By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | HTML | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon

We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: Journal of an Expedition into the Interior of Tropical Australia
Author: Mitchell, Thomas, 1792-1855
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Journal of an Expedition into the Interior of Tropical Australia" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.

Notes in the book are shown in square brackets at the point referenced.

Maps and plates not shown in the text version of this ebook


Journal of an Expedition into the Interior of Tropical Australia
In Search of a Route from Sydney to the Gulf of Carpentaria (1848)


Lt. Col. Sir Thomas Livingstone Mitchell Kt. D.C.L. (1792-1855)
Surveyor-General of New South Wales



"Admiring Nature in her wildest grace,"[* Burns.] it has ever been the
most attractive of the author's duties to explore the interior of
Australia. There the philosopher may look for facts; the painter and the
poet for original studies and ideas; the naturalist for additional
knowledge; and the historian might begin at a beginning. The traveller
there seeks in vain for the remains of cities, temples, or towers; but he
is amply compensated by objects that tell not of decay but of healthful
progress and hope;--of a wonderful past, and of a promising future.
Curiosity alone may attract us into the mysterious recesses of regions
still unknown; but a still deeper interest attaches to those regions, now
that the rapid increase of the most industrious and, may we add most
deserving people on earth, suggests that the land there has been reserved
by the Almighty for their use.

In Australia, the great family of civilized man seems still at that early
period between history and fable, upon which, even in "the world as known
to the ancients," the Roman poet had to look very far back:--

"Communemque priùs, ceu lumina solis et auras, Cautus humum longo
signavit limite mensor." [* Ovid, Met. lib. i.]

The Journey narrated in this work was undertaken for the extension of
arrangements depending on physical geography. It completes a series of
internal surveys, radiating from Sydney towards the west, the south, and
the north, which have occupied the author's chief attention during the
last twenty years; and, as on former occasions, it has enabled him to
bring under the notice of men of science some of the earth's productions
hitherto unknown. He cannot sufficiently express his sense of obligation
in this respect, to Mr. Bentham, Sir William Hooker, Dr. Lindley, and
Professor De Vriese, for supplying the botanical matter and notes
contained in this volume, and thus contributing to the general stock of
human knowledge. It is also his pleasing duty to state, that during the
long journey of upwards of a year, Captain P. P. King, R. N., kept a
register of the state of the barometer at the sea side; and, in the midst
of his important avocations, determined, by a very elaborate comparison
of minute details, all the heights of localities herein mentioned.

The new geographical matter is presented to the public with confidence in
its accuracy, derived as it is from careful and frequent observations of
latitude; trigonometrical surveying with the theodolite, whereever
heights were available; and, by actual measurement of the line of route.
This route was connected, at its commencement and termination, with the
trigonometrical survey of the colony; and, in closing on Mount Riddell, a
survey extending two degrees within the tropics, the near coincidence of
his intersections with that summit, as fixed by his survey of 1830, could
not but be very satisfactory to the author.

The geological specimens collected during this journey have been
deposited in the British Museum, and their original locality is shown on
the maps by the numbers marked upon the specimens, so that they may be
available to geologists; hence, in the progress of geological science,
the fossils now brought from these remote regions will be accessible at
any future time, and something known of the geology as well as of the
geography of the interior. As Professor Forbes most readily undertook to
describe the freshwater shells after the work had passed through the
press, that portion of the collection also has thus been brought under
the notice of geologists.




Objects of the expedition.--Unexpected delay--by reference to Lord
Stanley.--List of the Party.--Departure from Buree.--Sheep stations.--
Scattered population.--Passage through Hervey's Range.--Encroachment of
sheep on cattle runs.--A tea-totaller.--Meet an old acquaintance.--
Sulphureous springs.--Currandong--Necessity for damming up the Bogan.
Leave Bultje's country.--Ephemeral existence of Aborigines.--Line between
the squatters and the wild natives.--Velocity of the Bogan.--Supply of
young bullocks.--Richard Cunningham--Young cattle troublesome.--A night
without water.--Distress from heat and thirst.--Excessive heat.--Reunion
of the party.--Melancholy fate of the Bogan tribe.--Interesting plants
discovered.--Encampment at Mudaà.--Carry water forward.--Arrive at
Daròbal.--Nyingan.--Water at Canbelègo.--Discovery of a lagoon.--Encamp
near Canbelègo. Explore the Bogan in search of water.--Long ride.--Quit
the Bogan.--Party attacked with ophthalmia



Move to the ponds of Cannonbà.--Set up our bivouac.--Hot wind.--Piper's
intention to quit the party.--Piper sent to Bathurst.--Change of
weather.--A day of rain.--Mr. Kennedy returns.--Salt made from the salt
plant.--Reconnoitre Duck Creek.--Ophthalmia still troublesome.--Approach
of a flood announced.--It arrives in clear moonlight.--(Frontispiece.)--
Marshes of the Macquarie.--Difficulty of watering cattle.--(Plate 2. p.
61.) A new guide.--Cattle astray.--Yulliyally.--Docility of the
Aborigines.--Water insufficient for cattle.--Want of water.--Small ponds
destroyed by cattle.--At last find abundance.--Aboriginal preferable to
modern names.--Cattle again astray--and delay the journey.--Junction of
the Macquarie and Bàrwan.--The Darling as at present, and formerly.--
Admirable distribution of water. The ford at Wyàbry.--The party crosses
the Darling



Plains and low hills.--The Caràwy ponds.--Delayed by weak cattle.--The
Narran.--Arrived at--encamp by:--Narran swamp.--A bridge required.--
During the delay of drays take a ride forward.--Rich pastures on the
Narran.--New plants.--Arrival of drays.--Bridge laid down for their
passage.--The party fords the Narran.--Advances but slowly.--Low hills
examined.--Good grassy country.--Food of the natives.--Rising ground west
of the river.--Ride up.--Abodes and food of natives.--Rich grass.--Parley
with a native.--Gravelly ridges.--Two natives conduct us to the river.--
Approach the assembled natives.--Interview with the tribes.--Cordial
reception.--Cross the Balonne.--Reach the Culgòa.--Cross that river.--
Route beyond.--The Upper Balonne.--Explore its course.--Numerals cut on
trees.--A native scamp.--Fine country.--Splendid reaches of the river
(Plate 3. page 119.)--Lagoons near it.--Lake Parachute.--Seek a
position--for a depôt camp.--Ride to the north-west.--Character of the
country.--Search for water. Uncommon birds.--Return to the camp.--New



Advance with a light party.--Fine river scenery.--Junction of rivers.--
Trace one up, then cross to the other.--Mr. Kennedy instructed to explore
it.--Fine country for grazing.--Turanimga lagoon.--Trace up a small
tributary.--Mountains discovered.--Camp visited by three
natives.--"Cogoon" the name of tributary.--Charms of the Australian
climate.--Mount Minute.--Extreme cold.--Traces of high floods in the
Cnogoa.---Mount Inviting.--Mount Abundance.--Ascend that mountain.--
Fitzroy Downs.--The Bottle Tree, or DELABECHEA.--Frosty Creek.--Travel
due north over open downs.--Advantages of mountains.--Ascend one.--Mount
Bingo.--Thenod Tagando tribe.--The party advances to the Amby--followed
by the tribe.--How we got rid of them.--Enter the country through the
pass.--Find one pond.--A large river discovered.--Position taken up on
its banks.--There await Mr. Kennedy's arrival.--Explore to the north-
west.--Ascend a hill and tree to take angles from.--Interior country
visited.--View of the western interior.--Its character.--Determine to
trace the river upwards.--Ascend Mount Kennedy.--Extensive prospect.--
Native visit during my absence.--Arrival of Mr. Kennedy's party.--The
Tagando tribe again.--Their visit to Mr. Kennedy.--Prepare to advance
again with a light party.--Instructions left with Mr. Kennedy



My departure.--A team of bullocks sent back for.--Good grassy country.--
Ride north-west during rain.--Hostile natives menace our camp.--The party
crosses Possession Creek.--A small river found.--Another ride to the
north-west.--Banks of the little river.--Mount Owen seen.--Travel towards
it.--Flank movement to the Maranòa for water.--None found in its bed.--
View from Mount Owen.--Names of localities on the map.--Scarcity of water
impedes our progress.--Water found in rocky gullies.--Excursion
northward.--Mount Aquarius.--View from northern summit of Mount Owen.--
Progress through a broken country.--Night without water.--Another route
explored amongst the gullies.--Plants found near Mount Owen.--Route for
the advance of the carts.--View of mountains--from Mount P. P. King.--
View from western extremity of Table Land of Hope.--Mount Faraday.--
Strange Hakea.--A running stream discovered.--Return towards the camp.--
The party with the carts advances.--(Pyramids, Plate IV., page 222.)--
Course of the new found river.--New plants.--A large lake receives the
river.--(Plate V., John Martin's Range, page 225.)--The outlet dry.--
Enter a scrub.--Return to the Salvator.--Discovery of the Claude.--Rich
soil on the downs.--The party moves to the Claude.--Cross that river.
Fossil wood.--Again shut up in a rocky country.--Slow progress in a
gully.--Balmy Creek.--New plants.--Emerge from the ravines.--Tower
Almond.--(Pl. 6. page 237.)--View from Mount Kilsyth.--View from Mount
Mudge.--Two natives met.--Remarkable tree



Head of another river.--Water again scarce.--Abundance found.--Climate
and country--under the Tropic Line.--Plants.--Peculiar character of the
water-course.--One cause of open spaces in the woods.--New plants.--
Causes of the outspread of channel.--Plains of wild indigo.--Large river
channel from the south.--Cross.--Novelties beyond.--The river much
increased.--Long journey through scrub.--New plants.--Journey along the
river bank.--Character of this river.--Distant prospect.--No water.--
Fatiguing journey through scrubs. Reach the river by moonlight.--Large
lagoons.--New tributary--from the S. W.--Excursion to the N. W.--Night
without water.--Interview with natives.--Camp visited by natives during
my absence.--An affair at the camp.--The party crosses the river.--
Conclusions.--The party returns.--Tilled ground of the natives.--The
shepherd astray.--Singular phenomenon.--Extraordinary vegetable
production.--Heavy rain comes on.--Probability of finding a river.--
Singular meteor.--Intertropical temperature.--Effects of the rain.--
Recross the Tropic.--Regain the higher land.--Remarkable
tree.--(Hakea?)--Dip of the strata.--Character of the Belyando.--How to
explore a river in brigalow.--A more direct way homewards.--Successful
passage with carts and drays.--Open downs.--Fossil wood.--Recross the
Claude.--Mantuan downs.--Natives of the Salvator.--Position taken up for
a depôt camp.--Interesting plants.--(View on the Salvator, Pl. 8.)


(Having reference to Map V., Page 189.)

Preparations and departure.--Mount Pluto.--Route amongst the three
volcanic hills.--Interview with a female native.--Cross a range beyond.--
The Nive and the Nivelle.--Burning of grass by the natives.--Water found,
after a night of thirst.--Pastures green, and quiet waters at sunset.--
Morning view from a rock.--A new river followed down-over extensive open
downs.--Brigalow scrubs away from the river.--River much increased.--
Security from natives--Thoughts in these solitudes.--The downs and the
river.--An emu shot there.--A river joins from the east.--Structure of
native's huts.--Two separate channels unite.--The river well filled.--
Packhorse unserviceable.--Rare pigeon--numerous.--A wild tribe--
surprised at a lagoon.--Recross the river--and return homewards.--The
savage compared--with the civilized.--Hills in the S. W.--Short cut along
the left bank of the river.--Name it the Victoria.--Privations in
exploring.--Return to the Nive and Nivelle.--Gallant charge by a snake.--
Sources of the Salvator.--View from Mount Pluto.--Arrival at the camp of
the pyramids.--Rare and new plants  collected there.--(View of Lindley's
Range, Pl. 9.)


(Having reference to Map V., Page 189., and Map IV., Page 133.)

Fossils and plants.--A new genus.--LINSCHOTENIA DISCOLOR.--Ascend Mount
Faraday.--Valley of the Warregò.--Meet an old native.--Return to the camp
over the gullies.--Encamp by the Maranòa.--The river found to be near our
former track--with water in abundance.--Loss of a horse.--Cattle
tracks.--Arrival at the camp of Mr. Kennedy.--Visits of the natives--
during our absence.--(Pl. 7. ABORIGINAL DANCE, page 358).--Plants
gathered at the depôt camp.--New plants.--Fossils at Mount Sowerby.--
Ascent of Mount Kennedy.--The party leaves the depôt camp following the
course of the Maranòa.--Discovery of a fine open country.--Numbered trees
at camps.--The country on the Maranòa.--Singular habits of a fish.--Name
of river obtained from good authority.--(Pl. 10. VIEW ON THE MARANÒA,
page 372).--The Acacia varians.--Water scarce again.--Some at length
discovered by a dog.--Country between the two routes.--Plants.--Arrive at
the Balonne.--Return to St. George's Bridge


(Having reference to Map III., Page 81.)

(VIEW OF ST. GEORGE'S BRIDGE, Pl. 11)--Despatches sent forward.--
Acquisitions during the delay.--Mr. Kennedy's return and report.--The
party crosses the Balonne.--Arrives at the Mooni.--A white woman.--Cattle
stations.--Heavy rain.--The country impassable.--Camp removed to a
hill.--Dam thrown up.--The waters subside.--The party proceeds.--Arrival
at the Barwan.--A flood.--(Pl. 12. LAST USE OF THE BOATS, page 395).--
Cross the Màal, also in boats.--Country between the rivers.--Mount
Riddell recognised.--The Gwydir crossed.--Termination of the journey.--A
stockman.--Night on the open plain.--The Nammoy.--First news


Instructions to Mr. Kennedy for the survey of the river Victoria.--Of the
Aborigines.--Simple conditions of human existence.--Grass, fire,
kangaroos, and men.--Case of the aboriginal natives.--My native guides.--
Experiment worth trying.--Of the Convicts.--Character of the men of the
party.--Of convicts generally.--Of the Colony of New South Wales,--
capabilities of soil and climate.--Progress of colonization,--Division
and appropriation of the territory.--Capricornia and Austral-india



The Colonial Secretary to the Surveyor General of New South Wales.--
Letter, dated 28th October, 1830

Systematical List of Plants


[Not included in the text-file version of this eBook]

Flood coming down the Macquarie (pl. 1. p. 58) Map I. The Indian
Archipelago Portrait of Bultje Remnant of the Bogan tribe Map II. The
Rivers Bogan and Macquarie First use of the boats (pl. 2) Map III. The
Rivers Narran, Culgoa, and Balonne to St. George's Bridge, shewing also
the route thence homeward to Snodgrass Lagoon Separation of the Balonne
into the Culgoa, Narran, &c. The River Balonne, 7th April (pl. 3) Map IV.
Advance to the Maranòa, and route returning to  St. George's Bridge The
Bottle tree, DELABECHEA The black awaiting the white Map V. The country
and the routes between the Maranòa and Mount Mudge, and those along the
River Victoria Tree without branches The Pyramids (pl. 4) Martin's Range
(pl. 5) Tower Almond (pl. 6) Map VI. The River Belyando Missile club of
natives of Central Australia Remarkable tree (HAKEA ?) The River
Salvator, 5th Sept. (pl. 8) Lindley's Range (pl. 9) Old native female
Aboriginal dance (pl. 7) View on the River Maranòa (pl. 10) Acacia
VARIANS St. Georgia's Bridge (pl. 11) Last use of the boats (pl. 12) Map
VII. Eastern Australia, with recent discoveries

* * * * *


Chapter I.


The exploration of Northern Australia, which formed the object of my
first journey in 1831, has, consistently with the views I have always
entertained on the subject [* See London Geographical Journal, vol. vii.
part 2, p. 282.], been found equally essential in 1846 to the full
development of the geographical resources of New South Wales. The same
direction indicated on Mr. Arrowsmith's map, published by the Royal
Geographical Society in 1837, was, in 1846, considered, by a committee of
the Legislative Council of New South Wales, the most desirable to pursue
at a time when every plan likely to relieve the colony from distress
found favour with the public.

At no great distance lay India and China, and still nearer, the rich
islands of the Indian Archipelago; all well-peopled countries, while the
industrious and enterprising colonists of the South were unable to avail
themselves of the exuberance of the soil and its productions,

"Which mock'd their scant manurings, and requir'd MORE HANDS THAN THEIRS
to prune their wanton growth."

The same attraction which drew the greatest of discoverers westward, "al
nacimiento de la especeria [* To the region where spices grew.]," seemed
to invite the Australian explorer northward; impelled by the wayward
fortunes of the Anglo-Saxon race already rooted at the southern extremity
of the land whose name had previously been "Terra Australis incognita."
The character of the interior of that country still remained unknown, the
largest portion of earth as yet unexplored. For the mere exploration, the
colonists of New South Wales might not have been very anxious just at
that time, but when the object of acquiring geographical knowledge could
be combined with that of exploring a route towards the nearest part of
the Indian Ocean, westward of a dangerous strait, it was easy to awaken
the attention of the Australian public to the importance of such an
enterprise. A trade in horses required to remount the Indian cavalry had
commenced, and the disadvantageous navigation of Torres Straits had been
injurious to it: that drawback was to be avoided by any overland route
from Sydney to the head of the Gulf of Carpentaria.

But other considerations, not less important to the colonists of New
South Wales, made it very desirable that a way should be opened to the
shores of the Indian Ocean. That sea was already connected with England
by steam navigation, and to render it accessible to Sydney by land, was
an object in itself worthy of an exploratory expedition. In short, the
commencement of such a journey seemed the first step in the direct road
home to England, for it was not to be doubted that on the discovery of a
good overland route between Sydney and the head of the Gulf of
Carpentaria, a line of steam communication would thereupon be introduced
from that point to meet the English line at Singapore.

In this view of the subject, it seemed more desirable to open a way to
the head of the Gulf of Carpentaria, the nearest part of the sea, than to
the settlement at Port Essington, on a presque-île forming the furthest
point of the land; and, that the journey would terminate at the Gulf was
therefore most probable. The map of Australia, when compared with that of
the world, suggested reasonable grounds for believing that a considerable
river would be found to lead to the Gulf of Carpentaria.

My department having been reduced to a state of inactivity in 1843, I
submitted a plan of exploration to Sir George Gipps, the Governor, when
His Excellency promised, that if the Legislative Council made such
reductions as they seemed disposed to make in the public expenditure, he
should be able to spare money for such an expedition. The Legislative
Council not only made reductions in the estimates to save much more money
than His Excellency had named, but even voted 1000L. towards the expense
of the journey, and petitioned the Governor to sanction it. His
Excellency, however, then thought it necessary to refer the subject to
the Secretary for the Colonies. Much time was thus lost, and, what was
still worse, the naturalist to whom I had explained my plan, and invited
to join my party, Dr. Leichardt. This gentleman, tempted by the general
interest taken by the colonists at the time in a journey of discovery,
which afforded a cheering prospect amid the general gloom and
despondency, raised and equipped a small party by public subscription,
and proceeded by water to Moreton Bay. Dr. Leichardt, and the six persons
who finally accompanied him thence to the northward, had not been heard
of, and were supposed to have either perished or been destroyed by
natives. [* Dr. Leichhardt returned afterwards to Sydney from Port
Essington by sea; and the journal of his journey, recently published,
shows what difficulties may be surmounted by energy and perseverance.]

The reply of Lord Stanley was, as might have been anticipated, favourable
to the undertaking; but the Governor of the colony still declined to
allow the journey to be undertaken, without assigning any reason for
keeping it back. This was the more regretted by me, when it became known
in New South Wales that Captain Sturt was employed, with the express
sanction of Lord Stanley, to lead an exploring expedition from Adelaide
into the northern interior of Australia, and that he was actually then in
New South Wales. Sir George Gipps had expressed, in one of his early
despatches to the British Government, his readiness to encourage such an
undertaking as that, and stated that "no one came forward to claim the
honour of such an enterprise;" yet now that Lord Stanley had sanctioned
the plan of the Surveyor General, whose duty it was to survey the
country, he refused to allow this officer to proceed. The Legislative
Council, however, renewed the petition for this undertaking, to which the
Governor at length assented, in 1845; and the sum of 2000L. was
unanimously voted for the outfit of the party, but with the clear
understanding on the part of the Council, that the plan of the Surveyor
General should be adopted.

The idea of a river flowing to the northward, was not, however, new. The
journey in 1831 was undertaken chiefly in consequence of a report that a
large river had been followed down to the coast by a bushranger,
accompanied by the natives: and the ultimate course of the Condamine,
still a question, was a subject of controversy in some of the first
papers published in the Journal of the Royal Geographical Society. My
suggestions on the subject are detailed at length in the London
Geographical Journal, Vol. VII., Part 2., page 282., and accompanied by a
map showing the line of exploration then recommended.

In making preparations for this expedition, the means of conveyance by
land and water required the earliest consideration. These were strong
bullock-drays and portable boats. Horses and light carts had been
preferred by me: but the longer column of march, and necessity for a
greater number of men, were considered objections; while many experienced
persons suggested that the bullocks, though slow, were more enduring than
horses. [* The results of this journey proved quite the reverse.] Eight
drays were therefore ordered to be made of the best seasoned wood: four
of these by the best maker in the colony, and four by the prisoners in
Cockatoo Island. Two iron boats were made by Mr. Struth, each in two
parts, on a plan of my own, and on the 17th of November the whole party
moved off from Paramatta on their way to the proposed camp at Buree.

I joined the party encamped at Buree on the 13th of December, having rode
there from Sydney in four and a half days, and on the following Monday,
15th of December, 1845, I put it in motion towards the interior. The
Exploring party now consisted of the following persons:--

SIR T. L. MITCHELL, Kt., Surveyor General, Chief of the Expedition.
EDMUND B. KENNEDY, Esq. Assistant Surveyor, Second in command. W.
STEPHENSON, M.R.C.S.L. Surgeon and Collector of objects of Natural
History. PETER M'AVOY, Mounted Videttes. Charles Niblett, William Graham,
ANTHONY BROWN, Tent-keeper. WILLIAM BALDOCK, In charge of the horses.
John Waugh Drysdale, Store-keeper. Allan Bond, Bullock-drivers. Edward
Taylor, William Bond, William Mortimer, George Allcot, John Slater,
Richard Horton, Felix Maguire, James Stephens, Carpenters. Job Stanley,
Edward Wilson, Blacksmith. George Fowkes, Shoemaker. John Douglas,
Barometer carrier. Isaac Reid, Sailor and Chainman. Andrew Higgs,
Chainman. William Hunter, With the horses. Thomas Smith, Patrick Travers,
Carter and Pioneer. Douglas Arnott, Shepherd and Butcher. Arthur Bristol,
Sailmaker and Sailor.

8 drays, drawn by 80 bullocks; 2 boats; 13 horses; 4 private do.; and 3
light carts, comprised the means of conveyance; and the party was
provided with provisions for a year:--250 sheep (to travel with the
party), constituting the chief part of the animal food. The rest
consisted of gelatine, and a small quantity of pork.

With the exception of a few whose names are printed in italics, the party
consisted of prisoners of the Crown in different stages of probation,
with whom the prospect of additional liberty was an incentive so
powerful, that no money payment was asked by them or expected, while,
from experience, I knew that for such an enterprise as this I could rely
on their zealous services. The patience and resolution of such men in the
face of difficulties, I had already witnessed; and I had hired three of
the old hands, in order the more readily to introduce my accustomed camp
arrangements. Volunteers of all classes had certainly come eagerly
forward, offering their gratuitous services on this expedition of
discovery; but discipline and implicit obedience were necessary in such a
party to ensure the objects in view, as well as its own preservation; and
it was not judged expedient, where some prisoners were indispensable as
mechanics, to mix with them men of a different class, over whom the same
kind of authority could not be exercised.

Following the same road by which I quitted Buree, in 1835, my former line
of route across Hervey's Range lay to the left. The party thus arrived at
Bramadura, a sheep station occupied by Mr. Boyd. It was on the same chain
of ponds crossed by me on the journey of 1835, and then named Dochendoras
Creek, but now known as the Mundadgery chain of ponds. These ponds had
been filled by heavy rains which fell on Tuesday the 9th December--the
day on which I left Sydney, where the weather had been clear and sultry.
A tornado or hurricane had, on the same day, levelled part of the forest
near this place, laying prostrate the largest trees, one side of which
was completely barked by the hailstones. Many branches of trees along the
line of route, showed that the wind had been very violent to a
considerable distance.

16TH DECEMBER.--Some of the bullocks missing: the party could not,
therefore, quit the camp until 11 o'clock. The passage of the bed of the
chain of ponds (which we travelled up) was frequently necessary, and
difficult for heavily laden drays, which I found ours were, owing,
chiefly to a superabundance of flour, above the quantity I intended to
have taken, but supplied to my party, and brought forty miles by my drays
before my arrival at the camp.

We halted at another sheep station of Mr. Boyd's. Here I perceived that
Horehound grew abundantly; and I was assured by Mr. Parkinson, a
gentleman in charge of these stations, that this plant springs up at all
sheep and cattle stations throughout the colony, a remarkable fact, which
may assist to explain another, namely, the appearance of the Couchgrass,
or Dog's-tooth-grass, wherever the white man sets his foot, although
previously unknown in these regions.

17TH DECEMBER.--Set off about 7 A.M. and travelled along a good road, for
about 6 miles. Then, at a sheep station, we crossed the chain of ponds,
following a road leading to Dr. Ramsay's head station, called
Balderudgery. Leaving that road, and, at 7 miles, taking to the left, we
finally encamped on Spring Creek, after a journey of about 9 miles. We
had passed over what I should have called a poor sort of country, but
everywhere it was taken up for sheep; and these looked fat; yet not a
blade of grass could be seen; and, but for the late timely supply of
rain, it had been in contemplation to withdraw these flocks to the

Calling at a shepherd's hut to ask the way, an Irish woman appeared with
a child at her breast and another by her side: she was hut-keeper. She
had been there two years, and only complained that they had never been
able to get any potatoes to plant. She and her husband were about to
leave the place next day, and they seemed uncertain as to where they
should go. Two miles further on, a shoemaker came to the door of a hut,
and accompanied me to set me on the right road. I inquired how he found
work in these wild parts. He said, he could get plenty of work, but very
little money; that it was chiefly contract work he lived by: he supplied
sheep-owners with shoes for their men, at so much per pair. His
conversation was about the difficulty a poor man had in providing for his
family. He had once possessed about forty cows, which he had been obliged
to entrust to the care of another man, at 5S. per head. This man
neglected them: they were impounded and sold as unlicensed cattle under
the new regulations.

"So you saw no more of them?"

"Oh, yes, your honour, I saw some of them AFTER THEY HAD BEEN SOLD AT THE
POUND!--I wanted to have had something provided for a small family of
children, and if I had only had a few acres of ground, I could have kept
my cows."

This was merely a passing remark made with a laugh as we walked along,
for he was one of the race--

"Who march to death with military glee."

But the fate of a poor man's family was a serious subject: such was the
hopeless condition of a useful mechanic ready for work even in the
desolate forests skirting the haunts of the savage. So fares it with the
DISJECTA MEMBRA of towns and villages, when such arrangements are left to
the people themselves in a new colony.

18TH DECEMBER.--The party moved off about 7 A.M., and continued along a
tolerable road, crossing what shepherds called Seven Mile Creek, in which
there was some water; and a little further on we quitted the good beaten
road leading to Balderudgery, and followed one to the left, which brought
us to another sheep station on the same chain of ponds, three miles
higher up than Balderudgery. Having directed the party to encamp here, I
pursued the road south-westward along the chain of ponds, anxious to
ascertain whether I could in that direction pass easily to the westward
of Hervey's Range, and so fall into my former line of route to the Bogan.
At about five miles I found an excellent opening through which the road
passed on ground almost level. Having ascended a small eminence on the
right, I fell in with some natives with spears, who seemed to recognise
me, by pointing to my old line of route, and saying, "Majy Majy" (Major
Mitchell). I little thought then that this was already an outlying
picquet of the Bogan Blacks, sent forward to observe my party. The day
was hot, therm. 97° in the shade. The chain of ponds, there called "the
Little River," contained water in abundance, and was said to flow into
the Macquarie, in which case the Bogan can have but few sources in
Hervey's Range.

The station beside which we had encamped, comprised a stock yard, and had
been formerly a cattle station belonging to Mr. Kite. It was now a sheep
station of Dr. Ramsay's, and there was another sheep station a mile and a
half from it, along the road I had examined. Thus the country suitable
for either kind of stock is taken up by the gradual encroachment of sheep
on cattle runs, not properly such. This easily takes place--as where
sheep feed, cattle will not remain, and sheep will fatten where cattle
would lose flesh. Fortunately, however, for the holders of the latter
description of stock, there are limits to this kind of encroachment. The
plains to the westward of these ranges afford the most nutritive
pasturage in the world for cattle, and they are too flat and subject to
inundations to be desirable for sheep. A zone of country of this
description lies on the interior side of the ranges, as far as I have
examined them. It is watered by the sources of the rivers Goulburn,
Ovens, Murray, Murrumbidgee, Lachlan, Bogan, Macquarie, Castlereagh,
Nammoy, Peel, Gwydir, and Darling; on which rivers the runs will always
make cattle fat. There are two shrubs palpably salt, and, perhaps, there
is something salsolaceous in the herbage also on which cattle thrive so
well; and the open plains and muddy waterholes are their delight.
Excessive drought, however, may occasionally reduce the owners of such
stock to great extremities, and subject them to serious loss. The Acacia
pendula, a tree whose HABITAT is limited and remarkable, is much relished
by the cattle. It is found only in clay soils, on the borders of plains,
which are occasionally so saturated with water as to be quite impassable;
never on higher ground nor on any lower than that limited sort of
locality, in the neighbourhood of rivers which at some seasons overflow.
In such situations, even where grass seems very scarce, cattle get fat;
and it is a practice of stockmen to cut down the Acacia pendula (or Myall
trees, as they call them) for the cattle to feed on.

At this sheep station where we had encamped, I met with an individual who
had seen better days, and had lost his property amid the wreck of
colonial bankruptcies--a tea-totaller, with Pope's Essay on Man for his
consolation, in a bark hut. This "melancholy Jaques" lamented the state
of depravity to which the colony was reduced, and assured me that there
were shepherdesses in the bush! This startling fact should not be
startling, but for the disproportion of sexes, and the squatting system
which checks the spread of families. If pastoralisation were not one
thing, and colonisation another, the occupation of tending sheep should
be as fit and proper for women as for men. The pastoral life, so
favourable to love and the enjoyment of nature, has ever been a favourite
theme of the poet. Here it appears to be the antidote of all poetry and
propriety, only because man's better half is wanting. Under this
unfavourable aspect the white man first comes before the aboriginal
native; were the intruders accompanied by women and children, they could
not be half so unwelcome. One of the most striking differences between
squatting and settling in Australia consists in this. Indeed if it were
an object to uncivilise the human race, I know of no method more likely
to effect it than to isolate a man from the gentler sex and children;
remove afar off all courts of justice and means of redress of grievances,
all churches and schools, all shops where he can make use of money, then
place him in close contact with savages. "What better off am I than a
black native?" was the exclamation of a shepherd to me just before I
penned these remarks.

19TH DECEMBER.--The party moved along the road I had previously examined.
On passing through to the western side, I recognised the trees, plants,
and birds of the interior regions. Granitic hills appeared on each side,
and the sweet-scented Callitris grew around, with many a curious shrub
never seen to the eastward of these ranges. On descending, grassy
valleys, with gullies containing little or no water, reminded me of
former difficulties in the same vicinity, and it was not until we had
travelled upwards of sixteen miles that I could encamp near water. This
consisted of some very muddy holes of the Goobang Creek, on which I had
formerly been pleasantly encamped with Mr. Cunningham. [* See Vol. I. of
Three Expeditions, etc., page 171.] Two or three natives soon made their
appearance, one of whom I immediately recognised to be my old friend
Bultje, who had guided me from thence to the Bené Rocks, on my former
journey along the Bogan. He brought an offering of honey. Ten years had
elapsed since I formerly met the same native in the same valley, and time
had made no alteration in his appearance. With the same readiness to
forward my views that he formerly evinced, he informed me where the water
was to be found; and how I should travel so as to fall in with my former
route, by the least possible DÉTOUR. Mount Laidley bore 23° E. of N.

20TH DECEMBER.--This day I gave the cattle a rest, as the grass seemed
good, while I rode to look at my old line of marked trees. A cattle
station (of Mr. Kite) was within a mile and a half of our camp, and at
about three miles below it, I fell in with the former line. Where it
crossed the Goobang, a track still continued by them, but finally
diverged, leaving the line of marked trees, without the slightest trace
of the wheels or hoofs that had formerly passed by it. Reaching a hill
laid down on my former survey, and from which I recognised Mount Laidley,
I returned directly to the camp. We had encamped near those very springs
mentioned as seen on my former journey, but instead of being limpid and
surrounded by verdant grass, as they had been then, they were now trodden
by cattle into muddy holes, where the poor natives had been endeavouring
to protect a small portion from the cattle's feet, and keep it pure, by
laying over it trees they had cut down for the purpose. The change
produced in the aspect of this formerly happy secluded valley, by the
intrusion of cattle and the white man, was by no means favourable, and I
could easily conceive how I, had I been an aboriginal native, should have
felt and regretted that change. The springs which issue from the level
plains of clay, while the bed of the water-course some twenty feet lower
continues dry and dusty, are numerous. One had a strong taste of sulphur,
and might probably be as salubrious as other springs more celebrated.
They show that, in this country at least, the water-courses are not
supplied by springs, but depend wholly on heavy torrents of rain
descending from the mountains. Some holes in the bed of the Goobang Creek
did however retain some water which had fallen during the last rain. The
thermometer stood at 107° in the tent.

21ST DECEMBER.--Guided by my old friend Bultje, we pursued a straight
line of route through the forest to Currandong, which was half way to the
Bogan. We passed over a very open, gently undulating country, just
heading a gully called Brotherba--showing how well our guide knew the
country--and we reached Currandong at 2 o'clock. Here also were two
flocks belonging to Dr. Ramsay; Balderudgery, the head station, being
fifteen miles distant, by a mountain road through a gap. While travelling
this day, Corporal Graham overtook me with letters from Buree, and a cart
had also been sent after us by Mr. Barton with a small supply of corn.
That country is considered excellent as a fattening run for sheep; the
shepherd told me they there find a salt plant, which keeps them in
excellent condition and heart for feeding. The scarcity of water at some
seasons occasions a conversion here of cattle runs into sheep runs, and
VICE VERSÂ, a contingency which seems to render these lands of Hervey's
range of temporary and uncertain value.

22D DECEMBER.--Guided by Bultje we continued to follow down the little
chain of ponds which, as he said, led to the Bogan. The road was good--
the Currandong ponds running in a general direction about N. N. W. It was
the first of the sources of the Bogan we had reached. Crossing at length
to its left bank, near an old lambing station of Dr. Ramsay's, we further
on came to a large plain with the Yarra trees of the Bogan upon its
western skirts. Some large lagoons on the eastern side of the plains had
been filled by the late rains, and cattle lay beside them. We at length
arrived in sight of a cattle station of Mr. Templar's, called Ganànaguy,
and encamped on the margin of a plain opposite to it. The cattle here
looked very fat, and although the herd comprised about 2000 head, there
was abundance of grass. The Bogan thus first appeared on our left hand,
and must have its sources in the comparatively low hills, about the
country crossed by my former line of route, rather than in Hervey's or
Croker's ranges, as formerly supposed. The water in the ponds of the
Bogan seemed low.

This fine grazing country had been abandoned more than once from the
failure of the water, and yet these ponds seemed capable of holding an
almost inexhaustible supply. A single dam would have retained the water
for miles, the Bogan always flowing through clay in a bed of uniform
width and depth like a canal. No doubt a little art and labour would be
sufficient to render the land permanently habitable: but on an uncertain
tenure this remedy was not likely to be applied, and therefore the
sovereignty of art's dominion remained unasserted there. The incursions
of the savage, who is learning to "bide his time" on the Darling, are
greatly encouraged by the hardships of the colonists when water is
scarce; and I was shown where no less than 800 head of fat bullocks had
been run together by them when water was too abundant. Then horses cannot
travel, and cattle stick fast in the soft earth and are thus at the mercy
of the natives. The stone ovens, such as they prepare for cooking
kangaroos, had been used for the consumption of about twenty head of
cattle a day, by the wild tribes who had assembled from the Darling and
lower Bogan on that occasion. Thermometer in tent 109° at noon, wind

23D DECEMBER.--We crossed the Bogan (flowing eastward) at Mr. Templar's
station at Ganànaguy, and the overseer most hospitably stood by the party
as it passed with a bucket of milk, of which he gave a drink to each of
the men. Bultje put us on the right road to the next nearest water-holes
(Mr. Gilmore's station), and having rendered me the service he promised,
I gave him the tomahawk, pipe, and two figs of tobacco promised him, and
also took a sketch of his singularly Socratic face. This native got a bad
name from various stockmen, as having been implicated in the murder of
Mr. Cunningham. Nothing could be more unfounded; and it must indeed
require in a man so situated the wisdom of a Socrates to maintain his
footing, or indeed his life, between the ignorant stockmen or shepherds
on one hand, and the savage tribes on the other. These latter savages
naturally regard those who are half civilised, in the same light as we
should look on deserters to the enemy, and are extremely hostile to them,
while perhaps even his very usefulness to our party had most unjustly
connected this native's name with the murder of one of our number. His
laconic manner and want of language would not admit of any clear
explanation of how much he had done to serve our race--and the
difficulties he had to encounter with his own; while the circumstance of
his having been met with at an interval of ten years in the same valley
in a domesticated state, if it did not establish any claim to the soil,
at least proved his strong attachment to it, and a settled disposition.
Much tact must be necessary on his part to avoid those savages coming by
stealth to carry off his gins; and to escape the wrath of white men, when
aroused by the aggressions of wild tribes to get up a sort of foray to
save or recover their own. How Bultje has survived through all this,
without having nine lives like a cat, still to gather honey in his own
valley, "surpasseth me to know."

We encamped at two large water-holes of the Bogan near Mr. Gilmore's
station, and the overseer sent to the men two buckets of milk. At the
station a well had been made to the depth of eighty feet, but a flood had
come, and risen so high as to wash in the sides and so fill up the well.
The workmen had passed through yellow clay chiefly, and the clay was wet
and soft when the further sinking was interrupted. Thermometer in my tent
109°, wind W. N. W.

24TH DECEMBER. A lurid haze hung among the trees as the earliest sunbeams
shot down amongst them. The party were ready to move off early, but the
progress was slow from various impediments. A hot wind blew like a blast
furnace. A bullock dropt down dead at the yoke. We encamped on the
Currandong, or Back Creek, near a small plain, after travelling about ten
miles. Thermometer in tent, 103.° Hot wind from the west.

25TH DECEMBER. Halted to rest the cattle. The wind blew this day more
from the northward, and was cooler. Thermometer in tent, 107°.

26TH DECEMBER.--Proceeded to Graddle, a cattle station belonging to Mr.
Coss, 2½ miles. Thermometer, 109°.

27TH DECEMBER.--The bullock-drivers having allowed twenty-two of the
bullocks to stray, it was impossible to proceed.

At early morning the sky was overcast, the weather calm, a slight wind
from the west carried off these clouds, and at about eleven a very hot
wind set in. The thermometer in my tent stood at 117°, and when exposed
to the wind rose rapidly to 129°, when I feared the thermometer would
break as it only reached to 132°.

28TH DECEMBER.--All the cattle having been recovered, we set off early,
accompanied by a stockman from Graddle, Mr. Coss's station. The day was
excessively warm, a hot wind blowing from the west. We finally encamped
on the Bogan, at a very muddy water-hole, after travelling eleven miles.
Thermometer in tent, 115°. At half past five, the sky became overcast,
and the hot wind increased to a violent gust, and suddenly fell. I found
that tartaric acid would precipitate the mud, leaving a jug of the water
tolerably clear, but then the acid remained. Towards evening the sky was
overcast, and a few drops of rain fell. The night was uncommonly hot. At
ten the thermometer stood at 102°, and at day-break at 90°.

29TH DECEMBER.--The remaining water was so muddy that the cattle would no
longer drink it. The sky was overcast, with the wind from south. Finding
a cart road near our camp, I lost no time in conducting the lighter
portion of our equipment to Mr. Kerr's station at Derribong. In the
hollows I saw, for the first time on this journey, the POLYGONUM JUNCEUM,
reminding me of the river Darling, and on the plains a SOLANUM in flower,
of which I had only seen the apple formerly. At length, greener grass
indicated that the late rains had fallen more heavily there, and at about
twelve miles I reached the station situated on a rather clear and
elevated part of the right bank of the Bogan. Here the stock of water had
been augmented by a small dam, and a channel cut from a hollow part of
the clay surface conducted any rain water into the principal pool, where
the water was very good. We had now arrived at the lowest station on the
Bogan. The line of demarcation between the squatter and the savage had
been once much lower down, at Mudà, and even at Nyingan (see INFRA), but
the incursions of the blacks had rendered these lower stations untenable,
without more support than the Colonial government was able to afford.
There, at least, the squatter is not only not the real discoverer of the
country, but not even the occupier of what had been discovered. The map
will illustrate how it happens that the colonists cannot keep their
ground here from the marauding disposition of the savage tribes. [* See
map of Eastern Australia--INFRA.] The Darling is peopled more permanently
by these natives, than perhaps any other part of Australia: affording as
it does a more certain supply of food. It is only in seasons of very high
flood that this food, the fish, cannot be got at, and that they are
obliged to resort to the higher country at such seasons, between the
Darling, the Lachlan, and the Bogan. It also happens that the cattle of
the squatter are most accessible from the soft state of the ground; the
stockmen cannot even ride to protect them. The tribes from the Lachlan
and Macquarie meet on these higher lands, and when tribes assemble they
are generally ready for any mischief. The Bogan is particularly within
their reach, and when wet seasons do occur the cattle of squatters must
be very much at the mercy of the savages. The tribes from the Darling are
extremely hostile, even to the more peaceably disposed hilltribes near
the colony, and several stations have already been abandoned in
consequence of the outrages of the aborigines from the Darling and
Lachlan. Nothing is so likely to increase these evils as the precarious
or temporary occupation of such a country. The supply of water must
continue uncertain so long as there is no inducement from actual
possession to form dams, and by means of art to secure the full benefit
of the natural supply. Hence it is that half a million of acres, covered
with the finest grass, have been abandoned, and even savages smile at the
want of generalship by which they have been allowed to burn the white
man's dairy station and stockyards on the banks of the Bogan. The
establishment of a police station near the junction of the Bogan with the
Darling, or the formation of an inland township about Fort Bourke, had
been sufficient to have secured the stations along the Bogan and
Macquarie, and to have protected the Bogan natives as well as our own
countrymen from frequent robbery, murder, and insult. Such are the
results where SQUATTING has been permitted to supersede settling. With
possession, deficiency of water in dry seasons had been remedied, and no
such debateable land had remained on the borders of a British colony.

The part of the Bogan where least water can be found, has always been
that between our present camp and Mudà, a very large lagoon about 50
miles lower down. I found by the barometer that there is a fall of 206
feet in that distance of 50 miles; whereas the fall in the bed of the
Bogan is only 50 feet between Mudà and New Year's Range, in a distance of
upwards of 100 miles. The general course of the Bogan changes at Mudà
from N.W. to north, the former being nearly in the direction of the
general declination of the country, the latter rather across it, of which
the overflowings of the parallel river Macquarie into Duck Creek, and
other channels to the westward, seemed to afford sufficient proofs. Where
the declination is least, the water is most likely to remain in ponds in
the channel of the river after floods, the water of which can neither
flow with so much velocity, nor bear down any of the obstructions by
which ponds are formed. Mr. Dixon found the velocity of the Bogan at this
part, during a flood in 1833, to be four miles in an hour; which is about
double the average rate of the larger rivers of Australia.

I had an order from Mr. Kerr, the proprietor of this station of
Derribong, to his superintendant, for such fat cattle as I might require
to take with me as live stock. Finding that the sheep answered very well,
having lost none, and that they rather improved in travelling, whereas
the working oxen had been much jaded and impoverished by the long
journey, heavy loads, and warm weather; I determined to take as many
young bullocks as might suffice to relieve and assist the others, and
break them in as we proceeded.

30TH DECEMBER.--The wind changed to S.E., and brought a cool morning.
Thermometer, 68°. This day we selected from the herds of Mr. Kerr 32
young bullocks, and they were immediately yoked up in the stockyard.

Received letters from Sydney, by Corporal Graham.

31ST DECEMBER, 1845.--Thermometer at 5 A. M., 62°: at noon, 109°. Wind
S.E. At noon a whirlwind passed over the camp, fortunately avoiding the
tents in its course; but it carried a heavy tarpaulin into the air, also
some of the men's hats, and broke a half-hour sand-glass, much wanted for
the men on watch at night. The sky overcast from the west in the evening.

1ST JANUARY, 1846.--A strong wind from N.E. blew during the day, and was
very high at 11 A. M. The party were chiefly employed breaking in the
young bullocks. At noon, nimbus, and some rain, tantalised us with the
hope of a change; but the sky drew up into clouds of cumulus by the
evening. The vegetation of the Bogan now recalled former labours: the
ATRIPLEX SEMIBACCATA of Brown was a common straggling plant.

2D JANUARY.--The young cattle still occasioned delay. The morning was
cloudy and promised rain; but a N.W. wind broke through the clouds, which
resolved themselves into cirrostratus, and we had heat again. Besides the
SALSOLA AUSTRALIS, we found a HALGANIA with lilac flowers, probably
distinct from the species hitherto described, which are natives of the
south-west coast.

3D JANUARY.--This morning the young cattle were yoked up with the old;
and, after considerable delay, the party proceeded to some ponds in the
Bogan about five miles lower down. We were now nearly opposite to the
scene of Mr. Cunningham's disasters: I had recognised, amongst the first
hills I saw when on the Goobang Creek, the hill which I had named Mount
Juson, at his request, after the maiden name of his mother. The little
pyramid of bushes was no longer there, but the name of Cunningham was so
identified with the botanical history of almost all the shrubs in the
very peculiar scenery of that part of the country, that no other monument
seemed necessary. Other recollections recalled Cunningham to my mind; his
barbarous murder, and the uncertainty which still hung over the actual
circumstances attending it. The shrubs told indeed of Cunningham; of both
brothers, both now dead; but neither the shrubs named by the one, nor the
gloomy CASUARINOE trees that had witnessed the bloody deed, could tell
more. There the ACACIA PENDULA, first discovered and described by Allan,
could only

"Like a weeping mourner stooping stand, For ever silent, and for ever

4TH JANUARY.--The early cooler part of the morning was taken up with the
young cattle. It was now but too obvious that this means of conveyance
was likely to retard the journey to an extent that no pecuniary saving
would compensate, as compared with light carts and horses. I proceeded
forward in search of a deserted stockyard, called Tabbaratong, where some
water was said still to remain. We found some mud and water only;
although some that was excellent was found about two miles lower down the
Bogan, late in the evening.

We had crossed the neutral ground between the savage and the squatter.
The advanced posts of an army are not better kept, and humiliating proofs
that the white man had given way, were visible in the remains of dairies
burnt down, stockyards in ruins, untrodden roads. We hoped to find within
the territory of the native, ponds of clear water, unsoiled by cattle,
and a surface on which we might track our own stray animals, without
their being confused by the traces of others.

5TH JANUARY.--Three of the young cattle having escaped during the night,
retarded us in the morning until 8 o'clock, at which hour they were
brought into the camp, having been tracked by Yuranigh, a most useful
native who had come with us from Buree. I proceeded with the light carts,
guided by a very young native boy, not more than ten years old, who had
come with the party from Kerr's station, and who, being a native of the
lower Bogan, could tell us where water was likely to be found. Our route
was rather circuitous, chiefly to avoid a thick scrub of CALLITRIS and
other trees, which, having been recently burnt, presented spikes so
thickly set together, that any way round them seemed preferable to going
through. We reached plains, and came upon an old track of the squatters.
The grass in parts was green and rich. I could see no traces of my former
route, but we arrived at length at an open spot which Dicky, the young
native, said was "Cadduldury." Leaving Dr. Stephenson with the people
driving the light carts there, I proceeded towards the bed of the Bogan,
which was near, to see what water was there, and following the channel
downwards, I met with none. Still I rode on, accompanied by Piper (also
on horseback), and the dryness of the bed had forbidden further search,
but that I remembered the large ponds we had formerly seen at Bugabadà
and Mudà, which could not be far distant. But it was only after threading
the windings of the Bogan, in a ride of at least twelve miles, that we
arrived at the most eastern of the Bugabadà ponds. The water was however
excellent, purer indeed than any we had seen for many days, and we
hastened back to the party at Cadduldury, which place we only arrived at
as darkness came on, so that Piper had nearly lost his way. The drays
with Mr. Kennedy had not come up, and I sent William Baldock and Yuranigh
back in haste to inform him that I was encamped without water, and that I
wished him, if still EN ROUTE, immediately to unyoke the cattle, encamp
on a grassy spot, and have them watched in their yokes during the night,
and to come forward at earliest dawn to the water-holes I had found near
Bugabadà. We passed a miserable night without water at Cadduldury.

6TH JANUARY.--William Baldock returned at daybreak, bringing a message
from Mr. Kennedy, saying he should do as I had requested. I went forward
with the light party, and reached the water-holes by 8 A. M.. The morning
happened to be extremely hot, which, under the want of water and food the
preceding evening, made Drysdale very ill, and John Douglas and Isaac
Reid were scarcely able to walk when we arrived at the first water-hole.
But how the jaded bullocks were to draw the heavy loads thus far in the
extreme heat, was a subject of anxious thought to me. William Baldock
again returned to Mr. Kennedy with two barrels of water on a horse, a
horn full of tea, etc. On his way he met six of the drays, the drivers of
which were almost frantic and unable to do their work from thirst. He
brought me back intelligence that Mr. Kennedy still remained at his
encampment, with the two remaining drays, whereof the drivers (Mortimer
and Bond) had allowed their teams, with bows, yokes, and chains, to
escape, although each driver had been expressly ordered to watch his own
team during the night. This was a most serious misfortune to the whole
party. The rest of the drays could not be brought as far as my camp, but
I ordered the cattle to be released and driven forward to the water,
which they reached by the evening, sufficient guards being left with the
drays. The shepherd with the sheep could not get so far as the water, and
the poor fellow had almost lost his senses, when Mr. Stephenson, who had
hastened back with several bottles, relieved his thirst, and, as the man
said, "saved his life."

Our position might indeed have been critical, had the natives been
hostile, or as numerous as I had formerly seen them at that very part of
the Bogan. Separated into three parties, and exhausted with thirst and
heat, the men and the drays might have been easily assailed. No natives,
however, molested us; and I subsequently found that the tribe, with which
I was on very friendly terms there formerly, were still amicably disposed
towards us.

7TH JANUARY.--Early this morning, M'Avoy brought in the spare bullocks,
having been sent forward by Mr. Kennedy to travel on during the night.
The shoemaker also brought in one of the lost teams and part of the
other. I sent back, by Baldock, this morning, water for the men in charge
of the drays, and some tea and bread for Mr. Kennedy. He would also have
gone in search of the four bullocks still missing, but Mr. Kennedy sent
him again to me to procure something to eat. The drays carrying the
provisions had not come up, and my party too was short. The day surpassed
in heat any I had ever seen: the thermometer at noon in the shade stood
at 109°, a gentle hot wind blowing. The camp of Mr. Kennedy was distant
at least 16 miles from mine near Bugabadà.

The six drays came in about 4 P. M.; the sheep not until long after dark.
Bread, gelatine, and ten gallons of water were sent back to Mr. Kennedy,
and a memorandum from me apprising him of my arrangement for drawing
forward the two drays, which he had taken such good care of, and which
was as follows: Two teams to leave my camp on the evening of next day, to
be attached on their arrival to the two drays with which they were to
come forward, travelling by moonlight during the rest of the night, until
they should be met by two other fresh teams, destined to meet them early
next morning. Also I informed Mr. Kennedy that it was not my intention to
send after the four stray bullocks until the drays came in, and the party
could be again united. Thermometer again 109° in the shade all day.

The CALOTIS CUNEIFOLIA was conspicuous amongst the grass. This was the
common BURR, so detrimental to the Australian wool. Small as are the
capitula of this flower, its seeds or achenia are armed with awns having
reflexed hooks scarcely visible to the naked eye; it is these that are
found so troublesome among the wool.

8TH JANUARY.--The messenger returned from Mr. Kennedy saying he had found
him and the men with him, in a state of great distress from want of
water, having given great part of what had formerly been sent to a young
dying bullock, in hopes thereby to save its life. He also stated that a
tribe of natives were on their track about three miles behind. Baldock
had seen several bullocks dead on the way. In the evening the two first
teams were sent off as arranged. This day had also been very sultry,
especially towards evening.

9TH JANUARY.--Early this morning, the two relieving teams were despatched
as arranged, and at noon Mr. Kennedy and the whole entered the camp. We
had been very fortunate, under such trying circumstances, to suffer so
little loss, and I determined never to move the party again, until I
could ascertain where the water was at which it should encamp. I had been
previously assured by the young native that water was still to be found
at Cadduldury, and the disappointment had nearly proved fatal to the
whole party.

On the banks of the Bogan, the ATRIPLEX HAGNOIDES formed a round white-
looking bush.

I rode forward to Mudà, accompanied by Dr. Stephenson and by Piper, and
had an interview with some of the heads of the old tribe, who remembered
my former visit, and very civilly accompanied me to show me my old track
and marked trees, which I found passed a little to the northward of my
present encampment. The chief, my old friend, had been killed in a fight
with the natives of the Macquarie, not long before. Two old grey-haired
men sitting silent in a gunya behind, were pointed out to me as his
brothers, one of whom so very much resembled him, that I had at first
imagined he was the man himself. These sat doubled up on their hams
opposite to each other, under the withered bushes, naked, and grey, and
melancholy--sad and hopeless types of their fading race!

The chief who formerly guided us so kindly had fallen in a hopeless
struggle for the existence of his tribe with the natives of the river
Macquarie, allied with the border police, on one side; and the wild
natives of the Darling on the other. All I could learn about the rest of
the tribe was, that the men were almost all dead, and that their wives
were chiefly servants at stock stations along the Macquarie.

The natives of Mudà assured me there was no water nearer than Nyingan, a
large pond which I knew was 22 1/3 miles distant, in a direct line lower
down the Bogan. The ponds of Mudà, their great store of water, and known
to white men as the largest on the Bogan, were alarmingly low, and it
became evident that our progress under such a scarcity of water would be
attended with difficulty. These natives gave us also a friendly hint that
"GENTLEMEN" should be careful of the spears of the natives of Nyingan, as
many natives of Nyingan had been shot lately by white men from Wellington

Among the woods we observed the white-flowered TEUCRIUM RACEMOSUM, the
JUSTICIA MEDIA, a small herbaceous plant with deep pink flowers; also a
STENOCHILUS and FUSANUS (the Quandang), although not in fruit; a new
species of STIPA, remarkable for its fine silky ears and coarse rough
herbage.[*] This place produced also a fine new species of Chloris in the
way of C. TRUNCATA, but with upright ears, and hard three-ribbed
pales,[**] and we here observed, for the first time, a fine new
EREMOPHILA with white flowers, forming a tree fifteen feet high.[***] The
beautiful DAMASONIUM OVALIFOLIUM, with white flowers red in the centre,
still existed in the water.

[* S. SCABRA (Lindl. MS.), aristis nudis, paleis pubescentibus basi
villosis, glumis setaceo-acuminatis glabris, foliis scabropilosis
involutis culmis brevioribus, geniculis pubescentibus, ligulâ oblongâ

[** C. SCLERANTHA (Lindl. MS.), culmo stricto, foliis planis glabris
tactu scabris, spicis 4--7-strictis, spiculis bifloris, flore utroque
breviaristato cartilagineo truncato 3-nervi glabro supremo sterili

[*** E. MITCHELLI (Benth. MS.), glabra viscidula, foliis alternis
linearibus planis, corolla alba extus glabra fauce amplo laciniis 4
superioribus subaequalibus infima majore retusa, staminibus inclusis.]

In the evening it was discovered that no one had seen the shepherd and
the sheep since the morning, and Piper and Yuranigh went in search. It
was night ere they returned with the intelligence that they had found his
track ten miles off to the S. W. when darkness prevented them from
following it further.

I ascertained, by observations of the stars Aldebaran and Orionis, that
out present camp near Bugabadà was in latitude 31° 56', and thus very
near the place where Mr. Dixon's journey down the Bogan in 1833 had
terminated. Thermometer at noon, 90°; at 9 P. M., 70°; with wet bulb,

10TH JANUARY.--Early this morning Mr. Kennedy and Piper went to the S. W.
in search of the shepherd and sheep, while at the same time I sent
William Baldock and Yaranigh back along our track in search of the stray
bullocks. Meanwhile I conducted the party along my former track to Mudà,
where we met Mr. Kennedy and Piper with the shepherd and sheep, already
arrived there. The shepherd stated that the fatigue of having been on
watch the previous night had overcome him; that he fell asleep, and that
the sheep went astray; that he followed and found them, but lost himself.
He had met one or two natives who offered him honey, etc. which he

We encamped beside the old stock-yard and the ruins of a dairy, only
visible in the remaining excavation. But a paddock was still in such a
state of preservation, that in one day we completed the enclosure. We had
passed near Bugabadà similar remains of a cattle station. This position
of Mudà was a fine place for such an establishment; a high bank nearly
clear of timber, overlooking a noble reach of great capacity, and
surrounded by an open forest country, covered with luxuriant grass. The
last crop stood up yellow, like a neglected field of oats, in the way of
a young crop shooting up amongst it.

11TH JANUARY, 1846.--Sunday. Prayers were read to the men, and the cattle
and party rested. The day was cool and cloudy.

12TH JANUARY.--Still I halted at Mudà for the lost bullocks. To-day I
noticed the KOCHIA BREVIFOLIA, a little salt-bush, with greenish yellow
fruit, edged with pink.

13TH JANUARY.--Baldock and Yuranigh arrived early in the morning (by
moonlight) with five of the stray bullocks. Two others (young ones) could
not be driven along, and one old bullock was still astray at Mr. Kerr's
station (to which they had returned) and could not even then be found. We
had now in all 106 bullocks, and, considering the great scarcity of
water, heat, and consequent drought, I was most thankful that our loss
had been so slight.

I proceeded to reconnoitre the country in a straight line towards
Nyingan, which bore 353°--and having found a tolerably open country for
about six miles, I returned and took the party on so far, and encamped,
sending back all the cattle and horses to the water at Mudà. Enough had
been carried forward for the men who were to remain at the camp. To
ensure the early return of the cattle, I had repaired, as already stated,
the paddock at Mudà, in which during this night, they could be secured,
having also sufficient grass,--likewise the horses. In my ride I found a
new grass of the genus CHLORIS[*], something like CHL. TRUNCATA in habit,
some starved specimens of TRICHINIUM LANATUM; amongst the grasses I also
Nees, discovered originally by me in 1836, and also a new PAPPOPHORUM
with the aspect of our European Anthoxanthum.[**] A smart shower fell
during the evening.

[* C. ACICULARIS (Lindl. MS.); culmo stricto, foliis involutis glabris
tactu scabris, spicis 8--9 subacutis, spiculis bifloris, flore utroque
setaceo aristato, supremo sterili angustissimo, paleis dorso scabris.]

[** P. FLAVESCENS (Lindl. MS.); aristis 9 rigidis pallidis plumosis,
spicâ compositâ densissimâ oblongâ, paleis lanatis, glumis ovatis
pilosis, foliis vaginisque pubescentibus tactu scabris, geniculis

14TH JANUARY.--The cattle arrived early from Mudà, and were immediately
yoked to the drays. I proceeded with the light carts, still on the same
bearing, until arriving near Dar, where I had formerly been encamped, I
turned to the left to ascertain if there really was no water there. I
found two excellent ponds, and encamped beside them after a journey of
about ten miles. The drays arrived early and I subsequently found I had
encamped near my old ground of 9th May, 1835, when I was guided by the
friendly chief of the Bogan tribe to the best water holes his country
afforded. By the route I had selected from my former surveys, I had cut
off the great bend described by the Bogan in changing from a north-
westerly to a northerly course, and the track now left by our wheels will
probably continue to be used as a road, when the banks of the Bogan may
be again occupied by the colonists. At Darwere still most substantial
stock-yards, and, as usual, the deep dug foundations of a dairy that had
been burnt down.

15TH JANUARY.--Eight bullocks were missing, and although the day was
fine, not too hot, I could not think of moving until these cattle were
found. Accordingly, at earliest dawn, I despatched William Baldock and
the native to look for them. In the course of the day six were found by
Baldock in one direction, and the remaining two, afterwards, in another.
An inconspicuous blue-flowered Erigeron grew here, also the JASMINUM
LINEARE, with its sweet-scented white flowers--and, near the water, I saw

16TH JANUARY.--At a good early hour the party moved from Dar, crossing
the Bogan and falling into my former track and line of marked trees. We
lost these, however, on crossing the Bogan at Murgabà, and made a slight
détour to the eastward before we found Nyingan, where we encamped, and
were joined by the drays by twelve o'clock. During this day's journey
Piper and Yuranigh discovered fresh traces of horsemen with those of the
feet of a native guide, come from the East to my old track, and
returning, apparently, as our natives thought, looking for traces of our

At Nyingan we found many recent huts and other indications of the
natives, but saw none. Large stock-yards and a paddock remained, but a
house and garden fences had been burnt down. The great ponds were sunken
very low and covered with aquatic weeds. As soon as the camp had been
established with the usual attention to defence, I set out to look for
the next water, and after riding twelve miles nearly in the direction of
my former route, I reached the dry channel of the Bogan, and tracing it
thence upwards, I sought in every hollow at all its turnings for water,
but in vain, and I reached the camp only at dusk, without having seen,
during the day, any other ponds than those of Nyingan.

17TH JANUARY.--Early this morning, I sent Mr. Kennedy with the native
Yuranigh, also on horseback, to run back my track of yesterday to the
Bogan where I had commenced its examination upwards, and from that point
to examine the channel downwards to the nearest water, provided this did
not take Mr. Kennedy too far to admit of his return by sunset. Two old
women came to the ponds of Nyingan for water, by whom Piper was told that
the nearest permanent water was "NIMINÉ," where white men had attempted
to form a cattle-station, and been prevented by natives from the Darling,
many of whom had since been shot by the white men. They said the place
was far beyond Canbelego, the next stage of my former journey, and where
these women also said little or no water remained.

Mr. Kennedy returned at eleven A.M., having found water at Canbelego.
Yuranigh brought with him a large green specimen of the fruit of the
CAPPARIS MITCHELLII, which he called an apple, being new to him, but
which Dicky, the younger native from the Lower Bogan, knew, and said was
called "MOGUILE;" he also said that it was eaten by the natives.

18TH JANUARY.--The party moved to Canbelego where one or two small ponds
remained, but on the plains adjacent there was better grass than we had
hitherto found near those places where, for the sake of water, we had
been obliged to encamp. I sent Mr. Kennedy again forward looking for
water, but he returned sooner than I expected, and after following the
river down twelve miles, without finding any. I was now within the same
distance of Duck Creek, in which Mr. Larmer had found abundance of water
when I sent him to survey it upwards during my last return journey up the
Bogan. It also seemed, from the direction in which Piper pointed, that
the old gins referred to Duck Creek, as containing water; and as the
course of that creek, so far as shown on maps, led even more directly to
the Darling than did the Bogan, I was willing in such a season of extreme
drought, to avail myself of its waters. My eye had been much injured by
straining at stars while at the camp near Walwadyer, and I was obliged to
send Mr. Kennedy on one of my own horses, followed by Graham, to examine
the water in Duck Creek. I instructed him to proceed on a bearing of 35°
E. of North, until he should reach the creek, and if he found water in it
to return direct to the camp, but that if water was not found on first
making the creek, then he was to follow Duck Creek up to its junction
with an eastern branch, surveyed also by Mr. Larmer, and to return thence
to the camp on a bearing of 240°. I also sent Corporal Macavoy with
Yuranigh down the Bogan, to ascertain if the channel contained any pond
between our camp and the part previously examined by Mr. Kennedy.

This officer returned from Duck Creek after an absence of twelve hours,
and reported that he had found no water in Duck Creek after examining its
bed twelve miles; but that he had found a fine lagoon on the plains near
the head of the eastern branch, but around which there was no grass, all
having been recently burnt.

20TH JANUARY.--Macavoy returned at seven A.M., saying he had been twenty-
four miles down the Bogan without finding any water. About the same time
Sergeant Niblett, in charge of the bullocks, came to inform me that these
animals were looking very ill, and could not drink the mud remaining in
the pond. At the same time intelligence was brought me that four of the
horses had broken their tether ropes during the night, and that William
Baldock had been absent in search of them on foot, from an early hour in
the morning. I immediately sent back the whole of the bullocks to
Nyingan, with a dray containing the empty harness casks, also the horses,
and a cart carrying all our other empty casks; and the whole of the
cattle and horses returned in the evening with all the casks filled.

21ST JANUARY.--Having again despatched the bullocks back to Nyingan, I
conducted the light carts forward along my old track (of 1835), having on
two of these carts two of the half-boats, and in the carts under them all
the water-kegs that had been filled. My object was to use the iron boat
as a tank, at which we might water the bullocks at one stage forward;
that by so gaining that point and proceeding onwards towards the water I
hoped to find next day, we might encamp at least at such a convenient
distance from it, as would admit of the cattle being driven forward to
return next day and draw the drays to it. This I considered possible,
even if it might be found necessary to go as far for water as the fine
reach described in my journal as the place of my encampment on the 14th
May, 1835, beyond Mount Hopeless, and which I concluded from the gin's
description, must have been what she called Nimine, or the disputed
station of Lee. I encamped this party on a plain about twelve miles from
Canbelego, where I had left Mr. Kennedy, with instructions to bring the
drays on with the spare cattle and horses early next morning. I had sent
thence Corporal Macavoy and Yuranigh to follow the track of Baldock and
the horses; but it was obvious that we could remain no longer at
Canbelego. As soon as we could set up one of the half-boats, the contents
of the water-kegs were emptied into it, and the cart was immediately sent
back with the empty kegs to Canbelego, where fresh horses had been left,
to continue with the same cart and empty kegs to Nyingan during the
night, so as to arrive in time to admit of the dray--already there with
the harness casks--bringing an additional supply back in the kegs, when
the bullocks returned next day.

It was now necessary that I should ascertain as soon as possible the
state of the ponds lower down the Bogan, and thereupon determine at once,
whether to follow that dry channel further in such a season, or to cross
to the pond in Duck Creek, and await more favourable weather. I
accordingly set out at 3 P.M., from where the water had been placed in
the half-boat, accompanied by Dr. Stephenson, and followed by Corporal
Graham and Dicky the native boy. By the advice of the latter, I rode from
the camp in the direction of 30° E. of N., and, crossing the Bogan, we
reached at about 3½ miles beyond it, a channel like it, which I supposed
was Duck Creek; and in it, just where we made it, there was a small pond
of water. Having refreshed our horses, we followed this channel
downwards, without meeting with more water. To my surprise, I found the
general direction was westward, until it JOINED THE BOGAN. We next
followed the course of the Bogan as long as daylight allowed us to do so,
without discovering any indication that water had recently lodged in any
of the hollows, and we finally tied up our horses and lay down to sleep,
in hopes that next day might enable us to be more successful.

22D JANUARY.--Having proceeded some miles along the western bends of the
Bogan, hastily--being desirous to see that day the great pond beyond
Mount Hopeless--I observed that the clay was very shining and compact in
a hollow sloping into an angle of the river-bed, that the grass was green
as from recent rain, and that there was more chirping of birds; I was
tempted once more by these indications, to look for water in the Bogan's
almost hopeless channel, and there we found a pond, at sight of which
poor Dicky shouted for joy; then drank, and fell asleep almost in the
water. It was small, but being sufficient for our immediate wants, we
thankfully refreshed our horses and ourselves, and proceeded on our
eventful journey. Almost immediately after leaving this pond I discovered
my old track, which we continued to follow across those large plains,
whence I had formerly discovered Mount Hopeless. These plains I soon
again recognized from the old tracks of my draywheels, distinctly visible
in many places after a lapse of nearly eleven years. Arriving at length
near the debateable land of Lee's old station, we resumed our examination
of the Bogan. There we perceived old cattle tracks; the ovens in which
the natives had roasted whole bullocks, and about their old encampments
many heaps of bones; but in none of the deep beds of former ponds or
lagoons could we discover any water. The grass was nevertheless excellent
and abundant; and its waste, added to the distress the want of water
occasioned us, made us doubly lament the absence of civilised
inhabitants, by whose industry that rich pasture and fine soil could have
been turned to good account. We saw no natives; nor were even kangaroos
or emus to be seen, as formerly, any longer inhabitants of these parts. I
turned at length, reluctantly, convinced that it would have been unsafe
to venture with cattle and drays into these regions before rain fell. In
returning, we at first found it difficult to find our old track, by which
alone we could hope that night to reach the small pond of the morning;
but Dr. Stephenson very fortunately found it, and we had also the good
fortune, for so we considered it, to arrive at the pond before sunset.
There we tied up our horses and lay down, glad indeed to have even that
water before our eyes. Dicky, the native boy, had repeatedly thrown
himself from his horse during the afternoon, quite ill from thirst.

23D JANUARY.--After our horses had drank, we left no water in the pond;
but they had fed on good grass, and we were well refreshed, although with
water only, for our ride back to the camp. Setting off from an old marked
tree of mine near the Bogan, on a bearing of 160°, I several times during
our ride fell in with the old track, and finally reached the camp after a
rapid ride of four hours. I found the whole party had arrived the
previous evening with the water, as arranged; but that Mr. Kennedy was
absent, having set off that morning in search of water to the N. E. with
Corporal Macavoy, on two government horses, leaving word that he should
return by twelve o'clock. He did not return at that hour, however, and at
two I moved the party across the Bogan, and proceeded along open plains
towards the ponds at Duck Creek, with the intention of there refreshing
the cattle and horses, and awaiting more favourable weather. I previously
watered out of the half-boat, 106 bullocks, and gave a quart to each of
the horses. On the way, the heat was so intense that our three best and
strongest kangaroo dogs died, and it was not until 10 P. M. that the
drays reached the ponds where I had proposed to encamp. About an hour and
a half before, Mr. Kennedy also came in, having galloped the two horses
66 miles, and hurt both their backs, Macavoy being a heavy man. At 9 P.
M., therm. 80°, wet bulb, 68°.

24TH JANUARY.--This morning I awoke completely blind, from ophthalmia,
and was obliged to have poultices laid on my eyes; several of the men
were also affected in the same manner. The exciting cause of this malady
in an organ presenting a moist surface was, obviously, the warm air
wholly devoid of moisture, and likely to produce the same effect until
the weather changed. At 9 P. M., therm. 84°, with wet bulb, 68°.

Chapter II.


25TH JANUARY.--Dr. Stephenson having recommended the application of
leeches, and having observed them in the ponds at Nyingan, I sent William
Baldock and Yuranigh there in search of some, and they brought back
enough. Fourteen were applied to my eyes the same afternoon. The ground
here was quite naked; it was, in fact, the blue clay of the Darling, with
the same sterile looking plants; and no time was to be lost in seeking
some ponds where there might be also good grass for the cattle. Therm. at
sunrise, 97°; at noon, 100°; at 9 P.M. 90°; with wet bulb, 71°.

26TH JANUARY.--I sent Corporal Graham with Piper, in a N. E. direction to
where we had observed the light of burning woods reflected from a cloudy
sky last evening; considering that a sure indication that water was near,
as natives are seldom found where there is none. He returned early with
the welcome tidings that he had found abundance of water in a creek about
five miles off, and excellent grass upon its banks. My eyes were so far
recovered that I could observe the altitude of a star, thus ascertaining
the latitude of this camp to be 31° 20' 20" S. Therm. at sunrise, 85°; at
noon, 112°; at 9 P.M. 84°; with wet bulb, 70°.

27TH JANUARY.--The whole party moved to the ponds called "Cannonbà" by
the natives. There we found greater abundance of water and better grass
than we had seen near water during the whole journey, and I determined to
halt for at least two weeks, as part of the time I had previously
intended to devote to the repose and refreshment of the cattle, when we
should have reached the Darling. The cattle and their drivers had been
much harassed, and both needed and deserved rest. The horses had got out
of condition, and I considered that when we arrived at the Darling their
services would be more required. I was also to try the experiment here,
whether I might prosecute the journey without danger of losing my
eyesight; to have abandoned the undertaking at that point, had been
almost as painful to me as the other alternative. There were no hostile
natives here, the fire having been set up by some solitary gins; rain was
daily to be expected, at least cooler weather would certainly come in a
short time; the wheels of the drays had been long represented to me as
needing a thorough repair, from the effect of the heat on the wheels;--
and, upon the whole, I considered it very fortunate that we could encamp
under such circumstances on so favourable a spot. We placed our tents
amongst shady bushes--set up the blacksmith's forge, and soon all hands
were at work in their various avocations, whilst the cattle and horses
enjoyed the fresh grass, leisure to eat it, and abundance of water.

Amongst the bushes here, a HAKEA, with simple filiform mucronulate leaves
without flower, occurred, loaded with oblong hard galls resembling dry
plums. Also the SENECIO CUNNINGHAMI (D.C.), found by Allan Cunningham on
the shores of Lake George. Mr. Stephenson discovered here a very pretty
new TRICHINIUM, with heads of hoary pink flowers. [* T. SEMILANATUM
(Lindl. MS.); ramosa, pubescens, ramulis, angulatis, foliis linearibus
acutis noveillis villosis, capitulis paucifloris hemisphericis, rachi
densè bracteis uninerviis acutis scpalisque angustis plumosis parcè

I learnt from the natives that this creek also joined the Bogan,
consequently that the real Duck Creek must either be still to the N. E.
of us, or be a branch out of this. At all events, the creek surveyed by
Larmer is thus proved to have been a discovery of his, and a most useful
one it has thus proved to us on this emergency. That chain of ponds
(whence we had just come) was called Bellaringa; this "Cannonbà;" and to
what I suppose must be Duck Creek, water to which the natives point
northward, they give the name of "Marra." Therm. at sunrise, 78°; at
noon, 115°; at 4 P.M. 96°; at 9, 88°; with wet bulb, 73°.

28TH JANUARY.--Several kettles, a good spade, a Roman balance with large
chain complete, barrels, and other articles, were found at the bottom of
one of the ponds; and old tracks of cattle were numerous about the banks.
Thus it was clear that this favourable spot for a cattle station had not
been unheeded by the white man. It was vaguely asserted by some old gins
seen by Piper, that three men had been killed here when the place was
abandoned. We were about twelve or fourteen miles to the W.N.W. of Mount
Harris; and certainly the general bed of this watercourse was broader
than that of the Bogan, and moreover contained much granitic sand, all
but identifying its sources with those of the Macquarie. This day was
very hot; a thunder cloud passed over us, and a shower fell about 3 P.M.
Thermometer at sunrise, 78°; at noon, 115°; at 4 P.M. 108°; at 9, 84°;
with wet bulb, 63°.

29TH JANUARY.--A more than usually hot wind raised the thermometer to
115° in the shade; but distant thunder was soon heard, and the horizon
became clouded. The day was very sultry, and although no rain fell near
us, it was evident that other parts to the north-east were receiving a
heavy shower. Thermometer at sunset, 102°.

30TH JANUARY.--An easterly wind brought a refreshing air from the quarter
where the thunder-cloud had exhausted itself last evening. This day the
doctor found the tree mentioned as bearing a nondescript fruit in my
former journal, Vol. I. page 82., but this tree bore neither flower nor
fruit. Thermometer at sunrise, 80°; at noon, 103°; at 4 P.M., 108°; at 9,
100 ½°; with wet bulb, 79°.

31ST JANUARY.--The weather still very sultry. I commenced a series of
observations with a syphon barometer (made by Bunten of Paris). The table
for expansion of mercury and mean dilatation of glass, sent me by my
friend Captain P. P. King, came but to 88° of Fahrenheit, whereas at 4
P.M., the centigrade thermometer stood at 44½°, which is equal to 112° of

This day I was apprised of Piper's intention to leave the party, taking
with him the two younger and more useful natives. He had recently made
some very unreasonable demands. It was now obvious from various sayings
and doings thus brought to my recollection, that he had never any serious
intention of accompanying this expedition throughout its progress. The
services of other more intelligent natives might easily have been
obtained, having been proffered by many in the settled districts, but
Piper from having been with me before, was preferred as a matter of
course. He had not improved in speech or manners during the long interval
of ten years that had elapsed since our former acquaintance, although
during that time he had visited Adelaide, Sydney, Moreton Bay, the river
Hunter, etc., etc. From the day on which he had joined the party on this
last occasion, he had been allowed a horse, saddle, doublebarrelled gun,
clothing, and the same rations as the other men, blankets, place in a
tent with the men, etc. Unlike most other natives, he was a very bad
shot, and very awkward about a horse; it was impossible to obtain any
clear intelligence from his countrymen through him as interpreter; he
went very unwillingly about doing anything. He had drawn his rations and
those of the two young natives separately from the men's mess the week
before this, on the plea that they did not obtain their fair share; he
was thus premeditately preparing for his clandestine departure,
foreseeing that on the Saturday, when rations were issued, he could thus
obtain a week's provisions in advance, without suspicion. He also had it
in his power, like a true savage, to take the lion's share from the other
two, in thus drawing rations apart from the men's mess. He had heard of
the gins who had made the conflagration having retired towards the
cattle-stations on the Macquarie. Here, then, while other men were
actively at their work,--blacksmiths, carpenters, bullock-drivers,--this
man, who was as well fed and clothed as they, carried on a horse to boot,
and doing no work, was the only dissatisfied person. Me, whom he called
his "old master," he would heartlessly leave, without a native guide,
just at the time when such guides were most required. The only difficulty
I felt on this occasion was how to secure the services of the two others,
and yet dismiss him. He had just received a week's ration in advance, and
he was baking the whole of the flour into bread. I sent to have him
instantly seized, and brought with the dough and the other native,
Yuranigh, before Mr. Kennedy and myself, as magistrates. He denied the
intention to decamp. The other declared he had proposed to him to leave
the party and go in search of gins, and that he could not understand him;
that he was afraid to accompany Piper in a country so far from his own
home (Buree). On this I ordered Piper to be sent to Bathurst, and the
rations he was about to carry off, to be given to the other two, and that
he should be kept apart from them during the night. Thermometer at
sunrise, 85°; at noon, 111°; at 4 P.M., 112°; at 9, 101°;--with wet bulb,

1ST FEBRUARY.--This morning Piper was sent off with Corporal Graham. Mr.
Kennedy rode on also in order to find out the nearest police station, and
make arrangements, if possible, there, for forwarding Piper to Bathurst,
his own district, which would put it out of his power to molest the party
by endeavouring to induce the other natives to leave it. On them this
measure appeared to have a salutary effect, Yuranigh calmly observing
that Piper had only himself to blame for what had befallen him, and that
he had acted like a fool. Mr. Kennedy undertook also to obtain, if he
could, some more kangaroo dogs to replace those which had died from
excessive heat. By that loss our party was left almost without dogs; and
dogs were useful not only to kill kangaroos and emus, but to afford
protection from, or to give notice of, nightly attacks by the natives, in
which attacks those on that part of the Darling we were approaching, had
been rather too successful against various armed parties of whites.
Thermometer at sunrise, 88°; at noon, 104°; at 4 P.M., 106°; at 9 P.M.,
88°;--with wet bulb, 76°.

2ND FEBRUARY.--The setting sun descended on a blue stratus cloud which
appeared along the edge of all other parts of the horizon, and eagerly
watching any indication of a change, I drew even from this a presage of
rain. Thermometer at sunrise, 88°; at noon, 104°; at 4 P.M., 106; at 9,
88°;--with wet bulb, 72°.

