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Title: Mayfair, Belgravia, and Bayswater - The Fascination of London
Author: Mitton, G. E. (Geraldine Edith)
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Mayfair, Belgravia, and Bayswater - The Fascination of London" ***

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BAYSWATER***


      file which includes the original maps and illustration.
The Fascination of London

MAYFAIR, BELGRAVIA, AND BAYSWATER


       *       *       *       *       *


_IN THIS SERIES._

Cloth, price 1s. 6d. net; leather, price 2s. net each.


THE STRAND DISTRICT.

By SIR WALTER BESANT and G. E. MITTON.


WESTMINSTER.

By SIR WALTER BESANT and G. E. MITTON.


HAMPSTEAD AND MARYLEBONE.

By G. E. MITTON. Edited by SIR WALTER BESANT.


CHELSEA.

By G. E. MITTON. Edited by SIR WALTER BESANT.


KENSINGTON.

By G. E. MITTON. Edited by SIR WALTER BESANT.


HOLBORN AND BLOOMSBURY.

By SIR WALTER BESANT and G. E. MITTON.


HAMMERSMITH, FULHAM, AND PUTNEY.

By G. E. MITTON and J. C. GEIKIE.


       *       *       *       *       *


[Illustration: HYDE PARK CORNER]



The Fascination of London

MAYFAIR, BELGRAVIA AND BAYSWATER

by

G. E. MITTON AND OTHERS

Edited by Sir Walter Besant



London
Adam & Charles Black
1903



PREFATORY NOTE


A survey of London, a record of the greatest of all cities, that should
preserve her history, her historical and literary associations, her
mighty buildings, past and present, a book that should comprise all that
Londoners love, all that they ought to know of their heritage from the
past--this was the work on which Sir Walter Besant was engaged when he
died.

As he himself said of it: "This work fascinates me more than anything
else I've ever done. Nothing at all like it has ever been attempted
before. I've been walking about London for the last thirty years, and I
find something fresh in it every day."

Sir Walter's idea was that two of the volumes of his survey should
contain a regular and systematic perambulation of London by different
persons, so that the history of each parish should be complete in
itself. This was a very original feature in the great scheme, and one in
which he took the keenest interest. Enough has been done of this section
to warrant its issue in the form originally intended, but in the
meantime it is proposed to select some of the most interesting of the
districts and publish them as a series of booklets, attractive alike to
the local inhabitant and the student of London, because much of the
interest and the history of London lie in these street associations.

The difficulty of finding a general title for the series was very great,
for the title desired was one that would express concisely the undying
charm of London--that is to say, the continuity of her past history with
the present times. In streets and stones, in names and palaces, her
history is written for those who can read it, and the object of the
series is to bring forward these associations, and to make them plain.
The solution of the difficulty was found in the words of the man who
loved London and planned the great scheme. The work "fascinated" him,
and it was because of these associations that it did so. These links
between past and present in themselves largely constitute The
Fascination of London.

G. E. M.

    Some attempt has been made in this volume to indicate the quality
    of the district described by inserting one or two names of present
    occupiers; but these names are only representative, and must not be
    considered as constituting in any sense exhaustive lists.



MAYFAIR, BELGRAVIA, AND BAYSWATER


Mayfair is at the present time the most fashionable part of London, so
much so that the name has come to be a synonym for wealth or pride of
birth. Yet it was not always so, as he who runs may read, for the
derivation is simple enough, and differs from most cases in that the
obvious meaning is the right one. In James II.'s reign a permission was
given for a fair to be held on the north side of Piccadilly, to begin on
the first day of May, and to last for fifteen days. This fair, we are
told, was "not for trade and merchandise, but for musick, showes,
drinking, gaming, raffling, lotteries, stageplays and drolls." It was
immensely popular, and was frequented by "all the nobility of the town,"
wherein, perhaps, we see the germs of the Mayfair we know. It must be
remembered that Grosvenor and Berkeley Squares, with their diverging
streets, were not then begun, and that all this land now covered by a
network of houses lay in fields on the outskirts of London, while Hyde
Park Corner was still the end of the world so far as Londoners were
concerned. It was about the end of the seventeenth century that the
above-mentioned squares were built, and at once became fashionable, and
as the May fair continued to flourish until 1708, it must have seen the
growth of the district to which it was to give its name. Though
suppressed, doubtless on account of disorders, it revived again, with
booths for jugglers, prize-fighting contests, boxing matches, and the
baiting of bears and bulls, and was not finally abolished until the end
of the eighteenth century.

But Mayfair is not the only district to be noticed; we have also its
rival--Belgravia--lying south of Hyde Park Corner, which is equally
included in the electoral district of St. George's, Hanover Square. This
electoral district takes in the three most fashionable churches in the
Metropolis, including the mother church, St. Paul's, Wilton Place, and
St. Peter's, Eaton Square, besides many others, whose marriage registers
cannot compete either in quantity or quality of names with these three.
The district can also show streets as poor as some are rich; it includes
not only Park Lane and Piccadilly, but also Pimlico and the dreary part
to the south of Buckingham Palace Road. It is a long, narrow district,
stretching from the river to Oxford Street. As a parish, St. George's
was separated from St. Martin's in 1724, and it is now included in the
city of Westminster, with which it has been associated from its earliest
history. In the charter given by King Edgar to the monks at Westminster,
their possessions were defined as reaching to the highroad we now call
Oxford Street on the north, and to Tyburn Lane, or Park Lane, on the
west. But of this the parishes of St. Margaret and St. John at
Westminster were the City, and the rest lay in the "Liberties."

The larger portion of the district is included in the ancient estate of
Eia, 890 acres in extent, reaching from the Bayswater Road to the
Thames, which was given by William the Conqueror to Geoffrey de
Mandeville, who at his death bequeathed it to the Abbey of Westminster.
In Domesday Book it is divided into three manors of Hyde, Ebury, and
Neyte. Of these the first occupies the site of Hyde Park; Ebury, from
Knightsbridge to Buckingham Palace Road; Neyte, nearer the river, was
the favourite residence of the Abbots. Here John of Gaunt lived, and
here, in 1448, John, son of Richard, Duke of York, was born. The monks
remained in possession until dispossessed by Henry VIII. in 1536. Hyde
then became a royal hunting-ground. Neyte, or Neat, and Ebury remained
as farms, which in 1676 came into the possession of the Grosvenor family
by the marriage of Mary, daughter and heiress of Alexander Davies of
Ebury, with Sir Thomas Grosvenor, Bart. With her came also the
Grosvenor Square property, extending from Oxford Street to Berkeley
Square and Dorchester House, and from Park Lane to South Molton Lane and
Avery Row. Other large landholders in the district are the Crown--Hyde
Park, and Buckingham Palace; Lord Fitzhardinge, the Berkeley estate; the
City of London, New Bond Street and parts of Conduit Street and Brook
Street; Earl Howe, Curzon Street; Sir Richard Sutton, Piccadilly; the
Dean and Chapter of Westminster, Knightsbridge; and the Lowndes family,
Lowndes Street and Chesham Place.

More than a quarter of the district is covered by Hyde Park, 394 acres
in extent. Long before its acquisition by the Crown in 1536 it had been
a favourite royal hunting-ground, and it so continued until Charles I.'s
accession, when it was opened to the public. During this reign, and
until 1736, the world of fashion centred round the Ring, a circular
drive planted with trees, some of which are still carefully preserved on
the high ground near the Ranger's house, though all trace of the roadway
has long been obliterated. The Park was sold by auction during the
Commonwealth, but resumed by the Crown at the Restoration, and in 1670
was enclosed with a brick wall and restocked with deer, who have left
their traces in the name of Buck Hill Walk and Gate, close to the east
bank of the Serpentine. This prettily-laid-out area, formerly known as
Buckden Hill or the Deer Paddock, is now tenanted only by peacocks,
ducks and rabbits.

The Serpentine, a noble stretch of water of 50 acres, has already been
described in "Kensington."

Hyde Park has always been noted for its springs. In 1725 the Chelsea
Waterworks Company obtained a license to supply the surrounding
districts, and built a reservoir and engine-house near Grosvenor Gate,
which existed until 1835, when, on the recall of the license, the
engine-house was demolished and the basin laid out with flower-beds and
a fountain. The present reservoir stands in the centre of the Park,
while opposite Stanhope Place on the north side is a Gothic drinking
fountain, the gift of the Maharajah of Vizianagram. The oldest of the
present roads in Hyde Park is Rotten Row, made by William III.; it is
now reserved for riding only, while under the trees on either side rank
and fashion have lounged and gossiped since the days of the Ring. The
popular derivation of the name is from Route du Roi, since it was known
first as the King's or Lamp Road; but possibly it has its origin in the
soft soil of which the ride since 1734 has been composed. The south
road, now the fashionable drive, was made by George II. about 1732, as a
short way to Kensington Park. The road from Alexandra Gate to Victoria
Gate crosses the Serpentine by a stone bridge built by Rennie in 1826,
and is the only one open to hired vehicles, which were first forbidden
the use of the Park in 1695. From the Serpentine a soft ride runs
parallel to the roadway as far as the Marble Arch; from this point Hyde
Park Corner is reached by a broad drive bordered with flower-beds and
trees, which replace the famous double avenue of walnuts cut down in
1811. It is much patronized by society, who congregate opposite Hyde
Park Corner, near the Achilles statue, by Sir R. Westmacott, R.A., cast
from captured French cannon, and erected at a cost of £10,000 by the
women of England in 1820, "in honour of the Duke of Wellington and his
brave companions in arms." It is copied from a Roman antique, but the
name is a misnomer. The road along the north side of the Serpentine is
now thronged every day with bicyclists, to whom the Park has been lately
thrown open. Here also are held the annual meets of the Four-in-Hand and
Coaching Club during the season. This road was widened in 1852. Of past
and present buildings in Hyde Park the following may be noted: When the
Serpentine was made, an old lodge was demolished which may have been the
tavern known in the reign of James I. as the "Grave Maurice's Head," and
which later became Price's Lodge. Up to 1836, on the bank of the
Serpentine stood an old house called the Cake House, and close to it was
the old receiving house of the Royal Humane Society, which was replaced
in 1834 by the present building, designed by Decimus Burton. Among the
trees behind it is an old farmhouse (Hyde Park Lodge), the residence of
Major-General Bateson, Deputy Ranger, adjoining which are the old
barracks, now a police-station and guard-room, the head-gardener's
house, built in 1877, and the old magazine. The new magazine stands
close to the Serpentine Bridge, and contains over 1,000,000 rounds of
ammunition. Near Grosvenor Gate stood the Duke of Gloucester's
riding-house, built in 1724, which, after serving as the headquarters of
the Westminster Volunteer Cavalry, was demolished in 1824. The old
Ranger's Lodge at Hyde Park Corner was pulled down when Apsley House was
built.

The principal entrance to Hyde Park is at Hyde Park Corner, and consists
of a triple archway combined with a fluted Ionic screen, by Decimus
Burton, completed in 1828. The iron gates are by Bramah. Cumberland
Gate, the next in importance, was opened in 1744, with wooden gates.
Here in 1643 was posted a court of guard to watch the Oxford Road, where
the Court was residing, and here also military executions took place.
The Marble Arch, an imitation by Nash of the Arch of Constantine at
Rome, erected originally as an entrance to Buckingham Palace, was moved
to this site in 1851. Albert Gate was made in 1841, on the site of the
Cannon Brewery. The iron gates were set up in 1845, and the stone stags
on either side were brought from the old Lodge in the Green Park.

The remaining gates are Alexandra Gate and Prince of Wales's Gate,
erected since 1851; Victoria Gate, Grosvenor Gate, made in 1724 by
subscription of the neighbouring inhabitants; and Stanhope Gate, opened
about 1760. There are also numerous entrances for foot passengers.

The present Park railing was put up after the Reform Riots in 1866 to
replace the one demolished by the mob, which had stood since 1825.

In duelling days Hyde Park was a favourite battle-ground. Of many
encounters the following may be recorded:

1685. The Duke of Grafton and the Hon. John Talbot, the latter being
killed.

1712. The Duke of Hamilton and Lord Mohun, which took place near Price's
Lodge. Both died on the ground, and Lord Mohun's second, General
Macartney, was afterwards tried, on the accusation of Colonel Hamilton,
for stabbing the Duke when on the ground; he was, however, acquitted.

1763. John Wilkes was wounded by Mr. Samuel Martin, M.P.

1770. Lord Thurlow and Mr. Andrew Stewart.

1777. Charles James Fox and Mr. William Adam, M.P.

1780. Colonel Fullarton, M.P., wounded the Earl of Shelburne.

After 1803 the practice of duelling fell gradually into disuse.

In troublous times military camps occupied the open ground, notably in
1649 under Lord Essex, in 1665 during the Plague, and in 1715 and 1722
to guard against Jacobite rebellion.

Reviews have been held at intervals from 1569 until 1876, but are now of
very rare occurrence.

Hyde Park has also been the scene of some serious riots, notably those
in 1821 on the occasion of the removal of Queen Caroline's body; in 1885
against the Sunday Trading Bill; and in 1862 the Garibaldi disturbances.
The most important riot, however, broke out in 1866, when the Reform
Leaguers forcibly entered the Park by pulling down the railing. From the
Reform League the Reformer's tree near the reservoir took its name;
though the original one has been felled, the name is still applied to a
neighbouring tree, and political demonstrations, which have been
declared legal since 1866, are still held on the open space in the
vicinity.

Oxford Street, which forms the northern boundary of the district, has
already been described in the book on "Marylebone," with which district
it is closely identified. It is only necessary here to mention some of
the notable houses on the south side which fall within our compass.

The first is Camelford House (Lord Hillingdon), an unpretentious
building in a courtyard, once the property of the Pitts, Earls of
Camelford. George Grenville occupied it in 1805, and subsequently H.R.H.
Princess Charlotte and her husband, afterwards Leopold I. of Belgium.
Adjoining it is Hereford Gardens, a row of handsome private houses built
in 1870 on the site of Hereford Street (1780).

At the corner of Lumley Street (south side) is the Royal Association in
Aid of the Deaf and Dumb. The building, erected in 1870 from designs by
Sir A. Blomfield, of red brick, contains a reading-room, lecture-hall,
and on the upper floor St. Saviour's Church, in early Pointed style.

From Dering Street, on the south side of Oxford Street, the garden of
Lord Carnarvon's house in Tenterden Street extended nearly to Harewood
Place. On the site are a noticeable stone-fronted house, now a carriage
warehouse, and the Royal Orthopædic Hospital, founded 1838 and removed
here from Bloomsbury Square in 1856.

Park Lane, up to 1769 called Tyburn Lane, was in the reign of Queen Anne
a desolate by-road, but is now a favourite place of residence for the
fashionable persons in the Metropolis. It is open to Hyde Park as far as
Hamilton Place, whence it reaches Piccadilly by a narrow street. At its
junction with the former stands an ornamental fountain by Thorneycroft,
erected in 1875 at a cost of £5,000, the property of a lady who died
intestate and without heirs. At the base are the muses of Tragedy,
Comedy, and History in bronze, above Chaucer, Shakespeare and Milton in
marble, the whole being surmounted by a bronze statue of Fame. The
principal mansions in Park Lane are: Brook House, at the north corner of
Upper Brook Street, designed by T. H. Wyatt, and the residence of the
Earl of Tweedmouth, and next to it Dudley House. Dorchester House
(Captain Holford) was built by Vulliamy in 1852 on the site of the town
house of the Damers, Earls of Dorchester. The building, which stands in
its own grounds, is rectangular, and constructed of Portland stone in
Italian Renaissance style. On the narrow front is a carriage portico.
The reception rooms and marble staircase have few rivals in London; they
contain two libraries and a collection of pictures by old and modern
masters. Here died in 1842 the Marquis of Hertford. Londonderry House,
No. 18 (Marquis of Londonderry), was built in 1850 by S. and J. Wyatt on
the site of the residence of the D'Arcys, Earls of Holdernesse. It
contains a fine gallery of pictures and sculpture. Other inhabitants:
the Duke of Somerset, in a house adjoining Camelford House, No. 35; Sir
Moses Montefiore, d. 1885; Park Lane Chambers, Earl Sondes, Lord
Monkbretton.

At the corner of Upper Grosvenor Street (then No. 1, Grosvenor Gate)
Benjamin Disraeli lived 1839-73. No. 24, Lord Brassey. No. 21, for many
years the Marquis of Breadalbane, and afterwards Lady Palmerston, when
left a widow in 1850; Earl of Scarborough. Sir Edward Bulwer Lytton at a
house then numbered 1. In 23, Richard Sharp, 1822-24; Mrs. Fitzherbert,
1785; Warren Hastings, 1790-97; Marquis Wellesley, 1796.

Grosvenor Square and the surrounding streets have always been the centre
of the aristocratic world; the Square, which includes about six acres,
was built in 1695. The garden was laid out by Kent, and in the centre
stood formerly an equestrian statue of George I., by Van Nost, placed
there in 1726. On the site, in 1642, was erected a fort named Oliver's
Mount, which stood as one of the defences against the Royalists until
1647. Owing to the prejudices of the inhabitants, Grosvenor Square was
not lit by gas until 1842.

Inhabitants: Duchess of Kendal, d. 1743; Earl of Chesterfield, 1733-50;
Bishop Warburton, 1757; Lord Chancellor Hardwicke, 1758-64; Lord
Rockingham, d. 1782; Henry Thrale, d. 1781; Lord North, d. 1792; Thomas
Raikes, 1832; Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles; 10, Lord Canning and Lord
Granville, 1841; 22, William Beckford, 1800; 23, the Earl of Derby here
married Miss Farren, actress, in 1797; his successors resided here until
1832; Lord Stratford de Redclyffe, d. 1880; 24, the Earl of Shaftesbury;
29, Sir John Beaumont; 30, John Wilkes, d. 1797; 39 (now 44), the Earl
of Harrowby, 1820 (here the Cato Street conspirators proposed to murder
the Ministry); 44, Countess of Pembroke. The houses have since been
renumbered. To give a list of the present inhabitants of note would be
impossible; it would be like copying a page out of the Red Book. Suffice
to say there are living in the Square two Dukes, one Marquess, three
Earls, six Barons, and five Baronets, beside many other persons of
distinction.

At the corner end of Park Street, and in South Street and Aldford
Street, the old houses have been pulled down and have been replaced by
large, red-brick, ornamented structures, such as have also been erected
in Mount Street, Grosvenor Street, and North and South Audley Street.
The spaces behind the houses are occupied by mews. Great improvements
have also been effected since 1887 in the housing of the working
classes, particularly in the neighbourhood of Oxford Street, and in
Bourdon Street and Mount Row, by the erection of blocks of industrial
dwellings by the St. George's and Improved Industrial Dwellings
Companies, under the auspices of the Duke of Westminster.

In Park Street, formerly called Hyde Park Street, lived Miss Nelly
O'Brien, 1768; 7, Sir William Stirling Maxwell, M.P.; 26, Sir Humphry
Davy, 1825, till his death; 113, Miss Lydia White, d. 1827; 123, Richard
Ford, author of "The Handbook for Spain." In North Audley Street,
opposite Green Street, is St. Mark's Church, built from designs by J. P.
Deering in 1825-28, and reconstructed in Romanesque style in 1878.
Adjoining is the Vicarage, built in 1887, and at the back the St. Mark's
Institute, containing a church-room, mission-room, gymnasium, and a
working men's club. Attached to the institute are the parish schools,
built soon after 1830, and enlarged and repaired in 1894.

Near the church lived the Countess of Suffolk, mistress of George II.;
at 1, Maria Edgeworth; 26, the Misses Berry.

South Audley Street takes its name from Hugh Audley (d. 1662), the owner
of some land in the neighbourhood. It has several interesting houses.
No. 8, Alington House (Lord Alington), was, in 1826, Cambridge House,
the residence of the Duke of York, and afterwards, until 1876, belonged
to the Curzons, Earls Howe. In 73, Bute House, lived, in 1769, the great
Earl of Bute, and near him his friend Home, author of "Douglas."
Chesterfield House, a large mansion standing in a courtyard at the
corner of Curzon Street, was built by Ware in 1749 for the fourth Earl
of Chesterfield, d. 1773, who wrote the "Letters" in the library. The
portico and marble staircase, with bronze balustrade, were brought from
Canons, the seat of the Duke of Chandos. In 1869 the house was sold to
Mr. Magniac for £175,000, and he built over the gardens. It is now the
town house of Lord Burton.

Opposite Aldford Street is Grosvenor Chapel, erected in 1730; an ugly
building, with sittings for 1,200. It is now a chapel of ease to St.
George's. Here were buried Lord Chesterfield, 1773; Ambrose Phillips,
poet, 1749; Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, 1762; David Mallet, poet, 1765;
William Whitehead, poet, 1785; John Wilkes, 1797; Elizabeth Carter,
1806. The churchyard at the back was, in 1889, converted into a public
garden. Just outside the gate is the Public Free Library, erected in
1894 under the Free Libraries Act.

Other inhabitants: General Paoli; Holcroft, dramatist, 1761; Sir William
Jones; Lord John Russell; Lord Sydenham, 1841; 8, Archbishop Markham, d.
1807; 14, Sir R. Westmacott, sculptor, d. 1856; 15, Baron Bunsen, 1841;
72, Charles X., when in exile, and in 1816 the Duchesse d'Angoulême;
Louis XVIII., in 1814, also lived in this street; 74, the Portuguese
Embassy early in the eighteenth century; 77, Sir Matthew Wood; here
Queen Caroline resided in 1820. In the enlargement of the street called
Audley Square Spencer Perceval was born. North Row has no interest. In
Green Street lived Sydney Smith, d. 1845; Lord Cochrane, d. 1814; 61 is
Hampden House, residence of the Duke of Abercorn. At the corner of Park
Street stood St. Mary's Church, pulled down in 1880.

In Norfolk Street lived Lord William Russell, murdered by his valet in
1840; at 27 the Earl of Dunraven, 1895. In Upper Brook Street lived Lord
George Gordon, b. 1750, and George Grenville; 3, Sir Lucas Pepys and the
Countess of Rothes; 18, Hon. Mrs. Damer, sculptor, d. 1828; 27, "Single
Speech" Hamilton, d. 1796; 18, Sir William Farrer, F.R.G.S.; 32, Marquis
of Ormonde.

Upper Grosvenor Street contains Grosvenor House, the residence of the
Duke of Westminster, a handsome building standing in a courtyard, with a
garden at the back, skirting Park Lane as far as Mount Street. On its
purchase in 1761 by the Duke of Gloucester, brother of George III., it
was known as Gloucester House. The present screen and metal gates by
Cundy were erected in 1842. The house contains a very fine collection of
pictures.

In this street lived: No. 2, Lord Erskine; 11, Mr. Francis Hale Rigby,
1817; 16, the first Sir Robert Peel; 18, Lord Crewe, 1809.

Among present inhabitants are:

The Dowager Duchess of Northumberland; Dowager Countesses of Galloway
and Wilton; Lord Templemore; Major-General Hon. H. F. Eaton; Prince
Alexis Dolgorouki; Sir E. Chandos Leigh.

