americans
participated was a mere incident of the great conflict raging across
France, but the story must ever be one of the outstanding features of
the war because of the effect it produced upon the whole situation.

In the struggle against the Huns the Belgian army had been reduced to
its lowest ebb; the manpower of France and England had been sapped by
constant call for reserves, and the Allied forces, while resisting and
fighting heroically, were without reserves to draw upon to effect a
decisive blow when the opportunity presented.

The German hordes had swept forward with hammer-like blows toward Paris
in what was a continuation of the giant offensive started in March. The
second movement was launched under the personal command of the German
Crown Prince on May 27, and was directed against four divisions of the
British troops and the Sixth French Army. Concentration was on a front
stretching from Soissons to Rheims, a distance of about 30 miles.

The Huns were driving on the entire front, but the Crown Prince with
crack troops was to have the honor for which he had long been
striving--that of crossing the famous Marne and taking Paris. His troops
had reached the river between Dormans and Chateau-Thierry at the very
spot where the Third German Army had swept across the stream on August
25, 1914. Paris was less than 50 miles away.

Here and there at other points the Germans had been held by the French
and English, but as part of the strategy of the French command the enemy
had been permitted to advance at this point through lines which would
cost him a terrible toll of lives. The French meantime were
concentrating on the enemy's flank with the hope of breaking through and
pocketing part of the Crown Prince's advancing forces.

Whatever the intent, the Germans were resisting the efforts to stop
them. The question was, where would the advance end? The answer was
furnished by America.

The enemy had attempted to broaden his Marne salient and had stretched
as far south as Chateau-Thierry. It is supposed his purpose was to
compel General Foch to meet shock with shock by throwing in his reserve
forces, since the German advance had then almost reached shelling
distance of Paris.

But the German command had not taken the Americans into their
calculations, for here the Prussians met Uncle Sam's fighting men and
their French supports and were smashed and thrown back.

Fighting in their own way, in the open, against superior forces, the
Marines and troops of the National American Army fought their way to
victory, routing the enemy and wresting from them positions absolutely
necessary to their further advance.

Immense forces of Germans had been thrown into the fray when the
American division, to which the Marines were attached, was ordered into
the breach. The bulk of the forces, called to help halt the Huns, were
hours away from the fighting front and were being brought up for the
purpose of holding a secondary position where they would take up the
fighting when the French fell back.

They had captured Cantigny after elaborate preparations under the
direction of the French, but here there were no preparations. The
American commanders wanted to attack the advancing enemy. The Allied
leaders doubted the ability of the Americans to stop the Boche in open
combat.

The American commanders pleaded to make war in their own way. Doubting,
yet hopeful, the Allied commanders gave consent. The Americans were
moved into position. There was no time for rest and they came forward
under forced draft, so to speak. Infantry, machine gun companies and
artillery swung into position and faced the enemy which aimed a blow at
the line where it was supported by the French on the left.

The Boche hordes swarmed across fields. The American gunners raked them
with hell's fire. The reputation of the Americans as sharpshooters and
marksmen was sustained. Under the most stressful circumstances and while
the French observers stood amazed, the Americans took careful aim and
shot as though at rifle practice. Every possible shot was made to tell.

The Germans wavered, then halted under the withering fire of machine
guns and rifle. On again they came, only to again be repulsed. The
ground was strewn with their dead and wounded. Then they began to break
and to crawl back to safer positions.

The enemy had been stopped but not driven. They had fallen back to
strong positions, the names of which must go down in history as scenes
of terrific fighting--Bouresches and Bois de Belleau--the latter a
wooded, rocky parcel of land on which German machine guns were
hidden--hundreds of them--while more than a thousand of the enemy's best
men were concealed in the thicket and underbrush and in the rocky
fissures.

The Americans drove into the wood and charged the stronghold. Sacrifice!
Yes, hundreds of brave young Americans died fighting, but not in vain.
American artillery swept the woods; little companies of men charged the
enemy machine-gun nests, silencing the guns and killing the operators or
taking them prisoners. There was no going forward in mass formation
under barrage or protecting curtain of fire, but out in the open the
Marines and infantrymen rushed on facing terrific fire.

Bois de Belleau was cleared of the Boche. Bouresches fell to the
Americans. The capture of the town was a repetition of the taking of the
first position. Machine guns protected the town everywhere. In cellar
windows, doorways and on roofs the Germans had set up their weapons. But
it was the old story--no hail of shot could stop the Americans. Almost
without sleep, unable to bring up supplies, the Americans had fought
four days with only canned foodstuffs to sustain them.

Stories of the fights are reminiscent of those in which American troops
engaged the Indians on the plains in the frontier days. Indeed American
Indians--children of the famous old Sioux and Chippewa tribes of Red
Men--acted as scouts for Uncle Sam in many of his troops' activities in
France, and the methods of the old Indian fighters proved too much for
the Germans.

It is estimated that 7000 were killed or wounded by the Americans in
this action, and that their prisoners numbered more than 1000. How
privates took command of squads and continued to outbattle the enemy
when officers were killed; how lone Americans or small groups of them
captured squads of Huns or annihilated them, are common stories of
heroism written into the official war records of the American
Expeditionary Forces in France, and sealed by medals of honor presented
to young Americans or confirmed by official words of commendation.

Let the words of General Pershing in an official order to his troops on
August 27, stand as part of the record:

"It fills me with pride to record in General Orders a tribute to the
service achievements of the First and Third Corps, comprising the First,
Second, Third, Fourth, Twenty-sixth, Twenty-eighth, Thirty-second and
Forty-second Divisions of the American Expeditionary Forces.

"You came to the battlefield at a crucial hour for the Allied cause. For
almost four years the most formidable army the world has yet seen had
pressed its invasion of France and stood threatening its capital. At no
time has that army been more powerful and menacing than when, on July
15, it struck again to destroy in one great battle the brave men opposed
to it and to enforce its brutal will upon the world and civilization.

"Three days later, in conjunction with our Allies, you counter-attacked.
The Allied armies gained a brilliant victory that marks the turning
point of the war. You did more than to give the Allies the support to
which as a nation our faith was pledged.

"You proved that our altruism, our pacific spirit and our sense of
justice have not blunted our virility or our courage.

"You have shown that American initiative and energy are as fit for the
tasks of war as for the pursuits of peace. You have justly won unstinted
praise from our Allies and the eternal gratitude of our countrymen.

"We have paid for successes with the lives of many of our brave
comrades. We shall cherish their memory always and claim for our
history and literature their bravery, achievement and sacrifice.

"This order will be read to all organizations at the first assembly
formations following its receipt."

Aside from being largely responsible for stopping the Huns once again at
the Marne, the exploits of the Americans filled the French and English
with confidence, aroused their spirits and gave them renewed hope.
Incidentally their efforts and methods made apparent the value of
surprise attacks and quick blows in dealing with the stolid Huns.

The Allied commanders, quick to take advantage of the situation, gave
the enemy no chance to consolidate their positions. The unified forces
of Allies attacked with renewed energy all along the line, and the Huns
were forced back with a sweep that astonished the world.

By September 1, the Germans had lost practically all that they had
gained in their drive from March 21, and in many places they had been
driven back across the famous Hindenburg line, the furthest point of
retreat of the Germans in 1914, when they were forced back by General
Joffre from the Marne, and dug themselves into pit and trench. Dozens of
towns were taken and more than 120,000 prisoners were bagged.

Almost as spectacular in its effect on the minds of the French and
English, as was the demonstration of American fighting, was the work
accomplished in France in providing for the transportation and care of
the incoming troops. Here great docks, storage plants, training camps,
aviation schools, motor assembling plants, base hospitals and
reclamation establishments and railroads, built in less than a year and
still growing, represented an investment of $35,000,000 on the part of
the United States Government in August, 1918.

Early in May the number of Americans in France was about 500,000. That
this number should have been sent across the ocean within the space of
one year after America entered the war was regarded as a distinct
achievement, but by September it was officially announced that the
number had increased to 1,500,000.

Some of these were sent to the Italian front to help in the drive
against the Austrians, and about 15,000 troops from the Philippines were
sent by the United States into Siberia to give moral support to the
Czecho-Slovaks.

The decision to send troops to Siberia was by agreement with the
Japanese, and followed a statement issued by the United States on August
4, in which it was stated that "military action was admissable in Russia
only to render such protection and help as possible to the
Czecho-Slovaks against armed Austrian and German prisoners who were
attacking them, and to steady any efforts at self-government or
self-defense in which the Russians themselves may be willing to accept
assistance." It was stated that the troops were for guard duty, and
under the agreement with Japan, the only other country in a position to
act in Siberia, each nation sent a small force to Vladivostok.

The British, French and United States Governments gave recognition to
the Czecho-Slovaks as an Allied nation--a geographical, political and
military entity--with three armies, one in Siberia, one in Italy and one
in France, where they had been fighting with the Allies to crush the
Huns. The territory which the Czecho-Slovaks claim as their own to
govern independently comprises Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia and Slavonika,
which lie between and are part of Austria-Hungary and Germany.

With the facilities for handling the troops abroad thoroughly organized
and the obvious necessity for furnishing greater manpower to bring about
an early defeat of Germany, the United States decided to increase the
scope of its conscription and to raise an army of 3,000,000 for
immediate service and adopted a new manpower bill which was passed by
Congress the last week in August and signed by President Wilson on
August 30.

The measure provided for the registration and drafting of all male
citizens between the ages of 18 and 45 years, allowing for deferred
classification of those engaged in essential work or having obligations
which made it impossible for them to render active military service.

Not only the Allied successes on the western front, but also those on
the Italian front and in the Balkans, where the French, Italians and
Greeks in Albania, with a million troops, advanced against the Germans,
Austrians and Turks, made apparent the necessity for further
concentration of manpower.

While losing ground on the western front and rapidly being forced to the
wall, Germany gave another spectacular twist to her military program by
carrying the war to America's doors. With her submarines she sank nearly
two score of ships, schooners, barges, tugs, and even a lightship,
within a few miles of New York, Boston, Norfolk, Charleston and the
Delaware Capes.

But while the U-boats were harassing, no effective assaults were made
against the ships which carried American troops abroad. In this
connection it should never be forgotten in the glamour of war that while
America performed wonders in getting her soldiers overseas, England
provided most of the ships, and that it was England's Navy which kept
the German Navy in check while America's war vessels and destroyers
convoyed the troopships and protected them from the submarines.



CHAPTER XXX.

VICTORY--PEACE.

THE GERMAN EMPIRE COLLAPSES--FOCH'S STRATEGY WINS--AMERICAN INSPIRATION
A BIG FACTOR--BULGARIA, TURKEY AND AUSTRIA QUIT WAR--MONARCHS FALL---
KAISER ABDICATES AND FLEES GERMANY--ARMISTICE SIGNED--NOVEMBER 11,
PEACE.


Then came the fall of autocracy--

Victory! Peace!

With a crash that echoed around the world the autocratic governmental
structure builded by the Kaiser and his forebears gave way and came
tumbling to the earth in ruins on Monday, November 11, 1918.

The most momentous event in ages had come to pass and victory was
perched upon the banner of democracy.

Out of the sacrifice of millions of lives, the desolation of homes and
countries, the expenditure of untold energy and incomprehensible
billions of dollars in money, there came everlasting, glorious peace.

The great German Empire lay a wreck, given into the hands of the people
for remaking, and the arrogant Emperor William Hohenzollern had fled
into Holland, and his example was imitated by the Crown Prince.


THE COMING OF THE END.

The end came swiftly and with dramatic action. Beaten back by the Allied
forces, which gathered strength and inspiration from the irresistible
American troops, the German army weakened all along the line from
Holland to the Swiss border. The press of power exerted against the
German strongholds on every side was felt within the domains and
produced internal strife and dissension which undermined and weakened
the military organization. Taking full advantage of this situation, the
Allied forces on every side quickened and intensified their blows.

The brilliant strategy of Marshal Foch, generalissimo of the Allied
armies, brought defeat to the Germans in less than four months. After
bringing to an end the German advance of March 21 to July 18 with the
second battle of the Marne, he compelled a hurried retirement to the
Hindenburg line with the evacuation of practically all the territory
conquered by the Huns.

Finally, in what may be termed the last phase of the war, he absolutely
demoralized the German forces. The thrust in this phase was started by
the Anglo-Belgian forces in Flanders and the Franco-American armies in
Lorraine on September 26.

The British also made a gigantic and brilliant drive between Cambrai and
St. Quentin. The whole colossal defense system of the Germans was
shattered and in less than three months more than 100,000 German
prisoners and 5,000 guns were taken and 8,000 square miles of French and
Belgian territory liberated.


VICTORIES ON OTHER FRONTS.

Not only was there great victory on the west, but in Syria the British
army broke the power of Turkey and liberated Syria, Mesopotamia and
Arabia. In Macedonia, too, an army made up of soldiers of many nations
under a French command compelled the surrender of Bulgaria and her
withdrawal, and swept the last vestige of German control from the
Balkans.

On the Austrian front likewise the Italian army, strengthened and
heartened by the presence of American and Allied forces, swept the
Austrians before them in one of the most picturesque offensives of the
war, capturing more than 300,000 prisoners and great quantities of guns
and supplies.

This in brief is the way the German command was driven to a point of
seeking peace to prevent the invasion of their territory.

The brilliant assaults of the various units and commands of the Allies
at points along the entire 200 miles of western front will go down in
history a wonderful military achievement.


AMERICAN VICTORIES ON THE EAST FRONT.

One of the wonderful attacks was that of the American First Army under
General Pershing, when St. Mihiel salient was annihilated. This salient
for four years resisted all efforts to penetrate it and stood a guardian
to great iron fields running through the Basin de Briey to the
Belgian-Luxemburg frontier. It formed a strong outpost to the fortified
city of Metz, with its twenty-eight forts, and made impossible the
invasion of German Lorraine from the west.

The offensive of General Pershing was one of the most carefully planned
of the war. More than 1,000 tanks were operated to open the way for the
infantry and cavalry. A greater force of airplanes than were ever
concentrated in a single attack menaced the Germans overhead and in a
week the Americans encompassed a territory of 200 square miles and
threatened the mining center and the forts of Metz, capturing 20,000
prisoners and hundreds of guns and great quantities of ammunition.
Moreover, the Verdun-Nancy railway was released.