3RD FEBRUARY.--High winds whistled among the trees this morning, and dark
clouds of stratus appeared in the sky. A substantial shower fell about 9
A.M., and the horizon was gradually shut in by clouds of nimbus. The high
wind had blown steadily from north both yesterday and this morning, and
in the same quarter a thunder cloud seemed busy. But when the rain began
to fall, the wind shifted to the S.W., from which quarter the rain seemed
to come. With it came a very peculiar smell, which I had noticed near
Mount Arapiles in 1836, about the time of the commencement of the rainy
weather there; and nothing could have been more welcome to us now, than
the prospect of rain, and the decided change in the temperature from 115°
to 73°. This was almost the first day during a month in which the air had
not been warmer than our blood; often had it been greater than fever
heat, so that 73° felt to us as cool as 50° would have been to a resident
of Sydney. Much rain did not fall at our camp, but it seemed that rain
was falling about the sources of the Bogan and other places at which a
supply of water was indispensable to enable us to proceed. At sunset,
glimpses of a clear sky appeared about the horizon, and during the night
the moon and stars came forth, and destroyed all hopes of more rain. We
were thankful, however, for the relief afforded by what had fallen, which
had lowered the temperature about 40 degrees, and enabled us to enjoy a
night of refreshing rest. Thermometer at sunrise, 85°; at noon, 80°; at 4
P.M., 73°; at 9, 68°;--with wet bulb, 67°.

4TH FEBRUARY.--The morning dawned in a most serene sky, with refreshing
breezes from the south, and the thermometer at 61°. This day we had
completed the repair of the wheels of half the drays. Many of the tire-
rings had been cut, rewelded, and again fixed and bolted on the wheels;
the wood of these having contracted so much in the intense heat, as to
have rendered these repairs indispensable. The same repairs were required
by the wheels of the remaining drays and those of the light carts, and
the smith and wheelwright continued their work with activity and zeal.
Meanwhile the cattle were daily regaining strength and vigour for another
effort. Thermometer at sunrise, 61°; at noon, 89°; at 4 P.M., 89°; at 9,
72°;--with wet bulb, 62°.

5TH FEBRUARY.--This morning the mercurial column stood higher than I had
yet observed it here, and clouds of cirrus lay in long streaks across the
sky, ranging from east to west, but these were most abundant towards the
northern horizon. The day was comparatively cool and pleasant, the
thermometer never having risen above 96°. By 6 P.M., the barometer had
fallen nearly four millimetres, and even upon this apparently trivial
circumstance, I could build some hope of rain; such was my anxiety for a
change of weather at that time, when the earth was so parched as not only
to preclude our travelling, but almost to deprive us of sight.
Thermometer at sunrise, 60°; at noon, 94°; at 4 P.M., 96°; at 9, 73°;
with wet bulb, 64°.

6TH FEBRUARY.--Dark stratus-shaped clouds wholly covered the sky, and
shut out the sun, to my unspeakable delight. A most decided change seemed
to have taken place; still the barometer remained as low as on the
previous evening. A slight breeze from south-east changed to north, and
at about 7 A.M. the rain began to fall. Clouds of nimbus closed on the
woody horizon, and we had a day of rain. In the evening the barometer had
fallen still lower, and it was probable that the rain might continue
through the night. Range of thermometer from 74° to 72°.

7TH FEBRUARY.--Some heavy showers fell during the night, and the
mercurial column stood exactly at the same point as on the last evening.
About 10 A.M. a very heavy shower fell, after which the sun broke
through, and the mass of vapour separated into vast clouds of nimbus.
Much rain seemed to be still falling in the east, where the Macquarie,
Bogan, and other rivers had their sources. At noon, the barometer had
risen one millimetre. The rain had penetrated the clay soil of the plains
about five inches.

Mr. Kennedy returned in the afternoon, having duly provided for Piper's
conveyance by the mounted police to Bathurst, and brought back a good
bull-dog, and also some useful information respecting the various water-
courses, and the river Macquarie, which he had gathered from the natives
about the stations along the banks of that river. Thermometer at sunrise,
74°; at noon, 86°; at 4 P.M., 90°; at 9, 80°;--with wet bulb, 75°.

8TH FEBRUARY.--The moisture recently imbibed by the earth and air made us
much more sensible of the high temperature in which we had been living,
although it had been reduced by the late rains. The night air,
especially, breathed no refreshing coolness as heretofore during the dry
heat. The drier earth below seemed to be steaming the wet soil above it
(as Brown, our cook, justly observed). Thermometer at sunrise, 80°; at
noon, 96°; at 4 P.M., 95°; at 9, 80°;--with wet bulb, 75°.

9TH FEBRUARY.--The leisure we enjoyed at this camp, enabled us to bestow
more attention on the vegetable and animal productions of these
remarkable plains, than had been given during my former journey. It
appeared that the saltwort plants, which were numerous, were not only
efficacious in keeping the cattle that fed on them in the best possible
condition; but as wholly preventing cattle and sheep from licking clay, a
vicious habit to which they are so prone, that grassy runs in the higher
country nearer Sydney are sometimes abandoned only on account of the
"licking holes" they contain. It is chiefly to take off that taste for
licking the saline clay, that rock-salt is in such request for sheep,
lumps of it being laid in their pens for this purpose. At all events, it
is certain that by this licking of clay both sheep and cattle are much
injured in health and condition, losing their appetite for grass, and
finally passing clay only, as may be seen near such places. In the salt
plants on these plains, nature has amply provided for this taste of these
large herbivora for salt. Our sheep nibbled at the mesembryanthemum, and
the cattle ate greedily of various bushes whereof the leaf was sensibly
salt to the taste. The colour of the leaves of such bushes is usually a
very light bluish green, and there are many species. That with the
largest leaves, called salt-bush by stockmen, and by Dr. Brown RHAGODIA
PARABOLICA, was very useful as a vegetable after extracting the salt
sufficiently from it. This we accidentally discovered from some
experiments made by Mr. Stephenson, for the purpose of ascertaining the
proportion of salt contained in the leaves. The leaves contained as much
as a twentieth part of salt, nearly two ounces having been obtained from
two pounds of the leaves.[*] We also found that after twice boiling the
leaves a few minutes in water to extract the salt, and then an hour in a
third water, the leaves formed a tender and palatable vegetable, somewhat
resembling spinach. As the superior excellence of these runs for
fattening cattle is admitted on all hands, as compared with others more
abundant in grass on the eastern side of the great range, would it not be
advisable for the colonists to cultivate this salt-supplying bush, and
thereby to produce a vegetable substitute for the rock salt, which is not
only expensive, but only a very imperfect remedy for the clay-licking
propensities of sheep and cattle on many runs? Thermometer at sunrise,
70°; at noon, 94°; at 4 P.M., 98°; at 9, 86°;--with wet bulb, 75°.

[* The process of Mr. Stephenson was as follows:--"Two pounds of the
green leaf were boiled in eight quarts of water for half an hour, then
strained and evaporated nearly to dryness. The mass was then submitted to
a red heat for half an hour. The residuum was next digested in one pint
of water, filtered, and again evaporated to six ounces. It was then
exposed to the sun's rays, which completed the desiccation; crystals of a
cubic shape having previously been formed."]

10TH FEBRUARY.--This morning the natives caught, in a hollow tree, an
animal apparently of the same genus as the DIPUS MITCHELLII, and which
seemed to live solely on vegetables. The barometer had fallen three
millimetres last evening, and by noon this day it had declined three
more. A fresh breeze blew from N. N. E., and at 2 P.M. a dark thunder
cloud came from the S. S. W. and passed over the camp. The thunder was
very loud, the lightning close and vivid; the wind for some time high,
and rain heavy. The sky was, however, clear by 4 P.M., except in the N.
E. where the thunder continued. Thermometer at sunrise, 75°.

11TH FEBRUARY.--The real "Duck Creek" was still to the northeastward of
our camp, as Mr. Kennedy had ascertained when on the Macquarie. I hoped
to find in it water sufficient at least to serve the party halting on it
one night, on its way to the Macquarie, by which line alone I was now
convinced water enough might be obtained to supply the party until it
could arrive at the Darling; I therefore rode this day to examine it,
with the elder native. I followed the bearing of N. N. E. from our camp,
a direction in which it was likely to be met with, so as equally to
divide the journey of the drays to the Macquarie, into two days. I
crossed plains covered with luxuriant crops of very rich grass, and at
length obtained a sight of Mount Foster bearing east. I reached Duck
Creek (that of Sturt), or the "Marra" of the natives, ascertained by the
bearing of Mount Foster, the native name of which is Narrab. I examined
the bed of the Marra downwards for about two miles, without seeing
therein the least indication of water, and returned to the camp fully
resolved to proceed next day to the Macquarie, so as to reach it a little
way below Mount Foster, a distance in that direction rather too great for
the cattle to travel over in one day. Thermometer at sunrise, 59°; at
noon, 73°; at 4 P.M., 76°; at 9, 61°;--with wet bulb, 57°. From an
average of twenty-five observations of the mercurial column, the height
of this station has been determined to be 566 English feet above the
level of the sea.

12TH FEBRUARY.--We broke up our encampment on Cannonbà ponds, where we
had greatly recruited ourselves, both men and cattle, and crossing the
channel of the water-course near our camping ground, we travelled over
open grassy plains towards the river Macquarie. At thirteen miles we
reached the western branch of Duck Creek, or "Marra," a name by which it
is universally known to natives and stockmen. Of this we crossed several
branches, from which it would appear as if the name was derived from that
of the hand, which is the same, especially as natives sometimes hold up
the hand and extend the fingers, when they would express that a river has
various branches or sources. I went on with an advanced party towards the
Macquarie, and encamped on the bank of that river at 5 P. M. The thick
grass, low forests of yarra trees, and finally the majestic blue gum
trees along the river margin, reminded me of the northern rivers seen
during my journey of 1831. Still even the bed of this was dry, and I
found only two water holes on examining the channel for two miles. One of
these was, however, deep, and we encamped near it, surrounded by
excellent grass in great abundance. The Macquarie, like other Australian
rivers, has a peculiar character, and this was soon apparent in the reeds
and lofty yarra trees growing on reedy plats, and not, as usual in other
rivers, on the edge of water-worn banks. The channel was here deep and
dry. We found this day, in the scrubs by Marra Creek, the ACACIA
SALICINA, whereof the wood has a strong perfume resembling violets, also
a new small-leaved KOCHIA with intricate branches.[*] Thermometer at
sunrise, 47°; at 4 P. M., 77°; at 9, 57°;--with wet bulb, 56°.

[* K. THYMIFOLIA (Lindl. MS.); fruticosa, ramosissima, ramulis intricatis
pubescentibus, foliis carnosis obtusis teretibus fructibusque glabris.]

13TH FEBRUARY.--I was again laid up with the MALADIE DU PAYS--sore eyes.
Mr. Stephenson took a ride for me to the summit of Mount Foster, and to
various cattle stations about its base, with some questions to which I
required answers, about the river and stations on it lower down. But no
one could tell what the western side of the marshes was like, as no
person had passed that way; the country being more open on the eastern
side, where only the stations were situated; Mr. Kinghorne's at Gràway,
about five miles from our camp, being the lowest down on the west bank.
Mr. Stephenson returned early, having met two of the mounted police. To
my most important question--what water was to be found lower down in the
river--the reply was very satisfactory; namely, "plenty, and a FLOOD
COMING DOWN from the Turmountains." The two policemen said they had
travelled twenty miles with it, on the day previous, and that it would
still take some time to arrive near our camp. About noon the drays
arrived in good order, having been encamped where there was no water
about six miles short of our camp, the whole distance travelled, from
Cannonbà to the Macquarie, having been about nineteen miles. In the
afternoon two of the men taking a walk up the river, reported on their
return, that the flood poured in upon them when in the river bed, so
suddenly, that they narrowly escaped it. Still the bed of the Macquarie
before our camp continued so dry and silent, that I could scarcely
believe the flood coming to be real, and so near to us, who had been put
to so many shifts for want of water. Towards evening, I stationed a man
with a gun a little way up the river, with orders to fire on the flood's
appearance, that I might have time to run to the part of the channel
nearest to our camp, and witness what I had so much wished to see, as
well from curiosity as urgent need. The shades of evening came, however,
but no flood, and the man on the look-out returned to the camp. Some
hours later, and after the moon had risen, a murmuring sound like that of
a distant waterfall, mingled with occasional cracks as of breaking
timber, drew our attention, and I hastened to the river bank. By very
slow degrees the sound grew louder, and at length, so audible as to draw
various persons besides from the camp to the river-side. Still no flood
appeared, although its approach was indicated by the occasional rending
of trees with a loud noise. Such a phenomenon in a most serene moonlight
night was quite new to us all. At length, the rushing sound of waters and
loud cracking of timber, announced that the flood was in the next bend.
It rushed into our sight, glittering in the moonbeams, a moving cataract,
tossing before it ancient trees, and snapping them against its banks. It
was preceded by a point of meandering water, picking its way, like a
thing of life, through the deepest parts of the dark, dry, and shady bed,
of what thus again became a flowing river. By my party, situated as we
were at that time, beating about the country, and impeded in our journey,
solely by the almost total absence of water--suffering excessively from
thirst and extreme heat,--I am convinced the scene never can be
forgotten. Here came at once abundance, the product of storms in the far
off mountains, that overlooked our homes. My first impulse was to have
welcomed this flood on our knees, for the scene was sublime in itself,
while the subject--an abundance of water sent to us in a desert--greatly
heightened the effect to our eyes. Suffice it to say, I had witnessed
nothing of such interest in all my Australian travels. Even the heavens
presented something new, at least uncommon, and therefore in harmony with
this scene; the variable star ARGUS had increased to the first magnitude,
just above the beautiful constellation of the southern cross, which
slightly inclined over the river, in the only portion of sky seen through
the trees. That very red star, thus rapidly increasing in magnitude,
might, as characteristic of her rivers, be recognized as the star of
Australia, when Europeans cross the Line. The river gradually filled up
the channel nearly bank high, while the living cataract travelled onward,
much slower than I had expected to see it; so slowly, indeed, that more
than an hour after its first arrival, the sweet music of the head of the
flood was distinctly audible from my tent, as the murmur of waters, and
the diapason crash of logs, travelled slowly through the tortuous
windings of the river bed. I was finally lulled to sleep by that melody
of living waters, so grateful to my ear, and evidently so unwonted in the
dry bed of the thirsty Macquarie. Thermometer, at sunrise, 47°; at noon,
79°; at 4 P. M., 88°; at 9, 63°;--with wet bulb, 57°.

14TH FEBRUARY.--The river had risen to within six feet of the top of the
banks, and poured its turbid waters along in fulness and strength, but no
longer with noise. All night that body of water had been in motion
downwards, and seemed to me enough to deluge the whole country to the
Darling, and correct at least any saltness in its waters, if stagnant; a
probability which had greatly reconciled me to the necessity for changing
the line of my intended route, as the waters above the junction of the
Castlereagh had never been known to become salt. We proceeded, falling
soon into a cart track which led us to Gràway, Mr. Kinghorne's
cattlestation, and we encamped about five miles beyond it, near a bend of
the river. We were already in the midst of reeds, but these had been so
generally burnt, that we had little difficulty in crossing those parts of
the marshes. The IMPERATA ARUNDINACEA, with its long head of white silky
flowers, was common, and a straggling naked branched species of dock, on
the parts unburnt. Thermometer at sunrise, 54°; at noon, 91°; at 4 P. M.,
82°; at 9, 72°;--with wet bulb, 60°. Height above the level of the sea,
475 feet.

15TH FEBRUARY.--Mr. Kinghorne obligingly accompanied me this day, and
guided us across arms of the marshy ground. I was very glad to have his
assistance, for I saw no line of trees as on other rivers, nor other
objects by which I could pursue its course or keep near its waters; trees
of the aquatic sort and reeds grew together. At one time nothing was
visible to the eastward but a vast sea of reeds extending to the horizon.
Where the long reeds remained unburnt, they presented a most formidable
impediment, especially to men on foot and sheep, and twenty of these got
astray as the party passed through. We encamped on a bank of rather firm
ground, in lat. 30° 53' 55" S. The grass was very rich on some parts of
open plains near the marshes, and the best was the PANICUM LOEVINODE of
Dr. Lindley, mentioned in my former journals[*] as having been found
pulled, and laid up in heaps for some purpose we could not then discover.
Mr. Kinghorne now informed me that it was called by the natives "coolly,"
and that the gins gather it in great quantities, and pound the seeds
between stones with water, forming a kind of paste or bread; thus was
clearly explained the object of those heaps of this grass which we had
formerly seen on the banks of the Darling. There they had formed the
native's harvest field. There also I observed a brome grass, probably not
distinct from the BROODS AUSTRALIS of Brown; it called to mind the
squarrose brome grass of Europe. Thermometer at sunrise, 59°; at noon,
87°; at 4, 89°; at 9, 73°;--with wet bulb, 66°.

[* Vol. i. p. 237.]

16TH FEBRUARY.--Mr. Kinghorne set out with a man of our party to examine
Duck Creek, a native boy having told him that water was to be found in it
lower down. I sent back early this morning, our native, with the store-
keeper, some of the men, and the shepherd, to look for the lost sheep in
the reeds, and Yuranigh fortunately found them out, still not very far
from the spot where they had been separated from the rest of the flock.
Our greatest difficulty in these marshes was the watering of the cattle.
We had still the Macquarie at hand--deep, muddy, and stagnant--not above
thirty feet wide, the banks so very soft that men could scarcely approach
the water without sinking to the knees. We could water the horses with
buckets, but not the bullocks. The great labour of filling one of the
half-boats, and giving the cattle water by that means, was inevitable,
and this operation took up three hours of the morning; a wheel required
repair, the box having been broken yesterday. I for these reasons found
it advisable to halt this day, which I did very reluctantly. At sunset,
Mr. Kinghorne returned, having found no water in the "Marra," (Duck

Among the grasses growing among the reeds, we perceived the ANDROPOGON
SERICEUS and an ERIANTHUS, which appeared to differ from E. FULVUS in
having no hair upon the knees. The smooth variety of the European LYTHRUM
SALICARIA, raised its crimson spikes of flowers among the reeds of the
Macquarie, as it does in England on the banks of the Thames. We saw also
leaves, also a BRACHYCOME resembling B. HETERODONTA, only the leaves were
entire. A new species of LOTUS appeared among the reeds, very near the
narrow-leaved form of L. AUSTRALIS on the one hand, and the South
European narrow-leaved form of L. CORNICULATUS on the other; the flowers
were pink, and smaller than in L. AUSTRALIS.[*] Also an ETHULIA [**],
which may, on further examination, constitute a new genus; it was found
by Allan Cunningham on the Lachlan. Thermometer at sunrise, 54°; at noon,
86°; at 4 P.M., 84°; at 9, 61°;--with wet bulb, 54°.

[* L. LAEVIGATUS (Benth. MS.); subglaber glaucescens, foliolis linearibus
v. lineari-cuneatis vix acutatis, pedunculis folio longioribus 3--6-
floris, calycis subsessilis appresse pubescentis dentibus setaceo-
acuminatis tubo suo paullo longioribus, legumine recto tereti glabro.]

[** ETHULIA CUNNINGHAMI (Hooker MS.); glaberrima, caule dichotomo, foliis
oblongis sessilibus dentato-serratis, capitulis paucis corymbosis
globosis, involucri squamis oblongis imbricatis viridibus, pappo e setis
paucis brevibus.]

17TH FEBRUARY.--The party moved off early, and Mr. Kinghorne having shown
me a few miles more of the best ground between the scrubs and reeds, went
towards a cattle station beyond the Macquarie, where a belt of open
forest separated the reeds and enabled him to pass. He prevailed on a
native whom he met with there to come with him to me, and to guide me to
water until I reached the Bàrwan. This native at first seemed rather
afraid of our numerous party, but our own native, Yuranigh, endeavoured
by every means to make him at ease, and to induce him to remain with us.
He guided us this day by fine open ground westward of the marshes, to a
part of the Macquarie where the banks were solid enough to admit of the
cattle drinking. The name was Bilgawàngara; I reached the spot early, but
at sunset no drays had come up. At length I was informed that such was
the softness of the soil, that the drays had sank frequently, that two
were fast in one place, four in another, and that two of the bullocks
were astray. The marshes were said to be just then occupied by some angry
tribes, of whom Mr. Kinghorne had warned me to be on my guard. The
patience necessary to any traveller depending on bullocks and bullock
drivers, I then thought ought to exceed that of Job. Our native guide was
very shy, and Yuranigh feared he meant to "bolt." We depended on him for
finding water--on our own native for finding bullocks; but it would not
have done then to have sent him away. The weather might change, and these
marshes become impassable; indeed, we were as much at the mercy of
Providence in this respect as the Israelites were in the bed of the Red
Sea. It depended on the weather whether we should deserve to be
considered Jews or Egyptians. The teams came in about midnight, after the
moon had risen, by which the drivers were enabled to see my track. Lat.
30° 45' 55" S. Thermometer at sunrise, 48°; at noon, 85°; at 4 P.M., 88°;
at 9, 60°;--with wet bulb, 54°.

18TH FEBRUARY.--Two bullocks were still astray some miles behind, and the
iron axle of one of the drays having got bent, required repair. The
cattle, I was told, were so jaded, as to be unable to make a day's
journey without more rest, and I was again obliged to halt. One only of
the two lost bullocks was found, and for this one we were indebted to
little Dicky, a native only ten years of age, whom the big fool who had
lost them was at some trouble to coax to go and assist him in the search,
as Yuranigh could not be spared from the more important duty of
entertaining our less civilised guide, and preventing him from making his
escape. It must, indeed, appear strange to these people of the soil, that
the white man who brought such large animals as oxen with them into the
country, should be unable to find them without the assistance of a mere
child of their own race. Dicky had soon found both, but one of them being
young and wild, escaped again amongst the tall reeds.

In the rich soil near the river bed, we saw the yellowish flowers of the
found by Allan Cunningham near the Lachlan, and a FUGOSIA near F.
DIGITATA of Senegambia. In the scrub we found a fine new silvery ATRIPLEX
with broad rounded leaves and strings of circular toothed fruits.[*]
Thermometer at sunrise, 53°; at noon, 93°; at 4 P.M., 96°; at 9, 67°;--
with wet bulb 59°.

[* A. NUMMULARIA (Lindl. MS.); caule suffruticoso glabro ramoso, foliis
alternis ovato-subrotundis integerrimis petiolatis basi cuneatis utrinque
argenteis, floribus monoïcis, spicis longis pendulis, bracteis
subrotundis dentatis basi connatis.]

19TH FEBRUARY.--We set off early, guided by our native friend. He was a
very perfect specimen of the GENUS HOMO, and such as never is to be seen,
except in the precincts of savage life, undegraded by any scale of
graduated classes, and the countless bars these present to the free
enjoyment of existence. His motions in walking were more graceful than
can be imagined by any who have only seen those of the draped and shod
animal. The deeply set yet flexible spine; the taper form of the limbs;
the fulness yet perfect elasticity of the GLUTEI muscles. The hollowness
of the back, and symmetrical balance of the upper part of the torso,
ornamented as it was, like a piece of fine carving, with raised
scarifications most tastefully placed; such were some of the
characteristics of this perfect "piece of work." Compared with it, the
civilised animal, when considered merely in the light of a specimen in
natural history, how inferior! In vain might we look amongst thousands of
that class, for such teeth; such digestive powers; for such organs of
sight, hearing, smelling, tasting, feeling; for such powers of running,
climbing, or walking; for such full enjoyment of the limpid water, and of
all that nature provides for her children of the woods. Such health and
exemption from disease; such intensity of existence, in short, must be
far beyond the enjoyments of civilised men, with all that art can do for
them; and the proof of this is to be found in the failure of all attempts
to persuade these free denizens of uncultivated earth to forsake it for
the tilled ground. They prefer the land unbroken and free from the
earliest curse pronounced against the first banished and first created
man. The only kindness we could do for them, would be to let them and
their wide range of territory alone; to act otherwise and profess good-
will is but hypocrisy. We cannot occupy the land without producing a
change, fully as great to the aborigines, as that which took place on
man's fall and expulsion from Eden. They have hitherto lived utterly
ignorant of the necessity for wearing fig leaves, or the utility of
ploughs; and in this blissful state of ignorance they would, no doubt,
prefer to remain. We bring upon them the punishments due to original sin,
even before they know the shame of nakedness. Such were the reflections
suggested to my mind by the young savage as he tripped on lightly before
me by the side of his two half-civilised brethren of our party, who,
muffled up in clothes, presented a contrast by no means in favour of our
pretensions to improve and benefit their race. Yet our faithful Yuranigh
was all that could be wished. He was assiduously making to the stranger
such explanations of our wants and purposes, as induced him to conduct us
in the direction these required. He led us, thus admonished, over those
parts of the country most favourable for the passage of wheels. The
rosewood acacia was abundant, but many parts were covered with most
luxuriant grass. We encamped on the edge of a salt-bush plain, where
there was a small pond of water left by the last rains on a clay surface.
There was certainly enough for ourselves and horses, but it appeared that
our guide had greatly underrated the capacity for water, of our hundred
bullocks. For these, however, there was superb grass to the westward, and
a little dew fell on it during the night. Thermometer at sunrise, 59°; at
noon, 102°; at 4 P. M., 104°; at 9, 77°;--with wet bulb, 65°.

20TH FEBRUARY.--From the necessity for obtaining water as soon as
possible for the bullocks, we travelled over ground which was rather
soft, otherwise our guide would have pursued a course more to the
westward, and over a firmer surface. We, at length, crossed two narrow
belts of reeds not more than twenty feet across, and had the great
satisfaction to learn from him that these were the last of the reeds. A
shallow creek appeared soon thereafter on our right, in which our guide
had expected to find water, but was disappointed; cattle having recently
drank up there, what had been a large pond when he was there formerly. He
showed us the recent prints of numerous cloven feet, and thus we were
made to feel, in common with the aborigines, those privations to which
they are exposed by the white man's access to their country. On
proceeding some miles further, our guide following down the channel, he
at length appeared at a distance making the motions of stooping to bathe,
on which Yuranigh immediately said "He has found plenty of water;" and
there, in fact, our guide had found two large ponds. They were still in
the attenuated channel of the Macquarie, here called by them Wámmerawá,
the course of which river is continuous throughout the marshes; and
marked by some high reeds greener than the rest, even when the reeds may
have been generally burnt. These reeds are distinctly different from the
"balyan," growing on the marshy parts of the rivers Lachlan,
Murrumbidgee, and Millewà; the former being a cane or bamboo, the latter
a bulrush, affording, in its root, much nutritious gluten. We found good
grass for the cattle on both sides of the water-course, which was fringed
with a few tall reeds, near which the pretty little KOCHIA BREVIFOLIA
observed at Mudá on the Bogan, again occurred. The native name of the
spot was "Warranb." The soft earth had again impeded the drays; the teams
of two came in at twilight, an axle of one dray having been damaged; the
six others were brought up in the course of the evening. Thermometer at
sunrise, 60°; at 4 P. M., 103°; at 9, 78°;--with wet bulb, 68°.

21ST FEBRUARY.--The first thing done this morning was to send back cattle
to draw forward the dray with a bent axle, to the camp, that it might be
repaired. This was done so as to enable the party to continue the journey
by 1 P. M. The barometer was going down at a rate which was alarming
enough, considering what our position must have been there in a flood, or
even after a heavy fall of rain. I therefore pressed forward with the
light carts, and guided by the native. He brought us at 5 P. M. to
"Willery," the place where he had expected to find water; but here again,
he had been anticipated by cattle, which had drunk up all, and trodden
the ponds as dry as a market-place. He gave us no hopes of finding water
that night, nor until we could reach the Bàrwan, then distant, I was
quite sure, at least twenty-four miles, according to the latitude
observed (30° 19' 54" South). We encamped here, and I sent back
directions that the drays should at once halt, taking their places beside
the leading dray, and that the cattle should be driven back in the
morning to be watered at the last camp (Warranb), and then to return and
follow in my track. Mr. Drysdale, the storekeeper, had also to go back to
serve out a week's rations to the party with the drays, and he returned
to my camp by 2 A. M., in the moonlight, bringing, on the horse of the
former messenger, rations for my party. Here we found the KERAUDRENIA
INTEGRIFOLIA. Thermometer at sunrise, 70°; at noon, 105°; at 9, 83°;--
with wet bulb, 57°.

22D FEBRUARY.--My guide was now desirous that I should cross the
Macquarie, to open plains which he represented to be much more favourable
for wheel carriages; but I endeavoured to explain to him, by drawing
lines in the clay surface, how the various rivers beyond would cross and
impede my journey to the Bàrwan. There were the Castlereagh, Morissett's
Ponds, and the Nammoy.[* If Arrowsmith's map had been correct, which it
was not, for the Nammoy joins the Darling separately, at least fifty
miles higher than the junction of the Castlereagh.]

An instance occurred here of the uselessness of new names, and the
necessity for preserving the native names of Rivers. I could refer, in
communicating with our guide, to the Nammoy only, and to the hills which
partly supplied the Castlereagh, whereof the native name was
Wallambangle. I wanted to make them understand the probability that some
flood had come down the channel of the Castlereagh, and that we might
therefore hope to find water below its junction with the Macquarie. This,
with the aid of Yuranigh, our own native, was at length made intelligible
to our Bàrwan guide, and he shaped his course accordingly. He took us
through scrubs, having in the centre those holes where water usually
lodges for some time after rain, where some substratum of clay happens to
be retentive enough to impede the common absorption. But the water in
these holes had been recently drunk, and the mud trampled into hard clay
by the hoofs of cattle. Thus it is, that the aborigines first become
sensible of the approach of the white man. These retired spots, where
nature was wont to supply enough for their own little wants, are well
known to the denizens of the bush. Each locality has a name, and such
places are frequented by helpless females with their children, or by the
most peaceably disposed natives with their families. There they can exist
apart from belligerent tribes, such as assemble on large rivers. Cattle
find these places and come from stations often many miles distant,
attracted by the rich verdure usually growing about them, and by thus
treading the water into mud, or by drinking it up, they literally destroy
the whole country for the aborigines, and thereby also banish from it the
kangaroos, emus, and other animals on which they live. I felt much more
disgusted than the poor natives, while they were thus exploring in vain
every hollow in search of water for our use, that our "cloven foot"
should appear everywhere. The day was extremely hot, which usually
happened to be the case whenever we were obliged to experience the want
of water. The thermometer under a tree stood at 110°. The store-keeper
was taken ill with vertigo. Our bull-dog perished in the heat, and the
fate of the cattle, still a day's journey behind us, and of the sheep,
which had not drunk for two days, were subjects of much anxiety to me at
that time. It may, therefore, be imagined with what pleasure I at length
saw before me large basins of water in the channel of the Macquarie, when
I next approached the banks, after a journey at a good pace for six hours
and a half. We had made it below the junction of Morissett's Ponds, and
found that a recent flood had filled its channel with water. The natives
dived into it to cure their headaches, as they said, and seemed to go
completely under water, in order to take a cool drink. We had reached the
united channel of the Macquarie and Morissett's Ponds, and were at an
easy day's journey only distant from the junction with the BÀRWAN or
"Darling." The use of the aboriginal name of this river is indispensable
amongst the squatters along its banks, who do not appear to know it to be
the "Darling." It is most desirable to restore to such rivers their
proper names as early as possible after they have been ascertained, were
it only to enable strangers thereby to avail themselves of the
intelligence and assistance of the natives, in identifying the country by
means of the published maps. The river Castlereagh is known to the
natives as the Barr; Morissett's Ponds, as the Wàwill; and the lower part
of the Macquarie, as the Wammerawà. The squatting system of occupation
requires still more that the native names of rivers should be known to
commissioners empowered to parcel out unsurveyed regions of vast extent,
whereof the western limits would be, indeed, beyond their reach or
control, but for the line of an angry savage population, which line the
squatter dares not to cross unsupported by an armed mounted police.
Thermometer at sunrise, 59°; at noon, 110°; at 4 P. M., 107°; at 9, 89°;
--with wet bulb 72°.

23RD FEBRUARY.--The drays did not come up, nor was any intelligence of
them received at our camp until late in the afternoon, when a man I had
sent back in the morning to tell the drivers to halt in good time to send
forward the cattle by daylight along my track to the water, brought me
word that he left them on the way ten miles off about eleven in the
morning. This man (Smith) also brought forward the sheep with him. They
had not drank for two nights, and ran skipping and baaing to the water,
as soon as they saw it. The heat of this day and yesterday was excessive,
a hot wind blowing hard all the time. Among the scrub on the banks of the
Macquarie, a salt plant belonging to the genus SCLEROLOENA was remarked;
it was perhaps not distinct from S. UNIFLORA. The GOODENIA GENICULATA
overran the ground, with its strawberry-like runners, and yellow flowers.
Latitude, 30° 12' 56" S. Thermometer at sunrise, 75°; at noon, 105°; at 4
P.M., 94°; at 9, 73°;--with wet bulb, 62°.

24TH FEBRUARY.--Some of the teams came up, having been out all night. The
drivers brought me word that they had been detached at twilight to come
six miles; the night was very dark; of course they could not see my
track, and as a matter equally of course, the spare bullocks had strayed
from them. Such were the almost daily recurring causes of delay by the
bullock drivers on this journey. Here, within a day's journey (thirteen
miles) of the Bàrwan, I was compelled to halt thus several days, and
really the prospect of performing so long a journey with such drivers
seemed almost hopeless. Thermometer at sunrise, 59°; at noon, 80°; at 4
P.M., 85°; at 9, 64°;--with wet bulb, 59°.

25TH FEBRUARY.--In the evening, the carpenter brought in ten of the stray
bullocks; four were still wanting, and I dispatched Mortimer, a bullock
driver, and the carpenter to show him where he had last left the track of
the animals still astray; both were mounted. Thermometer at sunrise, 53°;
at noon, 90°; at 4 P.M., 94°; at 9, 79°;--with wet bulb, 62°.

26TH FEBRUARY.--Mortimer came in early, saying he had found only one of
the bullocks, that the others had gone back to the last wateringplace
twenty-two miles distant. His companion did not arrive during the day; he
said he had left him bringing on the animal they had fallen in with. I
blamed him for leaving him, and ordered him to find him forthwith on
foot. I could not afford to lose horses. Here, it seemed, we were doomed
to remain. I endeavoured to make the most of the time by carrying on the
mapping of our survey, in order to make good our longitude at crossing
the Bàrwan. Thermometer at sunrise, 60°; at noon, 94°; at 4 P.M., 101°;
at 9, 72°;--with wet bulb, 62.°

27TH FEBRUARY.--When the teams were about to be put to the drays this
morning, I was informed that five bullocks were astray. This delayed the
party until 10 A.M., and then we left one lame bullock still missing. I
reduced the men's rations by one pound per week, and declared that a
proportional reduction should be regularly made to correspond with such
unlooked-for delays in the journey. We proceeded over firmer ground,
having the river almost always in sight, until, after travelling about
six miles, our guide showed me the river, much increased in width, and
said they called that the "Bàrwan." As it was still a mere chain of
ponds, though these were large, I was sure this was not the main channel;
he also said this joined the main channel a good way lower down. I was
convinced that it was only the Castlereagh that had thus augmented the
channel of the Macquarie, which I found afterwards to be the case, the
junction taking place two miles higher. I willingly encamped on it,
however, to afford more time for the lost man, and the man sent after
him, to rejoin the party.

I this day gave "Yulliyàlly," our guide, the promised tomahawk, a pipe,
tobacco; and, in addition, a shirt; also a few lines to Mr. Kinghorne,
certifying that this native had done what he had engaged to do.
Thermometer at sunrise, 62°; at noon, 94°; at 4 P.M., 97°; at 9, 70°;--
with wet bulb, 57°.

28TH FEBRUARY.--The wheelwright and Mortimer came into the camp at 6
A.M., bringing back the horse of the former, and one of the lost
bullocks. We set out early, and after travelling about six miles I came
upon a cart-track, which I followed to the westward until overtaken by a
stockman, who informed me that the Wammerawà, on which I had been
encamped, joined the Bàrwan, then on my right, within two miles of the
spot on which we stood; that he belonged to the cattle station of Mr.
Parnell, Jun., which was distant from my last camp about five miles, and
on the main river; also that the track I was following led to Mohanna,
Mr. Lawson's station, seventy-five miles lower down the Bàrwan. I turned
with him towards the junction of the Macquarie and Bàrwan, and encamped
thereby, right glad to reach at length, the river beyond which our
exploratory tour was to commence. The river looked well, with a good
current of muddy water in it, of considerable width, and really like a
river. I understood from my guide to this point, that there was a good
ford across the river at his station; also that Commissioner Mitchell had
been down the river a short time back, making a map to show all the
cattle stations on both banks. We had neither seen nor heard anything of
Mr. Wright, the commissioner of the Macquarie district through which we
had just passed, except that he "might visit the district when the hot
weather was over." Here we found a new species of CALOTIS.[*] Thermometer
at sunrise, 61°; at noon, 101°; at 4 P.M., 100°; at 9, with wet bulb,

[* Calotis SCAPIGERA (Hook. MSS.); stolonifera glaberrima, foliis omnibus
radicalibus lineari-spathulatis, scapo nudo monocephalo, achenii aristis
robustis subulatis retrorsum pilosis apice rectis vel uncinatis.--A very
distinct species. Habit of BRACHYSTEPHIUM SCAPIGERUM D. C.: but that
ought to have no aristae to the achenium: here the awns are very stout in
proportion to the size of the capitulum.]

1ST MARCH.--When, fifteen years before, I visited this river at a higher
point where it was called the Karaula [*], no trace of hoofs of horses or
bullocks had been previously imprinted on the clayey banks. Now, we found
it to be the last resource of numerous herds in a dry and very hot
season, and so thickly studded were the banks of this river with cattle
stations, that we felt comparatively at home. The ordinary precautionary
arrangements of my camp against surprise by savage natives seemed quite
unnecessary, and, to stockmen, almost ridiculous. We had at length
arrived at the lowest drain of that vast basin of clay absorbing many
rivers, so that they lose themselves as in the ocean. Here the final
outlet or channel of the waters of the Macquarie, was but a muddy ditch
one might step across, which the magnificent flood we had seen in the
same river above the marshes was not at all likely to reach. That flood
had gone to fill thousands of lagoons, without which supply, those vast
regions had been unfit for animal existence. Here we discover another
instance of that wonderful wisdom which becomes more and more apparent to
man, when he either looks as far as he can into space, or attentively
examines the arrangement of any matter more accessible to him. The very
slight inclination of the surface of these extensive plains seems finely
adapted to the extremely dry and warm climate over this part of the
earth. If the interior slope of the land from the eastern coastranges
were as great as that in other countries supplying rivers of sustained
current, it is obvious that no water would remain in such inclined
channels here; but the slope is so gentle that the waters spread into a
net-work of reservoirs, that serve to irrigate vast plains, and fill
lagoons with those floods that, when confined in any one continuous
channel, would at once run off into the ocean.

[* We then understood the natives very imperfectly and might have been
wrong about the name, which is the more likely, as CARÀWY, which the name
resembles, means any deep water-hole.]

In a wet season, the country through which we had traced out a route with
our wheels had been impassable. The direction I should have preferred,
and in which I had endeavoured to proceed, was along the known limits of
this basin, and formed a curved line, or an arc, to which the route
necessity had obliged us to follow was the chord; thus we had not lost
time; but had, in fact, shortened the distance to be travelled over very
considerably. A permanent route had, however, seemed to me more desirable
to any country we might discover, than one liable to be interrupted by
flooded rivers and soft impassable ground. The track of our drays, along
the western side of the Macquarie marshes opened a new and direct route
from Sydney to the banks of the river Darling, by way of Bathurst; and
afforded access to a vast extent of excellent pasturage on the Macquarie,
along the western margin of the marshes, which land would, no doubt, be
soon taken up by squatters. In so dry a climate, and where water is so
frequently scarce, it may, indeed, be found that the shortest line of
route with such advantages would be more frequented than any longer line,
possessing only the remote advantage of security from interruption by too
much water. Thermometer at sunrise, 64°; at noon, 100°; at 4 P.M., 101°;
at 9, 81°; with wet bulb, 61°.

2ND MARCH--MONDAY. I took a ride to examine the ford at Wyàbry, (Mr.
Parnell, Jun.'s station,) which I found practicable for our drays,
although, for their descent and ascent, it was necessary to cut better
approaches on each side. The Macquarie, although the channel was so
attenuated and ditch-like, was likely to prove also an obstacle without
some work of the same kind. Accordingly, on my return to the camp, I sent
some men to the last-mentioned work.

I learnt from natives whom I met at Mr. Parnell's station, that the
rivers Bolloon, Culgoa, and Biree were then flowing, some abundant rains
having fallen about their sources. Also, from the stockman, that the
Narran was thirty-five miles distant, but that a native could be found to
guide me to water only ten miles off. Water was also to be obtained at a
distance of only seven miles beyond the Bàrwan there at the "Morella
Ridges," to which the natives were in the habit of resorting at certain
seasons, by a path of their own, to gather a fruit of which they were
very fond, named by them "Moguile," and which I had previously
ascertained to be that formerly discovered by me, and named by Dr.
Lindley CAPPARIS MITCHELLII.[*] We found back from this camp the
RUTIDOSIS HELYCHRYSOIDES of De Candolle. Thermometer at sunrise, 72°; at
noon, 101°; at 4 P.M.; 100°; at 9, 78°; and with wet bulb, 62°.

[* See "Three Expeditions," etc., vol. i. page 315.]

3D MARCH.--Early this morning a party of men were sent to cut better
approaches to the ford across the Bàrwan at Mr. Parnell's station.
Ascertained the longitude of the junction of the rivers Macquarie and
Darling at our present camp to be 147° 33' 45" E., by actual measurements
connected with my former surveys of the colony. Mr. Kennedy had chained
the whole of the route from Bellaringa, and I had connected his work with
latitudes observed at almost every encampment, and after determining at
various points the magnetic variation, which appeared to be very steady,
I made the latitude of this camp 30° 6' 11" south. Thermometer at
sunrise, 72°; at noon, 99°; at 4 P.M., 97°; at 9, 72°; and with wet bulb,
65°. The height above the sea level of the bed of the river here, the
average result of eight observations, as calculated by Capt. King, was
415 feet.

4TH MARCH.--The party moved off towards the ford over the Bàrwan at
Wyàbry, crossing the bed of the Macquarie about half a mile above its
junction with the Bàrwan; there, although the approaches had been well
enough cut, we found the bottom too soft for our heavy vehicles, one of
which dipped its wheel to near the axle. We were obliged to pave the soft
and muddy bed with logs, and to cover these with branches, on which earth
was thrown, ere the rest could be got across. The party arrived about
noon at Wyàbry, and by 2 P.M. the whole was safely encamped on the right
bank of the Bàrwan. I had received this morning a dispatch from my son,
commissioner of this district, in which he gave me a most favourable
account of several rivers he had explored in the direction of my proposed
route. These dispatches came to me at the last camp by the hands of a
native, in forty-four hours after the superintendent of Mr. Lawson, being
then on his way down the river, had promised to send them to me, from a
station forty-five miles off, towards Fort Bourke, where it had been
supposed my party would pass. Lat. of this camp, 30° 5' 41" S. On this
northern bank of the Darling we looked for novelty in botany, and found
some interesting plants, such as a toothed variety of SENERIO
BRACHYLOENUS D. C., a kind of groundsel; MORGANIA FLORIBUNDA, loaded with
purple blossoms, and a variety of HELICHRYSUM BRACTEATUM, somewhat
different in the leaves from the usual state of the species. Thermometer
at sunrise, 70°; at 4 P.M., 98°; at 9, 72°;--with wet bulb, 61°.

Chapter III.


5TH MARCH.--Early this morning the stockman brought over two natives,
brothers, who were to guide us to water ten miles on towards the Narran,
which was said to be thirty-five miles off. In the first two miles we
passed over some soft ground. Further on, hills were visible to the left,
which our native guides called Goodeingora. Fragments of conglomerate
rocks appeared in the soil of the plains, pebbles and grains of quartz
cemented by felspar. These plains appeared to become undulating ground as
we proceeded northward, and the surface became firmer. At length the
country opened into slight undulations, well clothed with grass, and good
for travelling over, the soil being full of the same hard rock found on
the rising grounds nearest to the Darling, in the lowest parts of that
river explored formerly by me. The red earth seemed to be but the
decomposed matrix of that rock, as the water-worn pebbles of quartz so
thickly set therein, here covered the ground in some places so thickly as
to resemble snow. Much Anthistiria and other good grasses grew on those
plains. I was, indeed, most agreeably surprised at the firm undulating
stony surface and open character of the country, where I had expected to
see soft clay, and holes and scrubs. At six miles, other slight
elevations appeared to the N. E. which the natives called Toolowly, a
name well calculated to fix in white men's memory elevations TOO LOW to
be called hills. They were quite high enough, however, along a line of
route for such heavy drays as those following us. There appeared much
novelty in the trees on this side the Darling. The ANGOPHORA LANCEOLATA
was every where; Callitris grew about the base of the hills, and some
very singular acacias, a long-leaved grey kind of wattle, the ACACIA
STENOPHYLLA of Cunningham. On one tree large pods hung in such profusion
as to bend the branches to the ground. From this abundance I supposed it
was not good to be eaten; nevertheless, I found in another place many of
the same pods roasted at some fires of the natives, and learnt from our
guides that they eat the pea. The pod somewhat resembled that of the
Cachou nut of the Brazils,--Mùnumulà is the native name. The grasses
comprised a great variety, and amongst the plants a beautiful little
BRUNONIA, not more than four inches high, with smaller flower-heads than
those of BR. SERICEA, quite simple or scarcely at all lobed, and a hairy
indusium.[*] The tree, still a nondescript, although the fruit had been
gathered by me in 1831, and then sent to Mr. Brown, was also here; and I
saw one or two trees of a species of CAPPARIS. Mr. Stephenson found a
great variety of new insects also.

[* B. SIMPLEX (Lindl. MSS.); pumila, foliis undique scapisque
longitudinaliter sericeis, villis appressis, capitulis subsimplicibus,
bracteis majoribus oblongis, indusio extus piloso.]

Our guides brought us at length to some waterholes, amongst some verdant
grass on a plain, where no stranger would have looked for water; and here
we encamped fifteen good miles from the Barwan. The ponds were called
"Caràwy," and were vitally important to us, enabling us to pass on
towards the Narran, which was still, as we had been informed, twenty-five
miles off. As we approached these springs, I saw some natives running
off, and I sent one of the guides after them to say we should do them no
harm, and beg them to stop, but he could not overtake them. The
undulations crossed by us this day seemed to extend east and west in
their elongations, and were probably parallel to the general course of
the main channel of drainage. The same felspathic rock seen in other
parts of this great basin, seems the basis of the clay, although the
fragments imbedded are very hard. The earth is reddish, and much
resembles in this respect the matrix of the conglomerate. Near these
springs we found a new HELICHRYSUM.[*] Thermometer at sunrise, 61°; at
noon, 100°; at 4 P. M., 102°; at 9, 79°;--with wet bulb, 65°.

[* HELICHRYSUM RAMOSISSIMUM (Hook. MSS.); suffruticosum valde ramosum
arachnoideo-tomentosum, foliis lineari-spathulatis subflaccidis acutis,
capitulis in racemis terminalibus parvis globosis flavis, involucri
squamis lineari-subulatis undulatis fimbriato-ciliatis.]

6TH MARCH.--The drays not having come up, in consequence of the excessive
length of yesterday's journey, and very hot weather--(16½ miles by
latitude alone)--we were obliged to remain inactive here on a beautiful
cool morning. I found near the ponds, several huts made of fresh branches
of trees and the remains of fires, doubtless the deserted home of the
fugitives of yesterday. At these fires I found the roasted pods of the
acacia already mentioned (Mùnumulà). The water was surrounded by fresh
herbage, and such was the simple fare of those aborigines, such the home
whence they fled. As I looked at it in the presence of my sable guides, I
could not but reflect that the white man's cattle would soon trample
these holes into a quagmire of mud, and destroy the surrounding verdure
and pleasant freshness for ever. I feared that my good-natured but acute
guides thought as much, and I blushed inwardly [*] for our pallid race.

[* The author of Waverley maintains that one may LAUGH inwardly--
conscience may, I suppose, make us also blush inwardly sometimes.]

All day we sat still in anxious suspense about the non-arrival of our
drays--the ground having been so good. With a country so interesting
before us, this delay was doubly irksome, and as the cattle could only be
watered by coming forward, why they did not come was the question; and
this was not solved until evening, when a messenger came forward to ask
if they might come, and to inform me that they were nearly exhausted. The
fatal alternative of endeavouring to make them work in the morning, after
passing a night without water, had been adopted, and as, on the day
before, they had been worked until dusk in expectation of reaching my
camp, they could not draw on the morning after; I instantly directed them
to be brought forward; but the consequence of this derangement was the
death of one, and much injury to many others. This contretemps arose
wholly from the guides not having been understood at the Barwan as to the
real distance, and this we had calculated too surely upon. Latitude 29°
52' 26" south. Thermometer at sunrise, 68°; at noon, 96°; at 4 P. M.,
102°; at 9, 83°;--with wet bulb, 68°.

7TH MARCH, 1846.--The bullocks having been sent back after they had been
watered last evening, the drays came up about 9 A. M. I left them in Mr.
Kennedy's charge, and proceeded with the light carts followed by all the
bullocks yoked up. They had trodden into mud the little water that had
been left at that camp, and could not live much longer without more. The
guides assured us the Narran was not far off, although we had understood
when at the Barwan that the distance was twenty-five miles from these
springs. We passed over very good ground, and found the country to
improve as we advanced. We were conducted through the most open parts of
scrubs by our guides, who were made to comprehend clearly how desirable
that was for our "wheelbarrows;" and after travelling about seven miles,
they pointed to a line of trees as the "Narran," beyond an extensive open
country, which had a singular appearance from being higher than that we
were upon. We crossed one or two slight elevations wholly composed of
compact felspar in blocks--forming ridges resembling an outcrop of
strata, whereof the strike always pointed N. W. and S. E. Various curious
new plants and fruits appeared; amongst others a solanum, the berry of
which was a very pleasant-tasted fruit. The plant was a runner and spread
over several yards from one root. There was also a fruit shaped like an
elongated egg; it appeared to be some Asclepiad, and was called by the
natives "Doobàh." They ate it, seeds and all, but said it was best
roasted. As we approached the elevated country between us and the distant
line of trees, we perceived that the vast level was covered with
POLYGONUM JUNCEUM in a verdant state. The colour was dark green, such as
I had never seen elsewhere in this "leafless bramble," as Sturt called
it, which looks ever quite dry and withered along the margins of the
Darling. We had good reason to love and admire its verdure now, when we
found amongst it pure water in great abundance, into which all our native
companions immediately plunged, and rolled about like porpoises. This,
they said, was the "Narran," but to the vast swampy plain they gave the
name of Keegur, a name quite useless for white men's memories or maps.
They seemed to say it was wholly an emanation from the Narran, and
pointed to the nearest part of the trees beyond, saying the river Narran
was there. I still endeavoured to proceed, as they wished, towards the
nearest trees beyond, until a winding narrow pond of water, in very soft
mud, precluded all hopes of crossing with our drays, without some sort of
bridge; I therefore immediately counter-marched the party with me, now
far advanced in that sea of dark green polygonum, and conducted it into a
position on open stony ground to the westward of our route, with the
intention to await there the arrival of the drays, and to prepare
materials for a bridge to be laid across the muddy pond, as I had seen a
small clump of pines (Callitris) at no great distance back. My guides did
not encourage a hope I entertained, that this swamp might be turned by
the westward, in which direction the open country extended to the
horizon. The man who travels with bullocks must expect to be impeded by
wet ground, as well as by the scarcity of water, in many situations where
horses could pass without difficulty. I directed the bullocks, that had
been driven forward with me, to be allowed to graze beside the water
until sunset, and then to be taken slowly back by moonlight to Mr.
Kennedy. Five had dropped down on the way, and had not come forward to
the water. Those sent back were also ordered to be allowed to feed all
the next day at Mr. Kennedy's camp, and only to start with the drays
there next evening, to come on by moonlight, thus avoiding the intense
heat, so oppressive under extreme thirst. The thermometer during the day,
rose to 103° in the shade. Latitude of the camp on Narran swamp, 29° 45'
51" S. Thermometer at sunrise, 47°; at noon, 97°; at 4 P. M., 97°; at 9,
69°; ditto with wet bulb, 57°. The height of this camp above the sea, the
average of five registered observations, is 442 feet.

8TH MARCH.--The view northward from our present camp was most extensive.
Far in the northeast a yellow slope presented the unusual appearance
there, of a cultivated country. It was doubtless ripe grass, yet still
the earth there had not even been imprinted with any hoof. Between that
slope and our camp, lay the element, in abundance, which had been so
scarce on the other side of the Darling. To the northward, at no great
distance, was the river, where, as our guides informed us, we should no
longer be ill off for water in pursuing our journey along its banks. I
set the carpenter to cut sleepers and slabbing to enable us to bridge the
muddy creek, for I had examined it early in the morning, and had crossed
it with my horse; although I found several watercourses almost as soft,
beyond. The natives maintained that the water in this extensive swamp
came neither from the east nor west, but from the river directly before
us, which came from the northward. Just behind our camp, to the
southward, was a gentle elevation, almost a hill, consisting of the usual
rock, felspar; and it seemed to me that this stony ground alone impeded
the further progress of the water towards the Barwan. The ridge trended
north-west, as most others did in this extensive basin; and this
direction being nearly parallel to that of the coast ranges further
northward, seemed to afford additional reason for expecting to find
anticlinal and synclinal lines, and, consequently, rivers, much in the
same direction. D'Urban's group, distant 150 miles lower down the
Darling, consisted of a quartzose rock, exactly similar to this,
exhibiting a tendency, like it, to break into irregular polygons, some of
the faces being curved. This rock is most extensively distributed in the
interior of New South Wales. It was not until the evening of this day
that the approach of the drays was announced, and then prematurely, the
teams only having been brought forward to the water without them. So weak
were the unfortunate animals, that not even by night, nor by doubling the
numbers, could they be made to draw the drays forward, for the short
distance of eight miles; a distance which we had been given to understand
was so much greater. Forward, all was most promising, and it may be
imagined how bitterly I regretted the alteration of my original plan of
equipment, which had reference to horses and light carts alone. A new
species of ANTHISTIRIA occurred here, perfectly distinct from the
kangaroo grass of the colony, very like APLUDA MUTICA, and remarkable for
the smooth shining appearance of the thin involucral leaves.[*] The
TRICHINIUM ALOPECUROIDEUM, in great abundance, was conspicuous, with its
long silky ears of green flowers. On the stony ground occurred a very
curious new woolly KOCHIA [**], also a species of CYPERUS; the TRICHINIUM
LANATUM in great perfection; a grass resembling the close reed
(CALAMAGROSTIS of England), and which proved to be the little-known
TRIRAPHIS MOLLIS. On the margin of the morass the DACTYLOCTENIUM
RADULANS, spreading over the interstices, reminded the traveller of the
grasses of Egypt; and, in stony ground near the morass, we observed the
JUSTICIA MEDIA of Brown. Thermometer at sunrise, 66°; at noon, 98°; at 4
P. M. 102°; at 9, 81°; ditto with wet bulb, 74°.

[* A. MEMBRANACEA (Lindl. MSS); involucris carinatis margine membranaceis
foliis vaginisque glaberrimis, floribus verticillatis pedicellatis
(masculis?), glumis omnibus scabris, aristâ glaberrimâ glumâ 3plo

[** K. LANOSA (Lindl. MSS); ramis strictis foliisque linearibus acutis
cinereis tomentosis, fructibus lanatis, calycis laciniis elongatis.]

9TH MARCH.--My native guides, tired of the delay, were anxious to return,
and as the assistance they could afford me was likely to be extremely
useful, and the arrival of the drays was most uncertain, I went forward
this morning with one of them, two men, and Youranigh, our interpreter,
all mounted. Amongst the trees, beyond the swamp, fine reaches of water
appeared in a river channel, apparently continuous to the northward, but
which, in the other direction, or towards the swamp, abruptly terminated
like a cul-de-sac. On my asking the natives where it went to, they
pointed to the various narrow water courses and the swamp as the final
depositories of the water. Admirable distribution of the contents of a
river in a country where water is so scarce, and the climate so hot and
dry! We proceeded along the margin of the "Narran," which led us nearly
due north, until we forded it, at the desire of our guides, on a good
gravelly bottom, the water reaching to our saddle-flaps. Crossing a
slight elevation where the soil was gravelly, and in which grew the
shrubs of the ordinary scrubs with several interesting novelties, we
again came upon an angle of the Narran, and continued along its banks for
about thirty miles, until near sunset, when we tethered our horses, and
lay down for the night. The Narran was full of water every where, and
with this abundance of water there was also plenty of most excellent
grass. The PANICUM LOEVINODE of Dr. Lindley seemed to predominate, a
grass whereof the seed ("Cooly") is made by the natives into a kind of
paste or bread. Dry heaps of this grass, that had been pulled expressly
for the purpose of gathering the seed, lay along our path for many miles.
I counted nine miles along the river, in which we rode through this grass
only, reaching to our saddle-girths, and the same grass seemed to grow
back from the river, at least as far as the eye could reach through a
very open forest. I had never seen such rich natural pasturage in any
other part of New South Wales. Still it was what supplied the bread of
the natives; and these children of the soil were doing every thing in
their power to assist me, whose wheel tracks would probably bring the
white man's cattle into it. We had followed well-beaten paths of natives
during the whole of this day's ride, and most anxious were my guides and
I to see them; but they avoided us. Our guide was of that country, and
not at all unwilling or timid; but evidently very desirous to introduce
us to the inhabitants, and procure amongst them other guides to lead us
further. The night was very hot, and flies and mosquitos did their utmost
to prevent us from sleeping. Thermometer at sunrise, 75°; at noon, 99°;
at 4 P. M., 105°; at 9, 83°; ditto with wet bulb, 75°.

10TH MARCH.--Anxious for an interview with some of the natives, I
continued the pursuit of the Narran's course about five miles higher, but
with no better success. I then turned, after obtaining from our guide,
through Youranigh, what information could be gathered thus, as to the
river's further course, the best bank for the passage of our drays, etc.
We were still, he said, a long way from the "Culgoa." There was no
perceptible change in the aspect of the "Narran" as far as we had
examined it, except that where we turned, there were flood-marks, and the
dead logs and river wreck, deposited on the upper side of trees and
banks, showing a current and high floods. The last of these, our guide
said, had occurred about five moons before. In riding back to the camp we
kept the castern bank, that the track might be available for our drays.
This ride along a river where we could, when we pleased, either water our
horses, or take a drink ourselves, was quite new and delightful to us,
under a temperature of 105° in the shade. Our guide, aged apparently
about fifty, walked frequently into the river, while in a state of
perspiration; dipped quite under water, or drank a little with his lip on
the level of its surface, and then walked on again. He was at last very
tired, however, and pointed to the large muscles of the RECTUS FEMORIS as
if they pained him. We found at the camp, on our return, five of the
drays that had come up, the other three being still behind, and requiring
double teams of exhausted cattle to bring them forward. In the vicinity
of our camp we found the TRICHINIUM ALOPECUROIDEUM, with heads of flowers
nearly five inches long; an eucalyptus near E. PULVERULENTA, but having
more slender peduncles; a sort of Iron-bark. We found also a tall
glaucous new HALORAGIS [*], and a curious new shaggy KOCHIA was
intermingled with the grass.[**] Thermometer at sunrise, 77°; at noon,
102°; at 4, 107°; at 9, 76°;--with wet bulb, 71°.

[* H. GLAUCA (Lindl. MSS.); annua, stricta, glaberrima, glauca, foliis
oppositis lineari-oblongis obtusis petiolatis grossè serratis, racemis
apice aphyllis, fructu globoso tuberculato laevi.]

[** K. VILLOSA (Lindl. MSS.); ramis erectis foliisque linearibus
villosissimis, fructibus glabris.]

11TH MARCH.--All the drays came in early. I gave to the two natives, the
tomahawks, tobacco, and pipes, as promised; also a note to the stockman
on the Barwan, who had provided me with them, saying that they had been
very useful. I this morning examined the country to the westward of the
swamp, and found a narrow place at which we could pass, and so avoid much
soft heavy ground. The ramifications of the watery Narran penetrated into
the hollows of the stony ridge, presenting there little hollows full of
rich verdure and pools of water, a sight so unwonted amongst rocks
characteristic of D'Urban's arid group. In one little hollow, to the
westward of our camp, it seemed possible for two men with a pickaxe and
shovel to have continued it through, and so to have opened a new channel
for the passage of the waters of the Narran swamp, into the dry country
between it and the Barwan. Thermometer at sunrise, 55°; at noon, 105°; at
4 P. M., 102°; at 9, 75°;--with wet bulb, 59°.

12TH MARCH.--I found it necessary to sit still here and refresh the jaded
bullocks; thus days and months passed away, in which with horses I might
have continued the journey. The very extensive country before us, which
appeared to absorb these waters, was quite clear of timber, and irrigated
by little canals winding amongst POLYGONUM JUNCEUM. This open country
appeared to extend north-eastward about eight miles, thence to turn
eastward, as if these waters found some outlet that way to the Barwan. I
regretted that this swamp led too far out of our way, to admit of our
tracing its limits to the eastward.

This day I received letters from Commissioner Mitchell, in which he
strongly recommended to my attention the rivers Biree, Bokhara, and
Narran, as waters emanating from, and leading to, the Balonne, a river
which he said might supply our party with water, in this very dry season,
almost to the tropic. I was able to inform him in reply, that I was
already on the Narran, and that I had already availed myself of his
account of the rivers formerly sent me, on which I must have been obliged
to depend, even if the party had passed by Fort Bourke.

This evening, by moonlight, I conducted a dray, carrying two platforms,
to the place where the narrow channel, feeding the swamp, could be passed
without our meeting beyond any other impediment to the drays. The
sleepers used for this purpose were made of pine (CALLITRIS PYRAMIDALIS),
found half a mile back from our camp. They were fourteen feet long, two
feet wide, being composed of cross-pieces, two feet long, fixed at each
end between two sleepers, so that they somewhat resembled a wooden
railway. These, when laid at the proper distance apart to carry both
wheels, were bedded on the soft earth, and the interval between was
filled to a level with them, by layers of polygonum and long grass,
alternate with earth, forming together a mass of sufficient resistance to
support the feet of the draught oxen. The whole formed a compact bridge
or gangway. Thermometer at sunrise, 51°; at noon, 95°; at 4 P. M., 107°;
at 9, 70°;--with wet bulb, 61°.

13TH MARCH.--The party once more moved onward, and the drays trundled
across the swampy arm by means of our bridge, which, even in the event of
an accession of water there, might have proved serviceable on our return.
Three miles beyond it we had to ford the Narran, passing over a gravelly
bottom to the eastern bank, and encamping there. The drays were slow in
arriving at this ford and camp, as the ground was soft and hollow, but by
sunset all had crossed, and our camp established on the Narran.
Thermometer at sunrise, 71°; at noon, 100°; at 4 P. M., 100°; at 9,
71°;--with wet bulb, 65°. The height of this camp above the sea,
according to ten registered observations, is 487 feet.

14TH MARCH.--We now had before us water and grass in abundance, to a
distance as unlimited and indefinite, as our hopes of discovery. I
intended to set out early each morning, and travel only four or five
miles, that the jaded animals, exhausted by want of water and hard work,
might have time to feed and refresh. One old cause of delay, however,
again occurred to impede us,--three bullocks were reported missing. Now
it was nearly full moon, and two men had been on watch all night. It
really seemed that delay and disappointment must attend all who depend on
bullocks and bullock-drivers. The stray cattle were not brought up until
9 A. M., when we proceeded, and encamped on an angle of the Narran, after
travelling about five miles. In the scrubs passed through, we found the
fragrant JASMINUM LINEARE in fruit, the flowers being nearly past; a bulb
which proved to be the ANTHERICUM BULBOSUM of Brown; a shrub ten feet
high, in fruit, the CANTHIUM OLEIFOLIUM of Sir William Hooker; a fine new
CHENOPODIUM, with long naked spikes of woolly yellow flowers [*]; and a
hoary variety of ACACIA LEPTOCLADA, or perhaps a distinct species, having
a good deal of the aspect of A. DEALBATA, but the leaves and glands
nearer those of A. LEPTOCLADA, according to Mr. Bentham. Thermometer at
sunrise, 70°; at noon, 103°; at 4 P. M., 102°; at 9, 81°;--with wet bulb,

[* C. AURICOMUM (Lindl. MSS.); totum glaucum farinosum, caule stricto,
foliis petiolatis oblongis subhastatis lobisque posticis obtusis supremis
lanceolatis, spicis compositis nudis aphyllis glomeratis multifloris

15TH MARCH.--The sand amongst the scrubs was so soft and yielding, that
the draught animals could not draw the drays through it without great
difficulty; indeed, it was only possible by double-backing, as the
drivers termed their practice of alternately assisting one another, a
process to which all had had recourse with one exception. It was not
until 1 A. M. of this morning, therefore, that the last dray was brought
to the camp. Another bullock died on the way, and thus I felt, when the
field of discovery lay open before me, that my means of conveyance were
unsuited to the task. Overloading at Boree, unskilful driving, excessive
heat, and want of water, had contributed to render the bullocks
unserviceable, and I already contemplated the organization of a lighter
party and fewer men, with which I might go forward at a better rate,
leaving the heavy articles of equipment and tired cattle in a depôt, on
some good grassy spot. The latitude of this camp was 29° 38' 21" south.
Thermometer at sunrise, 73°; at noon, 84°; at 4 P. M., 86°; at 9, 65°;--
with wet bulb, 60°.

16TH MARCH.--I proceeded six miles, and chose a camp beside a bend of the
Narran, full of deep water, and in the midst of most luxuriant grass. The
drays arrived by 11 A. M. in such good order, that I was induced to try
whether, by early starting, good feeding, and short journeys, the party
could not be got forward to the Balonne, where I could leave the whole in
one depôt, to rest and refresh, while I took my intended ride forward.
Latitude, 29° 34' 11" S. Thermometer at sunrise, 43°; at noon, 86°; at 4
P. M., 87°; at 9, 62°;--with wet bulb, 55°.

17TH MARCH.--I proceeded seven miles, and the drays came forward as well
as they did yesterday, so that I again entertained hopes of the progress
of the united party, which was very desirable, as these plains were
evidently sometimes so saturated with water as to be rendered wholly
impassable for wheel-carriages or even horses. Latitude, 29° 29' 11" S.
Thermometer at sunrise, 47°; at noon, 87°; at 4 P. M., 91°; at 9, 62°;--
with wet bulb, 52°.

18TH MARCH.--Again we made out a short journey over rather soft ground;
all the drays coming in, although slowly. I rode to a gently rising
ground, a great novelty, which appeared bearing E. N. E. from our camp,
at a distance of 2½ miles. I found it consisted of gravel of the usual
conglomerate decomposed--of rounded fragments of about a cubic inch in
bulk. The grass was good there, and I perceived that the same gravelly
ridge extended back from the river in a north and south direction.
Graceful groups of trees grew about this stony ground, which looked, upon
the whole, better than the red sandy soil of the scrubs and callitris
forest. This seemed the dividing ridge between the Narran and Barwan.
From this elevation, I saw that the course of the former ran still in a
good direction for us, to a great distance northward. On that stony
ground I found a new PITTOSPORUM five feet high, with long narrow leaves,
in the way of P. ROEANUM and ANGUSTIFOLIUM, but distinct from both in the
form of its fruit.[*] Latitude of camp 29° 25' 21". Thermometer at
sunrise, 53°; at noon, 90°; at 4 P. M., 96°; at 9, 69°;--with wet bulb,

[* P. SALICINUM (Lindl. MS.); foliis lineari-lanceolatis coriaccis
acutissimis aveniis, pedunculis unifloris aggregatis axillaribus,
fructibus subglobosis vix compressis.]

19TH MARCH.--Pursuing the Narran, keeping its eastern or left bank, our
course this day was more to the northward. I encamped after travelling
six miles, not only because the ground was soft and heavy for the drays,
but because I saw that the Narran turned much to the eastward, and I
contemplated the passage across it, intending to look for it again, by
travelling northward. Accordingly, as soon as our ground had been marked
out, I crossed to reconnoitre the country in that direction. I found a
fine, open, grassy country, but no signs of the river at the end of five
miles, nor even until I had ridden as far eastward. There, recrossing it,
I returned to the camp through some fine open forest country. Latitude
observed, 29° 21' 51", S. Thermometer at sunrise, 57°; at 4 P. M., 96°;
at 9, 71°;--with wet bulb, 62°.

20TH MARCH.--Retracing my homeward tracks of yesterday, we proceeded in a
nearly E. N. E. direction, along much firmer ground than we had recently
traversed. The great eastern bend of the river was found amongst much
excellent grass and amidst much fine timber. A species of Anthistiria
appeared here, which seemed different from the ordinary sort, although
this was no stranger to me, when exploring the waterless plains westward
of the Lachlan, where it looked as if stunted for want of moisture. Here,
however, this variety presented the same knotty head, where other grasses
grew luxuriantly. After getting round the extreme eastern turn of the
Narran we encamped. Near the spot large rocks appeared in the bed, as if
the river was passing through the stock of the gravelly ridge I had
visited on the 18th. The rock consisted of that found about the basin of
the Darling; a quartzose conglomerate with much felspar, and having
pebbles of quartz imbedded. The large fragments of the conglomerate in
the river bed were angular, and not at all rounded at the edges. Here the
poor natives had been very industrious, as was evident from heaps of the
grass PANICUM LOEVINODE, and of the same redstalked coral-like plant,
also mentioned as having been observed in similar heaps, on the banks of
the Darling, during my journey of 1835 (vol. i. p. 238). I now
ascertained that the seed of the latter is also collected by the natives
and made into a paste. This seed was black and small, resembling fine
gunpowder when shaken out. Nevertheless it was sweet and pleasant to the
taste, possessing a nutty flavour.

The human inhabitants were few, and as invisible as other animals in
these forests--the prints of whose feet were also plain in the soft
smooth surface. As faithless as the snows of the North [*], this soil
bore the impressions of all animals obliged to go to the water, and
amongst them those of the naked feet of men, women, and children, with
the prints likewise of other BIPEDS, such as emus and kangaroos, and also
those of the native dog. Here still was our own race amongst other
animals all new and strange to Europeans. The prints of the foot of man
alone were familiar to us. But here he was living in common with other
animals, simply on the bounty of nature; artless, and apparently as much
afraid of us, and as shy, as other animals of the forest. It seemed
strange, that in a climate the most resembling that of Milton's paradise,
the circumstances of man's existence should be the most degrading.
Latitude of our camp, 29° 19' 26" S. Thermometer, at sunrise, 55°; at
noon, 100°; at 4 P. M., 101°; at 9, 70°;--with wet bulb, 65°. The mean
elevation above the sea of our camps thus far on the Narran, seven in
number, was 477 feet; the bed of the river being about 15 feet lower.

[* "And hungry Maukin's ta'en her way To kailyards green, While faithless
   snaws ilk step betray Whar she has been."   BURNS.]

21ST MARCH.--Proceeded as usual through fine grass, the river coming
favourably round towards the north. At about two miles I found some
traces of horses, and I looked at the river bank for Commissioner
Mitchell's initials, supposing this might be "Congo," where he had forded
the Narran. But we had not reached the latitude of Congo according to his
map. Nevertheless we found here such an excellent dry ford, with gently
sloping banks to a stony bottom, that the two circumstances induced me to
cross the Narran with the party. I travelled west-ward, until meeting
with a dense scrub, I turned towards the friendly Narran, where we
encamped in latitude 29° 15' 31" S. Thermometer, at sunrise, 56°; at
noon, 97°; at 4 P. M., 101°; at 9, 72°; ditto with wet bulb, 66°.

22D MARCH.--Gave the party a day's rest, prayers being read by the
surgeon, as was usual whenever circumstances admitted of our halting on
Sunday. The bed of the Narran presented in several places the denuded
rock, which seems the basis of all the soil and gravel of the country. At
one place irregular concretions of milk-white quartz, cemented by a
ferruginous basis, was predominant; at another, the rough surface of
compact felspar weathering white presented merely the cavities in which
large rounded pebbles had been imbedded, until the partial decomposition
of the felspar, under the river floods, had exposed them once more to the
action of water. The force of those waters, however, had not been
sufficient to cut a channel through very soft rocks extending right
across their course--a circumstance rather characteristic, perhaps, of a
river like the Narran, watering a nearly level country, and terminating
in a swamp. Thermometer at sunrise, 53°; at noon, 95°; at 4 P. M., 98°;
at 9, 72°;--with wet bulb, 66°. Height above the sea, 515 feet, from
eight observations.

23RD MARCH.--All hands were bent on an early start this morning, and,
soon after seven, the party moved off. We crossed much grassy land,
almost approaching to the character of scrub as to bushes; but we pursued
a tolerably straight course to the N.W., until we again made the Narran
at 8½ miles. Various new plants attracted my attention this day,
especially a beautiful Loranthus on the rosewood Acacia, and a small bush
bearing a green pod resembling a small capsicum in shape. Among the
sedges by the river we found the KYLLINGA MONOCEPHALA; and, on the rich
black clayed soil near it, a species of bindweed out of flower, with
large sagittate leaves: in the scrubs back from the river, grew a small
bush, about four feet high, which has been considered either a variety of
Brown's SANTALUM OBLONGATUM, or a new species distinguished by its narrow
sharp-pointed leaves. The LORANTHUS LINEARI. FOLIUS was growing on the
rosewood Acacia, and the branches of Eucalypti were inhabited by the
parasitical ORANGE LORANTH.[*] Lat., 29°1 0' 6" S. Therm. at sunrise,
51°; at noon, 95°; at 4 P. M., 99°; at 9, 70°;--wet bulb, 63°.

[* L. AURANTIACUS (All. Cunn. MS.); ramis elongatis laxis gracilibus,
foliis oppositis longe petiolatis oblongis obtusis lanceolatisve
acuminatis glabris 3-5-nerviis tenui-marginatis, paniculis folio
brevioribus ditrichotomis, floribus erectis, calycibus subcylindraceis
superne latioribus truncatis, petalis linearibus 6, stylo infra apicem
geniculato, stigmate dilatato truncato.--W. J. H.]

24TH MARCH.--We set off still earlier this morning. I hoped to reach the
Bokhara, on the West, a river shown on the map sent me by the
Commissioner of the district, but after travelling about seven miles to
the northward, I saw rising ground before me, which induced me to turn
towards our own friendly river the Narran; but it proved to be very far
from us, while in my search for it, to my surprise, I found it necessary
to descend several considerable declivities, covered with waterworn
pebbles. At length a slight opening in the dense scrubs through which we
had forced our way, afforded a view towards the south-east of the low
range we were upon, which trended very continuously to the north-west,
covered thickly with the "Malga" tree of the natives; to the traveller
the most formidable of scrubs. After several other descents, we reached
the Narran, but only at half-past three in the afternoon, when we had
travelled nearly twenty miles. How the teams were to accomplish this, it
was painful to consider. I sent back a messenger to desire that the
cattle should be detached and brought forward to the water; content to
lose one day, if that indeed would suffice to recover the jaded animals.
Casuarinae now grew amongst the river trees, and reminded me of the banks
of the Karaula in 1831. We had also noticed another novelty in the woods
we passed through this day; a small clump of trees of iron-bark with a
different kind of leaf from that of the tree known by that name in the
colony. On the higher stony land, a bush was common, and proved to be a
broad-leaved variety of EREMOPHILA MITCHELLII, if not a distinct species.
We there met with a new species of the rare and little-known genus,
GEIJERA; forming a strong-scented shrub, about ten feet high, and having
long, narrow, drooping leaves. Its fruit had a weak, peppery taste.[*]
The rare ENCHYLOENA TOMENTOSA formed a shrub a foot high, loaded with
yellow berries: all the specimens were digynous, in which it differed
from the description of Brown. The CAPPARIS LASIANTHA was observed
amongst the climbing shrubs still in fruit; and a beautiful new LORANTH,
with red flowers tipped with green, was parasitical on trees.[**] On the
bank of the Narran we found the AMARANTHUS UNDULATUS of Brown.

[* G. PARVIFLORA (Lindl. MS.); ramis erectis, foliis longis linearibus
pendulis in petiolum sensim angustatis 4 unc. longis.]

[** Loranthus LINEARIFOLIUS (Hook. MS.); foliis lineari-filiformibus
acutis carnosis glabris teretibus, pedunculis axillaribus brevibus
bifloris, calycibus cylindraceis truncatis contractis, petalis 6
linearibus supra basin coalitis.]

The cattle arrived in the dark, and were watered in the muddy-banked
Narran, by the light of burning boughs; then set to feed. Lat. 29° 6' 33"
S.; therm. at sunrise, 48°; at 4 P. M., 101°; at 9, 74°; ditto with wet
bulb, 62°.

25TH MARCH.--The cattle had now to return to bring forward the drays.
Meanwhile I took a ride up the river, in order to ensure a moderate
journey for these exhausted animals. Proceeding along the right bank, I
found gravelly slopes almost closing upon the river. The direction of its
course for four miles, was nearly southward. Then I saw gravelly ridges
on the left, and a line of wood before me, while the river evidently came
from the East round the margin of an extensive plain. I continued
northward; found a rosewood scrub: then saw the Malga tree; passed
through scrubs thereof; found myself on stony ridges, whence descending
in a N. E. direction, again passed through rosewood scrubs, and only
reached the river after riding 2½ miles in that direction. I saw a
continuous ridge, bare and distant, beyond what I considered the river
bed, and a similar ridge to the westward. I crossed a native camp where
the newly deserted fires still smoked. We saw one man at a distance, who
did not mind us much; I could not have obtained any information from him,
and therefore did not seek a parley. Crossing the Narran there, by a
beaten track, beside a native fishing fence, I returned to the camp, on
the bearing of S. S. W., and found a grassy plain the whole way back,
until within sight of the tents, and a good rocky ford for the passage of
the party next day. On the stony ridge I found a remarkable shrub, a
species of Sida (ABUTILON), allied to S. GRAVEOLENS, Roxb., but distinct.
The teams brought the drays in, about 5 P. M.; one animal of all being
missing. Therm. at sunrise, 72°; at noon, 89°; at 4 P. M., 91°; at 9,
60°;--with wet bulb, 53°.

26TH MARCH.--Early this morning, William Baldock was sent back in search
of the stray bullock, while the party crossed the Narran, and proceeded
along my horse's track of yesterday. Baldock over took the party, having
found the bullock on the river, four miles below our late encampment. The
natives seen yesterday had disappeared, having previously set fire to the
grass. We proceeded two miles beyond their fires, and encamped on the
river bank in lat. 29° 1' 57" S.

A small path along the river margin; marks on trees, where hollow
portions of bark had been taken off; some ancient, some recent, huts of
withered boughs and dry grass; freshwater muscle shells, beside the ashes
of small fires; and, in some places, a small heap of pulled grass
(PANICUM LOEVINODE), or of the coral plant; such were the slight but
constant indications of the existence of man on the Narran. Such was the
only home of our fellow-beings in these parts, and from it they retired
on our approach. Ducks, which were rather numerous, and emus (coming to
drink), probably constituted their chief food, as nets to ensnare both
these kinds of birds, were found about their huts. Youranigh brought me
one of their chisels, a small bit of iron fastened to a stick with gum,
and tied with a piece of striped shirting. I directed him to place it
carefully where he had found it. Thermometer at sunrise, 47°; at noon,
90°; at 4 P. M., 95°; at 9, 69°;--with wet bulb, 60°. The mean height
above the sea of the camps of 23d, 24th, and 26th March, was 461 feet.

27TH MARCH.--Pursuing, as well as we could, the course of the Narran,
which came more from the northward, we again encamped on its banks after
a journey of seven miles, without recognising any indication of the
vicinity of the larger stream, which, according to our latitude, we ought
by this to have reached. The current here had evidently been more
decided, and dry trunks and other FLUVIATILE DEBRIS lay more in masses
against whatever had lain in the water's way. Excellent grass clothed the
plains over which we had passed during the two last days, and grew
abundantly also about the banks of the river; but, in general, a belt of
the POLYGONUM JUNCEUM, about 400 or 500 yards wide, grew between the
immediate margin and the grassy plains. This shrub was found an
infallible guide to the vicinity of the river, when, as sometimes
happened, other lines of trees, resembling those on its banks, had led me
to a distance from it. The day was cool and rather cloudy, a great
novelty to us; for every day had been clear and unclouded, since long
before we crossed the Barwan. Abundance of the stones of the quandang
fruit (FUSANUS ACUMINATUS) lay at an old fire of the natives, and showed
that we were not far from the northern limit of the great clay basin, as
the quandang bush grows only upon the lowest slopes of hilly land. Lat.
28° 55' 13" S. Thermometer at sunrise, 70°; at noon, 90°; at 4 P. M., 89;
at 9, 70°;--with wet bulb, 61°.

