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Title: Diaries of Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore, Volume I - Comprising Their Life and Work as Recorded in Their Diaries - From 1812 to 1883
Author: Montefiore, Judith Cohen, Lady, 1784-1862, Montefiore, Moses, Sir, 1784-1885
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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file made from images generously made available by Seforim
Online.)



[Illustration: REPRODUCED FROM A PHOTOGRAPH ON PORCELAIN
IN THE POSSESSION OF MRS LOEWE TAKEN AT THE AGE OF 80

HELIOG LEMERCIER Et Cie PARIS]


  DIARIES OF

  SIR MOSES

  AND LADY MONTEFIORE

  COMPRISING THEIR LIFE AND WORK AS RECORDED
  IN THEIR DIARIES FROM 1812 TO 1883.

  WITH THE ADDRESSES AND SPEECHES OF SIR MOSES; HIS CORRESPONDENCE
  WITH MINISTERS, AMBASSADORS, AND REPRESENTATIVES OF PUBLIC
  BODIES; PERSONAL NARRATIVES OF HIS MISSIONS IN THE CAUSE OF
  HUMANITY; FIRMANS AND EDICTS OF EASTERN MONARCHS; HIS OPINIONS
  ON FINANCIAL, POLITICAL, AND RELIGIOUS SUBJECTS, AND ANECDOTES
  AND INCIDENTS REFERRING TO MEN OF HIS TIME, AS RELATED BY
  HIMSELF.

  EDITED BY

  DR L. LOEWE,

  MEMBER OF THE ROYAL ASIATIC SOCIETY OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND
  OF THE SOCIETE ASIATIQUE OF PARIS OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF
  LONDON, ETC (ONE OF THE MEMBERS OF THE MISSION TO DAMASCUS AND
  CONSTANTINOPLE UNDER THE LATE SIR MOSES MONTEFIORE BART, IN THE
  YEAR 1840).

  ASSISTED BY HIS SON.

  In Two Volumes

  _WITH ILLUSTRATIONS_

  VOL. I.

  CHICAGO:
  BELFORD-CLARKE CO.
  1890.

[Illustration: ANCIENT COAT OF ARMS OF THE MONTEFIORE FAMILY,
_explained on page 6_.]


  (_The rights of translation and of reproduction are reserved._)

  Copyright--Belford-Clarke Co., Chicago.



PREFACE.


In submitting to the public the Memoirs, including the Diaries, of Sir
Moses and Lady Montefiore, I deem it desirable to explain the motives
by which I have been actuated, as well as the sources from which most
of my information has been drawn.

The late Sir Moses Montefiore, from a desire to show his high
appreciation of the services rendered to the cause of humanity by
Judith, Lady Montefiore, his affectionate partner in life, directed
the executors of his last will "to permit me to take into my custody
and care all the notes, memoranda, journals, and manuscripts in his
possession written by his deeply lamented wife, to assist me in
writing a Memoir of her useful and blessed life."

The executors having promptly complied with these instructions, I soon
found myself in possession of five journals by Lady Montefiore,
besides many valuable letters and papers, including documents of great
importance, as well as of no less than eighty-five diaries of Sir
Moses Montefiore, dating from 1814 to 1883, all in his own
handwriting.

In addition to such facilities for producing a Memoir, I had the
special advantage of personally knowing both Sir Moses and Lady
Montefiore for many years. There is an entry in the diaries referring
to a dinner at the house of one of their relatives on the 27th of
November 1835 (where I met them for the first time), and to a visit I
subsequently paid them at East Cliff Lodge, Ramsgate, by special
invitation, from the 3rd to the 13th of December of the same year.

I also had the privilege of accompanying them on thirteen
philanthropic missions to foreign lands, some of which were undertaken
by both Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore, and others by Sir Moses alone
after Lady Montefiore's death. The first of these missions took place
in the year 1839, and the last in 1874.

A no less important circumstance, which I may perhaps be allowed to
mention, is, that I was with Sir Moses on the last day of his life,
until he breathed his last, and had the satisfaction of hearing from
his own lips, immediately before his death, the expression of his
approval of my humble endeavours to assist him, as far as lay in my
power, in attaining the various objects he had in view.

However desirous I might have been to adhere strictly to his wishes, I
found it impossible to write a Memoir of Lady Montefiore without
making it, at the same time, a Memoir of Sir Moses himself, both of
them having been so closely united in all their benevolent works and
projects. It appeared to me most desirable, therefore, in order to
convey to the reader a correct idea of the contents of the book, to
entitle it "The Diaries of Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore."

In order, however, to comply with the instructions of the will, I
shall, in giving the particulars of their family descent, first
introduce the parentage of Lady Montefiore.

To assist the reader in finding the exact month and year referring to
Hebrew Communal affairs, I have always given the Hebrew date
conjointly with that of the Christian era, more especially as all the
entries in the diaries invariably have these double dates.

  L. LOEWE.

  1 Oscar Villas, Broadstairs, Kent,
  _21st June 1887_ (5647 A.M.).



CONTENTS.


  CHAPTER I.                                               PAGE

  Birth of Sir Moses Montefiore at Leghorn--His
  Family--Early Years                                         1

  CHAPTER II.

  Early Education--Becomes a Stockbroker--His Marriage       12

  CHAPTER III.

  Extracts from the Diaries--Financial Transactions--Public
  Events before and after Waterloo--Elected President of
  the Spanish and Portuguese Hebrew Community                19

  CHAPTER IV.

  Daily Life--Death of his Brother Abraham--An early
  Panama Canal Project                                       25

  CHAPTER V.

  First Journey to Jerusalem                                 36

  CHAPTER VI.

  Mr and Mrs Montefiore leave Alexandria--A Sea Voyage
  Sixty Years ago                                            47

  CHAPTER VII.

  Arrival in England--Illness of Mr Montefiore--The
  Struggle for Jewish Emancipation                           55

  CHAPTER VIII.

  Lady Hester Stanhope--Her Eccentricities--Parliament
  and the Jews                                               63

  CHAPTER IX.

  Mr Montefiore presented to the King--Spanish and
  Portuguese Jews in London in 1829                          69

  CHAPTER X.

  Interview with the Duke of Wellington in furtherance of
  the Jewish--Cause--The Duke's Dilatory Tactics--Laying
  the Foundation-stone of the Synagogue at Hereson           78

  CHAPTER XI.

  Lord Brougham and the Jews--The Jewish Poor in
  London--Mr Montefiore hands his Broker's Medal to his
  Brother--Dedication of the Synagogue at Hereson--The
  Lords reject the Jewish Disabilities Bill                  86

  CHAPTER XII.

  Illness of Mr Montefiore--His Recovery--Sir David
  Salomons proposed as Sheriff--Visit of the Duchess of
  Kent and Princess Victoria to Ramsgate--Mr Montefiore's
  Hospitals--Naming of the Vessel _Britannia_ by Mrs
  Montefiore--A Loan of Fifteen Millions                     93

  CHAPTER XIII.

  Death of Mr N. M. Rothschild--Mr Montefiore visits
  Dublin--Becomes the First Jewish Member of the Royal
  Society--Death of William IV.--Mr Montefiore elected
  Sheriff                                                   103

  CHAPTER XIV.

  The Jews' Marriage Bill--Mr Montefiore at the Queen's
  Drawing-Room--His Inauguration as Sheriff                 111

  CHAPTER XV.

  Death of Mr Montefiore's Uncle--Mr Montefiore rides in
  the Lord Mayor's Procession--Is Knighted--His Speech at
  the Lord Mayor's Banquet--Presents Petition on behalf
  of the Jews to Parliament                                 119

  CHAPTER XVI.

  Destruction of the Royal Exchange--City
  Traditions--"Jews' Walk"--Sir Moses dines at
  Lambeth Palace                                            130

  CHAPTER XVII.

  Another Petition to Parliament--Sir Moses intercedes
  successfully for the Life of a Convict--Death of Lady
  Montefiore's Brother                                      137

  CHAPTER XVIII.

  Bartholomew Fair--Sir Moses earns the Thanks of the
  City--Preparations for a Second Journey to the Holy
  Land--The Journey--Adventures on Road and River in
  France                                                    145

  CHAPTER XIX.

  Genoa, Carrara, Leghorn, and Rome--Disquieting
  Rumours--Quarantine Precautions--Arrival at
  Alexandria--Travel in the Holy Land                       153

  CHAPTER XX.

  Reception at Safed--Sad Condition of the People--Sir
  Moses' Project for the Cultivation of the Land in
  Palestine by the Jews--Death of the Chief Rabbi of the
  German Congregation in Jerusalem--Tiberias                162

  CHAPTER XXI.

  Invitation from the Portuguese Congregation at
  Jerusalem--Sanitary Measures in the Holy City--The Wives
  of the Governor of Tiberias visit Lady Montefiore--A
  Pleasant Journey--Arrival at Jerusalem                    171

  CHAPTER XXII.

  The Tomb of David--Spread of the Plague--Mussulman
  Fanaticism--Suspicious Conduct of the Governor of
  Jerusalem--Nayani, Beth Dagon, Jaffa, Emkhalet, and
  Tantura                                                   180

  CHAPTER XXIII.

  Encampment near Mount Carmel--State of the Country--Child
  Marriages in the Portuguese Community at Haifa--Arrival
  in Beyrout                                                188

  CHAPTER XXIV.

  On Board the _Acheron_--Sir Moses' Plans on behalf
  of the Jews in Palestine--Interview with Boghoz
  Bey--Proposed Joint Stock Banks in the East               196

  CHAPTER XXV.

  Arrival at Malta--Home again--Boghoz Bey returns no
  Answer--Touching Appeal from the Persecuted Jews of
  Damascus and Rhodes--Revival of the old Calumny about
  killing Christians to put their Blood in Passover Cakes   204

  CHAPTER XXVI.

  Indignation Meetings in London--M. Crémieux--Lord
  Palmerston's Action--Sir Moses starts on a Mission to
  the East--Origin of the Passover Cake Superstition        213

  CHAPTER XXVII.

  Arrival at Leghorn--Alexandria--Sir Moses' Address to
  the Pasha--Action of the Grand Vizir                      222

  CHAPTER XXVIII.

  Authentic Accounts of the Circumstances attending the
  Accusations against the Jews--Terrible Sufferings of
  the Accused--Evidence of their Innocence--Witnesses in
  their favour Bastinadoed to Death                         229

  CHAPTER XXIX.

  Affairs in the East--Ultimatum from the Powers--Gloomy
  Prospects of the Mission--Negotiations with the
  Pasha--Excitement in Alexandria--Illness of Lady
  Montefiore                                                240

  CHAPTER XXX.

  The English Government and the Pasha--Mohhammad Ali and
  the Slaves--The Pasha promises to release the Damascus
  Prisoners--He grants them an "Honourable Liberation"      248

  CHAPTER XXXI.

  Interview with the Pasha--Liberation of the Jews of
  Damascus--Public Rejoicings and Thanksgiving--Departure
  of Sir Moses for Constantinople                           256

  CHAPTER XXXII.

  Constantinople--Condition of the Jewish
  Residents--Interview with Rechid Pasha--Audience with
  the Sultan--He grants a Firman                            266

  CHAPTER XXXIII.

  Distress among the Jews at Salonica--Oppressive Laws
  with regard to them--Text of the Firman--Its
  Promulgation                                              275

  CHAPTER XXXIV.

  Departure from Malta--Naples--Rome--A Shameful
  Inscription--Prejudices against the Jews at the Vatican   282

  CHAPTER XXXV.

  Monsignor Bruti and his Hints--Cardinal
  Riverola--Ineffectual Attempts to Interview the
  Pope--Returning Homewards--Alarming Accident--The
  Governor of Genoa--Interview with King Louis Philippe     289

  CHAPTER XXXVI.

  Home again--Sir Moses presents a Facsimile of the
  Firman to the Queen--Her Majesty's Special Mark of
  Favour--Reform Movement among the London Jews--Appeal
  for English Protection from the Jews in the East          298

  CHAPTER XXXVII.

  Presentation from Hamburg--Sir Moses meets the King of
  Prussia--Address to Prince Albert--Attempt on the
  Queen's Life--Petitions to Sir Moses from Russia          305

  CHAPTER XXXVIII.

  Address and Testimonial from the Jews--Sir Moses'
  Speech in reply--Death of the Duke of Sussex--The
  Deportation Ukase in Russia--Opening of the New Royal
  Exchange--Sir Moses made Sheriff of Kent                  313

  CHAPTER XXXIX.

  Affairs in Morocco--Letter to the Emperor--His
  Reply--Deputation to Sir Robert Peel--Death of Lady
  Montefiore's Brother Isaac--Sir Moses sets out for
  Russia                                                    320

  CHAPTER XL.

  Perils of Russian Travelling in Winter--Arrival at St
  Petersburg--Interviews with Count Nesselrode and the
  Czar--Count Kisseleff's Prejudices                        328

  CHAPTER XLI.

  Count Kisseleff is more Conciliatory--Sir Moses sets
  out for Wilna--Arrival at Wilna--The Jews' Answers to
  the Charges of Russian Officials                          339

  CHAPTER XLII.

  The Jewish Schools at Wilna--Wilcomir--Deplorable
  Condition of the  Hebrew Community in that
  Town--Kowno--Warsaw                                       344

  CHAPTER XLIII.

  Deputation from Krakau--The Polish Jews and their
  Garb--Sir Moses leaves Warsaw--Posen, Berlin, and
  Frankfort--Home                                           351

  CHAPTER XLIV.

  Sir Moses receives the Congratulations of his English
  Co-religionists--His Exhaustive Report to Count
  Kisseleff--Examination of the Charges against the
  Jews--Their Alleged Disinclination to engage in
  Agriculture                                               359

  CHAPTER XLV.

  Report to Count Ouvaroff on the State of Education
  among the Jews in Russia and Poland--Vindication of
  the Loyalty of the Jews                                   374

  CHAPTER XLVI.

  Report to Count Kisseleff on the State of the Jews in
  Poland--Protest against the Restrictions to which they
  were subjected                                            381

  CHAPTER XLVII.

  The Czar's Reply to Sir Moses' Representations--Count
  Ouvaroff's Views--Sir Moses again writes to Count
  Kisseleff--Sir Moses is created a Baronet                 385



DIARIES OF
Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore



CHAPTER I.

BIRTH OF SIR MOSES MONTEFIORE AT LEGHORN--HIS FAMILY--EARLY
YEARS.


The neighbourhood of the Tower of London was, a hundred years ago, the
centre of attraction for thousands of persons engaged in financial
pursuits, not so much on account of the protection which the presence
of the garrison might afford in case of tumult, as of the convenience
offered by the locality from its vicinity to the wharves, the Custom
House, the Mint, the Bank, the Royal Exchange, and many important
counting-houses and places of business. For those who took an interest
in Hebrew Communal Institutions, it possessed the additional advantage
of being within ten minutes or a quarter of an hour's walk of the
Spanish and Portuguese Synagogue and the Great German Synagogue,
together with their Colleges and Schools, and several minor places of
worship.

Tower Hill, the Minories, and the four streets enclosing the Tenter
Ground were then favourite places of residence for the merchant; and
in one of these, Great Prescott Street, lived Levi Barent Cohen, the
father of Judith, afterwards Lady Montefiore.

He was a wealthy merchant from Amsterdam, who settled in England,
where fortune favoured his commercial undertakings.

In his own country his name is to this day held in great respect. He
not only during his lifetime kept up a cordial correspondence with his
friends and relatives--who were indebted to him for many acts of
kindness--but, wishing to have his name commemorated in the House of
Prayer by some act of charity, he bequeathed a certain sum of money to
be given annually to the poor, in consideration of which, he desired
to have some of the Daily Prayers offered up from the very place which
he used to occupy in the Synagogue of his native city.

He was a man, upright in all his transactions, and a strict adherent
to the tenets of his religion. He was of a very kind and sociable
disposition, which prompted him to keep open house for his friends and
visitors, whom he always received with the most generous hospitality.
He was first married to Fanny, a daughter of Joseph Diamantschleifer
of Amsterdam, by whom he had three children: two sons, Solomon and
Joseph, and one daughter, Fanny.

Solomon became the father-in-law of the late Sir David Salomons, and
Joseph the father of the late Mr Louis Cohen. Fanny married Salomon
Hyman Cohen Wessels, of Amsterdam, a gentleman who was well known at
that time for his philanthropy, and whose family, at the period of
Napoleon I., was held in great esteem among the aristocracy of
Holland.

Mrs Levi Barent Cohen unfortunately died at an early age, and Mr Cohen
married her sister Lydia, by whom he had seven children: five
daughters--Hannah, Judith, Jessy, Adelaide, and Esther; and two
sons--Isaac and Benjamin.

Hannah became the wife of Mr N. M. Rothschild; Judith was married to
Mr Moses Montefiore; Jessy to Mr Davidson; Adelaide to Mr John
Hebbert; and Esther to Mr S. M. Samuel, the father of Mr George
Samuel, and grandfather of Baron Henry de Worms, M. P. Isaac became
the father-in-law of Baron Meyer de Rothschild, and Benjamin the
father of Mr Arthur Cohen, Q. C., and Mr Nath. B. Cohen.

Judith, one of the subjects of these Memoirs, was born, according to
the entry in one of Sir Moses' Diaries, on the 20th February 1784; her
birthday, however, was generally celebrated at East Cliff Lodge in the
month of October, in conjunction with another festivity held there on
the first Saturday after the Tabernacle Holidays.

With regard to most persons noted for their character or ability,
there exists a tradition of some unusual occurrence happening during
their early life. In the case of Lady Montefiore, there is an event
which she once related to me herself.

"When I was a little girl," she said, "about three or four years old,
I fell over the railing of a staircase, quite two storeys high, into
the hall below. Everybody in the house thought I must be killed, but
when they came to pick me up they found me quietly seated as if
nothing in the world had happened to me."

It was a characteristic of hers which was subsequently much noticed by
those around her, that, no matter in what circumstances she was
placed, when others were excited or depressed by some painful event or
the fear of approaching peril, she would remain calm, and retain her
presence of mind. She would endeavour to cheer and strengthen others
by words of hope, and where it was possible to avoid any threatened
danger, she would quietly give her opinion as to the best course to be
pursued.

She received from her earliest childhood an excellent English
education, and her studies in foreign languages were most successful.
She spoke French, German, and Italian fluently, and read and
translated correctly the Hebrew language of her prayers, as well as
portions of the Pentateuch, generally read in the Synagogues on
Sabbaths and Festivals.

Nor were the accomplishments of music and drawing neglected; but that
which characterised and enhanced the value of her education most was
"the fear of God," which, she had been taught, constituted "the
beginning of knowledge."

By the example set in her parents' house, this lesson took an
especially deep root in her heart. One day at Park Lane the
conversation happened to turn on the practice of religious
observances, and Lady Montefiore related what had occurred when she
was still under the parental roof.

"Once," she said, "on the fast-day for the destruction of Jerusalem,
we were sitting, as is customary, in mourning attire, on low stools,
reciting the Lamentations of Jeremiah. Suddenly the servant entered
the room, closely followed by Admiral Sir Sidney Smith, and several
other gentlemen. My sisters became somewhat embarrassed, not liking to
be thus surprised in our peculiar position, but I quietly kept my
seat, and when Sir Sidney asked the reason of our being seated so low,
I replied, This is the anniversary of the destruction of Jerusalem,
which is kept by conforming Jews as a day of mourning and
humiliation. The valour exhibited by our ancestors on this sad
occasion is no doubt well known to you, Sir Sidney, and to the other
gentlemen present, and I feel sure that you will understand our grief
that it was unavailing to save the Holy City and the Temple. But we
treasure the memory of it as a bright example to ourselves and to all
following generations, how to fight and to sacrifice our lives for the
land in which we were born and which gives us shelter and protection."

"Sir Sidney and the other gentlemen," she said, "appeared to be much
pleased with the explanation I gave them; they observed that it was a
most noble feeling which prompts the true patriot to mourn for the
brave who have fallen on the field of battle for their country; and
that the memory of the struggles of the Jews in Palestine to remain
the rightful masters of the land which God had apportioned to them as
an inheritance, would ever remain, not only in the heart of every
brave man in the British realm, but also in that of every
right-thinking man in all other parts of the world as a glorious
monument of their dauntless valour and fervent devotion to a good and
holy cause."

Lady Montefiore not only appreciated the education she received, but
also remembered with deep gratitude all those who had imparted
instruction to her. Her friends have often been the bearers of
generous pensions to gentlemen who had been her teachers when she was
young, and they never heard her mention their names without
expressions of gratitude.

In addition to her other good qualities, there was one which is not
always to be met with among those who happen to be in possession of
great wealth, and with whom a few shillings are not generally an
object worth entering in an account-book. With her, when her turn came
among her sisters to superintend the management of the house, the
smallest item of expense was entered with scrupulous accuracy, and
whilst ever generous towards the deserving and needy who applied to
her for assistance, she would never sanction the slightest waste.

I shall presently, as I proceed in my description of her character,
have an opportunity of showing how, in her future position as a wife
and philanthropist, all the excellences of her character were turned
to the best account for the benefit of those to whom she and her
husband rendered assistance in times of distress.

The reader being now in full possession of all that is necessary for
him to know of the parentage and education of Miss Judith Cohen, I
propose to leave her for the present under her parental roof, in Angel
Court, Throgmorton Street, with a loving father and a tenderly
affectionate mother, and surrounded by excellent brothers and sisters;
some of them employed in commercial pursuits, others in study, but all
united in the contemplation and practice of works of brotherly love
and charity towards their fellow-beings. To proceed with the lineage
of Sir Moses.

Sir Moses Montefiore was born at Leghorn, whither his parents happened
to repair, either on business or on a visit to their relations, a few
weeks before that event took place.

According to an entry in the archives of the Hebrew Community of that
city, he first saw the light on the 9th of Héshván 5545 A.M.,
corresponding to the 24th of October 1784.

During his visit to Leghorn in the year 1841, an opportunity was
offered to him, when visiting the schools of the community, to inspect
the archives in my presence, and he expressed his satisfaction at
their accuracy.

Some doubt having been entertained by several of his biographers of
the correctness of the date of his birth, and Sir Moses having
generally received and accepted the congratulations of his friends on
the the 8th of Héshván, it will not be out of place to give here an
exact copy of the original entry in the archives in the Italian
language, just as it has recently been forwarded to me by the
Cavaliere Costa of Leghorn.

It reads as follows:--

  "_Nei registri di Nascite che esistone nell' archivìe
  delle Università Israelitica a C. 8, si trova la
  seguente nascita_:--

  "9 Héshván, 5545--24 Ottobre 1784.

  "Domenica.

  "A Joseph di Moise Haim e Raquel Montefiore un figlio,
  che chiamarone Moise Haim."

  (_Translation._)

  "In the registers of births, which are preserved in the
  archives of the Hebrew community, there is to be found
  on p. 8 the following entry of birth:--

  "9th Héshván 5545 A.M., 24th October 1784.

  "Sunday.

  "Unto Joseph, son of Moses Haim, and Rachel Montefiore,
  a son was born, whom they call Moses Haim."

Sir Moses never signed his name "Haim," nor did his mother in her
letters to him ever call him so. His father Joseph, after recovering
from a dangerous illness, adopted the name of Eliyáhoo (the Eternal is
my God) in addition to that of Joseph.

Various opinions have been expressed respecting the early history of
Sir Moses Montefiore's ancestors, and the place whence they originally
came, to Modena, Ancona, Fano, Rome, and Leghorn.

A manuscript in the library of "Judith Lady Montefiore's Theological
College" at Ramsgate--containing a design of the original armorial
bearings of the Montefiore family, surrounded by suitable mottoes, and
a biographical account of the author of the work to which the
manuscript refers--will greatly help us in elucidating the subject.

The manuscript is divided into two parts: one bears the name of "Kán
Tsippor" ([Hebrew]), "The bird's nest," and treats of the Massorah
of the Psalms, _i.e._, their divisions, accents, vowels, grammatical
forms, and letters necessary for the preservation of the text; and the
other, the name of "Gán Perákhim" ([Hebrew]), "The garden of
flowers," containing poems, special prayers, family records, and
descriptions of important events.

The hereditary marks of honour which served to denote the descent and
alliances of the Montefiore family consisted of "a lion rampant," "a
cedar tree," and "a number of little hills one above the other," each
of these emblems being accompanied by a Hebrew inscription. Thus the
lion rampant has the motto--

  [Hebrew]
  HOY GIBOR CAARI LAASOT RATSON AVIKHA SHEBASHEMAIM

  "Be strong as a lion to perform the will of thy Father
  in Heaven."

  The hills bear the motto--

  [Hebrew]
  ESA AYNAI EL HEHARIM MEAIN YAVO EZRI

  "(When) I lift up mine eyes unto the hills (I ask)
  whence cometh my help? [Answer] My help cometh from the
  Eternal."

  And the cedar tree--

  [Hebrew]
  TSADIK KATAMAR VEFRAKH CAEREZ BALEBANON ISGEH

  "The righteous shall flourish like a palm tree; he shall
  grow like a cedar in Lebanon."

These emblems are precisely the same as those which Sir Moses had in
his coat-of-arms, with the exception of the inscriptions. Probably he
thought they were too long to be engraved on a signet, and he
substituted for them the words "Jerusalem" and "Think and Thank."

The author of the manuscript bears the name of Joseph, and designates
himself, on the title-page, as the son of the aged and learned Jacob
Montefiore of Pesaro, adding the information that he is a resident of
Ancona, and a son-in-law of the Rev. Isaac Elcostantin, the spiritual
head of the Hebrew congregation in that place. The manuscript bears
the date of 5501 A.M.--1740.

In his biography, the author, after rendering thanks to Heaven for
numerous mercies which had been bestowed on him, gives the following
account of himself and family:--

"I was eleven years old when I was called upon to assist, conjointly
with my three brothers, Moses, Raphael, and Mazliakh, and five
sisters, in providing for the maintenance of the family." Moses, the
eldest of his brothers, died at the age of thirty-two, and Joseph (the
biographer) entered the business of Sabbati Zevi Morini of Pesaro.
Being prosperous in his commercial pursuits, he provided for his
sisters, probably by giving to each of them a suitable dowry. One of
them, Flaminia by name, became the wife of a celebrated preacher,
Nathaniel Levi, the minister of the congregation of Pesaro.

The father, Jacob Montefiore, died at the age of eighty-three, and his
sons went into business with a certain Cartoni of Lisina. They appear
at first to have met with success, but the sudden death of the head of
the firm caused the collapse of the business.

Joseph Montefiore subsequently married Justa or Justina, the
granddaughter of the Rev. Abraham Elcostantin of Ancona. With a view
of carrying on their business to greater advantage the brothers
separated and removed to different parts of Italy, and Joseph himself,
guided by the counsel of his wife, left Pesaro for Ancona for a
similar purpose.

His brother-in-law died at that time in Modena, and Joseph was in a
sufficiently prosperous position to be able to assist the widow and
her children.

The latter grew up and married. One of them, a daughter, went with
her husband, Samuel Nachman, to Jerusalem, where, from religious
motives, they settled.

One of his nephews, Nathaniel Montefiore, became a distinguished poet,
and the manuscript in question contains a very beautiful composition
of his in praise of the book (Kán Tsippor) and its author.

Joseph Montefiore resided for some time in Rome, also in Fano. There
are prayers in the book which he composed during his stay in each of
those places.

From these statements it would appear that the family of Montefiore,
from which Sir Moses descended, first came to Pesaro.

Signor P. M. Arcantoni, the Syndic of the Municipality of Montefiore
dell'aso, in the province of Ascoli-Picerno, expressed his strong
belief, on the occasion of his offering to Sir Moses the
congratulations of the commune on his completing the hundredth year of
his life, that the ancestors of Sir Moses had settled in that place.

From Ancona, as has been stated, several members of the Montefiore
family came to Leghorn, from which city at a very early period they
emigrated to England.

The grandfather of Sir Moses, Moses Haim (or Vita) Montefiore, and his
grandmother, Esther Racah, a daughter of Mássa'ood Racah of
Leghorn, also left Italy and settled in London, where their son Joseph
(born 15th October 1759, died 11th January 1804) married Rachel, the
daughter of Abraham Lumbroso de Mattos Mocatta, who became the mother
of Sir Moses.

They resided after their marriage at No. 3 Kennington Terrace,
Vauxhall, and were blessed with eight children, three sons, Moses (the
subject of these memoirs), Abraham, and Horatio, and five daughters,
Sarah, Esther, Abigail, Rebecca, and Justina.

Abraham first married a daughter of Mr George Hall, of the London
Stock Exchange; on her death, he married Henrietta Rothschild, a
sister of the late N. M. Rothschild, by whom he had two sons, Joseph
Meyer of Worth Park, and Nathaniel Meyer of Coldeast, and two
daughters, Charlotte and Louise. The latter became the wife of Sir
Antony de Rothschild.

[Illustration: House at Leghorn in which Sir Moses was born. _See Vol.
I., page 9._]

Horatio married Sarah, a daughter of David Mocatta, by whom
he had six sons, one of whom (Mr Emanuel Montefiore) is now a
lieutenant-colonel in the British Army, and six daughters. After her
death he married a daughter of Abraham Montefiore.

Sarah, the eldest daughter of Joseph and Rachel Montefiore, became the
wife of Mr Solomon Sebag, and was the mother of Mr Joseph Sebag (now
J. Sebag-Montefiore) and of Mrs Jemima Guadalla, who is married to Mr
Haim Guadalla. After the death of her husband, Mrs Sebag married Mr
Moses Asher Goldsmid, the brother of Sir Isaac Goldsmid.

Esther, the second daughter, unfortunately lost her life at the age of
fifteen through an accident she met with during a fire that broke out
in the house.

Abigail, the third, married Mr Benjamin Gompertz, a distinguished
mathematician.

Rebecca, the fourth, married Mr Joseph Salomons, a son of Levi
Salomons, of Crosby Square, father of the late Sir David Salomons,
Bart.

Justina, the fifth, became the wife of Mr Benjamin Cohen, the brother
of Lady Montefiore, and mother of Mr Arthur Cohen, Q. C., M. P., and
Mr Nathaniel B. Cohen.

The reader is now invited to retrace his steps, for it is to Moses,
the first-born son of Joseph and Rachel Montefiore, that I have to
direct his attention. He must leave No. 3 Kennington Terrace and
follow me in imagination to Leghorn.

Mr Joseph Montefiore having some business in that city, informed his
wife of his intention to proceed to Italy, and Mrs Montefiore
prevailed upon him to take her with him.

After they arrived at Leghorn, we find them in the house of Signer
Moses Haim Racah, celebrating the happy event of the birth of a son,
destined to become the champion of Israel.

The festivity on the day of naming (the eighth day after the birth of
a son) is generally an occasion which brings together relatives,
friends, heads of the congregation, and officers of the Synagogue.
Offerings are made by all present for charitable institutions, and
prayers recited for the life and prosperity of the child. It is
therefore not a matter of surprise that there was a large assembly of
the Hebrew community of Leghorn on that occasion.

Signor Racah, being his great-uncle, performed the duties of
godfather and ever from that day, and up to the year of his death, he
evinced the liveliest interest in the welfare of his godson; when the
latter was grown up the affection proved mutual.

Sir Moses when speaking of him used to say that he had greatly
endeared himself to the people in Leghorn by his abilities and high
character. He cherished the most benevolent feelings towards all good
and honest men, and often, in times of grief and calamity, rendered
help and consolation to all classes of the community. Sir Moses held
him in great veneration, and during his stay in Italy gave special
orders to have a copy of his likeness procured for him. A facsimile of
the portrait is here given, with an inscription in Sir Moses' own
handwriting.

In his will, Sir Moses, referring to him and to the Synagogue at
Leghorn, thus expresses himself--

"To the trustees of the Synagogue at Leghorn in Italy, of which my
honoured godfather (deceased) was a member, in augmentation of the
fund for repairing that building, I bequeath £500; and to the same
trustees, as a fund for keeping in repair the tomb of my said
godfather and my godmother, Esther Racah, his wife, £200."

Two or three years before his death, Sir Moses ordered a coloured
drawing of these tombs, with a complete copy of the epitaphs, to be
sent to him, and it is now preserved in the library of the College at
Ramsgate.

After a stay of several months at Leghorn, Mr and Mrs Montefiore
returned to England. I have often heard descriptions of that homeward
journey from Mrs Montefiore, when she used to visit her son at Park
Lane.

"Moses," she said, "was a beautiful, strong, and very tall child, but
yet on our return journey to England, during a severe winter, I was
unwilling to entrust him to a stranger; I myself acted as his nurse,
and many and many a time I felt the greatest discomfort through not
having more than a cup of coffee, bread and butter, and a few eggs for
my diet." "No meat of any description," she added, "passed my lips; my
husband and myself being strict observers of the Scriptural
injunctions as to diet." "But I am now," she said, with a pleasant
smile, "amply repaid for the inconvenience I then had to endure."
"What I thought a great privation, in no way affected the state of my
health, nor that of the child; and I feel at present the greatest
satisfaction on account of my having strictly adhered to that which
I thought was right."

[Illustration: Moses Racah of Leghorn, Godfather and Great Uncle of
Sir Moses. _See Vol. I., page 10._]

In the course of time several more children were born to them, all of
whom they reared most tenderly, and over whose education they watched
with the greatest care. They had the happiness of seeing them grow up
in health and strength, endowed with excellent qualities, Moses, the
eldest, and the subject of these memoirs, being already conspicuous
for his strength of understanding and kindness of disposition. They
continued for many years to reside at Kennington Terrace, Vauxhall, in
the same house in which they took up their residence immediately after
their marriage. After their death it was occupied by members of their
family till a few years ago, when it passed into the hands of
strangers.

It was there that Mr Benjamin Gompertz (the author of the "Principles
and Application of Imaginary Quantities") resided and the mother of
Sir Moses breathed her last.

Joseph Eliahu, his father, was a well educated and God-fearing man,
upright in all his dealings. He was extremely fond of botany and
gardening. There is still in the library of Lady Montefiore's
Theological College at Ramsgate, a book which formerly belonged to
him, and in which remarks on the cultivation of plants are written in
his own handwriting.

Sir Moses, when speaking of him, used to say, "He was at one time of a
most cheerful disposition, but after he had the misfortune to lose one
of his daughters at a fire which occurred in his house, he was never
seen to smile."



CHAPTER II.

EARLY EDUCATION--BECOMES A STOCKBROKER--HIS MARRIAGE.


At an early age, we find young Moses Montefiore attending school in
the neighbourhood of Kennington. After he had completed his elementary
studies, he was removed to a more advanced class in another school,
where he began to evince a great desire to cultivate his mind,
independently of his class lessons. He was observed to copy short
moral sentences from books falling into his hands, or interesting
accounts of important events, which he endeavoured to commit to
memory.

Afterwards, as he grew up in life, this became a habit with him, which
he did not relinquish even when he had attained the age of ninety
years. His diaries all contain either at the beginning or the end of
the record of his day's work, some beautiful lines of poetry referring
to moral or literary subjects: mostly quotations or extracts from
standard works. Young Montefiore showed on all occasions the greatest
respect for his teachers, bowing submissively to their authority in
all cases of dispute between his fellow-students and himself.

He was acknowledged to be most frank and loyal in all his intercourse
with his superiors. The respect due to constituted authorities he
always used to consider, when he had become a man in active life, as a
sacred duty. He was in the habit of saying, in the words of the royal
philosopher, "Fear thou the Lord and the King, and meddle not with
them that are given to change." Whatever might be his private opinion
on any subject, he would in all his public and private transactions be
guided only by the decision of an acknowledged authority.

Montefiore did not remain many years at school. There was at that time
no prospect for him to enter life as a professor at a university, or
as a member of the bar. There was no sphere of work open to him in
any of the professions; and even to enter the medical profession would
have been difficult. There was nothing left for him, therefore, but to
enter a commercial career. He used often to speak about the days of
his apprenticeship in the business of one of their neighbours in
Kennington, and how hard he had to work; when subsequently he was in a
counting-house in the city, the hours were late, and he sometimes had
to take letters to the post on the stroke of midnight. There were no
copying machines, and all letters had to be copied by hand. He also
spoke of the great distance he had to walk every night from the city
to Kennington Terrace, during the cold winter months as well as in the
summer time. There were then no omnibuses or other conveyances at hand
such as we have now, and if there had been, he was of too saving a
disposition to make any unnecessary outlay on his own person; he used
to keep a strict account of the smallest item of his expenses. It was
not with the object of complaining, or of regretting his early mode of
life that he gave his friends these descriptions; his object was to
impress on the mind of the rising generation the necessity of working
hard and spending little, in order to make their way in the world.

By his habits of industry, by his strict compliance with the
instructions of his superiors, and more especially by his own clear
judgment in all matters connected with the business entrusted to him,
he soon succeeded in obtaining promotion.

Having had the opportunity of seeing business transactions among
brokers on the Stock Exchange, he decided upon securing for himself
the privilege of being one of the limited number of Jewish brokers.
According to the law of England at that time only twelve such brokers
could be admitted, but Moses Montefiore had the satisfaction of soon
seeing himself in possession of the much-coveted privilege. He took an
office, and this owing to the prosperity with which his
straightforward dealing and courteous manners were rewarded, he soon
had to change for a larger one, which again he did not keep long. As
his business had now to be conducted near the bank, he took up his
quarters in Bartholomew Lane, where he remained to the last day of his
life. It was there, after nearly the whole of that thoroughfare had
become the property of the Alliance Life and Fire Assurance Company,
and the houses had been rebuilt, that many an important meeting of
the Board of Deputies of British Jews and other boards of benevolent
institutions was held; and the very book-case, in which all important
papers connected with his business in that office were preserved, is
now in one of the houses of Lady Montefiore's College, where he used
now and then to take his breakfast on a Sabbath morning, when it was
his intention to be present at a lecture in the college.

His brother Abraham, seeing young Moses successful in business,
subsequently joined him as a partner, and the firm of Montefiore Bros.
soon became known in England as one entitled to the respect of all
honourable men.

However profitable or urgent the business may have been, the moment
the time drew near, when it was necessary to prepare for the Sabbath
or solemn festivals, Moses Montefiore quitted his office, and nothing
could ever induce him to remain.

Sir Moses was scrupulously honourable in all his transactions, and it
is a noteworthy fact, that during all his long life no whisper was
ever heard against his reputation, although he was intimately
connected with the management of financial and commercial undertakings
of great magnitude and international character. His name stood so
high, that thousands of people from all parts of the world entrusted
him with money to be forwarded to the Holy Land, or for other
charitable purposes, never asking for a receipt, and in many instances
leaving the distribution of it to his own discretion.

In the year 1809, in the reign of George III., an act of parliament
was passed enabling His Majesty to establish a local Militia Force for
the defence of the country. Young Montefiore, who was then twenty-five
years old, having attained his majority in 1805, deemed it his duty to
be one of the first volunteers. Loyalty to the country in which he
lived and prospered, and sincere devotion to his king, afterwards
proved to be special traits in his character. In all foreign countries
whither his philanthropic missions subsequently led him, his addresses
to the people and his counsels, even to those who suffered under heavy
oppression, contained exhortations to them to remain firm in their
loyalty to their government.

We must now salute him as Captain Montefiore, for thus we find him
styled, on a card among his papers,

  Third Surrey Local Militia, Colonel Alcock, No. I,
  Seventh Company.

  "Captain Montefiore."

[Illustration: Lady Montefiore when young, copied from an oil painting
in the Montefiore College, Ramsgate. _See Vol. I., page 15._]

There are still in the Gothic library, at East Cliff Lodge, details of
guard mounted by the 3rd Regiment of Surrey Local Militia, standing
orders, &c., also the orderly books showing that he was in the service
from the year 1810 to 1814.

On the 22nd February in the latter year, after the parade on Duppas
Hill, Croydon, when the regiment arrived at the depôt, the commanding
officers of companies had to receive the signatures of all those who
wished to extend their services, when called upon for any period in
that same year not exceeding forty-two days. The feeling of the
regiment on the subject was obtained in less time than was
anticipated, and the commanding officer ordered the men to be paid and
dismissed immediately.

Sir Moses used to say, when speaking to his friends on this subject,
"I did all in my power to persuade my company to re-enlist, but I was
not successful."

In the same year, he took lessons in sounding the bugle, and also
devoted several hours a week to the study of French; it appears that
he would not allow one hour of the day to pass without endeavouring to
acquire some useful art or knowledge.

He was very particular in not missing a lesson, and entered them all
in his diary of the year 1814.

In the midst of business, military duties, and studies, in which he
passed the five years, 1810 to 1814, there was one date which he most
justly considered the happiest of his life.

I am alluding to the 10th of June 1812 (corresponding, in that year,
to the 30th of Siván, 5573 A.M., according to the Hebrew date), on
which day he was permitted to take to himself as a partner in life,
Judith, the daughter of Levi Barent Cohen.

He thoroughly appreciated the great blessing which that union brought
upon him. Henceforth, for every important act of his, where the choice
was left to him, whether it was the laying of a foundation stone for a
house of prayer, a charitable institution, or a business office, he
invariably fixed the date on the anniversary of his wedding day.
Setting out on an important mission in the month of June, he would,
when a short delay was immaterial, defer it to the anniversary of his
wedding. This was not, as some might suppose, from mere superstition,
for in all his doings he was anxious to trust to the will of God
alone; it was with the idea of uniting every important act in his life
with one which made his existence on earth, as he affirmed, a heavenly
paradise.

His own words, taken from the diary of 1844, will best express his
feelings on the subject.

"On this happy day, the 10th of June," he writes, "thirty-two years
have passed since the Almighty God of Israel, in His great goodness,
blessed me with my dear Judith, and for ever shall I be most truly
grateful for this blessing, the great cause of my happiness through
life. From the first day of our happy union to this hour I have had
every reason for increased love and esteem, and truly may I say, each
succeeding year has brought with it greater proofs of her admirable
character. A better and kinder wife never existed, one whose whole
study has been to render her husband good and happy. May the God of
our fathers bestow upon her His blessing, with life, health, and every
other felicity. Amen."

As a lasting remembrance of the day he treasured the prayer-shawl
which, according to the custom (in Spanish and Portuguese Hebrew
communities), had been held over his head and that of his bride during
the marriage ceremony and the offering up of the prayers.

In compliance with his wish the same shawl was again put over his head
when his brethren performed the melancholy duty of depositing his
mortal remains in their last resting-place.

But I will not further digress, and I resume my narrative of his happy
life after his union with his beloved wife.

Henceforth the reader may consider them as one person, and every act
of benevolence recorded further on in these Memoirs must be regarded
as an emanation of the generous and kindly impulses which so
abundantly filled the hearts of both.

In order to indicate the places to which the young couple would resort
after the duties of the day, I need only remind the reader of the
residences of their numerous relatives, with whom they were always on
affectionate terms. At Highgate, Clapham, Lavender Hill, and Hastings,
in all of these places they were most heartily welcomed, and they
often went there to dine, take tea, or spend a few days in the family
circle. But the place to which they repaired for the enjoyment of a
complete rest, or for considering and maturing a plan for some very
great and important object, was an insignificant little spot of the
name of "Smithembottom" in Surrey.

They used to go there on Sunday and remain until the next day,
sometimes until the middle of the week, occasionally inviting a friend
to join them. They greatly enjoyed the walk over hills, while forming
pleasing anticipations of the future; and they always found on their
return to the little inn, an excellent dinner, which their servants
had brought with them from London--never forgetting, by the order of
their master, a few bottles of his choice wine. "Wine, good and pure
wine," Mr Montefiore used to say, "God has given to man to cheer him
up when borne down by grief and sorrow; it gladdens his heart, and
causes him to render thanks to heaven for mercies conferred upon him."
In holy writ we find "give wine unto those that be of heavy heart;"
also, "wine maketh glad the heart of man." No sanctification of our
Sabbaths and festivals, and no union between two loving hearts, can be
solemnised, without partaking of wine over which the blessing has been
pronounced.

It was his desire to be happy, and make others around him happy, for
such he said was the will of God (Deut. xxvi. II). When certain
friends of his, who intended taking the total abstinence pledge,
ventured to raise an argument on the desirability of his substituting
water for wine, he would reply in the words which the vine said to the
trees when they came to anoint him as king over them, "Should I leave
my wine which cheereth God and man" (Judges ix. 13)? His friends
smiled at this reasoning, and on their next visit to him drank to each
other's health in the choice wine of his cellar.

I invariably heard him pronounce the blessing before he touched the
exhilarating beverage, in such a tone as to leave no doubt in the
minds of those present that he fully appreciated this gift of God.

He never gave up the habit of taking wine himself, and it was his
greatest pleasure to see his friends enjoy it with him. To the sick
and the poor he would frequently send large quantities.

The year 1812 passed very happily. Every member of the family was
delighted with the young couple. They said, "such a suitable union of
two young people had not been seen for many years." In No. 4 New
Court, where they took up their abode, they had Mr N. M. Rothschild
their brother-in-law (in whose financial operations Montefiore was
greatly interested), for a neighbour and friend. Young Mrs Montefiore
had but a short distance to walk to see her parents, at Angel Court,
Throgmorton Street, where Mrs Barent Levi Cohen now lived. The Stock
Exchange and the Bank being in their immediate neighbourhood, where
all their relatives had business transactions every day in the week
except Sabbath and festivals, they often had the opportunity of seeing
the whole family circle in their house.



CHAPTER III.

1813-1820.

FINANCIAL TRANSACTIONS--PUBLIC EVENTS BEFORE AND AFTER
WATERLOO--ELECTED PRESIDENT OF THE SPANISH AND PORTUGUESE HEBREW
COMMUNITY.


I am now at the starting point of my narrative of the public life and
work of Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore in connection more especially
with the communities of their own race, and this I propose to give in
the form of extracts from their diaries. These extracts contain the
most material references to important events, accompanied by
explanatory remarks of my own. With a view of making the reader
acquainted with the passing opinions and feelings of Sir Moses and
Lady Montefiore and their earnestness of purpose and energy in every
good cause, as well as with a desire to draw attention to the variety
and multiplicity of the work they would accomplish in a single day, I
shall frequently give these entries as I find them, in brief and at
times abrupt sentences.

1813 (5573 A.M.).--Owing to the eventful vicissitudes of European
wars, the greatest activity prevails on the Stock Exchange. Mr
Montefiore is in constant intercourse with Mr N. M. Rothschild,
through whose prudence and judicious recommendations with regard to
the Bullion Market and Foreign Exchanges, he is enabled not only to
avoid hazardous monetary transactions, but also to make successful
ventures in these difficult times.

1814 (5574 A.M.).--The first peace in Paris is signed. The allied
sovereigns visit England, and are received by the Prince Regent. Great
festivities in the city, while considerable excitement prevails in all
financial circles. Commerce is stagnant; taxation excessive, in
consequence of the great debt the country had incurred during the war;
the labouring classes cry out; food is scarce; there is no demand for
labour, and wages are low. Nevertheless, Mr Montefiore and his wife
entertain the hope of a continuance of peace, which, they say, will
soon remedy all evils. They frequently visit Highgate, where Mr N. M.
Rothschild has his country house; go to Hastings, where their
brother-in-law Mr S. M. Samuel, has taken a summer residence, and
visit their mother, Mrs Montefiore, at Kennington Terrace. They
contrive to devote a portion of the day or evening to the study of the
French language and literature. Mr Montefiore, as captain of the local
militia, continues taking lessons on the bugle.

1815 (5575 A.M.).--Mr Montefiore agrees with Lord Mayor Birch
(grandfather of Dr Samuel Birch of the British Museum) to pay £600,
for the transfer to himself, of Medina's Broker's medal (at that time
the few Jewish brokers admitted had to pay an extraordinarily high fee
for the privilege); he is engaged in his financial transactions with
Mr N. M. Rothschild, and goes, in the interest of the latter and in
his own, to Dunkirk and Yarmouth. On his return he frequently attends
the meetings of the representatives of the Spanish and Portuguese
synagogues; checks and signs the synagogue books, as treasurer, and is
present at the meetings of a committee, representing four Hebrew
congregations in London, for devising proper regulations to ensure the
provision of meat prepared in accordance with Scriptural injunctions.

1816 (5576 A.M.).--He frequently attends the meetings of the Velhos
(Elders) of the Spanish and Portuguese community, and the society for
granting marriage portions to orphans. His work in connection with
finance daily increases.

Great agitation prevails throughout the country; the Government
having, in the previous year, passed a Corn Act to favour the English
farmer, forbidding the importation of foreign grain, the price of
wheat had reached 80s. per quarter; political societies, under the
name of "Hampden Clubs," are formed all over the country. There is a
cry for reform in the House of Commons; the Ministry, influenced by
Lord Castlereagh, refuses all change; the price of wheat continues to
rise daily after the peace.

Financiers feel very anxious about the result, but Mr and Mrs
Montefiore, less apprehensive of serious disturbances, and desirous of
change of scene and climate, purpose setting out to visit France and
Italy.

1816 (5576 A.M.).--They travel in France and Italy, visit public
institutions, and make it a rule to see every object of interest. They
take notice and make memoranda of the explanations given them by their
_Ciceroni_, independently of the information derived from guide-books;
they frequent theatres and operas as well as hospitals and schools. A
beautiful and comfortable travelling chariot, procured in Paris from
Beaupré, a famous coach builder, at the price of 4072 francs, and
abundant provisions for themselves and friends, making them
independent of inferior hotels for food, make their travels most
agreeable to themselves and to all who accompany them.

Mr Montefiore and his wife were not only diligent observers of
whatever they saw, but also possessed the good quality of never
objecting to any difficulties to be overcome in order to add to their
stock of knowledge or experiences.

During their travels in France and Italy, their pleasure was greatly
enhanced by the kind attention they received at the hands of their
friends, especially in Paris, where Mr Solomon de Rothschild and all
the members of the family vied with each other in their efforts to
make their stay as agreeable as possible.

At Lausanne, Mr Montefiore was very ill for three days with rheumatism
in the face and ear, but he soon recovered, and was able to continue
his journey. On August the 30th, after an absence of three months from
England, they returned and arrived safely at Dover.

On September 20th he is appointed treasurer to the "Beth Holim"
hospital of the Spanish and Portuguese Hebrew community.

_November 26th._--A private account is opened with Jones, Lloyd & Co.
and the Bank of England; on the 29th of the same month he dissolves
partnership with his brother Abraham, "God grant," he says, "it may
prove fortunate for us both."

1817 (5577 A.M.).--This was a year of riot in England; in spite of the
Royal proclamation against unlawful assemblages the riots increased;
the Habeas Corpus Act was suspended, but the seditious meetings
continued. A motion in the House of Commons for reform had only
seventy-seven supporters, two hundred and sixty-six voting for its
rejection. Mr Montefiore, like most financiers in London, was in
constant anxiety, his state of health suffered, and it was desirable
for him to leave England again for change of climate.

He completes the purchase of Tinley Lodge farm on July 30th. On
October 7th he signs his will; and on the 13th of the same month,
accompanied by his wife and several of their relatives, sets out on
his second journey to France and Italy. On the road, he and Mrs
Montefiore resume their Hebrew studies. They visit Paris, Lyons,
Turin, Milan, and Carrara; the latter place being of special interest
to them on account of their meeting with persons who had been
connected in business transactions with Mr Montefiore's father.

1818 (5578 A.M.).--They arrive on the 1st of January at Leghorn, and
meet several members of their family. They visit the house where Mr
Montefiore was born, and are welcomed there by Mr Isaac Piccioto, who
occupied the house at that time; they proceed thence to the burial
ground to see the tomb of their uncle Racah, and on the following day
leave for Pisa.

There they visit the house and garden of the said uncle Racah, Mr
Montefiore observing, that it is a good garden, but a small house;
thence they continue their journey to Sienna.

"I had a dispute," he says, "with the postmaster at a place called
Bobzena, and was compelled to go to the Governor, who sent with me two
gendarmes to settle the affair." "The road to Viterbo," he observes,
"I found very dangerous; the country terribly dreary, wild and
mountainous, with terrific caverns and great forests."

"On the 15th of January," he continues, "we became greatly alarmed by
the vicinity of robbers on the road, and I had to walk upwards of
seven miles behind the carriage until we arrived at Rome, whither we
had been escorted by two gendarmes."

"In Rome," he says, "we saw this time in the Church of St John, the
gate of bronze said to be that of the temple of Jerusalem; we also
revisited the workshop of Canova, his studio, and saw all that a
traveller could possibly see when under the guidance of a clever
cicerone.

"We left Rome on the 11th of February, and passed a man lying dead on
the road; he had been murdered in the night. This incident damped our
spirits and rendered the journey, which would otherwise have been
delightful, rather _triste_."

On the 3rd of April they arrive at Frankfort-on-the-Main; in May they
are again in London, and on the 13st inst., Mr Montefiore, dismissing
from his mind (for the time) all impressions of gay France and smiling
Italy, is to be found in the house of mourning, expressing his
sympathy with the bereaved, and rendering comfort by the material help
which he offers in the hour of need.

It is in the house of a devoted minister of his congregation, the Rev.
Hazan Shalom, that we find him now performing the duties of a
Lavadore, preparing the dead for its last resting-place.

The pleasures of his last journey, and the change of scene and climate
appear to have greatly invigorated him, for we find him on another
mournful occasion, exhibiting a degree of physical strength such as is
seldom met with.

His mother-in-law having been taken ill on Saturday, the 14th of
November, he went on foot from Smithembottom to Town, a walk of five
hours, in order to avoid breaking one of the commandments, by riding
in a carriage on the Sabbath. Unfortunately on his arrival, he found
she had already expired. Prompted by religious fervour and attachment
to the family, he attended during the first seven days the house of
mourning, where all the relatives of the deceased assembled, morning
and evening, for devotional exercises, and, with a view of devoting
the rest of the day to the furtherance of some good cause, he remained
in the city to be present at all the meetings of the representatives
of his community.

In the month of December he went down to Brighton to intercede with
General Bloomfield for three convicts. (The particulars of the case
are not given in the diary), and on his return he resumed his usual
financial pursuits.

1818 (5579 A.M.). He is elected President of the Spanish and
Portuguese congregation. "I am resolved," he says, "to serve the
office unbiassed, and to the best of my conscience." Mr Montefiore
keeps his word faithfully, for he attends punctually all the meetings
of the elders; and, on several occasions, goes about in a post-chaise
to collect from his friends and acquaintances contributions towards
the fund required for the hospital "Beth Holim" of his community.

This was the year in which the political crisis came, when public
meetings, in favour of Parliamentary reform were held everywhere, and
Parliament passed six Acts restricting public liberty. In the midst of
these troubles, on the 24th of May, the Princess Victoria, daughter of
the Duke of Kent, the fourth son of the king, was born at Kensington
Palace.

1820 (5580 A.M.). The Diary opens this year with observations on the
life of man, and with a view of affording the reader an opportunity of
reflecting on Mr Montefiore's character, I append a record of his
pursuits such as we seldom meet with in a man in the prime of life, at
the age of 30.

In full enjoyment of health, wealth, and every pleasure a man could
possibly desire, he thus writes on the first page:--

    "He who builds his hopes in the air of men's fair looks,
    Lives like a drunken sailor on the mast,
    Ready with every nod to tumble down
    Into the fatal bowels of the deep.

    "With moderate blessings be content,
    Nor idly grasp at every shade,
    Peace, competence, a life well spent,
    Are blessings that can never fade;
    And he that weakly sighs for more
    Augments his misery, not his store."



CHAPTER IV.

1820-1826.

DAILY LIFE--DEATH OF HIS BROTHER ABRAHAM--AN EARLY PANAMA CANAL
PROJECT.


Mr Montefiore's occupations may best be described in his own words,
and may furnish a useful hint to those who neglect to keep an account
of the way in which their time is spent. He writes:--

"With God's blessing,--Rise, say prayers at 7 o'clock. Breakfast at 9.
Attend the Stock Exchange, if in London, 10. Dinner, 5. Read, write,
and learn, if possible, Hebrew and French, 6. Read Bible and say
prayers, 10. Then retire.

"Monday and Thursday mornings attend the Synagogue. Tuesday and
Thursday evenings for visiting."

"I attended," he says, "many meetings at the City of London Tavern,
also several charitable meetings at Bevis Marks, in connection with
the Spanish and Portuguese Synagogue; sometimes passing the whole day
there from ten in the morning till half-past eleven at night (January
25, 1820), excepting two hours for dinner in the Committee room;
answered in the evening 350 petitions from poor women, and also made
frequent visits to the Villa Real School."

In the course of the year he went to Cambridge and to Norwich,
visiting many of the colleges, the Fitzwilliam Museum, and other
interesting institutions, and on February the 16th he attended the
funeral sermon of his late Majesty George the Third (who died on the
29th of January).

He often went to his farm, near Tinley Lodge, and sometimes for
special recreation to the English Opera, together with his wife and
members of the family, always finding time for work and pleasure
alike.

"Mr N. M. Rothschild," he records in an entry, "being taken ill, I
stayed with him several days at Stamford Hill."

Subsequently Mr Montefiore had some very important business in
connection with a loan, and experienced much uneasiness, owing to a
riot among the soldiers of the third regiment of the Guards, which, no
doubt, affected the financial world.

He frequently went to the House of Commons and the House of Lords to
ascertain the state of politics, and the progress of the Jews
Emancipation Bill in particular; for the Roman Catholic Emancipation
Bill, which, side-by-side with Parliamentary reform, and the demand
for free trade, was at that time agitating the public mind, naturally
prompted the Jews to bring before the House their own grievances. Mr
Montefiore also visited the Female Freemasons' Charity, and generously
supported the craft which, as has been said, has had a being "ever
since symmetry began and harmony displayed her charms."

_October 30._--An important event in his financial career takes place:
he gives up his counting-house.

1821 (5581 A.M.)--The first day of this year corresponding with the
Hebrew date, Tebet 28, on which his father, he writes, entered into
eternal glory, 11th of January 1804 (5564 A.M.), he repairs morning
and evening to the house of prayer, offering up the customary prayer
in memory of the dead.

"I visited his tomb, distributing gifts to the poor and needy, and on
my return passed the whole of the day in fasting and religious
meditation."

The next entries refer to his frequent visits to the hospital, "Beth
Holim," going to see King George IV. at Drury Lane, dining with the
Directors of the Atlas Fire Assurance Company at the Albion, going
afterwards with the Lord Mayor of Dublin to Covent Garden Theatre to
see His Majesty again, his excursions to the country, together with
his wife, and their visits to Finchley Lodge Farm, where they
sometimes pass the day together. On his return to London, he attends,
as in the preceding year, the meetings of the elders of his community
and those of the communal institutions.

On 8th May they set out for Scotland. Of this tour Mrs Montefiore kept
an interesting journal, which not only describes the state of the
country and the mode of travelling sixty six years ago, but shows her
good temper under difficulties, her gratitude to Providence for the
blessings they enjoyed, and for their safety after apparent danger, as
also her keen appreciation of the beauties of nature and art. It
contains, however, no information likely to be serviceable to the
present generation travelling in Scotland.

In October we meet them again in London, in the House of Prayer,
offering up thanks for their safe return from Scotland. During the
rest of the year Mr Montefiore resumed his usual occupations, always
combining the work of finance with that intended for the welfare of
his community and charitable institutions of all classes of society,
while Mrs Montefiore devoted herself to responding to every appeal for
help commensurately with the merit of the case, comforting every
sufferer by her kind acts of sympathy, and promoting peace and harmony
among those whose friendship seemed likely to be interrupted.

An incident which, at the time, afforded Mr Montefiore special
gratification, he refers to as follows:--

"I was present, on the Feast of Haunkah (the anniversary of the
victory of the Maccabees), at a discourse delivered by the spiritual
head of the congregation, in the College of the Spanish and Portuguese
Hebrew Community. The interest was greatly enhanced by the completion
of the study of one of their theological books in the presence of all
the students. The latter evinced great love for their study, and
appeared well acquainted with the subject to which the lecturer
referred."

Mrs Montefiore presented each student with a generous gift, as an
encouragement to continued zeal in their work.

1822 (5582 A.M.).--He agrees to rent East Cliff Lodge for one year
from the 15th of April, for £550 clear, and signs the agreement on
12th February.

On the eve of the Day of Atonement, in the presence of his assembled
friends, he completes, by adding the last verse in his own
handwriting, a scroll of the Pentateuch, for the use of the Synagogue,
offering on the following day £140 for the benefit of various
charitable institutions of his community as a token of his
appreciation of the Synagogue Service.

The depressed state of trade in this and the preceding year, owing to
serious apprehensions of war, had caused a great diminution in the
importation and manufacture of goods, so that much anxiety prevailed.
Referring to this subject, Mr Montefiore makes an entry to the effect
that a statement had been made in high quarters by the Duke of
Wellington, that peace would be maintained, in consequence of which,
says Mr Montefiore, all the public funds rose.

1823 (5583 A.M.).--Opens with a joyous event in the family. His
brother Horatio, on the first of January, marries a daughter of David
Mocatta, thus allying more closely the two most prominent families in
the Hebrew community.

_August 20th._--Mr and Mrs Montefiore leave England for the third time
for France, Germany, and Italy.

The entry this day refers to something which happened to him seventeen
years previously (1806), (for obvious reasons I do not give the name,
which is written in full in the diary):--"N. N. robbed me of all and
more than I had. Blessed be the Almighty, that He has not suffered my
enemies to triumph over me."

On their arrival at Rome they find Mr Abraham Montefiore very ill;
much worse, Mr Montefiore says, than they had expected. His critical
state induces them to remain with him to the end of the year.

About the same time, his brother Horatio was elected an elder in his
synagogue: "affording him many opportunities," Mr Montefiore observes,
"to make himself useful to the congregation."

1824 (5584 A.M.).--His brother Abraham continues very ill, but
Montefiore can remain with him no longer, his presence being much
required in London.

_February 13th._--Mr and Mrs Montefiore arrive in London, and on the
17th he again goes to the Stock Exchange, this being the first time
for more than a year that he has done so.

_July 28th._--The deed of settlement of the Alliance Life Assurance
Company is read to the general court. On August 4th he has the
gratification of affixing his name to it. "On the same day," he says,
evidently with much pleasure, "I have received many applications for
shares of the Imperial Continental Gas Association."

The diary introduces the subject of Insurance Companies by quoting the
words of Suetonius.

"Suetonius conjectures," Mr Montefiore writes on the first page of the
book, "that the Emperor Claudius was the original projector of
insurances on ships and merchandise."

"The first instances of the practice recorded in modern history," he
observes, "occur in 1560, in consequence of the extensive wool trade
between England and the Netherlands; though it was probably in use
before that period, and seems to have been introduced by the Jews in
1182."

"It is treated of in the laws of Oleron, relating to sea affairs, as
early as the year 1194."

"About the period of the great fire in London, 1666, an office was
established for insuring houses from fire."

This information is probably no novelty to the reader, but my object
in quoting it is to show how attentively Mr Montefiore studied every
subject connected with his financial and other pursuits. We have in
the College library a great variety of books bearing on insurance
offices, all of which, it appears, he had at some time consulted for
information.

Of both the above companies he was elected president, offices which he
held to the last moment of his life. They are now numbered among the
most prosperous companies in England.

His presence at the board was always a cause of the highest
satisfaction, not only to the directors and shareholders, all of whom
appreciated his sound judgment, cautious disposition and energy in the
promotion and welfare of the company, but also to all the officers and
employees of the respective offices.

In conversing with his friends on this subject, he used to say, "When
our companies prosper, I wish to see everyone employed by us, from the
highest to the lowest, derive some benefit from them in proportion to
the position he occupies in the office." He also strongly advocated
the promotion of harmony and friendliness among the officers of the
companies, for which purpose, he used annually to give them an
excellent dinner in one of the large hotels, inviting several of his
personal friends to join them.

When travelling on the Continent, he invariably made a point of
visiting every one of the branches of the Imperial Gas Association,
making strict enquiries on every subject connected with the
operations, and inviting all the officers to his table.

I have frequently (after the year 1839) accompanied him on such
occasions, and often wondered at his minute knowledge of every item
entered in the books of the respective offices.

He often gave proof, in the last years of his life, of his special
interest in the prosperity of these companies by the exertions he
would make in signing every document sent down to him at Ramsgate for
that purpose, even when he appeared to experience a difficulty in
holding a pen.

He strongly objected to a system of giving high dividends to the
shareholders. "Let us be satisfied," he used to say, "with five per
cent., so that we may always rest in the full enjoyment of undisturbed
life on the firm rock of security,"--the emblem represented on the
office seal of the Alliance.

On August the 15th of that year he received a letter from Genoa
stating that his brother Abraham was getting worse, and on Saturday,
the 28th, he received the sad news of his death, which took place at
Lyons whilst on his way back from Cannes.

"It was only in the month of January last," Mr Montefiore says of his
brother, "that when his medical attendant recommended him to take a
sea voyage, he agreed to go with me to Jerusalem, if I would hire a
ship to take us there." "Seize, mortal," Mr Montefiore continues,
quoting the words of the poet:

              "Seize the transient hour,
    Improve each moment as it flies;
      Life a short summer--man a flower;
    He dies, alas! how soon he dies."

1825 (5855 A.M.).--The lessons he sets for himself this year are given
in quotations from authors, the selections showing the reflex of the
impressions made on his mind by current events.

The first is an Italian proverb: "Chi parla semina, chi tace racolta,"
corresponding to the English, "The talker sows, the silent reaps."

Those which follow are from our own moralists:--

"A wise man will desire no more than what he may get justly, use
soberly, distribute cheerfully, and live upon contentedly."

"He that loveth a book will never want a faithful friend, a wholesome
counsellor, a cheerful companion, or an effective comforter."

"The studies afford nourishment to our youth, delight to our old age,
adorn prosperity, supply a refuge in adversity, and are a constant
source of pleasure at home; they are no impediment while abroad, and
attend us in the night season, in our travels, and in our
retirement."

"He may be well content that need not borrow nor flatter."

He attends this year regularly all the meetings of eight companies or
associations: the Alliance British and Foreign Life and Fire
Assurance, the Alliance Marine Assurance, the Imperial Continental Gas
Association, the Provincial Bank of Ireland, the Imperial Brazilian
Mining, the Chilian and Peruvian Mining, the Irish Manufactory, and
the British Colonial Silk Company.

With all this, no doubt often very exciting work, he still finds time
for attending all the meetings of charitable institutions of which he
is a member, more especially those of his own community; while he is
often met in the house of mourning performing duties sometimes most
painful and distressing to a sympathising heart.

_February 11th._--He attends for the first time the General Board of
the Provincial Bank of Ireland.

Being now considered an authority of high standing in the financial
world, various offers were made to him by promoters to join their
companies or become one of their directors. Among these undertakings
is one which I will name on account of the interest every man of
business now takes in it. I allude to a company which had for its
object the cutting of a ship canal for uniting the Atlantic and
Pacific Oceans.

He refused the directorship of that gigantic undertaking, which, after
having been abandoned for nearly sixty years, was again taken up,
under the name of the Panama Canal, by M. de Lesseps.

Thirty years later Mr Montefiore also refused to take a leading part
or directorship in the Suez Canal Company, which M. de Lesseps had
offered him when in Egypt. I happened to be present at the time when
M. de Lesseps called on him with that object. It was in the year 1855,
when Mr Montefiore had become Sir Moses Montefiore, and was enjoying
the hospitality of his late Highness Said Pasha, who gave him one of
his palaces to reside in during his stay at Alexandria.

M. de Lesseps spoke to him for several hours on the subject, but he
could not be persuaded that so great an undertaking was destined to be
a pecuniary success.

_May 8th._--Mr and Mrs Montefiore leave for Paris. On their return
they proceed in July to Oxford; and, at the end of the same month, we
see them in Ireland, whither Mr Montefiore went as a member of the
deputation sent by the Provincial Bank. In recognition of the services
rendered to the Board by himself and the other members of the
deputation, a resolution was passed, a copy of which is here
subjoined.

  "Provincial Bank of Ireland,
  "_Friday, September 9th, 1825_.

"At a meeting of the Court--Present:--John Morris, Esq., in the chair;
M. Attwood, Esq., M. P.; H. A. Douglas, Esq.; S. A. Madgan, Esq.; J.
T. Thorp, Esq.; Jas. Brogdon, Esq., M. P.; J. R. Macqueen, Esq., M.
P.; C. E. Prescott, Esq.; S. N. Ward, Esq.

"Resolved unanimously, That the cordial thanks of the Court are due to
Messrs Medley, Montefiore, and Blount for the zeal and ability they
have evinced in the management of the business committed to their
care, the result of which has fully realised the expectations of the
Court, and will conduce most essentially to the prosperity of the
Company.

"The Chairman is requested to communicate the resolution to the
gentlemen of the deputation on their return from Ireland."

1826 (5586 A.M.).--The diary begins with the prayer, "Renew in me, O
Lord, the right spirit."

For the information of the general reader I quote a short statement
from some historical records of the state of financial transactions in
this and the previous year which will explain the importance of the
entries Mr Montefiore made in these years, referring to monetary
transactions.

On the 12th of January there is an entry stating "the Government will
lend the merchants five millions of Exchequer Bills, and the Bank
directors have agreed to advance the money. They will not fund till
June or July, and then only five or six millions." "This," Mr
Montefiore thinks, "is much in favour of stocks."

One of his acquaintance died suddenly at this time, an unfortunate
event which he considered was the fatal result of large speculations.

"These two years," the historian says, "were characterised by an
extraordinary activity in all departments of trade and commerce. Mr
Huskisson, a minister who was a high authority on commercial matters,
originated several important measures, especially those relating to
the repeal of all duties on goods passing between Great Britain and
Ireland, an alteration in the duties affecting the silk manufacture,
and the repeal of the combination laws and of the law against the
emigration of artisans; while the Executive formed commercial
treaties, on the reciprocity system, with various countries in Europe,
and, acknowledging the independence of the revolted Spanish colonies
in America, drew them as additional customers into the British market.

Capital now so far exceeded the ordinary means of its employment, that
many joint-stock companies were formed as a means of giving it a wider
scope. Some of these associations professed objects which were by long
established usage the proper business of individuals alone, and others
involved hazardous and visionary projects to be carried into effect in
remote countries. The depressed state of trade in 1821 and 1822 had
led to a diminished importation and production of goods, and was
succeeded by an advance of prices in 1823. The consequence was a
sudden and unusually large demand and a powerful reaction of supply,
which did not cease till production had far exceeded the bounds of
moderation.

Through the facilities afforded by a large issue of paper money, the
delusion was kept up longer than it would otherwise have been. The
first symptom of something wrong was the turning of the exchange
against England. A diminution of issues at the bank followed.
Merchants began to experience difficulties in meeting pecuniary
obligations. Then took place a run upon the banks, some of which, both
in London and the country, were obliged to stop payment. Between
October 1825 and February 1826, fifty-nine commissions of bankruptcy
were issued against English country banks, and four times the number
of private compositions were calculated to have taken place during the
same period. While merchants and manufacturers were without credit,
their inferiors were without employment, and distress reached almost
every class of the community. Some liberal pecuniary measures on the
part of the Bank of England helped in a short time, rather by
inspiring confidence than by actual disbursement of money, to
retrieve in some measure the embarrassed circumstances of the country.

"On the same day," Mr Montefiore says, "when the death of an
unfortunate speculator caused a general gloom to prevail in the
financial world, I was asked by a gentleman if I had the courage to
join him in a speculation, my reply was I would see to-morrow." "I
fear," Mr Montefiore observes, "this day's awful lesson is quite lost
upon him."

The entries I am now giving are very brief, sometimes abrupt, showing
(probably) the excited state of affairs in the political and financial
world, which appear to have induced him to form a resolution to
withdraw entirely from all the turmoil of London.

_March 5th._--Heard there will be no war. The ministers' plan of
funding and repaying six millions of the bank has lowered the funds.

_March 17th._--Attended the meeting of the schools; meeting of the
society for granting marriage portions to orphans (Spanish and
Portuguese Hebrew community).

_March 20th._--The King of Portugal died; The Emperor of Austria
dangerously ill; our good king much better.

_April 9th._--Dined with Mr N. M. Rothschild; met there Prince
Esterhazy, Duke of St Albans, his brother and two sisters, Lady
Augusta Cotton, a son of Lord Coventry, and the Earl of Lauderdale.

_April 13th._--The Emperor Nicholas insists upon the Turks evacuating
Moldavia.

_April 16th._--Attended meeting of the elders (Sp. and Port.
Synagogue); signed 1171 cheques, dividends of the Alliance, sixteen
shillings per share.

_June 20th._--War commences again in India, after Bhurtpore had been
stormed by Lord Combermere and peace made with the Burmese, when they
had to pay £100,000 sterling, and cede a great extent of the
territory.

During the following three months he again devotes much time to
communal affairs, attending committees of schools and charitable
institutions.

_October 15th._--Political events of great importance attract his
attention. He calls with Mr N. M. Rothschild on Prince Esterhazy, who
says that Canning and Villele are trying every means to settle a
representative constitution for Spain.

_October 22nd._--The entry states, "Received an express that the
differences between the Russians and Turks are amicably settled."

_October 29th._--He frequently attends meetings of the elders in this
and the following month, also orders blankets for distribution among
the poor.

_December 12th._--The king sends a message to the House to the effect
that five hundred troops would be sent to Portugal.

_December 14th._--The King of France's speech is considered very
warlike.

The diary concludes with the following memorandum:--

"By the blessings of God, prepare for a trip to Jerusalem. Get letters
of introduction from Lord Auckland for Malta, and from J. Alexander
for Constantinople. Study Italian, French, and Hebrew."



CHAPTER V.

1827.

FIRST JOURNEY TO JERUSALEM.


The reader having accompanied Mr and Mrs Montefiore through the first
period of their life and work, and seen them deservedly raised to a
position enabling them, if so disposed, to take a prominent part in
important public movements, I shall now describe all the incidents of
note in connection with their pursuits in the second period of their
lives.

In the year 1827 they decided to visit Jerusalem. Their sole reason
for this determination was a wish to visit the Holy Land, a land with
which their race is connected by so many associations, and of which
the name is kept in loving remembrance in the prayers recited daily by
every true Israelite.

Mrs Montefiore has given a most interesting account of that journey in
her private journal, printed, but not published, and the following
narrative is based upon the entries made therein, and in the diaries
of Mr Montefiore. For the better understanding of those extracts which
bear upon politics, it may not be out of place to briefly recapitulate
the circumstances of the one important event that occurred in the
administration of Viscount Goderich (Mr Robinson), who succeeded
Canning as Premier under George IV. This event was the battle of
Navarino, which was followed by the establishment of Greek
independence. The cause of Greece was supported, from different
motives (see Brewer's "Hume"), by Russia, France, and England. These
Powers had their squadrons in the Levant, the English being under the
command of Sir Edward Codrington. War had not yet been declared; the
Turkish and Egyptian fleet, under Ibrahim Pasha, lay in the Bay of
Navarino, and there was an understanding that it should remain till
the affairs of Greece were arranged. As the Turks attempted to violate
this agreement a general engagement ensued, and the Turkish and
Egyptian fleets were completely destroyed in the course of a few
hours. By this impolitic act England and France played into the hands
of Russia, who was anxious to weaken the power of Turkey, and thus
they gave some help towards the long-cherished object of her
ambition--the possession of Constantinople.

On May 1st, 1827 (5587-8 A.M.), Mr and Mrs Montefiore repaired to
Synagogue as was their custom early in the morning before undertaking
any important work, for the purpose of invoking the blessing of Divine
Providence on this their first and long-projected journey to
Jerusalem. Fortified with letters of introduction, in the first
instance, to Admiral Codrington, then commanding on the Mediterranean
Station, and taking with them their own carriages, they travelled
_viâ_ Dover, Calais, Turin, Milan, Florence, and Rome to Naples. Here
a nephew of Mr Amschel Rothschild assisted them in obtaining a vessel
to take them to Malta, where they visited the plantations of the Silk
Company on the ditch of Porto Reale. There were about 5000 mulberry
trees at this place, as well as about 400 at Sal Marson, "all looking
healthy. We were present," says Mrs Montefiore, "at a dinner given by
us in the Palace to the men, women, and children, who were and had
been employed by the Silk Company, to the number of 140. The hall was
beautifully decorated with shrubs and flowers, and 'Welcome' was
written in large letters at the top of the room. There were many
joints of beef, a sheep roasted whole, macaroni, rice, bread, cheese,
water melons, and good wine. Everyone had as much as he could eat and
drink. The broken victuals and wine were afterwards distributed among
the poor to the number of thirty. A band of music then entered the
hall, and all present danced, as happy as people could be."

At the Palace Mr Montefiore delivered Lord Auckland's and Lord
Strangford's letters to the Governor, the Hon. F. C. Ponsonby, who
advised him to go to the East in a ship of war, on account of the
Greek pirates.

Amidst numerous kind and flattering attentions from the residents,
amongst whom were Sir John Stoddart, Mr and Mrs St John, Captain
Roberts, Colonel Bathurst, and Miss Hamilton, amidst amusements and
excursions to Gozo and Marfa, Mr and Mrs Montefiore did not forget on
Thursday, the 2nd of August, the fast which was kept on the day of
the anniversary of the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem. "Thank
God," he says in his diary, "we are quite well after breaking our
fast, which we did at 9.35, several stars being then visible. The day
has been dreadfully hot and fatiguing. My poor wife suffered so much
that I endeavoured to persuade her to break her fast about four
o'clock, but she would not. I felt extremely weak, but was free from
headache."

The next day, Captain Anderson of the _Leonidas_ called and agreed to
take Mr and Mrs Montefiore and two servants to Alexandria, for a
consideration of £400, and to wait there twenty days, and then take
them to Jaffa. At this stage Mrs Montefiore was taken ill, but owing
to the kind attention of Lady Stoddart, and the assistance of Mr
Milan, the Governor's medical adviser, she soon recovered.

Mr and Mrs Montefiore now embarked on board the _Leonidas_, and sailed
under convoy of the _Garnet_, with four other vessels to Alexandria.
From here they proceeded to Cairo and the Pyramids, where, by the
courtesy of Mr Salt, the British Consul General, Mr Montefiore had the
honour of being presented to Mohhammad 'Ali Pasha in full divan. Mr
Maltass, the Vice Consul, acted as interpreter, the Pacha speaking
Turkish and his visitor French. "We were graciously received," Mr
Montefiore says, "and remained in conversation three quarters of an
hour. We had coffee with him. He spoke much of his wishes to improve
his people, enquired where I was going, if I was pleased with Egypt,
and paid me some compliments. After the interview I rode to the
Obelisk. On my return I called on Mr Salt. I found him much alarmed at
the non-arrival of a despatch which had been sent by an English sloop
of war. The Porte had refused the mediation, and the English Admiral
had orders to act. Mr Salt was to see the Pasha in the morning, and
would then set off for Alexandria. The Pasha wrote to him saying that
Mr Canning had died on the 22nd."

The party now returned to Alexandria, where they heard conflicting
news with regard to the possibility of war. Meanwhile they visited all
places of interest, especially the Synagogues, where the services
appeared somewhat strange to them. Special mention is made of the
Synagogue of Signor Fua, which they visited on New Year's Day, many of
the tunes sung there being the same as those used in the London
Synagogues. The portion of the Sacred Scriptures was admirably read
there by a young boy, "more in the German manner than in the
Portuguese." The Scroll of the Pentateuch was in a wooden case, over
which was the cloak, and the President called up as many as twenty to
hear the Law read to them. The day of Atonement and the Tabernacle
Holidays had to be spent here in consequence of the impossibility of
obtaining means of proceeding further. "I have still every desire,"
says Mr Montefiore, "to proceed to Jerusalem, but cannot find any
person willing to go with me. Although the plague was at Acre, the
whole of Syria in revolt, the Christians fleeing to the mountains for
safety, the question of peace or war still undecided, he himself ill,
and Mrs Montefiore by no means recovered from her recent attack, he
nevertheless determined at all risks to proceed to Jaffa and
Jerusalem." "I find," he observed to his anxious wife, "my health and
strength failing me so fast in this city, that I deem it now prudent
to flee from it, even at the chance of encountering the 'Greek
pirates.'" He engaged for this purpose the _Henry Williams_, a brig of
167 tons, under Captain Jones, to take them to Jaffa and bring them
back for £50.

"I think," he says, "I more ardently desire to leave Egypt than ever
our forefathers did. No one will ever recite the passover service"
(which gives an account of the exodus from Egypt) "with more true
devotion than I shall do, when it pleases Providence to restore me to
my own country, and redeem me and my dear wife from this horrible land
of misery and plague, the hand of God being still upon it."

These are expressions to which most persons in Egypt might frequently
give utterance, when in a state of great pain and irritation,
tormented by thousands of mosquitoes, and more especially when living
in small confined apartments like those of the casino then occupied by
Mr Montefiore. Only those who have been in Egypt fifty or sixty years
ago can form an idea of the discomfort a traveller then had to put up
with, and this was naturally keenly felt by those who, like Mr
Montefiore, had been used to every comfort and attention in an English
home.

_Tuesday, October 16th._--They arrive at Jaffa. The Governor at first
refused to allow any Franks to land, and ordered Captain Jones off,
but the British Consul having procured permission for them, they
landed at mid-day. They found the road level and very sandy, lined
with prickly pear, pomegranate, fig, orange, and lemon trees, the
finest they had ever seen. On reaching Ramlah, Mr Montefiore was so
fatigued he could scarcely dismount; almost too weak to walk.

_Wednesday, October 17th._--They left Ramlah at 7 A.M., and entered
the gate of David at Jerusalem at 5 P.M.

On approaching the holy city they dismount, manifesting their grief at
the sight of Jerusalem in ruins, as mourners do when bewailing the
loss of some dear relative. Mr and Mrs Montefiore then offered up a
fervent prayer, giving thanks to God for having brought them safely to
Jerusalem, the great and long desired object of their journey, and
praying for His blessing on all they loved.

They then repaired to the house of Mr Joseph Amzalak, while the
gentlemen who accompanied them took up their quarters in the Greek
convent.

_Thursday, October 18th._--They attend Synagogue at break of day in
the house of their host. "Thanks to Providence," Mr Montefiore says,
"I feel better, though still very weak." They receive visits from the
head and representatives of the Spanish Hebrew community, also from
the head and representatives of the German Hebrew community, all
making the kindest offers of their services. Great complaints were
made of poverty in Jerusalem, and oppression by the Governors, who
were for ever calling for more money. "There are," they said, "fifty
Portuguese families, consisting of about 200 individuals; forty German
families, or 160 persons; and near 200 elderly widows in great
distress."

Mr and Mrs Montefiore subsequently went to see the foundation stones
of the ancient Temple, generally called the "Western Wall"; also to a
house, from the roof of which they had a fine view of the Mosque of
Omar, which is built on the site of Solomon's Temple. On their return
they called on the Rev. Hahám Moses Soozin (the spiritual head of the
Portuguese community), but as he happened to be out, they went to take
coffee with the Rev. Rabbi Mendel, who occupied a like position in the
German community. "He had prepared an excellent room for us," writes
Mr Montefiore, "but our kind host would not allow us to leave him."
During their absence from home the Governor sent to say, that he
expected Mr Montefiore to come and take coffee, and that he regretted
that Mr Montefiore should have gone to the Jews: if he did not like
going to the convent, he would have given him a house in the city. Mr
Montefiore, on hearing the message, said, "I hope I shall ever live
and die in the society of my brethren of Israel."

_Friday, 19th._--This being the Mohammedan Sabbath, the Governor was
at the Mosque, and Mr Montefiore could not call on him. Mrs
Montefiore, accompanied by some ladies and travelling companions, went
to see the tomb of Rachel. Mr Montefiore and his host, Mr Amzalak,
proceeded to a college bearing the name of "Etz-Khayim" (tree of
life), for the cultivation of theological studies. It belongs to the
Portuguese community, and was established 148 years ago by an English
gentleman of the name of "Franco."

Mr Montefiore then went to the ancient burial ground, where he
obtained some terra santa to take home with him. On his return to the
house of his host, he found every member of the family prepared to
welcome the Sabbath. The apartments were beautifully clean and ready
one hour before the time fixed for the commencement of prayers. After
having attended Synagogue, they had an excellent dinner, their host
and hostess being most kind and chatty.

"I was in better spirits," said Mr Montefiore, "than I had been for
months."

_Saturday, October 20th._--They again attended the house of God. Mr
Montefiore took the opportunity to offer a special prayer in grateful
recognition of the great mercy it had pleased heaven to bestow upon
him and his wife, in permitting them to behold the Land of Promise.

The President of the congregation requested Mr Montefiore not to make
any offering of a large amount, otherwise the local authorities might
hear of it, and would still further raise their taxes.

At 12 o'clock they called on the Rev. Hahám Moses Soozin, after which
they went to dine with the Rev. Rabbi Mendel. Here Mr Montefiore
expressed his hope that both the German and Portuguese communities
would always remain united in the blessed bonds of harmony. In the
afternoon he paid his respects to the Governor at the Palace. The
Governor offered him coffee and other refreshments, and was extremely
civil and friendly. On Mr Montefiore's expressing a wish to see
Jerusalem again, his Excellency said he would be happy to let him have
his guard. Mr Montefiore sent him a valuable telescope as a souvenir
of the pleasant interviews, while hoping that the Governor might
behave better to the Jews in future. His Excellency, in return, as a
token of his appreciation of Mr Montefiore's visit, affixed the Visa
to his passport in most flattering terms. As these were very peculiar,
I append a translation.

  "We declare that to-day arrived at Jerusalem our friend
  the English gentleman, Mr Montefiore. He has visited all
  the holy places, and all the grandees of the town, as
  well as several of lesser note, who have been highly
  gratified by making his acquaintance, he being a person
  of the greatest merit, and unequalled among the nation
  for propriety and amiability of manners; and having
  ourselves experienced the highest pleasure in his
  society we have written this to testify our sense of his
  politeness.