Balfour Place has been lately rebuilt, and was so named in 1892 instead
of Portugal Street.

Mount Street (1740), called from the Fort of Oliver's Mount, was rebuilt
with ornamental red-brick houses; it contains the Vestry Hall--now the
Register Office for the district--built by Bolton in 1887, at a cost of
£15,200, on the site of the old workhouse, now removed to the Fulham
Road.

Inhabitants: Lady Mary Coke, 1810; Martin Van Butchell, d. 1810; Sir
Henry Holland, 1816; No. 102, Madame d'Arblay, 1832; 111, on the site of
an old manor-house, was in 1891 occupied by a college of Jesuit priests;
2, Sir Charles Hall, Q.C., M.P., d. 1900; 49, Earl of Selborne; 54, Lord
Windsor; 105, Winston Churchill, M.P.; 113, Right Hon. Akers Douglas,
M.P. In Carlos Place, so renamed in 1892 instead of Charles Street
(1727), lives: No. 1, Sir George Chetwynd, Bt., 1896. Its prolongation,
Duke Street, rebuilt in 1889 in red brick, dates from about 1770, and
was named probably after the Duke of Cumberland. In that year a lying-in
hospital stood in the street; opposite a small square is the King's
Weigh House Congregational Chapel, a large building erected in 1891.
Blocks of artisans' dwellings occupy the small streets round about.

In Gilbert Street are St George's, Hanover Square, District Schools,
which replaced the old schools in South Molton Street. The building was
erected in 1888 by Caroe on a site given by the Duke of Westminster, and
cost £5,000. These schools were incorporated in 1818 with General
Stewart's schools in South Street.

Davies Street is very narrow at its northern end, where it forms a
prolongation of South Molton Lane, an old street known in 1708 as Shug
Lane. It takes its name either from Miss Mary Davies, who is said to
have lived in an old house still standing at the corner of Bourdon
Street, or from Sir Thomas Davies, to whom Hugh Audley left his
property. Here is the new church of St Anselm, built in Byzantine style,
from designs by Balfour and Turner, at a cost of £20,000, and opened in
February, 1896, to replace Hanover Chapel, Regent Street. At No. 8 are
the Westminster Public Baths and Washhouses.

In Bourdon Street is St. Mary's Church, a chapel of ease to St.
George's, built for £12,000 by the Duke of Westminster in 1881 to
replace St. Mary's Church in Park Street. The building, from designs by
Blomfield, is in medieval style. Adjoining is St. George's Workmen's
Dwellings Association.

In Grosvenor Street (1726) lived: Countess of Hertford, 1740; Lord
North, 1740; Sir Paul Methuen, 1740; Miss Vane, mistress of Frederick,
Prince of Wales; Lord Crewe, 1784; Marquis Cornwallis, 1793-98; No. 13,
William Sotheby; William Huskisson; at 16 was formerly the Royal
Institution of British Architects; 17, Samuel Whitbread, 1800; 28, Sir
Humphry Davy, 1818; 48, Earl St. Vincent, d. 1823; 72, Dr. Matthew
Baillie, d. 1823; 6, Sir E. Ashmead Bartlett, M.P., d. 1902; 25, William
Allingham, surgeon; 50, Earl Carrington; 59, Right Hon. James Lowther,
M.P.; 72, Sir James Reid; and many others.

Brook Street was first called Little Brook Street, and afterwards Lower
Brook Street. It takes its name from the Tyburn, which flowed down the
course of South Molton Lane and Avery Row, by Bruton Mews to the bottom
of Hay Hill, and through the gardens of Lansdowne House to Shepherd's
Market. It then crossed Piccadilly at Engine Street, and flowed through
the Green Park to Buckingham Palace.

In Brook Street is Claridge's (formerly Mivart's) Hotel. Here lived: No.
25 (now 72), Edmund Burke; Sir Henry Holland, 1820-73; 63, Sir William
Jenner; 74, Sir William Gull; 57 (now 25), Handel, the composer; Lord
Lake, d. 1808; Welbore Ellis, Lord Mendip, d. 1802; Mrs. Delany; 20,
Gerald Vandergucht, engraver, and his son Benjamin Vandergucht, painter;
Thomas Barker, painter; 25, Rev. Sydney Smith; 30, Sir Charles Bell, d.
1832; 34, Sir Thomas Troubridge, 1809; 63, Sir John Williams, physician;
66, Sir B. Savory, Bart.; 74, Lord Balcarres; 84, Sir William Broadbent,
physician; 86, Lord Davey, P.C., F.R.S.

In South Molton Street, on the wall of No. 36, is an inscription: "This
is South Molton Street, 1721." At No. 17 lived William Blake, poet and
painter, in 1807. The St. George's Schools, at No. 53, were removed in
1889 to Gilbert Street, and the building sold for £2,500.

In Woodstock Street lived: Dr. Johnson, 1737; Prince Talleyrand, 1793;
Dr. Parr, 1814. Running out of it are Sedley Place, so named in 1873
instead of Hanover Place, and Blenheim Street, up to 1760 called Pedley
Street.

East of New Bond Street, Hanover Square, four acres in extent, was built
as a fashionable place of residence in 1716-20. It was to have been
called Oxford Square, but the name was changed in honour of the house
of Hanover. A few of the old houses still remain, notably Nos. 17 and
23, but most of them have been rebuilt at various times, and are not in
any way remarkable. The centre is enclosed and planted with trees, and
at the southern end stands a bronze statue of Pitt by Chantrey, erected
in 1831 at the cost of £7,000. The principal houses are: No. 3, the
offices of the Zoological Society, established in 1826, and removed here
in 1846; those of the Anthropological Society; 4, a large handsome
building erected in 1774 by Sir George Gallini, and opened by him as the
Hanover Square Concert and Ball Rooms. Here J. C. Bach, son of Sebastian
Bach, gave concerts from 1785-93. The concerts of Ancient Music and
those of the Philharmonic Society also took place here. In 1862 the
rooms were redecorated and styled the Queen's Concert Rooms, but were in
1875 disposed of to the Hanover Square Club, established in that year.

No. 10 was formerly the Brunswick Hotel, but has been rebuilt as
chambers.

No. 12, formerly the offices of the Royal Agricultural Society, now
those of the Shire Horse Society and Kindred Associations.

No. 13, Harewood House, was built by W. Adam for the Duke of Roxburghe,
and purchased in 1795 by Lord Harewood, in whose family it remained
until 1894, when it was sold to the Royal Agricultural Society,
established in 1838 for the improvement of agriculture.

No. 15 now forms part of the Orthopædic Hospital in Oxford Street.

No. 16 in 1845 was occupied by the Royal College of Chemistry,
established in that year, and afterwards removed first to Oxford Street,
and in 1835 to the School of Mines, Jermyn Street.

In No. 17 Mrs. Jordan is said to have lived under the protection of the
Duke of Clarence, afterwards William IV. In 1864 it became the home of
the Arts Club, established in that year for persons interested in art,
literature, or science. The house contains a fine painted ceiling by
Angelica Kaufmann, and some marble mantelpieces of Italian workmanship,
but is soon to be demolished.

No. 18 is the Oriental Club, founded in 1824 by Sir John Malcolm for
persons who have resided or travelled in the East. The present house, on
the site of one occupied by Lord Le Despenser 1771-81, was built in 1827
by the Wyatts, and contains some good portraits of Lord Clive and other
distinguished Anglo-Indians.

No. 20 is the offices of the Royal Medical, Pathological, and Clinical
Societies, established 1867.

No. 21 was the site of Downshire House from 1793. It was before that
date the property of the Earl of Hillsborough. Here, in 1835, lived
Talleyrand, then French Ambassador; after him, Earl Grey. It has been
rebuilt, and is now a bank, above which is the New County Club, located
here in 1894.

No. 32 was the home of the Naval and Military Club from 1863-65.

At No. 23 lived Lord Palmerston, father of the Premier, in 1806, and the
Duchess of Brunswick, daughter of Frederick, Prince of Wales, d. 1813.

Other inhabitants: the present No. 20, Field-Marshal Viscount Cobham,
1736-48; George Granville, Lord Lansdowne, d. 1735; Ambrose Phillips,
poet, d. 1749. At the present No. 10: Admiral Lord Rodney, 1792-96;
Admiral Lord Anson, 1762; "Single Speech" Hamilton, 1765; Percival Pott,
surgeon, 1777-88; Thomas Campbell, poet; Sir James Clark, physician,
1841.

The streets round Hanover Square are mainly broad, well built, and lined
with shops. Hanover Street and Princes Street were built about 1736. In
the latter Sir John Malcolm died in 1833. Swallow Place and Passage
recall Swallow Street, which was cleared away to make Regent Street in
1820.

In Regent Street stood, until recently, Hanover Chapel, with two towers,
designed by C. R. Cockerell, and built in 1824 at a cost of £16,180.
The Ionic portico was imitated from that of Minerva Polias at Priene. In
the interior was a painting of "Christ's Agony in the Garden," by
Northcote, presented 1828 by the British Institution.

Harewood Place was closed at its northern end by gates until 1893, when
all gates and private bars were removed throughout the district. In
Tenterden Street, No. 4 in 1776 became the residence of the Herberts,
Earls of Carnarvon, who still own the property. It, with Nos. 5 and 6,
is now occupied by the Royal Academy of music, founded in 1822 by the
Earl of Westmoreland. Among eminent pupils have been Sterndale Bennett,
Sir G. A. Macfarren, Sir J. Barnby, Mackenzie, Sir A. Sullivan, and
Goring Thomas. At the end of Tenterden Street is Dering Street, so
called in 1886 instead of Union Street.

At the southern end of the Square George Street was built about 1719,
and at first named Great George Street, in honour of George I. It is
wide at the Square end, but grows narrower till Maddox Street is
reached. Its chief feature is the Parish Church of St. George, designed
by John James, begun in 1713 and consecrated in 1724, one of Queen
Anne's fifty churches. The style is Classical, the body plain, but
having a Corinthian portico of good proportions, and a clock-tower 100
feet high. The interior contains a good Jesse window put in in 1841. In
1895 the building was redecorated, repaired, and reseated, and the old
organ by Snitzler, put up in 1761, was replaced by a Hope Jones electric
instrument. This church has been long celebrated for fashionable
marriages. Among those in the register are:

1769. The Duke of Kingston to Miss Chudleigh, she being already married
to Mr. Harvey, afterwards Earl of Bristol. She was afterwards tried and
convicted of bigamy.

1771. Richard Cosway, R.A., to Maria Hatfield.

1793. H.R.H. the Duke of Sussex to Lady Augusta Murray. The marriage was
declared void under the Royal Marriage Act.

1791. Sir William Hamilton to Emma Harte (Nelson's Lady Hamilton).

1797. The Earl of Derby to Miss Farren. The ceremony took place in
Grosvenor Square.

1849. Mr. Heath to Lola Montes.

1880. Mr. J. W. Cross to George Eliot.

Among the Rectors of St. George's were Charles Moss, D.D., 1759-74,
afterwards Bishop of Bath and Wells; and Henry Courtenay, 1774-1803,
made Bishop of Exeter in 1795.

At the bottom of George Street is Limmer's Hotel, formerly a noted
resort of sporting men, rebuilt and enlarged in 1876. No. 25 is a
handsome stone-fronted mansion, built in 1864 for Earl Temple. In 1895
it was in possession of the Duchess of Buckinghamshire. In a house on
the same site lived John Copley, the painter, and his son, Lord
Lyndhurst, d. 1863.

Other inhabitants: No. 3, Madame de Staël; 7, Admiral Sir Edward Hawke;
8, David Mallet, poet, 1758-63; Sir William Beechey, R.A.; Sir Thomas
Phillips, R.A., d. 1845; 9, Richard Brinsley Sheridan, 1803; 13, Lord
Chancellor Cowper, 1723; 15, Sir George Wombwell, afterwards for a short
time the Junior Travellers' Club; Earl of Albemarle, 1726; Lord Stair,
1726; Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, d. 1762; Sir Thomas Clarges, 1726;
Colonel Francis Charteris, 1729; Lord Shelburne, 1748.

Maddox Street was built by the Earl of Burlington in 1721, and named
after Sir Benjamin Maddox, the ground landlord (d. 1670). It contains a
museum of building appliances established in 1866 in connection with the
Institute of British Architects. Mill Street is so called from a mill
which stood near the corner of Hanover Square; near it is Pollen Street;
both are unimportant. Conduit Street, completed about 1713, is so called
from the city conduit which carried water from the Tyburn to Cheapside.
It was built for private residences, which have now been transformed
into shops. On the south side, where is now a tailor's, stood, until
1877, Trinity Chapel, a plain, red-brick building built by Archbishop
Tenison, in 1716, to replace the old wooden chapel which James II. had
originally set up on Hounslow Heath, but which was brought to, and left
at the top of, Old Bond Street about 1691. Four-fifths of the income
derived from the three houses on this site are devoted to the
maintenance of the district churches in the parish, the remainder going
to the parish of St. Martin's. The share of St. George's parish now
amounts to a capital sum of £5,075, and an income of £1,600.

At No. 9, once the town house of the Earls of Macclesfield, are the
offices of the Royal Institute of British Architects, established 1835,
and other kindred societies.

At the Princess of Wales' Tavern, now demolished, David Williams started
the Royal Literary Fund in 1772.

In this street lived: Duke of Wharton, 1725; Charles James Fox, b. here
1749; Boswell, 1772; Wilberforce, 1786; Delmé Radcliffe, d. 1832; Balfe,
composer; No. 36, Sir William Farquhar, physician to William Pitt; 37,
George Canning, 1802-03, after him Dr. Elliotson (the house has since
been rebuilt); 39, Sir Astley Cooper, surgeon, d. 1841.

Old and New Bond Street form a continuous thoroughfare, in which are
situated some of the most fashionable shops in London. Though somewhat
narrow, and architecturally uninteresting, it has always been a
favourite society promenade, and when first built was "inhabited by the
nobility and gentry" (Hatton). New Bond Street dates from about 1716,
and occupies part of the site of Conduit Mead (twenty-seven acres), the
property of the City of London. Of the houses the following are
interesting:

No. 135, the Grosvenor Gallery, the chief of the many picture-galleries
in Bond Street. The house was erected in 1877 for Sir Coutts Lindsey,
Bart., and contains a lending library and until recently the Grosvenor
Club (proprietary, social and non-political). The doorway, by Palladio,
was brought from Venice, and the front is by Soames.

Nos. 15 and 16 are Long's Hotel, much frequented by Sir Walter Scott; it
was rebuilt and enlarged in 1888.

At No. 18, now a jeweller's, was Steven's Hotel, fashionable during the
Regency, and afterwards a haunt of Lord Byron's.

At No. 169, on the west side, was the Clarendon Hotel, formerly the town
house of the Dukes of Grafton, and afterwards the residence, about 1741,
of the elder Pitt. The hotel was closed in 1877, and replaced by a row
of shops.

Inhabitants: Swift, 1727; Mrs. Delany, 1731; Lords Craven, Abergavenny,
and Coventry, 1732; George Selwyn, 1751; Dr. Johnson, 1767; Thomson,
the poet; No. 141, Lord Nelson, 1797; 146, Sir Thomas Picton, 1797-1800;
147, Mrs. and Miss Gunning, 1792; 148, Lord Camelford, 1803-04; 150,
Lady Hamilton, 1813.

Old Bond Street, and the adjoining Stafford Street, Albemarle and Dover
Streets, occupy the site of old Clarendon House, the grounds of which
covered nearly 30 acres, granted to Hyde, Earl of Clarendon, by Charles
II. The house, described by Evelyn as a noble pile, was erected in 1664,
and after being leased, in 1670, to the Duke of Ormonde, was sold in
1675 to the second Duke of Albemarle, who parted with it to Sir Thomas
Bond for £20,000. The latter, in 1686, built Bond Street, the west side
of which was first called Albemarle Buildings. Residents: 1708, Lords
Coningsby, Abingdon, and Anglesea; 1725, the Duke of St. Albans,
Countess of Gainsborough; 1741, Duke of Kingston; 1753, Countess of
Macclesfield; at the present No. 41, in 1768, died Laurence Sterne;
Pascal Paoli, 1761; Boswell, 1769; No. 24, 1791, Sir Thomas Lawrence,
R.A., afterwards the offices of the Artists' Benevolent Institution,
founded 1814, the Artists' Orphan Fund, and the Arundel Society for
promoting the knowledge of Art, established 1848. These have now been
removed.

Halfway down on the west side is the Royal Arcade, a short passage
leading to Albemarle Street, containing shops, with a handsome entrance
at each end. It was opened in 1883.

In 1820, on the east side, stood another arcade, communicating with the
Burlington Arcade, and named the Western Exchange. It failed, and was
closed.

In Stafford Street a stone let into the wall of a public-house had the
inscription: "This is Stafford Street, 1686." At the corner of Albemarle
Street, in 1852, was the Stafford Street Club, formed by Roman
Catholics.

Albemarle Street, Grafton Street, and Dover Street contain handsome
houses, the residences still of many of the aristocracy. The former was
built in 1684-1708 by Sir Thomas Bond, and named after the Duke of
Albemarle. Its chief houses are: No. 21, the Royal Institution,
established by Count Rumford in 1799, for "diffusing the Knowledge and
facilitating the general introduction of useful mechanical inventions
and improvements," etc.; has a stone front, with a row of half engaged
Corinthian columns, designed by Louis Vulliamy, and erected in 1837. It
contains a lecture-theatre, reading-room, and library of 50,000 volumes.
Members are elected by ballot, and courses of lectures are delivered on
science, philosophy, literature and art. Eminent men connected with the
Institution: Faraday, 1830; Murchison, Lyell, Sedgewick, Whewell,
Tyndall, Huxley, Lord Rayleigh, Professor Dewar. The President of the
Society is the Duke of Northumberland.

Opposite is St. George's (proprietary) Chapel, a plain building,
celebrated for its musical services.

No. 7 is the Royal Thames Yacht Club, instituted in 1823 for the
encouragement of yacht building and sailing on the river Thames. It was
formerly Grillion's Hotel. Here Louis XVIII. lodged in 1814, and
Grillion's Club, formed 1813, had its meetings. The Roxburghe Club
dinners also took place here.

No. 13 is the Albemarle Club, established in 1875, admits both sexes as
members. Messrs. R. and J. Adam lived here in 1792, and the house was
afterwards the Pulteney Hotel.

No. 22 is the office of the Royal Asiatic Society, founded in 1823, the
British Association for the Advancement of Science (1831), the London
Mathematical Society (1865), etc.

No. 23 was in 1808 the Alfred Club, which was succeeded by the
Westminster Club, which shortly failed.

No. 41, the Amphitryon Club, was established 1870; it was celebrated for
the excellence of its cuisine, and the high scale of its charges.

No. 43, the Junior Conservative Club, was established in 1889.

No. 50, the publishing house of John Murray, was removed here in 1812.
His private house next door was, between 1812 and 1824, the resort of
Byron and other literary celebrities.

The noted opposition club, the Coterie, formed in 1763, also met in this
street.

Other inhabitants: Lords Portmore, Poulet, and Orkney, 1708; Duke of
Rutland, Viscount St. John, 1725-41; Marquis of Granby, 1760; Lord Bute,
1764; Zoffany, artist, 1780; C. J. Fox; Richard Glover, 1785; Byron,
1807; No. 26, Sir James Mackintosh, 1811; 41, Hon. Hedworth Lambton;
41a, Earl of Sandwich.

Grafton Street was named after the Duke of Grafton, who, with Lord
Grantham, bought the site in 1735. It was first called Ducking Pond Row,
and in 1767 Evans Row.

No. 4, the New Club (proprietary), social and non-political, was
established with a view to providing a club conducted with economy in
administration. Here lived Lord Brougham (1849) till his death. The Turf
Club afterwards occupied it until 1877.

No. 7 is the Grafton Galleries, where periodical exhibitions of pictures
are held.

No. 10 is the Green Park Club for ladies, established in 1894, and
removed here in 1896.

Other inhabitants: C. J. Fox, 1783; No. 24, Mrs. FitzHerbert, 1796; 11,
Admiral Earl Howe, d. 1799; his daughter, the Marchioness of Sligo, and
her husband; Lord Stowell, after 1813; 16, Lord Stowell up to 1813;
Marquis Cornwallis, 1801; 20, Right Hon. George Tierney, 1809; 11, Sir
Dyce Duckworth; 24, Viscount Cranborne, C.B., M.P.; 23, Oswald
Partington, M.P.

Dover Street, built in 1686, was called after Henry Jermyn, Earl of
Dover, who died here 1708.

At the top of Hay Hill was Ashburnham House (Earl of Ashburnham), a
plain square building in a courtyard. It was occupied by the Russian
Embassy in 1851. Now Nos. 28 and 29 are the premises of the Sesame Club
for ladies.

No. 37, a stone-fronted house, is the town house of the Bishops of Ely,
built in 1772, and granted by Government in exchange for Ely Place.

No. 34, the Bath Club, opened 1895, contains swimming and other baths
for both sexes, gymnasium, etc. It has also an entrance in Berkeley
Street.

No. 35, the Empress Club for ladies, is on a scale of great
magnificence.

No. 36 was the Hogarth Club for gentlemen associated with the arts,
founded as the Artists' Club at the Turk's Head, Gerrard Street; removed
here from Henrietta Street, Cavendish Square, in 1888.

The Literary Club met in 1785 at Le Telier's in this street.

Other inhabitants: John Evelyn, 1699-1706; Marquis of Wharton; Harley,
Earl of Oxford; Dr. Arbuthnot, 1714-21; Pope, 1729; Bolingbroke, 1730;
Sir William Wyndham, 1731; Archdeacon Coxe, b. 1741; No. 23, Lady Byron,
1841; 29, John Nash, Architect; 35, Samuel Whitbread, M.P., d. 1815; 33,
Earl of Mexborough, 1895.

The steep descent of Hay Hill was so called from a farm in the
neighbourhood, which, perhaps, took its name from Tyburn (the "Ayburn,"
the "Eia Burn"), which flowed at the foot. Here in 1554 Sir Thomas
Wyatt's head was exposed, and three of his companions hung in chains. In
1617 Hay Hill was granted to Hector Johnstone for services to the
Elector Palatine. By Queen Anne it was granted to the Speaker of the
House of Commons, who sold it for £200 and gave the proceeds to the
poor. It afterwards came into the hands of the Pomfret family, and was
sold prior to 1759 for £20,300.