28TH MARCH.--At 2 A. M., loud thunder was heard in the south-west, where
a dark cloud arose and passed round to the northward; a few drops of rain
fell. The morning was otherwise clear, with a cooling breeze from S. W.
Thermometer at sunrise, 56°. We proceeded, travelling chiefly amongst
very luxuriant grass. The river now disappeared as far to the westward of
my northerly course on this left bank, as it had left me when on the
other bank by unexpected turns to the eastward. I came upon its banks
after travelling about eight miles. At the spot where I wished to place
the camp I perceived a native, and with Youranigh's assistance, managed
to prevent him from running away. He spoke only "Jerwoolleroy," a dialect
which my native did not understand at all well. He told us, however, that
this was still the Narran, and pointed N. W. to the Balonne. Upon the
whole we gathered from him that neither that river nor the Bokhara was
far from us. I endeavoured to convince him, by Youranigh's assurances,
and our own civility to him, that we meant no harm to any natives, and
were only passing through the country. He did not seem afraid, although
he had never, until then, seen white men. We encamped near him. The river
channel was very narrow, and contained but little water here-abouts. I
understood from the native (through Youranigh) that the river here spread
into various channels, and that "BARRO" was the name of a river beyond
the Culg, which falls into it from the northward; "TOORINGORRA," the
lagoon on which we encamped after meeting natives on the 31st March. Near
this camp we found a PHYLLANTHUS, scarcely different from P. SIMPLEX; a
SESBANIA near S. ACULEATA, but with smaller flowers; and the CHENOPODIUM
AURICOMUM, formed a white-leaved shrub, three or four feet high.
Thermometer at sunrise, 56°; at noon, 78°; at 4 P. M., 82°; at 9, 61°;--
with wet bulb, 56°.

29TH MARCH.--After prayers (the day being Sunday) I sent Mr. Kennedy
forward to explore the course of the river, in order to ensure a more
direct line for to-morrow's route. Mr. Kennedy was accompanied by one of
the men armed, and also by Youranigh, all being mounted. He returned in
about four hours, having found the river coming from the northward, and
he also reported favourably of the ground. Thermometer at sunrise, 48°;
at 4 P. M., 81°; at 9, 51°;--with wet bulb, 47°.

30TH MARCH.--The night had been cool and pleasant, Thermometer at sunrise
only 42°. The cattle were yoked up early, and we travelled on over fine
grassy plains, and with open gravelly ridges on our right. At length,
about the sixth mile, these ridges closed on the river, where there was
one hill almost clear of trees or bushes. I ascended it, but could only
see plains to the westward, and a dense line of river-trees running
north. We at length encamped on what appeared to be still the Narran,
after a journey of about eight miles.

We this day passed a small group of trees of the yellow gum, a species of
eucalyptus growing only on the poor sandy soil near Botany Bay, and other
parts of the sea-coast near Sydney. Thermometer at sunrise, 42°; at 4 P.
M., 83°; at 9, 61°;--with wet bulb, 57°. Mean height of the camps of the
27th, 28th, and 30th, above the level of the sea, 509 feet.

31ST MARCH.--The various lines of trees were now so much dispersed across
the country, that to follow the line of the Narran, it was necessary to
see its ponds and channel as frequently as possible. The course, if not
of the river, at least of its ana-branches; and there were besides those,
branches of another kind, namely, true branches coming from the main
channel, as branches leave the stem of a tree, never to unite with it
again. Some of those of this description, so closely resembled in every
respect the Narran, that the difference was only to be distinguished by
observing the marks of flood on trees, and ascertaining the direction of
the current. We had crossed several such, and were rather in a "fix" with
some lagoons, when I perceived several native children in one of them. I
wished here to intercept some natives who might tell us where was the
ford of "Congo," where white men had crossed the Balonne, or where was
the river Balonne. The children fled, but two manly voices were heard
immediately, and two natives came confidently up to Youranigh and then to
me. The eldest seemed about fifty-five years of age; the other was a lad
of about twenty. They spoke of "Congo," and the Balonne (BALONGO) as
quite at hand, and undertook to conduct us to both. It was quite evident
from their pronunciation, that "Baloon" was not the proper native name,
but Bal, the termination they gave it of "GO," being an article they very
often use, Bal-go being equivalent to THE Balonne; as in speaking of the
Barwan, they say "Barwàngo." I had nearly completed the usual short
journey when we fell in with these natives, but I was unwilling to lose
the advantage of their assistance, and so travelled on under their
guidance, full five miles further, before I fixed on a spot for the camp.
This was by a splendid piece of water, named by them Tooningora, nearly
on a level with the adjacent plains, and covered with ducks. We had
passed other fine sheets of water guided by our native friends, and over
a rich grassy country remarkably level and free from scrub. It was
evidently changed by the vicinity of the larger river. I continued to
follow our new friends beyond where I had directed the party to encamp,
in expectation of seeing the marked tree at Congo, and the river Balonne.
After going forward thus about four miles, we saw five gins running off
at a great distance across some open plains, apparently near the river.
The eldest of our guides ran after them, and I requested him to assure
them that the white men would do no harm, and to tell them not to run
away. At length he overtook them. Two appeared to carry unseemly loads
across their backs, dangling under large opossum-skin cloaks, and it was
evident that these were mummied bodies. I had heard of such a custom, but
had not before seen it. I had then but a distant view of these females,
as they resumed their flight, and continued it until they reached woods
bounding the plain on the westward. The line of Yarra trees of the great
Balonne river ran parallel to our march westward, and there also,
according to my guides, was "Congo," the ford marked out by my son, and
which spot I most anxiously desired to see and identify by his initials.
Still my guides led westward towards the woods, and as we approached
them, the shout or scream of little Dicky, a native child of the Bogan,
follower of my camp, first drew my attention to a black phalanx within
the forest, of natives presenting a front like a battalion. Youranigh my
interpreter halted and remonstrated: our elder guide ran forward, and on
his reaching that body, the sound of gruff voices that arose from it
strongly reminded me of Milton's description of Satan's army:

"Their rising all at once was as the sound Of thunder heard remote."

Youranigh would not advance another step, although much pressed by the
other native remaining with us to do so, but declared that "those fellows
were murry coola," (very angry). We therefore retraced our footsteps to
the camp, without having seen either the Balongo or Congo. Our guide soon
overtook us, accompanied by fourteen of the strange natives, who, all
curiosity, passed the night at our camp, and they brought with them a lad
named "Jemmy," who spoke a little English, and had visited many of our
cattle-stations. He was very intelligible to Youranigh, who but very
imperfectly understood the language of the rest. They seemed upon the
whole a frank and inoffensive race. Their food consisted of the fish of
the river, ducks, and the small indigenous melon, CUCUMIS PUBESCENS,
which grew in such abundance, that the whole country seemed strewed with
the fruit, then ripe, and of which the natives eat great quantities, and
were very fond. It is about the size of a plum only, and in the journal
of my first interior journey (in 1831), is mentioned as a cucumber we
were afraid to eat. (Vol. I. p. 88.) Latitude of camp, 28° 38' 47" S.
Thermometer at sunrise, 42°; at 4 P. M., 83°; at 9, 61°;--with wet bulb,

1ST APRIL.--The whole party moved off about the usual hour, 7 A. M.,
still under the guidance of our new acquaintance, towards the Balonne. On
our way the natives were very careful to point out how muddy hollows
could best be avoided by our drays. I saw seated at a distance, in due
form, the tribe to which they belonged; and having directed the party to
halt, went up to them. They were seated in three groups; old men on the
right, painted red; old women in the centre, painted white; and other
women and children on the left. The few strong men who appeared, formed a
circle around me, and told me their names as they came up to me. I
desired Youranigh to tell them that we were passing that way across the
Balonne to a very far-off country, and did not wish to disturb them, etc.
When all was said that could be said, and I was about to return, one of
the chiefs, "Yarree," said "good night," words which he must have learnt
at some cattle station. Although it was only morning, I returned the
compliment with all possible gravity, and took my leave. Soon after, we
arrived on the bank of the Balonne, as fine a looking river as I have
seen in the colony, excepting only the Murray. There was a slight
current, and the waters lay in broad reaches, under banks less elevated
above the bed than those of the Darling. In breadth the channel surpassed
that of the last named river in any part, I believe, of its course.

We encamped near a shallow place, which the natives at first said was
"Congo," but where we found no marks on the trees. The curiosity of the
natives having been gratified, they disappeared; but I must mention that,
having missed the elder of the two men who had guided us here since the
first evening, I learnt, on inquiring what had become of him, that he had
gone back to his little boys, whom he had left at the water-holes where
he first met us, six miles back, and for whom he had apparently gathered
his little net of melons. Nothing could have been finer than this man's
conduct. He had at once come on with us to guide us where we wanted to
go; took great pains to make us known to his own tribe, and, I believe,
to other assembled tribes at some risk to himself; and then, without
claiming my promised gifts, he had returned to his little family, left at
such a distance, only that he might do that which was civil, to us
strangers. Yet we call these men savages! I fear such disinterested acts
of civility on the part of the civilised portion of mankind are rather
rare. He had rendered to us, at all events, a very great service; for the
danger of sudden collision with the natives was at an end, after our
introduction by him to the tribes. In the afternoon, Slater, one of the
bullock-drivers, found a good fording-place; and I sent a few men to cut
the banks, and fill up a soft part of the river bed with logs, branches,
and earth, for the better passage of the drays; a work they completed
before night. I rode about five miles beyond the river to the north-west,
and met, first with a very broad lagoon full of water, nearly on a level
with the plains, and apparently permanent; secondly, I found beyond this,
a river or chain of ponds somewhat like the Narran. This I ascertained
was called the Càwan by the natives, and that it meandered very much. The
country was rather fine. These waters were bordered by well-grown trees,
and the plains were covered with good grass. Lat. of our camp, on the
Balonne, 28° 25' 38" S. Thermometer at sunrise, 44°; at noon, 75°; at 4
P.M., 79°; at 9, 60;--with wet bulb, 54°. Height of the bed of the
Balonne above the level of the sea, 494 feet; an average of three

2D APRIL.--All the drays and the party crossed the river this morning in
good order, and without any accident or much delay, by the little bridge
we had made in its bed. While they were crossing, the place seemed to me
so favorable for a ford that it might still be possible to find some of
the marked trees said to be at "Congo." I again questioned the natives on
this point, and one youth undertook to point out some marks made by white
men. Mr. Kennedy ran with him on foot up the left bank of the river, and
was shown two trees marked, the one with "J. Towns," the other with
"Bagot, 1845." Being thus convinced that this ford was really at or near
the place called "Congo," where Commissioner Mitchell had crossed, and
found the Culgoa, at a distance of only seven miles north-west, I
determined to go forward, in the same direction, to that river, taking my
track of yesterday, which enabled me to avoid the broad lagoon.

On arriving at the "Cawan" we saw two natives fishing in a pond with hoop
nets, and Yuranigh went to ask them about the "Culgoa." He returned
accompanied by a tall athletic man; the other was this man's gin, who had
been fishing with him. There he had left her to take care of his nets,
and, without once looking at me or the party, proceeded to conduct us to
the Culgoa. I never saw a Spanish or Portuguese guide go with a
detachment half so willingly. Yuranigh and he scarcely understood a word
of what each other said, and yet the former had the address to overcome
the usual difficulties to intercourse between strange natives, and their
shyness to white men, and to induce this native thus to become our guide.
He took us to the Culgoa, which we made at about seven miles from the
Balonne, and I was so much pleased with the willing service and true
civility of this native, that I presented him with an iron tomahawk, and
I heard him twice ask Yuranigh if it really was meant for him to keep. He
then hastened back to his gin, whom he had left five miles off. This
river presented as deep a section as, but a narrower bed than, the one we
had just left. It had all the characteristics, however, of a principal
river, and really looked more important than the Barwan, except that its
waters were not then fluent. Gigantic blue gum trees overhang the banks,
and the Mimosa grew near the bed of the current. I should say that these
and much sand were the chief characteristics of the Culgoa. There were no
recent marks of natives' fires, and I was informed that they did not much
frequent that part of the river. The grass along the banks was very
luxuriant. Latitude 28° 31' 19" south. Thermometer at sunrise, 39°; at
noon, 75°; at 4 P.M., 76°; at 9, 50°;--with wet bulb, 46°. The height of
this camp above the level of the sea, being forty feet above the bed of
the river, 543 feet; from the mean of four observations.

3RD APRIL.--The section of this river being forty feet deep, and the
banks in general steep, the work necessary to render it passable to our
heavy drays could not be accomplished yesterday afternoon. This day,
however, our camp was established on the right bank of the Culgoa.
Thermometer at sunrise, 35°; at noon, 80°.; at 4 P.M., 77°; at 9, 49°;
and with wet bulb, 46°.

4TH APRIL.--We were now to proceed along the right bank of the Culgoa
upwards to the United Balonne, and thence to continue ascending along the
right bank of that river also, as far as the direction was favourable to
our progress northward. This remained to be ascertained in exploring that
river upwards. In gaining the right bank of the Culgoa, we had crossed
the vast basin of clay extending from the Bogan on the south, to this
river on the north, and westward to New Year's Range and Fort Bourke.
That country was liable to be rendered quite impassable, had the rains
set in. But even in such seasons we could still travel over the dry, firm
ground bounding this basin of clay on the northward, as the left bank of
the Bogan was also passable, however rainy the season, indeed more
conveniently then than during a dry one. Rain, if it had fallen at this
time, had greatly facilitated our exploration of the northern interior;
but these rivers we had reached would supply us with water for some
degrees to the northward, as I had been informed by the Commissioner of
the district, and in our progress so far, I hoped we should arrive at a
better watered country.

Taking a northerly course, we traversed fine grassy land, on which grew
luxuriantly the ACACIA PENDULA and other shrubs, that reminded us of the
banks of the Bogan, to which country we found here the exact counterpart,
only that this was better watered. The course of the Culgoa was more
easterly than I had calculated on, for, after going six miles northward,
I had to travel at least as many eastward before I again found the river.
We encamped on the acute north-western angle of an anabranch biting into
the firm soil, and it was evident that we had reached the Balonne Major,
or that part above the separation of the Culgoa from the Minor Balonne,
both of which we had already crossed, and which ran thus, as from our
camp the lines of trees along each of the minor channels were distinctly

The character of these rivers had been described to me by Commissioner
Mitchell, the discoverer thereof. It was late before the drays came in,
and Mr. Kennedy was led into the camp quite blind, having been suddenly
attacked with purulent ophthalmia, when engaged in the survey of our
route, about four miles from the camp. The heat had somewhat abated, but
still this complaint, which we had attributed to it, had lately affected
many of the party suddenly, as in the case of Mr. Kennedy. Latitude, 28°
27' 11" S. Thermometer at sunrise, 33°; at noon, 83°; at 4 P.M., 88°; at
9, 53°; with wet bulb, 47°.

5TH APRIL.--The party halted, and I took a ride to explore the course of
the river, proceeding first northward. In that direction I came upon an
angle of the Balonne, at about three miles from the camp. Beyond, after
passing through much ACACIA PENDULA, I crossed a small plain, bounded by
a Casuarina scrub. Partly to ascertain its extent and character, and
partly in the hope of falling in with the river beyond, I entered it. I
found this scrub full of holes, that obliged me to pursue a very tortuous
course, impeded as I was too by the rugged stems and branches. I got
through it, only after contending with these impediments for three miles.
The country beyond it looked not at all like that back from the river,
and I turned to the N.E., pursuing that course some miles; then eastward
two miles, and next two miles to the S.E., still without finding any
river; but, on the contrary, scrub in every direction. The sun was
declining, and I turned at last to the S.W., and in that direction
reached an extensive open forest, beyond which I saw at length the river
line of trees. I continued to ride S.S.W., and finally south, until I saw
our cattle grazing, and the tents, without having regained first, as I
wished, my outward track. On the bank of the Balonne we found an
apparently new species of ANDROPOGON with loose thin panicles of purplish
flowers, and in the scrub I passed through, in my ride, I found a
CASUARINA, indeterminable in the absence of flowers or fruit. It produces
a gall as large as a hazel nut. Thermometer at sunrise, 37°; at noon,
90°; at 4 P.M., 94°; at 9, 57°;--with wet bulb, 53°.

6TH APRIL.--Mr. Kennedy's eyes being still very bad, I could not proceed,
as the survey of our route was very important, in order to keep our
account of longitude correctly. The necks of the cattle were much galled,
and I therefore the more willingly halted another day. It was not without
some impatience, however, that I did so, as we were approaching a point
whence I could set out with horses to the north-west, and leave the
cattle to refresh in a depôt on this fine river, which afforded an
excellent base for our exploratory operations, in the wholly unknown
regions immediately beyond it. This line of exploration I had anxiously
wished to pursue in 1831, when obliged to return from the Karaula or
Upper Barwan; and whatever had since been ascertained about that part of
the interior, confirmed me the more in my first opinion as to the
eligibility of that direction. It had occurred to me, on crossing the
Culgoa, that by marking deeply on a tree, at each camp, a number of
reference, our survey might be more practically useful and available to
the colonists, as connecting so many particular localities therewith. I
therefore marked that No. I. in Roman numerals; this II., and I shall add
in this journal, at the end of the narrative of each day's proceedings,
whatever number or mark may be made to distinguish the place of
encampment described.

In the scrub near this, we observed an Acacia, apparently new, a
broadleaved, white-looking wattle. There was also a branching Composite,
which Sir W. Hooker has determined to be a very distinct and undoubted
species of FLAVERIA of which all the other species are natives of the New
World.[*] The CAPPARIS LASIANTHA was also found here growing on EXOCARPUS
APHYLLA of Brown; it was found by Allan Cunningham and Frazer on
Liverpool Plains, also, at Swan River. Thermometer, at sunrise, 44°; at
noon, 95°; at 4 P.M., 96°; at 9, 63°;--with wet bulb, 57°. Height above
the sea, 497 feet.

[* FLAVERIA AUSTRALASICA (Hook. MSS.) foliis lineari-lanceolatis
integerrimis basi dilatatis, capitulis densissime globoso-fasciculatis,
fasciculis subinvolucratis, bracteis exterioribus praecipue fasciculos
superantibus omnibus late amplexantibus.]

7TH APRIL.--When all were preparing to set off early this morning, I was
informed that two bullocks were missing, and a third fast in the mud on
the river bank. The two stray animals were soon found; but it was
impossible to bring on the other in the mud, for he was blown, from
having drunk too much water, after over-eating himself with grass. Our
journey was continued round one angle of the river in my horse's track.
Afterwards turning to the N. E., we crossed two miles of open forest
land, where the grass was good, and having the river in sight. At length,
even on an easterly course we could not keep it longer in view, but got
involved in a scrub on soft red sand. Emerging from this on a course of
E. S. E., we again got upon open ground, and soon saw the majestic trees
of the river in a line circling round to the northward. Coming upon it at
an angle where scrubs of rosewood and ACACIA PENDULA crowned the slopes,
we encamped on a beautiful spot. The river was magnificent, presenting a
body of water of such breadth, as I had only seen in one other river of
Australia, and the banks were grassy to the water's edge.

This day, "Jemmy," a young native whom we had seen on the Minor Balonne,
came to our camp with another youth, and the voices of a tribe were heard
in the woods. As Jemmy had not kept his word formerly, having left us
suddenly, and was evidently a scamp, I peremptorily ordered him away. I
had heard of his having brought gins to my camp at night on the former
occasion, and he was very likely to be the cause of mischief, and could
not, or at least, would not, render us any service. We desired no further
intercourse, at that time, with the natives, as those with us did not
understand their language. The misfortunes of Mr. Finch arose through
that sort of intercourse with his men, and had arrested my journey
fifteen years ago, when I had advanced to within forty miles of this
camp, intent on those discoveries I hoped at length to make even now. I
had good reason, therefore, to keep the natives at a distance here, at a
time, too, when the bodies of six white men were said to be still
uninterred in this neighbourhood. A species of CYPERUS with panicled
globular heads of flowers was found here in the sloping bank.
Thermometer, at sunrise, 47°; at noon, 97°; at 4 P. M. 97°; at 9, 69°;--
with wet bulb 57°. Height above the sea 634 feet. Latitude 28° 23' 59" S.
(Camp III.)

8TH APRIL.--We continued our journey nearly northward, keeping the river
woods in sight, as much as the country permitted. An arm or anabranch, at
first containing much water, and coming from the north, was on our right
for some miles. In following it, our natives found the tracks of three
horses, one only having had shoes on, and two foals, as if proceeding
first towards our camp, then returning. The branch from the river became
dry and sandy, but still we followed its course. We saw about a mile to
the eastward, beyond this dry channel, a splendid sheet of water on a
level with the general surface, and having extensive tracts of emerald
green vegetation about it. The dry channel obliged me to make a longer
journey than I had intended. At length, on finding the requisite water in
its bed, I encamped. This was near a pond, on whose sandy margin we saw
still the tracks of the three horses that had been there to drink. The
scrubs came close to the river with intervals of grassy plain. The ACACIA
PENDULA, and its concomitant shrubs, the SANTALUM OBLONGATUM, and others,
gave beauty to the scenery, and with abundance of water about, all hands
considered this a very fine country. At sunset, thunder-clouds gathered
in the S. W., and at about 7 P. M. the storm reached our camp,
accompanied by a sudden, very strong gale from the S. E. The lightning
was very vivid, and for half an hour it rained heavily. By 8 P. M. it was
over, and the serene sky admitted of an observation of Regulus, by which
the latitude was found to be 28° 17' 8" S. (No. IV.) Thermometer at
sunrise, 61°; at noon, 91°; at 4 P. M. 94°; at 9, 66°;--with wet bulb

9TH APRIL.--The branches of the river, and flats of Polygonum, obliged me
to follow a N. W. course. I did so most willingly, as we had already got
further to the eastward than I wished. The arm of the river spread into a
broad swamp, in which two of the drays sank, the drivers having taken no
notice of a tree I had laid across the track, to show where the carts had
been backed out. I made them unload the drays and carry the loads to firm
ground. Keeping afterwards along the margin of this swamp for many miles,
I perceived abundance of water in it, and passed the burning fires of
natives, where their water kids and net gear hung on trees about. At
length, upon turning to the eastward, I came upon the main river, where
it formed a noble reach, fully 120 yards wide, and sweeping round
majestically from N. E. to S. E. We here encamped, after a long journey.
The banks were grassy to the water's edge. We saw large fishes in it;
ducks swam on it, and, at some distance, a pair of black swans. This
surpassed even the reach at camp III., and I must add, that such an
enormous body of permanent water could be seen nowhere else in New South
Wales save in the river Murray during its floods. The Anthistiria grew
abundantly where we encamped, which was in latitude, 28° 13' 34" S. and
marked V. Thermometer, at sunrise, 63°; at noon, 94°; at 4 P. M., 97°; at
9, 63°;--with wet bulb, 62°.

10TH APRIL.--Pursuing a N. W. course, we crossed small grassy plains,
fringed with rosewood and other acacias; but, in order to keep near the
river, I was soon obliged to turn more towards the east, as Callitris
scrubs were before me. In avoiding these, I again came upon the more open
and firm ground adjacent to the river, and saw its course in the line of
large Yarra trees, which always point out its banks with their white and
gnarled arms. I may here state that the scrubs generally consist of a
soft red sandy soil; the land near the river, of clay, which last is by
far the best of the two soils for crossing with wheel carriages; the soft
red sand being almost as formidable an impediment in some situations as
mud. At length, in travelling N. eastward, we came upon a spacious
lagoon, extending westward, and covered with ducks. Perceiving, by drift
marks, that it came from the West, I kept along its margin, following it
as it trended round to N. E., where we arrived at the main channel, about
that part whence the waters of the lagoon emanate during high floods.
That lagoon presented an excellent place for a cattle-station. Water
could never fail, as the main stream was at hand, if even the lagoon
dried up, which seemed not at all likely. PSORALEA ERIANTHA was abundant
in the bed of the river, along with INDIGOFERA HIRSUTA, and CROTALARIA
MITCHELLII.[*] Thermometer, at sunrise, 44°; at noon, 99°; at 4 P. M.,
97° at 9, 66°;--with wet bulb, 58°.

[* C. MITCHELLII (Benth. MS.) erecta, ramulis flavescenti-tomentosis,
stipulis parvis subulatis, foliis ovali-ellipticis obtusis retusisve basi
angustatis supra glabris subtus calycibusque subsericeo-
pubescentitomentosis, bracteolis in pedicello brevissimo minutis
setaceis, legumine sessili glabro. Allied to C. RETUSA and SERICEA, but
flowers much smaller, in short dense spikes. It agrees in most respects
with the short character of C. NOVOE HOLLANDIOE, etc., but the leaf is
not articulated on the footstalk, and the stipules exist.]

11TH APRIL.--Proceeding due north we had the river close on our right
hand, when two miles on. After making a slight detour to avoid a gully
falling into it, we continued the same course over open forest land, and,
at length, saw an immense sheet of water before us, with islands in it.
This was also a lagoon supplied by floods in the Balonne. It was covered
with ducks, pelicans, etc. I called it Lake Parachute, no natives being
near to give me their name for it. I must here add that the true
aboriginal name is not Baloon, however, but Balonne, and this I the more
readily adopt to avoid the introduction of a name so inappropriate
amongst rivers. I was obliged to turn this lagoon, by moving some way
about to my right, for it sent forth a deep arm to the S. W. which lay
across my intended route. Continuing to travel northward, we arrived upon
the banks of a lagoon, where they resembled those of the main channel,
having trees of the same kind and fully as large. The breadth was very
uniform, and as great as that of the river, so that it seemed this had
once been the bed of the Balonne. We crossed it at a dry part of the
swamp, the waters extending and increasing in it to the eastward. In the
opposite direction it was equally uniform and continuous, but apparently
dry. On crossing this old channel, I turned sharply to the N. E., aware
that it is usually at acute angles in a river's course that such
overflowings break out. I found it necessary in the present case to turn
eastward, and even to the southward of east before I could find the river
again. At length we came upon the channel divided amongst ridges of sand,
where the waters took a sharp turn and broke thus into separate currents.
I was now very desirous to select a camp where the cattle might remain to
rest and refresh while I proceeded with a small party to the N. W. This
place did not please me, having been too scrubby, the water not well
tasted, and the grass dry, therefore liable to be set on fire by the
natives, or by accident. A bulbous species of CYPERUS grew on the bank of
the Balonne, and in the river we found the common European reed, ARUNDO
PHRAGMITES: a Loranthus allied to L. LINEARIFOLIUS, but with broader
leaves, grew on some of the trees, and we saw a fine new species of
ADRIANIA.[*] (No. VII.) Thermometer, at sunrise, 47°; at noon, 102°; at 4
P. M., 104°; at 9, 69°; with wet bulb, 62°. Average height above the sea,
of camps V. VI. and VII., 559 feet.

[* A. HETEROPHYLLA (Hooker MSS.) foliis ovato-acuminatis grosse
sinuatoserratis integris cordatisve trifidis, utrinque bracteisque

12TH APRIL.--I accordingly put the party in motion at an early hour, and
soon came upon the river, where it formed a noble reach of water and came
from the westward, a new direction, which, with the sand that had for
some days appeared in shallow parts of its bed, raised my hopes that this
river might be found to come from the north-west, a direction it
maintained for five miles. The breadth was uniform, and the vast body of
water was a most cheering sight. The banks were 120 yards apart, the
course in general very straight, contributing much to the perspective of
the scenery upon it. At one turn, denuded rocks appeared in its bed,
consisting of ironstone in a whitish cement or matrix, which might have
been decomposed felspar. I at length arrived at a natural bridge of the
same sort of rock, affording easy and permanent access to the opposite
bank, and at once selected the spot for a dépôt camp, which we
established on a fine position commanding long vistas both up and down
the river. It was, in fact, a tête-de-pont overlooking the rocky passage
which connected the grass on both sides. This was No. VIII., and in
latitude 28° 1' 37''. Thermometer, at sunrise, 68°; at noon, 104°; at 4
P. M., 101°; at 9, 74°;--with wet bulb, 64°.

13TH APRIL.--Here I could leave the jaded cattle to refresh, while, with
a small party on horse-back, I could ascertain the farther course of the
river, and explore the country to the north-west where centred all my
hopes of discovery. I set on foot various preparations, such as the
stuffing of saddles, shoeing of horses, drying of mutton, and, first of
all in importance, though last likely to be accomplished, the making a
pair of new wheels for a cart to carry water. Thermometer, at sunrise,
47°; at noon, 100°; at 4 P. M., 101°; at 9, 67°;--with wet bulb, 62°.

15TH APRIL.--This day I sent Mr. Kennedy to examine the country in the
direction of 331½°, my intended route, and he returned about 10 P. M.,
having seen what he considered indications of the river on his right when
about twelve miles from the camp, and plains to the left. Upon the whole,
I resolved, from what he said of the scrubs he had met with, to travel
north-west, that direction being perpendicular to the general course of
this river, and therefore the most likely to lead the soonest to higher
ground. Thermometer, at sunrise, 68°; at noon, 104°; at 4 P. M., 103°; at
9, 72°;--with wet bulb, 67°.

16TH APRIL.--In order better to contend with the difficulty of wanting
water, and be better prepared for it, I formed my party rather of
infantry than cavalry, taking only two horses, drawing a cart loaded
chiefly with water, and six trusty men, almost all old soldiers. We were
thus prepared to pass several nights without requiring other water than
that we carried with us. I hoped thus to be enabled to penetrate the
scrubs, and reach, and perhaps cross, the higher land bounding this great
basin. Our first day's progress, being rather experimental, did not
extend above ten miles. I had been obliged to send back the shaft horse,
and exchange him for a better, as our load of water was heavy. The day
was very sultry. Thermometer 105° Fahrenheit, in the shade. We had passed
over ground more open than I expected, but by no means clear of scrubs.
Thermometer, at sunrise, 64°; at 4 P. M., 105°; at 9, 71°;--with wet
bulb, 67°.

17TH APRIL.--The messenger returned early with two horses, one being my
own second charger, which I put as leader to the cart. We then got
forward on foot as fast as the men could walk, or rather as fast as they
could clear a way for the cart. We passed through much scrub, but none
was of the very worst sort. The natives' marks on trees were numerous,
and the ground seemed at first to fall westward as to some water-course;
and, after travelling about five miles, there appeared a similar
indication of water to the eastward of our route. At one place even the
white-barked gum trees appeared; but, although they had the character of
river trees, we found they grew on an elevated piece of clay soil. After
completing about ten miles, I halted for two hours to rest the horses,
where there was a patch of good grass, and we gave them some water from
our stock. The mercurial column afforded no indication that we were at
all higher than our camp overlooking the river, and it seemed, therefore,
not improbable that we might meet with some other channel or branch of
that prolific river. After resting two hours we continued, passing
through woods partly of open forest trees, and partly composed of scrub.
Towards the end of our day's journey, we crossed land covered with good
grass, and having only large trees on it, so thinly strewed as to be of
the character of the most open kind of forest land. Saw thereon some very
large kangaroos, and throughout the day we had found their tracks
numerous. We finally set up our bivouac a little before sunset, on a
grassy spot surrounded by scrub. In this scrub I found the CLEOME FLAVA
of Banks, and the strong-smelling AMBRINA CARINATA. A very remarkable
whiteness appeared on the leaves of the EUCALYPTUS POPULIFOLIUS, which,
on very close examination, appeared to be the work of an insect.[*] On
the plains the SALSOLA AUSTRALIS formed a round bush, which, when loose
from its very slight root, was liable to be blown about. Thermometer at
sunrise, 71°; at 9 P. M, 68°;--with wet bulb, 64°.

[* The following letter from Mr. Westwood to Dr. Lindley relates to
specimens of this brought to England:--

"I am sorry that the state of the specimens from Sir Thomas Mitchell (or
rather, I should say, the time when they were gathered) does not allow me
to say much about the insect by which they are formed. It is an extremely
beautiful production, quite unlike any thing I have yet seen, and is, I
have no doubt, the scale of a coccus. It is of a very peculiar form,
resembling a very delicate, broad, and flattened valve of a bi-valve
shell, such as the genus Iridina, the part where the hinge is being a
little produced and raised, and forming the cover of the coccus which
secretes the beautiful material just in the same unexplained way as the
scale insects form the slender attenuated scales beneath which they are
born. I could not discover any insect beneath the specimens of Sir Thomas
Mitchell's production in a state sufficient to determine what it really
is, as I only found one or two exceedingly minute atoms of shrivelled up
insects. It is extremely brittle, and looks more like dried, white,
frothed sugar than any thing else."]

18TH APRIL.--A pigeon had flown last evening over our camp in a N. N. E.
direction, and as the ground sloped that way, and the men believed that
water was there, I rode this morning in that direction, leaving the other
horses to feed in the meantime. At two miles from our bivouac I found
some hollows in a scrub where the surface consisted of clay, and which
evidently at some seasons contained water, although they were then dry.
Polygonum grew around them, and I doubt not that after a fall of rain
water would remain there some time. On riding two miles beyond, in the
same direction, I found open forest land only. The country was well
covered with good grass, very open, yet finely wooded. We again proceeded
north-west over some fine forest land. The soil was, however, only soft
red sand, and made it very heavy work for our horses drawing the

On passing through a Casuarina scrub, we entered upon a different kind of
country as to wood and grass, the soil being much the same, or still more
loose and sandy. The surface bore a sterile heathy appearance, and the
trees consisted chiefly of a stunted box, growing but thinly. Instead of
grass, black, half-burnt roots of a wiry plant appeared, which I
afterwards found in flower (SEE INFRÀ), and one small, shrubby, brown
bush, very much resembling heath; apparently a Chenopod with heathlike
leaves, and globular hairy heads of flowers. The roots of the
firstmentioned plant presented much obstruction to our cart-wheels in
passing over the soft sand. As I stood awaiting the cart's arrival, some
birds drew my attention, as I perceived I had attracted theirs. They
descended to the lowest branches of the tree in whose shade I stood, and
seemed to regard my horse with curiosity. On my imitating their chirp one
fluttered down, and attempted to alight on my horse's ears. On my
whistling to them, one whistled some beautifully varied notes, as soft as
those of an octave flute, although their common chirp was harsh and
dissonant. The male and female seemed to have very different plumage,
especially about the head; that on the one having the varying tint of the
Rifle bird, the head of the other more resembling in colour, that of the
DACELO GIGANTEUS. They were about the size of a thrush, and seemed the
sole residents of that particular spot, and I had not seen them
elsewhere. The carts came slowly forward, the horses being much
distressed. I continued to ride some miles ahead, and passed through a
scrub in a clay hollow, to which succeeded another open forest country
with more of the soft red sand. The people with the cart could not
overtake me, and I returned. Meeting them at a rather bad place, I
determined to encamp at some patches of grassy ground somewhat out of our
line, in latitude, 27° 43' S. It is remarkable that, according to the
barometer, we had not ascended higher than our depôt camp on the river,
at a distance of nearly forty miles from it. I had just quitted my
horse's back, and had resolved to return, when two horsemen were seen
approaching along our track. They were two of our party come from the
depôt to bring me a despatch, which had been forwarded by Commissioner
Wright, communicating the news of Dr. Leichardt's return from Port
Essington, and enclosing the Gazette with his own account of his journey.
Thus it became known to us that we could no longer hope to be the first
to reach the shores of the Indian Ocean by land. Thermometer, at sunrise,
62°; at 4 P. M., 93°; at 9, 71°;--with wet bulb, 64°.

19TH APRIL,--I left the men with the cart, to follow while I rode forward
along its track, and sat down to peruse the newspapers sent me, until the
cart overtook me in the evening, the horses being quite exhausted by the
heat and the heavy sand. Thermometer, at sunrise, 61°; at noon, 86°; at
9, 63°;--with wet bulb, 59°.

20TH APRIL.--The men who brought the despatches yesterday having been
ordered to bring fresh horses this day from the depôt, I sent our tired
animals on thither at once, as we could give them but a limited quantity
of water. I rode forward also to the camp, and met the fresh horses about
half-way. I immediately ordered the repair of the wheels of another light
cart, determined to lose no time in exploring a passage towards the head
of Carpentaria. Thermometer, at sunrise, 48°; at noon, 95; at 4 P. M.,
93°; at 9, 63°;--with wet bulb, 58°.

21ST APRIL.--The cart came in about 9 A. M. The morning was cloudy, for
the first time this month, and a slight shower fell. Had three or four
days' rain fallen at that time, it would have enabled me to have explored
by much less circuitous routes, than along the bank of this great river,
the country to the north-west. In this case, the tour from which I had
just returned might have been continued, as I wished and intended, had it
been possible to find water, to the mountains or higher ground, whatever
it might be that formed the limits to this basin on that side.
Thermometer, at sunrise, 65°; at noon, 76°; at 4 P. M., 77°; at 9, 60°;
--with wet bulb, 53°.

22D APRIL.--The clouds continued to lower, and a great change in the
temperature accompanied this visible change in the sky, but the mercurial
column remained uncommonly steady. Arrangements for a concentrated party
engrossed my attention so fully this day, with the insertion also of our
late work on the general map, that even the newspapers from the colony
lay unread. Mr. Kennedy took a ride across the river in a S. S. E.
direction, and found a fine grazing country with open forest, as far as
he went, which was about twelve miles. On the banks of the Balonne,
during my absence, they had found, besides a small bearded CYPERUS, a new
creeping PSORALEA [*], and a new species of Acacia, which Mr. Bentham has
named A. VARIANS.[*] Thermometer, at sunrise, 41°; at noon, 76°; at 4 P.
M., 77°; at 9, 61°;--with wet bulb, 56°. Mean elevation of this camp
above the level of the sea, being 50 feet above the river, 623 feet.

[* P. ERIANTHA (Benth. MS.) prostrata, canescenti-pubescens, foliis
pinnatim trifoliolatis, foliolis ovatis oblongisve dentatis, pedunculis
elongatis multifloris, floribus inferioribus remotis superioribus
approximatis, calycibus pube molli albida dense tomentosis, legumine
molliter villoso.]

[* A. VARIANS (Benth. MS.) glabra, pallida v. glauca, ramulis
subangulatis, phyllodiis oblongo-lanceolatis v. inferioribus late
obovatis summisve linearibus, omnibus basi longe angustatis apice obtusis
v. oblique mucronatis subimmarginatis vix obscure glanduliferis
uninervibus tenuiter reticulato-penniveniis, capitulis sub 20-floris
solitariis subracemosis v. in racemos foliatos dispositis, calycibus
truncatis, legumine glabro crasso sublignoso. Very near A. SALICINA, and
possibly a mere variety; but the phyllodia are generally considerably
broader, and the inflorescence different.]

Chapter IV.


23RD APRIL.--Our little party started at noon. I took with me eight men,
two native boys, twelve horses, besides my own two, and three light carts
with provisions for ten weeks--determined, if possible, to penetrate
northward, into the interior country, and ascertain where the division of
the waters was likely to be found. I intended, with this view, to trace
upwards the course of the Balonne, until I found mountains to the north-
westward of it; then, to endeavour to turn them by the west, and thus
acquire some knowledge on that most interesting point, the watershed
towards the Gulf. I left instructions with Mr. Kennedy to follow my track
with the drays and main body of the party, and to set out on Monday, the
4th of May, when the cattle would have had three weeks' rest.

The first few miles of this day's journey were along a clayey flat or
hollow, which enabled me to avoid scrubby and sandy ground on each side.
I believed its direction (N. E.), to be about parallel to the river.
Leaving it at length to make the river, I met with rather a thick scrub;
but came upon the river where the banks were very rocky and picturesque.
Its course seemed to be from N. E.; but, following another flat of firm
clay, I got again into scrub so thick that I turned eastward towards the
river, and travelled along its bank until I encamped in lat. 27° 56' 12"
S. There was but little water in the bed of the river there; but long
islands of sand, water-worn banks, with sloping grassy bergs behind. The
bed, in most places, consisted of rock, the same ferruginous
conglomerate, or clay ironstone, seen in the same river lower down. Grass
was excellent and abundant on the bergs and near the river, but thick
scrub crowned these bergs on our side. It was too late to admit of my
examining the other. On our way through the scrub this day, we saw the
ENOCARPUS SPARTEA of Brown, a leaf-like wing-branched shrub; and the
beautiful parasite, LORANTHUS AURANTIACUS, occupied the branches of
Eucalyptus. Thermometer, at sunrise, 49°; at 9 P. M., 47°;--with wet
bulb, 41°. [* The dates on the map show my camps; the Roman numerals
those afterwards taken up by Mr. Kennedy, in following my track with the
main body.]

24TH APRIL.--Set off early, travelling along the bank. The direction was
N. N. W. and N. W. For the first few miles, the scenery was wild and very
fine. Masses of rock, lofty trees, shining sands and patches of water, in
wild confusion, afforded evidence of the powerful current that sometimes
moved there and overwhelmed all. At this time, the outlines were wild,
the tints sublimely beautiful. Mighty trees of Casuarinae, still inclined
as they had been made to bend before the waters, contrasted finely with
erect Mimosae, with prostrate masses of driftwood, and with perpendicular
rocks. Then the hues of the Anthistiria grass, of a redbrown, contrasted
most harmoniously with the light green bushes, grey driftwood, blue
water, and verdure by its margin; all these again--grass, verdure,
driftwood, and water--were so opposed to the dark hues of the Casuarinae,
Mimosae, and rifted rocks, that a Ruysdael, or a Gains-borough, might
there have found an inexhaustible stock of subjects for their pencil. It
was, indeed, one continuous Ruysdael.

"That artist lov'd the sternly savage air, And scarce a human image
plac'd he there."

May the object of our journey be successful, thought I then; and we may
also hope that these beauties of nature may no longer "waste their
sweetness in the desert air;" and that more of her graces may thus be
brought within the reach of art. Noble reaches next extended in fine
perspective before us; each for several miles, presenting open grassy
margins along which we could travel on firm ground unimpeded by scrub. At
length I perceived before me a junction of rivers, and could see along
each of them nearly a mile. I had no alternative but to follow up that
nearest to me, and found upon its bank many recent encampments of
natives; at one of which the fires were still burning. The country was
grassy, and so open, as almost to deserve the colonial name of "plain."
This channel took me a long way northward, and to the N. N. E.; but
finally turned west, and at last south. Its bed was full of sand; and at
length we found it quite dry, so that, when I would have encamped, I
could find no water. Yet it bore all the character of a large river;
marks of high floods, Mimosae, sand, and river driftwood, like the other.
It might, and probably did, finally come out of the main channel; but
this seemed too remote a contingency for our wants then, and I crossed
it, to look for the other. In riding eastward, I found a wide plain
bounded by trees that looked like those along the river. No time could be
spared for further reconnoissance: I took the party across, and made for
the nearest part. My course was first N. E., then East, finally South, in
following the various slopes; and it was only after travelling fifteen
miles beyond the point where I met with this river, that I reached the
bank of the other, at a spot distant only FOUR miles from where I had
quitted it. This was only accomplished at forty minutes after 4 P. M.,
when we had travelled twenty-six miles. As our circuitous route was
likely, if followed by Mr. Kennedy with the heavy drays, to cause delay
and inconvenience, I resolved to halt next day, and write to him on the
subject, explaining how he could most readily fall into my track by
crossing the other channel, quitting first the other track, at a spot to
be marked by Graham, who took the letter. Nevertheless, it had been
imperative on me to follow it up as I had done; because, whether as a
separate tributary or an ana-branch only, the right bank was likely to
suit us best, provided only that water could have been found in its bed.
Near the new river, the INDIGOFERA HIRSUTA of Linnaeus, with its spikes
of reflexed hairy pods, was common; and also the MOSCHOSMA POLYSTACHYUM.
Lat. 27° 47' 57'' S. Thermometer, at sunrise, 38°; at 9 P. M., 59°;--with
wet bulb, 56°.


"The dawn is overcast, the morning lowers, And heavily in clouds brings
on the day."

A grateful change in the weather promised rain; but suggested to me a
contingency for which I had not provided in my letter to Mr. Kennedy, and
Graham was gone. A flood coming down, might fill the channel of the
other, and prevent Mr. Kennedy's party from crossing to fall into my
track; or, if that should finally prove only an ana-branch, shut me up in
an island. On this point I again, therefore, wrote to Mr. Kennedy, and
buried my letter at the spot marked by Graham, and according to marks on
trees, as I had previously arranged with him. I then instructed him to
examine the dry channel far enough upwards (halting his party for the
day) to ascertain whether it was a separate river, or an ana-branch; and,
in the latter case, to keep along its banks, and so avoid the possible
difficulty of crossing it during rainy weather. Thermometer, at sunrise,
65°; at noon, 70°; at 4 P. M., 66°; at 9, 64°;--with wet bulb, 63°. Mean
height above the sea, 586 feet.

26TH APRIL.--Sunday. Corporal Graham returned from the depôt camp at 1 P.
M. The sky continued cloudy, and the barometer low. High wind from the
west arose about 3 P. M. Thermometer, at sunrise, 63°; at noon, 78°; at 4
P. M., 78°; at 9, 56°;--with wet bulb, 53°.

27TH APRIL.--The party set off early. We found that a river from the
north joined the channel we were about to follow up in its course from
the east. The northern river contained water in abundance; and I
determined to follow it up so long as the course was favourable, and
water remained in it. The general course was much the same as that of the
first (about 39 E. of N.). The bed and ponds increased; and after
following it up about eleven miles, I encamped the party, and rode
northward to ascertain if it was likely to change its course. In ten
minutes, I came upon a splendid reach, extending north-west as far as I
could see it. Lat. of our camp, 27° 42' 42" S. Thermometer, at sunrise,
37°; at noon, 69°; at 4 P. M., 72°; at 9, 57°;--with wet bulb, 55°.

28TH APRIL.--Masses of a ferruginous rock extended across the river bed
like a dyke, in a N. W. and S. E. direction; and as the river here broke
through these rocks, changing, at a sharp angle, its course to the S. W.,
it seemed probable that the general course from above might be parallel
to these rocks. Continuing along the bank, we found the reaches large,
full of water; the country clear of scrub and covered with luxuriant
grass. One singular flat sweeping round to the W. S. W. was covered with
the rich grass PANICUM LOEVINODE. The tropical PEROTIS RARA, a delicate
grass, producing long purple tufts of reflexed bristles, was also here
observed. The general direction of the river was towards the N. W., and
whenever it took any turn towards the east, I continued to travel
northward, and thus, on three occasions, came upon its bank again,
cutting off detours I must otherwise have described in following its
course. We encamped on a beautiful spot, the sight of which would have
rejoiced the heart of a stockholder. A fresh westerly breeze blew during
the day, and we were as free from the annoyance of heat, as if we had
been in England during the same month. Latitude 27° 32' 37" S. The
direction of the river's course was uncommonly straight, and its long
sweeping reaches, full of water, seemed capable of being rendered
available for the purpose of forming water communications. The surface of
the adjacent country presented a thin deposit of sand, near the river,
attesting the great height to which its waters sometimes rise; and minor
features of ground near, showed, in their water-worn sections, that they
had been wholly deposited by the river. Thermometer, at sunrise, 39°; at
4 P. M., 69°; at 9, 48°;--with wet bulb, 46°.

29TH APRIL.--The tendency of the soft earth of the banks to break into
gullies, branching back into impervious scrubs, was such as to prevent me
from either seeing much of the river during this day's journey, or
pursuing a straight course. At one place I could only follow the grassy
margin of the river, by passing between its channel and the berg, all
seared as it was with water-worn gullies, and crowned with scrub; but I
was soon locked up under these where a bad hole impeded our progress
along the river, and I was obliged to back the carts out, the best way I
could. While travelling along the margin I perceived a slight current in
a gravelly part of the bed. I had previously observed a whitish tinge
like that of a fresh in the river water, this day and yesterday,
doubtless the product of the late rain, and probably from these clay
gullies. After a circuitous journey, we came out on a clear grassy brow
over-looking much open country. There I still met with heads of gullies,
but could easily avoid them, and after traversing a fine grassy plain, we
encamped as near the river as the gullies would allow, in latitude 27°
28' 27". One of the party, John Douglas, from the top of a tree,
discovered vast plains in the N. E. extending to the horizon, a river
line pursuing a northerly course, and in the N. W. a mass of cloud hung
over what he supposed to be mountains. Thermometer, at sunrise, 36°; at 4
P. M., 63°; at 9, 47°; with wet bulb, 44°.

30TH APRIL.--Obliged to keep at some distance from the river, I came upon
open forest land, where gentle undulations took the place of the rugged
gullies. Thus we travelled over a beautiful country, due north, with
sufficient indications of the river on our right, in the slopes that all
fell to that side. There were ponds in some hollows, and we made the
river itself at various parts of our route. At length, where it bit on a
high scrubby bank, I again proceeded northward and came upon a large
lagoon, sweeping round to S. W. and S. S. W., further than we could see.
It had on its surface numerous ducks, and a large encampment of native
huts appeared at one end. We encamped by this lagoon, in latitude 27° 20'
S. Again vast plains and downs to the N. E. were seen by Dicky, our
youngest native, from a tree. Thermometer, at sunrise, 27°; at 4 P. M.,
65°; at 9, 43°.

1ST MAY.--On leaving the lagoon, passing between its head and the river,
we were soon enveloped in a thick scrub of Casuarinae, on ground broken
into gullies falling to the river. I tried to pass by the lower margin of
this, but gullies in the way obliged me to ascend and seek a passage
elsewhere. Forcing our way, therefore, through the scrub and out of it,
we found outside of it, in an open forest, the box and Angophora, and
could go forward without impediment, first to the N. W., afterwards
northward, and N. E. At length the woods opened into fine grassy plains,
bounded on the east by trees belonging to the river berg. There I saw
still the trees we had so gladly got away from, the Casuarina; also the
cheering white arms of the Yarra, or blue gum. The prospect before us
improved greatly; fine plains presented a clear way to the northward,
with the river apparently coming thence, and even round from the N. W.
From a tree, Yuranigh descried hills in the N. E. and the plains
extending before us. I also perceived, from the wide plain, a distant low
rise to the N. W. We crossed two hollows on these grassy plains, each
containing deep ponds, and descended towards what seemed a branch of the
river; we encamped near it, in latitude 27° 15' 4" S. As we approached
this spot, natives were seen first looking at us, and then running off--
Yuranigh said he recognized one of them as a countryman of his own. I
endeavoured to make him cooey to them, or call them, but they made off,
setting fire to the grass. Any information from natives of these parts
might have been very useful to us then, and I hoped they would at length
come to us. Thermometer, at sunrise, 26°; at 4 P. M., 67°; at 9, P. M.,
48°;--with wet bulb, 46°.

2D MAY.--There was a decided difference between the river we were now
upon, as well as the country along its banks, and the large river by
which we had travelled so far. This was undoubtedly but a small
tributary, as its direction seen this day showed, being from the
westward, while its waters, meandering in various narrow channels amongst
plains, reminded us of some of the finest parts of the south. Which was
the principal channel, and which to cross, which to travel by, was rather
difficult to determine. The country was very fine. These water courses
lay between finely rounded grassy slopes, with a few trees about the
water's edge, marking their various courses at a distance. A considerable
breadth of open grassy plain, intervened between this river and the woods
back from it. At length, sloping stony bergs came near the river's bed,
but there the smooth naked water-worn clay was the best ground we could
have for wheels, and we thus hugged each bend of the river, passing close
to the channel. I hoped thus to find plains on the next change of the
river's course. And so it turned out for some way, but the receding bergs
guided me, even when only seen at a considerable distance, in shaping my
course. Keeping my eye on their yellow slopes, I travelled far along a
grassy flat which brought me to a lake containing water like chrystal,
and fringed with white lotus flowers. Its western shore consisted of
shelving rock. An immense number of ducks floated on its eastern
extremity. From this lake, following a grassy flat to the N. W., we at
length reached the river, or rather its bed, seared into numerous
channels. The lake, and long flat connected with it, appeared to me more
like the vestiges of a former channel, than as the mere outlet of surplus
waters; nor did it seem that the water is now supplied from the floods of
the river. I followed this a few miles further, and then encamped just
beyond, where much gravel appeared in the banks. While the men were
erecting the tents, I rode some miles to the westward, and found an open
iron-bark forest covering it, with much luxuriant grass. This was rather
peculiar, as compared with any other part passed through. It was also
undulating; and, from a tree ascended by Yuranigh, it was ascertained we
were approaching mountains, as he saw one which bore 77°, also a hill to
the eastward, in which latter direction (or rather in that of 333°), he
saw also an open country. Thermometer, at sunrise, 47°; at 4 P. M., 62°;
at 9 P. M 57°; mean height above the sea, 694 feet.

3RD MAY.--Natives were heard near our camp during the night, and we
perceived the smoke of their fires, in the bushes, behind in the morning.
Yuranigh went up to them, accompanied by one of the party bearing a green
branch, and he prevailed on three of their tribe to come to our tents.
One stood amongst the carts and tents, apparently quite absorbed in
observation. Intense curiosity in these men had evidently overcome all
their fears of such strangers. They were entirely naked, and without any
kind of ornament or weapon, offensive or defensive. With steady fixed
looks, eyes wide open, and serious intelligent countenances, what passed
in their minds was not disguised, as is usual with savages. On the
contrary, there was a manly openness of countenance, and a look of good
sense about them, which would have gained my full confidence, could we
but have understood each other. They asked for nothing, nor did they show
any covetousness, although surrounded by articles, the smallest of which
might have been of use to them. There must be an original vein of mind in
these aboriginal men of the land. O that philosophy or philanthropy could
but find it out and work it! Yuranigh plied them with all my questions,
but to little purpose; for although he could understand their language,
he complained that they did not answer him in it, but repeated, like
parrots, whatever he said to them. In the same manner, they followed me
with a very exact repetition of English words. He, however, gathered from
them that the lake was called "Turànimga," this river "Cogoon," a hill to
the eastward "Toolumbà," etc. They had never before seen white men, and
behaved as properly as it was possible for men in their situation to do.
At length we set out on our journey, and in mounting my horse, which
seemed very much to astonish them, I made signs that we were going to the

Travelling by the river bank was easy, over grassy forest land. The deep
ponds were tolerably well filled, but the quantity of water was small, in
comparison with that in the Balonne; which the natives seemed to say we
had left to the right, and that this was "one of its brothers." Malga
scrub crowned the bergs of the river, where they bounded one of these
forest flats forming its margin, and the mere sight of that impervious
sort of scrub was sufficient to banish all thoughts of making straighter
cuts to the north-west. Our course, with the river, was, however, now
rather to the west of north-west; and that this was but a tributary to
the Balonne, was evident. That river line, as traced by us, pursued a
tolerably straight direction between the parallels of 29° and 27°, coming
round from nearly north-east to about north. For these last three days we
had travelled with this minor channel, to the westward of north-west; in
which direction I had, therefore, good reason to expect that we should
soon find mountains.

As soon as we arrived at an eligible spot for the camp, I proceeded, with
Yuranigh, towards a height presenting a rocky face, which I saw through
the trees, and seemed distant about two miles. From that crest, I
perceived woody ridges on all sides, but all apparently sloping from the
south-west; and a misty valley beyond the nearest of them in the
northeast, like the line of the Balonne. But the most interesting sight
to me then, was that of blue pics at a great distance to the north-west,
the object of all my dreams of discovery for years. No white man had
before seen these. There we might hope to find the DIVISA AQUARUM, still
undiscovered; the pass to Carpentaria, still unexplored: I called this
hill Mount First View, and descended, delighted with what I had seen from
its rocky crest. The sides were covered with Malga scrub. The rock was
felspathic, apparently allied to those already seen in the Balonne. Lat.
27° 2' 57" S. Thermometer, at sunrise, 45°; at 4 P. M., 68°; at 9 P. M.,
45°;--with wet bulb, 43°.

4TH MAY.--An Australian morning is always charming,--amid these scenes of
primaeval nature it seemed exquisitely so. The BARITA? or GYMNORHINA, the
organ-magpie, was here represented by a much smaller bird, whose notes,
resembling the softest breathings of a flute, were the only sounds that
met the ear. What the stillness of even adds to such sounds in other
climes, is felt more intensely in the stillness of morning in this. "The
rapture of repose that's there" gratifies every sense; the perfume of the
shrubs, of those even that have recently been burnt, and the tints and
tones of the landscape, accord with the soft sounds. The light red tints
of the ANTHISTIRIA, the brilliant green of the MIMOSA, the white stems of
the EUCALYPTUS, and the deep grey shadows of early morning, still
slumbering about the woods, are blended and contrasted in the most
pleasing harmony. The forms in the soft landscape are equally fine, from
the wild fantastic tufting of the Eucalyptus, and its delicate willow-
like ever-drooping leaf, to the prostrate trunks of ancient trees, the
mighty ruins of the vegetable world. Instead of autumnal tints, there is
a perpetual blending of the richest hues of autumn with the most
brilliant verdure of spring; while the sun's welcome rays in a winter
morning, and the cool breath of the woods in a summer morning, are
equally grateful concomitants of such scenes. These attach even the
savage to his woods, and might well reclaim the man of crime from
thoughts likely to disturb the harmony of human existence.

Following up the little river with more confidence now, since I had seen
whence it came, I proceeded more directly north-west. Thus I found myself
on a small creek, or chain of ponds, from the west and southwest, so that
I crossed it and made for some open ground, between ridges clothed with
dense Malga scrub. We thus crossed a low ridge, and descended towards a
fine open country, on which pigeons were numerous, and traces of natives.
It was also sloping to the northward, and I had no doubt that we had
passed into a valley which I had observed yesterday from Mount First
View, and had supposed it contained a larger river. In the open ground, I
found a small rocky knoll which I named Mount Minute. From its summit, I
recognised Mount First-Sight, bearing 128° 30'. We next passed through
some scrub, and came to a hollow full of Acacia pendula. Following this
down we arrived at a chain of ponds, and these led to an open grassy
valley, in which we found our old friend, the river, still pursuing,
steadily, a north-west course. Travelling along the bank, for a mile or
two, we found that these now consisted of fine open forest flats; and at
length encamped on the margin, after a journey of about twelve miles.
Near our camp, I saw natives on the opposite bank, first standing in mute
astonishment, then running away. I held up a green bough, but they seemed
very wild; and, although occasionally seen during the afternoon, none of
them would approach us. We found on the banks of this river, a purple-
flowered CALANDRINIA, previously unknown.[*] Lat. 26° 57' 39" S.
Thermometer, at sunrise, 25°; at 4 P. M., 70°; at 9, 37°;--with wet bulb,

[* C. BALONENSIS (Lindl. MS.); foliis angustis obovato-lanceolatis
alternis oppositisque, racemis secundis multifloris caulibus multo
longioribus, floribus (conspicuis) polyandris.]

5TH MAY.--The three last nights had been cold, each, in succession,
colder than the former. This morning the thermometer stood at 19° E., yet
the water was not frozen, nor did our natives, sleeping in the open air,
seem to feel it. Hence, it was obvious that, in a dry atmosphere, extreme
cold can be more easily borne than in one that is moist. So, also, in the
opposite extreme of heat and drought, we had been so accustomed to a
higher temperature than 100° F., that any degree under that felt
refreshing. Our journey this day by the side of the little river was
still very straight towards the N. W. We met with rocks at the westerly
bends; from which side it was also joined by a small tributary, with
ponds and hollows containing marks of flood, and beds of the POLYGONUM
ACRE. Still, however, the main channel could be distinguished from these,
and the open forest flats along its banks became more and more extensive
and open as we ascended this channel,--leading so directly where we
wished to go.

Hills were occasionally seen back from it, chiefly covered with scrub,
but some were grassy and seemed fit for sheep. Others were clothed with
callitris, and there the woods were open enough to be travelled through.
I rode to the summit of one and recognized two of the points seen from
Mount First Sight. At one sharp turn of the river rugged rocks had to be
removed to make a way for the carts, but this was soon done. Beyond,
there was a noble reach of water in a rocky bed, traversed by a dyke of
felspathic rock, which exhibited a tendency to break into irregular
polygons, some of the faces of which were curved; its strike was E. and
W. We encamped on open forest land in lat. 26° 54' 16" S. It was only
during the last two days that I could perceive in the barometer, any
indication that we were rising to any higher level above the sea than
that of the great basin, in which we had journeyed so long, and the
difference was still but trifling, as indicated by not more than six or
seven millimetres of the Syphon barometer; our actual height above the
sea being 737 feet. Thermometer, at sunrise, 19°; at 4 P. M., 67°.

6TH MAY.--The banks of the Cogoon became more open, and the slopes less
abrupt as we advanced. They frequently consisted of a mixture of sand, at
a height of twenty feet above its bed; where it occupied a section of
considerable width, as much, perhaps, as 100 yards between bank and bank.
On these rounded off banks or bergs of forest land, Youranigh drew my
attention to large, old, waterworn, trunks of trees, which he showed me
had been deposited there by floods. As they were of a growth and size
quite disproportioned to other trees there, I was convinced that they
were the debris of floods; and, consequently, that a vast body of water
sometimes came down this channel. This native was taciturn and observant
of such natural circumstances, to a degree that made his opinion of value
in doubtful cases. Such, for instance, as which of two channels, that
might come both in our way, might be the main one; thus my last resource,
when almost "in a fix," was to "tomar el parecer," as they say in Spain,
of this aboriginal, and he was seldom wrong. At length, the cheering
expanse of an open country appeared before us, and a finely shaped hill,
half-covered only, with bushes. On reaching an elevated clear part, I saw
extensive downs before me. The river turned amongst woods to the
eastward, and I continued on our route to the north, sure of meeting with
it again, as some fine forest ridges hemmed in the valley to the
eastward. Besides the hill already mentioned (which I named Mount
Inviting), there was a curious red cone some miles to the westward,
crowned with a bit of rock, on which I longed to plant my theodolite.
After crossing the plain, we entered an open scrub of Acacia pendula
which gradually changed to an open forest, within which I met with a
chain of ponds, and encamped in lat. 26° 46' S. I immediately set out,
with a man carrying my theodolite, for Mount Red Cap, distant from our
camp about six miles. This little red cone had a very singular
appearance, as we approached it from the east. A dark tinted scrub of
flat-topped trees enveloped its base, on the outside of which the light
and graceful Acacia pendula also grew on the grassy plain. I found the
red rock to be the common one of the country, in a state of
decomposition. It was hollowed out by some burrowing animal, whose tracks
had opened ways through the thick thorny scrub, enabling us to lead our
horses to near the top. From the apex, I obtained an extensive view of
the country then before us, in many parts clear of wood to the verge of
the horizon, and finely studded with isolated hills of picturesque form,
and patches of wood. Looking backward, or in the direction whence we had
come, our valley appeared hemmed in by more continuous ridges; and,
towards the extremity of them, I could just recognise Mount First View,
this being one of the distant cones I had seen from it. I took as many
angles as the descending sun permitted, and then retraced our horses'
tracks to the camp. Thermometer, at sunrise, 20°; at 9 P. M., 47°. Height
above the sea, 747 feet.

7TH MAY.--Pursuing a N. W. course, we crossed a fine tract of open
forest, then a plain, beyond which we entered a scrub of Acacia pendula,
in which pigeons and quail were very numerous. Turning northward, now
anxious again to see the river, on approaching this open country, we
found what we considered the highest branch of it, in a chain of ponds
skirting the wood bounding the plains. Halting the party, I continued my
ride a mile and a half further northward, to the summit of a clear ridge.
From thence I saw an open country to the northward, with some little
wood. On my right, or to the eastward, a double topped hill sate in the
centre of this fine open country, and from the abundance of good
pasturage around it, I named it Mount Abundance. We continued still to
follow the now attenuated channel upwards, and found it to come from the
west, and even south-west, leaving the extreme corner of the open downs,
and leading us into a scrub. There, it formed two branches, in neither of
which could we find any water, and had consequently to return to the last
of its ponds, situated exactly at the close of the open country towards
the S. W. There, we encamped in latitude 26° 42' 27" S., thankful that we
had been enabled by its means to advance thus far, and to discover so
fine a tract of country as that watered by it. Thermometer, at sunrise,
48°; at 4 P. M., 68°; at 9, 30°.

8TH MAY.--This morning Fahrenheit's thermometer stood at 21° in my tent,
a degree of cold I should never have expected to have seen indicated from
my own sensations, or from the state of the pond, which was not frozen,
neither was there any hoar frost. The sun rose in splendour; pigeons
cooed, and birds were as merry as usual in the woods. The business of the
day was most exciting; I was to ride over the fine open country to the
westward of Mount Abundance, and there look still for a higher branch of
the river, or A river; confident that so fine a region could not be
deficient in water, but more confident from what I had seen of the range
to which we had approached so near. Riding to the N. N. E. in about two
hours we came upon the identical river we had so long followed up. It was
accompanied, as usual, by the Acacia pendula; had its rounded bergs;
reedy water holes; and an open strip along the left bank. Crossing it I
rode over towards an elevated part of the open downs, in hopes to obtain
a sight of what the country was beyond, but I found that to be
impossible, as it seemed boundless. So, turning, I ascended an elevated
north-eastern extremity of Mount Abundance, and from it beheld the finest
country I had ever seen in a primaeval state. A champaign region, spotted
with wood, stretching as far as human vision, or even the telescope,
could reach. It was intersected by river lines from the north,
distinguishable by columns of smoke. A noble mountain mass arose in the
midst of that fine country, and was so elongated in a S. W. and N. E.
direction, as to deserve the name of a range.

A three-topped hill appeared far to the north of the above, and to the S.
E. of the first described, another mass, also isolated, overlooking that
variegated land of wood and plain. To the S. E. of all these, the peaks
of a very distant range were just visible. I determined to name the whole
country Fitzroy Downs, and to identify it, I gave the name of the Grafton
Range to the fine mass in the midst of it. In hopes of obtaining an
elevated view over the country to the westward, I endeavoured to ascend
the northern summit of Mount Abundance, but although the surface to near
the top was tolerably smooth, and the bush open, I was met there by
rugged rocks, and a scrub of thorny bushes so formidable as to tear
leathern overalls, and even my nose. After various attempts, I found I
was working round a rocky hollow, somewhat resembling a crater, although
the rock did not appear to be volcanic. The trees and bushes there were
different from others in the immediate vicinity, and, to me, seemed
chiefly new. It is, indeed, rather a curious circumstance, but by no
means uncommon, that the vegetation on such isolated summits in
Australia, is peculiar and different from that of the country around
them. Trees of a very droll form chiefly drew my attention here. The
trunk bulged out in the middle like a barrel, to nearly twice the
diameter at the ground, or of that at the first springing of the branches
above. These were small in proportion to their great girth, and the whole
tree looked very odd. These trees were all so alike in general form that
I was convinced this was their character, and not a LUSUS NATUROE. [A
still more remarkable specimen of this tree was found by Mr. Kennedy in
the apex of a basaltic peak, in the kind of gap of the range through
which we passed on the 15th of May, and of which he made the accompanying

These trees grew here only in that almost inaccessible, crater-like
hollow, which had impeded me in my attempt to reach the summit.[*]
Leaving the horses, however, I scrambled through the briars and up the
rocks to the summit, but found it, after all this trouble, too thickly
covered with scrub to afford me the desired view to the westward, even
after I had ascended a tree on the edge of the broad and level plateau,
so thickly covered with bushes. On returning and descending eastward
towards the open country, I found a much more practicable way down than
that by which I had ascended. Returning to the valley of the Cogoon, I
passed between the two summits, and found a good open passage to the
westward between the brigalow. Thermometer, at sunrise, 20°; at noon,
70°; at 4 P. M., 68°; at 9, 30°. Height above the sea 1043 feet.

[* This remarkable plant constitutes a new and very curious genus of
Sterculiads. It agrees with STERCULIA in the position of the radicle with
respect to the hilum, but it is, otherwise, a BRACHYCHITON, with which it
more especially corresponds in the singular condition of the seeds. These
are placed, six together, in the interior of long-stalked, ovate,
mucronate, smooth, deep brown follicles, of a tough papery texture, and
lined with a thin fur of stellate hairs. The seeds themselves are also
closely covered with starry hairs, which are so entangled that they hold
the seeds together firmly; these hairs, however, are absent from the
upper half of the seed, whose thin brittle vascular primine is shining,
smooth, and marked with a brown nipple, the remains of the foramen.
Within the primine lies the bony crustaceous secundine, which is quite
loose, and seems as if it were independent of the primine. Eventually the
end of the thin brittle primine breaks like an eggshell and the secundine
falls out. The seeds themselves, remaining attached to each other and to
the follicle, resemble six deep cells, or may be rather compared to half
a dozen brown eggshells, placed on the broad end, from which the young
have escaped through the point.

Sir Thomas Mitchell has named the genus after Sir Henry T. De la Beche,
as president of a Society which has greatly encouraged him in his
Australian researches; and in honour of a science which has occasionally
thrown some light on his dark and difficult path. It may be
scientifically described as follows:--


CHAR. GEN. CALYX 5-fidus, valvatus. ANTHEROE congestae. STYLI. ...
STIGMATA. ... FOLLICULI coriaceo-papyracei, 6-spermi, longè stipitati,
intus stellato-pubescentes. SEMINA albuminosa, albumine bipartibili
cotyledonibus foliaceis parum adhaerente, pube stellari basi vestita,
inter se et fundo folliculi cohaerentia; PRIMINÂ laxâ, tenui, fragili,
apice foramine incrassato notatâ, SECUNDINÂ crustaceâ, demum liberâ
chalazâ magnâ circulari notatâ. EMBRYONIS radicula hilo contraria.


ARBOR grandis, trunco in dolii speciem tumescente. LIGNUM album, laxum,
mucilagine repletum, vasis porosis (bothrenchymate) maximis faciem
internam cujusque zonae occupantibus, radiis medullaribus tenuibus
equidistantibus. FOLIA lineari-oblonga, acuminata, integerrima, in
petiolum filiformem ipsis duplbreviorem insidentia, subtus pallida et
quasi vernice quâdam cinereâ obducta. INFLORESCENTIA axillaris,
trichotoma, tomentosa, foliis brevior. CALYX valvatus, utrinque

The wood of the tree has a remarkably loose texture: it is soft, and
brittle, owing to the presence of an enormous quantity of very large
tubes of pitted tissue, some of which measure a line and half across;
they form the whole inner face of each woody zone. When boiling water is
poured over shavings of this wood a clear jelly, resembling tragacanth,
is formed and becomes a thick viscid mass; iodine stains it brown, but
not a trace of starch is indicated in it. No doubt the nutritious quality
of the tree is owing to the mucilage, which is apparently of the same
nature as that of the nearly allied Tragacanth tree of Sierra Leone

It is not a little remarkable that the barrel-like form of the trunk
should be almost exactly paralleled by another Sterculiad, the CHORISIA
VENTRICOSA of Nees, called by the Brazilian Portuguese PAO BARRIGUDO. It
seems, however, that a tendency to a short lumpish mode of growth is
common among the order, as is indicated by the Baobab of Senegal, which
is almost as broad as it is long, and the great buttress trees, or Silk-
Cottons of tropical America.--J. L.]

9TH MAY.--The thermometer stood at 19° in my tent this morning, yet no
ice appeared on the adjacent pool; for this reason, we named that branch
of the river Frosty Creek. In order to leave a more direct track for Mr.
Kennedy to follow with the drays, I made the carts return about two miles
to the spot where we first made these ponds. There I had a trench cut
across the track to the camp we had quitted, and also buried a letter for
Mr. Kennedy, in which I instructed him to avoid that detour which might
have otherwise led him into scrubs. We then prolonged our track from the
south, northward across the open downs. I travelled in the direction of
the meridian, and most of our route, this morning, marked a due north
line. We came, at length, upon a watercourse which I took for our river,
as the banks were finely rounded, the ponds full of water, and the woods
quite open. The scenery was parklike and most inviting. The watercourse,
soon, however, dwindled into a mere chain of ponds, and these at last
were found to contain no water, when we had completed our day's journey.
Open downs surrounded us, and fortunately I could still distinguish my
rocky position of yesterday, where I had noted that the general direction
of the river channel we had now again left, bore N. W. We were still much
to the southward of the line so observed, apprehending, as I did think
then, that some tempting plains might take us too far along some western
tributary. Riding in search of water, I perceived a column of smoke to
the northward; and, taking the party in that direction, we found, in the
first valley we fell in with, a chain of ponds, and in one of these water
enough for our use, whereupon I gladly encamped. This day we discovered a
new EUCALYPTUS which casts its bark in small angular pieces.[*] Latitude,
26° 33' 34" S. Thermometer, at 4 P. M., 74°; at sunset, 63°. Height above
the sea, 1299 feet.

[* E. VIMINALIS (Hook. MS.); foliis alternis glaucis lineari-lanceolatis
breviter tenuiter petiolatis subfalcatis utrinque acuminatis
reticulatovenosis, nervis lateralibus marginem prope, racemis paucifloris
axillaribus, calyce turbinato in pedicellum brevem attenuato.]

10TH MAY.--Continued nearly northwards, over fine open forest land. The
sprinkling of mountains of peculiar forms here and there, and the open
country, which showed a bluey distance, were new features in the scenery,
and most pleasing to us, so long accustomed to travel through a level
woody country. The visible possibility of overlooking the country from
any eminence, is refreshing at all times, but to an explorer it is every
thing; besides he is not half so much in danger of wanting water, when in
the neighbourhood of mountains: with these sentiments I went forward this
morning, even although rather despairing of seeing more of our friendly
river. We crossed two chains of dry ponds, apparently some of its highest
sources. Still I travelled steadily towards a fine mountain before us,
over open downs, but with scrubs on either side. Reaching a dry bushy
hill S. E. of the mountains, about the time we should have encamped, I
perceived that the country sloped most to the eastern side of it, which
was rather out of my course; for the sake of finding water more readily I
got into a water-course falling that way, and followed it down. This,
opening soon into grassy flats, enabled us to avoid the scrubs. The
welcome white-trunked Eucalyptus next over-hung the holes of the water-
course, and the valleys spread into beautiful open plains, gracefully
fringed with Acacia pendula. Still, the ponds were dry. I crossed a bare
grassy eminence, and, where several channels met, I saw luxuriant white
trunks; heard and saw many cockatoos of the same colour (PSITTACUS
GALERITUS); and found there an abundant pond of water, beside which we
encamped. On some of the Eucalyptus trees grew a beautiful Loranthus,
which was new to us; it proved to be one formerly discovered by the
indefatigable Allan Cunningham, but only now described by Sir William
Hooker.[*] Thermometer, at sunrise, 28°; at 4 P. M., 76°; at 9, 38°;--
with wet bulb, 34°.

[* L. NUTANS (All. Cunn. in Hook. Herb.) totus incano-glaucescens, foliis
oblongis ellipticis sublanceolatis obtusis coriaceis obscure trinerviis
tenui-rubro-marginatis basi in petiolum mediocrem attenuatis, pedunculis
axillaribus longitudine petiolorum racemosis compositis, floribus ternis
nutantibus, calycibus globoso-campanulatis ore contracto, petalis
linearibus.--Two varieties, a narrow-leaved and a broad-leaved, were
subsequently discovered; that now described was the narrow-leaved form.]

11TH MAY.--I ascended the mountain accompanied by two men with axes, and
one carrying my theodolite. The summit was covered with thick scrub
interlaced with vines, but my horse could push his way almost any where.
I fortunately found a rock near the summit, and, on throwing down a few
of the trees about it, obtained an extensive view over the country to the
northward. Open downs surrounded the mountain. Beyond these, valleys,
also clear of trees, or thinly wooded, fell on one side to the S. E., on
another side, other valleys fell to the N. W., leaving a rather elevated
tract between; which appeared to connect this mountain with a range just
dimly visible, bearing nearly north. The valley descending towards the N.
W., seemed to me to be the head of a river likely to pass through a
remarkable gap in a flat range, beyond which the view did not extend. To
the westward a woody, and rather level country appeared, from which I
thought I saw ridges, with plains or downs between them, descending
towards the N. W. river.

Anxious to discover the division of the waters, I carefully levelled my
theodolite and swept the northern horizon, but found, to my surprise,
that the country to the westward was lower than the hill on which I
stood, and that the ridge northward with the gap in it, was lower still,
the only greater elevation visible being the lofty mass bearing about due
north. Could this be all the obstruction I was prepared to open a pass
through? Could the hidden mystery of the division between the northern
and southern waters be here? Far in the east, a river line was evident
from columns of smoke, as well as from the termination of various lateral
ranges, between my position and the great mountain to the northward. That
was, probably, still the Balonne falling southward. Here I had found an
interior river that would, at all events, lead north-west, and this I
resolved to follow. On this mountain there grew, in several spots, the
remarkable trees I had first seen on Mount Abundance; some of them much
resembling bottles, but tapering near the root. On descending and
returning to the camp, which was about five miles from the hill, I found
eight natives, who had come frankly forward to the party during my
absence. I was very glad to see them, and gave to an old man, a tomahawk
to express my sentiments, and welcome the strangers, for little could be
understood by our native, of their speech, or by them, of his. We did,
however, make out from them, that the hill I had just returned from, was
"Bindango;" its lesser brother to the westward of it, Bindyègo; and the
ponds or creek beside which we were then encamped, "Tagàndo;" all very
good sonorous names, which I was glad to adopt at once in my notes and
map. These natives were coloured with iron-ochre, and had a few feathers
of the white cockatoo, in the black hair of their foreheads and beards.
These simple decorations gave them a splendid holiday appearance, as
savages. The trio who had visited us some days before, were all
thoughtful observation; these were merry as larks, and their white teeth,
constantly visible, shone whiter than even the cockatoo's feathers on
their brows and chins. Contrasted with our woollen-jacketted, straw-
hatted, great-coated race, full of work and care, it seemed as if nature
was pleased to join in the laugh, at the expense of the sons of art. Sun
never shone upon a merrier group of mortals than these children of nature
appeared to be. One amongst them was a fine powerful fellow, whose voice
sounded so strongly, that it seemed as if his very whisper might be heard
half a mile off. The old man remained by our fire all night; the others
who, as I understood, were all his sons, had departed about 11 P. M.,
having left their gins in the vicinity. Thermometer, at sunrise, 22°; at
noon, 76°; at 4 P. M., 59°; at 9, 35°.

12TH MAY.--I took a ride in the direction where I hoped to find a river
flowing towards the interior, according to my observations at Mount
Bindango. I rode over an open plain, or open forest country, soon found
the dells marked by water-courses, and, at length, the channel of a
river, with the Yarra trees. Following this new channel downwards a short
way, I found the beds of the ponds moist, and seven emus, running from
one a-head of me, first indicated the situation of a large pond; from
which three wood-ducks also waddled away as I approached it. This water
was only fifteen miles from where I had left the party encamped, to which
I hastened back with the tidings of a discovery that was likely to
expedite so much our momentous journey. Thermometer, at sunrise, 30°; at
noon, 81°; at 4 P. M., 59°; at 9, 52°;--with wet bulb, 51°. Height above
the sea, 1168 feet.

13TH MAY.--I buried a letter here for Mr. Kennedy. This day the party
crossed the dividing ground, which I found to be elevated only 1563 feet
above the sea, and consisting, as already stated, of fine open grassy
downs, sprinkled with Acacia pendula and other shrubs. One or two knolls
projected, however, and resembled islands in a sea of grass. I rode to
one and found it consisted wholly of trap-rock in nodules. This was the
first trap I had seen during the journey beyond the Barwan, and from
their aspect I thought that other minor features of the mountains
Bindango and Bindyègo, which I had not leisure to examine then, also
consisted of this rock. The little knoll I did visit, was about one
hundred yards in diameter at its base on the plains, and was covered with
trees wholly different from those in the adjacent forest, namely,
CALLITRIS PYRAMIDALIS, EUCALYPTUS (Iron-bark species), etc. We next
descended to a separate system of drainage, apparently falling to the
north-west. Instead of following rivers upwards, as we had hitherto been
doing, and finding them grow less, or taking a tributary for a main
channel, we were now to follow one downwards, with the prospect of
finding it to increase as we proceeded. The relief from the constant
apprehension of not falling in with water was great, as each day's
journey was likely to show additional tributaries to our new found river,
and, of course, to augment the supply. The old native at Tagàndo, had
pointed much to the north-west, frequently repeating the word "MARAN;"
whether that was, or what was, the name of this river, remained to be
ascertained. A sweet breeze from the N. W. met us as we descended the
slopes, and thus it was that white men first passed in that direction,
"AL NACIMIENTO DE LA ESPECERIA." Thermometer, at sunrise, 26°; at noon,
75°; at 4 P. M., 64°; at 9, 43°. Height of camp above the sea, 1226 feet.