  "Given in the last day of Rubic-el-owal, 1243.

  "El Hha'jj Háfiz Mohhammad Ráshid
  Sathashour (or Selhhoor) Hassa,
  _Governor of Jerusalem_."

"No city in the world," Mr Montefiore observes in his diary, "can have
a finer situation than this; nor is there a better climate;" and he
concludes his record of his day's proceedings by wishing "Many happy
returns of the day to his dear Judith."

The 20th of October being his wife's birthday, which was generally
signalised, whether at home or abroad, by the distribution of numerous
gifts to the poor and to the charitable institutions, it was, as a
matter of course, thus observed in the Holy City, and in an unusually
liberal spirit.

_Sunday, October 21st._--Their short sojourn in Jerusalem was now
concluded. Mr Montefiore rose at half-past two in the morning, and
joined a number of persons who had been sitting up all night in the
house of his host praying for his safe return, and for the welfare of
all friends and lovers of Zion. Both the Rev. Moses Soozin and the
Rev. Rabbi Mendel, accompanied by more than one hundred of the
principal inhabitants, came to see them off. At 7.38 they took leave
of their kind host and hostess, who had most liberally housed and fed
them without asking for the smallest remuneration, and had loaded them
with cakes, wine, &c., for their journey. After a charming ride of
over five hours between the mountains they came to the first well at
the commencement of the plains, and arrived at the Greek convent of
Ramlah. The road was very stony, rough, and steep, but no precipices;
on the sides of the mountains were olives and fruit trees; the valleys
well cultivated, the plain sandy.

They saw nothing of Aboo-Goosh, who was then the terror of the land,
but they went rather in fear of him.

_Tuesday, 23rd._--They started from Ramlah at 7 A.M., and reached
Jaffa at 10.30, where they stayed a day, and then embarked on board
the _Henry Williams_. The next day, being the anniversary of Mr
Montefiore's birthday, he makes an entry of the event in his diary in
the following words:--

"This day I begin a new era. I fully intend to dedicate much more time
to the welfare of the poor, and to attend Synagogue as regularly as
possible on Monday, Thursday, and Saturday."

_Thursday, October 25th._--They were hailed about 1.30 P.M. by seven
large boats, Turkish men-of-war, full of soldiers, who mistook them
for Greeks. These boats came alongside and continued very close,
appearing to entertain great suspicions of them, as several Greek
vessels had been cruising off the port during the day. At dawn,
however, they were convinced of their mistake. The following day, when
close to the harbour of Alexandria, the travellers saw a Turkish
corvette blown up. It had been used as a training ship for the Pasha's
midshipmen, and it was supposed that two hundred persons perished.
This awful occurrence greatly terrified them. They offered up
additional thanks to heaven for having hitherto held them under its
merciful protection.

At 9.52 A.M. they returned to the harbour of Alexandria, went on
shore, and paid a visit to Mr and Mrs Barker, where they met the
Austrian Consul. They also called on other friends, who were
pleasantly surprised to see them return so speedily, having been
uneasy about them on account of the many Greek vessels which had been
off the harbour for some time past. In the evening they went on board
the _Leonidas_, where they purposed remaining.

_Saturday, October 27th._--Mr and Mrs Barker, Captain Richard of the
_Pelorus_, Messrs Bell and Harris, paid them a visit, bringing the
news that the Pasha had received an account of the British Admiral
having fired on a Turkish ship, obliging her to put back into port. Mr
Barker said that the Pasha had told him on the previous night that he
expected war, that it would be one of religion, and would last fifty
years. "These were the words," Mr Montefiore writes in his diary, "Mr
Salt had uttered to me on the 5th of September. Captain Richards also
thought there would be war. Six vessels came into the harbour, and
every one had been plundered by Greek pirates. A fine Genoese sloop
which they passed on Thursday near Rosetta had been boarded in the
evening and robbed; two other ships were also plundered in sight of
the harbour of Alexandria on the same day, and although witnessed by
the men-of-war, the wind prevented any of them giving chase." "In
truth," Mr Montefiore says, "I have every reason to believe that for
the last three months we are the only persons, sailing without a
convoy, who have escaped."

_Tuesday, October 30th._--They went on shore to be present at the
naming of Mr S. M. Fua's infant son.

The women who generally attend on festive as well as on mournful
occasions, made a horrid noise, which, however, appeared to please the
Egyptian guests very much. Mr Montefiore called on Mr Barker, and the
latter gave him the firman from the Pasha, which was to facilitate his
travelling in Egypt. Mr Barker also begged of him, in the event of Mr
Salt's death, to use his influence to obtain for him the post of
consul general. Mr Salt, it afterwards appeared, must have been
already dead when Mr Barker made this request, but, in all
probability, he did not like to break the sad news to one just coming
from a place of festivity.

"I little expected," says Mr Montefiore, "when I took leave of him on
the 9th of this month, previous to my departure for Jerusalem, that it
would be the last time I should see him. Upon my enquiring then of him
if I could do anything for him in the Holy City, he thanked me, and
said, 'only pray for me.' To the will of God we must all submit."

_Wednesday, October 31st._--The Pasha has this day made a proclamation
in Alexandria, calling upon all true Mussulmans to come forward
immediately for the protection of their religion, and to commence work
at the fortification instantly. Capt. Richards, who paid Mr and Mrs
Montefiore a late visit in the evening, said that he should sail the
next day after the funeral. He had just come from the Pasha, who told
him that the Grand Signor (the Sultan) had given orders to proceed to
sea at all hazards.

_Thursday, November 1st._--Mr Montefiore attended the funeral of
Mr Salt. All the foreign Consuls were present in full uniform,
also Capt. Richards of the _Pelorus_, with his officers, and many
others--merchants, captains, &c. "The procession," he writes, "was
headed by two handsome horses of the Pasha, without riders, then
followed twelve of his janizaris (yenitjeri), twelve English marines,
with arms reversed, and the English naval officers. The coffin was
carried by six British sailors, and the pall was supported by six
consuls, Mr Barker acting as chief mourner, and being followed by
other consuls, merchants, captains, &c. Mr Salt was buried in the
garden attached to his cottage, the Latin Convent having refused him
burial, although his wife is interred there, he being a Protestant."
After the funeral service, the marines fired three rounds. The
_Pelorus_ fired minute guns during the procession. The distance was
nearly half-a-mile, and the dust and heat were so unbearable that Mr
Montefiore says, "I was apprehensive of getting the fever."

_Friday, 2nd._--A Turkish corvette brings news that the allied
admirals off Navarino had, a fortnight before, sent word to Ibrahim
Pasha to send the Egyptian fleet to Alexandria and the Ottoman fleet
to Constantinople, which he had refused to do. The allied fleet then
entered the ports in defiance of all the batteries, destroyed thirteen
of the Pasha's finest ships, and thirty-two of the Sultan's, with a
reported loss of 6000 or 8000 lives on the side of the Turks. The
allied fleet then sailed from Navarino, probably for Constantinople.
All the Franks in Alexandria are in the greatest alarm, dreading the
revenge of the soldiers and Turks.

_Saturday, November 3rd._--Mr Barker sent a note with an extract of
the Admiral's letter to him, confirming yesterday's news. The battle
was fought on the 20th October, the Turks being said to have been the
aggressors. The Turco-Egyptian fleet was annihilated, with a loss of
5000 men. "We are extremely uneasy," Mr Montefiore says, "at the
prospect of not being allowed to sail next Tuesday with the French
convoy, the French captain having refused to give instructions to, or
to take charge of, any but French ships. He said we might sail at the
same time, and if we could keep up with him, he would defend us, but
he could not stop one moment, or shorten sail for us to keep company.
Mr Barker has promised to go on board the _Commodore_ and solicit the
captain, as a personal favour, to direct the schooner to give us
instructions.

_Sunday, November 4th._--Mr Barker has been with the Pasha, who spoke
lightly of the loss of his fleet, and said he would soon have another.
His sentiments continued unchanged with regard to the Franks, and he
pledged himself for their security; he said it was contrary to the
Mooslim religion to destroy Christians, and in the event of the Sultan
permitting such violence, he could not be called a good Mooslim
afterwards. "A poor satisfaction for those he murdered," writes Mr
Montefiore.

_Monday, November 5th._--They went on shore to take leave of all their
friends. Mr Barker gave Mr Montefiore a letter to Lord Dudley,
soliciting the post of consul-general. He advised Capt. Anderson, as a
friend, not to start, and the person who had chartered the captain's
vessel also insisted on her waiting for a proper convoy, as the French
schooner had refused to be delayed at sea for any but French ships. Mr
Barker advised Mr Montefiore to go by one of the French vessels. "They
had the conscience," Mr Montefiore says, "to ask 10,000 francs. Capt.
Anderson, however, has resolved to go, and we shall go with him."



CHAPTER VI.

1827-1828.

MR AND MRS MONTEFIORE LEAVE ALEXANDRIA--A SEA VOYAGE SIXTY YEARS
AGO.


_Wednesday, November 7th, 1827._--Mr and Mrs Montefiore left Egypt. At
11 A.M. they were out of the harbour, sailing under the protection of
the French schooner _La Dauphinoise_, Capt. Auvray, the convoy
consisting of four French, one Austrian, three English, and one
Russian vessel.

_Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday._--They proceeded with some
difficulty, but on Friday, November 30, all on board thought they
would be able to enter the harbour of Malta, as the weather was
favourable, and Captain Anderson had resolved to make the attempt,
although the sun had already set. In about two hours they were so near
the shore that they could see the lights distinctly, and they could
not have been more than a mile from the mouth of the port. All were
extremely happy, expecting to anchor within an hour. "How frail are
human joys," exclaims Mr Montefiore; "most suddenly the wind had
changed again to the west, and commenced blowing in a terrific manner.
Thus, in an instant, were our hopes gone, and we were blown off the
land, a tremendous sea obliging us to take to our beds. God only knows
when we shall reach Malta."

_Saturday, December 1._--"The last was a dreadful night," he writes,
"it blew almost a hurricane: a frightful sea: the ship rolled and
pitched so as to occasion serious alarm to all on board. Poor Judith
suffered severely. The captain had never in his life experienced a
worse night, and to prevent our being blown further off Malta, he
carried a press of sail. I shall never forget the night, but on each
Sabbath eve shall recollect with gratitude God's mercy in saving us
from destruction. This morning, at daybreak, we were five miles off
Malta, having retained this situation by tacking backwards and
forwards during the night. The weather continued rough and stormy,
but thanks be to the Almighty God, we anchored safely in the
quarantine harbour at half-past seven, after a long and boisterous
voyage of twenty-four days."

In commemoration of this merciful event, it became a custom of Mr
Montefiore, from the year in which it took place, to the last year of
his life, to read on the first night of the Passover Festival, the
entry he then made in his journal, consisting of several appropriate
verses from the Psalms of David.

"Sir John Stoddart wrote me a very friendly note, and came to the
waterside to see us. After dinner we left the _Leonidas_, having spent
more than three months in Captain Anderson's company, and slept
sixty-eight nights on board his ship. He was most attentive and
obliging, and we left him with regret."

At five minutes past five they entered the Lazaretto.

_Sunday, December 2nd._--The Governor sent his private secretary to
thank them for a turtle which they had brought him as a present, and
to enquire after their health, requesting particularly to be informed
how the news of the battle of Navarino had been received at
Alexandria. Mr Montefiore replied by a special letter. Sir John
Stoddart, the chief judge, with his daughter and Mr Maxwell, came to
pay them a visit, but they were not allowed to approach within two
yards of them. Captains Anderson and Jones called and brought the news
that the _Martha_, Captain Smart, had come into harbour; they had been
plundered and dreadfully ill-treated by the Greeks.

In the course of their stay at Malta, Mr and Mrs Montefiore had the
pleasure of receiving a visit from Captain Lewis Davies of the _Rose_,
the hero of Navarino; they had met him before at the houses of Mr
Barker and the late Mr Salt in Alexandria. He remained with them a
full hour, giving a most interesting description of the battle.

After so long an absence abroad, Mr Montefiore, one might have
thought, would have been longing to be back in England to take a rest,
but he has no such idea; on the contrary, he is already planning
another tour in connection with business. On Sunday, December 9th, he
writes, "I much wish it may be in my power, after our return to
England, to see Vienna, and visit our Gas Establishments at Berlin,
Hanover, Rotterdam, and Ghent. I shall strive to do so, provided I
succeed in reaching London by the end of February. As soon as we get
pratique, we shall endeavour to procure a vessel for Palermo, remain
there a couple of days, thence to Naples, where I hope to get letters
from our dear mother and friends."

In the course of this narrative we shall have frequent opportunities
of witnessing a peculiar characteristic of his. When he had achieved
some great work, and was yet engaged in affixing his signature to a
report on the same, whilst all his fellow-workers were exhausted with
fatigue, his restless activity would impel him to begin a fresh scheme
for the alleviation of distress or for the cause of humanity,
notwithstanding his own exertions, and in spite of many nights of
anxiety which may have attended his former enterprise.

_Thursday, December 13th._--This being the 1966th anniversary of the
victory of the Maccabees, Mr and Mrs Montefiore celebrated it by
special prayers and thanksgivings, an additional number of lights
being burnt in honour of the occasion. A Russian officer, who happened
to be their neighbour in the Lazaretto, spoke in glowing terms of the
bravery of Jewish soldiers in Russia, and of their wonderful endurance
in the days of want and distress so often experienced during the war.

When Mr (then Sir Moses) Montefiore appeared before the Emperor
Nicholas in the year 1846 to plead the cause of his brethren, he had
the satisfaction of hearing similar remarks from His Majesty's lips.

_Friday, 14th December._--Lady Stoddart and her son paid them a visit;
Captain and Mrs Copeland also came to see them. The Captain said there
was great probability of war, adding that the Franks had escaped from
Constantinople, and that the Ambassadors were expected to leave
immediately.

_Monday, December 17th._--They visited every part of the Lazaretto,
and found the hospital clean, and in excellent order, but untenanted.
They also went to see the English cemetery, where those who die whilst
in quarantine or on board ship in the harbour are buried. About a
dozen graves are always kept ready for immediate use. Describing the
process of fumigating letters and papers, which they saw that day, Mr
Montefiore says: "The letters are opened and placed in an iron closet,
or on an iron grid; a saucepan containing burning bran and sulphur is
then placed on the ground beneath them, and the closet is shut for
fifteen minutes. They are then taken out again, and the process is
complete."

_Tuesday, December 18th._--Several vessels came into the quarantine
harbour, and Mr Montefiore had an interesting conversation with Mr de
Wimmer, a "Lieutenant au Corps de Chasseurs d'Ordonnance de S.M.
l'Empereur de toutes les Russies," who had been with the Emperor
Alexander at the time of his death. They also received a letter from
Monsieur Peynado Correa, informing them that the Governor had
confirmed the constitution given to the Jews by Sir Thomas Maitland.

_Wednesday, December 19th._--A ship arrived from Constantinople,
having performed the journey in twelve days. It brought the news that
the Ambassadors had left the same day, and that all ships of the
Allied Powers were put under embargo. While at dinner Mr Montefiore
received a polite note from Mr Greig, containing the welcome
intelligence that they should have pratique on the next day. "This
indulgence," Mr Montefiore observes, "is extremely kind on the part of
the Governor, although we have been very comfortable, and had not one
irksome hour during the whole time we have been confined in the
Lazaretto."

_Thursday, December 20th._--They left the Lazaretto.

_Saturday, December 22nd._--Mr Montefiore, accompanied by Sir John
Stoddart, called on Admiral Codrington. He had a very polite reception
both from the Admiral and Lady Codrington. The Admiral said he had
been very much interested in the account which Mr Montefiore sent him
of the manner in which the Pasha received the news of the battle of
Navarino, and took much pains to explain his motives for commencing
hostilities. He said the ministers did not seem aware of all the
instructions he had received from Stratford Canning. In reply to Mr
Montefiore's enquiry, the Admiral said that if the Turks would not
listen to his speaking-trumpet, he would have to make use of the
cannon. He had on several occasions made signal for battle before the
20th of October, but his good star had attended him, and he had been
prevented; the first time by adverse winds, and on the second occasion
the French fleet came up in time to over-awe the Turks, and they
returned. The Pasha had expressed his intention of throwing off his
allegiance to the Porte, and professed great friendship for the
French Admiral, commanding his son, Ibrahim Pasha, to follow his
directions; he also wished to write to the English himself afterwards.
Admiral Codrington did not give the Pasha credit for much sincerity.
He then spoke about the Greek pirates and Greek Government, and
promised Mr Montefiore a passage to Naples, after which the latter
took his leave.

_Sunday, December 23rd._--They took a walk over the Silk Company's
estate, which they had visited early in the autumn. Since that time
about 3000 young trees had been transplanted, new walls had been
erected, ditches cut, and ground prepared for the reception of French
and Neapolitan shrubs. They were disappointed to learn that the sale
of the garden produce scarcely brought enough to cover the expense of
sending it to market, fruit and vegetables being so plentiful and
cheap. The orange trees were almost breaking down under their load of
fruit, which scarcely paid for the gathering. The "nopal" or prickly
pears have been rooted up, as well as most of the vines and figs. A
few young nopals have been planted, and some preparation made for
experiments in cochineal. Mr Montefiore writes: "The ditches
discovered on the south side of the valley have evidently been ancient
tombs. Those on the hill, round and near the palace, were no doubt
planted with trees, and there is every reason to believe that they may
be found running in every direction on the estate."

Sir Edward Codrington offered them a convoy for the next day, but Mr
Montefiore requested him to permit the _Mastiff_, Captain Copeland, to
take them to Naples, which request was kindly granted.

_Sunday, December 30th._--In the evening the Admiral sent his
Secretary to Mr Montefiore with the letters, requesting that he would
deliver them personally--one to Lord Burghersh at Florence, and
another to the Duke of Clarence.

_Monday, December 31st._--"A very tempestuous day," he writes; "the
wind is so high that it is impossible for any vessel to get out of the
harbour. We must have patience, and wait a little longer. I feel
rather better," he adds, "but my neck still continues troublesome."
This being the last day of the civil year, a feeling of deep
thankfulness prompts him to end his diary with a prayer similar to the
one he uttered on the conclusion of the Jewish year.

The homeward journey was not marked by any incidents which call for
special description. Wherever the travellers halted they followed the
daily itinerary, which, once settled, was never departed from, and it
was as follows:--First they repaired to Synagogue, then they went to
the principal Jewish communal schools and institutions, and in the
course of the afternoon exchanged visits with friends or with those to
whom they had letters of introduction, whilst the local sights were by
no means forgotten.

_Friday, January 11th, 1828._--The _Mastiff_, having left Malta on the
2nd of January, was towed into the harbour of Naples, where they
anchored. Mr and Mrs Montefiore proceeded at once to the hotel, where
they met Baron and Baroness Amschel Rothschild, their handsome son,
Baron Charles Rothschild, and Baroness Charlotte Rothschild.

A few days later they visited Herculaneum and Pompeii.

_Wednesday, January 16th._--Mrs Montefiore dined at Baron Charles',
but Mr Montefiore was not well enough to accompany her. It was a large
dinner party, and the guests included the Austrian Ambassador with his
wife, the Duke and Duchess D'Ascoli, the Duke and Duchess Theodore,
Sir Henry and Lady Lushington, and others.

_Thursday, January 17th._--Mr Montefiore was still obliged to keep his
room the whole day. Captain Copeland gave an entertainment on board
the _Mastiff_ to Baroness Charlotte Rothschild, Mrs Montefiore, and
Barons Charles and Anselm Rothschild, who afterwards dined with Mr
Montefiore. In the evening Mrs Montefiore accompanied Baroness
Charlotte to a ball at the Sardinian Embassy, to which both she and Mr
Montefiore had been invited by the Marquis and Marchioness di S.
Saturius. Mrs Montefiore said there were about five hundred of the
nobility present, who had been invited in honour of the Princess
Salerno, a daughter of the Emperor of Austria, whom she saw there
enjoying a waltz.

_Friday, January 18th._--The Duke and Duchess D'Ascoli paid Mrs
Montefiore a long visit. The Duchess appeared to take great interest
in the Holy Land, making many enquiries on subjects connected with
Sacred Scripture. When she had obtained all the information Mrs
Montefiore could give her, she asked to see the curiosities which the
latter had brought with her. Mrs Montefiore produced the whole of her
collection. The Duchess seemed especially pleased with a shell
engraved with historical subjects by a Bethlehem artist. Mrs
Montefiore requested her acceptance of it, and the Duchess appeared
much gratified.

_Sunday, January 20th._--Mr Montefiore called on the Secretary of the
British Legation, with whom he left the Admiral's letter for Lord
Burghersh.

_Thursday, January 24th._--We find them at Rome, visiting some of the
principal studios of the sculptors, Albertus Thorwaldsen, Canova, his
successor Cincinnato Baruzzi, and others. At the studio of Guiseppe
Pacetti in the Via Sisterno they saw an ancient statue of a negress
with flowers, for which Mr Montefiore intended to make an offer.

_Friday, January 25th._--They visited the Vatican, and all the
museums, galleries, and places of interest.

_Sunday, January 27th._--In the course of the day they received a
deputation from the community, who informed them that there were in
Rome 3500 of their brethren, of whom the majority were poor, and Mr
Montefiore requested their acceptance of his and Mrs Montefiore's
offerings to alleviate the distress. He purchased the female figure,
in black marble, representing Abundance, which he had seen on the
previous Thursday in the Via Sisterno, with the intention of placing
it in the hall of his house at Park Lane. The next day they left Rome.

_Friday, February 1st._--They reached Leghorn safely, where Mr
Montefiore at once offered up the following prayer:--

"Praise and most humble and sincere thanks to the Giver of all Good,
the Creator of heaven and earth, for all His manifold mercies towards
me, for having preserved me from so many perils and brought me safe to
the city of my birth, and in the enjoyment of one of the greatest
blessings Providence has bestowed on me, the company of my dear
Judith, the companion and sharer of all my danger."

_Saturday, February 2nd._--They visited the Synagogue. It was crowded.
The state of Mr Montefiore's health not being as satisfactory as he
could have wished, he sent for a physician.

_Sunday, February 3rd._--They remained in the hotel, Mr Montefiore not
feeling well. "Were it not," he writes, "for the extreme anxiety I
feel to see my dear mother, I should, without the slightest
hesitation, resolve upon remaining in Italy for six months at the
Baths of Casciana, about twenty miles from here. I find my complaint
gets worse every day. God help me!"

_Monday, February 4th._--They visit the schools. A deputation from the
Institution "Or Tora," consisting of Messrs Joseph Uzielli, Abram
Pardo, Michael Buznah, and Salomoni Mortara, received them. "I was
much delighted," says Mr Montefiore, "with the appearance and
behaviour of the boys, who have made great progress in their studies.
Most of the seniors, although not more than fourteen, are perfect
masters of the Hebrew language, and can write in the same on any
subject of their studies that may be given them. They receive a most
liberal education, even music and drawing. There are about sixty boys;
some few pay six francs a month. After the portion of the Pentateuch
is read on Sabbath in the Synagogue, the boys draw lots which one
should read the portion from the Prophets. All must therefore be well
prepared." Mr Montefiore next went to a school open to all children of
poor Jews who are in Leghorn. There were about 150 boys present. They
are taught reading, writing, and arithmetic on the Lancastrian
principle. They then proceeded to the girls' schools, where, in
addition to the above subjects, children are taught needlework and
straw-plaiting for bonnets. Some of the girls, not more than eight or
nine years old, translated the Hebrew prayers. Mr and Mrs Montefiore,
in token of the satisfaction they had felt at the inspection of the
schools, left generous presents for the pupils.

They then journeyed through La Spezia, Chiavari, Genoa, Novi, Turin,
Suza, Lanslebourg, Maltaveme, Sava, Les Echelles, Lyons, La Palisse,
and Neuville, in their own carriage, then on to Paris and Calais,
where they arrived on Wednesday.

"I am still," Mr Montefiore says, "very unwell indeed. I feel that
some disorder is making daily and rapid strides; am most anxious to
reach home for the benefit of rest and quiet. The newspapers appear
very warlike, and I think there can be but little doubt as to the
truth of their reports. I hope I shall not be induced to enter into
any large speculation; never having been endowed with courage in my
younger days, it would now be nothing less than downright folly. May
heaven guard me from my friends as well as from my enemies."



CHAPTER VII.

1828-1829.

ARRIVAL IN ENGLAND--ILLNESS OF MR MONTEFIORE-THE STRUGGLE FOR
JEWISH EMANCIPATION.


_Thursday, February 28th._--They arrived safely in Dover harbour, and
had the pleasure of seeing some of their near relatives who had come
down to welcome them.

They proceeded next day to their home in London, where they
immediately paid a visit to Mr Montefiore's mother.

Having discharged this pleasing duty, they repaired to the Admiralty,
to leave the letters which had been entrusted by Admiral Codrington to
Mr Montefiore for delivery. They reached their home at five o'clock,
again to enjoy their Sabbath, a day of hallowed peace and rest, at
Park Lane.

The following morning they attended Synagogue to offer up prayers for
their safe return, and were received by the ecclesiastical authorities
and representatives of the community with manifestations of pleasure
at their reappearance among them. Later in the day Mr Montefiore
waited on the Duke of Clarence to deliver into his hands the letter
from the Admiral. Mr Montefiore returned much pleased with the
audience he had had with His Royal Highness.

The great object which Mr and Mrs Montefiore had in view, when setting
out for the Holy Land, had so far been accomplished, that they had
made a sojourn of three days in the City of Jerusalem, a
gratification, however, which they had been permitted to enjoy only in
return for unusually great sacrifices.

Mr Montefiore now placed himself under the care of an eminent
physician, who for a long time visited him almost daily. As his doctor
did not, however, forbid Mr Montefiore's leaving the house or
following his usual pursuits, he went regularly, except on the Sabbath
and Festivals, to the city, attending the Boards of the Alliance
Marine and Alliance Life and Fire Offices, the Imperial Continental
Gas Association, the Silk Company, and those of all his various
communal and charitable institutions. His physician would often
accompany him on his way to the city.

In accordance with the injunction in Deut. xxiii. 23, "That which has
gone out of thy lips thou shalt keep and perform," he endeavoured to
fulfil the promises he had made in Egypt, Jaffa, and Malta. He spoke
to Sir Robert Farquhar in favour of Mr Barker's appointment as Consul
General in Egypt in place of the late Mr Salt. He gave Signor
Damiani's letter to Mr George Canning, first Lord of the Treasury and
Chancellor of the Exchequer, soliciting him to appoint young Damiana
British Consul at Jaffa, in succession to his father. Finally, he
called on Dr Lee of Doctors' Commons, leaving the manuscript, "The
Story of Gaiffa," which the author had requested him, when at Malta,
to take there.

He had the satisfaction of hearing afterwards that his friendly
intercession on behalf of the applicants had been partially
successful.

He was now called upon to fulfil a promise of a mournful nature,
which, previously to his setting out for the Holy Land, he had made at
the request of the Ecclesiastical Chief of his community.

_19th Sivan_ 5588 A.M.--"It was Sunday morning, the 1st of June 1828,
when the Rev. Hazan de Sola informed me that it had pleased heaven to
call to eternal glory our most worthy Haham Meldola, this morning
suddenly, and that he had appointed me his executor conjointly with
two other gentlemen.

"Tuesday has been a very fatiguing day. At half-past eight I was at
Mansell Street attending as Lavador. I took care to see that all the
Rev. Haham's requests were strictly complied with. At twelve the
funeral cortege proceeded to Bevis Marks. The Rev. Dr Hirschel
preached an excellent discourse over the coffin at the old burial
ground. The body was carried by all the representatives of the
congregation. I assisted in lowering it into the grave. I subsequently
returned to the house of the mourners, there joining the assembly at
vesper prayers. It was seven o'clock when I left."

Mr Montefiore frequently called at the house of the bereaved
relatives, conveying to them his sympathy and making friendly offers
of his services.

Always feeling an interest in objects connected with the Holy Land, he
went to look at the drawings and sketches made by Mr Thomas Wyse, jun.
(son-in-law of Lucien Bonaparte), during his stay in that part of the
world. Some of them he found beautiful and faithful representations of
views in and about Jerusalem. But what engages his mind most now is
the desirability of procuring the necessary means for the support of
educational institutions in the Holy Land.

The spread of education and the establishment of schools and colleges
have justly been regarded by all enlightened nations as a barometer of
civilisation, a sign of the pulsation of life in the heart of a
people, and the gladdening light and comforting joy for both rich and
poor. But all who are acquainted with the history of the Jews, both
ancient and modern, will readily admit that no other nation or class
of people have ever shown their appreciation of it under more
unfavourable circumstances and at a greater sacrifice. They never
relaxed their exertions to benefit by education, notwithstanding the
numerous and painful checks from which their progress has often
suffered. As the grain of seed under the rough and stony surface,
trodden down by the heavy steps of the wanderer, only after turning
and twisting in many directions, finally sends forth its tender blade
into the pure atmosphere and reviving light of the sun, so the seed of
intellect in the brain of the Jew had to pass through many trials and
troubles before its first shoot was permitted to show itself and to
thrive in the beneficent rays of liberty.

An opportunity presented itself to Mr Montefiore to assist the good
cause of education by the arrival of a special messenger from
Jerusalem, sent to draw his attention to an important case referring
to a legacy bequeathed to a theological college in the Holy City.

This messenger, the Rev. A. J., who was a member of the college in
question belonging to the Spanish and Portuguese community in
Jerusalem, said that he was sent by the representatives of that
institution to make their case known to the head of the Spanish and
Portuguese community in London, and to receive £2600 consols from a
certain person. The interest of that stock having been bequeathed to
the said college by two friends of Zion residing in England, the
representatives should have received the same in regular remittances.
The person mentioned, however, being the only surviving trustee, had
sold the stock, and had for some years discontinued the remittance of
dividends. Mr Montefiore gave the messenger a most polite and friendly
reception, and called on two gentlemen who, he knew, would take an
interest in the case, asking them to associate themselves with him in
furtherance of the above object.

A few days later he gave an entertainment at Park Lane, inviting most
of the leading and influential members of the community to meet the
messenger from Jerusalem, who, it was here suggested, should be asked
to deliver a discourse in the Portuguese Synagogue. The Rev. A. J.
consented to do so, and gave an interesting address to the community
in pure Biblical Hebrew.

Mr Montefiore went with his friends to the solicitor to hear the
trustee's answer to the Bill filed in Chancery, and he promised to
give them his opinion on the subject in a few days.

Whilst awaiting the solicitor's opinion, the Rev. A. J. was taken
seriously ill, and was received into the hospital of the Spanish and
Portuguese community, where at Mr Montefiore's expense he was visited
by the most eminent physicians. Eventually he recovered.

Ten days later the Rev. A. J. sent for J. M. B., a particular friend
of the trustee, to whom he made the following proposition:--"That the
trustee should pay him (the Rev. A. J.) his expenses and all law
charges, and also £500 down, the balance to be invested in the names
of trustees, and the present trustee to enjoy the interest during his
lifetime, the capital at his decease reverting to Jerusalem." J. M. B.
promised to communicate the offer to his friend. The solicitor
informed Mr Montefiore that this gentleman's attorney had returned to
England, and would lose no time in giving an answer to the messenger's
Amendment Bill in the Court of Chancery. Some time afterwards Mr
Montefiore met by appointment with two other friends at the house of
the messenger, leaving him the power of attorney, to act for the
recovery of the funds.

Three months later, however, he and two friends had to undertake the
very unpleasant task of informing the rev. gentleman that, in their
opinion, he would not be able to obtain any money from the trustee,
and a sum of money had to be given him to enable him to return to
Jerusalem.

With a sorrowful heart at the result of his mission he left England.
"But never," he writes in a letter addressed to Mr Montefiore from
Jerusalem, "will the recollection of the great kindness, sympathy, and
attention which I have met from yourself and my many friends be
effaced from my memory."

This misappropriation of trust funds intended for poor students in the
Holy City roused the utmost indignation in the community. It was
deemed a sacrilege, and the strongest terms of reprobation were
expressed against the individual who had thus outraged the feelings of
humanity.

"There can be no doubt," said Mr Montefiore many years later, speaking
on the same subject, "that trusts connected with charitable or
strictly religious institutions are more liable than others to be, if
not strictly speaking misappropriated, at least misdirected, though it
may probably be unintentional, more especially when the religious
views of the trustees differ from those of the testator. The trust in
this particular instance being connected with the study of a language
held in esteem by all religious denominations, the act becomes much
aggravated, nay, unpardonable."

The fervent attachment which Mr Montefiore evinced to the Holy Land
did not in any way interfere with his devotion to England.

I have already pointed out to the reader the great zeal which he
manifested for the defence of his country when serving as a volunteer,
and on all occasions he continued to declare that he was ever ready to
fulfil his duties by going on active service.

In common with his brethren in all parts of the world, he felt it most
painfully that, in a country like England, where so many well-meaning
citizens evinced their sympathy with the sufferers from oppression, he
as a Jew should still be debarred from many of those rights and
privileges to which every loyal subject is fully entitled.

The sacrifices which the Jews all over Europe had made during the war
of 1815, by shedding their blood in defence of the country in which
they lived, and by their liberal contributions to the funds for the
relief of the wounded, and the support of the soldiers' widows and
orphans, had been acknowledged and appreciated.

In Holland and France the Jews were fully emancipated, filling high
municipal offices in their respective districts, whereas in England
the Jews who, since the year 1753, when the Ministry was compelled to
withdraw the Naturalisation Act, after it had passed the House of
Lords, had been in vain endeavouring to secure their civil rights,
thought that the time had now arrived when they might hope to be more
successful in the just demands they made upon an enlightened assembly
of legislators in both Houses of Parliament.

On June 26th Mr Montefiore went with Mr I. L. Goldsmid to the Duke of
Norfolk to meet various committees of Dissenters and Catholics, for
the purpose of consulting as to the best mode of obtaining privileges
for the Jews. They there met Messrs Blount, C. Butler (Catholics),
Foa, Bowany, and Aspenhill (Dissenters), and interchanged views on the
subject of obtaining relief from all religious disabilities. Similar
meetings were held in other localities which were attended by several
members of the community, the result being, as is well known, the
repeal of the Test and Corporation Act.

Greatly encouraged by the result of these meetings, Mr Montefiore,
conjointly with Mr N. M. Rothschild, Mr I. L. Goldsmid, and others,
pursued with great energy the object in view.

In the month of August, Mr and Mrs Montefiore set out for a little
excursion to Exeter, Bath, and other places, for the purpose of giving
Mr Montefiore a short respite from the fatigue entailed upon him by
his onerous duties.

We find them again at Park Lane about the end of that month.

The diary of 1829 continues to record the great exertions made by Mr
Montefiore and other members of his community to attain their civil
rights. He attends besides to all his various duties, and has headed
the volume by the three following lessons for his own guidance:--

"Be content with what God has allotted you, and you are rich." "To
learn, listen. To be safe, be silent." "No man can be happy who does
not devote at least five or six hours daily to some useful
employment."

On Sunday, 22nd February, he writes: "Mr Isaac L. Goldsmid paid me a
long visit, consulting as to the best mode of procuring general
toleration for the Jews. Judith and self took a ride to see Hannah
Rothschild and her husband. We had a long conversation on the subject
of liberty for the Jews. He said he would shortly go to the Lord
Chancellor and consult him on the matter. Hannah said if he did not,
she would.

"The spirit manifested here by Mrs Rothschild, and the brief but
impressive language she used, reminded me most strikingly of her
sister, Mrs Montefiore."

Mr Montefiore called the next day on Mr I. L. Goldsmid and Mr Moses
Mocatta, and conversed with them on the present state of the Jews.

Subsequently he went with Mr N. M. Rothschild to Sir James Mackintosh,
to request him to bring a Bill into Parliament to allow aliens (Jews)
to hold freehold land and to vote for members of Parliament.

In the cause of emancipation friendly dinners and entertainments were
occasionally given for the purpose of affording friends of religious
and civil liberty an opportunity of exchanging their views on the
subject. To many of these, given by N. M. Rothschild at Piccadilly, Mr
and Mrs Montefiore were invited. At one of them they met the Duke and
Duchess of St Albans, Lady Louisa Beauclerk, the Hon. Shaw Stewart,
Lord and Lady Kinnwell, Sir William and Lady Rowly, the Spanish
Ambassador and his wife, the Brazilian Ambassador, Sir Charles
Beresford, Sir William Abdy, Mr George Harrison, Mr Kelly Addenston.
"Twenty-three," says Mr Montefiore, "sat down to table. Moschelles
came in the evening, played on the piano, and accompanied Miss
Rothschild. It was near twelve before the party broke up." Mr
Montefiore was highly gratified with the result of the conversations
he had with several influential noblemen on the subject he had so much
at heart.

On a similar occasion at the house of Mr John Pearce, St Swithin's
Lane, he met a number of gentlemen interested in the emancipation of
the Jews. He there spoke to Daniel O'Connell and his son, to the
O'Gorman Mahon, I. L. Goldsmid, young Attwood, Samuel Gurney and his
son, Fowell Buxton, Charles Pearce, Pearce Mahony, and Dr Hume.
O'Connell and the O'Gorman were very chatty.

On the 17th of March, Mr and Mrs Montefiore called on Mr N. M.
Rothschild. They read there the petition of the Jews to both Houses of
Parliament prepared by Mr Tooke, and "both Hannah and Rothschild," he
observes, "approve of it."

On the evening of the same day he attended a meeting of deputies from
the several London Synagogues held at the Mocattas', in Russell
Square. Mr Mocatta was elected Chairman, and Joseph Cohen Honorary
Secretary. There were also present Dr Joshua Van Oven, Lyon Samuel,
Levy Solomon, Hart Micholls, David Brandon, Moses Montefiore, jun. Mr
Isaac Lyon Goldsmid, who had written a letter to the Chairman, was
sent for. He came in shortly afterwards, and laid before the meeting a
statement of the favourable prospect of obtaining the removal of the
Jewish disabilities. "It was half-past ten," says Mr Montefiore,
"before we separated, first passing a vote of thanks to Mr I. L.
Goldsmid and to our Chairman."

A few days later Mr I. L. Goldsmid informed him of what had passed
between Mr N. M. Rothschild and the Lord Chancellor on Tuesday, 17th
March. He went to the House of Lords with Mr Rothschild. The
Chancellor was very polite, and regretted that he had not time that
day to go into the business, but requested him to come the following
Wednesday at half-past four.



CHAPTER VIII.

1829.

LADY HESTER STANHOPE--HER ECCENTRICITIES--PARLIAMENT AND THE JEWS.


On his return to Park Lane from the House of Lords he found that Mr
Pope (Upper Marylebone) had brought letters from the Holy City for him
and Lord Stanhope, the purport of which was to endeavour to recover a
debt against Lady Hester Stanhope, of Djouni, or "The Tower of
Lebanon," as it is generally called, near Zidon in the Holy Land.

I had the privilege of spending several very pleasant days with Lady
Hester Stanhope in that Tower. My visit to her has been mentioned in a
book entitled "The Memoirs of Lady Hester Stanhope, as related by
herself in conversation with her Physician, &c.," pp. 233 and 238.

I may therefore be justified in expressing an opinion on the merits of
her case.

Lady Hester Stanhope, the niece of Mr Pitt, Chancellor of the
Exchequer in 1782, undertook the self-imposed and benevolent task of
educating the Maronite, Druze, and Mahommedan children. It was her
pleasing endeavour to help, according to her means, every distressed
person requiring relief, to disseminate feelings of humanity among
husbands, who in the East treated their wives like slaves, and even to
expostulate with Emirs and Pachas if they happened to disregard the
laws of justice in the performance of their duties. She reprimanded
Abdallah Pasha for his cruel treatment of his household, and
particularly for having caused one of his wives to be brutally
disfigured for some wrong which he thought she had done him.

For these her good qualities she was held in high regard by all
classes of society, not only in Syria, but also among all the nomadic
tribes of the desert. Any traveller wishing to proceed to Palmyra
unmolested by the marauding Bedouins of the desert, had only to
provide himself with a tezkeree (kind of passport) from Lady Hester
Stanhope, and he was not only at liberty to move about safely in any
direction he pleased, but was welcomed with the utmost cordiality by
every chief on the road.

Lady Hester was very fond of Biblical studies, and of entering into
discussions on these matters, although very few of those who visited
her were competent to guide her in these studies. In consequence of
this she imbibed some strange notions, among others, the belief that
there existed only three correct Bible manuscripts in the world;
unfortunately of the three she believed in, one is of doubtful
authenticity, and one contains only the New Testament. She was greatly
astonished when I told her that many correct Bible manuscripts exist,
and on hearing my description of the celebrated Farkhi Bible
manuscript at Damascus, which has been valued at £1000, she became
quite excited, and declared her intention of going as soon as possible
to Damascus to inspect this treasure. When conversing with her on
religious subjects, her ideas at first appeared peculiar, but on
hearing the reasons she gave for them, one could not but appreciate
her noble intentions. She abhorred the idea of cruelty to any dumb
creature. Having convinced herself that the Jewish mode of
slaughtering animals for consumption is less cruel than any other, and
that the examination of the meat prescribed by the Jewish law is most
beneficial from a sanitary point of view, she adopted both, and kept
for the purpose a person at Djouni, competent to perform these duties
in her household.

One day she invited me to accompany her to her stables; here two
beautiful horses, one grey, and the other chestnut, came towards her,
and laid their heads on her shoulder. She called my attention to the
peculiar formation of their backs, which showed a tendency to rise in
two places at a slight distance from each other, leaving room for the
rider to sit between them as in a Turkish saddle. According to the
certificate she held from the person who sold them, they were
descended from a famous sire in a stud belonging to one of the
Kaleefahs. "One of these," she said, "might well be suitable for such
a man (referring to the much hoped for emissary of peace) when
entering the city known by the name of the 'City of Peace,' on his
mission of humanity, and the other for myself, when co-operating with
him in the work of establishing tranquillity and happiness among the
inhabitants of Syria."

She complained of her words being often misinterpreted by strangers
who came to visit her, hence her great reluctance to admit travellers
into her presence.

Mr Montefiore, Mr Hope, and Lord Stanhope would have done all in their
power to satisfy the party who sent the letters to England, as well as
to co-operate with Lady Hester Stanhope in all her benevolent
exertions, but it had been suggested to them to communicate first with
the Consul at Beyrout, before taking any decisive steps in the matter,
and the letters from the Holy Land had to be laid aside for a time.

Returning again to Mr Montefiore's exertions for emancipation, it
should be mentioned that he went to a dinner given by Mr I. L.
Goldsmid to meet Lords Lansdowne, Suffield, and Auckland, the Dutch
Minister, the American Minister, Daniel O'Connell and his son, P.
Mahony, the O'Gorman Mahon, Thos. Wyse, Tooke, Fowell Buxton, &c. He
spoke to all of them on the subject he had so much at heart. The
O'Gorman was very sociable; he wished to see the Portuguese Synagogue,
also to have the opportunity of presenting the Jews' petition to
Parliament.

On the 1st of April, Mr Montefiore accompanied Mr N. M. Rothschild to
the House of Lords. On their entry they were informed that the Lord
Chancellor had just sent word that he would not come down to the House
that day. Lowdham however promised them to make an appointment for the
following Monday. On his return from the House Mr Montefiore repaired
to the city, to attend the anniversary dinner of the Jews' Hospital at
the City of London Tavern. Mr Bing, the Member for Middlesex, took the
chair. J. Alexander, T. A. Curtis, and J. M. Pearce were present, and
made excellent speeches in favour of civil and religious liberty.

A few days later he went again with Mr N. M. Rothschild to the House
of Lords to see Lord Lyndhurst, but it being five o'clock, his
Lordship was obliged to go into the House immediately, promising
however, to see them on the following Wednesday.

They saw the Duke of Wellington, who said he wished to see Mr
Rothschild on Wednesday, on his own private affairs.

On the appointed day they again went to the House of Lords to see the
Lord Chancellor. He said they were at the time so occupied with the
Catholic business, they could attend to nothing else. He advised them
to remain quiet till this was settled, but if they thought it more to
their own interest to bring the matter forward immediately, to set
Lord Holland to do so, and he would support him, as he considered it
right that the Jews should be relieved from their present
disabilities; at the same time they must be guided by public opinion.
They assured the Lord Chancellor they would be entirely guided by his
advice, and would do nothing for the present. He said he would consult
the Duke of Wellington, and would write to Mr Rothschild what had best
be done.

On leaving the House, Mr Montefiore called on Mr I. L. Goldsmid to
tell him what had passed.

The 13th of April was one of those days which he spent in attending to
his Companies and Associations. He then called on Messrs Garry &
Curtis to solicit a presentation to Christ's Hospital for Captain
Anderson's boy. Attended the Irish Bank, and in the evening was
present, together with Mrs Montefiore, at a dinner given by Mr Fairlie
of York Terrace. They found there "a most splendid party and elegant
entertainment." They met Lord Fife, Sir Herbert and Lady Taylor, Sir
Thomas Clark, Sir John Ogleby, Mr Towncan, Mr P. and his wife, Mr J.
Pearce, bank director, Colonel Blackburn and his wife, Sir James Shaw,
and Sir Thomas, an Indian General, who had been confined in irons for
three years and four months at Seringapatam. They had the opportunity
of hearing the opinion of most of the party on the subject of civil
and religious liberty, and it proved in every case highly
satisfactory.

What occupied Mr Montefiore's mind this day more than other subjects
was his intended presentation to the King at the approaching levee.

Mr Edward Blount said he believed it would be sufficient if the Duke
of Norfolk merely sent his card with Mr Montefiore's to the Lord
Chancellor's office, but he would enquire further of the Duke. Mr
Montefiore, however, differed from him, and did not wish to be
introduced at the levee in that way, unless Mr Blount was so convinced
of its propriety as to be introduced in the same way with him.

The next day Mr Blount showed him a note he had received from Sir
George Naylor of the Herald's office, who said that any gentleman
introduced at the levee by a peer who has the privilege of the
_entrée_, has his name announced by the Lord-in-Waiting in the usual
manner, the peer standing at the same time near the King. In this way
Mr Blount was to be introduced, and Mr Montefiore was to accompany
him. The Duke of Norfolk, Mr Blount said, would send Mr Montefiore's
card with his own to the Lord Chamberlain's office.

There is an incident of a touching nature recorded in his diary about
this time. "On the 15th April I called on Mrs Zaccaria Laurence at
Bury Court, and gave her the receipt for the further share of the
residue of the estate of my much respected grandmother, Esther Hannah
Montefiore. With gratitude I recall to my mind her words to me on her
deathbed. She lamented not having left me more in her will, and added,
'God bless you, and God will bless you.' Peace be to her memory. O
that I may follow her excellent and most exemplary conduct, and may my
deathbed be as happy as it pleased Providence to make hers. Amen."

On April 16th, accompanied by Mr N. M. Rothschild, he attended a
meeting of the Deputies at Mr M. Samuels' house, 19 Leman Street.
There were present Messrs Moses Mocatta, Joseph Cohen, Michells,
Van-Oven, Goodman, Levy Salamon, David and Joseph Brandon, Moses
Montefiore, I. L. Goldsmid, S. Samuel, and John M. Pearce.

After a long debate it was resolved that Pearce should prepare a
petition, and that they should then meet again. A few days later he
called with Mr Moses Mocatta on Mr Pearce, to read and make
alterations in the proposed petition of the Jews to Parliament.

The Feast of the Passover was now approaching. Those who know the
distance from Park Lane to Bevis Marks in the city, will appreciate Mr
and Mrs Montefiore's zeal which led them to walk from their own home
in all weather to the Spanish and Portuguese Synagogue in Bevis Marks.
As they always desired to be in their places even before the prayers
commenced, they were obliged to leave home at a very early hour of the
morning. After the conclusion of the service, which lasted about two
hours and a half, they breakfasted with one of the officers of the
Synagogue, and then proceeded to pay visits to all their friends in
the vicinity. It was often nearly four o'clock when they again walked
back to Park Lane, where in the evening they entertained the members
of their family and several friends at dinner.

The second day of the Festival was passed in the same manner. Few
would now willingly undergo such fatigue, but Mr and Mrs Montefiore's
religious fervour and warm attachment to their friends would not allow
them to plead weariness as an excuse either for not joining their
community in the House of Prayer, or for neglecting their friends.
They continued this practice until their advanced age and uncertain
state of health no longer permitted it.



CHAPTER IX.

1829-1830.

MR MONTEFIORE PRESENTED TO THE KING--SPANISH AND PORTUGUESE JEWS IN
LONDON IN 1829.


Immediately after the Passover Festival Mr Montefiore was present at
an important meeting, convened by the elders of the Spanish and
Portuguese congregation, to consider the propriety of introducing the
English language for the delivery of sermons and addresses in the
synagogues and colleges. The debate was very long and stormy, as many
members of the congregation were greatly attached to the Spanish
tongue, in which their ancestors in many cases had made their names
famous. This is scarcely to be wondered at, when we consider that the
Jews at one time were highly esteemed in Spain. From the works of
Abbot Bartolocci de Cellens, we learn that they were regarded among
the learned as scholars, and among financiers as honorable,
intelligent, and enterprising men; and that they filled high offices
in colleges and universities, as well as in the councils of kings and
assemblies of merchants and bankers. We must, therefore, not be
surprised that they still clung to that language in spite of the
terrible persecutions which drove them from the Spanish peninsula, but
which do not seem to have weakened the affection they felt for their
native land. The language of the country must always constitute the
strongest bond of union between that country and its people, although
intelligent men emigrating to a land where all are treated with
justice and humanity, must consider it their first duty to make
themselves thoroughly acquainted with its language. In a land where
justice and humanity are unknown, however, or hidden under the dark
shadows of prejudice, ignorance, and fanaticism; where some of the
children of the land would scarcely dare to speak of it as "my
fatherland" or "my mother country," because it disowns those who would
designate it by these terms; in such a land the language is often
disliked by its oppressed children themselves, who long for some other
country where they may learn to forget the injustice they have
encountered there.

Yet, as it may appear, this was not the case with the Spanish Jews.
Although the many years of prosperity which they had enjoyed in Spain
had terminated in persecutions, almost unparalleled in history;
although thousands of them perished under the terrible reign of the
Inquisition, in the awful tortures of the "Auto da fé," and the rest
were finally banished in the year 1492, yet, as their continued use of
the Spanish language seems to prove, they only remembered their days
of happiness in that land. Even those who settled in Turkey, Morocco,
Algiers, Egypt, Palestine, Austria, or Holland, still used the Spanish
language in their prayer-books, Bibles, and codes of communal laws.
Such was also the case with the Jews who settled in England. Though
they had all gladly adopted the language of the land which they had
made their home under the sway of a just and enlightened monarch, they
still clung to the Spanish tongue as that of their fatherland, and
were loth to banish its use entirely. But in all the schools and
colleges in England so much time was in those days devoted to the
various branches of English study, that little was left for the
acquirement of what was now to them a foreign language. The rising
Jewish generation was, therefore, not well acquainted with the
language into which the prayers had been translated, and hence the
desire of several members of the community to replace it by the
English tongue.

The struggle between the two parties--those advanced in years, who
naturally wished to adhere to the old ways, and the young and
energetic members, who desired to adopt the innovation--proved long
and hard. Finally, a resolution was carried by eighteen votes to
eleven, "To have all religious discourses delivered in the synagogues
in English, and also henceforth to have all proclamations made in the
same tongue."

The meeting, which opened its deliberations at 11 A.M., did not
adjourn until half-past four.

On Tuesday, April 28th, Mr Montefiore called at the Lord Chamberlain's
office and left his card, on which he had written, "To be presented by
the Duke of Norfolk." After communicating with Mr N. M. Rothschild, he
went, accompanied by Messrs I. L. Goldsmid and Moses Mocatta, to Mr
Pearce to consider some points in connection with the petition, and
subsequently resolved to consult Lord Brougham and Dr Lushington on
the matter. Later in the day he went with Mr N. M. Rothschild and I.
L. Goldsmid to see the Lord Chancellor, who recommended their
presenting the petition either through Lord Bexley or Lord Holland; he
preferred the former, as the latter, he thought, would make some
sensation. When presented, he said, they would see how it was
received; if quietly, they could immediately bring in a Bill. In the
event of its occasioning any unpleasant feeling, they would not
attempt to advance farther that session, more particularly as the
public, and even the King himself, were not yet reconciled to the
measure in favour of the Catholics.

Mr Montefiore and Mr Rothschild afterwards spoke with Lord Bexley, and
explained their wishes to him. He appeared to be doubtful of their
obtaining all the privileges that year, but said he would speak to the
Chancellor, and see them again the following Thursday.

Mr Montefiore dined that day with Mrs Rothschild, at whose house he
met several political friends, as well as Mr I. L. Goldsmid, who told
him that Lord Auckland had requested the Marquis of Lansdowne to
introduce him (Mr Goldsmid) at the levee.

_Wednesday, April 29th._--He gives the following particulars of his
first presentation to the King:--

"At 1 P.M. Mr G. Blount, with his son and his nephew Sir Edward
Blount, Bart., came for me. I accompanied them to the levee. Our
carriage fell into the rank about the middle of Bond Street. It was
twenty minutes past two when we reached St James Palace. We entered
the first room, and gave a card to the page-in-waiting--'Mr
Montefiore, presented by the Duke of Norfolk.' There appeared to be
four or five hundred persons in the waiting-room, mostly naval and
military officers in full uniform, also many bishops, clergymen, and
barristers. The crush was most fatiguing and annoying. It was four
o'clock when we reached the second room. Here, as only a few were
admitted at a time, we were much more at our ease. In the third room
the King was seated about ten paces from the entrance, surrounded by,
or rather having on each side of him, his grand officers. Six or
seven persons entered at a time; those who had been introduced before
merely gave their cards to the lord-in-waiting, made their bow, and
passed on. When I reached His Majesty, I gave my card to the
lord-in-waiting, who was standing on his right hand, and who announced
in a distinct voice, 'Mr Montefiore, presented to your Majesty by the
Duke of Norfolk.' I thereupon bent my left knee to the ground. The
King very graciously smiled, and held out his right hand to me, which
I kissed. I then rose, and made my bow, and passed on. We passed the
King from left to right, and not as I expected from right to left. We
were only permitted to remain a few minutes in the audience room.

"Colonel French was standing a few paces from his Majesty, on the
right; he spoke with me in a very friendly manner. I was much pleased
with the gracious reception I met with. It was twenty-five minutes
past four when we left the audience room. We then had to get through a
great crowd before we could reach the doors of the palace."

On the following day Mr Montefiore, together with Messrs Rothschild
and Goldsmid, went to Lord Bexley, and gave him their petition to
read. He read it over, and said he would speak to Lord Eldon and the
Bishops, and would see them the next day. He recommended that Mr
Thomas Baring should bring the Bill into the Commons.

In the course of the afternoon he called at New Court, and there heard
the report of the Duke of Wellington's going out of office, also of
the funding of eight millions of Exchequer bills, important topics for
consideration to the financiers of the day. Mr Montefiore, however,
did not allow this news to disturb his peace of mind, for we find him
the same evening accompanying his wife to a grand fancy dress ball
given by Mr Goldsmid on the occasion of the coming of age of his
eldest son.

On returning home after the ball, a little incident occurred as a
consequence of the rumours of a change of Ministry. Their coachman,
considering himself somewhat of a politician, took the opportunity,
while they were at the ball, of entering one of the neighbouring
taverns, where the reported change in the Ministry was being discussed
in a lively manner by a large number of his friends. It appears that
during the excitement of the debate he had indulged too much in "the
cup that cheers," but, unfortunately, does inebriate, although
whether from joy or grief at the anticipated change does not
transpire; anyhow, the result was that on attempting to drive Mr and
Mrs Montefiore back from the ball he was found totally incapable of
guiding the horses, and, notwithstanding the efforts made by the
footman to come to his assistance, they had to leave the carriage
before arriving at their destination, and complete the journey on
foot.

The next morning Mr Montefiore proceeded, in company with Messrs
Goldsmid and Rothschild, to the House of Lords, where they spoke to
Lord Bexley. He had not yet had an opportunity of conversing with Lord
Eldon or the Bishops on the subject of the Jews' petition, but said he
would endeavour to do so before Tuesday, on which day he agreed to
meet them again. He had conferred with the Chancellor, who said the
Duke would not make it a government measure, but expressed himself in
favour of it.

The arrival of the Baroness Anselm de Rothschild and her brother
Lionel from Paris took Mr and Mrs Montefiore to Piccadilly. But Mr
Montefiore allowed himself no relaxation in the furtherance of the
great cause he had at heart. On Sunday, 13th of May, he attended in
the morning a meeting of the Elders, which lasted from eleven o'clock
till a quarter to five. In the evening he was present at a meeting of
the Deputies of several Synagogues at Mr Mocatta's residence in
Russell Square, where after considerable discussion the petition was
finally agreed to, and was to be signed the next day.

Mr Montefiore, in his diary, gives a further account of the matter. "I
accompanied Mr Rothschild," he says, "to the House of Lords. Lord
Bexley had already left, so we proceeded to his own house. He said he
had spoken with Lord Eldon and several of the Bishops, and ascertained
that they had no objection to a Bill to omit the words, 'On the true
faith of a Christian,' introduced into the Dissenters' Act last
session. What would be its effect in law he could not state; he would,
however, confer with Lord Brougham and Dr Lushington. He suggested
some slight alteration in the wording of the petition. We are to bring
it back to him signed on Thursday, and he has promised to present it.
He again recommended that Sir Thos. Baring should present it the
Commons."

At the meeting of the Deputies they at first objected to the petition
as altered by Lord Bexley, but finally agreed to sign it. Mr
Montefiore then went, with Messrs Rothschild and Goldsmid, to Lord
Bexley with the petition. The latter thought that everything would be
granted to the Jews except seats in Parliament. Before he could
present it, he said, he must confer once more with the Lord Chancellor
and the Duke of Wellington. Lord Bexley further said, that he would
have to see Dr Lushington the next day, but as that would be Saturday,
Mr Montefiore declined attending. A few days later Lord Bexley stated
distinctly that the Duke of Wellington would decidedly oppose any
application the Jews might make this year in Parliament, but would not
pledge himself as to next session. Dr Lushington and Lords Bexley and
Holland strongly advised a delay till next year.

Mr Montefiore, in his diary, gives some account of a dinner at which
he and Mrs Montefiore were present, given by Mr N. M. Rothschild to Mr
Mahoney, in payment of a wager which he had lost to that gentleman, on
the subject of the agitation for the removal of the Jewish
disabilities.

He says: "The party included many important personages. Many of the
nobility with whom we conversed on the subject expressed themselves
much in favour of the Bill. The Lords Darnley, Lauderdale, and
Glenelg, Sir Robert Farquhar, and Messrs Spring-Rice, Jennings, Otway,
Cave, and Horace Twiss, whom we met there, were most zealous for the
success of the cause. Admiral Sir Ed. Codrington and a Russian Prince,
who were among the guests, discussed the subject with great warmth
until a late hour."

It was the month of June, and Mr Montefiore required relief, even if
only for a short time, from this incessant mental work, accompanied as
it often was by the anxiety which falls to the lot of most prominent
men in the financial world. He therefore gladly accepted for Mrs
Montefiore and himself an invitation to make a tour in the Isle of
Wight with the Baron and Baroness Anselm de Rothschild, and Messrs
Nathaniel and Meyer de Rothschild.

The genial atmosphere of the island, and the cheerful conversation of
their friends and relatives, coupled with the polite attention he
received from Sir John Campbell, the Governor, and his officers, soon
made Mr Montefiore forget for a while Banks, Insurance Offices, Stock
Exchanges, and Gas Associations, whether in England, France, or
Germany.

The time for resuming his usual business pursuits now arrived, and his
own words show how well every hour of his day was employed.

"11 A.M. At St James' Palace to thank Colonel Boten for the General
Post book he left for me. 11.15. At Alliance and Marine. 12. Attended
Committee of Irish Bank till 2. 2.15. Signed policies at Marine.
Called on Mr Rothschild at New Court; solicited him to speak with
Wertheimer the printer to take N. N.'s son as apprentice. 2.30.
Attended Board of Gas till nearly 5. A special meeting of Directors
summoned for next Thursday to receive the report of the special
committee."

At the close of the year Mr Montefiore was invited by a friend to go
to Paris, to be present at the bidding for a new French loan, but he
thought proper to decline, remaining firm in his resolution not to
further extend his financial operations.

He deemed it important to enter that year in his diary a kind of
census of the Spanish and Portuguese Jews in London--another proof of
the great desire he felt to make himself thoroughly acquainted with
the affairs of his community. I bring it under the notice of the
reader whom it may interest, to enable him to compare it with the
census of that community at the present day.

  Privileged members and their families,         About  750
  Unprivileged members and their families,         "    550
  Persons receiving relief from the Synagogues,    "   1200
                                                       ----
                                   Total,              2500

In consequence of unsuccessful speculations in connection with
political changes in England, France, and Spain, there was a general
panic in the financial world at the beginning of 1830, but Mr
Montefiore, by cautious foresight and firm resolution, had withstood
all temptations and remained unaffected by it.

Referring to this panic, he says, on finding several persons very
depressed: "I have a thousand times given them my opinion on that
subject, and can only regret that they have not benefited by it. I am
most uneasy and unhappy about them; God only knows what the result of
this state of things will be." After entering into further details, he
concludes by observing, "At all events I stand relieved from reproach,
having so repeatedly cautioned them against what appeared to me a
desperate situation."

There are several entries, important as historical records, concerning
the steps taken in the Jewish emancipation movement. On the 27th
January he consulted M. Mocatta and I. L. Goldsmid respecting the
application to Parliament in favour of removing the disabilities of
the Jews.

On the 31st January he attended a meeting of the deputies of the
Synagogues at the house of Moses Mocatta; there were twelve present,
besides Mr I. L. Goldsmid and Mr Thomas M. Pearce. They read the
opinions of Dr Lushington and Mr Humphries on the present state of the
civil disabilities of the Jews. It was resolved to petition Parliament
for the removal of the said disabilities, and to request Messrs N. M.
Rothschild, I. L. Goldsmid, and Moses Montefiore to see the Duke of
Wellington on the subject.

The following day Mr Montefiore received a note from Mr I. L.
Goldsmid, requesting that he would endeavour to see Mr N. M.
Rothschild, and persuade him to go that day at twelve to the Duke of
Wellington.

Accordingly he went out in his carriage with the intention of
proceeding to Stamford Hill.

Mr Montefiore here introduces a little incident which may perhaps
please some of my readers, and I give it in his own words--

"On reaching Newington, I met N. M. Rothschild in his carriage. Lionel
and Anthony were with him; the two latter got into my chariot, and I
drove with the former to Prince Esterhazy, whither he was proceeding
with the intention of conferring with him on the subject of
emancipation in Austria.

"On our arrival I remained for some time with Anthony in the prince's
dining-room. An elderly gentleman, who had the appearance of a
Catholic priest, was taking his lunch there. When he had finished his
repast, he moved to one of the windows, and kneeling down, continued
in that position for about ten minutes, apparently deeply engaged in
his devotions. He then rose, and bowing to us, left the room." "I
fear," observes Mr Montefiore, "that some of my brethren would have
hesitated to have even put their hats on to say the blessing after
their meal, instead of acting as this good man did."



CHAPTER X.

1830 1831.

INTERVIEW WITH THE DUKE OF WELLINGTON IN FURTHERANCE OF THE JEWISH
CAUSE--THE DUKE'S DILATORY TACTICS--LAYING THE FOUNDATION-STONE OF THE
SYNAGOGUE AT HERESON.


Resuming the thread of our narrative, we find that Mr N. M. Rothschild
promised to see the Duke of Wellington. On the 7th of February this
interview with the Duke took place. Mr N. M. Rothschild, having
addressed him on financial subjects connected with the affairs of
Government, said to him, "God has given your grace power to do good--I
would entreat you to do something for the Jews," to which the Duke
replied, that God bestowed benefits moderately, but that he would read
over the petition that day, and Mr N. M. Rothschild might call any
morning for his answer. Mr Rothschild then began to speak of Prince
Polignac, the minister of Charles X. (who, a few months later, had to
fly from the country with all the other members of the ministry, in
consequence of the conflicts in Paris between the populace and the
army), but the Duke instantly stopped him, saying he did not wish to
know anything of foreign politics.

"The next day," writes Mr Montefiore, "Charles Grant declined to
present the petition in favour of the Jews, and Mr N. M. Rothschild
thought it would be better to defer calling on the Duke for his
answer, as, he was much plagued by the unsettled state of parties in
the House of Commons. This determination, however," observes Mr
Montefiore, "is greatly against the wishes of I. L. Goldsmid and those
whom he has consulted on the subject."

_February 12th._--Mr Montefiore went with Messrs N. M. Rothschild, I.
L. Goldsmid, and Lionel Rothschild to the Duke, who told them that he
would not commit the Government on the question of the Jews, and
advised them to defer their application to Parliament, or, if they did
not, he said, it must be at their own risk, and he would make no
promise. Mr Montefiore thought the answer on the whole favourable,
that is, that the Duke had no determined prejudice against the removal
of the civil disabilities of the Jews, but would, nevertheless, take
no active steps in their favour. Should the Commons suffer it to pass
quietly, Mr Montefiore had no doubt the Duke would take no part
against them.

The 19th of the same month Mr Montefiore says: "Robert Grant gave
notice last night in the House of Commons that he would on Monday next
present a petition in favour of the Jews." It was accordingly
presented on February 22nd. It was tolerably well received, W. Ward
and D. O'Connell speaking in its favour, Sir R. Inglis against it.

A few months later Mr Grant desired to be informed whether the Jews
insisted on obtaining the privilege of sitting in Parliament, and if
they would refuse all other privileges if this was not obtained. It
was Mr Montefiore's opinion that they should take what they could get.

_April 14th._--Mr N. M. Rothschild and his son Lionel came to report
that they had seen Mr Herries, who informed them that the Government
had determined to consult Dr Lushington and R. Grant on the following
morning. I. L. Goldsmid, they said, had declared he should prefer
losing all, than to give up Parliament. "I," observed Mr Montefiore in
return, "decidedly differ with him; we should accept all we can get."

Two days later he writes: "I returned from the House of Commons
delighted with the speeches of Robert Grant, Mr Macaulay, Sir James
Mackintosh, Lord Morpeth, and Mr W. Smith, in our favour. Sir Robert
Inglis, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, and the Solicitor-General
(Sugden) were against us. The numbers were--For, 115; against,
97,--majority, 18. We called to congratulate N. M. Rothschild and
Hannah on the result of last night's debate."

On the 21st, at a dinner given by Mr I. L. Goldsmid, he met Lord
Holland, Sir Robert Wilson, A. J. Robarts, ---- Tooke, John Abel
Smith, Macaulay, Easthope, Robinson (the member for Worcester), Dr
Lushington, and Lord Nugent, all of them most friendly to the cause.

On a previous occasion, at a meeting held at the house of Mr Moses
Mocatta, Mr Montefiore, I. L. Goldsmid, D. Brandon, J. M. Pearce, and
others being present, it was resolved to advertise that petitions to
both Houses in favour of the Jews were lying for signature at several
places as named.

For his own community, the Spanish and Portuguese, and for the German
Jewish congregation, he worked with equal zeal. On the 14th we find
him, together with several other members of a Committee appointed for
that purpose, visiting the houses of all the Jewish poor. "We were,"
he says, "from soon after 10 in the morning till 5 P.M. about
Petticoat Lane and the alleys, courts, &c. We there visited the rooms
of about 112 persons. To 108 we gave cards to obtain relief from the
General Committee on Thursday. We witnessed many very distressing
scenes: parents surrounded by children, frequently six or seven,
seldom less than two or three, with little or no fire or food, and
scarcely a rag to cover them; without bed or blanket, but merely a
sack or rug for the night, a bed being almost out of the question. Few
had more than one room, however large the family. The rent was from
1s. 6d. to 3s. per week. Of those who had two rooms, the upper one was
most miserable, scarcely an article of furniture. In fact, the
distress and suffering appeared so great, that although we had agreed,
according to a resolution of the General Committee, only to give
cards, we could not refrain from giving what money we had in our
pockets. We only met with six or eight cases of sickness, which is
really surprising, considering their destitute condition."

He attends a meeting of the Elders, where he strongly supports a
resolution for the delivery of a moral discourse every alternate
Saturday afternoon in the Synagogue; he is also present at a meeting
of the Society for the cultivation of the Hebrew language and its
literature, where he offers encouragement to those who excel in
literary work.

Mr Montefiore seeks the society of learned and distinguished men of
all classes, and is elected on the 3rd of July a member of the
"Athenæum."

In the month of July he sets out, in company with his wife, on a tour
through France, Holland, Belgium, and Germany.

In September we find them again in England, and Mr Montefiore is
presented by the Duke of Norfolk to the King at the levee, "on his
return from the Continent."

It was in this year that Mr and Mrs Montefiore first visited East
Cliff Lodge, which was about to be sold by auction. They felt a great
desire to purchase it, although much out of repair. After discussing
with his wife the probable price it would fetch, he said, "If, please
God, I should be the purchaser, it is my intention to go but seldom to
London, and after two or three years to reside entirely at Ramsgate. I
would build a small but handsome Synagogue, and engage a good and
clever man as reader." Leaving the limit of his offer with an agent in
Broadstairs, Mr and Mrs Montefiore left Ramsgate and proceeded on a
journey to the Continent.

Whilst in Berlin they received information that the estate had been
bought by the Duchess of St Albans. "It fetched so much more," he
says, "than I had anticipated, that I can only regret it was thought
so valuable." He, however, soon recovered from his disappointment, and
took a suite of rooms for business purposes in the new house of the
Alliance Marine Assurance.

Politics again caused considerable uneasiness in the financial world.
Dr Hume informed Mr Montefiore that the Duke of Wellington and all the
ministers had resigned, and that the Duke would communicate the fact
to the Lords on that day at four o'clock, the King having accepted
their resignation. Mr Montefiore, notwithstanding, did not for a
moment cease in his exertions on behalf of the Emancipation, and on
November 18th, he and Mr Mocatta signed the Jews' petition to both
Houses, it being the same petition as that of last year.

Serious disturbances having taken place, he left London, at the
request of his wife, without entering into any speculations, and
proceeded to Hastings, where they remained till the end of December.
We find an entry at the conclusion of his diary for that year, to the
effect that he had resolved to persuade a few of his friends, as well
as two gentlemen well versed in the Law of Moses and Hebrew and
theological literature, to dine with them regularly every week, for
the purpose of conversing on those subjects.

The year 1831 (5591-5592 A.M.) presents the reader with a record of
events equally stirring and important in their career. Political,
financial, or communal matters follow each other rapidly, continually
occupying the thoughts of Mr and Mrs Montefiore, until the day when
they succeeded in becoming the owners of East Cliff Lodge, the much
wished for estate in Ramsgate, after which they devoted for several
months the greater portion of their time to settling and arranging all
matters connected with their new property.

Early in the year is the following entry: "The Irish Bank is under
considerable alarm owing to a letter published by Daniel O'Connell,
threatening, in the event of the press being assailed, to cause a run
on the banks, so that in a week's time there shall not be a single
bank-note in circulation."

This exciting entry is followed by one referring to the Holy Land.
"The Rev. Enoch Sundel of Jerusalem brought letters of introduction to
enable him to proceed to the West Indies and America, in the interests
of the Holy Land; a noble cause, which the Rev. Dr Hirschel, who
accompanied him to Park Lane, strongly advocates."

A little later comes a report that the Duke of Wellington will be
appointed Commander-in-Chief; the French will have war: Prince
Esterhazy said, "France had offered to disarm if the other Powers
would do the same."

Mr Montefiore then turns from the apprehensions of war abroad to enter
into the struggle for emancipation at home.

"Robert Grant, Lord Holland, the Lord Chancellor, and others of the
Administration," he says, "all advise us to put off the 'Jewish Relief
Bill' till next session, the Ministers having so much important
business now on hand. At all events, Robert Grant is desirous of
seeing the same gentlemen who were with him last year on Monday next."
Mr Montefiore then went to Mr Mocatta, who had called a meeting of the
Committee of Deputies for next day, and proceeded with Mr I.L.
Goldsmid, by appointment, to Dr Lushington.

[Illustration: East Cliff Lodge, Ramsgate. _See Vol. I., page 83._]

Dr Lushington advised that the same Bill should be brought forward
again, that the Jews should not accept less than all privileges, and
that no application for an audience should be made to Earl Grey, lest
he should recommend deferring the measure. Mr Montefiore informed Dr
Lushington that he was sure the Deputies, if asked, would gladly
accept anything the Government might offer, however short of the
repeal of all their disabilities. Lord Holland, who was afterwards
consulted by Mr I.L. Goldsmid, concurred in opinion with Dr
Lushington. Mr Montefiore here observes that Mr I.L. Goldsmid was
greatly displeased with the Deputies, saying that he did not care
about the measure, and would establish a new Synagogue with the
assistance of the young men; he would alter the present form of prayer
to that in use in the Synagogue at Hamburg.

Thus it often happens that two parties, both with the best intentions,
will, according to certain impressions made on their minds, differ
more or less in their mode of obtaining an object dear alike to the
hearts of both; and unless some equally zealous, yet impartial, friend
steps in to remove or lessen the cause of their dissension, grave
consequences, to the disadvantage of both, commonly follow.

"Ireland," says Mr Montefiore, "is in a very disturbed state, and the
Continent ripe for war." Under these circumstances he thought he could
not do better than leave London, the seat of financial struggles, and
go to Ramsgate. There he completed the purchase of East Cliff Lodge,
with twenty-four acres of land belonging to the estate, henceforth his
marine residence to the day of his death.

So much interest being centred in this spot, I give many entries made
on the subject. "I met John Cumming; he signed the conveyance of East
Cliff to me. I paid him" (the purchase money and the value of the
furniture), "after he had executed all the deeds. I also paid Messrs
Dawes and Chatfield for the conveyance, &c., £124, 4s. 4d. May the
Almighty bless and preserve my dear Judith and myself to enjoy the
possession of it for many years, that we may also have the happiness
of seeing our intended Synagogue completed, and always have a large
congregation."

They engaged Mr A. D. Mocatta as architect; he submitted drawings for
the Synagogue, which were at once put into the hands of the builders.
The architect estimated the cost for erecting the Synagogue at between
£1500 and £1600, exclusive of the interior, which was to cost £300 or
£400.

The work was commenced, and on the 29th of July the excavations for
the foundation walls were complete. "Please heaven," said Mr
Montefiore to his wife as they walked round the adjoining field,
"to-morrow night, after Sabbath, we shall have the happiness of
placing the two first bricks preparatory to our laying the foundation
stone on the eve of the new moon of Tamooz," 5691 A.M. (9th August
1831).

In accordance with this arrangement, they proceeded to Hereson the
next evening at nine o'clock, accompanied by Mrs Justina Cohen, her
daughter Lucy, and Mr Benjamin Gomperz. On the ground they were met by
Cresford the builder, with his nephew, also Grundy with his son, and
Craven his partner. Everything having been properly prepared, Mr
Montefiore covered the part on which the wall near the Holy Ark for
the reception of the sacred scrolls of the Pentateuch was to be built,
with _Terra Santa_, which they had brought with them from Jerusalem.
Upon this Mr Montefiore, having spread some mortar, fixed four bricks.
Mrs Montefiore, Mrs Cohen, Miss Lucy Cohen, and Mr Gomperz each spread
some _Terra Santa_, and fixed two bricks, praying the Almighty to
prosper the undertaking and bless them.

The following is the account given by Mr Montefiore of the ceremony of
laying the foundation stone.

"_Tuesday, 9th August._--New moon of Tamooz. After reading my prayers
and reciting the Psalms cxiii. and cxviii., I called at seven A.M. on
David Mocatta, the architect, and informed him that we should lay the
first stone at eight o'clock. We walked to Hereson, and with the
blessing of the Almighty, we laid the first stone of a Holy Synagogue,
assisted by our dear and honoured mother, by Abby Gompertz, her
daughter Juliana, Solomon and Sarah Sebag, Rebecca Salomons, Justina
Cohen, and her daughter Lucy, Louis Cohen, Floretta, his wife, and
their son Henry, Nathaniel Lindo, David Mocatta, my dear Judith, and
myself. The builders were also present. After the stone was placed, we
deposited in a hole, made in it for that purpose, a glass bottle
containing the inscription, signed by myself and my dear Judith; a
large stone was then placed above it, they were then firmly riveted
together with iron bolts and boiling lead. Louis Cohen, Solomon Sebag,
Rebecca, and I went afterwards into the cottage, and read the Psalms
known by the Hebrew name of Hallel (special praise). They all
breakfasted with us at the Albion Hotel, where we were joined by
Adelaide Israel, whose delicate state of health would not permit her
to witness the ceremony."

Mr Montefiore gives the following: "This day, 20th August, five and
twenty years ago, in 1806, J. E. D. robbed me of all I possessed in
the world, and left me deeply in debt; but it pleased the Almighty in
His great mercy to enable me in the course of a few years to pay
everyone who had been a sufferer through me to the full extent of
their loss."



CHAPTER XI.

1831-1833.

LORD BROUGHAM AND THE JEWS--THE JEWISH POOR IN LONDON--MR MONTEFIORE
HANDS HIS BROKER'S MEDAL TO HIS BROTHER--DEDICATION OF THE SYNAGOGUE
AT HERESON--THE LORDS REJECT THE JEWISH DISABILITIES BILL.


On his return to London he called on Mr Wood at the Earl Marshal's
office, and paid him £32, 17s. 6d., the fees on the grant for having
the word Jerusalem in Hebrew characters in his crest.

In October 1831 his friends brought him the account of the Reform Bill
having been thrown out at its second reading by the Lords--majority,
41. Mr Montefiore, on hearing that Lord-Chancellor Brougham had spoken
in a very illiberal spirit of the Jews, observed, "So much for Whig
friends." Still he did not despair, and entertained the belief that
their just cause would ultimately meet with better success.

A month later he attended an important meeting of the Board of
Representatives of the Spanish and Portuguese Community, established
to watch over the general sanitary condition of the poor of the
congregation. He generously contributed to the funds to enable the
Board to purchase warm clothing, blankets, &c., for the poor.

In the same year he completed the purchase, and took possession of, a
cottage and garden near the site on which his Synagogue was being
erected.

The Rev. Dr Hirschel having submitted for his approval a number of
circular letters addressed to the Hebrew communities in America,
wherein he reminds them of their duty to support their indigent
brethren in the Holy Land, Mr Montefiore affixes his name to each
letter as requested by the Chief Rabbi, in token of his appreciation
of the good cause.

Among the entries referring again to financial matters is the
following interesting record:--

"On the 31st of January 1815 I was admitted a sworn broker of the city
of London. This day, 16th May 1831, I signed over my medal to my
brother Horatio, free; it cost me £1625. May heaven prosper his
endeavours with it."

On the 25th of the same month he gave £100 to be handed to the Lord
Mayor for the transfer of the said medal.

Happily in our days it is less difficult for a Jew to become a sworn
broker. A gentle breeze of justice for all human beings alike has
begun to disperse the dark clouds of prejudice and oppression, and the
more the light of wisdom and truth illumines the world, the greater
will be the happiness and loyalty of those who have hitherto been
deprived of the rights of ordinary citizens.

On Wednesday evening, the 27th of June 1832 (5592-3 A.M.),
corresponding this year to the Hebrew date of the anniversary of their
wedding day, they took possession of East Cliff Lodge, Mr Montefiore
having, in accordance with an injunction of the Sacred Scriptures
(Deuteronomy vi. 9), previously affixed mezuzas (phylacteries) to all
the doors.

Mr and Mrs Montefiore had intended to have an inscription placed over
the entrance to the Synagogue. It appears, however, that the idea was
finally abandoned, though there is a square moulding over the door,
and a parallelogram on the northern wall of the Synagogue purposely
made for it. I once asked him the reason of this omission, and from
his reply I gathered that he did not wish the building to unduly
attract the attention of strangers. The modest appearance of the
Synagogue as it now stands, having neither steeple nor turret, windows
in the walls nor arches over the door, evidently confirms this idea.

Mr H. Lehren, of Amsterdam, a gentleman well known for the interest he
took in promoting the welfare of the inhabitants of Jerusalem, had
appealed to him this year for his intercession in a lawsuit which
brought him to England, and Mr Montefiore gladly helped him by his
personal exertions to accomplish his object. Mr Lehren, thus
encouraged, asked of Mr Montefiore yet another favour, which was to
permit his name to be enlisted in the ranks of the "Friends of Zion."
Mr Montefiore, in answer, assured Mr Lehren that his heart had ever
been filled with a love for Jerusalem, and that he had been a staunch
supporter of a resolution, recently adopted at a Committee consisting
of members of his congregation, to the effect that £60 should be sent
annually to the Holy Land as a contribution to the fund intended for
the support of the poor. Mr Lehren expressed great satisfaction at
what he had heard, and enquired in what proportion the above amount
would be distributed among the four Holy Cities. Mr Montefiore
informed him that the Committee had divided the sum into thirty
shares, of which they gave twelve to Jerusalem, seven to Safed, six to
Hebron, and five to Tiberias.

To complete the number of Sacred Scrolls which Mr Montefiore wished to
deposit in his Synagogue, he made a purchase of one particularly
recommended to him, and also procured prayer-books for the members of
the congregation.

In this year, 1833, Mr and Mrs Montefiore had the happiness of seeing
their heartfelt wish realised in the completion of the Synagogue at
Hereson.

Invitations were sent out on the 23rd of May to the ecclesiastical
chiefs of both the Spanish and Portuguese and the German
congregations; to the readers, wardens, and other officers of the
Synagogue; to presidents and representatives of all important
institutions, and to more than two hundred private friends and
acquaintances, requesting the honour of their company at the
dedication of the Synagogue at Ramsgate on Sunday, the 16th of June,
at 5 o'clock, and at dinner after the ceremony at East Cliff Lodge.
Bands of music and first-class singers were engaged, 4000 lamps for
the illumination of the gardens were ordered, fireworks and balloons
tastefully prepared, and a large temporary room erected, occupying the
whole quadrangle of the court at East Cliff Lodge. Handsome
chandeliers and large tablets beautifully inscribed with the prayer
for the Royal Family were ordered for the Synagogue.

[Illustration: View of Interior of Ramsgate Synagogue, taken from the
Ladies' Gallery. _See Vol. I., page 89._]

The morning of the 16th was ushered in by a deluge of rain and a heavy
gale of wind, much to the mortification of the visitors. Mr Montefiore
and his brother Horatio, who had brought a silver cup and spice-box as
a present for the Synagogue, went together to Ramsgate, and engaged
all the sedan chairs in the town to take the ladies from the public
road to the Synagogue, and ordered several loads of sand to cover
the walk. About two o'clock the Rev. Dr Hirschel arrived. The rain was
actually falling in torrents at the moment, but he consoled Mr and Mrs
Montefiore, saying, "All things must not go as we wish, since the
destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem." He had, however, scarcely
been in the house ten minutes when the clouds dispersed and the sun
appeared. At ten o'clock, when they had a rehearsal in the Synagogue,
all were much out of spirits at the deplorable appearance of the
weather; but by three the rain had ceased, and the evening proved
delightful.

The dedication commenced at six o'clock. The founder and his friends
brought the Sacred Scrolls of the Law to the door of the Synagogue,
where, standing, they chanted: "Open unto us the gates of
righteousness, we will enter them and praise the Lord." "This is the
gate of the Lord, the righteous shall enter therein." The doors being
then opened, they said on entering: "How goodly are thy tents, O
Jacob! thy tabernacle, O Israel! O Lord, I have ever loved the
habitation of Thy house and the dwelling-place of Thy glory. We will
come unto Thy Tabernacle and worship at Thy footstool." They then
advanced, and the readers and choristers sang, "Blessed be he who
cometh in the name of the Lord: we will bless ye from the House of the
Lord," and other verses from the Sacred Scriptures bearing on the same
subject.

The procession then went round the almember in the Synagogue seven
times, during each circuit one of the seven Psalms--xclxi., xxx.,
xxiv., lxxxiv., cxxii., cxxx., c.--being chanted, after which Mr
Montefiore ascended the pulpit and offered up a Hebrew prayer, of
which the following is a translation:--

"Almighty God! whose eyes are upon all the ways of the sons of men,
and by whose will their paths are established; wherewith shall I come
before Thee, how shall I acknowledge the kindness Thou hast shown me
from my youth? How great the goodness Thou hast vouchsafed unto me, in
granting the fulfilment of the ardent desire Thou didst awaken in my
heart and in that of the companion of my life, to visit the
inheritance of our forefathers, to traverse the sea and behold the
Holy Land, a land which is under Thy special providence. Thou hast
protected us on our departure and aided our return: our steps failed
not, we have passed through the Land, our feet have stood within thy
gates, O Jerusalem! From the sight of our own eyes are we conscious of
the refulgent light that once shone brightly on our country, and which
yet faintly glimmers, though she has become desolate. Thou hast
inspired us with a contrite spirit to perceive and declare Thy
Almighty power over all the inhabitants of the world, therefore has
Thy servant found in his heart to offer this public thanksgiving for
Thy past bounties, and earnestly to implore Thy future protection in
this humble sanctuary. Out of Thine own gifts I dedicated it to Thee
as a freewill offering and a lasting testimony to show forth Thy
loving-kindness in the morning and Thy faithfulness every night. O
Lord God of Israel! incline Thine ear to the prayer of Thy servant.
Bless, I beseech Thee, my revered and honoured mother, grant her
length of days in the fulness of joy, and happiness with me, my
beloved wife, my brothers and sisters, and with all their descendants,
even unto the third and fourth generation. Strengthen our hearts to
observe Thy precepts at all times. Truly nothing has failed of that of
which Thou hast forewarned us through Moses Thy servant, for we have
broken Thy covenant and not observed Thy Commandments; so are we
surely convinced that we shall receive from Thee the promised good,
and our days will be renewed as of old; Thou wilt fulfil Thy words
unto Ezekiel Thy prophet, that 'The nations shall know that I the Lord
rebuild the ruined places and plant that which was desolate; I the
Lord have spoken it; I will do it.' Let our prayer and supplication,
which we offer towards Thy chosen city, ascend to heaven, Thy
dwelling-place. Gather together our dispersed in our days and in the
lifetime of the whole House of Israel, that all nations, even from the
ends of the earth, shall approach Thee, to call, all of them, on the
name of the Lord, and the Lord shall be King over all the earth. Then
the Lord alone shall be acknowledged, and His name be one. Amen."