Support was brought to the Germans and they stubbornly resisted, but
many points were gained and held by the Americans.


AMERICAN VICTORIES ALONG THE MEUSE-AISNE RIVERS.

Another corps of the First American Army, in command of General Hunter
Liggett, also made a brilliant attack between the Meuse and Aisne
rivers east of Rheims on a front twenty miles long, where the crack
Prussian Guards were routed. Here in one of the most bitterly contested
battles of the closing days the Americans made an important advance,
capturing half a dozen villages.

As at Chateau-Thierry, the Americans in the face of withering fire and
against all the instruments of modern warfare handled by the best
soldiers in Germany, fought their way through with a bravery that won
for them the praises of the highest commands in the French and British
armies, as well as from General Pershing.

At the very close of the struggle the Americans arose to the heights of
sublime heroism in crossing the river Meuse, capturing the town of Dun
and later the town of Sedan, famous as one of the scenes of bitter
fighting in the Franco-Prussian War.


GREAT VICTORY AT SEDAN.

The Americans forced their way across a 160-foot river, a stretch of mud
flats and a 60-foot canal in the face of terrible fire. Men who could
swim breasted the stream carrying ropes, which were stretched from bank
to bank and along which those who could not swim made their way over the
river. Some crossed in collapsible boats, others on rafts and finally on
pontoon and foot bridges, which were constructed under the enemy fire.

This difficult feat accomplished, the men waded through mud to the
canal, fighting as they went, and again plunged into the water, swimming
the canal, at the far side of which they were compelled to use grappling
hooks and scaling irons to mount the perpendicular banks of the canal,
along which were the resisting Germans. And finally, when the German
Empire fell, famed Sedan was in the hands of the Americans. With the
last forward movement they took possession of Stenay when hostilities
ceased.

The part the American soldiers played in winning the war, merely as a
matter of increased man power, is indicated by the fact that when the
end came there were 2,900,000 men in the forces abroad.


COLLAPSE OF THE TEUTONIC ALLIES.

The failure of the German submarine warfare and the ability of the
British, French and American naval forces to protect troop ships and
permit the landing of as high as 200,000 soldiers in France in a single
month, had much to do with discouraging the German command.

The withdrawal of Bulgaria on September 27 and her unconditional
surrender to the Allies was a distinct blow to Germany. The abdication
of King Ferdinand in favor of Crown Prince Boris was shortly followed by
the surrender and withdrawal of Turkey, which further weakened Germany's
position, and peace offers were made by both Austria and by Germany.

Austria sought a separate peace, but Germany, seeing the handwriting on
the wall, asked for an armistice through Prince Maximilian of Baden, who
had succeeded Count Von Hertling as Chancellor. But while agreeing to
accept as a basis of peace the points established by President Wilson as
necessary to an agreement, Germany's military forces continued their
ruthless and barbaric warfare.

President Wilson submitted a set of questions to the German Government
to ascertain the sincerity and purpose of the request and finally
brought the matter to an issue by declaring that nothing short of a
complete surrender would suffice and that further negotiations must be
taken up with the Allied command.

Meantime King Boris of Bulgaria abdicated and the Government was taken
over by the people. This was followed by the surrender of Austria on
November 8 and the abdication of the Emperor Charles.


THE END.

Austria in her surrender agreed to the immediate suspension of
hostilities, the demobilization of the army of Austro-Hungary and the
withdrawal of all forces from the North Sea to Switzerland, the
evacuation of all territories invaded, the evacuation of all German
troops from Austro-Hungarian territory and the Italian and Balkan
fronts, as well as the surrender of fifteen submarines and all German
submarines in Austro-Hungarian territorial waters, together with
thirty-four warships, and also the repatriation of all prisoners of war.

With her forces demoralized and Bulgaria, Turkey and Austria out of the
war and her power broken in Russia, Germany was driven to the necessity
of accepting terms submitted by the Allies as the basis of peace as
outlined by President Wilson.


SUMMARY.

Thus came peace after fifty-two continuous months of fighting, in which
it is estimated that nearly 10,000,000 were killed and that there were
about 27,000,000 casualties, while $200,000,000 were expended by the
combined nations.

America's casualties were 236,117, divided as follows: Killed and died
of wounds, 36,154; died of disease, 14,811; died from unassigned causes,
2,204; wounded, 179,625; missing, 1,160, and prisoners, 2,163.

England by contrast had 658,665 killed, 2,032,122 wounded and 359,145
missing and prisoners during the four years, while Italy had about
1,600,000 casualties; France, 3,500,000; Belgium, 400,000; Rumania,
200,000, and Russia, 6,000,000. All told, twenty-eight nations, with a
total population of approximately 1,600,000,000, or nearly
eleven-twelfths of the human race, were involved in the world struggle
at the close.


TERMS OF THE ARMISTICE ACCEPTED BY GERMANY.

     I. MILITARY CLAUSES ON WESTERN FRONT:

     One--Cessation of operations by land and in the air six hours after
     the signature of the armistice.

     Two--Immediate evacuation of invaded countries: Belgium, France,
     Alsace-Lorraine, Luxemburg, so ordered as to be completed within
     fourteen days from the signature of the armistice. German troops
     which have not left the above-mentioned territories within the
     period fixed will become prisoners of war. Occupation by the Allied
     and United States forces jointly will keep pace with evacuation in
     these areas. All movements of evacuation and occupation will be
     regulated in accordance with a note annexed to the stated terms.

     Three--Repatriation beginning at once and to be completed within
     fourteen days of all inhabitants of the countries above mentioned,
     including hostages and persons under trial or convicted.

     Four--Surrender in good condition by the German armies of the
     following equipment: Five thousand guns (two thousand five hundred
     heavy, two thousand five hundred field) thirty thousand machine
     guns. Three thousand minenwerfers. Two thousand airplanes
     (fighters, bombers--firstly D. Seventy-three's and night bombing
     machines). The above to be delivered in situ to the allies and the
     United States troops in accordance with the detailed conditions
     laid down in the annexed note.

     Five--Evacuation by the German armies of the countries on the left
     bank of the Rhine. These countries on the left bank of the Rhine
     shall be administered by the local authorities under the control of
     the Allied and United States armies of occupation. The occupation
     of these territories will be determined by Allied and United States
     garrisons holding the principal crossings of the Rhine, Mayence,
     Coblenz, Cologne, together with bridgeheads at these points in
     thirty kilometre radius on the right bank and by garrisons
     similarly holding the strategic points of the regions.

     A neutral zone shall be reserved on the right of the Rhine between
     the stream and a line drawn parallel to it forty kilometres
     (twenty-six miles) to the east from the frontier of Holland to the
     parallel of Gernsheim and as far as practicable a distance of
     thirty kilometres (twenty miles) from the east of stream from this
     parallel upon Swiss frontier. Evacuation by the enemy of the Rhine
     lands shall be so ordered as to be completed within a further
     period of eleven days, in all nineteen days after the signature of
     the armistice. All movements of evacuation and occupation will be
     regulated according to the note annexed.

     Six--In all territory evacuated by the enemy there shall be no
     evacuation of inhabitants; no damage or harm shall be done to the
     persons or property of the inhabitants. No destruction of any kind
     to be committed. Military establishments of all kinds shall be
     delivered intact as well as military stores of food, munitions,
     equipment not removed during the periods fixed for evacuation.
     Stores of food of all kinds for the civil population, cattle, etc.,
     shall be left in situ. Industrial establishments shall not be
     impaired in any way and their personnel shall not be moved. Roads
     and means of communication of every kind, railroad, waterways, main
     roads, bridges, telegraphs, telephones, shall be in no manner
     impaired.

     Seven--All civil and military personnel at present employed on them
     shall remain. Five thousand locomotives, fifty thousand wagons and
     ten thousand motor lorries in good working order with all necessary
     spare parts and fittings shall be delivered to the associated
     powers within the period fixed for the evacuation of Belgium and
     Luxemburg. The railways of Alsace-Lorraine shall be handed over
     within the same period, together with all pre-war personnel and
     material. Further material necessary for the working of railways in
     the country on the left bank of the Rhine shall be left in situ.
     All stores of coal and material for the upkeep of permanent ways,
     signals and repair shops left entire in situ and kept in an
     efficient state by Germany during the whole period of armistice.
     All barges taken from the Allies shall be restored to them. A note
     appended regulates the details of these measures.

     Eight--The German command shall be responsible for revealing all
     mines or other acting fuses disposed on territory evacuated by the
     German troops and shall assist in their discovery and destruction.
     The German command shall also reveal all destructive measures that
     may have been taken (such as poisoning or polluting of springs,
     wells, etc.) under penalty of reprisals.

     Nine--The right of requisition shall be exercised by the Allied and
     the United States armies in all occupied territory. The upkeep of
     the troops of occupation in the Rhine land (excluding
     Alsace-Lorraine), shall be charged to the German Government.

     Ten--An immediate repatriation without reciprocity according to
     detailed conditions which shall be fixed, of all Allied and United
     States prisoners of war. The Allied powers and the United States
     shall be able to dispose of these prisoners as they wish.

     Eleven--Sick and wounded, who can not be removed from evacuated
     territory will be cared for by German personnel who will be left on
     the spot with the medical material required.


     II. DISPOSITION RELATIVE TO THE EASTERN FRONTIERS OF GERMANY:

     Twelve--All German troops at present in any territory which before
     the war belonged to Russia, Rumania or Turkey shall withdraw within
     the frontiers of Germany as they existed on August 1, 1914.

     Thirteen--Evacuation by German troops to begin at once and all
     German instructors, prisoners and civilian as well as military
     agents, now on the territory of Russia (as defined before 1914) to
     be recalled.

     Fourteen--German troops to cease at once all requisitions and
     seizures and any other undertaking with a view to obtaining
     supplies intended for Germany in Rumania and Russia (as defined on
     August 1, 1914).

     Fifteen--Abandonment of the treaties of Bucharest and Brest-Litovsk
     and of the supplementary treaties.

     Sixteen--The Allies shall have free access to the territories
     evacuated by the Germans on their eastern frontier either through
     Danzig or by the Vistula in order to convey supplies to the
     population of those territories or for any other purpose.


     III. CLAUSE CONCERNING EAST AFRICA:

     Seventeen--Unconditional capitulation of all German forces
     operating in East Africa within one month.


     IV. GENERAL CLAUSES:

     Eighteen--Repatriation, without reciprocity, within maximum period
     of one month, in accordance with detailed conditions hereafter to
     be fixed, of all civilians interned or deported who may be citizens
     of other Allied or associated states than those mentioned in clause
     three, paragraph nineteen, with the reservation that any future
     claims and demands of the Allies and the United States of America
     remain unaffected.

     Nineteen--The following financial conditions are required:
     Reparation for damage done. While such armistice lasts no public
     securities shall be removed by the enemy which can serve as a
     pledge to the Allies for the recovery or repatriation for war
     losses. Immediate restitution of the cash deposit, in the National
     Bank of Belgium, and in general immediate return of all documents,
     specie, stocks, shares, paper money, together with plant for the
     issue thereof, touching public or private interests in the invaded
     countries. Restitution of the Russian and Rumanian gold yielded to
     Germany or taken by that power. This gold to be delivered in trust
     to the Allies until the signature of peace.


     V. NAVAL CONDITIONS:

     Twenty--Immediate cessation of all hostilities at sea and definite
     information to be given as to the location and movements of all
     German ships. Notification to be given to neutrals that freedom of
     navigation in all territorial waters is given to the naval and
     mercantile marines of the allied and associated powers, all
     questions of neutrality being waived.

     Twenty-one--All naval and mercantile marine prisoners of war of the
     Allied and associated powers in German hands to be returned without
     reciprocity.

     Twenty-two--Surrender to the Allies and the United States of
     America of one hundred and sixty German submarines (including all
     submarine cruisers and mine laying submarines) with their complete
     armament and equipment in ports which will be specified by the
     Allies and the United States of America. All other submarines to be
     paid off and completely disarmed and placed under the supervision
     of the Allied Powers and the United States of America.

     Twenty-three--The following German surface warships which shall be
     designated by the Allies and the United States of America shall
     forthwith be disarmed and thereafter interned in neutral ports to
     be designated by the Allies and the United States of America and
     placed under the surveillance of the Allies and the United States
     of America, only caretakers being left on board, namely:

     Six battle cruisers, ten battleships, eight light cruisers,
     including two mine layers, fifty destroyers of the most modern
     type. All other surface warships (including river craft) are to be
     concentrated in naval bases to be designated by the Allies and the
     United States of America, and are to be paid off and completely
     disarmed and placed under the supervision of the Allies and the
     United States of America. All vessels of auxiliary fleet (trawlers,
     motor vessels, etc.), are to be disarmed.

     Twenty-four--The Allies and the United States of America shall have
     the right to sweep all mine fields and obstructions laid by Germany
     outside German territorial waters, and the positions of these are
     to be indicated.

     Twenty-five--Freedom of access to and from the Baltic to be given
     to the naval and mercantile marine of the Allied and associated
     powers. To secure this the Allies and the United States of America
     shall be empowered to occupy all German forts, fortifications,
     batteries and defense works of all kinds in all the entrances from
     the Cattegat into the Baltic, and to sweep up all mines and
     obstructions within and without German territorial waters without
     any question of neutrality being raised, and the positions of all
     such mines and obstructions are to be indicated.

     Twenty-six--The existing blockade conditions set up by the Allies
     and associated powers are to remain unchanged, and all German
     merchant ships found at sea are to remain liable to capture.

     Twenty-seven--All naval aircraft are to be concentrated and
     immobilized in German bases to be specified by the Allies and the
     United States of America.

     Twenty-eight--In evacuating the Belgian coasts and ports, Germany
     shall abandon all merchant ships, tugs, lighters, cranes and all
     other harbor materials, all materials for inland navigation, all
     aircraft and all materials and stores, all arms and armaments, and
     all stores and apparatus of all kinds.