14TH MAY.--The left bank of the river being rather steep and broken, I
crossed it, determined to pursue a N. W. course, so long as I found the
country open, thinking I might easily fall in with the river about the
time I wished to encamp, believing its course would be towards the gap.
We passed through some scrub, but chiefly over good forest land. When we
had travelled on about ten miles, I saw hills nearly clear of wood before
me, and halted the party while I went forward to look at the country in
that direction. I soon overlooked a deep dell, full of the richest grass,
and wooded like a park. The fall of the enclosing ranges showed me,
however, that our river might be further to the westward than I had
thought at all likely. On returning to the party, I found they had been
called to by natives in our rear, one of whom was formally seated in
advance, prepared for a ceremonious interview; and I accordingly went
forward to him with the green bough, and accompanied by Yuranigh. We
found him in a profuse perspiration about the chest, (from terror, which
was not, however, obvious in his manner,) and that he had nothing at all
to say to us after all; indeed his language was wholly unintelligible to
my native, who, moreover, apprised me that he was the big bully from the
tribe at our former encampment, then distant some twenty-five miles. He
handled my hat, asked for my watch, my compass, and was about to examine
my pockets, when Yuranigh desired him to desist, in a tone that convinced
him we were not quite at his mercy. I thought he said that the river was
called the "Amby," and something about the "Culgoa!" It then, for the
first time, occurred to me, from a gesture of this man's arm, that this
might be only a tributary to the Culgoa after all. We bade him adieu as
civilly as we could, but he hung upon our rear for a mile or two, and I
perceived that he had brought with him his whole tribe after us. Nothing
more unfortunate can befall an explorer, than to be followed by a wild
tribe like this, as I had experienced in former journies. The gift of the
tomahawk had done all this mischief, and how it would end, was a thought
which caused me some anxiety. The tall savage had set his heart upon our
goods and chattels, and it was not in human nature for him to desist from
his aggressive purpose, if we could not, in some way, contrive to cheek
the pursuit. I knew instinctively, by the first sound of a loud whisper
of his at "Tagando" at night, near our tents, that there was no music in
this man's soul. We soon arrived at a ridge of ferruginous sandstone,
whereof the strike tended S. S. W. and the dip was to the eastward. A
gradual ascent brought us to the verge of a low ridge, which was steep
towards the N. W., and a rocky knoll (of red sand-stone) afforded me a
view of the gap I had seen from Bindango, and hills about it. I
perceived, with great disappointment, that the structure of the country
was not according to my anticipations. The river course seemed marked out
by plains far to the south-west, and all the valleys and watercourses
fell FROM the gap in that direction, and not TO the gap. Still the
country about that opening looked very inviting. Picturesque hills,
clothed with grass and open forest, especially on their summits, and
dells between them, yellow or red with rich ripe grass, indicated a spot
of the finest description; and through the gap lay my destined line of
route, to the north-west, river or no river. Just then, however, we
wanted water, but on following a little channel about a mile downwards,
we found in it a spacious pond, and encamped. I rode three miles further
down this channel, which there turned SOUTHWARD, so that I despaired of
my newly discovered river Amby being of any further utility now; but I
was almost convinced that it would have brought me into this very
country, had I come round by Fort Bourke. Latitude 26° 17' 8" S.
Thermometer, at sunrise, 35°; at 4 P. M., 80°; at 7 P. M., 71°; at 9,
48°. Height above the sea, 1150 feet.

15TH MAY.--My servant Brown drew my attention, early this morning, to
natives occasionally peeping at us from a hill overlooking our camp. Some
time after, I perceived a figure resembling a large black quadruped, with
head erect like a lion, prowling about, amongst the long grass beside my
after breakfast tree. Taking my glass, I recognized the identical big
savage of yesterday.

Hamlet might here have exclaimed--

"What a piece of work is man! ... ..... how infinite in faculties! In
form and action how like a QUADRUPED! In apprehension, how like a DEVIL!"

There the fate of Mr. Darke[*] doubtless awaited me; and this was to be
the result of my spontaneous gift of a tomahawk to the old man! This
savage had evidently been watching us all night, and his party were
concealed behind the hill. Our only remaining little dog, Procyon, had
been very restless during the night, when these people were, probably,
drinking at the pond near us. My rifle (fortunately I now think) was in
the case, but I fired a carbine so that the fellow should hear the bullet
whistle near him into the long grass; and at the same time shouted,
expressive of my disgust at his conduct, making the men join in a loud
JEERING cheer as he galloped off, still on all-fours, towards his camp.
My horse was standing saddled for a ride of reconnoissance in a different
direction, and, as it was not desirable that these people should know
either where I went, or even that I was absent, I took this opportunity
of frightening them away from our rear, and covering my ride the other
way. With this intention, I immediately mounted, rode first to the tree,
with my rifle in hand, and, accompanied by one of the men and Yuranigh,
both mounted, I next examined their camp behind the hill, whence I found
that a great number had just retired, leaving even their opossums still
roasting on the fire;--they having, in a very brief interval, by rapid
strides, retired to a considerable distance, where I heard their shouts
in the woods, calling their gins together for a precipitate retreat--
aware that we were now justly offended. I then set out, passing behind
some hills on the opposite side of our camp, and proceeded with the
business of the day, through woods in an opposite direction. I found a
low flat-topped range, extending nearly W. N. W., and consisting of black
ferruginous sandstone. It was broad and of peculiar structure, so that it
might well have been considered a dividing feature. Parallel to it on the
south, a line of pointed hills of trap or basalt, extended so as to give
birth, in the valley intervening, to the watercourse by which we were
encamped. On one of these Mr. Kennedy afterwards found the Bottle tree,
represented at page 154. I at length reached the gap in this range, and
in it discovered a most favourable and curious opening to the country
westward. Passing, then, into that region, I eagerly sought a
watercourse, soon found one, and followed it down to Yarra trees and dry
ponds; its first direction having been, as usually remarked in the
commencement of various other channels, to the N. W. Following this
downwards, I found the valley to improve, and two retreating emus drew
our attention to a particular spot, where we found water, at length, in a
pond. But the course of this little river had come round to S. W., and
the ridges enclosing its tributaries from the eastward, being apparently
in the same direction, I was still rather at a loss, but determined to
bring forward my little party to this pond, and then to reconnoitre the
country beyond. The XEROTES LEUCOCEPHALA was just coming into flower, and
the country seemed to contain much good grass. Thermometer, at sunrise,
38°; at noon, 82°; at 4 P. M., 82°; at 9, 43°.

[* This gentleman was killed by natives when obeying the calls of nature
behind a tree.]

16TH MAY.--We pursued a tolerably straight and level route with the
carts, from the camp to the Pass. The trap hills appearing successively
on the right hand, rendered the scenery more than ordinarily picturesque,
while the probable future utility of this pass, gave them still more
importance in my estimation. We found a more direct route than along the
creek, to my pond of yesterday, where we encamped, thankful to find water
at such a convenient distance, during such a dry season. Lat. 26° 15' 24"
S. Thermometer, at sunrise, 27°; at 4 P. M., 83°; at 9, 49°. Height above
the sea, of the Pass, 1458 feet;--of this camp, 1256 feet.

17TH MAY.--Another reconnoissance seemed indispensable, before I could
move the carts. Taking the direction of an opening in the sandstone
ranges before us, I found that our little creek turned (as I hoped it
would), to the W. and N. W., having on all sides broken ranges enveloping
valleys of good open forest land. Some of the tops of these ranges were
clear of timber, and bore a heavy crop of grass. I ascended one, and
found it was capped with trap rock in amygdaloidal nodules. This height
afforded me an extensive view northward, where the country appeared to be
chiefly flat and thinly wooded. A low range of hills broke the horizon,
and presented some favourable points, and I thought I could trace the
course of our little river, through an extensive intervening woody flat.
I descended from the hill, and followed the little river down, but could
find no more water in its ponds. There were the Yarra trees, and fine
grassy flats on its banks; and I came to a fine looking piece of rising
ground, on the right bank, where the grass was on fire. We sought the
inhabitants of the woods, but could discover none. I now found our creek
turning towards the south, and that its channel disappeared in a spacious
open flat. While thus perplexed, and under an apprehension that our
further progress northward in such a season would be found impossible, I
perceived a dense line of trees, skirting a grassy flat, and rode towards
it, observing, that any where else I should have said we were approaching
a large river. I next perceived steep sloping earthy banks; then, below
these, a deep section of rock, and at length, dark green reeds, and the
blue surface of extensive reaches of water. I had left my party at a pond
that could not have lasted long,--here I saw at once secure, a firm
footing thus far into the interior. Whence the river came, or whither it
went, was of less importance; thus far we had water. The river was fully
as large as the Darling, and I very soon saw that its course was from N.
to S.; but in that case, we could, by following it upwards, penetrate far
on our way into the interior, and at its sources probably fall in with
other streams, flowing where we wished to go. I followed the course
downwards about two miles, and passed through native camps just deserted,
the water vessels and other gear of the natives having been left
suspended on trees near their fires. I found that the river turned sharp
under the rocky extremities of sandstone spurs from the S., and that its
final course was an enigma not to be solved without much more research. I
returned to my camp, glad that I could take the party forward to a
permanent supply of water. Thermometer, at sunrise, 29°; at noon, 78°; at
4 P. M. 75°; at 9, 49°.

18TH MAY.--Leaving a buried letter for Mr. Kennedy we proceeded to trace,
with our cart-wheels, the best route I could find for the heavy drays
coming forward with him. The soil was sandy, but in other respects the
country was good: consisting chiefly of open forest, and being well
covered with grass. Another gap enabled me to pass very directly on to
the newly-discovered river, and it seemed that this, and the other gap
behind it, were almost the only openings in the ranges from which we had
descended. Both led in the direction of our route, and the pond we had
just left was ascertained to be the only one in the little channel. I
sought a good position for a depôt camp on the newly-discovered river,
and found one extremely favourable, on a curve concave to the N. W.,
overlooking, from a high bank, a dry ford, on a smooth rocky bed; and
having also access to a reach of water, where the bottom was hard and
firm. We approached this position with our carts, in the midst of smoke
and flame; the natives having availed themselves of a hot wind to burn as
much as they could of the old grass, and a prickly weed which, being
removed, would admit the growth of a green crop, on which the kangaroos
come to feed, and are then more easily got at. Latitude of this camp, 26°
12' 47" S. Thermometer, at sunrise, 40°; at 4 P. M., 78°; at 9, 57°.

19TH MAY.--I could now venture to halt a day without any apprehensions
about leaving sufficient water for the party who were following us; and I
had recently obtained many angles I wished to put together, in order to
learn the character of the country, which required much study. That I
should have overlooked an extensive country, without perceiving any
indication of a large river flowing through it, almost at my feet, seemed
a singular circumstance, and I was still as little aware of its ultimate
course. I found on laying down my work on paper, that the chief
elevations ran, in a continuous line, nearly due north from Mount Red
Cap, Bindango, and Bindyègo, to the high ranges nearer the coast. That
the nascent stream on the western side of Bindango (the Amby), and
flowing first N. W., turned towards the S. W. within a range of basaltic
rock, which was a branch from the main stem between Bindango and the
northern range. Thus, upon the whole, this seemed but one side, and that
the south-eastern, of the basin of the river we had discovered. Where was
the other? The marks of flood were not high. The waters were full of
fish, but they would not take the bait. Thermometer, at sunrise, 46°; at
noon, 73°; at 4 P. M., 76°; at 9, 65°.

20TH MAY.--The sky was wholly overcast, and drizzling rain afforded us
some grounds for hoping that the great impediment to our exploration
during this dry season, was at an end. The temperature underwent a sudden
change, and this day was the coldest as yet experienced during the
journey; the thermometer at noon being only 48°. F. Yuranigh contrived to
catch three fishes, of a kind wholly different from those of the rivers
in the south; leaving it doubtful, again, whether this river could belong
to the system of the Barwan. Thermometer, at sunrise, 53°; at noon, 48°;
at 4 P. M., 45°; at 9, 45°.

21ST MAY.--The morning being clear, frosty, and serene, induced me to
ride towards an elevated point, about thirteen miles to the north-west,
in hopes of obtaining a view of more distant mountains. Crossing the
river near our camp I met with no obstruction, but found open forests,
and a good grassy country throughout; the soil being, however, rather too
loose and sandy, for the easy passage of wheel carriages. I crossed three
channels of water-courses all dry, but evidently receptacles of water in
ordinary seasons. They now contained a most luxuriant crop of oat-grass
(Anthistiria). The hill was rocky and open on the summit, the chief trees
being very remarkable; especially a species of FICUS, of a unique kind,
but not in fruit, closely resembling the English ash; but growing wholly
on rock. Bottle trees (DELABECHEA) grew also in a romantic nook, such as
they seem to delight in, in the neighbourhood of minor shrubs, equally
strange. The rock consisted of a sandstone with vegetable impressions,
such as I had never seen on the sandstone of the ranges. From this
summit, the crests of very distant ranges appeared to the northward; the
highest bearing nearly north, by compass, and apparently distant 70 or 80
miles. The course of the river, or at least of a river, judging by a line
of smoke, came from the north-westward, between that mountain, and others
to the westward of it. More to the right, or eastward, the horizon
presented flat-topped ranges; increasing in elevation as they receded
from that side of the country whence we had come. That sort of level
horizon seemed always to bound our view to the southward, the little gap
was the only relieving blue break in the whole of that side. The eye
ranged over a vast extent of country, however, at its base, extending
eastward, where open plains or downs shone bright in the remote distance;
in which direction, much smoke arose from fires of the natives. I
returned from the hill but little wiser than I went, except that I had
observed the strata dipping southward, and that we might, therefore,
still look for their synclinal line to the northward; and beyond that,
for the heads of other rivers. These hills, overlooking the valley of the
river, resembled rocky bergs, at a distance of ten or twelve miles west
of it. They, however, partly formed a small range, and belonged to an
extensive tract of sandstone country; which, on the south, was broken
into gullies, falling towards the river. Thermometer, at sunrise, 27°; at
noon, 54°; at 4 P. M., 55°; at 9, 30°.

22D MAY.--This morning, the thermometer in my tent stood at 20°; and in
the open air, at 12°. The river was frozen, and the grass was white with
hoar-frost. The soil appearing so sandy in the country before us, I
resolved to form a depôt with our drays and heavy equipment here, and to
await their arrival before I proceeded further with the carts. The spot
was eligible in every respect; and in awaiting the arrival of Mr. Kennedy
with the drays, I could have time to investigate more extensively the
character of the surrounding country. I was, indeed, rather apprehensive
that the drays could not reach without difficulty even this point; and I
was resolved, on their arrival, to make some arrangement for continuing
the journey, without dragging them any further through the heavy sand. It
was most irksome, during the finest of weather, thus to be obliged to
remain comparatively inactive, in the middle of such a journey, when
horses and light carts might have enabled me to have pursued it to a
conclusion, without such delays. Thermometer, at noon, 54°; at 4 P. M.,
55°; at 9, 27°.

23D MAY.--The river seemed to cut its way through rocky ranges, and to
receive many tributaries; had, in some places, bergs, and margins of
ancient gravel and sedimentary strata; in others, rocky escarps of great
height, presented sections of rocks through which it passed. Its further
course downwards, seemed accessible for some way from this camp; and, in
awaiting the arrival of the drays, I resolved to explore it. With this
view, I this day proceeded westward to head the gullies falling to it
from the other bank, from the sandstone country already mentioned. I
ascended by an extremity of the hill, to the rocky crest without
difficulty, or much deviation from my intended course. On reaching the
western side of the rough scrubby table of the range, I found the descent
gradual, through an open forest: traversed two flats, having in them the
Yarra gums, but no water-course, the surface very sandy. Here grew the
ACACIA CONFERTA, a small shrub just coming into flower; the XANTHORRHOEA
MIMOSA (with rough bark), yellow gum, black-butted gum, iron-bark, and
stringy bark. The woods astonished my native companion Yuranigh; who
remarked that they were trees belonging to the sea coast at Sydney. But
deep rocky ravines prevented me from exploring the country, in the
direction in which I should have expected to find the river. At length,
we approached a valley, in which was a deep channel with rocky banks; but
quite dry, and very sandy. It ran to the southward; in which direction I
turned with it, to follow it to its junction with the main river; but it
pursued a very tortuous course, and our time did not admit of my going
far enough that day, and I returned to the camp, resolved to extend this
interesting search on a greater scale subsequently. I had seen, from the
furthest point I reached, that the same table land to the southward,
extended west; and it therefore appeared to me probable that the river
would be found at its base. In the evening we heard, at a short distance
from our camp, the songs of females or children; as if the overflowing of
their animal spirits. I had seen their smoke in a part of the range I
passed this day, to which I feared they had fled on our approach, hearing
our guns, and in terror of strangers. I was, therefore, glad to find that
they had no longer any dread of us, and had returned to THEIR home, the
river bank. These people had no clothing,--the mercury stood at 19° and
20° F.; the means of subsistence open to them, had been scarcely enough
to have kept white men alive, even with the aid of their guns. Yet, under
such circumstances, and with such strange visitors so close to them,
these human beings were so contented and happy, that the overflowings of
their hearts were poured forth in song! Such is human nature in a wild
state. Their happiness was not such as we could envy; on the contrary, I
was so solicitous that we should not disturb it, that, much as I wished
to learn the original name of this interior river, and something about
its course, I forbade any of the party from taking any notice of these,
its original inhabitants. Our last intercourse with the natives, had also
taught me to bear ever in mind aesop's fable of the camel. Thermometer,
at sunrise, 12°; at noon, 52°; at 4 P. M., 56°; at 9, 32°.

24TH MAY.--I proceeded, with two men bearing axes, to a hill about two
miles S. W. of our camp, one of the extremities of the range already
mentioned, (which I call River Head Range). We passed, at no great
distance from our camp, those natives whose song we had heard last
evening, but without taking any notice of them, except by slightly waving
my hand. One tall female stooped amongst the long grass, and several
others, male and female, endeavoured to hide themselves in a similar
manner, as they beheld, probably for the first time, a white man on
horseback, followed by others bearing a saw and axes. On the summit, grew
the Malga tree; which is an acacia of such very hard wood, that I was
obliged to be content to cut off the top branches only of a tree on the
summit I had endeavoured to cut down, and to erect a sort of platform on
the remainder, whence I took my angles. Up the river, there appeared some
open plains, and a level horizon, in the direction of its apparent
course. Thermometer, at sunrise, 11°; at noon, 65°; at 4 P. M., 67°; and
at 9, 30°.

25TH MAY.--Protracting the observed angles I endeavoured to fix, if
possible, some prominent points, whereby I might obtain some knowledge of
the structure of the surrounding country. The result of my work was a
conviction that the course of the river was parallel to the projecting
extremities of the low range beyond it (River Head Range), and that its
basin had extensive ramifications, back amongst the sandstone cliffs on
this side. But the course downwards still remained a question, which
diminished in its importance, as I discovered the upper course to come
from where it was my wish to go. I resolved, nevertheless, while thus
awaiting the arrival of the drays, to extend my ride of the 23RD MAY, and
ascertain whether it could turn westward under the southern cliffs, the
only direction in which it was likely to be available to us, downwards,
at this time. Thermometer, at sunrise, 17°; at noon, 70°; at 4 P.M. 68°;
and at 9, 38°.

26TH MAY.--Taking with me two men and Yuranigh, mounted, I retraced my
former track to the westward, and on proceeding beyond the dry river bed,
where I had previously been, I entered amongst sandstone gullies, where
one grassy flat extended nearly in the direction I wished to pursue; and
this brought me to a sort of table-land, covered with an open forest of
iron-bark (with the common leaf). The rock consisted here of the same
felspathic sort characterising most of the hills of the Barwan basin; the
soil sterile, bearing, in lieu of the ordinary grass, the stiff, hard
leaved, glutinous TRIODIA PUNGENS. But this was better than scrub, and,
further on, I perceived through a forest on the western slopes, the blue
distance and yellow plains of an open country. As plains usually
accompany rivers, I believed I was approaching the river I was in search
of. We crossed a deep watercourse falling to the S.E.b.S., and entered on
a noble flat of firm rich soil, whereon grew luxuriantly, the ACACIA
PENDULA (not previously seen by us in that region), and the two best
kinds of grass, ANTHISTIRIA and PANICUM LOEVINODE. Then we came to a good
pond of water, with recent footmarks of natives, and, at about a mile
beyond, we reached the open downs. They extended eastward as far as we
could see between the range on the S., under which I had expected to find
the river, and the rocky country over which we had come. Westward, the
downs were bounded by several very picturesque isolated conical hills,--
the southern sandy ranges on the S., still continuing westward like a
limit to all this interior open country. Yet through that barrier the
river had found a course, and instead of its overlooking the river, I
found that the ground rose towards it, and I hastened four or five miles
further westward, in hopes still to see it beyond the open downs, but I
saw nothing like it. Kangaroos showed their heads occasionally amid the
long grass: the air was all astir with pigeons, and traces of native
inhabitants were numerous. As the sun was then near setting, we hastened
back to the pond, and lay down beside it for the night, which happened to
be a mild one. Thermometer, at sunrise, 20°; at noon, 72°; at 4 P.M.,
71°; at 9, 44°.

27TH MAY.--We rode nearly westward towards a conical hill, which I had
seen on the evening before, and named Mount Lonsdale. This peak appeared
to me then to promise an extensive view to the W. and S.W., and in that
expectation I was not disappointed. I also fortunately recognised two of
my fixed points, at distances of thirty-two and fortytwo miles
respectively, besides an elevated extremity of the continuous range on
the S., which I had previously intersected, and here determined to be
only five miles off, bearing about S.E.b.S. I could now see not only
westward, but to the southward of S.W., for nearly twenty miles over a
long flat, containing indeed, a line of ACACIA PENDULA scrub, such as
accompanies lines of water drainage, but no river. All the country in
sight more to the northward seemed to fall that way, or southward, and
although it seemed possible that a cross line of valley and blue mist at
the far extremity of the flat might be the river, it was much more
probable, from the general slope of the country, that it was only another
tributary coming from the north.[*] Such was Yuranigh's opinion too, who
alone stood on that peak with me, and who there reminded me of the fate
of the rivers Macquarie and Narran, and maintained that rivers were not
to be found every where. "Where then is our river, Mr. Yuranigh?" "Bel me
know," was the reply. I could soon have found this out, however, had it
been an object for our journey northward. It was enough to know then that
it did not turn into that interior country, which was open, and looked
much lower, and how much further the fine valley extended beyond the
twenty miles, an adjacent woody hill prevented me from seeing. The land
around me was fair to look on; nothing could be finer than the forms of
the hills--half clear of wood, the disposition of open grassy downs and
vales--or the beauty of the woods. Water was not wanting, at least there
seemed to be enough for the present inhabitants, and to an admirer of
nature there was all that could be desired. Deeply impressed with its
sublime and solitary beauty, I sketched the scene, and descended from
that hill, resolved to follow the river upwards, as more favourable, in
that direction, to the chief object of my mission. I named the hill
overlooking that lonely dale, Mount Lonsdale, in honour of my valuable
geological friend. We reached the dépot camp in the evening, and found
all well, only that a very tall and powerful native had been
reconnoitring our position during the day, from various trees commanding
a view of it; probably only from curiosity. These visits, however, always
happened to be made, as it would appear, when some portion of the party
was absent, as on this occasion. Thermometer, at sunrise, 34°; at noon,
79°; at 4 P.M., 68°; at 9, 59°; with wet bulb, 50°.

[* Probably the Nive. See INFRA.]

28TH AND 29TH MAY.--My ride westward had enabled me to intersect more
points to the northward; but this was certainly the most intricate
country I had ever either to survey or explore; for neither by laying
down points on a map, nor by overlooking it from high summits, could I
gain a satisfactory knowledge of its structure. Upon the whole, however,
I was convinced that the downward course of the river, above our depôt
camp, was in a favourable direction for the continuation of our journey.
The arrival of the drays and the rest of the party was now an important
desideratum; for I had resolved to establish them in a dephere, and
continue the journey with a smaller party and the horses; the sandy soil
beyond the river, appearing almost impassable for the absurdly heavy
drays, with which the party had been equipped. They had now had nearly
time sufficient to come thus far, making due allowance for sand and other
obstructions. In the mean while I determined to extend my reconnoissance
northward from a commanding height, distant fourteen miles, and bearing
27½° E. of N. from my camp. Thermometer, at sunrise, 47°; at noon, 85°;
at 4 P.M., 79°: at 9, 65°.

30TH MAY.--I proceeded, accordingly, to the hill, over a tract of
excellent open forest land, which extended to its base. The summit
consisted of trap-rock in nodules, and, towards the highest point, was
much broken. On the most elevated part of the summit, grew one of those
remarkable trees, first seen by me on Mount Abundance. I had since seen
them in various solitary singular situations; two on the Hogs'-back
crest of Bindango; two or three near the summit of various other heights.
The girth of this was thirty feet at its greatest circumference, and only
sixteen at the ground. There was only one companion of the same kind, a
very young one, beside this; which in locality, form, and quality, seems
to be as remarkable a tree, amongst trees in general, as the kangaroo is
remarkable amongst other animals. Of its quality, much, I am sure,
remains to be said, when it becomes better known; the wood being so
light, moist, and full of gum, that a man, having a knife or tomahawk,
might live by the side of one without other food or water; as if nature
in pity for the most distressed of mortals, hiding in solitary places,
had planted even there this tree of Abundance. The wood must contain a
great portion of mucilage, for, on chewing it, it seems to contain as
much nutritious matter, as fibre. The pods contain a great number of
seeds which are eaten by the natives, and also by many birds; and, from
the circumstance of my having found one pod half-eaten by a bird on a
rock, the very apex of a lofty summit, the solitary locality of this tree
may, perhaps, be considered at least partly owing to its seeds being the
favourite food of some birds inhabiting such places, each seed probably
requiring to be picked out of the thick shell, in order that it may
grow.[*] The view the hill afforded me was most gratifying and
satisfactory. I saw again Mounts Bindango, Bindyego and Abundance, to the
southward; the cone I had lately visited in the west, (Mount Lonsdale):
the course of the river downwards, marked by open plains in the S. W.;
and, an extensive rather level country lay to the northward, beyond
which, at great distances, the summits of lofty mountains were just
visible. Through the wide champagne country intervening, the river's
course seemed marked by a line of smoke; a hot wind was then blowing, and
the natives are in the habit of burning off the old grass on such
occasions. The river seemed to come from the mountains, nearly from the
N.N.W.; so that the prospect of finding water in that direction, or
towards these mountains, was all I could desire. Here I intersected
various lofty distant summits seen on the 21st instant, and could thus
connect the whole trigonometrically with back angles to Bindango, Mount
Abundance, etc. In the eastward, a range of tabular masses, some almost
clear of wood, extended apparently to the coast ranges; and seemed to be
also connected with those stretching towards Bindango, and separating the
basin of the upper Balonne from this interior country. A hill similar to
that on which I stood, but of less height, lay on the interior side of
it, having a remarkable conic summit clear of bushes. The valley at the
base of these two hills contained a fine crop of ANTHISTIRIA; and there
was also a chain of ponds, where natives had been encamped not long
before, but in which no water then remained.

[* A new genus, since named DELABECHEA.]

On returning to the camp in the evening, I learnt that soon after I left
it in the morning, two natives came boldly up, painted white, bearing,
each, several spears and four or five bommerengs. They were followed by
two females bearing loads of spears. The men were got immediately under
arms, forming a line before the tents, and Corporal Graham beckoned to
the natives to halt. They pointed after me, and by very plain gestures
motioned to the party to follow me, or to begone. Finding the men before
the tents made the same signs to them, and stood firm, the principal
speaker edged off towards a man at a distance, in charge of the horses.
Graham got between, so as to cover the man and the horses, when they
advanced more boldly upon him, quivering their poised spears at him, at a
distance of only ten or twelve paces. At length the foremost man turned
round, and by slapping his posteriors, gave him to understand by that
vulgar gesture, his most contemptuous defiance: this induced the old
soldier to discharge his carbine over the head of the savage, who first
sprung some feet into the air, and then ran off with all the others. Soon
after, the same native was seen creeping up the steep bank, so as to
approach the camp under the cover of some large trees, the rest
following, and he was again met by our party. He then seemed to recite
with great volubility a description of the surrounding territory, as he
continually pointed in the course of his harangue to various localities,
and in this description he was prompted by the female behind, who also,
by rapid utterance and motions of the arm, seemed to recite a territorial
description. Finding, however, that his speech made no impression on the
white strangers, and that they still beckoned them to depart; he stuck a
spear into the ground, and, by gestures, seemed to propose that, on the
one side, the ground should be occupied by the strangers, and on the
other side, by them. Graham apparently assenting to this, they seemed
more satisfied and departed. There were two deep reaches; one above, the
other below, our camp. The upper one was deepest, largest, and more
remote from our party, and most within reach of the natives. I gave
strict orders that no man should go there; nor that the cattle should be
allowed to feed there; that it should, in fact, be left wholly to the
natives; that no ducks should be shot, that no men should fish there.
Nothing could be more reasonable than the proposal of this native, nor
more courageous than his appearance before our more numerous party, with
his spears and open defiance; and I was determined to take every
precaution to avoid a collision with his small tribe, and prevent, during
our probably long residence here, our people from doing them any harm.
Thermometer, at sunrise, 22°; at noon, 60°; at 4 P.M., 63°; at 9, 31°.

1ST JUNE.--The sound of a distant shot about noon, which proceeded from
the Doctor firing at a bird, gave us the first notice of the approach of
the other party. Soon after, Mr. Kennedy came in, measuring the line;
and, subsequently, the drays, and the whole of the men in good health.
The cattle had got refreshed without delaying me, and I could now again
proceed with a good supply of stores, leaving them again in depôt here.
Mr. Kennedy had examined the river, about which I had written to him, for
twelve miles up, and found that it was a separate river, coming from the
N.W., and that in all its bed no water could be found. The tribe of
Tagando had been troublesome to him, as I feared they would, after their
attempt upon us. The following account of their visit to Mr. Kennedy is
from his own notes:--"At 1 P.M., an old native, accompanied by five
younger men, approached the camp, each carrying a green bough, and when
within forty yards, they sat down in a line, the old man (probably their
chief) taking up his position about four yards in advance of the rest.
Sir Thomas Mitchell having mentioned, in a communication I received here,
that the natives had been friendly to him, I was anxious to preserve that
good feeling, but at the same time to keep them at a distance, according
to my instructions. I therefore went up to them with a green bough, and
endeavoured by signs to make them leave:--finding that of no avail, I
presented the chief with an old hat, and gave to each a piece of bread.
After they had eaten it, I raised the old man with my right hand, and
taking another in my left, I led them away in the direction whence they
had come, broke off a green branch, gave a portion to each, and bid them
farewell. As the others still remained in STATU QUO, I went through the
same ceremony with them until they were all on their path homewards.
Having heard nothing more of them for some time, I flattered myself that
I had succeeded in giving them a friendly hint that we did not wish them
beside us; but I soon discovered my mistake, for at 4 P.M. a large number
of natives, accompanied by two or three gins and children, came boldly up
and encamped within a few yards of the tents, and two hundred more were
reported to me by Mortimer as being at a short distance in their rear. I
gave strict orders that no man should go near them, and I mustered the
party myself at 8 P.M. Shortly afterwards, three or four natives came
down to our fires, and on the men saying that they would not be made to
leave, I put my hand upon their shoulders, and shewed them their own
camp. One tall young native in particular, wearing an opossum cloak,
exhibited a strong inclination to resist. I continued to watch their
movements until half-past eleven, P.M. up to which time they were talking
very earnestly, continually repeating the words "white fellow." I had not
retired to my tent five minutes when I heard Baldock (one of the two men
on watch) several times desire the natives to go back, who, as it
appeared, would insist on coming forward to our fires. Serjeant Niblet
then called me, saying he thought "all was not right," that the natives
refused to keep away, and that he had seen the fire sticks of others
approaching from several directions. On turning out, I found them making
a line of fires within twenty-five yards or less of our tents, and the
grass on fire, the old man urging them on in their mischievous work. I
called to them in the language of some of the aborigines, to go away
quickly, using the words "Yau-a-ca-burri!" but seeing that they still
drew nearer with their fires, to the imminent danger of the camp, I
desired the men, who by this time had got ready with their arms, to
charge them with a shout, but not to fire until they received orders. We
succeeded in making them run; when, to add to their alarm, one or two
shots were fired in the air. In their haste, they left the old hat I had
given them, an iron tomahawk, and a few other implements, behind them,
all of which I caused to be left untouched, in order to show them that we
had only objected to their intrusion. All being quiet, and the cattle
brought close to the camp, I added a third man to the morning watch, and
no more was heard of the natives." This was a specimen of the treacherous
nature of their mode of warfare, and very characteristic of the
aborigines, but by no means so creditable to them, as the conduct of our
neighbours at this camp, where the arrival of the other party was likely
to convince them still more, that they could not induce us to quit that
position, until we thought proper to do so. I had instructed Mr. Kennedy
to continue the numbering of the camps; but as the drays could not keep
pace with mine, only some of my camps have been so numbered, the others
marked being those where his party had passed the night. This depôt camp
was, thus, No. XXIX, and the numbers of such others of mine as have been
marked between this and VIII., shall be added to this journal, and the
whole marked on the map. A new species of CALLITRIS appeared among the
trees, the ACACIA STENOPHYLLA, and the large leaved variety of ACACIA
DECORA, further removed than usual from the common form, and approaching,
in some respects, to A. RUBIDA. Among the bushes was the beautiful little
A. CONFERTA, remarkable for its little heath-like leaves, and among the
grasses was remarked an abundance of a new annual SPOROBOLUS with
extremely minute flowers.[*] Thermometer, at sunrise, 18°; at noon, 64°;
at 4 P.M., 64°; at 9, 30°.

[* S. PALLIDUS (Lindl. MS.) foliis planis glabris ligulâ nulla nisi
squamulâ quâdam, paniculâ effusâ ramis brevibus alternis verticillatisque
scabriusculis, paleis truncatis alterâ 3-nervi alterâ binervi.]

2D JUNE.--Two half-boats were mounted on frames, and fixed over two of
the light carts, and other preparations made for the prosecution of the
journey with a small party. My plan was to reduce each man's ration of
flower from 7lbs. to 4lbs. per week: to allow a larger quantity of
mutton: some gelatine and barley, dried potatoes, etc. With my party, I
now proposed to take forward a portion of the sheep, as not requiring
carriage, and Mr. Stephenson, a man to assist him, and the shepherd,
formed the only addition to the number with which I had advanced to this
point. Mr. Kennedy had brought me a dispatch from Commissioner Mitchell,
accompanied by some newspapers, in which I read such passages as the
following:--"Australia Felix and the discoveries of Sir Thomas Mitchell
now dwindle into comparative insignificance." "We understand the intrepid
Dr. Leichardt is about to start another expedition to the Gulf, keeping
to the westward of the coast ranges," etc., etc. Not very encouraging to
us, certainly; but we work for the future. Thermometer, at sunrise, 11°;
at noon, 67°; at 4 P.M., 67°; at 9, 30°.

3D JUNE.--This day one of the party caught several fishes in the river,
which appeared to be of the same species as the Eelfish, or Plotosus
tandanus described in the journal of my first journey (Vol. i. p. 95). It
is therein stated to be an Asiatic form of fish, on the authority of Mr.
Wm. M'Leay, but in other respects this was identical with one in the
Barwan. The course downwards of the new river, which we even now believed
to be called the Maran, from what we had gathered from the natives, was
thus almost proved to be towards the southern rivers. I instructed Mr.
Kennedy to employ the party in digging, and fencing in, and daily
watering, a garden; also, to make a stockyard wherein to lodge the cattle
at night, as this would leave more men disposable for the immediate
protection, if necessary, of the camp and stores. I also gave him very
particular instructions as to the natives, that no intercourse should be
allowed between them and the men; that he should, nevertheless, use them
very civilly, and endeavour to obtain some information, if possible,
respecting the final course of the Maran, etc. Thermometer, at sunrise,
16°; at noon, 69°; at 4 P.M., 66°; at 9, 34°.

Chapter V.


4TH JUNE.--EVERY preparation having been made, I bade Mr. Kennedy adieu,
for at least four months, and crossed the Maranwith my party and light
carts. It was not without very much regret that I thus left this zealous
assistant, and so large a portion of my men, behind, in departing on a
hazardous enter prise, as this was likely to be, where the population
might be numerous. Anxiety for the safety of the party left, predominated
with me, for whatever might be the danger of passing and repassing
through these barbarous regions, that of a party stationary for a length
of time in one place, seemed greater, as they were more likely to be
assailed by assembled numbers, and more exposed to their cunning and
treachery. I gave to Mr. Kennedy the best advice I could, and we parted
in the hope of a happy meeting, at the period of my return--a hope, I
must confess, I could not indulge in then, with any degree of pleasure,
looking forward to the many difficulties we were prepared to encounter,
and considering the state of my own health.

The sandy bed of the river was difficult to cross with the carts, and
delayed us an hour. A different adjustment of the loads was necessary;
therefore I was obliged to turn out of my intended route for this day,
and go into a bight of the river for water, in making a much shorter
journey. This was only of six miles from the depôt camp. Amongst the
waterworn pebbles in the bed of the river, we found various portions of
coal and the rocky sections in parts of the banks resembled its
concomitant strata. Thermometer, at sunrise, 16°; at 9 P.M., 40°.

5TH JUNE.--The ground was sandy, and several gullies descending to the
river occasioned difficulties which tried the mettle of our horses, and
convinced me that we now carried too much weight for them. I accordingly
sent back Edward Taylor and another man with a note to Mr. Kennedy, and
with directions to pick out ten good bullocks, and bring forward one of
the drays as soon as possible. We met with various dry channels of
tributaries so deep and rocky, that they seemed, at first sight, like the
main river. I wished to reach the bank of this, at a favourable point to
encamp at, and await the arrival of the expected dray. But there gullies
rendered the access difficult. Sand and callitris covered the
intermediate ground, and augmented the impediments the horses had to
contend with. After crossing three rather important channels, I turned to
the N. E., and fortunately came upon the river, where the ground was very
open, and the acclivities gentle. The bed of the river was full of water,
forming a long reach covered with a red weed, the course from north to
south, straight. Height above the sea, 1190 feet. This we marked XXXI.,
last camp being XXX. Thermometer, at sunrise, 24°; at 4 P.M., 70°; at 9,

6TH JUNE.--Taylor arrived early with a fine team and strong dray,
confident in being able to keep up with the carts, and lightly loaded, of
course, that he might cross heavy sand, or deep gullies. I employed the
time usefully, in adapting Mr. Kennedy's measurements to my map. I had
now measured bases, besides those of latitude for my trigonometrical
work, and I should not have regretted even a day longer in camp, to have
had more time to protract angles, but time was too precious, as my men
were voluntarily on very reduced rations. The DODONOEA HIRTELLA of Miquel
was the only novelty found here. Latitude 26° 6' 25" S. Thermometer, at
sunrise, 30°; at noon, 75°; at 4 P.M., 76°; at 9, 50°.

7TH JUNE.--We set off at a better pace this morning, and kept it up, as
we found the ground firmer, and less broken. Several hollows with water-
courses in them, lay in our way, but presented no serious impediment. At
length, I saw some of the heads of River-Head Range, and a long ridge
appeared before us. On ascending it obliquely, following up the smooth
clay floor of a water-course, I found myself gradually entangled in a bad
scrub of brigalow and rosewood. After cutting our way through it, for a
mile and a half, I sought on the other side for any hollow leading off
water, and found one which brought us into an open forest flat with a
fine chain of ponds. The Acacia pendula appeared on its skirts; and, at
length, abundance of water, also, in the ponds. The grass was so
luxuriant near one of these, that I encamped beside it, without seeking
the river, to which these ponds seemed adjacent. Thermometer, at sunrise,
36°; at 4 P.M., 85°; at 9, 70° (XXXII.). Height above the sea, 1309 feet.

8TH JUNE.--The country beyond this camp in a northerly direction was very
fine. The Acacia pendula, open forests, and gently undulating country
intersected by chains of ponds then dry, were its characteristics. At
length, we reached the river bank, and could travel along it to the west.
Just there, I perceived the junction of a river (perhaps the main
channel) from the N. N. W. It seemed full of water, whereas that which I
was obliged to follow, being the most westerly, was nearly dry, although
its banks were boldly broken, and precipitous. Its course came round even
from S. W., and deep ravines and water-courses coming into it, obliged me
to travel to the southward of that bearing in order to avoid them. We
thus, at length, came into a fine open grassy country, tolerably level,
and could resume a north-west course. In that direction, we crossed a
water-course from the S. W., and came to another in a deeper valley,
where we saw natives, who did not run away. There was a water-hole
nearest to our side, and one from which a native was ascending when I
approached. I directed the men (having encamped here) to keep the cattle
from that water-hole, if possible, anxious to avoid giving any offence on
this delicate point to the natives of these forests. Thermometer, at
sunrise, 36°; at 4 P. M., 85°; at 9, 70°. (XXXIII.)

9TH JUNE.--The sky being overcast, and rain likely to fall, I considered
that the bullocks' necks might be galled by the yokes in wet weather;
and, being in some doubt about finding water in the direction in which I
wished now to travel, I set out with two men on horseback to explore the
country to the N. W., leaving the party to enjoy a day's rest. Little
rain fell, and the ride was very pleasant. A perfume like that of hay,
but much more fragrant, arose from the moistened vegetation, and I found
a beautiful country of open forest with ACACIA PENDULA in graceful
clumps. A few miles on, we were suddenly hailed from behind a few bushes,
by about twenty-five natives, painted red. We halted and endeavoured to
talk to them, but not a word was intelligible to Yuranigh, who was with
me. In vain he inquired about rivers, or water, in his language, and in
vain they bawled to us in theirs: so, after this unintelligible parley at
some distance, (for they would not come close up,) we rode on. We came at
length on a sandy country with much Callitris, but the whole surface was
undulating, and we crossed several chains of deep ponds, all falling to
our right, or eastward; some containing water. At length, I perceived on
the right, a deeper valley, and found in it a little river with a rocky
bed, and coming from the N. N. W. At two miles further, along my N. W.
course, I found it crossed it, coming from W. S. W., and here I turned,
well pleased to find an abundant supply of water, and a good country in
the best direction for our interior journey. The river ran chiefly on
rock, and the water was plentiful. Having returned to the camp, in the
evening, after sunset we were called to by a numerous tribe of natives,
assembled on the opposite steep bank of the chain of ponds, over which we
had encamped. By the particular cooey, I recognised the same party we had
seen in the morning. Their language was now loud and angry, and war was
evidently their purpose; from experience I judged it best to nip the evil
in the bud, and ordered five men under arms, who were first formed in
line before the tents, and with whom, at the bugle's sound, I advanced
steadily up the opposite bank, as our only reply to all their loud
jeering noise. They set up a furious yell on our approach, and advanced
to the brow of the cliff, as if prepared to defend it; but as we silently
ascended, they fell off, and, by the time we gained the height, they had
retired to a considerable distance, still shouting vociferously. Two,
however, were seen drawing round our left flank, in a little gully,
followed by a female carrying spears. I discharged my rifle over their
heads, upon which they hastened to their fellows. On firing another shot
over the dark noisy mass before us, they became suddenly quite silent,
probably persuaded that we were really in earnest. We marched through
their camp, made a feint, by descending into a gully, of coming upon them
unawares, and continued there, until silence and darkness secured our
peaceful occupation of the ground. Thus I prevented a night of alarms and
noise, which might have been kept up until morning, and until they had
worked themselves into that sort of frenzy, without which I do not think
they have courage to fight Europeans; and having once got their steam up,
they were sure to have followed us, and gathered a savage population in
our rear. Lat., 25° 54' 17" S. Thermometer, at sunrise, 56°; at 4 P. M.,
70; at 9, 50°. (XXXIII.)

10TH JUNE.--We advanced at an early hour, crossing Possession Creek, for
so we called it (and which proved rather an impediment, until we filled a
hollow with logs), and followed my horse's tracks of yesterday. Thus we
reached the little river in good time, notwithstanding much heavy sand in
the way of our carts, and encamped at the furthest point I had previously
visited. Thermometer, at sunrise, 30°; at 4 P.M., 75°; at 9, 39°. Height
above the sea, 1240 feet. (XXXIV.)

11TH JUNE.--Keeping along the bank of the rocky river, we were obliged to
turn southward, and even S.S.E., such was the direction whence the river
came. I therefore encamped the party, after a journey of only 3½ miles,
and proceeded to explore again, towards the N. W. I thus came upon the
rocky river where the rock formed a bridge affording an easy means of
crossing it, and this I valued more, as being the only passable place I
had seen in it, so deep and rocky was the bed elsewhere. The strata at
this bridge dipped N. N. E., a circumstance which induced me to travel
westward instead of N. W., in hopes to cross thereby sooner, a synclinal
line, and so arrive at the sources of some northern river. We passed
through some scrub, and attained, by gradual ascent, considerable
elevation. The country in general consisted of open forest, and contained
grass in great abundance. At nine miles, I came upon a chain of ponds
falling northward, and in which were two good ponds of water, whereupon I
returned to the camp. Thermometer, at sunrise, 38°; at 9 P.M., 38°.
Height above the sea, 1287 feet. (XXXV.)

12TH JUNE.--The rock about the river here was deeply impressed with
ripple marks, and also dipped N.N.E. or northward. It consisted of a
yellow sandstone in thin strata, covered in some parts with beds of
waterworn pebbles. These consisted chiefly of quartz, felspar, and a
silicious petrifaction of woody appearance. We proceeded along my horse
track of yesterday. In crossing what seemed a principal ridge on which
grew brigalow scrub (through which we had, in parts, to cut a way), we
came upon a fine specimen of the Bottle Tree (DELABECHEA); near it grew
the GEIJERA PARVIFLORA, which did not attain a greater height than 10
feet. I found by the syphon barometer that our height above the sea was
here 1579 feet. By the same gauge I found that two other ridges further
on were still higher (1587 feet). In the afternoon, the sky became
overcast with dark, round, heavy clouds, and in the evening, slight
showers fell. Thermometer, at sunrise, 20°; at noon, 74°; at 4P.M., 73°;
at 9, 60°. The wind and clouds came from the west.

13TH JUNE.--The line of ponds we were upon might turn to the northward;
nevertheless I was unwilling to follow them down, and again lose westing,
until I had made another attempt to penetrate to the N. W. The morning
was rainy, and, as in such weather travelling was likely to gall the
necks of the bullocks, I halted the party, and took a ride in that
direction. I encountered much soft sand and scrubs of brigalow, rosewood,
and Callitris. Scrubs of the latter were most dense and continuous. I
fell in with a goodly little river at five miles; its course there was
from S. W. to N. E. Beyond it, I found the country still more sandy,
although intersected by one or two water-courses falling to the
northward. The furthest one, at fifteen miles from our camp, had in it
ponds containing no water. It seemed near the source, and that we had
almost reached the crest of some dividing feature. A thunder-storm then
burst over us, and the time of day did not admit of going further. I
therefore returned, convinced that I could not in that direction make
much progress.* Thermometer, at sunrise, 49°; at noon, 57°; at 4 P.M.,
54°; at 9, 48°.

[* This was unfortunate: it will be seen by the map, that ten miles
further would have taken me to the river Warregin a direct line to the
head of the river Victoria, avoiding the mountains.]

14TH JUNE.--A drizzling rain continued, and the barometer indicated a
change; hence I hoped the rain would last until the water-holes were
filled. The day being Sunday, I gave the party another day of rest, and
took that opportunity of laying down on my map, the recently discovered
rivers and water-courses. It was only after I had done so, that I began
to think the water-course we were encamped upon, was worth following
down. The evening was clear, and I ascertained the latitude to be 25° 47'
28" S. Thermometer, at sunrise, 52°; at noon, 55°; at 4 P.M., 57°; at 9,
38° (XXXVI.). Height above the sea, 1528 feet.

15TH JUNE.--In following down this chain of ponds, we found its channel
became a well-formed river, with abundance of water in it, a few miles
below our camp. The course thus far was northward; and I saw in one part
of it rocks dipping to the westward. I was in expectation that it would
have continued northward, when it suddenly turned towards the S.S.W. I
thereupon crossed it, and resumed my N.W. course. My path was thus again
crossed by our river flowing northward: we had then travelled 12½ miles,
and I encamped on its banks. The whole of the day's journey, with little
exception, had been over heavy sand, and, but for the rain that had
fallen, it must have greatly distressed the horses and oxen. As it was,
they got over it wondrous well. In a pond of this river, Mr. Stephenson
caught a great number of the harlequin fish, a circumstance almost
proving that this was a tributary to the Maran. We found this day a new
narrow-leaved TRISTANIA[*], thirty feet high, with bark thick, soft, and
fibrous. A smooth narrow-leaved variety of ACACIA HOLOSERICEA was loaded
with spikes of crooked sickle-shaped pods. Among the herbage was observed
the TEUCRIUM ARGUTUM of Brown; and the XEROTES LEUCOCEPHALA grew in the
light dry sand. Novelty in the plants, animals, and fishes, was now to be
expected; the weather was cool and pleasant, and our travelling equipment
tolerably efficient. Thermometer, at sunrise, 30°; at 4 P. M., 58°; at 9
P. M., 46° (XXXVII.). Height above the sea, 1827 feet.

[* T. ANGUSTIFOLIA (Hook. MS.); foliis angusto-linearibus
mucronatoacuminatis supra glabris subtùs subsericeis marginibus arcte
revolutis, paniculis terminalibus folio brevioribus calycibusque incano-
tomentosis. These specimens were in fruit. It is very distinct from every
other species.]

16TH JUNE.--Proceeding nearly north-west, we met with the little river I
had discovered a few miles beyond my camp of the 13th and 14th instant.
The distance of this point from the camp we had left this morning was
about 2½ miles. We crossed it, and turned to the westward, and even
south-west, to avoid it. Over its extreme south-western bend there was a
little rocky hill, which I ascended, and thence saw a mountain I had
intersected from the high station east of the depôt. It now bore 12° west
of north, and I directed my course towards it, as well as the country
would permit. We crossed several sandy ranges on which the callitris was,
as usual, the chief tree, as it was also on the soft heavy sand between
them. Occasionally, the lowest parts where water would take its course,
consisted of firm clay, and we took advantage of such flats, when their
direction was favourable. I was at length under the necessity of
encamping on one of these, where there was no water, nor any to be found
in it after I had followed it down four miles. In my search for water, I
found a curious new PHEBALIUM.[*] Thermometer, at sunrise, 43°; at 9 P.
M., 54°. Height above the sea, 1646 feet.

[* P. GLANDULOSUM (Hook. MS.); foliis angusto-lineari-cuneatis retusis
canaliculatis marginibus revolutis subtus ramulisque argenteo-lepidotis
superne (praecipue) grosse glandulosis nudis, corymbis terminalibus
parvis sessilibus fusco-lepidotis, calycibus subtruncatis, petalis ovatis
concavis. Allied to P. SQUAMULOSUM and P. ELOEAGNOIDES, but very
distinct, especially in the presence of the large semipellucid
hemispherical glands, seen more or less in various parts of the plant,
but very conspicuous on the upper side of the leaves.]

17TH JUNE.--Pursuing a course in the direction of the mountain already
mentioned, I met with much heavy sand on which grew thick forests of
callitris, frequently quite impervious to our carts except at open places
amongst which we had to wind, as they permitted. The ground was
undulating, and there was clay in the hollows, but the direction of these
ran across my intended route, falling all to the east-ward. We at length
attained what seemed the highest of these ridges, and on the summit I
ascertained its elevation to be 1833 feet above the sea. Beyond it, we
came to a flat of firmer surface, consisting of clay, and, as we greatly
wanted water, I followed it down to the north-east. I found it soon
hemmed in by sandstone rocks; but we travelled still on a broad grassy
flat which fell into one still broader, through which ran a continuous
but dry channel coming from the north-west. After following this
downwards about a mile, we crossed towards an opening between the
sandstone cliffs beyond it; this opening terminated under shelving rocks.
Ascending at another place, with my horse, I found a table-land above,
and an open forest country. I succeeded in getting the carts and dray up
at a rocky point, and travelled thence E.S.E., anxious now to find the
Maran, convinced by a deep ravine on our right, that it could not be far
off. We descended by a gently inclined part of the sandstone to a dry
watercourse lined with brigalow, and which soon guided us to the river.
Here, however, the bed was dry and full of sand, of spacious and uniform
breadth, and with grassy sloping banks. The course was towards S.W., and
I followed it upwards, in hopes soon to meet with a pond. No water,
however, was to be seen, when a rocky precipitous bank before us, and the
sun setting in the west, obliged me to encamp the party. I hastened up
the dry channel, followed by all the horses and the bullocks. We found
some rain water on a level piece of rock, about two miles from the camp,
which was scarcely enough for the horses, and afforded a few gallons for
our kegs; nor could I find more, although I continued my search upwards
until dusk; the bullocks had therefore to pass a second night without
drinking. The bed and banks of this river were of very uniform extent
throughout; averaging, in width about 100 feet; in height of banks from
30 to 50 feet. The course was straight, and it seemed as if a few dams
might have sufficed to render it navigable, or at least to have retained
a vast supply of water; for although the bed was sandy, the bottom was
rocky, and the banks consisted of stiff clay. These being covered with
rich grass, and consisting of good soil, water alone was wanting to make
the whole both valuable and useful. Yet this was not so scarce amongst
the gullies and tributaries, nor in the channel itself, lower down. I
found, growing in the bed, the ALPHITONIA EXCELSA of Reissek, collected
by Allan Cunningham and Frazer along the Brisbane and upper part of
Hunter's River; also a remarkable kind of Brome grass I had never seen on
the Darling. Thermometer, at sunrise, 36°; at 9 P. M., 61°.

18TH JUNE.--Drizzling rain had fallen during the night, which greatly
refreshed the grass for the cattle. Early this morning, I sent Corporal
Graham and another man, up the river, in search of water; and the
bullock-driver with his cattle down the river, with orders to go on until
he fell in with some. Others of the party were directed to search amongst
the rocky crevices nearer to our camp. I set out with Yuranigh for the
summit of the mountain already mentioned, which, according to my survey,
lay about seven miles off to the N.W. My ride to it was unimpeded by
gullies; and, on ascending it, I obtained a most extensive view,
embracing lofty ranges to the eastward and south-east. A line of volcanic
cones (of which this was one) extended from these ranges in the direction
of about N.E.b.N. But, besides these elevated summits, little could be
seen of the adjacent country: nothing of the sandstone gullies, by which
the party was then shut in. I could only imagine one bluey tint in a long
line of ravines, to be over the bed of the Maran, which seemed thus to
pass through the line of cones, and to come from high ranges about the
25th parallel. The country to the northward was still hidden from my
sight by a portion of the old crater which was higher than that I had
ascended. The western interior was visible to a great distance bounded by
low ranges; some of which seemed to have precipitous sides, like cliffs,
towards the west. Lines of open plains, and columns of smoke, indicated a
good country, and inhabitants. I recognised, from this station, that
eastward of the depôt camp, to which, from the peculiar interest then
attaching to that distant spot, I now named Mount Kennedy after the
officer in charge of the party there. I could now intersect many of the
summits observed therefrom; thus adding extensively to the general map,
and checking my longitude, by back angles into the interior. I was now at
a loss for names to the principal summits of the country. No more could
be gathered from the natives, and I resolved to name the features, for
which names were now requisite, after such individuals of our own race as
had been most distinguished or zealous in the advancement of science, and
the pursuit of human knowledge; men sufficiently well-known in the world
to preclude all necessity for further explanation why their names were
applied to a part of the world's geography, than that it was to do honour
to Australia, as well as to them. I called this hill Mount Owen; a bald-
forest hill to the N.E. of it, Mount Clift; a lofty truncated cone, to
the eastward of these, the centre of a group, and one of my zero points,
Mount Ogilby; a broad-topped hill far in the north-west, where I wished
to continue my route, Mount Faraday; a high table land intervening,
Hope's Table Land; the loftiest part of the coast ranges, visible on all
sides, Buckland's Table Land, etc. etc. The part of Mount Owen on which I
stood, consisted of basalt, which had crystallised cubically so as to
form a tottering pile on the summit, not unlike the ruins of a castle,
"nodding to its fall," and almost overhanging their base. Curious bushes
grew amongst these rocks, unlike those in the lower country; amongst
them, a climber, resembling a worm, which wholly enveloped a tree. On
returning to the camp, I learnt that the bullock-driver had found a
spacious basin in a rocky part of the bed, some miles down the river;
having thereat watered his cattle and returned; also, that Corporal
Graham had met with a pond ten miles higher up the river than our camp:
thus it was evident that many miles intervened between these two ponds in
the river. The other men left at the camp had fortunately found in the
crevice of a rock beyond the river-channel, enough of water for the
horses and themselves. But, had this river-channel contained much more
water, I could not have followed it in its upward course, and so go to
the north-east, instead of the north-west; neither had this been possible
from the precipitous rocks overhanging it at almost every turning. I had
found, in Mount Owen, a nucleus, which was a key to these sandstone
gullies radiating about it, and I had also perceived from it that towards
Mount Faraday, the north-western interior was tolerably clear of
mountainous obstructions; three small or very distant cones, seemed the
principal features beyond it. I wished much to have explored a route for
our carts in that direction; but it was necessary that I should first
establish the party near water. I accordingly determined to conduct it
along the range towards Mount Owen next day, as far as might be
necessary, in order to turn off to the right, and encamp, overlooking
some rocky gully within a convenient distance of Mount Owen; and, again
to explore these recesses for water, or send for it to Corporal Graham's
pond in the main channel. Mr. Stephenson gathered near this camp two
beautiful and delicate ferns, the ADIANTUM HISPIDULUM, and ADIANTUM
ASSIMILE, the Australian maiden's hair. The ACACIA IXIOPHYLLA, and ACACIA
CUNNINGHAMII, on the rocky cliffs; occurred with an Exocarpus, probably a
variety of E. SPARTEA, and a new Eucalyptus.[*] Thermometer at sunrise,
56°; at noon, 69°; at 4 P.M., 63°; at 9, 55°. Height above the sea, 1578
feet; and above river bed 40 feet.

[* E. POPULIFOLIA (Hook. MS.); foliis rhombeo-triangularibus obtusissimis
longius petiolatis coriaceis minute punctatis (punctis pallidis)
reticulatovenosis. This species is remarkable in the size and shape of
its petiolated leaves. The branches bear turbinated woody excrescences
(galls), each with two or more, generally three, sharp angles, and as
many unequal projecting wings, altogether exactly resembling the fruit of
some BEGONIÀ.]

19TH JUNE.--Another dewy night had providentially refreshed the grass for
our thirsty animals. We ascended, at a very favourable point, the
sandstone table-land, and travelled for some miles along my horse's track
towards Mount Owen, turning round the heads of gullies which broke
abruptly in steep rocks both to our right and left. Then, turning to the
right, where a branch of the high land projected eastward towards the
river, we encamped on its extreme eastern point, overlooking a grassy
valley, hemmed in by precipitous cliffs, yet easily accessible to our
horses and cattle, from the point on which we had encamped. I had already
found a deep hole in a rock on the right, containing water sufficient for
the men and horses for several days, and, on riding down the valley while
they pitched the tents, I found a large pond only a mile from the camp.
The valley contained many still larger, but all, save this one, were dry.
Grass grew there in great abundance, and of excellent quality. Pigeons
were numerous of that species (GEOPHAPS SCRIPTA) which is so great a
luxury; the most delicate food, perhaps, of all the feathered race. The
highest of the sandy tableland crossed this day appeared (by Captain
King's subsequent calculations) to be 1863 feet. That of the camp over
the cliffs, 1840 feet above the sea, the height of these cliffs above the
bed of the river being thus about 300 feet. Thermometer, at sunrise, 50°;
at 4 P.M., 65°; at 9, 61°.

20TH JUNE.--I set out (with two men and Yuranigh) to explore the country
beyond Mount Owen. From its base I observed some open forest land, and a
less broken country, in a direction much further to the westward than the
course I had previously selected, which was N.N.W. I now proceeded W.N.W.
towards that open forest land. We found the country open for some miles,
then, entering a flat or valley, I descended gradually between sandstone
rocks, to a valley in which a chain of deep ponds led to the north-west.
On following this down, I found it turned more and more to the westward,
and at length to the south-west, whereupon I quitted its bed and cliffy
banks, and, following up a ravine from the other side, again endeavoured
to pursue my intended course. We crossed, at the head of the ravine, a
sandstone range, and descended by another valley which led first
northward, but terminated in joining a spacious grassy flat with dry
ponds in it. I endeavoured to trace this downwards for several miles in a
rainy evening, and found at last, to my disappointment, that this also
turned to the S.W. This flat was broad and hemmed in by low rocky points
of ground, of very uniform shape. Many marks of natives appeared on the
trees, and, in good seasons, it must be one of their favourite spots. I
left it, however, when darkness and heavy rain obliged me to look for
shelter in a gloomy forest to the westward. By the time we arrived at
this, we could see no grassy spot for our horses, nor any sort of cover
for ourselves. Douglas found, at length, a fallen tree, and under this,
covered with a few boughs, we lay down on the wet earth for the night,
being ourselves as wet, yet wanting withal, water for ourselves and
horses. Thermometer, at sunrise, 54°; at noon, 69°; at 4 P.M., 67°; at 9,

21ST JUNE.--The rain had abated to my great disappointment, for we should
have been amply compensated for wet jackets, by the sight of well filled
ponds of water, the want of which was the great impediment to this
journey. The sky was still overcast, and the wet bushes were unavoidable.
On I travelled north-west, until we approached some fine open forest
hills, the bare tops of which, just visible from the foot of Mount Owen,
had first drawn me in that direction. One tempting peak induced me to
approach it, and to think of an ascent. In a rugged little water-course
in its bosom, we found water enough for our horses, the product of last
night's rain. The view from the summit, made up for the deviation from my
route. A group of the most picturesque hills imaginable lay to the
northward, and were connected with this, the whole being branches from
the Table Land of Hope. Some appeared of a deep blue colour, where their
clothing was evergreen bush. Others were partly of a golden hue, from the
rich ripe grass upon them. The sun broke through the heavy clouds and
poured rays over them, which perfected the beauty of the landscape. I
recognised, from this apex, my station on Mount Owen, and several hills I
had intersected from it. Amongst others, the three remarkable cones to
the westward of Mount Faraday, apparently a continuation of the line of
summits I have already mentioned. This hill consisted of amygdaloidal
trap in nodules, the crevices being filled with crystals of sulphate of
lime, and there were many round balls of ironstone, like marbles or round
shot, strewed about. A red ferruginous crust projected from the highest
part, and, on this summit, the magnetic needle was greatly affected by
local attraction, and quite useless. Fortunately, I had also my pocket
sextant, and with it took some valuable angles. On descending, I heartily
enjoyed a breakfast, and named the hill which gave us the water, Mount
Aquarius. Returning towards Mount Owen, by a more direct route, I arrived
at the head of a gully which led tolerably direct until we found our
track, in the creek I had run down on the preceding day. But night was
approaching, and we had water enough in a rocky hollow, and also a cavern
before which a large fire gave such warmth, that, in passing the night
there in my cloak, I was quite insensible to a frost without, which, at
the camp, at 4 P. M., had lowered the mercury in Fahrenheit's thermometer
to 22°, or 10° below the freezing point.

22D JUNE.--Our provisions being out, I hastened back to the camp,
determined to explore in a more northerly direction, according to my
original intention. Water was only to be found in so dry a season, in the
neighbourhood of mountains, or in rocky gullies likely to retain a
passing shower. In our way back, I ascended the north-western shoulder of
Mount Owen, and was much more inclined to take a northerly route, from
the appearance of the mountains on that side. The view from that summit
to the northward, was very grand; I saw more plainly the line of the
Maranfrom its upper sources. Two mighty masses of table-land seemed the
highest of all. One I had already seen and named Buckland's Table Land. I
could here distinguish the apex of Mount Aquarius, and fix it in my map.
I perceived a hollow part of the range immediately to the northward, and
a sort of hiatus amongst the peaks in the broken country beyond, through
which I hoped to find a way. I hastened to the camp to prepare for a
"raid" of a whole week, if necessary, in that direction. Thermometer, at
sunrise, 27°; at noon, 52°; at 4 P. M., 55°; at 9, 59°.

23D JUNE.--Returning early by the foot of Mount Owen, I travelled nearly
northward through a fine open forest, in which we saw a large kangaroo
entirely black. Rocky gullies next came in my way, and, in avoiding those
on the left, others falling to the right, or to the Maran, showed me that
this was a dividing feature. I knew it was continuous to Mount Clift from
my former observations, and therefore followed it by keeping between the
heads of gullies breaking to each side, until I found one favourable for
a descent to the left. Below, we found a broad, grassy, valley, extending
about W.N.W., and in it, deep ponds, which sometimes evidently held much
water, although they were then dry. This soon, however, turned to the
south-west, evidently to join the channel I had before explored. Quitting
it, therefore, much disappointed, I ascended sandstone cliffs and pushed
through scrubs, determined to proceed directly north-ward, until I met
with valleys falling north-west. We thus passed just under the most
easterly part of Hope's Table Land, and came, about sunset, to a hollow
containing ponds, in two of which we found water. Here we gladly
bivouacked for the night. ZAMIAS grew here, and were numerous higher up
the valley. Thermometer, at sunrise, 26°; at noon, 54°; at 4 P. M., 50°;
at 9, 40°.

24TH JUNE.--The hoar-frost had stiffened the grass, and the water was
frozen so that the horses cared not to drink. I proceeded N. N. W., in
which direction a beautiful cone rose to a great height, and sharp apex.
Stony hills of trap appearing also in that line, I turned northward, and,
after crossing a level tract of high ground, much like a dividing
feature, (especially as seen from Mount Owen,) I entered a valley
descending to the northwest. It fell rapidly, contained large water
holes, and in two of these, at length, an abundant supply of water. The
course, throughout all its windings, was towards the north-west, and this
I, at the time, thought, might be a northern water. I therefore returned,
anxious to bring the party thus far, at all events, and resolved to
follow this little river down. We arrived, on our way back, in the
evening of the same day, in the valley I had quitted in the morning,
having followed down a water-course from the end of Hope's Table Land,
under which I had passed, in search of a good way for the carts. Although
we had seen promising ponds of water in this little channel, we could
find none in the lower part, having in the expectation of finding some,
rode on until darkness prevented me from going further. We were thus
obliged to pass the night (a very cold one) without water, and almost
without fuel. I missed the comfortable cavern where I had slept a few
nights before, especially when I arose here in the night to mend the
fire, and found we had no more wood at hand. I learnt afterwards that at
the camp, the thermometer at 4 P. M. had been as low as 17° of
Fahrenheit.[*] Thermometer, at sunrise, 21°; at noon, 51°; at 4 P. M.
49°; at 9, 29°.

[* This was 15° degrees below the freezing point, and shows how much more
easily cold may be endured in a dry atmosphere than where there is
moisture, as instanced in the following extract from a despatch of
Captain James C. Ross (in command of the Antarctic Expedition), dated 7th
April, 1841, and published in the Tasmanian Journal.

"With a temperature of 20° below the freezing point, we found the ice to
form so rapidly on the surface, that any further examination of the
barrier in so extremely severe a period of the season being
impracticable, we stood away to the westward, for the purpose of making
another attempt to approach the magnetic pole, and reached its latitude
(76° S.) on the 15th February."]

25TH JUNE.--Continuing our ride as soon as day-light permitted, ten
minutes brought us to a pond containing plenty of water under a shelving
rock, and here we alighted to breakfast, which was pleasant enough, but
not so gratifying as the position of this pond, which would enable me to
bring the carts through these valleys, to this convenient intermediate
stage in the way to the Northern river. The next question was, whether
the route to the eastward, descending into these valleys near Mount
Clift, or that by my first route, when I discovered this rocky country,
should be preferred; and I returned towards our camp this morning by the
eastern gullies, in hopes to find an easy descent nearer to Mount Clift
than at the point where I before came down. But I found them much more
acclivitous and rocky. We at length, with difficulty, got our horses up a
rocky point, on which grew a thick scrub of "blackwood," as Yuranigh
called it, an acacia having many tough stems growing thickly together
from one root, and obstructing the passage, and covering the ground with
its half-fallen and fallen timber. Our passage along the range thence
towards Mount Owen, having been too much to the eastward, brought us upon
the bend of a gully falling to the Maran; a wild and impracticable
looking dell as ever was seen. On regaining our track near Mount Owen,
and returning along it to the camp, I found that another pond had been
discovered in the valley, by Felix Maguire, who on two occasions, had
dreamt of water, risen, and walked directly to where he found it! However
that might have been, this man had a happy knack in finding water. In the
neighbourhood of this camp some interesting plants were collected; viz.
ADIANTUM HISPIDULUM and ASSIMILE, all ferns, together with HOVEA
shrub, occupying the ravines. Besides these we observed a small species
of SIDA in the sandy soil of forests, the DOODIA CAUDATA Br., a verdant
fern, and the SOLANUM FURFURACEUM with lilac flowers, and small red
berries. A shrub loaded with succulent drupes, seated in reddish cups,
appeared to be a new species of VITEX, but its genus was uncertain, there
being no flowers. What is here called GREVILLEA FLORIBUNDA may have been
an allied species, for the leaves were more downy, almost tomentose
above. In addition to this a new species of the common genus DODONOEA,
frequently met with afterwards, was now producing its flowers.[*]
Thermometer, at sunrise, 12°; at noon, 50°; at 4 P. M. 51°; at 9, 22°.

[* D. MOLLIS (Lindl. MS.); molliter pubescens, ramulis subteretibus,
foliis obovatis acutis truncatis rotundatis retusis tridentatisque,
capsulis tetragonis trigonisque pubescentibus apteris.]

26TH JUNE. The party moved forward, at length, with the certainty of
finding water for at least three days' journey, and of a hopeful water-
course being before us. Passing by the foot of Mount Owen, I observed the
barometer which gave an elevation of 2083 feet: the summit might be 700
feet higher. My plan of route was, to enter the little river that turned
to the south-west (as I had found it did, on the 20th,) and to travel
along its valley upwards, until I reached the pond near which I had
bivouacked on the 25th. This we accomplished most successfully before
sunset, encamping beside the large pond already mentioned, near which
were two others. The earth by the margin was so soft that neither the
horses nor bullocks could approach the water; they could only be watered
out of buckets; but the water was excellent, and water of any quality, in
abundance too, was to us rather uncommon good fortune, and quite
cheering, even when surrounded by soft mud. Thermometer, at sunrise, 14°;
at noon, 48°; at 4 P. M. 47°; at 9, 37°.

27TH JUNE. We had next to trace up a grassy valley which seemed to come
directly from the vicinity of that in which I had found water and
bivouacked on the 24th. It formed an excellent line, and we found it
possible to keep this fine firm level surface, until we had approached to
within two miles of that spot. Leaving a little hill of trap to the left,
and some brigalow scrub on the right, we reached the old ground and
encamped. The small ponds had evaporated, but, in the frosty night, the
cattle were not likely to require water, as they had been watered on the
way, about 3 P. M., at a rocky well in the valley. We had now traced with
our wheels, a good way through a country much broken and shut up by
sandstone gullies; but which contained also many rich valleys, and
extensive hilly tracts of trap rock, on which the grass was very
luxuriant, apparently available for either sheep or cattle. Immediately
to the westward of this camp (marked XXXVIII.) an extensive valley was
bounded by the fine trap range of Hope's Table Land; which range was open
along the summit, and contained springs, in various ravines along its
sides. In these ravines, we first saw the arborescent Zamia, and various
remarkable shrubs; the MYOPORUM CUNNINGHAMII of Swan River, forming a
shrub six feet high, with white fragrant flowers. Thermometer, at
sunrise, 20°; at 9 P. M., 29°. Height above the sea, 2064 feet.

28TH JUNE.--Severe frost whenever the sky was clear, seemed the ordinary
weather of that country, at that season; showing, as the barometer also
indicated, that we were at a great height above the sea. I sent the party
forward, guided by Yuranigh, along my former track, to the ponds in the
newly discovered channel, falling north-west; and I proceeded myself,
accompanied by Mr. Stephenson, to the summit of the fine cone already
mentioned. From this, I beheld a splendid and extensive view of the
mountains further northward. Most of the summits I had previously
intersected, and many others, very remarkable, just appeared over an
intermediate woody range, through which I was at a loss to discover where
our supposed northern river would pass. Far in the north-west, I could
just distinguish the tops of curiously broken hills arising from a much
lower country; and therein I hoped to find, whatever might be the final
course of our river, a passage to the north-west, and water. The most
important feature in that scene seemed to me to be a grey misty tint, as
if it marked a valley descending from the highest eastern mountains,
towards the curiously broken summits in the northwest. Bare crests of
similar hills, appeared to arise throughout the whole extent of that
valley. Under those lofty mountains, at such elevation, in such a clime,
with these romantic hills, that valley must be a paradise if watered
well, as I hope it is. So flowed the "spring" of hope at least, as it was
fed by the scene then before me. The cone we had ascended consisted of
trap rock, much resembling that of Mount Aquarius; but, at its base, and
on its sides, I found in large masses, the very compact felspathic rock
which characterises the valley of the Darling. This has been considered a
very fine-grained sandstone; but it is evidently an altered rock. Here,
in contact with trap, it possessed the same tendency to break into
irregular polygons, some of the faces of which were curved; and I
observed one mass which had been so tossed up, that its lower side lay
uppermost, inclined at an angle of about 60°. That this is a hypogene
rock, sometimes in contact with granite as well as with trap, is evident
at Oxley's Table Land, and other places. I was glad to find it here, as
affording a prospect of meeting with better soil than the loose sand we
had seen so much of. We here found the grey, prickly SOLANUM ELLIPTICUM.
I named this cone Mount P. P. King; and, I have since ascertained, by
that officer's register and calculations, the height of this summit above
the sea, to be 2646 feet; and the height of this camp, 2159 feet.
Thermometer, at sunrise, 25°; at 4 P. M., 55°; at 9, 25°. (XXXIX)

29TH JUNE.--Crossing a small tributary which was full of water (coming
from Hope's Table Land), we continued to travel along the left bank of
the newly found river. Rocky precipices overhanging it, obliged me to
make some détours, and to pass through some scrubs; but still we regained
the banks of the river, although our progress was not considerable. Its
general course was still north-west, to the spot selected for my second
camp on its banks. The channel was now broad; the banks high, rounded,
and grassy; in some places, rocky. Water in the channel was rarely to be
seen, but at the junction of tributaries, where recent temporary showers
seemed to have fallen. By careful observation, I ascertained the
variation of the needle to be 8° 4' E. here. Thermometer, at sunrise,
25°; at 4 P. M., 68°; at 9, 53°. Height above the sea, 1914 feet. (XL.)

30TH JUNE.--The course of the river was now found to turn to the
southward of west; and, even in that direction, rugged cliffs covered
with scrub greatly impeded our progress. I endeavoured to conduct the
carts along the bed of the river, soft and sandy as it was; but we did
not proceed far in it, before rocks, fallen trees, and driftwood, obliged
us to abandon that course as speedily as we could. Then, ascending a
projecting eminence, we plunged into the scrubs; but, even in a southwest
direction, we came upon the river. Pursuing its course along the bank,
southward, I arrived near the base of a fine open forest hill; and,
directing the party to encamp, I hastened to its summit. I there obtained
a view of most of the mountains of the eastern range formerly observed,
and enough of the fixed points, to enable me to determine the position of
this. In the south-west, a line of open forest, and a vast column of
smoke seemed too plainly to mark the further course of our river; but,
towards the north-west, I saw much to reconcile me to this
disappointment. Summits of broken and uncommon aspect, beyond an
intervening woody range, there indicated a much lower and different kind
of country, as if that was, indeed, the basin of a system of northern
waters; the woody intervening range appearing to be the division between
them. As our last explored river again turned southward, it seemed
reasonable to expect, beyond that very continuous range, rivers pursuing
a different course. This range was plainly traceable from the high
mountains more to the eastward, and was continuous westward to three
remarkable conical hills, beyond which, the view did not extend. On the
same range, a fine tableshaped mountain appeared nearly north. This I had
already intersected from other stations, and named Mount Faraday. The
hill on which I stood consisted of trap-rock, and seemed to be almost the
western extremity of Hope's Table Land. A copious spring was afterwards
found by Mr. Stephenson, in a valley to the eastward of this summit. That
ravine was extensive; and in it grew various remarkable trees. The
bottle-tree (Delabechea) grew more gregariously than we had ever seen it,
in the stony banks of the channel of the torrent from the hills. One
thorny tree or shrub (first seen at the base of Mount P. P. King) again
appeared here; it was, generally, in a withered state; had a leaf
somewhat like the human hand, and a pod containing two peas of a bright
scarlet colour, about the shape and size of a French bean. This,
sometimes grew to a tree as much as a foot in diameter; and the natives,
who, like Nature herself, may be said to do nothing in vain, had cut one
down, and carried off the whole of the trunk. The wood was of a leaden
colour. This proved to be a new species of ERYTHRINA, or coral tree.[*]
By our last day's journey, we had lost two miles of northing, and had
thus recrossed the 25th parallel of south latitude. I therefore
determined to cross our friendly little river, and look for another
beyond the range to the northward. Thermometer, at sunrise, 44°; at noon,
68°; at 4 P. M., 65°; at 9, 38°. Height above the sea, 1732 feet. (XLI.)

[* E. VESPERTILIO (Benth. MS.); glaberrima, caule fruticoso aculeato,
foliorum petiolo elongato, foliolis trilobis lobo medio recto acutiusculo
lateralibus multo majoribus falcato-divaricatis obtusissimis.--Although
no flowers were seen, the genus of this shrub is well indicated by the
pod and the general habit. The leaflets are often above four inches broad
and not two inches long, not unlike the form of a bat with its wings

1ST JULY.--With that view, I rode towards Mount Faraday, anxious to look
into the valley beyond it. After a two hours' ride, I passed under its
western summit, and still pressed forward, in hopes of seeing at length
into the valleys beyond. I thus entered a very thick scrub, so impervious
that I was obliged to turn westward, until I came upon sandstone gullies
into one of which I descended. Following this downwards, I found it fell
to the westward, and in a hollow part of its rocky bed I came to some
clear water. But this was inaccessible, even to my horse, nor could I
take him further down that wildly broken gully; therefore we backed out,
and ascended as we could. Then riding southward in search of one more
accessible, I at length, descended into a grassy valley, which ran
northwest, and gave promise of something still better. I could not follow
it then without provisions, having none with me, and I therefore hastened
back to the camp, resolved to take with me men and provisions sufficient
to enable me to explore this further. In the scrub I passed through on my
way back, I found various very remarkable shrubs new and strange to me.
One grew on a large stalk, from which leaves radiated without other or
any branches. These leaves, hanging gracefully around the stem, gave to
this shrub the resemblance of the plume of a staff-officer. The outer
side of each leaf was dark and shining, the inner white and woolly.
Rarely these tall stems separated into two. Other branches there were
none. Some very beautiful new acacias also grew there. One, in
particular, with leaves exactly similar to those of the silver-leaved
ironbark, was very remarkable, a broad rough-leaved FICUS, with opposite
leaves not unlike those of the New Holland Upas. The white-flowered lead-
wort (PLUMBAGO ZEYLANICA) and the TRIODIA PUNGENS were abundant among the
grasses. A downy Dodonaea, with triangular leaves, was producing its
small flowers[*], and a scrubby bush with hard narrow leaves and globular
fruit the size of a rifle-ball, proved to be a new CAPPARIS.[**]
Thermometer, at daybreak, 35°; at 9 P.M., 38°.