Mr Montefiore, having concluded the prayer, descended from the pulpit,
and the congregation chanted several Hebrew hymns. The prayer for the
Royal Family was then said, and the service concluded with Psalm cl.

"At eight o'clock," writes Mr Montefiore, "the dedication finished,
all delighted with the ceremony as well as with the music. May
Heaven's blessing attend it."

At nine about eighty-two sat down to dinner. The gardens were
beautifully illuminated, and during dessert a band played in the tent.

The next morning Mr Montefiore accompanied Dr Herschel to the
Synagogue, followed by all their friends and visitors. After prayers
they returned to East Cliff Lodge, where the time was spent in
receiving the congratulations of their friends. The day was brought to
a close by a most agreeable entertainment, a description of which I
give in his own words.

"Soon after nine in the evening our company began to assemble,
consisting of all our neighbours as well as our own party. The wind
had been exceedingly high, almost too much for the lamps to keep
alight. Providence kindly allayed it, and the night was beautifully
calm. Our garden was splendidly illuminated; we had a band of
twenty-four performers on the lawn and another in the dining-room. All
our rooms were filled, many visitors strolling about the grounds to
witness the illumination. Before eleven the fireworks were displayed,
and exceeded our most sanguine expectations; the company was
delighted. This over, the tent-room was opened for supper; it made a
splendid appearance. All seemed happy and gratified; dancing was kept
up till about two o'clock. The gardens looked magnificent, nothing
could have added to the grandeur of the scene. I glory in the
occasion, and that the Almighty has most bountifully provided us with
the means. To my dear and much-valued wife I am indebted for the
success of the entertainment. We can never forget the two last days."

The next day his mother and the greater number of relatives and
friends left Ramsgate, and in the month of July we find Mr and Mrs
Montefiore again in London, Mr Montefiore following his usual
vocations, though only for a short time; for on the 13th of the same
month there is an entry in his diary dated East Cliff, which gives
striking evidence of the love and veneration he felt for the sacred
edifice he had raised to the honour and glory of God.

"We had the happiness," he writes, "of attending our Synagogue
morning, afternoon, and evening. Thanks to Heaven for a very happy
day. Our Synagogue looked like Paradise. I pointed out to my dear
Judith the spot, not more than ten or fifteen steps from the
Synagogue, in which I should like my mortal remains to rest when it
shall please the Almighty to take my soul to Eternal Glory, should I
depart this world at or near East Cliff." His wife consented. Their
love was great, and they did not wish even in death to be parted.

Mr Montefiore's attention having now been drawn to the urgency of
continued exertions in the furtherance of the Emancipation Bill, he
requested Mr G. R. Dawson to intercede with his brother-in-law, Sir
Robert Peel, to withdraw his opposition to the Bill, and also took
other steps in the interest of the cause.

A Bill was again brought before the Committee of the whole House of
Commons, "That it is expedient to remove all civil disabilities
affecting Her Majesty's subjects of the Jewish religion with the like
exceptions as are provided by the Catholic Emancipation Act of 1829,
with reference to Her Majesty's subjects professing the Roman Catholic
religion."

The second reading was carried by a majority of 137; it was also read
a third time, but in the Upper House, where the Duke of Sussex
presented a petition signed by 7000 inhabitants of Westminster in
favour of the Jews, the Bill was thrown out by a majority of 50.

Mr Montefiore continued to take the greatest interest in all important
meetings of various committees, especially in those of his own
community. Referring to one of the latter charged with the appointment
of a lecturer, Mr Montefiore says: "The committee recommended a salary
of £35 a year, but afterwards reduced it to £30. The resolution,
however, was amended, and only £20 was granted." The particulars of
this salary are interesting when compared with a salary to which a
competent lecturer of the present day may consider himself fully
entitled. It sounds strange to hear of fixing the salary for the
services of a gentleman who has completed a University education,
combined with special studies of theology, much lower than that which
is generally offered to an upper servant in a gentleman's house. It
can only be explained by the supposition that the candidate may have
been simultaneously filling another and more lucrative office, which
did not interfere with his duties as lecturer.



CHAPTER XII.

1834-1835.

ILLNESS OF MR MONTEFIORE--HIS RECOVERY--SIR DAVID SALOMONS PROPOSED AS
SHERIFF--VISIT OF THE DUCHESS OF KENT AND PRINCESS VICTORIA TO
RAMSGATE--MR MONTEFIORE'S HOSPITALS--NAMING OF THE VESSEL _BRITANNIA_
BY MRS MONTEFIORE--A LOAN OF FIFTEEN MILLIONS.


In the year 1834 much anxiety was felt for Mr Montefiore by his
friends in consequence of a severe illness by which he was attacked.
For several months he was under the treatment of eminent surgeons, and
on his recovery his strength was so low, that a journey to the South
of France was deemed necessary.

He accordingly left England, accompanied by his devoted wife, who had
during his whole illness tended him with loving care. Mr Ashton Rey,
one of his medical advisers, in a letter he once wrote to Mr
Montefiore, observed that Mrs Montefiore was one of the best wives he
had ever seen, never moving from her husband's bedside day or night
except to snatch a few hours' necessary repose.

They remained abroad till August, the change of air having had the
desired effect upon him, and on his arrival at East Cliff he was again
in the enjoyment of his usual health.

They were both much disappointed on their return to hear the result of
the Jewish Disabilities Bill, which, after having been passed in the
Lower House, had been sent to the Upper House, where it was lost by
130 votes against 38. But still they did not lose courage, and hoped
for the ultimate victory of the good cause.

There is only one entry after this referring to political matters. It
is to the effect that Mr N. M. Rothschild had been with the Duke of
Wellington and advised him to form a Liberal Government, and to
consent to some reforms; saying to His Grace that he must go with the
world, for the world would not go with him.

On the last page of the diary he writes: "This night (31st December)
brings me to the end of my book as well as to that of the year 1834.
When I reflect on the situation I was in during a long period of this
year, languishing on a bed of sickness, in severe pain and affliction,
on the eve of undergoing a dangerous operation, how can I be
sufficiently thankful to the Almighty for manifold blessings I now
enjoy, saved by His great mercy from the grave."

Praying for a continuation of former mercies, he concludes with a copy
of the 85th Psalm.

The year 1835 will ever be noted in the history of civilisation as one
in which the dawning light of liberty began to inspire comfort in the
hearts of the unwearied strugglers for equal rights for the Jews.

On May the 7th Mr Montefiore writes: "I called at Downing Street on
the Right Hon. Spring-Rice, Chancellor of the Exchequer. I was
immediately admitted, and received by him in the most friendly manner.
I thanked him for having at my request appointed Jacob Montefiore one
of Her Majesty's Commissioners for the Colonisation of South
Australia. The Chancellor spoke of the many new schemes now afloat of
companies with small capital, and said he would always be glad to see
me."

A month later he went to the Guildhall, and heard David Salomons
proposed to the Livery as one of the Sheriffs for London and
Middlesex. Sir John Campbell having introduced a measure, the Sheriffs
Declaration Bill, which by the repeal of the Test and Corporation Act
in 1828 enabled a Jew to enter into the office without violating his
own religious convictions, Mr David Salomons was elected without
opposition and "made a very good speech," Mr Montefiore observes, "in
returning thanks."

The arrival in Ramsgate of the Duchess of Kent and Princess Victoria
(Her present Majesty) is described by Mr Montefiore as follows:--

"This (September 29th) is a very busy day. At ten I was at the Town
Hall; at 11 the committee and many of the inhabitants, both on horse
and on foot, went to the extremity of the parish to receive their
Royal Highnesses the Duchess of Kent and Princess Victoria. The
Deputy of the Town and myself headed the procession; we walked by the
side of the Royal carriage bareheaded all the way to Albion House.
Thousands of people were in the streets, the houses all gaily
ornamented with flags and boughs of trees. The Duchess, on entering
the house, sent Sir George Conroy to request that the gentlemen of the
committee would come in to receive her thanks for their attention. I
went in among the number, and was introduced. She expressed herself
delighted; the Princess was also much pleased. They had appointed
to-morrow at eleven o'clock to receive the address. About four I again
joined the committee at the head of the pier. Sir William Curtis was
most polite. The Belgian Ambassador, with whom I had dined at N. M.
Rothschild's, was also there, and introduced me to Sir John Conroy.
Soon after five one of the King's steamers entered the harbour with
the King and Queen of the Belgians. Several members of the committee
went on board to welcome them on their arrival, I among the number.
They had had a very rough passage from Calais. The King appeared
greatly altered, looking very old, the Queen is young and pleasant
looking. They proceeded on foot to the Albion Hotel. The town was
handsomely decorated and the principal streets illuminated, but the
wind was so high as to put out most of the lamps."

The next morning at half-past ten Mr Montefiore went to the Town Hall,
and accompanied Sir William Curtis, Mr Warren, Mr Tomson (the Deputy),
Colonel Clarke, and about a dozen more to Albion House, to present to
the Duchess of Kent and Princess Victoria the address from the
inhabitants and visitors of Ramsgate and its vicinity. They were all
introduced, and were most kindly received by the Royal party. The
Duchess honoured the committee with a gracious reply, which she read.

The committee then returned to the Town Hall, and prepared an address
to the King and Queen of the Belgians, and at one o'clock walked to
the Albion Hotel. They were introduced and very graciously received,
the King speaking to Mr Montefiore and several other members of the
committee. The King read a reply to the Address, and after a few
minutes the Committee withdrew, much gratified with their reception.

Subsequently Mr and Mrs Montefiore attended a ball given by the Master
of the Ceremonies at the Albion Hotel, where they met many
acquaintances. Sir John Conroy was particularly polite to them. Mr
Montefiore offered him the use of the key of his grounds for the
Duchess, which he accepted with pleasure. Accordingly both Mr and Mrs
Montefiore called the next day on the Duchess, and left a key there
for the use of Her Royal Highness, Sir John Conroy and his family.

On Wednesday, October 21st. the Duchess, accompanied by one of her
ladies of honour, and attended by a footman, made use of the key, and
walked through their grounds.

Sir John Conroy, meeting Mr Montefiore next day at Burgess' Library,
said that the Duchess regretted that his gardener had suddenly
disappeared yesterday, which had prevented her sending to inform Mrs
Montefiore that she was in the grounds as she had wished to have done.

Her Royal Highness having repeated her visits to his grounds, Mr
Montefiore ordered an opening to be made in the field on the side next
to Broadstairs for the convenience of the Duchess. In recognition of
this attention he received the following note from Sir John Conroy:--

  "Sir John Conroy presents his compliments, and in
  obedience to a command he has just received from the
  Duchess of Kent, hastens to acquaint Mr Montefiore that
  Her Royal Highness is exceedingly gratified and obliged
  by his attention in making a new access to his charming
  grounds from Broadstairs for her convenience, but Her
  Royal Highness fears she has given a great deal of
  trouble.

  "Ramsgate, _24th October 1835_.

There were several incidents which afforded them much gratification
this year.

Mrs Montefiore was invited to name a new steamer. "This morning,"
writes Mr Montefiore on July 9, "we embarked from the Custom House
stairs on board the _Harlequin_, to witness the launch of a new
steamship built by Fletcher & Fearnaly. On reaching the dockyard near
Limehouse, Mr Woolverly Attwood and Judith went on shore; I followed
with Horatio at half-past one. My dear wife named the ship by throwing
a bottle of wine against the side of the vessel at the moment she left
the stocks and plunged into the water. 'May every success,' she said,
'attend the _Britannia_.' We then went on board the _Royal Sovereign_.
There was a large party; about a hundred sat down to dinner. Several
members of Parliament with their ladies were present, G. R. Dawson,
Medley, T. M. Pearce, Pepys, and Col. Lawrence. Many speeches, all
drinking my dear wife's health."

Another entry refers to his having been admitted to the freedom of the
Merchant Taylors Company. Mr Montefiore received a letter from Mr
Matthias Attwood, informing him that he had proposed his name at the
Court of the above Company for admission to the freedom and livery of
the same. The proposition, said Mr Attwood, was carried unanimously,
many of the members expressing the high respect they entertained for
Mr Montefiore's personal character.

On the 4th of November he was accordingly admitted and sworn a freeman
of the said Company. "Matthias Attwood," says Mr Montefiore, "has
acted with the greatest kindness in procuring me this honour, I being
the first Jew admitted to their Company. At the next meeting of the
Court I am to be made one of the livery."

A printed slip of a newspaper is affixed to one of the leaves of the
diary, referring to a loan raised under the authority of the Act 3 and
4 of William IV., cap. 73, for the compensation to owners of slaves;
it reads as follows:--

"The parties to the contract for the £15,000,000 loan are N. M.
Rothschild and Moses Montefiore on the one part, and Lord Melbourne,
Mr F. Spring-Rice, Lord Seymour, and Messrs W. H. Old, R. Steward, and
R. More, on the other; witnesses, Messrs James Pattison, Governor, and
T. A. Curtis, Deputy-Governor of the Bank of England."

There is another slip attached to it, showing the interest on this
loan to have been lower than several preceding ones.

The interest on the loan of 1812 was £3, 5s. 7d., and of 1813, £5,
10s.

Second loan of 1813, £5, 6s. 2d.; 1814, £4, 12s. 1d.; 1815, £5, 12s.
4d.; 1819, £4, 5s. 9d.; 1820, £4, 3s. 3d.; and on the present loan,
£3, 7s. 6d.

The particulars of that loan are given in the _Money Market and City
Intelligence_, dated Monday evening, 3rd August 1835:

"The bidding for the West Indian loan took place this morning. Mr
Rothschild and his friends waited upon Lord Melbourne and the
Chancellor at ten o'clock. Mr Rothschild's tender, the only one
prepared, the other lists having been withdrawn, was then opened, when
that gentleman's bidding was found to be 14s. 11d. in long annuities.
The offer having been declined, the sealed minimum of ministers, as
previously arranged, was opened, and it appeared they were not willing
to give more than 13s. 7d. of annuities in addition to £75 consols and
£25 redeemed 3 per cents, for every £100 in money subscribed. It was
for Mr Rothschild, therefore, either to agree to those terms or to
abandon the contract. That gentleman and his friends retired for a
short time to consult on the subject, and finally agreed to accept
them. An important concession was, however, obtained in regard to the
discount for paying up the instalments, which is to be at the rate of
4 per cent. on the payment, as in all former contracts for loans, and
gives a bonus of £1, 19s. 10d. in favour of the contractors. The
subscribers to the loan have now an inducement which did not exist
under the arrangement at first proposed, for completing the
instalments and turning their omnium into stock. Though it is an
advantage, therefore, to them, it is considered somewhat against the
present price of consols, as a large supply may at any time be thrown
upon the market. The Chancellor of the Exchequer assured the gentlemen
who attended the bidding, that all means would be taken on his part to
bring back into circulation the money that might come into his hands
beyond the amount called for to meet the West Indian claims. On the
subject of debentures (they are not named in the contract specially)
against which, as a security not yet created, there were many
objections, it is agreed that they shall be at all times made
receivable to the instalments of the loan. When the terms were first
made known, the scrip bore a premium of 2-3/4 to 3 per cent., but they
produced a decline in consols, which went back to 89, a fall of nearly
1 per cent. at the highest price of the morning. A large amount of
business was done both in the stock and in the scrip; the fluctuations
in them were not, however, very considerable afterwards. The following
are the concluding quotations:--

"Consols for the account, 89-3/4 to ----; omnium 2-3/4, 3 premium;
Exchequer bills, 18s. to 20s. premium."

On the same day he makes the following entry in his journal: "I
accompanied N. M. R. Pattison and J. A. Curtis to the City; called at
the Alliance, Irish Bank, &c.; at six we dined, and took our fast,
&c., this being the anniversary of the destruction of the Temple in
Jerusalem."

Few financiers, perhaps would feel inclined, after all the excitement
incidental to the successful contracting of a loan for £15,000,000, to
comply with so exacting a religious observance as a fast of
twenty-four hours duration. With a mind pre-occupied with business
details, the rise and fall of the public funds, and other matters,
such an observance must be more than ordinarily trying. Nevertheless
Mr Montefiore would not, on this occasion any more than any other,
allow worldly interests to prevail over religious duties.

The loan for the abolition of slavery reminded him of the words of the
Prophet Isaiah (ch. lii., v. 3) to Israel: "Ye have sold yourselves
for nought, and ye shall be redeemed without money," and attuned his
mind to reflection on the former glory of Zion and its present state
of sorrow.

On the 2nd of November we find a record of his having paid £400 to the
Blue Coat School to constitute him one of the governors. The manner in
which he was led to take this step is noteworthy. A young man who was
a complete stranger to them, wrote and implored Mr and Mrs Montefiore
to take his wife and child under their protection. He acknowledged
that, as a stranger and one professing a different religion, he had no
claim whatever to make such a request, but he had heard so much of
their kind-heartedness that he felt sure they would not refuse to
accede to the dying prayer of one who was driven by unmerited
misfortunes to despair and suicide. Sir Moses enquired into the case,
and finding that the poor man had really deserved a better fate, he
assisted the widow in her distressing position, and bought the
governorship, as recorded, for the express purpose of being able to
provide for the boy.

There is another entry of his having attended a meeting of the
Committee of the Cock Court Alm's Houses, which he had erected and
presented to the Spanish and Portuguese community. His object in
attending was to remind the Elders to rebuild some of the houses on
one side of the court, at an expense not exceeding £900, the funds in
hand being £1400.

Turning to politics, he mentions a dinner party at Sir Robert
Campbell's, where Mr and Mrs Montefiore met the Duke and Duchess of
Cleveland, Lord and Lady Darlington, Lady Augusta Powlett, Colonel
Lushington, and other friends of emancipation.

The reader having seen Mr and Mrs Montefiore in the circle of royalty
and high nobility, I will ask him to accompany me into the circle of
their own family and friends.

On November 27th I was invited to a dinner party given by one of his
relatives in London, the late Mr Louis Cohen. It was here that I met
Mr and Mrs Montefiore for the first time. During the course of the
evening I had many opportunities of conversing with them, and before
parting, they invited me to spend a week with them at East Cliff
Lodge, Ramsgate.

A few days later I was informed that a place had been taken for me to
Ramsgate, at the Spread Eagle, Gracechurch Street, in the name of Mr
Montefiore.

There is a special entry of this little journey, which I copy.

_Thursday, 3rd December 1835._--"Walked with Judith to Gracechurch
Street. We met Louis and Florette (the late Mr Louis Cohen, of 5 South
Street, Finsbury, their nephew, and his wife) and Dr Loewe. We all
went with the Tally-Ho at three o'clock; they having the whole inside,
and I riding outside on the box seat. We took tea at Sittingbourne,
and proceeded from Canterbury about ten o'clock by the night stage
coach with post horses to East Cliff.

"I found it extremely cold; it was near one when we arrived at East
Cliff, thanks to Heaven, in safety, and found all well. Our library
looked delightfully comfortable, with a good fire and lamps. I was
almost perishing with cold. We took tea, &c., and when our visitors
retired to their chambers it was near two o'clock."

The inconvenient mode of travelling at that time did not prevent his
making such journeys whenever required, and however much he may have
suffered by taking his seat outside the coach (which he evidently
always did from politeness to his visitors), his comfortable home soon
made him forget the unpleasantness of a long cold ride.

During my stay in East Cliff, the time of the party was generally
devoted either to little excursions in the neighbourhood, or to
conversations on literary subjects. Sometimes Mr and Mrs Montefiore
entertained us by giving their reminiscences of travels in Italy,
France, and Egypt.

There was a kind of charm which the visitor felt in their company; a
very short time after his arrival a delightful sensation of comfort
overcame him, and soon made him feel at home. The amiability of both
the hostess and host made the days pass agreeably and rapidly, and
they were always loth to retire when the midnight hour was announced.

Mrs Montefiore showed us all the curiosities she brought with her from
Egypt, and told us how much she had been entertained in that country
by the number of languages spoken around her. There was an amusing
incident that day, which particularly induced her to speak on the
study of languages. Mr Montefiore had laid a wager with her to the
effect that if, at a stated time, she would be able to pass an
examination by him in Italian grammar, he would give her a cheque for
£100. She was fortunate enough to acquit herself most creditably in
our presence, and received the amount in question.

Mr Montefiore was delighted at the perseverance and ability displayed
by his wife, and she was truly happy to have again succeeded (as she
always did) in obtaining the approbation of her husband.

The conversation of the visitors being frequently in French and
German, many an hour was spent in reading letters and poems addressed
to Mr and Mrs Montefiore in these languages. Mrs Montefiore, however,
was not content with the study of modern languages, and expressed a
wish to acquire also a knowledge of Eastern languages, especially of
Turkish and Arabic.

To give her an idea of the grammatical construction of the latter, I
used to write out lessons for her, and she at once commenced to learn
them. The following morning she surprised the whole party by saying by
heart every Turkish and Arabic word that I had written out.

It was amusing to all of us, and to Mr Montefiore a cause of great
delight, to notice the zeal with which she took up the subject.

One day she produced from her cabinet a scarabæus and a little
Egyptian clay figure, which had been given to her by Mr Salt, the
English Consul in Egypt.

Both the scarabæus and the little figure had hieroglyphical
inscriptions, and she requested me to give her a translation of the
same.

In compliance with her request I explained the inscriptions, and gave
her a short account of the Rosetta stone and the works of Young and
Champollion and other Egyptologists.

I concluded my visit to East Cliff Lodge on the 13th of December. Mr
Montefiore requested me to draw up a plan for some future travels in
the Holy Land; I promised to comply with his wish, and then took
leave. There is an entry of this date in the diary, in which he says:

"If my dear Judith consents to our again visiting the Holy Land, I
should be glad to obtain the company of the Doctor on our pilgrimage."

A few days later I sent him the plan for the journey, also a second
copy of the translation which I had made of the hieroglyphical
inscription on the Osiris or sepulchral figure. He acknowledged the
receipt of the same in two letters, one written in Mrs Montefiore's
handwriting, the other in his own. Mr Montefiore subsequently told me
that his wife now commenced to take a special interest in antiquities,
enriching her cabinet with curiosities whenever an opportunity
presented itself. The year 1835 is also noted for the particular
interest which Mr Montefiore took in the affairs of his own community.
He was elected President of the London Committee of Deputies of
British Jews, his predecessor, Mr Moses Mocatta, having resigned the
office.

[Illustration: Hand-written letter]



CHAPTER XIII.

1836-1837.

DEATH OF MR N. M. ROTHSCHILD--MR MONTEFIORE VISITS DUBLIN--BECOMES THE
FIRST JEWISH MEMBER OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY--DEATH OF WILLIAM IV.--MR
MONTEFIORE ELECTED SHERIFF.


In the Diary for 1836, the first entry is on the 17th July, which is
accounted for by its being the second journal for that year, the one
containing his entries for the early months having been lost. On the
date mentioned he records his grief at the death of an aunt to whom he
was much attached, and for whom he entertained a sincere respect.
About this time he was also much affected by the illness of Mr N. M.
Rothschild, and on the 19th we find him busily engaged in making
preparations for a journey to Frankfort-on-the-Main, on purpose to
visit this "kind friend." Only ten months ago they had together signed
the contract for the loan of £15,000,000, and now they were to see
each other for the last time. Mr Montefiore writes: "We arrived there
in time to see him alive, but death was fast approaching. At four
o'clock on the same day (28th July) his brother, Anselm, asked him to
say prayers, which he did, and all present joined him; he then kissed
his wife and said 'good night' quite distinctly. At five he breathed
his last, and passed away without the slightest struggle. I was with
him the whole time, and remained in the room an hour after all the
others had left it. I had thus the melancholy satisfaction of paying
the last respect to his remains. Oh! may this mournful sight remind me
of the nothingness of this world's grandeur, and may I daily become
more prepared for a blessed Eternity! He was a good friend to me and
my dear Judith in our early life. Peace to his memory. Hannah (his
wife) did not leave him for a moment during his illness, and remained
in the room for some time after his death, returning there again the
same evening."

On the day of the funeral, which took place in London, Mr Montefiore
writes: "I remained at the burial ground above an hour after the
mourners had left, and saw the grave of my kind and truly lamented
friend arched over, filled up, and a large slab of Yorkshire stone
placed upon it. Thus have I witnessed all that was mortal of my dear
friend consigned to the earth; his spirit the Almighty, in His great
mercy, has taken to a better world, there to enjoy in glorious
eternity the reward of his charitable actions."

We will now, however, turn to more cheerful matters.

On October 8th he writes: "I had the honour of receiving a card of
invitation to dine with Her Royal Highness the Duchess of Kent on
Tuesday next;" then, true to his motto, which bids him "think and
thank," he adds, "Praised be He from whom all honour and distinction
flows."

_Tuesday, the 11th._ The words of his entry are as follows:--"I
attended Synagogue, and a little before seven went in our chariot to
West Cliff, where I had the honour of dining with their Royal
Highnesses the Duchess of Kent and the Princess Victoria. The other
guests were, Sir John Conroy, the Dean of Chester, Mr Justice Gaselee,
the Rector of St Lawrence, the Hon. Col. Stopford and his wife, the
Ladies Jane and Charlotte Seymour, and one other lady and gentleman. I
took down the Colonel's wife and sat opposite to the Princess. There
were thirteen at table, and it was impossible for it to have been more
agreeable. I never felt myself more at ease at any dinner party within
my recollection. The behaviour of the Duchess was most kind and
condescending, and all the party were extremely amiable and chatty.
The entertainment was truly Royal, and after dinner, when the
gentlemen had joined the ladies in the drawing-room, where tea and
coffee were served, the Duchess again spoke to each of us. The
Princess Sophia Matilda was also present. I returned home quite
enraptured with the very kind and obliging manner in which I had been
distinguished by her Royal Highness."

In the same year Mr and Mrs Montefiore received the congratulations of
their friends on a providential escape from the horrors of shipwreck.
They had left Margate in the _Magnet_ at nine o'clock in the morning
of the 17th October. The weather was foggy, but they thought it would
soon clear up. They had only proceeded a short distance, however, when
they got on to a sandbank, where they were obliged to remain for two
hours, feeling the gravest anxiety all the time. At last the tide
floated them off again, and they endeavoured to grope their way
through the fog, passing several vessels, which were only visible when
quite close upon them. Mr Montefiore was standing near the bow of the
ship, when suddenly a steamer was seen to be quite close to them, and
before it was possible to avoid her, she struck their bow with a
dreadful crash. Mr Montefiore threw himself on deck to escape injury.
The screams of the people on board both boats were terrible. It was
soon seen that the _Red Rover_, the vessel they had encountered, was
sinking fast. Her passengers and crew lost no time in getting on board
the _Magnet_, and in five minutes the _Red Rover_ was engulfed in the
sea, which was immediately covered with spars, boxes, and other
wreckage. The alarm was dreadful. The _Magnet_, having sustained
serious damage, her situation was most critical. She was making a
great deal of water, and the pumps were instantly set to work, while
the vessel made for the shore. Happily they were boarded by a fishing
smack and taken to Sheerness, where they landed, but where,
unfortunately, their troubles did not end. No sort of conveyance was
to be found in Sheerness, and they were obliged to go by boat to
Chatham, and thence in a post-chaise to town. It was nearly 1 P.M.
when the Marine Office was reached. "My poor dear wife," writes Mr
Montefiore, "conducted herself with her usual admirable courage. We
were, in all probability, never in our lives in more imminent danger.
God be praised for His great mercy for granting us His protection."

At seven o'clock the next morning Mr Montefiore proceeds to the
Synagogue, where he renders thanks to the Almighty. At the same time
he gives £600 in charity--£50 for the Portuguese and £50 for the
German poor in London, and £500 for the poor of Jerusalem.

The journal of this year contains but few entries relating to
politics.

In the session of 1836 the Ministry, in their attempt to carry several
important measures of reform, were defeated in the House of Lords, but
succeeded in passing an Act enabling Dissenters to be married
otherwise than by the Established clergy. Bills were also passed for
commuting tithes into a corn-rent charge payable in money, and for a
general registry of births, deaths, and marriages. The second reading
of the Bill for the removal of civil disabilities from His Majesty's
Jewish subjects was postponed in the House of Lords. The Jews were,
however, satisfied with the progress their cause had hitherto made,
and they considered themselves justified in hoping for a speedy and
complete emancipation. The election of Mr David Salomons as Sheriff of
London and Middlesex, and Alderman for the ward of Aldgate, took place
about this time.

The particulars I shall give of the next few years will show the
progress of good feeling between the Jews and their fellow-citizens,
and, in particular, the esteem in which Mr Montefiore was held by men
of all sects.

On the 1st of January 1837 we meet Mr Montefiore in Dublin, whither he
had gone with a deputation from the Provincial Bank of Ireland (in
London). "My companions, Messrs Th. Masterman and James Marshall," he
writes, "accompanied me to the new house of our agency, and we were
present at the commencement of business. We remained there till five
o'clock, and found that all was conducted comfortably." He then called
with the Directors on Lord Morpeth and other influential persons, in
the interests of their business. Whilst in Ireland he gave handsome
donations to various charitable institutions, including £100 to the
Dublin Bluecoat School. He also visited the Synagogue, where he made
generous offerings.

On the 13th he is again in London, receiving the thanks of the Board
of Directors of the Irish Bank for the valuable services he and his
colleagues had rendered by their visit to Ireland.

On the 23rd February, at the Royal Society, he is introduced to the
vice-president, the Earl of Burlington, by Mr W. H. Pepys, Mr
Montefiore being the only Jewish member as yet admitted. Writing in
his journal on the subject, he says: "I think I may be proud of the
honour of enrolling my name in the same book which has already been
signed by several of the kings of England."

In March Mr Montefiore had a deed of gift prepared by T. M. Pearce,
conferring the "Upper French Farm" on his brother Horatio and his
children. He also returns £500 to a friend who had repaid that sum
which he had borrowed from him in the year 1819 to commence business
with; Mr Montefiore observing that he was more than repaid in
witnessing his friend's success.

On the 20th of the same month I find the first entry referring to an
offer of the Shrievalty of London and Middlesex. Mr A. H. Thornborough
called on Mr Montefiore, saying he was deputed by some of the most
influential members of the Corporation of London to offer him the
Shrievalty at the ensuing election, if he would accept the office. Mr
Montefiore candidly stated that he was not desirous of the honour, but
if he were elected, he wished to be free either to accept or decline
it; he also stated that he could not attend church, but had no
objection to send his money, and at all the city feasts he must be
allowed to have his own meat, dishes, &c. To all of which Mr
Thornborough said there could be no possible objection. It was nearly
twelve o'clock before he left. "I suppose," writes Mr Montefiore, "I
shall hear nothing more of the business, but whatever is, is for the
best. Praise be to God alone."

Till the 2nd of June there is no entry of any importance in the diary,
but on that day the death of the King of England (William IV.) is
recorded, and a further reference is made to the subject of the
Shrievalty. Mr Montefiore says, "This morning at 2 A.M. it pleased the
Almighty to call to a better world our beloved King William IV. Oaths
of allegiance were taken to-day by the members of both Houses of
Parliament to the Queen Alexandrina Victoria. May her reign be long,
glorious, and happy. Amen."

After entering various particulars relating to his financial
transactions, and to some visits which he paid to different friends
and relations, he writes:

"Mr Lucas, one of the aldermen, having written to me yesterday to
ascertain my intention respecting the proposal made to me some time
ago to be Sheriff next year, I requested he would inform the parties
that I did not give my consent to my being proposed to the Livery, and
in the event of its being done, and of my being elected, I most
distinctly stated that I considered myself perfectly free either to
accept or decline the honour."

On the 22nd of June he wrote a note to L. Lucas, begging him to inform
Mr Thornborough that his state of health would not allow him to
accept the office of Sheriff if the citizens of London did him the
honour to elect him. He also acquainted T. M. Pearce with his
intention of declining the Shrievalty in the event of its being
conferred on him. It appears, however, that many friends and relatives
spoke to him on the subject, and prevailed on him to accept the office
if elected.

On the 24th June Mr Huffam called to bring the news that Mr Montefiore
had been unanimously elected Sheriff of London and Middlesex. He had
been proposed by Mr T. A. Curtis, Governor of the Bank of England, the
resolution being seconded by Mr Samuel Gurney. Mr Huffam said that
both gentlemen had spoken most highly of him, and that there were over
four hundred persons present.

In the evening, Mr Montefiore, accompanied by his good wife, paid a
visit to his mother, to tell her of the honour he had received from
the Livery of London, and to ask and receive her blessing on his
undertaking. He then prayed for the blessing of heaven, so to guide
his conduct that he might discharge the duties of the office to the
satisfaction of his own conscience, to the gratification of the
citizens, and to the honour of the Jews.

He received congratulations from numerous friends and relatives, which
seemed however to give him but little satisfaction. The following
extract from his diary will show why this was so:--"I shall have the
greatest difficulties to contend with," he writes, "in the execution
of my duty; difficulties which I shall meet with at the very outset.
The day I enter on my office is the commencement of our New Year. I
shall therefore have to walk to Westminster instead of going in my
state carriage, nor, I fear, shall I be able to dine with my friends
at the inauguration dinner which, from time immemorial, is given on
the 30th of September. I shall, however, endeavour to persuade my
colleague to change the day to the 5th of October.

Some of our readers will perhaps smile at his difficulties, but when
his friends observed how differently other persons would act in a
similar position, he used to say: "Very well, I will not deviate from
the injunctions of my religion; let them call me a bigot if they like;
it is immaterial to me what others do or think in this respect. God
has given man the free will to act as he may think proper. He has set
before him life and death, blessing and curse (Deut. ch. xxx, v. 15).
I follow the advice given in Holy Writ, and choose that which is
considered life, which is accounted a blessing."

His first visit in the city was to Messrs T. A. Curtis and Samuel
Gurney, to thank the former for having proposed the resolution for his
election, and the latter for having seconded it. He then received
congratulations from Messrs Pearce, Thornborough, and Wire at the
Alliance Office, and appointed Mr Wire as his under-sheriff. On the
same day he addressed a formal letter of thanks to "The worthy and
independent Livery of London."

The next day Messrs Thornborough, Lucas, and Carrol called, and it was
agreed to have the Sheriffs' inauguration dinner on the 5th October
instead of the 30th September. Sir James Duke, one of the outgoing
Sheriffs, also came, and was most friendly. He offered Mr Montefiore
every assistance, and invited him to dine at the Old Bailey on
Thursday, the 4th July. Two days later he attended with his colleague,
Mr George Carrol, a meeting of the subscribers to the Sheriffs' Fund,
at the City of London Coffee House, Ludgate Hill, where he was
introduced to Mr Sheriff Johnson, who was in the chair. There he also
met Sir James Duke, Mr Wire, Mr Anderson, the Governor of Bridewell,
and other gentlemen, and a committee was appointed to prepare a plan
for a more extensive employment of the funds of the above-named
Charity. Both Sheriffs were most polite to Messrs Carrol and
Montefiore, and invited them to be present on all occasions at the
Sessions in the Old Bailey, when they were also to breakfast and dine
with them.

_July the 4th._--Mr T. A. Curtis kindly accompanied Mr Montefiore to
the Court of Aldermen, where both he and Mr George Carrol signed bonds
engaging to take upon themselves the office of Sheriff, under penalty
of £1000 fine. "The Lord Mayor," writes Mr Montefiore, "and every
Alderman present shook hands with me, each paid me some neat
compliment, and every attention was shown to my religious feelings."

At a meeting of the Livery, where a resolution to send an address to
the Queen was proposed by Mr David Salomons and carried unanimously,
twelve of the Livery were appointed to present the same, amongst whom,
besides the Lord Mayor, Sheriffs, and Aldermen, were Messrs David
Salomons, G. Carrol, and M. Montefiore.

_July 6th._--Mr Montefiore went to the Old Bailey at half-past eight,
and breakfasted with the Under Sheriff, Mr G. Carrol, and other
gentlemen. The Sheriffs and Aldermen came in a little before ten, at
which time Baron Vaughan, Baron Alderson, and the Lord Mayor also
came. He was introduced, and received by all in a very friendly
manner, and then went with them into Court. At eleven he went with
Sheriff Johnson and Mr George Carrol over every part of Newgate. "It
was half-past one before we had finished our tour of inspection. I
find my new post will give me very serious occupation, and much more
trouble than I had expected, but I hope the blessing of Heaven will
attend my endeavours to fulfil its various duties to the satisfaction
of my fellow-citizens." This did, however, not prevent him from
turning his mind, when necessary, also to the affairs of his own
community. He accompanied T. M. Pearce to Downing Street, and had an
interview with Mr Lister, the Registrar-General. "We agreed," he says,
"that it would not be safe for Jews to marry by licence under the
present Marriage Bill, and that they must give twenty-one days' notice
to the Registrar."

On the same day he dined at five with the Lord Mayor, Sheriffs, and
other distinguished persons at the Old Bailey. "A capital dinner," he
observes, "dessert and wine; I had part of a fowl which had been sent
from home." Every one was most attentive to him. The Judges and the
Lord Mayor left at seven, but the Sheriffs stayed till eight o'clock.



CHAPTER XIV.

1837.

THE JEWS' MARRIAGE BILL--MR MONTEFIORE AT THE QUEEN'S
DRAWING-ROOM--HIS INAUGURATION AS SHERIFF.


On July 7th he called on the Chief Rabbi to discuss the marriage laws,
a subject which was causing much uneasiness in the community. He was
detained there so long that it became too late for him to attend the
committee meeting at the Irish Bank. He wrote a letter to the
Archbishop of Dublin on the subject of the Jews' Marriage Bill,
requesting him to take charge of it in the House of Lords. In the
course of the day he received a card of invitation to a dinner of the
Merchant Taylors Company from J. Allison, the new Master, with a most
friendly note, requesting him to name the dishes he would wish to have
placed before him.

On July 9th Mr Montefiore went with a member of the Board of Deputies
to consult T. M. Pearce on the subject of the Jews' Marriage Bill, and
in the evening attended a meeting of the Deputies, at which it was
resolved to petition the House of Lords in favour of the measure. He
writes: "I am most firmly resolved not to give up the smallest part of
our religious forms and privileges to obtain civil rights." One of the
members of the board also gave notice of a motion for "a more popular
election of the Deputies."

On July 10th Mr Montefiore met T. M. Pearce at the House of Lords. Mr
Blake, the legal adviser of the Archbishop of Dublin, made several
important alterations in the Bill, which, in Mr Montefiore's opinion,
greatly improved it. He then called at Downing Street to see Mr
Spring-Rice, but that gentleman had just left town for Cambridge. Mr
Montefiore immediately resolved to go and see him there.

At 5 P.M. he again met Pearce, also Mr Buxton, at the House of Lords.
The Archbishop of Dublin and several other Lords had declined to
propose the second reading of the Marriage Act Bill. Mr Buxton exerted
himself greatly, and spoke to several Peers in his presence without
success. At last he prevailed on Lord Glenelg to promise that he would
speak with Lord Duncannon, and would give notice the next day.

In accordance with his resolution, Mr Montefiore went the same day by
the "Cambridge Mail" to see Mr Spring-Rice. On his return he went to
the House of Lords with Pearce and saw Lord Glenelg. "But," writes Mr
Montefiore, "he would have nothing to do with the Bill, and Pearce
could get no Peer to move the second reading, consequently, the Bill
will be lost, and with it all the expenses, £400."

_Wednesday, July 19._--He attended the Queen's first levee at St
James' Palace; it was very crowded. He was one of the Deputation of
the Livery of London, by whom an address of congratulation was to be
presented to Her Majesty. The Lord Mayor introduced them. Mr
Montefiore was afterwards presented a second time. On his card was
written, "Mr Montefiore, presented by the Duke of Norfolk." "The
Queen," he observes, "looked very pretty and most interesting." "May
she be happy!" is his prayer to heaven. It was after four o'clock when
he left the Palace. He had spoken to a great number of acquaintances
there. The next day he went with Mrs Montefiore to St James' Palace to
attend the Queen's drawing-room. Mrs Montefiore was presented to Her
Majesty by the Countess of Albemarle, and was most graciously
received. "I followed her," writes Mr Montefiore. "The Queen smiled
good-humouredly at me, and the Duchess of Kent said she was pleased to
see us. No reception at a drawing-room could have been more
flattering."

At five o'clock he went to dine at the Merchant Taylors Hall. Mr
Alliston, the Master, was most civil and kind to him, and to Mr George
Carrol. It was a most splendid banquet, about one hundred and twenty
sat down to table. The entertainment was given by the Merchant Taylors
to the Skinners Company, in accordance with an old custom, which owed
its origin to the following occurrence. A difference having arisen
between the two companies, it was referred to the Lord Mayor, who
decided that "they were both wrong and both right," and decreed that
each company should annually entertain the other at a dinner. This has
been kept up, without a single exception, ever since the Lord Mayor
gave his verdict, which was more than three hundred years ago.
"Nothing," says Mr Montefiore, "could have been more magnificent than
the entertainment. I sat next to Mr Charles Culling Smith, the Duke of
Wellington's brother-in-law, and my health and that of Mr George
Carrol was drunk."

Mr Montefiore now wished to go to Ramsgate for a few days' rest, but
before leaving town he sent a letter to the Master, Wardens, and
Assistants of the Worshipful Company of Merchant Taylors, requesting
the use of their hall for the inauguration dinner in October.

In August we find him again in London, attending a dinner of the
Skinners' Company, where he meets Mr Attwood and his colleague Mr
George Carrol, also several friends belonging to the Merchant Taylors'
Company. His health is proposed, and he returns thanks. One of the
party, Dr Knox, the Master of the Skinners' Company's school at
Tonbridge, expressed himself in very flattering terms to Mr Montefiore
after the entertainment, but observed that he ought not to be one of
the Court Assistants, as the latter had to protect their church. Mr
Montefiore, in reply, assured him that he would never ask anything of
the Company that they might not be willing to grant. Dr Knox appeared
fully satisfied with what he heard, and continued the conversation in
a friendly spirit.

On the 20th of August there is a very affectionate entry, dated from
Tonbridge, and referring to his brother, Horatio Montefiore.

"Horatio," he writes, "joined us this morning at breakfast; he left
Ramsgate and his family last evening, and travelled all night. At
eleven o'clock my dear Judith, Horatio, Mr Ridge, and myself went in
the britzka to Tinley Lodge, Upper French Farm. The houses, barns,
stables, and outhouses had all been put in the most substantial and
complete repair, and looked extremely well, as did the land. With the
full and willing consent of my dear wife, I informed Horatio that I
made him a present of the estate, and after him to his children,
strictly entailing it on the eldest son from generation to generation,
and recommended him to grant Shetfield, the present tenant, a lease
at a moderate rent for fourteen years, say at £70. Horatio appeared
well pleased with the gift."

This entry is followed by another equally pleasing. He dined with his
sister-in-law, Mrs Hannah Rothschild, and met there, among others, the
Count and Countess Ludolf. In the course of conversation, the Count
said that several English physicians had offered to go to Naples,
where the cholera was then raging, and assist in relieving the
sufferers, but, unfortunately, they had no funds. Mr Montefiore, upon
hearing this, immediately promised £200 for the purpose, and of course
kept his word.

In the following record of a visit paid by Mr and Mrs Montefiore to
H.R.H. the Princess Sophia Matilda during her stay at Ramsgate, we
find one of the many gratifying instances of the esteem in which they
were both held by the highest in the land.

On September the 12th he writes:--"At three we went in our britzka
with post horses, through a torrent of rain, to West Cliff House, by
appointment, to visit H.R.H. the Princess Sophia Matilda. She received
us most kindly, and was very chatty. She spoke on many different
subjects, including the slave trade and the prevailing epidemics; also
of her proposed visit to Brighton, which she hoped would agree with
her. We then spoke of the Queen and the Duchess of Kent. Judith said
she hoped the Queen would build a palace at Ramsgate. Her Royal
Highness replied, she could not recommend the expense, as it would be
talked of a hundred years after; it was all very well just at first.
We remained more than half-an-hour, and on our taking leave, Her Royal
Highness shook hands with Judith most kindly, and said she was happy
in having made her acquaintance. During our visit she also spoke of
her brother, the late King, and on each occasion the tears came into
her eyes. She appeared in very good health, and fond of retirement."

On the 24th of September Mr Montefiore writes:--"Her Royal Highness
the Princess Sophia Matilda paid Judith a visit yesterday, and
remained with her an hour and a half. She had first appointed to come
on Friday if I had been at home, then on Monday or Tuesday, but Judith
wrote that we were going to London in the middle of the week, and
would be happy to see Her Royal Highness on Saturday. She was most
gracious and agreeable."

_Wednesday, September 27th._--Mr Montefiore called at the Mansion
House and saw the Lord Mayor and Mr Croft, who accepted the new
Sheriffs' invitation for Wednesday, the 11th October. According to an
ancient custom Mr Montefiore, as Sheriff, should have dined with the
Lord Mayor on Friday, the 29th, but he apologized for his inability to
do so on account of the Sabbath commencing in the evening.

_Thursday, the 28th._--"I cannot," he says, "but reflect with
gratitude on the Almighty's goodness to me: may He bless my endeavours
to be useful." He then gives the following account of the day's
proceedings:--"At ten I entered our state carriage, Mr Wire having
come for me in his, and we drove to Cavendish Square, where Mr George
Carrol in his state carriage took the lead, he being the senior
Sheriff, on account of his having been proposed to the Livery by the
Lord Mayor. We proceeded to the Merchant Taylors' Hall, where we found
sixteen of their members, and sixteen of the Spectacle makers, besides
some few friends of Mr George Carrol. The following gentlemen were
also present:--Barons Lionel, Nathaniel, and Anthony de Rothschild,
Messrs T. A. Curtis, Benjamin Cohen, Isaac Cohen, Solomon Cohen, S. M.
Samuel, John Helbert, and M. Davidson, the six last named being the
brothers and brothers-in-law of my dear wife. At one o'clock we went
in grand procession to the Guildhall, accompanied by a band of music.
At two we were sworn into office, and about three I returned to Park
Lane. I changed my official costume for plain clothes, and went at
half-past five to Cavendish Square. Mr George Carrol then accompanied
me to the London Tavern, and we dined with Sir James Duke and Mr
Sheriff Johnson."

_Monday, 2nd October._--Mr Montefiore and his colleague went to
Newgate. In the afternoon they proceeded to Windsor, and inscribed
their names in the Duchess of Kent's visitors' book. The next day Mr
Montefiore called on the Lord Mayor, who introduced him to Alderman
Cowan, the Lord Mayor elect; he also attended the Hustings at the
Guildhall in his violet gown, the Lord Mayor and Mr George Carrol
being present. He afterwards settled, with Messrs Maynard, Carrol, and
Wire, the toasts and the grace before dinner, and proceeded with
these gentlemen to the Lord Mayor to submit them for his approval.
This having been obtained, he went to the Merchant Taylors' Hall to
see that the arrangement of the tables was satisfactory.

The inauguration dinner of the new Sheriffs took place at the Merchant
Taylors' Hall in Threadneedle Street. The number of guests who sat
down to dinner was not less than four hundred; and the Lord Mayor
presided. After the cloth was removed, the usual toasts were proposed
by the Lord Mayor, and the two Sheriffs returned thanks, each in a
separate speech.

Mr Sheriff Montefiore said: "My Lord Mayor, my Lords and gentlemen, if
I consulted my own feelings of diffidence on this occasion, I confess
I should have remained silent, and have allowed my friend and
colleague to return our united thanks for the honour conferred on us
by the distinguished company. But as custom demands that I should say
a few words, I rise to express briefly, and I fear imperfectly, my
feelings of gratitude for the flattering manner in which my health has
been proposed, and the warm and affectionate greeting with which it
has been received. New to the high and important office I have been
called upon by the kind wishes of my fellow-citizens to fill, it will
readily be conceived that I cannot be acquainted with all its various
duties. But I can assure you it shall be my study to understand their
nature, and my earnest endeavour to fulfil them in such a manner as to
justify my fellow-citizens in the choice they have made. Although I
cannot pretend to say that I will do what your late Sheriffs have
done, still less to surpass them in their efforts to be useful, yet I
hope, so far, to imitate their example as to show my anxiety to
transmit to my successors the functions of my office unimpaired in
their usefulness, and its privileges undiminished in their value.
Believing that it is not a political office, and yet that it has
duties both to the Queen and to the public, I hope, in the execution
of those duties, to swerve neither to the right nor the left, but on
the one hand to uphold the rightful prerogatives of the Crown, and on
the other to support the just liberties of the people. Called upon by
the free, intelligent, and wealthy citizens of this great city to fill
so important an office, I trust that I shall never be found wanting in
any efforts to prove that the great privilege of electing their own
Sheriffs may be safely entrusted to the people. May I add that in
choosing the humble individual before you to fill so important an
office, they have shown that private character, when based on
integrity, will secure public honour and respect? Nor is it less
gratifying to find that, though professing a different faith from the
major it of my fellow-citizens, yet this has presented no barrier to
my desire of being useful to them in a situation to which my
forefathers would in vain have aspired; and I hail this as a proof
that those prejudices are passing away, and will pass away, which
prevent our feelings from being as widely social, as just, as
comprehensive in their effect as the most amiable and best-instructed
mind can desire. Nor can I forget, while alluding to kindly feelings,
how much I am indebted to those friends who, unasked and unsolicited,
proposed and elected me to the office which now gives me the
opportunity of addressing you. To them, to you, to the Livery at
large, I again tender my thanks, and I beg to assure you that,
whatever may be necessary to enhance the high, respectability of my
office, to support its splendour, to maintain its rights, to add to
its honour, and to make it more useful to my fellow-citizens--if it
can be made more useful--I will attempt, and with your countenance and
support, I trust, accomplish. Thus acting, I shall hope to receive the
only reward I seek--the thanks of my fellow-citizens, and the
approbation of my own conscience."

The Attorney-General in replying to the toast, "The health of Her
Majesty's Ministers," given by the Lord Mayor, alluded to Mr
Montefiore in the following words:--"There could be no more honourable
or important office than that of Sheriff, and although Mr Montefiore
differed in faith from the established religion, there could be no
doubt that he would discharge the duties which devolved on him with
equal credit to himself and advantage to the city. He (the
Attorney-General) was one of those who thought that the only
qualification which should exist for such offices was that the holder
should be a good citizen; and he recollected with no small degree of
satisfaction, that it was he who had brought in the Bill, a measure
that passed through the Legislature by, he might say, the unanimous
vote of both Houses of Parliament, which entitled Mr Montefiore to
occupy the position he then held. He was happy to say that the ancient
prejudices, founded on difference of religious belief, were fast
wearing away, and he only hoped the time was at hand when objections
on such grounds would altogether cease to operate. It was the desire
of Her Majesty's Government to promote such a state of things by all
the means in their power; and for his own part, his opinion was that,
so far from injuring the Constitution, it would tend materially to
uphold and strengthen it."

Mr and Mrs Montefiore returned to Park Lane at two o'clock from the
inauguration dinner, much pleased with the reception they had met with
from their fellow-citizens.



CHAPTER XV.

1837.

DEATH OF MR MONTEFIORE'S UNCLE--MR MONTEFIORE RIDES IN THE LORD
MAYOR'S PROCESSION--IS KNIGHTED--HIS SPEECH AT THE LORD MAYOR'S
BANQUET--PRESENTS PETITION ON BEHALF OF THE JEWS TO PARLIAMENT.


We may now consider Mr Montefiore as almost entirely occupied with the
discharge of the duties of his office as Sheriff. We shall give here
the entries he made referring to the subject, some of which are
particularly interesting.

From the following entry one can form an idea of the way in which he
spent his days during his year of office:--

"8.30 A.M., left Park Lane; 9 o'clock, breakfasted at the Old Bailey;
10, attended the Recorder into the Court, was present at a meeting of
the subscribers to the Sheriffs' Fund, met the Lord Mayor at the
Guildhall, and attended the Hustings. At 12.30 went back to the Old
Bailey, had lunch there, re-entered Court, and remained there till
near five, then returned to Park Lane. Accompanied by my wife,
proceeded at 6.30 to the Mansion House, where we dined with the Lord
Mayor and Lady Mayoress, and a very large and elegant party; had
music, and singing and dancing; returned home at one o'clock."

On the 11th of October Mr Montefiore in his turn gave a dinner to the
Lord Mayor and Lady Mayoress, the Sheriffs and Aldermen and their
ladies, after which Mrs Montefiore held a reception, which was
followed by a concert.

The next day he went to Newgate, and saw the prisoners who had just
been received. He went through the male and female wards, and spoke to
many of the prisoners. He then proceeded to Whitecross Prison, and
gave Mr Barrett, the governor, a cheque for £20 for distribution among
such cases of distress as he thought most deserving.

There are entries in the diary which show that on many occasions Mr
Montefiore did not leave the Old Bailey before nine o'clock in the
evening. "Sometimes," he remarks, "the duties of Shrievalty cause me
much trouble." But however numerous or onerous his duties may have
been, they never prevented his leaving the Old Bailey in time to
attend Synagogue, on the eve of the Sabbath and festivals, the Judges
in Court always, in the most kind manner, giving him permission to do
so.

About that time one of his near relatives happening to be dangerously
ill, he more than once, after having performed the daily duties of his
office, and been present at an entertainment which lasted till
midnight or later, instead of returning home, proceeded to the house
of sickness, where he watched at the bedside of the patient till
morning.

On Monday, November 6th, his uncle died. "I have always," Mr
Montefiore said, "regarded him as a second father, but I must not
grieve at his being taken from us, for he is gone to receive the
reward of a well-spent life in a better world; very many of his
relatives will miss his kind liberality." Mr Montefiore remained with
the family that day for a considerable time, but had afterwards to
leave them to attend to the necessary preparations for the important
day of the 9th of November.

If the many thousands of spectators who fill the streets and occupy
the balconies and windows on Lord Mayor's day, and witness the
glorious institutions of the Livery of the largest and most wealthy
city of the world, and to gaze at the magnificent cavalcade preceding
the state carriage of the Lord Mayor, think that the Aldermen,
Sheriffs, and under-Sheriffs have but to mount their chargers, and be
comfortably seated in the saddle, to receive the shouts of approbation
from the multitude, they are in error. As the glorious entry of a
victorious army on its return from the field of battle requires
previous organisation, so as to ensure the perfect regularity of the
marching and evolution of each respective battalion, even thus does
the entry into the metropolis of the assembly of citizens, almost
equal in number to a powerful army, require much previous
organisation.

Mr Montefiore, in order to prepare himself for the duties he would
have to perform at the forthcoming procession, went to Davis' riding
school, where he met the Lord Mayor and the Lord Mayor elect, as also
most of the Aldermen, Sheriffs, and Court of Common Council. They
each had a horse appointed for their use. A troop of artillerymen,
with their horses, headed by Colonel Jones, were also present. After
trying the horses they went through the plan of the procession, and it
was five o'clock before they returned home.

On November 7th he called at the Mansion House, attended the Court of
Hustings in the Guildhall, went with the Lord Mayor, the Lord Mayor
elect, and Mr George Carrol to the Entertainment Committee, and then
to Downing Street to see the Lord Chancellor. On finding him absent he
went to his house, where he met with a most friendly reception.

In the evening he went to the house of his late uncle. While the
Lavadores were performing their mournful duties, he and his wife read,
in an adjoining room, the prayers which his lamented uncle had
selected during his extreme illness. Greatly fatigued, they both
returned to Park Lane, with the intention of retiring to rest. They
had scarcely been home an hour when Mr Montefiore's colleague, Mr
George Carrol, called. The cause of his coming at so late an hour,
that gentleman said, was his desire to be the first to inform him that
Lord John Russell had that day acquainted the City Remembrancer with
his intention of recommending Her Majesty to bestow a baronetcy on the
Lord Mayor, and to confer the honour of knighthood on the Sheriffs.
"It was very kind," Mr Montefiore said, "of Carrol to come, and to
acquaint me with the pleasing news, for which I am very grateful to
the Almighty."

On Wednesday, the 8th November, he left home soon after eight in the
morning, and was at the Mansion House at nine. It was half-past when
the Lord Mayor elect made his appearance; there was a large party
assembled. At ten they set out in procession for the Guildhall, where
Alderman Cowan was sworn into office; the hall was very full. Mr
Montefiore introduced Chevalier Benthausen and two Russian noblemen to
the Lord Mayor, and then left the hall. He then went to the Alliance
Marine, attended the Board of the Alliance Life and Fire Assurance
Company, returned to the Guildhall, and thence repaired again to the
house of mourning, to attend the funeral of his late uncle. At six he
was again at the Mansion House, to be present at the farewell dinner
of the retiring Lord Mayor. Many Aldermen, he says, were present; also
the companies of the two Lord Mayors. At half-past nine he went for
the third time to the mourners to read prayers with them, and
afterwards he and his wife took up their quarters for the night at
their chambers at the Marine Office in the city. "A very fatiguing
day," he says, "and one in which I have seen the last of a dear and
near relative. I hope I may imitate his virtues."

_Thursday, 9th of November._--"With unspeakable but heartfelt
gratitude to the Almighty God," he writes, "I note the occurrences of
the day, a day that can never be forgotten by me; it is a proud one:
with the exception of the day I had the happiness of dedicating our
Synagogue at Ramsgate, and the day of my wedding, the proudest day of
my life. I trust the honour conferred by our most gracious Queen on
myself and my dear Judith may prove the harbinger of future good to
the Jews generally, and though I am sensible of my unworthiness, yet I
pray the Almighty to lead and guide me in the proper path, that I may
observe and keep His Holy Law.

"At half-past eight I went to the Mansion House, at nine set off in
grand procession to London Bridge; there I embarked with the Lord
Mayor, &c., for Westminster. The new Lord Mayor was presented to the
Judges in several Courts. We then returned the same way to the Mansion
House. I went to the Marine. My dear Judith was beautifully dressed,
but very unwell. We went to the Mansion House, and soon left there in
procession. Our state carriage being in advance, I got out at Temple
Bar, and the carriage went on with Judith to the Guildhall. I mounted
on horseback, with my brother Sheriffs, some Aldermen, and Members of
the Common Council. After many of the Royal carriages had passed, we
set forward two and two before the Queen. On her arrival in the hall
she reposed herself for some time. The Recorder then read the address,
to which she replied. The Lord Mayor was introduced, and made a
Baronet; the Aldermen were introduced, and then the Sheriffs were
knighted, first George Carrol. On my kneeling to the Queen, she placed
a sword on my left shoulder and said, 'Rise, Sir Moses.' I cannot
express all I felt on this occasion. I had, besides, the pleasure of
seeing my banner with 'Jerusalem' floating proudly in the hall. I hope
my dear mother will be pleased. The entertainment was most
magnificent, but my poor wife dreadfully ill."

_Friday, November 10th._--The new knight, now Sir Moses, proceeded to
Buckingham Palace to enter his name in the Duchess of Kent's
visiting-book. On his return he received numerous visits of
congratulation. He then went to the house of the mourners in the city,
and also visited his mother.

_Saturday, November 11th._--Although Sir Moses might have gone on that
day to a place of worship near Park Lane, he preferred walking to the
city on the first Sabbath after the honour of knighthood had been
conferred upon him, to return thanks to the Almighty in the ancient
Spanish and Portuguese Synagogue in Bevis Marks, a structure which
commemorates the first step towards religious liberty in England, and
which had from his earliest days been an object of love and veneration
to him. He started from home early in the morning, and joined the
congregation before nine o'clock.

After service he attended an entertainment given by one of his friends
on the occasion of his son attaining his thirteenth year (the age
which constitutes religious majority). The remainder of the day he
passed in visiting his relatives, and again attending the Synagogue to
join in prayers with the mourners.

On Sunday, November 12th, he went to Newgate, where he found all well;
his colleagues had already been there three hours. He then went to the
residences of the Duke of Cambridge, the Princess Sophia Matilda, the
Duchess of Gloucester, the Duke of Sussex, the Princess Sophia, and
Princess Augusta, and entered his and Lady Montefiore's names in their
visitors' books. On his return to Park Lane he dined with his wife,
and spent a pleasant evening in reading and writing. "One of our
old-fashioned happy East Cliff evenings," he says.

On Monday, November 13th, he attended the general meetings of some of
his companies, and in the evening dined with the directors of the
Imperial Continental Gas Association. The next day he was actively
engaged in performing the duties of his office, attending the Lord
Mayor at the Court of Hustings, and afterwards making arrangements
with his under-Sheriff respecting the invitations for the dinner on
the 16th inst. Having sent fifty invitations, and received but
twenty-eight tickets, "I passed the whole day," he says, "in a state
of much anxiety as to the best mode of acting. At last I have
determined to seat the ladies, and send the gentlemen tickets for the
Council Chamber, should they be unable to find seats in the hall. I
most sincerely hope I may give no offence, as I am sure none was
intended; my desire to oblige the family has brought me into this
dilemma."

On Thursday, the 16th of November, Sir Moses walked to the city in the
morning, called at the Alliance, Guildhall, and Mansion House,
returning home at two o'clock. A few minutes before four, he and Lady
Montefiore started in their state carriage, with the servants in full
livery, for the Guildhall. "We called," he says, "at Cavendish Square,
and followed Sir George and Lady Carrol in their state carriage to the
Guildhall. At five the Lord Mayor and Lady Mayoress made their
appearance long after many of Her Majesty's Ministers had arrived. We
sat down to dinner soon after six. The hall presented a splendid
appearance; there were between eleven and twelve hundred present,
including nearly all the Ambassadors, Ministers, and Judges."

The health of the Sheriffs was not drunk till long after the ladies
had left the table. Each of them returned thanks, Sir Moses doing so
in the following words:--

"My excellent friend and colleague has so fully expressed my
sentiments and feelings, that I ought, perhaps, to apologise for
trespassing on your attention, but as this is the first time I have
had the honour of addressing so large an assembly of distinguished
guests and of my fellow-citizens, I cannot resist the temptation of
offering you my congratulations on the auspicious event which has
distinguished the commencement of our year of office. The recent visit
of our most gracious Queen to this ancient hall, the kindness which
induced Her Majesty to present herself, at the earliest possible
period, to her faithful subjects of this great and opulent city, must
have made a deep impression on every heart, must have strongly rooted
the feelings of loyalty with which Britons naturally regard their
sovereign; and, if I may judge of others by myself, must have awed all
emotions save those of fervent hope and prayer, that the reign of our
now youthful Queen may be long and peaceful, and that her greatest
glories may be connected with the universal education of her subjects,
the diffusion of the most comprehensive principles of benevolence,
charity, and love--principles which shall unite all in a desire to
accomplish the proud wish that England may possess and exercise the
great prerogative of teaching other nations how to live. What we have
seen is a proof, in my opinion, that we are fairly on our way to the
full completion of the wish: for do not the recent events demonstrate
to us, and will they not demonstrate far beyond the precincts of our
city, that the purest freedom, and the warmest attachment to religion,
may co-exist, and may safely co-exist, with the forms of monarchy and
with feelings of affection to the sovereign, especially when that
sovereign evinces the dispositions which we all recognise in our
amiable, youthful, and illustrious Queen? Let, then, other countries
boast of natural advantages, denied perhaps to ours, let our pride be
in our civil advantages, in the security of our person and property,
under a system of law and government which, whatever be its
defects--and what is perfect on earth?--is at least as near to
perfection as any government that has existed, or does now exist. But
I am carried away by my feelings from the main object I had in view in
rising to address you. That object was to tender you my thanks, warm
from the heart, for the honour you have conferred on myself and
colleague. I can sincerely say that the kindness of our
fellow-citizens is a full reward for the performance of our duties,
and will be a full inducement to devote ourselves cheerfully to the
service of those who, unasked, have placed us in a position of so much
trust and honour. We feel satisfied that in the performance of our
duties we shall not betray the trust reposed in us, nor tarnish the
honour of the Corporation. No; it will be our pride and pleasure to
enhance the dignity of our office, in order that the distinction it
confers may be more and more an object of laudable ambition to the
most worthy and opulent of our fellow-citizens. Connected with the
Corporation by high office, I feel a deep interest in its prosperity;
and I pray that it may long exist to prove that popular corporate
institutions are a bulwark to the throne, while they offer to the
people a security for the preservation of their laws, and pure
administration of justice."

Sir Moses was much pleased with the manifest approbation of the
sentiments he expressed. "Lord Glenelg," he says, "spoke in a very
friendly manner with me, as did the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. The
Vice-Chancellor also made a very complimentary speech, saying he hoped
to see me enjoy high city honours."

Most of the time of Sir Moses was now occupied in the discharge of the
duties imposed on him by his office, which included his attendance at
numerous meetings, dinners, and balls. Some of them are recorded in
the diary. In making an entry of the Polish ball, which took place on
the 21st of November, he says: "We left home at nine o'clock, and got
to the Guildhall with great care between eleven and twelve. The hall
was crowded, and presented a splendid appearance. There were above
2500 people present, including the Lord Mayor, the Duke and Duchess of
Somerset, Miss Burdett-Coutts, Mr P. M. Stewart, Lord Dudley Coutts
Stewart, &c. All were most friendly. In consequence of the absence of
the Lady Mayoress, Lady Carrol and my wife did the honours. It was
quite a fairy scene; I never saw anything like it before, and I
daresay it will be some time before we again witness so brilliant an
assembly. Before the hall became crowded, I was much pleased with the
effect of my crest and arms, which had been chalked in colours on the
floor, the crest with the word 'Jerusalem' in Hebrew being nearest the
throne."

From the hall of splendour our attention is directed to the home of
misery. We find him next visiting the Whitecross Street Prison. "I
went," he says, "over the whole building, and found 428 unfortunate
individuals confined within its walls. The men's wards were very
unclean, but the women's extremely clean; there were only twenty-four
females. The day rooms of the male prisoners were crowded with
visitors. The prisoners were in good health, not more than seventeen
in the infirmary, and all only slight cases of cold."

On Monday, the 27th of November, he went at half-past eight in his
state carriage to the Mansion House, and at 9.30 he and his colleague
accompanied the Lord Mayor, in grand state, to open the first session
in his Lordship's mayoralty at the Old Bailey.

On the 29th he attended a meeting of the Deputies of British Jews, and
a sub-committee was appointed to endeavour to get Mr Baines--the
originator of a Bill for the purpose of altering the declaration
contained in the Act 9 George IV., cap. 17, to be made by persons on
their admission to municipal offices--to obtain an extension of its
provisions to the Jews. The Bill, as it then stood, limited the
indulgence to Quakers and Moravians.

When, on the following day, the Lord Mayor, accompanied by the
Sheriffs, attended the meeting of the first Common Council, Mr David
Salamons presented a petition, calling on the Court to petition both
the Houses of Parliament to amend Mr Baines' Bill. "Charles Pearson,"
Sir Moses says, "proposed the motion, which was carried unanimously."

On the 3rd of December, Sir Moses was particularly requested by Mr
David Salamons, to go with him to H.R.H. the Duke of Sussex, to inform
him of their intentions respecting Mr Baines' Bill; but His Royal
Highness was not well enough to see them. On the same day, Barons
Lionel and Nathaniel Rothschild called on Sir Moses, to say that Sir
Robert Peel had appointed the following Monday to see a deputation of
the Jews.

In accordance with that appointment they called, with Mr David
Salamons, on Sir Moses, the next day at the Old Bailey, and requested
him to go with them to Sir Robert Peel; but, as it was expected that
the Recorder would pass the sentences at twelve, he could not leave
the Courts. The Recorder, however, did not make his appearance till
three o'clock, and then made great difficulty before permitting him
and Sir George Carrol to go to the House of Commons with the petition,
positively refusing to allow their under-Sheriffs to accompany them,
under the penalty of a fine. At about five o'clock Sir Moses and Sir
George Carrol proceeded in their state carriages with their servants
to the Guildhall for the Remembrancer, who went with them to the House
of Commons with the three petitions.

On entering the House, led by the Sergeant-at-Arms with the Mace, the
Speaker said: "Sir George Carrol and Sir Moses Montefiore, what have
you there?" "A petition from the Lord Mayor and Common Council to the
Honourable House," replied Sir George. "You may withdraw," returned
the Speaker. They then withdrew in the same manner as they had
advanced, bowing three times. They took their seats under the gallery,
and listened to the debate on Mr Baines' Bill. "I very much regret,"
Sir Moses says, "that we, the Jews, allowed the House to divide."

A week later, on December 10th, after having gone over every part of
Newgate Prison, and spoken with the prisoners, both male and female,
he called, on his way back to Park Lane, on Dr Sims at Cavendish
Square, to inform him that Lord John Russell would see that the Jews
were relieved from the effect of the resolution passed by the London
University, as to the examination of candidates for the degree of
Bachelor of Arts, &c. He then accompanied Messrs Isaac Cohen and David
Salamons to Kensington.

The Duke of Sussex saw them immediately, and was most kind. He
approved of the Jews getting a Bill into the House of Commons to
relieve them from the declaration on taking municipal offices, but not
before the Bill relieving the Quakers had passed the Lords.

On Sunday, 17th December, he wrote a letter to Lord Melbourne to
solicit the honour of an interview, previously to the Municipal
Corporation Declaration Bill going into Committee. In the course of an
hour his Lordship sent him a note in his own handwriting, saying he
would be glad to see him the next day at half-past three, at Downing
Street. Sir Moses immediately communicated with Messrs David Salamons
and I. L. Goldsmid, and requested them to accompany him there on the
following day.

Agreeably to this intimation they were at the appointed time in
Downing Street. Lord Melbourne received them at once, the Marquis of
Lansdowne being with him. Both of them, Sir Moses says, were very
polite, but gave them to understand that they could not include the
Jews in the present Bill, as they would not be able to carry it
through the Lords.

On the same day he was officially informed of his having been elected
President for the year of the Jews' Free School, but the duties of the
Shrievalty prevented his accepting the honour. After calling at
Newgate and Whitecross Street Prison, and speaking to all the
prisoners, he attended at Doctors Commons to administer the will of
his late uncle.

On December 19th he wrote a letter to Mr Alteston, Master of the
Merchant Taylors' Company, offering to give £50 as a prize to the best
Hebrew scholar in the Company's schools, as a token of his
appreciation of the benevolence of the Company.

The diary of the year 1837 concludes with an entry referring to a
banquet given at the London Coffee House by the Commercial Travellers'
Society, under the presidency of Sir Chapman Marshall, at which Sir
Moses was present. Two hundred persons sat down to table, among whom
£1200 was collected for the benefit of the institution. This entry is
followed by an account of a narrow escape of Sir Moses and Lady
Montefiore. "We have been much alarmed," he writes, "by some person
firing a pistol at us, near Welling, on the road from Rochester to
London; happily it missed both horses and carriage; the postboy was
much frightened."



CHAPTER XVI.

1838.

DESTRUCTION OF THE ROYAL EXCHANGE--CITY TRADITIONS--"JEWS' WALK"--SIR
MOSES DINES AT LAMBETH PALACE.


The diary of 1838, like that of the preceding year, abounds in
descriptions of Sir Moses' official duties, as well as records of
events.

_January 11th._--Early in the morning, before he was dressed, Sir
Moses was informed that the Royal Exchange had been burnt down in the
night. He at once rode to the Alliance, and found the news true; only
the walls of the Exchange were still standing. "I called at the
Mansion House," he says, "and accompanied a deputation of the Gresham
Company to see the ruins; the loss of books, papers, and securities is
said to be immense. In the evening I repaired again to the Mansion
House to attend a Court of Aldermen, which sat till after ten. It was
a full meeting; the Town Clerk and all the Law Officers of the city
were present. There were long and grave discussions respecting the
making of a new city seal, the old one, as it was thought, having been
destroyed in the fire at the Royal Exchange."

On January 14th he was present at a meeting of the Elders of his
community at Bevis Marks. The resignation of the Deputies was
received, and a resolution passed, that "for the future Deputies be
elected by the Elders and seat-holders, generally known by the
appellation of 'Yehidim,' and out of either body." After the meeting
he called at Newgate, and went over the female wards and the
infirmary.

It may interest some of my readers to hear that the ancient custom of
presenting each of the Sheriffs with three does by the Crown is still
kept up. When Sir Moses was told that those intended for him were at
Richmond, he sent a person (authorised by the Ecclesiastical Board) to
kill the does in accordance with the Jewish custom, and then
distribute them among his friends.

He attended the first dinner given by the new Lord Mayor at the
Mansion House on the 16th. The next day he dined at the London Tavern
with the City Committee for General Purposes, and in the evening was
present at a ball for the benefit of the Watch and Clock Makers'
Institution. On the 19th, Sir Moses, in his turn, gave a dinner to the
Vice-Chancellor, and there were also present, Sir L. Shadwell and Lady
Shadwell, the Common Sergeant and his wife, Sir John Conroy and his
daughters, Mr J. A. Curtis and his daughters, the Baron and Baroness
de Rothschild, Baron Nathaniel and Baroness Louisa de Rothschild, and
many other guests of distinction.

The following extracts from the diaries show the nature of Sir Moses'
multifarious duties at this time:--

"_February 2nd._--Was sworn in as Commissioner of the London
Lieutenancy, consisting mostly of the Court of Aldermen and their
deputies, the Directors of the Bank of England and of the East India
Company.

"_February 5th._--Proceeded with my colleague, the City Remembrancer,
and Alderman Venables to the House of Commons, to present two
petitions; one respecting the night watch, and the other respecting a
new street from Farringdon Street.

"_February 6th._--Attended the meeting of the sub-committees of the
several Synagogues at 7 P.M. It was within a few minutes of twelve
when the meeting broke up.

"_February 14th._--Attended the Queen's levee. Was presented to Her
Majesty by Lord John Russell, and had the honour of kissing hands,
after which I drove to my mother, that she might see the state
carriage and liveries.

"_February 16th._--Present at the Court of Common Council, where they
voted the freedom of the City of London to Mr Stephenson, the American
Minister, to be presented to him in a gold box of the value of 100
guineas. The following evening I went to Kensington Palace to a soiree
given by the Duke of Sussex to the members of the Royal Society. The
rooms were crowded. Spoke with a great many persons I knew, Mr
Spring-Rice, the Dean of Chester, and others."

_February 22nd._--On the occasion of the funeral of a friend which he
attended, Sir Moses observes: "It was a funeral such as I much
approve. I think no funeral should have more than eight mourning
coaches, and the coachmen should wear neither cloaks nor bands; in
fact, in my opinion, the less pomp on such an occasion the better." In
the evening he dined at the London Orphan Society; "took my own cold
beef," he says. The Duke of Cambridge presided. The collection
amounted to £1960.

_February 27th._--After having been occupied all day with the duties
of his office, he went in the evening to a meeting of Conference of
all the Synagogues, to consider the subject of the constitution of the
new Board of Deputies. "There was a full meeting," he says, "and we
remained in debate till after eleven o'clock. The conference was
carried on in the most friendly manner; and, with some alterations,
the resolutions of the Great Synagogue were agreed to."

I give these entries referring to the Board of Deputies in the
interest of those of my readers of the Hebrew community in England who
may wish to trace the development and progress of that institution.

The 13th of March is a day which will be remembered with much
gratification by the promoters of civil and religious liberty. The
occurrence noted in the diary will always remind them of the lesson,
never to neglect an opportunity of serving a good cause when it
presents itself.

When returning, in company with the Lord Mayor and Sir George Carrol,
from the Court of Hustings to the place where the words "Jews' Walk"
were written up, Sir Moses mentioned to the Lord Mayor that many
persons had complained that, in these enlightened times, the walls of
the Guildhall should be disgraced by such a mark of intolerance as the
tablet bearing the above inscription. The Lord Mayor very kindly
ordered it to be taken down immediately. The same tablet was
subsequently given to Sir Moses by the Lord Mayor, and is now
preserved in Lady Montefiore's Theological College in Ramsgate as a
souvenir of bygone times.

March 16th records an instance of the danger to which, as Sheriff, he
was sometimes exposed in the discharge of his official duties, as also
his sympathy with others who equally endangered their lives in the
service of the Livery. Sir Moses attended on that day a Committee of
Criminal Justice, and accompanied them all over the gaol; later he and
his colleague had to be present at the inquest on a prisoner who had
died of fever. "I am sorry to say," he remarks, "that something like
typhoid fever is prevailing in the prison; the matrons and turnkeys
are greatly alarmed." On his return home he sent a dozen of port to
the keeper of Newgate and a dozen to the matron.

Wishing for a day's repose, he and Lady Montefiore repaired to their
favourite spot, Smithambottom. "The appearance of the Red Lion" (the
inn in which they usually took up their abode), he says, "we found
much altered for the worse. The house, its inmates, and furniture, all
wear a decayed look; they have very little custom there. Caroline
Paget, daughter of Pearce the landlord, having heard of our arrival,
came immediately to see us. She is also much altered; time, poverty,
and care have made sad havoc with her appearance. Fourteen years have
passed since we were last in Pearce's house, and we viewed the place
with mingled feelings of pleasure and pain. In spite of the gloom of
the house, I dearly like the place, and shall be most grateful to
Providence to be permitted the enjoyment of frequent walks over the
Downs. But we must see what we can do for the Pearces."

He assisted both father and daughter by providing for their immediate
wants, and, on his return to town, procured, not without great
personal exertion, a presentation to the Blue Coat School for Caroline
Paget's daughter.

As President of the Jews' Free School, Sir Moses took the chair at a
dinner given at the London Tavern in aid of that Institution.

He was supported on his right and left by Sir George Carrol, Mr T. A.
Curtis, the Governor of the Bank; Mr M. Attwood, M. P.; Mr David
Salamons, Mr Jno. Alteston, Mr Edward Fletcher, Mr T. M. Pearce, Mr
Aston Key, Mr Nugent Daniel, Mr F. H. Goldsmid, Mr B. Cohen, Mr Isaac
Cohen, Mr Under-Sheriff Wire, and a large company of friends. Some
excellent addresses were delivered by Sir Moses and others of the
gentlemen present. In the entry he made of the proceedings, he
observes, "I did my best, and had the pleasure to find the company was
satisfied, for £841 was collected."

It was nearly twelve when he left the London Tavern in company with
Sir George Carrol, and went to Hanover Square Rooms, where they met
their ladies at the Polish ball.

On the 3rd of April he was summoned to the Guildhall to a Court of
Lieutenancy to take the oath and subscribe to the Declaration; but he
could not do so, and therefore did not attend.

In the evening he was present at the Conference of the Deputies from
all the Synagogues, who, he says, would not agree to reconsider their
former resolution.

On April 4th Lady Montefiore had a narrow escape from what might have
proved a most serious accident. She had promised to dine with her
sister, Mrs Hannah de Rothschild (Sir Moses, owing to his official
duties, was unable to accompany her). While driving to Piccadilly the
horses took fright, broke the pole and harness, and much injured the
carriage. Fortunately no one was hurt.

The next day Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore attended the Queen's
Drawing-Room, accompanied by Sir George and Lady Carrol, Mr and Mrs
Maynard, and Mr and Mrs Wire, all in their state carriages. The ladies
of the party were presented by the Marchioness of Lansdowne. The Queen
and the Duchess of Kent were most gracious to Sir Moses and Lady
Montefiore.

On April 9th he writes: "I was at the Old Bailey at 8.30, and
breakfasted at nine; attended the Common-Sergeant into the New Court;
at ten I attended the Chief-Justice Tindall to the Old Court. The
Common-Sergeant having left the New Court, I accompanied Baron Parke
into it. Being the eve of Passover, I had to my regret to leave the
Old Bailey at five o'clock. It caused great inconvenience, there being
a judge in each Court, and most important trials being on, not likely
to be finished before to-morrow evening."

It was the duty of the Sheriffs to attend on the following day, first
at the Old Bailey, then on the Lord Mayor in state at the Court of
Aldermen, to witness the swearing in of the new Alderman (Magnay),
then to accompany him in state to the Mansion House to dine with his
Lordship and a large party.

On the following Monday and Tuesday he had again to attend the Lord
Mayor and Lady Mayoress in state to receive the Blue Coat boys at the
Mansion House, then to be present at a sermon at the Hospital, and to
return and dine with the Lord Mayor, the Aldermen, &c., it being
Easter Monday, a public day. They were also expected on the following
morning again to breakfast at the Mansion House. Sir Moses, however,
observes, "My duty to God, and my respect for our holy religion, are
above all other duties, and I must give up my official occupations for
these days," a resolve which he acted upon.

After having attended the levee of the Queen, which was held on
Wednesday, 2nd May, Sir Moses proceeded to the London Tavern to be
present at the anniversary festival of the City of London School for
the benefit of the children of the indigent, under the presidency of
the Duke of Wellington. There was a very large and representative
gathering, and the amount collected and handed to His Grace, including
the steward's fines, was £1320.

_Thursday, May 3rd._--Sir Moses attended a state dinner, which the
Lord Mayor gave the judges, at the Mansion House.

The entries continue as follows:--

_Monday, May 7th._--Presided at the dinner of the Spanish and
Portuguese Hebrew Schools; 120 persons were present, and Mr Samuel
Gurney addressed the assembly before the children left.

_May 9th._--Attended a meeting at the City of London Tavern for the
abolition of slavery, and in the evening joined Sir George Carrol at a
dinner of the City Dispensary, given at the same place. The same
evening he also went to Lady Cottenham's party.

_May 10th._--Dined with the Corporation of the Sons of the Clergy. It
was a very large assembly, and Sir Moses' donations amounted to £44.
Mr Justice Parke introduced him to the Archbishop of Canterbury, who
most politely invited him for Tuesday, the 22nd inst.

_May 14th._--Gave a grand dinner at Park Lane to the Lord Mayor and
the Lady Mayoress, Sir George and Lady Carrol, and the Aldermen.
Several friends and relatives were also present at this dinner.

_May 15th._--Attended the Court of Hustings, and at Sir Moses' request
the Lord Mayor consented to adjourn it over the 29th inst., to enable
him to go to Ramsgate for the holy days. He went to the Old Bailey,
and in the evening was present at the anniversary dinner in aid of the
Magdalen Hospital, Mr Justice Parke being in the chair. He was
informed that the Sheriffs had received the "entrée" from the Duke of
Argyll during their Shrievalty.

_Thursday, May 17th._--Sir George and Lady Carrol came in their state
carriage to Park Lane, in order to go with Sir Moses and Lady
Montefiore to the Queen's Drawing-Room. This being the Queen's
birthday, the Drawing-Room was very crowded, and the ladies had some
difficulty in reaching the palace. It was five o'clock when they
returned to Park Lane. Sir Moses then called at Buckingham Palace,
where he placed his and Lady Montefiore's name in the Duchess of
Kent's visitors' book. In the evening he dined with Lord John Russell,
and there met the Lord Chancellor, the Judges, the Master of the
Rolls, Lord Morpeth, the City members, the Lord Mayor, and his
colleague as Sheriff. Afterwards he attended, with Lady Montefiore,
the Marchioness of Lansdowne's party. "Nothing," he observes, "could
have been more splendid."

_Friday, May 18th._--At five o'clock he went to a dinner at the
Mansion House, given by the Lord Mayor to the Bishops. There were
sixteen bishops present, besides several aldermen, the sheriffs, and
about half-a-dozen ladies. The Bishop of Exeter asked for an
introduction to Sir Moses, and was extremely civil to him. After six
the company adjourned to the dining-room, but Sir Moses withdrew and
returned to Park Lane, it being near the time for the commencement of
Sabbath.

_Monday, May 21st._--He went in full court dress, in his state
carriage, with his servants in full state liveries, to dine at Lambeth
Palace with the Archbishop of Canterbury. On his way he called for the
Recorder, who went with him. "It is impossible," says Sir Moses, "to
describe the magnificence and splendour of the palace, and equally so
the great kindness and urbanity shown to me by the Primate. About
forty sat down to table, including the Duke of Sussex, the Duke of
Cambridge, Prince George, several Bishops, the Lord Mayor, John Capel,
Jno. Alteston, and many Aldermen. The Duke of Sussex told me he would
send me an invitation for the 30th inst. After dinner I requested of
his Royal Highness a card for my dear wife and Lady Carrol, which he
kindly promised me. The Recorder returned home with me, appearing much
pleased at the reception he had met with."



CHAPTER XVII.

1838.

ANOTHER PETITION TO PARLIAMENT--SIR MOSES INTERCEDES SUCCESSFULLY FOR
THE LIFE OF A CONVICT--DEATH OF LADY MONTEFIORE'S BROTHER.


_Wednesday, May 23rd._--Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore drove to
Kensington Palace, and put their names in the visitors' book of the
Duke of Sussex; they then called on the Archbishop of Canterbury and
left cards there. In the evening Sir Moses attended the anniversary
dinner of the North London University Hospital, Lord Brougham in the
chair. "I sat next to him on his right," he writes. "There was a large
collection, Mr I. L. Goldsmid alone bringing £200."

_Thursday, May 24th._--The two Sheriffs proceeded in their state
carriages to the Guildhall to attend a meeting of the Common Council.
In the afternoon they drove to the House of Commons, and presented two
petitions respecting the rebuilding of the Royal Exchange and the
registering of voters. At five they sat down to a dinner at Bellamy's,
having invited several members, Sir Matthew Wood being in the chair.
Sir Moses returned to Park Lane at seven o'clock, and then accompanied
Lady Montefiore to an entertainment given by one of their relatives.