Berkeley Square was built about 1698 on the site of the gardens of
Berkeley House, the residence of Sir John Berkeley, afterwards Lord
Berkeley, of Stratton, to whose descendant, Earl Fitzhardinge, the
property still belongs. It slopes somewhat steeply to the south, and has
a well-wooded garden in the centre, planted about the end of the
eighteenth century. The equestrian statue of George III., by Beaupré
and Wilton, erected by Princess Amelia in 1766, was removed in 1827, and
the pedestal is vacant, but a drinking-fountain, the gift of the Marquis
of Lansdowne, stands at the south end. In 1805 the north side was
occupied by small tradesmen's shops, which have been replaced; but some
of the other houses are old, and still have the iron link extinguishers
before the door, which may be seen at many houses in this district. No.
25 is Thomas's Hotel, which dates from 1809. Charles James Fox lived
here in 1803. No. 40 is noteworthy for the style of its architecture,
but the finest house in the Square is Lansdowne House (Marquis of
Lansdowne), standing in its own garden on the south side. It was built
by Robert Adam for the Earl of Bute in 1765, and sold while still
unfinished to the Earl of Shelburne, afterwards Marquis of Lansdowne,
for £22,500. It contains a sculpture gallery commenced in 1778, with a
collection of statuary by Gavin Hamilton. The pictures were collected by
the third Marquis (1807-50), and comprise specimens by Raphael, Murillo,
Velasquez, Hogarth, Reynolds, Landseer, and others. The library was
added in 1790. Priestley was librarian when, in 1774, he discovered
oxygen.

No. 44, designed by Kent for Lady Isabella Finch, has a fine staircase
and drawing-room.

Other inhabitants: Corner of Bruton Street, No. 20, Colley Cibber,
1753; 45, the residence of the Earl of Powis, has a name-plate on the
door (here, in 1774, Lord Clive committed suicide); 10, Lord Clyde,
1863; 11, Horace Walpole, 1774-97, Lady Waldegrave, 1800; 6, second Earl
of Chatham; 13, Marquis of Hertford, Earl of Carnarvon; 17, Lord Rowton;
18, Sir S. B. Bancroft, actor; 21, Lady Anne Barnard, authoress of "Auld
Robin Gray," d. 1825; Lord Brougham and Vaux, 1842; 28, Earl Grey, Lord
Brougham, 1830-34, Sidney Smirke, R.A., architect, 1842; 38, here, in
1804, the Earl of Jersey married Lady Sophia Fane, daughter of the Earl
of Westmoreland, d. 1867, Lord Londesborough, 1891. It has now been
rebuilt in red brick by Lord Rosebery; 48, Lord Brougham, 1849; 52,
Field-marshal Lord Strathnairn, d. 1894.

Berkeley Street was built on the grounds of Berkeley House in 1684 by
Lady Berkeley, under the direction of John Evelyn. It skirts the garden
wall of Devonshire House, and is now chiefly occupied by stabling.

Here lived: Richard Cosway, R.A., 1770-80; No. 4, Shackleton, painter;
9, Pope's Martha Blount, 1731-63; General Bulkeley, d. 1815; Mrs.
Howard, mistress of Louis Napoleon.

Bruton Street, built _circa_ 1727, was named after Lord Berkeley's
Dorsetshire estate. It contains large private houses, the most
noticeable being No. 17, now Lord Stratheden and Campbell. At No. 22
(now Earl Bathurst) was the Pioneer Club for ladies.

Other inhabitants: The Duke of Argyle, d. 1743; Horace Walpole, 1749;
William Pitt, 1760; General Lawrence, d. 1775; R. Brinsley Sheridan,
1786; Mrs. Jamieson, 1851-54; General Sir G. Macdonald, d. 1850; 15,
Right Hon. Lord Hobhouse, P.C.; 16, Lord Granville, d. 1846; Lord
Chancellor Cottenham, 1847; 23, Sir W. H. Humphery, Bart.; 23A, Marquis
of Granby, M.P., 1895; 24, George Canning, 1809; Countess of Longford;
26, Sir Matthew Tierney, physician, 1841; 33, William Owen, R.A., d.
1825; 36, Earl of Orford.

The district west of Berkeley Square, bounded by Piccadilly and Park
Lane, has already been mentioned; though the streets are narrow and
cramped, and many of the houses small, it has always been a fashionable
locality.

In Hill Street (1743) lived: Lord Lyttelton, 1755-73; Admiral Byng,
1756; Smollett's Lady Vane, d. 1788; Mrs. Montagu, 1795; Lord Chief
Justice Camden, d. 1794; Earl of Carlisle, b. 1802; Sir J. F. Leicester,
1829; No. 5, Mr. Henry Brougham (Lord Brougham), 1824, Lord
Londesborough, 1835; 6 (a new house), Marquis of Tweeddale, 1895; 9,
Admiral Sir Philip Durham, 1841; 8, The Mackintosh of Mackintosh; 20,
Lord Barrymore; 21, William Grant, Earl of Malmesbury, d. 1820, Countess
Darnley; 26, Lord Revelstoke; 27, Countess of Roden, 1895; 30, Lord
Westbury; 33, Lord Hindlip; 34, Sir Charles G. Earle-Welby, Bart.; 41,
Sir Evelyn Ruggles-Brise, Bart.

In Farm Street (_circa_ 1750), named from a neighbouring farm, and now a
mews, is the Jesuit Church of the Immaculate Conception, a handsome and
lofty Gothic structure in Decorated style, designed by Scoles, and built
in 1849. The front is a miniature reproduction of the cathedral at
Beauvais. The high altar, designed by Pugin, was a gift by Miss Tempest,
and cost £1,000. The church is lit by a clerestory.

In South Street (_circa_ 1737), up to 1845, stood a Roman Catholic
chapel, attached to the Portuguese Embassy. Here is a school endowed by
General Stewart in 1726, and carried on in conjunction with the Hanover
Branch Schools.

Inhabitants: No. 10, Miss Florence Nightingale, 1895; 22, Beau Brummell;
33, Lord Holland; 36, Mlle. d'Este, daughter of the Duke of Sussex,
1835; 39, Lord Melbourne, 1837.

Aldford Street (_circa_ 1734) was named Chapel Street (from Grosvenor
Chapel) until 1886. Part of the north side has been lately pulled down,
and with it No. 13, where Beau Brummell lived in 1816 and Sir Thomas
Rivers Wilson in 1841.

Other inhabitants: No. 23, Shelley, 1813; 5, Earl of Kilmorey.

Deanery Street was built _circa_ 1737, and was first called Dean and
Chapel Street, from the Chapter of Westminster, the ground landlords. In
Tilney Street (_circa_ 1750) lived Soame Jenyns, d. 1787; No. 2,
Viscount Esher; 5, Lord Brampton; 6, Mrs. Fitzherbert, wife of George
IV.

Great Stanhope Street, built _circa_ 1750 by Lord Chesterfield, is
broad, and contained fifteen spacious houses, of which No. 7 was
demolished to build a mansion in Park Lane for a millionaire.

Inhabitants: No. 1, Lord Southampton, 1796, Duke of Bedford, 1810, Earl
Bathurst, 1822, Duke of Manchester, 1890; No. 1, Viscount Clifden; 4,
Earl of Mansfield, 1823, Marquis of Exeter, 1829, Lord Brougham, 1834;
5, Lord Raglan, 1853; 6, Lord Reay; 9, Lord Palmerston, 1814-1843; 10,
Bamber Gascoyne, grandfather of the present Marquis of Salisbury; 12,
Colonel Barré, d. 1802; Sir Robert Peel, 1820-25; 15, Viscount Hardinge,
d. 1856.

Waverton Street was renamed in 1886, instead of Union Street, built
_circa_ 1750. Charles Street is so called after Charles, Earl of
Falmouth, brother of Lord Berkeley. At the corner of Hayes Street a
public-house bears the sign of a running footman in the dress of the
last century, with the inscription, "I am the only running footman."

Inhabitants of Charles Street: No. 22, H.R.H. the Duke of Clarence
(William IV.); Admiral Sir G. Osborn, d. 1792; Sir G. Bulwer Lytton; the
Earl of Ellenborough, Viceroy of India; J. H. Scott, of Abbotsford;
Thomas Baring, M.P.; Lady Grenville, widow of the Premier, 1806-07; 33,
Admiral Sherard Osborn, 1795; Lady Margaret Fitzgerald, d. 1815; Sydney
Smith, 1835; 37, Earl of Dartmouth; 39, Earl of Camperdown; 40, Earl of
Cork and Orrery; 48, Lord Burghclere; 49, Lord Romilly.

In John Street (_circa_ 1730) is Berkeley Chapel, the property of Lord
Fitzhardinge, which dates from about 1750. It is a plain building both
within and without. The interior was redecorated in 1874, and the east
end and chancel in 1895, when a window was put up to the memory of the
late Duke of Clarence. Sydney Smith and Rev. H. F. Cary (1812) are the
best known among the incumbents.

In Queen Street (_circa_ 1753) lived: No. 13, Dr. Merriman, 1796-1810;
20, Thomas Duncombe, M.P., 1824; 22, Sir Robert Adair, d. 1855; 21, Duke
of Hamilton, d. 1895; 25, R. Brinsley Sheridan, 1810.

In Chesterfield Street lived George Selwyn, 1776; No. 3, Sir Ian
Hamilton; 4, Beau Brummell till 1810; 1, Sir W. H. Bennett.

Chesterfield Gardens contain fine red-brick houses built by Mr. Magniac
on the site of the gardens of Chesterfield House.

Inhabitants: No. 2, Lord Hothfield; 6, Duke of Grafton; 9, Lord
Leconfield.

Some fine houses with an outlet by steps to Pitt's Head Mews form
Seamore Place (_circa_ 1761).

Inhabitants: No. 8, Lady Blessington, 1832-36; 1, Alfred de Rothschild;
2, Lord Blythswood; 7, Sir James Lyle Mackay; 9, Hon. A. de Tatton
Egerton.

Curzon Street was named after Curzon, Earl Howe, d. 1758, to whose
family the property still belongs. It was known before that time as
Mayfair Row.

On the south side is Curzon or Mayfair Chapel, an ugly building, first
erected in 1730, but since rebuilt. The Rev. Alex Keith was the first
incumbent. Here he performed marriages without banns or license until
his excommunication in 1742. He then established a chapel close by,
where clandestine marriages were continued until the Marriage Act put an
end to them in 1754. The most celebrated of these were: the Duke of
Chandos and Mrs. Anne Jeffrey, 1744; Lord Strange and Mrs. Lucy Smith,
1746; Lord Kensington and Rachel Hill, 1749; Sewellis Shirley and
Margaret Rolle, widow of the second Earl of Oxford, 1751; Duke of
Hamilton and Miss Gunning, 1752; Lord George Bentinck and Mary Davies,
1753.

Opposite the chapel is Wharncliffe House, a plain building with
courtyard and garden. Here lived in 1708 Edward Shepherd, the builder of
Shepherd's Market. It was sold for £500 in 1750 to Lord Carhampton, who
rebuilt it. From 1776-92 it was occupied by Lady Fane, and by Lady Reade
from 1793 to 1813. In 1818 it was bought by Mr. J. Stuart Wortley, M.P.,
for £12,000, and is now in possession of the Earl of Wharncliffe.

Other inhabitants: No. 1 (pulled down in 1849), Madame Vestris; 8, the
Misses Berry, d. 1852; Baron Bunsen, 1841; 14, Richard Stonehewer, 1782,
Earl of Crewe; 16, Sir Henry Halford, d. 1844; 19, Earl of Beaconsfield,
d. 1882; 20, Viscount Curzon; 21, Earl Howe; 24, Sir Francis Chantrey
when a young man; 30, Lord Macartney, d. 1806; 37, Sir C. M. Palmer,
Bart.; 41, Prince Soltykoff; 64, Earl Percy.

At the end of Curzon Street is Bolton Row (1728), until 1786 called
Blicks Row.

Inhabitants: Martha Blount, 1731-37; Horace Walpole, 1748; Angelo, the
fencing master, 1800.

A passage leads between the gardens of Lansdowne and Downshire Houses to
Berkeley Street. The bars at each entrance were set up after the escape
of a highwayman, who galloped through.

Bolton Street was built in 1699, and was then the western limit of
London. Here lived: Earl of Peterborough, 1710-24; George Grenville, d.
1770; Madame d'Arblay, 1818; Lord Melbourne; Hon. Mrs. Norton, 1841.

The Young Pretender is said to have lodged here secretly when in London.

Clarges Street was built 1716-18 on the site of Clarges House, the
residence of Sir Walter Clarges, nephew of Anne Clarges, wife of Monk,
Duke of Albemarle. Hatton in 1708 described it as a stately new
building, inhabited by the Venetian Ambassador.

Here lived: Admiral Earl St. Vincent, 1717; Earl Ferrers, 1717; Lord
Archibald Hamilton, 1717; Lord Forester, 1717; Sir John Cope, 1746; Miss
O'Neil, actress; Mrs. Delany, 1742-44; Mrs. Vesey, 1780; No. 2, W. T.
Brandes, chemist, 1822-23; 3, Macaulay, 1838-40; 9, Daniel O'Connell,
1835; 10, Sir Nicholas Wraxall, 1792; 11, Lady Hamilton, 1804-06,
Countess Stanhope, 1807-29; 12, Edmund Kean, 1816-24; 14, William
Mitford, 1810-22; 43, Charles James Fox, 1803; 47, at the corner of
Piccadilly, a dull, ugly building, was formerly the residence of the
Dukes of Grafton. In 1876 the Turf Club, established 1866, moved here
from Grafton Street. Formerly the Arlington Club, it is now a great
whist centre, and one of the most select clubs in London.

Half-Moon Street, so called from a public-house at the corner of
Piccadilly, was built in 1730.

Here lived: Boswell, 1768; Shelley, 1813; No. 5, Mrs. Pope, actress, d.
1797; 26, Dr. Merriman; 27, Lola Montes, 1849; 29, John Galt, 1830; 40,
William Hazlitt, 1827-29; 45, the widow of Charles James Fox, 1809.

On either side of Mayfair Chapel are East and West Chapel Streets, built
_circa_ 1785. In the latter, at No. 7, lived Chantrey in 1804. They lead
to Shepherd's Market, a congeries of small streets, which occupy the
site of Brook Field, so called from Tyburn, which flowed through it.
Here was held the May Fair, from which the district derives its name.
First held in 1688, it lasted with many vicissitudes till the reign of
George III., when the Earl of Coventry, d. 1809, procured its abolition.
The ground in 1722 was an irregular open space, but in 1735 Shepherd's
Market was built by Edward Shepherd, the lower story consisting of
butchers' shops, and the upper containing a theatre where plays were
given during the fair time. The block was built in 1860, and now
consists of small provision shops.

Whitehorse Street, built about 1738, is so called from a public-house.
In Carrington Street (1738) was the residence of Kitty Fisher and of
Samuel Carte, the antiquary. Here also was the Dog and Duck tavern,
behind which was a pond 200 feet square, where the sport of duck-hunting
was pursued in the eighteenth century. The site is now marked by Ducking
Pond Mews. In Carrington Mews are the Curzon Schools in connection with
Christ Church, Down Street; they were built about 1826, and provide
tuition for 85 boys, 90 girls, and 110 infants. In Derby Street, No. 5
is the parish mission-house, used also for parochial meetings. Little
Stanhope Street was built about 1761, and leads to Hertford Street
(1764), now chiefly inhabited by doctors.

Here lived: Lord Charlemont, 1766; Lord Goderich, 1782; Earl of
Mornington, 1788-97; No. 10, General Burgoyne, d. 1792; R. Brinsley
Sheridan, 1796-1800; Mr. Dent, d. 1819; 11, Earl of Sandwich, d. 1792;
12, George Tierney, 1796-99; 14, Earl Grey, 1799, Sir W. Jenner; 23,
Robert Dundas, 1810, Charles Bathurst, 1822; 26, Earl of Liverpool, d.
1818; 36, Lord Langdale, 1829, Lord Lytton, 1831-34; 37, Granville Penn,
1822-24.

In this street also the Duke of Cumberland, brother of George III.,
married Miss Horton, the actress. On the site of Down Street (1730)
stood Mr. Deane's school, where Pope was educated. The north end was
called Carrington Place (1774) until 1867. On the west side is Christ
Church, a building of great beauty erected in 1863, with a one-sided
transept. The east window was presented by the Hope family. The street
has been lately rebuilt with red-brick flats and chambers.

Inhabitants: William Hazlitt, 1823-27; No. 8, Rev. H. F. Cary,
translator of Dante; 22, Sir W. G. Nicholson.

Brick Street at its southern end was until 1878 called Engine Street,
from a water-wheel by the Tyburn, which here crossed Piccadilly.

Piccadilly enters our district at the end of Bond Street, and forms its
boundary as far as Hyde Park Corner. The origin of the name is obscure;
the street is first so called in Gerard's "Herbal," 1633, but as early
as 1623 (and up to 1685) a gaming-house named Piccadilly Hall stood near
Coventry Street. In 1617, and for some years afterwards, the name
"Piccadill" was given to a fashionable collar, according to Gifford,
derived from _picca_, a spearhead, owing to the spiky nature of the
folds. Hence it may have been applied as a nickname to the hall and
street, but there are numerous other conjectural derivations. The name
was originally given to the part extending from the Haymarket to
Sackville Street. From that point to Brick Street was styled Portugal
Row, from Catharine of Braganza, wife of Charles II. The stone bridge
over Tyburn gave its name to the short distance between Brick Street and
Down Street; west of that was Hyde Park Road. As the houses were built
the name Piccadilly spread westwards, until, soon after 1770, the whole
street was so called. From the Park to Berkeley Street was also
popularly known as Hyde Park Corner, now confined to the actual vicinity
of the Park. In the sixteenth century Piccadilly was a lonely country
road known as the "Way to Redinge." In 1700 the western portion was
occupied by statuary yards, which soon after 1757 gave way to houses.
The remainder contains many large private houses, and in recent years
has been further changed by the erection of numerous handsome
club-houses. In 1844 it was widened between Bolton Street and Park Lane
by taking in a strip of the Green Park with a row of trees, near the
entrance to Constitution Hill, and throwing it into the roadway; and
again in 1902 by cutting off a part of the Park. The following are the
principal buildings:

At the corner of Albemarle Street the Albemarle Hotel. Hatchett's
restaurant, formerly called the New White Horse Cellar. After the
resuscitation of stage-coaching in 1886, Hatchett's was a favourite
starting-place, but is now little patronized. The new White Horse Cellar
was named after the White Horse Cellar (No. 55) on the south side, so
called from the crest of the House of Hanover, which existed in 1720,
and was widely renowned as a coaching centre. It is now closed.

Adjoining Hatchett's is the Hotel Avondale, named after the Duke of
Clarence and Avondale. The house was opened as a dining club, the
"Cercle de Luxe," in 1892, after the failure of which it was reopened as
an hotel in 1895.

No. 75 is the site of the Three Kings' Inn, where stood up to 1864 two
pillars taken from Clarendon House.

At the corner of Berkeley Street is the Berkeley Hotel and Restaurant,
formerly the St. James's Hotel, which stands on the site of the
Gloucester coffee-house.

Opposite, at the corner of the Green Park, is Walsingham House, an
enormous block built by Lord Walsingham in 1887, and on which he is said
to have spent £300,000. It has been used as an hotel, and is shortly to
be pulled down and rebuilt. Part of it was occupied by the Isthmian
Club, established in 1882 for gentlemen interested in cricket, rowing,
and other sports, which removed here from Grafton Street in 1887.

Opposite Berkeley Street stood the toll-gate, removed to Hyde Park
Corner in 1725. No. 78, adjoining it, is Devonshire House, the residence
of the Dukes of Devonshire, which stands in a courtyard concealed from
the street by a high brick wall, in which are handsome iron gates. It is
an unpretending brick building built by Kent in 1735, with a large
garden at the back. The interior is handsome, and contains a gallery of
pictures by old masters, a large collection of prints, and the famous
Devonshire collection of gems. On this site stood Berkeley House, built
about 1655 by Sir John Berkeley on a property called Hay Hill Farm, the
grounds then covering the present Lansdowne House and Berkeley Square,
as well as Berkeley and Stratton Street. It came into the possession of
the Cavendish family before 1697, but was destroyed by fire in 1733.
Queen Anne, when Princess of Denmark, lived here from 1692 to 1695.
Stratton Street, a cul-de-sac, was built about 1693 by Lady Stratton. At
No. 1 lived Mrs. Coutts (Miss Mellon), afterwards Duchess of St. Albans,
d. 1837. It now belongs to her heir, the Baroness Burdett-Coutts.

Other inhabitants: Lord Willoughby, of Brook, 1698; Hon. George
Berkeley, 1735; No. 2, Thomas Campbell, 1802; 7, William Gifford, 1797,
Right Hon. Arnold Morley; 11, Roger Wilbraham, 1822-29, Lord Welby; 12,
General Lord Lynedoch, d. 1803; 17, Earl of Clonmell.

At No. 80, Piccadilly, Sir Francis Burdett was arrested for treason in
1810, when he was imprisoned in the Tower. He was succeeded by the Duke
of St. Albans. In 1849 Lady Guilford occupied the house.

At No. 81 in 1807 was established Watier's Gambling Club, which lasted
until 1819; it was named after the Prince Regent's cook, the manager. It
afterwards became a public gaming-house, and is now a private residence.

No. 82, Bath House, at the corner of Bolton Street, was built for
Pulteney, Earl of Bath, who died 1764. The gardens then extended nearly
to Curzon Street. It was rebuilt in 1821 for Lord Ashburton.

At No. 89, the east corner of Half-Moon Street, lived Madame d'Arblay.

At No. 94, Cambridge House (Naval and Military Club), standing in a
courtyard, occupies the site of Carpenter's Statue Yard, which was
succeeded by an inn. It was built in 1760 for the Earl of Egremont. The
Marquis of Cholmondeley lived here 1809-29, after which the Duke of
Cambridge was the owner until 1850. Lord Palmerston occupied it from
1855 till his death in 1865, when it was purchased by the Naval and
Military Club, established 1862, for officers of the army and navy, who
made extensive alterations in 1878. This was the first club located in
Piccadilly.

No. 97, at the corner of Whitehorse Street, is a square white building;
the New Travellers' Club (social and non-political) was established
here. It now houses the Junior Naval and Military Club.

No. 100 is the Badminton Club (proprietary), built on the site of a
mews, and established in 1876 for gentlemen interested in coaching and
field sports. Next door is the palatial house of the Junior
Constitutional Club for members professing Conservative principles. On
the site stood the town house of the Earls of Mexborough.

No. 105, on the site of Jan Van Nost's figure-yard, the Earl of
Barrymore built a house in 1870, which remained unfinished at his death.
After being partially burned down, it was completed and opened as the
Old Pulteney Hotel. Here the Emperor of Russia and his sister, the Grand
Duchess of Oldenburg, stayed in 1814. In 1823 the house came into the
possession of the Marquis of Hertford, who partially rebuilt it in 1861.
His son, Sir Richard Wallace, sold it to Sir Julian Goldsmid, M.P., who
died 1896. It is now the Isthmian Club. Near here stood the Queen's
Meadhouse.

No. 106, at the corner of Brick Street, stands on the site of the
Greyhound Inn, which was purchased by Sir Henry Hunlocke in 1761. He was
succeeded in 1764 by the Earl of Coventry, who built the present house,
which became in 1829 the Coventry House Club. In 1854 it became the
home of the St. James's Club, established in that year as a centre for
the members of the British and foreign diplomatic bodies. Next door is
the Savile Club, until 1836 the residence of Nathan Meyer Rothschild,
the head of the banking firm.