[* D. TRIANGULARIS (Lindl. MS.); molliter pubescens, foliis
obtriangularibus tridentatis, pedunculis masculis axillaribus

[** C. LORANTHIFOLIA (Lindl. MS.) ramosa, inermis, ramulis tomentosis,
foliis lineari-oblongis obtusis coriaceis glabris sesqui-pollicaribus
aveniis, pedunculis solitariis axillaribus tomentosis foliis brevioribus,
stipite duplo longiore, fructu sphaerico tuberculato glabro.]

2D JULY.--Returning with two men and Yuranigh to the valley where I had
been yesterday, I followed it downwards, and soon found that it widened
very much, and contained large dry ponds, with the traces of a deep
current of water at some seasons. At length, the rocky precipices seemed
to recede, and formed occasionally bold headlands of most picturesque
outline. Two, that towered above the woods before us, resembled pyramids,
and I saw an open country beyond them, from which other summits of
extraordinary form seemed to emerge. Yet we had found no moisture in the
ponds, and lamented that a country, in every other respect so fine,
should be without water. Further on, I perceived reeds in the hollow of
the valley, and Yuranigh said there must be a spring, upon which he
walked in amongst them, but still found the earth dry. The reeds at
length covered an extensive flat, and looked, at the lower part of the
flat, so green, that I sent Corporal Graham to examine that point. He
emerged from the reeds with a face that, at a distance, made Douglas, my
other man, say, "He has found water." He had found A RUNNING STREAM, to
which he had been guided by its own music, and taking a tin pot, he
brought me some of it. The water was clear and sparkling, tasting
strongly of sulphur, and Yuranigh said that this was the head of a river
that NEVER DRIED UP. In this land of picturesque beauty and pastoral
abundance, within eighty miles of the tropics, we had discovered the
first running stream seen on this journey. I returned, determined to
bring the party thus far, and with the intention of passing that night
where we had found water in a rock about six miles back, that we might
sooner reach the camp next day. At that spot we had also the benefit of a
cavern, before which, a good fire being made, we defied the frost of a
very cold night, the thermometer having been registered at the camp, at 3
A.M., as low as 7°. In the scrubs we had passed through in the morning, a
variety of the ACACIA PODALYRIIFOLIA, with grey velvety leaves, was
scarcely in flower; and I observed a beautiful new species of STENOCHILUS
with large tubular flowers.[*] The ACACIA FALCATA appeared also on the
sandstone ground above the gullies, and a broad-leaved form of the
EREMOPHILA MITCHELLII. The moon shone brightly, and the rock being full
of silver mica, the splendour of the scene imparted to my eye and mind
then a degree of gratification far beyond any associations of the richest
furniture of a palace. We found it impossible to get our horses to the
water; but we hit upon an expedient which answered even better than a
bucket,--my Mackintosh cloak.

[* S. CURVIPES (Benth. MS.) glaber, foliis lanceolatis integerrimis basi
in petiolum angustatis pedicellis recurvis, calycis foliolis latis
acuminatis, corollae glabrae ventricosae laciniis acutis inferiore ultra
medium solutâ.--Flowers large and thick on recurved pedicels 4 to 6 lines
long. Calycine leaves broader than in all the other species.]

3D JULY.--In returning, we looked for a good line of approach, and found
an easy way for the carts to descend into the valley. On arriving at the
camp, I learnt that a large pond had been discovered in a rocky part of
the river, about a mile below our camp. Thermometer, at sunrise, 14°; at
noon, 60; at 4 P.M., 61°; at 9, 26°. Height of camp above the sea, 1800
feet. (XLII.)

4TH JULY.--The clouds had gathered, and it rained heavily this morning.
Nevertheless, the party moved off, crossing the river where the banks had
been cut to facilitate the passage. With Yuranigh's assistance we hit
upon an excellent line of route, availing ourselves of a grassy valley
descending from Mount Faraday, just so far as to avoid the rocky crooked
part, and then crossing and cutting through a piece of scrub directly to
the point of easy ascent, we thus made a good road into the valley, and
arrived in good time, notwithstanding the rain, at the rock of my
bivouac. The night-sky cleared up, and I found our latitude (by Arcturus)
to be 24° 54' 12" S. Thermometer, at sunrise, 43°; at 4 P.M., 49°; at 9,
38°. Height above the sea, 1437 feet. (XLIII.)

5TH JULY.--Another frosty night succeeded the day of rain, and froze our
tents into boards, not easily to be packed up this morning. We proceeded
along our horses' track, and the beautiful headland which appeared quite
isolated, and just such as painters place in middle distance, I named
Mount Salvator. We encamped on a slight elevation of the right bank of
the reedy rivulet, near the pyramids. Our prospects had suddenly
brightened, when instead of following chains of dry ponds, we had before
us a running stream, carrying life and nourishment towards the country we
were about to explore. The whole aspect of the country seemed new to us.
The barometer showed we were rapidly descending, and I expected that our
living stream would soon join that greater stream, the basin of which I
thought I could trace in the line of mist seen from Mount P. P. King on
the 28th June. The course of this river, unlike the others, curved round
from N.W. towards north, and having its origin in mountains equidistant
between Cape York and Wilson's Promontory, it was reasonable to suppose
that we had at length crossed the division between northern and southern
waters. That between eastern and western waters was still to be
discovered, and in a country so intricate, and where water was so scarce
then, the course of rivers afforded the readiest means of determining
where that division was. If the general course of this river was found to
be to the eastward of north, we might safely conclude that the dividing
ground was on the west or to the left of our route; if to the westward of
north, it might be to the eastward, or on the right of our route, and
this seemed the more probable from the line of a river flowing north-
westward, which I had seen the valley of, from Mount P. P. King. Latitude
24° 50' 2". S. Thermometer, at sunrise, 16°; at noon, 50°; at 4 P. M.,
49°; at 9, 38°. Height above the sea, according to sixteen observations,
1421 feet. (XLIV.)

6TH JULY.--A number of small bushes of CRYPTANDRA PROPINQUA appeared
amongst the rocks; back from the valley, and in the woods below, we found
an acacia, apparently, but distinct from, A. DECORA (Reichb.) VAR.
MACROPHYLLA; it approached A. AMOENA, but the stem was less angular, and
the phyllodia bore but one gland. A large tree with long hoary leaves,
and flat round capsules, proved to be a fine new BURSARIA, at a later
season found in flower. See October 10th.* A Loranthus also was found
here, which Sir William Hooker has since described.[**] Travelling along
the bank of this stream, we found it flowing, and full of sparkling water
to the margin. The reeds had disappeared, and we could only account for
the supply of such a current, in such a country, at such a season, by the
support of many springs. We made sure of water now for the rest of our
journey; and that we might say of the river "Labitur et labetur in omne
volubilis aevum." The hills overhanging it surpassed any I had ever seen
in picturesque outline. Some resembled gothic cathedrals in ruins; others
forts; other masses were perforated, and being mixed and contrasted with
the flowing outlines of evergreen woods, and having a fine stream in the
foreground, gave a charming appearance to the whole country. It was a
discovery worthy of the toils of a pilgrimage. Those beautiful recesses
of unpeopled earth, could no longer remain unknown. The better to mark
them out on my map, I gave to the valley the name of Salvator Rosa.[***]
The rocks stood out sharply, and sublimely, from the thick woods, just as
John Martin's fertile imagination would dash them out in his beautiful
sepia landscapes. I never saw anything in nature come so near these
creations of genius and imagination. Where we encamped, the river was
very deep, the banks steep and muddy, so that the use of a bucket was
necessary in watering the cattle. Notwithstanding every precaution, one
animal walked into the river, and could not be got out without great
difficulty. The only fish we caught in this river were two enormous eels,
beautifully spotted. Large shells of the UNIO genus lay abundantly on the
banks, about the old fires of the natives. These were larger than either
those found on the Darling, or those of the Maran; and although such
freshwater mussles seem to have but one shape, a peculiarity in these was
pointed out to me by Yuranigh, who said they much resembled the
impressions left by a black-fellow's foot, (which is much broader at the
toes than at the heel). We here met with a new species of BORONIA,
resembling B. ANETHIFOLIA, of which many varieties afterwards occurred.
It grows about two feet high, and had solitary pale purple flowers.[****]
A new species of ACACIA with straight, oblong, shining leaves, also grew
here.[*****] In the valley we found ERECHTITES ARGUTA, a weed resembling
European groundsel; on the rocks, a small slender shrub with white
flowers; and in the sandy scrub, the LEUCOPOGON CUSPIDATUS formed a small
shrub. Thermometer, at sunrise, 16°; at noon, 50°; at 4 P.M., 49°; at 9,
38°. (XLV.) Height above the sea, 1270 feet.

[* B. INCANA (Lindl. MS.); arborea, inermis, foliis oblongo-linearibus
supra glabris subtus incanis, paniculâ terminali tomentosâ, floribus

[** L. SUBFALCATUS (Hook. MS.); ramis dichotomis patentibus, foliis
oppositis linearibus lineari-lanceolatisve obtusis subfalcatis glabris
trinerviis, floribus axillaribus binis arcte pendentibus brevissime
pedicellatis, calycis contracti cylindracei ore dilatato, petalis 6
linearibus glaberrimis supra medium coalitis.]

[*** "His soul naturally delighted in scenes of savage magnificence and
ruined grandeur; his spirit loved to stray in lonely glens, and gaze on
mouldering castles."--ALLAN CUNNINGHAM (THE POET).]

[**** B. BIPINNATA (Lindl. MS.) glabra vel pilosa, foliis bipinnatis
pinnatisque, foliolis linearibus subteretibus obtusis, floribus
subsolitariis axillaribus foliis brevioribus 8-andris.]

[***** A. EXCELSA (Benth. MS.) glabra, ramulis subangulatis, phyllodiis
falcato-oblongis obtusiusculis mucronulatisve basi angustatis
subcoriaceis nitidis multinervibus venulosis eglandulosis, pedunculis
solitariis geminisve capitulo dense multifloro brevioribus vel
brevissimis. Very near A. VENULOSA, Cunn.; but smooth, the phyllodia
shining, 2 to 3 inches long, 6-9 lines broad, the flower heads usually
almost sessile.]

7TH JULY.--Continuing along the eastern margin of the reeds, we soon
found that the river expanded into a lake covered with them, and that in
one or two spots there also grew the "Balyan" of the Lachlan, (a bulrush
mentioned in my former journals). We listened, and still heard the
current of water amongst these reeds. From the margin of this lake the
hills, rocks, and woods, on the opposite shore, presented a most charming
morceau of picturesque scenery. Our route was through an open forest
which skirted the reedy margin, over very firm ground, and in a general
direction about north-west. At length we approached the northern limits
of the reedy lake, no river being visible flowing out of it, as we had
reason to expect. We found there, however, only a dry channel, which bore
the marks of a considerable stream at some seasons. Following this dry
channel down, I found its course turned to the northward, and even to the
north-east. When we were disposed to encamp, I could find no water in the
bed, nor were we better off when we had encamped, until Corporal Graham
dug between two rocks therein, and, fortunately, found a spring. Thus, in
one day vanished the pleasing prospect we had enjoyed in the morning, of
a stream flowing in the direction of our intended route. This might be, I
then thought, the tributary to a larger river, which I still hoped would
be found to flow westward from the coast ranges, and, finally, take the
desired north-west direction. Thermometer, at sunrise, 23°; at 4 P.M.,
58°; at 9, 25°. (XLVI.) Height above the sea, 1191 feet.

8TH JULY.--Entertaining this opinion, I still should have followed this
river down, had I not been impeded by gullies as deep as itself falling
into it, and which obliged me to cross to the left bank. There a thick
brigalow scrub grew to the very margin, and this was seared by rugged
gullies. A deep and continuous channel, entering from the westward,
induced me to turn in that direction so far, that I at length determined
to penetrate at once, if possible, to the north-west, expecting that
there I might intercept our river, if it should turn in that direction,
or, if not, cross some range into a more open country. The whole day was
lost, however, in toiling through a brigalow scrub. Various water-courses
crossed our route, but all descending towards the river we had left. The
scrub was so thick that we could only pass where accidental openings
admitted us, and by this sort of progress, until within an hour of
sunset, I found we had travelled about nine miles, and had gained only
half a minute of latitude. Having penetrated, on foot, and with
difficulty, about two miles ahead of the party, in pursuing the course of
a small watercourse, I found that even this turned south-east, evidently
to fall into the reedy basin we had previously explored; therefore, I
determined on an immediate retreat out of that labyrinth of scrub, back
to our friendly river. It was comparatively easy to return through the
opening we had made by cutting down much of the brush as we advanced, so
that by twilight we reached a good grassy spot about half way to the
river, and near it, found some good ponds of water. A pigeon, flying
almost in my face, first drew my attention to the hollow where we
afterwards found the water. It was in soft mud, however, in which one of
the bullocks got bogged, and could only be taken out by the whole
strength of the party dragging him with ropes. Thermometer, at sunrise,
18°; at 4 P.M., 54°; at 9, 25°. Height above the sea, 1241 feet.

9TH JULY.--The cattle were so much exhausted by drawing through the
scrub, and I had so much to do at my map, that I gave to the cattle and
the party, a day's rest. Latitude, 24° 34' 12" S. Thermometer, at
sunrise, 14°; (in my tent, 18°;) at 9 P.M., 48°.

10TH JULY.--Returning, still along our old track, towards a slight
eminence, three miles from our camp, I there set the party to work, to
cut a way across the gully, which had first obliged me to turn westward.
While the men were so employed, I rode about five miles northward, but
met with no opening or water-course admitting of a passage in that
direction. On the contrary, I returned, on intercepting one running S. E.
towards our river. The party had taken all things across when I rejoined
them, and we travelled along the left bank of the gully, chiefly through
open forest land, until we approached the river. Scrub, and muddy
gullies, obliged us to cross the river soon after we reached its banks.
Water appeared more abundant in its bed here, and we encamped on the
border of a small plain, hemmed in by brigalow scrub, in latitude 24° 33'
25" S. Thermometer, at sunrise, 23°; at noon, 58°; at 4 P.M., 62°; at 9,
29°. Height (XLVII.) above the sea, 1192 feet.

11TH JULY.--We travelled along the right bank of the river, through a
fine open forest, until our route, in a N. E. by N. direction, was again
impeded by the river. We had now descended from the upper sources of this
river, at least 1000 feet according to the barometer. We had seen, in a
large pond, a fish called mullet, which abounds in the rivers falling to
the eastern coast, but which I had never seen in those falling westward.
It was also obvious that there was no coast range between us and the
coast, and consequently that a very decided break, at least, occurred in
it, about the latitude of 25° S. This was more apparent to me on crossing
the river, and sending Yuranigh up a tree, about three miles beyond. He
could see no mountains to the northward or north-east, but only the high
table land already seen to the eastward, in which direction he could
trace the course of the river. I hastened back to the party, directed
them to encamp, and proceeded with two men and Yuranigh in a N. W.
direction, carrying provisions for a long ride. We plunged into the sea
of Brigalow--

"----And we did buffet it, With lusty sinews throwing it aside, And
stemming it with JACKETS ALL IN TATTERS."

After working out our way thus, for about ten miles, our toils were
rewarded with a scene of surpassing beauty, that gradually opened to us.
That long-lost tree, the graceful Acacia pendula, received us in the
foreground, and open plains, blended with waving lines of wood, extended
far into bluey distance, beyond which an azure coronet of mountains of
romantic forms, terminated the charming landscape.

"Far in the west, the long, long vale withdrawn,"

included columns of smoke, marking out the line of a river, which, with
its dark and luxuriant woods, pervaded the whole scene; perhaps the
finest I ever had the good fortune to discover. I beheld it from a
perfectly clear and grassy hill of rich black soil, on which we had
emerged, through a fringe of Acacia pendula. I could not advance beyond
that spot, until I had taken bearings and angles on the peaks and summits
before me. To the north-west, an apparent opening, seen between these
masses, seemed to indicate the bed of another river. On completing my
observations we rode forward across the plain, towards the woody vale,
the sun being then near setting. A solitary emu ran towards us, from a
great distance, apparently encouraged by the mere appearance of
quadrupeds, which, although new to it, seemed to have no terrors for it.
I could not allow the men to fire at it, partly, I believe, from a sense
of shame that we should thereby appear to take unfair advantage, and
prove ourselves more brutal than the quadrupeds, whom nature had
indulgently destined to carry us on their backs. The open down we
traversed, consisted of rich black mould, in which there was fossil wood
in great abundance, presenting silicified fragments so curiously wooden
as to be only distinguishable from wood, by their detached and broken
character. Such fossils are not uncommon in Australia, on plains of rich
black earth, which is a constant concomitant. Their geological history
may be simple, and would probably be very interesting, if philosophy
could but find it out. We found, further on, a channel full of water,
with reeds about the bed of it. There had been a current in it a short
time previously, and, indeed, we had seen the remains of recent rain, in
some hollows in the Brigalow scrub. The river came from the westward, and
thus might have afforded the means of travelling in that direction, had
other directions been found impracticable. We made our fire in a hollow
near the water, not wishing either to alarm or attract the natives; and
thus we passed the night pleasantly enough, with a large fire before us.
Thermometer, at sunrise, 18°; at 4 P.M., 65°; at 9, 30°.

12TH JULY.--Returning to the camp, I sought and found, with the
assistance of Yuranigh, a more open way through the scrub for our carts,
than that by which we had penetrated to the good country. I had directed
Mr. Stephenson to examine, during my absence, the western shore of the
reedy lake of Salvator, in order to ascertain whether it had any outlet
in that direction; but he returned without having reached the base of the
remarkable rocky range to the westward; thus leaving it still uncertain,
although the direction of the river since discovered, left little reason
for supposing that any waters from the valley of the Salvator, could
escape to the westward. Thermometer, at sunrise, 11°; in my tent, 15°; at
noon, 67° at 4 P.M., 65°; at 9, 35°. Height above the sea, 1107 feet.

13TH JULY.--After marking this camp XLVIII., we quitted the river
Salvator, and travelled along our track of yesterday, or nearly N. W.,
but deviating from this track occasionally, where broken ground or thick
scrub was to be avoided. The highest part of the scrubby land we crossed,
was 1310 feet above the sea. We arrived in good time at the river, where
I had previously slept, and there encamped. On the plains adjacent, the
ACACIA PENDULA grew, as on those near the Bogan; and we saw also various
new and curious grasses, and some very singular shrubs in the scrub. The
banks of the river were steep, and consisted of soft clay. I employed the
party to make a bridge across it, and this was well completed before
sunset. Thermometer, at sunrise, 23°; at noon, 65°; at 4 P.M. 68°; at 9,
40°. Height above the sea, 951 feet. (XLIX.)

14TH JULY.--Crossing the river, (which I called the Claude), we
travelled, first, through an open forest, and then across one of the
richest plains I had ever seen, and on which the ANTHISTIRIA AUSTRALIS,
and PANICUM LOEVINODE, the two best Australian grasses, grew most
abundantly. The soil was black; the surface quite level. There might have
been about a thousand acres in the first plain we crossed, ere we arrived
at another small river, or water-course, which also contained water. We
soon reached the borders of other very extensive plains and open downs,
apparently extending far to the eastward. On our left, there was a scrub
of Acacia pendula. The undulating parts of the clear land, were not so
thickly covered with grass as the plains, not because the soil was bad,
but because it was so loose, rich, and black, that a sward did not so
easily take root and spread upon it, from its great tendency to crack,
after imbibing moisture, on its subsequent evaporation. All this rich
land was thickly strewed with small fragments of fossil wood, in silex,
agate, and chalcedony. Many of the stones, as already observed, most
strikingly resembled decayed wood, and in one place the remains of an
entire trunk lay together like a heap of ruins, the DILAPIDATED remains
of a tree! I obtained even a portion of petrified bark; but specimens of
this were rare. The elevation of the highest part of these downs, was
1512 feet above the sea.

Crossing an open forest hill, which had hitherto bounded our view to the
westward, I perceived a deep grassy valley on our right, sloping towards
a much lower country, but I still travelled westward, in hopes to find an
open country, beyond a low woody range on which we had at length arrived.
I soon, however, perceived rocky gullies before me, and having halted the
party to examine them, I found they were quite impassable. Such an
unexpected obstacle, on the horizon of the fine open country, yet UNDER
that smooth horizon, was certainly as singular as it was unexpected, and
I returned to descend into the deep grassy valley I had seen on our
right, which seemed open and inviting. We therein also found some large
ponds of water, and encamped. While the men were pitching the tents I
rode down the valley about two miles, and found that the direction of the
water-course was about north-east. Such a direction was not very
favourable for us, and I resolved to look at the country beyond the
limits of this valley to the westward, before we followed it further.
Latitude, 24° 17' 42" S. Thermometer, at sunrise, 19°; at 4 P. M., 66°;
at 9, 49°. (L.) 1279 feet above the sea.

15TH JULY.--Following up a flat which came from the N. W., I proceeded
about five miles amid overhanging precipices, until, at length, mighty
rocks rendered it quite impossible to push my horse further. Leaving him
in a hollow, I ascended a rocky point, which was barely accessible with
Yuranigh's assistance, and, on reaching an elevated summit, I saw still
worse gullies before us, amongst which I could perceive no feature
affording any cue to their final outlet, nor any characteristic of the
structure of these labyrinths. I looked in vain for the rugged summits I
had seen peeping over the plains when first discovered, and could not
then be convinced (as I found long afterwards, on completing my map),
that they were then under my feet. The highest parts seemed to extend
south-westward. To cross such a region with our carts, was quite
impossible, and I could only return, and, however reluctantly, follow
down the valley in which we had encamped, until it should afford access
to a more open country. The banks of the watercourse were steep, the
bottom was sandy. The course was very tortuous, alternately closing on
rocky precipices, at each side of the valley. Thus we were obliged to
cross at every turning, and the steep banks rendered each crossing a
difficult operation, occasioning so much delay, that after crossing ten
times, evening obliged us to encamp, although our direct distance from
the last camp did not exceed five miles. We had, at each crossing, cut
the banks, filled up hollows with logs, etc. The general direction, I
ascertained to be N.E. Water was found providentially near the spot,
where the approach of night had obliged us to encamp; this having been
the first water we had seen during that day's laborious journey.
Thermometer, at sunrise, 21°; at 4 P.M., 65°; at 9, 44°.

16TH JULY.--After some examination of the valley before us, I considered
it best, upon the whole, to travel in the bed of the river itself, and
thus avoid the frequent necessity for crossing with so much labour and
delay: the sandy bed was heavy for the wheels, and therefore distressing
to the animals, and one or two rocky masses obliged us to work out of it,
to get round them. The whole day was consumed in proceeding thus about 5½
miles, and in an easterly direction. The closing in of the valley lower
down, seemed to shut us from further progress even so, and I encamped,
rather at a loss how to proceed. Just then Mr. Stephenson came to inform
me that he had seen, from a rocky point on the left, an opening to the
north-west, and level ground beyond it. I therefore determined to
accompany him next day, and to reconnoitre the country in that direction.
By digging in the bed of the creek, water was again obtained by Corporal
Graham. Some extremely fragrant shrubs were discovered in these rocky
recesses, especially one, which filled the air with perfume to a great
distance around. It seemed to be a EUCALYPTUS without flowers or fruit,
but with a powerful odour of balm, and formed a bush five feet high,
growing on sandstone rocks, having a narrow leaf, and rather thorny
stalk. The lower leaves were also rough.[*] There was another bush, with
leaves of the same shape, and glossy, but having a perfume equally strong
of the lime.[**] We regretted much, that neither the seed, flower, nor
fruit of these interesting shrubs could be obtained at that season. In
that valley, we saw also the DAUCUS BRACHIATUS, an inconspicuous weed,
to indicate its flowering season, and we found a magnificent new crimson
CALLISTEMON with its young flowers and leaves wrapped in wool.[***] A new
DODONOEA with wingless, 3-cornered, 3-celled fruit[****]; a new species
of AOTUS, with narrow hoary leaves[*****], and one of the forest trees
was a splendid new GEIGERA, with broad lance-shaped leaves.[******] The
PLATYZOMA MICROPHYLLUM, a very singular and little known fern, with
narrow leaves and small orbicular leaflets, was also there, with the
ACACIA FALCATA, ACACIA EXCELSA, and a shaggy-leaved variety of the AJUGA
AUSTRALIS, the Australian bugle. The BRUNONIA SERICEA, with its scabious-
like heads of flowers, was common; and the blue flowered HARDENBERGIA
MONOPHYLLA was observed among the grass. Thermometer, at sunrise, 25°; at
9 P.M., 41°.

[* E. MELISSIODORA (Lindl. MS.); ramis ferrugineo-tomentosis scabris,
foliis utrinque papillis rubiginosis scabris ovato-oblongis obtusis supra
basim peltatis (floribus fructibusque ignotis).]

[** E. CITRIODORA (Hook. MS.); ramis angulatis fuscis minute
tuberculatis, foliis lato-lanceolatis petiolatis pinnulatis patenti-
parallelo-venosis viridibus (non glaucis). Sir Wm. Hooker has ventured to
name this EUCALYPTUS, though without flower or fruit, from the
deliciously fragrant lemon-like odour, which exists in the dry as well as
the recent state of the plant.]

[*** C. NERVOSUM (Lindl. MS.); ramis pallidis, foliis ovato-lanceolatis
quinque-nerviis mucronatis junioribus tomentosis, rachi calycibusque

[**** D. TRIGONA (Lindl. MS.); ramulis subpilosis, foliis obovato-
lanceolatis parum pilosis integerrimis vel utrinque unidentatis, capsulis
3-locularibus trigonis apteris.]

[***** A. MOLLIS (Benth. MS.); undique molliter tomentoso-villosus, ramis
crectis-rigidis, foliis sparsis anguste oblongis margine revolutis,
calycis vix bilabiati dentibus subaequalibus, ovario breviter stipitato
villosissimo.--Near A. PASSERINOÏDES Meisn., but differing in the narrow
and longer leaves, the calyx and ovary.]

[****** G. LATIFOLIA (Lindl. MS.); foliis ovato-lanceolatis longe
petiolatis subtus obscure pubescentibus junioribus convolutis.--This
appears to differ from G. SALICIFOLIA in its long-stalked leaves.]

17TH JULY.--Our ride this morning soon led amongst different scenes. By
merely turning to the left we came upon a flat, in which another water-
course, similar to that we had been tracing (Balmy Creek), came from the
west, apparently out of that inaccessible country, across which I had
previously looked in vain for a passage. Several other gullies joined
this water-course, and seared the flat, which consisted of a deep clay
deposit, in almost every direction. After crossing these, we found a fine
broad opening between rocky precipices of most picturesque forms. This
gap I called Stephenson's Pass; it led into a spacious glen surrounded on
all sides but the N.W. by mountains such as I have described, recalling
to my memory the most imaginative efforts of Mr. Martin's saepia drawing,
and showing how far the painter's fancy may anticipate nature. But, at
the gorge of this valley, there stood a sort of watch-tower, as if to
guard the entrance, so like a work of art, that even here, where men and
kangaroos were equally wild and artless, I was obliged to look very
attentively, to be quite convinced that the tower was the work of nature
only. A turret with a pointed roof, of a colour corresponding, first
appeared through the trees, as if it had been built on the summit of a
round hill. On a nearer approach the fine tints of the yellowish grey
rocks, and the small pines climbing the sides of a hill abruptly rising
out of a forest of common trees, presented still a very remarkable
object. I named the valley "Glen Turret," and this feature "Tower
Almond," after an ancient castle, the scene of many early associations,
and now quite as uninhabited as this. Passing through Glen Turret, we
ascended the nearest summit on the right, and from it beheld a prospect
most cheering, after our toils amid rocky ravines. On the westward, the
rocky range seemed to terminate abruptly towards the north, in an
elevated point, which seemed to command an extensive view over the
unknown W. and N.W. Out of that region two isolated mountain masses arose
from an open country, and were clothed with open forests to their
summits. Further eastward, masses of mountain in the extreme distance
appeared covered, also, with open forests, and presented finely rounded
outlines, not likely to impede our passage, in any direction. But towards
the N.W. our view was not so extensive; like the uncertain future, it
still lay hid. The retrospect was very extensive, including Mount Faraday
in the extreme distance, and which thus afforded me a valuable back angle
for the correction of our longitude from any errors of detailed survey.
The lofty mass of Buckland's Table Land still overlooked all from the E.,
and I could here again intersect its three principal points. The view
back to the Pass was very fine, for the rocks and wood were so blended on
the bold summits, as to present sublime studies for the artist. Far to
the westward, an interior line of cliffy range resembled a sea beach,
presenting a crescent, concave on that side, apparently the limit to the
basin of the Nogoa, and the dividing range between eastern and western
waters. Our Pass seemed to be the only outlet through the labyrinths
behind us. Even the open plains beyond them were visible in a yellow
streak above the precipices. Far beyond these plains, Mount Faraday was
distinctly visible, on the horizon of the landscape. Thermometer, at
sunrise, 29°; at 9 P.M., 43°. (LI.) 1234 feet above the sea.

18TH JULY.--By retracing our horses' footsteps, the carts were soon
brought to the base of the same hill; deep gullies in the clay having
obliged us to pass close under it, and, indeed, to cross two of its
elevated extremities. We found the country beyond, in a N.W. direction,
tolerably open, and we encamped in a valley containing abundance of
grass, and near to our camp, water was found in a chain of ponds
descending to the eastward. A new SUAEDA, with short leaves, and the
habit of a dwarf Tamarisk, was found this day.[*] Latitude, 24° 6' 47" S.
Thermometer, at sunrise, 31°; at noon, 65°; at 4 P.M., 69°; at 9, 44°.

[* S. TAMARISCINA (Lindl. MS.); fruticosa, ramosissima, foliis brevibus
cylindraceis imbricatis obtusissimis, axillis lanatis, floribus
solitariis sessilibus.]

19TH JULY.--With the intention to lose no opportunity of getting further
to the westward, I travelled on towards the base of the most northern
summit of the range in the west; but I was, at length, so shut up by
gullies and scrubby extremities near its base and all radiating from it,
and becoming very deep, that I took the party aside into a grassy ravine
near, where I directed the men to encamp, and hastened myself to the
summit. From it, the view westward was not so extensive as I expected.
Something like precipitous slopes to some channel or water-course,
apparently falling either S. W. or N. E., formed the most promising
feature; but, although my object was to have travelled in that direction,
the scrub seemed too thick to admit of a passage. Open forest land
appeared to the N. E., and there, the gently undulating features,
although much lower than the range on whose northern extremity I then
stood, seemed nevertheless to form a connection between it and some
higher ranges of open forest land, that appeared between me and the
coast. Through one wide opening in these, about east, I saw some broken
hills, at a very great distance, say seventy or eighty miles. The ridgy-
connected undulations formed the heads of some valleys sloping to the
south-east, whereof the waters would evidently join those of the Balmy
Creek, while others, rising on the north-west side, seemed to belong to a
separate basin, and to form a river falling to the north-west. This river
was indicated only by slopes meeting and interlacing in a valley. To the
left or westward of that supposed river channel, a mighty isolated
mountain mass shut out any view of the further course of the water of the
valley formed between it and these slopes; but, as the very lowest point
of the whole horizon, as indicated by the spirit-level of the theodolite,
lay in that direction, I determined to pursue that bearing, (10° W. of
N.) through the open forest country that intervened. I found that the
mountain commanding this view, was elevated 2247 feet above the sea,
according to the Syphon barometer, and in using this instrument, I could
not forget Colonel Mudge, who had kindly taught me its use; I therefore
named that summit Mount Mudge. In the gravel at the base of the hill,
were water-worn pebbles of trap and basalt. The rock of which the range
itself consisted, seemed to be a calcareous grit, with vegetable
impressions, apparently of GLOSSOPTERIS BROWNII. On descending to the
camp, I was informed that the cattle-watering party came suddenly upon
two natives, one of whom was a placid old man, the other middle-aged.
Corporal Graham did all he could to allay their fears, and convince them
that they were in no danger from such strangers. The elder at length
handed his little bundle to the younger and sat down, on seeing the
Corporal's green bough; meanwhile the other walked on. When Graham took
the old man's hand, and shook it, also patting him on the back, and
expressing a friendly disposition only, the poor helpless man of the
woods burst into tears, finding himself incapable of either words or
deeds suitable for a meeting so uncommon. They could not relieve him from
this state of alarm, so readily as by leaving him sitting, and moving on,
which they did. In the scrubs near this camp, Mr. Stephenson discovered a
very remarkable tree, apparently a casuarina, having long drooping
leaves, hanging like long hair from its upper boughs[*]; and in the stony
gullies a DODONAEA allied to D. SALSOLIFOLIA A. CUNN., from Van Diemen's
Land, but the leaves slenderer, and three or four times longer[**].
Although we were approaching the tropics, the weather was most cool and
pleasant. A delicious breeze played amongst the woods, and welcomed us to
the Torrid Zone. Until now, during every clear night the air had been
frosty. Latitude, 24° 6' 50" S. Thermometer, at sunrise, 34°; at noon,
68°; at 4 P.M., 61°; at 9, 47°.

[* See page 285.]

[* D. FILIFOLIA (Hook. MS.); foliis sparsis ramis binis ternisve
lineariangustissimis elongatis subrugosis viscosis glabris utrinque
canaliculatis falcatis, fructibus trialatis.]

Chapter VI.


20TH JULY.--AFTER a little trouble with the gullies and brigalow scrub,
on first setting off, we came upon fine undulating open forest land, and
crossed many a gully and small water-course, all declining towards the
N.E. A very remarkable flat-topped hill appeared on our right, resembling
a wart, on one of these ridges; to the northward it was precipitous, and
seemed to consist of a very red rock. At length, after crossing a ridge
rather broader than the rest, with some brigalow scrub upon it, and one
or two specimens of that tree of solitary places, the bottle tree,
(DELABECHEA) we arrived at valleys and water-courses descending to the
southward of west, into a valley turning to the N.W. One, at length, on
our right, taking the direction in which I was proceeding, viz., 10° W.
of N., I followed it down, and thus entered a broader valley leading N.W.
Following this, on a wide flat of open forest, we found at length a fine
pond of water in it, and encamped beside it, after a journey of about
twelve miles. This valley seemed to continue to the base of the lofty
isolated mountain already mentioned, where a lower valley crossed it,
falling either to the northward or southward. This I left in pleasing
uncertainty until next morning, for I had remarked in that locality, when
I stood on Mount Mudge, a long line of grey mist running north and south.
I named the large mountain beyond that valley, Mount Beaufort, in honour
of my scientific friend at the Admiralty. Thermometer, at sunrise, 40°;
at noon, 66°; at 4 P.M., 73°; at 9, 62°. (LIII.)

21ST JULY.--On following downwards the chain of ponds and broad valley,
we came upon the bed of a river, running to the N.N.E. We gladly turned
in that direction, and after it had received various tributaries from the
south, I found it took the course I had foreseen it must from Mount
Mudge. We saw water in the channel, and now again I believed that we had
at length discovered the head of a northwestern river. The soil consisted
of firm clay, and tributaries occasionally impeded our journey. We got
amongst brigalow scrub, and could find no water in looking for the
channel of the river, which we knew must still have been on our left.
Ponds in the scrub could not easily be identified as channels. I met with
no better success on turning to the left, and encamped amongst the
brigalow, where I found some grass. On riding westward I came upon arid
stony ground, on which many of the trees were dead, apparently from
drought, and so near the Tropic such a scene was by no means encouraging.
On turning my horse, he trod on an old heap of fresh watermussles, at an
old fireplace of the natives. This was a cheering proof that water was
not distant, which was further indicated by the flight of two native
companions, from the N.W. We had encamped on a flat of clay, on which
salsolaceous bushes, such as grew on similar plains on the Bogan, had
been growing, but were then all withered from drought. The very grass
seemed parched and useless. I never saw vegetation so checked by drought.
A longer continuance was likely to kill all the trees, and convert the
country into open downs. I determined, before I ventured further, to send
the cattle to a pond four miles back, next morning, and to examine the
country before us. Latitude, 23° 48' 36". Thermometer, at sunrise, 57°;
at noon, 69°; at 4 P.M., 75°; at 9, 48°.

22D JULY.--Having sent bullocks, horses, and sheep back to the water, I
went forward on the bearing of 30° W. of N. I soon fell in with the
united channel of the river, and found in it abundant ponds of water, the
direction of the course being as favourable as could be wished. From
these ponds I perceived a clear hill to the westward, which I hastened to
ascend, and from its summit I beheld some fine mountains to the
northward, although an easterly wind and sea air brought a haze over
them, which soon obscured some of my points. But I saw enough to relieve
me of all anxiety at that time about the want of water. A promising
valley from the mountains in the eastward, came due west, and from it
arose the smoke of many natives' fires. Lines of other rivers, from other
ranges, were partly visible beyond, until the haze obscured the outlines
of mountains still more remote. The bright prospects of this morning were
a pleasing contrast to the temporary difficulties of yesterday. Such is
human life in travelling, and so it was in war at Salamanca this day
thirty-four years back. We encamped after a short journey on the bank of
the river. Latitude, 24° 46' 46". Thermometer, at sunrise, 49°, at noon,
74°; at 4 P.M., 73°; at 9, 64°. (LIV.)

23D JULY.--The water in the adjacent pond was trodden into mud, so that
none remained for the horses and bullocks this morning. Accordingly, on
arriving at a pond about two miles on, we gave water to all, that they
might better bear the privation in the afternoon, should we not
fortunately find more. The river had a singular tendency to spread into
little channels within a belt of brigalow scrub. The little holes formed
by these channels were almost all dry, while the withered state of the
grass, and even of the forest trees, showed that rain had long been due,
and we therefore hoped some would fall before our return. When we had
travelled about twelve miles, keeping as close to the river line as the
scrub would permit, and crossing one or two fine rising grounds covered
with a very open forest, and consisting of large gravel, I found a pond,
and encamped near it, on a plain of almost naked clay. Amongst the water-
worn pebbles, of which the rising ground consisted, there were, besides
the ingredients of the Barwan gravel, many of trap and basalt. Very old
and dry grass only, could be had for the cattle. In the pond were small
fishes of a different form from any we had seen, having a large forked
tail, only two or three spikes in the dorsal fin, and a large jet-black
eye within a broad silvery ring. Mr. Stephenson found three crabs,
apparently identical with those about the inlets near Sydney. Latitude,
23° 37' 51". S. Thermometer, at sunrise, 46°; at noon, 73°; at 4 P.M. 80;
at 9, 55°. (LV.)

24TH JULY.--The morning was overcast by heavy clouds, and the air was
balmy and mild, reminding us of the spring season near Sydney. Lightning
had been seen to the northward during the night. In following the little
wayward channel downward, we met with much brigalow scrub, and crossed
two apparently important tributaries. In one of them was a good large
pond. We had some trouble with an ana-branch, resembling the main
channel, which we had twice to cross at a distance of two miles. With the
last tributaries, plains and an open forest country became neighbours to
the river; and where we encamped beside it, no scrub was to be seen, and
the water lay in a deep broad reach, nearly half a mile in length, with
ducks upon it. Towards evening, the unwonted sound of thunder was heard
in the west, reminding us, at this season of the year, that we were near
the Tropic. In the same direction, two distant storms exhausted
themselves, and most likely giving birth to young grass where they fell.
During the night, much thunder was heard, and also early next morning, to
the northward. Latitude, 23° 31' S. Thermometer, at sunrise, 56°; at
noon, 75°; at 4, P.M., 82°; at 9, 66°. (LVI.)

25TH JULY.--There was no hill or other geographical feature near our
route, whereby it might have been possible to mark there the limit of
Tropical Australia. We were the first to enter the interior beyond that
line. Three large kangaroos hopping across a small plain, were visible,
just as we entered these regions of the sun. The air was extremely
fragrant; the shrubs and grass being still moist with the thunder-shower.
The course of the river continued favourable, and the country seemed to
improve as we advanced, opening into plains skirted by scrubs of
rosewood, and drooping shrubs whose verdure was most refreshing to the
eye, after just having passed through dry and withered brigalow. At eight
miles a large lagoon appeared on our left, on which we saw many ducks,
and at nine miles we encamped where the grass seemed good, finding that
water was at hand now, in the river bed, wherever we required it.
Latitude, 23° 25' 26" S. Thermometer, at sunrise, 45°; at noon, 77°; at 4
P.M., 85°; at 9, 53°. (LVII.)

26TH JULY.--The river appearing to pursue a W. N.W. course, I set out in
that direction, attracted there, also, by some open plain separated by
scrub from the river. We travelled on, a good many miles, when, instead
of the firm clay, we found, under foot soft, red sand, and trees of the
genus callitris growing in close thickets. I turned to the northward, and
travelled many miles to the eastward of north, without seeing any
indications of the river, whose general course had been previously
straight. Scrubs of almost every description lay in our way. Brigalow,
rosewood, casuarina, a thick light-green scrub of a close-growing bush,
new to us, and some scrubs of the tree as yet undescribed for want of
flowers or fruit, although well known to us as a graceful, and, indeed;
useful bush; of which, as an impediment, we could not much complain; and
useful, as forming excellent whip-shafts. This is the tree of unknown
fruit figured in my former journal. At length, when it was growing late,
I travelled eastward to make sure of the river, and, at length, regained
its banks, where we found in its bed plenty of water. The surface looked
bare, and the grass dry; but this day I discovered green shoots amongst
it, evidently the product of recent rain, and indicating the approach of
spring. On sandstone rocks, we found a plant which Sir William Hooker
terms "a singular Euphorbiaceous (?) plant[*]," destitute of flower and
fruit. Branches very thick, and they, as well as the long petioles and
underside of the leaves clothed with dense white wool. Leaves a span
long, cordato acuminate; the laminae all pointing downwards, glossy green
and glabrous above. Also a new DODONOEA, with very narrow, linear,
pinnated leaves. The only hills visible, from a tree ascended by
Yuranigh, during this day's journey were those to the eastward, already
seen. None appeared above the horizon in any other direction.
Thermometer, at sunrise, 39°; at noon, 79°; at 4 P.M., 89°; at 9, 75°.

[* D. TENUIFOLIA (Lindl. MS.); glaberrima, viscosa, ramulis angulatis,
foliis impari pinnatis: foliolis 3-5-jugis linearibus obtusis

27TH JULY.--The same characteristic, still distinguished our river; a
variety of channels, so concatenated amongst brigalow scrub, much whereof
lay dead, that it was scarcely possible to ascertain whether there was
any main channel. Hitherto, I had not detected one; but this was of
little consequence to us, so long as these ponds contained abundance of
water. This we saw in many parts of our route this day; for I kept as
close as possible to the river's course, to avoid such detours as that of
yesterday, and being very anxious about the river's general direction, I
was glad to find it turn somewhat westward of north. After travelling
thus about nine miles, I perceived a blue pic nearly due north, which I
named Mount Narrien; and Yuranigh saw from a tree, that there was a range
in the same direction, but very distant. This seemed likely not only to
send down some additional waters to our river, but also to turn it
westward. Entering, soon after, upon a plain of good grass, I looked for
water; and, on finding some, encamped after a journey of about eleven
miles. Latitude, 23° 9'S. Thermometer, at sunrise, 43°; at noon, 83°; at
4 P.M., 90°; at 9, 53°. (LIX.)

28TH JULY.--The brigalow scrub, still a concomitant of our river, so
hemmed in the patch of plain, that I was obliged to move out of it, in a
southerly direction. Even thus, however, the scrub was not to be avoided,
and we were obliged to force a way through, where the still more
formidable impediment of much fallen timber, rendered it almost
impossible that our vehicles could pass. This dead wood seemed peculiar
to that sort of brigalow, and appeared to remain unburnt, chiefly from
the usually naked surface of the ground where brigalow grows. I left the
party, when brought almost to a stand, and sought for a more open part,
by riding northward. This rather singular river seemed to have spread
over a considerable extent of surface, and much of the brigalow, however
fond of water, appeared to have died of too much, on spots which had been
flooded. I traversed a plain, beyond which I found, what seemed there,
the main chain of ponds or channel. There was a fine reach of water, and
beside it, were the still smoking fires, water-vessels, etc., of a tribe
of natives, who had disappeared. On the plain, the remains of decayed
stumps of brigalow showed that there also, this tree had once grown, and
that the openings were caused only by such trees perishing; as if,
according to seasons, the half-dead scrub might either give place to open
downs, or, that the plains might, by long succession of regular seasons,
become again covered with scrub. I returned to the party halted in the
scrub, and conducted it through an opening I had found, to the plain, and
across it, in a N.W. direction; where, after passing through some open
forest, we had again to contend with brigalow. One of the many dry
channels assisted us much in seeking openings, as the bottom then
consisted of smooth, firm, clay. A pond, however, obliged us to quit it,
and seek our way through the wood. We arrived next at slightly undulating
ground, and finally entered an open forest, where I saw the LORANTHUS
SUBFALCATUS of Sir William Hooker. I made Yuranigh climb a tree, from
whence he again saw the pic seen yesterday, (the bearing of which I
ascertained), and also a gap appeared in the range beside it, through
which, as he thought, a river was likely to come down. The extreme
westerly escarp of these hills bore 17° E. of N., so that nothing was
likely to impede the continued course of our friendly river in the
direction we wished. The scrub we met with on the rising ground,
consisted of the verdant bushes in rosewood scrubs, and we next found
brigalow all dead, with a rich crop of grass growing amongst the dead
stems. I had never seen grass, amongst brigalow, when in a healthy state.
On turning northward, we next entered upon an open plain covered with
good grass mixed with verdant polygonum. I selected a corner of this
plain, nearest to the river, for my camp; and, on approaching its bed,
found water as usual, near some old huts of the natives. Latitude, 23° 5'
20" S. Thermometer, at sunrise, 44°; at noon, 82°; at 4 P.M., 88°; at 9,
58°. (XL.)

29TH JULY.--The scrub between our camp and the river, admitted of easy
access from it to open forest ground, over which we travelled in a N.W.
direction for several miles. Belts of scrub, consisting of rosewood and
other acacias intervened, and, in some parts, TRIODIA PUNGENS grew in the
place of grass. But, upon the whole, the country was fine, open, park-
like, and with much anthistiria, and other grasses in which a greenness
was observed quite novel to us, and unexpected in these tropical regions.
Amongst the shrubs, we recognised the CASSIA HETEROLOBA, a small yellow-
flowered shrub; also a glutinous Baccharislike plant, and a form of
Eremophila Mitchellii, intermediate between the two other varieties. This
was a shrub ten feet high. Another new species of the genus GEIJERA
formed a tree twenty feet high, with long slender weeping branches. It
was otherwise much like the GEIJERA PARVIFLORA, except that its flowers
were larger.[*] A dwarf shrub belonging to the genus STENOCHILUS, but
new, was found here[**]; and we met also with a large spreading tree,
from which we could bring away nothing that would enable botanists to
describe it, except as to the texture and nervation of the leaves, which,
Sir William Hooker observes, resemble CAPPARIDEOE; but the fruit appeared
to be sessile, and was too young and too imperfect to lead to any
satisfactory conclusion. The very crows cawed differently from those near
Sydney, or, (as Yuranigh observed) "talked another language." This river
was not the least unique of our recent discoveries. It still consisted of
a great breadth of concatenated hollows without any one continuous
channel, and this character seemed to be preserved by various trees
growing in the banks. When their large roots became denuded by the
floods, or were washed out, or partially gave way, so that the tree fell
over the stream, they presented impediments, first to the floating-wreck,
and, next, to the water itself: when that collection of floating wreck
became consolidated with muddy deposit, new banks so formed forced the
river into new currents, working out new courses; and this appeared to
give the peculiar character so uniformly observed. It seems extremely
favourable for the retention of water in a country where it may be
scarce; for the many ponds so formed and shaded from the sun, preserve it
much better and longer, than if one continuous unobstructed channel
alone, received and carried off, the water of the surface. I found the
hollows we saw this day drier than usual; but we at length succeeded in
discovering three good ponds. The foliage of the trees, with dry and
naked water-worn roots, presented all the hues of an English autumn,
although none of these were deciduous. This effect I was disposed to
attribute to unseasonable drought, or past heat. The weather we had was
delightful; for, although the thermometer in the shade rose sometimes to
90° about 4 P.M., the heat of the Bogan was still fresh in our
recollection; and the frosts which, not above three weeks before, had
disturbed our sleep, made this degree of heat as welcome as the flowers
in May. Latitude, 22° 55' 35" S. Thermometer, at sunrise, 38°; at noon,
80°; at 4 P.M., 85°; at 9, 51°. (LXI.)

[* G. PENDULA (Lindl. MS.); ramis gracilibus pendulis, foliis linearibus
in petiolum sensim angustatis 5 uncias longis cum ramo parallelis.]

[** S. SALICINUS (Benth. MS.); foliis lanceolato-linearibus integerrimis
apice subuncinato ramulisque canescentibus, calycis foliolis brevibus
lanceolatis, corollae puberulae inferne attenuatae laciniis obtusis
infimâ retusâ vix caeteris magis solutâ.--Very near S. PUBIFLORUS, but
much whiter, the flowers smaller with the lobes much more equal, the
lower one much broader.]

30TH JULY.--The scrub of the river being likely to surround us, I
endeavoured to pass it, and cross the river, but on examination I found
the brigalow belt beyond, so serious an obstruction, that I adhered to
the left bank still, and proceeded N. N. W. The woods opened into
extensive plains covered with wild Indigo, as high as a horse's head, and
that was skirted by a plain covered with rich grass. Beyond these, we
entered an open forest where the anthistiria grew luxuriantly. I saw,
from the skirts of the plain, the mass of mountains partly seen in the
east for several days past, and I was able to intersect various points.
We seemed to be descending to a very low country. A fine large lagoon,
covered with ducks, appeared on our right. The whole country was improved
both as to grass and trees. The MYOPORUM DULCE, a shrub about five feet
high, was perhaps a distinct species intermediate between M. DULCE and M.
DESERTI. It had the habit of the latter, but the leaves nearly of M.
DULCE. A hollow at length indicated the river bed near us. It contained
abundance of transparent water, a continuous channel, rocky bed, and,
instead of brigalow, there grew on its banks a thick crop of strong
grass, and much verdure. A tributary from the west cost us some trouble
to cross, and soon after crossing it, I encamped. The course this day had
run well to the westward. We had crossed the 147° of E. longitude, and I
was very anxious to learn more of the further course of this river. I
crossed it, and hastened to some rising ground, whence I perceived a
flat-topped cliffy range extending from S. W. to the N. of west. It was
low; the middle part, appearing highest, was probably the nearest to our
camp. It was likely to turn our river too far to the northward for our
purpose. Latitude, 22° 51' 55". Thermometer, at sunrise, 54°; at noon,
82°; at 4 P.M., 83°; at 9, 45°. (LXII.)

31ST JULY.--We travelled over a rather different sort of country from
that recently seen upon the river. It was still on our right, and ran in
a deep, well-marked channel. I pursued a N.W. course, although the range
I had seen yesterday lay across it. I thus came upon the bed of a large
river from the south, very near where our little river joined it. This
new river was there fully 100 yards broad, with a sandy bed. I hastened
across it, and proceeded still N.W. In the bed, just above the junction
of the two rivers, I found a large podded pea, the seed both in green
pods and dry pods, was very sweet and edible. The pods were larger than
those of Turkey beans, and contained each ten or eleven peas (Dr. L.?)
Beyond the last found river, we travelled over open forest land,
occasionally passing patches of rosewood scrub on the left. When we might
again see water was rather a desperate thought, for we had witnessed our
abundant little river, wholly absorbed in a deep mass of dry sand, for
such was the bed of the larger. At length we came upon a very spacious
dry lagoon. Following this, as it appeared to be the channel of large
floods from the river, we arrived at a part containing water, and, still
continuing along the hard dry bank, another and another pond appeared,
and I finally encamped near the last, where I saw some good grass. The
course and character of the river below the junction last mentioned,
remained to be ascertained. Parts of the surface in the scrub, which,
before the rain, had been quite bare, now presented a crop of lichen,
which bore some resemblance to the orchilla. It might have been gathered
in any quantity. The ant-hills in this region, presented a different form
from any to be seen in the south, consisting of slender cones of hard
clay about the size and shape of sugar-loaves on an average, many being
larger, or as much as 3½ feet high, others smaller. In some places they
were so numerous, as to be rather inconvenient to ride amongst,
especially where the grass was long. Latitude of this camp, 22° 44' 45".
Thermometer, at sunrise, 52°; at noon, 70°; at 4 P.M., 69°; at 9, 43°.

1ST AUGUST.--Supposing that this line of lagoons led to the river, I
followed that direction westward, until it disappeared where we came upon
the water brigalow. Then, turning northward, I travelled many miles in
that direction, through rosewood scrubs, and over ground where the very
coarse hard grass grew on red sand. The callitris and casuarina appeared
amongst the trees. On a spot rather clear of wood, Yuranigh went to the
top of a callitris tree, and saw a lofty mountain somewhat to the
eastward of north, and he thought he could trace the trees marking the
course of the river to the westward of it. Further westward, the low
range already mentioned, was still visible, and he saw that the country
between the two ranges was very "deep," as he termed it, meaning very
low. Upon the whole, there was reason to believe that the river pursued a
course, somewhat to the westward of north. I turned in that direction,
and forced our way through scrub and brush, until, after cutting through
much fallen brigalow, I entered upon good grassy land, and saw the large
Yarra trees before me. These grew by the river, which here looked very
important, having a bed wider than that of the Barwan, with sloping
grassy banks at least sixty feet high, and Yarra trees growing from the
lower margin. Continuing along its banks, we soon found various large
ponds of water, and in the short course of it we had to trace before we
encamped, the direction was S. W. Many curious plants and trees now
appeared about the banks. A rough-leaved fig tree with well-formed
woolly, globular fruit; an ALTERANTHERA, with very large balls of satiny
white flowers, resembling A. NODIFLORA; the ACACIA FARNESIANA, a prickly
tree; the narrow-leaved smooth variety of ACACIA HOLOSERICEA; and in the
bed of the river, the ACACIA SIMSII (Cunn.) A broad-leaved form of
LORANTHUS NUTANS was parasitical on trees, and the EURYBIA SUBSPICATA of
Sir W. Hooker also grew on the upper bank. A very extraordinary CAPPARIS
was here observed in fruit. Its leaves were as much as eight inches long,
although not more than three quarters of an inch wide, and their hard
leathery texture gave them the appearance of straps. It did not
afterwards occur.[*] The water in the river was excellent. Thermometer,
at sunrise, 23°; at noon, 65°; at 4 P.M., 69°; at 9, 44°. Latitude, 22°
38' 40". (LXIV.)

[* C. UMBONATA (Lindl. MSS.); inermis, glaberrima, foliis coriaceis
longissimis loratis obtusis in petiolum sensim angustatis, pedunculis
solitariis (2 poll.) stipite brevioribus, fructu ovoideo umbonato.]

2D AUGUST.--We had approached this fine river over a park-like plain, but
lower down we found the banks lined with scrub. I pursued a N.W. course
in passing through it, and emerged on plains and open forests alternating
with scrubs. The scrubs were remarkable, as always involving dry hollows
where water had lodged. The clay was then hard; but, in all these
hollows, the deep impressions of naked feet of men, women, and children,
remained since the bottom had consisted of mud. These numerous
receptacles for water, when it is sent, attest the wisdom with which even
the clods of the valley have been disposed for the benefit of the animal
world. The day's journey was long, and chiefly through that sort of
scrub. I was disappointed in my hope of falling in with the river, by
travelling N.W. Yuranigh descried from a tree, the continuation, far to
the westward, of the low range that had been already seen from a former
camp. Its direction had then appeared to be nearly N. and S. The turn the
river had taken westward was, therefore, favourable to my hopes, that it
would continue in that direction. Its general course was found to be
nearly northward. On the other hand, the high ranges in the E. seemed to
terminate abruptly towards the N., so that a very low country appeared to
be to the northward of our position then, stretching from 40° N. of W. to
40° E. of N., a full quarter circle which the course of the river almost
bisected. After travelling twelve miles without seeing any thing of the
river, I reluctantly turned N.E., and then E., and in the last-mentioned
direction, I hit the river where it contained a fine reach of water. In
the dry part of the bed, grew various curious plants in flower, all quite
new to me; a species closely allied to the ACACIA DELIBERATA (Cunn.), and
a very fine silky leaved TRICHODESMA.[*] A new VELLEYA was also found
near this camp.[**] In the scrubs back from the river, the STENOCHILUS
CURVIPES was loaded with its long tubular flowers. A small species of
Acacia was perhaps a variety of A. LEUCADENDRON Cunn.; and we found also
a curious scrubby species of JACKSONIA.[***] Latitude, 22° 30' 10" S.
Thermometer, at sunrise, 29°; at noon, 61°; at 4 P.M., 69°; at 9, 40°.

[* T. SERICEUM (Lindl. MSS.); caule erecto sericeo setis nullis, foliis
oppositis lineari-lanceolatis basi angustatis sericeopilosis, pedicellis
pilosis lateralibus longis, calycis lobis lanceolatis pubescentibus basi
pilosis, nucis dorso polito maculato.--Near T. ZEYLANICUM, but quite

[** V. MACROCALYX (De Vriese MSS.); foliis omnibus radicalibus,
oblongospathulatis acutis, integris, membranaceis, remote, minute et
obsolete dentatis, uninerviis, glabris, subdecurrentibus, glabris; scapis
radicalibus elongatis, folia vix exaequantibus; bracteis dichotomiarum
vel trichotomiarum binis ternisve lanceolatis acutis vel lineari-
lanceolatis, floribus 2-3nis; calycibus (involucris) ternis, magnis,
membranaceis, ovatis, ellipticisque, acuminatis, basi cordatis,
petiolatisque; antherae liberae, stigmatis indusium maximum ciliatum,
labiis compressis, cochleariforme.--Folia sunt 6-12 cent. longa, 3 cent.
lata, crassinervia; scapi adscendentes, inferne tenuiores, sursum parum

[*** J. RAMOSISSIMA (Benth. MSS.) inermis, ramis angulatis ramosissimis
glabriusculis, floribus subsessilibus, calycis colorati profunde divisi
laciniis duabus supremis diù vel omnino cohaerentibus, legumine
subsessili ovato-acuto ventricoso.]

3D AUGUST.--Our carts had been so much jolted about and shaken, in
crossing the dead timber yesterday, that I resolved to keep along the
river bank this day, if the ground and woods permitted. To a certain
distance from the banks, there was less fallen timber, as the natives had
been accustomed there to make their fires, and roast the mussles of the
river, and other food. The river was found to spread into separate
channels, in which I did not readily recognise it, until I found them
again united in a splendid reach of water under steep banks. The general
course was by no means promising, being somewhat to the E. of N.; it was
much to be apprehended that this river, too, would run to the E. coast,
and become another instance of the utter want of any knowledge of the
interior country, that still may prevail, long after complete surveys
have been made of the lines of coast. Again we came upon wide fields of
polygonum, and tracks of open forest with large lagoons. Then scrubs of
brigalow obliged us to travel in the river bed, as the only open part
where we could pass. That surface consisted of clay iron-stone, denuded
by torrents, and the "DISJECTA MEMBRA," of a river. Ponds, water-worn
banks, and timber, alive and dead, were there intermixed. Emerging from
these obstructions, as from a feverish dream, we entered upon park-like
scenery and good grass. The latter had been a desideratum during the last
two days. We next came upon a river containing plenty of water, and
coming from the N.W. I expected this would terminate our journey along
the other, and I encamped on discovering it, after a journey of ten
miles. The Australian rivers have all distinguishing characteristics,
which they seem to possess from their sources to their termination. That
we had just quitted, had a great affection, like its upper tributary, for
brigalow scrubs, and spreading into ana-branches. This last discovered
river seemed quite the reverse of all this. Its channel was very uniform;
the banks being covered with open forests and good grass. The bed was
sandy, but contained water in abundance, so that I hoped it would lead us
to higher regions, by following it upwards, to where other waters might
fall in the direction of the Gulf. This river contained the Harlequin
fish of the Maranin great abundance. Yet we had found none of these in
the river to which this was a tributary, but, on the contrary, two other
sorts. There was much novelty in the trees and plants. One tree in
particular, growing in the bed of the river, had the thin white shining
bark of the tea-tree (mimosa), and drooping leaves shaped like those of
the eucalyptus; a HIBISCUS allied to, if not the same, with II. LINDLEYI,
but not in flower; a CASSIA, perhaps C. CORONILLOIDES in ripe fruit, or
at least closely allied to it, occupied the dry sandy ground with
MONENTELES REDOLENS, a silveryheaded weed; and some Cinchonad allied to
Coffea, with young fruit, the size of small olives. Latitude, 22° 23'
10". Thermometer, at sunrise, 21°; at noon, 59°; at 4 P.M., 64°; at 9,
37°; with wet bulb, 28°. (LXVI.)

4TH AUGUST.--We had still so much westing to make, in order to hit the
head of the Gulf, that I was disposed to follow up the new river in any
direction that did not take us much to the S. The river, however, was
soon found to come from the S.W. and S., so that I was obliged to cross
it. I then travelled W. through open forest three miles, which brought us
to undulating ground. I then turned to the W.N.W., and proceeded over
ground equally open and favourable for the passage of our carts. At
length, a hard ferruginous conglomerate rock, projected from the surface,
and clumps of thick brigalow grew on some of the summits. On one piece of
rising ground, I found a mass of rocks, a few feet higher than the rest,
and from it I perceived a continuation of the slightly elevated
flattopped range, to the southward and westward. A somewhat higher but
similar sort of range appeared in the east, beyond a very broad and level
woody country, through which it was probable that our first-found river
still pursued a northerly course. Beyond that flat, and further to the
eastward, the same hills already seen were still visible, and others
northward of them, just like them. There was a high summit beyond all
these bearing about E. I could not discover any satisfactory line to
follow in the country thus partially visible, and as the sun was near the
horizon, I only continued, to go forward to a valley wherein I hoped to
have found water, but was disappointed, the soil being too sandy and
absorbent. There we nevertheless encamped, in Lat. 22° 19' 45" S. On this
day's journey, I saw two of the rose-coloured paroqueets of the Barwan,
none of these birds having been seen by any of the party since we crossed
the Culgoa. A fragrant stenochilus, with leaves smelling exactly like
mint, was found this day, and a splendid banksia in flower, also a new
MELALEUCA.[*] Thermometer, at sunrise, 23°; at noon, 58°; at 4 P.M., 63°;
at 9, 29°; with wet bulb, 18°.

[* M. TAMARISCINA (Hook. MSS.); ramosissima ramulis gracillimis copiose
excavatis e foliis delapsis, foliis rameis remotis parvis ovatis
acuminatis appressis, ramulinis minutissimis squamaeformibus convexis
obtusis imbricatis immersis, capsulis circa ramos spicatis parvis
globosis.--A very singular MELALEUCA, somewhat allied to M. HUGELII,
Endl.: but extremely different in the very minute squamiform leaves of
the copious slender branchlets, from which they fall and leave the
bleached slender branchlets full of little pits or cavities in which the
leaves had been, as it were, sunk.]

5TH AUGUST.--The last-found river not having answered my expectations, we
had come quite far enough from the one we had previously followed, which
still might have turned N.W., where we wished it to go; although I
confess the prospect was by no means promising. The doubt was still to be
removed, and, after a night passed without water, the earliest dawn saw
us again going forward, in a direction a little to the eastward of N. It
was only after pursuing that line for seventeen miles, that we again
found the river, unchanged in character, and still running northerly.
This was a trying day for our animals, as they could not be watered until
long after it was dark; a brigalow scrub, full of much fallen timber,
having retarded and impeded the carts so that they could not be got to
the water sooner. Nor had this been possible, even then, but for the
fortunate circumstance of our having the light of a nearly full moon. I
had preceded the party by some miles, accompanied by Yuranigh, the rest
following my horse's tracks, and I had thus passed through the four miles
of scrub, and reached the river early in the day. On returning, we found
the party in the midst of this scrub, and succeeded in guiding it, even
by moonlight, to the pond at which we had watered our horses during the
day. Many dry hollows of indurated mud appeared, as usual, in the
brigalow we had passed through; and we endeavoured to lead the carts, as
much as possible, through these hollows, in order to avoid the dead logs,
many of which we were obliged to cut, before the carts could pass. Many
deep impressions of natives' feet appeared in these clay hollows; also
the tracks of emus. Yuranigh showed me several tracks where a native had
been following a kangeroo's track; and he told me of a certain method
adopted by the natives of killing the kangeroo during wet weather,--which
is, to pursue the track, following it up day after day, until they
overtake the animal, which, on being so incessantly followed, becomes at
length so defenceless, that one native can despatch it with a tomahawk.
According to the barometer, it appeared that this river was not now much
higher above the level of the sea, than the Bogan or the Balonne. Still
it spread into many channels and isolated ponds; the latter being
sometimes in good grassy land, apart from the brigalow. Nothing could be
more sterile than the surface where the brigalow grew; but the first
indication of the river was an open space covered with luxuriant grass,
and we had to ride two miles along this, before Yuranigh and I could find
the river, having been guided to it chiefly by some smoke of the natives.
At the first place we approached, we found two ponds of excellent water,
under the shining boughs of lofty Yarra trees. Latitude, 22° 10' 15" S.
Thermometer, at sunrise, 39°; at noon, 64°; at 4 P.M., 61°; at 9, 36°;--
with wet bulb, 28°. (LXVII.)

6TH AUGUST.--I gave the jaded cattle a day's rest, and the men thus had
an opportunity to screw up and repair their carts.

7TH AUGUST.--The brigalow scrub obliged me this day to travel along the
river banks, upon which I found it pleasant to go, as they proved open
and grassy. Large lagoons and reaches of water appeared in the scattered
channels. At length, a deep broad reach, brim full of pure water,
glittered before us. Clouds of large ducks arose from it, and larger
water-fowl shrieked over our heads. A deep receding opening appeared to
the northeast, as if our river had been either breaking off in that
direction, or met with some important tributary from that side. I
continued to travel northwest, passing through some fine open forests.
The character of the country seemed changed. The grass was of a different
kind, and a refreshing breeze from the north-east seemed to "smell of
water," as Yuranigh expressed it. The dense line of Yarra trees appeared
still to be continuous on the right, and the more I travelled westward,
the more I was convinced that we still had the river at hand. We did at
length approach its banks after a journey of ten miles, when we found
this was a river FROM the west appearing fully as deep and important as
the one we had been following, and containing ponds of water. This new
tributary from the west, left no room to hope that the channel we had
been pursuing would turn westward--on the contrary, it became but too
probable that below the junction of this river, the channel would turn
towards the N. E. It could not well be doubted that this went to the
eastern coast; but, to remove all doubt, as Yuranigh was of a different
opinion, I sent Corporal Graham with him up the newly-found river, to
ascertain whether it did not come from the north-west, in which case we
could not expect that the other it joined would go in that direction.
Their report on returning, only rendered it necessary that I should take
a ride forward next morning. They said this river came from the S. W.,
and at two miles higher, had a very narrow channel. Lower down, it was
found to join the main channel, which, below the junction, still
continued northward. There, we found a beautiful new Grevillea.[*] The
STENOCHILUS PUBIFLORUS formed a willow-leaved shrub about twelve feet
high, and in the sandy bed of the river was an EUPHORBIA very near E.
HYPERICIFOLIA, but with narrower leaves, and the ovary pubescent not
glabrous. The DODONOEA VESTITA, with its hairy foliage and large shaggy
fruits, clothed the sandstone surface back from the river.[**] Latitude,
22° 2' 15" S. Thermometer, at sunrise, 30°; at noon, 78°; at 4 P.M., 77°;
at 9, 55°;--with wet bulb 49°. (LXVIII).

[* G. MITCHELLI (Hook. MSS.); appresso-subsericesa, foliis pinnatifidis
bipinnatifidisque, laciniis angustissime linearibus elongatis marginibus
arcte reflexis subtus concoloribus, racemis elongatis secundis
densifloris, floribus subverticillatis, perianthiis pedicellisque
tomentosis, folliculis oblique ovatis tomentosis sessilibus, stylis
glabris.--Allied to G. CHRYSODENDRON, Br., but the segments of the leaves
are narrower, not golden-coloured beneath: the flowers are entirely
secund: a splendid species.]

[** D. VESTITA (Hook. MSS.); tota densissimè pilosa, foliis pinnatis
pinnis oppositis 4--5-jugis cuneatis apice lunulato-emarginatis vel
incisis, rachi articulatâ articulis obovatis, capsulis profundis
tetrapteris villosissimis.]

8TH AUGUST.--With two men and Yuranigh, I proceeded first, northward by
compass, for some miles, when I emerged from scrub, upon fine open downs
covered with a crop of excellent grass. The soil was soft and rich, the
grass PANICUM LOEVINODE. Small clumps of Acacias were strewed over these
downs, which were very extensive, and from them I saw several rather high
hills to the eastward, terminating abruptly over a low country to the
northward. Supposing that the main channel would there turn round to the
eastward, I proceeded north-west to examine the country. I soon entered a
thick scrub of rosewood and other Acacias. I remarked the CALLISTEMON
NERVOSUM, previously seen (July) with rich crimson flowers, forming a
large tree, in the dry open forest, with perfectly green spikes; also, on
the branches of Eucalypti, a beautiful orange coloured LORANTH. The soil
was rich, yielding, and rather bare of vegetation. Nodules of variegated
limestone, or marble, appeared on the surface, showing that the
improvement in the soil was owing to a change in the rocks under it.
Again emerging on open plains, the country seemed to fall northward,
which induced me to ride again in that direction, thinking we might meet
with some river either coming from the N. W. or leading there. The open
plains terminated upon a hollow full of trees, growing, as was very
evident, on a lower surface. The hollows resembled those of brigalow
scrub, and we soon found this tree in full possession of them. Dry
channels, leading in various directions between N. W. and E. engaged my
attention throughout the afternoon: indeed, they seemed interminable. At
length, we detected some continuity in the hollows, leading towards the
N.N.E. Yarra trees at length appeared in it, abundance of grass on the
banks, and deep dry ponds. Two crows hovering over one, raised our hopes
that it contained water, as we also perceived a line of green vegetation
over the margin. It was deep and full of water. Here, about 4 P. M., we
were thus enabled to water our horses, and continue our ride
independently of finding more water that evening. We next perceived an
open forest hill on our right; but, on examining the country from it, we
saw no immediate indications of the river. On reentering the brigalow
scrub, the continuity of ponds was very indistinct, and I at length lost
it, as it seemed, on its turning off to the eastward, a direction in
which I was unwilling to follow it at that time. I threaded the mazes of
another chain of hollows, which turned in various directions between N.
W. and 20° N. of E., the latter being the general course. During this
unsatisfactory sort of exploration, night overtook us, where the dry and
naked clay presented neither grass nor water. Our horses had come thirty
miles, and it was only after considerable search, in the dark, that I
found a grassy spot for our horses, and where we tied them up, and lay
down to pass the night.

9TH AUGUST.--We saddled them as soon as day broke, and proceeded again
into the scrub; but the hollows took no longer any continuous channel,
and I again travelled N. W., in which direction I entered upon a plain.
Thence I perceived a low flat, and a line of trees beyond it, very much
resembling those of a river, and towards this I hastened, and found the
river we had followed so far, unchanged in character. The scattered
ponds, and nearly northerly course, were legible proofs of its identity.
We watered our horses and took some breakfast, after which, while engaged
laying down our route, one of the men observed some natives looking at us
from a point of the opposite bank. I held up a green bough to one who
stood forward in a rather menacing attitude, and who instantly replied to
my signal of peace by holding up his bommareng. It was a brief but
intelligible interview; no words could have been better understood on
both sides; and I had fortunately determined, before we saw these
natives, to return by tracing the river upwards. Our horses had been
turned loose, the better to allow them to make the most of their time
while we breakfasted. Graham got them together while I was telegraphing
with the natives, some of whom I perceived filling some vessel with
water, with which they retired into the woods. We saddled, and advanced
to examine their track and the spot they had quitted, also that they
might afterwards see our horses' tracks there, lest our green bough and
subsequent return might have encouraged them to follow us. Yuranigh was
burning the mutton bones we had picked; but I directed him to throw them
about, that the natives might see that we neither eat their kangaroos nor
emus. I found the course of the river very straight, but rather more than
it had been, to the eastward of north. In some parts of the channel, lay
deep reaches of water, fully a mile long; at other places, shallow
hollows quite dry, seemed to be the only channel for the river's
currents. We avoided brigalow scrubs, and passed the night on a grassy
part of the bank, about ten miles back from the farthest point we had
reached that morning.

10TH AUGUST.--Early in the morning a moist breeze blew from the north,
with low scud not very high above the trees. Higher clouds drove as
rapidly from the westward. The extremely moist air was a great novelty to
us there. About 9 A.M., the sky was wholly overcast; but it finally
cleared up, and the day was cool. We reached the camp about 3 P.M.,
having hit the river on which it was situated, two miles lower. There I
found, to my surprise, that its channel was very deep and full of water,
being broader than that of the main river. I was, therefore, inclined to
explore its sources by proceeding upwards next day, as the direction of
the northerly stream, did not promise much. The camp had just been
visited by seventeen natives, apparently bent on hostile purposes, all
very strong, several of them upwards of six feet high. Each of them
carried three or four missile clubs. They were headed by an old man, and
a gigantic sort of bully, who would not keep his hands off our carts.
They said, by signs, that the whole country belonged to the old man. They
pointed in the direction in which I had gone, and to where Mr. Stephenson
happened to be at the time, down in the river bed; and then beckoned to
the party that they also should follow or go where I had gone, or leave
that place. They were received very firmly, but civilly and patiently, by
the men, and were requested to sit down at a distance, my man Brown,
being very desirous that I should return before they departed; thinking
the old man might have given me some information about the river, which
he called "Belyando." But a noisy altercation seemed to arise between the
old chief and the tallest man, about the clubs, during which the latter
again came forward, and beckoned to others behind, who came close up
also. Each carried a club under each arm, and another in each hand, and
from the gestures made to this advanced party, by the rest of the tribe
of young men at a distance, it appeared that this was intended to be a
hostile movement. Brown accordingly drew out the men in line before the
tents, with their arms in their hands, and forbade the natives to
approach the tents. "Nothing damps the ardour of troops so much," says
General Lloyd, "as an unexpected obstacle at the moment of attack," and
these strong men stood still and looked foolish, when they saw the five
men in line, with incomprehensible weapons in their hands. Just then, our
three dogs ran at them, and no charge of cavalry ever succeeded better.
They all took to their heels, greatly laughed at, even by the rest of
their tribe; and the only casualty befell the shepherd's dog, which
biting at the legs of a native running away, he turned round, and hit the
dog so cleverly with his missile on the rump, that it was dangerously ill
for months after; the native having again, with great dexterity, picked
up his club. The whole of them then disappeared, shouting through the
woods to their gins. It was remarkable that on seeing the horses, they
exclaimed "Yerraman," the colonial natives' name for a horse, and that of
these animals they were not at all afraid, whereas they seemed in much
dread of the bullocks. That these natives were fully determined to attack
the white strangers, seems to admit of no doubt, and the result is but
another of the many instances that might be adduced, that an open fight,
without treachery, would be contrary to their habits and disposition.
That they did not, on any occasion, way-lay me or the doctor, when
detached from the body of the party, may perhaps, with equal truth, be
set down as a favourable trait in the character of the aborigines; for
whenever they visited my camp, it was during my absence, when they knew I
was absent, and of course must have known where I was to be found. The
old man had very intelligibly pointed out to Brown the direction in which
this river came, I. E. from the S. W., and I therefore abandoned the
intention of exploring it upwards, and determined to examine how it
joined, and what the character of the river might be, about and below
that junction, in hopes I might still obtain an interview with the
natives, and learn something of the country to the north-west.
Thermometer, at sunrise, 59°; at noon, 82°; at 4 P.M., 81°; at 9, 62°;--
with wet bulb, 59°.

11TH AUGUST.--Crossing this river at a favourable spot near our camp, we
travelled on, eleven miles, and encamped early, on a fine reach of the
main river. Here I had leisure to lay down my late ride on paper, and to
connect it with the map; whereupon I concluded, with much regret, that
this river must be either a tributary to, or identical with, that which
M. Leichardt saw joining the Suttor in latitude 21° 6' S., and which he
supposed to come from the west. It had supplied me with water across
three degrees of latitude, and had gradually altered its course from N.W.
to about 30° E. of N. In my ride I had traced it to 21° 30' of latitude
south, and no high land had appeared, as I expected, to the northward, at
all likely to turn its course towards the west. I found the height of its
bed, moreover, to be so little above the sea (not much more than 600
feet), that I could no longer doubt that the division between eastern and
western waters was still to the westward; and I arrived at the following

1st. That the river of Carpentaria should have been sought for to the
westward of all the sources of the river Salvator.

2nd. That the deepest indentation as yet discovered of the division of
the waters, was at the sources of that river, and corresponded with the
greatest elevation indicated by the barometer (about 2500 feet); and,
3dly. That there, I. E. under the parallel of 25° S., the highest spinal
range must extend westward, in a line of truncated cones, whereof Mount
Faraday appeared to be one.

I accordingly determined to retrace our wheel-tracks back to the head of
the Salvator, and to explore from thence the country to the north-west,
as far as our stock of provisions and the season would permit. I had
marked my camps by Roman letters cut deep in sound trees, and at this, I
left the number LXIX. cut under the initials of the colony, N.S.W.; this
being the number marked from the Culgoa. We had, at least, laid out a
good carriage road from the colony to a river in M. Leichardt's route;
which road, as far as we had marked it with our wheels, led through
pastoral regions of much greater extent than all the colonists now
occupied. At this farthest point traced by our wheels within the Tropics,
the plants were still known to botanists, but with some interesting
exceptions. We here found the CASSIA HETEROLOBA in flower; also the burr
Cunningham, a shrub with yellow flowers and narrow willowy leaves; and
the beautiful laurel-leaved GEIGERA LATIFOLIA was still conspicuous among
the forest trees. But here also we found a very fine new species of
STENOCHILUS[*], a new pine-leaved DODONOEA, allied to the D. PINIFOLIA of
Swan River[**], and a most singular hard-leaved shrub, with spiny foliage
resembling five pointed stars, proved to be a new species of
LABICHEA.[***] Thermometer, at sunrise, 36°; at noon, 71°; at 4 P.M.,
70°; at 9, 35°;--with wet bulb, 30°.

[* S. PUBIFLORUS (Benth. MS.) foliis lanceolato-linearibus elongatis
integerrimis apice subuncinato novellis ramulisque tomentellis mox
glabratis, calycis foliolis lanceolatis, corollae pubescentis inferne
attenuatae laciniis oblatis infima breviter soluta.--This agrees pretty
well with Brown's short diagnosis of S. LONGIFOLIUS, as well as with
Cunningham's specimens so named; but those have no corolla, which Brown
also had not seen, and his is a south coast plant. (Another new species
with leaves like this, but very different flowers, was gathered by Sir T.
Mitchell in his former expedition.)]

[** D. ACEROSA (Lindl. MS.); foliis tenuibus acerosis subfalcatis
glandulosis, corymbis axillaribus paucifloris folio brevioribus, capsulis
tetrapteris alis apice rotundatis.]

[*** L. DIGITATA (Benth. MS.) ramulis tomentellis, foliis subsessili bus,
foliolis 3-5-digitatis lineari-oblongis spinoso-mucronatis coriaceis
reticulatis terminali caeteris vix majore, antheris parum inaequalibus

12TH AUGUST.--I reluctantly ordered my men, (who believed themselves on
the high-way to Carpentaria,) to turn the horses' heads homewards, merely
saying that we were obliged to explore from a higher point. The track
already marked out by our party advancing, was so much easier for the
draught animals, as requiring less driving, that they arrived at an early
hour again at the river they formerly crossed, and travelled with ease
three and a half miles further back to a lagoon, on the banks of which
the grass was good, and where we therefore now encamped. The track of the
large feet of the natives showed they had followed us this morning, from
our camp of yesterday; and a fragment of burning wood they had dropped,
showed that they had this day met us in the scrub as we returned, and had
gone out of our way. Even to the lagoon, their track along our route was
also plainly visible. I was now, apparently to them, at their request,
leaving the country; and we should soon see if their purpose in visiting
our camp was an honest one, and whether their reasonable and fair demand,
was really all they contemplated on that occasion. Thermometer, at
sunrise, 37°; at noon, 70°; at 4 P.M., 71°; at 9, 65°.