_Friday, May 25th._--He again went to the House of Commons with his
colleague, and presented a petition from the city, returning to Park
Lane before the commencement of Sabbath.

_May 26th._--In the morning Sir Moses walked to the St Alban's
Synagogue, and on his way back called on Mr N. M. de Rothschild. On
the evening of the same day he attended the anniversary meeting of the
Society for the management and distribution of the Literary Fund, the
Marquis of Lansdowne in the chair, supported by the Marquis of
Northampton, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, and many literary
celebrities, including Thomas Moore, Bulwer, and Dickens. The
President paid the Sheriffs a handsome compliment in proposing their
healths. Messrs Rothschild had requested Sir Moses to give £20 in
their names, which, he remarked, was extremely well received.

_May 27th._--He went in the forenoon to the Vestry of the Spanish and
Portuguese Hebrew Community, it being the day appointed for the
election of their Deputies. The ballot was to close at three o'clock,
and he was subsequently told that he had been elected.

_May 28th._--On his way to the city Sir Moses called on his colleague,
and gave him an invitation he had received from the Duke of Sussex for
himself and Lady Carrol. They then went to the Lord Mayor and invited
him to take the chair at their dinner on the 13th June, at the
Merchant Taylors' Hall, which he agreed to do. Sir Moses writes: "He
had not yet received his invitation from the Duke of Sussex, and
seemed rather uneasy about it."

_May 30th._--As this was the first day of the Pentecost Festival, Sir
Moses walked to the city, and attended service in the Synagogue there.
On his return to Park Lane he walked with Lady Montefiore to the
King's Arms, Kensington, where they had taken rooms the day before,
and where they found a cold collation spread for them. This last, as
well as both their court dresses, had been conveyed there from Park
Lane on the preceding day.

"From our sitting-room," Sir Moses writes, "we had an excellent view
of the company going to the palace, as well as of the Queen and her
attendants in three royal carriages, escorted by a troop of Horse
Guards. After ten o'clock dear Judith went to the palace in a sedan
chair, and I walked there. There were many hundred carriages, and
thousands of persons. The appearance of the rooms, galleries, and
company was magnificent beyond description. The Duke of Sussex
received the company, and spoke very kindly to Judith and myself. In
the second chamber Lady Cecilia Underwood was at the door, and greeted
us most kindly. The Queen was also in this room, and near to her the
Duchess of Kent and the other members of the Royal Family. On our
making our bow to the Queen, she smiled most graciously, and the
Duchess left her side, came out of the circle, and spoke to us. She
said she was pleased to see us, and enquired whether we had lately
been to Ramsgate. This was a most distinguished honour, and we were
highly gratified with the same. We remained at the palace till one
o'clock, then returned in same way as we came to the hotel. We changed
our dresses and walked home, where we arrived dreadfully fatigued, but
highly delighted with our reception."

_Wednesday, June 6th._--Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore went to
Richmond, where they met the Duke of Cambridge whilst walking in the
gardens. He came up and spoke to them, and was extremely polite. The
Duke was walking with the Bishop of Winchester, who had come to
Richmond to preside at some charitable meeting. Sir Moses only learned
after he and Lady Montefiore had left the gardens the purpose for
which the Bishop was there, so he returned and begged to be allowed to
contribute his mite, giving at the same time £10, with which they
seemed greatly pleased.

On Thursday, June 7th, he had to be present in his official robes at
St Paul's Cathedral; Lady Montefiore was with him. "We witnessed," he
says, "the most splendid of sights: nearly six thousand charity
children, and double that number of poor men and women. The Duke of
Cambridge, Lord Eldon, the Lord Mayor and Sheriffs, and many others
were present. Later in the day Sir George Carrol and I attended the
anniversary dinner of the Society of Patrons of Charity Schools. The
Lord Mayor was in the chair, and the Bishop of Rochester on his right,
the latter being extremely civil to me and speaking in the most
friendly manner. Sir Frederick Pollock, who was on my left, made a
beautiful speech: he said he had been educated at St Paul's School and
sent thence to college, after leaving which he had been obliged to
work hard, his talents being the only patrimony he possessed."

_Friday, June 8th._--Sir Moses attended the Queen's levee. "Her
Majesty," he writes, "appeared in very good spirits; nearly all the
company wore stars, orders, or ribbons."

_June 11th._--He dined at the Merchant Taylors' Hall. There were
present the Duke of Cambridge, Prince George, the Archbishop of
Armagh, the Bishop of Exeter, Lord Londonderry, and many other
noblemen--in all, about two hundred. Several ladies were in the
gallery, Lady Montefiore among the number.

_June 13th._--Sir Moses attended a meeting at the City of London
Tavern, for the benefit of the London Fever Hospital; Lord Devon in
the chair. It was not well attended, but the collection was good. He
was afterwards present at a dinner given by the Sheriffs to the
Judges. Justice Allan Parke sat next to him, and the Vice-Chancellor
next to Sir George Carrol, who was in the chair.

_Friday, June 15th._--Sir Moses left home at twelve o'clock in his
state carriage, the servants in full livery, and himself in black
court dress, sword and chain. He called on the Recorder, who
accompanied him to the Mansion House, where a luncheon was prepared.
At one o'clock the Lord Mayor in his half-state carriage with four
horses and outriders, the Sheriffs in their state carriages, and some
of the Aldermen in theirs, set out in procession for the Swan Tavern,
Stratford. They held there a Court of Conservancy for the county of
Essex, after which they proceeded to Blackwall, and crossed the water
in the city state barge, which was decorated in grand style with
banners and flags. At four they held a Court for the county of Kent,
at the Crown and Sceptre, and dined there.

_June 19th._--Sir Moses accompanied the Common Sergeant to the Court
at the Old Bailey, after which he attended the Lord Mayor at the
Mansion House, and proceeded in state to the Borough Town Hall, where
a Court of Conservancy was held for the county of Surrey. Thence the
procession moved on towards the Swan Hotel, near Westminster Bridge,
where a Court was held for the county of Middlesex. "Afterwards," says
Sir Moses, "we drove to the city, and I left the Recorder at the Old
Bailey. Then I joined the Lord Mayor and Sir George Carrol, and held a
Court of Hustings."

_Thursday, June 21st._--After spending the morning at the Old Bailey,
he went with Lady Montefiore to the Queen's Drawing-Room, Sir George
and Lady Carrol accompanying them in their state carriage.

On June 22nd Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore went to Ramsgate for a few
days, where they celebrated the anniversary of the dedication of their
Synagogue, and that of their wedding day, returning three days later
to London. The time having arrived for the election of Sheriffs for
the ensuing year, Sir Moses went in his state carriage to the Mansion
House, thence in procession with the Lord Mayor in his state carriage
(drawn by six horses with six footmen walking before him) and Sir
George Carrol in his state equipage, to the Guildhall. "About six
hundred of the Livery were present," he says, "and the show of hands
was in favour of Josiah Wilson and A. Moore, but a poll was demanded
for Alderman Johnson and Thomas Ward."

_Tuesday, June 26th._--The Recorder passed the sentences at the Old
Bailey, and "Thanks to heaven!" Sir Moses exclaims, "the Sessions
ended at one o'clock." The numbers at the close of the poll for
sheriffs that day were: Ward, 450; Wilson, 479; Johnson, 479; and
Moore, 429. In the evening Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore dined with
the Vice-Chancellor and Lady Shadwell, where they met Lady and Miss
Denman, Baron and Baroness Bolland, and Justice Coleridge.

_June 27th._--Sir Moses attended a meeting of the Common Council,
where it was resolved to invite the foreign Ministers to a dinner at
the Guildhall. On returning home in the evening he found the park
sparkling with lamps from booths and tents, erected in preparation for
the coronation festival. He at once gave orders to have the balcony of
his house propped and got ready for the illumination. "The park," he
writes, "was all life and bustle, brilliantly illuminated, and the
booths thronged with people. I understand that dancing was carried on
in most of the booths, and that refreshments of all kinds and
qualities were to be had."

_June 30th._--Lord John Russell gave a grand dinner on this day to the
Lord Chancellor, the judges, the members for the city of London, and
the Sheriffs. Being Sabbath, Sir Moses did not accept the invitation,
but called there and left his card. During the day, he and Lady
Montefiore walked in the park, and were much amused by the fair.
Afterwards they watched the scene from their drawing-room window.
Thousands of people took part in the amusements, and as soon as it was
dark, the whole park was again brilliantly illuminated.

On the 13th Sir Moses had to attend an entertainment at the Guildhall,
given by the Corporation to distinguished foreigners, and
representatives of sovereigns at the coronation. The Duke of Sussex
and many others of the highest nobility were present, but Sir Moses
only remained there until they were seated at dinner, and then left in
his state carriage.

_July 17th._--Accompanied by his Under-Sheriff, Mr Wire, and Mr
Maynard, he went to the Home Office to intercede on behalf of a
prisoner named Rickie. The man was a soldier, who had always borne an
excellent character, but, in a state of drunkenness, had fired at an
officer and killed him. Rickie had been condemned and sentenced to
death. Sir Moses and his friends were soon admitted to an audience
with Lord John Russell, to whom they fully explained the subject. His
Lordship said he would like to see them again.

_Wednesday, July 18th._--Sir Moses went in full state to the Queen's
levee, calling on his way at Cavendish Square for Sir George Carrol.
"It was very splendid," he writes. "The Queen looked very happy and
beautiful; she was most gracious, as was also the Duke of Sussex." On
his return home he went with Lady Montefiore to a splendid fête at
Gunnersbury Park, the seat of the Baroness Rothschild. About five
hundred persons were present, including foreign Princes of
distinction, the Ambassadors, the Duke of Sussex, Prince George of
Cambridge, the Duchess of Cambridge, the Dukes of Wellington and
Somerset, and most of the highest nobility of the land. The
proceedings commenced with a concert, at which several great artistes,
including Grisi, Lablache, Tamburini, and Rubini performed. This was
succeeded by a déjeuner, and in the evening a grand ball was given in
a magnificent tent erected for the purpose. The gardens were
illuminated with six thousand variegated lamps. The company remained
until near midnight, all the guests complimenting the Rothschild
family most highly on their taste and hospitality.

_Saturday, July 21st._--Sir Moses went by appointment to the Home
Office, and had an interview with Lord John Russell and Mr Phillips,
Sir George Carrol, Mr Maynard, and Mr Clark being also present. His
Lordship informed them that he had "consulted the legal advisers of
the Crown, and they had decided that Rickie's sentence could not be
commuted. The Sheriffs must therefore fix the day for his execution."

_Monday, July 23d._--The Prince and Princess of Schwarzenberg invited
Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore to a breakfast at Richmond, which Sir
Moses describes as a magnificent fête. "On our arrival at the Castle,"
he says, "Prince Esterhazy, at Lady Montefiore's request, very kindly
introduced us to the Princess of Schwarzenberg, our beautiful hostess.
I never witnessed a more splendid party. In the evening seven hundred
sat down to dinner, and there was every luxury that could be imagined.
The Princess walked round the rooms to see that all her guests were
seated comfortably before she would take her own seat. The Duke of
Sussex, the Duchess of Cambridge, Prince George and Princess Mary of
Cambridge, all the foreign Princes in London, and great part of the
English nobility were present. The gardens were beautifully
illuminated, and a grand display of fireworks concluded the
entertainment. It was near midnight when we left, but the place was so
crowded that we had great difficulty in reaching the hotel where we
had taken rooms."

_Tuesday, July 24th._--After the enjoyment of the previous day's fête
came a day of great sorrow for them, Lady Montefiore sustaining a
severe loss in the death of her brother, Mr Joseph Cohen. This
occurrence caused the deepest grief to herself and every member of the
family. On the same day Sir Moses was obliged to attend at Newgate to
speak with Rickie, a reprieve having, after all, been sent to him by
Lord John Russell.

_Thursday, July 26th._--Sir Moses went to the funeral of his
brother-in-law, while Lady Montefiore remained with the ladies of the
family. The funeral was largely attended by friends and relatives, Mr
Cohen having been highly esteemed by all who knew him. Sir Moses had
then to interview 142 prisoners at Newgate, which occupied him three
hours. Having fulfilled this duty, he returned to the house of the
mourners, where he was present at evening prayers. He remained there
with Lady Montefiore till ten o'clock.

_Monday, July 30th._--Sir Moses accompanied Mr Pearce to the House of
Lords, and was present at the Committee on the Royal Exchange Bill;
the clause affecting the Alliance was not inserted in the Bill.

_Tuesday, July 31st._--This being a fast-day, in memory of the
destruction of the Temple at Jerusalem, he attended the service held
in Prescot Street at the residence of the late Mr Cohen. He remained
there till twelve o'clock, when prayers were concluded. He then walked
to the Guildhall, and attended the Court of Hustings with the Lord
Mayor and Sir George Carrol, this being the last that these two
Sheriffs would hold. Subsequently he attended the Court of Aldermen,
the Irish Bank, and the Alliance Marine Office. At seven o'clock he
again repaired to Prescot Street, where he joined the mourners and a
large congregation in the recital of evening prayers, after which they
all broke the fast, and enjoyed a good breakfast. The reader will no
doubt feel surprised at the amount of work Sir Moses was able to
accomplish on a fast-day, when for twenty-four hours neither a crumb
of bread nor a drop of water passed his lips; but we shall yet have
many other instances of his extraordinary powers of endurance.

The next day, August 1st, we find him at a public gathering which took
place at the London Tavern. The meeting was called to consider the
erection of a public monument as a memorial of the achievements of
Lord Nelson. The Duke of Wellington was in the chair, and the great
room was crowded to overflowing. The amount collected was about £300,
of which Sir Moses gave £15, 15s., in addition to £5 which he had
given previously.

_Friday, August 3rd._--He visited Whitecross Street Prison and
Newgate. He there met Lady Harriet de Blanquiere of Hampton Court
Palace. She had seen Rickie, and expressed a hope that his sentence
might be commuted to transportation.

The 4th of August of this year was an important day for Sir Moses, as
the prospect of a speedy release from his official duties as Sheriff
enabled him to make the following entry in his diary. "Now," he
writes, "with the blessing of the Almighty we will commence
preparations for revisiting the Holy Land."

_Sunday, August 12th._--The first meeting of the new Board of Deputies
of British Jews taking place on this day, Sir Moses attended as
President. He appears to have apprehended some difficulty in managing
the new Board.

_Wednesday, August 29th._--At eight o'clock in the morning he left
home for the Old Bailey. He and his colleague accompanied the Recorder
and Alderman Sir C. Marshall into Court at nine, when sentence was
pronounced on several prisoners. "A most solemn and affecting scene,"
Sir Moses remarks. "Sir J. Carrol and I went into the prison, and
spoke with most of them afterwards. We then went to the Alliance, and
from there to 4 Canonbury Place, to intercede with two ladies who had
prosecuted their servant for robbery, but they gave her such a bad
character that we could not further interfere."



CHAPTER XVIII.

1838.

BARTHOLOMEW FAIR--SIR MOSES EARNS THE THANKS OF THE CITY--PREPARATIONS
FOR A SECOND JOURNEY TO THE HOLY LAND--THE JOURNEY--ADVENTURES ON ROAD
AND RIVER IN FRANCE.


On Monday, September 3rd, Sir Moses went in full state to join his
colleague, and proceeded with him to the Mansion House. The Lord
Mayor, in his state coach, drawn by six horses, and preceded by a body
of police, went with the Sheriffs, and the City Marshal on horseback,
to Smithfield, and proclaimed "Bartholomew Fair." Sir Moses observes,
"There were not so many booths and shows as in former years, but all
were crowded to excess."

_Thursday, September 13th._--He attended the dedication of the new
Synagogue at Great St Helens. "It is," he says, "a most splendid
edifice, and does the greatest credit to all concerned in the
building. The music and psalms on the occasion were very similar to
those used at the dedication of my own Synagogue at Ramsgate."

The following day he and Lady Montefiore went to spend a couple of
days at Gunnersbury with their sister, Mrs N. M. de Rothschild. In the
entry he makes of the Sabbath, Sir Moses writes: "We all assembled in
the library, where Louise Rothschild read the Sabbath morning service
aloud exceedingly well. At three o'clock we lunched, and then walked
in the garden, after which we re-entered the house and recited the
afternoon prayers. About eight we were seated at dinner. There were
twenty-four at table, including the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge,
Prince George and the Princess Mary, two foreign princes with a lady,
and Col. Jones, who accompanied them. There were also present Sir C.
Bagot, Lord and Lady Cawdor, and Miss Wellesley, Baron Bulow,
Monsieur Didel, and Lady Maryborough. The entertainment, or rather the
Banquet, was magnificent, and the guests did not leave till after
eleven. Wester on the guitar, and Benedict on the piano, amused the
company at the conclusion of the dinner, and Louise sang one song
beautifully. We left about twelve and returned home."

_Tuesday, September 18th._--"My dear Judith," he writes, "with the
Baronesses Charlotte, Anselm, and Lionel de Rothschild, came to the
Session House at three o'clock, and sat on the bench till near five,
but no trial of interest took place. A few minutes later I joined the
dinner in the hall, as it was the last time I should have to visit the
Old Bailey in my capacity as Sheriff of London and Middlesex. There
were present: Alderman Lawson, in the chair; Common-Sergeant S.
Arabin, Ed. Blount, John Masterman, Henry Alexander, Matthias Attwood,
H. de Castro, G. H. Mine, Mr Maynard, Mr Wire, Sir George Carrol, and
two or three others. It was a most pleasant party; a kind of
leave-taking dinner, and the Sheriffs had the gratification of hearing
that their conduct during their year of office had given general
satisfaction. It was impossible to leave the room without a feeling of
regret at parting from very pleasant acquaintances whom we were so
little likely to see again. Very quickly has the year flown away, with
its pleasures and fatigues, leaving only the satisfaction of having
accomplished our arduous duties to the best of our abilities."

_Wednesday, September 19th._--He went early to the Old Bailey, and
breakfasted there, as he had generally done during the year when his
attendance was required. "These early repasts," he observes, "have
been, without exception, most comfortable; although they preceded long
days of confinement in a hot and close court, they have left pleasing
remembrances of the many marks of attention and kindness shown to me
by the city Judges who used to join these early meals." After this,
his last breakfast there, he accompanied Lady Carrol, her daughters,
and some other visitors round the prison and cells. He then left some
money for the prisoners, and conducted the Judges and a large party
into the dining-room, after which he bade adieu to the Old Bailey, "I
expect," he says, "for ever." He then returned home and prepared for
the Holy days which were to commence the same evening.

On Monday, October 1st, the following official notice appeared:--

  "Cowen, Mayor.--In a meeting or assembly of the Mayor,
  Aldermen, and Liverymen of the several Companies of the
  city of London, in Common Council assembled, at the
  Guildhall of the said city, on Saturday, the 29th day of
  September 1838. Resolved unanimously, that the thanks of
  this Common Hall are eminently due, and are hereby
  given, to Sir George Carrol and Sir Moses Montefiore,
  Knights, Sheriffs of this City, and Sheriffs of the
  County of Middlesex, for the past year, for the
  splendour with which they have maintained the dignity of
  that high office; for their hospitality; for the
  punctuality, zeal, and judgment with which they have
  executed their various official duties; for their
  munificent and constant support of the charities which
  adorn the metropolis; for their humanity to the
  prisoners entrusted to their care; for their various
  efforts to preserve, unimpaired, the privileges of this
  city; and for their universal courtesy to all their
  fellow-citizens.

  "Woodthorpe."

The particulars of that meeting are thus given:--"Mr Timothy Curtis,
the Governor of the Bank of England, came forward to move a vote of
thanks to the late Sheriffs, Sir George Carrol and Sir Moses
Montefiore, for the dignity, splendour, humanity, and hospitality with
which they had distinguished themselves in the high situation to which
they had been chosen by the unanimous voice of their fellow-citizens.
Mr Gurney, in seconding the motion of thanks, said he rejoiced that
the day had arrived when the citizens could be served by any one,
whatever his religious opinions might be."

Mr T. Curtis then read the following letter--a letter of thanks to the
Livery--from Sir Moses Montefiore, in the course of which he said:--

"I need not tell you that many of the duties of office myself and
colleague have just passed through are of a painful nature. We have
often been called upon to witness scenes of agony occasioned by want
and crime. Some of this distress, however painful, we could not
alleviate; but we have endeavoured to mitigate the sufferings of the
prisoners, and to open to them better and happier courses of life, as
far as public justice and the necessarily strict rules of a prison
would permit.

"If, on the one hand, there have been scenes of distress to witness,
on the other I have found many sources of unmingled gratification. I
have had opportunities of forming friendships with the members of the
Corporation, and of cementing a friendship of long standing with my
excellent colleague--friendships which I am sure, as regards my own
wishes, will still remain, and cause me to look back on the past year
as one of the happiest of my life."

Whilst these proceedings took place at the Guildhall, Sir Moses was
fasting and reciting prayers with his community in the ancient and
venerable Synagogue called "The Gate of Heaven," as the day on which
the meeting took place happened to be the Day of Atonement, appointed
in the Bible as a day of repentance and prayer for the forgiveness of
sins. The fast does not seem to have affected Sir Moses' health or
spirits in the least, as we find him attending service again in the
House of Prayer at twenty minutes before seven the next morning. His
devotions concluded, he takes an early opportunity of visiting his
friends and enquiring how they have passed the previous day. The same
evening he dined with his mother, who, he writes, "was, thanks to
Heaven, pretty well after her fast."

_Monday, October 1st._--He called on Mr Curtis, the Governor of the
Bank of England, to thank him for proposing the vote of thanks to the
Sheriffs; also on Mr Gurney, who seconded the vote. Later in the day
he accompanied Sir George Carrol to Westminster, and at three o'clock
the Lord Mayor, Aldermen, the Recorder, and Sheriffs elect came there
to receive Her Majesty's approval of the newly elected Sheriffs. The
Recorder in his address to the Bench again highly complimented Sir
George and Sir Moses on the efficient manner in which they discharged
their duties. Sir Moses then returned in great haste to the city,
having summoned a meeting at the Alliance Office at four, for the
election of a solicitor to the Board of Deputies. At five o'clock he
had to attend the new Sheriffs' inauguration dinner at the London
Tavern. "There were 150 persons present," he says, "the Lord Mayor in
the chair. We had the foremost places, next to the new Sheriffs, and
our health was drunk in a most complimentary manner."

_Wednesday, October 3rd._--Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore went to
Ramsgate, where they spent the Tabernacle holidays very happily,
surrounded by relatives and friends whom they had invited for the
occasion.

On the 19th they returned again to London. Here they had the
satisfaction of finding letters of introduction from Lord Palmerston
to Her Majesty's Ambassadors and Consuls in Paris, Florence, Rome,
Naples, Malta, Alexandria, and Constantinople, as also to the Admiral
on the Mediterranean Station, which Sir Moses had asked for through Mr
Spring-Rice.

_Monday, October 22nd._--At a meeting of the Deputies of the British
Jews, Sir Moses resigned the Presidency on account of his going
abroad. The next day he called at the Foreign Office to thank Lord
Palmerston for the letters of introduction he had so kindly sent; he
also called on Mr Spring-Rice, who was very friendly, and promised him
a letter to the Governor of Malta, at the same time requesting Sir
Moses to write to him from the East. A few days later he received
several letters from Baron Lionel de Rothschild, which Baron Anthony,
at the request of Baron Anselm de Rothschild, had procured for him
from the French Ministry, to the French Admiral on the Mediterranean
Station, and to their Ministers and Consuls.

Before leaving England Sir Moses sent for his solicitor to read over
the will he had prepared, and which he signed in his presence, and in
the presence of another gentleman whom he had brought as witness.

I notice this item in the entries of his diary to show the
completeness of all his arrangements.

There is a book entitled "Notes from a Private Journal of a Visit to
Egypt and Palestine by way of Italy and the Mediterranean," written by
Lady Montefiore, and printed in the year 1844: a second edition was
printed shortly before the death of Sir Moses. Both, having only been
intended for private circulation among friends, are unpublished. The
account of the journey which I give here is taken partly from Sir
Moses' and Lady Montefiore's diaries, and partly from my own, which I
kept when travelling with them, with a view of supplying the reader
with information on subjects which they have omitted to write down.

_Thursday, November 1st._--"We have finished," Sir Moses writes, "all
the preparations for our journey, and have taken leave of all our dear
relatives. I have left to Benjamin Cohen the key of a box in which
there are 1300 Portuguese Bonds which I have destined for the poor of
the Holy Land; if necessary he is to sell them for me. After that we
set out from Park Lane in our travelling carriage with four post
horses, attended by our servants. May the blessing of the Almighty
accompany us. We stopped a short time at Kennington for the blessing
of our dear mother, whom I pray God to protect, that we may have the
happiness to find her in health on our return, and then proceeded as
far as Sittingbourne, where we remained overnight."

Travelling _viâ_ Strasburg and Avignon they reached Lyons, where they
rested for Sabbath. Thus far their way had been through the most
lovely scenery, but their enjoyment was marred by the inclemency of
the weather, and the difficulty of the roads, which lay for the most
part at the sides or on the top of high steep mountains, close to
immense precipices or rushing rivers, which were swollen by the
torrents of water streaming down the sides of the mountains from the
melting snow. "My dear Judith," says Sir Moses, "was often so
frightened that she persisted in getting out of the carriage, although
the snow was deep on the ground. Our courier and the postillions had
to walk a great part of the way, and to lead the horses, as the ice
had made the roads so slippery. I certainly would not recommend this
season for travelling."

From Lyons they took the steamboat to Avignon, thinking this mode of
travelling would be an improvement on the roads, but they were
mistaken. The boat was to start at six o'clock in the morning. The
moon still shone brightly, but the gale was so strong that for some
time the captain was doubtful whether he should start. After much
consideration he decided to venture. The boat went at a good speed
until they came to the first bridge, where it was found that the river
was so swollen that it did not seem possible to pass under. The vessel
was moored to the bank by the side of the bridge, and the captain
proceeded in a small boat to measure the height of the arch. It was
pronounced to be just sufficient; the funnel was lowered nearly flat.
Sir Moses says he was certain there was not six inches between the top
of the funnel and the bridge; the smallest wave might have dashed
their boat against it, and they might have been drowned. Twice more
they had to undergo this anxiety; all the passengers were panic
stricken. "I must confess," says Sir Moses, "I would rather be in the
open sea in a hurricane." The second day's journey was not so bad, as
during the night the river had fallen a foot, and they reached Avignon
in safety. "But I am mortified," he writes, "to find that, though
there are many Jews in this place, there is no Synagogue. No meat,
prepared according to Jewish law, can be procured. We could manage
with fish and vegetables, but I exceedingly regret not being able to
join public worship on Sabbath. Tomorrow will be the first time we
have omitted so doing since we left London, and shall be happy if it
is the last."

Leaving Avignon, they proceeded, _viâ_ Marseilles, Toulon, and Cannes,
to Nice. Writing from here, Sir Moses says: "We find the climate here
very different to that of England, the sun even now, at the end of
December, being almost too powerful to be pleasant. Notwithstanding
all the advantages Nice may afford, nothing would induce me to live
here. I was shocked and grieved to hear that our brethren are treated
in the most intolerant manner, not being allowed even to educate their
children for any profession. I was told that when the King and Queen
of Sardinia visited Nice in 1826, all classes of the inhabitants, Jews
among the number, tried to show their loyalty, by sending deputations
to present addresses, but the King refused to receive the deputation
from the Jews. They then addressed him through the Minister of State,
and solicited permission to erect an obelisk in commemoration of the
Royal visit, and the joy they felt, in common with their
fellow-subjects, at seeing their King and Queen. After some time this
humble petition was granted, and the column stands now in the city,
bearing a Hebrew and Italian inscription."

Amongst the many friends and acquaintances they had met at this place,
there was one of some historical importance, Isaak Samuel Avigdor,
who, on account of his knowledge of the French and Italian languages,
acted as one of the secretaries to the French Synhedrion under
Napoleon I., in the year 1806. At the last session of that assembly he
had moved a resolution to the effect that "the Jews in France,
Germany, and Italy do now forget all the misfortunes (_i.e._,
persecution) which befell them, and only engrave in their hearts the
kind acts which have been done towards them, and that they acknowledge
with deep gratitude the kind reception which the Popes and other
representatives of the Catholic Church had given them at a time when
barbarity, prejudice, and ignorance had persecuted and expelled them
from society." The resolution was unanimously adopted, and entered in
the minutes of the proceedings.

Unfortunately, Pius VII., the Pope who declared that he represented
Aaron, the Prophet of God, cannot be numbered among those who
protected the Jews. Immediately after the restoration of the Bourbons,
in the year 1814, as soon as he was able to resume the government of
the Papal States, he re-established the Inquisition.

Monsieur Avigdor had the mortification of witnessing the distressing
consequences of the Pope's new edicts. The Jews in Rome were obliged
to quit the houses which, under the French Government, they had been
permitted to own in all parts of the city, and return to the Ghetto.
They had to give up counting-houses and other places of business which
they had in the Corso. In vain did they offer large sums of money to
induce the Minister of State to withdraw his order. The applications
made by numerous deputations from Jewish communitiesin various towns
likewise proved fruitless. They were even forced to attend sermons
preached in the churches for the purpose of their conversion, heavy
fines being imposed upon all those who absented themselves; and those
who were detected either asleep, or not paying sufficient attention to
the sermon, were unceremoniously aroused by one of the priests.

I noticed during my stay in Rome a Hebrew inscription over the
entrance of one of these churches (Chiesa della divina pietà), which
runs as follows: "I have spread out my hands all the day unto a
rebellious people, which walketh in a way that was not good, after
their own thoughts, a people that provoketh me to anger continually to
my face." (Isaiah lxv., 3 and 4)

Mr Avigdor often spoke on the above subject to Sir Moses and Lady
Montefiore. He related some interesting incidents in connection with
the Synhedrion, how the members were put to much inconvenience on the
first day of the opening of their Sessions, the day fixed by the
Emperor being their Sabbath.

Mr Avigdor pressed Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore to prolong their stay
in Nice, but they were anxious to proceed, without unnecessary delay,
on their projected pilgrimage, and they left on the 31st of December.



CHAPTER XIX.

1839.

GENOA, CARRARA, LEGHORN, AND ROME--DISQUIETING RUMOURS--QUARANTINE
PRECAUTIONS--ARRIVAL AT ALEXANDRIA--TRAVEL IN THE HOLY LAND.


They reached Genoa on January 2nd, 1839, and after a few days' rest,
continued their journey to Carrara.

On the following day, the Dottore A. Passani, an advocate of Carrara,
called, and brought Sir Moses several of his father's letters, some
dated as far back as 1790; they were all in Italian, and beautifully
written. Both Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore were much pleased at the
sight of the handwriting of their father, and would have been glad if
the gentleman had been willing to part with them, but it appears he
desired to preserve them himself as souvenirs of the late Mr
Montefiore.

On their way to Rome they visited Leghorn, a period of eleven years
having elapsed since their last sojourn in that place, and made
special arrangements there for having the graves of their kind
god-parents, Moses and Esther Racah, kept in proper order.

"I was desirous," writes Sir Moses, "once more to offer up prayers in
the Synagogue so near to the house in which I was born; we therefore
drove to Synagogue, where my dear Judith and I humbly thanked the
Almighty for all His great goodness to us. We left Leghorn on the 16th
January; it was a beautiful day, the sun smiling on us, and returned
to Carrara, where we wished to purchase some more souvenirs of Italy,
and also gave orders to Vincenzo Bonami for our coat-of-arms to be
executed in marble for East Cliff Lodge."

On the 18th January we find them at Florence, where they remained
until the 2nd February. It appears that the climate there did not
agree with either Lady Montefiore or Sir Moses. They had to take
medical advice, and Dr Usiglio strongly dissuaded them from going to
Jerusalem, advising them on the contrary to return to England before
the hot season. But they were reluctant to give up their cherished
object, and, trusting in God, who had always protected them, they
started for Rome, where they arrived on the 6th February.

"I am informed," observes Sir Moses, "that there are 3500 Jews here,
two-thirds poor. Four times a year, 200 are obliged to attend a sermon
preached in church for their conversion. Leo XII. had deprived them of
their privilege of keeping shops and warehouses out of the Ghetto. But
the present most excellent Pontiff, Gregory XVI., has permitted them
to have warehouses in the city. He frequently sends them money from
his own purse, and is always willing to give an audience to their
deputies and to attend to their requests.

"Yesterday we were shown some very rich and splendid silk Damask,
embroidered in silver and gold, for hangings for the Synagogue, Holy
Ark, and pulpit. There are many silver bells, crowns, and chains,
enriched with precious stones, for the scrolls of the Holy Law, and in
the Synagogue there are beautiful marbles, mosaics, and columns."

Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore did not prolong their stay in Rome. On
the 13th February they quitted the city for Naples, remaining there
till March 22nd, when they again returned to Rome, apartments having
been previously taken for them at 54 Via della Fontanella di Borghese.

It was now nearly four years since I had first the pleasure of meeting
Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore in London. I had since that time been
travelling in Egypt, Nubia, Ethiopia, Syria, and the Holy Land, and
had during these travels the gratification to receive some letters
from Sir Moses. It was therefore a very pleasant surprise for me to
meet them in Rome and to visit with them the museums, picture
galleries, and most places of importance. They spoke to me of their
intended pilgrimage to Jerusalem, and invited me to accompany them.
Having had many opportunities when in Eyn Zetoon, Upper Galilee,
during the revolt of the Druses, to become fully acquainted with the
character and peculiarities of the various classes of inhabitants of
the land, I felt a great interest in all measures that could be
devised for the improvement of their condition; and, anticipating good
results from Sir Moses' visit to the Holy Land, I gladly accepted the
invitation.

On the 28th March they received a letter from the Baroness James de
Rothschild, in which she informed them that intelligence had been
received from the Austrian Consul of great military preparations being
made in Alexandria, and that war would not long be delayed between the
Pasha of Egypt and the Sultan. Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore, nothing
daunted by the news, determined not to relinquish their plans.

They were frequently visited by the Abbate Farrari and Monsignor
Bruti, two ecclesiastics of liberal ideas and agreeable manners, who
kept them _au fait_ of all interesting ceremonies and festivals in the
church, presenting them with tickets for the best places on all
important occasions.

Signor Pietro Rittig, of Coblenz, having called their attention to one
of his pictures in the museum of modern painters, entitled "Students
in the Academy of Painting," they bought it, together with several
others, namely, "A Greek Girl," by Isidore; "A Buffalo," by Linden; "A
Mandolino," by Cavalleri; "Two Peasants," by Pelletti, and others.

Signor Salvadore Taglicozzo recommended an eminent scribe, to whom Sir
Moses gave the order to write a Pentateuch scroll for him, also to
procure a richly embroidered mantle for it.

During the Passover festival they attended Synagogue, which was very
crowded and splendidly decorated. They were much struck by the
presence of several gendarmes and soldiers. Two, with fixed bayonets,
were placed opposite the Ark containing the sacred scrolls of law;
each time one of the latter was removed or returned, they presented
arms as a mark of respect. Sir Moses remembered having seen something
similar in the Great Synagogue of Leghorn, yet it had always appeared
strange to him that in a building bearing the appellation, "Temple of
Peace," the representatives of war should be on duty, carrying with
them implements of destruction: the Altar of the Lord being considered
according to an injunction of Holy Writ, as desecrated by the mere
touch of a sword.

_Friday, April 12th._--We left Rome, embarking on the following Sunday
in the _Sesostris_ for Malta, where we arrived on the 17th.

Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore, requiring some rest after the voyage,
resolved to remain there a few days. He called on the Governor, Sir
Henry Bouverie, to present to him his letter of introduction from Mr
Spring-Rice, also on Admiral Sir Robert Stopford, and on many friends
whose acquaintance they had made on a former visit to Malta. He had
not long returned to the hotel when an invitation came from the
Governor for Sir Moses, Lady Montefiore, and myself to dine at the
Palace on the following Saturday.

To spend her time usefully and agreeably, Lady Montefiore applied
herself with much diligence to the study of Arabic, and both she and
Sir Moses read daily three Psalms in Hebrew, which they requested me
to translate into English, and explain.

The old agent of the Silk Company called on them, and also Captain
Austen of the _Bellerophon_, with his wife and daughter. The
representatives of the Hebrew community in the Island came to pay
their respects, and report on the affairs of the Synagogue.

_April 20th._--They attended divine service, after which they paid a
few visits, and returned to their hotel, where they remained till
the evening, when they proceeded to the Palace. The Sabbath not being
yet terminated, Lady Montefiore went in a sedan-chair, while Sir
Moses and I walked. The Governor was in full uniform, wearing all
his orders. About twenty-four sat down to table, amongst whom were
the Duke of Devonshire (just out of quarantine, on his return from
Constantinople), Admiral Sir Robert Stopford and his family, Captain
Hyde Parker, Sir Hector Gray, Secretary of Government, Lady Stopford's
sister with her daughter, the Duke's physician, and many military
officers. Admiral Stopford took Lady Montefiore down to dinner, and
promised to do all in his power to obtain a steamboat to take them to
Jaffa. Both Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore were much pleased with their
reception at the Palace.

_Monday 22nd._--Sir Moses and I dined with Sir Hector Grey; it was a
gentleman's party. The Governor, the Admiral and his son, the Duke of
Devonshire, Sir John Lewis, Mr Frere (uncle of the late Sir Bartle
Frere), Mr Bourchier (who was private secretary to Sir Frederick C.
Ponsonby, Governor of the Island in 1824), Captain Best, Captain
Goulbourne, and two other gentlemen were present.

On Wednesday we all dined with the Admiral, and met there Sir John and
Lady Mackenzie, Captain Cosnier, Captain Fisher, and several other
naval officers of distinction. Lady Stopford held a reception
afterwards, which was well attended.

_Sunday, April 28th._--The French Consul sent us the _Journal de
Smyrne_, in which it was stated that accounts had been received that
the plague had broken out in Jerusalem, and that the mortality in that
city had already reached from forty to fifty per day. In another
number of the same paper information was given to the effect that
letters had been received from Cairo that hostilities had commenced in
Syria.

Though very little credit was attached to these articles they gave us
all some uneasiness, and in consequence of a renewed report of the
plague, Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore went to the quarantine harbour,
where they saw the captain of the _Blazer_, lately arrived from
Beyrout. He informed them that Mr and Mrs Freemantle were in Fort
Manuel, after returning from the Holy Land. Sir Moses and Lady
Montefiore then called on Mr and Mrs Freemantle, who informed them
that while they were in Jerusalem the plague was raging there, and
they had to perform eighteen days quarantine before entering Beyrout,
but they believed the city to be now healthy, although Sir Moses would
probably find Jerusalem shut up, as the warm weather would bring back
the plague. They gave a most distressing account of the Jews under the
present government. All were more or less ill-treated, many being
actually in slavery. Mr Freemantle said that the Jews were looking
most anxiously for the arrival of Sir Moses.

_Friday, May 3rd._--Sir Moses took leave of the Admiral, and then went
to the Palace, and there met H.R.H. Prince George of Cambridge, who
received him most kindly, and they had a friendly conversation.

Soon after twelve, having taken leave of his remaining friends, Sir
Moses went with Lady Montefiore to the quarantine harbour, thence in a
boat to the _Megara_, a steam vessel. Captain Goldsmith, the
commander, received them on board, and at two o'clock we left the
harbour for Alexandria.

_Wednesday, May 8th._--This morning, soon after six, land was
discovered, the masts of the ships in the harbour being the first
objects caught sight of. A pilot came on board about eight. As we
entered the port the French steamer for Marseilles left, so that we
just missed the opportunity of sending letters by her. We were much
amused at the great precautions taken by the people who came alongside
in the boat belonging to the Board of Health. They received our Bill
of Health, which we had brought from Malta, with a pair of tongs,
every one alarmed lest he should touch it; it was opened with the aid
of the tongs and a thin iron rod; but as soon as they saw that it was
a clean bill, certifying that at the date of our leaving Malta was
free from plague and every other contagious distemper, the officers
came on board with Colonel Campbell's janissary.

Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore now landed, proceeding to an hotel,
where they remained overnight; and the next morning we all rode off to
the Custom House, opposite to which we found the _Megara's_ boat,
which Captain Goldsmith had politely sent to take us on board.

Sir Moses took particular note of the Pasha's troops. There were on
the quay about a thousand soldiers; they all appeared to him to be
quite little boys, scarce able to carry a musket; he did not believe
any were above fourteen years old, while some seemed not more than
nine. "If the troops are all like these," he said, "Heaven help
Mohhammad Ali!"

_Saturday, May 11th._--At an early hour the anchor was cast in the Bay
of Beyrout, but we remained on board ship till the evening, when the
commander conducted us on shore in his boat. As the boat left the ship
all the company on board, comprising officers and men, saluted Sir
Moses and Lady Montefiore with many huzzas.

We repaired to the house selected for us by Mr Niven Moore, the
British Consul, and in the morning Sir Moses paid his respects to the
Governor, Mohamed Bey, who received him most politely. He asked him
for letters of introduction to the governors of several towns which it
was probable we should visit, also his assistance to procure horses
for us, all of which he promised. We then went to the English Consul,
who sent in the course of the day his janissary to attend Sir Moses
while we continued in Beyrout.

Several representatives of the Hebrew community called to welcome
them, and many letters from Jerusalem, Hebron, Safed, and Tiberias
were handed to them by special messenger. They have all been anxiously
looking forward to their arrival in the Holy Land, "but our visit,"
Sir Moses observed, "is not the most timely for our comfort, pleasure,
or safety; the political state of the country is most unsatisfactory
and uncertain; a single day may bring about a complete change in the
government of Syria and Palestine. The forces of the Sultan have
certainly crossed the frontier, and Ibrahim Pasha will positively
resist any further advance. Mohhammad Ali has sent his son every man
he had at his disposal."

_Monday, 13th._--Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore rode on horseback to
the Synagogue, which was very full in honour of their visit. We were
told that there were sixty Jewish families in Beyrout, none of them
rich. During the day they received visits from the Rev. Mr and Mrs
Thompson of the American Mission, and also from many ladies and
gentlemen of the Jewish community. Mr Ed. Kilbee, of the firm of
Kilbee, Haugh & Co., Bankers, came to inform Sir Moses that he could
find no one to take charge of the money for Jerusalem. Sir Moses
immediately wrote to the Governor to request that he would provide him
with messengers to carry the money to Safed, Tiberias, and Jerusalem.
The Governor wrote a very civil answer, but regretted he could not
comply with this request. He then addressed himself to the British
Consul, but no answer reached him that day.

The next morning the Consul's dragoman came with a message that he had
been with the Governor, who was extremely sorry not to be able to
provide us with an escort, but the roads were not so unsafe as
reported, and he hoped a large party, well armed like ours, would
travel with safety. Sir Moses was much troubled in making the
arrangements, to divide the money into smaller parcels, putting these
into bags and baskets, altogether eleven. This we were obliged to do
ourselves. Mr Kilbee passed some time with us, giving us much
encouragement, though he was unable to find any person who would risk
taking the money, either to Safed, Tiberias, Jerusalem, or Hebron, in
spite of the most tempting offers. Sir Moses imploring the protection
of the Almighty, we set forward on our pilgrimage at 4 P.M.

The way was over sand and through stony lanes, which opened on a sandy
plain; we rested at Beer Hássán, till our luggage came up. There were
fourteen mules and three horses, besides several donkeys for the
moukeries. Having taken some coffee we proceeded on our way. The
scenery was beautiful, especially the mountains of Lebanon, many of
the highest being covered with snow. At eight we reached Khán Kháldáh,
the "Mutatio Heldua," according to Pococke, in the Jerusalem
Itinerary.

"Thanks to Heaven," says Sir Moses, "we rested well in our tent, and
set forward on our journey the next day, May 15th, at five. We rode on
till one, then reposed till three o'clock under a mulberry tree; they
were cutting off the young boughs and gathering the leaves. The road
ran on the sands and rocks close to the sea. At three we sent off our
tents and baggage to Náhr el Kasmiyah, said to be three hours'
distance, and we followed. Before reaching Sidon, we were met by many
Jews, the representatives of congregations; they said they had been
waiting three hours for us. They accompanied us to the tomb of
Zebulon, where we recited prayers. We then took leave of our brethren
and continued riding till seven o'clock, when I was so fatigued I
could go no further. A mat was spread in a garden near the water, and
I gladly threw myself upon it. We sent a man to order our tents to be
brought back. In about an hour great screams were heard; we sent to
see what was the matter, when it was ascertained that the cries
proceeded from our messenger who had gone for the tent. He said he had
been attacked, severely beaten, and his donkey almost killed. This
intelligence alarmed Dr Loewe very much for the safety of our lives,
to say nothing of our luggage. He remained walking round our mats
during the night, with his loaded pistols, Judith and I having ours
under our heads. About midnight we with difficulty persuaded two men
to ride after our luggage to see what had become of it; they returned
at three in the morning with the news of its being all safe. Our road
after passing Sidon was like going through a beautiful garden. At a
short distance on our right we had a view of the sea, on our left
mountains; they were pretty well cultivated--wheat, barley, figs and
mulberries; but few can imagine the anxiety we suffered during the
night, when we were exposed to the winds of heaven."

_Thursday, May 16th._--We started at 6 A.M., and rode till nine, after
which we reposed for some time. We met three persons sent from Safed
with letters from the Spiritual Head of the community to welcome us;
he was at Tiberias, and prevented by indisposition from coming to meet
us. We rested in a beautiful valley, noticing much cattle, small cows,
calves, and a number of goats. We then crossed the Náhr el Kasmiyah, a
river which divides the lot of Asher from that of Dan.

There was a heavy dew in the night. Sir Moses was much fatigued, and
still felt the bad effects of having slept exposed to the night air on
the previous day. The next morning was cloudy; we started at five
o'clock, riding over mountains and through fertile valleys till ten.
While resting, we received a letter by a private messenger from the
three representatives of the Hebrew Congregation at Safed, where each
had prepared his own house for our use, and was waiting to receive us.
About two hours later we caught the first glimpse of Safed. The town
looked very beautiful, being situate on the summit of the mountain,
which was crowned with beautiful olive trees of immense growth and
great age.



CHAPTER XX.

1839.

RECEPTION AT SAFED--SAD CONDITION OF THE PEOPLE--SIR MOSES' PROJECT
FOR THE CULTIVATION OF THE LAND IN PALESTINE BY THE JEWS--DEATH OF THE
CHIEF RABBI OF THE GERMAN CONGREGATION IN JERUSALEM--TIBERIAS.


After four hours' ride we met two of the chiefs of the Portuguese
community, sent to escort us as a guard of honour. On reaching
half-way up the mountain, the ecclesiastical chief of the German
Hebrew community, accompanied by many of his congregation, came to
welcome us. He is an old man of benevolent countenance. I dismounted,
giving the chief my horse to ride. This special mark of respect I
showed to him in commemoration of the holy resignation manifested by
the venerable chief only a year before on the occasion of the revolt
of the Druses against Mohhammad Ali. These marauders, having pillaged
and maltreated the whole community, wished to enforce from them an
additional sum of five hundred Turkish purses or £2500, a sum which of
course the Hebrews could not produce. The Druses thereupon bound the
aged chief hand and foot, and laying the edge of a naked sword upon
his neck, threatened to instantly sever his head if the demanded sum
were not handed over without delay. The good man did not ask them to
spare his life, which he would willingly sacrifice to save his
community; all he requested of them was to allow a little clean water
to be poured over his hands, that he might recite a prayer and
acknowledge the justice of God in all His ways. At this a heartrending
cry burst from all present, and even the Druses themselves appear to
have been touched. They withdrew the sword and entered upon some
arrangements with the community, who had to borrow the required amount
from some of the convents. I had been to see him the day after this
occurrence, and found him reciting his morning prayers as calmly as if
nothing had happened.

Sir Moses in his description of the journey continues--"As we were
descending the mountain a man, who had been placed there to give
notice to the inhabitants of our approach, fired a musket, and the
salute was answered by our party, who discharged their guns and
pistols. Our firing had a cheerful effect, as the echo was taken up by
the distant hills. We were soon met by Signor Mirrachi (ecclesiastical
chief of the Portuguese community) with a great number of his
congregation. He expressed his regret that I would not accept the
house he had prepared for us. The scene became most interesting. Men,
women, and children covered the sides and top of the hill as well as
the roofs of all houses; but I was nearly dead with fatigue."

As soon as Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore reached their apartments,
preparations were made for the Sabbath, but Sir Moses had not the
strength to walk to Synagogue. He had for some time expressed
uneasiness lest we should not reach the town before sunset, yet he had
the happiness of seeing the sun above the horizon, after we had
entered our house.

By special invitation ten gentlemen were soon with him in his room,
and the evening service was commenced, but he could scarcely stand,
and as soon as prayers were ended he retired. The following day Sir
Moses being still too unwell to leave his bed, numbers of visitors
called to enquire after his health, all expressing their regret at his
indisposition.

During the next two days, on which the festival of Pentecost was
celebrated, Sir Moses recovered sufficiently to accompany Lady
Montefiore to the Portuguese Synagogue, where a sacred scroll of great
antiquity is preserved. On Sir Moses being called to the rostrum to
pronounce the blessing, the portion of the day was read to him out of
the above scroll.

On the following day, Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore received visits
from the governor, judge, and all other dignitaries of the place. Some
of the Druses also intimated their desire to come and pay their
respects, but upon my suggestion this was declined, it being
considered undesirable to encourage their presence in Safed.

Having been amongst the sufferers at the time of their invasion of
this place the year before, I surmised the object they had in view, in
seeking to come with their friends to see the English pilgrims.

_Tuesday, May 21st._--Sir Moses now occupied himself in obtaining
information as to the actual state of the Jews in this city, as well
as the probable prospect of success for his project, viz., to
encourage the Jews and enable them to gain a livelihood by the
cultivation of the land. They had frequent interviews with T. and N.
Drucker, two clever and enterprising men, father and son, who had come
originally from Poland, and had possessed a handsome fortune. They had
brought with them a printing press, and had printed prayer-books. They
had also begun to print a Bible, when the Druses came, destroyed their
press, robbed them of all their property, and beat them most
unmercifully, breaking the father's thigh, so that he barely escaped
with his life.

_Wednesday, May 22nd._--All the afternoon was spent both by Sir Moses
and Lady Montefiore in seeing people, in listening to their complaints
and sorrows, and also in obtaining information respecting the
cultivation of land. The German and Portuguese Chief Rabbis came, and
after some conversation, Sir Moses decided to distribute personally
the money he had brought for the relief of the sufferers by the
earthquake, according to the number of souls. A Spanish dollar was
given to every man, woman, and child over thirteen, while two dollars
were given to the blind, and no distinction was made between
Portuguese and German. The money sent from London soon after the
earthquake had been distributed by the Portuguese, who gave the
greatest part to those learned in our Holy Law, leaving but little for
all the other sufferers, which Sir Moses considered unjust. The
spiritual head of the German congregation, the Rev. A. Dob, said that
the money was divided amongst their congregation according to the
amount of loss sustained by each individual. Nor did the German
committee ever retain one penny more for themselves than for the other
members of the congregation. "This," said Sir Moses, "appears to me
the most honest way of acting."

The Portuguese gentlemen, however, in justification of their own
course of action in this matter, explained that those who are engaged
in imparting religious instruction to the community, taking charge of
all their institutions, devoting their time to the interest of the
rising generation, having no business or occupation that would
adequately secure their maintenance, ought naturally to have some
additional share in the offerings of their wealthier brethren abroad,
offerings intended not only for the relief of distress, but also for
the preservation of a religious community. The same, they said, would
be done in Europe, where the teachers in schools and colleges, or the
managers of communal institutions, happen to be without income or
salary for their maintenance.

Sir Moses having inspected the new buildings, regretted to find that
most of them were but poor miserable hovels, built over the ruins of
the old ones, high up the hill, close to the edge of the mountain, so
that the slightest shock of earthquake would bury the inhabitants one
above the other without hope of escape. The houses were built on the
side of the mountain, row above row. On inquiring the reason of this,
he was informed that by building over the old houses they were saved
the expense of making excavations, these being already there; they had
no fear of earthquakes, all they dreaded being the Mooslemin
inhabitants and the visits of the Druses.

_Thursday, May 23rd._--At ten we rode to Djermek, a village two hours
distant, to the farm of Israel Drucker, one of his tenants having a
son who was to be received that day into the covenant of Abraham. Sir
Moses and Lady Montefiore had been invited to act as god-parents to
the child.

On reaching the house Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore were most
respectfully saluted, and the ceremony was immediately performed. We
then sat down for a short time to partake of some refreshment; and,
having offered presents and congratulations to the parents of the
infant, we descended the mountain, to visit the tomb of R. Simeon ben
Yókháï, in Miroon. There we were met by the principal inhabitants of
Safed.

We then visited the tomb of Hillel, celebrated in Jewish history for
his great learning and for his noble character and humility. "One of
the most interesting sights," says Sir Moses, "I have seen in the Holy
Land. There is one cave within the other, a spring of the clearest
water flowing through both; it appears to spring from the spot where
the mortal remains of Hillel repose. In the vicinity of the tomb we
saw a splendid marble portal of a Synagogue now in ruins; the marble
was handsomely carved, and many of the stones adjoining the portal
were still standing, all of them being of great size."

_Friday, May 24th._--Sir Moses was again engaged from nine to six with
the distribution of the money. He also gave special donations to the
heads of schools and colleges, and endeavoured to alleviate the
distress among the poor of all non-Israelitish communities. Sir Moses
found his brethren most anxious to be employed and to earn their own
bread. They appeared to prefer the cultivation of land as the most
likely means to raise them from their present destitute condition.
There were a few Jews who had some interest with Mussulmans in
cultivating some small farms about three or four hours from Safed, but
their means were so limited that they could ill afford to keep a pair
of oxen to till the ground. There was no lack of spirit, and Sir Moses
thought that some trifling assistance from the proper persons in
Europe would speedily restore health and plenty, should such be the
will of Heaven.

On the same day we received the sad tidings of the death of the Rev.
Israel, Chief Rabbi of the German congregation in Jerusalem, which had
taken place at Tiberias on the 22nd inst. It had been his intention to
come to Sir Moses to welcome him and Lady Montefiore on their entry
into the Holy Land. He was renowned for his great learning and noble
character, which he had so often manifested in the performance of his
official duties, as spiritual guide of the community; and being a
disciple of the celebrated Rabbi Eliahu Wilna, he was held in high
esteem by all the congregations in the four holy cities. Both Sir
Moses and Lady Montefiore were much affected by the mournful event,
and lost no time in considering what steps should be taken to evince
their sympathy with the bereaved family.

The following day being Sabbath, they attended divine service,
afterwards receiving numerous visits from the inhabitants of the
place. One gentleman from Tiberias gave a most melancholy account of
the state of the country; he assured them that the roads to Jerusalem
were very unsafe, and the plague actually in the city. Only a few days
before the holidays the son-in-law of the late Rev. Israel, and his
servant, had died of it.

The visits they received from the Druses caused us much uneasiness, as
we apprehended an attack from their body to plunder not only us, but
all Jews in the town; and we should have proceeded early the next
morning to Tiberias had we not feared such a course would give the
appearance of flight.

The heads of the Portuguese and German congregations came to pay their
respects to Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore. Two of these gentlemen, the
Rev. Abraham Shoshana and Samuel Aboo, were land owners in a
neighbouring village, and gave their opinion on the subject of
agriculture. Sir Moses, referring in his diary, to their conversation,
says:

"From all information I have been able to gather, the land in this
neighbourhood appears to be particularly favourable for agricultural
speculation. There are groves of olive trees, I should think, more
than five hundred years old, vineyards, much pasture, plenty of wells
and abundance of excellent water; also fig trees, walnuts, almonds,
mulberries, &c., and rich fields of wheat, barley, and lentils; in
fact it is a land that would produce almost everything in abundance,
with very little skill and labour. I am sure if the plan I have in
contemplation should succeed, it will be the means of introducing
happiness and plenty into the Holy Land. In the first instance, I
shall apply to Mohhammad Ali for a grant of land for fifty years; some
one or two hundred villages; giving him an increased rent of from ten
to twenty per cent., and paying the whole in money annually at
Alexandria, but the land and villages to be free, during the whole
term, from every tax or rate either of Pasha or governor of the
several districts; and liberty being accorded to dispose of the
produce in any quarter of the globe. This grant obtained, I shall,
please Heaven, on my return to England, form a company for the
cultivation of the land and the encouragement of our brethren in
Europe to return to Palestine. Many Jews now emigrate to New South
Wales, Canada, &c.; but in the Holy Land they would find a greater
certainty of success; here they will find wells already dug, olives
and vines already planted, and a land so rich as to require little
manure. By degrees I hope to induce the return of thousands of our
brethren to the Land of Israel. I am sure they would be happy in the
enjoyment of the observance of our holy religion, in a manner which is
impossible in Europe."

The scene we witnessed yesterday amply repaid us for the fatigues of
the journey. We saw nearly every individual inhabitant of Safed. Sir
Moses gave to each at least one Spanish dollar, and some fathers of
families received eight or ten dollars. To those persons who came to
meet him and Lady Montefiore at Náhr el Rasmiyah, fifteen hours'
journey from Safed, and who, when invited to sleep in the tent,
preferred, from their intense love to the country, to sleep in the
open air of the Holy Land, he made handsome presents. "I hope," said
Sir Moses in the course of conversation, "that the money I have had
the pleasure of distributing yesterday, will produce some comfort and
give assistance to the Jews in Safed, especially in their present
forlorn situation. Their sufferings during the last five years must
have been truly deplorable. First the plundering of the inhabitants,
then the earthquake, and finally the attack by the Druses, to fill the
cup of their misfortune. At the present moment the ruins of the town
present an awful spectacle of destruction; the few miserable hovels
they have erected are for the most part little better than caves, more
fit for the beast of the field than for human beings. Many are merely
four mud walls, with a mat for a roof. I think the poverty of the Jews
in Safed to be great beyond anything that can be imagined either in
England or on the Continent of Europe; it must be seen to be credited.
I am informed, and do believe, that many are actually starving, and
that great numbers died last year of hunger. Nearly all are stamped
with want and wretchedness, though many of them are tall men and have
handsome features. The women are very pretty; they have large black
eyes, are of refined manners, and exhibit much intelligence in their
conversation. I have found all the men anxious to be employed in
agriculture."

_Monday, May 27th._--We repaired early in the morning to the house of
the spiritual head of the German congregation, where we attended
divine service. His wife, who had prepared quite a treat for us,
consisting of coffee, sweetmeats, wine and cakes, gave us a most
hearty welcome. In the presence of the reverend gentleman Sir Moses
engaged one of the scribes to write a scroll of the Pentateuch for his
Synagogue at Ramsgate. The first sheet of the parchment was at once
prepared, and he had the happiness of writing the first three words.
Sir Moses on his return affixed his signature to an Arabic letter,
which he had requested me to prepare at the urgent entreaties of all
the inhabitants, praying the Governor of St Jean d'Acre to send them
some soldiers for their protection.

On the same day at half-past twelve we set out on our way to Tiberias.
In spite of Sir Moses' entreaties for them to return, we were
accompanied for about half-an-hour by the principal authorities and
most of the people of the town, who, in taking leave, called down upon
Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore all the blessings of heaven.

We passed through a beautiful country, a very long descent, winding
round hills covered with olives, figs, and pomegranates. In the plain
we saw the richest land imaginable, though but a very small part of it
was under cultivation, large fields being covered with thistles five
and six feet high. The path was rocky and difficult. After riding
three hours we reached the plain, and dismounting near a stream of
water reposed for an hour. Our road then lay near the foot of the
mountains; it was one continual ascent and descent. When we were about
two hours' ride from Tiberias, while saying the afternoon prayers, we
heard the sound of the dárábuca (Turkish drum), with shouts of joy,
and soon beheld a large party coming to meet us, dancing and singing.
They joined us in prayer, and when we had finished, the head of the
German congregation bade us welcome in glowing terms. We then
proceeded on our way, the people dancing and running before us,
playing on the drum and fife, and singing in Hebrew in a general
chorus. The spiritual heads of both German and Portuguese communities
and the principal representatives of all scholastic and charitable
institutions of the town now joined our cavalcade. They were all
singing in Arabic and Hebrew, to express their delight at our visit to
their city. We had gone but a short distance when we were met by the
Mooselim or Governor, well mounted and armed, and attended by about a
dozen officers and servants. He told Sir Moses he came to offer him
his services and to do him honour, and that in this Holy Land he
respected persons of all religions. He directed his soldiers to
skirmish up and down the sides of the mountain, charging and
retreating for our amusement. The Cadi (Judge) and his son also joined
our party, paying Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore many compliments.

"The evening," says Lady Montefiore, "was beautiful, and the gaiety of
the scene beyond my feeble powers of description; the music, singing,
and dancing of the people, the firing of guns, the horsemen at full
gallop up and down the steep sides of the mountain, discharging their
pistols, throwing the jareed, stopping their horses when at full
speed, and then riding round our party; and now, as we approached the
town, the moon shone brightly on the lake; it was a complete fairy
scene. At a short distance from the town we were met by a great
concourse of people, men, women, and children, many bearing large
torches. They formed, as it were, a lane on either side for us to pass
through, the same merriment, music, singing, and dancing continuing.
We found the whole town illuminated, it was as light as in the day; we
were saluted on all sides with expressions of joy and heartfelt
wishes. Not only were the streets crowded, but even the roofs of
houses were covered with gaily-attired females. All cheered us as we
passed, joining in the chorus, 'They are come, they are come, our
happiness is come.' Never will the scene be effaced from our memory."

We proceeded to the house of Rev. H. N. Abu-el-afia, which he had
prepared for our reception. Here the Governor and good people took
their leave, thinking we must need repose after so much fatigue. All
appeared greatly pleased, Mussulmans as well as Jews. The house looked
very clean and comfortable, with good sized rooms neatly furnished in
the Turkish style. Mrs Abu-el-afia, a pretty and clever woman, made us
partake of some coffee and sherbet, which was soon followed by a good
supper.



CHAPTER XXI.

1839.

INVITATION FROM THE PORTUGUESE CONGREGATION AT JERUSALEM--SANITARY
MEASURES IN THE HOLY CITY--THE WIVES OF THE GOVERNOR OF TIBERIAS VISIT
LADY MONTEFIORE--A PLEASANT JOURNEY--ARRIVAL AT JERUSALEM.


_Tuesday, May 28th._--The heat was very great. Sir Moses and Lady
Montefiore did not leave the house till nine o'clock, when they went
for a little while to the shore of the lake. Sir Moses received
letters from the heads of the Portuguese congregation at Jerusalem,
dated ten days back, informing him that they had prepared a house for
him, but were sorry they could not come out of the town to receive
him, as there was a cordon round the city. They did not mention one
word as to the state of the city, but in two other letters brought by
the same messenger, we learned that many Jews, whose names they gave,
had died of the plague, all the individuals in four houses being
stricken with it. In conversation with the messenger, the latter
informed Sir Moses that the plague was in Jerusalem and in all the
villages surrounding it; also at Gaza and Jaffa, adding that Sir Moses
might cut off his head if he had not spoken the truth.

Sir Moses determined to despatch a messenger to Mr W. T. Young, the
British Consul at Jerusalem. On applying to the Governor of Tiberias
to let him have a messenger with a good horse, he immediately sent us
a fine, handsome fellow, armed with pistols, sabre, &c. Sir Moses gave
him the letters, and he started instantly, at three o'clock in the
afternoon.

The Governor sent early in the morning to say that he wished to come
and pay his respects; at the same time he sent a small, very beautiful
gazelle for Lady Montefiore, which was there considered a valuable
present. Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore, having appointed twelve
o'clock for the interview, he came punctually at that hour,
accompanied by the Judge of the town and some half dozen of their
officers. Pipes, coffee, and sherbet were handed round. The Governor
was most friendly. He said he had made that day a holiday in the town
in honour of their visit, which had given joy and peace to all the
inhabitants, and that Sir Moses might command his services in any way
he pleased. Houses, servants, horses, &c., all were at his disposal.
He much regretted being obliged to leave the town himself with some
soldiers he had collected, who had to join Ibrahim Pasha. He would be
away about twenty days, but had desired his secretary to attend to any
request Sir Moses might make in his absence. He added a hope that Sir
Moses would come and settle in that part of the world, as the Jews
were in great need of a chief or leader; they could then take land and
engage in agriculture. Soon after he left, Lady Montefiore received an
invitation from the Governor's wives to come and dine with them,
saying that they had had a lamb killed and prepared for the occasion
by a person specially sent by the Jewish authorities of the place.
Lady Montefiore was anxious to accept the invitation that she might
see the interior of the harem, but it was thought she had better not
go, and an apology was sent, she pleading fatigue from the journey.

The Jews all agree in acknowledging that the present Governor is an
excellent friend to them. The Judge is not friendly to them, but the
Governor prevents him from doing them any mischief.

The representatives of the German and Portuguese congregations, each
attended by about twenty of their members, paid them visits, remaining
for about an hour in earnest conversation. They promised to have
ready, by the next day, statistical accounts of their communities,
which Sir Moses desired to have for his special guidance in the
distribution of the money he had brought for them.

_Wednesday, May 29th._--The heat during the night was most oppressive.
Most of the inhabitants placed their mattresses either on the roofs of
their houses or in the yards, and slept in the open air. In the
morning, before five, we rode on horseback to the hot baths, about
half-an-hour's distance from the town. These are natural hot springs.
Sir Moses did not find them sulphurous, but rather salt. They are
situated close to the lake, but the hot spring has its source in the
mountains. Ibrahim Pasha had erected a handsome building, with some
rooms for the use of bathers. The large bath, which is circular, would
accommodate one hundred persons. There are also two chambers with
handsome marble baths. There is a room, commanding a beautiful view of
the lake and distant mountains, where, after having taken the bath,
one can enjoy an hour's rest, and partake of coffee and sherbet
prepared by the attendants there.

On their return from the bath they visited the tombs of some
distinguished teachers in Israel, whose resting-places were pointed
out by the gentlemen who accompanied them.

In the course of the day the Governor's wives sent to say they wished
to have the pleasure of paying Lady Montefiore a visit. They also sent
for her acceptance a fine large sheep.

Lady Montefiore, in her diary, gives full particulars of the visit.
The Governor, she was told, had four wives, but only three of them
came. They were attended by a black girl, and by a man as their guard,
as well as by the mother of the Governor's youngest wife. The first
wife, who is considered to be, and is also called, "The Great Lady,"
was a pleasing and intelligent woman; the other two were somewhat
younger, but equally good-looking, the age of the youngest being about
eighteen, and the eldest thirty. All of them were exceedingly
good-tempered. When Sir Moses asked them if they could read, the
eldest one replied in the negative, "but," said she, "the Agha intends
marrying another lady, so that she may teach us to do so; we shall all
be pleased if he does."

They became very chatty, and were most desirous that Lady Montefiore
should visit them, and go on the water with them to the bath. "The
great lady" smoked a chibouk, but did not offer it to the others. Lady
Montefiore made each of them a present of a neat gold ring set with
mosaics, with which they were much pleased. They said it was the first
visit they had ever paid; they were not even allowed to visit their
own brothers, but the Agha was so pleased with Lady Montefiore, that
he wished his wives to see her. The ladies remained two hours, and I
had to act as interpreter. About fifty members of the Portuguese
community came to see us, and we had a long conversation with them on
the subject of the cultivation of land in the vicinity of the town.
Many members of the German congregation arrived at the same time to
pay their respects to Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore, and also joined
our conversation on the subject. The early marriages, which are
customary in the East amongst all classes of society, were warmly
discussed by all present. To Europeans the custom appears strange, and
a great drawback to the promotion of happiness among the contracting
parties, as well as to society in general. Orientals, on the contrary,
think it most desirable to preserve a custom which they consider
beneficial, and conducive to the happiness of families.

_Thursday, May 30th._--On this day the distribution of money took
place. Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore themselves put their gifts into
the hand of every man, woman, and child of the Hebrew, as well as of
the Mussulman and Christian congregations. Their labour was not
finished before ten in the evening, the trouble and fatigue of the
distribution being exceptionally great, in consequence of the lists
containing the names and descriptions of the recipients not having
been correctly prepared. Of the sheep brought to Lady Montefiore by
the Governor's wives, Sir Moses distributed to the descendants of
Aaron those parts which, according to an injunction of Holy Writ,
belong to them, a proceeding which afforded much gratification both to
donor and the recipients.

_Friday, May 31st._--Another visit was paid to the different
localities in which the tombs of the renowned teachers in Israel had
been pointed out to them. In the afternoon they attended the
Portuguese Synagogue, and in the evening, after the Sabbath repast,
hundreds of members of the community sat down in the spacious
courtyard in order to enjoy a full view of the honoured pilgrims, who
were singing Psalms and Sabbath hymns. The evening was beautiful; the
whole place was illuminated with variegated lamps, and the Oriental
holiday attire of the many ladies who surrounded the fountain of cool
and refreshing water, made the scene charming and picturesque in the
extreme.

The next day they attended divine service in the German Synagogue, and
were present at the naming of a child, the son of a distinguished
member of the community, to whom they had been requested to act as
god-parents. In the afternoon, having attended service in the Russian
place of worship, they visited the heads of that congregation, and
spent the evening at home in receiving the numerous friends who called
on them.

_Sunday, June 2nd._--At half-past 5 P.M. we left Tiberias. Hundreds of
persons came to see us off, and followed us. The officers of the
Governor (he having gone with some troops to Damascus), with about a
dozen soldiers and some attendants, also accompanied us for nearly
half-an-hour. We rode for two hours and a half over the hills. Towards
the west the land was very rich, and sown with wheat, barley, and
oats, but not well cultivated. We pitched our tents at Eyn Louba. The
effect of the numerous glowworms and fireflies in the darkness of the
night was extremely beautiful. Late in the evening a messenger arrived
from Caiffa, bringing Sir Moses a letter from Beyrout. There had been
no battle, but both parties were in daily expectation of hostilities.
The plague, it was reported, had broken out in Damascus, and the
country, both around that city and Beyrout, had begun to be in a very
disturbed state. Several travellers had been robbed, but the post
still passed. All vessels from Alexandria had to perform quarantine;
most of the villages in Palestine were infected with the plague.

_Monday, June 3rd._--We started at five and halted at 6.40 for the
mules with our luggage. We were not travelling the usual way, as we
wished to avoid the villages as much as possible. We were then near
the highest point of Mount Tabor; we had crossed some of the richest
land imaginable, and seen many fig and almond trees, pomegranates,
prickly pears, &c. We reposed under an almond tree till our luggage
came up. The servants had mistaken the way, and one of the janissaries
was obliged to go in search of them. We set forward again at eight,
and rode till 1.30 P.M. We then rested near a rivulet, in the shade of
a small cavern in the front of the mountain, commanding an extensive
view of the rich plain, nearly the whole of which was in a state of
cultivation. Almost all the crops were cut. On the mountain above us,
Jacob and Laban made their league together, and called it Gál-éd. We
started again at 4 P.M., and rode till seven, when we pitched our
tents in a very pretty orchard of fig-trees and pomegranates, the
latter covered with blossoms.

_Tuesday, June 4th._--After taking a cup of coffee, we set off at five
in the morning from Djouni, riding through a lovely country of
mountains, hills, dales, valleys, and plains, all truly splendid, and
in the highest state of cultivation (wheat, barley, oats, &c.). We
passed many towns and villages, but did not enter them. This part of
the country appeared well populated. The inhabitants were good
farmers, and possessed horses, cows, oxen, sheep, and goats in great
abundance. There were also olive and mulberry trees of very great age,
apparently many centuries old, and there was more skill displayed in
their cutting than we had hitherto noticed in the Holy Land. It was a
complete garden. "I have never seen," Sir Moses observed, "any country
so rich and beautiful. We rested under a grove of fig-trees, in a
garden surrounded by the most magnificent scenery; the spot might well
have been termed, 'a garden of Eden, a very Paradise.'" We amused
ourselves by discussing the writings of Hillel the elder, and reading
extracts from the works of Maimonides.

At two we proceeded on our journey till six. The road was very rocky,
and the ride, especially the descent to Nablous, the ancient city of
Shéchém, exceedingly difficult. We encamped close to the well of
Jacob. Many of our brethren came from the city to welcome us, and
brought with them some fine poultry and fruit, which they requested
Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore to accept. They did not enter our tents,
as we were fearful of contagion.

Sir Moses had, eight or ten days previously, sent them a number of
printed forms, for the purpose of inserting under particular headings
any statistical information they could give respecting their own
community. These he now requested them to let him have, as he desired
to distribute some money among those who stood in need of assistance.
Fortunately they had already prepared the papers required, and it did
not take long to send a messenger to the Synagogue, who brought them
without delay.

_Wednesday, June 5th._--We visited the tomb of Joseph, and copied the
inscription on the wall. We said our prayers there, and proceeded to
the village of Awarta, where we copied the Samaritan and Arabic
inscriptions on the tombs of Phineas, Eleazar, and Ithamar, the sons
of Aaron the High Priest. We also visited the tombs said to be those
of the seventy elders, and then continued our way to Jerusalem. At
twelve o'clock we rejoined our attendants, who had already prepared
various refreshments for us in a tent pitched for our accommodation,
near a well called "Eyn" or Khán Lebbán. We were much fatigued, and
the heat was excessive. While we were partaking of our repast, many
persons, travellers and others, came to water their beasts. Some of
the Mussulmans, after performing their ablutions at the well, said
their prayers, and a number of young women, with pitchers on their
heads, came from the neighbourhood to fetch the cool water from the
inexhaustible spring of Laban.

At four o'clock we left this pleasing scene, and ascended a high
mountain by a desperately stoney road, on the edge of precipices. On
the summit we were surprised at finding a very lovely plain, well
cultivated, and with many gardens, containing fig, olive, and almond
trees, as well as vines. We erected our tents at six o'clock in the
corner of a field near the village of Snidgil. Both on that and the
previous day we met many families, Jews, Christians, and Mussulmans,
flying from Jerusalem to escape the plague; the accounts which they
gave us were extremely alarming.

_Thursday, June 6th._--We were on horseback at half-past four in the
morning. The day was cool and pleasant. Our road lay between the
mountains, in a narrow pass, formed by the dry bed of a torrent, with
gardens on each side. The mountains were cultivated in terraces, and
planted to the summit with vines and olives--"a lovely scene," Sir
Moses observed. Indeed it would have been impossible to travel through
a richer or more beautiful country.

We stopped to rest and take some refreshments, and started again,
ascending an extremely barren mountain, and at two o'clock reached
Shabia, or Gibeah, the commencement of the scene of destruction.

We dismounted, and read some of the Lamentations of Jeremiah, then
continued our journey till three o'clock, when we had the first view
of Jerusalem. Dismounting once again, we recited the usual prayers.

Hearing that the plague was yet in the city, Sir Moses deemed it
prudent not to enter. We therefore passed the walls and went up the
Mount of Olives, where we pitched our tents on a spot commanding a
magnificent view of the Holy City and Mosque of Omar, near the tomb of
"Huldah" the prophetess.

For two hours before reaching Jerusalem, the road by which we
travelled was stoney and deserted. Not a blade of grass or a tree was
visible. "Most fervently do I pray," Sir Moses remarked, "that the
wilderness of Zion may again be like Eden, and her desert like the
garden of the Lord."

_Friday, June 7th._--Before Sir Moses was up, the Governor of the city
came to pay him his respects, and waited till he was ready to receive
him, which he did under one of the olive trees, as we had declared
ourselves in quarantine. The Governor was exceedingly friendly, and
offered to accompany Sir Moses to the Jordan, Dead Sea, and Hebron,
and to do him any service in his power; he also sent a present of five
sheep. All the representatives of the Portuguese and German
congregations, accompanied by crowds of their members, came up to give
a heartfelt welcome to their future champion and his excellent wife,
bringing with them numerous presents of choice wines, fruit, and
cakes, besides articles of rich embroidery.

_Saturday, June 8th._--We recited our prayers under the shade of an
olive tree, directly opposite the spot where stood the Temple of
Solomon. Our situation commanded a splendid view of every part of the
city and the surrounding mountains. Our happy moments were
unfortunately disturbed by the wailing of the Mohammedan mourning
women who followed no less than four funerals. In the course of the
day all the leading members of the community came to visit us. When
Sir Moses spoke to them on the desirability of procuring work for the
poor, the majority of those present expressed themselves in favour of
agriculture. In the evening, while sitting in our tent, a jackal stole
noiselessly in. Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore were a little alarmed at
the incident, which recalled to their minds the words of the prophet,
"For this our heart is faint, for these things our eyes are dim,
because of the mountain of Zion, which is desolate, the foxes
(jackals) walk upon it" (Lamentations v. 17, 18).

In the course of conversation with Mr Young, the English Consul, the
latter expressed his approval of the Jews being employed in
agriculture. He advised beginning in a small way, so as not to excite
the suspicions of Mohhammad Ali. Mrs Young gave Lady Montefiore some
distressing accounts of the poverty of the people, and pointed out the
necessity of at once finding them some means of earning a livelihood.
Money, the Consul said, was very scarce in Jerusalem; he had lost by
every bill he had cashed for travellers. Five weeks previously he had
sent his servant to Beyrout for £300, and he was fearful he had either
been robbed of the money, or else had run away with it.

_Sunday, June 9th._--More than three hundred visitors came to see Sir
Moses and Lady Montefiore. The Governor also called again to say that
he was very anxious they should enter the city, that the people might
have an opportunity of showing their esteem for them. Sir Moses, in
reply, said that he and Lady Montefiore would visit the city on the
following Wednesday. The Governor then arranged that he would come
himself with some soldiers to conduct them, that they might run no
risk, and begged Sir Moses would ride his horse.

_Monday, June 10th._--We rose early and rode round the walls of the
city, and through the valley of Jehoshaphat. Having descended Mount
Zion, we passed the Pool of Siloam, and crossing the bridge over the
Brook Kidron, visited all the important tombs and monuments in the
valley. We then read our Psalms, and returned to our tents for
breakfast. Again hundreds of visitors arrived, amongst whom were four
Scotch clergymen, who were making a tour in the Holy Land to enquire
into the state of the Jews there; they intended going through Poland
for the same purpose.

The following day, being the anniversary of Sir Moses and Lady
Montefiore's wedding, they gave a special feast to all their
attendants, which prompted the janissaries, guides, and moukaries to
sing praises of the devout pilgrims, and invoke heavenly blessings on
their benefactors.



CHAPTER XXII.

1839.

THE TOMB OF DAVID--SPREAD OF THE PLAGUE--MUSSULMAN
FANATICISM--SUSPICIOUS CONDUCT OF THE GOVERNOR OF JERUSALEM--NAYANI,
BETH DAGON, JAFFA, EM-KHALET, AND TANTURA.


_Tuesday, June 11th._--We rode before breakfast through the valley of
Jehoshaphat, then to the tomb of King David. The keeper of the place
produced an order from Ibrahim Pasha, which prohibited the entrance of
Europeans to the tomb. We addressed a letter to the Governor,
informing him that the keeper would not admit us. A short time
afterwards the Governor arrived. He approved of the conduct of the
keeper, but thought, nevertheless, that the Pasha's order did not
refer to a gentleman who, like Sir Moses, was the bearer of letters of
introduction from the highest authorities in the land, and, leading
the way, he invited us all to follow him to the tomb. It was a
spacious vaulted chamber, supported in the centre by a column. At the
further end we saw a trellised window, on the right of which was an
arched folding door. Being led to the spot, we beheld through the
lattice the tomb, covered with richly embroidered carpets. In the
centre was an Arabic inscription, "This is the tomb of our Lord
David," on either side of which were the double triangles known by the
name of "the shield of David." On one corner of the tomb hung a rich
silk sash and a pistol, the offerings of Ibrahim Pasha. The Governor,
addressing Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore, said, "I will now leave you
to your religious devotions," and then left the place. We recited
several psalms, and went away much gratified with the opportunity
which we had had of visiting the sacred spot.

On our return we visited the cave of Jeremiah and the tombs of the
Kings. In the evening a number of people came up to pass the night on
the Mount of Olives, so as to be ready in the morning to join the
procession which had been arranged for our entry into the city. Many
of our brethren from Hebron, including the spiritual heads and
representatives of their congregations, came to offer us their
congratulations, and to accompany us the next day to the Synagogue. In
the evening a large number of friends, and students from the colleges,
assembled round our tents, to recite the evening prayers in front of
the place formerly occupied by Solomon's temple.

_Wednesday, 12th._--We rose before four o'clock. The Governor offered
to attend us at daybreak, but Sir Moses said he would let him know
when we were ready. At six o'clock Sir Moses sent for the Governor,
who came attended by the representatives of the several congregations,
a number of soldiers, and many of his officers and servants. They took
coffee, pipes, etc., and after sitting down some time we set out at
eight o'clock in procession. Sir Moses rode a beautiful white Arabian
horse, which the Governor had sent him the day before; Lady Montefiore
rode her own. We entered the city by the Gate of the Tribes, and
passed through most of the streets, which were crowded with men,
women, and children, the Governor having made it a holiday. We
proceeded to the Portuguese Synagogue, where the Governor left us. His
officers and men remained with us till we again reached the Mount of
Olives. The Synagogue was beautifully decorated, and attended by as
many of the congregation as space would permit. Special prayers were
offered up by the Ecclesiastical Chief, who invoked the blessings of
Heaven on the pious pilgrims. At the conclusion of the service we
received a hearty welcome to the Holy City from all present.

We then went to the German Synagogue, where a similar service was
held, addresses delivered, and prayers offered up for the friends of
Zion, after which we proceeded to the Western Wall, and recited there
the usual prayers in the presence of a large assembly. Having thanked
the representatives of the several communities, we repaired to the
house of the Governor, Lady Montefiore awaiting our return in the
Synagogue of the late Mr Lehren.

Sir Moses then rejoined Lady Montefiore, and paid a visit to Mr and
Mrs Young and some other friends, returning to the Mount of Olives
about four o'clock P.M.

The record of this day in his diary concludes with the following
words, expressive of the grateful sentiments which filled his heart:--

"The Lord God of Israel be praised and thanked for permitting our feet
to stand a second time within thy gates, O Jerusalem, may the city
soon be rebuilt, in our days. Amen." "I believe," he continues, "the
whole population was looking at us, and bestowing blessings on us."

_Thursday, 13th._--We were engaged all day in speaking to persons who
came with petitions. Some of Sir Moses' friends, fearing the ravages
of the plague, informed him of their intention to accompany him to
Hebron. A man to whom we had spoken, only a few days previously, had
since died of the plague, so that their apprehensions of serious
danger seemed to be fully justified. Sir Moses distributed the money
he had brought with him from England, and made arrangements for the
further distribution of £500, which he promised to send either from
Beyrout or Alexandria.

_Friday, 14th._--With feelings of deep regret we left the Mount of
Olives for Hebron, and after three hours' journey reached Rachel's
Tomb. Seeing that it was greatly out of repair and going fast to ruin,
Lady Montefiore gave directions for an estimate for its restoration to
be made. Half way to Hebron we rested for an hour near a fortress and
a great reservoir. Our route lay through a mountainous country, little
cultivated. On the summit of a mountain at some distance we saw the
tombs of Nathan the prophet and Gad the seer.

About an hour's ride from Hebron we were met by the representatives of
the Hebrew community, accompanied by hundreds of their members, many
of whom danced and sang psalms to manifest their delight. They
preceded us to the place where we pitched our tents, in an olive grove
near the town. The vicinity of the town was beautiful, very
mountainous, but covered with vines, olives, and pomegranates. We
attended the Portuguese Synagogue, and then returned to our tent.

_Saturday, 15th._--Early in the morning, the representatives of the
community came to accompany us to Synagogue, where both Sir Moses and
Lady Montefiore were received with the highest respect. At the
conclusion of the service the same gentlemen accompanied us back to
our encampment. Whilst at breakfast the Governor was announced; he
brought with him a present of four sheep. As we kept ourselves in
quarantine, and our place of encampment was surrounded by a cordon,
Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore could not receive him in the tent. After
having finished their repast, however, they went out to him, although
they did not consider it advisable to accept his present, as he had
not paid the pilgrims the attention due to them on their arrival. The
Governor, feeling that he had not acted as he should have done,
offered profound apologies, but blamed the community for not having
given him due notice of their arrival. In consideration of his polite
excuses, his present was accepted. When he offered his services, Sir
Moses asked whether he could take us to the Cave of Machpelah, but he
could not give a favourable reply. We had visitors the whole day.

_Sunday, 16th._--There were assembled in front of our tents no fewer
than two hundred people, men, women, and children, including all the
representatives of the congregation, together with their wives and
children. They presented us with certificates entitling us to free
seats in their several Synagogues, both Portuguese and German. They
also requested Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore to accept the presidency
of their charities and schools. The Governor also paid them another
visit, as a special mark of respect, repeating his apologies for not
having come to meet them, and volunteering his services during our
visits to the holy places. After he left, the whole congregation
united in prayers for the evening service. The scene was most
interesting. Numerous presents had again been sent by various members
of the community; also a jar of fresh butter and another of honey, by
the Sheik of the place. After the prayers, the four sheep which the
Governor had sent were prepared for the repast. The parts appropriated
to the descendants of Aaron, the High Priest, were given to them, the
hind quarters were presented to the Mussulman and Druse attendants and
moukaries, and the forequarters to poor Jewish families. All present
appeared happy. Singing, playing, dancing, and performances with sword
and gun, afforded amusement to old and young, to Druse, Mussulman,
Christian, and Jew.