No. 116, Hope House, at the corner of Down Street, a handsome structure,
was built by Mr. Hope in 1849 at a cost of £30,600, and was sold by his
widow to the members of the Junior Athenæum Club (social and
non-political), established in 1866, which is now located there. The
house was enlarged in 1887.

The private houses west of Down Street were built about 1873.

Two handsome houses, Nos. 127 and 128, were built about 1887. The first
is the Cavalry Club, established in 1890 for officers of the cavalry and
Yeomanry, and the second the Hyde Park Club.

No. 137, Gloucester House, stands on the site of Dickinson's Statue
Yard. It belonged to the Earl of Elgin in 1808, from whom it was
purchased in 1811 by the Duke of Gloucester on his marriage with
Princess Mary. He was succeeded by the present owner, the Duke of
Cambridge.

Other inhabitants of Piccadilly were: No. 96 (No. 15 Piccadilly west),
Mr. Dumergue, with whom Sir Walter Scott resided in 1800; 99 (then 23),
Sir William Hamilton, d. 1803; next door, Sir Thomas Lawrence; 114,
Lord Palmerston, before 1855; 133, Kitty Frederick, mistress of the Duke
of Queensberry, who built the house 1779; 139 (13, Piccadilly Terrace),
Lord Byron, 1815; 138 and 139, the Duke of Queensberry, 1778-1810.

Hamilton Place is a short but broad street, lined on the west with large
and fashionable houses. The ground, then part of Hyde Park, was granted
to Hamilton, Ranger of Hyde Park, 1660-84, who built a street of small
houses, named Hamilton Street, a cul-de-sac. This was replaced in 1809
by a street built by the Adams. In 1871, to relieve the congestion of
the traffic, the roadway was carried through the Park Lane.

Inhabitants: No. 1, Lord Montgomery, 1810 (Lord Chancellor Eldon built
the present house); 2, Duke of Bedford, 1810-19, Earl Gower (Duke of
Sutherland), Right Hon. Thomas Grenville, 1840-46, Duke of Argyle,
1847-51; 3, Earl of Cork, 1810-50, Earl of Dalkeith, 1870; 4, Earl of
Lucan, 1810, Duke of Wellington, 1814, Lord Grenville, 1822, Messrs.
Labouchere, 1823-29, Henry Bevan, 1840-48, Earl of Northbrook, 1895; 5,
Earl of Buckinghamshire, 1810-25, Marquis of Conyngham, 1870, Baron
Leopold de Rothschild, 1895; 6, Right Hon. John Sullivan, 1810, Earl of
Belmore, Lord Montagu, 1829, Earl of Home, 1843, Lord Southampton, 1847,
W. Munro, 1848, Hon. B. J. Munro, 1870; 7, Earl of Shannon, 1810-22,
William Miles, M.P., 1840-50. Nos. 7 and 8 are now the premises of the
Bachelors' Club, established 1881, one of the most fashionable young
men's clubs in London.

The space between Hamilton Place and Apsley House is now occupied by six
large houses.

It was up to the middle of last century a row of mean buildings, many of
them public-houses. Next to Apsley House stood, up to 1797, a noted inn,
the Pillars of Hercules. In 1787 M. de Calonne built a mansion on the
site now occupied by Nos. 146 and 147.

Inhabitants: No. 142, Miss Alice de Rothschild, heiress of the late
Baron Ferdinand de Rothschild; 145 was formerly Northampton House; 148,
Nathaniel Meyer, first Baron Rothschild, G.C.V.O., P.C.

Apsley House was built in 1778 by Lord Chancellor Apsley, Earl Bathurst,
to whom the site was granted by George III. The ground was formerly
occupied by the old Ranger's Lodge, and adjoining it was a tenement
granted by George II. to Allen, a veteran of Dettingen, for a permanent
apple-stall. In 1808 the house came into the possession of the Marquis
Wellesley, and in 1816 into that of his brother, the Duke of Wellington,
and it is now held by the fourth Duke.

It was faced with stone, and enlarged by the Wyatts in 1828, and in 1830
the Crown sold its interest in the building for £9,530. Further
alterations were made in 1853. In the west gallery was held annually the
Waterloo Banquet during the great Duke's life, and his study is still
preserved intact. The house contains a good collection of pictures and
many relics of the Napoleonic era.

Hyde Park Corner was the entrance to London until 1825, when the
turnpike was removed. Cottages existed here in 1655. It is now an open
triangular space, much enlarged when a portion of Green Park was thrown
into the roadway in 1888. In the centre, about 1828, was erected a
triumphal arch, an imitation of the arch of Titus at Rome. This, in
1846, was surmounted by a colossal equestrian statue of the Duke of
Wellington by Matthew Wyatt, which, in 1888, was removed to Aldershot,
and the arch shifted to the top of Constitution Hill. The vacant space
is now occupied by an equestrian statue of Wellington by Boehm.

In 1642 one of the forts for the defence of London against the Royalists
was erected on the ground opposite the present Apsley House.

The prolongation of Piccadilly to the westward is known generally as
Knightsbridge, as far as the stone bridge which spanned the Westbourne
at the present Albert Gate. Edward the Confessor granted the land to
the Abbey of Westminster, and it was disafforested in 1218. After the
Reformation Knightsbridge was preserved to the Abbey, and still belongs
to the Dean and Chapter of Westminster. In 1725 the name was applied to
the fields as far south as the King's Road (Eaton Square), but after the
building of Belgravia it was restricted to the street fronting Hyde
Park. Facing Hyde Park Corner is St. George's Hospital, established in
1733; the residence of the Earls of Lanesborough previously occupied the
site. The present building was erected from designs by William Wilkins,
R.A., in 1828, and enlarged in 1831, 1859, and 1868. In the latter year
the south-west wing was added. The question of the removal of the
hospital is exciting much attention at present. In connection with the
hospital is Atkinson Morley's Convalescent Hospital at Wimbledon. The
following celebrated doctors have been attached to this hospital:
Matthew Baillie, 1787-1800; John Hunter, 1768-93; Sir Benjamin Brodie,
1808-40; Sir Prescott Hewett, 1848-91.

Facing Hyde Park a row of well-built private houses now forms St.
George's Place (1839), which, until lately, consisted of low brick
buildings. One of these is now being pulled down to make way for the
station of the new Piccadilly and Brompton Electric Railway. Close by is
the Alexandra Hotel, built soon after the marriage of the present Queen,
after whom it was named. Behind is Old Barrack Yard, which adjoined the
old Guards Barracks, established about 1758. After being discontinued
for troops, it was used as a depot until 1836, when the lease was sold
and the building let out as tenements. The site is now occupied by St.
Paul's Schools in Wilton Place. The houses beyond Wilton Place are being
rebuilt further back to widen the roadway, which has hitherto been very
narrow, and which during the afternoon in the season is often blocked by
the traffic.

Inhabitants: Dr. Parr; No. 14, Liston, actor, d. 1846.

Park Side, the north side of Knightsbridge, is freehold of the Dean and
Chapter, and rented by the descendants of Mr. Gamble of Trinity Chapel.
Shops were erected here about 1810. At the east end stood the stocks in
1805, and in 1835, close by, a watch-house and pound. The Queen's Head,
an old inn dating from 1576, was pulled down in 1843. Trinity Chapel
belonged to an ancient lazar-house or hospital, held by the family of
Glassington under the Abbey of Westminster in 1595. The chapel was
rebuilt in 1629 and 1699, and repaired in 1789. It was entirely
restored and remodelled in 1861 at a cost of £3,300. A charity school,
instituted about 1785, adjoined it until 1844, when it was removed and
attached to St. Paul's. In Knightsbridge Chapel marriages were performed
without banns or license in a manner similar to those at Mayfair Chapel.
The most celebrated of these are: Sir Robert Walpole to Katherine
Shorter, 1700; Henry Graham to the Countess of Derwentwater, daughter of
Charles II., 1705.

West of the chapel on the site of the hospital stood the Cannon Brewery,
erected in 1804, and demolished in 1841 to make Albert Gate. The French
Embassy, east of the gate, was built by Cubitt in 1852 for Hudson, the
Railway King, and has lately been enlarged. The stone bridge was
removed, and the stream arched over in 1841.

[Illustration: MAYFAIR DISTRICT.

Published by A. & C. Black, London.]

In 1765 George II. attempted to buy the fields adjoining Buckingham
Palace to the west, but as Granville refused to sanction the expenditure
of £20,000 for the purpose, the property was bought by Lord Grosvenor
for £30,000, and Grosvenor Place was built in 1767-70, overlooking the
Palace gardens. It has always been a fashionable place of residence. The
houses below St. George's Hospital were formerly small and plain. The
best-known inhabitants were: No. 1, Dr. Lewes' School of Anatomy and
Medicine; 4, Lord Egremont (the third); north corner of Halkin Street,
the Earl of Carlisle, Byron's guardian.

These houses were replaced in 1873-76 by five palatial stone houses
built for the Duke of Grafton, Duke of Northumberland, Sir Anthony
Rothschild, and Earl Stanhope.

They are occupied now by: No. 1, the Wellington Club (proprietary),
social and non-political; 2, Duke of Northumberland; 4 and 5, Lord
Iveagh.

At the south corner of Chapel Street stood the Lock Hospital,
established in 1747, attached to which was a chapel, built 1764, and an
asylum for penitent females, founded by the Rev. Thomas Scott in 1787.
The chapel was celebrated for its preachers, which included Martin
Madan, Thomas Scott, C. E. de Cöetlogon, Dr. Dodd, Rowland Hill, etc.
The buildings, of red brick, and very plain, were pulled down in 1846,
and the institution removed to Harrow Road. On the site were built
Grosvenor Place Houses, renamed 18, 19, 20, Grosvenor Place in 1875. At
No. 20 now lives Earl Stanhope.

In Grosvenor Row, at the south end of Grosvenor Place, stood a court
named Osnaburgh Row (1769), after the Duke of York, who was also Bishop
of Osnaburgh. It was cleared away about 1843. Near it stood the Duke's
Hospital for Invalid Guards, closed in 1846 and removed 1851. Adjoining
it was an old inn, the Feathers.

Other inhabitants: No. 6, Sir H. Campbell Bannerman; 15, Duke of Atholl,
1773; 44, Hanoverian Embassy, 1859 (the King of Hanover stayed here in
1853); 24, Bishop of Worcester, 1859; 46, Sir James Graham, 1868; 19,
Sir Anthony Rothschild, 1859; 20, Earl Stanhope; 31, Earl Cathcart.

The district bounded by Knightsbridge and Grosvenor Place, as far as
Sloane Street and Ebury Street, is known as Belgravia, after Belgrave
Square, which occupies the centre. Up to 1825 it was named the Five
Fields, and was bare, swampy ground on which were a few market gardens.
Only one road, the King's Road (Eaton Square), crossed it, though there
were numerous footpaths, rendered insecure by the highwaymen and
footpads who infested them. It was also a favourite duelling-ground. In
1826 a special Act of Parliament empowered the owner, Lord Grosvenor, to
drain the site, raise the level, etc., and in the course of the next few
years Messrs. Cubitt and Seth Smith built the streets and squares which
now rank as a fashionable centre with the neighbourhood of Grosvenor
Square. The houses are mainly uniform in type--square, substantial,
plaster-fronted structures, which give an aspect of monotony to the
whole district.

Belgrave Square, 10 acres in extent, is 684 feet long by 637 feet wide,
and was designed by Basevi and built by Cubitt in 1825-28. The detached
houses in the corners are by Philip Hardwick, R.A., and H. E. Kendall
(west side). An enclosed garden occupies the centre.

Inhabitants: No. 5, General Sir George Murray, d. 1846, Earl of
Shaftesbury, d. 1886; 15, Duke of Bedford; 16, Sir Roderick Murchison,
geologist, d. 1871; 12 (western corner house), the late Earl Brownlow,
Earl of Ancaster; 18, Austro-Hungarian Embassy; 23, Viscountess
Hambledon, widow of Right Hon. W. H. Smith; 32, Admiral Earl of
Clanwilliam.

The south corner house was built for Mr. Kemp of Kemptown. No. 24
General Lord Hill occupied in 1837. After his death, Lord Ducie occupied
it till 1853; 36, H.R.H. Duchess of Kent, 1840; 37, Earl of Sefton,
1896; 45, Duchess of Montrose, d. 1895; 48, Viscount Combermere, d.
1891; 49 was built in 1850 for Mr. Sidney Herbert, Duke of Richmond and
Gordon; Earl of March.

The principal approach to Belgrave Square is by Grosvenor Crescent, a
broad and handsome street commenced in 1837, but not completed until
about 1860. Where is now the south-west wing of St. George's Hospital
stood Tattersall's famous auction mart for horses, etc., and
betting-rooms. The establishment was started by Richard Tattersall,
trainer to the last Duke of Kingston, about 1774, and was long popularly
known as "the Corner." It was pulled down in 1866, and removed to
Knightsbridge Green.

Inhabitants: No. 5, Lord Ashbourne; 8, Right Hon. Sir George Trevelyan,
Bart., M.P.; 11, Duke of Leeds; 14, C. Bulkeley Barrington, M.P.; 15,
Grosvenor Crescent Club for Ladies. Behind the north-west side of the
Square is Wilton Crescent, with a garden in the centre, and Wilton
Place, both built by Seth Smith between 1824 and 1828.

Inhabitants, Wilton Crescent: No. 16, Right Hon. James Lowther, M.P.;
24, Henry Hallam, d. 1859; 20, Sir George Wombwell, Bart.; 26, Lord
Lamington; 28, Lord De Ros; 30, Lord John Russell; 37, Lord Chewton, who
was killed at the Battle of the Alma; 39, Rev. W. J. Bennett, 1850.

Wilton Place stands on the site of a cow-yard, and is a broad street
with fine houses on the east side. Here is St. Paul's Church, celebrated
for the ritualistic tendencies of its successive vicars. It was built in
1843 by subscription on the drill ground of the old barracks, and cost
£11,000, the site being given by the Marquis of Westminster. The
building by Cundy is handsome, in Early Perpendicular style, and has
sittings for 1,800. It was enlarged and altered in 1889 and 1892, when
a side-chapel, by Blomfield, was added. Adjoining is the Vicarage, and
opposite are St. Paul's National Schools.

Here lived: No. 4, Miss Reynolds, actress; 13, Hon. Thomas Stapleton,
antiquary; 15, Sir James Macdonald, the defender of Hougoumont, d. 1857;
21, Mr. Westmacott.

In the adjoining Kinnerton Street (1826), so called from one of the
Grosvenor estates, stood the dissecting school and anatomical museum of
St. George's Hospital, removed to the new wing in 1868. At No. 75 is an
institute for providing and promoting humane treatment of animals,
founded by Lady Frances Trevanion _circa_ 1890. It is supported by
voluntary contributions.

Motcomb Street was built in 1828, and named after the property of the
Dowager Marchioness of Westminster in Dorset.

On the north side is the Pantechnicon, built _circa_ 1834 as a bazaar
for the sale of carriages, furniture, etc.; it had also a wine and toy
department. It was burnt down in 1874, but has been rebuilt, and is now
used for storing furniture, etc.

West Halkin Street and Halkin Place on the west side, and Halkin Street
on the east side of the Square, are named after Halkin Castle, the Duke
of Westminster's seat in Flintshire. The first contains a chapel of
singular shape, the northern end being wider than the southern. It was
built by Seth Smith as an Episcopal church, but is now Presbyterian.

Halkin Street was commenced about 1807, but until 1826 it, as well as
the other streets leading out of Grosvenor Place, terminated in a
mud-bank, on the other side of which were the Five Fields. On the north
side is Mortimer House, a plain brick building standing in a courtyard.
It was the residence of the late Earl Fitzwilliam, but is now Lord
Penrhyn's. Next to it is Belgrave Chapel (St. John's), a proprietary
church in Grecian style, built in 1812, with accommodation for 800. The
remaining houses are small and unpretending, as are those in Chapel
Street, built 1775-1811, and so called from the Lock Hospital Chapel,
which stood at the corner of Grosvenor Place. Here lived Mr. Richard
Jones (Gentleman Jones). No. 24, General Sir W. K. Grant, d. 1825.

On the other side of Belgrave Square, Chesham Place (1831) leads to a
triangular space, with a small garden in the centre. Here lived: Madame
Vestris, 1837; No. 37, Lord John Russell; 35, Sir Charles Wood, 1851;
29, the Russian Embassy.

The name is taken from the seat of the Lowndes family, the ground
landlords. In Lowndes Street lived: No. 33, Colonel Gurwood, editor of
"Wellington's Despatches"; 40, Mrs. Gore, novelist.

In Chesham Street, at No. 7, lived Henry Parish, diplomatist.

The feature of Lyall Street (1841) is Chesham House, at the corner, in
which is the Russian Embassy, noted under Chesham Place. On the other
side of Lyall Street is Lowndes Place, built about 1835. Eaton Place is
a dull but broad and fashionable street.

Inhabitants: General Caulfield; Sir Robert Gardiner, Sir H. Duncan, d.
1836; Sir Thomas Troubridge, d. 1852; No. 5, Mr. Heywood, 1859; 14, Sir
George Grey, 1859; 15, Lord Kelvin; 18, Dr. Lushington, 1859; 26, Sir
Erskine Perry, 1859; 38, Mr. Justice Wightman, 1859; 80, Kossuth, 1851;
84, Duke of Atholl; 87, Sir William Molesworth, d. 1853; 93, General Sir
Archibald Alison, Bart.; and many others.

Off Eaton Place is West Eaton Place, where lived General Sir Peregrine
Maitland, d. 1852.

Belgrave Place, so named in 1879 instead of Upper Eccleston Street; and
Upper Belgrave Street, built _circa_ 1827, have the same general
characteristics.

Inhabitants: No. 2, Mrs. Gore; 3, Lord Charles Wellesley; 13, Earl of
Munster, son of William IV., who shot himself in 1842. It is now Lord
Harewood's residence.

In Chester Street, commenced 1805, lived: No. 5, Right Hon. Sir
Frederick Shaw, d. 1876; 7, Dr. Pettigrew, d. 1860; 12, Sir Douglas
Galton, d. 1899; 13, Dr. Broughton, d. 1837; 27, Colonel Sibthorpe, d.
1855.

Wilton Street was begun in 1817. Here lived Mr. Spencer Perceval, son of
the Minister.

Grosvenor Place, Lower Grosvenor Place, Hobart Place, Eaton Square, and
Clieveden Place occupy the site of the King's private road, which had
existed before as a footpath, but was made a coach-road by Charles II.
as a short-cut to Hampton Court. It ran along the north garden of Eaton
Square, and crossed the Westbourne at Bloody Bridge, a name which dates
as far back as 1590. On the north side, where is now Eaton Terrace, was
a coppice which provided wood for the Abbey. Houses were first built on
it about 1785, and in 1725 a turnpike existed at its junction with
Grosvenor Place. Admission to the road was by ticket, but in 1830 it was
thrown open to the public under the name of the King's Road. Part of
Lower Grosvenor Place, however, was named Arabella Row in 1789, but
became known by its present name in 1789. Here in a shabby house lived
Lord Erskine after resigning the Lord Chancellorship in 1806.

Hobart Place was first so called in 1836, but part of it was called
Grosvenor Street West until 1869. It leads to Eaton Square, built by
Cubitt in 1827-53. This is 1,637 feet long by 371 feet wide, 15 acres in
extent, and contains six enclosed gardens. The houses are of the usual
type. At the west end is St. Peter's Church, built in 1826 in Ionic
style from designs by Hakewell at a cost of £21,515. An altar-piece by
Hilton, R.A., was presented by the British Institution in 1828, but was
removed in 1877, and is now in the South Kensington Museum. After being
nearly burnt down in 1837, it was rebuilt by Gerrard, and in 1872 a
chancel and transepts in Byzantine style, by Sir A. Blomfield, were
added. The nave was remodelled in 1874, and further alterations have
been made in the last ten years at a cost of £5,000. Here are buried
Admiral Sir E. Codrington, d. 1851, and General Lord Robert Somerset,
G.C.B. The Right Rev. G. H. Wilkinson, Bishop of St. Andrew's, was vicar
from 1870-83.

Inhabitants: No. 8, Sir R. T. Reid, K.C., M.P.; 16, Mr. Justice Willes,
1859; 43, Lord Cottesloe; 60, Lord Sandhurst; 66a, Lord Walsingham,
F.R.S.; 71, in 1809 the official residence of the Speaker; 74, Cardwell,
1859; 75, Ralph Bernal, M.P., d. 1853, Mr. George Peabody, d. 1869,
Viscount Knutsford; 76, Viscount Falkland; 83, Lord Chancellor Truro, d.
1855; Lord Aberdare; 85, Sir Edward Malet, G.C.B., P.C.; 92, Admiral Sir
Edward Codrington, d. 1851; 110, General Sir A. Codrington, 1859; 114,
Lady Baden-Powell; 115, Earl of Ellenborough, 1859, Marquis of Hertford;
Colonel Sibthorpe, d. 1855; Jacob Omnium (Mr. J. Higgins).

Clieveden Place, first built over in 1826, was so named in 1890 from the
Duke of Westminster's late estate near Cookham, instead of its original
name, Westbourne Place.

Between Clieveden Place and Pimlico Road the streets are narrow and
unimportant. In Westbourne Street (1826), so called from the
neighbouring Westbourne River, stood the York Hospital for invalid
soldiers, removed to Chatham in 1819. On the east side is a Baptist
chapel, a plain building, erected in 1825. Skinner Street (1842) and
Whittaker Street (1836) lead to Holbein Place, built over the
Westbourne, and called in 1877 "the Ditch." Leading from Whittaker
Street are Passmore Street (1837) and Union Street, containing
industrial dwellings.

Inhabitants--Chester Place: Right Hon. Charles Buller, d. 1848. Chester
Square: No. 19, Mantell, the geologist, d. 1852; 24, the poet Shelley's
widow, d. 1851.

The houses in Chester Square and the neighbourhood are not so
pretentious as those in Belgravia, but it is still a fashionable place
of residence. In South Eaton Place, near the south end, stood the Star
and Garter Tavern, well known about 1760. The end of this street was
called Burton Street (1826) until 1877. In Elizabeth Street, first
called Eliza Street in 1820, and until 1866 divided into Upper Elizabeth
Street, Elizabeth Street, and Elizabeth Street South, stood the Dwarf
Tavern, noted about 1760. At the south end, near St. Philip's Parochial
Hall and Parsonage, is St. Michael's Mission House, built in 1893.
Gerald Road, 1834 until 1885 named Cottage Road, contains the station of
the R Division of Police.

Eccleston Street, with which in 1866 was incorporated Eccleston Street
South, was so called from Ecclestone in Cheshire, where the Duke of
Westminster has property. A house on the west side inhabited by Sir
Frances Chantrey was pulled down during the construction of the
underground railway. On the same side is the Royal Pimlico Dispensary,
established in 1831. Part of the east side has been rebuilt. In
Eccleston Place is the station of the Westminster Electric Supply
Company, which supplies this district with electric light. In Lower
Belgrave Street (1810), the lower end of which was till 1867 named
Belgrave Street South, are St. Peter's National Schools, a large
red-brick building with a playground, in connection with St. Peter's,
Eaton Square.