13TH AUGUST.--We continued back, along the old track, to beyond Camp
LXVII. I then took the direction of the camp two stages back, in order to
avoid the great detour formerly pursued; the camp without water, and the
thick brigalow. All these we successfully avoided, passing over fine open
forest land, and encountering no brigalow. We found the river on our left
when we required it, and encamped on a plain near the water, and distant
only a few miles from the camp two journies back from LXVII. I was guided
by the bearing of 10° E. of N. We found much of the grass on fire, and
heard the natives' voices although we saw none. We crossed some patches
of dry swamp where the clods had been very extensively turned up by the
natives, but for what purpose Yuranigh could not form any conjecture.
These clods were so very large and hard that we were obliged to throw
them aside, and clear a way for the carts to pass. The whole resembled
ground broken up by the hoe, the naked surface having been previously so
cracked by drought as to render this upturning possible without a hoe.
There might be about two acres in the patch we crossed, and we perceived
at a distance, other portions of the ground in a similar state. The river
had, where we made it, a deep wellmarked channel, with abundance of clear
water in it, and firm accessible banks. It was still, however, enveloped
in a narrow belt of brigalow. The shepherd having most imprudently taken
the sheep to water when it was near sunset, lost his way in the scrub,
and could not be found all night. Some thought he had fallen into the
hands of the aborigines who were closely watching us; and it was obvious
that had they got possession of our sheep, they could have annoyed us
very seriously, or indeed, destroyed the whole party. The night was very
dark, the sky having been overcast. Thermometer, at sunrise, 56°; at
noon, 61°; at 4 P.M., 60; at 9, 60.

14TH AUGUST.--Drizzling rain this morning with an easterly wind, and high
barometer, reminded me of the coast rains of Sydney. At dawn, I sent
Yuranigh with one of the men, both being mounted, in search of the
shepherd, and they returned with him and the sheep about 8 A. M. He had
been found in full march to the eastward, where he never could have
fallen in with the party. His track, circling in all directions, had soon
been come upon by Yuranigh in the scrub. We then proceeded, and still
found a way clear of brigalow, which, once or twice during the day,
seemed almost to surround us. At about seven miles from where we had
encamped, we crossed the first discovered tributary from the S. W., and
at a mile further on, we fell in with our old track, travelled two miles
more along it, and then encamped beside a fine reach of the river. The
drizzling rain continued, and I hoped the ponds at the higher range,
towards which we were returning, might be replenished by still heavier
rain. An unpleasant smell prevailed every where this day, resembling that
from a kitchen sewer or sink. Whether it arose from the earth, or from
decayed vegetable matter upon it, I could not form any opinion; but it
was certainly very different from the fragrance produced by a shower in
other parts of New South Wales, even when it falls only on sunburnt
grass. It was equally new and unaccountable to Yuranigh. Two proteads,
probably GREVILLEAS, were found here.[*]

[* The one with singularly thick, firm, and rigid leaves, a foot long,
linear attenuated at each extremity, pubescenti-sericeous, striated: the
other with white acerose leaves pinnated in two pairs. Both were large
forest trees, neither in flower nor in fruit.]

15TH AUGUST.--We continued to return along the old track until we arrived
at Camp LXV., taking the direction of the river's general course, (7° E.
of S.). I travelled along its banks several miles, endeavouring to cut
off a detour we had previously described. The river, however, obliged me
to go so far to the westward, that I met with my former track, about
midway between the two camps. We soon left that track, crossing a strip
of brigalow and a rich grassy plain; beyond which, I found the river, and
encamped about 3 P.M., when the rain again came on, the morning having
been, until then, fair, although the sky was cloudy and overcast.
Thermometer, at sunrise, 57°; at noon, 64°; at 4 P.M., 66°; at 9, 60°;--
with wet bulb, 58°.

16TH AUGUST.--The sky still clouded, seemed to promise rain in the
country to which we were returning. We came to the channel of the main
river, after proceeding about three miles in the direction of a turn in
our route beyond next camp. The channel here was broad, and occasionally
filled with a good body of water. The bed was sandy, and in it grew a
tree with thin loose white bark, resembling that of the mimosa or tea-
tree of the colony; some of these trees were of large dimensions. There
also grew, in the sandy bed of this river, a new white-flowered
MELALEUCA, resembling M. ERICIFOLIA, but with long mucronate leaves[*];
and, in the scrubby bank the STENOCHILUS BIGNONIOEFLORUS formed a willow-
like shrub fifteen feet high. We again came came upon our track where I
intended to hit it, although we had been retarded by brigalow scrub. We
thus left Camp LXIV. on the left, and finally again pitched our tents at
that of LXIII. Thermometer, at sunrise, 58°; at noon, 65; at 4 P.M., 63°;
at 9, 63°;--with wet bulb, 57°.

[* M. TRICHOSTACHYA (Lindl. MS.); folsaepius oppositis linearibus planis
utrinque acutissimis, spicâ terminali laxiusculâ rachi pilosâ, calyce
glabro dentibus herbaceis, phalangibus polyandris ungue petalis

17TH AUGUST.--The ground was covered in many parts with a lichen, the
product of the late rain, and which had no root in, nor attachment to,
the soil, but could be collected in handfuls, and lay quite loose in
heaps, or rather in a thick layer. I could not comprehend the origin of
this singular vegetable production, which might then have been gathered
in any quantity. The day was cool, cloudy, and pleasant. Fine round
clouds driving still from the eastward, with a high barometer (for this
of Bunten stood seven millimetres higher, than it did when we had been
formerly encamped on the same ground). On recrossing the great river from
S. W., we found more of the pea with large pods, it seemed to grow only
on the dry sand of the river bed. This was a most interesting river, and
I could have wished much to have explored it upwards, had the state of my
horses and provisions permitted. On its banks we had discovered various
rare trees and plants seen by us nowhere else; and the pea just
mentioned, which had, as Mr. Stephenson thought, valuable qualities as a
laxative medicine. The bed of the river was broad and sandy; the banks
were quite clear of brigalow or other scrubs, level, open, and in most
parts covered with luxuriant anthistiria and wild indigo. We arrived in
good time, the way being good, at Camp LXII., and there again established
ourselves for the night. It was an excellent spot for the purpose, having
plenty of water in rocky ponds, and abundance of grass, half green. The
wind lulled, and heavy clouds of stratus appeared in the east, towards
evening. Some stars were afterwards visible, and about 9 P. M., a wind
from the S.E. suddenly arose, but no rain fell. Thermometer, at sunrise,
55°; at noon, 71°; at 4 P. M., 74°; at 9, 68°;--with wet bulb, 62°.

18TH AUGUST.--The mercurial column was lower this morning, and the sky
was overcast. No wind could be felt from any quarter. We moved off, at
our usual hour, 7 A. M. About nine, the western portion of the sky seemed
loaded with rain; the wind suddenly arose from S. W., and a heavy rain
began to fall steadily, to my great joy. The soil consisted of clay,
which clogged the wheels, nevertheless, we arrived, without much delay,
at a large lagoon, not much more than a mile short of Camp LXI., and
there, of necessity, encamped. The rain continued without intermission
until the evening, turning the surface around our tents into mud, almost
knee deep. Still I rejoiced in the prospect the rain afforded, of water
in the remaining part of our journey; the grand object of which was still
to be accomplished, namely, the discovery of an interior river, flowing
towards the Gulf of Carpentaria. Thermometer, at sunrise, 51°; at noon,
54°; at 4 P. M., 53°.

19TH AUGUST.--The soft clay was still impassable, but the sun shone
brightly in the morning, and was likely soon to put a crust upon the
earth. The wind continued, however, in the same quarter, the S. W., and I
had thus a little leisure to mature my plan of farther exploration in
that interesting country, to the westward of the vale of Salvator Rosa. I
had ascertained that the whole of that fine country so named, and all the
gullies falling towards it, were on the seaward side of the dividing
range, if range there was. That, southward of the high ground under the
parallel of 24° or 25°, the fall of waters and of the whole country was
towards the south; whereas, northward of that parallel, the fall was so
decidedly in the very opposite direction, or northward, that the river we
had just explored extended across three degrees of latitude, descending
from a mean elevation of at least 2000 feet, to one of only 600 feet
above the sea. No river of any importance came from the westward; those
we had seen, coming from S. W. What then could be supposed, but that the
water-shed on that side was not far distant? Nor was it less reasonable
to expect to find beyond it, the heads of a river or rivers leading to
the Gulf of Carpentaria. In that nook, where it seemed that the spinal
range extended westward in the elongated direction of this great island,
and there probably separated from whatever high land extended northward
and formed a limit to the basin of the Belyando, was therefore, to be
sought the solution of this important geographical question; one result
of which would probably be, the discovery of a river falling towards the
north-west, to enter the Gulf of Carpentaria. The exploration of the
country to which we were returning was, therefore, of the most momentous
interest; and although our cattle were tired, and our time and provisions
almost exhausted (the sun being likely to approach the tropic line before
we could return to it), I was determined to carry the exploration so far,
with whatever means could be spared from the party, even had it been
necessary to have travelled on foot, or to have lived, like a native, on
opossums, in order to investigate that point. Thermometer, at sunrise,
45°; at noon, 63°; at 4 P. M., 63°; at 9, 47°;--with wet bulb, 44°.

20TH AUGUST.--Heavy clouds promised more rain, but a crust had been
formed on the surface which enabled us to proceed. The day cleared up,
and we encamped within two miles of Camp LX.; much of the ground passed
over having been sandy and dry. We now found water in every hollow, a
great blessing brought by the rain, and affording some prospect of relief
from one great difficulty for some time to come. At 10 minutes past 10
P.M. a very extraordinary meteor alarmed the camp, and awoke every man in
it. First, a rushing wind from the west shook the tents; next, a blaze of
light from the same quarter drew attention to a whirling mass, or
revolving ball of red light, passing to the southward. A low booming
sound, accompanied it, until it seemed to reach the horizon, after which
a sound like the report of a cannon was heard, and the concussion was
such that some tin pots, standing reversed on a cart-wheel, fell to the
ground, and the boat on the dray vibrated for some minutes. The sky was
very clear. Fahrenheit's thermometer 46°.

21ST AUGUST.--Following our former route, the track led us through
hollows, formerly clear of the fallen brigalow, but now rendered
impassable by water, a new impediment. I was, however, most thankful for
the glorious abundance of that element, the want of which had hitherto
confined my route, and retarded the exploration of the country. We
cheerfully sought round-about ways to avoid these new ponds. Our journey
was accomplished very satisfactorily, having made two cuts to avoid the
former camp (LX.), which formed an angle in the route, and much bad
brigalow near Camp LIX., where we again encamped, for the sake of a piece
of good grassy plain near it. The weather was most pleasant, temperate,
and Englishlike, though we were still within the tropics. A sweet breeze
blew from the S. W., and the degree of temperature was between 50° and
60° of Fahrenheit, the most agreeable, I believe, of any, to the human
frame. There was abundance of water, and young grass was daily growing
higher; many trees were also beginning to blossom. We were retiring,
nevertheless, RE INFECTÂ, from these tropical regions, and I was
impatient to arrive at the great range once more, to resume my
explorations. At this camp, we found a plant, which was a wild carrot,
tasting exactly like parsley. The men did not like to eat it, from the
effects they had recently experienced from eating the large pea already
mentioned--violent vomiting and purging; but I had no doubt whatever,
that this carrot would have been found a good vegetable. The GEIJERA
PARVIFLORA again attracted attention, by the strong pungent odour of its
long narrow leaves; and we here observed the EREMOPHILA MITCHELLII, in
the form of a shrub, from ten to twelve feet high. Its wood was
remarkable from a perfume like roses.

22D AUGUST.--The morning was beautiful, our way plainly marked and
sufficiently open, although it led wholly through a scrub for twelve
miles. Flowers, the product of the late rain, were beginning to deck the
earth, and water lodged in every hollow. We arrived early at Camp LVIII.,
and encamped 300 yards beyond it, to be nearer to a plain of good grass.
Thermometer, at sunrise, 25°; at noon, 69°; at 4 P. M., 72°; at 9, 43°;--
with wet bulb, 40°.

23D AUGUST.--The route back to the next camp went too far to the
westward; and I therefore endeavoured to make a direct cut back to it. We
thus encountered much scrub, and twice crossed the river. A bank, or
berg, of water-worn pebbles, appeared on the west side of the river; and,
to the eastward, a hill was visible amongst the trees. The river channel
was full of water, and seemed to have been even running, with the late
rain. The whole journey was through scrub; but this was chiefly of
rosewood, which is not nearly so formidable an impediment as brigalow. We
encamped on the river bank before we got so far as Camp LVII., at a spot
where there was grass, the ground generally about that camp being very
bare, although a fresh spring was observable, which would soon alter the
case. At this camp I found, on a very low bush with a small leaf,
splendid specimens of the fruit of a CAPPARIS, in a dry state, containing
seeds. A crop of young fruit appeared also on the same bushes. This must
be a very different species from the C. MITCHELII; the bush seldom
exceeding the height and size of a gooseberry bush, although the fruit
was larger than that of the tree CAPPARIS, and of a more uniform size and
spherical shape. It seemed to grow only within the tropic. Thermometer,
at sunrise, 28°; at noon, 73°; at 4 P. M., 75°; at 9, 44°;--with wet
bulb, 41°.

24TH AUGUST.--The fine grassy plain had afforded better food for our
horses and cattle, than they had seen for some time. Keeping along its
eastern side, I continued to travel until I fell in with our former
track; and in passing Camp LVII., I caused the letter T to be cut above
the letters N.S.W., to distinguish it as our first camp within the line
of Capricorn. I left the intertropical regions with feelings of regret;
the weather had favoured our undertaking, and water had become abundant.
The three last mornings had been frosty; the thermometer having stood on
these mornings at 25°, 28°, and 29°, respectively. Many interesting trees
and shrubs were just putting forth buds, of which we might never be able
to gather the flower for the botanist. We travelled from Camp LVII.,
along our old track, to Camp LVI., in latitude 23° 31' 36" S.; and there
again set up our tents, having been exactly one month in the interior of
tropical Australia. A pigeon this day arose from her nest in the grass
near our route, and Yuranigh found in it two full fledged young ones.
These being of that sort of pigeon preferable to all others for the
table, GEOPHAPS SCRIPTA, we took this pair in hopes it might be possible
to bring them up, and, perhaps, to obtain from them a domestic brood.
This bird seemed to have the shortest beak of all the pigeon tribe, and
flew more clumsily than others. It had three streaks of white about the
head, assimilating it to the poultry class; and in building on the
ground, it afforded another indication of its resemblance to our domestic
birds. The flesh is very white, firm, yet tender. It is, perhaps, the
most delicate of all birds. Thermometer, at sunrise, 29°; at noon, 75°;
at 4 P.M., 76°; at 9, 46°;--with wet bulb, 42°.

25TH AUGUST.--The former route to this camp having been very crooked from
following the course of the river amongst brigalow scrub, I set out on
the bearing of the next camp, and reached it by travelling in a straight
line, without much impediment, having found tolerably open ground. The
blue summits of mountains appearing again above the trees, were welcome
to our eyes; and Mounts Beaufort and Mudge reminded me of the Persian
proverb, "The conversation of a friend brighteneth the eyes." We encamped
a mile on, from Camp LV., for the sake of better grass than we had left
formerly at that camp. The hills adjacent consisted of gravel; and
amongst the large water-worn pebbles, of which it consisted, I found
basalt and trachite, neither of which rocks had been detected by me
amongst the gravel of the basin of the Darling. Thermometer, at sunrise,
48°; at noon, 76°; at 4 P.M., 77°; at 9, 52°;--with wet bulb, 47°.

26TH AUGUST.--After cutting off an angle in the old track, and so
shortening the way about a mile, we pursued it back to Camp LIV.; which
spot we again occupied for the night. The horses were leg-weary; but I
could spare no time for rest, otherwise than by making the daily journies
short, until we could return to the foot of the dividing ranges. One of
the young pigeons was found nearly dead this morning; but Yuranigh, by
chafing and warming it by the fire, soon recovered it. The thermometer
had been as low as 38°; but the birds had been kept in a box well covered
with wool, and also by canvas. On the hill, southward of this camp, I
found one tree, of the remarkable kind mentioned, as having been first
seen by Mr. Stephenson, near Mount Mudge. Thermometer, at sunrise, 37°;
at noon, 80°; at 4 P.M., 81°; at 9, 44°;--with wet bulb, 40°.

27TH AUGUST.--On reaching a difficult place for the passage of carts
along the rocky margin of the river, we took a new direction, more to the
right, crossing the clear hill, from which, on the 23d July, I had a view
of the mountains to the eastward. Then descending, we came upon plains of
firm clay, whereon grew some trees of ACACIA PENDULA. The rock in the
hills seemed calcarious, and on a detached slab of ferruginous sandstone,
I saw a more perfect specimen of ripple marks than I had ever seen
elsewhere, except on the sea-beach.

I had now an opportunity of observing, in the hills forming a low range
on my right, or to the westward, that their stratification dipped toward
the east, at an angle of about 25° with the horizon; on which side those
slopes did not exceed that angle, whereas on the westward, they presented
abrupt, precipitous sides, each terminating in two steep sides, forming
an angle at the highest point. We encamped on a fine plain on the east
side of that range, but westward of the river (beyond which lay our
former route), and we found water in a lagoon a quarter of a mile
eastward of our camp; also, in a mountain rivulet two miles south of the
camp, coming from near Mount Beaufort, and some, very clear, was found in
a rocky gully immediately westward of our camp. Still, the bed of the
main channel was dry, and we had been obliged to seek for the water
before it was found in these several directions. Thermometer, at sunrise,
41°; at noon, 79; at 4 P.M., 82°; at 9, 48°;--with wet bulb 39°.

28TH AUGUST.--The cattle were well refreshed by the grass on the plain: a
fresh growth was now apparent in it. We continued to travel due southward
over the plain, and through a brigalow scrub beyond it, until we crossed,
for the last time, the little river that had led us so far astray. Just
beyond it, we joined our old track, at about five miles short of Camp
LIII., to which we proceeded, and where we again encamped, although the
pond we formerly found there had dried up. We afterwards found a good
supply, at a lagoon about half a mile lower down; from which a little dog
of mine (called Procyon), had come out wet, and so made it known to us.
Thermometer, at sunrise, 40°; at noon, 81°; at 4 P.M., 76°; at 9, 49°;--
with wet bulb, 41°.

29TH AUGUST.--Continuing along the old track, we this day quitted the
basin of the Belyando, and ascended those grassy slopes, and that range,
which I had formerly taken to be the water-shed of the coast rivers. We
thus crossed to the basin of another eastern river, the Nog; and, in
quitting that of the Belyando, I have to observe, that like most other
Australian rivers, it maintained a peculiar character throughout its
course, with great uniformity, even after it received tributaries
apparently larger than itself. All these lapsed into the same
concatenated line of ponds; at one place, spreading amidst brigalow
scrub, at another, forming one well-defined deep channel. For the
formation of ponds, and the retention of water, in so dry a climate, we
see here something between the ordinary character of rivers, and
artificial works which man must construct, when population may spread
into these regions. The fallen timber of the brigalow decays very slowly,
and is not liable to be burnt, like most other dead wood in open forests,
because no grass grows amongst the brigalow, as in open forests. The
accumulations of dead logs become clogged with river rack and the deposit
of floods; to which floods these heaps present obstructions, forcing the
waters into new channels, and, in their progress, scooping out new ponds,
and completing the embankment of dead logs; which thus form natural dams
and reservoirs to hold, under the shade of the brigalow trees, more water
for a longer time than any single river channel could retain, however
sluggish its course. Thus it was, that during a season of unusual
drought, we had found abundance in this river's course, across nearly 3½
degrees of latitude. The fallen brigalow presents awkward obstructions to
wheel carriages; and, as the river spreads into broad plains, and is very
favourable to the growth of brigalow, the difficulty of travelling along
this river is greatest, where its waters are most scattered. Experience
has taught us, in such cases, to endeavour to follow the river channel as
closely as possible (the general course being very straight); and thus,
open grassy spots and small plains are frequently met with, beyond which
nothing could be distinguished, and from which it is safest to go forward
in the known general course of the chain of ponds. We again encamped
under Mount Mudge, where I perceived that a projecting portion of white
rock on the summit, had fallen since I had stood upon it; and that the
avalanche of rock had strewed the woody side of the mountain with white
fragments down to the very base. In the sheltered ravine below, a curious
new CASSIA formed a shrub six feet high.[*] Thermometer, at sunrise, 39°;
at noon, 70°; at 4 P.M., 82°; at 9, 56°;--with wet bulb, 50°.

[* C. ZYGOPHYLLA (Benth. MS.) glabra vel pube tenuissimâ subcanescens,
foliolis unijugis linearibus planis crassis, glandula inter foliola parva
depressa, racemis petiolo brevioribus 2-4-floris.--Near C. NEMOPHILA
Cunn.; but there appear never to be more than one pair of leaflets, the
plant is smoother, the leaflets longer, and the glands different.]

30TH AUGUST.--The old track guided the party, while I preceded it to
sketch one or two landscapes. A fine breeze blew from the northward, and
goodly clouds seemed to promise rain. I completed my drawings before the
arrival of the carts; and on their coming up I conducted them to a spot
where we encamped, on the left bank of the creek, or opposite to camp
LI., being resolved to seek a better and more direct way to the plains,
than that down the bed of Balmy Creek, which we formerly found so
difficult. As soon as I had chosen a spot for the tents, I took a ride,
accompanied by Mr. Stephenson and Yuranigh, to explore the ravines
eastward of that of Balmy Creek, and which led in a more direct line
towards the plains of the Claude. We found the precipices in this
direction much lower. After riding a few miles, we could ride up one of
the points, and following the ridge we had ascended (which was thickly
covered with brigalow), we at length got to an open forest, and once more
saw the open plains before us. In returning, I selected, with Yuranigh's
able assistance, a smaller valley, by which I hoped to succeed in
conducting the carts next day, so as to avoid the ascent of the brigalow
range. The barometer at this camp had fallen ten millimetres lower than
the point at which the mercury stood formerly at the adjacent camp
(marked LI.). By the side of the water-course, we found the ACACIA
DORATOXYLON and also the ACACIA CONFERTA. The valley was gay with the
ultramarine blue flowers of a new species of HOVEA[*]; and on rich soil
we saw also the PODOLEPIS ACUMINATA? D. C. A shrub with long curved
leaves and singular zigzag stems, was ascertained to be the ACACIA
MACRADENIA, a very striking new species; and on Balmy Creek we found also
a new BOSSIOEA, with deep red flowers.[**] Thermometer, at sunrise, 59°;
at noon, 83°; at 4 P.M., 81°; at 9, 62°; with wet bulb, 54°.

[* H. LEIOARPA (Benth. MS.) fruticosa, foliis anguste oblongis
sublanceolatisve integerrimis subtus reticulatis pubescentibus, venis
primariis obliquis, pedicellis in pedunculo brevissimo axillari
subgeminis calyce longioribus, calyce adpresse tomentoso, legumine
glaberrimo.--Not unlike some forms of H. LANCEOLATA, but readily
distinguished, besides the shorter leaves, by the smooth fruit and the
veins of the leaves, which diverge from the midrib at a very acute
instead of a right angle.]

[** B. CARINALIS (Benth. MS.) ramulis teretibus puberulis foliosis,
foliis subsessilibus subcordato-ovatis acutiusculis puberulis, pedicello
calyce paullo breviore, corollae alis vexillo longioribus carinâ multo
brevioribus.--The same remarkable proportion of the petals may be seen in
an unpublished species gathered by Fraser on the Brisbane river.]

31ST AUGUST.--Some heavy showers fell during the night, and in the
morning the sky was wholly overcast. We crossed various formidable
gullies, and travelled some way down the bed of Balmy Creek, then
ascending by the valley through which I yesterday penetrated in my ride,
we travelled southward in a tolerably direct line through the valley up
to its highest heads, from one of which we contrived to draw up carts and
drays along three traverses, formed by nature on the face of a rocky
slope. Above this, we found a plateau of flowering shrubs, chiefly new
and strange, so that Mr. Stephenson was soon loaded like a market
gardener. He had found in the hollow of the little gulley by which we
ascended a variety of ACACIA DECORA with leaves shorter that usual; the
CASSIA ZYGOPHYLLA, a very curious new species; and the BERTYA OLEOEFOLIA,
a shrub three feet high, with green flowers. On the top of the plateau
grew a singular dwarf shrub, loaded with yellow flowers, and covered by
strong sharp leaves resembling the curved blade of a penknife. It has
been ascertained by Mr. Bentham to be an Acacia, referable to his ACACIA
TRIPTERA. A little upright bush, with glandular leaves smelling strongly
of thyme, proved to be a new PROSTANTHERA.[*] The beautiful ACACIA DECORA
appeared as a shrub four feet high; the DODONOEA NOBILIS was just forming
its fruit; the DODONOEA VESTITA was also there; the white flowered
MYOPORUM CUNNINGHAMI with its viscid branches, formed a bush about four
feet high: PITTOSPORUM LANCEOLATUM was a shrub about three feet high,
with yellow flowers; and here we met in abundance with the beautiful
TECOMA OXLEYI, a kind of Bignonia, loaded with yellowishwhite flowers.

[* P. ODORATISSIMA (Benth. MS.) viscoso-puberula foliis linearibus
sublanceolatisve obtusissimis paucidentatis integrisve crassis ad axillas
fasciculatis, floribus paucis axillaribus subsessilibus, calycis labiis
integris inferiore minore, antherarum calcare longiore loculum
superante.--Near P. ASPALATHOIDES: leaves two or three lines long,
remarkably thick. Calyx strongly ribbed. The specimens found were past
flower, having only a few fragments remaining of the corolla and stamens.
The whole plant appears very viscid and retains when dry a very strong
smell of thyme.]

There ended all our troubles with the sandstone gullies, for we soon
entered open forests, and crossed a grassy valley gently sloping to the
eastward, in whose bosom we found a fine deep rocky pond. Beyond that
valley we arrived at open downs of the richest soil, and of an extent not
to be embraced by the eye at any one point of view. The finest sorts of
grass were fast springing up, and curious herbs were beginning to shoot
from the rich alluvium in the vallies. We encamped on these downs, about
ten miles from our former camp by the Claude, XLIX.

1ST SEPTEMBER.--The morning clear and frosty; Thermometer 25°. All
prospects of rain had vanished "into thin air." The scene now around us
was as different as could well be imagined, from that which surrounded us
at the same hour yesterday. As we proceeded, we crossed a hill quite
clear of trees, which commanded a view over an extent of similar country,
large enough for a county. The broken summits, just appearing above the
placid horizon of undulating downs, had formerly looked like a range to
us, and were certainly highly ornamental to the scenery; but no stranger
could have supposed these features to have been only the highest parts of
such a broken sandstone country as that from which we had just emerged.
The plains, or rather, I should say, downs, for they were nowhere level
but everywhere gently undulating, were first seen in white streaks high
above us, when we first perceived them through the scrubs. These downs
consisted of the richest sort of black mould, on which grew luxuriantly,
ANTHISTIRIA and PANICUM LOEVINODE. But the surface in general was loose,
resembling that of a field after it had lain long in fallow. Herbs in
great variety were just emerging from the recently watered earth, and the
splendid morning did ample justice to the vernal scene. The charm of a
beginning seemed to pervade all nature, and the songs of many birds
sounded like the orchestral music before the commencement of any
theatrical performance. Such a morning, in such a place, was quite
incompatible with the brow of care. Here was an almost boundless extent
of the richest surface in a latitude corresponding to that of China, yet
still uncultivated and unoccupied by man. A great reserve, provided by
nature for the extension of his race, where economy, art, and industry
might suffice to people it with a peaceful, happy, and contented

These plains are much higher than the sandstone ravines, and the soil
contains not only pebbles, but angular fragments of the knots and fibres
of wood in a silicified state, and much encrusted with chalcedony. The
component parts of the sandstone in the gullies resemble those of a sea
beach. These fragments of fossil wood in rich soils of plains or downs
above formations of sandstone, are found in various parts of Australia,
and I have seen fossil wood from similar plains in Tasmania. The fossil
wood of such plains has no appearance of having been exposed to fire. The
ACACIA PENDULA grows on the skirts of them, and indicates a salsolaceous
soil. These circumstances are obvious to everybody, but no geologist has
yet explained to us the causes of such changes as may have produced that
rich black mould, on which trees, now silicified, formerly grew; or these
wide plains and downs of rich earth, above a red sandstone formation. One
has called the interior of Australia a "dry seabottom;" but this phrase
admits of no easy application to such cases as these. Fragments of a
ferruginous conglomerate of water-worn pebbles, apparently identical with
those in the basin of the Darling, in some places accompany these angular
fragments of fossil wood. We found this day a new ERIOSTEMON allied to E.
BREVIFOLIUM, with small knobby fleshy leaves[*]; also a fine new shrubby
EURYBIA.[**] Scattered plants of BOSSIOEA RHOMBIFOLIA also appeared in
the adjacent gullies; and LORANTHUS SUBFALCATUS (Hook), was parasitical
on trees. We encamped on the margin of the rich plain N. of Camp XLIX,
and about a mile distant from it, our draught oxen being very weak and
leg-weary. Thermometer, at sunrise, 25°; at noon, 67°; at 4 P.M., 73°; at
9, 44°;--with wet bulb, 40°.

[* E. RHOMBEUM (Lindl. MS.); ramulis pubescentibus, foliis carnosis
obtuse rhombeis revolutis subtus glabris, pedicellis terminalibus
unifloris tomentosis foliis brevioribus, staminibus pilosis.]

[* E. SUBSPICATA (Hook. MS.); foliis linearibus obtusis supra glabris
subtus ramisque albo-tomentosis, corymbis terminalibus spiciformibus,
involucri squamis lineari-oblongis albis apice viridipunctatis.]

2D SEPTEMBER.--We recrossed the perfectly level plain formerly mentioned.
We found, on reaching the Claude, that our bridge, then made, had been
much damaged by a flood. The little river was still running, and it was
cheering to learn thus, that rain had fallen at its sources, beyond
which, I had still much to do. We lost no time in repairing our bridge,
so that all things were got across safely. We ascended the undulating
downs along our old track, and where many curious specimens of trees in
flint, lay mixed with the rich black mould. I observed that no entire
sections of trunks were cylindrical, all appearing to have been
compressed so as to present a diameter of two to one. Yuranigh brought me
one specimen which he said was "pine;" (Callitris), which so far
confirmed what has hitherto been observed of the coniferous character of
Australian fossil woods; but, from the appearance of other specimens, I
am not at all convinced that these fossils are all of that description. I
left these beautiful regions with feelings of regret, that the direct
route to the gulf, could not be carried through them. I was rather at a
loss for names of reference to these parts. I had given the name of
Claude to the river; and it occurred to me, that the scenery of the
Mantuan bard, which this painter has so finely illustrated with pastoral
subjects, deserved a congenial name; and that this country might,
therefore, be distinguished by that of the Mantuan Downs and Plains.
About half-way through our former stage, I found water in ponds which had
been formerly dry; and there we encamped, our animals being almost
exhausted. It is one redeeming quality of brigalow scrub, that water is
to be found within its recesses, at times when all other channels or
sources are dry; the soil in which it grows being stiff, retentive, and
usually bare of vegetation. Thermometer at sunrise, 28°; at noon, 73°; at
4 P.M., 78°; at 9, 47°;--with wet bulb, 42°.

3D SEPTEMBER.--Another morning worthy of "Eden in her earliest hour." The
thermometer 31° at day-break, with a little dew. The notes of the magpie
or GYMNORHINA, resounded through the shady brigalow, and the rich browns
and reddish greens of that prolific bush contrasted with its dense grey
shades, were very beautiful. We found the Nogoa much in the same state as
when we left it. No flood had come down the channel of that river. The
tracks of the feet of many natives were visible along the old route, and
bushes had been burnt all along the line; but it is remarkable that in no
case had they injured or defaced the letters and numerals marked on trees
at the various camps, nor disturbed our temporary bridges. We cut our way
through a scrub of brigalow, thus passing camps XLVIII., XLVII., and
XLVI., encamping at a short distance from the latter of these places.
Thermometer, at sunrise, 31°; at noon, 74°; at 4 P. M., 75°; at 9, 52°;
with wet bulb, 40°.

4TH SEPTEMBER.--The surrounding grass, and also the reeds in the lake,
had been very extensively burnt along our former tracks, and a green crop
was springing to the great gratification and refreshment of our cattle.
Formerly this splendid valley appeared to be uninhabited, but this day,
proofs were not wanting that it was too charming a spot of earth to be
left so. In proceeding over an open part of the plains bordering the
river, we perceived a line of about twelve or fourteen natives before
they had observed us. Through my glass, I saw they were painted red about
the face, and that there were females amongst them. They halted on seeing
us, but some soon began to run, while two very courageously and
judiciously took up a position on each side of a reedy swamp, evidently
with the intention of covering the retreat of the rest. The men who ran
had taken on their backs the heavy loads of the gins, and it was rather
curious to see long-bearded figures stooping under such loads. Such an
instance of civility, I had never before witnessed in the Australian
natives towards their females; for these men appeared to carry also some
of the uncouth-shaped loads like mummies. The two acting as a rear guard
behaved as if they thought we had not the faculty of sight as well as
themselves, and evidently believed that by standing perfectly still, and
stooping slowly to a level with the dry grass, when we passed nearest to
them, they could deceive us into the idea that they were stumps of burnt
trees. After we had passed, they were seen to enter the brigalow, and
make ahead of us; by which movement I learnt that part of the tribe was
still before us. Some time afterwards, we overtook that portion when
crossing an open interval of the woods; they made for the scrub on seeing
us. Meanwhile columns of smoke ascended in various directions before us,
and two natives beyond the river, were seen to set up a great blaze
there. To the westward of the beautifully broken rocky woody range beyond
Lake Salvator, a dense smoke also arose, and continued until evening;
thus adding much sublimity to the effect of a gorgeous sunset, which
poured its beams through the smoke between the rocky pinnacles, as I sat
drawing the scene at my camp by the lake, two miles northward of XLV.
Thermometer, at sunrise, 26°; at noon, 67°; at 4 P.M., 65°; at 9, 39°;--
with wet bulb, 32°.

5TH SEPTEMBER.--The cooler air reminded us that we had returned to a more
elevated region than that on the Belyando. This morning heavy clouds of
cumulostratus promised more rain, and gave a cool day for the last effort
of the jaded animals, which the driver doubted could not be driven much
farther. I cut off all the roundabouts and steep pulls, where this could
be done, by laying logs across such gullies as we were obliged to cross.
We thus saw more of the river and its romantic scenery, which well
deserved the name of a painter. No natives, nor columns of smoke, were
seen this day; and I concluded that they concentrated the tribe
yesterday, and had departed this morning. We finally took up a very snug
position near the pyramids, in the very gorge of the mountain valley by
which we had approached this country; camp XLVI. being within sight, and
the swamp with the spring, at the foot of this hill on which we now
encamped, as a camp of occupation during my intended absence, on an
excursion with horses only, to the north-west. The genial influence of
spring had already induced many plants to show their colours, which had
formerly been passed by us unnoticed. In the sandy soil, grew the purple-
flowered CRYPTANDRA PROPINQUA; and a species of CALYTRIX; these two
forming small shrubs, the latter from four to six feet high. A very
handsome new BORONIA, with large white and red downy flowers, here first
appeared in the open forest.[*] The rocks were partly covered with a
small white-flowered shrub, which proved to be a new species of
LEPTOSPERMUM allied to L. PUBESCENS, but perfectly distinct.[**] At the
foot of them, was found the AOTUS MOLLIS, a little hoary bush, with
yellow black flowers; a santalaceous plant like CHORETRUM, forming a tree
fifteen or twenty feet high: the CALLITRIS GLAUCA or CUPRESSUS GLAUCA of
ALL. CUNN. (in Hook. Herb.). A small tree, about twenty-five feet high,
proved to be a new species of Acacia, or possibly a variety of A.
CUNNINGHAMII, but handsomer, with larger phyllodia, longer spikes of
flowers, and everywhere clothed with a soft velvety pubescence.[***]
Thermometer, at sunrise, 33°; at noon, 68°; at 4 P. M., 64°; at 9, 40°;--
with wet bulb, 31°.

[* B. ERIANTHA (Lindl. MS.); foliis pinnatis cum impari 1-3-jugis,
foliolis glaberrimis linearibus retusis emarginatisque laevibus,
pedunculis solitariis unifloris axillaribus foliis brevioribus, sepalis
triangularibus glabris, petalis tomentosis, staminibus 8.]

[** L. SERICATUM (Lindl. MS.); foliis obovatis linearibus planis obtusis
aveniis impunctatis utrinque sericeis, calycibus tomentosis dentibus
acutis persistentibus.]

[*** A. LONGISPICATA (Benth. MS.) pube brevi mollissima vestita, ramulis
elevato-angulatis, phyllodiis amplis falcatis utrinque angustatis
subcoriaceis tenuiter striato-multinervibus nervis 3-5 validioribus,
spicis elongato-cylindricis densis, calyce dentato corolla 2-3-plo
breviore, ovario villoso.]

Chapter VII.


6TH AND 7TH SEPTEMBER.--It being necessary to rest and refresh the horses
for a few days before setting out with the freshest of them, all being
leg-weary, I determined to halt here four clear days; and during these
two, I completed my maps, and took a few rough sketches of scenery within
a few miles of the camp. The whole of the grass had been assiduously
burnt by the natives, and a young crop was coming up. This rendered the
spot more eligible for our camp, both because the young grass was highly
relished by the cattle, and because no dry grass remained to be set fire
to, which, in the case of any hostility on the part of the natives, is
usually the first thing they do. Thermometer, at sunrise, 33°; at noon,
68°; at 4 P.M., 64°; at 9, 40°;--with wet bulb, 31°.

8TH AND 9TH SEPTEMBER.--I employed my time these two days in writing a
despatch to the governor of New South Wales, giving a detailed account of
my proceedings and discoveries down to the present time; that in the
event of any misfortune befalling me or the very small party now to
accompany me, this despatch should be forthcoming, as I intended to leave
it at this depôt camp. On the 8th, heavy clouds gathered over us, and a
fine heavy shower fell, a circumstance most auspicious for our intended
ride; but it was of brief duration; and, although the sky continued
overcast even until the evening of the 9th, no rain fell, in sufficient
quantity to fill the water-courses. It was, however, enough to produce
dew for some mornings to come. Thermometer, at sunrise of the 8th, 53°;
at noon, 55°; at 4 P. M., 57°; at 9, 50°;--with wet bulb, 46°; and at
sunrise of the 9th, 39°; at noon, 77°; at 4 P.M., 70°; at 9, 52°;--with
wet bulb, 45°.

10TH SEPTEMBER.--I set out on a fine clear morning, with two men and
Yuranigh mounted, and leading two pack-horses carrying my sextant, false
horizon, and a month's provisions. Returning, still up the valley, along
our old track to Camp XLIII., I there struck off to the S.W., following
up a similar valley, which came down from that side. This valley led very
straight towards Mount Pluto, the nearest of the three volcanic cones,
which I had already intersected from various points. The other two I had
named Mount Hutton and Mount Playfair. These three hills formed an
obtuse-angled triangle, whereof the longest side was to the north-west,
and, therefore, I expected that there the elevated land might be found to
form an angle somewhat corresponding with the directions of the two
shorter sides; in which case, it was probable that, to the westward of
such an angle in the range, I might find what had been so long the object
of these researches, viz., a river flowing to the Gulf of Carpentaria. We
reached Mount Pluto, at the distance given by my former observations as
far as could be ascertained by the mode of measurement I employed then;
which was by counting my horse's paces. On ascending the mountain on
foot, I found a deep chasm still between me and the western summit, which
was not only the highest, but the only part clear of bushes. A thick and
very thorny scrub had already so impeded my ascent, that the best portion
of the afternoon was gone, before I could return to the horses; and I
resolved, therefore, to continue my ride, and to defer the ascent and
observation of angles from the summit, until my return from the unknown
western country, which we were about to explore; the search for water
that night being an object of too much importance to be longer deferred.
We, accordingly, passed on by the southward and westward of the mountain,
following a watercourse, which led first N. W., then north, and next E.
of N.; to where it at length joined one from the west, up which I turned,
and continued the search for water until darkness obliged us to halt.
During that search for water, my horse fell with me into a deep hole, so
concealed and covered with long grass, that we both wholly disappeared
from those following; and yet, strange to say, without either of us being
in the least hurt. We encamped where there was, at least, good grass;
but--no water.

11TH SEPTEMBER.--Within 400 yards of the spot where we had slept, we
found a small pond. The water was of that rich brown tint so well known
to those with whom water is most precious, and to whom, after long
custom, clear water seems, like some wines, to want body. Here we had
breakfast, and we took also a bagful of water[*] with us. This timely
supply relieved me from the necessity for following up the windings of
some water-course; and I could proceed in a straight direction, westward.
We passed, at first, through rather thick scrub, until, at length, I
perceived a sharp pic before me, which I ascended. It consisted of trap
rock, as did also the range to which it belonged, being rather a lateral
feature thereof. Mount Hutton, Mount Pluto, and Mount Playfair, were all
visible from it, as were also Mounts Owen and Faraday. The connections
extended westward; for to the W.N.W. the broken cliffs at the head of the
Salvator and the Claude, were not very distant, and these I was careful
to avoid. A range immediately westward of this cone, was higher than it,
and extended from Mount Playfair. To cross that range at its lowest part,
which bore 26° W. of S., was our next object. We found the range covered
with brigalow and other still more impervious scrubs. On the crest, the
rock consisted of clay ironstone. The centigrade thermometer stood, at
noon, at 30° 5' equal to 87°, of Fahrenheit; the height above the sea we
made 2032 feet. Beyond this crest, we encountered a scrub of matted
vines, which hung down like ropes, and pulled some of us off our horses,
when it happened that any of these ropes were not observed in time in
riding through the thicket. A very dense forest of young Callitris trees
next impeded us, and were more formidable than even the vines. The day
was passed in forcing our way through these various scrubs, the ground
declining by a gentle slope only. We next found firmer soil underfoot,
that where the Callitris scrub grew having been sandy, and we saw at
length, with a feeling of relief, that only brigalow scrub was before us;
we ascended gravelly hills, came upon a dry water-course, and then on a
chain of ponds. Near one of these ponds, sate an old woman, beside a
fire, of course, although the weather was very warm; and a large net,
used for taking emus, hung on a brigalow bush close by. The men were
absent, looking for food, as we partly conjectured, for little could
Yuranigh make out of what she said, besides the names of some rivers, to
which I could point with the hand. I was surprised to find that here, the
name for water was "Narran," the name for it in the district of the
Balonne being "Nadyeen," whereas the word for water amongst the tribes of
the Darling is Kalli. That the "Narran" river and swamp are named from
this language of tribes now dwelling much further northward, seems
obvious; and, as the natives on the Darling know little of the "Narran"
or its swamp, it may be inferred that there the migration of native
tribes has been progressive from south to north; the highest known land
in Australia being also to the southward of the Darling. The chain of
ponds, according to the old woman, was named "Cùnno," and ran into the
"Warreg" which, as she pointed, was evidently the name of the river we
had formerly traced downwards from near Mount P. P. King. I left the
"Cùnno," and plunged into the brigalow to the northward, thus crossing a
slightly elevated range, where we found a little water-course falling
N.N.W. By following this downwards, we found water in it, as twilight
grew obscure, and gladly halted beside it for the night, in latitude 25°

[* A thick flour-bag covered outside with melted mutton-fat.]

12TH SEPTEMBER.--At 7 A.M. the thermometer was 59°; our height then above
the sea has been ascertained to have been 1787 feet. Continuing to follow
down the brigalow creek, we found that it joined a chain of ponds running
N.E., and these we traced in the contrary direction, or upwards, as far
as seemed desirable. We struck off from that water-course, first to the
N.W., then to the W., arriving soon at a steep low ridge of clay
ironstone, which was covered thick with brigalow. We crossed that low
ridge, and, at a distance of about a mile and a half beyond, met another
acclivity still more abrupt and stony. This we also ascended, and found
upon it a "malga" scrub: the "malga" being a tree having hard spiky dry
branches, which project like fixed bayonets, to receive the charge of
ourselves, horses, and flour-bags; but all which formidable array we
nevertheless successfully broke through, and arrived at the head of a
rocky gully, falling N.W. Down this, however, we attempted in vain to
pass, and in backing out we again faced the "malga," until, seeing a flat
on the right, I entered it, and there fell in with the water-course
again. It led us many miles, generally in a N.W. direction, and contained
some fine ponds, and entered, at length, a little river, whose banks were
thickly set with large yarra trees. The general course of this river was
W.N.W., until it was joined by one coming from the N., and at the
junction there was a deep broad pond of clear water. At this we watered
our horses, and passed on to encamp under some rocky hills, three
quarters of a mile to the N.N.W. of that junction, in latitude 24° 52'
50" S. The temperature at noon this day, on the highest part of the ridge
we crossed, was 84°; the height there above the sea, 1954 feet; and at 3
P.M., in channel of water-course, the thermometer stood at 89°; the
height there above the sea being 1778 feet.

13TH SEPTEMBER.--At 7 A.M. the thermometer stood at 38°; the height above
the sea was found to be 1659 feet. I verily believed that THIS river
would run to Carpentaria, and I called it the Nive, at least as a
conventional name until the native name could be ascertained, in
commemoration of Lord Wellington's action on the river of that name; and,
to the tributary from the north, I gave the name of Nivelle. Pursuing the
united channel downwards, we traversed fine open grassy plains. The air
was fragrant from the many flowers then springing up, especially where
the natives had burnt the grass. Among them were MORGANIA GLABRA;
EREMOPHILA MITCHELLII; a singular little POLYGONUM with the aspect of a
TILLOEA; two very distinct little FRANKENIAS[*], and a new scabrous
HALORAGIS with pinnatifid leaves.[**] The extensive burning by the
natives, a work of considerable labour, and performed in dry warm
weather, left tracts in the open forest, which had become green as an
emerald with the young crop of grass. These plains were thickly imprinted
with the feet of kangaroos, and the work is undertaken by the natives to
attract these animals to such places. How natural must be the aversion of
the natives to the intrusion of another race of men with cattle: people
who recognise no right in the aborigines to either the grass they have
thus worked from infancy, nor to the kangaroos they have hunted with
their fathers. No, nor yet to the emus they kill FOR their fathers ONLY;
these birds being reserved, or held sacred, for the sole use of the old
men and women!

[* F. SCABRA (Lindl. MS.); undique scabro-tomentosa, foliis linearibus
margine revolutis non ciliatis, floribus solitariis pentameris, calycibus
patentim pilosis. F. SERPYLLIFOLIA (Lindl. MS.); tomentosa hispida,
foliis oblongis planis longè ciliatis, floribus solitariis subcapitatis
pentameris, calycibus patentim hispidis.]

[** H. ASPERA (Lindl. MS.) caule angulato foliis fructuque scabris,
foliis alternis oppositisque linearibus acutis apice pinnatifidis,
floribus distanter spicatis monoicis pendulis, stigmatibus plumosis,
fructu subgloboso.]

The river pursued a course to the southward of west for nine miles, but
it turned afterwards southward, eastward, and even to the northward of E.
After tracing it thus twenty-two miles, without seeing any water in its
bed (which was broad, but every where choked with sand), we were obliged
to encamp, and endure this privation after a very warm and laborious day.
Where the natives obtained water themselves, quite puzzled Yuranigh, for
we passed by spacious encampments of theirs, and tracts they had set fire
to, where trees still lay smoking.

14TH SEPTEMBER.--The temperature at 7 this morning was 72° of Fahrenheit;
the height above the sea, of the river bed, as subsequently determined by
Captain King, 1470 feet. With the earliest light, I had laid down my
survey of this river, by which the course appeared to have turned towards
the S.E. This not being what was desired, I took a direct northerly
course through the scrub, towards a hill on the left bank, whence I had
seen, on our way down, a rocky gap to the N.W. in a brigalow range. After
a ride of eight miles, by which we cut off the grand curve in the river's
course, we arrived at this hill. I hoped to have found water near the
spot, in a sharp turn in the river which I had not examined, and near
which, on the day before, I had seen two emus, under a bank covered with
brigalow scrub. Nor was I disappointed, for after finding traces of a
recent current into the river-bed at that point, I discovered, at less
than a hundred yards up, a fine pond of precious OPAL--I mean not
crystal, but that fine bluey liquid which I found always so cool and
refreshing when it lay on clay in the shady recesses of brigalow scrubs,
a beverage much more grateful to our taste than the common "crystal
spring." Here, then, we watered our impatient horses, and enjoyed a wash
and breakfast--the men (two old soldiers) being D'ACCORD in one sentiment
of gratitude to a bountiful Providence for this water. Like "a giant
refreshed with wine," we next set out for the gap to the north-west, and
passed through an open brigalow scrub, ascending very gradually, during a
ride of three miles, to where I at length could discover that the fall
was in the other direction. At this point, I observed the barometer,
which indicated our height above the sea to be 1812 feet. Fahrenheit's
thermometer stood then (5 P.M.) at 86°. The dry channel of a water-course
had afforded us an opening through the scrub, and had also guided us to
the highest part of the ground. The fresh prints of the feet of three men
in the smooth bare sand, told us that the same natives whose track
Yuranigh had seen in the river we traced yesterday, were now going in the
same direction as ourselves, and just before us; for the smell of their
burning fire-sticks, and even small portions of burning embers which had
dropped, made this evident. The higher ground was flat, and on it the
rosewood acacia grew amongst the brigalow. The rocky gap (in a ridge) was
still distant at least three miles; the sun nearly set, and not a blade
of grass visible amongst the brigalow bushes. But what was all this to
the romantic uncertainty as to what lay beyond! With eager steps we
followed a slight channel downwards; found that it descended more rapidly
than the one by which we had ascended; that it also increased, and we
were guided by it into a little valley, verdant with young grass, while
yet the red sky over a departed sun shone reflected from several broad
ponds of water. This seemed to us a charming spot, so opportunely and
unexpectedly found, and we alighted on a fine grassy flat by the margin
of a small lagoon, where stood a most graceful group of bushes for
shelter or shade. After sunset, the sky was overcast with very heavy
clouds; the air was sultry, and we expected rain.

15TH SEPTEMBER.--As soon as daylight appeared I hastened towards the gap,
and ascended a naked rock on the west side of it. I there beheld downs
and plains extending westward beyond the reach of vision, bounded on the
S. W. by woods and low ranges, and on the N. E. by higher ranges; the
whole of these open downs declining to the N. W., in which direction a
line of trees marked the course of a river traceable to the remotest
verge of the horizon. There I found then, at last, the realization of my
long cherished hopes, an interior river falling to the N. W. in the heart
of an open country extending also in that direction. Ulloa's delight at
the first view of the Pacific could not have surpassed mine on this
occasion, nor could the fervour with which he was impressed at the moment
have exceeded my sense of gratitude, for being allowed to make such a
discovery. From that rock, the scene was so extensive as to leave no room
for doubt as to the course of the river, which, thus and there revealed
to me alone, seemed like a reward direct from Heaven for perseverance,
and as a compensation for the many sacrifices I had made, in order to
solve the question as to the interior rivers of Tropical Australia. To an
European, the prospect of an open country has a double charm in regions
for the most part covered with primaeval forests, calling up pleasing
reminiscences of the past, brighter prospects for the future--inspiring a
sense of freedom, especially when viewed from the back of a good horse:--

"A steed! a steed! of matchless speede, A sword of metal keene--All else
to noble minds is drosse, All else on earth is meane!"  --OLD SONG.

I hastened back to my little party (distant a mile and a half from the
gap), and immediately made them mount to follow me down the watercourse,
which, as I had seen from the rock, would lead us into the open country.
The little chain of ponds led westward, until the boundless downs
appeared through the woods; a scene most refreshing to us, on emerging
from so many thick scrubs. Our little river, after crossing much open
plain, fell into another coming from E.S.E., and columns of smoke far in
the N.W. showed that there was water, by showing there were inhabitants.
The grass on these downs was of the richest sort, chiefly PANICUM
LOEVINODE, and I was not sorry to recognise amongst it, SALSOLOE, and the
ACACIA PENDULA, amongst the shrubs. As we followed the river downwards,
the open downs appeared on the W.N.W. horizon as if interminable. This
river, unlike that I had called the Nive, had no sand in its bed, which
consisted of firm clay, and contained deep hollows, and the beds of long
reaches, then, however, all dry, while abundance of large UNIO shells lay
upon the banks, and proved that the drought was not of common occurrence.
The general course of the river I found to be about W.N.W. true. We
continued to follow it through its windings all day, which I certainly
should not have done, but for the sake of water, as our progress
downwards was thus much retarded. Towards evening, Corporal Graham
discovered water in a small tributary coming from the S.E., while
Yuranigh found some also in the main channel, where that tributary fell
into it. We encamped on Graham's ponds, as this was called, and turned
our horses loose on the wide plain, up to the knees in grass half dry,
half green, that they might be the more fit "for the field to-morrow."
The sky had been lowering all day, and the heat was intense; but during
the night, the air was delicious for sleeping in, under heaven's canopy
and protection.

16TH SEPTEMBER.--The "gorgeous curtains of the East" over grandly formed
clouds harmonised well with my sentiments on awaking, again to trace, as
if I had been the earliest man, the various features of these fine
regions of earth. At 7 A.M. the temperature was 63°; and (from
observations registered then) the height above the sea has been found to
be 1216 feet. Throughout the day we travelled over fine downs and plains
covered with the finest grass, having the river on our right. Beyond it,
we saw hills, which seemed to be of greater height in proportion as we
descended with the river. Some were much broken, and appeared to present
precipices on the other side. A broad valley extended westward from
between the farthest of these broken ranges, which range seemed to be an
offshoot from one further eastward. On examining the river, below the
supposed junction of a tributary from the east, I found its character
altered, forming ponds amongst brigalow trees. Water was, however,
scarce. We fortunately watered our horses about 3 P.M., at the only hole
we had seen that day, a small muddy puddle. The ACACIA PENDULA formed a
belt outside the brigalow, between the river and the open plains, and
many birds and plants reminded us of the Darling; the rose cockatoo and
crested-pigeon, amongst the former; SALSOLOE and SOLANUM amongst the
latter. At length, we saw before us, to the westward, bold precipitous
hills, extending also to the southward of west. A thunder storm came over
us, and night advancing, we halted without seeing more, for that day, of
the interesting country before us, and having only water enough for our
own use, the product of the shower. No pond was found for the horses,
although we had searched for one, many miles in the bed of the river.
Still, the remains of mussel shells on the banks bore testimony that
water was seldom so scarce in this river, flowing as it did through the
finest and most extensive pastoral region I had ever seen.

17TH SEPTEMBER.--The temperature at seven this morning was 57°; our
height above the sea 1112 feet. "Like the gay birds that" awoke us from
"repose" we were "content," but certainly not "careless of tomorrow's
fare;" for unless we found water to-day, "to-morrow" had found us unable
either to proceed or return! Trusting wholly to Providence, however, we
went forward, and found a pond in the river bed, not distant more than
two miles from where we had slept. In making a cut next through a
brigalow scrub, towards where I hoped to hit the river, in a nearly
westerly direction, I came out upon open downs, and turned again into a
brigalow scrub on my right. After travelling a good many miles, N.W.,
through this scrub, we arrived on the verge of a plain of dead brigalow;
and still pursuing the same course, we came out, at length, upon open
downs extending far to the northward. I continued to ride in that
direction to a clear hill, and from it I obtained a view of a range of
flat-topped hills, that seemed to extend W.N.W.; the most westerly
portion of these being the steep-sided mass seen before us yesterday.
They now lay far to the northward, and the intervening country was partly
low and woody, and partly consisted of the downs we were upon. But where
was the river? Yarra trees and other indications of one appeared nearest
to us in an easterly direction, at the foot of some well-formed hollows
on that side the downs. Towards that point I therefore shaped my course,
and there found the river--no longer a chain of dry ponds in brigalow
scrub, but a channel shaded by lofty yarra trees, with open grassy banks,
and containing long reaches full of water. White cockatoos shrieked above
us; ducks floated, or flew about, and columns of smoke began to ascend
from the woods before us. This was now, indeed, a river, and I lost no
time in following it downwards. The direction was west; then north-west,
tolerably straight. Water was abundant in its bed; the breadth was
considerable, and the channel was well-marked by bold lofty banks. I
remarked the salt-bush of the Bogan plains, growing here, on sand-islands
of this river. The grass surpassed any I had ever seen in the colony in
quality and abundance. The slow flying pelican appeared over our heads,
and we came to a long broad reach covered with ducks, where the channel
had all the appearance of a river of the first magnitude. The old mussle
shells (UNIO) lay in heaps, like cart-loads, all along the banks, but
still we saw none of the natives. Flames, however, arose from the woods
beyond the opposite bank, at once in many directions, as if by magic, as
we advanced. At 3 P.M. Fahrenheit's thermometer in the shade stood at
90°. Towards evening, we saw part of the bed dry, and found it
continuously so, as night came on. The sun had set, while I still
anxiously explored the dry recesses of the channel in search of water,
without much hopes of success, when a wild yell arose from the woods back
from the channel, which assured us that water was near. Towards that
quarter we turned, and Yuranigh soon found a fine pond in a small ana-
branch, upon which we immediately halted, and took up our abode there for
the night. It may seem strange that so small a number could act thus
unmolested by the native tribes, but our safety consisted chiefly in the
rapidity of our movements, and their terror of strangers wholly unknown,
perhaps unheard of, arriving on the backs of huge animals, or centaurs
whose tramp they had only heard at nightfall. Like Burns's "Auld Nick,"

----"rustling through the boortrees comin' Wi' eerie sought!"

our passage was too rapid to admit of any design for attack or annoyance
being concocted, much less, carried into effect; next night we hoped to
sleep thirty miles off, where our coming would be equally unexpected by
natives. Latitude, 24° 34' 30" S.

18TH SEPTEMBER.--At 7 A.M. the temperature of the air was 72°; the height
of the spot above the sea, 995 feet. Keeping along the river bank for
some miles, I found its general course to be about N.W.; and seeing clear
downs beyond the right bank, I crossed, and proceeded towards the highest
clear hill on the horizon. There I obtained a distant view of the ranges
intersected yesterday, and of their prolongations. That to the northward
of the river, whose general direction to the point already fixed had been
22° W. of N., there formed an angle, and continued, as far as I could
judge by the eye, nearly northward. The range to the southward of the
river also turned off, extending nearly to the southward. These two
limits of the vast valley, thus receding from the river so as to leave it
ample room to turn and wind on either side, amidst its accompanying
woods, through grassy downs of great extent, obliged me to explore its
course with closer attention. From another clear hill on these downs, to
which I next proceeded, I thought I perceived the line of another river
coming from ranges in the N.E., and expecting it would join that whose
course we had thus far explored, I proceeded in a nearly N.W. direction
over open downs towards the line of trees. I found therein a fine pond of
water, the soil of the downs consisting of stiff clay. MESEMBRYANTHEMUM
and various SALSOLOE appeared in some parts. My horses being rather
jaded, I halted rather early here, and laid down my journey, protracting
also the angles I had observed of the points of distant ranges. Latitude,
24° 27' 27" S. I found by the barometer that we were already much lower
than the rivers Salvator and Claude, and the upper part, at least, of the
Belyando; while we were still remote from the channel we were pursuing.

19TH SEPTEMBER.--The thermometer at 7 A.M. stood at 57°. The height of
these ponds above the sea was 861 feet. Young, I think, has said, that a
situation might be imagined between earth and heaven, where a man should
hear nothing but the thoughts of the Almighty; but such a sublime
position seems almost attained by him who is the first permitted to
traverse extensive portions of earth, as yet unoccupied by man; to
witness in solitude and silence regions well adapted to his use, brings a
man into more immediate converse with the Author both of his being, and
of all other combinations of matter than any other imaginable position he
can attain. With nothing but nature around him; his few wants supplied
almost miraculously; living on from day to day, just as he falls in with
water; his existence is felt to be in the hands of Providence alone; and
this feeling pervades even the minds of the least susceptible, in
journeys like these. Those splendid plains where, without a horse, man
seems a helpless animal, are avoided, and are said to be shunned and
disliked by the aboriginal man of the woods. Even their lonely
inhabitant, the emu, seems to need both wings and feet, that he may
venture across them. We travelled nearly west over plains; then through a
brigalow scrub, two miles in breadth; emerging from which, on a perfectly
level plain of very rich soil, we turned rather to the southward of west,
to where the distant line of river-trees seemed most accessible. Bushes
of ACACIA PENDULA skirted this plain; and, passing through them, we
crossed a track of nearly half a mile wide of soft sand, evidently a
concomitant feature of the river. We next traversed a belt of firm blue
clay, on which a salsolaceous bush appeared to be the chief vegetation;
and, between it and the river, was another belt of sand a mile broad, on
which grew a scrub of rosewood acacia. The river there ran in four
separate channels, amongst various trees; brigalow and yarra being both
amongst them. I crossed these channels, and continued westward that I
might ascend a hill on the downs beyond. From that eminence, no hill was
visible on any part of the horizon, which everywhere presented only downs
and woods. Far in the S.W. a hollow admitted of a very distant view,
which terminated in downs beyond a woody valley. The course of our river
appeared to be N.W., as seen by Yuranigh, from a tree we found here. In
that direction I therefore proceeded; recrossing the river, where, in a
general breadth of about 400 yards, it formed five channels. The grass
was more verdant here, and the ponds in these small separate channels
seemed likely to contain water. We continued N. W. across fine clear
downs, where we found the heat so intense, (Centigrade thermometer, 37°,
or 99° of Fahrenheit,) that I halted two hours under the shade of a small
clump of trees. When we continued our ride in the afternoon, three emus
that had been feeding on the downs came inquisitively forward; curiosity,
apparently inspiring them with more courage than even the human
inhabitants. Unfortunately for these birds, our bacon had become so
impalatable that a change of diet was very desirable, and Graham,
therefore, met them half-way on his horse; the quadruped inspiring more
confidence in the bird. It was curious to witness the first meeting of
the large indigenous bird and large exotic quadruped--such strange
objects to each other! on the wide plains where either of them could

----"overtake the south wind."

One of the emus was easily shot from the horse's side, and, that evening
being the Saturday night of a very laborious week, we were not slow in
seeking out a shady spot by the side of a pond in the river bed. There my
men had a feast, with the exception of Yuranigh; who, although unable to
eat our salt bacon, religiously abstained from eating emu flesh, although
he skinned the bird and cut it up, SECUNDUM ARTEM, for the use of the
white men. The channel of the river was still divided here, amongst
brigalow bushes. We only reached it by twilight. Thermometer, at 6 P.M.,
86°. Height above the sea, 758 feet.

20TH SEPTEMBER.--At 7 A.M. the thermometer was 78°. Water appearing to be
more constant now in the river, I ventured to pursue its general course
in straighter lines, across the fine open downs, which lay to the
eastward of it. Beyond these I perceived lines of wood as belonging to
another river; and, on advancing in that direction, I first encountered a
great breadth of brigalow scrub; next, we entered a rosewood scrub,
redolent with blossom; then an open forest, in which we found the deep
well-formed channel of a river coming from the eastward. The bottom was
rocky, and bore marks of a recent current. This river also spread into
branches: we crossed three, and then again entered upon open downs. Next
we crossed a well-defined line of deep ponds, with yarra trees, and
coming from E.N.E. over the downs; and three miles further on, we crossed
another coming from N.E., on which, finding a good lagoon, I encamped
early, that the men might have time to cook for themselves some of the
emu, and that the horses might also have some sufficient rest. Latitude,
24° 12' 42" S. Thermometer, at 1 P.M., 86°. Height above the sea, 724

21ST SEPTEMBER.--Thermometer at 6 A.M., 63°. I found that the various
tributaries to the river channel had imparted to it a greater tendency
westward; but we fell in with it again six miles to the westward of where
we had passed the night. Its character was the same--a concatenation of
ponds amongst brigalow; but these seemed better filled with water,
apparently from the more decided slopes and firmer soil of the adjacent
country. The course next turned considerably to the southward of west,
while one ana-branch separating from it, ran about westward. I found an
open plain between these, across which I travelled; until, again meeting
the southern branch, we crossed it where it seemed to turn more to the
northward. The day was warm, and I halted two hours under the shade of
some trees, where I laid down our journey on paper, and found we were
making great progress towards Carpentaria, across a very open country. We
were no longer in doubt about finding water, although in the heart of
Australia, surrounded by an unbroken horizon. On proceeding, we passed
some large huts near the river, which were of a more substantial
construction, and also on a better plan than those usually set up by the
aborigines of the south. A frame like a lean-to roof had first been
erected; rafters had next been laid upon that; and, thereupon thin square
portions of bark were laid, like tiles. A fine pond of water being near,
we there spancelled our horses and lay down for the night. At 5 P.M. the
thermometer was at 82°. Height above the sea, 707 feet.

22D SEPTEMBER.--Thermometer, at 6 A.M., 58°. This was no sandybedded
river like others we had discovered. The bed still consisted of firm
clay, and now the rich vegetation on the banks presented so much novelty,
that, without the means of carrying an herbarium, I was nevertheless
tempted to select a bouquet of flowers for Dr. Lindley, and carry them
amongst my folded maps. The very herbage at this camp was curious. One
plant supplied an excellent dish of vegetables. There were others
resembling parsley, and having the taste of water-cresses with white
turnip-like roots. Here grew also a dwarf or tropical CAPPARIS. Among the
grasses was a tawny ERIANTHUS, apparently the same as that formerly seen
on the banks of the Bogan, and the curious DANTHONIA PECTINATA, gathered
in Australia Felix in 1836. There was also amongst the grasses a
PAPPOPHORUM, which was perhaps the P. GRACILE, formerly collected in the
tropical part of New Holland by Dr. Brown; and a very remarkable new
species of the same curious genus, with an open narrow panicle, and
little branches not unlike those of a young oat.[*] The river again
formed a goodly continuous channel. Its most splendid feature, the wide
open plains, continued along its banks, and I set out on this, as we had
indeed on all other mornings since we made the discovery, intensely
interested in the direction of its course. We had not prolonged our
journey very far across the plains, keeping the trees of the river we had
left visible on our right, when another line of river trees appeared over
the downs on our left. Thus it seemed we were between two rivers, with
their junction before us, for the ground declined in that direction. And
so we found it. At about seven miles from where we had slept, we arrived
at the broad channel of the first river we had traced down, whose
impetuous floods had left the trees half bent to the earth, and clogged
with drift matter; not on any narrow space, but across a deep section of
400 yards. The rocks in the channel were washed quite bare, and crystal
water lay in ponds amongst these rocks. A high gravelly bank, crowned
with brigalow, formed the western margin, but no brigalow could withstand
the impetuous currents, that evidently, at some seasons, swept down
there. It was quite refreshing to see all clear and green, over so broad
a water-worn space. The junction with the northern river took place just
below, and I continued my journey, not a little curious to see what sort
of a river would be formed by these channels when united. I found the
direction of the course to be about N.W., both running nearly parallel.
About three miles on I approached the united channel, and found the
broad, deep, and placid waters of a river as large as the Murray. Pelican
and ducks floated upon it, and mussle-shells of extraordinary size lay in
such quantities, where the natives had been in the habit of eating them,
as to resemble snow covering the ground. But even that reach seemed
diminutive when compared with the vast body of water whereof traces had,
at another season, been left there; these affording evidence that,
although wide, they had still been impetuous in their course. Verdure
alone shone now, over the wide extent to which the waters sometimes rose.
Beyond that channel lay the almost boundless plains, the whole together
forming the finest region I had ever seen in Australia. Two kinds of
grass grew on these plains; one of them a brome grass, possessing the
remarkable property of shooting up green from the old stalk.

[* P. AVENACEUM (Lindl. MS.); aristis 9 inaequalibus scabris infra medium
plumosis, paniculâ pilosâ angustâ interruptâ ramulis inferioribus demum
refractis, spiculis 3-floris, glumis pubescentibus multistriatis, paleis
villosis, foliis......]

The bees were also new to Yuranigh, who drew my attention to their
extreme smallness; not much exceeding in size a knat or mosquito.
Nevertheless, he could cut out their honey from hollow trees, and thus
occasionally procure for us a pleasant lunch, of a waxy compound, found
with the honey, which, in appearance and taste much resembled fine
gingerbread. The honey itself was slightly acid, but clear and fine

I hoped the deep reach would have been continuous, as it looked
navigable, even for steamers, but it continued so only for a few miles,
beyond which the channel contained ponds only. I finally alighted beside
one of these ponds, which was so large, indeed, that the colonists would
have called it a lagoon; this one being high above the river channel, on
a verdant plain. As yet, we had not seen a single inhabitant of this El
Dorado of Australia. At 2 P.M. thermometer 88°. Height above the sea 712

23D SEPTEMBER.--At 7 A.M. thermometer 59°. Latitude 24° 2' S. New flowers
perfumed the dry bed of this river, and these showed, in their forms and
structure, that nature even in variety is infinite. I regretted I could
not collect specimens. Our only care now, was the duration of our
provisions. Water was less a subject of anxiety with me now, than it had
been at any period of the journey. We had made the Emu eke out our little
stock, and my men (two old soldiers) were willing to undergo any
privation that might enable me to prolong my ride. This day completed
half the month, but I was determined to follow the course of this
interesting river at least four days longer. The back of one of our pack
horses had become so sore, that he would no longer endure a load; we
threw away the pack saddle, and divided his load, so as to distribute it
in portions, on some of the saddle horses and the other pack animal. The
course of the river towards the west, and our limited time, obliged me to
stride over as much of the general direction as possible. I crossed the
river, and travelled across open downs. I saw the tops of its Yarra trees
on my left. At about four miles, we crossed what seemed a large river,
but which must have been only an ana-branch from the main stream. We next
traversed a fine open down of six miles; the soil, a firm blue clay with
gravel, and on this grew two varieties of grass which I had seen nowhere
else. The valley I next approached, contained the channel of a river
flowing towards our river; a tributary, which evidently bore impetuous
floods into it, sometimes. This also ran in three channels. I called it
the Alice.

As this new river was likely to turn the main stream off to the westward
or south, I travelled west by compass over vast downs, finely variegated
with a few loose trees like a park, but extending on all sides to the
horizon. Where I looked for the main channel, I saw rising ground of this
kind; and meeting with another small river, with a stoney bed and water
in it, I bivouacqued, for the day was very hot; the thermometer, at 3
P.M., 90° in the shade. The pond here was much frequented by pigeons, and
a new sort of elegant form and plumage, was so numerous that five were
killed at two shots. The head was jet-black, the neck milkwhite, the
wings fawn-colour, having lower feathers of purple. I had no means of
preserving a specimen, but I took a drawing of one.[*] Height above the
sea here, 826 feet.

[* By which I find it has been named GEOPHAPS HISTRIONIEA.]

24TH SEPTEMBER.--I continued to seek the river across extensive downs, in
many parts of which dead brigalow stumps remained, apparently as if the
decay of that species of scrub gave place to open ground. I turned now to
the S.W., and became anxious to see the river again. At length we came
upon a creek, which I followed down, first to the S.W. and next
southerly, until it was time to alight, when we established our bivouac
by a large lagoon in its bed, in latitude 24° 3' 30" S. Thermometer, at 3
P.M. 98°. Height above the sea, 688 feet.

25TH SEPTEMBER.--At 6 A.M. the thermometer stood at 73°. We ought to have
been retrogressive yesterday, according to the time calculated on for our
stock of provisions; but we could not leave the river without tracing it
to the furthest accesible point. We still continued, therefore, to follow
the water-course which had brought us thus far, expecting at every turn
to find its junction with the river, whose course had obviously turned
more than usual to the southward. We fell in with a larger tributary from
the N. W.; after which junction, the tributary took a more westerly
direction than the minor channel which brought us to it. We thus came
upon a large lagoon, beside which were the huts of a very numerous tribe
of natives, who appeared to have been there very recently, as some of the
fires were still burning. Well beaten paths, and large permanent huts,
were seen beyond that encampment; and it was plain that we had entered
the home of a numerous tribe. I should have gladly avoided them at that
time, had not a sight of the river been indispensable, and the course of
the creek we were upon, the only certain guide to it. Level plains
extended along its banks, and I had been disappointed by the appearance
of lofty Yarra trees, which grew on the banks of large lagoons. On
approaching one of these, loud shrieks of many women and children, and
the angry voices of men, apprised me that we had, at length, overtaken
the tribe; and, unfortunately, had come upon them by surprise. "AYA
MINYÀ!" was vociferated repeatedly, and was understood to mean, "What do
you want!" (What seek ye in the land of Macgregor!) I steadily adhered to
my new plan of tactics towards the aborigines, and took not the slightest
notice of them, but steadily rode forward, according to my compass
bearing. On looking back for my men, I saw one beckoning me to return. He
had observed two natives, with spears and clubs, hide themselves behind a
bush in the direction in which I was advancing. On my halting, they stole
away, and, when a little further on, I perceived an old white-haired
woman before me, on seeing whom I turned slightly to one side, that we
might not frighten her or provoke the tribe. The whole party seemed to
have been amusing themselves in the water during the noon-day heat, which
was excessive; and the cool shades around the lagoon looked most
luxuriant. Our position, on the contrary, was anything but enviable. With
jaded horses scarcely able to lift a leg, amongst so many natives, whose
language was incomprehensible, even to Yuranigh. I asked him whether we
might not come to a parley with them, and see if they could understand
him. His answer was brief; and, without turning even his head once to
look at them:--"You go on!" which advice, quite according with my own
notions, founded on experience, I willingly went on. Even there, in the
heart of the interior, on a river utterly unheard of by white men, an
iron tomahawk glittered on high in the hand of a chief, having a very
long handle to it. The anxious care of the females to carry off their
children seemed the most agreeable feature in the scene, and they had a
mode of carrying them on the haunch, which was different from anything I
had seen. Some had been digging in the mud for worms, others searching
for freshwater muscles; and if the whole could have been witnessed
unperceived, such a scene of domestic life amongst the aborigines had
been worth a little more risk. The strong men assumed a strange attitude,
which seemed very expressive of surprise; having the right knee bent, the
left leg forward, the right arm dropping, but grasping clubs; the left
arm raised, and the fingers spread out. "Aya, aya, minyà!" they
continually shouted; and well might they ask what we wanted! Hoping they
would believe us to be Centaurs, and include the two old pack-horses in
counting our numbers, I had not the slightest desire to let them know us
more particularly; and so travelled on, glad, at length, to hear their
"Aya minyàs" grow fainter, and that we were leaving them behind. About
five miles further south, the perfume from the liliaceous banks of the
river was the first indication of its vicinity. We found it full 400
yards broad, presenting its usual characteristics,--several separate
channels and ponds of water; there, according to the barometer, the
height above the sea was only 633 feet; the temperature at 3 P. M., in
the shade, 99° of Fahrenheit. We watered our horses, crossed, and plunged
into the brigalow beyond, where I meant to steal a march upon the noisy
tribe; who, by that time, probably were sending to call in their hunting
parties, that they might follow our track. Their mode of killing a
kangaroo may best exemplify their tactics towards strangers; whose path
in the same manner could be followed by day, and sat down beside at
night, to be again tracked in the morning, until the object of pursuit
could be overtaken. The brigalow beyond the river grew on a rising ground
of sharpedged red gravel, and, from a small opening, I saw the course of
the river running nearly northward. Here, then, I turned towards the east
to travel home by ascending the left bank, with the intention to cut off
the great sweep which the river described, as we had found on tracing it
down; and, in hopes we should so intercept any tributaries it might
receive from that side. At dusk, I met with one containing a fine lagoon,
and near this I fixed my bivouac. Yuranigh most firmly objected to our
sitting down close by the water, saying we might there be too easily
speared by the wild natives who were then, probably, on our track; but he
did not object to my bivouac on the more open plain adjacent, one man
keeping a good look-out. I called these, Yuranigh's ponds. Latitude, 24°
19' 2" S.

26TH SEPTEMBER.--At 6 A. M. the thermometer stood at 61°. My horse was
quite leg-weary, and I was very loath to force him on, but one day's
journey further was indispensable. We traversed open plains and passed
through patches of brigalow of an open kind of scrub. The surface was
grassy, but very gravelly; indeed it was, in many places, so devoid of
mould as to resemble a newly Macadamized road,--the fragments being much
of that size, and in general of a reddish colour, consisting, for the
most part, of a red siliceous compound. In a ride of twenty-six miles, we
saw no country much better, and I was obliged to conclude that the left
bank was by no means so good as the country on the right, or to the
northward of the river. We arrived, however, by nightfall, at a goodly
water-course, in which we providentially found a pond, and encamped;
resolved there to rest our horses next day, (being Sunday,) and most
thankful to Him to whom the day was dedicated. Latitude 24° 12' 37" S.
Thermometer, at 6 P.M., 92°.

27TH SEPTEMBER.--Thermometer, at 6 A. M., 68°. On laying down my work on
paper, I found we had made a most favourable cut on the way homewards,
our old bivouac of the 21st inst., being about due east from us, and
distant not quite fifteen miles; the great tributary from the S.E.
passing between, upon which we could depend for a supply of water, if it
should be required.

It would appear that the finer the climate, and the fewer man's wants,
the more he sinks towards the condition of the lower animals. Where the
natives had passed the night, no huts, even of bushes, had been set up; a
few tufts of dry grass only, marked the spot where, beside a small fire,
each person had sat folded up, like the capital letter N; but with the
head reclining on the knees, and the whole person resting on the feet and
thigh-joints, clasped together by the hands grasping each ankle. Their
occupation during the day was only wallowing in a muddy hole, in no
respect cleaner than swine. They have no idea of any necessity for
washing themselves between their birth and the grave, while groping in
mud for worms, with hands that have always an unpleasant fishy taint that
clings strangely to whatever they touch. The child of civilization that
would stain even a shoe or a stocking with one spot of that mud, would
probably be whipt by the nurse: savage children are not subject to that
sort of restraint. Whether school discipline may have any thing to do
with the difference so remarkable between the animal spirits of children
of civilised parents and those of savages, I shall make no remark; but
that the buoyancy of spirit and cheerfulness of the youth amongst the
savages of Australia, seem to render them agreeable companions to the men
on their hunting excursions, almost as soon as they can run about. If the
naturalist looks a savage in the mouth, he finds ivory teeth, a clean
tongue, and sweet breath; but in the mouth of a white specimen of
similar, or indeed less, age, it is ten to one but he would discover only
impurity and decay, however clean the shoes and stockings worn, or
however fine the flour of which his or her food had consisted. What,
then, is civilization in the economy of the human animal? one is led to
inquire. A little reflection affords a satisfactory answer. Cultivated
man despises the perishable substance, and pursues the immortal shadow.
Animal gratification is transient and dull, compared to the acquisition
of knowledge--the gratification of mind--the raptures of the poet, or the
delight of the enthusiast, however imaginary. It is true that, amongst
civilized men, substance is still represented by the yellow ore, and that
the votaries of beauty "bend in silken slavery;" but are not beauty or
gold as dust in the balance, substantial though they be, when weighed in
lofty minds against glory or immortality? When the shadow he pursues is
worth more, and is more enduring than the substance, well might it be
said that "Man is but a shadow, and life a dream." Such were my
reflections on this day of rest, in the heart of a desert, while
protected from the sun's rays by a blanket, and in some uncertainty how
long these dreams under it would continue undisturbed.

"The mind is its own place, and in itself Can make a heaven of hell: a
hell of heaven!"

Thermometer, at 6 P. M., 90°.

28TH SEPTEMBER.--Thermometer, at 6 A. M., 63°. The horses were much
refreshed by that day's repose, and we this morning continued our journey
in an easterly direction, over downs and through open scrubs, meeting no
impediment from brigalow. We crossed the various branches of a
considerable tributary coming from E.S.E., the only water seen this day,
besides the great river; which we met with, exactly where, according to
its general course, it was to be looked for. We crossed it, and encamped
on the right bank of the northern river, at the place where I had
previously crossed.