_Monday, June 17th._--The Governor and Sheik having, on the previous
day, promised to accompany us to the Cave of Machpelah, they came
this morning before nine o'clock, together with their attendants.
After having partaken of coffee and sherbet, with the usual
accompaniment of a chibouk, we set out for the tombs of our
forefathers, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. Many members of the Hebrew
community followed us. On reaching the steps of the Mosque, even
before we had dismounted, there was a great cry against us entering.
We nevertheless ascended the steps, and entered the passage leading to
the interior of the Mosque. It was filled with people, all screaming
and threatening us with sticks. But the situation soon became much
more serious. The Mussulmans began to beat back those of the Jews who
had followed us, and the screams were truly frightful. The soldiers of
the Governor of Beyrout and the janissary from Mr Moore, the English
Consul, behaved admirably; they struck right and left with all their
might, and the entrance gate was soon closed. We remained inside, and
following the Governor, attempted to enter the Mosque, but we were for
some time prevented by the cries of the people, which were greatly
increased by a dervish, who threw himself before the door, shrieking
in a most frightful manner, and calling on the people not to allow us
to enter. Sir Moses, however, drew Lady Montefiore along past him, and
we made good our entrance; but, perceiving that we were in great
danger, the Mosque being filled with at least five hundred persons,
many of whom were armed with sticks, Sir Moses did not deem it prudent
to remain. We therefore immediately passed through the opposite door,
and left the Mosque by a different gate to the one through which we
had entered. The only objects we saw in the passage deserving notice
were two large stones in the wall; they were similar to those in the
Western Wall at Jerusalem, at least nine yards long and one yard
broad. We also saw an iron gate which, we thought, might perhaps lead
to the cave, but Sir Moses felt certain that they were determined we
should not enter to see any part of it. The Governor appeared in great
alarm, and had not the least influence with the people. "To say the
truth," Sir Moses remarked, "I did not see him make any exertions for
our safety." He accompanied us to our tents, making many apologies for
the unhappy result of our visit; but Sir Moses would not speak to him,
as he (the Governor) was bound in honour and duty not to have
subjected us to such an insult.

We were scarcely in our tents before many people came running to us
from the Jews' quarter, saying that the Mussulmans were beating them
most unmercifully, and they were fearful of being murdered. Sir Moses
received letters from the representatives of the community, one of
whom had been so severely beaten that he was obliged to write from his
bed. Several others called who had also been very much ill-used. We
feared that perhaps we should also be attacked as soon as it was dark,
although Sir Moses felt no serious apprehension, should such an event
take place, as we had seventeen people with us, many of them well
armed. Nevertheless, as we strongly recommended it, he wrote a letter
to the Governor of Jerusalem, acquainting him with what had occurred,
and requesting him to send a few men as a guard.

Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore then attended both the German and
Portuguese Synagogues, and distributed their benevolent gifts to the
men, women, and children in the same way as at Safed and Tiberias. We
then returned to our tents, took our dinner, and afterwards received
many visitors. Having looked to our arms and said our prayers, we
retired to rest, "confiding," Sir Moses observed, "in the protection
of Heaven."

_Tuesday, June 18th._--Our tents and luggage having been placed on our
mules, we left the olive ground, followed by the heads of the
community and many of our brethren. A few minutes later we were joined
by the Governor of the town and the Sheik, with his officers. They
again made many apologies for the occurrences of the previous day, and
accompanied us on our road for half-an-hour. The Jews also followed
us, singing psalms. Sir Moses entreated them to leave us, which they
did, after bestowing thousands of blessings on him and on Lady
Montefiore.

In less than a quarter of an hour we met the janissary whom Sir Moses
had sent to the Governor of Jerusalem. He came at full gallop, and had
several horsemen with him. He brought Sir Moses an answer from the
Governor, who had sent him twenty brave fellows, all well mounted and
armed. We waited a few moments till they all came up. They were
commanded by an Agha, who promised to defend us with his blood and
that of his men.

Sir Moses then requested our co-religionists to return to the town,
giving them numerous tokens of his love for the Holy City of Abraham
"the beloved." (This latter attribute the Mussulmans always attach to
the name of Abraham.) They departed with many blessings for their
devoted friends and protectors. The soldiers, janissaries, moukaries,
and our own attendants continued feasting and firing their muskets the
whole night, and making so desperate a noise as to render sleep
impossible.

Sir Moses afterwards learned that the Governor of Hebron had already
commenced showing his authority, much to the advantage of the Jews.
Having heard that one of them had been ill-treated by a Mussulman, the
Governor immediately caused the offender to be severely punished in
his presence as a caution to the Mussulmans against again committing a
similar offence.

_Wednesday, June 19th._--We left our encampment at seven, reaching the
tombs of Nathan the Prophet and Gad the Seer at half-past nine. Our
guards amused us on the way with a complete sham fight with lance,
sabre, musket, and pistol, advancing and retreating at full gallop.
They were all capital horsemen, and it was a most pleasing and lively
sight. We read our prayers at the tombs, which are situated near the
village of Halhool. Our road lay between the mountains, a continuous
desert, until we reached the plain. Sir Moses there discharged our
escort, made presents to the Agha and every one of his soldiers, and
sent a letter of thanks to the Governor of Jerusalem, accompanied by a
valuable telescope. We encamped for the night near the village of
Zaccariah, and started again the next morning at six.

_Thursday, 20th._--We proceeded _viâ_ Nayani to Beth Dagon, near
Ashdod, and reached Jaffa the next day. We encamped on the sands close
to the sea. The British and Russian Consuls soon after called,
bringing with them the sad intelligence that the plague was in the
town and neighbourhood.

The superintendent of the Quarantine then came to see Sir Moses, and
gave him a certificate which, we thought, would enable us to proceed
to Beyrout without performing quarantine. The Cadi and the Governor of
the town also called to pay their respects. The latter, being the
brother of the Governor of Jerusalem, was particularly attentive, and
sent presents of sheep and various kinds of fruit.

We left Jaffa on Sunday, reached the village of Emkhalet in the
evening, and encamped in a large and beautiful plain near Mount
Carmel. The next day we started at two o'clock in the morning, and at
seven arrived at Cæsarea, where once stood the proud city of Herod. It
must have been a place of great magnificence, to judge from the
splendid remains of the granite columns; there is also every
appearance of its having had a fine harbour, most beautifully
situated. It is now, with the exception of some portions of the wall
which formerly surrounded the city, little more than an immense pile
of ruins. We had a very pleasant ride nearly the whole way, on the
sands close to the sea.

We left Emkhalet early in the morning. It was very dark, and we ran
great risk of serious accident, having to pass many deep holes, like
wells, in which the corn is laid up for the year. These were at that
time being filled in, so that they were left uncovered.

We breakfasted and rested till twelve, when we again set forward and
encamped in the evening at Tantura, the ancient city of Dor, of which
we read in the first Book of Kings that it was inhabited by the
son-in-law of King Solomon. We left our tents a few minutes after one
o'clock. We had a pleasant ride, great part of the way through a
beautiful plain between Mount Carmel and the sea. We passed not far
from some splendid ruins of a castle and town. On proceeding to the
spot, we found it to be "Athlit," some of the Arabs called it "Atlik,"
the Castellum Perigrinorum frequently mentioned by the Crusaders.
There are still many arches and vaults to be seen, as well as some
granite pillars. The remains of a church also attract the traveller's
attention; by the style of its architecture it is supposed to be of
Christian origin. There are some stones in the walls round the
building as large as, and similar to, those in the Western Wall at
Jerusalem.



CHAPTER XXIII.

1839.

ENCAMPMENT NEAR MOUNT CARMEL--STATE OF THE COUNTRY--CHILD MARRIAGES IN
THE PORTUGUESE COMMUNITY AT HAIFA--ARRIVAL IN BEYROUT.


At 8 P.M. we reached the quarantine cordon at the foot of Mount
Carmel, a narrow pass between the sea and the mountain, about two
miles from Haifa, where we had intended to rest, fully relying on our
certificate from the superintendent of the quarantine at Jaffa. Having
always kept ourselves in quarantine since we left Beyrout, and lodged
in our own tents, avoiding all villages, we expected to have been
allowed to pass without any detention, but to our great mortification
the officer in command informed Sir Moses that, having come to his
cordon, he and his party must perform quarantine, but that he might
send a messenger to the Governor of Beyrout, under whose orders he
acted. This Sir Moses at once did, and having addressed an Arabic
letter to him, he charged one of the soldiers of his suite to take it
to the Governor with all possible speed. In the meanwhile, the
superintendent suggested that we should have all our things dipped
twice into the sea, once on that day, and after seven days a second
time.

Some members of the Hebrew community came to us and promised to bring
us all the provisions we might require during our stay in quarantine,
and we became reconciled to our detention. Mr Young, the British
Consul in Jerusalem, when forwarding to Sir Moses his letters from
England, took the opportunity of adding some information respecting
the state of the Holy City, which was far from satisfactory. He also
informed Sir Moses that several of his friends had been attacked by
serious illness. Mr Kilby, of Beyrout, sent a report, in which he said
that war was inevitable, that all the country was in a disturbed state
and the roads infested with robbers. Several assassinations had taken
place even at Beyrout, and he recommended us to apply to the Governor
of Acre for an escort. "Last week," he wrote, "two Jews left Beyrout
with three hundred dollars for Hebron, which had been sent from
Amsterdam for the congregations; they were stopped near Kasmia, robbed
of the money and dreadfully beaten, one of them being shot in the
struggle. Although severely injured, the wounded man contrived to
reach Sidon, but died there." "How wonderful are the ways of Heaven!"
observed Sir Moses. "The second night after we left Beyrout we thought
ourselves most unfortunate in being compelled to sleep in the open
air, as we were too fatigued to reach our tents and luggage, which
were already at Kasmia. Had we continued our journey and succeeded in
reaching that place, we should in all probability have shared the same
fate as the other two Jews." A messenger had also been robbed, and had
lost several of his fingers by a sword cut.

Signor M. di A. Finzi, the British consular agent at St Jean d'Acre,
came to present his respects to Sir Moses, and brought some valuable
information respecting agriculture in the environs of Tiberias and
Safed. This gentleman had acted most benevolently towards the
unfortunate people who had been attacked by Druses. The British Consul
of Haifa also came to see Sir Moses, and reported that Ibrahim Pasha
had advanced on Aleppo. It was rumoured that there had been some
fighting, and all the troops in quarantine had received orders to
leave the next day and join Ibrahim Pasha. All the country was in a
most disturbed state, and the Jews of Safed were so much alarmed, that
they fled from their homes and had reached Haifa in a very distressed
condition. The people at Safed had received information that the
Druses were coming to pillage the place. The Governor of the town had
left it with the few soldiers he had under his command. Every one
appeared very uneasy at the unprotected state of the country, as a
hundred men from the mountains could, with the greatest facility, have
plundered every town and village in Palestine. On the previous evening
the Governor of Acre had brought his thirty-five wives to the
Carmellite convent as a place of security; he remained there overnight
and left in the morning. The convent was just above the spot where the
quarantine ground was situated.

_Thursday, 27th June._--Even the discomforts of a detention in
quarantine were sometimes varied by pleasing incidents, such as making
the acquaintance of distinguished travellers. In this case we had the
pleasure of becoming acquainted with several eminent men, including
the Rev. Dr Alex. Keith and Dr Black, who happened to be performing
their quarantine in the same locality.

These gentlemen called on Sir Moses, and he returned their visit the
next day. The time passed so agreeably to all that these visits were
frequently renewed.

The superior of the convent on Mount Carmel addressed a very polite
letter to Sir Moses, regretting that our being in quarantine prevented
his having the pleasure of receiving us in his convent, but making an
offer of his services, and sending a present of the best wine of Mount
Lebanon.

_Saturday, June 29th._--The day was spent in repose, with prayers and
reading the Sacred Scriptures. Being so close to Mount Carmel, our
thoughts naturally turned to the Prophet Elijah; and in addition to
the usual Sabbath prayers, Sir Moses read to us the 18th chapter of
1st Kings in a most solemn manner, and with such fervour that every
one present was deeply affected.

In the course of the day the messenger returned, bringing the
following reply to Sir Moses' letter:--"The Governor cannot allow a
shorter quarantine than seven days."

In the evening, after the conclusion of Sabbath, letters from Mr
Kilbee were opened, containing the correspondence from England. There
had been disturbances in some of the manufacturing towns at home and
in Paris; the Melbourne ministry had resigned, but had again accepted
office. This was all the news we received from England, but Mr Kilbee
added unsatisfactory intelligence from Beyrout. He wrote that the
Druses had plundered Damascus, and the whole country was in a state
little short of rebellion, and that poor Lady Hester Stanhope had died
on the night of the 21st inst., having been without medical aid or the
attendance of any European. Mr Moore, the British Consul, and the Rev.
Mr Thomson had been to her house on the 23rd, and they buried her the
same night by moonlight.

The accounts which the messenger brought from Beyrout of the disturbed
state of the country induced some of our men to beg Sir Moses to
discharge them, as they were fearful of continuing the journey, and
all appeared much alarmed. Both Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore were
undecided by which way they should proceed to Alexandria, as they were
unwilling to go by sea, the boats from Haifa to Alexandria being very
small; nor did they wish to risk an attack of the Druses by going to
Beyrout.

_Sunday, June 30th._--We heard heavy firing at Acre, about two hours'
ride from here, which caused some uneasiness; but at ten o'clock the
guardians informed us that Ibrahim Pasha had defeated the Sultan's
army near Aleppo, and had taken many prisoners. The firing of cannon
at Acre was in celebration of the victory. Sir Moses feared it was but
a proof of hostilities having actually commenced.

Many gifts arrived daily from the Agha of the place, from the Superior
of the convent, and from several Sheiks in the neighbourhood; and as
Sir Moses invariably returned handsome presents to these parties, as
well as to their servants, it is not surprising that, in every town
and village which they visited, the gifts they received were so
numerous.

The chief of the quarantine visited us with the physician, and
requested me to feel the pulses of every one of our party, including
Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore, and to declare on my honour whether
they were in good health. They evidently mistook me for a doctor of
medicine, and I gladly complied with their request. I felt the pulse
of everyone, and reported it to be in a most satisfactory state.
During this examination Sir Moses was in a state of great uneasiness,
as the least indisposition would have subjected him and the rest of
the party to an addition of forty days extra quarantine at the least,
which he prayed heaven to avert, as he feared it would make us all
seriously ill. The same evening Drs Keith and Black came to our tents
and acquainted us with the news they had just received from Haifa. The
road to Beyrout by the sea shore was infested with thieves, and the
road they had intended to take, through Nablous, was quite impassable;
they had therefore determined to proceed by sea, and intended leaving
at six o'clock the next morning. Sir Moses, however, relying on the
Almighty's protection, decided to go by land with Mr Finzi, the
English Consular Agent at Acre, who had offered to accompany us.

_Monday, July 1st._--"We left with a grateful heart," writes Sir
Moses, "the place of our encampment in the morning, and were
accompanied by the superintendent of the quarantine, the British
Consul at Haifa, and Signor Finzi, who rode with us as far as the
Synagogue in Haifa. They wished to wait for us there, and then
accompany us to Acre, but I thanked them for their intentions and
begged them not to do so; they therefore took leave of us with many
good wishes."

We entered the Synagogue, which was but a small and mean looking room,
and after divine service Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore distributed
gifts to the poor to the same amount he had given in the other towns.
He expressed his displeasure to the Portuguese community for allowing
marriages among such very young people to take place, and begged them
to follow the example of their co-religionists in Jerusalem, who
allowed no such early marriages as those which must have taken place
in Haifa. Of the few German Jewish families whom he saw there he spoke
in terms which showed his great satisfaction with them.

_Tuesday, July 2nd._--We set off this morning at two. Our road for
three hours lay through a well cultivated plain, but after that we had
to cross a steep and rugged mountain. At seven o'clock we stopped in a
beautifully situated spot to rest. We sat down under a fine tree in a
garden which commanded an extensive sea view, but we were informed
that snakes had been seen in the garden, so we started again at 2 P.M.
Our road led over a mountain pass, one of the most difficult, Sir
Moses said, he had ever seen. The pass ran many hundred feet above the
sea and close to the edge of a precipice nearly all the way. On
descending into the plain we found it well cultivated, being almost
covered with white mulberry trees. We noticed several women engaged in
stripping them of their foliage, whilst others were winding the silk
off the cocoons.

At three o'clock we reached the fountain, "Ain el Gaml," or "Sebeel
Iskandrooni," and from there to "Ain el Medfooni;" the road was again
very rocky and in some parts precipitous. Lady Montefiore being an
excellent rider, galloped along rather heedlessly, and her horse
rushed right into the sea. Apprehending danger, I galloped after and
succeeded in overtaking her, and in seizing the bridle of her horse.
In doing so my own horse stumbled and threw me rather heavily, but
fortunately the fall was not attended by any serious consequences.
The waters of the fountain just named bear a great reputation among
the natives in that neighbourhood for their healing qualities, and
numerous invalids may always be found there, who come for the cure of
their various ailments. At six we encamped near the famous fountain
known by the name of "Râs el-'ain," where the ruins of its great
aqueduct leading to "El Ma'-shûk" (an isolated hill in the plain) and
the ancient Tyre were still to be seen. This fountain and those
previously named were considered by several writers of the middle ages
to be identical with those alluded to by King Solomon in the Song of
Songs (iv. 15): "A fountain of gardens, a well of living waters, and
streams from Lebanon."

_July 3rd._--We rose about one o'clock, set off at three, and reached
"Nahr el Kasimiyah" at five. When we had crossed the river of that
name, we saw a wolf under some rocks, about thirty yards distant. One
of our guards fired immediately, but only succeeded in frightening it,
and it ran away. The shock of the musket threw the man off his horse!
"So much for guards!" exclaimed Sir Moses. "This was one of the three
men we took from Acre, on account of the dangerous condition which the
roads were reported to be in." Afterwards we saw four beautiful young
deer bounding along the sea shore, and the British Consular Agent
hurried on in the hope of getting a shot at them; but he was
disappointed, much to the satisfaction of the soldier who had been so
unsuccessful in attempting to kill the wolf. He slyly observed that he
was pleased to find some one equally clever in the party;
nevertheless, he continued, "our will was good, even if we failed in
the deed." We rested at "El Kantare." During the day we came across
quantities of wheat that was being cut and carried, and observed many
men in the fields, but they were all Druses. They were the only
able-bodied men we had seen engaged in agriculture during the whole of
our tour. The crops were everywhere most abundant, and of excellent
quality. Indian corn and tobacco covered much land, and had likewise a
most promising appearance.

Sir Moses now sent a messenger to Mr Kilbee, of Beyrout, requesting
him to engage a house for us. We started at four, and reached Bassatin
towards the evening, where we encamped for the night. On the road we
met three men, who were recognised as belonging to the sect of the
Metouáli by the peculiar turbans which they wore. Our guides begged
them to let us have a little water to drink, but this they refused to
do. As it is a most unusual thing in the East not to allow a traveller
to quench his thirst, they were ultimately compelled to hand us their
jars of water, though not before some unpleasant arguments as to their
right of giving or withholding had taken place. Our people, having
slaked their thirst, returned the jars to the Metouális, who took
them, and immediately dashed them against the stones, where they were
shattered to pieces. The strangers assigned as their excuse for doing
so, that their religion forbade their using any vessel after it had
been touched by a person of a different creed.

_July 4th._--We rose soon after midnight, and started at two o'clock.
Our road lay for some distance along the sands, close to the sea, and
over rocks, from which we obtained fine views of the distant
mountains. We reached "Chadi" at eight, and reposed there till 4 P.M.,
when we again set forward, and proceeded as far as "Bir Khassan," a
small tavern on the road side. Here we recited a prayer of thanks for
our safe return. A number of our brethren came to meet us, and in
their company we continued our journey to Beyrout, which place we
reached at eight o'clock. The afternoon's ride had been extremely
beautiful, our route taking us through what seemed a succession of
gardens. Sir Moses, however, felt very weak, and thought he could not
have endured another day's journey. We found a house, which had
formerly been inhabited by the Rev. Mr Thomson, comfortably prepared
for us.

_Friday, July 5th._--_Beyrout._--Sir Moses received a visit from the
Governor of the town, who said he was happy to see us safely returned,
as he had been uneasy on our account. "Indeed," he observed, "you
displayed more courage than prudence in attempting such a journey
under existing circumstances, and I am delighted to think you met with
so little inconvenience." He also gave us the official account he had
received of the victory. He said 12,000 prisoners had been captured,
besides 140 pieces of cannon, and 25,000 stands of arms, the killed
and wounded on both sides being 9000. The victory had been most
decisive, and the whole of the Turkish army was annihilated. "Before
this battle," the Governor continued, "the country was in a state
little short of open rebellion. There being no troops left to keep
the Druses in check, they came down from the mountains, and pillaged
the towns at their pleasure. Many of the inhabitants of Damascus and
Safed fled to Beyrout and Acre for refuge."

The residence which Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore occupied was so
pleasant, that it contributed greatly towards their recovery from the
fatigue and excitement of the journey. The house stood very high, in
the midst of a beautiful garden. It was about three quarters of an
hour's ride from the town, and commanded beautiful views of the sea,
the adjacent country, and the mountains of Lebanon. The gardens in the
neighbourhood were mostly filled with mulberry trees (white) for the
cultivation of silk-worms, and, at a short distance, we noticed
several sand hills. These hills move progressively, and destroy the
country in their course by burning the land and trees. Of many fig
trees only the tops remain visible. In the evening several visitors
belonging to the Hebrew community arrived, and joined in divine
service for the Sabbath.

_July 6th._--The Austrian steamer from Jaffa arrived, bringing reports
that Russia had chartered 400 transports to convey 25,000 troops from
Odessa to Constantinople.

_July 7th._--Many visitors came to offer their congratulations on our
safe return from the journey; among others, Mr Moore, the British
Consul, who told us that English, French, and Austrian steamers were
expected with further information respecting the political state of
Egypt, Turkey, and Syria.



CHAPTER XXIV.

1839.

ON BOARD THE _ACHERON_--SIR MOSES' PLANS ON BEHALF OF THE JEWS IN
PALESTINE--INTERVIEW WITH BOGHOZ BEY--PROPOSED JOINT STOCK BANKS IN
THE EAST.


_Monday, July 8th._--We sent the greater part of our luggage on board
the _Acheron_, under the command of Captain Kennedy, and prepared to
start at a moment's notice. Sir Moses occupied himself with writing
letters to Mr Young, the British Consul at Jerusalem, to whom he sent
money for distribution among the indigent Christians of the Holy City,
as well as for their burial ground. To Mr Joseph Amsaleg he sent £500
for the poor of the Hebrew communities, and to the Rev. Mr Thomson he
sent a donation for the Christian poor of Beyrout, as well as a
souvenir for himself, in consideration of the accommodation afforded
to Sir Moses in his house. To the poor of Safed he gave, through R.
Moses Schmerling, 53,500 piastres, and to those of Hebron he gave,
through Nissan Drucker, 11,770 piastres, being the amount he had
promised for these two Holy Cities.

The following day Sir Moses concluded his arrangements with the
representatives of the Hebrew community in Beyrout, respecting the
distribution of his gifts for their Synagogue and poor. This being
accomplished, his work for the day was over.

"I am now anxious," said Sir Moses, "to have an interview with the
Pasha at Alexandria, for the purpose of claiming of his Highness
security for the persons and property of the Jews in Palestine, and
particularly for those at Safed and Tiberias where they are
continually exposed to insult, robbery, and murder. I have also
several other requests to make of him, viz., that he will order the
walls of Tiberias to be repaired; that he will admit the evidence of
Jews in cases brought before the judges or governors of the land; that
he will permit land and villages to be rented on a lease of fifty
years, free from all taxes or claims of governors, the rent to be paid
at Alexandria; that he will allow me to send people to assist and
instruct the Jews in a better mode of cultivating land, the olive, the
vine, cotton, and mulberries, as well as the breeding of sheep;
finally, that he will give me a firman to open banks in Beyrout,
Jaffa, Jerusalem, and Cairo. I sincerely pray," he continued, "that my
journey to the Holy Land may prove beneficial to the Jews; not only to
those who are already there, but to many others who may come to settle
in the Holy Cities, either from love for the Land of Promise, or from
a desire to quit countries where persecution prevents their living in
peace. I shall then be amply repaid for the fatigue and anxiety of my
journey."

_July 10th._--Sir Moses had been extremely unwell on Tuesday and
confined to his room, but feeling a little better the next morning, he
gave orders for our immediate departure, as the English Consul had
informed us of the arrival of the Indian Mail Packet, adding that we
must embark at once, as the boat would get under weigh about noon.
Having taken leave of all our friends, we proceeded to the wharf,
where Captain Kennedy's boat took us on board the _Acheron_. We were
under weigh at seven o'clock. The weather was extremely sultry, and a
terrible swell, with a head wind, contributed greatly to the
discomfort of all on board.

_July 12th._--At five o'clock in the morning we had a sight of land
off Rosetta, and at half-past nine we passed the Egyptian fleet;
fourteen ships under full sail, standing to the east, about twelve
miles from Alexandria. They made a very imposing appearance. All had
new sails; they kept an equal distance ship from ship, a cable and a
half's length apart (900 feet), and formed an excellent line. The
second ship, with a flag at the foremast, was the Vice-Admiral's. The
Admiral was in the centre of the line, which consisted of eleven line
of battleships with three tiers of guns, two large frigates, and one
large corvette. The Rear-Admiral's flag was at the mizzen of the last
ship. We anchored safely in the harbour of Alexandria at 11 A.M. The
men-of-war in the harbour were all dressed with flags, and over the
houses of the Consuls floated the flags of their several nations. The
captain took us on shore in his boat, and at one o'clock we reached
the hotel. The first news we learned on our arrival was that the
Sultan was dead, and that his son and successor had accorded the
Dominion of Egypt to Mohhammad Ali and his successors.

Sir Moses called on Colonel Campbell, but he had to wait some time
before seeing him, as the Colonel was with the Pasha. The Colonel
willingly consented to introduce Sir Moses to Boghoz Bey, and fixed
four o'clock for the purpose. Colonel Campbell said he would call for
Sir Moses, and bring one of his horses for him.

The Colonel was punctual, and we rode together to the residence of
Boghoz Bey. Sir Moses gave him his three requests in writing, and he
promised to lay them before Mohhammad Ali and explain them to him. The
Bey appeared well inclined to forward his requests, and offered to
present him to the Pasha either the same evening or the next morning.
Sir Moses fixed nine o'clock the next day, although Colonel Campbell
wished it to be the same evening, Sir Moses was, however, desirous
that the Pasha should have time to consider and talk over the matter
with his minister before the interview, and it being near Sabbath, he
knew not how to get there.

_July 13th._--We rose at five in the morning; recited the Sabbath
morning prayers. About half-past seven we proceeded to the Pasha's
palace. The Sardinian Consul kindly lent Sir Moses his sedan chair,
the only one to be found in Egypt at that time. We could not ride in a
carriage on account of the Sabbath. Sir Moses was in full uniform, and
wore his Sheriff's chain. The palace was situated about half-an-hour's
distance from the Hotel de l'Europe, and commanded an extensive view
of both harbours, as well as the outer roads. The Pasha's fleet was in
full sail nearly opposite to his window.

Sir Moses gives the following account of his interview with the
Pasha:--

"I had to wait," he writes, "for Colonel Campbell in one of the
attendance rooms, being before the time I had appointed to meet him;
he came very punctually at nine o'clock. We were immediately admitted
to the presence of Mohhammad Ali. He received me standing, then taking
his seat on the divan, he motioned me to a seat on his right hand, Dr
Loewe next to me, and Colonel Campbell on the left of the Pasha. His
Highness gave me a very gracious reception, and spoke on each of my
requests. Referring to the one for renting land of him in Palestine,
he said he had no land there, but any contract I might make with the
Mussulmans should have his approval, and he would send it to
Constantinople for confirmation.

"On repeating that I had been led to believe that his Highness
possessed land there, from information I had received when in the
country, he replied that if I could point out the parts belonging to
him, I could have them.

"He said he would be glad to see the land better cultivated, and I
might send proper persons with agricultural implements.

"I then spoke to him on the subject of the Jews being admitted as
witnesses at Safed, Tiberias, and Hebron, in the same manner as in
Jerusalem. He first said that on account of their religion they could
not be permitted to give evidence against Mussulmans, but on my again
repeating that they were so permitted in Jerusalem, he replied that
Jews and Christians should be treated alike, and there should be no
difference between them.

"I then spoke to him as to the rebuilding of the wall round the town
of Tiberias, which had been destroyed by the earthquake. I said there
were plenty of stones on the spot, and people willing to do the work
free of expense, as the inhabitants were at present so much exposed to
robbers. At first he misunderstood me, and asked which wall it was
that the Jews wished to repair. I explained to him that both
Mussulmans and Jews were equally anxious that the city wall should be
repaired: both had written and spoken to me on the subject whilst I
was at Tiberias, begging me to represent to him the present insecure
state of the city; all that was required was his order to have the
work done. He said he would order a report to be made immediately to
him, and the wall repaired.

"I told him that in the cultivation of land, security was necessary
for both land and person, and I hoped they would have it. This he also
promised.

"I then spoke of establishing joint stock banks with a capital of
£1,000,000 sterling, with power to increase it, if necessary. His eyes
sparkled at this; he appeared delighted, and assured me the bank
should have his protection, and he should be happy to see it
established.

"I mentioned the branches: Alexandria, Beyrout, Damascus, Jaffa,
Jerusalem, and Cairo.

"I said I was happy to see him looking so well; he did not appear to
me older than when I had the honour of being presented to him at Cairo
in 1827. This is really the fact. I then congratulated him on the fine
appearance of his fleet, which I had passed yesterday. He replied, 'At
present it is very small.'

"I presented him with a bronze medal of our most gracious queen,
struck by the city of London to commemorate Her Majesty's visit to the
Guildhall on the 9th of November 1837. He appeared pleased, examined
it attentively on both sides, asked me if it was a good likeness of
the Queen, then thanked me for it. I took leave, and returned to the
hotel the same way I came, being followed the whole way by crowds of
curious people.

"Boghoz Bey, the Pasha's Minister of Commerce, had read over and
explained my requests to him on, the previous evening, that he might
be fully aware of the object of my visit to him. Being anxious to have
Mohhammad Ali's answers in writing, which he said Boghoz Bey should
give me, as he had been present at our interview, I called on the Bey,
but he had not returned from the Palace.

"Between four and five I walked there with Dr Loewe. Boghoz Bey
received me most politely, and said as I had not put my signature to
the written requests, he could not give me an answer in writing, but
he hoped I was perfectly satisfied with what Mohhammad Ali had
promised me this morning. He added that as soon as I had made my
several requests in writing, and signed them, he would write me the
answer, agreeably with the Pasha's words, as he had accorded me all I
required.

"I thanked him, and immediately after the conclusion of Sabbath I
wrote, and sent the several requests to Boghoz Bey, properly signed in
the form of letters."

Numbers of visitors came to pay their respects to Sir Moses and Lady
Montefiore, and offered congratulations on their safe return from
Palestine. Mr Waghorn (the originator of the short overland route
between England and India), read to Sir Moses the letters he had just
addressed to Lord Palmerston, Mr Hobhouse, and the _Times_ newspaper
on the subject. The heat was intense, and we were so terribly
persecuted by insects that the pleasure of our interesting
discussions was greatly marred. Sir Moses indeed observed that he
could not live in Egypt, even to be king of the land.

_Sunday, July 14th._--A deputation from the Hebrew community, headed
by their Ecclesiastical Chief, and the representatives of their
schools and charitable institutions, waited on Sir Moses to report on
the state of their Synagogues, &c. Sir Moses, with his usual
liberality, contributed towards the funds of all their charities. He
then requested me to wait on Boghoz Bey to receive the letter which
the minister had promised him. Accompanied by Lady Montefiore, Sir
Moses afterwards paid some visits, and took leave of all who had
called on them; and, this being accomplished, they proceeded to the
harbour, where a boat belonging to the Pasha was waiting to take them
on board the _Acheron_. The peculiar phraseology of the conversation I
held with Boghoz Bey, partly in Arabic and partly in Turkish, made it
desirable to give Sir Moses, on my return, an exact translation of it
in writing, but it may be briefly related as follows. After the usual
exchange of compliments, I endeavoured to obtain a definite answer to
the letter addressed by Sir Moses to the Pasha, but the Bey did not
care to express himself on any other subject than that of the proposed
bank, and the elaborate manner in which he sought to induce Sir Moses
to establish the bank without delay, the enticing promises of
protection, patronage, and personal profit which he held out, left no
room for doubt as to the interest he took in the scheme. I, on my
part, enumerated in detail all the points to which Sir Moses attached
so much importance, and the concessions which he asked in favour of
religious toleration, justice, and the practice of agriculture and the
establishment of colonies. Upon my pressing for an early reply, the
Bey again endeavoured to gain time, and for that purpose changed the
subject by opening a religious discussion, taking for his theme the
interpretation of the prophet's words, "And the Eternal shall be King
over all the earth; on that day there shall be one Lord, and His name
One." He seemed to be under the impression that this would be an
earthly king. I soon succeeded in allaying his fears, and convincing
him that the words of the prophet Zachariah referred to the King of
kings, the Almighty in Heaven.

Eventually he fixed ten o'clock as the time for receiving my reply,
and after a repetition of the customary Eastern complimentary phrases
I withdrew.

It had struck me that the strange question the minister had put to me
regarding the expectation of having one King over all the world, had
been brought to his mind by the promoters of the colony which he told
me intended to settle in Syria. Possibly they might have been informed
of Sir Moses' plans, and made some remarks which had come to the ears
of the minister. I therefore deemed it right to reassure him on the
subject, so that no one should for a moment be led to believe that Sir
Moses had any other object in view than that distinctly stated in his
letter to the Pasha.

I went once more to Boghoz Bey, but not finding him at home, proceeded
at once to the Palace. On my arrival there, I went to the secretary's
hall and wrote a few lines, stating that I had come to see His
Excellency Boghoz Bey for the promised reply, intending to send it in
to him, notwithstanding his being with the Pasha. As I was in the act
of handing the note to one of the attendants, the minister came out
saying, "Come, my friend, immediately with me to His Highness." After
having made my first and second bow, Boghoz Bey said to the Pasha,
"This is the very person," alluding probably to the subject of their
recent conversation.

The Pasha smiled. Artim Bey then said, "You will hear word for word
just as I said to you yesterday."

The Pasha--"I received the letter from Sir Moses just this very
moment, that is, the official letter, and I shall send him two letters
in reply, one which will reach him when he will be performing
quarantine in Malta; acknowledging the receipt of his letter, and
informing him that I will take steps to ascertain all particulars
respecting the land he wishes to take on lease; but with regard to the
protection of the people, the admission of evidence given by Jewish
witnesses, and the repair of the wall of Tiberias, I shall immediately
give orders. The latter shall be done, whether the stones and
materials are to be found there or not, whether people will come
forward willing to work or not; all will be done. I shall also write
to Sir Moses in the same letter respecting the establishment of banks;
all will be satisfactory. The second letter, in which all particulars
respecting the contract, and the pointing out of land which belongs
to me, or which I shall have to take for Sir Moses from others, he
will receive as soon as we shall have obtained all the required
information. Be sure of all I have told you."

I thereupon said: "But perhaps His Highness would be so gracious as to
give me even these few words in writing."

Upon this both Boghoz Bey and Artim Bey at once began: "My dear L.,
yesterday was your Sabbath and to-day is ours; I know you are strict
in the observance of your religious tenets, therefore we beg you will
not insist on our writing."

The Pasha smiled, so did all present. Boghoz Bey made several
observations to the Pasha respecting our conversation of yesterday.
Having expressed my thanks to the Pasha, in the name of Sir Moses, I
withdrew from his presence.

At 3 P.M. the _Acheron_ left the harbour. Our bill of health from
Alexandria stated, "With regard to the health of the place, occasional
cases of plague occur in this town." This was signed by John Wingfield
Larking, Her Britannic Majesty's Consul. We were naturally all glad to
quit the place.



CHAPTER XXV.

1839.

ARRIVAL AT MALTA--HOME AGAIN--BOGHOZ BEY RETURNS NO ANSWER--TOUCHING
APPEAL FROM THE PERSECUTED JEWS OF DAMASCUS AND RHODES--REVIVAL OF THE
OLD CALUMNY ABOUT KILLING CHRISTIANS TO PUT THEIR BLOOD IN PASSOVER
CAKES.


_July 18th._--About ten o'clock at night we entered the quarantine
harbour at Malta, where we were ordered to remain till August 7th. To
be confined for twenty days, during the hot summer months, with three
hundred pilgrims, at Fort Manoel, was already a cause of great
discomfort to Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore, but the circumstances
were here made especially painful to them by the loss of a faithful
servant, whose death occurred during their stay in the Lazaretto. In
addition to this they received news that the Turkish fleet had been
delivered up to Mohhammad Ali, in Alexandria, by Kapoudan Pasha; that
the Sultan was dead, and 150,000 Russian troops had arrived at
Constantinople. This change in the political horizon frustrated almost
all Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore's hopes of seeing their schemes for
the amelioration of the condition of Syria realised. There was no
chance now of receiving letters from Mohhammad Ali.

_August 6th._--The captain of the Lazaretto was there before five
o'clock in the morning to give us _pratique_. Sir Moses and Lady
Montefiore went to the Synagogue, presented some ornaments for the
Ark, and various gifts to the officers. They also called on the
Governor, and after paying visits to Sir Hector Grey and their many
other friends, went on board our steamer the _Lycurgus_.

_August 7th._--About twelve o'clock the steamer moved out of the
harbour, and we all bade farewell to the island. On Saturday we cast
anchor in the roads of Leghorn. When leaving that place, Sir Moses
remained looking at the city as long as it continued in sight. "Heaven
only knows," he said, "whether I have seen the place of my birth for
the last time; the state of my health and my age would lead me to
believe that I can scarcely hope to visit it again. May peace,
happiness, and prosperity attend my relatives and all its other
inhabitants!"

_August 11th._--At Marseilles, Sir Moses visited the gas-works, and
expressed great pleasure at seeing the new gas holder and coal shed
nearly finished. In the evening he invited all the gentlemen connected
with the Imperial Continental Gas Association to take tea with him.

_August 13th._--We left Marseilles and proceeded _viâ_ Aix, Avignon,
Valence, and Lyons to Châlons. Here we had an instance of the great
attention which Sir Moses invariably paid to everything he saw. Having
noticed a man lighting the street lamps without the aid of a ladder,
he sent for the man to come to our hotel, desiring him to bring with
him the long stick he had used in lighting the lamps. The man came and
showed it to him; it had a small lantern near the top, and was
furnished with a hook. In explaining its use the man pointed out that
the burners had no taps but valves, which were raised or lowered by
the hook. "It appears to me," said Sir Moses, "a very simple and neat
contrivance, a saving of time, and consequently expense, both in
lighting and extinguishing the flame." He requested me to make an
exact drawing of the stick, with the lantern and hook attached to it,
and before leaving the hotel, made the man promise to bring him one of
the burners to look at.

_Thursday, August 22nd._--We reached Paris. Baron Anselm de
Rothschild, who had been with the King at Eu, told Sir Moses that the
Pasha had refused to give up the Turkish fleet, and the King would not
compel him. Sir Moses called on Mr Bulwer, who informed him that the
King would probably be in Paris in five or six days, and wished Sir
Moses to remain there, so as to be presented to him. Mr Bulwer also
promised to take him to an evening party, to be given on September 3rd
by Marshal Soult. But Sir Moses was longing to return to England, and
would not prolong his stay.

_August 30th._--We left the French capital for Beauvais, where we
remained over Sabbath. On Sunday we proceeded to Boulogne, and on
Thursday, September 5th, we arrived safely at Dover. Sir Moses and
Lady Montefiore continued their journey on the same day to Ramsgate,
where they arrived in time to be present at the evening service in
their Synagogue, and to offer up fervent thanks to the Most High for
their safe return after so long an absence and so dangerous an
excursion. The next day they left Ramsgate for Richmond, where they
were received with most tender affection by their mother, sisters, and
brothers, and every member of their family.

On their return their correspondence with the East increased rapidly,
and engaged much of their attention. Messengers frequently arrived
from Jerusalem to entreat them to do what they possibly could to
improve the condition of the Jews there. Both Sir Moses and Lady
Montefiore took great pleasure in relieving, as far as in their power,
every deserving case.

At the end of December Sir Moses thought he might, without
impropriety, remind His Excellency Boghoz Bey, Minister of Finance in
Egypt, of the promise the Viceroy had made him, when he was at
Alexandria, respecting the purchase of land in Syria, and the
establishment of banks there and in Egypt. He addressed a letter to
Boghoz Bey, recapitulating all the particulars which he had verbally
explained to him and the Pasha.

Weeks and months passed, and no reply came from Egypt. Sir Moses
meanwhile occupied himself with other subjects, thinking that perhaps
another and more favourable opportunity might present itself for
bringing the matter forward again. His duties in connection with his
financial companies took up his time till about the month of March,
when the report of an outrage in the East roused sorrow and
indignation in the heart of every upright man.

In a letter from the Elders of the Hebrew community in Constantinople,
addressed to Messrs de Rothschild in London, dated March the 27th,
1840, we read:--

"Independently of the tie which so strongly binds together the whole
Jewish community, of which you, gentlemen, are distinguished
ornaments, having always been prominent in assisting our distressed
brethren, whose appeals to you are not infrequent, your hearts cannot
but be greatly moved to sympathise with two Jewish communities (viz.,
that of Damascus, under the Egyptian jurisdiction, and that of Rhodes,
one of the Ottoman States) oppressed by the tyrannies of the Pashas
who govern them.

"These persecutions originated in calumnies, which the oppressors
themselves have invented, and which have been long rankling in their
hearts, to the prejudice of the Jewish community. Our brethren are
accused of being accomplices in murder, in order to make their
Passover cakes with the blood of the murdered men--a thing in itself
incredible, as being forbidden in our holy religion. This report has,
however, found credence with the governing Pashas of Damascus and
Rhodes, and they have oppressed and incarcerated not only several old
men and Rabbins, but even a number of children, putting them to
tortures, of which it makes men shudder to hear. Such is the
afflicting picture drawn in the letters of our persecuted brethren, of
which, with deep regret, we hand you copies.

"The community now addressing you, although implored by the sufferers
to put an end to these persecutions, and to prevent, if possible,
their recurrence, is deeply grieved to find itself incapacitated from
affording any relief, in consequence of being subject to a Government
not on friendly terms with the Pasha of Egypt.

"There remain, therefore, no means of salvation for the oppressed,
except an appeal to your innate goodness and pity. We entreat you to
interpose your valuable mediation, in such manner and with such
persons as you may deem most desirable, for the safety of our unhappy
brethren languishing in chains and in prison, so as to obtain, from
the Pasha of Egypt, the liberation of the Jews of Damascus, and a
compensation, not only from the governing Pasha of Damascus,
commensurate with the excesses committed by him, but also from the
Consular Agents at Rhodes, who have oppressed persons not subject to
them.

"We, the Rabbins and Elders of this place, impressed with the urgency
of the case, and moved by compassion for our brethren, and further
induced by the report which is current throughout the world, of the
generous and philanthropic sentiments which animate you and fill your
hearts, ever open to the miseries of the oppressed, feel persuaded
that you will exert yourselves to do all you possibly can, in these
distressing circumstances.

  "(Signed) I. Camondo.
  Salamon Qm. Mco. Fua.
  Samuel de N. Treves.

"The Jews of Damascus, addressing Messrs Abram Conorte and Aaron
Cohen, Elders of the Congregation at Constantinople, after expressing
their wishes for their health, say as follows:--

"To our deep regret, we address you these few lines to inform you of
the continued state of misery in which our brethren, inhabitants of
Damascus, still remain, as communicated to you in my letter of the
17th of Adar (February), forwarded to you by the steam-packet. We had
hoped to advise you in this letter that the circumstances of the
murder, respecting which the Jewish community were calumniated, had
been ascertained, but in this hope we have been sadly disappointed. We
will now, therefore, repeat everything in detail, and it is this:--

"On Wednesday, the 1st day of the month of Adar (February) there
disappeared from Damascus a priest, who with his servant had dwelt for
forty years in the city. He exercised the profession of physician, and
visited the houses of Catholics, Jews, and Armenians, for the purpose
of vaccination.

"The day following, viz., Thursday, there came people into the Jewish
quarter to look for him, saying they had seen both him and his servant
in that quarter on the previous day. In order to put into execution
their conspiracy they seized a Jewish barber, telling him that he must
know all about the matter, and took him to the Governor, who on
hearing the accusation, immediately ordered him to receive five
hundred stripes. He was also subjected to other cruelties. During the
intervals between these inflictions he was urged to accuse all the
Jews as accomplices, and he, thinking by this means to relieve
himself, accused Messrs David, Isaac, and Aaron Harari, Joseph
Legnado, Moses Abulafia, Moses Becar Juda, and Joseph Harari, as
accomplices, who had offered him three hundred piastres to murder the
above mentioned priest, inasmuch as the Passover holidays were
approaching, and they required blood for their cakes. He said that he
did not, however, give ear to their instigations, and did not know
what had happened to the priest and his servant. Upon this the Pasha
caused the persons named to be arrested as instigators, and punished
with blows and other torments of the most cruel nature; but as they
were innocent they could not confirm as true that which was a calumny,
and therefore, in contradiction, they asserted their innocence,
appealing to the sacred writings, which strictly prohibit the Jews
from feeding upon _any_ blood, much less that of a fellow-creature, a
thing totally repugnant to nature. Nevertheless they were imprisoned
with chains round their necks, and had daily inflicted on them the
most severe beatings and cruelties, and were compelled to stand
upright without food of any kind for fifty hours together.

"Subsequently the Hebrew butchers were cited to appear; they were put
in chains together with the Rabbins Jacob Antubi, Salomon Harari, and
Asaria Jalfon; and they too were beaten to such an extent that their
flesh hung in pieces upon them; and these atrocities were perpetrated
in order to induce them to confess that they used blood in making the
Passover cakes. They replied that, if such had been the case, many
Jewish proselytes would have published the fact. This, however, was
not sufficient.

"After this, the same Governor went to the boy's college; he had the
boys carried to prison, bound them with chains, and forbade the
mothers to visit their imprisoned children, to whom only ten drachms
of bread and a cup of water per day were allowed, the Governor
expecting that the fathers, for the sake of liberating their children,
would confess the truth of the matter.

"Subsequently a Jew, who was still at liberty, presented himself
before the Governor, stating that the calumny of our using blood for
our Passover cakes had been discussed before all the Powers, who,
after consulting their divines, had declared the falsehood of the
charge; and he added that either others had killed the priest and his
servant, or they had clandestinely absented themselves from the
country, and that the barber, in order to save himself from
persecution, had stated that which, was not true.

"Upon this the Governor replied that, as he had accused other persons
of killing them, he must know who the murderers were; and in order
that he should confess, he was beaten to such an extent that he
expired under the blows.

"After this, the Governor, with a body of six hundred men, proceeded
to demolish the houses of his Jewish subjects, hoping to find the
bodies of the dead, but not finding anything, he returned, and again
inflicted on his victims further castigations and torments, some of
them too cruel and disgusting to be described. At last, being
incapable of bearing further anguish, they said that the charge was
true!!!

"The Governor, hearing this statement, asked them where they had
secreted the blood of the murdered men, to which one of them replied,
that it had been put into a bottle, and delivered to Moses Abulafia,
who, however, declared he knew nothing of it. In order to make him
confess he received a thousand stripes, but this infliction not
extorting any confession from him, he was subjected to other
insupportable tortures, which at length compelled him to declare that
the bottle was at home in a chest of drawers. Upon this the Governor
ordered him to be carried on the shoulders of four men (for he could
not walk), that he might open the bureau. This was opened, but nothing
was found in it, except a quantity of money which the Governor seized,
asking at the same time where the blood was. Whereupon Abulafia
replied that he made the statement in order that the Governor should
see the money in the bureau, trusting by this means to escape. Upon
this the tortures were again repeated, and Abulafia, to save himself,
embraced the Mohammedan religion.

"In this manner they treated all the prisoners who have been for one
month in this misery. In Beyrout and in Damascus the Jews are not
permitted to go out.

"After this an individual came forward, and stated that by means of
astrology he had discovered and ascertained that the seven individuals
above named assassinated the priest, and that the servant was killed
by Raphael Farkhi, Nathan and Aaron Levy, Mordecai Farkhi, and Asher
of Lisbon. The two first were immediately arrested, the others, it
appears, sought safety in flight.

"You will judge from this--the Elders of Damascus say--what sort of
justice is administered by means of astrology, and how such justice is
exercised. And there is no one who is moved to compassion in favour of
the unfortunate victims. Even Bekhor Negri, the Governor's banker,
unable to bear these afflictions, became a Mussulman.

"Read this, dearest friends,--they continue,--to Messrs Camondo,
Hatteni, and Carmona, in order that they may co-operate for the safety
of our unfortunate and calumniated brethren, with such persons as they
may deem most fitting.

"The Jews of Rhodes describe their state of misery to the elders of
the congregation in Constantinople in the following statement:--

"A Greek boy, about ten years old, son of an inhabitant of the
country, is said to have been lost, and the Christians have
calumniated us by saying that we have killed him. All the European
Consuls came forward to demand an elucidation of the affair. They went
in a body, with the exception of the Austrian Consul, to the Pasha,
and requested that he would entrust to them the conduct of the
business, which request the Pasha granted. They then summoned before
them two Greek women who dwelt near the city, who stated that on
Tuesday some Jews were passing from the villages to the city, and that
one of them had a Greek boy with him. The Consuls immediately cited
the Jew to appear before them, and questioned him on the subject. He
replied that he could prove that during the whole of Tuesday he was in
the village, and did not come into the city until Wednesday. He added,
moreover, that even if this boy did enter the city by that road, and
at the time the Jews were going into it, it ought not therefore to be
believed that the Jews had killed him, as the road was the chief and
public thoroughfare through which any one might pass.

"These reasons were not admitted by the Consuls, and the unfortunate
Jew was immediately put in irons, and tortured in a manner never yet
seen or heard of. Having been loaded with chains, many stripes were
inflicted on him, red hot wires were run through his nose, burning
bones applied to his head, and a heavy stone was laid upon his breast,
so that he was reduced to the point of death; all this time his
tormentors were accusing him, saying, 'You have stolen the Greek boy,
to deliver him up to the Rabbi--confess at once, if you wish to save
yourself."

"Their object was to calumniate our Rabbi, and to take vengeance on
all the community; and they stated openly that this was done for the
purpose of exterminating the Jews in Rhodes, or to compel them to
change their religion, so that they might be able to boast in Europe
of having converted an entire community.

"Meanwhile the poor Jew cried out in the midst of these torments,
praying for death as a relief, to which they replied, that he must
confess to whom he had given the boy, and then he should be
immediately set at liberty. The poor Jew, oppressed by tortures beyond
endurance, resorted to falsehood in order to save himself. He
calumniated first one and then another, but many whom he accused had
been absent from the town some time, which clearly proved that his
assertions had no other object than to free himself from these
tortures. Nevertheless all those who could be found were immediately
imprisoned, and subjected to insupportable torments, to extort from
them the confession that they had delivered the boy to the Chief
Rabbi, or to the elders of the community, and night and day they were
tormented, because they would not accuse innocent persons. Meanwhile,
goaded by continual tortures, these poor creatures cried out and
prayed that they might be killed rather than be subjected to the
endurance of such anguish; especially seven of them, who anxiously
courted death, and indeed were all but dead in consequence of these
tortures. To increase the misery, the Jewish quarter was closed and
surrounded by guards, in order that none might go out, or learn what
had happened to their unfortunate brethren.

"You must know--they say--that during the day at such times as there
is no one in the Jewish quarter, the Christians are going about
endeavouring clandestinely to leave the dead body of a Turk or
Christian in the court of some Jewish house, for the purpose of having
the individual brought before the Governor, in order to give a
colouring to their calumny. Such is the misery that weighs upon our
hearts and blinds our eyes. We have even been refused the favour of
presenting a petition to the Pasha of the city.

"After three days spent in this wretchedness, they refused even to
supply us with bread in our quarter, for our families shut up with us;
but by dint of entreaty we have obtained, as a favour, the supply at
high prices of salt fish and black bread.

"From what we can gather from the Europeans who are about the Pasha,
he acts in concert with the Consuls, as he has done from the
beginning. We except the Austrian Consul, who at first endeavoured to
protect us, but who was at length compelled to join with the
multitude."



CHAPTER XXVI.

1840.

INDIGNATION MEETINGS IN LONDON--M. CRÉMIEUX--LORD PALMERSTON'S
ACTION--SIR MOSES STARTS ON A MISSION TO THE EAST--ORIGIN OF THE
PASSOVER CAKE SUPERSTITION.


These communications, together with all the letters which had been
addressed to Sir Moses on the same subject, were submitted to the
consideration of the Board of Deputies and others at a meeting held at
Grosvenor Gate, Park Lane, the residence of Sir Moses.

There were present--Mr Joseph Gutteres Henriques, President; Baron de
Rothschild, Sir Moses Montefiore, Messrs Moses Mocatta, I. L.
Goldsmid, Jacob Montefiore, Isaac Cohen, Henry H. Cohen, Samuel
Bensusan, Dr Loewe, Messrs Louis Lucas, A. A. Goldsmid, Louis Cohen,
H. de Castro, Haim Guedalla, Simon Samuel, Joel Davis, David Salamons,
Abraham Levy, Jonas Levy, Laurence Myers, Solomon Cohen, Barnard van
Oven, M.D., S. J. Waley, and F. H. Goldsmid.

The following resolutions were unanimously adopted:--

"That this meeting has learned with extreme concern and disgust that
there have been lately revived in the East those false and atrocious
charges, so frequently brought against the Jews during the middle
ages, of committing murders in order to use the blood of the murdered
as an ingredient in the food during the religious ceremony of
Passover, charges which, in those times, repeatedly served as a
pretext for the robbery and massacre of persons of the Jewish faith,
but which have long disappeared from this part of the world, with the
fierce and furious prejudices that gave them birth.

"That this meeting is anxious to express its horror at finding that,
on the ground of these abominable calumnies, numbers of Jews have been
seized at Damascus and at Rhodes; that many children have been
imprisoned, and almost totally deprived of food; that of the adults
seized, several have been tortured till they died, and others have
been sentenced to death, and, it is believed, executed, although the
only evidence of their guilt was the pretended confessions wrung by
torture from their alleged accomplices.

"That this meeting earnestly request the Governments of England,
France, and Austria to remonstrate with those Governments under which
these atrocities have taken place, against their continuance.

"That this meeting confidently relies on the sympathy and humanity of
the British nation to exert its influence and authority to stay such
abominable proceedings, and that the President, Joseph Gutteres
Henriques, Esq.; The Baron de Rothschild, Sir Moses Montefiore, and
Messrs I. L. Goldsmid, Jacob Montefiore, David Salamons, A. A.
Goldsmid, and F. H. Goldsmid do form a deputation to request a
conference on the subject with Her Majesty's Secretary of State for
Foreign Affairs.

"That these resolutions be advertised in the newspapers."

A letter was read from the Rev. Dr Hirschel, Chief Rabbi, expressive
of his regret that his infirmities prevented his attendance at the
meeting, and declaring his concern at the revival of such false and
calumnious assertions, and his horror at such atrocious cruelties.

The meeting was attended by Monsieur Crémieux, Vice-President of the
_Consistoire Central des Israelites Français_, who addressed the
meeting, expressing his concurrence and sympathy in its proceedings.

On April 30th the Committee proceeded to Downing Street, and were most
kindly received by Lord Palmerston. He promised to use his influence
with Mohhammad Ali and the Turkish Government to put a stop to such
atrocities. Sir Moses mentioned on this occasion, when Lord Palmerston
was speaking of his visit to Palestine, Mr Young's humanity at
Jerusalem, and also the fact that the Jews were desirous of being
employed in agricultural pursuits.

On June 15th at a meeting of the Deputies and Representatives of all
the Synagogues, including the Rev. Dr Hirschel, Rev. D. Meldola,
Monsieur Crémieux, and Rev. D. Bibas, Sir Moses was requested to
proceed, with Monsieur Crémieux, to Alexandria and Damascus, to which
request he acceded.

On June 23rd he attended a meeting at the Great Synagogue, where the
resolutions adopted at the previous meeting (June 15th) were
confirmed, and he declared his readiness to go.

On the 24th of June he went with Baron Lionel de Rothschild to the
Foreign Office. Lord Palmerston was most friendly, and read to them
the despatches to Colonel Hodges and Lord Ponsonby. That to Colonel
Hodges was most strongly worded, calling on him to address Mohhammad
Ali in writing to urge him to compensate the sufferers and remove
those officers who had misconducted themselves in Damascus. Lord
Palmerston further said he would give Sir Moses letters to Colonel
Hodges, telling him to afford him every protection and assistance, and
desiring him to apply to Mohhammad Ali to give him (Sir Moses) every
facility for the investigation of the affair. His Lordship also added
that he would give him any other letters he might require.

On Friday, July 3rd, there was a crowded and enthusiastic meeting in
the Egyptian Hall at the Mansion House, of bankers, merchants, and
many influential and learned British Christians, for the purpose of
expressing their sympathy with the Israelites, and their earnest
wishes for the success of Sir Moses Montefiore previous to his
starting on the mission to the East. Mr Alderman Thompson took the
chair. The principal speakers were the Lord Mayor, Sir Chapman
Marshall, J. Abel Smith, John Masterman, S. Gurney, Sir Charles
Forbes, Dr Bowring, Daniel O'Connell, and the Hon. and Rev. Noel. The
result of the meeting was highly satisfactory.

In the interval between these meetings Sir Moses attended the Queen's
Drawing-Room, and was most graciously addressed there by Prince George
of Cambridge, who said he was glad to see him, and reminded him of his
having met him at Malta.

At a meeting of the Board of Deputies on the 26th Sir Moses was
unanimously elected their president, on the resignation of Mr J. H.
Henriques. He attended the annual festival dinner of the Jews'
Hospital, when the Duke of Sussex presided. On the 11th of June he
went to the Merchant Taylors' Hall to meet the Duke of Cambridge and
Prince George, the latter being made an honorary member of the
Company. Taking special interest in the abolition of slavery, Sir
Moses and Lady Montefiore both attended the grand meeting of the
Society for the Abolition of the Slave Trade, when Prince Albert took
the chair and addressed the company. On June 15th he was present at a
meeting of the Board of Deputies of the British Jews, and agreed to
the addresses of congratulation prepared by the Hon. Secretary, to be
sent to Her Majesty, Prince Albert, and the Duchess of Kent, on the
occasion of the escape of the Queen from the attempt made on her life
in the Park on the 10th of June. The address to Her Majesty was
subsequently presented by him, as President of the Board of Deputies,
accompanied by four other gentlemen, at St James' Palace; and Sir
Moses was then presented to the Queen by the Duke of Norfolk, on his
going to the East. The next day Sir Moses and the same four gentlemen
presented the address to the Duchess of Kent, who received them most
amiably, and enquired particularly after Sir Moses' health. He then
proceeded with them to Buckingham Palace, and presented the address to
Prince Albert, who also received them very graciously.

Sir Moses, as the representative of the Jews in the British Empire,
now commenced making his arrangements for the departure of the
Mission, and Monsieur Crémieux, as representative of the Jews in
France, took similar steps.

Sir Moses selected for his companions Mr D. W. Wire (his former
under-Sheriff and afterwards Lord Mayor of London), Dr Madden, a
distinguished author and well-known traveller in the East, and myself.

Monsieur Crémieux engaged as his companion Monsieur Solomon Munk, a
distinguished savant of Paris.

Before I proceed to give the account of the present mission, as taken
from the entries in Sir Moses' diary and from my own personal
observation, I deem it necessary to direct the attention of the reader
to the origin of accusations similar to those made at Damascus, which
were brought against the Jews in former times; and to point out the
reason why, even to this day, they are not without effect in some of
the most enlightened countries.

Tertullianus (J. Septimus Florens), one of the Fathers of the Church,
who lived in the second century, complains in his work entitled
"Apologet. advers. gentes" (chap. 8), of the adherents to the religion
to which he himself belonged being accused of sacrificing and eating
children. Upon which, Pamelius, in his commentary on the same chapter
(which he dedicated to Philip II. and Pope Gregory VIII.), observes,
that the accusation has its origin in the misunderstanding of the
sense of all those passages in the New Testament which refer to the
Agapes. These verses have been taken by the uninitiated in their
literal sense.

The heathens at that time asserted that the Christians used human
blood at their Passover. Thus we find the origin of that horrible
accusation in the first three centuries of the Christian era; not
until the thirteenth century was it brought against the Jews, viz., in
the year 1235 in Fulda, 1250 in Spain, 1264 in London, 1283 in
Bachrach, Moravia, 1285 in Munich.

If these charges were true, it might be asked, how is it that the
Jews, who celebrated the Passover festival fifteen hundred years
before the Christian era, had never been accused of such a crime
before? The answer to this question is to be found in the history of
the thirteenth century.

It was in this century, when fanaticism and hatred of race prevailed,
and when persecutions for witchcraft and the burning of heretics and
sorcerers were of frequent occurrence, that it appeared opportune to
bring against the Jews the same accusation which had been formerly
brought against the ancestors of their accusers, viz., the using of
Christian blood for the Passover. The wealth of the Jews in several
parts of Europe, as well as the high position to which they were
raised in Spain by the rulers of the land, had aroused the jealousy of
their adversaries. The unfounded nature of the accusation against them
was so palpable that the heads of the Church deemed it necessary to
defend and protect them. Thus Pope Innocent IV. published a Bull on
the 5th of July 1247, addressed to the heads of the Church in France
and Germany, officially refuting the demoniacal accusation (S.
Baronitas Annales eccles. ad annum 1247, No. 84). I give here a
translation of it in order to afford the reader the opportunity of
acquainting himself with the contents of that important document:--

  "Lyons, _3rd July 1248_.

  "Pope Innocent, the servant of the servants of God,
  sends his apostolic greeting and blessing to the right
  reverend Fathers, Bishops, and Archbishops in Germany.

  "We have received from Germany the sad news that in
  your towns and dioceses there is a wish to despoil the
  Jews, in an illegal manner, of their property, and that,
  for this purpose, malicious counsels and different false
  accusations are brought against them. Without
  considering that they were, in a certain way, entrusted
  with the care of the Christian faith; that the command
  of Holy Scripture, 'Thou shalt not commit murder,' was
  given to them; and that, by their law, they are
  forbidden to touch corpses on the Passover, they are
  accused of eating in company the heart of a murdered
  child, and if the dead body of any human being is found,
  they are believed to be the murderers, although such
  practices are in direct contradiction to their laws. By
  such false accusations they are oppressed, and deprived
  of all their goods, although they have never been
  brought before any judge and found guilty, in spite of
  the privileges graciously granted them by the Apostolic
  Chair. This is against all human and divine law, and
  brings these said Jews into a worse condition than that
  of their forefathers under the Pharaohs of Egypt, and
  forces them, in their misery, to leave the places where
  their fathers had been settled from time immemorial. In
  their fear of being exterminated entirely, they have
  sought the protection of the Apostolic Chair, and we
  hereby forbid every unjust oppression of the said Jews,
  whose conversion we trust to the mercy of God, according
  to the promise of the Prophet, that those of them who
  remain shall be saved; and we commend them to you, our
  brethren, through this Apostolic letter, that you may
  show favour to them, and help them to their right, when
  they have been unjustly imprisoned; and that you in no
  case permit them to be oppressed for the said or similar
  causes. Those who are guilty of molesting them in this
  way are to be punished by doing penance in the Church,
  without regard to their station.

  "Given at Lyons, on the 3rd of July, in the fifth year
  of our Pontificate."

In 1275 the Emperor Rudolf of Hapsburgh confirmed this Bull, in a
decree, sealed with his great seal, which is still to be seen in the
Archives of the Town of Cologne. The title of this decree is, "I,
Rudolphus, Rex Rom., do hereby confirm the privileges granted to the
Jews by Popes Gregory and Innocent, and declare to be untrue, that
which some Christians say, that they do eat the heart of a dead child
on the day of their Passover."

The contents of this decree are a literal translation of the Bull
given above. Another Bull issued by Gregory, says, amongst other
things:--

"Gregory, &c.... Following the example set us by our predecessors of
blessed memory, Calixt, Cugen, Alexander, Cölöstin, Honorius, and
Gregory, we agree to the prayer of the Jews, and will hold the shield
of our protection over them. We also strictly forbid, that any
Christian force them, against their will, to be baptised, as only
those can be considered as Christians who, from their own free will,
accept baptism. Nor shall any Christian dare, without a judgment from
us, to wound or to kill them, to deprive them of their money, or in
any way to molest them in the privileges granted to them in the places
where they live."

The Emperor concludes his decree with the following words: "We confirm
and permit, in our Royal mercy, by this act to the said Jews, all and
everything which was granted and given to them by the Roman Popes, so
that they may live securely under the shadow of our protection, and
that they shall not be condemned, in any case whatever, unless
properly judged and found guilty by the righteous testimony of Jews
and Christians."

Considering that M. Achille Laurent has published a book, in which he
presumes to give what he calls a "Procédure complète dirigée en 1840
contre des Juifs de Damas,"--a book which is replete with outbursts of
hatred against the Jews, and has, since its publication, unfortunately
served almost as a text-book in the hands of their adversaries,--I
think it desirable, in addition to the declaration of the Pope given
above, to introduce to the reader the names of some eminent Christian
scholars, who have but recently (since the accusations of Kohling and
Geza roused the attention of the public) expressed their opinion in
the works they have published; some of which were written by the
special order of the Courts of Law in Austria, and the Universities of
Amsterdam, Leyden, Utrecht, and Copenhagen.

The Right Rev. Bishop Dr Kopp, of Fulda; the Right. Rev. Dr J. H.
Reinkens, in Bonn; Professor Dr Franz Delitzsch; Professor Dr A.
Dillman; Professor Dr G. Ebers; Professor Dr H. L. Fleischer, in
Leipzig; Professor Dr H. Kalkar, in Copenhagen; Professor Dr Paul de
Lagarde, in Göttingen; Professor Dr Merx, in Heidelberg; Dr Alois
Muller, in Vienna; Professor Dr Th. Nöldecke, in Straszburg; Professor
Dr Riehm, Professor Dr Carl Siegfried of Vienna, Professor Dr B. Stade
of Gieszen, Professor Dr Sommer of Königsberg, Professor Dr Strack of
Berlin, and Dr August Wunsche of Dresden.

A book entitled, "Christliche Zeugnisse gegen die Blutbeschuldigung
der Juden," published by Walther and Apolant, Berlin, 1882, gives a
compilation of all the statements on the subject made by these
authors, all proving the accusation to be a calumny.

To take possession of the wealth accumulated by the industrious and
sober habits of the Jews, and to deprive them of the important
positions which they had, by their uprightness and ability, obtained,
was the object their adversaries had in view in raising this
accusation in the thirteenth century, and the same object can be
traced in the persecutions which, in the present century, in some
parts of the world, continue to affect individuals, and sometimes even
whole communities.

_July 7th._--We proceeded to the London Bridge Wharf, where we were
met by the members of the Ecclesiastical Courts, both of the German
and Portuguese congregations, and many others of our brethren. "I
should think," Sir Moses observes in his diary, "there were more than
one hundred Jews waiting to see us set off, all giving us their
blessing, and wishing us health, success, and a safe return. May the
Almighty hearken to their prayers, and grant their petition."

It was blowing very hard when we reached Gravesend, and we determined
to land, which was not effected without some difficulty and
inconvenience. Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore were much fatigued,
having spent nearly the whole of the previous night in writing letters
and arranging various important matters relative to the Mission.

_July 8th._--We went on board the _Arrow_ a little before eight, and
reached the French coast before eleven o'clock. The weather being
squally and the sea rough, we and several others remained on board
till the vessel could enter the port. We came to anchor, and continued
to roll about till half-past four, when we landed in safety.

_Thursday, July 9th._--Found our carriages, and servants all well at
Boulogne, and ready to receive us. Having taken some refreshment, we
proceeded to Abbeville, and travelled all night, arriving shortly
after mid-day in Paris.

During our stay there we had frequent interviews with the members of
the Rothschild family, who took a deep interest in our Mission. A
meeting of the Consistoire de France on the subject was held at the
house of Baron Anselm de Rothschild, which I attended together with Dr
Loewe and Mr Wire. Monsieur Crémieux made a fervent appeal to all
present, and the result was very satisfactory. We left Paris on the
13th July, together with Dr Madden, who had come from London to join
us. Monsieur and Madame Crémieux joined our party at Avignon, and
together we reached Marseilles on the 20th. The Grand Rabbin, with the
principal members of the community, immediately came to welcome us;
afterwards we went on board the _Minos_ to inspect our cabins.

_Tuesday, July 31st._--Repaired early in the morning to the Synagogue,
and prayed for the safety and success of our Mission. At 4.30 P.M. we
went on board the _Minos_; Messrs Palmer and Taylor, of the Imperial
Continental Gas Association, accompanied us. Mr Moore, the Queen's
messenger, and Mr Doyle, of the _Chronicle_, were fellow passengers.
The wind blew very fresh when first we started, but the evening was
very fine.



CHAPTER XXVII.

1840.

ARRIVAL AT LEGHORN--ALEXANDRIA--SIR MOSES' ADDRESS TO THE
PASHA--ACTION OF THE GRAND VIZIR.


_July 23rd._--Landed at Leghorn, and went at once to the Hotel du
Globe. Many visitors called. A deputation from the Synagogue came, and
Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore asked to have the evening prayers read
in the presence of all their brethren. They accordingly gave notice to
the members of the community, who assembled in great numbers. Before
the service commenced we all joined them. Subsequently the
Ecclesiastical Chief opened the Holy Ark, and offered up a special
prayer for the Mission. At the conclusion of the service we returned
to our ship, accompanied by the representatives of the community, and
at four o'clock we left the harbour.

_July 24th._--At ten we dropped anchor at Civita Vecchia. We had been
advised in Leghorn not to land in the city, as there had been some
little movement against the Israelites, occasioned by the writings of
a priest called Meyer, a converted Jew. We were visited by Signor
Scala and Signor Samuel Alatri, a deputation from Rome. Their account
was very unfavourable as to the opinion of the Papal Government, and
murmurs, not loud but deep, were heard in Rome. They strongly
recommended our going from Malta in an English steamboat to Egypt.
They related an incident which had taken place a few days previously,
and caused them much uneasiness. A Hebrew woman was delivered of a
daughter by a Christian midwife, who immediately baptized the child,
and the authorities refused to restore her to the mother. At Leghorn,
just before Passover, a woman had lost a child, and accused the Jews
of stealing it, but the Governor put her in prison, saying she should
remain there till the child was found. This had the desired effect,
and the child was discovered the next day.

We left Civita Vecchia at 3 P.M. and anchored the following day at 8
A.M. in the harbour of Naples. Baron Charles de Rothschild and his son
came on board to see us, and to converse with us respecting the
Mission.

It was nine when our captain and his companions returned, and we
immediately started.

_July 27th._--Entered the harbour of Malta at 5 A.M.; landed, and went
to Dunford's Hotel. Subsequently paid our respects to the Governor, at
the Palace, also to Sir Hector Grey.

_Tuesday, July 28._--Rose at five. Went to Synagogue. Having left
cards at the Palace and called on some friends, we went on board the
_Eurotas_ at half-past eleven.

The sea was terribly rough and disagreeable. "Those who have the
happiness of remaining at home," said Sir Moses, "can have no idea of
the miseries of the sea."

_July 29th._--Had some heavy squalls. While Lady Montefiore was
sitting on deck, a lurch of the vessel threw her backwards with great
force. Both she and Sir Moses were much alarmed. The weather continued
very rough.

_July 31st._--Were close in with Falkner's Island and the Island of
Milo to the E.S.E.; every one was delighted with the change in the
weather. The appearance of the Islands was barren and monotonous. At
five o'clock we cast anchor in the bay, pretty close to Syra. The
water here is extremely blue, and so clear that we could see
the-bottom at a depth of sixty feet. We had made all preparations for
immediately embarking on board the vessel which was to take us to
Alexandria, but we learnt, to our regret, that she had not yet arrived
from Athens. We were consequently compelled to remain on the
_Eurotas_.

_August 1st._--At twelve left the _Eurotas_ and went on board the
_Tancrede_, which had arrived in the night from Athens, having made
the voyage in seven and a half hours. We had very few passengers
besides our own party,--one a brother of Count Capo D'Istria. He had
been imprisoned during eight months, and was being sent out of Greece.
A boat with soldiers remained close to the steamer till we left Syra.

_August 2nd._--In sight of Candia, near Cape Soloman. The morning was
fine, with a pleasant breeze. Lady Montefiore was well and in very
good spirits, active and studious as ever.

_Tuesday, August 4th._--Dropped anchor in the harbour of Alexandria at
a quarter to eight in the morning. The harbour was filled with ships
of war, Turkish and Egyptian. We noticed particularly the _Mahmudie_,
130 guns, and two vessels of sixty-eight guns.

We immediately went on shore to see the Ecclesiastical Chief of the
Hebrew community, and ascertain from him the latest news from
Damascus.

Later Sir Moses went to Colonel Hodges, the English Consul General,
who received him most politely. The Colonel said he wished to go over
the whole business with him. It had assumed, he said, a political
character. Sir Moses would find Monsieur Cochelet, the French Consul,
very plausible, but very firm; another Consul, he remarked, had been
charged with taking bribes. Colonel Hodges recommended Sir Moses to
keep clear of all parties, and requested him to call again in two
hours. The Colonel had seen, with much satisfaction, Dr Hirschel's
letter addressed to Sir Moses previous to his departure from England,
which had been translated into the Arabic, Turkish, Armenian, and
modern Greek languages, for distribution in the East. He had shown it
to Mohhammad Ali.

At twelve Colonel Hodges accompanied Sir Moses to the French Consul,
where they met Mons. Crémieux. They afterwards called on Mons. Laurin,
the Austrian Consul, with whom they saw the Prussian Consul. They
finally called on the Russian Consul, who, however, happened to be
asleep.

_August 5th._--It was nearly two o'clock this morning before we could
retire, having read over and arranged various documents. We rose soon
after five, and at eight Colonel Hodges called to accompany us to the
Palace. Sir Moses was dressed in uniform, and the gentlemen who went
with him wore either their court or official costume. Messrs Crémiere
and Munk did not join us, as their appearance before Mohammad Ali on
that day was not considered advisable by Monsieur Cochelet, for
reasons best known to himself.

Sir Moses, who rode in the carriage with Colonel Hodges, read to him
the petition which he had to present to the Pasha. He said he approved
of it and hoped it would be granted, but did not appear from his
manner to think it would. On our arrival we were immediately ushered
into the hall of audience. Mohhammad Ali was seated in the same spot
as when last we had seen him. Colonel Hodges presented Sir Moses,
saying he had the pleasure of presenting an old acquaintance of His
Highness. The Pasha greeted Sir Moses very graciously, after which we
were all introduced. Colonel Hodges then said that Sir Moses desired
to present a petition to His Highness on behalf of his Government, to
which the Pasha gave a most gracious assent.

Sir Moses addressed His Highness as follows:--

"Your Highness,--We have heard in Europe that false accusations have
been brought against the Israelites of Damascus, who are the subjects
of your Highness, and that tortures and fearful sufferings have been
inflicted upon them, in order to extract evidence against themselves.
As it is well known that our religion not only does not approve the
crime of which they are accused, but strictly commands us to abhor the
use of blood in every form, we have been delegated by our
co-religionists in the whole of Europe, to implore your Highness'
justice for our brethren. It gives us the highest satisfaction to hear
that your Highness, as soon as informed of the tortures, gave orders
to suspend them immediately. Being firmly convinced that your
Highness, who has already earned such great renown in Europe for
bravery in war, wisdom in council, and tolerance towards all your
subjects without distinction, will, with your usual benevolence, grant
our request, we appear before your Highness. We come, not in anger nor
with hatred, but solely with the most earnest desire to have the truth
made known. We therefore entreat your Highness to grant us authority
to go to Damascus, and there to institute such enquiries as will lead
to satisfactory information on the subject of this accusation, which
has caused consternation to the Jews of the whole world, and untold
sufferings to the Jewish population of Damascus; that the information
thus obtained may be officially authenticated by the Governor of
Damascus and put before your Highness.

"We further beg that your Highness will cause every facility to be
given us for procuring evidence, and will grant absolute protection to
the members of this Mission, and perfect security to all who give
evidence.

"We entreat your Highness to grant us permission to see and
interrogate the accused as often as may be necessary, and that the
authority and permission, which your Highness will be pleased to grant
us, may be, by a firman, registered in the Archives, and sent
officially to the Governor of Damascus, who shall cause its contents
to be proclaimed in the streets of that town.

"In conclusion, we beg to be permitted to state that the eyes of all
Europe are fixed on your Highness, and that by your granting our
prayer the whole civilised world will be much gratified. It is well
understood that the Great Man, who has already earned such a glorious
name, must love justice dearly. There cannot be a greater homage
rendered to your Highness' genius and benevolence, than this Mission
sent to you by the Israelites of the whole world, to appeal for
justice. It is the highest tribute paid to your genius, to your love
of truth, and to your earnest desire to secure justice to all your
subjects, that this Mission addresses itself to your Highness with the
greatest confidence, and feels sure that its appeal will not have been
in vain."

The Pasha had kept his eyes upon him the whole time. Sir Moses, when
he had finished, requested that his interpreter might be permitted to
read it to His Highness in Turkish. The Pasha said it was too long; he
would have it translated, and would then read it and give an answer.
Sir Moses then begged that the heads of the petition might be read to
him; he repeated, "It is long, it is long; shall be translated!" Sir
Moses then stated that the petition referred to the Jews of Damascus,
to which the Pasha replied, "I know it."

Dr Madden then presented an address of thanks on behalf of the Society
for the Abolition of Slavery. The Pasha appeared pleased to be able to
turn the conversation from the petition, and spoke at considerable
length on the subject of slavery. Sir Moses tried, through Colonel
Hodges, to bring his business again to the fore. An ineffectual
attempt was made several times, when Colonel Hodges said Sir Moses
should leave it to him. Before leaving, Sir Moses told His Highness
that the English people were looking forward with great anxiety to his
answer, for which he would wait on His Highness in two days' time. The
Pasha told Sir Moses to come, and he should have it, adding that if it
was an affair of justice, and Sir Moses had brought a French advocate
with him for that purpose, then this could not be permitted. Upon
which Colonel Hodges informed the Pasha that Monsieur Crémieux, though
an advocate, had come solely from motives of humanity, and was
himself a Jew. Sir Moses, on his return, remarked that nothing could
have been less satisfactory than this interview, very different from
the two former occasions, when His Highness was most friendly and
chatty.

Sir Moses now heard that Monsieur Cochelet, the French Consul, had
been with His Highness for an hour and a half on the previous night.

_August 6th._--We had many visitors; the captains of two English
war-ships were of the number, and also Captain Lyons. Sir Moses, on
receiving a message from Colonel Hodges, informing him that the Pasha
was going to the Delta early on the following morning, immediately
went to the Consul. The latter read to him the letter he had sent to
the Pasha on the subject of the Jews in Damascus; it could not have
been stronger. Sir Moses determined upon going to the Pasha. It was
nearly nine when he entered the Palace. His reception was most affable
and kind, very different from that of the previous day. Sir Moses said
he had heard that His Highness was going away. The Pasha replied that
he would be back on Friday.

_August 7th._--Monsieur Laurin sent a message to the effect that the
Pasha had told him that he would grant our request. Colonel Hodges
called to confer with Sir Moses on the subject.

_August 8th._--The Grand Vizier directed a letter to the Pasha, of
which the following is a translation:--

  "His Excellency, the Ambassador of Great Britain, to the
  Sublime Porte, stated in a letter which he presented,
  that Sir Moses Montefiore, Mr David William Wire, and Dr
  Madden, English subjects and distinguished members of
  society, also Mr Adolphe Crémieux and Dr Louis Loewe,
  form a distinguished deputation to the East, for the
  purpose of making a thorough investigation respecting
  the persecutions to which the Jews have been subjected
  at Damascus and the island of Rhodes. The above-named
  Ambassador asked that the members of the Deputation
  should be treated with due respect, and should have
  every facility afforded them for accomplishing their
  mission.

  "This is the purpose of my writing to your Highness.

  "10 Gema-zil-Akhar, 1256.
  "Reouf."

We attended divine service morning and evening, and received visits
from the leading members of the community. Colonel Hodges and Monsieur
Laurin conferred a long time with us on the subject of the Mission.

_Monday, August 10th._--Sir Moses, Monsieur Crémieux, Monsieur Munk,
Mr Wire, and I went to Monsieur Laurin, who read to us all the papers
and despatches respecting the Damascus affair. We remained with him
for more than three hours, making notes of all that appeared likely to
serve our cause.

From the following letters _subsequently_ addressed to Sir Moses by
the Rev. Joseph Marshall, Chaplain of H.M.S. _Castor_, Lieutenant
Shadwell of the same ship, and the Rev. Schlientz, of Malta, all
referring to their visit to Damascus on the 16th August, in the year
1840, the reader will be able to gather important information
respecting the accused.



CHAPTER XXVIII.

1840.

AUTHENTIC ACCOUNTS OF THE CIRCUMSTANCES ATTENDING THE ACCUSATIONS
AGAINST THE JEWS--TERRIBLE SUFFERINGS OF THE ACCUSED--EVIDENCE OF
THEIR INNOCENCE--WITNESSES IN THEIR FAVOUR BASTINADOED TO DEATH.

_Copy of a Letter from the Rev. Joseph Marshall, Chaplain of H.M.S.
"Castor."_


Sir,--In reference to the enquiries you make concerning your brethren
in Damascus, I have much pleasure in informing you, that when I
visited that city about the middle of last August, I took considerable
pains in making myself acquainted with the nature of the charge
preferred against them, the evidence on which it rested, the treatment
to which they were exposed. The result of my enquiries I will briefly
submit to you.

That two men, the Padre Tommaso and his servant, are missing, is
beyond dispute. There is not the least reason to believe that the
servant is murdered or dead; there is but little evidence that the
Padre has been murdered, and not the slightest that he was murdered by
Jews; on the contrary, evidence _a priori_ is entirely in their
favour, and that extorted by torture, if fairly considered, is equally
so. However, as some others who have visited Damascus have expressed a
contrary opinion, I think it necessary to state, in a few words, some
of the grounds upon which I establish mine.

I need not allude to their ceremonial and moral law; both are equally
abhorrent of the act imputed to them; but perhaps they were fanatics
influenced by an inward light stronger than their law. Fanaticism is
not usually found among such men as Soloman Murad and Meyer Farki,
with their compeers, the leading men of a highly respectable and
wealthy community, as was evident from the appearance of their
families even in distress. Indeed I was answered by both Moslem and
Franks, that the higher order of Jews at Damascus were less to be
remarked for enthusiasm than coldness in religion. I have the same
authority for believing that worldly competitions and commercial
jealousy made it very improbable that they would unite so closely as
the commission of such a crime would imply.

What testimony is there then to overcome these probabilities?
Confession wrung from mortal agony and unsupported by circumstantial
evidence. Their enemies do, to be sure, appeal to certain
circumstances, such as the identity of the extorted confession itself:
true, I believe it to be so perfectly identical as to lose all
character of independence. But there were other circumstances. There
were animal remains found twenty-five days after the Friar had
disappeared, in a running sewer in closer proximity to a butcher's
stall than to David Arari's house. There was said also to be the mark
of fire on the white marble pavement of the same gentleman's court. I
saw it not, though the stone was pointed out. This mark, which did not
exist, was supposed to be caused by the burning of the Padre's
clothes, but there were certain stains on a wall which might be blood;
I thought they might be anything else rather. Again, with the
aforesaid animal remains there was found a piece of cloth such as
might identify it with part of the Friar's cap. Is this circumstance
consistent with the burning of his apparel, or did they spare that
part only, which would most easily lead to detection?

But there was another circumstance much dwelt on, viz., the posting of
a notice at the barber's door, at too great a height for the Friar's
stature; therefore, evidently the work of a Jew. I can positively say,
it was at the natural height for such fixtures, within the reach of
any middle-sized person, and with the slightest trouble might be
placed there by anyone. But what was the object of the gigantic Jew in
posting the advertisement at all? He had taken it, it was _supposed_,
from the Synagogue door, where it was _supposed_ the Friar had posted
it. And for the purpose of destroying all trace of the Friar having
been in the Jews' quarter, he transferred it to the barber's door,
which was actually within the Jews' quarter. He might, to be sure,
have destroyed it and all trace of the Padre at once; but this would
have been an expedient too simple for the sagacity of this Hebrew,
which appears to have been in an inverse ratio to his bulk.

The dulness of such reasoning defeats its malice. And this is all the
evidence for the charge procured by the bastinadoing of one hundred
and twenty persons, in several instances to death. I think its
meagreness proves the negative, viz., that the poor victims had
nothing really to confess; and this in addition to the positive
evidence of those who died under the torture, sealing their testimony
with their blood.

But might not the accused have brought forward positive evidence in
their favour? One person did come forward to prove that he had seen
the Friar in another part of the town subsequently to the date of the
supposed murder. He was bastinadoed to death--a consummation not
likely to encourage other witnesses to come forward; and indeed the
Jews assert that Moslems of the first rank in Damascus, if they dared
speak, could have established an _alibi_ for them in many cases.