     Twenty-nine--All Black Sea ports are to be evacuated by Germany,
     all Russian war vessels of all descriptions seized by Germany in
     the Black Sea are to be handed over to the Allies and the United
     States of America; all neutral merchant vessels seized are to be
     released; all warlike and other materials of all kinds seized in
     those parts are to be returned and German materials as specified in
     clause twenty-eight are to be abandoned.

     Thirty--All merchant vessels in German hands belonging to the
     Allied and associated powers are to be restored in ports to be
     specified by the Allies and the United States of America without
     reciprocity.

     Thirty-one--No destruction of ships or of materials to be permitted
     before evacuation, surrender or restoration.

     Thirty-two--The German Government will notify neutral Governments
     of the world, and particularly the Governments of Norway, Sweden,
     Denmark, and Holland, that all restrictions placed on the trading
     of their vessels with the Allied and associated countries, whether
     by the German Government or by private German interests, and
     whether in return for specific concessions such as the export of
     shipbuilding materials or not, are immediately cancelled.

     Thirty-three--No transfers of German merchant shipping of any
     description to any neutral flag are to take place after signature
     of the armistice.


     VI. DURATION OF ARMISTICE:

     Thirty-four--The duration of the armistice is to be thirty days,
     with option to extend. During this period, on failure of execution
     of any of the above clauses, the armistice may be denounced by one
     of the contracting parties on forty-eight hours' previous notice.


     VII. TIME LIMIT FOR REPLY:

     Thirty-five--This armistice to be accepted or refused by Germany
     within seventy-two hours of notification.



THE NEGRO IN THE WORLD WAR.

BEFORE THE WAR.


Civilization evolves destructive forces of change. War is change in
explosive form. World notions, points of view, and general ideas of 1914
have spun the cycle of years with accelerated speed. At that time the
public mind gained its concept of the Negro from encyclopaedic
information. He was regarded as a "sub-species of mankind, dark of skin,
wooly of hair, long of head, with dilated nostrils, thick lips, thicker
cranium, flat foot, prehensile great toe and larkheel."

He was described as a creature with "mental constitution very similar to
that of the child, on a lower evolutionary plane than the white man, and
more closely related to the highest anthropoids." His brain weight, we
were told, was 35 ounces as compared with the gorilla's 20 ounces and
the Caucasian's 45.

In America, conception of the Negro has ever fluctuated in direct ratio
to the rise and fall of military domination of the affairs of the
republic. Whenever the military agencies of the government have been
exalted, the Negro has been benefited by reaction of the public mind.
From 1865 to 1870 exaltation of the military element of American life
brought along not only emancipation of the black man, but that
conception of him which resulted in the conferring of manhood rights and
privileges. In this short space of five years, so highly had the Negro
come into public estimation that, with the protection of the military
arm of the government, there were actively engaged in his interest an
Emancipation League, a Freedmen's Pension Society, a Freedmen and
Soldiers' Relief, a Freedmen's Aid Society of the M.E. Church, a Society
of Friends of Great Britain and Ireland for the Relief of Emancipated
Slaves of America, an American Missionary Association, a Freedmen's
Bureau, a Freedmen's Bank, a British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society,
an American Negro Aid Commission, and other organizations, too numerous
for mention. So important, however, was military organization and
predominance to the success of any one of these organizations, that Carl
Schurz, reporting to Congress the condition of the South, declared: "If
the national government firmly and unequivocally announces its policy
not to give up the control of free labor reform until it is firmly
accomplished, the progress of the reform will be far more rapid and far
less difficult than it will be if the attitude of the government is such
as to permit contrary hopes to be indulged in."

In 1870, as the military power of the United States weakened its control
over the nation, forces of opposition arose to pull down to the depths
the black man, who had been exalted by the agencies of military
government. The Ku Klux Klan, headed by the Grand Wizard of the
Invisible Empire, and the Grand Dragon of the Realm, with malignant
fanaticism worshipped the lost cause. Hatred of white man for Negro,
accentuated and embittered by hatred for the Yankee carpet-bagger and
the southern scalawag, resulted in the rise of a powerful southern
partisanship, stunned only so long as military power held sway. Peonage
took place of colored free labor. Disproportionate appropriation of
taxes between blacks and whites lowered the Negro measurably year by
year. With the complete removal of military supremacy, the Ku Klux
courted publicity which it had hitherto shunned. A leader, the statesman
of the new era, in the person of the late Benjamin R. Tillman, of South
Carolina, appeared. He split the loose organization of southern
aristocracy with the blacks with lily white wedge, and trampled into
dust every agency which favored the black man. He deprived the black of
all weapons of offence or defence, disfranchised him, shunted him off
into the ghetto, and called the world to mock him in his lowly position.
This southern statesman lived to see the Solid South come into national
power in 1912. From that time, until the beginning of the world war in
1914, the American negro reached the lowest point of his political and
social status.

Compared with Anglo-Saxon, Frenchman, Italian, Austrian, German or
Russian, he was of an order and degree reputed farthest down. No
celebrity attached to his menial state. No distinction might be his as
an award from the courts of nations. Dignity, grandeur and majesty
applied to Guelphs, Hapsburgs and Hohenzollerns. Theirs was all
arrogation of supereminence. And to them all, the Negro, throughout the
world, was, if a man at all, pre-eminently the mere Man Friday.

From such a status of debasement, existing in an intolerable atmosphere
of derogation and disrepute, the humble and humiliated American Negro
sought the exaltation of international honor. Denied and disavowed at
home, through vicissitude of international war, he hoped for affirmation
of a new world dictum in acknowledgment of his human qualities and
worth. He did not, like Toussaint, long for the high honors of the
continental emperor. He sought democratic equality, and he would as lief
think of bringing the Kaiser to his level as exalting himself to the
plane of that immortal celebrity.

He wanted to make good in public. He wanted to demonstrate both
efficiency and initiative. He desired that popular belief conceive him
as a man, not a monkey. He wished the Caucasian world to take into its
head that he might function as a valuable and serviceable element of
twentieth century civilization. He yearned to reveal his powers in
every field of endeavor. And he expected that when the Caucasian had
arrived at a fair judgment in his behalf, he would issue to him the
warrant certifying that he was four-square with the dominant opinion of
mankind, and, therefore, entitled to the honors of superior status.

He aimed to compensate the world by presenting a concept of beauty in
place of a general notion of repellent ugliness. Instead of being
regarded as a "Hottentot with clicking palate, whom the meanest of the
rest look down upon for all his glimmering language and spirituality,"
he wished the world to find in him fitness for survival, conformity with
civilization's ideal, example of the world philosophy of forbearance,
human relationships, symmetry and poise in adaptation to the world's
tasks, and moderation in respect of the higher laws, whose harmonies
order and rectify all creation.

He sought to neutralize the misteachings of Adam Smith, of Darwin and
Defoe. Smith's "Wealth of Nations" presumed the material debasement of
darker peoples of colonial populations, or, in lieu thereof, such
debasement of Slav, Serf or Serbian as would compensate the vanity of
the superior people. Indirectly, Darwin taught, that the Negro closely
approached the missing link between the savage beast and the human.
Defoe delighted the world with a picture of the ideal economic status
for the maintenance of white superiority over black man. These ideas the
Negro wished to topple over.

He felt it necessary to repudiate the indoctrination of racial hatred
proclaimed throughout the world by "The Birth of a Nation." He set over
against it the reception by all civilization of the Booker T. Washington
life story. He wished to substitute recognition of worth in place of the
things that debase and make ashamed.

His great puzzle was the Anglo-Saxon, cold, austere and uncomplaisant.
This Caucasian, fair of skin, with smooth and wavy hair, small
cheekbones and elevated forehead, appeared a worshipful master whose
station, under God, was of preordained and predestined eminence.
Occupying Eurasia from the Channel to the Ganges, together with the most
favored portions of Africa and America, he was the author and agency for
law and order for the world. St. Augustine, first archbishop and
lawgiver of Canterbury, himself of African descent, the son of Monica
and Patricius of Carthage, had left the Anglo-Saxon from semi-barbarism
to his position of world renown. Would this Anglo-Saxon ever degrade the
sons of women of Africa?

The Negro's next puzzle was the French, urbane, amenable and suave.
Negro emotions and French sensibilities mingled even without recourse to
the vehicle of language. Imbued with all the finer Latin qualities and
characteristics, the French ever invited the black man to a social world
which the Anglo-Saxon denied him. E.W. Lightner, writing as a war
correspondent, says:

     "Long previous to the war thousands of blacks from various States
     of Africa were in France, most especially Paris, at the
     universities, in business and in the better ranges of service.
     Everywhere and by all sorts and conditions of whites, they were
     treated as equals. During several visits to the French capital I,
     an American, knowing full well the prejudices of whites of this
     country against the race, was amazed to see the cordial mingling of
     all phases of the cosmopolitan population of the French capital.
     Refined white men promenaded the streets with refined black women,
     and the two races mingled cordially in studies, industries and
     athletic sports. White and black artists had ateliers in common in
     the Latin quarter...."

Thus, at hob and nob with the civilities and honors and embraces of this
social life, the Negro felt an unaccustomed giddiness seize him. This
giddiness was not caused by lack of social poise, nor incited by the
French, but it arose from the dilemma, or rather peril, in which the
French intercourse placed him with relation to the adjustment of darker
races to Anglo-Saxon civilization.

Nevertheless in 1914, the approach to this court of honour and equality
must be made by the Negro--and made under restraint sufficient to assure
Anglo-Saxon approval. This was, indeed, a complex problem. Traducers
proclaimed his undeveloped capacities; he answered with a claim of long
repressed aptitudes. They spoke of intolerable coalescence; he claimed
that the times demanded imperative coexistence. They said he had no
soul; he claimed the over-soul. They asserted his lecherous character;
he referred to statistics. But when they claimed he was pro-German, he
stripped for action. World war, and France, prostrate amid its terrors,
offered the Negro the great opportunity of the centuries to refute the
broadcast propaganda of his enemies.

Beyond the French appeared the German, ungainly, acrimonious and
obdurate. Part Saxon, part Hun, part Vandal and Visigoth, a creature of
blood and iron, he utilized every force of nature to exterminate his
enemies. The Negro knew how to exploit none of nature's elemental
energies. But he did know that he could learn how by seizing and
mastering the weapons of the enemy.

Of the energies of earth he lacked both scientific mastery and the
weapons which give them offensive power and direction. Of the air he
lacked all control. Fire he utilized only for purposes of cooking food,
but not for the development of machinery of warfare. He has no vessel
upon all the seven seas. To seize and master and utilize these energies
appeared a thankless job, albeit a necessary one. He voted a grim
"Aye."

[Illustration: This is the wreath presented by the Ford-Darney Orchestra
in memory of Lieutenant Jimmy Europe, leader of the famous Jazz band
which won its laurels with the 369th Infantry in France. His funeral
took place from St. Mark's Church in West 53rd St.]

[Illustration: The body of Lieutenant Jimmy Europe who died suddenly
this week is here seen being carried from St. Mark's Church. Europe was
the leader of the famous Jazz band which won its laurels with the 369th
Infantry in France.]

[Illustration: NEGRO NURSES MARCH IN GREAT RED CROSS PARADE ON FIFTH
AVENUE, NEW YORK CITY.]

[Illustration: THE ARREST OF THE ASSASSIN.

Scene immediately after the murder of the Archduke and Archduchess of
Austria in the streets of Sarajevo, Bosnia. The arrest of Gavrio
Princip, the murderer.]

[Illustration: NATIONAL GUARDSMAN WEARING COMPLETE EQUIPMENT, READY FOR
WAR.

A soldier's equipment consists of a great number of articles, skillfully
packed so that they make a small bundle, considering the number of
articles. The kit includes a blanket, rifle, bayonet, kit bag, cartridge
belt, canteen, pan, plate, knife, fork, spoon, tent spikes, rubber
blanket and other miscellaneous articles. The photo shows three
views--side, front and back, with equipment attached.]

[Illustration: THE PEACE CONFERENCE AT PARIS

This remarkable photograph taken during the Peace Conference at Paris
shows President Wilson and President Poincare in the center background
(directly underneath the clock). Seated next to Mr. Wilson is Secretary
of State Lansing. Next to President Poincare at the right are seated
Lloyd George, Balfour and Bonar Law. At the long table to the left of
the photo we see seated Clemenceau, Pichon and Marshal Foch.]

[Illustration: CARRYING OLD GLORY THROUGH LONDON.

United States soldiers, carrying the Stars and Stripes and Regimental
Standard, passed cheering crowds at the head of a National army command
that marched through London on May 11th, 1918.]

[Illustration: MARSHAL J. JOFFRE AND PARTY IN WASHINGTON, D.C.

This photograph was taken at the State, War and Navy Building, just
after they had called on Secretary of War Baker. Joffre stands on the
lower step in the centre of the picture.]

[Illustration: SIR DOUGLAS HAIG.

This is a late photograph of the commander of the British armies in
France.]

[Illustration: SOLDIERS OF THE DIFFERENT NATIONS ENGAGED IN THE WORLD
WAR.

This picture shows the portraits and headdress of reprsentative fighters
now engaged in the European war.]

[Illustration: CAPTURE OF BAPAUME BY BRITISH.

Scene on the day British troops entered Bapaume, a French city evacuated
by the Germans in their retreat to the Hindenburg line. Cheerful British
soldiers are seen in a street.]

[Illustration: FRENCH PASSING THROUGH RECAPTURED NOYON.

They are on the heels of the Germans. The photograph shows how the town
was wrecked by the Germans before they evacuated.]

[Illustration: HORSE AND MAN ALIKE PROTECTED FROM GAS ATTACK.

French army horses wearing gas masks, which look at first sight like oat
bags. They are used when the animals have to cross a gas zone in drawing
the shell wagons to the batteries.]

[Illustration: ONE OF THE METHODS OF TRANSPORTING WOUNDED.

This man is being taken over mountainous regions, and the method of
transportation has been devised in order to minimize the shock.]

[Illustration: "V-I-C-T-O-R-Y."

Sailors spelling the word "VICTORY" with flags.]

[Illustration: Sighting through the 40 power telescope on the U.S.S.
Pennsylvania. Objects at great distances are clearly distinguished
through this telescope.]