At the end of Grosvenor Place great improvements were made in 1868 by
the building of Grosvenor Gardens, when Grosvenor Street West, and
Upper and Lower Eaton Street were swept away.

At No. 27, Upper Eaton Street, lived George Frederick Cooke, 1870; 25,
Thomas Campbell, 1803; 19, Lower Eaton Street, Mrs. Abington, actress,
1807, Mr. Pinkerton, 1802. The present houses are very large and
handsome.

Inhabitants: No. 1, Spanish Embassy; 46, Lord Herschell.

On the west side, at the corner of Buckingham Palace Road, are Belgrave
Mansions, built from designs by Cundy in 1868, a large block in French
Renaissance style, with a frontage of nearly 300 feet. The ground-floor
is occupied by shops, and above are five floors of flats. The centre of
the open space is occupied by two triangular enclosed gardens, and is
crossed by Ebury Street, once an open lane leading over the fields to
Chelsea. Houses were built on it after 1750, and in 1779 the
north-eastern end was named Upper Ranelagh Street and Ranelagh Street.
The south-western end was Upper Ebury Street, but the whole was renamed
Ebury Street in 1867. It is an uninteresting street of unpretending
houses and shops. In Upper Ebury Street lived: Rodwell the composer;
William Skelton, engraver, d. 1848; No. 174 is the Boys' School
belonging to the parish of St. Barnabas.

At the north-east end of Ebury Street is Victoria Square, a small square
of plain houses built about 1837, out of which Albert Street leads to
Grosvenor Place. In the square lived, at No. 8, Thomas Campbell,
1841-43; 5, Earl of Mount Edgcumbe.

At the other end, near Ebury Bridge, is Ebury Square, built about 1820
on the site of Ebury Farm. This ancient property, which derives its name
from the Saxon _ey_, water, and _burgh_, a fortified place, is mentioned
in 1307, when permission was granted by Edward I. to John de Benstede to
fortify it. In Queen Elizabeth's time it consisted of a farm of 430
acres, let on lease for £21 per annum. In 1676 it came into the
possession of the Grosvenor family, and in 1725 embraced a long narrow
area, reaching from Buckingham House to the Thames between the
Westbourne and the present Westmoreland Street.

The square was partially destroyed in 1868, but the old houses remain on
the north-west and south sides. In the centre is a garden, and the
ground between it and Buckingham Palace Road is occupied by St.
Michael's National Schools, opened in 1870, a spacious building,
accommodating about a thousand scholars; there is a large playground.
The site had been previously occupied by the Pimlico Literary
Institution, built in 1830 from designs by J. P. Deering.

On the remaining side a handsome block of industrial dwellings (Ebury
Buildings) was built in 1872, when the old Flask Lane (1785) was swept
away. The approaches on the north-west are Semley Place (1785), late
Flask Row, and Little Ebury Street (1823). At the end of Avery Farm Row
(probably a corruption of Ebury), opposite Ebury Bridge, is a
drinking-fountain, erected in memory of the second Marquis of
Westminster, d. 1869, by his widow.

Buckingham Palace, which falls partly within St. George's district and
partly within St. Margaret's, Westminster, has already been described in
the volume on Westminster.

The Royal Mews, the entrance to which is in Buckingham Palace Road,
contains a large riding-school, a room for the state harness, stabling
for the state and other horses, and houses for forty carriages. Here
also are kept the old and new state coaches, the former of which was
built in 1762 of English oak, with paintings by Cipriani, and cost
£7,660.

Buckingham Palace Road, now a broad street with large houses and shops,
was in 1725 an open country road, known as the coach-road to Chelsea.
The houses in it are rated under the name of Pimlico as late as 1786,
but rows of houses under various names had been built earlier--Stafford
Row in 1752, Queen's Row in 1766. These, with Victoria Road (1838),
Stockbridge Terrace (1836), King's Road, Lower and Upper Belgrave Place
and Belgrave Terrace (1826), were united under the name of Buckingham
Palace Road in 1867, and in 1894 Union Place, Holden Terrace, and South
Place were incorporated with it. The portion facing the Palace is named
Buckingham Gate, and consists of seven large private houses. On this
site, facing the Park, stood Tart Hall, the residence of Viscount
Stafford (see "Westminster").

Facing Grosvenor Gardens is the Grosvenor Hotel, opened in 1862 in
connection with Victoria Station. The building, designed by Knowles, is
272 feet long, 75 feet deep, and 150 feet high, and cost £100,000.

Beyond, on the north side, a row of large red-brick houses has been
built since 1883, containing Buckingham Palace Mansions (flats), the
National Training School of Cookery, and the City of Westminster Public
Baths. Here also is St. Peter's Institute, in connection with St.
Peter's, Eaton Square, which cost £15,000. It consists of a club for 600
men and 600 boys, with gymnasium, class-rooms, reading-room,
concert-hall, etc.

Buckingham Palace Gardens, also on the north side, is a row of large,
ornamental, red-brick houses, newly erected, adjoining the Free Library
built by Bolton and opened in 1894. On the first floor is a natural
history collection presented by a parishioner. St. Philip's Church,
built 1887-90, is a plain but spacious red-brick building, in Early
English style by Brierley and Demaine, with seats (free) for 850.
Adjoining is the Grosvenor Club and Grosvenor Hall, used for social
entertainments, etc. Nearly the whole of the south side of the road has
recently been demolished in view of the extension of Victoria Station.

Inhabitants--Stafford Row: W. Ryland, engineer, executed for forgery
1767; Mrs. Radcliffe, authoress of the "Mysteries of Udolpho"; Richard
Yates, d. 1796. Lower Belgrave Place: No. 3, George Grote, historian
(later 102, Buckingham Palace Road); 29 and 30, Sir Francis Chantrey,
1814-41 (later 98, Buckingham Palace Road); 27, Allan Cunningham, poet,
1824-42; 96, Henry Weekes, R.A. Buckingham Palace Road: E. B. Stephen,
R.A., 1882.

From the end of Buckingham Palace Road Chelsea was reached by the
present Pimlico Road, so called in 1871, when the old names of Jews'
Row, Grosvenor Row (1785), and Queen Street (1774) were abolished. The
origin of the name Pimlico is uncertain. There was one also at Hoxton,
where a certain Ben Pimlico kept a noted hostelry in Queen Elizabeth's
time. It is now officially used to denote the whole district south of
Knightsbridge, but is popularly confined to the part between Chester
Square and the Thames. It began to be sparsely inhabited in 1680, after
which date it is mentioned occasionally in the rate-books, and regularly
after 1739.

On the north side, near the east end, are two narrow streets--Clifford's
Row (1785), and King Street (1785). At the corner of Ebury Street stood
an old inn, the Goat and Compasses, now replaced by the Three Compasses
public-house. Further on is the Chapel of St. John the Baptist, built
about 1850 as a chapel of ease to St. Barnabas. Adjoining is the site of
the Chelsea Bun House, in its best days kept by Richard Hand, "who has
the honour to serve the Royal Family." It was celebrated by Swift in
1711, and was taken down in 1839. Opposite stood Strombelo or Stromboli
House, a minor place of amusement, at its height in 1788. Near here Nell
Gwynne is said to have lived, and her name is kept up by the Nell Gwynne
Tavern and a passage called Nell Gwynne Cottages.

Between the Pimlico and Commercial Roads are several small streets. In
Bloomfield Place stood St. John's School for girls, established in 1859
under the auspices of the Sisterhood of St. John; adjoining, under the
same management, St. Barnabas' Mission House and St. Barnabas'
Orphanage, established in 1860. In Bloomfield Terrace lived at No. 1
Captain Warner, inventor of the "long range," d. 1853.

In Church Street (1846) stands the college of St. Barnabas, founded by
Rev. W. J. Bennett. The buildings are of Kentish ragstone, were designed
by Cundy, and contain a church, clergy house, and school-house with
teacher's residence. The church, originally built as a chapel of ease to
St. Paul's, Knightsbridge, is in Early Pointed style, and has a tower
and spire of Caen stone 170 feet high, with ten bells. The edifice cost
£15,000, and was at the opening signalized by ritualistic disturbances.
The schools built on the site of the Orange Tavern and tea-gardens in
the Pimlico Road were designed for 200 boys, 200 girls, and 200 infants,
but a separate boys' school has been since built in Ebury Street.

Ranelagh Grove occupies the site of The Avenue, which led from Ebury
Bridge to old Ranelagh House, but now ends in the blank wall of Chelsea
Barracks.

In Ranelagh Terrace (now abolished), near Ebury Bridge, d. at No. 2 the
Rev. T. Pennington, son of Elizabeth Carter, in 1852.

Commercial Road (1842) is occupied by works and industrial dwellings
(Gatcliff Buildings, 1867, and Wellington Buildings). On the west side
is the wall of Chelsea Barracks.

It leads by the Chelsea Bridge Road to the embankment at Victoria
Bridge, a light and graceful suspension bridge designed by Page and
opened in 1858. The structure, which cost £88,000, is built of iron, and
rests on piers of English elm and concrete enclosed in iron casings. The
piers are each nearly 90 feet in length by 20 feet in width, with curved
cutwaters. The whole bridge is 915 feet long, 715 feet between
abutments, the centre span 347 feet, side-spans each 185 feet, and there
is a clear water-way of 21 feet above high-water mark. The roadway is
made by two wrought-iron longitudinal girders extending the whole length
of the bridge, suspended by rods from the chains. Toll-houses stand at
each end, but it was purchased in 1879 for £75,000 as a free bridge.

Near the end of the bridge stood the White House, a lonely habitation
much used by anglers; opposite, on the Surrey side, was a similar
building, the Red House. A short way to the east stood the Chelsea
Waterworks, incorporated as a company in 1724, though waterworks seem to
have existed here before that date. They extended, with the Grosvenor
Canal and basin (now occupied by Victoria Station), over 89 acres, and
supplied water to Chelsea, Knightsbridge, Belgravia, Pimlico, and part
of Westminster. The company has now removed to Kingston, and the site is
occupied by the western pumping-station of the main drainage system of
London, built 1873-75 at a cost of £183,000.

Graham Street (1827) incorporated with which in 1894 were Graham Street
West and Gregory Street (1833), contains the Church of St. Mary the
Virgin, a chapel of ease to St. Paul's, Knightsbridge, a red-brick
building with a spire, built in 1872. Caroline Street (1834) is of no
interest. Eaton Terrace (1826) was until 1884 named Coleshill Street. At
the corner of Clieveden Place is an old proprietary chapel, Eaton
Chapel, in Grecian style, built about 1800, with sittings for 1,200. A
chapel existed here, however, before that date, known as the Five Fields
Chapel.

Chester Terrace was in 1878 amalgamated with Minera Street (1830), and
in 1887 with Newland Street (1836).

Chester Square is very long and narrow; it is five acres in extent, and
was commenced about 1834. It has three enclosed gardens. At the west end
is the handsome church of St. Michael, erected 1844-46 in the Decorated
style from designs by Cundy. The tower has a lofty spire. The chancel
was extended in 1874, and the building has on several occasions been
enlarged and restored.

Chester Place, at the east end of the square, was incorporated with it
in 1874.

The portion of our district lying between the Buckingham Palace Road
and Grosvenor Canal and the eastern boundary forms an acute-angled
triangle with the apex at Buckingham Palace. The streets north of
Victoria Street, which lead into Buckingham Palace Road from the east,
are narrow and unimportant. Here is Palace Street (1767), until 1881
called Charlotte Street, after Queen Charlotte, the first royal occupant
of the Palace. In it is St. Peter's Church, a plain building with seats
for 200, which existed as Charlotte Chapel in 1770. Its most famous
incumbent was Dr. Dodd, who was executed for forgery in 1777.
Subsequently it was held by Dr. Dillon, who was suspended in 1840. It
was then a proprietary chapel, but is now a chapel of ease to St.
Peter's, Eaton Square; also St. Peter and St. Edward's Catholic Chapel.

In Palace Place (until 1881 Little Charlotte Street) is St. Peter's
Chapel School, established in 1830.

The St. George's Union Workhouse, a large red-brick building, built in
1884, stands in Wallis's Yard, off Princes Row (1767). Buckingham Palace
(1840), Brewer Street (1811), and Allingham Street (1826) have no
interest. The latter leads to Victoria Street, a broad thoroughfare
opened in 1851, only the western end of which falls within the district.
On the south side is the Victoria Station of the Metropolitan District
Railway, commenced in 1863 and opened in 1868. The line runs in a curve
underground from Sloane Square, crossing Ebury Street at Eaton Terrace,
and Buckingham Palace Road at Grosvenor Gardens. From the Underground
Station a subterranean passage leads to the Victoria terminus, the
starting-point of the London, Brighton, and South Coast and London,
Chatham, and Dover Railway Companies. The present station, which has no
pretension to architectural beauty, is being greatly enlarged and partly
rebuilt. It was built at a cost of £105,000, provided by the Victoria
Station and Pimlico Railway Company, which, having acquired 91 acres of
land, had built a temporary station and opened the line for the two
companies' traffic in 1860. The bridge over the Thames was built about
the same time by Fowler, and on it is the Grosvenor Road
ticket-collecting station. The land occupied by the railways is freehold
of the Victoria Company, and leased by the two lines. In 1863 the lines
of the London, Chatham, and Dover Railway were widened to enable their
trains to come into the station independently. The lines of the London,
Brighton, and South Coast Railway are now being extended. The station of
the latter is a West End branch, the headquarters being at London
Bridge; but the London, Chatham, and Dover Railway have here their
principal starting-point. The ground between Victoria Station and the
river occupies the site of the old manor of Neyte, which belonged to the
Abbey of Westminster until confiscated by Henry VIII. in 1536. It was a
favourite residence of the Abbots, and here also lived John of Gaunt,
and here John, son of Richard, Duke of York, was born in 1448. In 1592
the manor became a farm and passed with the Ebury Estate into the
possession of the Grosvenor family. The manor-house stood where is now
St. George's Row, and in Pepys' time was a popular pleasure-garden.
Between the Willow Walk (Warwick Street) and the river were the Neat
House Gardens, which supplied a large part of London with vegetables.
The name lingered until the present century among the houses on the
river-bank, and is still commemorated by Neat House Buildings in
Ranelagh Road. The whole area was low-lying and swampy, and the
neighbourhood of Eccleston Square was occupied by a vast osier bed. In
1827, however, Cubitt raised the level of the district by depositing the
earth excavated from St. Katharine's Docks, and the present houses and
squares were gradually completed. The whole district is singularly
uninteresting, the streets of good breadth, and the houses faced with
plaster of the type we have seen in Belgravia. North of Belgrave Road
the streets are occupied by the poorer classes, but the squares and
principal streets in this neighbourhood are tenanted by the wealthy. The
southern portion is dully respectable, and most of the houses are let in
lodgings. The eastern end of Warwick Street and Lupus Street contain the
only shops, and those of no great size or importance. The streets, with
their principal buildings, are as follows:

The Vauxhall Bridge Road, commenced after 1816, but first mentioned
under that name in 1827. The following terraces were incorporated with
it in 1865: Bedford Place (1826), Trellick Place (1826), York Place
(1839), Pembroke Place, Gloucester Place, Windsor Terrace, Shaftesbury
Crescent (1826), Howick Place and Howick Terrace (1826).

Wilton Road (1833), with which, in 1890, was incorporated Wilton
Terrace, skirts the east side of Victoria Station. In it stands the
Church of St. John the Evangelist, a chapel of ease to St. Peter's,
Eaton Square. It is a handsome red-brick edifice, built by Blomfield in
1875, and it accommodates about 900. Behind, in Hudson's Place, are St.
Peter's Mission House and parish room.

Gillingham Street (1826), Hindon Street (1826), Berwick Street (1830),
and St. Leonard's Street (1830) are mean and uninteresting.

Warwick Street occupies the site of the ancient Willow Walk, a low-lying
footpath between the cuts of the Chelsea Waterworks, where lived the
notorious Aberfield (Slender Billy) and the highwaymen Jerry Abershaw
and Maclean. It is first mentioned in the rate-books in 1723.

Belgrave Road (1830) is a broad, well-built street, with large houses.
In 1865 Eccleston Terrace, North and South Warwick Terrace, Upper
Eccleston Place, and Grosvenor Terrace, were incorporated with it.
Nearly opposite Eccleston Square is Eccleston Square Chapel
(Congregational), in Classical style, with seats for 1,100. The railway
is crossed by Eccleston Bridge. Eccleston Square is 4 acres in extent,
and is long and narrow, with an enclosed garden, built in 1835.

Warwick Square, of 3 acres, is very similar, and was built in 1843. At
the end stands St. Gabriel's Church, built by Cundy in Early English
style, and consecrated in 1853.

St. George's Road is a broad street joined to Buckingham Palace Road by
Elizabeth Bridge.

In Gloucester Street is the Belgrave Hospital for Children, founded in
1866 by the late Rev. Brymer Belcher, Vicar of St. Gabriel's, 1853-85.
The objects of this charitable institution are:

1. The medical and surgical treatment of the children of the poor.

2. The promotion of the study of children's diseases.

3. The training of pupil nurses.

Clarendon Street (1858) absorbed Warwick Place in 1870. Stanley Street
(1851) was renamed Alderney Street in 1879, Winchester Street 1852,
Cumberland Street 1852.

Ebury Bridge is the oldest of the bridges over the railway and canal. It
was known in early days as Chelsea, and afterwards as Waterworks Bridge,
a wooden structure. A turnpike existed here until 1825. At the south end
stood Jenny's Whim, a celebrated tavern and pleasure-garden, perhaps
named from the name of the proprietress and the fantastic way it was
laid out. It was in the height of its popularity about 1750, and came to
an end _circa_ 1804. When the railway was widened in 1863 all vestiges
of it were swept away.

St. George's Row was built as Monster Row _circa_ 1785, and renamed in
1833. Here was the site of the manor-house of Neyte. The Monster
public-house commemorates the old Monster tavern and garden, the name
being probably a corruption of monastery.

At the corner of Warwick Street are the Pimlico Rooms, containing a hall
for entertainments, etc., and occupied by the Ebury Mission and Pimlico
day-school for boys, girls, and infants. Adjoining the railway is a
double row of industrial dwellings, built by the trustees of the Peabody
fund under the name of Peabody's Buildings.

Westmoreland Street (1852) contains the Pimlico chapel for United Free
Methodists.

Lupus Street (1842) is named after Hugh Lupus, Earl of Chester, an
ancestor of the Duke of Westminster. It contains a hospital for women
and children.

At the eastern end is St. George's Square (1850), a long narrow space
reaching to the river with an enclosed garden in the centre. The houses
are large. At No. 9 Sir J. Barnby d. 1896.

At the north end is St. Saviour's Church, built in 1864 from designs by
Cundy in a Decorated Gothic style. It has sittings for 1,834, and was
restored in 1882. To the east are Pulford Street (1848) and Aylesford
Street, in which is St. Saviour's Mission House, built by the Duke of
Westminster at a cost of £4,000. It serves also for parochial meetings.
Here also are the works of the Equitable Gas Company, established 1830.

In Claverton Street (1852) is a Methodist Wesleyan chapel, in Classical
style, with seats for 1,000.

In Glasgow Terrace (1851), formerly Caledonia Street, are St. Saviour's
and St. Gabriel's National Schools. This neighbourhood contains many
works and offices, the largest of which is Taylor's repository for
storing property. Along the river runs the Grosvenor Road, part of the
Thames Embankment. The houses built on and near it were generally known
in the last century as the Neat Houses. Terraces with various
names--Albion Terrace, Pier Terrace, Erin Place (1826), Thames Parade
(1827), Thames Bank (1828)--were incorporated with the road in recent
years. Facing the river is All Saints' Church, a chapel of ease to St.
Gabriel's, by Cundy, built _circa_ 1870 to replace a mission church;
opposite it is the Pimlico Pier for river steamboats. Adjoining St.
George's Square is the Army Clothing Factory, established in 1857 in the
Vauxhall Bridge Road as an experiment to provide labour for women. The
present establishment was opened in 1859, and has since been largely
increased, occupying a space of about 7 acres. The east block is the
Government store, the west the factory, the centre of which is occupied
by a glass-roofed hall, three stories high, surrounded by spacious
galleries.

[Illustration: BELGRAVIA DISTRICT.

Published by A. & C. Black, London.]



PADDINGTON

BY G. E. MITTON


_Derivation._

The origin of the word Paddington is very obscure. Mr. Edwards in his
"Names of Places" gives "Pad, padi, A.S. equivalent to Paeda, King of
Mercia; hence Paddington, the town of Paeda's descendants."

Paddington is not mentioned in Domesday Book.

The boundaries of the borough of Paddington are not quite coterminous
with those of the parish. It is true that the alteration is not great.
On the east Edgware Road and Maida Vale still mark the limits with a
line as straight as that drawn by a ruler. On the south Bayswater Road
serves a similar purpose as far as the Serpentine, where the boundary
dips to include part of the Gardens; these are the same as the old
boundaries. The present line, however, returns northward up the Broad
Walk to Bayswater Road instead of up Kensington Palace Gardens. From
Bayswater Road it follows Ossington Street, Chepstow Place, Westbourne
Grove, Ledbury Road, St. Luke's Road, and crosses the railway lines
northward to Kensal Road, having from the Bayswater Road been either a
little within or without the parish line, doubtless so drawn for
convenience' sake, as it follows streets and not an arbitrary division.
From Kensal Hall the line follows the canal to Kensal Green Cemetery,
and, going northward, returns east along Kilburn Lane, thus including a
bit of ground previously owned by Chelsea. From Kilburn Lane the
northern boundary dips down between Salisbury Crescent and Malvern Road,
and up again by Kilburn Park Road; in this last part it remains
unaltered.

The Westbourne stream formerly ran right through the district. It rose
in Hampstead, flowed through Kilburn, and followed the trend of the
present Cambridge and Shirland Roads, though keeping on the east side of
the place where these streets now stand. It crossed the Harrow Road, and
ran on the west side of the present Gloucester Terrace until it reached
the Uxbridge Road. It fed the Serpentine, and, crossing the road at
Knightsbridge, formed the eastern boundary of the Chelsea parish.

A stream somewhat similar in course was the Tyburn, which also rose at
Hampstead, but flowed through the parish of Marylebone, the ancient
Tyburnia. This was considerably to the east of Paddington, and has been
treated in the Marylebone section. Oxford Street was the ancient Tyburn
Road, and the gallows stood opposite the Marble Arch.

In Rocque's map (1748) only the Westbourne is marked, but we see Tyburn
Turnpike at the junction of the Edgware Road, and near by "the stone
where soldiers are shot." These things do not belong properly to
Paddington, but are too intimately connected with it to be passed over
without comment. The Edgware Road itself is the old Watling Street,
which was continued at first down Park Lane to the ford at Westminster,
and which afterwards, when London Bridge was built, followed the course
of Oxford Street and Holborn to the Bridge. Edgware was the name of the
first town through which it passed after the forests of Middlesex.
Newcourt says "the parish of Edgeware or Edgeworth consisteth of one
main street ... ten miles north-westward from London."