To have anything like an adequate idea of what these unfortunate
people suffered, after the heads of their families had been thrown
into prison, you must be on the spot to hear, as one of themselves
expressed it, "their hearts speaking." Insults of all kinds heaped
upon them by the refuse of mankind, their houses broken into and
plundered with impunity, jewels torn from the persons of their female
relatives, young children imprisoned and tortured with starvation, the
son bastinadoed before the mother's eyes to make her betray her
husband's place of concealment, the most exorbitant bribes demanded to
permit the common necessaries of life to pass the gates of the prison
for its bruised and wretched inhabitants. These, sir, were some of
their sufferings, and of these I had undoubted evidence.

Surely the correspondent of the _Times_, to whom you allude, if he had
not confined himself while in Damascus to Frank society, and that,
too, of a particular caste, would have seen and heard enough to make
him hesitate before he declared his belief in the guilt of the Jews,
the mildness of their sufferings, and the mercy of their persecutors!
Had he gone to the house of David Arari, he would have learned that
_women_ had been tortured, and in vain. He might have seen with his
own eyes the heroic conduct of the poor negro girl, a Moslem and a
slave, whom the torture could not force to bear false witness against
the Jew, her master. He might there also have learned that if Madame
Arari had consented to sacrifice her daughter's virtue, she might have
preserved her husband's person from violence, his property from
plunder, and her people from slander. He might have ascertained the
amount of sympathy and mercy which Madame Lagnado received at the
hands of a European functionary, when she visited him on behalf of her
husband, who died under the torture. Had he visited Signor Merlato,
the Austrian Consul, a man whom all Christendom must respect, he might
have satisfied his eyes respecting the barbarity of the torture, and
that the sufferers had not at that time recovered from its effects.
Long after that period I saw men who, after the lapse of five months
from the infliction of the bastinado, had their feet and legs swelled
to a form as if produced by elephantiasis. The correspondent of the
_Times_, whose very just description of the state of Syria and
Palestine lends an undue importance to his opinion on the case of the
Jews, would have been persuaded that there were cases in which foreign
influence was used with the Pasha to encourage the application of the
torture when some old men, too feeble to survive for a moment the
infliction of the bastinado, were subjected a second time to the
torment of sleeplessness, under the bayonets of the Egyptian soldiers.
But it is indeed too unreasonable and unjust to lay on the Pasha of
Damascus the whole blame of these proceedings, unequalled in atrocity
since the days of the fourth Antiochus. The guilt must be equally
shared by those who delivered up an innocent people into his hands;
indeed, their share is greater. He may plead that he was obliged to do
these things by the nature of his office. The persecutors of the Jews
cannot even shelter themselves under such a plea as that. Indeed, if
they be blameless, then is the Spanish Inquisition blameless also; the
Auto-da-Fé being, in the last result, certainly the result of the
civil power. In short, the charges and recommendations of the Jews
against their persecutors are of such enormity as to make them, it is
to be hoped, if they be conscious of their innocence, anxious that the
whole matter should be sifted to the bottom by a process more rational
than the bastinado, and before a judge less suspected of foreign
influence than Sheriff Pasha. Although I trust you will persevere in
your meritorious exertions for the sake of humanity and truth, yet,
as you ask my opinion as to the practicability or prudence of
proceeding at once to Damascus, I must say that I do not think it
advisable. Though Damascus may have submitted to the Sultan, and the
Emir Béshir would be happy to grant you, if necessary, an escort
through the mountains, yet I am afraid a short time must elapse before
the people of Damascus can be made aware of the important changes in
their social condition, when the Hatti Sherif of Gulhane shall be no
longer to them a dead letter, when violence shall no longer usurp the
place of justice, nor men endanger their lives by bearing witness to
the truth. You will be able to return to Syria in a few months under
better auspices, and cover the slanderers of your people with
confusion.

The example of Rhodes should give you encouragement. I was there last
summer when the atrocious charge of the same malignity which was made
against the Jews of that place, resulted in like violence, and which,
if tried by a similar process, would have led to the same results as
at Damascus.

Justice was done to them at Constantinople, and they triumphed. In the
same way will you find the cloud clearing away from Damascus. Indeed,
there exists not at present the shadow of evidence against them,
except you so call a most unnatural and suspicious identity of
confession, to be found in all false accusations where torture has
been applied, such as in trials for witchcraft. A remarkable instance
of this you may have seen recorded in _Chambers' Journal_ a few months
ago. It happened in the reign of James I. of England. The accused, if
I rightly remember, was the "wise wife of Kent." In the meantime, if
this testimony of mine can be of any service in comforting your
distressed people, I shall not consider I have visited Damascus in
vain.

  Accept, Sir, my best wishes and esteem, and believe me to be
  your very obedient servant,
  Joseph Marshall.

To Sir Moses Montefiore, Bart, &c., &c., &c.

_Copy of a Letter addressed to Sir Moses Montefiore by Lieutenant
Shadwell of H.M.S. "Castor."_

  H.M.S. _Castor_, Malta, _December 5th, 1840_.

  Sir,--In compliance with your request, I beg leave to
  submit to you some observations relative to the affairs
  of the Jews at Damascus, which I was enabled to make in
  my recent visit to that city, and also to lay before you
  the general impression on my mind at that time, as to
  the weight and credibility of the evidence addressed in
  support of the charges which have been advanced against
  them.

  My visit to Damascus took place in the early part of the
  month of August of the present year, my
  fellow-travellers being the Rev. Mr Marshall, Chaplain
  of H.M.S. _Castor_, and the Rev. Mr Schlientz, of Malta,
  and his lady.

  On the 10th of August, soon after my arrival at
  Damascus, accompanied by Mr Marshall, I went to the
  Jewish quarter of that city, and proceeded in the first
  instance to the house of David Arari, one of the accused
  persons, who was then in confinement, and at whose house
  the Father Tommaso is said to have been murdered. We
  were shown into an apartment where the atrocious deed is
  said to have been committed. It is a small room to the
  left of the Divan, with windows in front looking into
  the interior court, and high windows behind looking into
  the street. The latter circumstance is important as
  tending to throw doubts on the credibility of the
  accusation, as it is scarcely possible to conceive that
  any person could submit quietly to the pains of death
  without uttering cries for assistance, and that, if
  those cries had been uttered, they should not have been
  heard in the street outside.

  In the corresponding apartment on the other side of the
  Divan, we were shown a stain of dirt upon the wall,
  which the zeal of the accusers branded with the
  imputation of being blood. This room was in a dismantled
  state, all the furniture having been removed, and the
  marble flooring torn up in order to search for bones or
  other remains of the supposed crime.

  We afterwards visited the house of Mourad Farki, Mayer
  Farki, and Solomon Farki. The two former, being accused
  of participating in the murder, were in confinement. We
  were shown the room where the murder of Tommaso's
  servant is said to have been perpetrated, and saw the
  privy and the sewer in the street where the remains of
  the two are alleged to have been thrown.

  We also went to the house of Halil Said Naivi, one of
  the accusers, and saw that individual. He is the keeper
  of a low grog-shop of disreputable character. It must be
  admitted that the nature of the man's calling does not
  afford any guarantee for the credibility of his
  testimony.

  On the following day, August 11, we went to visit the
  Latin Convent of the Capuchins, of which Father Tommaso
  was an inmate. In the chapel is a tomb with an
  inscription to the following effect:--

  "Qui reposano le ossa de Pre. Tommaso da Sardegna
  Missionano Cappuccino assassinato dagli Ebrei il giorno
  5 di Febrajo 1840."

  I will not be exactly certain whether the above is a
  literal copy of the inscription, having written it down
  from memory after my return home, but I can confidently
  state that it is substantially correct, especially in so
  far as concerns the use of the obnoxious word
  "assassinato."

  By this it will be seen that these enlightened
  Capuchins, following the example of popular credulity,
  assume the murder of their colleague as a fact before it
  has been proved judicially.

  On the same day, in company with Mr and Mrs Schlientz,
  we repeated our visit to the Jewish quarter, and
  afterwards, having obtained permission from Sheriff
  Pasha through the British Consul, Mr Werry, went to the
  Seraglio to see the Jewish prisoners.

  Sixteen individuals were implicated in the charge of
  murder; of these, two had died under torture, four had
  absconded. One, Mr Picchioto, being, fortunately for
  himself, an Austrian subject, was under the protection
  of the Imperial Consulate, the remaining nine were then
  in prison, and also a venerable Rabbi.

  We were accompanied on our visit by the British Consul's
  dragoman and a writer in the service of the Pasha. The
  rooms in which the prisoners were confined were in the
  second floor of a large exterior building attached to
  the Pasha's palace, principally used as a barrack.

  The apartment opened into a covered corridor or gallery
  running round the whole length of the building. None of
  the doors were closed, but sentries were planted at
  intervals along the gallery. The prisoners were almost
  all of them elderly men, and seemed very unhappy. Mr
  Schlientz, who is both an Arabic and a Hebrew scholar,
  spoke to several of them on the subject of religion,
  pointing out to them, in their affliction, the
  consolations of Scriptures, which appeared greatly to
  excite the mirth of our attendants and other bystanders.

  The prisoners confined here were either six or seven in
  number, the remainder, amongst whom was the Rabbi, were
  in custody in another part of the Seraglio, in
  apartments on the ground floor.

  The chambers in which the prisoners were lodged were
  tolerably comfortable, and spacious enough to afford
  them the means of taking partial exercise. An obvious
  desire existed on the part of our attendants to
  represent matters in the most favourable light, and to
  convince us that the prisoners, in their confinement,
  were treated with the greatest leniency.

  I have been particular, at the risk of being thought
  tedious, in giving a circumstantial detail of our
  various visits, as it will impress upon this statement
  the stamp of authenticity, and at least serve to show
  that we were anxious by all the means in our power to
  arrive at a knowledge of the truth.

  In the course of these visits we had a great deal of
  conversation with the families and friends of the
  accused, persons who, far from appearing desirous of
  concealing anything, seemed on the contrary anxious to
  have everything fairly enquired into, and submitted to
  the most ample investigation. We saw several people who
  had been subjected to torture, amongst whom was one
  woman, a female servant of David Arari; we saw their
  wounds yet unhealed, and heard from their own lips the
  description of the sufferings they had endured. The
  tortures to which they had been subjected were of the
  most cruel and disgraceful nature, and some of them even
  too disgusting to be mentioned with propriety. We also
  had, during our stay at Damascus, many opportunities of
  discussing the question with various people with various
  shades of opinion, and of canvassing the evidence
  adduced in support of the charges.

  My own opinion, in which I may, I believe, also safely
  state my fellow-travellers fully concur, is that the
  Jews of Damascus are NOT GUILTY of the atrocious charges
  which have been preferred against them.

  My grounds for this opinion are simply this, that there
  is no admissible evidence to support the charge.

  I at once reject _in limine_, as repulsive to every
  principle of reason and equity, and as unworthy to be
  considered as legal evidence, all the admissions and
  confessions of the witnesses and accused persons which
  were extorted by torture or the fear of torture, however
  plausible they may seem, or however compatible with one
  another they may appear, particularly when I find them
  at variance with conflicting testimony on the one hand,
  and inconsistent with the general probabilities on the
  other.

  Any absurdities, as the annals of witchcraft fully show,
  might be proved by the agency of torture. It was through
  fear of the application of this beauteous engine for the
  elucidation of the truth, that the Inquisition extorted
  from Galileo the admission that the doctrine of the
  earth's motion was heretical; yet, notwithstanding this
  confession, as that illustrious man observed on rising
  from his knees, "e pur si muove." So also might the
  unhappy Jews of Damascus, whilst yielding to bodily
  suffering and confessing their guilt, exclaim the moment
  afterwards, "but yet we are innocent."

  The whole of the pretended evidence against the
  prisoners was obtained either by torture or fear of
  torture, and the alleged agreement between the
  statements of the different witnesses, on which great
  stress has been laid, may easily be accounted for when
  it is considered how impossible it would be for people
  writhing under agonies of intense bodily suffering to
  give their evidence in a clear and connected manner, and
  how absolutely necessary it would be to extract their
  confession from them word by word, affirmatively or
  negatively--yes or no--through the agency of leading
  questions.

  On the other hand, the only two witnesses who appeared
  in favour of the Jews were conveniently disposed of by
  being bastinadoed to death. These were a young man, who
  deposed to having spoken to Tommaso and his servant on
  the evening of the alleged murder as they were
  proceeding from the Jewish quarter, and the porter of
  the gate near the house of David Arari, who stated that
  he had heard or seen nothing of the priest's remains
  being thrown into the sewer.

  The evidence was awkward, and not at all suited to the
  wishes of the prosecutors; and it proved fatal to the
  witnesses who gave it.

  But, exclaim those who argue in favour of the guilt of
  the Jews, even although there is not sufficient legal
  evidence to convict them of the crimes laid to their
  charge, surely you must admit that, morally speaking,
  there can be no doubt that they are actually guilty.
  Far from it. Every reasonable consideration appears to
  my mind to throw discredit on the statements of their
  accusers, while the whole of the evidence teems with
  obvious and palpable improbabilities.

  For instance, to say nothing of the absence of any
  rational assignable motive which could induce frontier
  merchants--men of rank and influence among their own
  people--men of wealth and consideration among their
  neighbours--with everything to lose and nothing to gain,
  to conspire together to commit two such atrocious
  murders, is it likely for one moment, even if they did
  so, that they should be so utterly devoid of all common
  prudence, and so grossly infatuated, as to place
  themselves in the power of two such inferior persons as
  a barber and a servant as accomplices?

  And again, even on the hypothesis that they had been
  actuated by some such fanatical motive as has been
  imputed to them, is it at all probable that they would
  have selected for their victim an individual so certain
  to be missed as the Father Tommaso? From his long
  residence at Damascus, and the nature of his calling,
  his absence was sure to be noticed. Why not have
  selected for their victim some more obscure individual,
  on whom their barbarous fanaticism might have exercised
  their impious rites with impunity? Bah! why waste time
  by pursuing the ridiculous absurdities of these
  suppositions any further?

  Then, again, all the accusers, with Halil Said Naivi at
  their head, were persons of low degree and disreputable
  character, whose testimony on any ordinary occasion
  would have been received with extreme caution; while the
  recollection of the pillaging and extortions to which
  the Jewish families have been subjected, affords a clue
  to the motives which have instigated the persecutors.

  Considerable importance has been attached to the finding
  of the bones, but it should be remembered that they were
  not discovered till twenty-five days after the
  disappearance of Father Tomasso; that the sewer where
  the bones were found was the common receptacle of all
  the filth and offal of the neighbourhood, and that
  considerable difference of opinion existed among the
  medical men by whom they were examined as to the fact of
  their being human bones at all; while there are strong
  grounds for believing in the existence of the most
  fraudulent collusion with reference to their discovery.

  In conclusion, to the reiteration of my already
  expressed opinion, I can merely add that I conceive the
  whole charge to be a base and odious calumny,
  unsupported by any credible testimony; a mere renewal of
  those disgusting persecutions which disgraced the annals
  of the dark ages, and one which would not for one moment
  be tolerated in the present day among a civilised and
  enlightened people.

  It is much to be regretted that the disturbed condition
  of the East at the period of your Mission to Alexandria
  prevented Mohhammad Ali from ordering a full and fair
  judicial enquiry into the whole of the proceedings of
  the Damascus affair, as there is no doubt that the
  enemies of the Jews will not be slow to represent the
  edict which Mohhammad Ali has accorded to your requests,
  as granted more through pressure of external political
  embarrassments than freely given as a mere matter of
  justice and righteous dealing; more as a political
  compromise of a difficult and troublesome question than
  as the solemn act of the Government of the country,
  vindicating the Jews from the aspersions which had been
  foully cast upon them, and branding with the stamp of
  official disapprobation those who had dared to utter
  them.

  You have, however, done all that circumstances permitted
  you to accomplish. In the present excited condition of
  these countries, your attempting to reach Damascus would
  be highly dangerous, if not altogether impracticable;
  and even if you got there, I do not see how you could
  accomplish any good while the Government is yet
  unsettled, and in the absence of any constituted
  authority to aid your efforts with the influence of the
  British Government.

  "Magna est veritas et prævalebit." Go on and prosper in
  your righteous endeavours to protect the cause of
  innocence and truth. Let us hope for better times, when
  the advancing tide of knowledge and civilisation will
  sweep away the last remains of ignorance and fanaticism,
  and the vindictive spirit of persecution flee at the
  scowl of the genius of truth.

  Trusting you will excuse my having so long trespassed on
  your attention, I have the honour to be, Sir, your
  obedient servant,

  Charles F. A. Shadwell.

The evidence of two such witnesses, given in an English Court of
Justice, would surely have been considered decisive.



CHAPTER XXIX.

1840.

AFFAIRS IN THE EAST--ULTIMATUM FROM THE POWERS--GLOOMY PROSPECTS OF
THE MISSION--NEGOTIATIONS WITH THE PASHA--EXCITEMENT IN
ALEXANDRIA--ILLNESS OF LADY MONTEFIORE.


_Tuesday, August 11th._--We called on Colonel Hodges, who informed us
of the arrival of a Turkish steamer from Constantinople. He said it
must have brought the Ultimatum of the four great Powers to the Pasha;
that the door of negotiation was now not only shut, but locked, and
the Pasha must give an immediate answer. Colonel Hodges advised Sir
Moses to act in the same way as he should do; if he (Colonel Hodges)
left Alexandria, Sir Moses should do the same, and also go to the same
place as he did. He said he expected every hour some ships belonging
to the English fleet, but did not wish Sir Moses to mention this fact.
Sir Moses said this interview and conversation reminded him forcibly
of those he had had in 1827 with the late Mr Salt, English Consul
General in Cairo, but he felt even less uneasy than he did at that
time, as he did not apprehend war, though things looked serious.

_Wednesday, August 12th._--A French war steamer arrived from Toulon,
and returned the same afternoon to Smyrna; the reports were all very
black. We called on Colonel Hodges, but seeing he was occupied on
important business, we left him.

Mr Thorburn called, and told us that Mr Larkin had summoned a meeting
of all the British residents at his house at one o'clock, to inform
them that the four great Powers had sent their Ultimatum to Mohhammad
Ali. Colonel Hodges warned them to limit their credits as much as
possible, and to prepare for the worst. The meeting occasioned much
alarm.

In the afternoon Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore, with their friends,
visited the Turkish line of battleship _Mahmudie_, under Colonel Reale
Bey, who received them most politely, and showed them over his ship.
On their return they found that one of their party had been taken ill.

_August 13th._--Mr and Mrs Tibaldi called, and Sir Moses and Lady
Montefiore accompanied them to a small palace near the Pasha's, where
they were introduced to Sa'eed Bey, Mohhammad Ali's son, a very chatty
and good-tempered young man about eighteen years of age. He understood
English and spoke French well. He conversed about his studies, his
horses, &c., and had his favourite grey led under the window where the
party were assembled. Mr Thurburn was present. They afterwards went
over the Pasha's palace, were much pleased with the building, and
admired the elegance with which it was furnished. In the evening
Monsieur and Madame Laurin, Monsieur and Madame Crémieux, Captain
Lyons, Captain Austin, and Mr Thurburn dined with us. They told Sir
Moses that the Count de Walewski, a natural son of Napoleon, had
arrived from France, and it was confidently stated that he brought
offers of men, money, and ships from the King of the French to the
Pasha. The news was credited in the town, and it was therefore
supposed that the Pasha would not accept the Ultimatum of the Powers,
and a general war in Europe as well as in the East would be the
consequence. Sir Moses did not believe that this would be the case,
but thought the affair would be arranged satisfactorily. The Pasha had
ten days to consider his answer, and by that time Sir Moses hoped to
be at Damascus.

_August 14th._--Sir Moses called on Colonel Hodges, who gave him Mr
Werry's reply to the enquiries respecting the unfortunate Jews at
Damascus; the Colonel also showed him a letter from Beyrout, dated the
8th inst., from which it appeared that the insurrection in Syria had
not been entirely put down; and he advised Sir Moses not to venture
just then to Damascus, as our situation there might be very perilous,
in the event of the Pasha's not agreeing to the Ultimatum of the
Powers.

In the evening we attended the European Synagogue, which was
beautifully illuminated, while the floor was thickly strewn with
flowers. The building was crowded, and the utmost decorum prevailed
during the service. Subsequently the representatives of the community
were invited to join our dinner party, on which occasion many
excellent speeches, in various Oriental and European languages, were
made, referring principally to the object of our Mission.

_August 15th._--We selected the Synagogue of the natives for attending
divine service on this day. The heat there was very great and
oppressive, but the devotion of the congregation and the mode of
chanting the prayers afforded us much satisfaction.

Between two and three Sir Moses called on Colonel Hodges to express
his extreme regret that Mr Werry had done so little towards improving
the condition of the unhappy men at Damascus, and to request him to
write to the Consul, which the Colonel promised to do. The Sabbath did
not prevent Sir Moses from attending to the object of his Mission, as
in a case like this, where life and death are at stake, exertion and
work are considered permissible. Colonel Hodges said that the Pasha
would give us no answer till the political question was settled.
Monsieur de Wagner, the Prussian Consul-General, was present and
confirmed this. Both advised Sir Moses not to venture on a journey to
Damascus while affairs were in such a serious state. Syria was in open
rebellion, and in Damascus he would only be looked upon as a Jew
coming to screen the guilt of his brethren, while the fanaticism of
the Christian populace of that place was so great, that he would
certainly be murdered. Both Colonel Hodges and the Prussian Consul
said that the Pasha would refuse the Ultimatum, and war was
inevitable.

Sir Moses returned home, very unhappy on account of the nine
unfortunate prisoners at Damascus, but determined to do everything in
his power, and to go to the Palace after Sabbath.

At seven he proceeded to the Pasha's residence, accompanied by
Monsieur Crémieux and the members of the Mission. His Highness
received us kindly, but said he was so much engaged with affairs of
high importance, that he could not give us an answer then. Sir Moses
urged him strongly, in the cause of humanity, to give his decision, as
there were nine prisoners; he replied that he had given orders for
their being well treated, and he would send a letter to Sir Moses next
day to the same effect. Sir Moses then asked pardon for the trouble he
had given him, but the Pasha said, on the contrary he ought rather to
apologise to Sir Moses. Mr S. Briggs, who was present at the audience,
very frequently added kind words, which appeared to influence the
Pasha. We took leave much dispirited; but scarcely had we returned to
our hotel, when Mr Briggs came, and informed Sir Moses that the Pasha
had given him more than half a promise that he would liberate all the
prisoners, declaring at the same time his entire belief in their
innocence of the murder, and of the other charges made against them.

_August 16th._--Having prepared with great care the document proposed
by Mr Briggs for the approval and signature of the Pasha, Sir Moses
took it to Mr Briggs. The petition had been drawn up in strict
accordance with what Mr Briggs said His Highness would agree to. On
his return he sent for Monsieur Crémieux, so that his signature might
also be attached to it. Mr and Mrs Briggs then called, and Sir Moses
gave them the document for the Pasha.

In the evening Mr Briggs called again, and informed us that he had
seen the Pasha, to whom the paper had been explained, but he had
declined to grant the request it contained, saying that there was so
much excitement on the subject that he could not determine; he
appeared, however, willing to allow the prisoners their freedom, and
so end the matter. Mr Briggs had afterwards spoken with the Secretary,
who took the paper, said he would alter it, and show it him the next
day. "The fact is," said Sir Moses, "they wish the atrocious
transaction to be hushed up, but I will never consent to that."

In the morning we went to the Austrian Consul to obtain from him the
names of all the prisoners, as well as a list of those who had already
fallen victims to the outrageous tyranny of Sheriff Pasha and of the
French Consul Rattimenton. Monsieur Laurin informed us that the four
ambassadors had arrived from Constantinople with the Ultimatum, and
would visit the Pasha.

_Monday, August 17th._--Sir Moses called on Mr Briggs, and gave him
copies of several Bulls of the Pope, with some letters and Smyrna
papers; also a list of merchants at Damascus, with their supposed
amount of capital. Mr Briggs promised he would see the Pasha in the
evening, but his manner of speaking was much less sanguine of success.

On the same day Dr Madden and Mr Wire left us for a trip to Cairo and
the Pyramids. Sir Moses writes: "I would gladly have accompanied them
with my dear wife and Dr Loewe, as I am sure it would have been most
beneficial to our health, but it did not appear to me right to leave
my post, even for an hour."

_August 18th._--Mr Briggs went in the morning to the Pasha. Colonel
Hodges informed Sir Moses (confidentially) that three of his
Highness' transport ships, with provisions and arms, had left the
harbour for Syria, and that he (Colonel Hodges) had sent the _Gorgon_
to bring them back. They were not to be allowed to land on the coast;
if they refused they were to be compelled to return, and if force was
used they were to be sent to Malta. When this was accomplished, notice
would be given to the Pasha that none of his war-ships would be
allowed to leave the harbour. Nothing could be more warlike than the
momentary aspect of affairs. The Pasha sent Mr Briggs and one of his
Secretaries to Sir Moses with a copy of a despatch he had received
from Sheriff Pasha, of Damascus, giving an account of the manner in
which prisoners were treated by him. Of course it was stated to be
most lenient, and it was denied that tortures had been used. Monsieur
Cochelet made the following proposal to Monsieur Crémieux for the
solution of the Damascus difficulty:--

That the Pasha was to declare that the Jews who had died had committed
the murder from motives of private vengeance, but that the nine Jews
still in prison were innocent, and were to be set at liberty. The
Pasha would also publish his opinion that there was nothing in the
Jewish religion or writings that in any way sanctioned the shedding of
blood for the Passover.

Sir Moses told Monsieur Crémieux that it was impossible for him to
consent to such an arrangement. He never would allow that any Jew
committed the murder of Father Tommaso and his servant, either from
vengeance or any other motive; were he base enough to admit such a
thing, its effect would be most mischievous, for in every part of the
world it would be said that the Jews were guilty, and the same awful
charges would be brought against them over and over again.

This proposal of Monsieur Cochelet caused a most painful sensation in
the heart of every member of the Mission; but, from a man whose
official position compelled him to justify the proceedings of
Rattimenton, a different suggestion could scarcely have been
anticipated.

_August 19th._--All this anxiety preyed so much on the minds of Sir
Moses and Lady Montefiore that their health was greatly affected by
it, and Lady Montefiore became so ill that the immediate attendance of
a physician was required. The weather, also, was extremely close and
oppressive, which greatly aggravated the discomfort of both. Monsieur
Crémieux called, and brought the news that the British fleet, with
Albanian troops which they intended landing, was off Beyrout. He
requested Sir Moses not to go to the Pasha, as Monsieur Cochelet did
not deem it prudent; but Sir Moses did not feel justified in making a
promise to that effect, and explained to Monsieur Crémieux, as his
reason, that it would not be advisable to adopt any suggestion made to
the latter by Monsieur Cochelet.

The town had been in a state of great consternation all day, and most
warlike reports were spreading everywhere. Nevertheless Sir Moses
would not agree to the proposal which had been made by Monsieur
Cochelet.

_August 20th._--Lady Montefiore felt somewhat better, and the doctor
entertained hopes of her speedy recovery. Early in the morning Sir
Moses called on Colonel Hodges, and remained with him fully two hours.
Captains Napier and Walker were off the coast of Syria with six
thousand Albanians, and had summoned Beyrout. A serious occurrence
took place in the forenoon, which added greatly to the already
troubled state of the town. The Dutch Vice-Consul, whose horse had
accidentally kicked one of the National Guards, was immediately set
upon by the mob and grossly ill-treated. It was with great difficulty
that some of the officers rescued him from being murdered.

Two large Austrian frigates anchored near the _Bellerophon_, and the
_Cyclops_ took soundings outside the harbour.

Mr Briggs called to inform Sir Moses that he was going to England in
three days. He brought a paper which he had drawn up, similar to that
which Sir Moses had given him for the Pasha's signature, but not
couched in such strong terms. He wished Sir Moses to see it, and he
would then take it to the Pasha, and endeavour to procure his consent
to it. Sir Moses sent for Monsieur Crémieux to approve it, and then
returned it to Mr Briggs, who promised to speak to the Pasha either
the same evening or the next evening.

_August 21st._--Lady Montefiore continued poorly, and Dr Laidlow
advised our removing to the Nile. Sir Moses was also unwell, and the
uncertain state of politics did not afford any consolation; every
person we saw had alarm depicted on his countenance. Monsieur Crémieux
spoke of leaving on the following Tuesday for Athens or Constantinople
in the French steamer. Sir Moses wrote to Mr Wire and Doctor Madden,
begging them to hasten their return. Mr Briggs called to say that he
feared the Pasha would do nothing against the wishes of Monsieur
Cochelet. Mr Galloway and Mr Tibaldi also paid us a visit, both much
out of spirits. Sir Moses said he would not move till Dr Madden and Mr
Wire returned, unless Colonel Hodges left, in which case he almost
feared he would be compelled to do so. The weather was dreadfully
oppressive; the sickly season had commenced, and fever was prevalent.

We attended divine service in the evening, and afterwards Monsieur and
Madame Crémieux dined with us. Monsieur Crémieux told Sir Moses that
Clot Bey had introduced him to the Pasha in the garden, and that he
(Monsieur Crémieux) had made a speech to the Pasha, wishing him
success with Egypt and Syria, but had _not referred to the Mission_.

_Saturday, August 22nd._--Lady Montefiore continued ill, and too weak
to leave the house. At seven o'clock in the morning we repaired to the
Synagogue where we attended service. A large and devout congregation
was assembled. On our return Mr Larkins, the English Consul, called.
He had just left the Pasha, with whom he had been conversing for more
than an hour on the subject of our Mission. He had read to His
Highness the letters he had received from England from Colonel
Campbell, Mr Thurburn, and Dr Bowring, all entreating him, in his own
interest, to grant our request, that he might stand well in the
opinion of Europe. They also assured him that the affair had caused a
great sensation in England; but Mr Larkins said that the Pasha
remained firm, and declared it was impossible for him to do anything
in the business just then. Mr Briggs also spoke to the Pasha, but
without success. He gave the papers we had prepared for the Pasha's
signature to Khosrev, the principal interpreter at the Palace, so that
he should be fully acquainted with the contents. Mr Larkins told the
Pasha that Sir Moses intended coming for his answer in the evening. In
reply to his application for a simple "firman" to go to Damascus, the
Pasha said that Syria was in too disturbed a state to permit of his
travelling there with security.

In the evening, after the conclusion of Sabbath, as we were setting
out for the Palace, Sir Moses received a note from Mr Briggs,
enclosing one from Khosrev, requesting Sir Moses to defer the visit to
His Highness, as it was a most unfavourable moment.

Affairs appeared decidedly alarming, and the English fleet was
expected every moment with Admiral Stopford. Captain Austen of the
_Bellerophon_ and Captain Austen of the _Cyclops_ both called on Sir
Moses, and most kindly offered to receive us on board their ships in
the event of our being obliged to leave Alexandria for safety. The
Pasha was making great preparations for war, including new batteries
and arrangements for the better armament of the fleet. It was rumoured
that he intended leaving Alexandria in a few days.

_August 23rd._--Lady Montefiore passed a very bad night, and her
illness caused Sir Moses much anxiety. The doctor came twice during
the day. In the evening he found her less feverish, and reported more
favourably upon her state of health generally. He advised her to
change her bedroom, which appeared damp, and might have caused the
fever.

Madame Crémieux came to tell us that she intended spending the day in
the country, and talked of visiting Cairo as soon as the French boat
arrived. Colonel Hodges, Mr Bell, Mr and Mrs Briggs, and Mr Stephens
also called. The latter informed us that it was generally believed
that the Pasha had agreed to leave the settlement of the whole
question to the King of the French. It was also stated that Monsieur
Guizot was to have an audience with His Majesty on the 12th inst., and
the result would be known in Alexandria on the following Tuesday. It
was thought that the troops in Syria would probably be influenced by
the Sultan's money, as they had not received any pay for the last
eleven months. The English Admiral with the fleet was expected to
arrive on the following day.

Monsieur Crémieux called, and we agreed to send a letter to the Pasha,
soliciting him to set at liberty the unfortunate Jews at Damascus.
Monsieur Laurin, the Austrian Consul, promised to call upon all the
other Consuls, and, if possible, prevail on them to sign a
recommendation to the Pasha to grant our request. Sir Moses did not
think he would succeed with Monsieur Cochelet or the Sardinian Consul.
Mr Briggs announced his intention of going to the former with the
original document that we prepared for the Pasha, and of using his
influence to remove Monsieur Cochelet's hostility.

_August 24th._--Dr Laidlaw found Lady Montefiore rather better and
tolerably free from fever.



CHAPTER XXX.

1840.

THE ENGLISH GOVERNMENT AND THE PASHA--MOHHAMMAD ALI AND THE
SLAVES--THE PASHA PROMISES TO RELEASE THE DAMASCUS PRISONERS--HE
GRANTS THEM AN "HONOURABLE" LIBERATION.


The French steamer from Marseilles arrived; our letters from London
gave confident hopes of peace being preserved. The Ministry was
stronger than ever, being supported by both Whigs and Tories. There
would be no half measures, and the Pasha would be obliged to submit.
Baron Charles de Rothschild wrote from Naples, that Lord Palmerston
had made a pacific speech on the 7th, and amicable relations would be
preserved with France. Baron Charles enclosed a letter of introduction
to the Neapolitan Consul for Sir Moses.

We immediately went there to present the same, and had a very long
conversation with him. He knew all about the Damascus affair, and the
painful reports of Sheriff Pasha. He told us that the latter was an
adopted son of Mohhammad Ali, who had had him educated with his own
children. Sheriff Pasha's own father had been an officer, and was
killed in battle when he (Sheriff) was only four months old. The
Consul observed that the trial of the Jews had been conducted
according to Turkish law, and any interference would be improper. He
had sent all the accounts to his Government. He considered the
business had been badly managed by the Consuls, but he could not sign
any paper, as it would do no good with the Pasha.

On the same day we received a letter from Constantinople, enclosing a
firman from the Sublime Porte in favour of the deputation of the Jews;
from the Grand Vizier to Mohhammad Ali, and to the Governor of the
Island of Rhodes.

We called on Colonel Hodges and Monsieur Laurin, who had both signed
the petition which Sir Moses and Monsieur Crémieux had prepared on
the preceding evening. The Consuls of the four Powers signed it very
readily, but Monsieur de Wagner called on Sir Moses and recommended
his not presenting it to the Pasha, as it would do no good unless
signed by Monsieur Cochelet. It is impossible to describe the distress
of Sir Moses as he became more and more convinced that, with a few
exceptions, every one in the place, great and small, was opposed to
the object of his Mission. Dr Madden and Mr Wire returned from Cairo,
and Admiral Stopford arrived with part of the fleet. Sir Moses thought
we should be obliged to leave very shortly.

_August 25th._--Lady Montefiore continued to mend, but was not
sufficiently recovered to venture out. Sir Moses went at an early hour
to Monsieur Crémieux, and requested him not to part with the petition
bearing both their signatures. The rest of the day we were engaged in
preparing letters and reports for the London Committee. Mr Charles
Allison called and reported that the aspect of affairs was less
warlike, but there appeared no doubt of the Pasha's refusal. We were
only to have a military blockade of the Port and the Coast of Syria,
and all merchants would be allowed to pass freely. This sort of
blockade would cause but little annoyance, and the Pasha would no
doubt laugh at the English and their allies. At eight o'clock the
following morning the Consuls of the four Powers were to wait on
Mohhammad Ali for his answer.

_August 26th._--Lady Montefiore was much better and able to leave her
room. While we were at breakfast, Mr Briggs called and took leave of
us. He expressed great regret that his endeavours with the Pasha on
behalf of the Damascus prisoners had failed. Afterwards Sir Moses
visited the slave-market, accompanied by Dr Madden, as he was desirous
of learning how far the present state of the market corresponded to
the humane act of the Pasha in abolishing slavery. During the first
interview which Sir Moses had had with Mohhammad Ali, the latter had
spoken for a considerable time on the subject, and appeared much
pleased with the address of thanks presented to him by Dr Madden from
the London Society for the Abolition of the Slave Trade. The
conversation led Sir Moses to hope that a heart which could be thus
moved by humane sentiments, would surely not sanction such tortures
and sufferings as the Damascus prisoners had been made to endure.

At the slave-market, Sir Moses found about one hundred slaves, mostly
girls and boys; he noticed a few women among them, but no men. The
price of the girls was 1000 piastres (£10), and of the boys, 600 or
£6. There were two Albanian women for whom they asked 1500 or 2000
piastres (£15 to £20). The girls appeared to be well treated and
contented with their situation, but not so the boys. He observed two
boys weeping most bitterly, and on enquiring the cause, he heard that
the children had been brought from Nubia together, that they were most
likely brothers, much attached to each other, and one had just been
sold. He spoke to the man who had purchased the youth, and he said he
had paid 600 piastres. The master took the lad away, and in all
probability the boys never saw each other again.

"Oh! the horrors of slavery!" exclaimed Sir Moses, and added, "Perhaps
Mohhammad Ali may not be aware of what we have seen, else he could not
conscientiously have spoken as he did, and evinced such pleasure in
the vote of thanks which the London Society would certainly not have
sent had they known the true state of affairs."

Sir Moses returned home much depressed by what he had witnessed.

There was nothing new in politics, but two English men-of-war had left
for the East.

_August 28th._--About nine o'clock in the morning Sir Moses received a
letter from Monsieur Crémieux, informing him that he had started for
Cairo. Sir Moses, who felt himself in duty bound not to quit his post
for fear of injuring his cause, determined, notwithstanding the
disheartening state of politics, to go to the Pasha and ask for an
answer to the petition that he had presented on the day after his
arrival.

At two o'clock we went to the Palace. We were shown into the audience
hall, and a beautiful pipe was handed to Sir Moses. About twenty
minutes afterwards we heard that the Pasha was leaving his room for
the hall of audience. On Sir Moses going to the door, the Pasha smiled
and beckoned him to follow him. Sir Moses did so, and the Pasha
motioned him to be seated. Sir Moses then informed His Highness that
he came for an answer to the paper which he had presented at his first
interview. Mohhammad Ali replied that he would release all the
prisoners, upon which, Sir Moses said his desire was to have the
guilty punished, and requested therefore a "firman" to go to Damascus.
The Pasha said he had better not go there, as that place was in a very
excited condition; the country was disturbed and politics unsettled.
Sir Moses agreed to postpone his journey for a short time, but begged
for the firman, that he might proceed there as soon as things changed,
and the Pasha then promised to give it him. Sir Moses further
petitioned for permission for the Jews who had fled to return to
Damascus, and the Pasha granted his request. Finally Sir Moses
requested Mohhammad Ali to give him a copy of his letter to the
Governor of Damascus. His Highness promised to send it to him with the
firman, and desired him to write to his co-religionists at Damascus,
and he (the Pasha) would send the letter by his post, by which means
they would receive it in five days.

"Thanks to Heaven," Sir Moses said, "the Mission has gained something;
the lives of nine innocent persons are thus preserved."

Sir Moses wrote immediately to Monsieur Crémieux, and Mr Galloway sent
a man off with it to Cairo. He also sent for Messrs Sonino, Valencen,
and Toria, and the Spiritual Head of the Hebrew community, to acquaint
them with the good news, enjoining them at the same time to keep it
secret till the papers arrived from the Pasha.

Sir Moses then prepared for Sabbath, and attended divine service in
the European Synagogue. Subsequently went to the Palace for a copy of
the letter to the Governor of Damascus, but we had to wait there
several hours, as the Ambassador from Constantinople and the Consuls
of the four great Powers were with the Pasha. They remained with him
some time, and on their withdrawal, the Capudan Basha had an interview
with His Highness, lasting fully two hours; then the French Consul
came and also stopped a couple of hours, so that it became very late.
On our enquiring whether we should still wait, Monsieur Boufort told
me to come the following morning, when I should be able to take with
me the firman enabling us to go to Damascus, and a copy of the order
for the Governor at that place. It was after ten o'clock when we
returned to our hotel, at which hour Monsieur Crémieux also came.

_August 29th._--In the morning we attended divine service. Seeing
Monsieur Crémieux and Monsieur Munk there, Sir Moses desired me to
invite the latter to accompany me to the Palace. On our arrival there
we went to the room of Negib Effendi (one of the chief secretaries of
the Pasha), to order several copies of the firman and the letter to
the Governor of Damascus. On perusing a copy of the original, we
noticed the word "Afoo" (pardon), and pointed it out to Negib Effendi.
I told him that Sir Moses would never be satisfied with such an
expression, as the Jews could not for one moment be considered guilty,
according to the proceedings which had taken place at Damascus. Negib
Effendi and another secretary, who happened to be present at the time,
entered into an argument with me on the subject, maintaining their
idea that the word in question might be used and understood without
absolutely conveying the meaning of "_pardon_." Nevertheless, I
insisted on the necessity of removing that word altogether. As I could
not leave the Palace, I requested Monsieur Munk, who had with him an
Arabic translation of the Turkish order, to go and inform Sir Moses
and Monsieur Crémieux that it was desirable they should immediately
tell the Pasha that they could not sanction the introduction of a word
so grossly misrepresenting the truth, and request him to substitute a
word which would correctly convey his sentiments. Monsieur Munk went
at once to Monsieur Crémieux, but apparently forgot to call on Sir
Moses. Monsieur Crémieux, being probably anxious to see the misleading
word removed as soon as possible, came at once to the Palace, without
informing Sir Moses of what had occurred. The Pasha, without the least
hesitation, immediately ordered that the word "Afoo" should be taken
out, and the words "itlak ve Tervîhh," signifying "an honourable
liberation," substituted (literally an order for their liberation, and
for procuring them peace).

On my return from the Palace I acquainted Sir Moses with what had
taken place, and he expressed much regret at not having being informed
of it in time. He said, "Had I known it, I should have been most
indignant with the Pasha for inserting the word, it being in complete
opposition to my request, as I would never, for an instant, admit any
guilt, either of the living or the dead." He went again to the Pasha,
and His Highness told him that he had given the order to remove the
objectionable word. The Neapolitan Consul and his wife, and Monsieur
Laurin came to offer their congratulations.

_August 30th._--We hastily sent despatches to London and other places,
and on the following day a letter of thanks to His Highness the Pasha
was signed by Sir Moses and Monsieur Crémieux.

Wishing to do all the good in their power, they added to the letter a
petition in which they entreated him to abolish the use of torture in
his dominions.

In the morning, Admiral Sir Robert Stopford came on shore, and went
immediately to Colonel Hodges. Sir Moses went to see the Admiral, who
gave him a very kind reception. About three o'clock the Pasha sent a
strong body of horse guards in full uniform, accompanied by a capital
military band, to attend the Admiral. It was a handsome compliment on
the part of Mohhammad Ali, but the Admiral declined it, and they soon
returned.

About four o'clock Sir Robert Stopford and his suite, the Austrian
Admiral and his suite, with the English and Austrian Consuls,
proceeded to the Palace to pay their respects to the Pasha. The
Pasha's carriage with four horses had been placed at their service, as
well as Boghoz Bey's carriage and that of Mr Anastasia. They were
preceded by sixteen janissaries, the two Captains Austen, and many
others on horseback. They were absent about an hour.

Admiral Rifaat Bey gave the "Four Combined Powers," and Colonel
Hodges, the "Five Powers," meaning that he included the Sublime Porte.
After dinner, Admiral Stopford inquired whether Sir Moses intended
going to Damascus, and said he would send a brig with us. Sir Moses
replied that he wished to wait till Thursday, when he would inform Sir
Robert of his plan of action. The two Admirals and the English and
Austrian Consuls were to dine with the Pasha on the following day.

Sir Moses, accompanied by Mr Alison, then paid visits to Rifaat Bey,
Sáeed Bey, and Colonel Hodges. On his return he found that the
Austrian Admiral (Contre-Amiral Baron Baudiera), the Austrian Consul,
and Mr Andrew Doyle, had called. Mr Galloway informed Sir Moses that
Sáeed Bey had obtained the permission of his father, Mohhammad Ali, to
dine with him any day he liked. Sir Moses thereupon invited him for
Thursday, September 3rd, and also sent invitations to Admiral
Stopford, the Austrian Admiral, and others.

The day's reports led Sir Moses to believe that the Pasha would refuse
to give an answer to the four Powers on Saturday. The Admiral would do
nothing without further orders from home, and it was Sir Moses'
opinion that the Pasha would laugh at them all, and most probably
succeed at last, or involve Europe in war.

_September 2nd._--During the morning we were occupied in examining
numerous papers and documents referring to the Mission, while Lady
Montefiore amused herself by taking daguerreotype views of Cleopatra's
Needle.

_September 3rd._--Sir Moses went this morning on board the Turkish
steamer, _Bird-of-the-Sea_, Rifaat Bey having invited him to a
_déjeuner_ he was giving to Admiral Stopford and Sáeed Bey on board
that vessel. The guests included Captains Fisher and Austin, Colonel
Hodges, Count Medem, Monsieur de Wagner, Monsieur Laurin, Mr Alison,
Mr Stoddard, and others. The wind was so high that the Admiral could
scarcely get to the ship. While they were at breakfast Sáeed Bey
invited Admiral Stopford and Sir Moses to go over his corvette. The
latter, with Captains Fisher and Austin and Colonel Hodges,
accompanied the Admiral in his boat after they had taken leave of
Rifaat Bey, and all went on board the corvette. Sáeed Bey received the
party in a distinguished manner; he took them over the vessel, and
made his men go through their exercises with great guns and small
arms. Sir Moses then landed with the Admiral, and drove him to Colonel
Hodges.

_September 4th._--The French papers continued very warlike, and great
demonstrations had been made in France.

Sir Moses and Monsieur Crémieux decided that we should go next evening
to present the letter they had prepared to the Pasha. Should the
English Consul leave Egypt, Sir Moses thought that it would be useless
for us to remain there any longer. Dr Madden informed Sir Moses that
he would be obliged to leave us on the following Monday.

_September 5th._--We called on Colonel Hodges, and saw Admiral
Stopford; the latter supposed our going to Damascus was out of the
question. Sir Moses told him that he should remain a short time longer
at Alexandria, unless the British Consul left, in which case we should
leave also.

Rifaat Bey (Conseilleur d'Etat au département de l'intérieur) paid us
a visit previous to his departure; also Mr Charles Alison, Attaché to
Her Britannic Majesty's Embassy at Constantinople; also Captain Austen
and Lieutenant Ralph, R.N.

Mr Alison had been present at the interview with the Pasha's Minister.
The Pasha being ill, could not see the four Ministers, but had sent
his answer. "He accepted the Sovereignty of Egypt, and would petition
the Sultan for Syria."

This was virtually a refusal, but the Consuls did not intend striking
their flags.

The Admiral went on board this morning. At five we walked in the
square and met Colonel Hodges. From his conversation he expected the
Pasha would order them to quit Egypt in about a week. He told Sir
Moses the Admiral had left him the _Cyclops_, and that he was going in
her, on the following Monday, to Beyrout.

_September 6th._--We called on Colonel Hodges. Sir Moses told him that
he had determined to leave as soon as the Colonel should do so.
Colonel Hodges said he was going on the following day for a few days
to Beyrout, but assured Sir Moses he need be under no apprehensions;
there would be no hostilities till the Admiral received orders from
England, which he did not expect for another fortnight; and that if he
(Colonel Hodges) should be obliged to leave, he would give Sir Moses
timely notice, and both he and Lady Montefiore should go with him in
his vessel. From his manner of speaking, we gathered that he expected
an outbreak in Syria, but no direct attack on the part of the English;
Admiral Stopford had told him that we were by no means prepared; the
ministers had been much deceived.

The letter to the Pasha could not be presented that day.

_September 7th._--We met Colonel Hodges; he told us that the Pasha had
seized £6000 in bullion, British property, and if it was not given up
to-morrow morning, he would strike his flag and go on board ship. He
told Sir Moses that he must be prepared to leave at a moment's notice,
and that he had spoken to Captain Fisher of the _Asia_, who had kindly
promised to take us in his ships in the event of our being obliged to
leave.



CHAPTER XXXI.

1840.

INTERVIEW WITH THE PASHA--LIBERATION OF THE JEWS OF DAMASCUS--PUBLIC
REJOICINGS AND THANKSGIVING--DEPARTURE OF SIR MOSES FOR
CONSTANTINOPLE.


We arranged with Monsieur Crémieux to go to-morrow to the Pasha and
present our letter.

_September 8th._--We drove this morning to Mohharem Bey's garden,
where the Pasha is staying. We found him in the garden, with his
Admiral, also Anastasi, the Turkish Consul, and Mr Tibaldi. He desired
us to be seated. Sir Moses then said to him, "We come to offer to your
Highness our thanks," and presented to him the letter, to which we had
added the request to abolish the use of torture. There was a Turkish
translation affixed to the letter. The Pasha gave the letter to one of
his officers, who put it in his pocket; but on Sir Moses expressing a
desire that the Pasha should have it read, he took it himself and
appeared to read several lines, when one of his secretaries came and
read the whole to him. We remained some moments in silence. Mr Tibaldi
then told Sir Moses that the Pasha had been pleased to give him a
granite column from the ancient temple of Serapis in Alexandria. Sir
Moses thanked His Highness in suitable terms.

After waiting some time in silence, the Pasha having twice looked at
his watch, we took our leave without having uttered a single sentence
on the principal subject of our visit. Sir Moses was much out of
spirits. On our return we went to Colonel Hodges, who said that Boghoz
Bey had refused to give up the bullion seized on the previous day, but
added that he should go himself to the Pasha, and if it was not
restored in twenty-four hours, he would strike his flag and go on
board the _Asia_, and would take Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore with
him. Sir Moses hoped the Pasha would not hasten his ruin by his
rashness. Colonel Hodges replied that he was already ruined; he had
been declared a rebel by the Sultan; another Pasha had been appointed
for Egypt and one for Syria; and the Russian fleet with the Russian
troops was already moving. This news the Colonel had received from
Constantinople. Sir Moses begged him, should any vessel be going to
that city, to procure a passage for us; this he promised to do.

Sir Moses was now anxious to leave Egypt, thinking he could do no more
good there.

_September 9th._--Monsieur Crémieux came in the morning to ascertain
Sir Moses' intentions, as he wished to go on the following Monday to
Cairo, and should Sir Moses decide to remain in Egypt, he would go to
Thebes. Sir Moses suggested taking three days' time for consideration.

_September 10th._--We called on Colonel Hodges. The Pasha had not yet
given up the bullion; the Colonel said he should write to him the same
evening at five, and send at eight the next day for an answer, and
should tell him that unless he received satisfaction he should strike
his flag and embark, leaving the English under the protection of the
Dutch Consul. Colonel Hodges had already sent on board several
camel-loads of books, papers, &c. Sir Moses felt confident that the
Colonel would soon follow, whether the Pasha gave up the money or not,
and believed the best thing for us to do would be to go by the next
French packet, which would leave Alexandria on the 16th, pass the
quarantine at Syra, and afterwards proceed to Constantinople, thank
the Sultan for all he had done in the affair of Rhodes, and then,
should the state of Syra permit, go to Damascus, and failing this, to
return _viâ_ Vienna to England.

_September 11th._--Again visited Colonel Hodges. He still talked of
embarking, but advised us to wait for the French steamers, and if it
should still be our intention to visit Damascus before leaving the
East, he would recommend our making quarantine at Syra, thence to
proceed to Constantinople, and await events. "It would be madness," he
added, "to go now to Damascus. I will hold myself responsible for the
advice I now give."

_Saturday, September 12th._--Attended divine service, afterwards
called on the Spiritual Head of the congregation, who showed us his
large and valuable library. Later in the day Sir Moses and Lady
Montefiore received many visitors: two gentlemen from Salonica
especially interested them in their accounts of communal matters in
that city. They informed us that there were about five thousand Jewish
families, and they possessed thirty-six Synagogues, and fifty-six
colleges for the study of Hebrew and theological literature, and over
one thousand gentlemen were distinguished for their knowledge of
Hebrew. They had suffered greatly by the fire which had broken out (in
the previous year) in their city, and had destroyed over two thousand
houses belonging to the Jews.

Our dinner party on that day included Colonel Hodges, Monsieur Laurin,
Captain and Mrs Lyons, Mr Paton, Mr Stoddart, Mr Drummond Hay, and
Monsieur and Madame Crémieux. Colonel Hodges said he had given the
Pasha time till Monday at twelve o'clock for his reply, failing to
receive which he would strike his flag. Sir Moses informed Monsieur
Crémieux that he felt convinced of the impossibility of obtaining
anything more from the Pasha, owing to the present serious state of
politics. The Consuls, he said, were making every preparation for
leaving Alexandria, and as our proceeding to Damascus at that time was
considered to be not only a most rash and unwarrantable act, but
almost an impossibility, he was of opinion that we should proceed to
Constantinople, and there await a favourable change in politics.
Should Damascus hereafter belong to the Sultan, then to request from
him the same justice for the Jews of that city as he had afforded to
those of Rhodes, but if Damascus continued under the Pasha, then we
should be forced to return to Egypt and thence to Damascus, and should
then, if politics still continued unsettled, return to Europe.

Monsieur Crémieux agreed with Sir Moses, and said he would go to
Constantinople, but first to Cairo. He then proposed to Sir Moses to
build an hospital for the Jews in Cairo, as he (Monsieur Crémieux)
intended building a house there for school purposes, having in hand
one thousand ducats from the Baroness de Rothschild in Paris for that
purpose. Sir Moses, however, did not feel justified in spending large
sums in Egypt. "Were it for the Holy Land," he said, "I should be
delighted to establish both hospital and school."

_September 14th._--It was reported that St Jean d'Acre was being
bombarded by the English fleet; everything looked most threatening. We
met Colonel Hodges, who was hourly expecting to receive orders from
Constantinople to quit Egypt. A Russian and an Austrian ship of war
had arrived. The French steamer due that morning had not arrived; they
said it had been detained at Syra for the mail from Constantinople.

_September 15th._--We were caused much anxiety by the absence of any
account from Damascus, and by hearing that Mohhammad Ali had had a
despatch from Sherif Pasha, stating that he had received His Highness'
orders for the liberation of the Jews, but without further notice of
it. Monsieur Cochelet, we were told, had had a letter from
Rattimenton, violently exclaiming against the Viceroy's order, by
which he had been compromised, adding that he had warmly protested to
Sherif Pasha against his complying with His Highness' order. But soon
after this, writes Sir Moses, "Thanks to Heaven, this day has happily
put an end to our fears for the delay of the execution of the Pasha's
firman. We have received letters that all the Jews were liberated on
the 5th inst, in the most gracious manner, by Sherif Pasha, to the
great joy, not only of the Jews of Damascus, but also of all the
Mussulmans of that city. The unfortunate men were accompanied by bands
of music, and thousands of persons, Jews and Moslems. They first went
to Synagogue to return thanks for their delivery, and then to their
respective dwellings. All the distinguished Mussulman merchants paid
them visits of congratulation, expressing their firm belief in their
innocence. The Christians maintained silence, denoting thereby their
dissatisfaction at the justice of the Pasha. The blood of the four
unhappy men who have died under torture has not been sufficient to
satisfy these people. The suffering of the Jews appears to have been
unbounded, as is their gratitude to God for their deliverance."

The copy of the Pasha's order, which we sent by a courier with our
letters to the prisoners, had not arrived on the 7th when the mail
left. We were all anxious for news from the unfortunate men
themselves, but as we knew that all were at liberty, Sir Moses
considered that no further good could be achieved by remaining in
Egypt. Syria was in a state of revolt, and the post between Beyrout
and Damascus closed. The British Consul, with all the other European
Consuls, excepting the French, had left Beyrout, and were on board the
ships of war. Commodore Napier had given notice that he should bombard
the town on the following day. Monsieur Cochelet, we were told, had
heard accounts of several thousand men having been landed from the
fleet between Beyrout and Sidon; no action had, however, as yet taken
place. Sulieman Pasha had declared he would destroy Beyrout, though he
should be compelled to withdraw his troops.

_September 16th._--Sir Moses writes in his diary: "I sent to Monsieur
Crémieux, but he and Madame Crémieux, with Monsieur Munk and Signor
Morpurgo, had already left for Cairo. Mr Wire, Dr Loewe, and I went to
Mohhammad Bey's palace. He is the son-in-law of Mohhammad Ali. We
entered the garden. As soon as the Pasha saw us he beckoned me to
approach him. He was seated in a kiosk. Boufort, the interpreter, was
translating to him one of Galignani's papers. On our entering the
kiosk, he motioned me to be seated. I took my seat opposite him, Dr
Loewe next to me, and Mr Wire next to the doctor. I informed the Pasha
that we had received letters from Damascus, and that, agreeably to his
orders, the Jews had been honourably liberated by Sherif Pasha on
Saturday, September 5th. The Mussulman population had expressed much
joy on the occasion. They had accompanied the unfortunate men, when
liberated, to the Synagogue, and the Jews had thrown themselves on the
ground before the Holy Ark, blessing the God of Israel for their
deliverance from the hands of their persecutors, and praying for the
happiness of His Highness, whose justice and humanity had restored
them with honour to liberty. I also told the Pasha how they had been
visited and congratulated by all the Mussulmans of Damascus, who
confidently believed in their innocence. Mohhammad Ali replied he was
glad to hear it, and informed me that he had received letters from
Sherif Pasha with the same intelligence, and also that that Jews who
had fled from the city had returned. This we did not know. I expressed
much gratitude to His Highness for his humanity, and entreated him to
protect my brethren in his dominion. I also said that as it was
impossible for me to go to Damascus at present, I intended returning
to Europe, and therefore begged to take leave of His Highness; but
before doing so I hoped he would allow me to speak a few words in
favour of the poor Jews who had suffered by pillage at Safed, and that
he would graciously make them compensation. He replied he would see;
he would do it. I again repeated my thanks, and rose to leave, but he
motioned me to remain. In a few moments he beckoned me to come quite
close to him, which I did. He then said that he frequently gave orders
for ships, guns, and other things to be sent from England, that six
months elapsed before they were ready to be shipped, and that as I was
going there he would like to make some arrangement with me to
guarantee the parties, and said that I should always have the money
before the things were shipped. He repeated several times that he did
not desire that I should ever be in advance, as he would always send
the money beforehand. He did not wish the arrangement to take place
immediately, but as soon as affairs were settled. I told His Highness
that I would consult with my friends in England, and would write to
him as soon as I got back to London; he expressed his satisfaction,
and we retired.

"I have omitted to notice that I gave Mohhammad Ali a copy of Dr
Hirschel's letter to me, respecting the charge brought against the
Jews of using blood in their religious ceremonies. I gave him copies
of the same in Turkish and French; he looked at them, and promised to
read them.

"We then went to the Palace of Sáeed Bey. Mr Thurburn was with him.
'Excellency,' I said, 'I have come to take leave of you previous to my
return to Europe,' and repeated to him all the accounts we had from
Damascus. He was very civil to us, and invited us to take wine and
coffee, but, being much pressed for time, we declined. I said I hoped
to see him in London. He replied that as soon as affairs were settled
he should travel, and would certainly pay us a visit. We then took
leave of Count Medem, the Russian Consul. He congratulated me on the
success of our Mission, having attained all that was possible in the
present unfortunate state of affairs. I told him I was most anxious to
visit Damascus, to trace the whole transaction respecting the charges
against the Jews. He said it was quite impossible to go just now, the
country was in revolt; Beyrout was threatened with bombardment, and
all accommodation for travellers stopped.

"We next went to Monsieur de Wagner, the Prussian Consul (who
expressed the same opinion), and to Colonel Hodges and Monsieur
Laurin, expressing to both our sincere thanks for what they had done
in favour of the Jews in Damascus, Safed, and the Holy Land in
general."

_September 17th._--We embarked in one of the Pasha's large boats,
being escorted to the water side by three janissaries, and were safely
on board the _Leonidas_ at 3 P.M.

_September 18th._--We are detained in the harbour for despatches.

Mr Reinlin, the Dutch Vice Consul, came on board with letters. He went
with me into our berth, and informed me that news had been received
last night from Beyrout; the English had entirely destroyed that town,
and had landed two thousand English and four thousand Turks. The
French Consul had taken a house in a garden about a mile out of town,
with the French flag flying on it, nevertheless four cannon balls had
struck the house. Ibrahim Pasha was at Beyrout, and Suleiman Pasha was
in the neighbourhood.

At 10 A.M., the anchor being weighed, we started, and were soon safely
out of the port. "Then," Sir Moses writes in his Diary, "we sang the
'Song of Moses,' and with joy and thanks, left the land of Egypt."

_September 21st._--After eighty hours at sea, with a strong north
wind, we arrived at five in the morning at Syra. The captain and the
surgeon went on shore with letters and despatches; they soon returned.
When a boat with the health officers came alongside, we learned to our
great dismay that we had a man dangerously ill on board. The officers
insisted on seeing him. The poor man was carried on deck with much
difficulty; they asked him many questions, but he was so weak that he
could scarcely answer. The officers then left us, to make their report
to their superior; they did not know whether we should be allowed to
go that night into the Lazaretto. This was a serious matter, as the
_Leonidas_ was to start at twelve for Alexandria. Our ship was soon
surrounded with boats, occupied by Turks, male and female, with their
luggage, who had secured their berths for Alexandria. The captain
would not allow them or their luggage to be received on board till he
had got rid of those he had brought with him. The noise and confusion
that arose in consequence were dreadful. It was nearly nine o'clock
when permission arrived for our leaving the ship for the Lazaretto;
the captain put us in his long boat. It was blowing hard, the sea was
rough, and the night very dark.

Sir Moses was dreadfully uneasy, but there was no choice. We all went
in the same boat, which was long and narrow. It was half-an-hour
before we reached the landing place, and it was not without great
difficulty that we scrambled up the rocks in the dark.

On getting into the Lazaretto we found that the guardian and officers
had left for the night, and there were but two miserably dark rooms
for the whole party. We were told to make the best we could of them
for the night. All our luggage had been left at the water's edge, and
there was not a soul to assist in bringing it to the Lazaretto. After
much time and trouble, our servants got one bedstead and mattress for
Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore, and a few mattresses for the rest of
our party.

In our small room, more than nine of us, including a Greek lady, her
servant and one child, had to remain the whole night; the servants and
all other passengers were obliged to manage as they could in the other
room.

After a night passed with little or no sleep, we rose from our weary
couches. Mr Ralli, the son-in-law of Mr Wilkinson, called. He had
procured us an order from the Superintendent of the Lazaretto, giving
us the apartments set aside for noblemen. We were soon admitted to
them. They were very comfortable rooms, beautifully situated,
commanding a fine view of the town and port. They were quite empty,
but our servants soon brought up our bedsteads and camp-stools, and we
hired two or three tables, which was all we required. Being informed
that we might shorten our confinement by five days, if we and our
servants took a bath and changed all our clothes, and had all our
luggage fumigated, we readily consented. By two o'clock, all our boxes
having been opened, and the contents spread over the room and hung up
on lines, dishes with pots of burning sulphur were placed in each
room, and the doors kept closed for half-an-hour. In the meantime we
took a bath and changed every article of dress.

Sir Moses put the whole quarantine into confusion, and compelled a
repetition of the fumigating ceremony, by inadvertently putting his
finger on the wrapper which contained Lady Montefiore's dress. This
caused much vexation to all the "guardiani" and ourselves. However,
the fumigation was performed once more, and by four o'clock the whole
ceremony was ended.

September 28th being the first day of the Jewish New Year, we all met
early in the morning, and read the service appointed for the day. It
was nearly twelve before we breakfasted. The afternoon we spent in
reading subjects connected with Hebrew literature. Sir Moses and Lady
Montefiore spent a most happy day, and said they had only felt the
want of their Synagogue and of the society of their relatives.

The physician paid us a visit on the same day, and said we might, if
we pleased, go out of quarantine on the morrow. He enquired if we were
all well, then desired us to strike our fists under each arm and other
parts of the body. Having seen this ceremony performed, he made his
tour round the Lazaretto. We were much amused at seeing him go through
the same ceremony with more than one hundred persons, who were to
leave the next day.

The following day, being the ninth day of our quarantine, and having
performed the "Spoglio" the morning after our arrival, we could have
received _pratique_ this morning; but as we were most comfortable, Sir
Moses requested to be allowed to remain till Thursday. We received the
greatest kindness from all the officers of the quarantine, who came
frequently to enquire if they could do anything to promote the comfort
of Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore. We all quitted the Lazaretto on the
1st of October, grateful to the Almighty for permitting us to pass the
ten days we spent there so pleasantly. We walked to the town, which
was built round the bay, nearly opposite the Lazaretto. The road was
very rough, and Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore were extremely fatigued
by the walk.

Syra was very gay; the town was thronged with well-dressed people, as
the King and Queen were expected that day from Athens. On the wharf,
which was strewn with laurel, there were some four hundred little boys
and girls dressed in white with blue ribbons, some of them carrying
branches of laurel, and others the Greek flag. It was four o'clock
when the first cannon announced the arrival of the steamboat with the
King and Queen on board. From Terenzio House, where we were
accommodated, we had a good view of them as they landed. The King was
dressed in a Greek uniform, and the Queen in Western costume. To our
great disappointment, the steamer which was to take us to
Constantinople had not arrived, and at Syra we could not even find a
room to pass the night, so that we were compelled to return to the
Lazaretto. Lady Montefiore was most fatigued and poorly, and quite
happy when she could throw herself on the ground with the luxury of a
mattress.

We received an invitation from the Governor of the town to a grand
ball, to be given to the King and Queen. The next morning at five
o'clock we were informed that the _Mentor_ had not yet arrived, but
about two hours later we ascertained that she had come into port in
the night. We lost no time in preparing to embark, and before eight
again took leave of the Lazaretto, very thankful for the accommodation
it had afforded us. At eight we were on board, but it was nearly
twelve before we started. We expected to reach Smyrna towards noon on
the following day, but not to be able to land, as it would be our
Sabbath.

We entered the harbour of Smyrna on the 3rd October. Sir Moses
received immediately a large number of letters and visits from the
heads of the congregation and principal inhabitants, all offering
their services. The Dutch Consul spoke much of the sad state of the
Jews at Smyrna, and requested Sir Moses' intercession on their
behalf.



CHAPTER XXXII.

1840.

CONSTANTINOPLE--CONDITION OF THE JEWISH RESIDENTS--INTERVIEW WITH
RECHID PASHA--AUDIENCE WITH THE SULTAN--HE GRANTS A FIRMAN.


From Smyrna we went to Constantinople. Of our arrival in that place
Sir Moses gives the following account:--

"_Constantinople, October 5th._--The appearance of the city was most
beautiful from the steamboat; we anchored at half-past eleven. Many
persons came on board to welcome us, including Monsieur Commundo, who
had prepared one of his houses for us. Lady Montefiore and Mr Wire
went there immediately. Dr Loewe and I, accompanied by Mr Nugent, a
Queen's messenger, who had special despatches for Lord Ponsonby,
started for Terapia, and were allowed to leave the vessel at once. It
took two hours to row there, the current being very strong. On
reaching Terapia we went to Lord Ponsonby's, and found that he was
out. Mr Nugent remained, but we returned. There was a strong wind
blowing against the current, which made a heavy sea. I passed two
hours in the utmost anxiety, and would gladly have landed and walked
back, but it was impossible; we should not have found our way. At last
we landed safely, but our troubles were not over. We had the greatest
difficulty in finding Monsieur Commundo's house. We found two Germans
in a little tailor's shop, and they became our guides. I found my dear
Judith in a state of great anxiety on our account. It being between
seven and eight before we arrived, they had sent in every direction
after us; however, we sat down to a good supper, and soon forgot our
troubles."

The day after our arrival the Spiritual Heads of the Hebrew
communities, accompanied by several of their members, came to pay
their respects to Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore, and to invite them to
attend divine service in one of their Synagogues on the Day of
Atonement, which commenced the same evening, an invitation which was
accepted.

During the whole of the following day (the Day of Atonement) Sir Moses
and Lady Montefiore remained in Synagogue, returning in the evening at
the conclusion of the service, accompanied by many members of the
congregation. They were preceded by two men bearing two large wax
candles, which had been lighted in the Synagogue the evening before.
They received a hearty welcome from their host, Monsieur Commundo,
and, having broken their fast, soon retired to rest.

_October 8th._--Signor Commundo, with his wife, two sons, and a
daughter, paid us a visit in the morning. The little girl, a lovely
child about seven years of age, was already engaged, as well as the
two boys, aged nine and ten respectively, both handsome, intelligent
lads. It reminded Sir Moses of what he had once found fault with when
at Haifa. Certain allowances, however, must be made for the
peculiarities of the East. Turkey would certainly not yield in this
respect to any remonstrances. We called on the British Consul General,
and in the evening Sir Moses received a deputation from the European
Hebrew community; they spoke much of the necessity for an hospital and
schools.

_October 9th._--We set off to the Porte to-day, as soon as our
visitors had left, with the intention of going later on to Terapia to
see Lord Ponsonby. After rowing nearly two hours and a half, we found
that it would take us a full hour longer to reach our destination, and
that, wind and current being both against us, we should not be able to
get back before the Sabbath. Sir Moses, therefore, gave orders to
return home.

_Saturday, October 10th._--We attended divine service in a very large
Synagogue; all the worshippers appeared to be natives of Turkey. At
the conclusion of the service we accompanied the Chief Rabbi to his
house. He was preceded by three soldiers and six attendants; on
passing the guard-house we found the officer with his men in front.
They saluted him with every token of respect, as did all the people in
the densely-crowded streets. His house was full of people. We partook
of some refreshment, and took leave. As we appeared again in the
street we noticed a guard of honour walking before us, and an officer
with two soldiers following in the rear. Sir Moses wished them to
return after going a few paces, but they insisted on accompanying us
to the end of the street, an honour Sir Moses was but little desirous
of receiving.

_Sunday, October 11th._--We afterwards went into three large and
handsome Synagogues in the same quarter; adjoining one of these we
observed three school-rooms, occupied by about 250 boys. We entered
the school, and found the boys divided into three classes, their ages
varying from three to twelve. At the request of Sir Moses I examined
two boys. They read the Talmud and translated it into Spanish very
fluently. Sir Moses was much pleased. The children all appeared to
belong to the poorest classes. We had much difficulty in escaping the
importunities of the people; many seemed to be in very distressed
circumstances. In one room, scarcely six feet square, we saw a mother
and five children.

_October 4th._--An Austrian steamer arrived in the afternoon from
Smyrna, with an English messenger from Syria. It was reported that
Commodore Napier had concluded a treaty with the Emir Besheer, by
which the latter had engaged to join his forces to the Sultan's.
Napier had landed with his marines, and, assisted by the Turks and the
troops of the Emir, was in pursuit of Ibrahim Pasha. Many of the
Pasha's soldiers had joined the Sultan's party.

_October 15th._--Sir Moses went to Lord Ponsonby. Having thanked him
for his great assistance in the affair of the Jews at Rhodes and
Damascus, he informed him that he wished to have an audience with the
Sultan, to thank him for his justice to the Jews, to claim his special
protection for them in all his dominions, and to obtain from him a
declaration similar to that made by Selim the Second.

Lord Ponsonby said he would give Sir Moses a letter of introduction to
Rechid Pasha, who would perhaps be able to forward his wishes. Lord
and Lady Ponsonby then begged him to fix a day to dine with them, and
Sir Moses returned, much pleased with the interview.

The next five days were spent by Sir Moses in making himself
acquainted with the communal affairs of various congregations. Being
very anxious to assist them in their endeavours to introduce
improvements in their method of education, he had frequent
communications with their teachers and school committees. In support
of his exertions, at the special request of the ecclesiastical chief
and representatives of the congregation, I delivered an address in one
of their large Synagogues at Galata, on the last day of the Feast of
Tabernacles, the aim of which was to exhort the audience to give more
attention than hitherto to the acquisition of a liberal education.

_October 22nd._--Mr George Samuel, Mr Pisani, Mr Wire, and myself
accompanied Sir Moses to an interview with Rechid Pasha, who received
us most kindly. Sir Moses informed His Excellency that he had come to
express his thanks, and those of all his co-religionists in Europe,
for the humanity and justice which His Excellency and the Sultan had
shown in respect to the affair at Rhodes. The Pasha said he was sorry
they had not been able to do the same at Damascus. Sir Moses hoped
that His Excellency would do him and the gentlemen who accompanied him
the honour of introducing them to the Sultan, to which he replied that
he thought it might be done. Sir Moses then said that formerly Sultan
Selim had issued a Hatti-Sherif, declaring his conviction of the
innocence of the Jews of the charge brought against them, and it would
be a great satisfaction if the present Sultan would do the same. Sir
Moses had prepared a paper, which he requested His Excellency to hear
read. Mr Pisani read it to him in French; he thought it very good, and
said it might be done. Having had pipes and coffee, we returned home,
being engaged to dine with Lord Ponsonby. We had great difficulty in
procuring a carriage to take us, and at last agreed with a man to take
Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore, and fetch them back, for the sum of £6
sterling. It was a miserable four-horse concern. Mr Wire and I
preferred riding on horseback.

It was a most agreeable party, and we met there several of our
acquaintances. His Lordship spoke with Sir Moses on the subject of a
bank for Constantinople, and said he wished him and another gentleman,
whom he named, to speak with Rechid Pasha about it, and he would be
present at the interview. Sir Moses said he would do so, but could not
say anything before he returned to England. On the following day the
Rev. Dr Samuel Bennet, the Chaplain of the Embassy, lunched with us.
He had just delivered an excellent sermon in favour of the Jews in the
Damascus affair.

_October 26th._--As no appointment had been made, and that evening
was the commencement of the Rámázan, during which month the Turks
attend to no business, Sir Moses determined to call on Mr Pisani to
inquire if he had heard from Rechid Pasha. We went accordingly, and Mr
Pisani informed him that he had just received a letter from the
Minister of Foreign Affairs, acquainting him that the Sublime Porte
would receive a deputation headed by Sir Moses Montefiore on Wednesday
evening, three hours after sunset, at the Palace of Beshik Tash. "How
great and good," exclaimed Sir Moses, "is the Almighty! At the moment
when I most despaired of success, He has granted our petition." Mr
Pisani said he had no doubt he should get the Hatti Sherif, but he
could not say when. Before we reached home it was six o'clock, and we
found by the brilliant illumination of the minarets and mosques that
the Rámázan had been declared.

_Tuesday, October 27th._--In the course of the day the Háhám Bashi,
Signor M. H. Fresco, came to Sir Moses by appointment, together with
several leading members of the community and the secretary of the
congregation. Sir Moses recommended him to issue an order that every
school should have a well-qualified master, to teach the children to
read and write the Turkish language. Sir Moses offered to pay the
first expenses they would have to incur. The Háhám readily consented.

An order to that effect had been drawn up in the Turkish, Spanish, and
Hebrew languages, and promulgated all over the country.

The Háhám Bashi is the head of all the Jews in the Turkish Empire, and
his decrees are law. Sir Moses promised him to speak on the subject to
Rechid Pasha before leaving Constantinople.

The following is the account, as given in Sir Moses' diary, of his
audience with the Sultan:--

"_Wednesday, October 28th._--Sir David Wilkie, Mr Pisani, and George
Samuel dined with us, and at seven afterwards we set out. Our
cavalcade consisted of one carriage with four horses, and one with two
horses, six kávásses or police officers, eight men carrying large wax
torches, two horsemen with each coach, a sedan chair with each coach,
and three men to close the procession. As the carriages could not
drive up to our door I was carried in a sedan chair to the foot of the
hill, the other gentlemen walked, and I went in the first carriage
with Mr Pisani, the British Dragoman; George Samuel, Mr Wire, and Dr
Loewe in the second. I wore my full uniform. The streets were crowded;
many of the Jews had illuminated their houses. We reached the Palace
in rather less than an hour. On descending from the carriages we found
in the courtyard a large guard of honour, who presented arms. We were
shown into a handsome drawing-room, furnished in the European style.
Two magnificent silver candlesticks with large wax candles stood on
the ground in the centre of a richly embroidered velvet carpet. We had
not been seated two minutes when Rechid Pasha entered; he was most
friendly in his manner. We were soon joined by Rizá Pasha, and all
were served with coffee and pipes, the mouthpieces and bowls of the
latter being richly embellished with diamonds.

"Rechid Pasha asked me how long I remained at Alexandria, how often I
had seen Mohhammad Ali, and how he looked? In a few moments it was
announced that the Sultan was ready to receive us. The two Pashas
walked first, I next, and the rest of our party followed, a large
throng of officers bringing up the rear.

"We crossed a garden about sixty yards in length, and entered a
handsome marble hall; having descended a grand staircase, likewise of
marble, we entered into the presence chamber.

"The Sultan was seated on a sofa, clad in his cloak of state, which
was fastened at the neck with two large clasps of the finest diamonds.
The cloak itself was of a violet colour, similar in cut to our own. He
was a good-looking young man, and appeared about twenty-six years of
age, though in reality but nineteen. The two Pashas took their station
on his left, I and my party on his right. After having received some
courteous signs of welcome from him, I delivered the speech I had
intended to have read to him, but instead of reading it, I spoke it,
as I knew it well by heart, and there was not sufficient light to read
it without spectacles. I said as follows:--

"'May it please your Imperial Majesty,--In the name of my brethren,
who have deputed me, I come to lay at the foot of your Imperial Throne
the grateful homage of their respect.

"'England, my country, and other enlightened nations of the earth,
heard the cries of the suffering and persecuted Jews at Damascus and
at Rhodes, and they hastened to offer to the sufferers their sympathy
and affection. But the Lord God, who ruleth over all, prevented the
necessity of their aid at Rhodes, and inspired your Imperial Majesty
with wisdom, justice, and the love of truth. Under your righteous
direction the oppressor was laid low, the designs of the wicked made
known, and the innocent delivered. I therefore crave permission to
offer to your Imperial Majesty the profound gratitude of the hearts of
our people, and to utter our prayers that the merciful God may bless
your Imperial Majesty with length of days, with wisdom, honour, and
riches, and so direct all your actions, that your name may be
inscribed in golden characters for ever, and the memory of your deeds
smell as sweet as a garden of roses.

"'In ancient times the Lord God brought our people out of Egypt, and
for ages they dwelt in Palestine; to them were committed the oracles
of God, and though now dispersed among the nations of the earth, they
are numbered with the most peaceful and loyal subjects, and by their
industry they have augmented the riches and prosperity of the
countries in which they live.

"'They look with love and veneration upon that land where their
forefathers dwelt; they pray that all who live therein may enjoy the
shadow of your sublime protection, and in peace be permitted to
worship the God of their fathers.

"'Their prayers ascend to Him whose wisdom is absolute, whose decrees
are fixed and immutable, whom none can withstand, imploring that he
will make your enemies eat the dust, that they may vanish as the
morning dew, and flee away as chaff before the wind; that your throne
may endure for ever, and that all who live under your sceptre may have
peace, sitting under their own vine and their own fig-tree, none
daring or wishing to make them afraid.'

"The Sultan listened with great attention, and as soon as I had
finished, Mr Pisani repeated it in Turkish. The Sultan smiled whilst
he was reading, and showed that he well understood the address and was
pleased with it. As soon as Mr Pisani had concluded, the Sultan fixed
his eyes on me, and spoke in a mild and pleasing voice. 'I am
perfectly satisfied,' he said, 'with the communication made and the
sentiments expressed by the deputation.

"'I have been affected by the events which have taken place in
Damascus, but I have endeavoured to offer some satisfaction to the
Israelitish nation, by giving orders that justice should be done in
the affair of Rhodes.

"'The Israelitish nation shall always have, from me, the same
protection and enjoy the same advantages as all other subjects of my
Empire.

"'I will grant the deputation the firman they have asked.

"'I know, gentlemen, how to appreciate the pure philanthropy which has
led you to this capital.'

"Having given his reply, the Sultan requested me to come nearer.
Rechid Pasha again presented me by name. The Sultan smiled most
graciously, and said, 'Present your friends to me.' I first presented
George Samuels, my relative, then Mr Wire of the City of London, and
Dr Loewe. When Mr Pisani repeated the last name and the Doctor made a
bow, Mr Pisani informed the Sultan that the Doctor had presented to
the late Sultan a translation of the hieroglyphical inscription on the
Obelisk in the Hippodrome. The Sultan spoke with Rechid Pasha to
explain it, and then said he remembered seeing it, and seemed much
pleased, and said the Doctor must be a learned man.

"The Sultan could not have given us a more flattering reception; it
was at the same time most dignified. The room in which he received us
was well proportioned, and neatly furnished in European style. The
curtains were of rich yellow satin and embroidered damask and velvet,
most probably of French manufacture; the carpet was English; there
were two large wax torches standing in elegantly carved candelabras.
We descended a flight of marble stairs, and were shown into a large
and handsome room, splendidly furnished, and more brilliantly
illuminated than the other room. We chatted with Rechid and Riza
Pashas, expressed our thanks to them for their great kindness in
procuring for us at so unusual a time an audience with His Imperial
Majesty, and our gratitude to His Majesty for his gracious reception
and reply. I asked Rechid Pasha when I might hope to receive the
firman which the Sultan had promised me, as I was most desirous of
returning to England the moment I got it. He replied that he supposed
I should not go before the next steamer left (on the 7th of November),
and that I should have it by that time; but as it was the Rámázan,
there was some difficulty in preparing it. We returned in state as we
came, the guard of honour saluting us as we passed them in the court
of the palace. We were again served, after the audience, in the lower
room of the palace with sherbet in elegant glasses, and we had
splendidly embroidered table napkins. A military band played during
the greater part of the time we were at the Palace. We found the
streets still more crowded than when we went; not a window in the
whole street through which we passed but was filled with female faces.
As we approached the Jewish street we experienced even more difficulty
in passing. At the end of the same street Signor Commundo, with the
ecclesiastical chief of Galata and about twenty of our acquaintances,
insisted on walking with us to our house. I was delighted to see my
dear Judith, and to acquaint her with our happy reception and the
complete success of our Mission, for which we return our grateful
thanks to Heaven."



CHAPTER XXXIII.

1840.

DISTRESS AMONG THE JEWS AT SALONICA--OPPRESSIVE LAWS WITH REGARD
TO THEM--TEXT OF THE FIRMAN--ITS PROMULGATION.


On the 30th of October all the representatives of the Hebrew
congregations called to express their thanks to Sir Moses for
introducing the study of the Turkish language and its literature in
their schools. The letter on the subject, addressed by the Háhám Bashi
to all the congregations, had been printed, and was to be read
publicly on the following day in all the Synagogues in Constantinople.

On Saturday we had the happiness of receiving from Mr Pisani the
answer of His Imperial Majesty, which he had delivered to Sir Moses in
reply to his address on Wednesday evening, which His Majesty promised
should be delivered in writing. Rechid Pasha sent it by Mr Pisani,
saying that he was preparing the firman which Sir Moses had requested
from the Sultan. The same day the letter of the Háhám Bashi was read
in all the Synagogues, and caused great satisfaction to all present,
as they considered that the introduction of the Turkish language in
the Jewish schools would raise the Jews in the estimation of both
Moslems and Greeks. We had again many visitors, and received a
deputation from Salonica, where there were 5000 Jewish families. Much
distress, they said, prevailed there, in consequence of a fire which
had destroyed 20,000 houses, of which 2000 belonged to Jews. They had
presented a petition to the Sultan for assistance to rebuild the
houses, as he had sent money for that purpose to the other
inhabitants, but not to the Jews. They also complained that they were
forced to pay the Governor large sums of money before he would allow
them to bury any one. Sir Moses asked them if persons of other
religions were also charged for the privilege of burying their dead;
they replied in the affirmative, but said the sum that others paid was
very trifling as compared to the charges made to the Jews.

Mr Isaac Picciotto, who had just arrived from Damascus, paid us a
visit. He was one of the unfortunate persons accused there, and had
only been saved from torture by the protection of the Austrian Consul,
he being an Austrian subject. He was kept seven months in the Consul's
house, and had only had courage to leave it that week, after the other
persons had returned to their homes. He expressed great gratitude for
our exertions on their behalf, and shed tears on seeing us.

_November 1st._--Mr Alison called, with a request from Rifaat Bey to
Sir Moses to fix a day to dine with him, and he would invite Colonel
Hodges to meet him. Sir Moses accepted the invitation for the
following Wednesday. The intervening days were spent in receiving
deputations and friends, and visiting various charitable institutions,
where he distributed generous gifts.

_November 7th._--Having seen much poverty at Kháskoey, Sir Moses went
there, accompanied by Lady Montefiore and myself, to attend prayers at
the Synagogue "Major."

On leaving the Synagogue, Sir Moses, according to previous
arrangements, commenced distributing among the poor the money he had
brought with him. But he was overpowered by the crowd, and had he not
been rescued by the guard (two officers and six men) who attended him
as a mark of honour, he would not have been able to pass. It required
all their force to keep back the crowd till we had reached our abode.
Sir Moses was obliged to leave the money with the wardens of the
Synagogue to be distributed by them, observing that he had never in
any other place witnessed so much poverty and distress.

Poor, however, as the people of Kháskoey were, they devoted a great
part of their humble earnings to education, and not only to the
education of their children, but also to that of grown-up members of
their community; nor did they neglect to contribute to the support of
their Synagogues.

My attention was here called to a rather amusing notice affixed to the
portals of the Synagogue, containing strict orders and regulations,
issued by the heads of the congregation, regarding the best mode of
effecting economy in the affairs of the community, collectively and
individually. The members and their families were interdicted from
wearing costly furs, dresses and head-dresses embroidered with gold or
silver. Expensive shawls, gold and silver fringes on the costume, and
similar luxuries are likewise prohibited. The women are not to bring
their jewellery to the hamám (public bath), where they were in the
habit of spending hours chatting with their friends and exhibiting
their wealth. Similar restrictions were placed on festivities at
weddings and at the naming of boys. Even at funerals the use of costly
shawls on the biers of females was not permitted.

The poor of Galata were considered the following day, and we repaired
to the Synagogue, there to distribute Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore's
gifts.