[Illustration: BRITISH SAILORS IN NEW YORK.

They are from the H.M.S. Roxburgh, and took part in welcoming the
arrival of Gen. Joffre in New York City]

[Illustration: THE GREAT AMERICAN HABIT.

French Jackies, for the first time in the United States, learn all the
delights of the great American drink, the Ice Cream Soda.]

[Illustration: BENJAMIN BAYLOR.

Wardroom Steward, U.S.N. Lost when U.S.A.C.T. TICONDEROGA was torpedoed
and sunk September 30, 1918.]

[Illustration: WILLIAM GARFIELD MARSHALL.

Wardroom Officer's Steward, U.S.N. Lost when U.S.A.C.T. TICONDEROGA was
torpedoed and sunk September 30, 1918.]

[Illustration: SURVIAN AUSTIN WILLIAMS.

Mess Attendant U.S.N. Lost on U.S.S. CYCLOPS, June 14, 1918.]

[Illustration: T.A. LOUNDEO.

Water Tender, U.S.N. 909 N. 5th St., Richmond, Va.]

[Illustration: WM. M.T. BECKLEY.

Mess Attendant, 1c, U.S.N. Fell overboard and drowned, U.S.S. OZARK,
July 25, 1918.]

[Illustration: GEORGE FOWLER.

Cabin Steward U.S.N. Lost when Liberty Boat capsized, U.S.S. LANSDALE.
December 6, 1918.]

In doing so, he accepted the challenge of no mere enigma. Of his own
volition, he entered upon the path that led through untrod and dangerous
ground. It was his problem to cut the Gordian knot of Anglo-Saxon icy
reserve that in the end fair England might assume as a policy of world
administration the award of citizenship rights to the darker races in
the sphere of influence of the league of civilized nations. It was a
part of this problem to enter the equation with such deliberate caution
as to upset no part of the nicely calculated adjustments of white to
darker peoples. And it was also a part of his problem that he should not
relinquish his grasp upon the factors that led to honor, recognition and
equality.

Germany was indignant as the Negro sought entry to the war. The South
was sensitive. The North was quizzical. The whole world was hesitant.
The too ardent favor which the Negro found in France gave offence to
both America and England. Indeed, for the Negro to lift himself too
rapidly by his own bootstraps would have offended England, whose law
prohibited emigration of foreign Negroes to South Africa. And it would
also offend America, strangely jealous of any sign of unwanted
assertiveness the Negro might display. The Negro accepted the challenge
to penetrate this maze and labyrinth, with no surety, save God's good
grace, of the fate that lay beyond.

To attain the goal of Recognition, it was necessary for him to demand of
the people of England, France and Italy, that he be made subject to
every test calculated to reveal his worth or inferiority as an
individual, business, political or social equal of the allied peoples.
The goal of Honor, he had attained in every war waged by America. He was
with Jackson at New Orleans, a pioneer in the Mexican struggle, 200,000
strong in the great civil crisis, the acme of terror to Geronimo in the
later Indian wars, the hero of San Juan in the Spanish-American combat,
and at Carrizal in the latest Mexican imbroglio. By 1914, however, he
had lost all rewards of honor which he had previously won. As for
Equality, since the Civil War, he had been guaranteed this goal by
three amendments to the Constitution of the United States. These
forgotten amendments read in part:

     "Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment
     for crime, whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall
     exist within the United States, or any place subject to their
     jurisdiction....

     "All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject
     to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and
     of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce
     any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of
     citizens of the United States; nor shall deprive any person of
     life, liberty, or property, without due process of law, nor deny to
     any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the
     laws....

     "Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States
     according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of
     persons in each State....

     "The right of the citizens of the United States to vote shall not
     be denied or abridged by the United States or any State on account
     of race, color or previous condition of servitude."

America of 1914 was prone to look upon this part of the Constitution as
a mere scrap of paper. From what point of vantage might the Negro hope
for Honor, Recognition and Equality at the hands of the allied
governments?

Land of the free and home of the brave, America is assumed to be so
openhearted, munificent and princely, so liberal and so generous that
could she but behold a man, of whatever hue, trampled in the mire, or
hear his piteous cry, she would hasten to his aid and deliver him. So
much does she admire genuine human worth that a man of heart and spirit
and fortitude cannot perish while she is nigh at hand. Such, at least,
is the assumption.

From the debasement of industrial serfdom, the black workman wished the
American people of 1914 to stop the trend of their strenuous existence
and behold him ... and test him ... and proclaim him. He not only wished
to be given a free field and a fair chance to work at the same job, for
the same wage, during the same hours, and under the same conditions as
the white workman, but he was ready to contend for all of the industrial
privileges.

The black man of business not only wished to enter into business
competition with members of the Caucasian race under the same conditions
as customarily pertain to such arrangements, but he was eagerly hoping
to insure adjustment of this situation. The black social outcast wished
"jim-crow" railway accommodations and signs proclaiming inequality of
race to disappear. He wished sufficient education to enable him to
develop his own society. He, too, was willing for a world war, for he
had come to the point where he desired immediate and explosive change.
Looked down upon because of his despised blood, the black American
wished to elevate the status of his womankind, too long disproved and
betrayed, to the level of free and brave womanhood of all the civilized
world. Concerning this situation he was grim. It required but a spark
applied here to explode with terrific outburst the sinister silence of
the volcano.

But in India, in South Africa, in Nigeria, and in all countries where
English rule held sway, England was committed to the policy of the white
overseer or foreman for the black exponent of industry. Nor could she,
save through war, adopt a policy of employing either Indians or Africans
at the same job and for the same wage as that received by members of the
British Labor Party. On the other hand, France, whose political life was
convulsed from 1894 to 1899 by principles of racial prejudice exhibited
in the Dreyfus case, offered every form of equality to the darker races
under her dominion. However, such equality offered by France was not
equal in the sum total of advantage to the partial equality which the
Negro received in America. The French workman gave more hours of toil
for less monetary reward. The Negro wanted to bring the French principle
of equality to apply in American industry. But the British in 1914 could
not agree to industrial equality for black men. Such agreement would
upset the nicely calculated economic adjustments of the English system.
America would take no step until forced to do so.

It was the problem of the Negro, alone and single-handed, to grasp the
opportunity afforded by world war to bring America to this point of
recognition and democratic equality. The Negro, hitherto regarded as the
monkey-man, the baby race, the black brute, trained by such ruthless
propaganda to disrespect himself, hesitated.

There was no leadership. No ringleader arrayed the mob. No chief
appeared. No captain called the hosts. No generalissimo marshalled the
black phalanx. No statesman sought entanglement in the meshes of the
negro labyrinth. But the Negro proposition for a test of Negro fitness,
like Topsy, "just growed." The young Negro possessed the clear eye to
see the situation. College trained, his vision was not blinded by
proximity to issues of the Civil War, nor by financial dependence, nor
by excessive spirituality. The elder Negro possessed the oratorical and
linguistic powers to state the case. Also college trained, of long
experience, possessing a widespread oratorical clientele, he spoke with
a voice that stirred and played upon the heartstrings of all America.
Never was such a proposition advanced where men, old and young, despised
and rejected, penniless and without credit, without acclaimed leadership
or champion, sought position of honor and recognition and equality
beside the best fighting forces of the world to help defeat the greatest
military machine that hell had ever invented.

Capital and labor, in previous years, had found the Negro wanting. State
governments had utilized him for the purpose of increasing taxes and
court fees. The national government always handled him in accordance
with political expediency, despite his unswerving loyalty. Capital,
labor, State government and national government had brought the Negro so
low that he was ready in 1914 for any form of relief.

The Negro was ready for change, for one reason, because he had lost the
honor of ministership to Haiti, Henry W. Furniss being succeeded by a
white man. He was ready for change because, as the continental war
proceeded, it became evident that though America might participate, her
black colonel, Charles Denton Young, a graduate of West Point, and a
distinguished soldier, might receive recognition as the leader of black
forces on foreign soil. He was ready for change because it appeared that
there had been agreement that no American Negro should participate in a
test of world equality upon the field of world honor and renown.

In the American Navy Department, in 1914, time had destroyed the wake of
Negro tradition, and the log had been deleted. The Negro has rendered
honorable service in the navy. He was with Perry on Lake Erie. During
the Civil War, Robert Smalls, a Negro, single-handed, stole the Union
cruiser "Planter" from Charleston harbor and brought her into a Union
port. Half the men who accompanied Hobson into Santiago harbor were
Negroes. Matt Henson was the only man with Peary at the Pole. John
Jordan fired the first shot from Dewey's flagship "Olympia," opening the
battle of Manila. The Negro wanted change because in 1914 the naval
administration reluctantly offered Negroes positions as messmen and
cooks. No seamen, no members of the merchant marine, no petty officers,
no lieutenants, might apply.

In the American Treasury Department, an ex-Senator of the United States,
a colored man, Blanche K. Bruce of Mississippi, was honored by having
created for him the office of register of the treasury. Subsequently the
honor was conferred as a political favor upon Judson W. Lyons, of
Georgia; William T. Vernon, of Kansas, and J.C. Napier, of Tennessee.
The democratic executive was good enough to offer this position, created
as a direct result of the Negro's activities during and after the Civil
War, to Adam E. Patterson, of Oklahoma. But so great was the pressure
from opposing political forces that the name was withdrawn and another
position of honor lost to the race. Ralph W. Tyler, auditor of the navy,
resigned his position in 1912. A white man was appointed in his place.
Screens were erected in this department, shutting the Negro from the
view of his erstwhile fellow-clerk. He was sent down in the cellar to
emphasize his degradation as he attended to his physical wants. The
Negro cried aloud for change, and in his heart he cared not how soon
this change should come, nor what form it should take.

The American Post-office Department, by 1914, had taken over the bulk of
the express service of the United States. The Negro was found available
as a clerk, but seldom, if ever, as a foreman. The appointment of large
numbers of Negroes to mere clerical positions did not mean to the Negro
recognition of merit. The Negro postmaster had disappeared.

The American Department of the Interior is engaged with domestic affairs
of the nation. The Negro constitutes one-tenth of the population and
requires one-tenth of the necessities of American life. In 1914, a
definite attempt was made in a bureau of this department to give the
Negro recognition, honor and near-equality by the policy of segregating
him into a Negro bureau. This policy had previously been worked out in
Negro school systems and in the army. But the Negro clerks of the
Interior Department, by unanimous vote, rejected the proposition for
this sort of change. The kind of recognition, the kind of honor and the
kind of equality which they desired had taken definite shape in their
minds.

The American Agricultural Department, it would appear, should be made up
of a large percentage of Negroes. The Negro was essentially an
agriculturist before he came to America. He was brought to Virginia for
the specific purpose of engaging in agriculture. His development of
agricultural conferences in the South in recent years has been a great
source of production. The Negro wanted change because this department
employed messengers and clerks, but demonstrators seldom, if ever, of
his color. Agricultural strategy in 1914 might well have been exonerated
if it had employed Negro chief demonstrators and engaged them in
interstate contest for quantity production. In one Southern State the
Negro operates the greater agricultural area. In another he will operate
the greater portion of such districts at an early date. In still another
many of the communities of large Negro population have hardly had a
white foot set upon them in two decades. The Negroes of these three
states could have furnished surplus food for any nation of the allies,
but a Negro might receive honor if put in charge of their development at
the proper salary and with full authority to act. In 1914, this honor
must not be.

In the American Department of Commerce the masters of barter and
exchange are exhibited. America seeks to develop the man who can strike
a bargain and outbid his competitors. The Negro wanted change because,
since the invention of salesmanship he has been declared out of the
scope of this department. His social status prevents him from making the
proper sales approach. The Negro of 1914 came to this department only as
a depositor of funds, or as a beggar for charity. He was not seriously
regarded.

Lastly, in the American Department of Labor, the Negro wanted change
because he was regarded in 1914 as the man requiring a boss of another
color. He was not regarded as a master mechanic, manufacturer, artist or
journeyman, unless the labor union, to which he was ineligible, so
regarded him.

In these many ways, by capital and labor, by state and national
government, in every department, had the Negro of 1914 been reduced to
the state of man without honor in his own country. If war be change,
however explosive in form, in 1914 the Negro wanted the world war to
come to America from whatever angle that promised him the greatest
advantage.

Equality in citizenship, for which the Negro yearned, meant parity of
adjustment to conditions of life. Equality may be considered under three
forms, industrial, business and political. As the terms are understood
in America, the Negro was unanimous in 1914 in desiring industrial,
business and political equality. He eagerly watched the fuse of war if
perchance he might foresee from the consequent explosion the termination
of Anglo-Saxon prejudice. It is but fair to say that he was not the only
victim of discrimination at that time. The sub-dominant nations,
including the Jugo-Slavs, the Czecho-Slavs, the Serbs and the Serfs of
Russia, were subject to discrimination and deprived of the higher places
of honor in the world's society.

But the Negro was not immediately concerned with any one's status save
his own. He was not concerned that Mexicans, Chinese, Japanese,
Filipinos, Porto Ricans or South Africans did not enjoy the advantage of
living on American soil. He was only concerned with the fact that,
living in America, performing the full duties of American citizenship,
he was denied the advantages and privileges of its possession, while
Slavs and Serbs of Europe, with white skins, were accorded the fullest
measure of democratic opportunity whenever and wherever they set foot on
American soil. The Negro wanted the world war to prove that he, too,
was a coalescent element in the civilization of the world.

To summarize the burden of the Negro in 1914 we may include Caucasian
arrogance, hatred and prejudice of race, injustice of attitude and
treatment, personal fear for life and property, improperly requited
toil, unrewarded ambition, unmerited disfavor and debased self-respect.
What profound pathos in the love which he bore Old Glory!


THE WAR FOR DEMOCRATIZATION.