In Rocque's 1748 map the district is nearly all open ground; part of the
Harrow Road is marked, and there are a few houses on it near the Edgware
Road. The Green Lane, now Warwick Road, runs into it from the north. The
Pest House is marked prominently about where the chapel stands in Craven
Terrace in the south of the parish. Below is marked "Bayswatering."
Queen's Road is Westbourne Green Lane, and the green itself is very
nearly where Royal Oak Station now stands. About it there are a few
scattered houses.


_History._

"King Edgar gave the Manor of Paddington to Westminster Abbey;" this
Lysons affirms without any comment. Dart varies the tradition slightly
by asserting that it was Dunstan and not the King who presented the
manor to the Abbey. But later writers have thrown discredit on both
statements. Paddington is not mentioned in the Conqueror's Survey, which
points to the fact that it was not at that date a separate manor.
Robins, on the authority of the Rev. Richard Widmore, for many years
librarian to the Dean and Chapter of Westminster, boldly states that the
documents supposed to prove this gift are undoubted forgeries.

Newcourt says, "the Manor and Rectory of Paddington (which of old did
belong to the monastery of Westminster)," etc. The first authentic
mention of the manor is in a document "in the thirty-first year of Henry
II.," drawn up between "Walter Abbot of Westminster and Richard and
William de Padinton, brothers, touching the entire tenement which they
held in Padinton of the Church of Westminster," whereby they gave up
their hold on the land in consideration of a sum of money. This Abbot
Walter gave, we are told, the manor of Paddington for the celebration of
the anniversary of the day on which he died.

For this festival

    "the manor of Paddington is put wholly into the hands of the
    Almoner ... and whatsoever shall be the final overplus shall be
    expended charitably in distribution to the poor. On the day of
    celebration the Almoner is to find for the Convent fine manchets,
    cakes, crumpets, cracknells, and wafers, and a gallon of wine for
    each friar, with three good pittances, or doles, with good ale in
    abundance at every table, and in the presence of the whole
    brotherhood: in the same manner upon other occasions the cellarer
    is bound to find beer at the usual feasts or anniversaries on the
    great tankard of twenty-five quarts.

    "He shall also provide most honourably and in all abundance for the
    guests that dine in the refectory, bread, wine, beer, and two
    dishes out of the kitchen besides the usual allowance. And for the
    guests of higher rank who sit at the upper table under the bell,
    with the president, ample provision shall be made as well as for
    the Convent: and cheese shall be served on that day to both.

    "Agreement shall likewise be made with the cook for vessels,
    utensils, and other necessaries, and not less than two shillings
    shall be given over above for his own gratification and indulgence.
    The Almoner is likewise to find for all comers in general, from the
    hour when the memorial of the anniversary is read to the end of the
    following day, meat, drink, hay and provender of all sorts in
    abundance: and no one either on foot or horseback during that time
    shall be denied admittance at the gate."

There are further provisions for allowances to the nuns at "Kilborne,"
and 300 poor who were to have a "loaf of mixed corn" and a "pottle of
ale." The above is taken from Dr. Vincent's translation of the MS. He
was Dean of Westminster in 1804. Mr. Loftie says: "Westbourne was
probably at a very early period separated from the original manor of the
Church of St. Peter.... Of Paddington we only know that it was
separated from the manor of Westminster at some time between Domesday
Survey and the middle of the twelfth century. It was restored to its
original owners ... by the above mentioned agreement between Abbot
Walter and the brothers Padinton."

Mr. Loftie says also that Westbourne and Paddington are named together
in 1222 among the possessions of St. Margaret's. He is unable to
ascertain how the manor of Westbourne came to belong to the Abbot of
Westminster. In the reign of the second Edward several inquisitions of
land were made which are quoted by Robins in his "Paddington, Past and
Present." In one we find mentioned "that Walter de Wenlock [a second
Abbot Walter] had acquired to himself and his house ... twelve acres of
land in Padinton of William de Padinton, and three and a half acres of
Hugh de Bakere of Eye, and thirteen acres of land in Westbourn of John
le Taillour, and eleven acres of land there of Matilda Arnold, and two
acres of land there of Juliana Baysevolle, after the publication of the
statute edited concerning the nonplacing of lands in mortmain, and not
before. And they (the commissioners) say that it is not to the damage
nor prejudice of the Lord the King, nor of others, if the king grant to
the Prior and Convent of Westminster that the Abbots of that place for
the time being may recover and hold the aforesaid messuages and land to
them and their successors for ever."

But the Abbot had to pay the King a small yearly sum, and cause certain
services of reaping and ploughing to be performed for him, which showed
that he held the land in some sense subject to the Crown. In Henry
VII.'s reign his mother, the Countess of Richmond, bought certain lands
in Kensington, Willesden, Paddington, and Westbourne. She left the
greater part of her possessions to Westminster, so that the Abbey lands
in this vicinity must have been increased. The manor acquired by the
Countess seems to have consisted chiefly of two farms--Notting Barns in
Kensington, and "Westborne" in Paddington; the former is fully dealt
with in the section devoted to Kensington. Besides the lands left to the
Abbey, she bequeathed part of her possessions to the Universities of
Oxford and Cambridge.

In the account of the Church property which fell into Henry VIII.'s
hands at the dissolution of the monasteries we find mentioned
"Westborne."

King Henry also held other lands here, which he had obtained by exchange
or purchase. He made Paddington a part of the endowment of the new See
of Westminster. After the abolition of that See Edward VI. gave "the
mannor and rectory of Paddington" to Dr. Nicholas Ridley, then Bishop
of London, "and his successors for ever" (Newcourt).

Westbourne remained in the possession of the Dean and Chapter of
Westminster; thus the two manors parted company. Paddington was
confiscated during the Commonwealth, but was claimed by Bishop Sheldon
at the Restoration. It was restored to him, and he let it to his nephew,
Sir Joseph Sheldon, knight, and Daniel Sheldon. It was held by the
Sheldon family until 1740, when it was let by Gibson, the Bishop of
London, to Sir John Frederick, in whose family it remained for many
generations.


_Perambulations._

A survey of London in 1827 shows us very few streets in the quarter to
the south of Praed Street and east of Westbourne Terrace and Street.
Connaught Square and Connaught Place are marked, and the curious
rectangular piece of ground of about 5 acres belonging to St. George's,
Hanover Square. This was bought by St. George's Vestry in 1764, when the
land was surrounded by fields, and was suitable for a cemetery. Among
others buried there was Laurence Sterne, whose body is said to have been
exhumed by body-snatchers. But this ground does not belong to
Paddington. In the above-mentioned survey Cambridge Street is Sovereign
Street, and the oval piece with Southwick Crescent at one end is Polygon
Crescent, a name now only retained in Polygon Mews.

Hyde Park Gardens is marked "Intended Crescent," but except in the
triangular corner, now bounded by Cambridge and Albion Streets, there
are few houses.

Cambridge Street and Oxford and Cambridge Terraces and Squares preserve
in their names the memory of the gift of the Countess of Richmond to
those universities.

In Southwick Crescent stands St. John's Church, built originally in
1826, and then known as Connaught Chapel. In 1832 a district was
allotted to the chapel. In 1844 a portion of this was transferred to the
new church of St. James. Four years later St. John's obtained a portion
of the chapelry district, and in 1859 the district itself was made into
a new parish. Part of the new parish was transferred to St. Michael and
All Angels in 1864. The church is in a late Gothic style. It was
completely renovated during 1895, when the present reredos was added.

In Titchborne Road are St. John's Schools. In Junction Mews, off Sale
Street, is a boatmen's chapel. In Market Street is one of the Dudley
Stuart night refuges for the destitute. And to the north, in Praed
Street, is a small Baptist tabernacle with painted front, and further
westward the church and schools of St. Michael and All Angels. The
church was built in 1862; it is in the Decorated style, and the
architect was Mr. Hawkins. Its predecessor was a chapel of ease to St.
John's, but in 1859 the district was made separate. The organ is by
Hill.

In Norfolk Square we find All Saints' Church. This has been lately
rebuilt, having been burnt down on May 31, 1894. The old church was
consecrated on All Saints' Day, 1847, and its architecture is described
as having been "Gothic of the eleventh century." The first architect was
Mr. Clutton. The building was restored and the chancel added in 1873
from Mr. J. Brooks's designs.

The new church is striking, being of red brick with terra-cotta
mouldings over the doors and windows. The architect was Ralph Nevill,
F.S.A., F.R.I.B.A. The old walls that remained have been engrafted into
the new building. The organ is by Hill. The floor of the church is of
mosaic, and stalls, screens, and nave seats are of Burmese wood, called
padouk. The church is lit by electric light.

In the 1827 map a spot at the extreme end of Stanhope Street, just where
it touches Westbourne Street, is marked Archery Ground, and a little to
the north, at the corner of Bathhurst Street, are "Bagnigge Wells,"
probably named after the more famous Bagnigge Wells, near Gray's Inn
Road.

In Maitland's "History of London" we are told that in the year 1439 the
Abbot of Westminster granted to the Mayor and citizens of London one
head of water containing twenty-six perches in length and one in
breadth, together with all its springs in the manor of Paddington, for
which two peppercorns were to be paid annually. In these wells of water
we have the origin of the latter part of the word Bayswater. Some
writers affirm that the name originated in a public-house kept by a Mr.
Bays, where horses were given water, hence the more ancient rendering
"Bayswatering." Lysons says of it, "The springs at this place lie near
the surface, and the water is very fine." He adds, "The conduit at
Bayswater belongs to the City of London, and, being conveyed by brick
drains, supplies the houses in and about Bond Street, which stand upon
the City lands."

Robins quotes an Act (49 George III.) in which "Byard's Watering Place"
is mentioned in Tyburn.

In George III.'s reign the mayor and citizens were empowered by an Act
of Parliament to see their water rights at Bayswater, which was done for
the sum of £2,500.

Robins says that a Juliana Baysbolle held land in Westbourne, and
conjectures that the former part of her name may have descended to the
place. He adds: "At the end of the fourteenth century we find from
Tanner's note, before quoted, that the head of water given by the Abbot
was called Baynard's Watering Place; and although this may have been the
name used in legal documents for the district surrounding it, yet
Bayswatering has been the name used by the people."

From the springs doubtless arose the names of Brook's Mews, Conduit
Mews, Spring Street West, and Eastbourne Terraces.

Bayswatering is marked on Rocque's 1748 map at a spot nearly due south
of Christ Church. St. James's Church was built and made parochial in
1845. Loftie says that then "the parish for the fourth time changed its
patron and reverted to its former saint."

The old parish church will be noticed at Paddington Green, on which it
stands. The new church of St. James's, one of the finest modern churches
in London, was rebuilt, with the exception of the tower and spire, in
1882, the material used being flint, and the design was the last of G.
E. Street's. The chancel is now at the west end, having been transformed
at the time of rebuilding. There are some very fine stained-glass
windows, and the organ is by Hill. The walls of the chancel and nave are
faced with Devonshire marble, and the pulpit and font are of the same
material. The reredos, of the Last Supper, is a marble bas-relief. The
old registers are now held by St. James's, and contain some interesting
entries, notably those referring to burials in the time of the Great
Plague. Among other items there are the following, which, it must be
remembered, really refer to the old church:

"William Hogarth, esq., and Jane Thornhill of St. Paul's, Covent Garden,
married March 23, 1729."

"Joseph Francis Nollekens, buried Jan. 24, 1747." This was the father of
the famous sculptor.

"Sarah Siddons, buried June 11th, 1831."

On the east side of Craven Terrace is a finely-built Congregational
Church. This is in a decorated style, with a large wheel window and
elaborately ornamented pinnacles. It was built between forty and fifty
years ago, and contains seats for about 700 people. St. James's Schools
are opposite. Craven Terrace and Hill, and Hill Gardens, recall the
memory of the fine old Earl Craven, who remained in London during the
1665 plague, when most of those able to do so had fled. He married the
titular Queen of Bohemia, a daughter of James I., whom he had loved
devotedly all his life.

The pest-house marked so prominently on Rocque's map was almost on the
site of the present Craven Terrace Chapel. Lord Craven gave a site at
Soho for the purpose of a burial-ground, having seen the difficulty
attending burial after the plague of 1665, and also for a cottage
hospital for the suburbs. When this site was built over, he gave another
site, presumably the pest-house marked by Rocque. Lysons says, "which if
London should ever again be visited by the plague is still subject to
the said use"--a sentence which reads quaintly in these days of the
Intramural Burials Act.

Lord Craven's own house was further westward. Lysons says: "Lord Craven
has an estate in this parish, called Craven Hill, on which is a small
hamlet very pleasantly situated." It was to Lord Craven's house Queen
Anne first took her little son on account of his health, but, finding it
too small for the numerous retinue, she afterwards removed to Campden
House. Christ Church, in Lancaster Gate, is in a decorated style of
Gothic. It was consecrated July 17, 1855, and the architects were
Messrs. F. and H. Francis. It contains a very fine marble pulpit, and a
fresco reredos, enclosed in a heavy stone setting. Though Paddington is
of such modern date, the streets are not conveniently built; it is
frequently necessary to walk the whole length of a street or terrace
for lack of a cross-cut into a parallel one, and this is particularly
noticeable just at this part. In Queen's Road there is a United
Methodist Free Church, built in 1868 of white brick with stone facings.
It has an open arcade on to the street. The interior is circular, and
seats about 900 persons. In the Bayswater Road are many palatial houses
facing Kensington Gardens. Orme Square, on the north side of the road,
was built in 1815, and is therefore ancient for Paddington. It was
doubtless named after Mr. Edward Orme, of Bayswater, who built a chapel
at his own expense in Petersburgh Place 1818. In Petersburgh Place there
is a large red-brick synagogue in the Byzantine style. It was opened in
March, 1879. The walls are lined with slabs of alabaster set in marble,
and the details of the fittings are rich in gilding. The pillars are of
light-green marble from the quarries near Sion in the Rhone Valley.
These decorations are the result of many separate memorial gifts.
Further northward, on the west side of Petersburgh Place, is the fine
church of St. Matthew, consecrated on May 20, 1882. The church contains
1,550 seats, of which 355 are free. The church is in an Early English
style, and has an immensely high spire. Westward is what was known as
the Shaftesbury House Estate, through which Palace Court now runs.
Lysons says "Little Shaftesbury House in this parish (near Kensington
gravel pits), the seat of Ambrose Godfrey, Esq., is said to have been
built by the Earl of Shaftesbury, author of the 'Characteristics,' or
his father the Chancellor."

The borough boundary turns out of Kensington Gardens in Palace Gardens,
and, crossing the Bayswater Road, goes up northward between Ossington
Street and Clanricarde Gardens. North of Moscow Road there is a Greek
church of St. Sophia, built of red brick with a high central dome.

There is a small Baptist chapel at the back of Porchester Gardens.
Across the Queen's Road there are St. Matthew's Parochial Schools, built
in 1831, enlarged 1861. Further northward in Queen's Road are the
capacious buildings of the Paddington Public Baths and Washhouses,
erected at a cost of £40,000.

Holy Trinity Church, in Bishop's Road, was consecrated July 30, 1846,
and considerably renovated in 1893. It is a very handsome church, of
Kentish ragstone, in the Perpendicular style, with quatrefoil parapet,
ornamental pinnacles and spire. The site on which it stands was formerly
a deep hole, and consequently the cost of foundations alone came to
£2,000.

Almost on the spot where Royal Oak Station now is was once the rural
Westbourne Green, companion to Paddington Green further eastward. In
Rocque's time there were a few scattered houses here. At Westbourne
Farm, which stood until about 1860, Mrs. Siddons lived for some time.
Lysons says: "A capital messuage called Westbourne Place, with certain
lands thereto belonging, was granted by Henry VIII. anno 1540 to Robert
White. This estate was some years ago the property of Isaac Ware, the
architect (editor of Palladio's works and other professional
publications), who, with the materials brought from Lord Chesterfield's
house in Mayfair (which he was employed to rebuild), erected the present
mansion called Westbourne Place a little to the south of the old house,
which was suffered to stand several years longer. Westbourne Place was
sold by Ware's executors to Sir William Yorke, Bart., Lord Chief Justice
of the Common Pleas in Ireland, who resided there a short time and
afterwards let it to a Venetian Ambassador. In the year 1768 he sold it
to Jukes Coulson, Esq., who expended a very considerable sum in
enlarging the house and laying out the grounds. The library which he
added to the house is said to have cost about £1,500. The situation is
extremely pleasant, and so uncommonly retired that a person residing
here could hardly conceive himself to be in a parish adjoining that of
St. George's, Hanover Square." The vast meshes of the railway network at
present on the spot are in eloquent contrast to the above. Further down
in the Porchester Road is the Westbourne Park Chapel, a red-brick
building in the Pointed or Gothic style, built in 1876.

To the south, near Westbourne Grove, lies St. Thomas's Church, a
temporary iron building. Close by is a Presbyterian church named St.
Paul's. It is faced with Kentish ragstone, and was consecrated 1862. In
the Artesian Road is a Roman Catholic church, St. Mary of the Angels,
consecrated on July 2, 1857, but since enlarged three times. The
architect of the latter portions was J. F. Bentley. There is in the
interior a fine painting of St. Anthony of Padua, supposed to be a
genuine Murillo. The schools in connection are on the south side. In
Westbourne Park Road is St. Stephen's Church. The organ is by Hill. At
the north end of Westbourne Park Road are national schools.

St. Paul's Church and schools stand in Marlborough Street. The church
was built in 1873, and is of earth-brick, without spire or tower. This
part of Paddington is considerably cut up both by the railway and canal.
Crossing the latter at the Lock Bridge, we see the Lock Hospital and
Asylum standing on the west side of the road. The hospital was
established in 1737, and the asylum in 1787. Adjoining the hospital is
the workhouse, occupying with its infirmary about 5 acres. The
workhouse has 623 beds, and the infirmary 280. All the wards are here
and all the paupers except the school-children. Beyond the workhouse
still remain some nursery gardens, and in the continuation of the Harrow
Road is a Roman Catholic church, the Church of Our Lady of Lourdes and
St. Vincent de Paul, of Kentish ragstone with a wheel window in the east
end. The foundation-stone was laid in 1878, and it was opened in 1882 as
a private chapel. In 1893 it was opened to the public. The altar and
altar-rails are of white Carrara marble inlaid with malachite. In
connection with the church next door is the St. Vincent's Home for boys.
This was begun by a railway clerk, and passed into the hands of the
Brotherhood of St. Vincent de Paul. Lord Douglas took up the work,
established the home in its present position, and built the church. In
1889 St. Joseph's Home, Enfield, was amalgamated with St. Vincent's. The
home contains 100 boys, received between the years of twelve and
sixteen, who are taught various trades by which to earn their own
living. Further on in the Harrow Road, opposite Ashmore Road, is
Emmanuel Church, built of brick in a plain Pointed style. The
foundation-stone was laid in 1886. The schools in connection are next
door.

The new bit of Paddington at Kensal Green requires little comment;
chapels, schools, and St. John's Church break the monotony of dreary
streets. In fact, all this part of northern Paddington, though varying
in the width of streets and the class of its houses, contains nothing of
any interest. We must now return southward and eastward to what is known
as Church Ward, which contains nearly all that is most interesting of
old Paddington. The old parish church, named St. Mary's, stands to the
north of the Harrow Road. It is a small building of earth-brick in the
form of a Maltese cross, with a cupola in the centre, supposed to have
been designed after a Greek model. The side fronting the road has a
portico, and on the south and west walls there are curious niches formed
by bricks. The interior is heavy and ugly, with a massive circular
gallery running round three sides. The pulpit stands right over the
central aisle, supported by the steps on one side and the reading-desk
on the other, making thus a curious arch under which everyone must pass
to reach the Communion rails; it is of mahogany which has been painted,
and the figures of Dutch oak on the panels are supposed to be Flemish
work. The church holds about 800 persons. There are many monuments and
tablets on the walls, but only two worthy of note: one in memory of Mrs.
Siddons, who is buried in the churchyard, on the north side of the
chancel; one to Nollekens the sculptor, who died 1823, on the south
side of the chancel. This is a bas-relief of a man seated by the side of
a pallet or bench, on which rests a woman holding a baby; behind, an
angel, representing Religion, points upward. The apparently irrelevant
subject excited much comment until an explanation was suggested. In the
Howard Chapel of Wetherall Church, in Cumberland, there is a sculptured
monument in memory of one of the ladies of the Howard family who died in
childbirth. The bas-relief over Nollekens' tomb is the facsimile of this
sculpture, with the exception of the male figure in the foreground. The
sculpture was executed by Nollekens himself, and is supposed to be one
of his masterpieces. The monument to Nollekens is, therefore, obviously
representative of the sculptor himself executing this great work. The
present church was built in 1791, and stands on the site of a pond. Its
predecessor was dedicated to St. James, a saint to whom the present
parish church has returned, and stood a little to the northward on the
site of the present right of way.

But this itself was only the successor of a still more ancient building,
of which Newcourt says: "As to the church here, I guess it was dedicated
to St. Katharine, because, before the old church was pulled down, I
observed the picture of St. Katharine to be set up in painted glass at
the top of the middle panel of the east window in the chancel.... The
church was but small, and being very old and ruinous, was, about the
year 1678, pulled down, and new-built from the ground at the cost and
charges of Sir Joseph Sheldon, knight, sometime Lord Mayor of the City
of London, and his brother, Mr. Daniel Sheldon, then Lessees of the
Mannor of Paddington."

These Sheldons were the nephews of the Bishop Sheldon to whom the manor
was restored at the Restoration in 1661. Newcourt tells us that before
the Parliament had seized it the church was a donative or curacy in the
gift of the Bishop of London; that the pension of the curate was but £28
per annum. This was increased by Bishop Sheldon to £80, and the larger
sum was fixed by Act of Parliament, and the lessee was bound by his
lease to pay the Vicar £80 a year. The first curate mentioned is one
"Griffin Edwards, A.B., licentiat., December 18, 1598." The churchyard
proper only comprises about 1 acre of land, but the old burial-ground,
including the site of the older church, adjoins to the northward and
includes 3 acres. This was laid out as a public garden in 1885. The
freehold rests with the Vicar of Paddington. On the east side, above the
centre pathway, is a flat stone to the memory of Mrs. Siddons, who died
1831, aged 76. On it are three glazed vases added later by the parish.
In the same vault is buried Mrs. Martha Wilkinson, her dresser, who
died in 1847, and was laid here by her own especial request. On the west
side, below the centre path, is a flat stone to the memory of one John
Hubbard, who lived from 1554 to 1665, and therefore reached the
patriarchal age of 111 years. The churchyard also contains the remains
of Collins, an artist, who painted English coast scenery; Dr. Geddes,
translator of the historical books of the Old Testament; Banks, the
sculptor, 1805; Nollekens; the Marquis of Lansdowne; Vivares, the
engraver, 1780. The churchyard was enlarged in 1753, when Sherlock was
Bishop of London, and further in 1810, when the piece of ground at the
north-east corner, which is marked on a map of the beginning of the
nineteenth century "Manor House," was enclosed. To the east of the
church is the famous Paddington Green, now shrunk to very small
dimensions. A statue of Mrs. Siddons in white marble has been erected on
Paddington Green. The statue was designed by M. Chavalliand, and
executed by Messrs. Brindley. The total cost was about £450.