This day I had discovered, from the highest parts of the downs, a range
to the S. W., and was able to intersect some of the principal hills, and
so determine its place and direction. I named the most westerly feature,
Mount Gray; the lofty central mass, the Gowen Range, and a bold summit
forming the eastern portion, Mount Koenig. I had now obtained data
sufficient to enable me to determine the extent of the lower basin of the
river, by laying down the position and direction of the nearest ranges.
The last-mentioned appeared flat-topped, and presented yellow cliffs like
sandstone. At 6 P.M., the temperature was 81°.

29TH SEPTEMBER.--At 6 A.M., the thermometer was 59°. Re-crossing the
river, I travelled, in a straight line, towards my camp of 19th
September: thus, performing in one, the journeys of two former days. We
crossed the main channel we had previously traced down, thus identifying
it. The country was, in general, open; the downs well covered with grass,
and redolent with the rich perfume of lilies and strange flowers, which
grew all over them amongst the grass. We arrived at the spot I sought,
and there encamped. Our provisions were nearly out; the sun having
reduced the men's sugar, and melted the bacon, which had been boiled
before we set out. This was an unfortunate blunder. Bacon, in such warm
weather, should be carried uncooked, and our's might have then been very
good. The men jocosely remarked, that, although we had out-manoeuvred the
natives, the weather had been so hot that, nevertheless, we could not
"save our bacon." Thermometer, at 5 P.M., 83°.

30TH SEPTEMBER.--Thermometer, at 7 A.M., 67°. I found, by my map, that I
might very much shorten the homeward route to next camp (that of 18th
September), by travelling towards it in a straight line across the downs.
We accordingly set out on the bearing of 5½° S. of E., and hit the spot
exactly at a distance of eighteen miles; arriving early, so as to afford
some good rest to our horses. We crossed open downs chiefly, passed
through a narrow belt of brigalow (about a mile wide), and twice crossed
a tributary to the river, which tributary we thus discovered. The water-
course on which we had again encamped, arose in open downs of fine firm
clay, and it was pleasant to see a great river thus supplied by the
waters collected only amongst the swelling undulations and valleys of the
country through which it passed, like the rivers of Europe. The river we
had discovered, seemed, in this respect, essentially different from
others in Australia, which usually arise in mountains, and appear to be
rather designed to convey water into regions where it is wanting, than to
carry off any surplus from the surfaces over which they run.

1ST OCTOBER.--Our track back across the downs, brought again into view
the Northern range, and I now named the prominent mountain at its
salient, Mount Northampton, in honour of the noble marquis at the head of
the Royal Society. The range to the southward also appeared above the
trees of the valley, and I gave the name of Mount Inniskillen to the
salient mountain, which appeared so remarkable a feature to us on first
advancing into that region, from the eastward. We again reached the river
this day, after traversing the wide plains. Its woods still resounded
with the plaintive cooing of a dove, which I had not seen elsewhere. At a
distance, the sound resembled the distant cooy of female natives, and we
at first took it for their voices until we ascertained whence these notes
came. I had arrived at a fine reach of the river, and while watering the
horses, preparatory to leaving its banks, (to make a short cut on our
former route,) when a pair of these birds appeared on a bough over head,
so near that I could take a drawing, by which I have since ascertained
the bird to have been GEOPELIA CUNEATA.

But the river we were about to leave required a name, for no natives
could be made to understand our questions, even had they been more
willing than they were to communicate at all. It seemed to me, to deserve
a great name, being of much importance, as leading from temperate into
tropical regions, where water was the essential requisite,--a river
leading to India; the "nacimiento de la especeria," or REGION WHERE
SPICES GREW: the grand goal, in short, of explorers by sea and land, from
Columbus downwards. This river seemed to me typical of God's providence,
in conveying living waters into a dry parched land, and thus affording
access to open and extensive pastoral regions, likely to be soon peopled
by civilised inhabitants. It was with sentiments of devotion, zeal, and
loyalty, that I therefore gave to this river the name of my gracious
sovereign, Queen Victoria. There seemed to be much novelty in the plants
along its banks. The shells of the fresh-water mussle (UNIO), which lay
about the old fires of the natives, exceeded in size any we had seen
elsewhere. I measured one, and found it six inches long, and three and a
half broad. On the plains near this spot, grew a beautiful little ACACIA,
resembling A. PENDULA, but a distinct species, according to Mr.
Bentham.[*] We crossed the open downs and our former route, hastening to
make the tributary river before night. We reached the channel by sunset;
the moon was nearly full, and we continued to search in the bed for
water, until we again fell in with our former track, near the place where
we had watered our horses on the morning of the 17th September. On
hastening to the pond, we found the intense heat of the last twelve days
had dried it up, and we were obliged to encamp without water; a most
unpleasant privation after a ride of thirty miles, under an almost
vertical sun. The river must receive a great addition below this branch
from the Northampton ranges, entering probably about that great bend we
had this day cut off; leaving the deep reaches formerly seen there, on
our left, or to the northward. An uncommon drought had not only dried up
the waters of this river, but killed much of the brigalow scrub so
effectually, that the dead trunks alone remained on vast tracts, thus
becoming open downs.

[* A. VICTORIAE (Benth. MS.) glabra, glauca, ramulis teretibus,
phyllodiis linearibus subfalcatis obtusis basi angustatis crassis
enervibus, glandulâ prope basin immersâ, pedunculis glaberrimis
gracilibus racemosis capitulo parvo 12-20-floro multoties longioribus.]

2D OCTOBER.--At 6 A.M. the thermometer gave a temperature of 59°. The
height above the sea was 1081 feet. In tracing back our old track, I sent
Corporal Graham to examine a part of the river channel likely to contain
water, and the report of his pistol some time after in the woods,
welcomer than sweetest music to our ears just then, guided us to the
spot, where he had found a small pond containing enough for all our
wants. For the men, having no more tea or sugar, a good drink was all
that was required; the poor fellows prepared my tea not the less
assiduously, although I could have had but little comfort in drinking it
under such circumstances, without endeavouring to share what was almost
indivisible. We this day performed a long journey, reaching our former
bivouac, of the 16th September, on Graham's creek, at an early hour.
Three emus were seen feeding close by; but, although several attempts
were made to get near them, with a horse stalking, we could not kill any
of them.

3D OCTOBER.--Soon after we had quitted our bivouac, the emus were again
seen on the plains. I could not deny the men the opportunity thus
afforded them of obtaining some food; for, although they concealed their
hunger from me, I knew they were living on bread and water. Graham
succeeded in wounding one of the birds, which, nevertheless, escaped. He
then chased a female followed by about a dozen young ones, towards us,
when we caught three. It had occurred to me this morning, to mark and
number the bivouacs we had occupied thus far, for the purpose of future
reference, when any other party might proceed, or be sent again, into
this country. I had, therefore, cut the number 73 on a tree at this
bivouac of 3d October, under the initials N.S.W. We pursued a straight
course over the downs, east by compass, until we joined our old route
along the water-course, from our camp near the gap, and this brought us
back, at an early hour to that spot, where I marked a tree with the
figures 72.

4TH OCTOBER.--We recrossed the brigalow range, (where the temperature, at
9 A.M., was 79°,) and alighted by the pond at the junction of the Nivelle
and Nive; near where we had passed the night of the 12th September. This
day we again saw the CALLITRIS; a tree so characteristic of sandy soils,
but of which we had not observed a single specimen in the extensive
country beyond. Marked 71 on a tree.

5TH OCTOBER.--Soon after we left our bivouac, I saw in the grass before
me, a large snake. This was rather a novelty to us, being almost the
first we had seen in these northern regions of Australia. I dismounted,
and went forward to strike it with a piece of wood. Yuranigh did the
same, both missed it, when it unexpectedly turned upon us, took a
position on higher ground beside a large tree, then descended with head
erect, moving nimbly towards the horses, and the rest of the party. The
deadly reptile glided straight to the forefeet of my horse, touched the
fetlock with his head, but did not bite; then passed to the hind legs and
did the same, fortunately the horse stood quietly. The snake darted
thence towards one of the men, who was about to throw a stick at him, and
was next in the act of pursuing Yuranigh, when Graham gave him a charge
of small shot, which crippled his movements until he could be despatched.
This snake was of a brown colour, red spotted on the belly, about six
feet long, and five inches in circumference. I had never before known any
Australian snake to attack a party, but we had certainly brought the
attack on ourselves. We made a good cut on our former circuitous route
when tracing down the river Nive, and arrived at our former bivouac at an
early hour. This was fortunate, as all the ponds, formerly full of good
water, had, in the interim, dried up; and I proceeded to cross the
scrubby range, by pursuing a straight direction towards Mount Pluto. But
some magnetic influence so deranged my compass, that, on reaching the
crest of the range, I found that mountain bore nearly east instead of N.
E. N. I saw three of my fixed points, however, by which, with my pocket
sextant, I could ascertain our true position, which proved to be very
wide of my intended course. It was, like many other accidental
frustrations of my plans in this journey, an aberration that did us good,
for we had thereby avoided the bad scrub formerly passed through, and
also a rocky part of the range. We next descended into a valley in which,
after following down a dry watercourse two miles, we found a fine pond of
water, exactly as the sun was setting. This day I had shot a curious
bird, somewhat resembling a small turkey, in a tree. The feathers were
black; the head was bare and red. This fowl was apparently of the
galinaceous tribe. The flesh was delicious, and afforded a most timely
dinner to the party. A numerous body of natives had followed our former
track across the rocky ranges we traversed this day, as appeared by their
foot-marks, and Yuranigh also discovered, in the same manner, that three
natives had this morning preceded us on our return; nevertheless we saw
none of these denizens of the woods.

6TH OCTOBER.--Thermometer, at 6 A. M., 48°. Height above the sea, 696
feet. This day we hoped to rejoin the party at the camp of the Pyramids;
but the journey was long, and it included an ascent of Mount Pluto, from
which I had still to observe some important angles. I marked this
bivouac, with 70 cut on a tree, the two last being, respectively marked,
71 and 72, as already stated; these numbers continuing the series from
LXIX, my lowest camp on the Belyando.

The scrub is thick about these volcanic ranges, but on the downs and
plains of Central Australia, that impediment disappears. My men and
myself were in rags from passing through these scrubs, and we rejoiced at
the prospect of rejoining, this day, our countrymen at the Pyramids. I
found a fine open forest between the ponds where we had formerly passed
the night, and Mount Pluto; and we crossed several water-courses, the
grass on their banks being green and young, because the old grass had
been burnt off by the natives. These water-courses form the highest
sources of the Salvator. We were at no very considerable elevation above
the sea where we had slept (696 feet), yet we found the air on the
mountains much cooler than that of the interior plains. There was much
Callitris in the woods passed through this day; and the soil, although
well covered with grass, was sandy. I ascended Mount Pluto by the N. W.
side, where the loose fragments of trap, on a very steep slope, obstruct
the growth of a thorny scrub, covering other parts of the mountain sides.
The view from the summit was very favourable for my purpose, and I passed
an hour and a half in taking angles on all distant points. Mount Owen and
Mount Kilsyth were both visible; Buckland's Table-land in the East, and
some of the recently discovered ranges in the west, were just visible
across the trap-rock range, which connected Mount Playfair with Mount
Hutton; which range almost shut out the view to the westward. In the S.
W., some very remarkable features appeared to terminate westward, in
abrupt cliffs over a low country, into which the Maran (as far as known),
the Warrego, and the Nive, seem to carry their waters. What that country
is, was a most interesting point, which I was very reluctant to leave
still a mystery. No volcanic hills appeared to the westward of this trio,
which thus seem to mark the place where the upheaving forces have most
affected the interior structure of Australia. The temperature on Mount
Pluto, at noon, was 90°; and the elevation above the sea, 2420 feet.

On descending to where I had left the horses, we mounted, and struck into
the old outward track; but we had difficulty in following it, although it
was not above a month old. We saw many kangaroos to the eastward of Mount
Pluto, but could not get a shot at any. I had seen much smoke in the
direction of our camp, and was anxious about the safety of the party left
there. We reached it before sunset, and were received with loud cheers.
All were well, the natives had not come near, the cattle were in high
condition. Mr. Stephenson had a fine collection of insects, and some
curious plants. My man Brown had contrived to eke out the provisions so
as to have enough to take us back to Mr. Kennedy. The grass looked green
and luxuriant about the camp, and the spot proved a most refreshing home
both to us and to our jaded horses, on whose backs we had almost
constantly been for nearly a month. The party had collected specimens of
Benth.; HIBBERTIA CANESCENS; these had been found on the rocky ground
near the camp, some on the sides, and even near the summits of the
pyramids. On the sandy flats at the foot of these hills, were gathered,
AJUGA AUSTRALIS; DAMPIERA ADPRESSA, a gay, though, almost leafless herb,
with blue flowers nestling in grey wool; three miles below the camp a
species of VIGNA, closely allied to V. CAPENSIS Walp., was found; and
among the larger forest trees was a Eucalyptus, allied to, but probably
distinct from, the E. SIDEROXYLON A. Cunn.

The LABICHEA DIGITATA was now in fruit; the JACKSONIA SCOPARIA formed a
shrub, ten or twelve feet high, occupying sandy places, and having much
resemblance to the common broom of Europe. The ACACIA CUNNINGHAMII grew
about the same height; the GREVILLEA LONGISTYLA was seen on the
sandstone, forming a shrub seven or eight feet high; and there also grew
the pretty ZIERIA FRAZERI[*]; the DODONOEA MOLLIS was a small shrub six
feet high, whereof the fruit was now ripe; the LEUCOPOGON CUSPIDATUS,
also small. A PIMELEA near P. LINIFOLIA formed a shrub, only two feet
high, growing on the rocks; the HOVEA LANCEOLATA, grew ten feet high in
similar situations; the LEPTOSPERMUM SERICATUM was still abundant on the
sandstone rocks, and amongst these also grew the POMAX HIRTA, a plant six
inches high.

[* Z. FRASERI (Hook. MS.); ramulis junioribus puberulis, foliis
impunctatis brevissime petiolatis, foliolis lanceolatis acutis marginibus
leviter revolutis subtus pallidis pubescenti-sericeis, pedunculis
trifloris folio brevioribus.--Very distinct from all other ZIERIOE.
Detected by Fraser on Mount Lindsay.]

At the base of these mountains, a slight variety of ACACIA VISCIDULA
formed a bush twelve feet high; a variety of BORONIA BIPINNATA formed a
small upright shrub, with flowers larger than usual; and much finer
specimens were now also found, of the white and red flowered BORONIA
ERIANTHA; the DODONOEA PEDUNCULARIS was loaded with its fruit; the
SCHIDIOMYRTUS TENELLUS, or a new species nearly allied to it, formed a
shrub six feet high. A variety of AOTUS MOLLIS, with rather less downy
leaves and rather smaller calyxes; the ACACIA LONGISPICATA, with its
silvery leaves and long spikes of yellow blossoms, acquired a stature of
twelve feet, at the foot of the rocks; and small specimens of the
beautiful LINSCHOTENIA DISCOLOR, which we had also observed, in a finer
state, near Mount Pluto. The LABICHEA DIGITATA was abundant in sheltered
ravines amongst the rocks; and, also, the DODONOEA ACEROSA, loaded with
its four-winged reddish fruit, formed a shrub there four feet high. On
the flats at the base of these ranges, grew the stiff, hard leaved,
glutinous TRIODIA PUNGENS, with fine erect panicles of purple and green
flowers (the first occasion this, on which I had seen this plant in
flower). The BRUNONIA SERICEA continued to appear; also a minute species
of ALTERNANTHERA. The DIANELLA STRUMOSA formed a coarse, sedgy herbage,
relieved by its large panicles of blue flowers; and a fine species of
Dogbane near TABERNOEMONTANA, and probably not distinct from that genus,
according to Sir William Hooker. A shrub, five feet high, which proved to
be a new species of ACACIA, also grew at the foot of the precipices[*]; a
new and very distinct species of LOGANIA[**]; a new RUTIDOSIS, a tall
herbaceous perennial[***]; a fine, new, long leaved GREVILLEA, with
yellow flowers.[****] A woolly-leaved KERAUDRENIA, with inconspicuous
flowers[*****]; and, in the open forest, a pretty species of Comesperm,
about five feet high, with rosy flowers, and smooth or downy stems; it
was allied to C. RETUSA.[******]

[* A. UNCIFERA (Benth. MS.) molliter velutino-pubescens, ramulis
subteretibus, stipulis subulatis caducissimis, phyllodiis
falcatoellipticis v. oblique oblongis utrinque acutis uncinato-mucronatis
minute 1-2- glandulosis, racemis polycephalis phyllodio paullo
longioribus, capitulis multifloris tomentosis.--Near A. CALEYI and A.
VESTITA. Phyllodia from an inch and a half to two inches long, half an
inch broad, resembling much in shape those of A. MYRTIFOLIA.]

[** L. CORDIFOLIA (Hook. MS.); herbacea erecta estipulata glabra, foliis
cordato-acuminatis sessilibus 3-5-nerviis, racemis corymbosis axillaribus
terminalibusque in paniculam contractam terminalem foliosam magis minusve

[*** R. ARACHNOIDEA (Hook. MS.); elata, arachnoideo-tomentosa, foliis
remotis lanceolatis acuminatis calloso-cuspidatis, panicula laxa, ramis
longis polycephalis, capitulis aggregatis, involucris ovatis.--A widely
distinct species from the only hitherto described species of this genus
(R. HELICHRYSOIDES), both in the leaves and flower-heads.]

[**** G. JUNCIFOLIA (Hook. MS.); ramis angulatis pubescenti-sericeis,
foliis rigidis angustissime linearibus elongatis semiteretibus acutis
glabris marginibus revolutis, racemis ovatis multifloris, pedicellis
perianthiisque sericeis, ovariis sessilibus longissime albosericeis,
stylis glabris, folliculis oblique ovatis sericeo-tomentosis.]

[***** K. ? INTEGRIFOLIA (Hook. MS.); foliis oblongo-lanceolatis
apiculatis subtus pannoso-tomentosis marginibus costa nervisque
glandulosis.--In this the styles are connected at the apex, free below.
The capsule is deeply 5-lobed. The anthers are remarkably curved
outwards, like a horse-shoe, which is not the case in true KERAUDRENIA.
W. I. H.]

[****** C. SYLVESTRIS (Lindl. MS.); erecta a basi divisa, caulibus
pubescentibus glabrisve, foliis oblongis mucronatis, racemis corymbosis
terminalibus, bracteis deciduis, corollae lobo medio integerrimo.]

On the rocky slopes, or crests, were found, also, various new plants
which have been since described, viz. A small shrub, with leaves from
three to four inches long, found to be a new species of CONOSPERMUM[*]; a
small shrubby species of LABICHEA[**]; an inconspicuous shrub, two feet
high, was a new species of MICRANTHEUM, allied to M. ERICOIDES,
Desf.[***]; a downy DODONOEA, very near D. PEDUNCULARIS, but with thinner
truncated leaves, and more glutinous fruit[****]; and, on the edge of the
mountain, grew a curious new Acacia, resembling a pine tree[*****], but
with the stature of a shrub, and a GREVILLEA, forming a shrub seven or
eight feet high.[*]

[* C. SPHACELATUM (Hook. MS); foliis linearibus subfalcatis
sphacelatoapiculatis molliter incano-pubescentibus inferne longe
attenuatis uninerviis paniculis pedunculatis corymbosis, floribus
bracteisque sericeis.]

[** L. RUPESTRIS (Benth. MS.) glabra vel vix in partibus novellis
puberula, foliis sessilibus plerisque trifoliolatis, foliolis lineari-
oblongis spinosomucronatis coriaceis marginatis terminali lateralibus bis
pluriesve longiore, antheris subaequalibus conformibus.]

[*** M. TRIANDRUM (Hook. MS.); foliis cuneatis solitariis, floribus
masculis triandris.]

[**** D. PUBESCENS (Lindl. MS.); minutissime pubescens, viscosa, foliis
brevibus apice triangularibus tridentatis truncatisque, capsulis
tetrapteris pedunculatis alis rotundatis.]

[***** A. PINIFOLIA (Benth. MS.) glabra ramulis teretibus, phyllodiis
erectosubincurvis longe lineari-filiformibus nervo utrinque prominenti
subtetragonis breviter pungenti-mucronatis, pedunculis solitariis
brevissimis, capitulis multifloris, sepalis spathulatis liberis v. vix
basi cohaerentibus.--Very near A. PUGIONIFORMIS, but the phyllodia are
five, six, or more inches long, being longer even than in A. CALAMIFOLIA.
It differs from the latter species in the inflorescence and calyx.]

[****** G. LONGISTYLA (Hook. MS.); ramis pubescentibus, foliis longissime
linearibus acutis basi attenuatis margine subrevolutis supra glabris
subtus albo-tomentosis, racemis oblongo-ovatis, perianthiis glandulosis,
ovariis semiglobosis stipitatis sericeo-hirsutissimis, stylo longissimo
glabro.--Leaves a span and more long; flowers rather large, apparently

Chapter VIII.


7TH AND 8TH OCTOBER.--THESE two days were devoted to the completion of my
maps of the late tour, and of drawings of two of the birds seen on the
Victoria. Our horses required a day or two's rest, and I had enough to do
in my tent, although the heat was intense.

9TH OCTOBER.--Once more I rode into the lower country a few miles, to
take a sketch of another remarkable hill. In the afternoon I examined the
sandstone caverns in the hill opposite to our camp; some very curious
organic remains having been found there by one of the party during my
absence. I found that these occurred on the lower side of sandstone
strata, and that they had become denuded by the decomposition of
sandstone underneath. We were to leave this camp next morning. The men
were on very reduced rations, and I was apprehensive that we might be
disappointed in our search for water in many places where we had before
encamped and found it. In the afternoon, the sky became suddenly
overcast, distant thunder was heard; and the southern portion of the
heavens, over the country to which we were about to return, was evidently
discharging some heavy rain there. At twilight, the rain commenced to
fall heavily at our camp, and continued to do so during four hours. Such
a supply came most opportunely for us, and, although I could not be so
vain as to suppose that the thunder rolled only for our benefit alone, I
felt as thankful as though it had. This day I saw on the cavernous hill
the woolly ACTINOTUS HELIANTHI, one of the most singular of umbelliferous
plants; and, on descending to the base, a white variety of the COMESPERMA
SYLVESTRIS, with smooth branches: unlike the kind observed in September,
it did not grow above one foot high. A small shrub grew on the rocks, a
pretty little Calytrix, near C. MICROPHYLLA A Cunn. (from Port Essington
and Melville Island); but the branches, with their leaves, are more
stout, and the bracts more obtuse. Sir W. Hooker supposes it to be a new
species. We here found this day a woolly-leaved plant, with long
branching panicles of brilliantly blue flowers, which Professor de Vriese
has ascertained to be a new genus of the natural order of Goodeniads, and
which he calls LINSCHOTENIA DISCOLOR.[*] Thermometer, meter, at sunrise,
60°; at noon, 94°; at 4 P. M., 76°; at 9, 64°;--with wet bulb, 64°.

[* LINSCHOTENIA DE VRIESE. Calyx superus, limbo obsoleto. Corollae
quinquefidae tubo hine fisso, lobis majoribus margine utroque auriculato-
crispis, alatisve, duobus minoribus lanceolatis, interne appendice
proprio cuculliformi instructis. Antherae imberbes, cohaerentes.
Filamenta libera, quandoque subflexuosa. Ovarium uniovulatum; stylus
inflexus; stigmatis indusium ore nudum; semen in nuce solitarium.

Genus dicatum Jano Huigenio Linschotenio, geographo, navarcho,
itineratori seculi XVI., qui historiae naturalis, imprimis vero
geographiae et rei nauticae progressui eximie profuit. Linschotenia
Dampierae proxime habitu et plurimis cum floris, tum habitus
characteribus, paracolla cuculliforme ab omnibus Goodeniacearum generibus
huc usque cognitis, diversa.

L. DISCOLOR, suffruticosa, erecta, albo-lineata, foliis alternis,
petiolatis, oblongis, acutis, integris, planis, superne pallide
viridibus, glaberrimis, inferne densissime albo-lanatis. Inflorescentia
spicata, ramosa, griseo-lanata, floribus subsessilibus, basi
bracteolatis, corollis quinquelobis, lilacinis, extus griseo-barbatis;
paracorollis nigrescentibus.

Legit anno 1846, Praefectus militaris nobil. T. L. Mitchell in Nova-
Hollandia subtropica.

Planta elegantissima, inter Scaevolas persimilis habitu SC. REINWARDTII
de Vriese in LEHM. PL. PREISS. videtur esse suffruticosa. Caulis est
teres. Folia sunt alterna, fere 7 cent. longa et 1½ cent. lata,
petiolata, petiolo ad insertionem quodammodo crassiore, fere ½ cent.
longo, integerrima, utrinque acuta, nervo medio crassiore, subtus lanata,
fere alutacea, albissima; superne viridia, opaca; bracteae lineari-
lanceolatae, utraque superficie lanatae, acutae; rhachis elongata, fere
10-15 cent. longa, inferne albo-lanata, sursum griseo-lanata. Pedunculi
communes 5-10 cent. longi, patentes, alterni, griseo-tomentosi. Flores
alterni, sessiles, bracteolati, bracteolis suboppositis; calyces villosi,
limbis obsoletis; corollae persistentis lobis marginibus inflexis,
externe medio calycis instar hirsutis, interne glaberrimis: cucullis
corollae badiis, convexis, uno latere hiantibus, interiori mediaeque
loborum parti affixis; filamenta libera, filiformia, antherae his
continuae, glabrae. Stigma capitatum, indusio imberbe.--DE VRIESE.]

10TH OCTOBER.--We commenced our retreat with cattle and horses in fine
condition, and with water in every crevice of the rocks. That in the
reedy swamp near the pyramids, had a sulphureous taste, and nausea and
weak-stomach were complained of by some of the men. I certainly did not
think the swamp a very desirable neighbour, with the thermometer
sometimes above 100°, and therefore I was more desirous to retire from
it. As the party returned along their former track, I went to the summit
of Mount Faraday, and observed a number of useful angles for my map. Mr.
Stephenson was with me, and found some new plants and insects, while I
ascertained the height, by the barometer, to be 2523 feet above the sea.
form of AJUGA AUSTRALIS, and a little PILOTHECA, with narrow,
closepressed leaves.[*] The mountain is volcanic, the broken side of the
crater being towards the N.W. Some compact basalt appeared near the
summit. On reaching the Warrego in the evening, we found the party had
arrived there at 3 P. M., the distance travelled comprising two former
days' journeys. They had also found water close to the camp, where none
had been when they had been there before. Many beautiful shrubs were now
beginning to bloom. The BURSARIA INCANA was now covered with its panicles
of white flowers; the OZOTHAMNUS DIOSMOEFOLIUS, a shrub four feet high,
was loaded with small bulbs of snow white flowers; a downy variety of
LOTUS AUSTRALIS, with pink flowers[*], was common on the open ground; the
ACACIA PODALYRIOEFOLIA was now forming its fruit; in the open forest we
found a beautiful little GOMPHOLOBIUM[***]; the HAKEA PURPUREA, a spiny-
leaved, hard shrub, with numerous crimson leaves[****], and the EUPHORBIA
EREMOPHILA, an inconspicuous species of SPURGE.[*****] Mr. Stephenson and
I had been so busy collecting these on our way back, that we only reached
the camp at sunset. Thermometer, at sunrise, 58°; at noon, 75°; at 4 P.
M., 82; at 9, 62°;--with wet bulb, 59°.

[* P. CILIATA (Hook. MS.); ramulis pilosis, foliis erectis subimbricatis
linearibus obtusis ciliatis dorso convexis glandulosis superne planis
nudis, petalis ovali-ellipticis obtusis marginibus extus
albopubescentibus.--Allied to P. AUSTRALIS, but different in the leaves,
which are here ciliated at the margin, very glandulous on the back; and
in the flowers, which are smaller, the petals more obtuse, and having a
broad, white line of pubescence round the margin at the back.]

[** L. AUSTRALIS var. PUBESCENS, ramis pedunculisque pilis mollibus
patentibus vestitis. G. B.]

[*** G. FOLIOLOSUM (Benth. MS.) foliis impari-pinnatis, foliolis 15-25
obovato-truncatis obcordatisve glabris, petiolis ramulisque pilosulis,
racemis terminalibus subcorymbosis laxis paucifloris. Fruticulus
ramosissimus foliolis confertis vix lineam longis.]

[**** H. PURPUREA (Hook. MS.) foliis tereti-filiformibus rigidis trifidis
segmentis simplicibus furcatisve mucronatis glabris, floribus purpureis
pedicellisque glabris, capsulis obovatis acutis lignosis stipitatis

[***** E. EREMOPHILA (All. Cunn. in Hook. Herb.); fruticosa, ramulis
fastigiatis foliisque parvis linearibus dentato-scrratis glabris,
capsulis globosotriangularibus laevibus glabris.--Collected by Allan
Cunningham in Dirk Hartog's island.]

11TH OCTOBER.--Following the chord of the arc described by our journeys
of 30th June, and 1st July, on tracing down the Warregò, I made the
furthest of the two camps, by a straight line of nine miles, passing
through a fine open forest country. The pond, which formerly supplied us
here, was now quite dry, but one much larger in a rocky bed was found a
few hundred yards further up the river. Thermometer, at sunrise, 54°; at
noon, 80°; at 4 P. M. 88°; at 9, 57°;--with wet bulb, 52°.

12TH OCTOBER.--This day we also turned two former days' journeys into
one, and arrived at Camp XXXVIII. by 2 P. M., the ponds at the
intermediate camp (XXXIX.) being dry. Nevertheless, the recent rains had
left some water in rocky hollows, at which we could water our horses on
the way. By the river side this morning, we found a variety of the
HELIPTERUM ANTHEMOIDES, D.C., with the leaves pubescent and the scales of
the involucre paler. The silky grass, IMPERATA ARUNDINACEA, occurred in
the swampy flat we crossed before we encamped. Soon after we set out in
the morning, an old man was seen coming along the valley towards us,
without at first seeing the party. When he did, which was not until he
had come very near, he uttered a sort of scream, "OOEY!", and ran up
amongst some rocks beyond the water-course, nor would he stop, when
repeatedly called to by Yuranigh. He carried a firestick, a small bag on
his back, and some bomarengs under his left arm. His hair was grey but
very bushy, and he looked fat. The poor fellow was dreadfully frightened,
which I much regretted, for I might otherwise have obtained from him some
information about the ultimate course of the Warrego, etc. We found water
in one of the rocky ponds near our former encampment, but others in which
some had formerly been found, were dry, and I was not without some doubt
about finding water, on our way back to join Mr. Kennedy. Thermometer, at
sunrise, 42°; at noon, 87°; at 4 P. M., 96°; at 9, 78°;--with wet bulb,

13TH OCTOBER.--The night was uncommonly hot, thermometer 79° here, where
in June last it had been as low as 7°. The sky had been clouded, but the
morning cleared up, and we enjoyed a cool breeze in passing amongst the
sandstone gullies. On arriving at the foot of Mount Owen the day became
very sultry, and there was a haziness in the air. On Mount Owen Mr.
Stephenson found a new species of VIGNA with yellow flowers[*], and the
SWAINSONIA PHACOIDES, conspicuous with its pink flowers. We took up our
old ground over the gullies, and I went in quest of water. The ponds
formerly here, had dried up, but Yuranigh found a deep one in the solid
rock, containing enough for months. It was inaccessible to horses, but
with a bucket we watered both these and the bullocks. The mercurial
column was low, the sky became overcast, and a slight shower raised our
hopes that at length rain might fall in sufficient quantity to relieve us
from the difficulty about water, in returning towards Mr. Kennedy's camp.
Thermometer, at sunrise, 63°; at noon, 79°; at 4 P. M., 76°; at 9, 64°;--
with wet bulb, 59°.

[* V. LANCEOLATA (Benth. MS.) glabra volubilis, foliolis lanceolatis
reticulatis integris v. basi hastato-lobatis, pedunculis folio multo
longioribus apice paucifloris, calyce glabro campanulato dentibus tubo
brevioribus, carina rostrata acuta.--Flowers smaller than in V. VILLOSA,
but of the same form.]

14TH OCTOBER.--During the night several smart showers fell, and at
daybreak the sky seemed set for rain. When we set off it rained rather
heavily. I took a new direction, and got into a gully which led to our
former track of 17th June. Crossing it, I passed into the bed of the
Maranòa, and followed it down with the carts, until we arrived at the
large pond in solid rock, to which I had sent the bullocks on the 18th
June. Here we encamped, and I marked a tree with the number 74, as it
might be necessary on future occasions to refer to where a permanent
supply of water may be found in that part of the country. Thermometer, at
sunrise, 60°; at noon, 71°; at 4 P. M., 66°; at 9, 52°;--with wet bulb,

15TH OCTOBER.--Last evening the wind blew keenly, and the night was cold,
the temperature very different from that experienced of late. The morning
presented a thick haze and drizzling rain, this kind of weather being
rather favourable for crossing the loose sandy surface, which the men
dreaded, remembering how it had before affected their eyes. I at first
endeavoured to travel this day along the river bank, but I found its
course so tortuous, and the country on its banks so hilly and rocky, that
I left it, and proceeded in a direction that would intersect the former
track. We thus passed through a fine open forest, fell in with our old
track at a convenient point, and found water still in the pond at the
camp of 15th June, where we therefore again set up our tents. The sky had
cleared up, and the air was pleasantly cool, with a fine breeze blowing
from S.E. On the river bank, we observed this day the native bramble, or
Australian form of RUBUS PARVIFOLIUS, L. A small nondescript animal ran
before Mr. Stephenson and myself this morning. It started from a little
bush at the foot of a tree, had large ears, a short black tail, ran like
a hare, and left a similar track. It was about the size of a small
rabbit. The death of our dogs on the Bogan, under the intense heat and
drought, had been a very serious loss to us, as we found on many
occasions like this; and where kangaroos, of apparently rare species,
escaped from us from our having no dogs. We were, also, from want of such
dogs, much more exposed to attacks of the natives. Evening again cloudy.
Thermometer, at sunrise, 45°; at noon, 64°; at 4 P.M., 67°; at 9, 57°;--
with wet bulb, 50°.

16TH OCTOBER.--A clear cool morning, with a fine refreshing breeze from
east, succeeded the cloudy weather of yesterday. I crossed the little
river, and travelled straight towards Camp XXXVII. On the higher ground
grew a heath-like bush, (ERIOSTEMON RHOMBEUM,) three or four feet high.
At a distance of only nine miles, we came upon the little river beside
that camp, and fell into the old track a mile on beyond it; and, early in
the day, we arrived at a chain of ponds, half-way to the next camp at
Possession Creek. The ponds where I went to encamp were dry; but, on
following the water-course downwards, I came to its junction with the
Maranòa, at half a mile from the camp, and found a large basin of water
at that point. Here, the NOTELOEA PUNCTATA was no longer a low trailing
bush, but a shrub ten or twelve feet high, with the appearance of a
European PHILLYREA. On the wet ground at the river bank, grew an entire-
leaved variety (?) of PLANTAGO VARIA. The wild carrot, DAUCUS BRACHIATUS,
with an annual wiry root, was also seen in the rich ground near the
river. Yuranigh found more of the native tobacco, which the men eagerly
asked for some of. This was a variety of the southern NICOTIANA
SUAVEOLENS, with white flowers, and smoother leaves. Thermometer, at
sunrise, 37°; at noon, 70°; at 4 P.M., 76°; at 9, 51°;--with wet bulb,
42°. Height above the sea, 1315 feet. (Camp 75.)

17TH OCTOBER.--The thermometer stood as low as the freezing point this
morning, and the day was cooled by a wind from the N. E. In crossing
Possession Creck, we saw nothing of the formerly belligerent natives.
From Camp XXXIII, I took a direct course to Camp XXXII, where we arrived
early. No water remaining in the adjacent ponds, I followed the dry
channel down to its junction, and found the Maranòa full of water; this
point being three quarters of a mile from our camp. We had this day
passed over a fine open forest country, in which were also groves of the
ACACIA PENDULA. The vegetation, in general, seemed drooping, from the
want of rain; but the whole was available for grazing purposes. We saw,
this day, plants of PYCNOSORUS GLOBOSUS, in the dry forest land; and the
spreading bush, about eight feet high. The HOVEA LEIOCARPA, and
CONVOLVULUS ERUBESCENS, were also found; with a new MYRIOGYNE[*], and a
small shrub, three feet high, with narrow, blunt, glaueous leaves,
tasting like rum. A small fruit, with the fragrance of an orange, proved
to be a new species of TRIPHASIA.[**]

[* M. RACEMOSA (Hook. MS.) radice perenni fusiformi superne multicipiti,
caulibus decumbentibus, foliis lineari-cuneatis grosse serratis
punctatis, capitulis in racemis subnudis terminalibus.--Very different
from any described MYRIOGYNE, in the terminal racemed capitula.]

[** T. GLAUCA (Lindl. MS.); spinosa, foliis coriaceis integerrimis
crenatisque linearibus glaucis obtusis retusisque, floribus trimeris
dodecandris 2-3nis brevi-pedicellatis.]

It is much to be regretted, that the specimens gathered here of the
brigalow, should have been so imperfect that they could not be described.
If an Acacia, Mr. Bentham says, it is different from any he knows.

The vicinity of the river here affords security for a supply of water, in
seasons like the present, when any contained in the smaller channels may
be dried up. In the afternoon we lost a horse, which fell from a
precipitous part of the bank, at the junction of the creek with the
river. One man was leading four, when one horse kicked another, which,
falling perpendicularly, from a height of about forty feet, was so much
hurt as to be unable to rise. The folly, or rather obstinacy of the man,
leading so many together, on the verge of a precipice, was contrary to
particular orders previously given, and which ought to have been enforced
by Graham, who was in charge. Thermometer, at sunrise, 32°; at noon, 78°;
at 4 P.M., 79°; at 9, 60°;--with wet bulb, 45°.

18TH OCTOBER.--The horse, still unable to get on his legs, and apparently
dying, was shot, and buried in the sand of the bed of the creek. This
loss, when we were so near our depôt camp, was much to be regretted, as
we should have otherwise taken back every bullock and horse, after an
absence, from that camp, of four months and fifteen days. We saw not a
single native about the woods or the river, and were, therefore, the more
anxious to know how Mr. Kennedy and the natives had agreed at the depôt
camp, now within a day's ride of us. We continued to follow our former
track to Camp XXXI, and it may be remarked, to their credit, that the
aborigines had not attempted to deface any of these marked trees. It
might have occurred, even to them, that such marks were preparatory to
the advent of more white men into their country. The fine, deep reaches
in the river, looked still full and unfailing; and a short journey to-
morrow would take us to the camp of the rest of the party. We this day
found a little jasmine in flower, of which Mr. Stephenson had formerly
collected the seeds. It was white, not more than a foot high, with
solitary white flowers, emitting a delightful fragrance, and it grew in
the light sandy forest land.[*] A tree loaded with pods, which the
natives eat, has been determined by Sir William Hooker to be the
picked up a singular little annual plant, belonging to the genus PIMELEA,
with hairy, loose spikes of minute green flowers[**]; and by the river we

[* J. SUAVISSIMUM (Lindl. MS.); herbaceum, ramis angulatis, foliis
sessilibus simplicibus alternis oppositisque lineari-lanceolatis,
pedunculis solitariis unifloris supra medium bibracteatis foliis
longioribus, sepalis subulatis, corollae laciniis 5-7 acutissimis.]

[** P. TRICHOSTACHYA (Lindl. MS.); annua, foliis alternis linearibus
pilis paucis adpressis, spicis laxis terminalibus villosissimis.]

The morrow was looked forward to with impatience. Four months and a half
had the main body of the party been stationary; and that was a long time
to look back upon, with the expectation that it had remained undisturbed,
although isolated in a country still claimed and possessed by savages.
Thermometer, at sunrise, 38°; at noon, 83°; at 4 P.M., 86°; at 9, 64°;--
with wet bulb, 48°.

19TH OCTOBER.--The party was early in motion along the old track. Leaving
the intermediate camp to the left, we struck across the country so as to
hit the track again within a few miles of the depôt camp. Old tracks of
cattle, when the earth had been soft, and the print of A SHOE, were the
first traces of the white man's existence we met with; nor did we see any
thing more conclusive, until the tents on the cliffs overhanging the
river were visible through the trees. We saw men, also, and even
recognised some of them, before our party was observed; nor did they see
us advancing, with a flag on the cart, until Brown sounded the bugle.
Immediately all were in motion, Mr. Kennedy coming forward to the cliffs,
while the whole party received us with cheers, to which my men heartily
responded. Mr. Kennedy ran down the cliffs to meet me, and was the first
to give me the gratifying intelligence that the whole party were well;
that the cattle and sheep were safe and fat; and, that the aborigines had
never molested them. A good stock-yard had been set up; a storehouse had
also been built; a garden had been fenced in, and contained lettuce,
radishes, melons, cucumbers. Indeed, the whole establishment evinced the
good effects of order and discipline. Drysdale, the storekeeper, had
collected many birds and plants, and had also been careful of the stores.
The orphan from the Bogan, little Dicky, had grown very much, and seemed
a very intelligent boy; and the little intercourse Mr. Kennedy had had
with the aborigines, limited as it was, by my instructions to him, was
curiously characteristic of the tact and originality of this singular
race. On one occasion, when on being informed that natives were near, he
had hastened to meet them, taking little Dicky with him, he found
remaining only a female and her mother, a remarkably old woman, who had
before concealed herself among the reeds. The daughter on his approach
sung a beautiful song, rapidly running through the whole gammut. Then
bowing her head, she presented the back of it to him, and placing her
stone-tomahawk in his hand, she bade him strike. Mr. Kennedy threw the
tomahawk on the ground; and seeing the grey head amongst the reeds, he
prevailed on the mother to come out. She was hideous in person, which was
much more AFFREUX from the excessive rage with which she seemed to
denounce the white men;--her fiend-like eyes flashing fire, as if
prophetic of the advent of another race, and the certain failure of her

The daughter seemed, at first, to treat lightly the ire of her aged
parent, playfully patting with her finger her mother's fearfully
protruding lip. Mr. Kennedy endeavoured to ascertain, through Dicky, the
downward course of the river, and she seemed to express, and to point
also, that the river passed southerly into the Balonne, which river she
named, and even the Culgòa: she seemed to say the name of that locality
was "Mundì." Neither of these females had any covering, but the younger
wore, by way of ornament, a page of last year's Nautical Almanac,
suspended by a cord from her neck. The mother continuing implacable, the
daughter, with a graceful expression of respect for her, and courtesy to
the stranger, waved her arm for him to retire, which gesture Mr. Kennedy
and Dicky immediately obeyed. At another interview, a scheme to decoy
Dicky away was tried, as related thus in Mr. Kennedy's journal:--"Sunday,
26th July. Prayers were read at 11 A.M., after which, having been told by
Drysdale that the natives were still near the camp, and that there was a
native amongst them who could make himself more intelligible to Dicky
than the rest, I had started down the river to see them to collect what
information I could, and then induce them to go farther from the camp. I
had not gone far before the cooys from the tents made me aware that the
natives were by this time in sight. I therefore returned, and the first
object that caught my eye was the bait--a gin, dancing before some
admiring spectators; and behind her was a fine, lusty native advancing by
great strides, as he considered the graceful movements of his gin were
gaining as fast upon the hearts of the white men. On going up to him
Dicky put the usual questions as to the name of the river, and its
general course. His reply to the first was not very satisfactory, but our
impression was that he called it Bàlun. With respect to its course, he
plainly said that it joined the Balonne; repeatedly pointing in the
direction of that river and then following with his hand, the various
windings of this branch; repeating the while some word implying 'walk,
walk,' and ending with 'Balonne.' He knew the names of the mountains
Bindàngo and Bindyègo. After this conversation he took some fat, which he
appeared to have brought for the purpose, and anointed Dicky by chewing
it, and then spitting upon his head and face. He next whispered to him,
and (as Dicky says) invited him to join them. I then motioned to the men,
who were looking on at a short distance, to go to the camp; and as they
obeyed, I made the same signs to the native to move in the opposite
direction, which he at length did with evident reluctance and
disappointment, throwing away his green bough, and continually looking
back as he retired. I desired Dicky to tell him never to come near our
tents, and that no white man should go to his camp."

It seems that one family only inhabits these parts, as only three huts at
most were to be seen in any part of the country, either up or down the
river; a very fortunate circumstance for our party, obliged to remain so
long at one spot, after such a formal notice had been given to quit it,
as our visitors of the 30th of May gave during my absence. Mr. Drysdale,
the store-keeper, had collected an herbarium during the long sojourn of
the party at that camp, which included many new plants. In August, plants
had begun to blossom; and in September various novelties had been found
in flower. In August, he gathered EURYBIA SUBSPICATA, Hook. EURYBIOPSIS
MACRORHIZA; or a species allied to it. ACACIA DECORA; GOODENIA
BIPINNATA, with smaller flowers than usual, and most of the leaves simply
pinnate. A cruciferous plant, probably new; two new species of EURYBIA
species of violet, with small, densely-spiked flowers (was covered with
wild bees in search of its honey). A species of BRUNONIA, apparently the
same as the B. SIMPLEX of the north bank of the Darling, but taller and
less hairy. A NYSSANTHES, apparently undescribed; SWAINSONA
DECOMPOSITA, a hard-leaved, sedgy plant; a fine LEUCOPOGON, with
unilateral flowers; and another species with yellowish blossoms, both
perhaps new. A pretty little grass belonging to the genus PAPPOPHORUM,
with a blackish green colour.[*] A magnificent new ACACIA, with leaves
nearly a foot long.[**] A minute annual CALANDRINIA.[***] An ERODIUM,
closely resembling the European E. LITTOREUM, Arn. and Benth., from Isle
of St. Lucie; it was also found by A. Cunningham in the swamps of the
Lachlan. A new PROSTANTHERA, with indented glandular viscid leaves.[****]
A beautiful ever-lasting plant belonging to the genus HELIPTERES.[*****]
A new LEPTOCYAMUS, with slender, trailing, hairy stems.[******] SIDA
VIRGATA (Hook. MS.)[*******] SIDA FILIFORMIS (A. Cunn.).[********] A new
DODONOEA in the way of the D. CUNEATA of the colony, with long, slender
flower stalks.[*********]

[* P. VIRENS (Lindl. MS.); pumilum, caespitosum, aristis 9 plumosis
rigidis apice nudis, spicâ compositâ laxâ tenui villosâ, glumis pilosis,
paleis sericeo-pilosis, foliis tactu scabris vaginis pilosis juxta
ligulam villosis.]

[** A. MACRADENIA (Benth. MS.); glabra, ramulis angulatis, phyllodiis
elongatis subfalcatis acutiusculis basi longe angustatis marginatis
crassiusculis uninervibus penniveniis nitidis glandula magna prope basin,
racemis brevibus polycephalis flexuosis subpaniculatis, capitulis
multifloris, calyce breviter dentato apice corollaque aureo-hispidulis,
ovario tomentoso.--Near A. FALCIFORMIS D. C. Phyllodia eight to ten
inches, or near a foot long, from six to ten lines broad.]

[*** C. PUSILLA (Lindl. MS.); foliis equitantibus subacinaciformibus
radicalibus, caulibus simplicibus racemosis v. unifloris, floribus longè
pedunculatis infimis divaricatis, floribus minutis 8-andris.]

[**** P. EUPHRASIOIDES (Benth. MS.) tota viscoso-villosa, foliis
linearioblongis pinnatifido-dentatis ad axillas subfasciculatis, floribus
paucisaxillaribus breviter pedicellatis, calycis labiis integris,
antherarum calcare longiore loculum superante.--The foliage and flowers
look at first sight very much like those of some of the AUSTRALIAN
EUPHRASIOE. The leaves are about three lines long.]

[***** H. GLUTINOSA (Hook. MS.); piloso-glandulosa, viscosa, foliis
angustolinearibus cuspidato-acuminatissimis, capitulis solitariis.--Young
buds rich rose-colour: full blown capitula pure white, the involucre
having a slight tinge of purple.]

[****** L. LATIFOLIUS (Benth. MS.); molliter villosus, foliolis
membranaceis oblique obovatis ovalibusque utrinque adpresse pubescentibus
villosisve, calycibus subsessilibus villosis.]

[******* S. FILIFORMIS (All. Cunn. MS.); tota stellato-tomentosa, ramis
patentissimis elongatis, foliis brevissime petiolatis cordato-ovatis
crenato-serratis, pedunculis axillaribus unifloris gracillimis folio
triplo longioribus, calyce 5-fido petalis duplo breviore.]

[******** S. VIRGATA (Hook. MS.); ramis elongatis virgatis stellato-
tomentosis, foliis brevissime petiolatis lineari-oblongis serratis supra
pubescentivelutinis subtus calyceque 5-fido stellato-pannosis
fulvescentibus, stipulis acicularibus rigidis spinescentibus, pedunculis
axillaribus unifloris folio brevioribus, petalis (flavis) calyce duplo

[********* D. PEDUNCULARIS (Lindl. MS.); viscosa, glabra, foliis rigidis
elongatis spathulatis acutis tridentatis integrisque lobo medio majore,
pedicellis 1-3-filiformibus, capsulis tetrapteris viscosis alis coriaceis

In September, were gathered in water-holes on the ranges, RANUNCULUS
SESSILIFLORUS, Br. in De Cand.; and near the camp the hard-leaved XEROTES
yellow flowers, on the banks of the river S. W. of the camp. A broader
with shining leaves and white flowers; CASSIA ZYGOPHYLLA. A variety of
SIDA PISIFORMIS, A. Cunn., with closer leaves and a browner pubescence;
HELICHRYSUM? near H. ODORUM D. C., but with the leaves downy on both
sides. PIMELEA COLORANS, a plant found by A. Cunningham along the river
Macquarie. STACKHOUSIA MURICATA, Lindl., which is, perhaps, not distinct
from S. SPATULATA, Sieb. A PODOLEPIS, resembling P. RUGATA Labill.
herbaceous plant. RANUNCULUS PLEBEIUS, very like an English buttercup. A
Br.), a species also found near Port Jackson. VIGNA LANCEOLATA; XEROTES
LONGIFOLIA, a very common, hard-leaved plant. ANTHERICUM BULBOSUM, R. Br.
GERANIUM PARVIFLORUM? or one nearly allied to it: exactly the same
species is found in Van Diemen's Land. HELIPTERUM ANTHEMOIDES? D. C., but
apparently new. A new and fine species of MENTHA.[*] A new, round-leaved
species of PROSTANTHERA.[**] A new species of SWAINSONA[***]; PLEURANDRA
CISTOIDEA (Hook. MS.).[****] A new TRICHINIUM, with conical flower-
heads.[*****] A species of HIBISCUS, with purple flowers.[******] A new
species of DAVIESIA, with spiny, shaggy leaves.[*******] Thermometer, at
sunrise, 46°; at noon, 81°; at 4 P.M., 75°; at 9, 50°;--with wet bulb,

[* M. GRANDIFLORA (Benth. MS.); molliter pubescens, caulibus erectis,
foliis petiolatis ovatis acutiusculis dentatis planis verticillatis laxis
sexfloris, calycis dentibus lanceolato-subulatis intus vix pilosis,
corolla calyce subduplo longiore, staminibus exsertis.--Near M. AUSTRALIS
Br., but the leaves broader and flowers larger.]

[** P. RINGENS (Benth. MS.); ramulis puberulis, foliis petiolatis
rhombeoorbiculatis integerrimis utrinque opacis glandulosis, calycis
glandulosi glabri labiis integris, corollae labio superiore subgaleato,
antherarum calcaribus loculo brevioribus.--Foliage nearly that of P.
RHOMBEA. Flowers much larger.]

[*** S. PHACOIDES (Benth. MS.); decumbens molliter pubescens, foliolis
13- 15-linearibus cuneatisve, pedunculis folio longioribus apice
paucifloris, legumine brevissime stipitato villoso.--A low plant with
much the habit of several PHACAS or ASTRAGALI. Flower yellow, smaller

[**** P. CISTOIDEA (Hook. MS.); pilis stellatis brevibus rigidis asperis,
foliis angusto-linearibus obtusis marginibus revolutis, floribus in ramos
breves solitariis, staminibus sub-12 unilateralibus, filamentis infra
medium inaequaliter connexis antheras longitudine aequantibus, ovario
parvo globoso lanato.]

[***** T. CONICUM (Lindl. MS.); hirto-pubescens, caule basi diviso, ramis
ascendentibus subsimplicibus, foliis lineari-lanceolatis acutis, spicâ
conicâ, bracteis unincrviis mucronatis glabris, rachi tomentosâ.]

[****** H. STURTII (Hook. MS.); suffruticosus ubique subtus praecipue
dense stellatim tomentosus, foliis petiolatis oblongo-ovatis ellipticisve
obtusis grosse crenato-serratis, pedunculis axillaribus unifloris
solitariis folio brevioribus, involucro monophyllo ..... turbinato 6-8-
fido calycem 5-fidum aequante, capsulis hispidissimis.--This species was
also found by Capt. Sturt in the south interior. The flowers are purple,
sometimes yellowish in drying. The involucre is very remarkable,
monophyllous, broad at top and 6 or 8-cleft, almost wholly concealing the
calyx.--W. J. H.]

[******* D. FILIPES (Benth. MS.); ramis hirsutis inermibus, foliis
ovalioblongis sublanceolatisve apice spinoso-mucronatis planis
pubescentibus, pedicellis filiformibus folio demum longioribus in
pedunculo brevissimo solitariis geminisve.]

20TH OCTOBER.--It was necessary to halt here a day or two, that the
blacksmith might have time to repair the light carts, and shoe the
horses. I took a ride this day with Mr. Kennedy to a hill some miles
eastward of the camp, in which he had found some remarkable fossils. The
hill consisted of a red ferruguinous sandstone, in parts of which were
imbedded univalve and bivalve shells, pieces of water-worn or burnt wood,
and what seemed fragments of bone. To some of the portions of wood, young
shells adhered, but others bore, evidently, marks of fire; showing the
black scarified parts, and those left untouched or unscarified, very
plainly. Other portions of woods had their ends waterworn, and were full
of long cracks, such as appear in wood long exposed to the sun. These
specimens were, in general, silicified: but the outer parts came off in
soft flakes resembling rotten bark, being equally pliant, although they
felt gritty, like sand, between the teeth. This hill was rather isolated,
but portions of tabular masses, forming the range of St. George's Pass,
and in contact with the volcanic hill of Mount Kennedy which forms a
nucleus to these cliffy ranges, being about 9 miles N. E. of this hill,
to which, from its contents, I gave the name of Mount Sowerby. The
weeping GEIJERA PENDULA again occurred in abundance near Mount Sowerby;
the CAPPARIS LASIANTHA was climbing up the rocks there, and amongst the
grasses we observed a species of the genus LAPPAGO, perhaps not distinct
from the Indian L. BIFLORA. Thermometer, at sunrise, 39°; at noon, 56°; 4
P.M., 87°; at 9, 67°; with wet bulb, 52°.

21ST OCTOBER.--I took a ride with Mr. Kennedy to the summit to which I
had attached his name, having occasion to take a back angle from it on
Mount Owen, and one or two other points. I could there show him many of
the distant summits to the northward of the country, I was about to lay
down on my map. We rode over a fine tract of forest land, extending from
the camp to the foot of the mountain, a distance of about twelve miles.
On the high range grew a profusion of a beautiful little PTEROSTYLIS,
quite new, but in the way of P. RUFA[*], a single specimen of a new
KENNEDYA was gathered there.[**] On the plains we found a curious new
form of the genus DANTHONIA, much resembling wheat in ear[***], and a new
JASMINE, with a rich perfume, resembling I. LINEARE, but with short
axillary corymbs of flowers. This species has been named by Dr. Lindley
after myself.[****] We found also the SOLANUM VIOLACEUM with its violet
flowers and orange spines. A fine wiry herbage was formed by the
smallflowered species of CENTAURY, the DIANELLA RARA, R. Br. and SALVIA
PLEBEIA. Thermometer, at sunrise, 48°; at noon, 85°; at 4, P.M., 84°; at
9, 65° with wet bulb, 52°.

[* P. MITCHELLII (Lindl. MS.); foliis omnibus radicalibus stellatis,
vaginis scapi multiflori 3 remotis, scpalis setaceo-acuminatis, labelli
laminâ ovato-lineari obtusâ canaliculatâ supra pilis (luteis) articulatis

[** K. PROCURRENS (Benth. MS.); foliolis 3 ellipticis ovatisve
mucronulatis utrinque hirtellis subtus reticulatis, stipulis subcordato-
lanceolatis acutissimis striatis, pedunculis versus apicem plurifloris
petiolo multo longioribus, floribus subnutantibus.--Flowers considerably
smaller than in K. PROSTRATA, and petals narrower.]

[*** D. TRITICOIDES (Lindl. MS.); culmo ramoso stricto, foliis glabris
margine spinoso-scabris basi planis apice involutis, spicâ cylindraceâ
distichâ secundâ, spiculis subtrifloris flore summo mutico abortiente,
paleae inferioris dorso lanatae aristâ rectâ glumâ mucronatâ multinervi

[**** J. MITCHELLII; foliis ternatis glabris; foliolis linearibus
linearilanceolatisque, ramis teretibus, corymbis axillaribus
subsessilibus foliis multo brevioribus, calycibus pubescentibus
subtruncatis 5-dentatis, corollae limbo 5-fido acuto.]

22D OCTOBER.--The information Mr. Kennedy had gathered from the natives,
about the final course of the river; his surveys thereof, which, even on
foot, he had extended sixteen miles (eight miles each way from the camp),
and the fact, that the fish of the Balonne, Cod, or GRISTES PEELII had,
at length been caught in it, all led to the conclusion that this river
was no other than the tributary which on the 24th, of April I at first
followed up, and afterwards halted and wrote back to Mr. Kennedy about.
By following this down, the probability that we should find water seemed
greater, than by returning along our old track, where we had left behind
some ponds so small that we could not hope to find any water remaining,
especially at two of the camps between us and Bindango, I therefore
determined to follow this river downward, and to survey its course. We
left the depôt camp this morning, and to avoid some overhanging cliffs on
the river, we travelled first over an open tract. The camp we left,
namely, XXIX, or "MOONDI," or the "second depôt camp," will be found a
valuable cattle-station or sheep-station, by the first squatter coming
this way. The runs about it are very extensive; the natives few and
inoffensive, and the stock-yard etc., left there, renders it very
complete. I must not omit, however, to mention, that the water had become
slightly brackish, but not so as to be unpalatable, or even, indeed,
perceptible, except to persons unused to it. The large reach had fallen
two feet since the party first occupied that station. In other reaches
lower down, that we passed during this day's journey, the water was
perfectly sweet. I proceeded about thirteen miles with the light party,
and encamped at the junction of a little river from the N. W. formerly
crossed by me (on my ride of 23d May). A new poppy was found on the flats
by the river, near PAPAVER DUBIUM; but the leaves, when dry, became
darkgreen not pale; the aculei are too numerous and stout, pectant not
depressed, and the flowers very small. The teams and drays did not arrive
as expected, and the men with me had not brought any provisions with
them. We saw natives in the woods before we encamped, and parts of the
grass on fire. A beautifully worked net, laid carefully under a piece of
bark, having two curiously carved stakes attached to it, was found by Mr.
Kennedy, who made deep impressions of his boots in the soil near it, that
the natives might see that white men had been there, and had left the net
untouched. Thermometer, at sunrise, 47°; at noon, 81°; at 4 P.M., 85°; at
9, 70°; with wet bulb, 56°. Height above the sea, 1185 feet (Camp 76).

23RD OCTOBER.--We were obliged to halt, and await the arrival of the
drays, which only took place at ½ past 11, A.M. The cattle were found to
be so fat and fresh, that the drivers could not get them along faster.
Mr. Stephenson obtained a specimen of the dove observed by me on the
Victoria. (GEOPALIA CUNEATA). I had heard the note in the woods, and
directed his attention to it. The SWANSONIA CORONILLOEFOLIA adorned the
rich flats with its crimson pear-shaped blossoms, and the CROTALARIA
DISSITIFLORA, was also in flower, but smaller than usual; more rigid,
with a denser silky pubescence, and smaller, shorter leaflets. The SIDA
(Abutilon) FRAZERI (Hook. M S.)[*] and also the CLEMATIS STENOPHYLLA[**],
were found on this part of the river. Thermometer, at sunrise, 48°; at
noon, 91°; at 4 P. M., 93°; at 9, 65°;--with wet bulb, 53°.

[* S. (ABUTILON) FRASERI (Hook. MS.); tota stellato-pubescens, foliis
ovatiscordatis acutis argutè crenato-serratis, petiolo folium aequante,
pedunculis axillaribus solitariis unifloris apicem versus articulatis,
calycis 5-partiti segmentis ovato-lanceolatis.--SIDA DUMOSA, J. Backhouse
MS. in Hook. Herb. (not Swartz). This has a most extensive range; having
been found at Moreton Bay by Mr. Backhouse, at Brisbane River by Fraser
and Smith, and in other parts of this colony by All. Cunningham.]

[** C. STENOPHYLLA Fraser in Hook. Herb. C. OCCIDENTALIS A. Cunn. in
Hook. Herb.--Very nearly allied to C. MICROPHYLLA of De Cand. Syst. i. p.
147. but in that the carpels are said to be glabrous.]

24TH OCTOBER.--Soon after leaving the camp this morning, we entered upon
an open country, the downs extending before us from the right bank of the
river, the course of which was somewhat to the eastward of south. The
cattle came on faster this day, and we encamped on the skirts of the
plain, near a fine reach of water in the river. We were now upwards of
twenty miles to the westward of Bindango, with abundance of water;
whereas I had always looked back to much difficulty in returning by that
route, as the ponds near it were likely to be dried up. I had seen the
higher parts of these downs from the summit of Bindango, but did not then
suspect that a large river was in the midst of them, whose course was so
favourable for a traveller proceeding northward. The discovery of these
extensive downs was an important incident in this journey, watered as
they were by a fine river; especially as the country to the N. W. was
open or thinly wooded, and likely to be found so as far as the central
downs and plains on the banks of the river Victoria. A new and very
remarkable Ventilago was found this day.[*] I now again numbered the
camps, continuing the series backwards, by a different character; this
was numbered 77; the last, 76. The utility of these numbers along our
surveyed line will be admitted, when the country is taken up, as they
will not only serve to identify localities with the map, but may also
enable the land-surveyors to connect local surveys with the general map
of the country. The sky was overcast with thunder-clouds in the
afternoon, and the mercurial column was low; but no rain fell, and a
clear starry sky, at 9 P. M., admitted of our observations as usual.
Thermometer, at sunrise, 53°; at noon, 85°; at 4 P. M., 83°; at 9, 58°;--
with wet bulb, 47°. Height above the sea, 1295 feet. (Camp 77.)

[* V. VIMINALIS (Hook. MS.); foliis anguste elongato-lanceolatis
integerrimis nervis costa parallelis, paniculis axillaribus
terminalibusque.--The other hitherto known species of the genus, have
broad leaves, more or less denticulate, with patent nerves. The flowers
and fruit entirely accord with those of the genus.--W. J. H. "Tree 20
feet high, growing on high sandy ridges."]

25TH OCTOBER.--We continued in the direction of a column of smoke I had
perceived yesterday, believing that there I should intersect the river,
or at least find water. We found the open downs at length, hemmed in by
ACACIA PENDULA, growing openly; but which gave place to a scrub, as we
approached some ridges. These ridges consisted of red gravel; the scrub
contained callitris, casuarina, silver-leaved iron-bark, malga and
brigalow, the two latter growing so thickly as to compel me to turn
eastward to avoid them. This elevated rocky ground was found more
extensive than I had expected, throwing down many water-courses to the
east and north-east; but, at length, we made the river, and encamped
after a journey of 10 1/3 miles. It there ran through a deep valley, due
south, with a broad channel, in which we found a reach of water covered
with ducks. The country beyond it, to the eastward, over which our former
route passed, appeared like high table-land in bluey distance; but
neither of the mountains Bindango or Bindyego were visible from the
country traversed by the party this day. Thermometer, at sunrise, 43°; at
noon, 81°; at 4 P. M., 94°; at 9, 65°;--with wet bulb, 51°. Height above
the sea, 1186 feet. (Camp 78.)

26TH OCTOBER.--A river coming into the Maranòa, about a mile from our
camp, was apparently the river Amby; but without having traced its course
throughout, I could not feel certain of this, after all I had seen of
these rivers: I think this was the same, however. We kept the Maranòa on
our left during the whole of this day's journey, and were thus able to
pursue a tolerably straight line in the direction of about 20° E. of S.
At length, arriving at the junction of an important tributary from the N.
W., full of water, and seeing another also join from the east, I crossed
the main channel and encamped on the left bank, in sight of a reach of
broad blue water below the junction, of an extent which reminded us of
the Balonne itself. The valley of the river seemed bounded by continuous
ranges of high land, which looked in the back-ground like table-land.
Recently, much grass and bushes had been burnt, along the banks of the
river, by the natives; and we this day passed over a tract where the
grass was still in a blaze on both sides of us. Crows and hawks hovered
over the flames, apparently intent on depriving the devouring clement of
whatever prey more properly belonged to them. In a dry part of the bed of
the river, I met with many instances of a singular habit of the eelfish
(JEWFISH) PLOTOSUS TANDANUS.[*] I had previously observed, elsewhere, in
the aquatic weeds growing in extensive reaches, clear circular openings,
showing white parts of the bottom, over which one or two fishes
continually swam round in circles. I now found in the dry bed, that such
circles consisted of a raised edge of sand, and were filled with stones,
some as large as a man's closed fist. Yuranigh told me that this was the
nest of a pair of these fish, and that they carried the stones there, and
made it. The general bed of the river where I saw these nests, consisted
wholly of deep firm sand; and that the fish had some way of carrying or
moving stones to such spots, seemed evident, but for what purpose I could
not discover. Thermometer, at sunrise, 56°; at noon, 83°; at 4 P. M.,
93°; at 9, 75°;--with wet bulb, 59°.

[* See Pl. 6. fig. 2. p. 44. vol. i. of Three Expeditions.]

27TH OCTOBER.--We now travelled along the left bank of the river, and
found the country tolerably open. The ADRIANIA ACERIFOLIA grew on an
islet in the river.[*] This still pursued a remarkably straight course,
and contained abundance of water. After passing over a place where the
bush was on fire, we saw a female in the act of climbing a tree. When she
had ascended about eight feet, she remained stationary, looking at us
without any appearance of dismay. I continued to pursue a straight-
forward course, but told Yuranigh to inquire, EN PASSANT, what was the
name of the river; to which question she replied, in his own language,
"The name of that water is Maranòa:" thus confirming the name we had
already understood, however indirectly, to be that of the river. It
proved the accuracy of my servant Brown's ear, for it was first
communicated to him, during my absence, by the old chief at Bindango. The
gin appeared to be climbing in search of honey. To state that this female
wore no sort of clothing, were superfluous to any reader of this journal
who may have been in such interior parts of Australia. After travelling
about fourteen miles, we came upon a fine reach of the river, and
encamped beside it. Thermometer, at sunrise, 59°; at noon, 68°; at 4 P.
M., 95°; at 9, 77°;--wet bulb, 65°. Height above the sea, 832 feet.
(Camp 80.)

[* A. ACERIFOLIA (CROTON ACERIFOLIUM All. Cunn. MS.); foliis cordato-
ovatis trifidis segmentis acuminatis grosse inaequaliter sinuato-
serratis, subtus bracteisque pubescenti-tomentosis.--Shrub three feet
high. Flowers scarlet. Collected by Allan Cunningham along the Lachlan

28TH OCTOBER.--Heavy rain was falling soon after day-break, and I most
willingly sat still in my tent, hoping the rain would continue. Just in
sight of it grew a picturesque tree: the half-dead, half-alive aspect
presented by the same sort of tree, was not unfrequent in the Australian
woods; and I was induced to sketch this specimen, as highly
characteristic of the scenery. These trees, "so wither'd and so wild in
their attire," generally appear under the shelter of other taller trees;
have half their branches dead, the part still in foliage drooping like
the willow, the leaf being very small. It is an Acacia (A. VARIANS), and
I was informed by Yuranigh that it is the Upas of Australia; the natives
call it "Goobang," and use a bough of it to poison the fish in
waterholes. They are too honest and fair in their fights to think of
poisoning their weapons. The aspect of this half-dead tree is certainly
characteristic of its deleterious qualities, in the wild romantic outline
resembling Shakspeare's lean, poison-selling apothecary,--

--"who dwelt about the very gates of death, Pale misery had worn him to
the bones."

Some good soaking rain fell until about 10 A. M., after which we had a
cool day and cloudy sky. The rain ensured to us at least dew on the grass
for a morning or two; and this, with the prospect of finding the channel
dry lower down, was a great advantage. Thermometer, at sunrise, 61°; at
noon, 75°; at 4 P. M., 76°; at 9, 60°;--wet bulb, 51°.

29TH OCTOBER.--A clear cool morning. We travelled this day with so much
ease, that we got over twenty miles without apparent fatigue, to bullocks
or horses. The necessity for travelling so far arose from the utter want
of water in the river bed. The course was very direct; the country was
open, and clothed with rich verdure on which our cattle could have
reposed, doubtless with great satisfaction, both to themselves and
drivers, had water also been at hand; but after travelling over, and
measuring twenty miles, we were obliged to encamp without any. As this
seemed only a branch of the river. I sent Corporal Graham to ascertain
what was beyond, while I, with Yuranigh, examined this channel backwards.
We found no water in either direction, but Corporal Graham discovered the
main channel at a mile and a half westward from our camp, and traced it
to near the junction with the ana-branch on which we were encamped. We
discovered this day a club and shield, such as the natives use on the
Belyando, carefully put away upon a sort of scaffold of bark, and covered
with bark. The shield was made of very light wood, the face being
rounded, and having been covered with a dark varnish like japan; for
which the surface had been made rough by crossed lines, resembling those
made on the first coat of plaster. It was evident, from the marks on this
shield, that the clubs were frequently used as missiles.[*] Each man of
the tribe that visited my camp on the Belyando, carried three or four of
these, but no shields; a plain indication that they were not then armed
for war against other aborigines. Thermometer, at sunrise, 36°; at noon,
68°; at 4 P.M., 73°; at 9, 49°;--with wet bulb, 40°.

[* Deposited in the British Museum (60, 61.).]

30TH OCTOBER.--We were now fifty-two miles from the junction of the dry
channel we crossed by the Balonne, and forty from the nearest part of our
former route, in advancing into this country. The risk of want of water
was worth encountering in the most direct line homewards, which was by
following down this river. I travelled, as straight as the bush would
allow, towards the junction; Graham examining the channel while we
proceeded. No water was found where the rivers united. Having halted the
small party with me, I followed one branch many miles with Yuranigh, but
all we could find were some wells, dug by natives, in a part of the sandy
bed; in one of which Yuranigh found, by a long bough he thrust in, that
there was moisture about five feet below the surface. I returned,
determined to encamp near this, and dig a well. The bullock teams had
also arrived when I returned to the party, and I learnt that Drysdale,
having observed that my little dog Procyon came in wet, had been led to
the discovery of a lagoon about three miles back, at which the cattle had
been already watered. I immediately encamped. At finding water the dog
was most expert, the native next, we inferior to both. We had come about
fifteen miles, and I wished to lay down the journey on the map. On doing
this, I found we had at length attained a point from whence, in case of
necessity, we could go as far as the Balonne, even if no water were found
in the country intervening, the direct distance being under forty miles.
During the afternoon, a still larger lagoon was found, higher up than the
first. I resolved to give the cattle a day's rest, and then to proceed
prepared, by well watering them previously, to travel on to the Balonne,
but not with much expectation that scarcity of water would oblige us to
go so far. Thermometer, at sunrise, 34°; at noon, 70°; at 4 P. M., 78°;
at 9, 60°;--with wet bulb, 46°.

31ST OCTOBER.--Two men were sent to the westward, where they found a dry
sandy country with pines, the same as that seen by me on my first ride
from St. George's bridge to the N.W., on the 18th of April. I was myself
engaged at the camp, on my general map of the country. Thermometer, at
sunrise, 33°; at noon, 81°; at 4 P. M., 84°; at 9, 51°--wet bulb, 43°.
Height above the sea, 882 feet.

1ST NOVEMBER.--The cattle and horses, having been all night loose beside
Drysdale's ponds, were brought in early, and we then proceeded. After
travelling about eight miles, over ground bearing traces of inundation,
and looking, as we proceeded, into the river channel for water, Yuranigh
found a lagoon in a hollow parallel to the river, and I encamped,
resolved to reduce as much as possible the distance to be traversed in
uncertainty about finding water. We had, however, found rocky ridges on
the left, like bergs to the river; and the voices of natives in the
woods, as well as these ridges, redeemed the country from the aspect of
drought. This was but a small portion of the fine pastoral country,
traversed by this river, where we found the channel dry; and I think this
want was compensated by many lagoons and watercourses in that back
country extending to the little river from Mount Abundance, the Cogoon.

2D NOVEMBER.--After watering all the animals, we went forward, prepared
to go on to the Balonne, even if we should meet with no water until we
arrived at that river. We found, however, that the country we were to
traverse was well watered. Three miles on from our camp, the country
appeared quite verdant, and park-like in its woods. The channel of the
river was bordered with green reeds, and contained a deep reach of
sparkling water. The river took a turn to the eastward, and, in the angle
formed by its again turning south, a little tributary entered it from the
north, which was full of ponds of water, and had not long ceased to run.
This came from the rocky tract situated between our old line of route,
along the little river Cogoon near Mount First View, and the Maranòa. The
water now found supplied the only link wanting in our explored line along
the last mentioned river, and I had no doubt that, by crossing that
country more directly towards the upper part of the Maranòa, a supply
would be found at convenient stages. On crossing the little tributary
(which I called Requisite Ponds), we found that the river resumed its
straight course towards the Balonne; and, in latitude 27° 31' 37" S., we
again saw green reeds and a good pond, beside which we encamped.
Thermometer, at sunrise, 50°; at noon, 76°; at 4 P. M., 79°; at 9, 63°;
--with wet bulb, 61°. (Camp 82.) Height above the sea, 969 feet.

3D NOVEMBER.--The river accompanied us but a short way this day, as I had
determined to follow a straight line towards the junction with the
Balonne, aware that the course of the river, for ten or twelve miles
above that point, turned very much to the westward. We passed through
much open forest, and over much sandy ground, on which the callitris
always appeared to predominate. Little scrub lay in our way. At length,
plains again appeared before us through the trees; and, beyond them,
after travelling twenty-two miles, we saw before us the river line,
running north-east. We crossed it, and still continued to travel on
towards the main river; but night overtook us when not far distant from
it, so that we were obliged to encamp within the distance of a mile and a
half, after a journey, with carts, of 26½ miles. Here occurred the only
Epiphyte observed during the expedition. It was growing in the dead parts
of trees in the forest, and proved to be the CYMBIDIUM CANALICULATUM of
Brown. One of the specimens had a raceme of flowers above a foot long.
The fragrant JASMINUM MITCHELLII occurred, with narrower leaves than
usual, at the foot of the forest trees. JUSTICIA ADSCENDENS, an
inconspicuous weed, covered the plains in large tufts. The MELALEUCA
TRICHOSTACHYA was there; and on the plains, and in open forests, grew a
woolly. ANDROPOGON, which appeared not to be distinct from the A.
BOMBYCINUS. In the open forest grew, here and there, the delicate COESIA
OCCIDENTALIS, and on the plains a small species of HEDYOTIS; a new
CALOCEPHALUS in bunches[*], and a creeping plant, with yellow flowers,
since found to be a new species of GOODENIA.[**] Thermometer, at sunrise,
51°; at noon, 85°; at 4 P.M., 86°; at 9, 66°;--with wet bulb, 54°. Height
above the sea, 819 feet.

[* C. GNAPHALIOIDES (Hook. MS.); annua erecta arachnoidea superne
dichotome ramosa, foliis linearibus, capitulorum glomerulis laxiusculis
corymbosis, involucri cylindracei squamis pellucidis albis.--Probably a
distinct genus.]

[** G. FLAGELLIFERA (de Vriese MS.); herbacea, glabra, foliis radicalibus
longe petiolatis, spathulatis, flagellis elongatis: floribus radicalibus,
axillaribus, longissime pedunculatis; calyce supero, quinquefido,
laciniis lineari-lanceolatis, bibracteolato; corolla bilabiata flava,
labio superiore fisso; fllamentis et antheris liberis; stigmatis indusio
ciliato; flagellis folii-et floriferis valde elongatis capsula
prismatica, biloculari; seminibus marginatis compressis; flagellis
floriferis; floribus in axilla folii ovatorotundati, auriculati,
subamplexicaulis, contentis, brevius pedunculatis.--Folia radicalia, 8-10
cent. longa, 1½-2 cent. lata, apice rotundata, subrepandula, deorsum
attenuata, subdecurrentia, utrinque glaberrima, subtus pallidiora; folia
flagellorum bracteiformia, ovata, subrotunda, uno vel utroque latere
auriculata, alterutra auricula multo minore, floribus vero in bractearum
illarum axillis, reliquis multo minoribus neque ad normam perfectis,
brevius pedunculatis. Affinis species G. HEDERACEOE.--DE VR.]

4TH NOVEMBER.--At an early hour we proceeded, and had the satisfaction
soon to find our old wheeltracks along the bank of the majestic Balonne.
This truly noble river was here as broad as the Thames at Richmond; its
banks were verdant with a luxuriant crop of grass, and the merry notes of
numerous birds gave the whole scene a most cheering appearance;
especially to us who were again upon a route connected with home, and at
a point 200 miles nearer to it, than where we had last seen that route.
We had since made the discovery, and completed the survey, of the lower
Maranòa, a river which had brought us in a very straight direction back
to this point; and by tracing this down, we had established a well
watered line of route back to the fine regions we had discovered in the
more remote interior. I marked a tree at this camp (83.), which mark is
intended to show where this route turns towards the Maranòa x. being
marked at the next camp back along the old track. In the Balonne, huge
cod-fish (GRISTES PEELII) were caught this afternoon; indeed, we already
felt comparatively at home, although still far from the settled
districts, and strangers to all that had been passing in the world during
seven months. I was busy endeavouring to complete my maps before other
cares should divert my attention from the one subject that had occupied
it so long. But in perusing nature's own book, I could, at leisure, think
sometimes on many other subjects, and I fancied myself wiser than when I
set out,--much improved in health,--bronzed and bearded; sunproof, fly-
proof, and water-proof: that is to say, proof against the want of it,
"LUCUS A NON LUCENDO." Thermometer, at sunrise, 44°; at noon, 76°; at 4
P.M., 85°; at 9, 71°;--wet bulb, 59°. Height above the sea, 738 feet.

5TH NOVEMBER.--We now travelled back along our old track towards Camp
VIII., at St. George's Bridge, where the first depôt had been stationed;
the tracks of several horsemen, returning after rain, were visible along
our route, and the prints of natives' feet with them. How far these
parties had been further on, along the other route by which we had
advanced, we could not then ascertain. In the course of our ride this
day, we came suddenly upon two females, who were so busy digging roots on
a plain crossed by our track, that we were too near to admit of their
running off before they perceived us; they therefore remained on the spot
until we went up to them. They informed us, through Yuranigh, that "the
tracks were those of five white men on horseback, who had been
accompanied by natives on foot. They came there about one moon before
then, and had been looking very much all about; these females could not
think what for." We took up our old position, overlooking the rocky bed
of the river. Pieces of old iron had been left untouched by the natives,
both at this camp, and were found on our old track in returning. As these
articles were such as they could have made great use of, I considered
their leaving them a proof of their good disposition towards the
exploring party; and of the very favourable impression we had made
formerly on the aborigines, at the interview with the assembled tribes of
this river. In the scrubs adjacent, we found, for the first time, the
ripe fruit of the "Quandang" (FUSANUS ACUMINATUS), and several shrubs in
flower that we thought new to botany. Thermometer, at sunrise, 44°; at
noon, 76°; at 4 P.M., 85°; at 9, 71°;--wet bulb, 59°.

Chapter IX.