Germany of 1914 aimed to throw off the yoke which she claimed England
wished to fasten on her world relationships. She aimed to dominate the
world with German efficiency. She aimed to demonstrate German
superiority and expose what she called Anglo-Saxon hypocrisy and cant.
Already possessing the world's supply of potash, she struck directly at
the coal and iron region of Belgium and Northern France. And she took
them on the initial advance. With potash, coal and iron, this was a
Teutonic coup for industrial and commercial supremacy indeed. Now well
might she dictate who should boycott English goods. Now well might she
point to the political and military dishonor of the easy defeat of
Belgium and France. Now well might she proceed to the disintegration of
these countries by the weapons of poverty, disease, hunger and bitter
cold. Little did Germany dream what moral advantage she gave these
overrun lands in the hearts of the millions of Negroes of the world.
Germany felt assured that Negroes from all Africa would gloat over the
assassination of Belgium. She was positive that American Negroes would
rejoice. She expected the blacks of the world would rise up and hail her
as the champion of a new day.

In the twinkling of an eye she reduced Belgium to industrial serfdom.
She made the Belgian merchant a business pariah. She reduced the
Belgian citizen to a political Helot, and imprisoned the burgomaster of
Brussels, who refused to yield his citizenship honors. She made of
Belgium a desert. The Belgian woman she whistled at and made a bye-word
and reproach. And she called her treaty of Belgian neutrality a mere
scrap of paper. Namur fell, and Charleroi and lovely Louvain. Liege
succumbed in those hot August days, and Malines and Tournai and Antwerp.
Poor Belgian refugees, starved and naked, fled westward. In remembrance
of barbarities in the Congo under the international commission which
placed Belgium in control, the American Negro quoted the poet: "The sins
we borrow two by two we pay for one by one." But there was no
disposition to gloat. The American Negro, be it said, came to the
Belgian relief with money and goods and prayers and tears, and forgot
the sins of the fathers of the suffering little kingdom. The secret of
this reaction is revealed in the sympathy which the Negro bore toward
another people reduced to his American status, without honor,
recognition or equality.

On, on, precipitate, headlong came Germany with diabolic efficiency,
thrusting viciously at the heart of France. Running amuck through St.
Quentin and Arras, Soissons fell and Laon. Rheims surrounded, astride
the Marne, France awaited her invader. Joffre at the gate! Foch in
charge of the defence! On came the Germans! They crushed his left! They
pulverized his right! He dispatched his courier to headquarters with the
famous message: "I shall attack with my centre. Send up the Moroccans!"
These black troops, thrown in at the first Marne, with the British to
their left, pushed the German right over the stream. Continuing their
action, the colonials won on the Ourcq, and the Germans evacuated Upper
Alsace. Before their terrific attack, with the British steadily pressing
beside them, General Von Stein admitted his defeat by the white and
black allies. Paris was saved and Foch discovered to the allied world.
How the hearts of black Americans thrilled as slowly the news filtered
through to them of what the black colonials had done to hold the field
for France! It was then that they took it into their hearts that if the
United States were ever called upon to participate in this struggle,
they would not be denied a place of glory equal to that which their
African brethren had achieved.

But there was no time for resolve. The cataclysm involved in the
threatened overthrow of English law and orderly procedure throughout the
world caused the American Negro to tremble. Always conservative, if
there be anything to conserve, the Negro appreciated that English law,
when properly interpreted, meant freedom and life and hope eternal to
him. He was unwilling to take any chances with a German substitute. The
overthrow of English law he looked upon as the impending crack of doom.
On came the Germans toward Calais and the Straits of Dover! On to
Zeebrugge! On to Ostend! To Ypres! In her supreme desperation, England
looked about the world for a force to stay the invader until she could
prepare to meet the full force of the attack. She cared not whether aid
be white or black, or brown or yellow. She called for help, or else
Ypres should fall. Black men of Africa, brown men of India, white and
red men of Canada, and yellow men of the Far East heard her call. And
while America lifted not a finger, the American Negro lifted up his
heart to God and prayed that Anglo-Saxon justice, rigid and cold, so
often denied him, should not perish in triumph of the Hun, who knew no
law save his own lust and super-arrogation.

Aboard the "Lusitania" there were no known men of color. But there were
Caucasian women and children aboard. At what moral disadvantage did
Germany put herself with the black millions of America when she
riotously celebrated the horrible death her submarines had meted out to
these weak and helpless mortals. The "Belgian Prince," first of the
vessels torpedoed without warning after President Wilson's manifesto on
the subject, had one lone black survivor to tell the tale of horror. He
told it to his black brethren and they chafed under the diplomatic
restraint, which relieved itself by polite letter writing.

Germany threatened the Panama Canal by disruption in Mexico and Haiti.
The Mole St. Nicholas gave command of the canal to anyone of the great
powers who might seize it. German influence was at work in Port au
Prince. There occurred a riot involving both French and German
Legations. The President of Haiti was assassinated. The United States
marines stepped in and took over the situation. The American Negro heart
went out to little Haiti. Hoping for the best, he feared the worst.

In the midst of this situation, Pancho Villa attacked Columbus, New
Mexico. Overnight Negro regiments of regular army and of national guard
received word to go to the border. Black troopers of the 10th Cavalry
were reported near Casas Grandes on March 17. The 24th Infantry,
colored, set out for Mexico, and another Negro command was sent to
Columbus on March 22. Through storm and dust and desert of alkali and
cacti, the Negro troopers, led by Colonel Brown, came to Aguascalientes.
They had passed through a terrible experience that must have daunted all
save those who refuse to accept defeat. Hunger and thirst and mirage and
exposure must all be overcome. Because of hardships many cavalrymen
deserted on May 1, after three months' service in action. But every
Negro trooper with Colonel Brown held on and defeated the Villistas in
every skirmish.

On a day in June, 1916, a troop from the 10th Cavalry approached the
Mexican town of Carrizal. They were forbidden to enter the town for
purposes of refreshment. Captain Boyd resolved to make the entry
regardless of any regulations the Mexicans might seek to enforce. He
was called upon by General Gomez to advance for a parley. As he advanced
with his troopers, Mexicans spread out in a wide circle around them.
Gomez, himself, trained the machine gun which opened fire. The parley
was a mere sham and decoy. Captain Boyd with Lieutenant Adair and eleven
soldiers were killed. The rest of the troopers fell on the Mexicans,
seized their gun, turned it upon them, and brought to death scores of
their number, including Gomez himself. Seventeen black Americans were
interned in Chihuahua, but were released eight days after upon demand by
the American government. Captain Morey reported that his men faced death
with a song on their lips. The lesson which the Mexicans learned by
turning a machine gun on Negro troopers was of such force that no
trouble has arisen since in this section of the southern republic. The
Negro fell face forward in the scorching sand for his honor's sake, and
for the honor of all America. He knew that his real enemy was not the
Mexican, but the German who had furnished Mexico the means and the will
to create disturbance on this side of the Atlantic.

It was not until April, 1917, that President Wilson proclaimed in
Congress a state of war existing between the United States of America
and the Imperial German Government. At the call for volunteers, Negro
regiments of guard, who had served in Mexico, were found at war strength
and ready to double themselves overnight. These guard regiments
represented the cosmopolitan Negro populations of New York, Chicago,
Washington, Baltimore and the State of Ohio. Everywhere the Negro
dropped the mattock, left the ploughshare, poised himself at erect
stature, passionately saluted Old Glory, answered "Here am I!"--counted
fours, and away! Pro-German cried: "White man's war!" Propagandist
yelled: "Cannon fodder!" Reactionary declared: "It must not be." The
Negro burst the gate and entered the arena of combat in spite of all
opposition to his service in honorable capacity under the United States
government.

The honesty of his purpose was discredited. The Anglo-Saxon mind could
not conceive any more than could the German why a man downtrodden as the
Negro should rush to arms, save as a baser means of eking out a
livelihood better than his civilian state. The Anglo-Saxon little
dreamed that the Negro approached the war not only to uphold his
cherished tradition, but also with definite ideas of honor, recognition
and equality as its outcome. Or rather the Anglo-Saxon was too busy with
his own affairs to ascertain the reason why.

His loyalty impugned by those who did not wish to see him uniformed, his
fidelity the subject of bitter sarcasm, his trustworthiness disputed,
the Negro for once kept his own counsel. German agents were in his
midst. They came to his table. They mingled with him in all social
intercourse. They brought forward business propositions to seek to make
the interests of Negro and German one. Southerners, noting this
unaccustomed intimacy of black and white, announced that the Negro had
gone over to the enemy. But the Negro kept his own counsel. He called
upon the nation to investigate him. And when his loyalty was found
untarnished, he called upon the nation to investigate itself. It was
through the influence of Robert R. Moton, of Tuskegee, that, after
careful investigation, President Wilson put the stain of pro-Germanism
where it properly belonged. Said the President:

     MY FELLOW-COUNTRYMEN:

     I take the liberty of addressing you upon a subject which so
     vitally affects the honour of the nation and the very character and
     integrity of our institutions that I trust you will think me
     justified in speaking very plainly about it.

     I allude to the mob spirit which has recently here and there very
     frequently shown its head amongst us, not in any single region, but
     in many and widely separated parts of the country. There have been
     many lynchings, and every one of them has been a blow at the heart
     of ordered law and humane justice. No man who loves America, no man
     who really cares for her fame and honour and character, or who is
     truly loyal to her institutions, can justify mob actions while the
     courts of justice are open and the governments of the states and
     the nation are ready and able to do their duty. We are at this very
     moment fighting lawless passion. Germany has outlawed herself among
     the nations because she has disregarded the sacred obligations of
     law and has made lynchers of her armies. Lynchers emulate her
     disgraceful example. I, for my part, am anxious to see every
     community in America rise above that level, with pride and fixed
     resolution which no man or act of men can afford to despise.

     We proudly claim to be the champions of democracy. If we really
     are, in deed and in truth, let us see to it that we do not
     discredit our own. I say plainly that every American who takes part
     in the action of a mob or gives it any sort of countenance is no
     true son of this great democracy, but its betrayer, and does more
     to discredit her by that single disloyalty to her standards of law
     and of right than the words of her statesmen or the sacrifices of
     her heroic boys in the trenches can do to make suffering peoples
     believe her to be their saviour. How shall we commend democracy to
     the acceptance of other peoples, if we disgrace our own by proving
     that it is, after all, no protection to the weak? Every mob
     contributes to German lies about the United States what her most
     gifted liars cannot improve upon by way of calumny. They can at
     least say that such things cannot happen in Germany, except in
     times of revolution, when law is swept away.

     I, therefore, very earnestly and solemnly beg that the Governors of
     all the States, the law officers of every community, and, above
     all, the men and women of every community in the United States, all
     who revere America and wish to keep her name without stain or
     reproach, will co-operate--not passively merely, but actively and
     watchfully,--to make an end of this disgraceful evil. It cannot
     live where the community does not countenance it.

     I have called upon the nation to put its great energy into this
     war, and it has responded--responded with a spirit and a genius for
     action that has thrilled the world. I now call upon it, upon its
     men and women everywhere, to see that its laws are kept inviolate,
     its fame untarnished. Let us show our utter contempt for the things
     that have made this war hideous among the wars of history by
     showing how those who love liberty and right and justice and are
     willing to lay down their lives for them upon foreign fields, stand
     ready also to illustrate to all mankind their loyalty to the things
     at home which they wish to see established everywhere as a blessing
     and protection to the peoples who have never known the privileges
     of liberty and self-government. I can never accept any man as a
     champion of liberty, either for ourselves or for the world, who
     does not reverence and obey the laws of our own beloved land, whose
     laws we ourselves have made. He has adopted the standard of the
     enemies of his country, whom he affects to despise.

     WOODROW WILSON.

The Negro braced himself, dismissed the German coldly from his household
and forbade the pro-German enter. From afar off the enemy propagandist
could resort but to derision and ridicule. What an attempt at laughter
he made when Haiti entered the side of the Allies! How he pretended to
be choking with the ridiculousness of the thing when Liberia offered her
services! He flouted the idea of Negro expertness in handling weapons of
modern warfare. He ridiculed the idea of Negro discretion in ideas of
likely foreign origin. He questioned the potency of the Negro's native
talent to meet the European situation. It was the black man's patriotic
fervor, ardent in response to the call of Old Glory, zealous with
passionate love of fireside and homeland, poignant with the throbbing
and thrilling reaction of public-spirited emotion toward France--which
overcame all.

The South asked three questions:

First--Shall Negroes and whites of the South both remain in America
while the North conducts the war? Second--Shall Negroes of the South
remain at home while the flower of southern chivalry, drafted for
service, is far away across the sea, annihilated in battle? Third--Shall
white men of the South be left at home while southern Negroes are
drafted and go abroad to do distinguished service? These questions were
resolved into the conclusion that southern Negroes and southern whites
both must be drafted and sent against the German foe. There was no
alternative.

It was altogether becoming and proper that a man whose race has suffered
as the American Negro suffers today, should point the way to this goal
of recognition, honor and equality which the Negro knew but as a
tradition of those days following the Civil War when Grant administered
the affairs of the triumphant party of freedom.

One of those New Yorkers of Hebraic origin, whose Semitic qualities are
of the highest ethical type, made the play for partial equality, for
partial recognition, for partial honor for the Negro. Joel Spingarn
suggested and propagated the idea of a military training camp for
Negroes, where they might receive instruction in all branches of
military service, be commissioned up to the grade of captain and receive
the recognition, honor and equality due to such military rank as they
might qualify for. In addressing Negro America, he said:

     "It is of highest importance that the educated colored men of this
     country should be given opportunities for leadership. You must
     cease to remain in the background in every field of national
     activity, and must come forward to assume your right places as
     leaders of American life. All of you cannot be leaders, but those
     who have the capacity for leadership must be given the opportunity
     to test and display it."

Mr. Spingarn never realized what forces he would set in motion by mere
presentation of this proposition. He merely pointed out the gate. The
young Negro brushed aside the opponents among his own race of this
policy of segregation. He disregarded the moral principle which had
actuated the older Negroes of the Interior Department in refusing to
accept segregation, and seized the opportunity to produce some sort of
change and readjustment. He must go up. He could go no lower than the
policies of previous generations had brought him.

Directly to the President of all the United States he went. "Give us a
lift!" he cried, "We want to fight!" To the Secretary of War he shouted
most unceremoniously: "Give us place!" "But," was the indirect reply,
"we have not the facilities at present. For instance, we have no bedding
for the men whom you might muster." It was a young Negro Harvard
graduate, Thomas Montgomery Gregory, of New Jersey, who advanced before
Secretary Baker. "No bedding, Mr. Secretary? We will sleep on the
floor--on the ground--anywhere--give us a lift!"