In Greville House, which stands on the north side of the Green, Emma,
afterwards Lady Hamilton, lived for four years under the protection of
the Hon. Charles Greville, to whom her mother was housekeeper. None of
the other houses now standing are old enough to merit comment.
Paddington House, "a handsome brick structure," built by Denis Chirac,
who had been jeweller to Queen Anne, formerly stood on the east side of
the Green, near to Harrow Road. He entered upon his residence here in
1753. At the corner of Church Street, on the Green, stands the
Children's Hospital, a large red-brick building. The origin of this was
a Free Dispensary for Sick Children, opened in 1862 in Lisson Grove by
two medical men. Relief was afforded to 20,000 children during the first
six years of the work, which was carried on under the management of a
medical committee. In 1869 a building fund was suggested. But it was in
1881, by the earnest work of Mr. George Hanbury, that practical steps
were taken for the establishment of a small hospital. In 1883 the
freehold of the land at the corner of Church Street was purchased, and
the buildings standing there were adapted for the purpose. Further
ground was bought at the back in 1885, and an out-patient department
established. In 1890, owing to the pressure of applications for
in-patients, it was decided to build a new wing. However, for sanitary
reasons, it was considered better to pull down the old building and
entirely rebuild the hospital. The children then in the hospital were
temporarily sent to Harrow, and the new building was commenced in 1894,
and was reopened in June, 1895. An interesting old shop at the corner
of Church Street was pulled down to make way for it. It contains all
modern improvements, including electric light and cooking by gas. There
is an isolation ward for any infectious illness which may break out, and
two large, bright wards for the ordinary patients. The walls of these
are lined with glazed bricks and tiles, and one of the wards contains
large tile-work pictures representing well-known fairy tales. Boys are
received up to the age of twelve, and girls to fourteen years. Babes of
even three and four days are admitted. The out-patients' department is
entirely free, no letter of any sort being required. The payment of a
nominal fee of a penny to insure genuine cases is all that is exacted.
Out-patients are selected by the medical staff to become in-patients.
The children look bright and well cared for; the wards are models of
cleanliness and comfort. The hospital is entirely supported by voluntary
contributions and subscriptions. The temporary house at Harrow has been
retained as a convalescent home.

A house, No. 13, close by the hospital, is one of Dr. Stainer's Homes
for Deaf and Dumb Children.

The Paddington charities may be here described. But it must be
remembered that amounts where mentioned are only given in general terms,
and are liable to variation.

The _Bread and Cheese Charity_ is of very ancient origin, and is said to
have been founded by two maiden ladies. The bequest was in the form of
land, though the name of the donors and the date of the gift are
unknown. With the rents of the land bread and cheese were purchased, and
thrown from the church tower to poor people on the Sunday before
Christmas. The annual income arising from this source is now divided,
being expended partly upon education, partly upon apprenticeship, and a
certain amount upon coals and blankets to be distributed among the poor
of the parish.

_Johnson's Charity_ is a rent-charge of £1 a year, distributed in small
sums among the poor of the parish. The date of this bequest is not
known.

_Lyon's Charity_ is of very ancient date--namely, 1578. It consists of
an estate in Kilburn and an estate in Paddington, and is distributed
among many different parishes. The greater part of the income, which, of
course, varies in amount, goes to the repairing of roads.

_Harvest's Charity_ in 1610 bequeathed an estate to the parishes of
Paddington and Marylebone for repairing the highways. The income derived
from this source is devoted to the above-mentioned purpose.

_Dr. Compton's and Margaret Robertson's, or Robinson's Charity._--This
is supposed to have been partly the gift of Dr. Compton, Bishop of
London. The first grant was made in 1717, which was after Dr. Compton's
death, but it is possible that he promised the gift which was granted by
his successor, Dr. Robinson. Lysons says "the donation was confirmed by
Dr. Robinson." "The first admission to the land, the property of
Margaret Robertson's Charity, was on the 18th day of April, 1721"
(Charity Commissioners' Report). The same persons are trustees for both
charities. The gross total income, which amounts to about £535, is
distributed as follows: £321 for education purposes, £107 for
apprenticing, and the same as the latter sum to be given to the poor of
the parish in kind.

_The Almshouse Charity._--Paddington is singularly deficient in
almshouses, the only houses of the kind having been pulled down between
1860 and 1870. These stood opposite the Vestry Hall, and are mentioned
below. The Almshouse Charity includes the charity of Frances King. It is
described as having been mentioned first on the Court Rolls of the manor
of Paddington in 1720, but Lysons, in referring to the same charity,
says: "Several small almshouses were built at the parish expense in the
year 1714." There were seventeen of these almshouses in all, inclusive
of four built by Samuel Pepys Cockerell. Two of them were used as rooms
by the master and mistress of the Charity School. Some of these houses
must have been pulled down previous to the year 1853, for at that date
the Vestry applied for permission to pull down the twelve almshouses in
the Harrow Road, considering that the estate could be more
advantageously administered. It was not until 1867, however, that the
order of the Court of Chancery was finally obtained, and after the
demolition part of the land was let on a building lease. Another part,
with a frontage to the Harrow Road, was let also on a building lease
1869. The houses erected on this are Nos. 111, 113, 115, 117, 119,
Harrow Road. Frances King's Charity was £200, given by will in 1845 to
be expended in coals for the inhabitants of the above-mentioned
almshouses. The total income of the Almshouse Charity is somewhere about
£200; of this amount the trustees pay a yearly sum of £50 to the
trustees of St. Mary's School, and the remainder is applied to necessary
expenses, and to pensions of £10 to £12 a year to deserving candidates
in the parish.

Denis Chirac left in 1777 a sum of £100 (Report Charity Commissioners;
Lysons says £138) for the benefit of the poor children of the parish.
This amount, together with £120 given by Baron Maseres, was applied to
the building of a schoolroom. The old Charity School, still standing
near the site of the almshouses, was built in 1822 upon copyhold land
granted for the purpose by the Bishop. St. Mary's Schools at present
stand near the spot in Church Place.

_Abourne's Charity_ was left in 1767. It is at present £300 in stock,
and produces an annual income of from £8 to £9, distributed in bread
among the poor of the parish.

_Simmonds' Charity_ consists of the dividends on £600 stock, from which
an annual income of from £16 to £20 is distributed among poor women of
the parish in sums of 10s. 6d.

_Marion Mayne's Charity._--In 1854 Marion Mayne left a sum of money by
her will for keeping in repair certain tombstones, tablets, etc.,
including her own, and a sum for the maintenance of Paddington Green in
good order, and a sum to be expended in annuities among the poor of the
parish. The present income is derived from the dividends on £6,416 1s.
7d. stock, the latest income of which is expended as directed.

_Smith Charity._--Under Augustus Frederick Smith's will, proved March
19, 1881, dividends on £9,985 3s. 8d. were left to the parish. The
income is between £200 and £300. This is distributed amongst poor women
about sixty years of age resident in Paddington, in pensions of not
more than £20, or less than £10 per annum.

Following St. Mary's Terrace northwards, we see on the east side a
curious little passage leading to a small Welsh chapel, an iron
building. Close by the chapel stands a genuine old cottage, whitewashed
and thatched, a remnant of the time when Paddington was largely composed
of open ground. This cottage is said by an antiquarian authority to be
several centuries old. It was granted to the Welsh congregation by the
Bishop of London in 1890. Not far from this, up another narrow opening,
is an old brick house with quaint red-tiled roof. This is Claremont
House. It is picturesque, but has no authentic history. Opening out of
St. Mary's Terrace on the east side, Howley and Fulham Places and
Porteus Road recall the ownership of the Bishops of London.

We must now mention the Grand Junction Canal. When it was first opened
it was the fashion to go excursions by the day on the water, a custom
referred to in "Nollekens and his Times." In 1812 the Regent's Canal
Company was incorporated and given authority to make and maintain a
navigable canal from the Grand Junction Canal in the parish of
Paddington to the river Thames in the parish of Limehouse. The canal to
the Regent's Park basin was opened two years after this, but was only
completed in 1820. About "Paddington Basin," as it is called, are
clustered many poor houses. The streets between the Harrow Road on the
one side, and the basin on the other, are miserable and squalid. At the
corner of Green Street is a church formerly belonging to the Catholic
Apostolic community, later purchased by the Baptists, and now belonging
to the Salvation Army. This is a structure of Kentish ragstone in a
Gothic style with small steeple. In the Edgware Road are one or two
public-houses, which, if not actually old, stand on the sites and
inherit the names of famous old predecessors. The White Lion, now
amalgamated with a music-hall, bears date of foundation 1524. It is said
that G. Morland, the animal painter, painted a sign for this. It is No.
267. Northward, at the corner of Church Street, is the Wheatsheaf,
which, says Robins, "has the credit of having frequently entertained
honest and learned Ben Jonson."

The Red Lion, No. 239, a little to the north of Praed Street, claims as
ancient a date. Tradition says that Shakespeare acted in one of the old
wooden rooms, now vanished, and the inn boasts a haunted chamber.

In Cambridge Place is St. Mary's Hospital and Medical School. The
suggestion of a hospital was discussed in 1840, but the foundation was
not laid until 1843 by the late Prince Consort. The building was
designed to hold 380 beds, but though it has been added to from time to
time it still contains less than this, a supply totally inadequate to
the demand for accommodation. The first wing was opened in 1857, and
contained 150 beds. In 1865 the present King laid the foundation-stone
of a further wing, and in 1892 the stone of the Clarence memorial wing.
By 1886 all the building land acquired by the hospital had been used,
and it was found necessary to purchase other land. In 1887 negotiations
were made by which the Grand Junction Canal Company agreed to sell their
interest in the required land. After five years' labour and the
expenditure of £48,000, the desired result was achieved, and the
Clarence wing was commenced. The hospital now faces Praed Street as well
as Cambridge Place, the intervening houses having been pulled down. It
is a great square red-brick building with stone facings. Behind the
hospital are All Saints' Schools, and to the west of them the Great
Western Railway Terminus. The Act for the extension of the Great Western
line to Paddington, and for the erection of a station, was dated 1836.
The first station was, however, only temporary. The present one was
designed by I. K. Brunel, commenced 1849, and completed in 1854. It
contains three passenger platforms, and the roof is divided by columns
into three great spans, of which the centre one measures over 102 feet
in width, and the outer ones 68 feet each. The station buildings and
platforms at Paddington cover an area of 373,407 feet, but even this
extent is insufficient for the railway purposes. Adjacent houses have
consequently been adapted for the offices, and there is continual need
for further accommodation. There are eight platform lines, and the
platforms themselves are 780 feet in length. The daily passenger trains
number from 250 to 300, and with the addition of excursion trains in the
season the total daily average has reached 350. The diurnal number of
passengers is estimated at 14,000, but high-water mark has been touched
between 40,000 and 50,000. Twenty-five tons of news parcels are
despatched from Paddington in one day, and nearly 3,000 mail-bags and
parcels-post packages pass through the station in the same time, besides
about 5,000 milk-churns. The above figures give some indication of the
enormous traffic at this great terminus. The army of workers employed
numbers 2,000, exclusive of the large clerical staff employed in the
general department. The Great Western Hotel in a Renaissance style
fronts Praed Street. It was built from 1850 to 1852, and its frontage is
nearly 89 yards in length, and it is connected with the station by means
of a covered way. Covered ways also connect the station with Praed
Street and Bishop's Road Stations of the Metropolitan Railway.

In No. 19, Warwick Crescent, Robert Browning lived for five-and-twenty
years, a fact recorded by a tablet of the Society of Arts. He came here
in 1862, broken down by the death of his wife, and remained until a
threatened railway near the front of the house--an innovation never
carried out--drove him away. We are now once more in the region where
the name of Westbourne is freely used. There is Westbourne Terrace and
Square, Westbourne Park Crescent and Terrace Road. Near to Park Crescent
in Chichester Place is a Jewish synagogue of red brick, with ornate
stone carving over doors and windows. Next door is a curiously built
Primitive Methodist chapel, with bands of differently coloured bricks in
relief. St. Mary Magdalene's Church and schools stand at the corner of
Cirencester Street. A temporary church was first opened in 1865, and the
real building in 1868. This was the work of G. E. Street, R.A., and is a
compactly built church of dark-red brick, with apse and very high spire,
202 feet in height. It stands in rather a peculiar situation at the
junction of three or four roads, and suits the position well.

On July 13, 1872, while workmen were still busy with the roofing, the
church caught fire. The damage, however, was not great. The church was
finally completed in 1878. The services are High Church. The patronage
is held by Keble College, Oxford, and the population of the parish is
about 10,000. The ward of Maida Vale is bounded by Church ward on the
south, Westbourne and Harrow Road wards on the west, and the borough
boundary north and east. Between the Maida Vale Road and St. Saviour's
Church in the Warwick Road there is nothing to comment on. The church of
St. Saviour is in a Decorated style of Gothic. It is ornately built,
with a square tower buttressed and pinnacled. The church was consecrated
in 1856, and in 1883 a very fine and solidly-built chancel was added.
This is faced on the interior with Cosham stone. Carved stone niches run
on the north and south and on both sides of the Communion table. Some of
these contain life-size statues of saints and the Apostles. A very
handsome set of sanctuary lamps, after a Florentine design, hang across
the chancel. In Formosa Street are the Church schools of St. Saviour's,
and in Amberley Road there is a Board School. At the north of Shirland
Road is a dingy brick building like a large meeting-room. This is the
Welsh Calvinistic Methodist Church; in it the services are held in
Welsh. Across Sutherland Avenue, at the corner of Shirland Road, is a
very large brick building faced with red brick, which has two doorways
with porticos supported by columns with ornamented capitals. This is a
Wesleyan Methodist chapel, built in 1876. The schools in connection are
beneath the chapel. Further northward in the Shirland Road is a large
brick building with two entrances. This is the Wordsworth Ladies'
College and a branch of the Kilburn Orphanage. It was built in the year
1887 for both purposes, and there is no interior division between the
college and home. The orphans are only kept here until nine years of
age, when they are passed on to the Central Home. The Kilburn Sisters
have patented a form of cot surrounded with wire to prevent the very
little ones from falling out in their sleep. The room where there are
rows upon rows of these cots with head curtains is a very curious
spectacle, though it certainly suggests the desirability of further
accommodation. The college has large class-rooms and a studio for art
students. Some students board here, but the greater number attend daily.
The terms are very low--fifteen shillings a week, including board,
lodging, and tuition. The college is intended to assist girls desirous
of passing the Government examinations as elementary school teachers.
Almost immediately opposite the college is a small brick Baptist chapel,
considerably below the level of the road. In Elgin Avenue there is a
school of the Girls' Public Day School Company. On either side of Elgin
Avenue are large spaces of open ground used by market-gardeners and
others. To the north lies Paddington Recreation Ground, with cricket,
football, and tennis grounds, running and cycling tracks. Beyond this,
in the most northerly part of the borough, is the Kilburn Orphanage.
This was begun in 1875 in two houses in the Kilburn Park Road, but funds
were raised for building purposes, and in 1880 the present orphanage was
completed. The Sisters themselves supplied quite half of the money
required. The rule of the Sisterhood is that, though each retains
control of her own capital, her income goes into the common fund. The
orphanage is a large red-brick building standing in Randolph Gardens.
The western wing, now connected with the main building, was added later,
and the chapel last of all; it was not completed until about 1890. The
chapel is well fitted up, and the whole building has an air of comfort
and warmth in the interior. The passages are paved with tessellated
pavement, and the floors of the large schoolrooms are of parquet. This
is only one of the orphanage homes. There is a large establishment at
Broadstairs, which is partly a home for convalescents and partly for
orphans; and another at Margate; a relief home for little ones, already
mentioned, in the Shirland Road; and homes for boys at Brondesbury,
Oxford, and elsewhere. In Burwood Place there are printing-offices and
workshops connected with the orphanage, entirely managed by the boys.
During the last few years there has been much discussion on the methods
of the orphanage, and several charges have been brought against the
Sisters, of which the chief are: (1) Want of business method and
properly audited accounts; (2) injudicious methods: advertising for
illegitimate children without inquiry, to the encouragement of vice; (3)
receiving payment with such children, when the foundation was intended
for the absolutely destitute; (4) repudiation of all external control,
evidenced by deposing the Archbishop of Canterbury from his post of
patron when he attempted inquiry. These offences seem to have been
chiefly the result of mismanagement, not deliberately wrought, and might
be condoned. The orphanage receives children from the workhouse under
five years of age, and also foundlings. The community comprises about
160 Sisters, of which many are abroad. The orphan girls are trained in
domestic work, and do all their own work in the home. They do not leave
until they are nineteen or twenty years of age.

Adjoining the orphanage is the large red-brick church of St. Augustine.
This is a remarkable church both inside and out. It was designed by J.
L. Pearson, who thereby obtained the distinction of adding the letters
R.A. to his name. Through this building he also obtained the commission
to build Truro Cathedral. The church, as above stated, is of red brick,
in the first Pointed style, with long lancet windows. At the four
corners are four Pointed towers enriched with stonework. The centre
steeple has never been added, for want of funds, though the foundations
for it are deeply laid. The interior is very picturesque. There is a
triforium formed by the bays of the arches carried up from the centre
aisle. The roof is groined, and the chancel-screen, pulpit, walls of the
chancel, and the reredos are all stonework, with niches fitted with
stone figures. In the transeptal chapels are some fine oil paintings
executed on brick; that in the south chapel is the work of a prize pupil
of the Royal Academy. The church was built entirely owing to the
exertions of the present vicar, Mr. Kirkpatrick, who himself contributed
largely. An iron church on the same site was erected in 1870, and was so
constructed that the present building could be built over and enclose
it; therefore service was never interrupted for one day during the
process. In 1871 the greater part of the church was built, and in 1877
the nave was opened. It was completed in 1880.

There is very little of interest in the remaining part of the district.
St. Peter's Church, Elgin Avenue, was consecrated on August 12, 1872.
The church is built of Kentish ragstone, and is in a plain Early English
style, with an apse at the east end. The square tower, surmounted by a
short steeple, was added a few years later. The pillars are of polished
Aberdeen granite. St. Peter's National Schools lie to the south in
Chippenham Road. In Fernhead Road there is a Wesleyan chapel, built in
an ornate style with two square towers. Further north, just within the
borough boundary, is St. Luke's Church, built of brick, with schools
attached. This was consecrated in January, 1877, and is in a severe
Gothic style.

[Illustration: BAYSWATER DISTRICT.

Published by A. & C. Black, London.]



INDEX


Aberdare, Lord, 67

Aberfield, 83

Abergavenny, Lord, 28

Abershaw, Jerry, 83

Abingdon, Lord, 29

Abington, Mrs., 70

Adair, Sir R., 40

Albemarle Club, 31

Albemarle, Earl of, 26

Albemarle Street, 30

Aldford Street, 13, 17, 38

Alington House, 14

Alison, Sir A., 65

Allingham, W., 19

Ancaster, Earl of, 61

Anglesea, Lord, 29

Anne, Queen, 49

Anson, Admiral, 23

Anthropological Society, 21

Apsley House, 54

Arbuthnot, Dr., 34

Argyle, Duke of, 37, 53

Army Clothing Factory, 86

Ashbourne, Lord, 62

Ashburnham House, 33

Atholl, Duke of, 60, 65

Austro-Hungarian Embassy, 61

Aylesford Street, 85


Bach, J. C., 21

Baden-Powell, Lady, 68

Badminton Club, 61

Baillie, Matthew, 19, 56

Balcarres, Lord, 20

Balfe, M. W., 27

Balfour Place, 17

Bancroft, Sir S., 36

Baring, Thomas, 40

Barker, Thomas, 20

Barnard, Lady Anne, 36

Barré, Colonel, 39

Barrington, B., 62

Barrymore, Lord, 38

Barrymore, Earl of, 51

Bartlett, Sir E. Ashmead, 19

Bath Club, 33

Bath House, 50

Bathurst, C., 45

Bathurst, Earl, 37, 39

Bayswater, 97

Bayswater Road, 101

Beaconsfield, Earl of, 42

Beau Brummell, 38, 39, 41

Beaumont, Sir John, 13

Beckford, W., 13

Bedford, Duke of, 39, 53, 61

Beechey, Sir W., 26

Belgrave Hospital, 83

Belgrave Place, 65

Belgrave Road, 83

Belgrave Square, 61

Belgravia, 60

Bell, Sir Charles, 20

Belmore, Earl of, 53

Bennett, Sir W. H., 41

Bennett, W. J., 62

Berkeley, Hon. G., 49

Berkeley House, 49

Berkeley Square, 34

Berkeley Street, 36

Bernal, R., 67

Berry, the Misses, 14 42

Bevan, Henry, 53

Blake, W., 20

Blessington, Lady, 41

Bloomfield Terrace, 76

Blount, Martha, 36, 42

Blythswood, Lord, 41

Bolingbroke, Viscount, 34

Bolton Row, 42

Bolton Street, 43

Bond Street, 27

Boswell, J., 27, 29, 44

Boundaries of Paddington, 87

Brampton, Lord, 39

Brandes, W. T., 43

Brassey, Lord, 12

Breadalbane, Marquis of, 12

Brick Street, 46

Broadbent, Sir W., 20

Brodie, Sir B., 56

Brook House, 11

Brook Street, 19

Brougham and Vaux, Lord, 36, 37, 39

Broughton, Dr., 66

Browning, Robert, 120

Brownlow, Earl, 61

Brunswick, Duchess of, 23

Bruton Street, 86

Buckingham Gate, 73

Buckingham Palace Gardens, 73

Buckingham Palace Road, 73

Buckinghamshire, Duchess of, 26

Buckinghamshire, Earl of, 53

Bulkeley, General, 36

Buller, Charles, 68

Bunsen, Baron, 16, 42

Burdett, Sir F., 49

Burdett-Coutts, Baroness, 49

Burghclere, Lord, 40

Burgoyne, General, 45

Burke, Edmund, 20

Burton, Lord, 15

Bute House, 15

Bute, Lord, 32

Byng, Admiral, 37

Byron, 32

Byron, Lady, 34

Byron, Lord, 28


Cambridge, Duke of, 50, 52

Cambridge House, 50

Cambridge Terrace, 95

Camden, Lord, 37

Camelford House, 10

Camelford, Lord, 29

Campbell, Thomas, 23, 49, 70, 71

Campbell-Bannerman, Sir H., 60

Camperdown, Earl of, 40

Canning, George, 27, 37

Canning, Lord, 13

Cardwell, 67

Carlisle, Earl of, 37, 59

Carlos Place, 17

Carnarvon, Earl of, 36

Carnarvon House, 10

Caroline, Queen, 16

Carrington, Earl, 19

Carrington Street, 45

Carte, Samuel, 45

Carter, Elizabeth, 15

Cary, Rev. H. F., 40, 46

Cathcart, Earl, 60

Caulfield, General, 65

Cavalry Club, 52

Chandos, Duke of, 41

Chantrey, Sir F., 42, 44, 74

Chapel Street, 64

Charities, Paddington, 112-115

Charlemont, Lord, 45

Charles Street, 39, 40

Charles X., 16

Charlotte, Princess, 10

Charteris, Colonel Francis, 26

Chatham, Earl of, 36

Chelsea Bun House, 75

Chesham Place, 64

Chesterfield, Earl of, 12, 15

Chesterfield Gardens, 41

Chesterfield House, 15

Chesterfield Street, 41

Chester Place, 68

Chester Square, 68, 78

Chester Street, 66

Chetwynd, Sir G., 18

Chewton, Lord, 62

Children's Hospital, 110

Cholmondeley, Marquis of, 50

Churches:
  All Saints', Norfolk Square, 96
  Belgrave Chapel, 64
  Berkeley Chapel, 40
  St. Anselm's, 18
  St. Augustine's, 124
  St. Barnabas's, Pimlico, 76
  Christ Church, Down Street, 46
  Christ Church, Lancaster Gate, 100
  Eaton Chapel, 78
  Eccleston Square Chapel, 83
  Emmanuel Church, 105
  St. Gabriel's, 83
  St. George's Chapel, 31
  St. George's, Hanover Square, 25
  Greek Church, 102
  Grosvenor Chapel, 15
  Hanover Chapel, 23
  Holy Trinity, Bishop's Road, 102
  St. James's, Paddington, 98
  St. John's, Paddington, 95
  St. John the Evangelist, 82
  King's Weigh House Chapel, 18
  St. Luke's, 126
  St. Mark's, North Audley Street, 14
  St. Mary Magdalene's, 120
  St. Mary of the Angels, 104
  St. Mary's, Bourdon Street, 19
  St. Mary's (old parish), Paddington, 106
  St. Mary the Virgin, 78
  St. Matthew's, Petersburgh Place, 101
  Mayfair Chapel, 41
  St. Michael and All Angels, 96
  St. Michael's, 78
  Our Lady of Lourdes, 105
  St. Paul's, Wilton Place, 62
  St. Paul's, Paddington, 104
  St. Paul's Presbyterian Church, 104
  St. Peter's, Charlotte Street, 79
  St. Peter's, Eaton Square, 67
  St. Peter's, Elgin Avenue, 126
  St. Philip's, 74
  St. Saviour's, 10
  St. Saviour's, Pimlico, 85
  St. Saviour's Warwick Road, 121
  St. Stephen's, 104
  Westbourne Park Chapel 104