5TH to 9TH NOVEMBER.--These days I devoted to the protracting of angles
taken on the Victoria, and the last day to writing my despatch to the
Government; and on this morning (the 9th) I sent Mr. Kennedy, followed by
Corporal Graham and John Douglas, to examine the country in the direction
of the furthest point attained by me on my journey of 1831; that was on
the Barwan (Karaula) in latitude 29° 2' S., and bearing about 20° E. of
S. from this camp. A chain of ponds, called the "Mooni" ponds, were said
to water the intervening country, and I wished to ascertain whether they
were favourable for the connection of our recently explored route, with
the termination of that marked out by me in 1831, when my journey,
undertaken expressly with the same objects in view, was accidentally

Corporal Graham was to go forward to the postoffice at Tamworth with the
despatches, when Mr. Kennedy, having ascertained the situation of the
Mooni ponds, should return. In the meanwhile, I continued to finish maps
and drawings, although suffering much inconvenience from excessive heat,
under a tent infested with numerous flies. The banks of the river were
gay with the purple flowers of SWAINSONA CORONILLOEFOLIA; FUSANUS
ACUMINATUS, produced its crimson-coloured fruit, which Yuranigh brought
us from the bush; the spotted bark tree, ELOEODENDRON MACULOSUM, was also
in these scrubs. A yellow-flowered herbaceous plant, has been determined
by Professor De Vriese to be identical with the Swan River GOODENIA
PULCHELLA. A salt plant, greedily eaten by the cattle, proved to be a
variety of the ATRIPLEX NUMMULARIS, observed in February on the
Macquarie. A species of GREWIA, in fruit, appeared to be the same as the
G. RICHARDIANA of Walpers. The TRICHINIUM FUSIFORME R. Br., was covered
with its globular, shaggy flower-heads, in the sandy open parts of the
forest. A very remarkable shrub, five or six feet high, with the foliage
of a Phyllirea, and spreading branches, was loaded with short racemes of
white flowers. It proved to be a plant of the natural order of Bixads,
and allied to MELICYTUS, but with hermaphrodite flowers.[*] A submerged
plant, in the water, was found to be a new species of MYRIOPHYLLUM, with
tuberculate fruit.[**] CASSIA CORONILLOIDES, a low shrub, was in
flower.[***] A shrubby MYOPORUM put forth sweet and edible fruit. A new
ELOEODENDRON, with small panicles of white flowers, formed a forest tree
twenty feet high, remarkable for its spotted bark.[****] A fir-leaved
CASSIA, with thin, sickle-leaved pods, formed a bush, from four to five
feet high.[*****] A new blue-flowered MORGANIA, decorated the river-
bank[******]; lastly, a new species of indigo[*******], completed the
list of plants we gathered at this season at the camp over St. George's

[* M. ? OLEASTER (Lindl. MS.); glaberrimus, foliis lineari-lanceolatis
supra griseis subtus virentibus venosis racemis strictis multo
longioribus, floribus hermaphroditis.--OBS. SEP. 5. PET. 5 hypog.
imbricata. ST. 5 in margine disci magni inserta. OVAR. ovatum 1-loc.
plac. 3-par. STYLUS simplex. STIGMA parvum 3-dent. FRUCTUS ignotus,
verisim. carnosus.]

[** M. VERRUCOSUM (Lindl. MS.); foliis submersis capillaceo-multifidis
emersis ternatim verticillatis ovatis pinnatifidis, floribus octandris,
fructibus tuberculatis.]

[*** C. CORONILLOIDES (A. Cunn. MS.); ramis subangulatis petiolisque
minute puberulis, foliolis 8-10-jugis lineari-oblongis obtusiusculis
glabris, glandula cylindrica inter par infimum, racemis axillaribus 2-3-
floris folio multo brevioribus.--Very near C. AUSTRALIS, but the leaflets
are fewer and smaller, and the subulate glands of that species are
wanting.--G. B. M. DULCE (Benth. MS.); ramulis laevibus, foliis anguste
lanceolatis planis acutis uninervibus basi angustatis, laciniis calycinis
linearilanceolatis acutis brevibus, corollae limbo imberbi.--Intermediate
between M. TENUIFOLIUM Br. and M. DESERTI Cunn.]

[**** E. MACULOSUM (Lindl. MS.); inerme, foliis linearibus obovatis
integerrimis obtusis, paniculis terminalibus ultra folia evectis.]

[***** C. CIRCINNATA (Benth. MS.); glabriuscula, petiolis phyllodineis
lineari-subteretibus, foliolis nullis, racemis phyllodio plerumque
brevioribus 1-2-floris, legumine plano glabro cincinnato v. spiraliter
contorto.--Phyllodia one to one and a half inch long, resembling the
leaflets of C. HETEROLOBA. Pod like that of several PITHECOLOBIA, but not
yet ripe.]

[****** M. FLORIBUNDA (Benth. MS.); dense glandulosa, caeterum glabra,
ramis strictis dense foliosis foliis linearibus rarissime dentatis,
pedicellis plerisque geminis folio florali multo brevioribus.--This is a
very distinct species which was also gathered by Sir T. Mitchell in 1836,
but my specimen was not complete enough to describe it accurately, the
branches are thickly covered with leaves and flowers. The lower leaves
are one to two inches long, the flowers blue, like those of M. GLABRA.

[******* I. BREVIDENS (Benth. MS.) fruticosa, gracilis, pilis parvis
canescens, foliolis 6-10-jugis cum impari oppositis obovatis subplanis
mucronatis v. emarginatis utrinque strigosis, racemis multifloris laxis
folia vix superantibus, bracteis minutis, calycis villosuli dentibus
brevissimis obtusis, corolla pubescente, legumine strigilloso incurvo.--
It has much the aspect of I. MICRANTHA (Bunge), but the flowers are not
quite so small, and the teeth of the calyx are very different.]

15TH NOVEMBER.--Mr. Kennedy having been absent much longer than was
expected, at length appeared on the opposite bank of the river with
Douglas, both being on foot, and Douglas leading only one (strange)
horse. The information Mr. Kennedy brought me was favourable to the
project of uniting this route with that to the Barwan, and the (now)
settled district of the Nammoy. He had found that the Mooni ran nearly
north and south, and that its banks were occupied with cattle-stations to
within a day's ride of our camp. This ride of discovery had, however,
cost the lives of two of our horses, the bearing already mentioned as the
direction given for Mr. Kennedy's guidance having been TRUE and not
magnetic. Pursuing that bearing BY COMPASS, Mr. Kennedy had ridden almost
parallel to the Mooni, sixty-three miles, without hitting them, or
finding water. The heat was intense, one of the horses died, and the men
were very ill; when they at length reached these ponds. In returning, he
had travelled by the stations, and borrowed the horse brought back, from
the station nearest to us, occupied by Messrs. Hook. From these gentlemen
Mr. Kennedy had ascertained that Sir Charles Fitzroy was the new

17TH NOVEMBER.--The whole party crossed the Balonne by St. George's
Bridge, and I arrived, the same afternoon, with a small advanced party on
the Mooni, which we made in latitude 28° 17' 51" S. The channel was full
of water, and thus we completed the last link wanted to form a chain of
communication DIRECT FROM SYDNEY, to the furthest limits we had explored.
The ground was imprinted with the hoofs of cattle, and we already felt as
if at home. The day was one of extreme heat without any wind; the
thermometer stood at 104° in the shade. Yet the horses drew the carts
easily twenty-four miles and a quarter. We had passed over a country
covered with excellent grass, consisting chiefly of plains and open
forest, with scrubs of ACACIA PENDULA, and a soil of clay. In the scrubs
we found a new species of CANTHIUM, a shrub ten or twelve feet high; and
in the open forest ACACIA NERIIFOLIA was observed in fruit; HIBISCUS
STURTII Hook.; an Evolvulus related to SERICEUS; a new yellow
CROTALARIA[*] ; and a noble new species of STENOCHILUS, with willowy
leaves and large trumpet flowers.[**] Thermometer, at sunrise, rise, 62°;
at noon, 103°; at 4 P.M., 104°; at 9, 81°;--with wet bulb, 67°. Height
above the sea, 622 feet. (Camp 84.)

[* C. DISSITIFLORA (Benth. MS.); herbacea, laxe ramosa, stipulis
setaceis, foliolis elliptico-oblongis rarius ovalibus obtusis supra
glabris subtus ramulisque pube tenui subcanescentibus, racemis erectis
oppositifoliis elongatis, floribus (ultra 20) distantibus, carinae rostro
brevi recto, ovulis numerosis, legumine breviter stipitato pubescente.--
Very near to C. SENEGALENSIS among the LONGIROSTRES, but the habit is
more rigid, the leaflets rather larger, the beak of the keel shorter, and
the pod (which is only very young in the specimen) is borne on a short

[** S. (PLATYCHILUS) BIGNONIAEFLORUS (Benth. MS.); glaber viscosus-foliis
longe lanceolatis linearibusve apice subuncinato, calycis foliolis latis
acutis, corollae glabrae ventricosae laciniis obtusissimis infima
dilatata subtriloba vix caeteris magis soluta, staminibus vix exsertis.--
Leaves three to six inches long, two to six lines broad, thick and
clammy. Flowers above an inch long, remarkable for the broad divisions of
the corolla, and the general form much that of a BIGNONIA. This
difference in the form of the corolla, would perhaps justify the placing
it into a distinct genus instead of a mere section, especially as that
peculiarity which gave the name of STENOCHILUS does not exist, were it
not that the forms of the corolla are so different in different other
species, that they will not furnish generic characters where the habit is
similar.--G. B.]

18TH NOVEMBER.--The teams came in very early, not having been above one
mile behind. I remained encamped there, in the expectation of some
decided change of weather. The night had been oppressively hot. The
season during which we had been beyond the Balonne, viz., that between
the 23rd April and 5th November, was the most proper for visiting the
tropical regions of Australia.

Here we found TRICORYNE ELATIOR, a delicate yellow-flowered plant; a
species of the genus Fugosia near F. DIGITATA, a plant of Senegambia, but
less glabrous, and with the leaflets of the involucre much larger.
MORGANIA GLABRA, a little erect herbaceous plant, having the appearance
of being parasitical on roots; ACACIA VARIANS, in the open forest, in
rich soil. ANTHERICUM BULBOSUM, formerly seen on the Narran. In the thick
forest, a shrub six feet high with small white flowers, CATHA
CUNNINGHAMII[*] (Hook. MS.), and a new species of VIGNA very near V.
LANCEOLATA, though very different in habit.[**] Thermometer, at sunrise,
58°; at noon, 102°; at 4 P.M., 103°; at 9, 76°;--with wet bulb, 64°.

[* C. CUNNINGHAMII (Hook. MS.); inermis, foliis lineari-lanceolatis
rigidis mucronato-acutis integerrimis subfalcatis superne latioribus basi
in petiolum perbrevem attenuatis, floribus axillaribus fasciculatis,
pedunculis simplicibus vel racemosis bracteolatis.]

[* V. SUBERECTA (Benth. MS.); leviter pubescens, suberecta, ramosissima,
foliolis lato-lanceolatis basi integris vel hastato-trilobatis,
pedunculis folio subbrevioribus apice paucifloris, calycis pubescentis
campanulati dentibus tubo subaequilongis, carina rostrata acuta, legumine

19TH NOVEMBER.--The party moved off at an early hour. The tracks of
cattle and horses became more and more numerous as we proceeded, and the
channel of the little river was full of water, on which a large species
of duck was very plentiful. At length we came upon the track of wheels,
and followed them towards the station; which was not yet visible when our
young native, Dicky, fell a shouting and laughing, drawing my attention
to what certainly was a "RARA AVIS" to him. This was a white woman going
with pails to milk the cows, and the first white female he could ever
have seen. The jeering laugh of the young savage was amusing, as he
pointed to that swaddled, straw-bonneted object, as something curious in
natural history, to which my attention, as he thought, would be rivetted:
but the sight was, nevertheless, a welcome one to all the party. Soon two
comfortable stations, one on each side of the river, appeared before us;
and the neatly dressed mother of two chubby white children stood at the
door of one of them. I had a memorandum from Mr. Kennedy to call at the
other, to thank the owner for lending him a horse; and there I first
entered again under a roof, and a most agreeable cover it did seem to me
after living nearly a year under canvass, in houseless wilds. These were
cattle stations, and both appeared to be well-laid out for the purpose,
and upon a scale more substantial and worthy of it, than I had hitherto
seen in squatting districts. The placing of two such stations thus near
each other, is a good arrangement, not only affording better security
against the depredations of natives, but also as banishing that aspect of
solitude and loneliness such places in general present; and in the outset
of such a life, implanting, in the still uncultivated soil, the germs of
social union, on the solid basis of mutual protection.

I continued to travel some miles beyond these stations, for the sake of
obtaining better grass for our cattle; and thus lengthened the journey to
near twenty miles, in very warm weather, the thermometer being 104° in
the shade. Thermometer, at sunrise, 58°; at noon, 102°; at 4 P.M., 104°;
at 9, 75°;--with wet bulb, 63°. (Camp 85.) Latitude, 28° 30' 51" S.

20TH NOVEMBER.--Travelling south by compass, we found a tolerably open
forest, and the Mooni on our left, until we fell in with Mr. Kennedy's
track on riding back. Following this (as he had been guided back by an
experienced stockman), we at length crossed the Mooni, and fell into a
cart-track leading southward, and at a few miles beyond where we fell
into that track, we encamped on the left bank of the Mooni; a tree at
this camp being marked 86. Again we saw, in the woods about this camp,
the HYLOCOCCUS SERICEUS R. Br., a remarkable tree, with oblong leaves,
and fruit resembling a small orange. It is a curious genus, and belongs
to the poisonous order of Spurgeworts. We found here also, the
BEYERIA, near B. VISCOSA, Mig.; the variety of CASSIA SOPHERA (Linn.)
cultivated in some botanical gardens, under the name of C. SOPHERELLA; a
beautiful tree with pinnate leaves and spreading panicles of large white
a species closely allied to E. HOEMATOMMA Sm., but the marginal nerve is
not so close to the edge of the leaf (this is the "bastard box" of the
carpenters); a fine new large-flowered SIDA[*]; and it appears that the
"Yarra" tree of the natives here, is a new Eucalyptus, which Sir William
Hooker calls E. ACUMINATA.[**]

[* S. (ABUTILON) TUBULOSA (All. Cunn. MS.); tota velutino-pubescens,
foliis cordato-ovatis (sinu profundo angusto) sublonge acuminatis
dentatoserratis, stipulis subulatis flaccidis, pedunculis axillaribus
solitariis unifloris folio brevioribus, calyce elongato tubuloso 5-fido
laciniis acuminatis, petalis (flavis) vix duplo brevioribus.--W. J. H.]

[** E. ACUMINATA (Hook. MS.); foliis alternis petiolatis lanceolatis
longe acuminatis subaristatis penninerviis glaucis reticulatis nervis
lateralibus a margine remotiusculis, floribus umbellatis (4-6-floris),
umbellis pedunculatis, calycis tubo hemisphaerico in pedicellum gracilem
attenuato, calyptra conico-acuminato calycis tubum superante.]

Just as we sat down here, rain came on; the wind changed to S. W. and the
sky looked more portentous of rainy weather than we had ever seen it on
this journey. Now this was the first country in which we had any reason
to dread wet weather, since we crossed the Culgoa about the beginning of
April. Here rain would render the ground impassable, and inundate the
country. The mercury in the barometer was falling, and so was the rain.
Thermometer, at sunrise, 61°; at noon, 62°; at 4 P.M., 57°; at 9, 53°;--
with wet bulb, 53°.

21ST NOVEMBER.--The wind had shifted from E. to S. W., and the rain had
set in,--to proceed was quite impossible. The coolness of a cloudy day
rendered the tent much more agreeable and convenient for finishing maps
in, than one under the extremely hot sunshine which mine had been
recently exposed to so long at St. George's Bridge. I had now, therefore,
a good opportunity of completing the maps. The great heat which had
prevailed during so many successive days there, portended some such
change as this; and we were thus likely to be caught in that very region
so subject to inundation, which I was formerly so careful to avoid, that
I endeavoured to travel so as to be within reach of a hilly country. For
that reason chiefly I had proceeded into the interior, by the circuitous
route of Fort Bourke.

21ST NOVEMBER TO 7TH DECEMBER.--The sky resembled that in Poussin's
picture of the Deluge; and to one who had contended a whole year with
scarcity of water, in regions where this coming supply had so long been
due, the reflection would often occur, that this rain, if it had fallen a
year sooner, might have expedited that journey very much indeed; whereas
it was now very likely to retard the return of the party. This was the
only spot where such a rain could have seriously impeded our progress;
the waters of the great rivers were sure to come down, and we had still
to traverse extensive low tracts, where, in 1831, I had seen the marks of
floods on trees, which had left an impression still remaining on my mind,
that I thought it very desirable then, to get my party safe out of these
flats as soon as possible.

On the 28th November, or eight days after the rains set in, the Mooni
waters came down, at first slowly, but gradually filling up the channel,
until they rose to such a height, as to oblige me to move three of the
drays. During the night, the rising inundation began to spread over the
lower parts of the surface back from the river; while the current came
down with such rapidity, and, judging from marks of former inundations on
the trunks of box-trees ("GOBORRA"), it appeared probable the water might
reach our camp. I therefore determined to move it by daylight to a sand-
hill, about a quarter of a mile back from the river. This was effected in
good time, and only in time. Between the camp beside the Mooni, and that
we afterwards established on the sand-hill, there was a hollow by which
the rising floods would pass to an extensive tract of low ground almost
surrounding our camp on the sand-hill, and which would, probably, render
our passage out of that position difficult, even after the waters had
subsided. I therefore employed the men in throwing up a dam across this
hollow, between our hill-camp and the river, so as to prevent the
inundation from passing that way. We had no better material than sand to
oppose to this water; yet, by throwing up enough, we succeeded in
arresting the waters there, although they rose to the height of two feet
four inches on the upper side of our dam, and gave, to the country above
it, the appearance of a vast lake, covering our old encampment; so that
the figures 86 cut on a tree, were the only traces of it that remained
above water. Our camp on the sand-hill was elevated above the sea 641
feet, or about 80 feet higher than the river. The waters continued to
rise until the 2d of December, when they became stationary; and next day
they began slowly to subside. By the evening of the 5th, they had receded
from the dam; and the sky, which had been lowering until the 1st, began
to present clouds of less ominous form. Still the return of clear weather
was slow, and accompanied by thunder-showers. Plants put forth their
blossoms as soon as the sun re-appeared; amongst others, the DIDISCUS
PILOSUS Benth.; a pretty little umbelliferous plant. BOERHAAVIA was again
seen here; CARISSA OVATA, a shrub three feet high, with spiny branches,
and very sweet white flowers; the NEPTUNIA GRACILIS also, with the
appearance of a sensitive plant, was seen in the open flats. It was only
on the 7th that a crust had been formed on the earth, sufficiently firm
for the cattle to travel upon; and we embraced the earliest opportunity
of quitting that camp, where the superabundance of water had detained us
seventeen days. Musquitoes now tormented us exceedingly, and had obliged
us to tether the horses at night, to prevent them from straying. We this
day passed over the soil without finding the wheels to sink much, until
we arrived at Johnston's station, five miles from our camp, and where I
had been told the ground was firm. There, on the contrary, we encountered
the only two swamps at all difficult. Even the drays got through them,
however, and I gladly quitted the banks of the Mooni, taking a straight
direction towards the Barwan, and encamped ten miles from the former.
That central ground between the Mooni and the Barwan, had brigalow
growing upon it, was firm, and in some hollows we found water. A heavy
thunder-shower fell at sunset, but we were on such firm soil, that I was
under no apprehension that it would have the effect of retarding our

8TH DECEMBER.--Thermometer, at 6 A.M., 69°. Height above the sea, 782
feet. Having determined our position on the map, I now chose such a
direction for our homeward route, as would form the most eligible general
line of communication between Sydney and the Maranòa. It seemed desirable
that this should cross the Barwan (the Karaula of my journey of 1831),
some miles above the point where I had formerly reached that river; and
thus avoid the soft low ground upon the Nammoy, falling into my old track
about Snodgrass lagoon, or when in sight of Mount Riddell. With this
view, our latitude being 28° 57' 20" S., longitude 149° 11' E., I chose
the bearing of S.S.E. (or rather 23½° E. of S.), for my homeward
guidance; and this morning I travelled, over a good firm surface, for
sixteen miles in that direction, when we arrived at the bank of the
Barwan and there encamped. We had passed through some open scrub, chiefly
of the rosewood kind, and crossed several small grassy plains; saw one or
two patches of brigalow, but very little callitris. An improvement was
visible in the quality of the grass, when we came within the distance of
about two miles from the river; and open forests or plains of richer
soil, its usual concomitants, plainly enough indicated the presence of
the Barwan (or "Darling"). In the country we traversed, we saw no cart
tracks; but the deep impressions of a few stray cattle, apparently
pursued by natives, were visible throughout the scrubs. There was still a
considerable flood in the river, although the water had been recently
much higher, as was obvious from the state of the banks. Latitude, 28°
37' 20" S. Height above the sea, 590 feet.

9TH DECEMBER.--All hands were busy this morning in making preparations
for crossing the Barwan. The boats were soon put together, and on
reconnoitring the river in one of them, I soon found a favourable place
for swimming the cattle and horses at, and which was effected without
accident. The unloaded drays were next drawn through the river at the
same place; which was about three hundred yards lower down the river than
that at which we had encamped, and which was marked by the number 87, cut
on a tree. My former camp on this river in 1831, for want of such a mark,
could not be recognised. According to my surveys, it should have been
found seventeen miles lower down the river. All our stores and equipment
were carried across in the boats. These looked well in the water; their
trim appearance and utility, then renewed my regret that I had not
reached the navigable portion of the Victoria, and that its channel had
been so empty. Perhaps more efficient portable boats never were
constructed, or carried so far inland undamaged. They were creditable to
the maker, Mr. Struth of Sydney. By their means, the whole party was
comfortably encamped this afternoon, on the left bank of the Barwan, just
before a heavy thunder-shower came down. The river had fallen several
feet during the day. Thermometer, at 6 P.M., 82°.

10TH DECEMBER.--At 6 A.M. thermometer 68°. The mosquitoes were most
tormenting; as was well expressed by one of the men outside my tent, who
remarked to his companion, "That the more you punishes 'em, the more they
brings you to the scratch:" a tolerable pun for one of "the fancy," of
which class we had rather too many in the party. The horses, although
tethered and close spancelled, could not be secured, even thus. Some had
broken away and strayed during the night. It was ascertained by Yuranigh,
that four other strange horses were with ours, having come amongst them
and led them astray. These had broken loose from a neigh- bouring
station, whence a native came to the men I had left to await the horses
at the Barwan, and took back the strange horses. I had gone forward with
the party, still pursuing the same bearing, and came thus upon the
"Maäl," a channel not usually deep, but, at the time, so full of water,
with a very slight current in it, that here again we were obliged to
employ the boats. This channel was distant 5½ miles from where we had
crossed the Barwan. The bullocks were made to swim across in the yokes,
drawing the empty drays through, which they accomplished very well; "RARÎ
NANTES IN GURGITE VASTO." The loads were carried in the boats, and the
horses taken across, as before. The camp was established at an early hour
on the left bank of the "Maal," which camp I caused to be marked 88, in
figures cut on an iron bark tree. Latitude, 29° 1' 20" S. This seemed to
be the same channel crossed by me on 5th February, 1832, at a similar
distance from the main river.

11TH DECEMBER.--Thermometer, at 7 A.M., 70°. We continued to travel
homewards on the same bearing; thus tracing with our wheels, a direct
line of road from Sydney to the northern interior and coast. The plains
were gay with the blue flowers of a new CYCLOGYNE[*]; a new CANTHIUM, was
in fruit[**]; and we found also a species of Malva, which Sir William
Hooker has determined to be MALVA OVATA (Cav.), or scarcely differing
from that species, except in the rather soft and short hairs to the calyx
(not long and rigid): the two ends of the curved carpels are equal or
blunt; but in M. OVATA the upper one is longer and attenuated into a
short beak. The same plant was found by Frazer along the Brisbane. The
THYSANOTUS ELATIOR was again found here; and a shrubby CRUCIFEROUS plant,
quite woody at the base, with very narrow linear setaceous pinnatifid
leaves,[***] and linear curved torulose silicules. A new HAKEA with stout
needle like leaves, was also found this day in the scrub. We met with no
impediment for eighteen miles, when I encamped, although without reaching
water enough for our cattle. I knew we could not expect to meet with any
watercourse between the Barwan and the Gwydir; which latter river I
wished to cross as soon as possible, in hopes then to meet with roads and
inhabitants. Even cattle-tracks had again become rare in this
intermediate ground, although the grass was in its best state, and most
exuberant abundance. We crossed much open plain, and passed through
several shady forests of casuarina. A curious provision of nature for the
distribution of the seeds of a parasitical plant was observed here, each
seed being enclosed within a sort of pulp, like bird-lime, insoluble in
water; the whole resembling a very thin-skinned berry. On this being
broken, probably by birds, the bird-lime is apt to attach the seed to
trees or branches, and so the parasitical growth commences. On the
plains, the blue flowers of a large variety of MORGANIA GLABRA caught the
eye: the rare and little known HETERODENDRON OLOEFOLIUM of Desfontaines,
a genus referred to Soapworts by Mr. Planchon. We found also this day, a
new POLYMERIA with erect stems, silky leaves, and pink flowers.[****]
Height above the sea, 554 feet.

[* C. SWAINSONIOIDES (Benth. MS.); foliolis 8-11 anguste oblongis,
racemis laxis dissitifloris, carina spiraliter contorta.--Habit of a
SWAINSONIA or LESSERTIA. Flowers blue, as in the original Swan river
species (C. CANESCENS). That has not a spirally-twisted keel, but the
structure is indicated both by the circinnate apex of the style, and by a
slight curl at the summit of the keel.]

[** C. OLEIFOLIUM (Hook. MS.); foliis obovato-oblongis obtusis glaucis
basi in petiolum gracilem attenuatis, stipulis parvis acutis, fructibus

[*** H. LONGICUSPIS (Hook. MS.); rigida glaberrima, ramis junioribus
subpubescentibus, foliis bi-triuncialibus tereti-filiformibus rigidis
strictis longe mucronatis, perianthiis glabris, capsulis suboblique
ovatis lignosis glabris brevi-acuminatis.]

[**** P. LONGIFOLIA (Lindl. MS.); erecta, foliis sericeo-nitentibus
linearilanceolatis auriculatis, pedunculis unifloris foliis multo

12TH DECEMBER.--Thermometer, at 6 A.M., 67°. Passing over a similar sort
of country for some miles (and through a scrub, on first leaving the
camp), we at length came upon a more open country, where the ground
seemed to fall southward. Cattle-tracks were again numerous, and cow-dung
abundant, an article in much request with us just then, its smoke being a
valuable specific for keeping off the mosquitoes, when a little of it was
burnt before a tent. We next came upon more spacious plains than any we
had seen southward of the Balonne; and I recognised, with great pleasure
and satisfaction, the blue peak of Mount Riddell, distant 61 miles. This
seemed to peep through the obscurity of fifteen laborious years, that had
intervened since I had given a name to that summit. It now proved the
accuracy of my recent survey, appearing exactly in the direction, where,
according to my maps, I pointed my glass to look for it. Like the face of
an old friend, which, as the Persian proverb says, "brighteneth the
eyes," so this required clear eyes to be seen at all; even Yuranigh,
could not at first be persuaded that it was not a cloud. This fine peak
must always be a good landmark on these vast plains, and may yet brighten
the eye of the traveller from India, when emerging from the level regions
upon the Barwan. We next perceived at a distance, a cloud of dust raised
by a numerous herd of cattle, and came upon a water-course, or branch of
the Gwydir, called, I believe, the "Meei." As I wanted to cross the
Gwydir, I crossed this and continued; met with another deep ditch or
channel, four miles beyond the Meei; and, at three miles beyond that,
another: none of these resembling the Gwydir I had formerly seen. I had
ridden twenty-five miles, and hastened back to meet the carts, and
encamped them just beyond the first-mentioned of these two water-courses.
The heavy drays were, of course, far behind. Latitude, 29° 34' 41" S.
Height above the sea, 553 feet.

13TH DECEMBER.--Thermometer, at 10 A.M., 70°. The drays joined us early,
having performed an immense distance yesterday. This being Sunday, rest
for the remainder of the day was both proper and necessary. I found we
were within a less distance of Snodgrass Lagoon, than we were from the
camp we had left the previous day. I expected to fall in with some road,
when we reached the country to which I had formerly led the way. At
sunset the sky seemed charged with rain, and the barometer had fallen 2½
millimetres; much thunder, and but a slight shower followed, after which
the sky cleared up. Heavy rain there, must have caused much difficulty
and delay to the party, as we were upon low levels subject to inundation.
Height above the sea, 499 feet. Thermometer, at 6 P.M., 88°.

14TH DECEMBER.--Thermometer, at 6 A.M., 76°. During the night, and at
day-break, heavy rain pattered on my tent, but a streak of the blue sky
appeared in the N.W., which increased; and before 7 A.M. the sun shone on
the ground, and dried it so that we could proceed. We crossed a channel
of the river, at three miles, which is called the "Moomings;" and still I
doubted whether we had not yet to cross the main channel of the Gwydir,
having seen no current in any of those channels I had crossed. I had
however already crossed the latitude of the river I had formerly seen;
and, coming soon to rising ground, and seeing before me the wide-spread
plains of my former journey, I was convinced that the late rains had not
extended to the Gwydir, and that this river had been crossed by us in
these several channels. At length, I arrived at the lagoon I had named,
in former times, after Colonel Snodgrass; thus terminating this journey,
having travelled in a direct line the last seventy-three miles of it, to
meet at this point the line from Sydney, traced by me thus far in the
year 1831. Height above the level of the sea, 545 feet. Thermometer, at 7
P.M., 87°. The temporary occupation of the country by squatters, imprints
but few traces of colonization. Cattle-tracks were visible, certainly,
but nothing else. No track remained along the line which I had so many
years before laboured to mark out. Having ordered some of the men to look
out for a stockman, one was at length caught, and persuaded to come to my
tent, but not without some apprehension that the people he had come
amongst so suddenly were robbers. He was a youth, evidently of the Anglo-
Saxon race, in a state of transition to the condition of an Australian
stockman. His fair locks strayed wildly from under a light straw hat
about the ears of an honest English face, and the large stock whip in his
hand explained what he was about,--"in search of some stray cattle." He
had evidently never heard of exploring expeditions, past or present; nor
of such a name as "Snodgrass Lagoon." Mount Riddell was called "Cow
hill," according to him. Knew there was a road to Maitland, but of Sydney
he seemed to require some minutes to recal the recollection. He had come
from the station of Mr.----, where he was employed as stockman. Came out
from England about six years ago with a brother. When asked if his
brother was with him, he said "No." To my next question, as to the rest
of his relatives, a tear was the only reply, and I pushed my inquiries no

16TH DECEMBER.--I left the camp, accompanied by Mr. Kennedy, and, in
looking for my old route, we soon arrived at cattle stations. The lagoon
was full, and the first station we saw was on the opposite bank; but
having crossed some miles higher, we arrived at one, where the master and
some men were busy in the stockyard, and there we were hospitably
received. It was then about 2 P.M., and tea mixed with milk was set
before us, with a quart pot full of fine salt, and some hard-boiled eggs.
Having put into my tea a table-spoonful of the salt, mistaking it for
sugar, and there being no sugar, I had two strong reasons for not taking
much tea. Fortunately for me, however, I did eat one of the hard-boiled
eggs, for from that hour I was doomed to fast two days. There I bade Mr.
Kennedy farewell, leaving him in charge of the party, and proceeded along
a cart-track homewards, followed by John Douglas, and a led horse. Before
we could arrive at the station where I intended to halt, night overtook
us on a plain, with very heavy rain, and total darkness. The cart-track
was no longer visible, and, after groping on some way without it, we were
obliged to alight and sit in the mud, without the shelter of even a tree,
until day-break. Daylight exhibited the station not above two miles off,
but that did not avail us much; for, on awaking the inmates, and asking
them for some breakfast, the hut-keeper shook his head, and said he had
no provisions to spare. Once more I struck away from these "abodes of
civilized men," to look for my old track, which had been traced along the
base of the Nundawàr Range, where the bold outlines of Mounts Lindesay
and Forbes hung dimly, like shadows of the past, amongst clouds lighted
by beams from the rising sun. After having been long in unknown regions,
time and distance seem of little consequence when we return to those
previously known; and thus the whole day soon passed in looking for my
former track. But I sought it in vain; and was glad at night to turn
towards the banks of the Nammoy, in search of a cattle-station. Since I
had first explored that country to which my wheel-tracks marked and led
the way, station after station had been taken up by squatters, not by
following any line of route, but rather according to the course of the
river, for the sake of water; and in such cases, the beaten track from
station to station, no matter how crooked, becomes the road. Thus it is,
in the fortuitous occupation of Australia, that order and arrangement may
precede, and be followed only by "CHAOS come again." I arrived about
sunset, at Mr. Cyrus Doyle's station near the Nammoy, where I was
hospitably entertained by a man in charge of it, who rode eight miles in
twenty minutes only, to borrow some tea and sugar for me, and who lived
on very friendly terms with some old natives who remembered me, and my
first advance into that country.

18TH DECEMBER.--At 6 A.M., Thermometer 75°. Height above the sea 750
feet. Guided by one of these natives, I reached the "great road," saw
many wool drays upon it, before I arrived at Maule's creek; and I
endeavoured, for a considerable time, to pass two gentlemen in a gig, and
wearing veils, who were driving a lot of mares before them, and who
seemed to derive amusement from making their mares keep pace with my
entire horse.

The road this day traversed the luxuriant flats of the Nammoy, one of the
richest districts in the colony, as the fat cattle on the banks of the
river sufficiently attested. The mountains behind, afforded equally
eligible runs for sheep. Nothing could surpass the beauty of the scenery,
amid abundance of water, umbrageous trees, cattle, verdure, and distant
mountains. I was most comfortably lodged that night at Mr. Wentworth's
station on the Nammoy, elevated above the sea 1055 feet, and next day I
reached the dwelling of a resident squatter, and saw a lady in a
comfortable house near the very spot, where, fifteen years before, I had
taken a lonely walk by the then unknown Nammoy, the first white man
permitted there to discover a "flowery desert."[*] I was most kindly
welcomed by this family; but I asked in vain, even there, to be favoured
with the perusal of a newspaper. When I expressed anxiety about my
numerous family, and spoke of my long absence of a year, I observed a
tear in the lady's eye, which I then thought the product of mere
sensibility; but I learnt subsequently, that she was aware the newspapers
she possessed, and out of sympathy withheld, would have apprised me of
the death of a son, which sad tidings were only communicated to me some
days after.[**]

[* Three Expeditions, etc., vol. i. p. 54.]

[** He died on the 16th July, at the age of eighteen, from the want of
medical aid, when surveying, in winter, the Australian Alps. His grave,
trodden by cattle hoofs, is in a desolate unconsecrated spot. He had
served the public, gratis, upwards of two years, as a draughtsman and

Chapter X.

THE DEPRAVED.--Of the present Colony of New South Wales.--NATURAL STATE.

The party which I had left in charge of Mr. Kennedy near Snodgrass Lagoon
arrived in the neighbourhood of Sydney on the 20th of January, and the
new Governor, Sir Charles Fitzroy, kindly granted such gratuities to the
most deserving of my men as I had recommended, and also sent the names to
England of such prisoners as His Excellency thought deserving of Her
Majesty's gracious pardon.

The sale of the cattle and equipment produced about 500L.; and as Mr.
Kennedy volunteered his services, when the proper season should arrive
(March), to trace down the course of the river Victoria with a light
party on horseback, I submitted a plan to Sir Charles Fitzroy, and
obtained His Excellency's permission to send this officer to survey the
river, and to apply the above-mentioned proceeds of sale in providing the
equipment of his party. Mr. Kennedy finally left Sydney about the middle
of March, with a party of eight men, all well mounted and leading spare
horses, with two light carts carrying a stock of provisions for fourteen
months. The following copy of his instructions will show what Mr. Kennedy
was required to do.

* * *

Surveyor-General's Office, Sydney, 22d February, 1847.


"His Excellency the Governor having been pleased to sanction my proposal
for the further exploration of the river Victoria with a small party to
be sent under your command; I have now the honour to enclose to you a
copy of instructions by which I was guided in conducting the late
expedition into the northern interior, and I have to request that you
will conform thereto, as much as the following particular instructions
for your especial guidance may permit.

"You will as early as possible return by the road across Liverpool Plains
so as to fall into the return route of the late expedition before you
leave the settled districts, and in this manner you will recross the
Balonne at St. George's Bridge, take the route back to Camp (83), and
thence by the route along the Maranoa to Camp (XXIX), beyond which you
will proceed as hereinafter detailed, with reference to the accompanying
tracing of my survey.

"You will cross the Maranoa at Camp (XXIX), and continue along my return
route until you reach Camp (75). I beg you will be particular so far in
looking for the track of my party returning, as you will perceive by the
map that many very circuitous detours may be thus avoided. But beyond
Camp (75), about seven miles, you will have to leave my return track on
your right, and not cross a little river there at all, but go along my
old advance track to Camp (XXXIV). Thence you will proceed by Camps
(XXXV) and (XXXVI), in order to approach the bed of the Warregò in the
direction of my ride of 14th June, in a general N. W. direction. It is
very desirable that you should keep my horse tracks there; but this I can
scarcely expect, and I can only therefore request that you will proceed
as closely in that direction as you can. The bed of the Warregò may be
looked for at a distance further on, equal to that of my ride of 14th

"You will next pursue the course of the Warregò upwards towards Mount
Playfair, which the accompanying map will be sufficient to guide you to.
You will follow up the Cùnno Creek, leaving Mount Playfair on your right
or to the eastward, and you will thus fall into the line of my horse-
track about the spot where I spoke to an old native female. I wish you
would then take some pains to travel in the direction of my track from
the head of Cùnno through the Brigalow, which is comparatively open, in
the direction of my bivouac of 11th September.

"Keeping the direction of my track of next day, you will arrive at a low,
but stony, ridge (A) (across which you must be careful how you pass your
carts, but it is of no breadth), and you will descend into a flat, from
which you will ascend another stony ridge (B), of no greater height but
more asperity than the first, and covered with fallen timber. You will
have about a mile of that sort of difficulty to deal with on the higher
part, but by turning then to the right, you will fall into a well watered
valley, which will lead you to the Nive. In the whole of your route thus
far, you can meet with no difficulty in tracing it, guided by the map,
and following these instructions; but if Douglas should be with you, he
will no doubt recognize the country through which he passed with me. It
is very important that you should keep that route, as leading to the
Victoria in a very straight direction from Sydney, and a direction in
which, should your return be delayed beyond the time for which your party
is to be provisioned, it is probable, that any party sent after you to
your aid or assistance would proceed to look for you. After you shall
have reached the Nive and Camp (77), you cannot have any difficulty in
finding Camp (72) near the Gap, and from that valley you have only to
follow down the watercourse to be certain that you are on my track to the
Victoria, and, as you have been instructed to take an expert native with
you, you ought to find still my horse's track across the downs, cutting
off large bends of the river. But beyond Camps 16th September or 1st
October, you must keep by the river along my route back, and not follow
the circuitous track which I took through Brigalow to the westward. After
about four miles by the river, you will see, by the map, that my return
track again crossed the outward track over the downs, so that you may
fall into the route westward of the great northern bend of the Victoria.
I fear you must depend on the latitude, pace measurement, and bearings,
for ascertaining the situations of my camps of 29th September and 28th
September. You will see by the map how generally straight my journeys
were between these points, and how important it would be for you to know
the situation of the camp of 28th September, that you may thence set out
westward in the direction of my return route, instead of following the
main channel throughout the very circuitous turn it then takes to the
northward. Beyond the lowest point attained by me, or the point (wherever
that may be) to which you will be able to identify the accompanying map
with my track, of course it will be your duty to pursue the river, and
determine the course thereof as accurately as your light equipment and
consequent rapid progress, may permit. You may, however, employ the same
means by which I have mapped that river so far; and, for your guidance, I
shall add the particulars of my method of measuring the relative
distances. If you count the strokes of either of your horse's fore feet,
either walking or trotting, you will find them to be upon an average,
about 950 to a mile. In a field-book, as you note each change of bearing,
you have only to note down also the number of paces (which soon becomes a
habit); and to keep count of these, it is only necessary to carry about
thirty-five or forty small pieces of wood, like dice (beans or peas would
do), in one waistcoat pocket, and, at the end of every 100 paces, remove
one to the empty pocket on the opposite side. At each change of bearing,
you count these, adding the odd numbers to the number of hundreds,
ascertained by the dice, to be counted and returned at each change of
bearing to the other pocket. You should have a higher pocket for your
watch, and keep the two lower waisctoat pockets for this important

"Now, to plot such a survey, you have only to take the half-inch scale of
equal parts (on the 6-inch scale in every case of instruments), and
allowing TEN for a hundred, the half-inch will represent 1000 paces. You
may thus lay down any broken number of paces to a true scale, and so
obtain a tolerably accurate map of each day's journey. The latitude will,
after all, determine finally the scale of paces; and you can, at leisure,
adjust each day's journey by its general bearing between different
latitudes; and, subsequently, introduce the details. You will soon find
the results sufficiently accurate to afford some criterion of even the
variation of the needle, when the course happens to be nearly east or
west, and when, of course, it behoves you to be very well acquainted with
the rate of your horse's paces, as determined by differences of latitude.
You will be careful to intersect the prominent points of any range that
may appear on the horizon; and the nature of the rock also should be
ascertained in the country examined: small specimens, with letters of
reference, will be sufficient for this. Specimens of the grasses, and of
the flower or seed of new trees, should be also preserved, with dates, in
a small herbarium. But the principal object of the journey being the
determination of the course of the Victoria, and the discovery of a
convenient route to the head of the Gulph of Carpentaria, the
accomplishment of these great objects must be steadily kept in view,
without regard to minor considerations. Should the channel finally spread
into an extensive bed, whether dry or swampy, you will adhere, as a
general rule, to the eastern side or shore, as, in the event of any
scarcity of water, the high land known to be there will thus be more
speedily accessible to you; and I am also strongly of opinion, that you
would cross in such a route more tributaries from the east than from the
west. On arriving at or near the Gulph of Carpentaria, I have
particularly to caution you against remaining longer than may be
unavoidable there, or, indeed, in any one place, in any part of your
route, where natives may be numerous.

"Having completed (at least roughly) the map of your general route, it
will be in your power in returning, to take out detours, and cut off
angles, by previously ascertaining the proper bearings for doing so; and
when so returning, it would be convenient to number your camps, that the
route and the country may be better described by you, and recognised
afterwards by others. These numbers may be cut in common figures on
trees; and if, as I hope, you should reach the Gulph, you can commence
them there: you may prefix C to each number commencing with 1, thus
avoiding any confusion with the numbers of my numbered camps on the

"On returning to the colony, you will report to me, or to the officer in
charge of the Survey Department, the progress and results of your

"I have the honour to be, Sir, Your obedient servant,


"E. B. C. Kennedy, Esq. J. P. Assistant Surveyor, Sydney."


There is no subject connected with New South Wales, or Australia, less
understood in England than the character and condition of the aboriginal
natives. They have been described as the lowest in the scale of humanity,
yet I found those who accompanied me superior in penetration and judgment
to the white men composing my party. Their means of subsistence and their
habits, are both extremely simple; but they are adjusted with admirable
fitness to the few resources afforded by such a country, in its wild
state. What these resources are, and how they are economised by the
natives, can only be learnt by an extensive acquaintance with the
interior; and the knowledge of a few simple facts, bearing on this
subject, may not be wholly devoid of interest. Fire, grass, kangaroos,
and human inhabitants, seem all dependent on each other for existence in
Australia; for any one of these being wanting, the others could no longer
continue. Fire is necessary to burn the grass, and form those open
forests, in which we find the large forest-kangaroo; the native applies
that fire to the grass at certain seasons, in order that a young green
crop may subsequently spring up, and so attract and enable him to kill or
take the kangaroo with nets. In summer, the burning of long grass also
discloses vermin, birds' nests, etc., on which the females and children,
who chiefly burn the grass, feed. But for this simple process, the
Australian woods had probably contained as thick a jungle as those of New
Zealand or America, instead of the open forests in which the white men
now find grass for their cattle, to the exclusion of the kangaroo, which
is well-known to forsake all those parts of the colony where cattle run.
The intrusion therefore of cattle is by itself sufficient to produce the
extirpation of the native race, by limiting their means of existence; and
this must work such extensive changes in Australia as never entered into
the contemplation of the local authorities. The squatters, it is true,
have also been obliged to burn the old grass occasionally on their runs;
but so little has this been understood by the Imperial Government that an
order against the burning of the grass was once sent out, on the
representations of a traveller in the south. The omission of the annual
periodical burning by natives, of the grass and young saplings, has
already produced in the open forest lands nearest to Sydney, thick
forests of young trees, where, formerly, a man might gallop without
impediment, and see whole miles before him. Kangaroos are no longer to be
seen there; the grass is choked by underwood; neither are there natives
to burn the grass, nor is fire longer desirable there amongst the fences
of the settler. The occupation of the territory by the white race seems
thus to involve, as an inevitable result, the extirpation of the
aborigines; and it may well be pleaded, in extenuation of any adverse
feelings these may show towards the white men, that these consequences,
although so little considered by the intruders, must be obvious to the
natives, with their usual acuteness, as soon as cattle enter on their
territory. The foregoing journal affords instances of the habits of the
natives in these respects. Silently, but surely, that extirpation of
aborigines is going forward in grazing districts, even where protectors
of aborigines have been most active; and in Van Diemen's Land, the race
has been extirpated, even before that of the kangaroos, under an agency
still more destructive.

It would be but natural, even admitting these aboriginal inhabitants to
be, as men, "only a little lower than the angels," that they should feel
disposed, when urged by hunger, to help themselves to some of the cattle
or sheep that had fattened on the green pastures kept clear for kangaroos
from time immemorial by the fires of the natives and their forefathers;
but such cases have been, nevertheless, of rare occurrence, partly
because much human life has been sacrificed to the manes of sheep or
cattle. No orders of the local government can prevent the perpetration of
these atrocities. Government Orders have been put forth in formal
obedience to injunctions from home, and the policy of the local
authorities has not been influenced by less humane motives.

It would ill become me to disparage the character of the aborigines, for
one of that unfortunate race has been my "guide, companion, councillor,
and friend," on the most eventful occasions during this last Journey of
Discovery. Yuranigh was small and slender in person, but (as the youth
Dicky said, and I believed,) he was of most determined courage and
resolution. His intelligence and his judgment rendered him so necessary
to me, that he was ever at my elbow, whether on foot or horseback.
Confidence in him was never misplaced. He well knew the character of all
the white men of the party. Nothing escaped his penetrating eye and quick
ear. His brief but oracular sentences were found to be SAGE, though
uttered by one deemed a SAVAGE; and his affection and kindness towards
the little native Dicky seemed quite paternal. The younger was the
willing servant of the elder; who obliged him to wash and clean himself
before he allowed him to sleep near him. Yuranigh was particularly clean
in his person, frequently washing, and his glossy shining black hair,
always well-combed, gave him an uncommonly clean and decent appearance.
He had promised himself and Dicky a great reception on returning to
Sydney, and was perhaps disappointed. Dicky had never before seen houses,
and Yuranigh took much delight in showing him the theatre, and whatever
else was likely to gratify his curiosity. The boy was all questions and
observation. I was at a loss how to make these natives comfortable; or
suitably reward their services. The new Governor kindly granted the small
gratuity asked for Yuranigh, and Dicky became a favourite in my family.
Both these natives loathed the idea of returning to the woods, as
savages; and, as if captivated with the scenes of activity around them,
both expressed a desire "to work and live like white men." This shows
that, when treated on a footing of equality, as these had been in my
party, the Australian native MIGHT be induced to take part in the labours
of white men; but at the first annoyance, the old freedom of the bush
seems to overmaster their resolutions, and attracts them back to it.
Yuranigh was engaged (for wages, and under regular agreement,) as
stockman to a gentleman who had cattle in the north, and he took an
affecting leave of my family. I carried Dicky to my house in the country,
with the intention of having him educated there with my children,
provided A TUTOR COULD BE FOUND, which seemed doubtful when I left the
colony. It has been long a favourite project with me, to educate an
aboriginal native, as a husband for Ballandella, and that their children
should form, at least, one civilized family of the native race, upon
which the influence of education and religious principles might be fairly

This has never yet been done, although the experiment is one of much
interest. It seems scarcely practicable, except by withdrawing the
married couple to another country, where the children might be educated,
and kept clear of all predilections for a life in the woods. I thought of
sending such a pair to some congenial climate, such as the South of
Europe, where they should be taught the whole art of cultivating the
grape, fig, and olive, as well as the management of other productions of
similar latitudes in that hemisphere. They might return to Australia with
their family in ten or twelve years; when, in speaking a different
language from those about them, they would be less open to the influences
that interpose between the employers and the employed in that colony;
while the utility of their employment might be of some benefit to it.
Were this experiment to succeed, the decent and comfortable condition
afforded by industry might raise the aborigines in their own estimation,
and inspire them with hope to attain to a state of equality with the
white men, which, without having some such examples set before them, must
seem to them unattainable. The half-clad native finds himself in a
degraded position in the presence of the white population: a mere
outcast, obliged to beg a little bread. In his native woods, the "noble
savage" knows no such degrading necessity.--All there participate in, and
have a share of, Nature's gifts. These, scanty though they be, are open
to all. Experience here has proved, and the history of the aborigines of
other countries has shown, the absurdity of expecting that any men, "as
free as Nature first made man," will condescend to leave their woods, and
come under all the restraints imposed by civilisation, purely from
choice, unless they can do so on terms of the most perfect equality.
Surely it behoves the nation so active in the suppression of slavery to
consider betimes, in taking up new countries, how the aboriginal races
can be preserved; and how the evil effects of spirituous liquors, of
gunpowder, and of diseases more inimical to them than even slavery, may
be counteracted.


The prisoners who had hitherto formed the bulk of all the exploring
parties previously led by me into the interior of New South Wales, were
chosen chiefly from amongst men employed on the roads, who had acquired
good recommendations from their immediate overseers; but, on this last
occasion, the men forming the party were for the most part chosen from
amongst those still remaining in Cockatoo Island, the worst and most
irreclaimable of their class.

The concentration of convicts in that island was intended, I believe, to
follow out the Norfolk Island system, keeping the men under rigorous
surveillance, and making them work at their respective trades, or as
labourers. Even there, so near to Sydney, that labour, so available to
lay the foundations of a colony, might have been employed with great
advantage, in constructing a naval arsenal and hospital for our seamen on
the Indian station, with a dry dock attached to it for the repair of war-
steamers. Such a dock has been long a desideratum at Sydney, and private
enterprize might, ere this time, have embarked in a work so essential to
an important harbour, had not the Government always possessed the means
of cheaply constructing such a work by convict labour, and been thus able
at any time to have entered into such competition as might have been very
injurious to a private speculator. At Cockatoo Island, blacksmiths,
shoemakers, wheelwrights, were at work in their various avocations; all
the shoes, for both the men and horses of the expedition, were made
there; also one half of the carts, which proved equally good as the other
portion, although that was made by the best maker in the colony, a
celebrated man.

The eagerness evinced by all these men, so confined in irons on Cockatoo
Island, to be employed in an exploring expedition, was such that even the
most reckless endeavoured to smooth their rugged fronts, and seemed to
wish they had better deserved the recommendation of the superintendent.
The prospect of achieving their freedom, by one year of good behaviour in
the interior, was cheering to the most depressed soul amongst these
prisoners. All pressed eagerly forward with their claims and pretensions,
which, unfortunately for the knowing ones, were strictly investigated by
Mr. Ormsby the superintendent, and Captain Innes, the visiting
magistrate. The selection of such as seemed most eligible was at length
made, after careful examination of the phrenological developments and
police history of each; and it was not easy to find one without a
catalogue of offences, filling a whole page of police-office annals.
Still there were redeeming circumstances, corroborated by physical
developments, sufficient to guide me in the selection of a party from
amongst these prisoners. With them, I mixed one or two faithful Irishmen,
on whom I knew I could depend, and two or three of my old followers on
former journeys, who had become free.

This party of convicts, so organized, with such strong inducements to
behave well, and so few temptations to lead them astray, may be supposed
to have afforded a favourable opportunity for studying the convict
character. It may be asked by some, how such a party could have been made
to yield submissive obedience for so long a period as a year, away from
all other authority, than mere moral controul. This was chiefly because
these men were placed in a position where it was so very clearly for
their own interest to conduct themselves properly. Accordingly, the
greater number, as on all former expeditions, gave the highest
satisfaction, submitting cheerfully to privations, enduring hardships,
and encountering dangers, apparently willing and resolved to do anything
to escape from the degraded condition of a convict. But still there were
a few, amounting in all to six, who, even in such a party, animated by
such hopes, could not divest themselves of their true character, nor even
disguise it for a time, as an expedient for the achievement of their
liberty. These men were known amongst the rest as the "flash mob." They
spoke the secret language of thieves; were ever intent on robbing the
stores, with false keys (called by them SCREWS). They held it to be wrong
to exert themselves at any work, if it could be avoided; and would not be
seen to endeavour to please, by willing cooperation. They kept themselves
out of sight as much as possible; neglected their arms; shot away their
ammunition contrary to orders; and ate in secret, whatever they did kill,
or whatever fish they caught.

Professing to be men of "the Fancy," they made converts of two promising
men, who, at first, were highly thought of, and although one of them was
finally reclaimed, a hero of the prize ring, it was too obvious that the
men, who glory in breaking the laws, and all of whose songs even, express
sentiments of dishonesty, can easily lead the unwary and still
susceptible of the unfortunate class, into snares from which they cannot
afterwards escape if they would. Once made parties to an offence against
the law, they are bound as by a spell, to the order of flash-boys, with
whom it is held to be base and cowardly to act "upon the square," or
HONESTLY in any sense of the word; their order professing to act ever
"upon the cross." These men were so well-known to the better disposed and
more numerous portion of the party, that the night-guards had to be so
arranged, as that the stores or the camp should never be entirely in
their hands. Thus a watch was required to be set as regularly over the
stores, when the party was close to Sydney, as when it was surrounded by
savage tribes in the interior.

Between the "flash men" and the other men of the party, there was a wide
difference: An old man to whom they once offered some stolen flour,
refused it, saying, "I have been led into enough of trouble in my younger
days, by flash friends, and now I wish to lead a quiet life." Convicts,
in fact, consist of two distinctly different classes: the one,
fortunately by far the most numerous, comprising those whose crime was
the result of impulse; the other class consisting of those whose
principle of action is dishonesty; whose trade is crime, and of whose
reformation, there is much less hope. The offenders of the one class,
repented of their crime from the moment of conviction; those of the
other, know no such word in their vocabulary. The one, is still "a thing
of hope and change;" and would eagerly avail himself of every means
afforded him to regain the position he had lost; the other, true to his
"order," will "die game." For the separation of the wheat from the chaff,
a process by no means difficult, the colony of New South Wales was
formerly well adapted. The ticket of leave granted to the deserving
convict was one of the most perfect of reformatory indulgences; each
individual being known to the authorities, and liable, on the least
misconduct, to be sent to work on the public roads. The colony of New
South Wales has been the means of restoring many of our unfortunate
countrymen to positions in which they have shown that loyalty, industry,
public spirit, and patriotism, are not always to be extinguished in the
breasts of Englishmen, even by fetters and degradation. It is to be
regretted that a more vigilant discrimination had not interposed a more
marked line between those convicts deserving emancipation, and those
whose services are still wanted on the roads and bridges of the colony.


There is no country in which labour appears to be more required to render
it available to, and habitable by, civilised men, than New South Wales or
Australia. Without labour, the inhabitants must be savages, or, at least,
such helpless people as we find the aborigines. The squatters' condition
is intermediate, temporary, and one of necessity. That country without
navigable rivers, intersected by rocky ranges, and subject to uncertain
seasons, is unfavourable to agriculture and trade; to social intercourse,
and to the moral and physical prosperity of civilised man. With equal
truth, it may be observed, that there is no region of earth susceptible
of so much improvement, solely by the labour and ingenuity of man. If
there be no navigable rivers, there are no unwholesome savannas; if there
are rocky ranges, they afford, at least, the means of forming reservoirs
of water; and, although it is there uncertain when rain may fall, it is
certain that an abundant supply does fall; and the hand of man alone is
wanting to preserve that supply and regulate its use. In such a clime,
and under such a sun, that most important of elements in cultivation,
water, could thus be rendered much more subservient to man's use than it
is in other warm regions, where, if the general vegetation be more
luxuriant, the air is less salubrious. Sufficient water for all purposes
of cultivation, health, and enjoyment, is quite at the command of art and
industry in this most luxuriant of climates. Thus, the peculiar
disadvantages Australia presents in her wild state, are such as would
greatly enhance the value of such a country under the operation of human
industry. In such a climate, for instance, an abundance of water would be
found a much greater luxury when retained, distributed, and adjusted, by
such means, to man's uses, than where an abundance is but the natural
product of cloudy skies and frequent rains. Where natural resources
exist, but require art and industry for their development, the field is
open for the combination of science and skill, the profitable investment
of capital, and the useful employment of labour. Such is New South Wales.

But the age of such adaptations there is still to come. The future is too
much speculated upon; hence no system of agriculture has been yet
adjusted to the peculiarities of climate and soil. Instead of studying
and adopting the agriculture of similar climates, and the arts by which
deficiencies in similar latitudes have from time immemorial been
corrected: irrigation, for instance, has not been yet attempted; the
natural fertility of the soil has alone been relied on, to compensate, in
favourable, seasons, for the deficiencies of others, not favourable,
perhaps, for the growth of wheat or barley, but the best imaginable for
that of other kinds of productions. So generally available is the
structure of the country for the reservation of water by dams, that a
small number of these might be made to retain as much of the surface
water as might even impart humidity to the atmosphere. This is because
the channels of rivers are in general confined by high banks, within
which many, or indeed most of them, might be converted by a few dams into
canals. To such great purposes convict labour ought to have been applied,
had it been possible to have allowed colonization and transportation to
work together. But the undulations of the land present everywhere
facilities for constructing reservoirs, which heavy showers would fill,
and thus afford means sufficient for the purposes of irrigation, were not
labour now too scarce there, to admit of the progress of colonization in
a manner suitable to the spirit of the age, and character of the nation.

The rich lands along the eastern coast, under a lofty range which
supplies abundance of water for the purposes of irrigation, are well
adapted for the cultivation of cotton and sugar, and, with labour,
nothing could prevent these regions from being made extensively
productive of both articles. Of the vine and the olive[*], it remains to
be ascertained whether some parts of the country may not be made as
productive as Andalusia, for instance, is, in the same parallel of
latitude, in the opposite hemisphere. The want of hands alone retards the
development of every branch of production derivable from industry in
these regions.

[* Five months ago, soon after my return to England, I gave to the
Society of Arts two bottles of olive oil, the first samples ever
produced, I believe, in Australia. The oil was made by Mr. Kid,
superintendent of the Botanic garden at Sydney, from olives grown there,
and seemed very clear and good.]

Settled districts, back from the coast, at elevations of 1000 feet and
upwards, have produced abundant crops of wheat of very superior quality;
and, but for the non-completion of the roads between these districts and
the capital, in consequence of the withdrawal of convict labour, the
progress of agriculture in its adaptation to the soil and climate, and,
as a field for the employment of British immigrants, had been much more
advanced than it is there.

The roads which were opened by the above means, or proposed to be opened,
have become almost impassable, or remain wholly so; and it is, therefore,
the less surprising that the colonists look to the possible introduction
of railways with much interest. In a country like that around Sydney,
where extensive tracts of inferior land must be traversed by roads in
order to arrive at lands which are productive and settled, the value and
importance of a railway would be greatly enhanced; and calculations have
been made to show that a railway between Sydney and the southern
districts would pay, even from the traffic at present along that line.
The town of Goulburn, 124 miles from Sydney, in an open undulating
country, at a considerable height above the sea, is rapidly growing into
importance; and, by making either a good road or a railway, between that
town and Sydney, access would be gained to very extensive tracts of
valuable territory, easily traversed, and to which Goulburn is a sort of

On the whole, it may be said that the difficulty of access to the best
lands, from the want of good roads to them from the principal port, has,
of late years, greatly impeded the introduction of immigrants to the
rural districts, and added to the population of Sydney many individuals
who had been brought to the colony at the public expense, for the
assistance of settlers in the country.


The employment of convicts on useful public works was, twenty years ago,
a primary object with the government of New South Wales. The location of
settlers on their grants by the measurement of their farms, then much in
arrear, and the division of the territory into counties, hundreds, and
parishes, in order to complete the deeds of grant to settlers, altogether
rendered necessary a general survey of the colony, which work I commenced
in 1827, EX OFFICIO, and, pursuant to Royal Instructions, sent to the
colony in 1825. The time between the years 1827 and 1837 was the most
prosperous in the history of the colony of New South Wales, when convicts
made good roads, farms were measured up, and the country was surveyed and
divided into countries. Colonization extended rapidly to the shores of
the southern ocean, and Australia Felix was made known to the British

The survey touched the limits of the then unknown country, for the
direction of great roads from a centre could not be considered permanent,
however limited the colony, without such consideration of their ultimate
tendency as could only be given with a knowledge of the whole intervening
country. My plans of exploration have been governed by these views and
objects, and the journey recorded in these pages was intended to complete
the last of three lines radiating from Sydney. One led across the Blue
mountains to Bathurst and the western interior as far as the land seemed
worth exploring; another by Goulburn to Australia Felix and the southern
coast; and, lastly, this, the third general route, to the northern shores
at the nearest point, the head of the Gulf of Carpentaria,--from which I
trust that by this time my assistant Mr. Kennedy will have returned to

Held responsible by the Government for the performance of such a duty[*],
I have endeavoured to work out its views with that unity of plan which
must result from a mathematical principle, and which has enabled me to
bring to a satisfactory conclusion, after the lapse of many years, and in
the face of considerable difficulty, an undertaking commenced at the
command of my Sovereign, and under the auspices of the British
Government. That the Royal Instructions were originally intended for the
benefit of the colony of New South Wales is best evinced by the fact that
this journey of survey and exploration has been undertaken on the
petition of the Legislative Council of the Colony, and performed wholly
at the expense of the colony of New South Wales.

[* Appendix, Letter No. 30/1252., page 431.]

It now remains for me to submit my final "Report," or, in other words, to
point out how the geographical knowledge thus acquired may be available
for the economical extension of that colonisation which the expansive
energies of this great nation seem to require. New South Wales may be
benefited, it is true, by the establishment of any additional market on
the eastern coast, for her produce; and by a road to the Gulf of
Carpentaria; but a timely knowledge of the structure of the interior was
necessary to enable the Government to determine on the sites most
eligible for centres of colonisation required along the coast. It is now
ascertained that a great range separates the coast settlements from the
open pastoral country of the interior, as far as the parallel of 25°
south. That there it breaks off at the lofty plateau of Buckland's Table
Land, which overlooks a much lower country in the north;--a country but
lightly wooded, watered by good rivers, and which affords an easy access
to extensive pastoral regions in the interior, without the intervention
of any such formidable barrier between that interior open country and the
coast, as the great range nearer the actual colony. Precisely on that
part of the coast, to which the united channels of the water lead, a
harbour has been surveyed and approved of by competent naval officers.
These geographical facts, therefore, render it easy to define one
situation more favourable than any other that might be found along that
coast, for the nucleus of a colony, and which would divide almost equally
the whole coast line between Sydney and Cape York. I allude to Port
Bowen, near Broad Sound; and the river Nogoa, which has been (I believe)
called lower down, the Mackenzie. A port on that part of the coast, at
the entrance within the reefs, would be advantageous to steam navigation.
The occupation of the fine country on the rivers Victoria, Salvator and
Claude, must depend on some such sea-port for supplies; and on the
occupation of that back-country must again, in a great measure, depend
the establishment of a direct line of communication between Sydney and
the Gulf of Carpentaria.

At the head of that gulf, admitting that a practicable and direct line of
route can be opened to it, the country, and the sea adjacent, may soon
require attention. By timely examination and good arrangement, a
commodious place of embarkation may be established there, which might, by
degrees, become an important town; where horses might be shipped and
conveyed by a short passage to India, free from the hazards of Torres
Straits. It would appear from the brief but intelligible description by
Captain Flinders, that Wellesley Islands, or Sweer's Island, being both
higher than the main land, might be connected with it, by some permanent
work, and thus afford a good port for steamers, and shelter and anchorage
for other ships. According to the interesting narrative of Captain
Stokes, the temperature is remarkably low, and convict labour might there
be very usefully employed upon such works. The head of the Gulf of
Carpentaria, being that part of the Indian Ocean nearest to Sydney, has
appeared of more importance to the colonists, since steam navigation
became regular between England and the Indian archipelago. Then it became
more desirable for the colonists to know the nature of the interior
country between their capital and that northern coast. The interior has
been found very open and accessible; the fine country at the head of the
Victoria must soon be occupied, and thus divide the whole distance into
two equal parts, each of these not much exceeding the distance between
Sydney and Melbourne, in Australia Felix; between which places mail-
carriages now run twice a week. Thus, while, by the extension of
geographical research, the proper fields for colonization are laid open
for selection, and prepared for timely arrangements on the part of the
Imperial Government; the colonists of New South Wales have promoted the
general interests of their fellow subjects at home, by the developement
of the resources of the territory around them.

He "who measured out the sea in the hollow of his hand, and weighed the
earth in a balance," has determined, by the condition of these two
elements, the situation of the Gulf, and that of the great break in the
East Coast range--the one affording the nearest access to an important
sea, the other the easy way to a rich interior land. I would, with
deference to Him, "who led Israel like a flock," and me in safety through
the Australian wilds, distinguish the two regions by timely descriptive
names on the map I now lay before the public; Capricornia, to express the
country under the tropics, from the parallel of 25° South, where nature
has set up her own land-marks, not to be disputed: Australindia, the
country on the shores of the most southern part of the Indian
archipelago; which two regions may be made conterminous according to
natural limits, when such limits can be accurately ascertained.


The Colonial Secretary to the Surveyor-General of New South Wales. No.
30/1252. Colonial Secretary's Office, October 28. 1830.


I have the honour, by the direction of His Excellency the Governor, to
inform you that the Right Honourable the Secretary of State has been
pleased to signify the King's instructions for the discontinuance of the
office of the Commissioners appointed to survey and value the lands of
the Colony, and His Majesty's commands that the performance of their
duties is for the future to be entrusted to the Surveyor-General, who,
with the aid of the Assistant Surveyors, will be held responsible for all
arrangements connected with the survey and division of the territory.

I have the honour to be, Sir, Your most obedient servant,


To T.L. Mitchell, Esquire, Surveyor-General.

* * * * *



[numerals refer to page numbers in the book]


Adiantum hispidulum, 204, 212. ----assimile, 204. 212. Nothochlaena
distans, 212. Grammitis rutaefolia, 212. Cheilanthes tenuifolia, 212.
Doodia caudata, 212. Platyzoma microphyllum, 236.


Aristida calycina, 33. Arundo Phragmites, 124. * Anthistiria membranacea,
LINDL. 88. ----australis PASSIM. ----sp. 97. Andropogon sericeus, 62.
----bombycinus, 378. ----sp. 117. Bromus australis, 61. * Chloris
selerantha, LINDL. 31. ----acicularis LINDL. 33. Dactyloctenium radulans,
88. Danthonia pectinata, 319. ----* triticoides LINDL. 365. Erianthus,
fulvo aff. 62. Imperata arundinacea, 60. 349. Lappago biflora, 364.
Neurachne Mitchelliana, 33. Perotis rara, 139. Panicum laevinode 60. AND
PASSIM. Pappophorum gracile, 319. ----* avenaceum LINDL. 320. ----*
virens, LINDL. 360. ----* flavescens, LINDL. 34. * Stipa scabra, LINDL.
31. * Sporobolus pallidus, LINDL. 187. Triodia pungens, 177. 340.
Triraphis mollis, 88.


Cyperus, sp. bulbosa. 124. ----sp. 120. Kyllinga monocephala, 100.


Damasonium ovalifolium, 31. Xerotes laxa, 361. ----leucocephala, 198.
Cymbidium canaliculatum, 378. * Pterostylis Mitchellii, LINDL. 3
Commelina undulata, 347. Thysanotus elatior, 347. Tricoryne elatior, 387.
Laxmannia gracilis, 365. Dianella rara, 366. ----strumosa, 341.

GYMNOGENS. Zamia, 209. Callitris sp. n. 187. ----glauca, 298. ----
pyramidalis, 93.


* Adriania acerifolia, HOOKER, 371. ----* heterophylla, HOOKER, 124.
Beyeria, sp. n. 390. Bertya oleaefolia, 290. Euphorbia hypericifolia?
265. ----* eremophila, A. CUNN. 348. Hylococcus sericeus, 389. *
Micrantheum triandrum, HOOKER, 342. Phyllanthus simplex? 106.


Cucumis pubescens, 110.


* Melicytus? oleaster, LINDL. 383.


* Frankenia scabra, LINDL. 305. ----* serpyllifolia, LINDL. 305.


* Capparis umbonata, LINDL. 257. ----* loranthifolia, LINDL. 220. ----
lasiantha, 102. ----Mitchellii, 36. Cleome flava, 127.


Brachychiton populneum, 355. * Delabechea rupestris MITCHELL, 155.


* Keraudrenia integrifolia, HOOKER, 341.


Hibiscus Lindleyi? 260. ----* Sturtii, HOOKER, 363. Fugosia digitata?
387. ----sp. 64. Malva ovata, 397. * Sida Frazeri, HOOKER, 368. ----
pisiformis, 362. ----* virgata, HOOKER, 361. ----filiformis, A. CUNN.
361. ----tubulosa, CUNN. 390. ----sp. n. 103.


Grewia Richardiana, 383.


* Comesperma sylvestris, LINDL. 342.


Thouinia australis, 390. * Dodonaea acerosa, LINDL. 273. ----* filifolia,
HOOKER, 241. ----* hirtella, 191. ----* mollis, LINDL. 212. ----*
peduncularis, LINDL. 340. 361. ----* pubescens, LINDL. 342. ----*
tenuifolia, LINDL. 248. ----* trigona, LINDL. 236. ----* triangularis,
219. ----* vestita, HOOKER, 265.


Pleurandra ericifolia, 362. ----* cistoidea, HOOKER, 363. Hibbertia
canescens, 339.


Clematis stenophylla, 368. Ranunculus plebeius, 362. ----sessiliflorus,


* Bursaria incana, LINDL. 224. * Pittosporum salicinum, LINDL. 97. ----
lanceolatum, 272.


Leucopogon cuspidatus, 226.


* Triphasia glauca, LINDL. 353.


* Boronia bipinnata, LINDL. 225. ----* eriantha, LINDL. 298. * Eriostemon
rhombeum, LINDL. 293. * Geijera parviflora, LINDL. 102. ----* latifolia,
LINDL. 236. ----* pendula, LINDL. 251. Heterodendron oleaefolium, 398. *
Pilotheca ciliata, HOOKER, 347. * Phebalium glandulosum, HOOKER, 199. *
Zieria Frazeri, HOOKER, 339.


Geranium parviflorum? 362. Erodium littoreum? 360.


* Calandrinia balonensis, LINDL. 148. ----* pusilla, LINDL. 360.


Polygonum acre, 149. ----junceum, 85.


Boerhaavia mutabilis, 362.


Amaranthus undulatus, 102. Alternanthera nodiflora, 35. ----sp. 341.
Nyssanthes? 360. * Trichinium semilanatum, LINDL. 45. ----Janatum, 33.
88. ----* conicum, LINDL. 363. ----fusiforme, 383. ----alopecuroideum,
88. 91.


Ambrina carinata, 127. * Atriplex nummularia, LINDL. 64. ----
elaeagnoides, 29 Atriplex semibaccata, 23. * Chenopodium auricomum,
LINDL. 94. Enchylaena tomentosa, 102. Kochia brevifolia, 33. 67. ----*
thymifolia, LINDL. 56. ----* lanosa, LINDL. 88. ----* villosa, LINDL. 91.
Rhagodia parabolica, 53. Salsola australis, 24, etc. Seleroaena uniflora,
72. * Suaeda tamariscina, LINDL. 239.


Mesembryanthemum, sp. 315.


Pimelea linifolia? 340. ----* trichostachya, LINDL. 355. ----colorans,
362. Exocarpus aphylla, 118. ----spartea, 135.


* Conospermum sphacelatum, HOOKER, 342. * Grevillea Mitchellii, HOOKER,
265. ----* juncifolia, HOOKER, 341. ----floribunda, 212. ----*
longistyla, HOOKER, 343. ----sp. 276. * Hakea longicuspis, HOOKER, 397.
----* purpurea, HOOKER, 348.


Cassytha pubescens, 362.


Acacia conferta, 174. 289. ----Cunninghamii, 204. ----doratoxylon, 289.
----delibrata, 258. ----decora, 359. var. 223. ----* excelsa, BENTH. 225.
----Farnesiana, 256. ----falcata, 221. Acacia holosericea, 256. ----
Simsii, 256. ----leucadendron, 258. ----* longespicata, BENTH. 298. ----
ixiophylla, 204. ----leptoclada, var. 95. ----* macradenia, BENTH. 360.
----neriifolia, 386. ----pendula, PASSIM. ----pennifolia, 361. ----
podalyriifolia, 221. ----* pinifolia, BENTH. 342. ----stenophylla, 81.
----spectabilis, 353. ----salicina, 56. ----triptera, 291. ----* varians,
BENTH. 132. ----* Victoriae, BENTH. 333. ----* uncifera, BENTH. 341. ----
viscidula, 340. * Aotus mollis, BENTH. 236. * Bossiaea carinalis, BENTH.
290. ----rhombifolia, 294. * Cassia circinata, BENTH. 384. ----*
coronilloides, CUNN. 384. ----* zygophylla, BENTH. 288. ----sophera, 390.
----occidentalis, 378. ----heteroloba, 251. * Crotalaria dissitiflora,
BENTH. 386. ----* Mitchellii, BENTH. 120. * Cyclogyne swainsonioides,
BENTH. 397. * Daviesia filipes, BENTH. 363. * Erythrina vespertilio,
BENTH. 218. * Gompholobium foliosum, BENTH. 348. Hardenbergia monophylla,
236. Hovea lanceolata, 212. ----* leiocarpa, BENTH. 289. * Indigofera
brevidens, BENTH. 385. ----hirsuta, 122. * Jacksonia ramosissima, BENTH.
258. ----scoparia, 339. * Kennedya procurrens, BENTH. 365. Labichea
rupestris, BENTH. 342. * Labich ea digitata, BENTH. 273. * Leptocyamus
latifolius, BENTH. 361. * Lotus laevigatus, BENTH. 62. ----australis,
var. 348. Neptunia gracilis, 362. * Psoralea eriantha, BENTH. 131.
Sesbania aculeata? 106. * Swainsona phacoides, BENTH. 363. Vigna, an
capensis? 339. ----* lanceolata, BENTH. 350. ----* suberecta, BENTH. 388.


Rubus parvifolius, 351.


Lythrum Salicaria, 62.


Alphitonia excelsa, 201. Cryptandra propinqua, 223. * Ventilago
viminalis, HOOKER, 369.


* Catha Cunninghamii, HOOKER, 387. * Elaeodendron maculosum, LINDL. 384.


Stackhousia muricata, 362.


Carissa ovata, 393. Tabernaemontana, sp. 341. * Doobàh, 85.


* Logania cordifolia, HOOKER, 341.


Erythraea australis, 366.


Notclaea punctata, 352.


Nicotiana suaveolens, 64. Solanum ellipticum, 215. ----furfuraceum, 212.
----biflorum, 362. ----violaceum, 365. ----sp. 85.


* Polymeria longifolia, 398. Convolvulus erubescens, 353. Evolvulus,
sericeo aff., 386. ----linifolius, 339.


Plumbago zeylanica, 219.


Plantago varia, 352.


* Jasminum suavissimum, LINDL. 355. ----lineare, 94. ----* Mitchellii,
LINDL. 365.


Halgania, sp. 24.


* Trichodesma sericeum, LINDL. 258.


Brunonia sericea, 341. ----simplex? 360. ----* simplex, LINDL. 82.


Ajuga australis, var., 236. 347. * Mentha grandiflora, BENTH., 362.
Moschosma polystachya, 137. Plectranthus parviflorus, 347. * Prostanthera
odoratissima, BENTH., 291. ----* ringens, BENTH., 363. ----*
euphrasioides, BENTH., 360. Teucrium recemosum, 31. ----argutum, 198.
Salvia plebeia, 366.


Chloanthes stoechadis, 298. Vitex, sp. n., 212.


* Eremophila Mitchelli, BENTH., 31. * Myoporum dulce, 253. ----
Cunninghamii, 214. * Stenochilus pubiflorus, BENTH., 273. ----*
salicinus, BENTH., 251. ----* curvipes, BENTH., 221. ----*
bignoniaeflorus, BENTH., 386.


Tecoma Oxleyi, 291.


Justicia media, 31. 89. 361. ----ascendens, 97. Ruellia australis, 353.


Morgania floribunda, 62. 384. Veronica plebeia, 360.


Dampiera adpressa, 339. Goodenia pulchella, 339. ----* flagellifera, DE
VRIESE, 378. ----coronopifolia, 359. ----geniculata, 72. * Linschotenia
bicolor, DE VRIESE, 340. 345. * Velleya macrocalyx, DE VRIESE, 258.


Brachycome, heterodontae prox., 62. * Calotis scapigera, HOOKER, 75. ----
cuneifolia, 28. * Calocephalus gnaphalioides, HOOKER., 378. * Eurybia
subspicata, HOOKER, 293. Eurybiopsis macrorhiza, 359. Erechthites arguta,
225. * Ethulia Cunninghami, HOOKER, 62. * Flaveria australasica, HOOKER,
118. Helichrysum bracteatum, 79. ----* ramosissimum, HOOK., 83. ----
semipapposum, 389. ----odorum? 362. Helipteres anthemoides, 349. ----*
glutinosa, HOOK., 361. Minuria heterophylla, 64. Monenteles redolens,
263. * Myriogyne racemosa, HOOK., 353. Ozothamnus diosmaefolius, 347.
Podolepis acuminata? 289. ----rugata? 362. ----longipedunculata, 362.
Pycnosorus globosus, 353. Rutidosis helichrysoides, 78. ----*
arachnoidea, HOOK., 341. Senecio carnosulus? 360. ----Cunninghami, 45.
----brachylaenus, 62. Sphaeranthus hirtus 212.


* Haloragis aspera, LINDL., 306. ----* glauca, LINDL., 91. * Myriophyllum
verrucosum, LINDL. 384.


Angophora lanceolata, 81. * Callistemon nervosum, LINDL. 235. Eucalyptus
sideroxylon, 339. ----* acuminatus, HOOK. 390. Eucalyptus pulverulento
aff. 91. ----* melissiodorus, LINDL., 235. ----* citriodorus, HOOKER,
235. ----* populifolius, HOOKER, 204. ----bicolor, 390. ----* viminalis,
HOOKER, 157. * Leptospermum sericatum, LINDL. 298. * Melaleuca
trichostachya, LINDL. 277. ----* tamariscina, HOOKER, 262. Schidiomyrtus
tenellus, 340. * Tristania angustifolia, HOOK. 198.


Canthium sp. 386. ----* oleifolium, HOOKER, 397. Pomax hirta, 340.


Asperula? 360.


Actinotus Helianthi, 345. Daucus brachiatus, 235. Didiscus pilosus, 593.


Fusanus acuminatus, 105. Santalum oblongatum 101.


* Loranthus linearifolius, HOOK. 102. ----* aurantiacus, HOOKER, 101.
----* subfalcatus, HOOKER, 224. ----* nutans, CUNN. 158.

[* The routes of the party advancing are coloured red (long-short-short-
long) on the maps; those by which it returned, blue (short-short-short).]

LONDON, FEB. 15. 1848.

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Journal of an Expedition into the Interior of Tropical Australia" ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.