The Anglo-Saxon mind is subject to orderly reactions. The Secretary of
War was taken aback. He realized that the young Negroes had not
approached him to sell their labor. He gleaned that it was not for the
purpose of barter and exchange they had come forward. Nor had they come
with dreams of political advantage and social eclat, nor with vague
glimmerings of spirituality. He was not ready to answer. He dismissed
the audience with a little more than the usual ceremony. One of the
older Negroes of the group, whose uncanny insight had often appeared
beyond the orbit of average intelligence, ventured this suggestion: "He
will put it up to Pershing."

And so the word got abroad that it would be left to Pershing as to how
the Negro should be disposed of. It would be left to John J. Pershing,
who in his earlier days had been instructor in a Negro college under
the American Missionary Association. It would be left to the man who in
1892 had been a First Lieutenant in the 10th Cavalry in connection with
the Sioux campaign in the Dakotas; who had been with the 10th Cavalry in
the Santiago campaign in 1898; who had led Negro troops in the
Philippines in 1899 till 1903, commanding operations in Mindanao against
the Moros; and who had been in command of the Negro troops sent into
Mexico in pursuit of Villa in March, 1916. It would be left to the man
whose whole life had been spent in close contact with darker races.

To this day the Negro does not know who was directly responsible for the
organization of the camp such as Spingarn proposed. It is probable that
the honor belongs as much to Henry Johnson and Needham Roberts as to any
one else. These black soldiers of Colonel Hayward's 15th New York
Regiment, already in France with other regiments of Negro troopers of
the national guard, were thrown across No Man's Land on a cold and foggy
night as a lookout, far in advance of the sleeping command of thousands
of white and colored American troops. The Hun planned their capture for
the purpose of psycho-analytic research. It was Roberts who detected
their stealthy approach. He called to Johnson. In the twinkling of an
eye, the two were surrounded by German troopers. The Negroes faced
certain death, but they had lost all claim to honor, recognition or
equality, if they did not take with them to eternity at least one German
each. Surrounded they resolved to fight it out with shot and gun. Too,
too slow! Around them the Germans swarmed like bees. Bayonets then! Too,
too close! Aye, butts! Wounded and winded, with knives, skulls, feet,
teeth and nails, prehensile toe and larkheel, Henry Johnson and Needham
Roberts defeated ten times their number of Germans and held the field of
honor. This was a great self-revelation to the Negro of his powers of
more than rudimentary culture, and a mighty incentive from the guard to
the soldiery of the 92nd Division.

It settled forever, in the mind of the Negro, what Pershing would say as
to the advisability of training Negroes to deliver their best service
for their country. That general's report electrified the entire nation.
Said Pershing:

"Reports in hand show a notable instance of bravery and devotion shown
by two soldiers of an American colored regiment operating in a French
sector. Before daylight on May 15, Private Henry Johnson and Private
Roberts, while on sentry duty at some distance from one another, were
attacked by a German raiding party, estimated at twenty men, who
advanced in two groups, attacking at once flank and rear.

"Both men fought bravely hand-to-hand encounters, one resorting to the
use of a bolo knife after his rifle jammed and further fighting with
bayonet and butt became impossible. There is evidence that at least one,
and probably a second, German was severely cut. A third is known to have
been shot.

"Attention is drawn to the fact that the colored sentries were first
attacked and continued fighting after receiving wounds, and despite the
use of grenades by a superior force. They should be given credit for
preventing, by their bravery, the capture of any of our men."

Whether this citation arrived May 19, 1917, by design or by accident, it
served the purpose of dissolving completely all opposition to the idea
of training Negroes to halt the Hun. Immediately thereafter the War
Department created a training camp for educated Negroes at Fort Des
Moines, Iowa.


THE CRISIS OF THE WORLD.

Des Moines Camp was organized in June, 1917, to train Negroes to the
military point where other military men must recognize them, honor them
and receive them on the plane of equality due their rank. The camp was
designed to develop Negroid snap and vigor to the maximum of military
efficiency. For this purpose, as at all other camps, there was created
the background of the mother's urge, and the sister's urge, and the
sweetheart's urge, the Y.M.C.A. spirit, the college fraternity spirit,
and, in addition, the spirit of the elevation of a Negroid order.

The change which came over the men was indicated by their music. Their
first group singing of a Sunday consisted of Negro spirituals in
spondaic and trochaic verse, and phrased in many minors. The vigor of
blood produced by methodical training soon permitted of vocalization
only in iambics. "Over There," "The Long, Long Trail," "Sons of
America," were songs they sung of hope and not of sorrow. They connoted
the Negro's reaction to the cosmic urge.

Over 1200 men took advantage of the experience of the trip to Fort Des
Moines for training. Theirs was the 17th Provisional R.O.T.C., but the
first of national proportions. Its quota was drawn from every section of
the United States. The immediate destiny of the men selected for
commission from this camp would be the training of colored draftees of
African descent.

Mr. Baker, the Secretary of War, in late summer, referring to the Des
Moines Camp, said:

     "The work at Des Moines is progressing remarkably well, and the
     reports I have from it are very good. The spirit of the men is
     fine, and apparently this camp is going to do a great deal of good,
     both to the country and to the men involved."

Colonel C.C. Ballou, of the War College, in charge of the work at Des
Moines, said on August 19, in a Sunday interview:

     "The colored race constitutes more than ten per cent. of our
     population, and has, since the Civil War, furnished more than its
     quota of fighting men of the regular army. At home or on foreign
     soil the ranks of colored regiments are always full, while the
     white regiments have with difficulty been maintained at peace
     strength. To question the valor of the colored soldier is to betray
     ignorance of history. This is the first opportunity in his history
     to prove on an adequate scale his fitness or unfitness for command
     and leadership. At Fort Des Moines, Iowa, on June 16, 1917, there
     assembled the largest body of educated Negroes ever brought
     together for a single purpose. The candidates who survive are men
     of marked intelligence and ability. Let any man who doubts the
     colored men's patriotism go to Fort Des Moines and see men who have
     given up professions, business and homes in order to learn to
     defend their country and merit a more considerate judgment of their
     race. Let any man who doubts the colored man's fidelity and loyalty
     come to Fort Des Moines and revise his opinions on what he will
     there learn of the spirit that has stood unswervingly behind the
     commanding officer in every decision that he has been called upon
     to make, even though that decision involved sore disappointment and
     shattering of hopes. These men have been started out on correct
     lines and will have no false ideas to unlearn."

Hardly any one in America, black or white, believed that 700 Negroes
would be commissioned in the army of the United States to receive
positions of honor not only beside her other troops, but on the field of
battle with the flower of French and English between veteran soldiery.
Everything possible to prevent, somehow or other, seemed to arise. The
men were put through the bitterest drill in the hottest sun, under the
most scorching orders the English language might devise. They
represented every section of the United States. Not once did they
break. The acid test came, when, already pricked by the numerous
situations which arose to flout them, East St. Louis broke forth in the
most savage pogrom Anglo-Saxon culture has ever revealed.

While 1200 Negroes, training for leadership, were undergoing the
terrific process of forced attrition, their nerves turned raw by army
usage, East St. Louis burst forth. Tidings reached Des Moines that the
Illinois militia, called in to break up a race riot at East St. Louis,
had joined the rioters and slaughtered the Negro population of the
community. White women had joined in these attacks, dragging out of
their houses colored women, girls and children, stoning and clubbing
them to death. Aged Negro mammies, afraid to come out of their homes,
had been burned to death by the mob which set fire to them. Black men
had been thrown into Cahokia Creek and stormed with bricks each time
they rose to the surface until drowned. A crowd of whites had torn a
colored woman's baby from her arms, thrown it into the fire of a blazing
dwelling, held the mother from its rescue until she, herself, was shot
nigh unto death, and then allowed her to plunge into the fire to rescue
her little one. Nor was this all.

But out there in camp, isolated from the usual social life, July 2 and 3
and 4, Independence Day, was indeed a test of nerve, already tried and
sore and raw, for the young Negroes in training. Why should men train to
fight for a country that permitted such barbarous atrocities against
their race with impunity. In savage Memphis charred remains of Negroes
burned at the stake before a gala mob of 15,000, were thrown from an
automobile in the Negro quarter of that city! And the Negroes at Des
Moines held on. It has not been recorded in history that there was here
proposed any hostile demonstration, or that vengeance and ruthless
retaliation was planned. Wise counsel prevailed, and the Negroes at Des
Moines held on.

For three months they held on without audible murmur. Negroes from
civilian life, from the national guard, from the regular army, destined
for every branch of the military service, defied any propaganda, by
whomever invented, to break their morale. For three months they held on.
And then word came they would not be graduated. A number, in disgust,
left the camp. But the great bulk of them, although at the last moment
learning that they could be assigned to no military branch save
infantry, remained in camp for another month and were finally
commissioned as officers in the national army. It was the eleventh hour
of the eleventh day of the eleventh month of 1917 that they received
their commissions forwarded from the President of the United States. The
hour and day and month a year later became famous not only in their
history, but in the history of the civilized world.

They were given a grade neither high nor low. The rank of captain was
granted to men who were to serve in France and England. The former
country proudly made the Negro a general when he merited promotion; the
latter was committed to the policy of white officers for colonial
troops. In assigning rank as high as the grade of captain, America took
the middle ground. In view of the international situation, she could
hardly be expected to do more. She had granted partial recognition,
partial honor, partial equality. It was for the Negro to gain the rest.

Seven hundred American Negroes commissioned! A baker's dozen of
captains, six hundred odd lieutenants, and five hundred who dropped by
the way. German propaganda had taken contrary suggestion and forced the
Negro to this point of moral advantage. Plunder, arson, lynching and
burning at the stake were employed against him to break his morale or
incite him against America. But he held on. Seven hundred of the
"sub-species, dark of skin, wooly of hair, long of head, with dilated
nostrils, thick lips, thicker cranium, flat feet, prehensile great toe
and larkheel" had passed every physical, mental, moral and social test
and were commissioned in the American army. Doubt existed in the minds
of every American citizen, including the Negro officers themselves, that
they would ever see service overseas.

Assigned to various camps, the problem of recognition by white soldiers
of colored officers immediately was raised, and promptly settled. In
only a few cases did open clashes occur. In far more cases was the Negro
received with full merited honors of his status, and in some sections on
the basis of complete equality. The Negro of a northern locality,
accustomed to all immunities and privileges of his home, experienced
great difficulty when first assigned to camps near Baltimore,
Washington, Houston or Norfolk. He would have passed through this state
of his development well enough, settling his difficulties himself as
they arose, had not some evil genius prompted the commanding officer of
the division in which he was finally to be assembled to issue Bulletin
35, which follows:

     "It should be well known to all colored officers and men that no
     useful purpose is served by such acts as will cause the 'color
     question' to be raised. It is not a question of legal rights, but a
     question of policy, and any policy that tends to bring about a
     conflict of the races, with its resulting animosities, is
     prejudicial to the military interest of the colored race.

     "To avoid such conflicts the Division Commander has repeatedly
     urged that all colored members of his command and especially the
     officers and non-commissioned officers, should refrain from going
     where their presence will be resented. In spite of this injunction,
     one of the Sergeants of the Medical Department has recently
     precipitated the precise trouble that should be avoided, and then
     called on the Division Commander to take sides in a row that should
     never have occurred had the Sergeant placed the general good above
     his personal pleasure and convenience. The Sergeant entered a
     theater, as he undoubtedly has a legal right to do, and
     precipitated trouble by making it possible to allege race
     discrimination in the seat which he was given. He is strictly
     within his legal rights in this matter, and the theater manager is
     legally wrong. Nevertheless, the Sergeant is guilty of the greater
     wrong in doing ANYTHING, no matter how legally correct, that will
     provoke race animosity.

     "The Division Commander repeats that the success of the Division,
     with all that success implies, is dependent upon the good will of
     the public. That public is nine-tenths white. White men made the
     Division, and they can break it just as easily if it becomes a
     trouble maker.

     "All concerned are again enjoined to place the general interest of
     the Division above personal pride and gratification. Avoid every
     situation that can give rise to racial ill-will. Attend quietly and
     faithfully to your duties, and don't go where your presence is not
     desired.

     "This will be read to all organizations of the 92nd Division.

     "By command of Major-General Ballou:

          "ALLEN J. GREER,
          "Lieutenant-Colonel, General Staff,
          "Chief of Staff.

          "Official:
          "EDW. J. TURGEON,
          "Captain, Assistant Adjutant,
          "Acting Adjutant."


It was an altogether modern type of Negro that informed the commanding
general quietly, but firmly, that he had seriously impaired his
usefulness by the tone of his bulletin; that he had proposed a principle
which did not bode good for the future of white people of the world when
seven-tenths of the world's population was of darker hue. It is to
General Ballou's credit that he admitted the question to debate,
listened to reason, and capitulated.

But a certain type of southern statesmanship was not amenable to reason.
Despite the wishes of the President of the United States, there were
published in the "Congressional Record" articles describing the peril
involved in arming and training any black peoples for modern warfare.
What measure of offense these articles gave to Morocco, to India, to
Latin America, to Japan, to China, to Africa, loyally supporting all the
cause of France and England, can only be judged by the rebuke which
President Wilson gave when his chance came.

It was in the Spring of 1918 when Germany struck through the British
forces in Picardy. Then came the allies' "Hurry up!" call. The enemy
opened a tremendous drive against the British front, bombarding,
storming and attacking along fifty miles from Croiselles to La Fere. On
the first day, 16,000 British prisoners were taken. The shelling might
be heard across the Channel in Dover. The German penetrated to the third
British line, taking 25,000 more prisoners. William Hohenzollern,
himself, directed the drive from his headquarters at Spa. Peronne, Ham
and Chauny fell. Vast stores and war material was lost, including tanks.
At the Lotos club dinner, Lord Reading gave voice to a message from
Lloyd George urging the United States to rush men to fill the gap.
Albert fell. The real need of England and France became a question of
reserves. John J. Pershing, drawing no color line, offered the whole
American army.