Churchill, Winston, 17

Cibber, Colley, 36

Clanwilliam, Earl of, 61

Clarence, Duke of, 40

Clarendon House, 29

Clarendon Street, 84

Clarges, Sir T., 26

Clarges Street, 43

Claridge's Hotel, 19

Clark, Sir James, 23

Claverton Street, 85

Clieveden Place, 68

Clifden, Viscount, 39

Clonmell, Earl of, 49

Clyde, Lord, 36

Cobham, Viscount, 23

Cochrane, Lord, 16

Codrington, Sir A., 67

Codrington, Sir E., 67

Coke, Lady Mary, 17

Collins, 109

Combermere, Viscount, 61

Commercial Road, 76

Conduit Street, 26

Coningsby, Lord, 29

Conyngham, Marquis of, 53

Cooke, G. F., 70

Cooper, Sir Astley, 27

Cope, Sir J., 43

Copley, J., 26

Cork, Earl of, 40, 53

Cornwallis, Marquis, 19, 33

Cosway, Richard, 25, 36

Cottenham, Lord, 37

Cottesloe, Lord, 67

Courtenay, Rev. H., 25

Coventry, Lord, 28, 51

Cowper, Lord Chancellor, 26

Coxe, Archdeacon, 34

Cranborne, Viscount, 33

Craven, Earl, 99

Craven, Lord, 28

Craven Terrace, 99

Crewe, Earl of, 42

Crewe, Lord, 17, 19

Cumberland, Duke of, 45

Cunningham, Allan, 74

Curzon Street, 41


Darner, Hon. Mrs., 16

D'Angoulême, Duchesse, 16

D'Arblay, Madame, 17, 43, 50

Darnley, Countess of, 38

Dartmouth, Earl of, 40

Davey, Lord, 20

Davies Street, 18

Davy, Sir Humphry, 14, 19

Deanery Street, 39

Delany, Mrs., 20, 28, 43

Dent, Mr., 45

Derby, Earl of, 13, 25

Derby Street, 45

De Ros, Lord, 62

De Staël, Madame, 26

D'Este, Mdlle., 38

De Tabley, Lord, 38

Devonshire House, 48

Dillon, Dr., 79

Disraeli, Benjamin, 12

Dodd, Dr., 79

Dolgorouki, Prince, 17

Dorchester House, 11

Dover, Earl of, 33

Dover Street, 33

Douglas, Right Hon. Akers, 17

Downshire House, 22

Ducie, Lord, 61

Duckworth, Sir Dyce, 33

Dudley House, 11

Duels, 8

Duke's Hospital, 59

Dalkeith, Earl of, 53

Dumergue, Mr., 52

Duncan, Sir H., 65

Duncombe, T., 40

Dundas, R., 45

Dunraven, Earl of, 16

Durham, Sir P., 37


Eaton, Major-General F., 17

Eaton Place, 65

Ebury Bridge, 84

Ebury, Manor of, 3

Ebury Square, 71

Ebury Street, 70

Eccleston Square, 81

Eccleston Street, 69

Edgeworth, Maria, 14

Edgware Road, 89

Egerton, Hon. Alan, 41

Egremont, Earl of, 50

Eia, Estate of, 3

Elgin Avenue, 123

Elgin, Earl of, 52

Eliot, George, 25

Elizabeth Street, 69

Ellenborough, Earl of, 40, 68

Elliotson, Dr., 27

Ellis, Welbore, 20

Ely, Bishops of, 33

Empress Club, 33

Erskine, Lord, 17

Esher, Viscount, 39

Evelyn, 34

Exeter, Marquis of, 39


Falkland, Viscount, 67

Farm Street, 38

Farquhar, Sir W., 27

Farrer, Sir William, 16

Ferrers, Earl, 43

Finch, Lady Isabella, 85

Fitzgerald, Lady M., 40

Fitzherbert, Mrs., 12, 32, 89

Fitzwilliam, Earl, 64

Ford, Richard, 14

Forester, Lord, 43

Fox, C. J., 27, 32, 35, 43

Free Library, 15, 74

French Embassy, 58


Galloway, Dowager Countess, 17

Galt, John, 44

Galton, Sir Douglas, 66

Gainsborough, Countess of, 29

Gardener, Sir Robert, 65

Gascoyne, B., 39

George Street, 24

Gifford, W., 49

Gilbert Street, 18

Glasgow Terrace, 85

Gloucester, Duke of, 52

Gloucester House, 52

Gloucester Street, 83

Glover, Richard, 32

Goderich, Lord, 45

Goldsmid, Sir Julian, 51

Gordon, Lord George, 16

Gore, Mrs., 65

Grafton, Duke of, 41, 59

Grafton, Dukes of, 43

Grafton Galleries, 32

Grafton Street, 32

Graham, Henry, 58

Graham, James, 60

Granby, Marquis of, 32, 37

Grand Junction Canal, 116

Grant, Sir W. K., 64

Granville, Lord, 13, 37

Great Stanhope Street, 39

Green Park Club, 32

Green Street, 16

Grenville, G., 10, 16, 43

Grenville, Lady, 40

Grenville, Lord, 53

Grenville, Thomas, 53

Greville House, 109

Grey, Earl, 36, 45

Grey, Sir G., 65

Grosvenor Club, 28, 74

Grosvenor Crescent Club, 62

Grosvenor Gallery, 28

Grosvenor House, 16

Grosvenor Place, 58, 66, 69

Grosvenor property, 4

Grosvenor Road, 85

Grosvenor Square, 12

Grosvenor Street, 19

Grote, George, 74

Guilford, Lady, 50

Gull, Sir W., 20

Gunning, Miss, 29

Gurwood, Colonel, 64

Gwynne, Nell, 75


Half-moon Street, 44

Halford, Sir H., 42

Halkin Street, 64

Hall, Sir Charles, 17

Hallam, Henry, 62

Hambledon, Viscountess, 61

Hamilton, Duke of, 40, 42

Hamilton, Lady, 29, 43, 109

Hamilton, Lord A., 43

Hamilton, Sir Ian, 41

Hamilton Place, 53

Hamilton, "Single Speech," 16, 23

Hamilton, Sir W., 25, 52

Hampden House, 16

Handel, 20

Hanoverian Embassy, 60

Hanover Square, 20

Hardinge, Viscount, 39

Hardwicke, Lord Chancellor, 12

Harewood House, 21

Harewood Place, 24

Harrowby, Earl of, 13

Hastings, Warren, 12

Hawke, Sir E., 26

Hayes Street, 39

Hay Hill, 34

Hazlitt, W., 44, 46

Heath, Mr., 25

Hereford Gardens, 10

Herschell, Lord, 70

Hertford, Countess of, 19

Hertford, Marquis of, 11, 36, 51, 68

Hertford Street, 45

Hewitt, Sir P., 56

Heywood, Mr., 65

Hill, Lord, 61

Hill Street, 37

Hindlip, Lord, 38

History of Paddington, 90

Hobart Place, 66

Hobhouse, Lord, 37

Hogarth, 99

Hogarth Club, 33

Holcroft, 15

Holland, Lord, 38

Holland, Sir H., 17, 20

Home, Earl of, 53

Home, Mr., 15

Hope House, 52

Hothfield, Lord, 41

Howard, Mrs., 36

Howe, Admiral Earl, 32, 42

Humphery, Sir W., 37

Hunlocke, Sir H., 51

Hunter, John, 56

Huskisson, W., 19

Hyde, Manor of, 3

Hyde Park, 4

Hyde Park Club, 52

Hyde Park Corner, 55

Hyde Park Gardens, 95


Isthmian Club, 51

Iveagh, Lord, 59


Jameson, Mrs., 37

Jenner, Sir W., 20, 45

Jenyns, Soame, 39

Jersey, Earl of, 36

John of Gaunt, 81

Johnson, Dr., 20, 28

John Street, 40

Jones, Richard, 64

Jones, Sir W., 15

Jonson, Ben, 117

Jordan, Mrs., 22

Junior Athenæum, 52

Junior Conservative Club, 31

Junior Constitutional Club, 51

Junior Naval and Military Club, 51


Kean, Edmund, 43

Kelvin, Lord, 65

Kendal, Duchess of, 12

Kensal Green, 105

Kensington, Lord, 42

Kent, Duchess of, 61

Kilburn Orphanage, 123

Kilmorey, Earl of, 39

Kingston, Duke of, 25, 29

Kinnerton Street, 63

Knightsbridge, 55

Knutsford, Viscount, 67

Kossuth, 65


Labouchere, Mr., 53

Lake, Lord, 20

Lambton, Hon. Hedworth, 32

Lamington, Lord, 62

Langdale, Lord, 45

Lansdowne House, 35

Lansdowne, Lord, 23

Lansdowne, Marquis of, 109

Lawrence, General, 37

Lawrence, Sir T., 29, 53

Leconfield, Lord, 41

Leeds, Duke of, 62

Leicester, Sir J. F., 37

Leigh, Sir E. C., 17

Limmer's Hotel, 25

Liston, 57

Literary Club, 33

Liverpool, Earl of, 45

Lock Hospital, 59, 104

Londesborough, Lord, 36, 37

Londonderry House, 11

Longford, Countess of, 37

Long's Hotel, 28

Louis XVIII., 16, 31

Lower Eaton Street, 70

Lowndes Street, 64

Lowther, James, 62

Lowther, Right Hon. J., 19

Lucan, Earl of, 53

Lupus Street, 85

Lushington, Dr., 65

Lyall Street, 65

Lyndhurst, Lord, 26

Lynedoch, Lord, 49

Lyttelton, Lord, 37

Lytton, 12, 45

Lytton, Sir G. B., 40


Macartney, Lord, 42

Macaulay, 43

Macclesfield, Countess of, 29

Macdonald, Sir G., 37

Macdonald, Sir J., 63

Mackay, Sir J. L., 41

Mackintosh, Sir J., 32

Mackintosh, The, 38

Maddox Street, 26

Maitland, Sir P., 65

Malcolm, Sir J., 23

Malet, Sir E., 67

Mallet, David, 15, 26

Malmesbury, Earl of, 38

Manchester, Duke of, 39

Mansfield, Earl of, 39

Mantell, G. A., 68

March, Earl of, 61

Market Street, 95

Markham, Archbishop, 15

Marriages, 25

Maxwell, Sir W. S., 14

May Fair, The, 1, 44

Melbourne, Lord, 38, 43

Mendip, Lord, 20

Merriman, Dr., 40, 44

Methuen, Sir Paul, 19

Mexborough, Earl of, 34

Mexborough, Earls of, 51

Miles, W., 54

Mill Street, 26

Mitford, W., 43

Molesworth, Sir W., 65

Monkbretton, Lord, 12

Montagu, Lady M. Wortley, 15, 26

Montagu, Lord, 53

Montagu, Mrs., 37

Montes, Lola, 44

Montgomery, Lord, 53

Montrose, Duchess of, 61

Morley, Arnold, 49

Mornington, Earl of, 45

Mortimer House, 64

Moss, Rev. Charles, 25

Motcomb Street, 63

Mount Edgcumbe, Earl of, 71

Mount Street, 17

Munro, Hon. B. J., 54

Munro, W., 53

Munster, Earl of, 65

Murchison, Sir Roderick, 61

Murray, General Sir G., 61


Nash, John, 34

Naval and Military Club, 50

Neat House Gardens, 81

Neat houses, 86

Nelson, Lord, 29

New County Club, 23

New Travellers' Club, 50

Neyte, Manor of, 3, 81

Nicholson, Sir W. G., 46

Nightingale, Florence, 38

Nollekens, 99, 107, 109

Norfolk Street, 16

Northbrook, Earl of, 53

North, Lord, 13, 19

Northumberland, Duke of, 59

Northumberland, Dowager Duchess of, 17

Norton, Hon. Mrs., 43


O'Brien, Nelly, 14

O'Connell, D., 43

Omnium, Jacob, 68

O'Neil, Miss, 43

Orford, Earl of, 37

Oriental Club, 22

Orkney, Lord, 32

Orme Square, 101

Ormonde, Marquis of, 16

Osborn, Sir G., 40

Osborne, Admiral, 40

Osnaburgh Row, 59

Owen, William, 87

Oxford, Earl of, 34

Oxford Street, 9

Oxford Terrace, 95


Paddington, 87

Paddington Station, 118

Palmerston, Lady, 12

Palmerston, Lord, 23, 39, 50, 53

Paoli, General, 15, 29

Parish, H., 65

Park Lane, 10

Park Street, 14

Parr, Dr., 20, 57

Partington, O., 33

Peabody, G., 67

Peel, Sir Robert, 17, 39

Pembroke, Countess of, 13

Penn, Granville, 45

Pennington, Rev. G., 76

Penrhyn, Lord, 64

Pepys, Sir Lucas, 16

Perceval, Sir Spencer, 16

Percy, Earl, 42

Perry, Sir E., 65

Peterborough, Earl of, 43

Petersburgh Place, 101

Pettigrew, Dr., 66

Phillips, Ambrose, 15, 23

Phillips, Sir T., 26

Piccadilly, 46

Picton, Sir T., 29

Pillars of Hercules, 54

Pimlico Road, 74

Pinkerton, Mr., 70

Pioneer Club, 37

Pitt, William, 37

Pope, 34, 45

Pope, Mrs., 44

Portmore, Lord, 32

Portuguese Embassy, 16

Pott, P., 23

Poulet, Lord, 32

Powis, Earl of, 36

Pretender, the Young, 43

Priestley, 35


Queensberry, Duke of, 53

Queen's Meadhouse, 51

Queen's Road, 101

Queen Street, 40


Radcliffe, Delmé, 27

Radcliffe, Mrs., 74

Raffles, Sir T. S., 13

Raglan, Lord, 39

Raikes, Thomas, 13

Ranelagh Grove, 76

Ranelagh Terrace, 76

Reay, Lord, 39

Reid, Sir James, 19

Reid, Sir R. T., 67

Revelstoke, Lord, 38

Reynolds, Miss, 63

Richmond, Duke of, 61

Rigby, Francis Hale, 17

Rockingham, Lord, 12

Roden, Countess of, 38

Rodney, Admiral, 23

Rodwell, G. H., 70

Romilly, Lord, 40

Rothes, Countess of, 16

Rothschild, Alfred, 41

Rothschild, Leopold, 53

Rothschild, Lord, 54

Rothschild, Miss Alice, 54

Rothschild, N. M., 52

Rothschild, Sir Anthony, 59

Rowton, Lord, 36

Royal Academy of Music, 24

Royal Asiatic Society, 31

Royal Association for Deaf and Dumb, 10

Royal Institute of British Architects, 27

Royal Institution, 30

Royal Medical Society, 22

Royal Mews, 72

Royal Oak Station, 102

Royal Orthopædic Hospital, 10

Royal Thames Yacht Club, 31

Ruggles-Brise, Sir E., 38

Russell, Lord John, 15, 62, 64

Russell, Lord William, 16

Russia, Emperor of, 51

Russian Embassy, 33, 64

Rutland, Duke of, 32

Ryland, W., 74


St. Albans, Duchess of, 49

St. Albans, Duke of, 29

St. Andrews, Bishop of, 67

St. George's Burial-ground, 94

St. George's Hospital, 56

St. George's Parish, 2

St. George's Place, 56

St. George's Road, 83

St. George's Row, 84

St. George's Square, 85

St. George's Union, 79

St. James's Club, 52

St. John, Viscount, 32

St. Mary's Hospital, 117

St. Mary's Terrace, 116

St. Peter's Institute, 73

St. Vincent, Earl, 19, 43

St. Vincent's Home, 105

Sandhurst, Lord, 67

Sandwich, Earl of, 82

Sandwich, fourth Earl of, 45

Savile Club, 52

Savory, Sir B., 20

Scarborough, Earl of, 12

Scott, J. H., 40

Scott, Sir Walter, 28, 52

Seamore Place, 41

Sefton, Earl of, 61

Selborne, Earl of, 17

Selwyn, George, 28

Sesame Club, 33

Shackleton, John, 36

Shaftesbury, Earl of, 13, 61, 102

Shakespeare, 117

Shannon, Earl of, 54

Sharp, Richard, 12

Shaw, Sir Frederick, 66

Shelburne, Lord, 26

Shelley, 39, 44

Shepherd's Market, 44

Sheridan, 26, 37, 40, 45

Shire Horse Society, 21

Shirley, S., 42

Sibthorpe, Colonel, 66, 68

Siddons, Mrs., 99, 106, 108, 109

Skelton, W., 70

Sligo, Marchioness of, 32

Smirke, Sidney, 36

Smith, Sydney, 16, 20, 40

Soltykoff, Prince, 42

Somerset, Duke of, 12

Sondes, Earl, 12

Sotheby, W., 19

Southampton, Lord, 39, 53

South Audley Street, 14

South Molton Street, 20

South Street, 13, 38

Southwick Crescent, 95

Spanish Embassy, 70

Stafford, Viscount, 73

Stair, Lord, 26

Stanhope, Countess, 43

Stanhope, Earl, 59

Stapleton, Hon. Thomas, 63

Stephen, E. B., 74

Sterne, Laurence, 29, 94

Stonehewer, R., 42

Stowell, Lord, 32

Strange, Lord, 41

Stratford de Redclyffe, Lord, 13

Stratheden, Lord, 37

Strathnairn, Lord, 36

Stratton Street, 49

Stromboli House, 75

Suffolk, Countess of, 14

Sullivan, John, 53

Sussex, Duke of, 25

Sutherland, Duke of, 53

Swift, 28

Sydenham, Lord, 15


Talleyrand, Prince, 20

Tattersall's, 61

Templemore, Lord, 17

Tenterden Street, 24

Thomson, James, 29

Thrale, Henry, 12

Tierney, George, 33, 45

Tierney, Sir M., 37

Tilney Street, 39

Titchborne Road, 95

Trevelyan, Sir G., 62

Trinity Chapel, 57

Troubridge, Sir T., 20, 65

Truro, Chancellor, 67

Turf Club, 43

Tweeddale, Marquis, 37

Tyburn, The, 19, 88


Upper Brook Street, 16

Upper Eaton Street, 70

Upper Grosvenor Street, 12, 16


Van Butchell, Martin, 17

Vandergucht, B., 20

Vandergucht, Gerald, 20

Vane, Lady, 37

Vane, Miss, 19

Vauxhall Bridge Road, 82

Vesey, Mrs., 43

Vestris, Madame, 42

Victoria Bridge, 77

Victoria Square, 71

Victoria Station, 80

Vivares, 109


Waldegrave, Lady, 36

Wallace, Sir R., 51

Walpole, Horace, 36, 37, 42

Walpole, Sir R., 58

Walsingham, Lord, 67

Warburton, Bishop, 12

Warner, Captain, 76

Warwick Crescent, 120

Warwick Square, 83

Warwick Street, 82

Watier's Club, 50

Waverton Street, 39

Weekes, H., 74

Welby, Sir C. G., 38

Welby, Lord, 49

Wellesley, Lord C., 65

Wellesley, Marquis, 12, 54

Wellington Club, 59

Wellington, Duke of, 53, 54

Westbourne, 91, 94

Westbourne Green, 102

Westbourne Place, 103

Westbourne, the, 88

Westbury, Lord, 38

Westmacott, Mr., 63

Westmacott, Sir R., 15

Westminster, Duke of, 16

Westmoreland Street, 85

Wharncliffe House, 42

Wharton, Duke of, 27

Wharton, Marquis of, 34

Whitbread, S., 19, 34

Whitehead, W., 15

White Horse Cellar, 47

White Horse Street, 44

White, Lydia, 14

Wightman, Justice, 65

Wilberforce, 27

Wilbraham, Roger, 49

Wilkes, John, 13, 15

Willes, Justice, 67

Williams, Sir J., 20

Willoughby, Lord, 49

Wilson, Sir T. R., 38

Wilton, Dowager Countess, 17

Wilton Crescent, 62

Wilton Place, 62

Wilton Road, 82

Wilton Street, 66

Windsor, Lord, 17

Wombwell, Sir G., 26, 62

Wood, Sir Charles, 64

Wood, Sir Matthew, 16

Woodstock Street, 20

Worcester, Bishop of, 60

Wordsworth Ladies College, 122

Wraxall, Sir N., 43

Wyndham, Sir W., 34


Yates, Richard, 74

York, Duke of, 14


Zoffany, 32

Zoological Society, 21


THE END



       *       *       *       *       *



BILLING AND SONS, LTD., PRINTERS, GUILDFORD



       *       *       *       *       *



Transcriber's note:

The following errors in the original index have been corrected.

   Radcliffe, Mrs., 74 was Redcliffe, Mrs., and appeared between
   Reay and Reid.

   Savile Club, 52 was Savill Club, 52

   Stratford de Redclyffe, Lord, 13 was Stratford de Redcliffe,
   Lord, 13

   Stratheden, Lord, 37 was Strathden, Lord, 37





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