In the course of the day Mr Pisani called, informing Sir Moses that he
would receive a decoration from the Sultan.

Subsequently Sir Moses called on Lord Ponsonby, who promised to do
what he could to relieve the distress in Rhodes.

Being pressed for time we soon returned, and proceeded to Rifáat
Bey's. "It was already late," says Sir Moses, "when we came there, and
found waiting there Lords Canning and Louvain, Colonel Hodges, Captain
Gordon, Dr M'Carthy, Mr C. Alison, Rifáat Bey, and several Turkish
gentlemen."

The conversation on the events in Syria was very interesting.

About nine o'clock we left the party, much pleased with the novelty of
the scene.

_November 6th._--We went first to the Austrian Ambassador and then to
Rechid Pasha. The latter, who received us in a very friendly manner,
said that the Hatti-Sherif was ready, but had not yet been signed by
the Sultan. Sir Moses expressed his anxiety to have it as soon as
possible, as he was desirous of leaving the next day. The Pasha said
that if Mr Pisani came at ten o'clock the same evening to the Porte,
he should have it, as he himself would go to Riza Pasha about it, and
appointed twelve o'clock the next day to see Sir Moses.

_Saturday evening, November 7th._--Sir Moses writes in his diary: "I
sat up last night till after twelve, awaiting with great anxiety the
return of Mr Wire, who had gone to Mr Pisani's house to fetch the
firman for me as soon as Mr Pisani should return from the Porte, where
Rechid Pasha had appointed him to be at ten o'clock. I had just
fallen asleep when Mr Wire knocked at my door, and showed me the
firman which the Sultan had signed. It was beautifully written on
thick parchment, and was enclosed in a coloured satin bag. I sent it
to Dr Loewe, who had also retired, begging of him to read it and let
me know if it was all we could desire for the satisfaction of our
brethren. In a little while Mr Wire returned it to me, saying that Dr
Loewe had read it, and had assured him it was written in the strongest
possible terms as to the innocence of the Jews, as well as for their
future protection.

"I then blessed the Lord God for His great goodness, placed the firman
under my pillow, and fell asleep."

The next day I walked with Dr Loewe to Rechid Pasha's residence. I
took the firman with me, as it had to be deposited in the Archives of
the Ottoman Empire, and the Pasha had only sent it to me that I might
be convinced of its authenticity. An official copy was, by order of
the Sultan, forwarded to the Háhám Bashi. His Excellency, Rechid
Pasha, received us immediately, and said he hoped I was satisfied with
what the Sultan had done for us. Mr Pisani then handed me an official
copy of the firman, and I gave the original to the Pasha. I had first
begged to be allowed to keep it, but His Excellency said it was
impossible, and my copy of it was in every respect accurate.

The following is an exact translation of the firman Hatti-Sherif
(addressed to the Chief Judge at Constantinople), at the head of which
His Imperial Majesty the Sultan Abd-ool-medjid wrote with his own hand
the following words: "Let that be executed which is prescribed in this
Firman:"--

"An ancient prejudice prevailed against the Jews. The ignorant
believed that the Jews were accustomed to sacrifice a human being to
make use of his blood at their feast of Passover.

"In consequence of this opinion, the Jews of Damascus and Rhodes (who
are subjects of our Empire) have been persecuted by other nations. The
calumnies which have been uttered against the Jews, and the vexations
to which they have been subjected, have at last reached our Imperial
Throne.

"But a short time has elapsed since some Jews dwelling in the Island
of Rhodes have been brought from thence to Constantinople, where they
have been tried and judged according to the new regulations, and
their innocence of the accusations made against them fully proved.
That, therefore, which justice and equity required has been done on
their behalf.

"Besides which the religious books of the Hebrews have been examined
by learned men, well versed in their theological literature, the
result of which examination is, that it is found that the Jews are
strongly prohibited, not only from using human blood, but even that of
animals. It therefore follows that the charges made against them and
their religion are nothing but pure calumny.

"For this reason, and for the love we bear to our subjects, we cannot
permit the Jewish nation (whose innocence of the crime alleged against
them is evident) to be vexed and tormented upon accusations which have
not the least foundation in truth, but in conformity to the
Hatti-Sherif which has been proclaimed at Gulhani, the Jewish nation
shall possess the same advantages and enjoy the same privileges as are
granted to the numerous other nations who submit to our authority.

"The Jewish nation shall be protected and defended.

"To accomplish this object, we have given the most positive orders
that the Jewish nation, dwelling in all parts of our empire, shall be
perfectly protected, as well as all other subjects of the sublime
Porte, and that no person shall molest them in any manner whatever
(except for a just cause), neither in the free exercise of their
religion, nor in that which concerns their safety and tranquillity. In
consequence, the present firman, which is ornamented at the head with
our 'Hoomaioon' (sign-manual), and emanates from our Imperial
Chancellerie, has been delivered to the Israelitish nation.

"Thus you, the above-mentioned judge, when you know the contents of
this firman, will endeavour to act with great care in the manner
therein prescribed. And in order that nothing may be done in
opposition to this firman, at any time hereafter, you will register it
in the Archives of the Tribunal; you will afterwards deliver it to the
Israelitish nation, and you will take great care to execute our
orders, and this our sovereign will.

"Given at Constantinople, 12th Rámázan, 1256 (November 6th, 1840)."

I gave Rechid Pasha the order issued by the Háhám Bashi respecting the
instruction henceforth to be given in all the Hebrew public schools in
the Turkish language. He read the paper carefully, and said he was
much pleased; he also made the following remark: "If you had done
nothing else in Constantinople than that, you ought to consider
yourself amply compensated for the trouble and fatigue you have
undergone, by the consciousness of having been instrumental in
affording your brethren the opportunity of raising their position, by
a knowledge of the Turkish language." He then told me of his having
written to the Pasha of Rhodes to take special care that the Jews were
always under proper protection, so that, if they wished to leave the
town, they might do so without fear of molestation.

On our return home we found a great many visitors who had come to bid
us farewell. Towards evening the representatives of all the
congregations called, and prayers were recited at the conclusion of
the Sabbath. Soon after dark, Monsieur Le Goff, who had promised to
call for us when it would be time to embark, came, and we all went on
board. Hundreds of people pressed round us as we embarked, offering
prayers and good wishes for our safe return to England.

On the 9th November we landed at Smyrna, where Sir Moses left Greek
translations of the firman, as well as many charitable gifts for
distribution. Six days later we arrived at Malta, where we learned
that St Jean d'Acre had been taken, after three hours' fight, but with
very little loss.

This, Sir Moses thought, would settle the affair of Syria, and he had
some hope that Egypt itself would soon return to the Sultan. The
officer of the Lazaretto came, and advised us to remain on board that
day and the next. He told us we should have excellent apartments in
Fort Manoel, as the Emir Besheer and his attendants, about 120
persons, would then leave the Lazaretto. Sir Moses agreed to this, and
the next day the commandant, Monsieur Le Goff, took us in his boat to
Fort-Manoel. The Emir Besheer and his suite only left at nine o'clock.
We saw them going in two boats on their way to St Antonio. The Emir
Besheer was in the Governor's boat with some of the attendants; the
ladies, about twelve of them, were in another boat. The Emir was a
noble-looking old man, with a long white beard; the ladies were all
dressed in white, and had their faces veiled. I once had the
opportunity of seeing the Emir in his mountains at Ebtedeen. His
proper name was Emir Sa'ad ed-deen Esh-shehâbi. His political
movements, as well as his general course of life, from a religious
point of view, could not stand the test of a strict investigation. He
spoke on one occasion, in the presence of French officers,
disrespectfully of the Queen, and also of the Sultan. The British
Consul at Damascus, now Sir Richard Wood, escorted him to
Constantinople, where he received a serious reprimand from the English
Ambassador and the Turkish authorities.

We found that our apartments were not ready for immediate occupation,
and we therefore had to remain a long time in the open air, until they
had undergone a process of fumigation and ventilation.

_November 19th._--A French war steamer arrived in the morning from
Alexandria, reporting the recall of Ibrahim Pasha from Syria, and the
countermanding of troops under orders for Syria, and of the levy of
Bedáwees. We also learned that the Pasha had given up the Turkish
fleet, and contented himself, with the vice-regal power in Egypt; and
that all this had been approved by a council. Sir Moses remarked,
"that all this might be true, but if the Sultan allowed Mohhammad Ali
to retain Egypt, he would not suffer Syria to remain quiet for twelve
months, but would excite insurrections. The English government," he
said, "had the game in their own hands, and he hoped they would not
throw it away; Syria would never be safe while Mohhammad Ali ruled in
Egypt."

_September 23rd._--Sir Hector Grey sent the welcome tidings that our
imprisonment would be reduced to fifteen days instead of twenty. A few
days later, Captain H. M. Austin, of Her Majesty's steam frigate
_Cyclops_, arrived from Beyrout, and gave us a most interesting
account of all that had been passing in Syria. He expected that
Ibrahim Pasha would be taken, and that Mohhammad Ali would retain
Egypt, as our ministers, he said, wished it.

_Friday, September 27th._--We had many visitors at Fort Manoel
Lazaretto (Malta) this day: Lady Stopford and her daughter, Captain
and Mrs Copeland, and the Greek Consul; also Captain Le Goff of the
_Minos_. All of them gave accounts of the state of politics. The
French steamer brought us letters from Signor Communda, in which he
informed Sir Moses, that Rechid Pasha had sent his chief secretary,
accompanied by many officers, to the Jews with the Hatti-Sherif. It
was publicly read amidst the universal joy of the people, and prayers
were offered up for the Sultan, also for Sir Moses.



CHAPTER XXXIV.

1840.

DEPARTURE FROM MALTA--NAPLES--ROME--A SHAMEFUL INSCRIPTION--PREJUDICES
AGAINST THE JEWS AT THE VATICAN.


_November 30th._--Sir Hector Grey called, bringing news (in
confirmation of previous reports) to the effect that Commodore Napier
had made a convention with Mohhammad Ali: the latter was to give up
Syria, recall Ibrahim Pasha, and restore the Turkish fleet, on being
guaranteed by the four Powers in his authority over Egypt.

Having accepted an invitation from the Governor to dine with him, we
repaired to the Palace, and met a very pleasant party of twenty-four
persons. The Governor repeatedly expressed, to Sir Moses his
satisfaction with the result of his Mission.

_December 2nd._--Major Churchill called, bringing with him Colonel
Hugh Rose and Colonel Golquhoun; all offered to take letters and
parcels for us to Damascus. Sir Moses availed himself of their
kindness, and entrusted Major Churchill with a box containing letters,
newspapers, and copies of the Sultan's Hatti-Sherif for transmission
to the representatives of the Hebrew community at Damascus.

At ten in the evening we went, by invitation from Colonel Winchester
and officers of the 92nd Highlanders, to a splendid ball. All the
_élite_ of the island were present, the Governor, the Admiral, &c. Sir
Moses was introduced to General Mitchel and all the officers then
going to Syra. They offered him every assistance he might desire, and
promised to protect the Jews.

Lady Lewis called to invite Lady Montefiore to go with her to see the
Emir Besheer's lady, Báheeyát Eddoonyá (the beauty of the world), and
Sir Moses and party to accompany them, and call on the Emir. The
invitation was gladly accepted. We were detained there a long time,
the Emir having a great deal to say to Sir Moses respecting his own
affairs, as he wished him to intercede on his behalf with the English
government.

_Saturday, December 5th._--Attended divine service early in the
morning, and received in the course of the day the representatives of
the Hebrew community. They came to thank Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore
for what they had done for them, and wished us a safe voyage home.

The Emir Besheer sent his Bishop to Sir Moses, and begged he would
speak with Lord Palmerston. He had written himself to the Queen,
praying Her Majesty for his return to the mountains. He wished him to
say that his family had ruled there two hundred years, and himself
fifty.

Sir Moses promised the Emir to comply with his request, and Lady
Montefiore returned compliments and good wishes to the Princess
Báheeyát Eddoonyá.

_December 6th._--Early in the morning we went on board the French
steamer _Dante_ at Malta, and after a two days' pleasant sea voyage,
dropped anchor in the Bay of Naples.

_December 8th._--Sir Moses was very anxious to prepare here for the
important work he would have to do at Rome regarding the removal of a
scandal that might, at some future period, become a source of great
vexation and misery to thousands of innocent Jews.

I allude to the libellous epitaph which the Capuchins at Damascus had
inscribed on the stone erected over an opening in which some bones of
animals had been put.

The inscription, which had been copied by two monks, was in the
Italian and Arabic language, as follows:--

  "D. O. M.

  "Qui riposano le ossa del P^re Tomaso da Sardegna Miss^o
  Cappuccino assassinato dagli Ebrei il giorno 5 de
  Febraro l'anno 1840."

  _Translation of Italian Inscription._

  "Here rest the bones of Father Tomaso of Sardinia, a
  Capuchin missionary, murdered by the Hebrews on the 5th
  of February 1840."

  _Translation of Arabic Inscription._

  "The outward appearance of the tomb of Father Tomaso the
  Capuchin, and its place of wailing. He zealously
  discharged the duties of his calling as one of the
  missionaries in Damascus--the Jews slaughtered him--his
  goodness did not save him.

  "The laying down of his bones took place on the 5th of
  February 1840."

The Baron and the Baroness Charles de Rothschild called soon after our
arrival. They considered with us what was best to be done to
facilitate the intended proceedings at Rome, and agreed to seek an
interview with the Pope's Nuncio. Permission was obtained the same day
from the Minister of Police to have the Hatti Sherif printed and
published in Italian papers. His Excellency had them printed for Sir
Moses, and forwarded him several hundred copies for distribution among
friends.

Mr Briggs paid them a visit, and having discussed all that had taken
place in Alexandria, expressed much pleasure at the result of the
Mission.

_Naples, December 10th._--Sir Moses went with Baron Charles to the
Pope's Nuncio, who received them most kindly. He complimented Sir
Moses, saying that he was an excellent ambassador, as was proved by
his success.

On acquainting him with the object of his visit, and asking for his
advice as to the best mode of proceeding when at Rome to procure the
removal of the stone in the Latin Convent of the Capuchins at
Damascus, the Nuncio said that the business must be hinted with much
delicacy at Rome; he was going there on the 13th January, and would do
it himself if Sir Moses would remain at Naples. Sir Moses, however,
could not remain so long, and the Nuncio promised to prepare a letter,
to a friend at Rome and send it to him.

In the evening we all dined with the Baron and Baroness de Rothschild.
The entertainment was given in honour of Sir Moses and Lady
Montefiore; twenty-four at table--Princes and Princesses, Dukes and
Duchesses, the _élite_ of the Neapolitan nobility, as well as Admiral
Gowley and other distinguished officers in the navy. We were also
invited to a ball, but Sir Moses was not sufficiently well to go, and
Lady Montefiore would not go without him.

_December 16th._--A visit was paid to the Austrian Ambassador, Count
de Lebselter. Both Sir Moses and Baron de Rothschild were much pleased
with his remarks on the recent events in the East.

_December 19th._--Sir Moses and Baron Charles went to the French
Ambassador, who received them most kindly.

Sir Moses recounted to him Count Ratti-Menton's conduct in the affair
of Damascus, with the full particulars. He also told him what he had
effected in Constantinople, and he had the happiness of hearing the
Ambassador state that it had been his opinion from the first that the
Jews were innocent of the crime imputed to them. He several times
congratulated Sir Moses on his success; said that he was glad the
latter intended going to Paris, and that he should make the government
acquainted with the conduct of Ratti-Menton, but without publishing it
to the world. The Duke was the first Frenchman that Sir Moses had
heard express in so decided a manner his conviction of the innocence
of the Jews.

It was reported that the Sultan had refused to ratify Commodore
Napier's convention, at the request of the Ambassadors of the four
Powers. They would not consent to the Pasha having Candia.

_Naples, December 20th._--"We entered our good old carriage this
morning," Sir Moses writes in his diary, "at eight; the weather was
mild and pleasant. We had four horses to our carriage, and only a pair
to the carriage for Mr Wire and Dr Loewe, though I was obliged to pay
for three, as we do not intend travelling at night, and are anxious to
get on as fast as we can. We hope to save much time and obtain better
accommodation on the road by having a courier."

_December 22nd._--Through the carelessness of the postilions, Sir
Moses' carriage was driven against a cart, the pole of the former
being broken. Our carriage also met with an accident, but we
nevertheless all reached Rome safely. Soon after entering the gates of
the city we were greeted by a deputation of our brethren, who followed
us to our hotel, and expressed their pleasure at seeing us return in
good health. We then proceeded to the Synagogue, which had been most
brilliantly illuminated in our honour.

The people of Rome were delighted with our success at Constantinople;
the firman, they considered, gave some reparation for the past and
security for the future.

_December 23rd._--Sir Moses presented his letter of introduction to
Prince Alexander Torlonia, who likewise congratulated him on the
success of the Mission.

Another deputation from the Jews of Rome came to express their thanks
to Sir Moses for his exertions on behalf of his co-religionists,
regretting that it was not in their power to prove their gratitude by
something more than words.

_Rome, December 24th._--We then called on Baron de Binder, the Attaché
to the Austrian Embassy. Sir Moses intimated his desire to be
introduced to the Austrian Ambassador, in order to thank him for the
lively interest he had taken in favour of the Jews of Damascus.

The Baron said he should be happy to introduce him, but as the
following day was Christmas day, and the New Year holidays were so
near, he feared some few days must elapse before he would be able to
get an appointment.

Sir Moses informed the Baron of his earnest desire to be presented to
the Pope, to express his gratitude to him for not having permitted the
public press of Rome to insert the charges made against the Jews at
Rhodes and Damascus, also to present His Holiness with a copy of the
firman granted by the Sultan, and to intimate the great act of
kindness it would be on his part to advise the removal of the
inscription from the stone in the convent at Damascus, over some bones
said to be those of Father Tommaso. The Sultan would doubtless, if
applied to, order the removal of the stone, as soon as his Governor
was in the city; but Sir Moses, well knowing His Holiness' love of
truth and peace, felt confident that, if made known to him, he would
not permit such a libel to remain.

_December 25th._--Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore, while visiting one of
the public institutions, met the Princess Augusta of Cambridge, who
spoke to them most kindly. Prince A. Torlonia sent them the key of his
box at the opera. They availed themselves of this kindness in company
with several friends. "Being the first representation of the season,"
writes Sir Moses, "the house was filled to overflowing in every part.
The Queen of Spain, the Duchess of Cambridge and her daughter were
present, as well as every person of note in Rome. It is customary for
the Governor of the city, on the first night of the season, to offer
to the audience in the second and third tiers of boxes, ices, cakes,
&c., twice during the evening, between the acts. Simultaneously, as if
by magic, two waiters entered into each of the sixty-two boxes, one
bearing wax candles in silver candlesticks and the other trays with
the choicest refreshments. We had one of the best and largest boxes in
the house, and remained till nearly twelve."

The following day Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore received a beautiful
address from the Consistoire Israélite of France, offering
congratulations and deep gratitude for their noble exertions.

_December 29th._--Sir Moses went with Baron Binder to Count Lebselter,
the Austrian Minister. The Count expressed himself most handsomely,
saying that he was perfectly convinced of the innocence of the Jews,
and that he knew the people well, having been Ambassador at
Constantinople for four years. He said he had frequently spoken with
the Cardinals on the subject of the Damascus affair, but he did not
succeed in converting them to his opinion. He recommended Sir Moses to
see Mr Aubin, who then acted as agent for the British Government, and
to request Mr Aubin to present him to Signor Capuccini, Under
Secretary of State, and explain to him his wishes.

_December 30th._--Sir Moses had a long conversation with Mr Aubin, who
consented to speak to Signor Capuccini and acquaint him with Sir
Moses' desire to be introduced to the Pope. Mr Aubin said, as to the
presentation he feared he should not succeed, but thought perhaps he
might with the request referring to the firman.

At four o'clock Sir Moses saw Mr Aubin again. He had been with Signor
Capuccini, but could not succeed in any way, and was, indeed, most
anxious that Sir Moses should not even call upon him. Mr Aubin said
that all the people about the Pope were persuaded that the Jews had
murdered Father Tommaso, and even _if all the witnesses in the world
were brought before the Pope to prove the contrary_, neither he nor
his people would be convinced, and he could do nothing more.

Sir Moses, on hearing this, determined at once to leave his card,
together with his letters of introduction, with Signor Capuccini and
the Cardinal Tosti, which he did, also leaving cards on Monsignor
Bruti and the Abbé Ferrari, and was informed two days later that the
Secretary of State had appointed eleven on the following day to
receive him.

Sir Moses called on Torlonia, and spoke to him respecting his
introduction to the Pope, to solicit his directions for the removal of
the stone. The Prince promised to consult his brother, the Duke, and
see what could be done; personally he thought it should be done
through the Propaganda. Sir Moses left him a translation of Mr
Shadwell's letter on the subject.

It was again reported that the Sultan would not ratify Commodore
Napier's convention with Mohhammad Ali, but that Lord Palmerston would
insist upon the ratification.

We then visited the Ghetto, where we were met by a deputation of our
brethren, who took us to see the workshops. We saw many Jewish
children at work, some weaving, others making shoes. Sir Moses gave to
each child a Spanish dollar, and two Napoleons to each teacher. We
next went to the four schools. Sir Moses gave to each boy half a
dollar, and fourteen dollars to the students, for the study of the
Holy Law.

On our return, Sir Moses found that cards had been left by the Abbé
Ferrari; Monsignor Bruti, private chamberlain to the Pope; and Baron
de Binder Kriegelstein.

Great anxiety was felt by Sir Moses as to the result of his endeavours
to get an audience with the Pope. His petition was already prepared,
and he hoped by some means to get it into the Pope's hands. If this
could be effected, he thought some good might be done. "Heaven only
knows," he said, "my fears are much greater than my hopes; neither the
Austrian Minister nor Baron de Binder will do anything."

The Hanoverian Minister had expressed to Baron de Binder his total
inability to assist Sir Moses in obtaining an audience with His
Holiness. Mr Aubin said he had done all he could, but ineffectually,
and Signer Capuccini entreated that Sir Moses would not insist upon
seeing the Pope, as the Cardinal Tosti had taken no notice of either
Sir Moses' letter or card. "This is the last night of the year 1840,"
Sir Moses said. "It has been a year of much anxiety, fatigue, and
danger to Lady Montefiore and myself, but thanks to the God of our
Fathers, we trust its fruits will be productive of much good to His
children, not only in the East, but in the West as well."



CHAPTER XXXV.

1841.

MONSIGNOR BRUTI AND HIS HINTS--CARDINAL RIVEROLA--INEFFECTUAL ATTEMPTS
TO INTERVIEW THE POPE--RETURNING HOMEWARDS--ALARMING ACCIDENT--THE
GOVERNOR OF GENOA--INTERVIEW WITH KING LOUIS PHILIPPE.


At Rome, 1st January 1841, Sir Moses writes: "Monsignor Bruti called
on us, and I asked his advice as to the best means of obtaining the
removal of the stone, &c. He advised my first trying the head of the
Capuchins here, also of the Propaganda, before I went to the Secretary
of State, and offered, if I would postpone my visit to the Secretary
of State, which I had arranged with Mr Kolb for to-morrow, to make
enquiries in some influential quarters, and see me again to-morrow to
acquaint me with the best mode of proceeding. He spoke in a liberal
manner, and appeared to think I might succeed. In consequence of this,
Mr Wire wrote to Mr Kolb to postpone the appointment.

"_January 2nd._--Monsignor Bruti came in. He said he had spoken to
several influential persons, but the one he particularly wished to see
was out of town; if he did not return in a few days, he would go to
him. Monsignor Bruti thought the petition I had prepared for the Pope
very likely to meet with success, if I first gained the concurrence of
some of the Capuchins, and he advised my making some presents of
money. I instantly stopped him, and assured him that, in the execution
of my Mission, I had not given a single dollar, nor would I do so in
Rome, even if I was sure to obtain by it the object I had so much at
heart. This information had a great effect on his manner of speaking,
and he left us in two minutes. I daresay we shall see little more of
him."

_January 4th._--Mr Kolb went with us to the Monastery to endeavour to
see Cardinal Riverola, the head of the Capuchins; he was unwell, but
appointed to see us the next day at twelve. Monsignor Bruti called;
he seemed very desirous to know how Sir Moses was going on; the
latter, however, did not think Monsignor Bruti could assist him.

_January 5th._--"I received a letter," Sir Moses writes in his diary,
"from Prince Torlonia, expressing his regret that he had not succeeded
in his application for me, and enclosing a letter he received from the
Chamberlain of His Holiness, stating that at present His Holiness did
not give any audiences. At twelve, I and Dr Loewe went to Monsieur C.
de Kolb; he joined us, and we went to the Monastery. We were admitted
immediately to his Eminence, Cardinal Agostino Riverola. Mr Kolb
introduced me. I acquainted the Cardinal with the object of my visit
to him, as he was the chief of the Capuchins. I urged the injustice of
allowing such a libel to exist in the Convent at Damascus, pointing
out that the inscription stated that Padre Tommaso was assassinated by
the Hebrews. I said that both Mohhammad Ali and the Sultan were
satisfied as to the innocence of the accused, and they had both given
me firmans confirming their opinion. The Cardinal said the firman was
most important, and he would at once sanction the removal of the
stone, whether the firman had been obtained by Rothschild's fortune or
by other means. I instantly stopped the Cardinal, and assured him that
I had not given a dollar for the firman, nor would I have attempted to
obtain justice by bribery. He said that was immaterial, he would not
enter into the subject; the firman was of great importance. The
inscription, he said, was most improper, as it charged all the
Israelites with the murder. What would be said if a Florentine
committed a crime, and all Florentines were charged with it? I assured
the Cardinal that Padre Tommaso had not been murdered by a Jew, but he
did not seem to credit my assurance. I said I thought it possible that
the Padre might still be living in one of the Monasteries of Lebanon.
The Cardinal laughed, and turning to Mr Kolb, said, perhaps Cardinal
Fesch was still living. It was his opinion, however, that the stone
should be removed, and he would confer with the general of the
Capuchins on the subject, as he could not give instructions for its
removal without his concurrence. I asked if he would see him to-day,
but he replied, 'Look at the weather; it is impossible, but I will in
a day or two.' I enquired when I might call again; he said, 'whenever
I pleased.' I gave the Cardinal two copies of the firman, also
translations of the letters sent me by Mr Shadwell and the Rev. J.
Marshall. The result of my interview leads me to hope that with
patience and perseverance I may succeed in getting the inscription
removed.

"_January 6th._--Signer Scala paid us a visit, and advised me to
forward the petition I had prepared for His Holiness to the Cardinal.
I and Dr Loewe then went to the Cardinal's house; we sent in the
petition, enclosed in one to himself. We then had an interview with
him in his library. He told us that he had read the petition, but that
it was not his department to present petitions to His Holiness. I
asked him kindly to inform me in whose department it was. He replied,
the Cardinal's Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs. I gave him two
of my pamphlets with the firman, and we took our leave. We returned to
our hotel, and I immediately wrote to Cardinal Luigi Lambruschini,
Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs. We took the letter to his
house, but he was at dinner, and the servant informed us he must not
be disturbed. We could leave the paper, and it would be given to the
Cardinal. If we returned at six o'clock we should have an answer. We
left the papers. At six, Dr Loewe went to Cardinal Lambruschini. His
servant said the Cardinal had read the papers, but he had nothing to
do with them; that the application had been made before, and that he
returned them. Thus, it appears, all doors are closed against my
petition finding its way to His Holiness.

"Mr Kolb said I must be prepared to hear bad news to-morrow from the
Cardinal Riverola, as the Cardinal felt great surprise at my boldness
in replying to him respecting the Rothschilds having purchased the
firman with their fortunes, and also about the Jews not having
murdered Father Tommaso. I believe it is not of much consequence, but,
at all events, I would not suffer any one to suppose for a moment that
I had been base enough to bribe any one for the purpose of freeing the
Jews from false and base accusations. At twelve I went with Dr Loewe
and Mr Wire to Mr Kolb. He joined us, and we proceeded to the Convent
of the Frati di St Marcello to Cardinal Riverola, the protector of the
Capuchins. We were all presented to him. I took my seat next to him by
his desire. He informed me that he would write to advise the removal
of the stone from the Convent of the Capuchins at Damascus; that he
could not order the removal of the stone, but would advise it; that
the Convent was under the protection of the French authority, who had
caused it to be erected; that all the monks belonging to that Convent,
except one, had died, and that several monks would be sent there as
soon as Syria became more tranquil. The Cardinal was most friendly in
his manner. Before I left he returned me the copies of the letters of
Mr Shadwell, &c., I gave him to read at my last interview, but he kept
the copy of the firman, as well as the copy of the firman of Mohhammad
Ali which I gave Mr Kolb for him. Cardinal Riverola had consulted with
the Chief of the Capuchins at Rome. It was this person who assured the
Cardinal that he had not the power to remove the stone, but if he
advised it, the advice would certainly be followed. I must see when I
get to Paris what can be done with the French Minister."

Sir Moses then called on Baron Binder and Prince Torlonia, and
informed them of what he had done. In the course of the day Signor
Scala came to inform him that the Pope had appointed the next day at
eleven o'clock to receive the deputation of the Jews of Rome who
annually paid their homage to him at that season.

_January 8th._--We called on Mr Aubin to ask his advice respecting the
petition to His Holiness. He was of opinion that Sir Moses had better
not present it unless Cardinal Riverola advised it. We afterwards
called on Mr Kolb. He said he was satisfied the Cardinal would keep
his promise, and Sir Moses would only do mischief if he attempted to
petition the Pope. Signor Scala and the deputation that accompanied
him were received by the Pope, who said he was well satisfied with his
Hebrew subjects, and would grant them all the privileges his religion
permitted.

We quitted Rome on Monday evening (January 11th), and travelling _viâ_
Viterbo and Sienna, reached Leghorn on the 14th January.

"Most grateful do I feel," said Sir Moses, "to the Almighty for having
conducted me and my dear Judith in safety and peace to this my native
city."

_Saturday, January 16th._--About one o'clock the Chancellor of the
Congregation came, saying that he had received an intimation from the
Governor of the town that the latter wished to make the acquaintance
of Sir Moses, but that etiquette prevented his calling on him, and he
had therefore sent his card by his aide-de-camp. In consequence of
this we all went to His Excellency, accompanied by the Chancellor,
Signer Basevi. He received us most politely, and paid Sir Moses a
great many compliments. He said, among other things, that every friend
of humanity owed him a debt of gratitude. He was delighted to have
made his personal acquaintance, and hoped to see him again.

_January 17th._--Accompanied by Signor Basevi, we went to the old
burial-ground, where we met seventeen old men who knew Signor R. H.
Racah, Sir Moses' uncle and godfather. Sir Moses distributed money
among them, and proceeded to the new burial-ground, where, on seeing
the grave of one of his relations without a tombstone, he gave the
order to have one made at his expense.

_19th January._--We left Leghorn at 1 P.M., Sir Moses being obliged to
leave by a side door to escape the great numbers of people who were
waiting in front of the hotel to pay their respects to the Champion of
Israel. About two o'clock we were all much alarmed by Lady Montefiore
being suddenly taken seriously ill, with a numbness of her hand and
arm, and a dizziness and great pain in the head, which almost deprived
her of speech and motion. She was just able to ask for the Prayer
Book. Gradually she recovered from the attack, which Sir Moses hoped
was only spasmodic, though she remained weak and very unwell.

From Genoa we made our way to Savona, but in consequence of a serious
carriage accident, in which Buck, one of the servants, was badly hurt,
we immediately returned to Genoa to obtain medical assistance. By some
misunderstanding which had arisen between our couriers and the
postillions of another carriage on the road, that of the Prince and
Princess Marc de Beauvaix, in changing horses, ours took fright and
went off down a hill. On the one side there was a deep precipice, of
at least a hundred feet, into the sea; on the other a deep ditch. The
carriage was thrown into the ditch, and fell on the side of the hill,
which prevented it from being entirely overturned. Sir Moses, on
getting Lady Montefiore out of the carriage, found she had lost all
power to help herself, and placed her on the side of the road, while
he endeavoured to restore her. As soon as the carriages were ready
again, the invalids were carefully placed in them, and we all returned
to the Hotel Croce di Malta, our old quarters, where we found
everything prepared for us, all having been ordered by the young
couple who were the innocent cause of our misfortune. We soon had
Robert carried to bed, and Dr Bennett, an English surgeon and a very
clever man, very carefully examined the patient, and did all that was
necessary for his comfort and recovery. He said the wound in his leg
would be of no consequence, but if it had been extended the hundredth
part of an inch it would have cut the artery, and he would have bled
to death before we could have even placed him in the carriage.

Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore were much fatigued and agitated, but
full of deep gratitude to Heaven for the mercy shown to them and to
their faithful servant, Robert, whom they would not leave; and they
remained at Genoa till he was sufficiently recovered to travel.

_January 26th._--Mr Yates Brown, the British Consul, called with the
compliments of the Governor of Genoa, who desired to make Sir Moses'
acquaintance. The latter agreed to accompany him the next day to His
Excellency.

_January 27th._--I accompanied Sir Moses to His Excellency the
Marchese Paulucca, the Governor of Genoa, who received him most
kindly, enquired as to the result of his voyage to the East, and was
happy to hear of its success. "He had never," he said, "for a moment
believed the charges against the Israelites; he had been Governor of
Georgia, where there were many of that nation, and he had never heard
of such a thing; he had known many Jews for eighteen years, and
respected them. He had allowed a contradiction of the charge to appear
in the Genoa _Gazette_, for which he said he had been reprimanded by
the Government; nevertheless, he was glad he had done it. Sir Moses
gave His Excellency two copies of the firman, with which he seemed
much pleased. The Rev. E. Bondi subsequently related to Sir Moses an
anecdote concerning the Marchese. About three months previously an
Englishman, a Protestant, with a large family, had given much trouble
to the British Government respecting a claim he had on the Sardinian
Government, but not having succeeded in gaining his object, in a fit
of spleen he embraced the Catholic religion with all his family. The
ceremony took place in the great church at Genoa, in the presence of
the King, the Royal family, and the great officers. On the following
day the King inquired of the Marchese Paulucca if he was not delighted
with the beautiful ceremony (supposing him to have been present), but
the latter informed His Majesty that he was not in the church at the
time. The King expressed his surprise, and inquired the reason. The
Marchese replied that he disliked hypocrisy of all kinds. The King was
silent, but did not speak to him for three days."

Monsieur Blaurie, the Consul General of France, sent us the key of his
box at the opera, and begged we would go there in the evening, but Sir
Moses declined the favour.

_Friday, January 29th._--Mr Wire left us to-day to proceed by sea to
Marseilles and thence to England, accompanied by a French courier whom
Sir Moses engaged to attend him. The _Gazette_ of Genoa (a paper which
contained many articles unfavourable to the Jews) now published the
firman, and other journals followed the example. The representatives
of the Hebrew community requested to be favoured with some copies, to
be distributed among their acquaintances, not only in this city, but
in every town where there were Israelites, as they had all suffered
more or less by the infamous calumny. In Genoa a song had been printed
and sung about the streets, relating the particulars of the supposed
murder of Padre Tommaso, and the confessions of the persons accused of
the crime.

_February 1st._--Lord and Lady Roden and Lady Stratford Canning came
to see Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore. They spoke much on the subject
of our Mission. His lordship told Sir Moses that the upper classes
even of that place were ignorant and fanatic. An Italian lady only
three days before told him at a large party that a young woman was
missing in the city, and she believed the Jews had taken her, with the
intention of keeping her for a time to see if her blood was pure, and
then to kill her to use the blood in the Passover cakes. His lordship
asked her the name of the person who gave her the information, and on
what authority they did so, but she could not answer that question.

_February 9th._--We travelled by Marseilles and Avignon, and reached
Lyons the next day.

_February 17th._--Reached Auxerre. During the last three days we had
noticed some reports in the papers to the effect that Sherif Pasha,
the late Governor of Damascus, had incurred the displeasure of Ibrahim
Pasha, the latter having threatened to have him tried by court
martial. His troubles were therefore beginning, and he would perhaps
regret the injustice he committed when enjoying the favour of his
Highness.

_February 18th._--On our arrival at Paris, Mr S. Almosnino, the
Secretary of the Spanish and Portuguese Hebrew congregation of London,
came expressly to Sir Moses to deliver some letters to him from the
representatives of that body. Sir Moses was much pleased to see this
worthy and faithful officer of his community, and gave him a hearty
welcome. After paying visits to the Barons James and Solomon de
Rothschild, to report to them on the result of the Mission, Sir Moses
left his card at Lord Granville's.

_Friday, February 19th._--Sir Moses called on Lord Granville, and told
his lordship that he was anxious to present to His Majesty the King a
copy of the firman Hatti-Sherif granted by the Sultan to the
Israelites in his dominions. His Lordship said, as Monsieur Thiers had
taken a prominent part in the affair of Damascus, it was probable the
King might not wish to receive the firman. Sir Moses replied that he
thought His Majesty too great a lover of justice to refuse his
request. His Lordship then asked him whether he would publish the
refusal, in case the King's reply should be unfavourable. Sir Moses
immediately replied in the negative; that his object was to promote
peace, and not to create animosity. Upon which his Lordship said he
would consult Monsieur Guizot, and let him know the result. The next
day Sir Moses received a note from Lord Granville, informing him that
His Majesty had notified his willingness to receive him at the
Tuileries the same evening.

_Saturday, February 20th._--At half-past eight his Lordship also
informed him in a second note that he would be at the Palace to
present him.

The following is an account of the interview with the King in Sir
Moses' own words:--

  "I was so fatigued that I could eat no dinner, but
  dressed myself in my uniform, and at half-past eight I
  went to the Palace, accompanied by Dr Loewe. A minute or
  two afterwards Lord Granville came in, and we were
  immediately conducted into the presence of the King and
  the Royal family. There were a number of officers in the
  room. His Majesty came up the moment we entered. Lord
  Granville presented me. I then offered to the King the
  translation of the Hatti-Sherif; he accepted it of me in
  a most gracious manner, said he was happy to receive it,
  and enquired if I had been at Damascus. I informed him
  that the disturbed state of the country had prevented
  me, but His Majesty would perceive by the firman I had
  the honour of placing in his hands, that there was no
  longer any occasion for my going, as the Sultan had
  expressed his entire conviction that the accusations
  against the Jews at Damascus were calumnies. His Majesty
  said he was happy it was so. He said he feared he had
  put me to some inconvenience by the very short
  notification he had given me, but as to-morrow was
  Sunday, he was fearful it would be detaining me longer
  at Paris than I wished. He then turned to Lord
  Granville, and said he also feared he had occasioned him
  some inconvenience. Dr Loewe was then presented, and
  Lord Granville took me to the Queen, and afterwards to
  the King's sister; both were very gracious, and spoke to
  us in French for a long time.

  "There was a Member of the Chamber who appeared to know
  me, and spoke to me about the Damascus affair. He began
  to rail against Monsieur Thiers, but I stopped him,
  saying that the result of my Mission had been so
  completely successful, I was desirous of having
  everything of an unpleasant nature forgotten."

Sir Moses expressed himself to all his friends as being greatly
pleased with his reception by the King.

Numerous visitors called and left cards. Some of them came expressly
from England, so as to be able to offer their hearty welcome to Sir
Moses and Lady Montefiore a few days sooner than they could have done
by awaiting their arrival at home.

_February 22nd._--Sir Moses went to Monsieur Guizot, who was very
civil, and spoke much on the Mission. He requested Sir Moses to give
him copies of the letters he had received from the Rev. Joseph
Marshall, Lieutenant Shadwell, and the Rev. E. Schlientz.

On his return to the hotel the members of the Consistoire Israélite,
the spiritual chiefs of the community, and deputations from all the
charitable institutions called, and presented to him and Lady
Montefiore addresses of congratulation.

_February 24th._--We left Paris, and reached Dover on Friday, where we
rested over the Sabbath.



CHAPTER XXXVI.

1841.

HOME AGAIN--SIR MOSES PRESENTS A FACSIMILE OF THE FIRMAN TO THE
QUEEN--HER MAJESTY'S SPECIAL MARK OF FAVOUR--REFORM MOVEMENT AMONG THE
LONDON JEWS--APPEAL FOR ENGLISH PROTECTION FROM THE JEWS IN THE EAST.


_February 28th._--In the evening we arrived at Park Lane, London,
where Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore received a hearty welcome from
their relatives and friends.

The next morning, and for many days afterwards, visitors called in
great numbers. Deputations from various communal institutions,
literary societies, and financial companies arrived and presented
addresses.

In most of the Synagogues special services were held, and the
exertions of Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore in the cause of suffering
humanity, and in the vindication of the purity of the religious tenets
of Israel, were warmly acknowledged by all present.

The Hebrew communities of Paris, Hamburg, Frankfort-on-the-Main, and
Magdeburg, together with those established in Italy, the United States
of America, the Barbary States, Egypt, and Turkey, all sent
testimonials, which are now preserved in Judith, Lady Montefiore's
Theological College at Ramsgate.

_March 3rd._--Sir Moses went to Lord Palmerston to thank him for his
great kindness and assistance in his Mission, and to give him an
account of all that had occurred at Alexandria and Constantinople. He
also spoke to him of the Emir Béshir, having promised the latter when
at Malta to intercede in his behalf with the British Government. Sir
Moses asked his Lordship whether he might present the Queen with a
copy of the firman Hatti-Sherif, to which Lord Palmerston replied
that he had no doubt Her Majesty would be happy to receive it.

In accordance with his Lordship's permission, Sir Moses presented the
copy of the firman to the Queen on Wednesday, the 24th of March.

The following is a copy of his entry in the diary referring to the
subject:--"Attended the Marine Board at 11.30; the Alliance Board at
12; at 12.45 returned home and dressed in my uniform. Mr H. de Castro,
Mr Waley, Mr H. H. Cohen, Mr Wire, and Dr Loewe came, and we proceeded
to St James' Palace to attend the levee. I had the honour to present
the Queen with the firman. The following is the copy of the card that
was read to Her Majesty:--'Sir Moses Montefiore, F.R.S., presented by
the Right Honourable Viscount Palmerston on his return from the East,
to present a facsimile and translation of the firman granted by the
Sultan to His Imperial Majesty's subjects professing the Jewish
religion.' Mr Wire and Dr Loewe were presented by me to the Queen. I
had a most gracious reception, and kissed hands."

As a token of royal approbation, Sir Moses had the satisfaction of
being informed, three months later, that Lord Normanby would have
great satisfaction in recommending the grant of supporters to his
armorial bearings. "The supporters I wish for," Sir Moses writes in
his diary, "are to exalt our holy religion by displaying 'Jerusalem'
in a more distinguished manner than I could otherwise have done."

My readers may perhaps care to have the opportunity of perusing the
material portions of this document, which are as follows:--

  "Victoria R.

  "Victoria, by the grace of God, &c.--Whereas it has been
  represented unto us, that our trusty and well-beloved
  Sir Moses Montefiore, &c., &c., in consequence of
  information having been received from the East, that a
  number of Jews had been imprisoned and tortured at
  Damascus and at Rhodes, and that he had, in conformity
  to a voluntary offer, made at a General Meeting of the
  London Committee of Deputies of the British Jews and
  others, held on the 15th of June last, proceeded
  (accompanied by Lady Montefiore) to Alexandria, with the
  view of proving the falsity of the accusation, and of
  advocating the cause of his unfortunate and persecuted
  brethren."

[Here follows an account of what Sir Moses had accomplished in
the East.]

  "We, taking the premises into our Royal consideration,
  and being desirous of giving an especial mark of our
  Royal favour to the said Sir Moses Montefiore, in
  commemoration of these his unceasing exertions on behalf
  of his injured and persecuted brethren in the East, and
  the Jewish nation at large, have been graciously pleased
  to allow him to bear Supporters to his Arms, although
  the privilege of bearing Supporters be limited to the
  Peers of our Realm, the Knights of our Orders, and the
  Proxies of Princes of our Blood, at Installations,
  except in such cases wherein, under particular
  circumstances, We have been pleased to grant our Licence
  for the use thereof."

The document proceeds to describe the supporters as follows:--

  "On the Dexter side, Lion guardant, and on the Sinister
  side, a Stag, each supporting a Flagstaff, therefrom
  flowing a Banner to the dexter, inscribed 'Jerusalem' in
  Hebrew characters."

During his stay at Alexandria, and on his return to London, Sir Moses
addressed letters to the Jews at Damascus, advising them to endeavour
to conciliate the Christians in that city, as well as those who were
known to be their most violent enemies. In connection with these
letters, Raphael Farkhi, the principal representative of the Damascus
community, now forwarded to him the following important communication,
wherein he satisfactorily refuted certain calumnies, which, according
to the _Times_ newspaper, had been renewed against the Jews in
Damascus.

  "In addition to what I have already stated," Signor
  Farkhi writes, "I have already mentioned to Sir Moses,
  in a former letter, that as soon as the Pashas of His
  Majesty the Sultan arrived at Damascus, they reinstated
  me in my former office, the duties of which are to
  assist in the magistrates' department in managing the
  affairs of the city; this honour was conferred on me in
  accordance with a direction in the Sultan's firman. When
  the English Consul (Mr Wherry) and the detractors whom I
  have spoken of, heard of this distinction, so auspicious
  to our people, they were moved with the same
  mortification as that which they had exhibited when the
  arrival of Sir Moses at Alexandria destroyed their plans
  and rescued us from the cruel fate to which they had
  destined us; and the English Consul immediately repaired
  to the Governor of the city, and recommended him to
  dismiss me and put a non-Israelite in my place, under
  whom I might act as servant or deputy. But, by the
  blessing of the Almighty, this attempt against my
  interest utterly failed; for the Governor declined to
  adopt the plan thus suggested to him. In consequence of
  their envious scheme being thus defeated, they are
  seeking other means to inflict injury on us, by making a
  false charge against the Israelites of having insulted
  their religion, which they communicated to his
  Excellency the Governor Ali Pasha, and to the three
  Consuls, in order that the charge might be circulated in
  other and distant countries, and a universal prejudice
  created against the Israelites.

  "As a further proof that the Israelites are innocent of
  the crime imputed to them, I have to mention that His
  Excellency Ali Pasha sent for me one day, and after
  having received an assurance from myself that such a
  deed would be contemplated with abhorrence by all our
  nation, he made many rigid enquiries amongst various
  honourable and respectable gentlemen concerning what
  had been disseminated by our enemies, the result of
  which was, that he declared himself convinced of the
  utter groundlessness of the foul report; and he replied
  to the heads of the Christians in the city that
  henceforth they ought to treat us with justice and
  equity; and he then commanded me that I should take upon
  myself to see that my people should behave themselves as
  might best become them, which commands I have been
  mindful to fulfil.

  "Our enemies endeavoured to engage the Russian Consul at
  Beyrout on their side, but he was not disposed to give
  any credit to their statement, and therefore despatched
  his faithful interpreter to Damascus, to make proper
  inquiries; and the result of his interpreter's labours
  was an opinion which to us was most flattering. The Most
  Reverend the Patriarch of the Greek Church has also
  recorded his testimony, with the Russian Consul at
  Beyrout, that the accusation was utterly false, and
  could only have emanated from a malicious spirit.

  "Every member of our community behaves with the greatest
  courtesy to every Christian, whether rich or poor, and
  often with marked humility. We seek not to gratify any
  revengeful feeling for what has passed, but yet all our
  endeavours have hitherto proved ineffectual. There can
  be no other reason for that than the anger and jealousy
  of the men, for they wished and intended to kill us, and
  since Moses, our brother, rescued us from their hands,
  destroyed their plans, and frustrated their intentions,
  this jealousy has rankled in their hearts, and they seek
  to bring more accusations against us, although we are
  not guilty of any wrong."

Sir Moses sent a letter on the subject, with a translation of the
original, to the _Morning Chronicle_, which was inserted on the 5th
July 1841.

His attention after this time was directed to matters of a business
character.

On the 7th of May Mr Hananel de Castro, who rendered most efficient
services in connection with the Mission to Damascus, informed Sir
Moses that he had been elected President of the London Committee of
Deputies of the British Jews. On the 16th of that month he attended an
important meeting of the Elders of his Synagogue, at which a motion
was brought forward respecting a reform movement in the community.
Four days later he presided over a meeting of the Board of Deputies
held at his own house for the same purpose, at which every member of
the Board, with only one exception, attended. The debate was warm, but
not personal. Sir Moses, nevertheless, apprehended great agitation in
the community, and felt much anxiety as to the result. He entertained
the most liberal principles in matters of religion; although himself a
staunch supporter of the time-honoured usages of his religion, he did
not interfere with the opinions or acts of those who differed from him
unless compelled to do so by actual duty. But when, as President of
the Board of Deputies, or of any other institution, he had to give
his opinion on religious matters, he invariably referred to the
Spiritual Head of the community for guidance; he regarded a word from
him as decisive, and obeyed its injunctions at whatever cost to
himself.

There was never any doubt in his mind as to the spirit which should
prevail in their deliberations on the intended reform in the
community; and he maintained that the religious tenets of Israel, as
revealed in the Code of Sinai, would invariably stand the test of
reason.

"They are," he would add in the words of Scripture, "to show our
wisdom and understanding in the sight of nations;" and he did not
consider that he would be acting in accordance with the dictates of
truth and justice if he were to accept laymen, however learned they
might be, as authorities on religious subjects for the guidance of the
whole community.

Some of his colleagues at the Board, however, did not acknowledge the
authority of the Ecclesiastical Chief of the community, and relying
entirely on their own judgment, would not accept the dictates of the
ancient teachers by whose decisions and interpretations of the sacred
text Hebrew communities had been guided for thousands of years. The
result was that the debates at their meetings became very heated, and
bore evidence of the fervour displayed in a cause they had so deeply
at heart, thus foreshadowing a struggle which threatened to extend
beyond the confines of the Board.

_May 21st._--Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore attended the Queen's
Drawing-Room, and met with a most gracious reception. The Duchess of
Kent and the Princess Sophia Matilda expressed pleasure at seeing
them. The Duke of Cambridge shook Sir Moses by the hand in a very
friendly manner, and said he was glad to see him safe back, that his
efforts had done him great honour, and that he deserved much praise.

_May 23rd._--He presented an address to Mr H. de Castro, voted to him
by the Deputies, in appreciation of his services in connection with
the Mission of Damascus. On this occasion all the Deputies were
entertained by Sir Moses at his house in Park Lane.

A week later he attended a meeting to consider the means for
establishing a branch Synagogue in the West End, which, when opened
to the community, would afford a practical proof that the statutes of
their ancient community hitherto prohibiting divine service to be held
in any other building than that at Bevis Marks, had been reconsidered.

The events of the year continued to bring with them much anxiety,
owing to the agitated state of the community in connection with the
reform movement. In the month of August the Ecclesiastical Chief took
what he considered necessary measures to express his opinion publicly
for the guidance of those who adhered to his rule, which naturally
raised the excitement of the contending parties, and not unfrequently
disturbed the peace of many a family circle.

The death of the mother of Sir Moses, a most virtuous daughter of
Israel, spread a deep gloom over the whole family, and more especially
over her beloved son Moses, and Judith his wife.

His brethren in the East appealed to Sir Moses to intercede with the
English Government to take them under their protection. They
complained of being compelled by local governors to pay heavier taxes
than any of the non-Israelite inhabitants. Both Lord Palmerston and
his successor, Lord Aberdeen, listened with great kindness to the
statements made to them on that subject by Sir Moses. Lord Palmerston,
in reply to his representations, said the Christians had suffered more
than the Jews from the Governor being a fanatic, and added that he
(Sir Moses) had his authority to write to the Jews in the East that if
they had any serious complaints to make, the English Consuls would
attend to them, and forward them to the Ambassador at Constantinople,
who would represent them to the Ministers of the Porte. Sir Moses took
the opportunity of speaking to his Lordship respecting Smyrna, Safed,
and Damascus, and he had the satisfaction of hearing from him that the
Governor of the latter city would be changed in consequence of the
reports which had been made.

Lord Aberdeen, with whom he subsequently had an interview on the same
subject, said that he saw no objection to the British Consul receiving
the statements of grievances made by the Jews, and transmitting such
statements to the British Ambassador at Constantinople, who would be
directed to confer thereon with the Ministers of the Porte, with a
view to the redress of the grievances complained of.

On Sir Moses pressing the desire of the Jews in the East to be brought
under British protection, his Lordship replied that he did not see how
it could be accomplished. All the European Powers were extremely
jealous of any interference on the part of England. His Lordship
added, however, that he would consider the best means to afford the
Jews protection for the sake of humanity and justice.

On the 7th of November, Sir Stratford Canning, previous to leaving for
Constantinople, called on Sir Moses, and afterwards sent him a note,
appointing to see him on the following day at twelve o'clock. Sir
Moses accordingly went to him. The purport of this interview was to
solicit protection for the Israelites in the East. Sir Moses informed
him of the directions given by Lord Palmerston, and Sir Stratford said
he should be happy to do all that his duty permitted, and to hear from
Sir Moses whenever he pleased. They had a long and interesting
conversation respecting the Jews and the Holy Land, and Sir Moses was
exceedingly gratified by Sir Stratford's kindness.

Amongst the numerous letters received by Sir Moses on this matter was
one from Messrs Grindlay, Christian & Matthews, East India Agency,
containing an extract from a letter from Commodore Brucks, of the
Indian navy, which showed that the great esteem in which both Sir
Moses and Lady Montefiore were held by the people in the far East
sometimes proved detrimental to the interest of their admirers. "A
Jew," it stated, "and his wife had been passing themselves off for Sir
Moses and Lady Montefiore. Under this supposition the Government Agent
at Muscat, a Jew of the highest respectability, received them, and did
all in his power to make them comfortable. They eventually left,
telling him they would pay when they came back, leaving him more than
a thousand dollars out of pocket."

On reading this, Sir Moses at once expressed a desire to ascertain the
name of the victim of the fraud, in order that he should not suffer
any loss on his account.



CHAPTER XXXVII.

1842.

PRESENTATION FROM HAMBURG--SIR MOSES MEETS THE KING OF
PRUSSIA--ADDRESS TO PRINCE ALBERT--ATTEMPT ON THE QUEEN'S
LIFE--PETITIONS TO SIR MOSES FROM RUSSIA.


The entries of the next five years in the diaries refer to numerous
important events, interspersed with appeals from communities to Sir
Moses to plead the cause of their brethren before the Emperor of
Russia.

The Hamburg Jews, who were among the first to support their British
friends in the mission to Damascus, had a gold medal struck, which was
presented to Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore by Mr H. de Castro. The
complimentary address which accompanied it, in speaking of the Queen,
says:--

"God bless Her Majesty, and prosper her, whose enlightenment knows how
to appreciate and reward such exertions as are performed for the
benefit of us and ours."

The obverse of the medal bears a representation of the arms of Sir
Moses Montefiore. The margin has a verse in Hebrew, taken from Psalm
cxxii. 8: "[Hebrew] LEMANN AKHAI VEREAI ADABERA NA SHALOM BEKHA"
("For the sake of my brethren and companions I will declare peace unto
thee"); and a chronogram in Hebrew: [Hebrew] "SHNAT GAON ISREAL
LEP'AK" signifying, "The year of the pride of Israel," the numerical
value of the dotted lines representing the date of the Damascus
Mission, viz.: 5601.

The reverse has a German inscription, which, rendered in English, is:
"Dedicated to Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore, after their return from
Egypt, in the year 1841, by their co-religionists of Hamburg." My
esteemed friend, the late Mr M. Haarbleicher, exerted himself greatly
in this matter.

Unfortunately, one night burglars got into the drawing-room of Sir
Moses' house at Park Lane, and took the medal, together with many
other valuable articles. There is only a facsimile of the medal in
bronze now left in my cabinet, which the Committee in Hamburg kindly
presented to me.

_January 31st._--Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore received an invitation
from the Duke of Sussex and the Duchess of Inverness to lunch with
them on the first of February, as His Majesty the King of Prussia had
intimated to them his intention of honouring them with his company.
Sir Moses went early in the morning of the following day to Somerset
House to see the King of Prussia admitted as fellow of the Royal
Society, together with Baron Alexander von Humboldt; and before two
o'clock he and Lady Montefiore were at Kensington Palace.

The Duke and Duchess received them very kindly, and the Duke promised
to introduce them to his Royal visitor. He said he was anxious that
his invitation should be forwarded in time, as he was desirous of
introducing Sir Moses to the King of Prussia, which he did almost as
soon as the King entered; informing His Majesty, at the same time, of
the journey of Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore to the East. The King,
Sir Moses says, was very gracious; but remarked (speaking of Padre
Tommaso), "but the poor man is dead;" upon which Sir Moses ventured to
point out to His Majesty, that it was by no means certain that the man
was dead. "It was a truly Royal banquet," Sir Moses writes, "about
sixty persons being present. The Duke made a liberal and excellent
speech about religions in general, but the King did not notice it in
his reply." They were delighted with the kindness of their Royal
Highnesses, and of those they knew. Lord Lansdowne hoped they had not
forgotten him. Lord Palmerston enquired what reports he had from the
East, and whether the English Consuls were behaving better.

On the following day, Mr Attwood, one of the Directors of the Imperial
Continental Gas Association, expressed a wish that Sir Moses should
accompany him to see the King of Prussia, who had consented to receive
a deputation from the Association; and in compliance with this wish he
went with them. He met Sir J. L. Goldsmid at the office, and they
proceeded to Buckingham Palace. "There were," Sir Moses observes,
"many persons waiting." He saw there Lord Roxley, Sir Robert Inglis,
Sir Robert Adair, and many noblemen and clergymen.

They were soon admitted to the King's presence, and were very
graciously received. Mr Attwood read the address, and the King spoke a
few words to each of them. He recognised Sir Moses, observing that he
had spoken to him on the previous day, and enquired whether he was
settled in England; the King thought he lived in Italy. He spoke to Mr
Attwood about Parliament and the new buildings, and laughingly said,
he supposed that the Association would light them.

_February 5th._--About this time Sir Moses pointed out the spot at
Ramsgate where it was his wish, when it should please the Almighty to
call him, that his earthly remains might repose, with those of his
beloved wife. The spot was marked out by four hurdles, which he
assisted in placing there. Possibly the illness of his brother's wife,
which, a few days after, terminated in her death, cast a gloom over
his mind, which made him consider it advisable to prepare himself for
such an event.

He was much grieved by this family affliction, and remained in the
house for several days; owing to which he was unable to present an
address of congratulation to the Queen on the birth of the Prince of
Wales. Mr De Castro and two other Deputies of the London Committee of
the Board had to present it instead; as also an address to Prince
Albert, and later on, one to the Duchess of Kent. They were most
graciously received, and Her Royal Highness desired them to express
her great regret at Sir Moses' absence, and at the cause of it.
Colonel Cooper, the next day, by desire of the Duchess, wrote him a
letter, to assure him of her sympathy on this melancholy occasion.

In the same month he made a donation of £200 for the repair of the
ancient Synagogue of the Spanish and Portuguese community, as it was
greatly needed, and thereby induced others to follow his example. He
also took steps to have the Synagogue included in the clause of
exemption from property tax, in which he succeeded, by the kindness of
Mr John Masterman, who wrote a letter to Mr Goulbourn on the subject.

The Chancellor of the Exchequer promised that he would so alter the
wording of the Income-Tax Bill as to meet Sir Moses' wishes. Sir
Robert Peel also wrote to him a letter to the same effect.

_May 31st._--There is an entry referring to an attempt on the Queen's
life. "Last evening," he writes, "an attempt was made on the life of
our gracious Sovereign, which, through the protection of Almighty
God, was happily preserved. It is most difficult to believe that any
mortal in his senses could attempt such a thing. May the God of Israel
shield the Queen from all harm, and bless her with every happiness and
long life. I convened a meeting of Deputies to forward letters of
congratulation to the Queen, Prince Albert, and the Duchess of Kent,
on the providential escape of the Queen, and went with Lady Montefiore
and Dr Loewe to Kensington Palace to enter our names in the visitors'
books of the Duke of Sussex and the Duchess of Inverness; afterwards
to Buckingham Palace, in Prince Albert's book; and Clarence House, to
the Duchess of Kent."

_July 2nd._--Attended a meeting at the Thatched House Tavern, St James
Street, for the purpose of selecting an artist to carry out the
resolution agreed to at a previous meeting for the erection of a
statue to Sir David Wilkie.

Sir R. Peel, who took the chair, proposed that a sub-committee should
be appointed, consisting (in addition to the officers already
appointed) of the Duke of Sutherland, the Duke of Buccleuch, Lord
Mahon, Sir Francis Clark, Sir Thomas Mahon, Sir Martin Archer Shee,
Sir William Newton, Mr Phillips, Sir Moses Montefiore, Mr Burnett, Mr
Rogers, and Mr Henry Labouchere, M.P.

Sir Moses was also one of the Committee appointed to watch the
progress of the statue. He had entertained a high regard for Sir David
since making his acquaintance at Constantinople, and was glad to have
the opportunity of showing it on this occasion.

_July 24th._--Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore were honoured by a visit
from Viscount and Viscountess Ponsonby. His Lordship, who had shown
them much kindness and attention during their sojourn in the Turkish
Capital, spoke of the benefit which the people of the East would
derive from the encouragement of industry among them. This reminded
Sir Moses of a promise which he had made to a very industrious person
in the Holy Land, and on the same day he sent a printing press and
fount of type to the value of £105 to Israel Drucker in Jerusalem,
whose acquaintance he had made at Safed, during his second journey to
the Holy Land. It was this same printing press which the recipient,
out of gratitude to Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore, called "Massat
Moshe Ve Yehoodit" (a gift of Moses and Judith), that, forty-three
years later, caused Professor Röhling of Prague to accuse Sir Moses of
having printed a book which he (Professor Röhling) said was intended
to prove the use of blood for Jewish ritual purposes. The printing
press which Sir Moses sent was accompanied by a beautifully written
Scroll of the Pentateuch.

_August 2nd._--Sir Moses received a deputation from the
representatives of the New Synagogue at Liverpool, requesting his
mediation in a communal dispute. He strongly advised their reunion
with the old Synagogue, and promised to see the deputation again.

A few days later he and Lady Montefiore left England for Paris, to be
present at the wedding of the daughter of Baron James de Rothschild.

He describes that event in the following words:--

  "_Paris, Hotel Windsor, Wednesday, August 17th._--The
  great day has at length arrived, and, happily, our
  presents also: they were sent last night to the Bois de
  Boulogne. Ours was similar to that we gave to Baron
  Charles and Louisa de Rothschild; a large and
  handsomely-carved ewer and basin, worth £180. We left
  Paris before twelve o'clock, and on reaching the Bois de
  Boulogne, found the party already assembled, all the
  ladies most elegantly dressed. A procession was formed
  by a number of choristers, led by the _ministre
  officiant_, and preceded by the Grand Rabbin. Then
  followed the bridegroom with his brother, Baron Lionel
  de Rothschild, as best man, and on his left Baron James;
  afterwards, Barons Salamon, Anthony, and the other
  relatives and friends present. We proceeded to a
  magnificent canopy of white satin and gold embroidery,
  erected in the garden: the ground was covered with
  velvet carpets. The path leading to the canopy was
  covered with crimson cloth strewn with roses. The choir
  was singing Hebrew hymns all the time. Then followed the
  bride, led by her mother and Mrs de Rothschild, the
  other ladies following. Under the canopy stood the bride
  and bridegroom, their parents, Barons Anselm, Lionel,
  and myself. The marriage ceremony was performed by the
  Grand Rabbin, who delivered an excellent discourse in
  French. After the ceremony the whole party walked to the
  Swiss cottage in the garden, where a sumptuous breakfast
  was laid. No toasts or healths were drunk, but grace was
  said. Afterwards the gentlemen went back to Paris to
  dress, the ladies being accommodated in the house. We
  were back again by four o'clock, and now found the
  ladies most magnificently attired. At seven we entered
  the banquetting room. It was in a perfect blaze of
  light: only once, at the Archbishop of Canterbury's,
  have I seen such splendour. The repast consisted of all
  the luxuries the world produces. The gardens were
  brilliantly illuminated. The host and hostess were most
  attentive. It was past eleven when we left."

On the day after the wedding he called on Rechid Pasha, the Turkish
Ambassador, and writes in his Diary:--

"The Pasha received me instantly, and told me how pleased he was to
meet me in Paris, and how happy it made him that he was able to
assist me in Constantinople to further the cause of justice and
humanity. He said he hoped to see me again in Turkey. He asked me
whether I had seen Lord Ponsonby, and what I thought of the
disturbances in Manchester and the manufacturing districts. I assured
him that they were of no consequence. He asked me to be permitted to
introduce his sons to me: three very fine boys, the eldest about
sixteen, the others ten and eight years old. The youngest was very
fair, and appeared to be the favourite. The Ambassador told me that
the note he had sent me yesterday was written by the youngest. After
chatting a little longer I took my leave, the Pasha begging of me to
preserve him my friendship. I gave him Dr Loewe's Circassian-Turkish
and English Dictionary, with which he seemed much pleased, and asked
me to thank Dr Loewe in his name for it. Later we paid our farewell
visits to all the Barons de Rothschild and their families, and
prepared for our departure."

_September 15th._--Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore received at Park
Lane, through the Baroness Lionel de Rothschild, a beautiful silver
gilt cup made from a design by Professor Oppenheim, and sent to them
as a present by the Hebrew community of Frankfurt-on-Main, accompanied
by an address signed by all the members. He also received a splendid
album from Magdeburg, the covers of which were ornamented with two
beautiful paintings, also executed by Professor Oppenheim, one
representing Moses installing Joshua in his office as leader of
Israel, and the other a copy of Benda's picture "By the rivers of
Babylon there we sat down; yea, we wept when we remembered Zion"
(Psalm cxxxvii.), copied by the same artist, and signed by Dr
Philipson, the Spiritual Head of the Hebrew congregation of Magdeburg,
and near 1500 other persons, many of them non-Israelites belonging to
the clergy and nobility.

These two testimonials are now, with many others, preserved in the
Lecture Hall of the College in Ramsgate.

_October 11th._--Colonel C. H. Churchill paid them a visit at Ramsgate
previous to his leaving England for the East. The Colonel having
married a young widow at Damascus was very anxious to return to her at
Beyrout, where he intends residing, having adopted Syria as his
country. Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore requested him to take with him
some contributions towards the support of the poor Jews in the East,
which he gladly promised to do for them, expressing his high regard
for the character and industrious habits of the Jews.

_October 17th._--A petition was received from the Hebrew congregation
of Riga, imploring Sir Moses to intercede on their behalf with the
Emperor of Russia. Many others, from various places, on the same
subject followed. Most of the principal communities in Germany,
France, Italy, and America entreated him to accede to the petitions of
their brethren in Russia and Poland; and Sir Moses now began seriously
to consider the desirability of serving the cause of humanity anew.

In the same month he and the Hebrew communities in England sustained a
severe loss by the death of their Ecclesiastical Chief, the Rev. Dr
Solomon Hirschell.

"I was at Bury Street at twelve o'clock," he writes in his diary, "on
October 31st, and found our esteemed Chief Rabbi apparently in a state
of insensibility; his chamber was filled with his friends, and his bed
closely surrounded by the members of the Ecclesiastical Court, and
other persons. They were saying prayers; he was very calm, and at
12.25 his spirit fled from its earthly tenement to receive that reward
which his righteousness in this world secured to him; eternal
happiness and peace to his memory!"

Sir Moses was entirely guided by him in all matters concerning
religion, and felt the loss of such a friend and counsellor acutely.

He appears to have been roused by that sorrowful event to fresh acts
of benevolence, and believing it possible to render some service to
the Jews in Russia, he thought it necessary now to make himself fully
acquainted with all the recent publications referring to that country
and its inhabitants, and obtained information from German and English
travellers who had just returned from visiting Warsaw, St Petersburg,
Moscow, and other important cities in the Czar's vast empire.

_November 5th._--The entry in his diary contains the following
lines:--"Extremely cold morning; nevertheless dear Judith and I left
Park Lane before eight o'clock to walk to Synagogue. It was very well
attended, and prayers were offered up for the late lamented Chief
Rabbi. We remained in the city, and attended afternoon and evening
prayers at our own (the Portuguese) Synagogue. Afterwards we rode
home to Park Lane. Dr Loewe accompanied us, and agreed to go with us
to Russia and Poland whenever that should seem necessary."

_November 15th, 19th, and 27th._--The number of petitions to go to
Russia increased considerably, especially entreating Sir Moses to
accept an invitation from Count Ouvaroff, the Minister of Public
Instruction, who wished him to be present at the deliberation of the
government referring to the improvement of the method of education
among the Hebrews in the Russian Empire. The following entries refer
to the subject:--

"_December 8th._--Went to Chevalier Benkhausen, the Russian
Consul-General, and spoke with him respecting a letter I had received
from Dr Lilienthal of St Petersburg, referring to an invitation from
Count Ouvaroff to proceed to the Russian metropolis, and he
recommended my seeing the Russian Ambassador.

"Accordingly I wrote to the latter, requesting the honour of an
interview with him, and received his reply that he would receive me
the next day.

"_December 9th._--Had an audience of the Russian Ambassador, Baron
Brunnow, and spoke to him regarding our intended journey. He entered
into all particulars with me, and promised to make all necessary
enquiries.

"The next day we dined at Mrs de Rothschild's, and met Baron and
Baroness Brunnow, the Austrian Ambassador and his wife, Lady Pellew
and her daughter Lady Walpole, and many other distinguished persons.
Baron Brunnow spoke to me about Dr Lilienthal's letter, and said he
would write to Count Ouvaroff, and would ascertain for him the
authenticity of Dr Lilienthal's communication. The Baron advised me,
if I went to Russia, to proceed in the first instance to St
Petersburg, and speak with the Emperor himself, and not to go, as I
had intended, to the several cities in Poland previously to my going
to St Petersburg."

_December 25th._--Notwithstanding the multiplicity of matters
referring to the North which now filled his mind, he did not for a
moment neglect the interest of the East. He made an agreement with a
physician, Dr S. Frankel, to allow him a salary for three years, to
furnish the requisite medicines, and to pay his expenses to Jerusalem,
on condition that he should attend the poor of the Holy Land
gratuitously.



CHAPTER XXXVIII.

1843.

ADDRESS AND TESTIMONIAL FROM THE JEWS--SIR MOSES' SPEECH IN
REPLY--DEATH OF THE DUKE OF SUSSEX--THE DEPORTATION UKASE IN
RUSSIA--OPENING OF THE NEW ROYAL EXCHANGE--SIR MOSES MADE SHERIFF OF
KENT.


_January 26th, 1843._--Sir Moses ordered from the Apothecaries' Hall
drugs, surgical instruments, and fittings for a dispensary in
Jerusalem, and saw them packed and forwarded to the Holy City.

_February 27th._--A large number of his Jewish brethren in the United
Kingdom, Jamaica, Barbadoes, and Gibraltar, presented him with a
testimonial of respect and gratitude in commemoration of the many
personal sacrifices made, and the philanthropy displayed by him and
Lady Montefiore during his Mission to the East, Anno Mundi 5600
(1840).

It was designed by Sir George Hayter, modelled by E. Bailey, R.A., and
executed by Messrs Mortimer & Hunt, and is an exquisite piece of
workmanship, both as regards the design and execution. It is
exclusively ornamental, adapted for no special purpose, and is, as it
were, a kind of miniature monument. It is three and a half feet high,
weighs 1319 ounces of silver, and has a large base. The most prominent
figure, which surmounts the whole work, represents David conquering
the lion and rescuing the lamb (as in First Book of Samuel xvii. 34
and 35), and is emblematical of the victory over oppressive force, and
the delivery of innocence effected by the Mission. This is the _chef
d'oeuvre_ of the work, which is full of fine allegorical details.

Immediately under this figure are four bas-reliefs, representing
respectively, (1) the landing of Sir Moses and his party at
Alexandria; (2) the audience with the Sultan at Constantinople on the
granting of the firman; (3) the liberation of the prisoners at
Damascus; and (4) the public thanksgiving on the return of Sir Moses
and Lady Montefiore to London. On the four corners of the base are
exquisite figures in frosted silver, two representing Moses and Ezra,
the great deliverers of their people in ancient times, and the other
two some of the accused Jews of Damascus, one in chains, bowed down by
grief, the other in an attitude of thanksgiving, with the fetters
lying broken at his feet.

The chairman (Mr H. de Castro), accompanied by the Committee, prefaced
the presentation by reading an address, engrossed on vellum. A vellum
scroll was also added, containing the series of resolutions adopted at
the public meeting in 1840, and the name of every contributor to the
testimonal, copied from the lists furnished to the Committee, and
arranged according to residence.

The following is a copy of the address:--

  "Esteemed Sir,--We have long looked forward to the
  present as a moment of high and honourable
  gratification, when we should come forward on behalf of
  the Jewish community to present to you this
  manifestation of their gratitude and esteem. The
  services which, at a period of excitement, you rendered,
  in a foreign clime, to religion and humanity, were such
  as are rarely called into requisition. The alacrity,
  spirit, and zeal with which you embarked into the cause,
  were only equalled by the liberality, judgment, and
  decision you evinced in the accomplishment of the end
  you had in view. The restoration of the oppressed to
  liberty, and a full refutation of the vile calumnies
  brought against our faith--both these great objects, by
  the aid of Gracious Providence, have been attained. The
  grateful thanksgivings of the liberated prisoners
  pronounce you their deliverer. The firman of the Sultan,
  denies these calumnies, of which they had been the
  unfortunate victims.

  "It may be truly said of you, Sir, and of your amiable
  Lady--the companion of your anxieties and dangers--that
  your services were 'the labours of the heart,' works of
  all others most deserving of distinction and reward.

  "May you ever be the 'harbinger of glad tidings to
  Zion,' and long live to continue your watchful care to
  all who need your solace and support. How will your
  suffering brethren in Jerusalem hail your late acts of
  munificence--the founding a dispensary for the poor of
  our community, now dwelling in the land of our fathers.

  "In the name of the Jewish people we present to you this
  testimonial of your great and successful labours, with
  the hope that the blessing of our Heavenly Father may
  vouchsafe, to you and Lady Montefiore, many, many happy
  years to contemplate and enjoy it.--On behalf of the
  Committee,

  "Hananel de Castro, _Chairman_."
  "27 Adar 5603--27th February 1843."

[Illustration: Testimonial of respect and gratitude, presented to
Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore by their Jewesh Brethen in the
United Kingdom and the Colonies. _See Vol. I., page 314._]

To this address. Sir Moses made the following reply:--

  "Mr De Castro and Gentlemen,--I receive with unfeigned
  satisfaction, and, I trust, with humility, the address
  which you have offered to me. I accepted with fear and
  trembling the responsible yet honourable task confided
  to me by my brethren, not trusting in my own strength or
  wisdom, but relying upon the saving strength of the Lord
  our God. I felt that I should be sustained by the
  prayers and sympathies of my brethren, and of the
  enlightened friends of humanity throughout the world.
  Aided by these prayers and sympathies, and supported by
  the Government of our country, your Mission was
  permitted by Divine providence, while in Egypt, to
  become the instruments of giving liberty to the captive,
  of opening the prison to them that were bound, of
  restoring to their wives and families those who, by
  unjust persecution, had been compelled to abandon their
  homes. We have everywhere asserted their innocence of
  the atrocious crime laid to their charge, and in the
  face of all men have vindicated the purity and divinity
  of our holy religion.

  "At Constantinople our success was complete. There we
  had the satisfaction of obtaining from the Sultan a
  Haiti Sherif, which asserts the innocence of our
  brethren after a full examination of the witnesses
  against them, and of their religious writings, and
  declares that the accusations against our religion were
  based in falsehood, and entertained only by the
  prejudiced and the ignorant. That noble writing has also
  laid the foundation for improving the civil condition of
  our brethren in the Turkish Dominions. To that, as well
  as to the documents which have been transmitted to the
  committee, I refer with exultation, as proofs that the
  rulers of the East have imbibed more liberal notions,
  have set themselves against the use of torture, have
  secured to our brethren an equality of civil rights, and
  thus given them a deeper interest in the prosperity of
  the countries in which they reside. That you approve of
  these acts, and testify your approbation of the whole
  proceedings of the Mission, and believe that I have, to
  the best of my ability, fulfilled its objects, will be
  to me a source of continual satisfaction through life,
  and when I am about to quit this earthly scene will
  cheer the last moments of my existence.

  "You are pleased to speak of the dangers and perils to
  which I have been exposed. I assure you that I count
  them as nothing when I consider the noble object of the
  Mission, and the entire success with which it has
  pleased God to crown our labours. Without, however, your
  continual advice and support, I might not have been able
  to accomplish that which has been done, because, when
  all around appeared gloomy and dark, and I thought that
  amidst the contending struggles of nations for power the
  rights of humanity would be sacrificed and the liberties
  of our brethren utterly destroyed, I was cheered and
  sustained by the recollection of your prayers and
  support, and, relying upon the God of our fathers, I
  persevered until I was satisfied that the objects of the
  Mission had been fully accomplished. Nor is it one of
  the least consequences attending our labours, that, in
  accomplishing such objects, we have been enabled to
  dissipate prejudice and to remove ignorance, so that now
  our persecutors are compelled to look with respect upon
  our nation. May I not, therefore, assert that a new and
  brighter era is dawning upon those who have for ages
  been the subjects of calumny and oppression.

  "In prosecuting the labours of your Mission I received
  most valuable assistance from our friends the family de
  Rothschild, from each of its members at London, Paris,
  Naples, Frankfort, and Vienna, both by introductions to
  their extensive connections in the East, as well as by
  their unremitted personal exertions in Europe; nor can I
  forget my friend Mr George Samuel, who was ever ready to
  lend his aid at Constantinople. I should also be doing
  great injustice to my own feelings were I to let this
  opportunity pass without referring to the valuable
  assistance of my friends, Mr Wire and Dr Loewe, who
  accompanied me throughout the whole of my long journey,
  and whom I shall ever esteem as men devoted to the
  interests of humanity.

  "I cannot conclude this short and imperfect reply to
  your congratulations without referring to the kind
  expressions in which you speak of my beloved wife, whom
  you truly characterise as the participator in all my
  toils and anxieties. She has, indeed, shared my toils
  but diminished my anxieties, and aided me in the
  prosecution of my labours.

  "Gentlemen, to you, to your excellent president, but,
  above all, to the God of our fathers, I offer thanks
  that I have been permitted to fulfil the objects of your
  Mission, and with devout gratitude I resign into your
  hands the trust committed to my care, praying that
  peace, prosperity, truth, and union may ever prevail in
  Israel."

The death of the Duke of Sussex took place at this time, and Sir Moses
deeply lamented the loss sustained by his demise.

The Lord Chamberlain sent him a command to attend the funeral on the
4th of May, and Lord Dinorben wrote a letter to inform him that a card
of invitation had been sent, and that he would be permitted to follow
in his own carriage.

Sir Moses, describing the funeral, says:--

  "I left home after six in the morning, and was at
  Kensington Palace a quarter before seven. The company
  began to assemble between seven and eight: I suppose
  there were more than one hundred and fifty persons. The
  procession commenced at half-past eight; the roads were
  lined with people, every window filled, also many
  scaffoldings. The chapel at Kensal Green was solemn and
  grand, being filled with the grand officers of state,
  the Duke of Wellington, Sir Robert Peel, &c., &c. We saw
  none of the Tories or Royal Family at the palace, but in
  the chapel there were the Duke of Cambridge, chief
  mourner; Prince Albert, &c. The ceremony was over at
  twelve. I reached home at a quarter to one, and after
  breakfast proceeded at once with Lady Montefiore to the
  city to attend the funeral service in the Portuguese
  Synagogue, where Dr Loewe (who filled the office of
  oriental linguist and Hebrew lecturer to his late Royal
  Highness) delivered a discourse, at the conclusion of
  which we repaired to the great Synagogue of the German
  community. There was a funeral service, but no
  discourse." "The Jews," Sir Moses says, "have lost an
  excellent friend: may he be rewarded with eternal bliss
  for his kindness to suffering humanity."

On May 30th the Earl of Thanet informed Sir Moses that Lord Lyndhurst
had given directions for the insertion of his name in the commission
of the peace for the County of Kent.

On July 13th the first step was made for the repeal of the Deportation
Ukase in Russia.

  "I called at Baron Brunnow's," he writes. "He was just
  stepping into his carriage, dressed in full uniform,
  going to celebrate a mass on some public occasion; but
  he very kindly insisted on my going into his library,
  and returned with me. I gave him the letter I had
  received from Königsberg, which he read, also the Ukase.
  He said he believed the Minister of Justice thought it
  was an act of mercy to remove the Jews from the
  temptation of smuggling, of which crime many had been
  guilty, and, no doubt, the Emperor was of that opinion,
  which was the cause of the order. 'It was possible,' he
  continued, 'if I were to be at St Petersburg, by
  speaking with one and another, my influence might cause
  its revocation;' but he advised me to write to Count
  Ouvaroff, and, if I showed him the letter, he would
  suggest such alterations as he thought would be
  advisable. He recommended that no public steps should be
  taken in the way of petition to the Emperor, as there
  were two years still before the Ukase would take effect;
  he thought it a bad measure."

This statement corroborated what some of the letters from Russia
previously addressed to him on the subject had already stated.

A few days later Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore were present at an
entertainment given by Mrs Rothschild to the King of Hanover, and met
the Duke of Cambridge, the Duchess of Gloucester, and most of the
nobility, besides all the Ambassadors. They were introduced to the
Marchioness of Ely at her own request, and she complimented them on
the result of the Damascus Mission. Several of the Ambassadors spoke
to him on the recent reports respecting the state of the Jews in
Russia.

_June 1st, 1844._--The Emperor of Russia arrived in London.

_June 6th._--The entry states:--"I have been looking with deep anxiety
from morning till evening for a letter from Baron Brunnow. I wrote
this week to Lord Aberdeen, soliciting an interview to-morrow. I will
do everything I possibly can to approach the Emperor, and pray for our
brethren in his dominions. I also wrote to Mr Dawson on the same
subject; it engrosses all my thoughts."

_June 8th._--"Baron Lionel de Rothschild accompanied me to see Lord
Aberdeen. He said Baron Brunnow had intimated to him the impossibility
of His Imperial Majesty receiving any deputation. I showed his
Lordship the Address from the London Committee of Deputies of the
British Jews, and asked his advice about sending it to Baron Brunnow,
for him to present it on our behalf, and whether he thought there was
anything in it that could do harm. His Lordship thought there was not:
the Emperor, he said, was very firm when he had once made up his mind
on a subject.

"Lionel and I then walked to Sir Robert Peel's. He was just going to
mount his horse, on his way to the Queen. He heard all we had to say
respecting the address, and said he had heard it whispered that the
Emperor would see Sir Moses Montefiore, but the Emperor's stay was so
short that he could not tell whether he would be able to do so."

The address was subsequently given by Sir Moses to Baron Brunnow, who
promised to send it to St Petersburg. In the following month, on July
29th, an entry states that the Emperor received the address
graciously, but his visit to this country would be so short that it
was impossible for him to receive the deputation.

On August 9th Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore proceeded to Birmingham,
in company with several of their relatives and friends, Sir Moses
having been invited by the Hebrew congregation of that town to lay the
first stone of a Hebrew National School, a task which he performed
amid the cheers of many hundreds of persons of various religious
denominations.

_September 1st._--The cause of two poor Poles who had been imprisoned
for hawking without a licence attracted Sir Moses' attention. The men
having excellent characters, he determined on going to Chelmsford, to
see them there in the Springfield Gaol, where they were then confined
under sentence for three months, and to endeavour, if possible, to
obtain their release. They had only been six or seven weeks in
England, and could speak but a few words of English.

Next morning he went to Springfield Gaol and saw the Governor, who had
the two men brought to him. One had been a dyer, and the other had
kept a hardware shop near Warsaw. Both men lived whilst in prison on
bread and water, refusing to eat either the soup or meat allowed to
the prisoners. The Governor recommended him a man to draw up a
petition for them. Sir Moses immediately sent for him, and instructed
him as to the matter of the petition. The Governor kindly sent a man
to wait till it was written, and Sir Moses then forwarded the petition
to the prison, where the Governor had it signed by the two prisoners,
and returned to Sir Moses, who was just able to take the last train
back.

_September 3rd._--He called at Somerset House, and left the petition
from Springfield Gaol, and three days later had the gratification of
receiving a letter from the Secretary of Stamps and Taxes to say that
the Board had been pleased to remit the Crown's share of the penalties
against the two prisoners.

_October 24th._--Sir Moses is present at the opening of the New Royal
Exchange by the Queen; he had a seat in the subscribers' room, where
the Royal banquet was given. The Queen, Prince Albert, the Duke of
Cambridge, &c., presided at the head table: about two hundred persons
dined there.

_October 28th._--The Baroness Brunnow invited him to meet the Grand
Duke of Russia; and Sir Moses, entertaining the hope of finding there
the opportunity to serve the cause of his brethren, gladly accepted
the invitation.

_November 12th._--He was nominated Sheriff of Kent, and on the 17th
inst. his friends and most of his neighbours congratulated him on
being elected to that high office. His mind, however, was not joyfully
attuned to the occasion. His thoughts at one moment were wandering
away from happy England to the burning sands of the African deserts,
and at another, to the frozen rivers and the snow-covered forests of
the north of Russia. This was owing to a visit which he had received
from Mr Erith, a Mogador merchant, who gave him a very cheering
prospect of the success which might be expected if he were to appeal
to the Emperor of Morocco for a firman, to place the Jews in the same
position as his other subjects; and to some letters he received from
several trustworthy sources, giving disheartening accounts of the
state of the Jews in Russia, to the following effect:--

"The Ukase ordering the Jews to remove from the frontier provinces to
the interior is now being carried into effect. This measure affects
nearly one hundred thousand persons. The families receive passports,
delivered by the Magistrates, indicating the place to which they are
to go, and only a few days after they have received the passport, they
must sell all their property and convert it into money."