Germany separated France from her ally. Apprized of America's
preparations, she sought to destroy both France and England before the
new enemy might hold place. Acceleration of all fighting forces to
overseas service became the imperative duty. Not a moment was to be
lost. The American Expeditionary Force must be expeditious. Casting
about to find those ready to answer the call, America could not deny the
preparedness of her 92nd Division of colored troopers.

On Germany came! On to Montdidier! To Amiens! To Hazebrouck! To Paris!
Montdidier gone! "Hurry! Hurry!" cried Clemenceau. "Hurry! Hurry!"
pleaded the aged Premier. He could no longer study the possible effects
of any action of his office upon the future. His concern was the very
present need. He wanted men, regardless of what adjustments their
presence might upset in future world relationships.

So came a day when the Negro troopers could no longer be gainsaid. "Give
me these men!" cried Joffre. "I am ready for the 92nd," announced
Pershing. "We submit that they are men without honor, and of inferior
American status," warned some Americans. "We shall test them," was
Foch's laconic reply. "But they are black men with but 35 ounces of
brain--a sub-species of mankind," America warned again.

And all France cried: "Send us men--men without fear of mortal
danger--men of intrepid heart--men of audacity--men of fortitude--men of
resolution--men of unquestioning, unreasoning, undying courage--men of
elan--men of morale! Send Jew or Gentile--white men, yellow men, brown
men, black men--it matters not! Send us men who can halt the Hun!"

So early in May of 1918 went up to sea, partly under their own officers,
90,000 and more American Negroes, registered as of African descent, and
drafted to do battle in France. It was sub-species against super-man,
broad head against long head, flat nose against sharp nose, thick
cranium against Hun helmet. It was this unprecedented synthetic group of
black men sailing the sea of darkness on a mission concerning the vital
interests of Englishmen and Americans who had misused them for
centuries, and concerning beloved France, which laid the real claim for
honor and recognition and equality for the American Negro.

The American Negro, as he bade his black comrades "Good-bye! Good luck!
God bless you! Take keer o' yo' self!" felt in his heart that all
America ought to forget her prejudices. He felt that if she did not do
so, she was indeed only fit to be characterized as narrow-minded,
mean-spirited, illiberal and warped--entirely unfit for the position of
leadership in democratization of the world.

So taken up with this idea was the entire Negro race that an editorial
appearing in the "Crisis," the leading Negro magazine, from the pen of
the Negro scholar, W.E.B. Dubois, came as a dash of cold water from an
upper window. This article set the whole race agog. There was nothing in
it about America's forgetting her prejudices, the idea which filled the
Negro heart and soul and mind. It was entitled "Close Ranks!" and read
as follows:

     "This is the crisis of the world. For all the long years to come
     men will point to the year 1918 as the great Day of Decision, the
     day when the world decided whether it would submit to military
     despotism and an endless armed peace--if peace it could be
     called--or whether they would put down the menace of German
     militarism and inaugurate the United States of the World.

     "We of the colored race have no ordinary interest in the outcome.
     That which the German power represents today spells death to the
     aspirations of Negroes and all darker races for equality, freedom
     and democracy. Let us not hesitate. Let us, while this war lasts,
     forget our special grievances and close our ranks shoulder to
     shoulder with our own white fellow-citizens and the allied nations
     that are fighting for democracy. We make no ordinary sacrifice, but
     we make it gladly and willingly with our eyes lifted to the hills."
     While many questioned his motive, all accepted his advice.

While the grievance was not forgotten, it was not allowed to jeopardize
the success of the issue to weaken the black man's allegiance. Every
mother's son and father's daughter remained loyal under stress and
strain which would have caused the white man to curse and die.


THE FIELD OF ACTION.

Regiments of Negro stevedores, earlier in the year, had been drafted and
sent overseas. These men were drawn from a specific locality, and did
not represent the entire nation. They were in command of white officers.
They had been destined for the Service of Supply, a service which
America performed so marvelously well that it is difficult to tell, if
not here, where her chief glory lies.

Black stevedores from Alabama, and Louisiana, and Mississippi, Virginia
and the Carolinas, numbering far more than the entire black forces of
the 92nd Division, packed and unpacked the American Expeditionary Force
in a manner never attempted since Noah loaded the Ark. Rear Admiral
Wilson and General McClure cited several regiments for exceptionally
efficient work. The "Leviathan," formerly the German steamship
"Vaterland," was unloaded and coaled, in competition with other white
and black stevedore regiments, by Company A, 301st Stevedores, young
American Negroes, in fifty-six hours, a world record.

What a cheer went up from the black stevedores of the far South when
there landed in their midst a mighty band of black infantry, nearly
100,000 strong who, in a few short months had learned the use of powder
and shot, of sword and broadsword, of bayonet and bludgeon, of trench
knife and battle-ax. Cold steel or blackjack, smooth bore or sawed-off,
machine gun or automatic, were all the same to them. It was a great
experience for stevedore and infantryman. And the stevedore's heart
leaped to his throat as he saw the black officers of the 92nd Division
maneuver and march away the men under their command.

The black stevedore wondered why America had brought him so far under
white officers to behold such a sight. He beheld black quartermasters,
ranking and outranking captains, furnishing their men with provision
and supply. The handling of purveyance and cutlery on a huge scale by
black commissioned officers was a revelation to the black stevedore of
the far South who had never seen such a sight in all his days.

The stevedore beheld arrive Negro signal men, monitors of their troops
and of a million whites behind them, death watch to the German enemy,
destined to be sentinels and patrolmen of No Man's Land. He saw pass by
black American scouts and spies and lookouts and pioneers headed for the
frontiers of France to gain an immortal halo of glory.

The stevedore found in his midst elegantly groomed, but speechless
Negroes whom, his friends whispered to him, belonged to the United
States Intelligence Department. They had come, so the wide-mouthed
stevedore was told, to pit their 35 ounces of brain against the German's
45 ounces, and to prove that the Hun back brain is surplus overweight
and should be reduced to Negro proportions. They had come to furnish
General Pershing information, news, tidings and dispatch, embassy and
bulletin, report and rumor. And the stevedore wondered if General
Pershing would expect these Negro men to report to him information with
precision and correctitude.

It was the Negro band, fresh from America, which gave the stevedore his
greatest delight. Preceding the black troops everywhere, it produced a
potpourri of full and semi-scores, melodies and plantation arias, that
came as a refreshing novelty to weary English hearts and to the souls of
jaded France.

But there were no Negro "big gun" men. The stevedore wondered if the
black boys of the 92nd Division would have to get into the fight with
Germany, depending upon the kind of barrage which some of the men whom
he knew in America might lay down for him. True, the Negro artilleryman
had been left behind in America. At Camp Taylor he was spurned and
rejected. But he refused to accept rebuff. He won his way into the
heart of commanding officer and subaltern, gained his training, made a
superior record, witnessed the outpouring of the entire white soldiery
of the camp to present arms and salute him as he went away to service,
and arrived in France in breathless haste in time to lay down a perfect
barrage for his black comrades as they advanced through the terrific
fighting in the Argonne and the Marbache. Long will stevedore tradition
recite the story of how these black "big gun men" came by.

The black stevedore represented a section of the United States. That
section was thoroughly well represented. There was work done better than
it ever had been done before. But, on the other hand, the 92nd Division
had been drawn from every possible corner of the United States where a
quota might be raised. It was the 92nd Division especially, however
great might be the deeds of local regiments of guard, that would decide
the great ultimate question. Regiments of Negro guard troops from New
York, Chicago, Washington, Baltimore, and the State of Ohio, and Negro
pioneers from the mountain regions of the Carolinas, might cover their
respective localities with the surpassing glory of their achievements.
And every regiment of them did. But the real issue was wrapped up in the
great 92nd Division, the Negro national army commanded in large measure
by Negro officers, which stepped into the international arena on that
fateful day in June, 1918.

They landed when the German had spent his third offensive and was at the
gates of Paris. Almost the first news which they received after they had
settled on foreign soil was that Paris, the magic city which they had
come so far to see, was destined to fall into the hands of the German.
Albeit Chateau Thierry, the turning point of the decisive struggle of
1918, was only achieved when, for the war, a total of more than a
million black men of four continents had been annihilated, the 92nd
Division was eager for the fray--was anxious to tread the field of
action for the sake of honor, and recognition and equality. It was at
Chateau Thierry, on a day soon after the arrival of the 92nd Division in
France, that Foch, the eminent generalissimo, but then an almost unknown
quantity, again gave voice to laconicism: "The offensive shall begin and
shall continue. Bring up the colonials!" America was thrown into battle
holding honored position beside Gouraud's invincible Africanders. The
Hun was halted in his tracks, thrown back across the second Marne, and
hunted like a wolf over the Hindenburg line and into his native lair.

Soissons, Rheims, Verdun, St. Dizier and Chemin des Dames, all saw Negro
troops of the United States in violent action. In the Marbache, at Belie
Farm, and in the Bois de Tege d'Or, the Negro guard regiments and the
Negro 92nd Division went over and at the Hun.

At Voivrette Farm and in the Bois de Frehaut, other troops of this same
division smote German super-man hip and thigh. In Voivrette Woods and in
the Bois de Cheminot, at Moulon Brook and Seilie Bridge and Epley the
92nd Division again victoriously contested the field of honor, against
the best soldiers Prussia might afford. From July until November, their
brothers of the Negro guard regiments, of Negro pioneers and Negro
casuals were within earshot of the murderous rumble of contending
artillery. By November 8 every command in the Negro American division,
including the units of guard, had more than once or twice been at the
front or over the top and at them.

Ralph W. Tyler, of Ohio, a Negro on the staff of General Pershing,
representing the Bureau of Public Information, says of Hill 304:

     "I have learned that Hill 304, which the French so valiantly held,
     and which suffered such a fierce bombardment from the Germans that
     there is not a single foot of it but what is plowed up by shells,
     and whose sides, even today, are literally covered with the corpses
     of French soldiers who still lie where they fell, was later as
     valiantly held by the colored soldiers from the United States, who
     fought with all the heroism and endurance the best tradition of the
     army had chronicled. The colored soldiers who held that bloody and
     ever historical Hill 304 had the odds against them, but like
     Tennyson's immortal 'Six Hundred,' they fought bravely and well,
     firm in the belief 'it was not theirs to reason why--it was theirs
     to do and die.' And like the patriots they were, they did DO, and
     this war's history will so record."

The Prussian, at last, sought safety in flight. Britisher, Frenchman,
Italian, Portuguese, Canadian, black and white American were at his
heels. Italy created a debacle in Austria. And then, wonderful news came
through of what was happening in the Near East.

It had been impossible for the Negroes of America to come to France and
preserve the nicely calculated adjustments which England had set up
through the years. The East Indian, the Arabian, the Egyptian could not
but observe, and observing, fail to understand why American Negroes
could be entrusted in command of troops, if they were not given the same
recognition and honor and equality. Quietly England prepared them all.
Under General Allenby and dark-skinned officers of the East, the black
Caucasians and the brown Caucasians and the yellow Caucasians fell upon
the Turk, until, regardless of his German master, he cried aloud for
terms. The horde of dark-skinned captors of Turkey, under the British
supreme command, threatened and attacked Bulgaria, who quickly
succumbed. So came the Turkish armistice, and the Bulgarian armistice
and the Austrian armistice.

The Prussian fled from the field of battle. He was not swift enough.
Brought to bay, he cried for mercy. All of the Negro American force was
to be hurled at him in the greatest stronghold of the world, Metz. He
pleaded with the American President for armistice, and was referred to
Marshal Foch. It was the great war hero, with the Hohenzollern house of
cards tumbled about him, who decided that for three days, until November
11, fighting must continue, and that in those last hours the Germans
must feel at the hands of all the allies the severest punishment that
could be meted within a limited time. Britishers, Frenchmen, men of all
allied nations sought the honor. The American Negro could not be denied.
Although regiments of Negro guard and of the 92nd Division had but
recently been in action for a period of from three to five weeks, they
craved the honor of being out in front at the stern and bitter end. It
was practically the entire Negro fighting force of America which, under
its own officers, went over the top at daybreak on the final morning of
the great four years' struggle, side by side with white men of various
nationalities, who, like them, were ready and most fit for sacrifice or
service. In the last hours, when life seemed sweeter than all creation,
there thousands of black men of all regiments overseas fell in search of
the coveted honor of being nearest Berlin as the thunderous crash and
din ceased, to roll no more. Hours before the order came for the supreme
and final sacrifice, Negro signal men had caught from the air the
message which indicated what was to be their special honor. There was
not a man to desert or seek asylum elsewhere. All went over the top
together!

At the eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month of 1918,
the order came to cease firing. The 92nd Division of Negro troops stood
at Thann and before Metz, in advance of the progress of troops of all
America. The ground which they trod had not been occupied by other than
German troops in 40 years. It was the field of honor, and recognition
and equality, and must be theirs of necessity. Nature had ruthlessly
perfected this type of black native-born American for the high duties
of a soldier. The war was over. Allies and Americans said to him:

     "As brothers we moved together--as brothers--to the dawn that
     advanced--to the stars that fled--rendering thanks to God in the
     highest, that He, having hid His face through one long night behind
     thick clouds of war, once again will ascend above us in the vision
     of perpetual peace."

The Negro felt that, as the ancient Romans were too faithful to the
ideal of grandeur in themselves not to relent, after a generation or
two, before the grandeur of Hannibal, so he will not ever be the mere
son of a peri.

The Negro knew that he could do one thing as well as the best of men--a
greater thing than Milton or Marlowe or Charlemagne ever did--he could
die grandly the death. Face forward on the flats of Flanders, in Picardy
and Lorraine he died grandly, to make the world safe for democracy. For
we of America must remember, in all our getting on and up in the world,
that, as a psychological weapon, the bristling bayonet was incomplete
until a stalwart, desperate black Negro American citizen got behind it
to fight, not for his gain, but for the uplift of the masses of
humanity.

The war was over. It was still a small voice within that told the Negro
hosts: "As this hath been no white man's war, neither shall it be a
white man's peace."


THE AFTERMATH.

But yesterday the nation tried to think of the Negro as a southern
problem, the solution of which belonged to statesmanship of the South.
Often we have endeavored to think of him as a national problem, and have
tried to persuade the national government to take in hand matters of
widespread national interest wherein he was involved. But now we must of
necessity think of the Negro as an international problem, ramifications
of which are bound up in the roots of aspiration and kindred feeling and
powerful potentiality of Frenchman and Britisher, of Asiatic and Slav,
and of the great bodies of darker peoples of all the world.

As the Negro becomes an international problem, no single section of a
country can be entrusted with the administration of matters pertaining
to him. Such administration may be assigned by international conclave to
a particular country as its national problem, but the proper channels of
administration of international policy will be up from sectional caucus,
through national agency to the international parliament, and down from
such parliament or league, through national agencies to the section
involved. And, furthermore, sectional caucus, unless it would fail in
policies of its advocacy, and suffer modification by the Congress or
parliament of its central governmental administration, must henceforth
regard the Negro not as an aggregate all in a mass, but as a synthesis,
composed of gradations from lowest to superior. This is the new concept
which the war of 1918 has forced upon America, in spite of the bias of
1914.

Civilization left the parting of the ways when Woodrow Wilson's rallying
cry for world democratization led America into the war. It decided to
seek the path of Peace not along the lines of permitted autocracy, but
of firmly and thoroughly well administered democracy. In administering
democratic government, Negro regiments, graded from private to superior
officer, came first as an academic proposition, and, finally, as an
actuality. They came four hundred thousand strong. No group of that
number can longer be considered as a mere accumulation of black men. One
hundred thousand Negroes of the 92nd Division and regiments of guard
have been commanded on the field of action by black headmen, with white
headlight. They have taken their objectives with speed and control and
the management of both of these elements of transfused morale has been
in the hands of colored college men or their military equals.

The hour of decision to make the world safe for democracy was the crisis
of civilization. Victory on the fields of France has been the
satisfactory denouement. The question naturally arises: Shall there be a
happy ending of the great drama for the white American and a tragic
ending for the Negro? Or, rather, as the American brotherhood gathers
about the charmed circle and smokes the pipe of peace, shall the Negro
report: "I see and am satisfied?"

In other words, shall the 92nd Division of Negro fighters and the
greater hosts of black war workers overseas, return to America with
honor in theory, but not pursued in fact to its logical finality? Shall
these black bulwarks of the business of world war find the door of the
business world of peace slammed in their faces? Shall these black
survivors of terrific struggle for world democracy return home only to
be declared unfit to vote an American ballot? Shall the black soldier
hero be allowed to take his croix de guerre into a jim-crow car? Shall
the black Red Cross nurse, rushing to the aid of benighted humanity
regardless of color, be refused accommodation at places of public
proprietorship whither she may seek rest or refreshment? Tragedy begets
tragedy. Seventeen seventy-six begot 1861, and 1861 begot 1914.

The times demand decisive action. Sociological error, committed today,
will cause malformation of an important member of the American body
politic. It will cause the ship of state to ride an uneven keel. This
ship of state must be brought to her ancient moorings, the Declaration
of Independence, the Gettysburg Address of Lincoln, and the Farewell of
Old John Brown on the scaffold.

The tumult has died. Revelry and shouting fill every program. Is the
Negro to return unheralded to homeland, and with his eyes to the hills,
undergo patting and pitying and be given a place in the corner? Or are
the colored boys in khaki to announce their return by a vigorous
knocking at the gate? Shall they have cause to cry to America: "A house
divided against itself cannot stand!" And shall they knock and knock and
knock until America sets herself to wonder what has this army Negro to
do that he becomes so unceremonious? Or shall they find the gate wide
open and triumphal arches erected in every section of the country in
their honor to signify that defeat of German autocracy means
democratization of every section of the entire world? An international
conscience demands for the Negro hero a happy ending of it all.

The Negro looks to the military agencies of America to produce a genuine
peace wherein he may live happy ever after. Regarded in America as the
most alien of aliens before the war, he demands recognition today as the
most loyal of loyalists. But yesterday Anglo-Saxon prejudice persisted
in viewing him as a physical alien, a mental alien, a moral alien and a
social alien. The Negro is willing to discuss no further this
prejudicial conception of himself forced home by libelous propaganda and
by governmental administration for hundreds of years, if the agencies of
reconstruction will perfect and put in operation a vigorous
Americanization policy in his behalf.

Military life has taught the Negro the advantage derived from the use of
pure food and balanced ration. It has taken him from the ghetto into the
pure air of the open country, and filled his lungs with deep draughts of
the free breezes of France. It has removed him from the temptation to
imbibe the beverage that destroys human faculties and has accustomed him
in a measure to the beneficial use of purified water. It has undertaken
through carefully selected work, exercise and recreation to perfect the
habits of digestion, assimilation and elimination. The result has been
indeed marvelous. No America Negro who went to fight for humanity will
return to America as the same physical being. No American will dare
stand before the returned Negro trooper and say: "Behold a sub-species
of mankind, wooly of hair, long of head, with dilated nostrils, thick
lips, thicker cranium, flat foot, prehensile great toe and larkheel.
Yea, behold him, dark of skin, whose mentality is like unto a child, and
closely related to the anthropoid ape; whose weight of brain is only
comparable to that of the gorilla." Where is the American who will dare
stand before any Negro trooper returned from France and thus mock and
deride him? Military agency has completely destroyed the physical
concept which the white world had of the Negro in 1914, by placing him
in the focus of Caucasian binocular vision, wherein his better
attributes become visible in their synthetic relation.

In addition, military life has sharpened the mental powers of the Negro
in command to meet the highest exactions of modern warfare. Colonel
Charles Denton Young, Negro graduate of West Point, if we may trust the
record, is capable of the same high character of mental processes as
John J. Pershing. Military test has proven before the world that the
Negro is no mental alien, but heir to all the ages of Anglo-Saxon,
Roman, Greek and Egyptian culture.

In France the American Negro has produced no notorious offenders against
civil or military usage. He has arisen to the moral concept of high
responsibility for the future of his race in the estimation of all
mankind. There is no story of moral degeneracy which has yet come from
abroad concerning him. Pitfall, temptation and opportunity for vice and
crime have all been shunned in light of preparation for the higher
service. The Negro has proven his power of moral restraint while guided
by leadership of his own color. As a social being he has sacrificed his
life for the highest form of social existence, democracy. Who, then, is
there to call him alien? Today he is no longer Negro, nor Afro-American,
nor colored American, nor American of African descent, but he is
American--simply this, and nothing more.

He has been raised to erect stature and made a man by the military
branch of the United States Government, because of signal service to the
American peoples. His prayer is that this military government long may
live as such to train the great mass which he calls kin into a synthetic
whole.

As he evolved from a student in a military training camp to military
leadership, so he desires the great military organization of America to
continue to exist, that through its agency he may attend the training
camps which lead to industrial, business, political and social success.
Universal military education for me and mine and all other Americans is
his slogan, and his aim is to recreate the America of the early
Seventies, which became hardened and callous through the years by reason
of resistance to the German menace of autocracy, but now removed.

This American has made good in public. He has demonstrated both
efficiency and initiative. He has compelled popular belief to conceive
him as a man. The Caucasian world he has caused to perceive that he
might function as a valuable and serviceable element of twentieth
century civilization. Will the Anglo-Saxon issue to him the warrant of
immunities and privileges certifying that he is four-square with the
dominant opinion of mankind, and, therefore, entitled to superior
status?

To this dark-skinned American are attributed all elements of beauty and
racial grandeur. Forever in survival of the world's most fit, he goes
on, blending readily with civilization's high ideal, philosophically
tolerating abuse offered by the less refined, effecting a racial
consciousness of purity in inter-social relationships, adapting himself
with symmetry and poise to the tasks of the world, and bowing in humble
respect before the higher laws whose harmonies order and rectify all
creation.

What will the black Rip Van Winkle behold as he walks through the
corridors of the American Department of State twenty years hence? Will
he behold a great black mass still at the veriest bottom of our
governmental organization, or will he be caused to marvel at the
synthetic gradations of black American from lowest to superior? As he
views progress in all departments of the government, will he see this
real American organized synthetically in all branches of the service, or
will he behold him still employed as the boy or the mere high private?
Time and the great heart of America will tell.

The center of gravity of world interest of 1914 has shifted and come to
rest at a spot most significant for darker peoples. Victory to all
participants in its glorious achievement must be less disastrous than
defeat. In order to satisfy the liberal opinion of the world, some form
of autonomy must be devised for the newly organized man in America.
Durable peace requires that American prejudice be utterly and forever
stamped out; first by the reconstructed organization of the American
Expeditionary Force, which beheld its organizations of every race and
creed under fire and in action; second, by the American people of every
locality, who have had forced upon them by world war the new concept of
a branch of the species once considered inferior; and, third, by the
powers of the world, who must prevent the upgrowths in America from
offering malignant germs of unrest to their own systems of national
government.

After the Negro has proved his value and worth in all of these trying
ways, when after this he asks for a full measure of equal rights, what
American will have the heart or the hardihood to say him nay?



THE NEGRO IN THE NAVY.

ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE NEGRO IN THE AMERICAN NAVY--GUARDING THE
TRANS-ATLANTIC ROUTE TO FRANCE--BATTLING THE SUBMARINE PERIL--THE BEST
SAILORS IN ANY NAVY IN THE WORLD--MAKING A NAVY IN THREE MONTHS FROM
NEGRO STEVEDORES AND LABORERS--WONDERFUL ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF OUR NEGRO
YEOMEN AND YEOWOMEN.


Stranger than fiction, the story of the organization, development and
expansion of the United States navy from a mere atom, as it were, to the
present time, when her electrically propelled men-of-war, equipped with
the most luxurious compartments and modern mechanism for despatch and
communication as well as her great merchant marine, floating the emblem
of freedom and democracy in every civilized port of the world, is one of
the most fascinating pages in the history of human achievement.

And, as it were, the very culmination of wonder and admiration, the
chain of events reciting the deeds of valor and unselfish devotion to
duty upon the part of her black sons, constitutes an illustrious record
easily marking its participants as conspicuous representatives of a
people, who have won their tardily conceded recognition in every phase
of American public life.

The services of the Negro in the American navy very properly begin with
the stirring and thrilling events of the American Revolution, which
terminated in the independence of the colonies and the establishment of
the United States.


THE NEGRO IN THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR.

The Negro in the navy was then and has been ever since no less devoted
to duty and as fearless of death as Crispus Attucks, when he fell on
Boston Commons, the first martyr of American independence.

In speaking of colored seamen, who showed great heroism, Nathaniel
Shaler, commander of the private armed schooner _General Thompson_, said
of an engagement between his vessel and a British frigate: "The name of
one of my poor fellows, who was killed, ought to be registered in the
book of fame, and remembered with reverence as long as bravery is
considered a virtue. He was a black man by the name of John Johnson. A
twenty-four pound shot struck him in his hip, and took away all the
lower part of his body. In this state, the poor brave fellow lay on the
deck, and several times exclaimed to his shipmates, 'Fire away, my boy!
No haul color down!' Another black by the name of John Davis was wounded
in much the same way. He fell near me, and several times requested to be
thrown overboard, saying he was only in the way of others. When America
can boast of such tars she has little fear from the tyrants of the
ocean."

British gold and promises of personal freedom served as futile
incentives among the Negroes of the American navy; for them, the proud
consciousness of duty well done served as a constant monitor and nerved
their strong black arms when thundering shot and shell menaced the
future of the country; and, although African slavery was still a
recognized legal institution and constituted the basic fabric of the
great food productive industry of the nation, it was the Negro's trusted
devotion to duty which ever guided him in the nation's darkest hours of
peril and menace.


NEGROES IN THE WAR OF 1812.

In the second period, the War of 1812, a second fight with Great
Britain, again made it necessary to call upon the Negro for his
assistance. Whether with Perry on Lake Erie, Commodore MacDonough,
Lawrence or Chauncey, the black man played his heroic and sacrificing
role, struggling and dying that American arms and valor, the security of
American lives and property, would suffer no destruction at the hands of
the enemy. The fine words of Commodore Chauncey, commending their
dauntless intrepidity and unswerving obedience and loyalty to the
rigorous demands of duty, should be read and carefully studied by all
men friendly to human excellence and courage.


COMMODORE CHAUNCEY'S TRIBUTE.

The following is a statement of Commodore Perry, expressing
dissatisfaction at the troops sent him on Lake Erie: "I have this moment
received by express the enclosed letter of General Harrison. If I had
officers and men,--and I have no doubt that you will send them,--I could
fight the enemy and proceed up the lake; but, having no one to command
the _Majestic_ and only one commissioned officer and two acting
lieutenants, whatever my wishes may be, getting out is out of the
question. The men that came by Mr. Champlin are a motley set,--blacks,
soldiers, and boys. I can not think that you saw them after they were
selected. I am, however, pleased to see anything in shape of a man."

The following is the reply from Commodore Chauncey to Commodore Perry in
answer to the above letter: "Sir, I have been duly honored with your
letters of the 23d and 26th ultimo and notice your anxiety for men and
officers. I am equally anxious to furnish you; and no time shall be lost
in sending officers and men to you as soon as the public service will
allow me to send them from this lake. I regret that you are not pleased
with the men sent you by Messrs. Champlin and Forest; for, to my
knowledge, a part of them are not surpassed by any seamen we have in the
fleet; and I have yet to learn that the color of skin, or the cut and
trimmings of the coat, can affect a man's qualifications and usefulness.

"I have nearly fifty blacks on board this ship, and many of them are
among my best men, and I presume that you will find them as good and
useful as any on board your vessel; at least if you can judge by
comparison; for those which we have on board this ship are attentive and
obedient, and, as far as I can judge, are excellent seamen. At any rate,
the men sent to Lake Erie have been selected with the view of sending a
proportion of petty officers and seamen and I presume upon examination,
it will be found that they are equal to those upon this lake."


THE COLORED MAN IN THE MEXICAN WAR.

In the Mexican War (1845-1848) we find him, in his humble positions of
service and usefulness, a positive factor in th