CHAPTER XXXIX.

1844.

AFFAIRS IN MOROCCO--LETTER TO THE EMPEROR--HIS REPLY--DEPUTATION TO
SIR ROBERT PEEL--DEATH OF LADY MONTEFIORE'S BROTHER ISAAC--SIR MOSES
SETS OUT FOR RUSSIA.


The first few months of the year 1844 appeared, according to a
statement in the _Königsberg Gazette_, to give some hope for an
improvement in the condition of Sir Moses' co-religionists in Russia.

The paper says:--

  "The famous Ukase against the Jews, of the 20th April
  1844 (2nd May), seems to be adjourned. The Emperor
  himself has given orders to the Minister of the Interior
  to present him with a minute report on the situation and
  property of the Jews in the villages and frontier towns,
  before the terrible Ukase is put into execution. This
  sudden change has produced so much the more joy among
  the unfortunate Jews, as rigorous measures had already
  been taken for the execution of the Ukase, as well as
  the decree of the Senate, dated January 10 (22) 1884. It
  is to Sir Moses Montefiore and the interference of many
  members _of the nobility_ that thirty thousand Jews
  perhaps owe the entire revocation of this law."

As for Morocco, where, during the bombardment of Mogador, the Jews,
together with other inhabitants, had been great sufferers, Sir Moses
wrote a letter to the editor of the _Times_, directing his attention
to the fact, and showing that the committee in London had correctly
estimated the number of the sufferers. Consignments of money, food,
and clothing, had, he observed, already been transmitted to Mogador to
trustworthy agents, for immediate distribution among the sufferers.
The subscriptions to the day he wrote exceeded £2500.

Sir Moses also attended a meeting of the Mogador Committee, at which
they agreed to send a letter to the Emperor of Morocco, and to request
the Earl of Aberdeen to instruct Mr E. W. Drummond Hay, H.B. Majesty's
Consul-General at Tangiers, to forward it to the Emperor.

By desire of Sir Moses I wrote an Arabic letter to the Emperor, which
Sir Moses signed and despatched to his Lordship, for transmission to
His Majesty.

_February 10th._--Sir Moses proceeded to the Judges' Chambers,
Chancery Lane, accompanied by Mr D. W. Wire, and then went before
Baron Parke, and was sworn into office (as Sheriff of the County of
Kent). The Baron very kindly wished him a pleasant year, and hoped to
have the pleasure of coming down and seeing him at the Assizes. Mr
Wire was also sworn as his Under-Sheriff.

_February 18th._--The fees due for his Shrievalty, £2, 6s. 8d., had
already been offered to him, but on seeing Mr Temple, he requested him
to send them to his Under-Sheriff. Notwithstanding the duties his new
office imposed on him, he endeavoured scrupulously to discharge those
of his Presidency of the Board of Deputies of British Jews.

Agreeably to a resolution adopted at a previous meeting of that body,
held for the consideration of a petition to Parliament for the removal
of all civil disabilities, he and the other members of the Board
waited the next day on Sir Robert Peel.

The subject being of interest to friends of civil and religious
liberty, I here give the words of Sir Moses, and those of Sir Robert
Peel's reply.

Sir Moses, addressing Sir Robert, said: "We have the honour of waiting
on you as a deputation from the Metropolitan and Provincial
Congregations of British Jews, to ascertain whether Her Majesty's
Government be favourably disposed to meet their wishes for the removal
of the civil disabilities under which they labour, and, from the
advancement of liberal feeling in all classes where religious
questions are concerned, they are led to believe the present moment
most fitting for them to be placed on an equal footing with their
fellow-subjects."

Sir Robert replied that he had been considering some measure on the
subject to propose to his colleagues, when he received a letter from
Sir J. L. Goldsmid, which stated that the Jews would not be satisfied
with any measure less than the whole. Seeing there was some difference
he would not proceed. However, after some consideration, he said he
would see Sir J. L. Goldsmid, and would write to them to come to him
within a fortnight, adding that he was fully aware that they would
feel as well satisfied with a part, and that they should not thereby
be precluded from hereafter getting more.

_March 3rd._--As High Sheriff of the County of Kent, Sir Moses opened
the Court at Canterbury for the election of a member of Parliament in
the room of Sir E. Knatchbull. After delivering an appropriate address
to the electors, the meeting was proceeded with, and eventually Mr
William Deedes was returned.

The meeting was conducted in a most orderly manner. Mr William Deedes
of Sandling Park was elected to represent them in Parliament, and
thanks were voted to the High Sheriff.

_March 5th._--Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore attended the levee, where
Sir Moses was presented to the Queen by Sir James Graham, and had the
honour to kiss hands on his appointment as Sheriff of the County of
Kent.

Sir Robert Peel, who was standing within three or four paces of the
Queen, came out of the circle as Sir Moses came up, and spoke to him.
He said the suggestion made the previous day respecting the removal of
civil disabilities seemed good; and he requested Sir Moses to be so
good as to communicate with Baron Rothschild and Sir David Salomons.

_March 10th._--At Maidstone Sir Moses went in state to meet Lord
Denman. About a mile from town his Lordship got out of his own
carriage and entered that of Sir Moses, the Rev. G. W. Sicklemore
being with the latter. They proceeded to the Sessions House, and
opened the Commission; then went to the Judge's lodgings, where Lord
Denman robed, and received the Mayor and Corporation. They left to go
before the Judge to church. Lord Denman said to him that he was ready
to go, but Sir Moses might do as he pleased. The latter therefore only
conducted him to his carriage, and returned to his lodgings to wait
there for him instead of accompanying him and the Rev. G. W.
Sicklemore to church. They went there in Sir Moses' carriage. Baron
Alderson arrived a few minutes after they had left, and remained with
Sir Moses till Lord Denman returned, when Sir Moses took his leave and
went home. At seven he and Rev. G. W. Sicklemore went to fetch the
Judges, and dined with Lord and Lady Romney.

_March 14th._--At nine Sir Moses went, as usual, to fetch the
Judges--the Lord Denman and Sir Edward Hall Alderson. On their way to
the Court they called for Mr Serjeant Dowling. As they were going
there Sir Moses requested their Lordships' permission to be absent the
next day, as it was his Sabbath, to which they very kindly consented.
Sir Moses sat for some time in each Court. Lord Denman told him he had
received a letter from the Bishop of Durham, expressing his desire to
vote for the Jews' Relief Bill, and sent his proxy for the purpose;
but Lord Denman said there would be no occasion for it, as their
Lordships would not divide. At five, on his asking Baron Alderson's
consent to his leaving, the latter most kindly said to him, "I know;
six o'clock," and shook him warmly and kindly by the hand. Sir Moses
then took leave, and returned to his lodgings.

_Friday 28th._--"I received a letter," the entry in his diary reads,
"from Mr Addington, forwarding another to me by desire of the English
Ambassador in Morocco. Dr Loewe read to me his translation of the
same. It is from Ben Idrees, the Wazeer of the Emperor of Morocco,
written to me by order of His Majesty, in reply to the petition of the
Mogador Committee. It states that the Hebrew nation enjoys throughout
the empire the same privileges as the Mooslimeen, and the Hebrew
nation is highly regarded by him."

_May 19th._--Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore attended Her Majesty's
State Ball at Buckingham Palace. Sir Moses was dressed in his uniform,
and Lady Montefiore wore a dress of superb tissue "d'or et cerise,"
elegantly trimmed with gold lace and ribbons, and a profusion of
diamonds. They left Park Lane at nine, and it was ten when the long
string of carriages allowed them to reach the Palace. "During the
evening," Sir Moses wrote, "1500 persons were there; the rooms were
magnificently decorated; the dancing was in two rooms; supper at two
o'clock. Nothing could have been more splendid. The Queen, God bless
her, looked very beautiful, and in good health and spirits. We left
much delighted and pleased with the honour we had enjoyed."

After witnessing the splendour of the State Ball we find him actively
engaged at Birmingham and Preston, visiting most of the humble
dwelling-houses of the working classes. Being desirous of having three
persons from Jerusalem taught the art of weaving, he went to see a man
in Preston, who had been recommended to him as an intelligent and
clever workman, and made an agreement with him for the above purpose.
"I wish," Sir Moses said, "to help our brethren in the Holy Land in
all their efforts to get bread by their own industry, and pray to
Heaven they may succeed."

_July 1st._--Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore went to welcome the Rev. Dr
N. M. Adler, Chief Rabbi elect of the German Hebrew Congregations in
the British Empire, on his arrival at Dover, and were present the next
day at his installation in the Great Synagogue in London. The
Synagogue was handsomely decorated, and crowded with the _élite_ of
all the Jewish congregations. A most appropriate and solemn service
was performed, and our Gentile brethren showed their interest in the
event, by causing the bells of the neighbouring churches to be rung.

_November 16th._--A special delegate arrived from Poland to entreat
Sir Moses, in the name of many thousands of his brethren, to intercede
in their behalf with the Russian Government, and to proceed at once to
St Petersburg to make known their cause to the Emperor himself.

The subject at that time greatly engrossed his mind; he had no rest,
either by day or by night, on account of his anxiety to hasten to
their succour, and determined to set out on his journey as soon as his
year of Shrievalty expired. Meanwhile he called on Baron Brunnow, who
promised to give him letters of introduction to his friends, and to
several ministers at St Petersburg, if he went there. He thought the
Emperor would ask him to visit his co religionists in his Empire. His
going to St Petersburg could do no harm, or he would not give him
letters. Sir Moses, Baron Brunnow remarked, had received an invitation
from the Minister of Public Instruction, two years previously, to go
there, as he wished to have the benefit of his counsel respecting the
establishment of Hebrew schools, and he thought this constituted a
claim on Sir Moses to go. Baron Brunnow also recommended Sir Moses to
obtain permission to act as he thought best, with reference to the
address of the Board of Deputies of the British Jews to the Emperor;
and advised his going as an English gentleman, his character being so
well known, remarking that the cause would not be benefited by his
acting as representative of the Board of Deputies.

The year 1846 begins with a sad occurrence in the family. Mr Isaac
Cohen, the brother of Lady Montefiore, a man highly esteemed for his
excellent character and benevolent disposition, died suddenly. Though
this was a cause of much grief to both Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore,
they did not consider themselves in any way justified in delaying the
necessary preparations for their self-imposed Mission to Russia.

Sir Moses called again on Baron Brunnow, who said that he could
neither advise him to go or to stay, but said he might be assured that
the Emperor's object was not that of conversion, but rather to render
the Jews more useful subjects. He advised him not to go till Count
Nesselrode returned from Rome to St Petersburg. Soon after this
interview, Sir Moses again saw the Ambassador at which the latter
recommended him not to go to Russia, and held out very little hope of
the object of his journey being accomplished. Nevertheless, Sir Moses
resolved on going, saying that as he had been invited to discuss the
subject of schools, and was then out of office, he should go. Baron
Brunnow then advised its being kept as quiet as possible. He promised
to give him a letter to Count Nesselrode, and suggested that he should
go direct, and as quickly as possible. Subsequently he advised him to
see Lord Aberdeen, and get a letter of introduction to Lord
Bloomfield, the British Ambassador at St Petersburg; also, to see Sir
Roderick Murchison, who could give him useful advice, and to endeavour
to obtain an introduction to Prince Michael.

_February 18th._--Sir Moses called on Lord Aberdeen, who received him
kindly, and promised to give him letters to the British Ministers at
St Petersburg and Berlin.

_February 27th._--A solemn prayer was offered by the united
congregations of the British Empire for the success of his
philanthropic mission to Russia.

_March 1st._--Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore went to Dover, and arrived
safely the same day at Ostend; and on the following Sunday I met them
in Berlin, according to our previous arrangement, to accompany them to
St Petersburg.

_March 10th._--Sir Moses called on the Earl of Westmoreland to present
to him his letter of introduction from the Earl of Aberdeen. Having
acquainted him with the object of his journey to St Petersburg, and
mentioned Baron Brunnow's suggestion to facilitate our journey, his
Lordship replied that the Russian Ambassador was absent, but that he
would give him a letter to Monsieur Fonton, his representative. His
Lordship hoped to see him on his return. We then went to the Russian
Embassy, and delivered to Monsieur Fonton his Lordship's letter. That
gentleman said he would give Sir Moses a letter to the officer at the
frontier, but he had chosen a very unfavourable time for his journey,
and had better remain five or six days longer at Berlin. The waters
were out, it would be impossible to pass, and he would be detained on
the road. There was a gentleman present in the office who told us he
had arrived on the previous night from St Petersburg, but had
experienced the greatest difficulty, and was the only person who had
succeeded in getting through, as it was quite out of the question for
a carriage to pass, and we should be compelled to remain on the road.

This information was very distressing, but Sir Moses was determined to
go on, and only stop when we should find it too dangerous to go
forward.

The same day we left Berlin, and proceeded _viâ_ Königsberg and Tilsid
to Mitau.

_Friday, the 20th March._--A deputation of the Hebrew community came
to welcome Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore at the Post House, at St
Olia, the last stage before Mitau, to express their gratitude to them
for what they had effected in the Damascus Mission, and to beg they
would accept their hospitality during their sojourn at Mitau. Sir
Moses thanked them for their kindness in coming so many miles to meet
us, but declined accepting their offer, as he wished to travel as
privately as possible. As we entered the town, hundreds of persons ran
by the side of the carriage to the hotel. We had splendid apartments
there, and were grateful for our safety, as we had suffered very much
from cold, heavy snows, and horrible roads, and had frequently been
obliged to travel all night.

Not wishing to attract any notice (in compliance with the suggestion
of Baron Brunnow), we refrained from leaving the house for the whole
day, and from attending Synagogue, which was a painful deprivation to
Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore. Many persons called, but Sir Moses was
under the necessity of refusing to see anyone. We had excellent
dinners--a dozen dishes, served on silver; but when, in the evening,
we sent for the bill, wishing to pay for our dinners of that and the
previous day, we found that they had been prepared at the house of
Madame Johanna Davidoff, a lady of this town, and she would not allow
us to pay for anything.

Sir Moses wanted to give her a costly present, but she declined
accepting it. "I am," she said, "amply repaid by the great happiness
afforded me to prepare a humble meal for those who come from a distant
land, and brave the inclemency of a Russian winter, to serve the cause
of humanity. May all the Heavenly blessings alight on them!"

We left Mitau in the evening. In front of the hotel hundreds of
persons were waiting to see us set off. When we reached Obay, on the
south side of the Dwina, opposite Riga, at 10.35, we found the river
still covered with ice, but in a weak and dangerous condition. Our
carriages were deemed too heavy to be passed over; but after
considerable hesitation, they were allowed to be conveyed across,
though at a great expense and at our own risk. The wheels were taken
off, as well as all the luggage, and they were then placed on sledges
and drawn by men to the opposite side of the river. Sir Moses and Lady
Montefiore and their attendants were waiting at the inn till 1.30
P.M., when we all walked across. We had great difficulty in walking;
the ice was wet and slippery, with numerous dangerous holes. Not two
minutes before we passed, a man fell into one of these holes, and was
drowned. A similar accident nearly awaited one of our party: the ice
broke under him, and one leg went through, but his body falling across
the ice, he was soon extricated from his perilous position. It was
impossible, Sir Moses said, "to express the alarm we felt in
crossing." It took us twenty minutes to accomplish.

We walked to the hotel, and were followed by hundreds of people.
Shortly afterwards a deputation of the Hebrew community, and many
others, came to welcome us, but Sir Moses declined seeing them, for
the reasons already stated. He requested me to see them, and explain
to them his object in depriving himself of the pleasure of expressing
personally to them his thanks for their civilities and attention.

We only remained at Riga a short time, to recover a little, and to dry
our clothes, and then proceeded on our journey.

_March 26th._--We arrived at Narva, where we remained over Sabbath.
The weather was most dismal.



CHAPTER XL.

1846.

PERILS OF RUSSIAN TRAVELLING IN WINTER--ARRIVAL AT ST
PETERSBURG--INTERVIEWS WITH COUNT NESSELRODE AND THE CZAR--COUNT
KISSELEFF'S PREJUDICES.


_March 29th._--Snow had again fallen heavily, and on arriving at
Jamburg we found the ice in such a bad state that grave fears were
entertained as to the possibility of crossing the River Lugu. The
officer in charge repeatedly refused to allow us to cross.

Neither bedsteads nor bedding being obtainable, Sir Moses and Lady
Montefiore had a kind of bed prepared on the floor in a very small and
low room, and I had a bundle of straw, in another room, for my couch;
it was, however, so warm there, and the air so very oppressive, that I
was obliged to get up in the middle of the night, and take a walk
outside the house.

_Jamburg, March 30th._--At seven in the morning I crossed the Lugu;
there was not much ice on the river. The officer told me he would have
three boats lashed together to take the carriages over. I returned to
Sir Moses to bring him the good news, and to prepare for our
departure. I had scarcely been at home an hour when the ice came down
the river in great quantities. Sir Moses accompanied me to look at it,
and decided not to cross, as we should have incurred a great risk by
doing so. At last towards evening the officer came and told us that he
would employ soldiers to launch the great barge, and would come for us
when he was ready. We continued in painful suspense awaiting his
arrival till a few minutes before seven, when he came and said "All
was ready." Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore went in their carriage. I
and the rest of the party walked down to the water side. The carriages
were safely put on a large barge, and soon launched into the stream,
but when in the middle it struck on some large stones, and they were
in the greatest peril. The barge remained for nearly an hour fixed to
one spot. Happily, after great exertions on the part of the soldiers,
it was got off.

The officer then conducted us into his own boat, in which, besides Sir
Moses and Lady Montefiore, were also two servants, the officer, and a
gentleman with despatches from the Russian Government, and we were
towed across, though not without some danger from the ice which was
driving down the current in great masses, and which our boatman found
great difficulty in avoiding. Had they struck it must have proved
fatal, but Heaven guarded us, and we landed in safety. We were one
hour in crossing from the house on the west bank to the Post House at
Jamburg, and had more than a hundred men to assist us. The officer was
most civil and attentive, and refused to accept any present.

_March 31st._--We left Jamburg last night with the intention of
travelling through the night, but we found the road so dreadfully bad,
in many places covered with snow and ice and full of ruts, that Sir
Moses and Lady Montefiore deemed it most prudent to stop at Opolje,
which was reached at one in the morning. We found warm and excellent
accommodation at the station, and instantly threw ourselves on the
sofas in our clothes, and slept soundly. We started again after six.
The roads were so extremely bad that we were at last compelled to
leave our carriages, Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore, as well as myself
and the rest of our party, having to walk through the snow, between
six and seven versts, and arrived dreadfully fatigued at Ischerkowitz,
where we remained three hours for rest and refreshment. We then had a
pleasant drive in a little open carriage placed on a sledge and drawn
by two horses, but it was very cold. We reached Kaskowa one hour
before our own carriages.

_April 1st._--We left Kaskowa, passed through Kipeen, and a stage
later arrived at Stretna. From this place to St Petersburg is
seventeen and a half versts. The road is here well macadamised; on
either side of it are the country seats of the nobility. Up to this
place we had had as many as eight, ten, or twelve, and sometimes even
a greater number of horses put to the carriage, now the number was
limited to three, we were told, by order of the Government. The driver
remained standing all the time (while driving furiously) on a small
piece of iron, which served as a step to get up to the coachman's
seat. At about three o'clock we arrived at St Petersburg. After our
passports had undergone the necessary examination, we drove to the
place where apartments had been taken for us, but found them
unsuitable, and had to search some time before we succeeded in
engaging rooms at the Hotel de Prusse.

_St Petersburg, April 2nd._--We went to His Excellency the Hon. T. A.
D. Bloomfield, who received us immediately. Sir Moses gave him his
letters of introduction, and acquainted him with the object of his
visit to the Russian metropolis. He also showed him the letters of
introduction to Count Nesselrode which he had received from Sir Robert
Peel and Baron Brunnow.

His Excellency received Sir Moses very kindly, wrote to Count
Nesselrode, enclosing Sir Moses' letters to him, and eventually
obtained an appointment for Sir Moses for the following Sunday.

_April 4th._--Both Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore found the climate
very trying. Visitors who called on them reported that there was not a
house in the city that had not three or four of its inmates confined
by illness (an epidemic catarrh, generally called in Russia and
Germany, "Grippe"), which had greatly increased the mortality of the
city.

_April 5th._--At one o'clock Sir Moses visited Count Nesselrode. We
were at once received by him in a very friendly manner. He said he had
already spoken to the Emperor about Sir Moses. The latter informed the
Count of the two purposes for which he came to St Petersburg, viz.,
the establishment of Jewish schools, and the repeal of the two Ukases
for the removal of the Jews from the frontiers. This, the Count said,
was not in his department, but the Government was at present engaged
on the amendment of those Ukases, and that he should be happy to
render Sir Moses all the assistance in his power in furtherance of his
objects. Sir Moses then spoke to him respecting the cultivation of
land, and the Count said that his views were in strict accordance with
those of the Government; that he wished to raise the Jews, and make
them more useful members of society; that the cream of the Jews were
in England, France, and Germany, but that those in the ancient
provinces of the Russian Empire and Poland were engaged in low traffic
and contraband pursuits.

Sir Moses expressed his deep regret to hear the Minister's opinion,
for which he was not prepared. He then said to his Excellency that he
should be happy to be presented to the Emperor; the Count told him he
would ask His Majesty, and requested Sir Moses to call on Count
Ouvaroff, the Minister of Public Instruction, at one o'clock on the
following day. He again repeated his desire to render him every
assistance.

In the course of the day Sir Moses left his card and letters of
introduction at Count Orloff's.

_April 6th._--We called to-day on Count Ouvaroff, with whom we
remained an hour and a half in conversation. He assured Sir Moses, for
himself and on the part of his colleagues, that the measures of the
Government for the organisation of the Jewish schools were designed
for their improvement and happiness, and not with the slightest
intention of conversion to another religion, but to make them more
useful members of society, and to fit them for advancement. He also
assured Sir Moses that the Government had some plans for a more
liberal treatment, but that the Jews must first prepare themselves.

"The Jews of Russia," he said, "were different from the Jews in other
parts of the world; they were orthodox, and believed in the Talmud,"
which he considered false. "They were ignorant of their own religion;
and he was obliged to force them to study Hebrew, their own language."
Sir Moses defended the principles of those who strictly adhere to the
doctrines of their religion. As to the Talmud, he pointed out to the
Minister the great esteem in which that work is held by pious and
learned Christians.

In support of this view, I reminded His Excellency of what Buxtorf
said on the subject in his "Abbreviations,"[A] and in the preface to
his great Chaldaic and Talmudical Lexicon:--

  "The Talmud," that Christian Divine states, "is a
  learned work, or a large corpus of erudition; it
  contains manifold learning in all sciences; it teaches
  the most explicit and most complete, civil and canonical
  law of the Jews, so that the whole nation, as well as
  their Synagogue, might live thereby in a state of
  happiness,--in the most desirable way.

  "It is the most luminous commentary of the Scriptural
  law as well as its supplement and support.

  "It contains much excellent teaching on jurisprudence,
  medicine, natural philosophy, ethics, politics,
  astronomy, and other branches of science, which make one
  think highly of the history of that nation and of the
  time in which the work was written."

[Footnote A: De abreviat. hebr. (auct. Joh. Buxt. I.), p. 1.]

I mentioned to His Excellency the names of Buxtorf the younger, Dr
Johannus Reuchlin, Johannes Meyer, Selden, Joh. Morinus, Sebastian
Munster, Surenhusius, and quoted most of their statements on the
subject.

With reference to the Russian Jews' knowledge of Hebrew and of their
own religion, I called His Excellency's attention to the numerous
works they had produced on all subjects connected with Hebrew
literature and poetry.

The Minister, however, resumed his arguments, saying they should first
be educated before full facilities to gain a living should be given
them; although he allowed that, to a certain degree, persecution had
made them what they are. He further said that the Government were now
adopting a new plan, and were treating the Jews with toleration,
liberality, and love, but it would take a long time, he
remarked--perhaps a century--before any difference would be
perceptible. He did not consider the present generation, and only
thought of the future. He concluded by observing the Jews were loyal
subjects, and immediately complied with every order of the Government.

Sir Moses pressed repeatedly upon His Excellency the necessity of
relieving them from the anxiety and suffering to which they were
subjected in respect to the Ukases for their removal from the
frontiers and villages; upon which the Minister observed, "They were
not executed, and were very different in effect to what they appeared
on paper, and that the Government were engaged on their
consideration;" and he several times repeated that the Government were
desirous of raising the Jews and removing the prejudices which still
exist against them, but it required time, and the Jews must assist by
their improvement and attendance at the schools. Sir Moses assured him
that the fear of attempts at conversion was the only cause of their
hesitation to conform to his wishes. The interview then terminated,
His Excellency having throughout been most friendly and polite.

On our return home Mr and Mrs Bloomfield paid a long visit to Sir
Moses and Lady Montefiore, and spoke principally on the subject
connected with our visit to St Petersburg.

He gave Sir Moses a letter just received from Count Nesselrode,
stating that the Emperor would receive him on the following day at one
o'clock. Sir Moses showed him the address which he wished to deliver
to His Majesty. His Excellency thought it would do very well. Sir
Moses then said he was anxious that Count Nesselrode should see it. Mr
Bloomfield thought he might call on him to-morrow morning. Sir Moses,
however, was of opinion that it would be better to go there at once,
and take his chance of seeing him.

Immediately after the British Ambassador and his wife had left us we
went to Count Nesselrode, who received us, read the paper over, and
suggested some alterations.

In the evening we dined with the British Ambassador. Mr Bloomfield
being unwell, could not join the company at table. There were present
Count Nesselrode's daughter and her husband, the Saxon Ambassador, the
Austrian Ambassador, Mr and Mrs Buchanan, and several other gentlemen.

_Wednesday, April 8th._--Sir Moses, in order to be ready to attend His
Majesty, had just put on his uniform when he received a message from
Count Nesselrode, saying that the Emperor would see him on the morrow
instead of on that day.

_April 9th._--The entry of this day in the diary records the audience
with His Majesty the Emperor:--"Praised be the God of our fathers. At
one o'clock this day I had the honour of an interview with His
Imperial Majesty the Emperor. I made the strongest appeal in my power
for the general alteration of all laws and edicts that pressed heavily
on the Jews under His Majesty's sway."

The following is a copy of the address to the Emperor:--

  "May it please your Imperial Majesty. With deep
  veneration for your Majesty's person and government, and
  with fervent prayers to the Most High, that your Majesty
  may continue to be for many, many years the happy and
  exalted ruler of a powerful, virtuous, and prosperous
  people, I crave your Majesty's permission to offer my
  humble thanks for the honour conferred upon me by your
  Majesty's government, by the intimation that my presence
  in your Imperial metropolis might become beneficial to
  my brethren of the Hebrew nation in the organisation of
  schools for the education of their youths; a measure
  which emanated from your Majesty's watchful and paternal
  care for the improvement of their situation and the
  promotion of their happiness. May I be permitted to
  embrace this favourable moment to express my earnest
  prayer that your Majesty may deign to give your most
  humane consideration to the condition of my
  co-religionists under your Majesty's sway, and that your
  Majesty may exert that power which God has placed in
  your august hands, to alleviate, to the utmost extent,
  which your Majesty's justice and wisdom may think fit,
  all such laws and edicts as may be proved to press
  heavily upon the Israelites. I implore your Majesty,
  therefore, to bend an eye of merciful consideration upon
  them, and thus, by the revival of their hopes, they may
  be restored to their proper standing among their
  fellowmen, and have the opportunity of proving
  themselves most loyal and faithful subjects, as well as
  useful and honourable citizens, true to the Eternal God,
  to whom their prayers daily ascend, that your Majesty's
  throne may endure to the latest generations, and that
  your Majesty may long live to secure and to witness the
  happiness and the prosperity of a great and mighty
  nation."

The entry in the diary continues:--

  "His Imperial Majesty said that I should have the
  satisfaction of receiving his assurance, as well as that
  of his Ministers, that they were most desirous for the
  improvement of their situation in every way possible.
  His Majesty spoke for about twenty minutes. He said I
  should go and see them; and referring to the army, that
  he had put Jews in his guards. I expressed a hope that
  he would promote them if found as deserving as his other
  soldiers, to which he assented. I repeatedly said that
  the Jews were faithful, loyal subjects, industrious and
  honourable citizens. He said, 'S'ils vous ressemblent'
  ('If they are like you'). His Majesty heartily shook
  hands with me as I entered and on my retiring. It is a
  happiness to me to hear from every person, from the very
  highest to the lowest classes, that my visit to this
  country will raise the Jews in the estimation of the
  people, and that His Majesty's reception of me will be
  of the utmost importance."

_April 10th._--Several persons left their cards, among which we
noticed those of Count Orloff, Lieutenant-General Doubett, Chief of
the Secret Police, the Chevalier Russi di Castilevala. In the course
of the day we went to the office of the Secret Police; they were very
civil. We were given to understand that it was customary for visitors
to St Petersburg to pay a visit to that office. At two o'clock we
called, by appointment, on Count Kisseleff, the Minister in whose
charge Jewish affairs are placed. He received Sir Moses most politely,
and we were with him more than an hour. Sir Moses went over all the
particulars referring to the alleviation of the unfortunate position
of the Jews. The Minister (like Count Nesselrode and Count Ouvaroff)
said they were great fanatics, and he complained of the Talmud being
the cause of their degraded position. Again Sir Moses and myself
defended the Talmud, giving the names of Christian divines who have
spoken in high praise of that ancient work.

Count Kisseleff wished the Jews to cultivate the land, to establish
manufactories, to undertake more laborious work than that to which
they had hitherto been accustomed; and, respecting the removal from
the frontiers, he said they might go fifty versts on either side. He
did not wish to keep them, five or six hundred thousand might leave
altogether. Sir Moses might, if he liked, take ten thousand or more to
Palestine or elsewhere. He shewed him a Ukase about to be published,
which gave them some privileges, but compelled them, within a certain
number of years, to adopt some occupation of an active nature, or to
be punished as vagrants. He said many Jews had gone to settle in
Siberia, but the Governor had taken steps to prevent more of them
going there. The Count further said that the Jews were fanatics,
praying for the coming of the Messiah and their return to the Holy
Land, and that they starved themselves all the week in order to have
candles and fish for the Sabbath. Sir Moses having explained to His
Excellency the groundlessness of these charges, the Minister then said
he should always be pleased to see us, that his doors would be open to
Sir Moses every day, and requested he would call again.

_April 11th._--At about twelve o'clock an officer came from the
Minister of War to inform Sir Moses that the Emperor, having been
informed of his wish to assist at the service in the soldier's
Synagogue at the barracks, had desired him to escort Sir Moses, and to
say that the service was held at seven in the evening, and from eight
till twelve in the morning.

At 6.30 we walked through the rain to the barracks, a very long
distance from our hotel. The Synagogue was a large room, well fitted
up, with the Ark, containing the sacred Scrolls of the Pentateuch, and
the pulpit and reading desk. The prayer for the ruling Sovereign and
the Royal Family was painted on a tablet affixed to the wall, as in
other places of worship among Hebrew communities. The prayers were
read by one of the soldiers, who officiated as precentor to a
congregation of three hundred of his companions. They all appeared
very devout, and joined loudly in the prayers. Sir Moses was so much
fatigued that it was with the greatest difficulty and pain that he
walked to the Synagogue and back through mud and rain. The barracks
were near the English quay, at least two miles distant.



CHAPTER XLI.

1846.

COUNT KISSELEFF IS MORE CONCILIATORY--SIR MOSES SETS OUT FOR
WILNA--ARRIVAL AT WILNA--THE JEWS' ANSWERS TO THE CHARGES OF RUSSIAN
OFFICIALS.


_April 15th._--We went to see Count Kisseleff. His Excellency told Sir
Moses that the Emperor had inquired what he thought of the Synagogue.
The Count assured him they had determined to adopt a new plan with the
Jews, more mild and conciliatory. The Emperor wished them to
amalgamate with their fellow subjects, and to cultivate the land. But
he would not force them; they would be left to their own free will,
and less under the control of the police than they had been, and all
who wished to leave the Empire might do so. The Count said he would
write to Sir Moses to that effect, and would give him the list of
towns to be visited, but the roads, he observed, were dreadfully bad.
Sir Moses expressed a strong desire to see Wilna, to which the
Minister acceded, giving him introductions to the different places,
and writing to the postmasters for horses.

When Sir Moses spoke of religion, Count Kisseleff said he did not care
what was between man and his God, but he wished the Jews to become
useful citizens, and that they had as many privileges as those in
England. He spoke much of their poverty and distress. Sir Moses was
pleased to observe that his manner of speaking of the Jews was more
friendly. Count Kisseleff said that Jewish artisans and mechanics
might come and work at St Petersburg, but that they might not bring
their wives and children. He promised to give Sir Moses copies of the
Ukase relating to their removal from the villages, and he showed him
the _Journal des Débats_, which stated that Mr Gilbert had put a
question to Sir Robert Peel on the subject.

"I am satisfied," Sir Moses records in his diary, "that the Jews will
be better off in consequence of our visit to this city. Praise be to
God alone!"

_April 17th._--We attended service in the soldiers' Synagogue. Two of
the superior officers accompanied Sir Moses to the gate of the
barracks, and expressed a hope that he was satisfied with the
arrangements. The soldiers told us that the coming of Sir Moses had
been of the utmost benefit to them, and that their officers treated
them much better since his arrival.

_April 20th._--We proceeded to Count Ouvaroff, and remained with him
one hour. He offered Sir Moses a letter of introduction to the
Inspector of Public Instruction at Wilna, and promised to attend to
any suggestion that he might send to him after his tour.

We then called and took leave of Count Kisseleff, who assured Sir
Moses that his report and suggestions should have his best
consideration, that he would put his letter into the hands of the
Emperor, and that he would send Sir Moses an answer. He could not have
been more friendly. Count Ouvaroff was equally amiable. Orders were
sent to all the postmasters along the route to have horses ready for
us.

At one o'clock we visited Count Nesselrode, and were equally well
received. His Excellency said that he would send Sir Moses a letter of
introduction to the Governor of Wilna, and promised to give every
consideration to any suggestion he might send him for the improvement
of the condition of his co-religionists.

Sir Moses again received the assurances of all the Ministers that
their measures for the better education of the Jews was in no way
actuated by a desire for their conversion, and that this might be
depended upon.

Count Kisseleff told him, in reply to his inquiry, that the Jews did
not serve as long in the army as others. He spoke much in favour of
the establishment of manufactories, and said that the Government would
grant them privileges.

Returning to the hotel Sir Moses, accompanied by Lady Montefiore, went
to take leave of Mr and Mrs Bloomfield, from whom they had received
the kindest attention and assistance. His Excellency said that if Sir
Moses wanted anything at St Petersburg he should recollect he was
there, and would always be happy to render his best assistance. He
gave him a letter of introduction to the British Consul at Warsaw.

This was a memorable day here. The Emperor inspected the Guards, and
gave each soldier one and a half silver roubles. The Isaac Square was
thronged with holiday folks, enjoying the national sports. Count
Kisseleff told Sir Moses that four hundred recruits had just arrived
from a place near Wilna without a single man having fallen sick or
deserted. The Emperor had seen them, was pleased with them, and gave
them money.

Sir Moses spoke with several of the Jews who had served from ten to
fifteen years. They said that after twenty years they were free, if
they served in the Guards; but if they were attendants, or served in
the hospitals, or as mechanics, then their service was extended to
twenty-five years. As far as Sir Moses could judge, they did not
appear to be discontented with their situation, and observed their
religion. They were together in barracks, with their wives and
children.

Among the visitors who called during the day was Sheikh Mouhhammad
Ayyád Ettántáwy, Professor of the Arabic Language and Literature in
the Asiatic Institution (who had been my Arabic master during my stay
at Cairo). The Sheikh expressed great admiration for the character of
Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore, and their noble exertions to ameliorate
the condition of their brethren; and he composed two poems in
commemoration of their visit to St Petersburg, which he himself copied
in the Arabic language in their diaries. He had been sent to St
Petersburg at the instance of Count Medem, the Russian Consul General
in Alexandria. Owing to his great learning the Mooslim professor had
already received two decorations--the Orders of St Anne and of St
Stanislas--from the Emperor Nicholas, and had become a great favourite
with all the students who attended his lectures.

The Hebrew soldiers brought the books from the charitable institutions
and schools which they had established among themselves.

Various authors and poets sent their literary compositions in honour
to Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore's arrival, hospitals, schools, and
institutions of all kinds sent their representatives to enlist their
sympathies for a good cause, and the latter endeavoured, as much as
possible, to satisfy all deserving applicants.

The number of visitors from the nobility, since Sir Moses had been
received by the Emperor, greatly increased; but there was no time for
him to return their visits or accept their invitations, as he was
anxious to proceed without further delay to visit the places pointed
out to him by the Government. A great many Israelites from different
parts of the empire came and gave us their blessings; nearly all were
soldiers. One of them had two distinguished orders for his bravery in
Poland; he had been in the army eighteen years.

Count Nesselrode sent a letter of introduction to the Governor of
Warsaw, and Count Kisseleff one to the Postmaster of Wilcomir, that we
might find no difficulty in proceeding from that place to Wilna. All
arrangements for our departure being now completed, Sir Moses gave the
order to start.

For the first two days of our journey the weather was beautiful and
the roads excellent, as smooth as a bowling green; but just before
entering Ostroff we encountered terribly rough weather and desperately
bad roads, full of ruts and holes. We were ferried over several rivers
before reaching Roubelove, where we resolved on remaining for the
night.

_Regiza, Friday, April 24th._--"We find," as the entry in the diary
says, "the post stations get worse as we proceed, both in respect to
cleanliness and comfort. Last night there was no bread, no beer, wine,
or spirits, and very bad water, and beds out of the question. We have
slept on sofas since we left St Petersburg, with the greater part of
our clothes on, being covered with our cloaks. It is indeed roughing
it. We have travelled 418-1/4 posts. This is the first town from St
Petersburg inhabited by Israelites, and poor indeed they appear. My
dear Judith has a very bad cough, but bears the fatigue and
deprivation of all comfort most admirably; she is cheerful and
content. We noticed the land ready to be cultivated, and observed many
ploughs at work, but with only one horse to each. We continue to pass
through large forests of firs, birch, &c.; the ground being very sandy
and marshy, very poor for cultivation."

The Sabbath enabled us to enjoy the repose we so much required.

_Sunday, April 26th._--We proceeded to Düneberg, thence to Wilcomir,
where, on our arrival, a deputation from Wilna came to bid us welcome.

_April 29th._--We continued our journey to Wilna. This town may be
described as the most important centre of Hebrew literature in
Russia, and numbers among its inhabitants very many distinguished
Hebrew authors and poets. The works written by them on all subjects
connected with the elucidation of the Sacred Scriptures may be counted
by hundreds. They also excel in works of industry of every
description, and are the principal artisans in the place. In their
commercial transactions they show great ability, and are often, for
their sound judgment, consulted by their non-Israelite neighbours on
subjects which require special consideration.

The Jewish settlement in Wilna dates from long before 1326. According
to a statement given in the _Otsherki Wilenskoi Gubernii_ (Wilna,
1852), they had at that time (in the year 1326) already in their
community a special Chamber of Commerce, which they could only have
established there after a long residence in the country.

Cardinal Commendoni, the Nuncio of the Pope at the Court of King
Sigismund-Auguste in the year 1561, though he reproached the Poles for
having granted too many privileges to the infidels, nevertheless
expressed himself favourably when speaking of the Jews in Lithuania,
of which Wilna is the capital.

The following is the substance of his remarks on the subject, as given
in the book entitled "Rosprawa O Zydach, Czackiego," p. 93:--There are
still a great many Jews in these provinces, including Lithuania, who
are not, as in many other places, regarded with disrespect; they do
not maintain themselves miserably by base profits; they are landed
proprietors, are engaged in commerce, and even devote themselves to
the study of literature, and more especially to medicine and
astrology. They hold almost everywhere the commission of levying the
customs duties; they are classed among the most honest people; they
wear no outward mark to distinguish them from Christians, and are
permitted to carry a sword and walk about with their arms; in a word,
they enjoy the same privileges as other citizens.

The Jews of Wilna determined to give a most hearty welcome to Sir
Moses and Lady Montefiore.

The Spiritual Head of the community, all the members of his
Ecclesiastical Court, the representatives of all the educational,
industrial and charitable institutions, and all the officers connected
with them, came to meet Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore at a place
called Krisanke (Krigeanki), seventeen versts from Wilna. A deputation
from among them proceeded five versts further. On meeting us they
presented Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore with a poem written in the
purest Biblical Hebrew, which was gratefully acknowledged by Sir
Moses. They then left in great haste to apprise their colleagues of
our approach.

On our arrival at Krisanke we found all the members of the Committee
of Welcome drawn up in a line. As the carriage stopped, the Spiritual
Head of the community, accompanied by the representatives of the
various institutions, approached Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore, and
delivered an address to them, which Sir Moses answered in his own name
and that of Lady Montefiore. They were then requested to alight and
enter a room, most tastefully decorated for the occasion, and where an
excellent breakfast awaited them.

We left Krisanke and directed our course towards Wilna. For the whole
distance of seventeen versts the fields to the right and left of the
road were crowded by people, who shouted in Hebrew, "Blessed be those
who come in the name of the Lord;" and when, on approaching the
carriage of Sir Moses, they beheld the Hebrew word "Jerusalem" on the
banner attached to the supporters of his coat of arms, joy filled
their hearts, and they showered innumerable blessings on the heads of
its occupants.

We arrived safely at the house of Mr Isaac A. L. Setil, which had been
specially prepared for our reception, and there met three gentlemen of
the Hebrew community waiting to receive Sir Moses' orders.

A comfortable night's rest made both Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore
soon forget the discomforts which they had to endure on the road from
St Petersburg.

I now give Sir Moses' own words, as entered in the diary.

  "_Wilna, April 30th._--I took my letter of introduction
  to the Governor, and he received me instantly. Dr Loewe
  accompanied me. The Governor was extremely polite, and
  spoke much of the Jews. He attributed their present
  unhappy state to great poverty, but could not suggest
  any other remedy than colonisation; the want of capital
  will render this measure very slow. He did not think the
  Jews could be removed from the villages till the autumn,
  when some arrangement would be adopted for their
  employment. The Jews might have land near to Christians,
  and he thought it desirable that they should be more
  together. I am of opinion that the Jewish population has
  increased more rapidly than the others, and consequently
  their means of obtaining a livelihood by barter is more
  difficult. We were introduced to the Governor's wife, a
  very handsome and agreeable lady, and extremely well
  informed. She expressed the kindest sentiments towards
  the Jews. I called with Monsieur Ouvaroff's letter on
  His Excellency Monsieur E. Gruber, Councillor of State.
  He was much in favour of the Jews. At five I received
  those persons who formed the deputation and came twenty
  versts to see me. Dr Loewe addressed them in German,
  related all that had passed at St Petersburg, and read
  them the papers I had received. They will write me their
  observations."

The reader will probably remember the charges which the Ministers
brought against the Jews; also the special reports referring to the
unsuccessful endeavours to raise their status, with which the Russian
Government provided Sir Moses, to enable him to ascertain the exact
state of the Hebrew communities. It was therefore necessary, however
painful it must have been to him, to make fully known to the
deputation all the wrong-doings of which they stood accused before the
Government, and to afford them the opportunity of clearing their
character.

I addressed them in the name of Sir Moses, saying that "this fatiguing
journey over land and sea had been exclusively undertaken by him for
their sakes. The guiding hand of the Eternal God, which always
accompanied him on his travels, had not forsaken him on the present
occasion, and made him arrive at an opportune time at St Petersburg,
when His Majesty the Emperor had just returned from a journey to
Moscow. He was fortunate enough to be received by His Imperial Majesty
in a private audience, where His Majesty deigned to receive him most
kindly, and afterwards sent him to his three Imperial Ministers, Count
Nesselrode, Minister of State; Count Ouvaroff, Minister of Public
Instruction; and Count Kisseleff, Minister of the Crown Lands, to
receive from them their reports. His Majesty had promised Sir Moses
that he would treat the Jews paternally, and with forbearance. But to
Sir Moses' great sorrow, he had also heard complaints against them. He
therefore entreated the deputation to give him all the information
they could on all the subjects to which he had drawn their attention."

Having listened, with tears in their eyes, to the accusations brought
against them, the deputation promised to provide him, with a statement
in which all the questions brought to his notice would be treated
_seriatim_, and containing many historically interesting notices on
the civil condition of the Russian Jews, also many letters from Jewish
families that had, at that time, been expelled from villages and
taverns.

"The Civil Governor of the town," Sir Moses enters in his diary, "sent
the chief officer of police to say he should be happy to accompany me
at any time I might fix, to the several public institutions. We cannot
move a step without being surrounded by hundreds of people, all giving
us their blessing."

_Wilna, May 1st._--Sir Moses went to the Civil Governor, and was with
him an hour. The Governor repeated all that the other Ministers had
said, and told him that the Jews were not obliged to leave the
villages, but only to discontinue selling brandy. This, at least, was
something gained.

During our absence, Monsieur E. Gruber left his card. The Military
Governor paid us a visit, and invited Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore to
a ball on Sunday, the 17th inst. Sir Moses, not expecting to be
present at a ball in Wilna, had left his uniform at Wilcomir, and
intended for this reason to decline accepting the invitation; but the
Governor at once observed that a special messenger would bring his
uniform from Wilcomir in due time, and hoped to see him at the ball.
Many members of the aristocracy called, among whom was Count
Wittgenstein.



CHAPTER XLII.

1846.

THE JEWISH SCHOOLS AT WILNA--WILCOMIR--DEPLORABLE CONDITION OF THE
HEBREW COMMUNITY IN THAT TOWN--KOWNO--WARSAW.


On the following morning, Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore offered up
prayers amidst thousands of their brethren, and many visitors, who
"from curiosity," as they said, "came to see the English
philanthropist." The rest of the day was devoted to the reception of
the members of the community, their wives and children, so as to have
the opportunity of becoming acquainted with their manners and mode of
conversation.

It being customary in that place to send wine and sweetmeats of every
description to a person of distinction on the first Sabbath of his
arrival, many hundreds of bottles of the best wine, with cakes and
sweetmeats from the most skilful confectioners, were sent to us, and
these were several times handed round by Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore
themselves. The amiability with which they received every new comer
induced the visitors to speak without restraint on all subjects.

In the evening a scribe of great ability was summoned before Sir
Moses, to prepare a scroll of parchment, upon which the latter was
desirous to commence writing the first line of the Pentateuch for
Synagogual purposes. The scribe soon made his appearance, and Sir
Moses, in the presence of the Chief Rabbi and the principal lecturer
of the community, performed the task assigned to him.

_Wilna, May 3rd._--Sir Moses paid a visit to the Governor, where he
met most of the nobility of the place, and representatives of various
communities, who came to pay their respects on the occasion of the
birthday of the Czarewitch. Among those present we also noticed the
Ecclesiastical Chief of the Hebrew community.

On our return from the Governor, we proceeded to inspect the various
colleges and schools, where we examined the pupils, and conversed with
the teachers and directors regarding the subjects to which Sir Moses'
attention had been called at St Petersburg. From each of these
establishments full accounts were given to us, of which Sir Moses made
the best use in his report to the Czar.

In the evening, by special invitation from the Governor, Sir Moses
visited the theatre, and subsequently, he, Lady Montefiore, and myself
attended the ball at His Excellency's. We were received by all present
with every possible attention and courtesy, and the appearance of Sir
Moses and Lady Montefiore made a most favourable impression.

On our return from the entertainment we found some beautiful
embroidery, poems, drawings, &c., sent to Lady Montefiore by the
pupils of some of the girls' schools of the place. We had had an
opportunity, in the morning, of inspecting the schools. In some of
them the pupils acquitted themselves satisfactorily in the French,
Russian, German, and Hebrew languages; their handwriting was
beautiful, and in arithmetic they were far advanced.

_Monday, May 4th._--We went to-day to see the printing office of the
Brothers Rom, Rundsinsky, Königsberg, and Torkin. Sir Moses was
accompanied by His Excellency the Civil Governor Terebzow. They
presented us with a number of valuable works, each of which was
adorned with a poem written by the gifted poet A. B. Lebensohn. We
then proceeded to the Jewish Hospital, the Infant School, under the
patronage of the wife of the Military Governor, the Orphan Asylum of
Mr Chiya Danzig, and many schools and colleges, everywhere exhorting
the pupils to study the Russian language and literature, and
everywhere leaving charitable gifts. Sir Moses took every means to
make himself thoroughly acquainted with all the matters on which he
had been asked to report to the Emperor, and invited ten of the most
prominent men of the community to attend morning and evening prayers
at his hotel, and afterwards to report and discuss matters generally.

_May 5th._--With a view of showing his respect for the Chief Rabbi and
the representatives of the community, and, at the same time, of
forming an idea of the domestic arrangements for the comfort of their
families, Sir Moses devoted many hours to calling on those persons. He
had the satisfaction of seeing among them many well-educated wives,
sons, and daughters; their dwellings were scrupulously clean, the
furniture plain, but suitable for the purpose, and the appearance of
the family healthy. Some of them were very good looking.

The number of letters from Jews and Christians hourly increased; whole
nights were often devoted to reading them, and making extracts from
those which required special and immediate attention.

_May 6th._--We were indoors all this day, engaged from morning till
evening in conversation with numerous persons on the subject of our
journey.

His Excellency, Monsieur Gruber, came just when the room was filled
with visitors, including the Chief Rabbi, the principal lecturer of
the Synagogue, and many of the leading members of the community.
Taking advantage of the opportunity, these gentlemen spoke of the
state of the Jews in Russia, and stated to him that the Government
would not permit them to have land, nor would they employ them as
labourers; adding that they could bring to His Excellency, within a
few minutes, if he desired it, five thousand men, women, and children
who would be ready to do any work, however laborious, merely for a
piece of bread a day. They had frequently petitioned the Government,
they said, for liberty to take land, but had never received the
required permission.

The conversation was carried on with great spirit. Subsequently a
large deputation was introduced, who requested Sir Moses to remain
till after Sabbath. The Burgomaster of Wilna being present, joined in
the request, and Sir Moses at last consented, especially as the
deputation observed that they could not sooner get their papers ready
for him.

_Friday, May 8th._--The representatives of the Hebrew congregation of
this town, together with those of other Hebrew congregations from some
of the principal towns in Russia, under the presidency of the Chief
Rabbi, held a meeting for the purpose of examining the papers which
had been prepared for presentation to Sir Moses, in reply to the
charges brought against them at St Petersburg. It was arranged to
request Sir Moses to appoint the following day, in the evening, after
the termination of the Sabbath, for their reception, and to invite the
writer of these lines to address the congregation on the following
morning in the principal Synagogue of the town, so as to afford to
thousands of their brethren and visitors the opportunity of becoming
acquainted with any suggestion which it might be deemed desirable to
communicate to them relative to the Mission of Sir Moses and Lady
Montefiore.

With this view a deputation waited on Sir Moses, and he agreed to
receive them at the appointed time. The same deputation also brought
me the invitation to deliver an address in their Synagogue, which I
willingly accepted.

_Saturday, May 9th._--Divine service was held in the apartments of Sir
Moses early in the morning. In the afternoon, at about two o'clock, he
and Lady Montefiore proceeded to the Synagogue, where I delivered the
address in the presence of a very large assembly of members of various
communities and visitors. In the evening all the representatives of
Wilna, and those of the principal towns in Russia, together with the
gentlemen who wrote the reports in the Hebrew, French, and Russian
languages, and others of high standing in the community, headed by
their Ecclesiastical Chief, presented the papers which Sir Moses was
so anxiously expecting.

It is often a grave and exciting moment for those present in a court
of justice, when the accused, however humble his station in life may
be, pleads his cause and vindicates his innocence against a vigorous
prosecutor; graver, however, and considerably more exciting was the
scene which I now witnessed, when not merely a private individual, but
the representatives of three millions of loyal subjects of the Emperor
of Russia, pleaded their cause and vindicated their innocence against
the most serious charges brought against them and their religious
tenets by the Ministers of the Empire. I repeatedly noticed tears
rolling down the cheeks of the venerable elders of the community. Sir
Moses and Lady Montefiore themselves could hardly suppress their
emotion.

Every word contained in the written statements had been translated by
me into English, and the whole was read aloud to the assembly. Sir
Moses addressed questions to the representatives of the various
communities, and elicited numerous replies; but the more voluminous
ones had to be taken away with us, to be read next day by Sir Moses on
the road.

Thus many hours of the night passed; it was two o'clock in the morning
when the conference terminated. Refreshments were handed round. Sir
Moses drank to "better times, and to the health and prosperity of his
brethren in Russia." The Chief Rabbi, the representatives of the
community, and all present shed tears at the contemplation of our
departure.

Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore left many souvenirs to those who had so
kindly attended them during their stay in Wilna, and sent hundreds of
bottles of the best wine, and many kinds of meat, and cakes of every
description to the hospitals. All the charitable institutions and all
deserving cases were remembered by most generous gifts, and nothing
more was left for him to do.

The favourable impression which the people of Wilna made on Sir Moses
prompted him to say to those present, as he stepped into his carriage:
"I leave you, but my heart will ever remain with you. When my brethren
suffer, I feel it painfully; when they have reason to weep, my eyes
shed tears."

At four o'clock in the morning, when no one in the town expected our
departure, we left Wilna for Wilcomir. The recent rains had made the
roads very bad; heavy sand and numerous ruts prevented our proceeding
at the average rate of travelling. In one spot our conveyance stuck
fast in a deep hole, and we were detained for fully half-an-hour. This
unpleasant circumstance was much aggravated by the hundreds of poor
Russian men, women, and children following the carriage for miles on
the road. The more they had given to them, the more they appeared to
want.

After a ride of seventy-six and a half versts we reached Wilcomir,
where a deputation from the Hebrew community brought us wine and cake.
The account which they gave of their brethren was but sorrowful. Of
five hundred families, they said, one-fourth died last year from
destitution.

We visited the school and charitable institutions, and next day
continued our journey to Kowno.

Hundreds of persons, with lighted candles in their hands, greeted us
on our arrival at Kowno. We found an elegant house prepared for us,
all the rooms and passages brilliantly lighted with wax candles. The
host and hostess, Mr and Mrs Kadisohn, attended on Sir Moses and Lady
Montefiore themselves. "We have not had," Lady Montefiore said, "such
beds or accommodation since leaving England."

Sir Moses had an important interview with the Governor of the town
respecting the employment of Jews to repair the high roads, they being
willing to work for twenty kopeks a day, while labourers of other
denominations receive thirty. We here received information regarding
the Jews, in general, living in that district; and the representatives
of the community, headed by their Chief Rabbi, supplemented this by
numerous statements made to Sir Moses in writing.

_May 12th._--We left Kowno early in the morning, were ferried over the
river, and detained two hours on the frontier of the former kingdom of
Poland. Proceeded through Calvarie, Souvalky, Stavesey. In each of
these places we had interviews with the authorities, and elders of the
Hebrew community, and visited their schools and charitable
institutions.

_May 13th._--Our arrival at Warsaw was announced to thousands of the
Hebrew community who were anxious to see Sir Moses and Lady
Montefiore.

Mr Blumberg, one of the leading merchants, came to request Sir Moses'
acceptance of his house during our stay at Warsaw; but Sir Moses,
while thanking him for his hospitality, thought it desirable to live
at an hotel, in preference to a private house.

The first visit paid by Sir Moses was to Colonel du Plat, the British
Consul for Poland; he was absent from home, but sent in the course of
the day, a message to Sir Moses that he would be pleased to see him on
the following day.

The Chief Rabbi and the representatives of the Hebrew community came
to congratulate us on our safe arrival. They said it had been their
wish to have made a more public display of their gratitude to Sir
Moses and Lady Montefiore, but they were prevented from doing so. They
had asked the Governor if they might go out of the city to meet us,
and received the reply that he could say neither "Yes" nor "No." The
accounts which Sir Moses continued to receive from the Jews, of their
position in this country, were most distressing.

_Warsaw, May 17th._--"This morning," Sir Moses writes in his diary, "I
called on Colonel du Plat with Dr Loewe. He proposed to accompany me
immediately to the Minister of Foreign Affairs, the Minister of the
Interior, and the Military Governor of the city. We accordingly
visited each of them, and I was received with much politeness. The two
former Ministers conversed with me for a considerable time about the
condition of the Jews. The Minister of Foreign Affairs is to ask His
Highness the Viceroy for an audience for me. I have heard repeated the
same complaints, that the Jews will not cultivate the land, and from
the Jews themselves that they cannot get permission to purchase land.
This afternoon I received a letter from the Minister of Foreign
Affairs, that His Highness will be happy to see me to-morrow at
twelve. I received a deputation, consisting of the principal Jews of
this city, headed by the Chief Rabbi. They give a deplorable account
of the present position of the Jews in this kingdom.

"_May 15th._--Colonel du Plat came and accompanied me and Dr Loewe to
the Palace. We were received by Prince Paskiewitch (who is the Viceroy
of the kingdom) with much politeness. I was in full uniform. We were
one hour and a half in conversation respecting the Jews. He expressed
the same sentiments as those we heard in St Petersburg; also said that
the Jews would not cultivate the land, though the law allowed them to
purchase it. I said that hundreds of Jews had expressed to me their
ardent desire to obtain land, and that I feared there existed some
difficulty in the requisite formalities. The Prince does not wish for
further education, and is by no means disposed to give any privilege
to them. His Highness invited me and the Consul to dine with him at
six. It was a very pleasant and chatty party. I sat on the right of
the Prince, but took nothing except asparagus, salad, ices, and
dessert. The Princess was most agreeable, and conversed freely with
me; indeed, all were most friendly.

"The Countess Rzewuska, _née_ Princess Lubomirska; M. de Hilferilling,
Conseiller d'Etat-actuel, Head of the Chancellerie Diplomatique of the
Prince; the Minister of the Interior, General L. Se ater Storozenko;
the Postmaster-General, Prince Galitzin; the Head of the Police,
General Abramowicz; and the Governor-General of Warsaw, General
Okouneff, were also present on that occasion.

"_Warsaw, May 16th._--A deputation, consisting of at least twenty
gentlemen from all the charitable institutions belonging to the Jews,
presented my dear wife and myself with a beautiful address and a very
elegant silver cup, as a mark of their gratitude for our exertions on
their behalf. The house has been surrounded from morning till night by
hundreds of our co-religionists, anxious to get a glimpse of us. Two
gendarmes and a police officer have had great difficulty in keeping
the people out of the house. We had the honour of a long visit to-day
from the Military Governor."



CHAPTER XLIII.

1846.

DEPUTATION FROM KRAKAU--THE POLISH JEWS AND THEIR GARB--SIR MOSES
LEAVES WARSAW--POSEN, BERLIN, AND FRANKFORT--HOME.


"_Sunday, May 17th._--My dear wife, Dr Loewe, and myself paid a visit
to the Princess Paskiewitch, the wife of the Viceroy. She was very
kind in her manner, and spoke for a considerable time with us. We
afterwards accompanied Mr Epstein to the Jewish Hospital, where we
found the directors and most of the governors and their ladies waiting
to receive us."

In order to show how desirous the Jews here are, under the most
unfavourable circumstances, to promote the welfare of their poorer
brethren, Sir Moses gives a long description of the hospital,
containing 355 beds, baths, kitchens, a dispensary, laundry, and
Synagogue; and of Mr Matthias Rosen's Aged Needy Asylum, and speaks in
terms of the highest praise of all the arrangements. He also alludes
to the important fact that the poor children are taught and
apprenticed to various trades.

After inspecting the whole establishment, we were conducted to the
Committee room. Sir Moses was here presented with a beautiful little
statue of Moses, a copy in bronze of the statue by Michael Angelo, the
President delivering a most suitable address. It is now in the Lecture
Hall of Judith, Lady Montefiore's Theological College in Ramsgate, and
is an object of great interest to visitors.

They were there met by the governor and directors, with their ladies.
The way was covered with green baize, and about a dozen children
walked before them strewing flowers.

"On our return home," Sir Moses continues in his diary, "I found
Colonel du Plat waiting to accompany me to Monsieur Hilferilling, Head
of the Chancellerie Diplomatique of the Prince. I thanked him for the
paper he sent me yesterday, and also for the Ukase published last
evening, allowing the Jews to retain their present costume for three
months, till after the 1st of July. This will be a great relief to the
poor, though I am happy to find that there will be no difficulty made
by the Jews in complying with the wishes of the Government."

The dress worn by the Jews in Poland is that which was formerly worn
in that country by Christians as well as by Jews. In the course of
time the Jews became so used to it that the change for the European
dress appeared to them almost a transgression of some religious
injunction.

The appearance of Sir Moses, dressed in European costume, while
rigidly observing the injunctions of his religion, contributed greatly
to their conviction that a change of dress need not involve any
serious consequences.

Turning again to the entry of the diary, Sir Moses says: "I then
informed His Excellency that I should be very happy if it were
possible to have an audience of the Emperor, as His Majesty is every
moment expected to arrive; that I did not ask for it, but I should be
glad if it could be made known to His Majesty that I was in the city.
His Excellency said he would speak with Count Orloff to-morrow
morning."

_May 18th._--This morning Sir Moses received a note from Colonel du
Plat, stating that His Majesty was going to the Greek Cathedral, and
recommending him to put on his uniform, and to be there, as it would
most likely obtain for him an earlier intimation of His Majesty's
wishes; but Sir Moses thought it advisable not to avail himself of the
opportunity in a place of public worship.

The stream of visitors continued all day long, some even remaining in
the house as a "guard of honour." Our rooms were comfortable, and the
attentions of our friends unceasing, and yet there was a great
drawback, inasmuch as we could not even converse with friends without
the subject being immediately made known to others.

I remember an instance of this. On one occasion Sir Moses received a
letter in the evening relative to an appointment with a gentleman at
six o'clock the next morning. I entered his room to confer with him on
the subject, and before the appointed hour, a letter arrived from that
gentleman, repeating almost word for word what Sir Moses had said to
me, concerning him and the appointment. We could not explain to
ourselves how it was possible for him thus to have received
information of what we thought no one had heard. But on looking round
in the room, we noticed, not far from the sofa, a large portrait, the
eyes of which had round holes instead of pupils. We at once went into
the corridor, and, to our great surprise, we found we could hear every
word spoken within by Lady Montefiore and others.

_May 19th._--Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore received a deputation from
Praga, who presented them with a very small, beautifully written
scroll of the Pentateuch, with a costly silver crown thereon,
ornamented with precious stones; also with a silver pointer for the
use of the reader, all being deposited in a beautiful little Ark.

The deputation invited them to visit their elementary schools and
Rabbinical colleges.

At the appointed hour Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore proceeded to the
house of Mr Blumberg, where they met a very considerable number of
students.

In compliance with a request from the college and school committees,
and from Sir Moses, I examined the Rabbinical students for nearly
three hours. The result being most satisfactory, Sir Moses consented
to become the patron of the college.

On our return from Praga, a deputation from the Hebrew congregation of
Krakau was introduced. They had important communications to make,
relating to questions in connection with the state of education among
Jews in Poland; and several hours passed in conversation with them.

_May 20th._--Sir Moses being apprehensive that his continued stay in
this city might not be agreeable to the Government, as there were
always hundreds of people near his hotel, and many more following him
about in the streets, he called on the British Consul, Colonel du
Plat, and informed him of his feelings on the subject; adding that he
thought he had better leave on the morrow. The Consul said he would
first see the Minister, and acquaint him with Sir Moses' sentiments,
and he would let him know the Minister's reply.

The United Committee of the Elementary Schools and the New Synagogue
presented to Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore a beautifully written
scroll of the Pentateuch, somewhat larger than that they had
previously received, with a silver crown, accompanied by an Ark for
its reception. Like other souvenirs, it is now preserved in the
Lecture Hall of the College in Ramsgate.

Colonel du Plat paid us a long visit, and discussed the object of Sir
Moses' Mission to Russia, and subsequently we went to the garden of
the "Little Palace," in which the Emperor resided. We saw His Majesty
there, in an open carriage, and met the Viceroy, all the Cabinet
Ministers, their ladies, and the _élite_ of the city.

The Princess Paskiewitch and the Ministers spoke to Sir Moses and Lady
Montefiore, and appeared most friendly in their conversation.

_May 22nd._--"I received to-day," the entry in the diary records, "two
or three deputations from congregations, distant from thirty to three
hundred miles, with addresses, and called at one o'clock on Colonel du
Plat. He had just returned from a review, where Count Orloff told him
'he had received my card; that he was much pleased with the whole of
my conduct; it had given general satisfaction; that I was a man _comme
il faut_, and that my visit would be very useful.'

"Dr Loewe and I rode to the Prince Marshal to take leave, unless His
Highness had any commands for me. Dr Loewe got out of the carriage to
enquire if he was at home, and, at the instant, His Highness was
leaving the house to attend the Council. He regretted he could not
stop to speak with me, but requested I would come to him to-morrow at
six. As I could not walk as far as the Palace (the sanctity of the
Sabbath not permitting me to ride in a carriage), I requested Dr Loewe
to call on the Minister of Diplomacy, and to beg of him to arrange
with the Prince for paying my respects on Sunday instead of to-morrow,
which he promised to do, and to acquaint me with the result."

The same day a deputation of that pre-eminently conservative class of
the Hebrew community, known by the appellation of "Khasseedim," paid
us a visit. They wore hats, according to European fashion, instead of
the Polish "czapka," or the "mycka," which is similar to that of the
Circassian's. They were headed by Mr Posener, a gentleman who had done
much for the promotion of industry in Poland, and his son; and he
informed Sir Moses that he would, though an old man, comply with the
desire of the Government, and change the Polish for the German
costume. Being a man held in high esteem by the Jews, and well spoken
of by the Prince, his example would have a most favourable effect upon
others.

_Warsaw, Saturday Evening, May 23rd._--Divine service was held in our
apartments in the morning, afternoon, and evening. We had intended
going to the New Synagogue, but were deterred from doing so by the
great difficulties which we had encountered last evening in going to
and returning from the Great Synagogue. Thousands of persons had
followed us nearly the whole way, and the gallery of the Synagogue was
so dreadfully crowded with ladies, that serious apprehensions were
entertained lest it might fall, when hundreds must have been killed. A
strong body of police had secured our retreat.

At least five hundred ladies, the wives and daughters of our
co-religionists, called on Lady Montefiore.

A girl twelve years old sang several Hebrew melodies; she had a fine
voice. In the evening we had with us, for the second time, a little
boy, eight years old, who played exquisitely on the violin. He also
recited the portion of the Pentateuch selected for the Sabbath reading
in the Synagogue, with several of the commentaries on the same, by
heart; a very handsome child. By his extraordinary talent he supports
his parents and family--in all ten persons. Sir Moses made him a
present of a sum of money to enable him to pay for a master.

We again noticed that the walls of our room were admirably arranged,
so that every word we speak could be distinctly overheard outside in a
dark passage.

_Warsaw, Sunday, May 24th._--Colonel du Plat called, having been
requested by Sir Moses to accompany him to the Palace. Going there, we
met the Prince as he was descending from his carriage; he was most
polite, and begged us to come into the Palace. He was very sorry he
could not see Sir Moses on Friday. Sir Moses told His Highness that he
had come to take leave of him, and to inquire if he had any commands
for him. The Prince said he was very sorry that he had been prevented
from showing him more attention, but since the arrival of the Emperor
his presence was required every quarter of an hour. Sir Moses spoke of
the great desire of the Jews to be allowed to purchase land, and to
cultivate it themselves; he also told the Prince that Mr Posener had
promised to change his dress, which pleased him greatly, and his
example would, he said, have great effect, and he had no doubt that
Sir Moses' visit would produce much good.

They then had some conversation respecting the repeal of the Corn Laws
in England, the Bill having passed by a majority of ninety-three. They
also spoke of the death of an English Admiral, and our victories in
India. Their parting was most friendly.

Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore then left cards on the Princess, all the
Ministers, the Spiritual Head of the Hebrew community, and the
representatives of the several institutions they had visited; and
orders were given for their departure at three o'clock in the morning.

In the course of the day, Colonel du Plat called to bid us farewell. A
great number of persons came in the evening for a similar purpose, and
remained till one o'clock in the morning. Sir Moses then entrusted
some of the gentlemen with his generous donations for the poor of all
denominations, also for schools, hospitals, and charitable
institutions; and, with the most favourable impressions of the good
intentions of his brethren in Poland, we left Warsaw at the appointed
hour.

On the same day, May 25th, we arrived at Posen. Wherever we had
stopped on the road, even at the post-houses, where we could only
remain for a few minutes to change horses, deputations with addresses
awaited our arrival.

Early in the morning of Tuesday, a deputation from the Old Synagogue
came to conduct Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore to divine service. The
venerable edifice, which is very ancient, large, and of handsome
proportions, was lighted up, and the paths leading to the seats strewn
with flowers.

At eleven o'clock the Rev. S. Eger, Chief Rabbi of the community; the
Rev. S. Plessner, Chief Lecturer; the officers, of the Synagogue, and
the representatives of all the Hebrew charities, in all about sixty
gentlemen, waited upon them with an address.

The streets were crowded, and on reaching the Synagogue, all the
passages were filled with ladies and gentlemen, with lighted wax
candles in their hands, a number of young and beautiful girls strewing
roses and other fragrant flowers before us.

The Synagogue was one blaze of light, from hundreds of wax candles,
ornamented with flowers. Sir Moses was placed in the body of the
Synagogue, and Lady Montefiore in the ladies' gallery, under beautiful
canopies with rich drapery and flowers.

The Rev. S. Plessner presented a beautiful poem, in which he expressed
a hearty welcome and the deep gratitude of his community; others,
equally zealous in conveying their appreciation of Sir Moses' and Lady
Montefiore's services, presented addresses in German or French; and we
found it necessary to have special cases made to contain them.

We left Posen in the evening, travelled the whole night, and reached
Berlin next day at ten o'clock in the evening, taking up our quarters
at the Hotel de St Petersbourg.

_Berlin, Friday, May 29th._--Called at the British Embassy, but
learned that Lord and Lady Westmoreland were in England. Sir Moses saw
Sir George B. Hamilton (who was acting for him), and expressed his
desire to be presented to His Majesty, the King of Prussia; but His
Majesty, Sir George said, was at Torgau, and would not return before
the 6th of June. Sir Moses then left his card on Monsieur Fonton, at
the Russian Embassy.

Mr Bleichroder, father of the present Consul General for England,
called, also the Chief Rabbi, and three gentlemen from Krakau, to
present an address to Sir Moses, requesting him to speak to the King
of Prussia in favour of the Jews of that place.

The following three days, being the Sabbath and Pentecost festival,
most of the time was taken up by attending divine service and
receiving visitors.

_June 2nd._--We went to take leave of Sir George Hamilton. Sir Moses
expressed regret at not being able to have the honour of being
presented to His Majesty, as he had hoped to have the opportunity of
praying for his gracious efforts to cause the Jews of Cracow to be
placed in the same position as their brethren in His Majesty's other
dominions. Sir George said that if Sir Moses wrote him a letter to
that effect, he would place it in the King's hands.

In the course of conversation, Sir George told Sir Moses that he had
received an express from Lord Aberdeen, desiring him to repair to
Florence, as things were in so uncertain a state in London (alluding
to the Corn Bill); he could not tell how soon a change might take
place; but Lord Brougham and Lady Westmoreland, he said, had written,
that they thought Sir Robert Peel would weather the storm.

_Berlin, June 3rd._--Soon after six, an elegant carriage sent by the
deputies of the Hebrew community of the city, stopped at our door to
convey Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore to the railway station. There
were also thirty other carriages with a deputation, and the ladies of
their families, to accompany us; but as Sir Moses had not yet received
the memorial from the Cracow deputation, which Sir George Hamilton so
kindly promised to put into His Majesty's hands for him, we could not
leave until half-past twelve. At eleven o'clock, when the memorial was
brought, we at once proceeded to Sir George, and gave it to him. Sir
Moses stated all the particulars of the degraded and oppressed state
of the Jews, and Sir George repeated the promise he had made, adding
that he should be most happy to render every service in his power for
their relief; and he would call upon Sir Moses at Park Lane when in
London. On our arrival at the station, we found all the principal
Jewish families waiting to bid us farewell.

_June 8th._--At Frankfort-on-the-Main a brilliant reception awaited
them. The Rothschild family and all the principal Jewish inhabitants
of the city, together with the Spiritual Heads of the community, vied
with each other in evincing their appreciation of the noble work that
Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore had done in the cause of humanity.
Between eleven and twelve o'clock in the night they were serenaded by
a band of Jewish musicians (permission having been previously obtained
from the Governor). The streets were crowded, and numbers of coloured
lamps gave animation to the scene. When Sir Moses appeared on the
balcony, bowing his warm acknowledgments, hearty cheers re-echoed from
all sides.

Among the numerous persons who called was Professor Oppenheim, of
whose works of art there are three fine specimens in Lady Montefiore's
Theological College.

_June 16th._--They left Calais and arrived safely at Dover, on their
way to Ramsgate; but on hearing a report that an epidemic of scarlet
fever had broken out near East Cliff, they altered their route and
proceeded direct to London.



CHAPTER XLIV.

1846

SIR MOSES RECEIVES THE CONGRATULATIONS OF HIS ENGLISH
CO-RELIGIONISTS--HIS EXHAUSTIVE REPORT TO COUNT KISSELEFF--EXAMINATION
OF THE CHARGES AGAINST THE JEWS--THEIR ALLEGED DISINCLINATION TO
ENGAGE IN AGRICULTURE.


In London, as at Dover, numerous friends were waiting to welcome them,
but Sir Moses did not remain long in their company; he deemed it his
duty, before entering his house at Park Lane, to call on Sir Robert
Peel, Lord Aberdeen, and Baron Brunnow, and leave his cards.

The next day he called again on the latter, and remained with him for
an hour; also on Sir Robert Peel, and on Lord Aberdeen at the Foreign
Office. His Lordship said he should be most happy at all times to do
what he could. Sir Moses also called on Sir Roderick Murchison, and
left his card, with the letter from Colonel de Helmerson of St
Petersburg; thence he went to the Palace, to enter his name in Prince
Albert's visitors' book, and also called on Lord Bloomfield.

_Saturday, June 20th._--Prayers and thanksgivings were offered up in
all the Synagogues for the safe return of Sir Moses and Lady
Montefiore from Russia; and, during the week following, numerous
addresses from all the Hebrew congregations in England, as well as
from those in other parts of the world, were presented. All these are
now preserved in the Lecture Hall of the College at Ramsgate.

Notwithstanding his natural desire for rest, after the labours of his
recent missions, Sir Moses felt that the greatest and most important
part of his work yet remained to be done. He had to make a report to
the Emperor of Russia. He had to show His Majesty the groundlessness
of the accusations brought against his brethren, and to place before
the Emperor their humble petition for the removal of all those causes
which prevented them from attaining that degree of prosperity which
His Majesty so graciously desired that they, in common with his other
faithful subjects, should enjoy.

He also had to report on the state of their education, with a view to
removing from the minds of His Majesty's Ministers the unfavourable
impressions which incorrect representations had made on them.

Sir Moses having made the subject in question his principal study, was
enabled, after mature consideration, to draw up and forward to the
Ministers, to be placed in the Emperor's hands, three reports--one, on
the state of the Jews in Russia; another, on that of the Jews in
Poland; and the third, on the state of their education in Russia and
Poland.

Sir Moses, however, being mindful of the condescension shown to and
confidence reposed in him by his late Imperial Majesty the Emperor
Nicholas, considered the reports as private and confidential
communications, and would not publish them during His Majesty's
lifetime. Now that both the Emperor and Sir Moses are no more in the
land of the living, history demands the publication of what Sir Moses
communicated to His Majesty.

I therefore place before the reader in the following pages exact
copies of the reports in question, the full particulars of which he
has undoubtedly, in the interests of humanity, the right to know.

I shall also give the Ministers' reply, made by command of the
Emperor, showing that His Majesty was fully informed of all the
communications which Sir Moses made to him, and had given orders for
the formation of a committee to examine the statements therein made to
him, with a view to improve the condition of his Jewish subjects.

The first and second of Sir Moses' reports are addressed to Count
Kisseleff, and the third to Count Ouvaroff.

  "To His Excellency, le Comte de Kisseleff, Ministre du
  domaine de l'Empire, de sa Majesté l'Empereur de Russie,
  &c., &c., &c.

  "May it please your Excellency,--In addressing your
  Excellency after my return from Russia to this country,
  I deem it an imperative duty to express again to your
  Excellency the deep sense of gratitude I feel for the
  distinguished honour which has been conferred upon me by
  His Imperial Majesty, in granting me so gracious a
  reception, and to assure your Excellency that the kind
  promises which I have received from that most exalted
  and magnanimous Monarch, and his enlightened Ministers,
  to promote the welfare of my co-religionists dwelling in
  His Majesty's vast empire, have not only been a source
  of great delight to the Israelites in Russia, and to
  their brethren in England, but have very extensively
  afforded great satisfaction to the friends of humanity
  throughout Europe.

  "The perusal of the very important documents which your
  Excellency was pleased to place in my hands previously
  to my departure from Saint Petersburg, gave me an
  additional proof of the paternal principle entertained
  by His Imperial Majesty towards his Hebrew subjects; and
  when that august Monarch graciously intimated to me that
  I should go and see the state of my brethren, I hailed
  the opportunity which was thus afforded to me to
  communicate to them the good intentions of the
  Government, and to persuade them cheerfully to conform
  to the benevolent intentions of their wise and powerful
  Monarch.

  "It is now my momentous task in compliance with your
  Excellency's benign suggestion, to report to your
  Excellency the result of my visit to His Majesty's
  Hebrew subjects, and I feel confident that your
  Excellency will deign to regard my communication with
  the indulgent attention and consideration which the
  cause of philanthropy has ever received from your
  Excellency, the more so as I have the gratifying promise
  of your Excellency to place my representation in the
  hands of His Majesty, whose great object it has ever
  been to adopt every suitable measure for securing the
  moral and physical welfare of every subject under His
  Imperial sway.

  "From the information which I gathered during my sojourn
  among the various Hebrew congregations in Russia,
  confirmed by my own personal observation, I am enabled
  to affirm that my brethren in His Majesty's empire are
  fully sensible of the good intentions of His Majesty's
  Government, that they speak with enthusiasm of the
  magnanimity of their mighty Sovereign; and declare their
  readiness at all times and under all circumstances to
  serve their country to their latest breath.

  "It did not, however, escape my notice that there exist
  some obstacles which prevent the benign rays of His
  Majesty's mercy from imparting to His Hebrew subjects
  the full measure of comfort to which the wise and just
  general laws of the Russian Government would entitle
  them; I therefore, with your Excellency's permission,
  will now briefly repeat the advantages granted to them
  by their excellent Monarch, and venture to describe
  briefly to what extent and by what measures they are
  administered to the Israelites. I shall, at the same
  time, not withhold from your Excellency some
  observations upon the charges preferred against them,
  which I will leave to the wise and profound judgment and
  candid and indulgent consideration of your Excellency.

  "In the document your Excellency was pleased to hand me
  it is stated to the effect--That the union of the Polish
  Provinces with Russia was for the Israelites a new
  epoch; that the Imperial Government not only allowed
  them, like its other subjects, to partake of all civil
  rights, and granted them permission to be received in
  the corporation of the body of town merchants, but also
  accorded them the privilege of taking part in the
  elections, and of being themselves eligible to become
  members of common councils, and to fill other local
  offices. Besides this, they were permitted to acquire
  immoveable property, and to settle as agriculturists,
  either on their own estates or on the lands of the
  crown, in which latter case Government also granted them
  support and freedom from all taxes, the Israelites also
  enjoying the right of settling in seventeen Governments
  (a superficies of 17,000 square miles) among a
  population of twenty millions of inhabitants, in
  countries where, by means of the harbours of the Black
  Sea (and in part through those of the Baltic), a lively
  commercial intercourse is kept up both in Russia and
  with foreign countries, have had, it is stated, all
  possible means in their hands of turning their activity
  to useful objects, and of establishing their prosperity
  upon a safe basis.

  "The knowledge that such privileges have been accorded
  cannot but excite a deep and universal gratitude towards
  His Imperial Majesty for the paternal care which has
  thus been taken of his Hebrew subjects. But on a careful
  examination into the condition of the Israelites in some
  places situated within the above named 17,000 square
  miles, causes appear to prevail owing to which they do
  not actually derive from these enlightened measures the
  advantages they were intended to confer.

  "I would respectfully invite your Excellency's attention
  to the circumstance that in the entire Government of
  Livonia there is only the city of Riga in which the
  Israelites are permitted to dwell, and there only to the
  number of about one hundred families. In Courland only
  those Israelites who were present in the year 1799 and
  their families are permitted to remain, but even those
  who have acquired the rights of citizenship are greatly
  restricted in their respective trades, for a Ukase,
  dated in April 1835, declares the Israelites in Mitau,
  in consequence of a privilege granted to the Christians
  of that city in the year 1785, disqualified to be
  received into the Christian corporations of the body of
  tradesmen or mechanics. The result of such a restriction
  is that the Israelite is never regarded as a master
  tradesman, and therefore cannot employ in his service
  either a journeyman professing the Christian religion or
  one who adheres to the principles of his own religion.
  He is likewise prohibited from keeping apprentices even
  of his own creed. Thus the Israelite is prevented from
  following any trade that requires particular assistants;
  he cannot with any prospect of success become a joiner,
  locksmith, blacksmith, or bricklayer, nor can he do the
  work of any mechanic where the aid of other persons is
  absolutely requisite. The disadvantages which he must
  labour under are indeed numerous. Where there is a large
  family, and the children are of tender ages, it becomes
  scarcely possible for the parent to maintain them, and
  it must be evident that when men become enfeebled by old
  age, or afflicted by bodily infirmity, they can no
  longer exert personally the labour which their business
  requires, and thus they become utterly destitute; and
  when a parent dies his children, if not sufficiently
  advanced in years to have acquired from him a knowledge
  of his trade (to which he dared not apprentice them),
  must relinquish it altogether.

  "Your Excellency may perhaps think me wrong in this
  assertion, the former Governor General, the Marquis
  Paulucci, having in the year 1820 interceded in the
  Israelites' behalf, and obtained permission that they
  should in future enjoy the privilege of teaching their
  children their respective trades. This privilege has,
  however, again been taken away from them. In the course
  of time most of the operative class thus naturally
  became poor, to such a frightful degree that the
  community is obliged to furnish them with the
  necessaries of life. It may be said that Israelites who
  cannot follow the trade of their parents need not become
  a burthen on the congregation; an imperial Ukase having
  been issued in April 1835 to the effect that the
  Israelites in Courland should enjoy the right of
  keeping, either by rent or obrok, farms, inns, or
  baiting stables; but your Excellency will please to
  remember that this privilege was soon recalled. And,
  moreover, for some cause the Hebrews were ordered to
  quit the frontiers of Courland, as well as all the other
  places situated near the sea shores; and to withdraw
  fifty wersts into the interior of the country, which
  latter decree deprives them of the right to inhabit
  nearly one-third of that Gubernium. In the same province
  the Israelites are not only prohibited from settling
  with their families, but are prevented by the law from
  becoming contractors to the Crown and undertaking the
  erection of any government building, even though they
  might be merchants of the first or second guild. Neither
  are they suffered to sell goods by wholesale under their
  own firm.

  "Your Excellency will give me leave also to advert to
  the expulsion of my brethren from the city of Kiew,
  where they are at present not allowed to remain even a
  single night; from the city of Nicolaiew, in the
  Gubernium of Kherson; the city of Swart-opol, in the
  Gubernium of Ekat-erinaslow; and all the villages
  situated in the Gubernium of Whitebsk, Moghilew,
  Tchornigow, and Voltawa, as well as all the other
  villages of those Guberniums situated within fifty
  wersts along the frontiers.

  "If in consequence of the last Ukases the Israelites are
  also to be removed from all the towns and villages
  situate within fifty wersts of the Austrian and Prussian
  frontiers, and must quit every house where the sale of
  spirituous liquors is offered to the peasant, the number
  of exiles would surely equal the number of those who are
  already settled in the interior, and their fate cannot
  be any other than epidemic, disease, destitution, and
  starvation. This, as I had the honour of hearing
  personally from your Excellency, is not and never can be
  the intention of that great and most benevolent Monarch
  whose anxiety for the welfare of all his faithful
  subjects is so well known to all the world.

  "With respect to commerce, the above-named space of land
  of seventeen thousand square miles, if available to the
  Israelites, as was originally intended, would, in the
  opinion of most of them, afford sufficient scope for
  securing a flourishing state of commerce amongst them.
  There are, however, some disadvantages against which the
  Hebrew merchants have daily to contend, and unless these
  be removed, the mere extent of land constituting the
  field for their exertions would not insure to them those
  advantages which they might have expected to realise
  from the benevolent intentions of their illustrious
  monarch. Merchants professing any other faith, either
  purchase their stock in the interior of Russia, or
  proceed to foreign countries and import it from them.
  But the Hebrew merchants have no permission to travel
  into the interior of Russia, with the exception only of
  those of the first and second guilds, whose privilege is
  restricted to making one journey for goods in the course
  of the year to Moscow; their sojourn in that city being
  limited--as respects the former to six months, and the
  latter to three months. Were they permitted to visit
  Moscow and other places at such times as their business
  might require, they would thus have sufficient
  opportunity for the necessary replenishment of their
  warehouses with the newest fashions in proper season
  during the year, which they cannot do if they are bound
  to lay in at once a stock for the whole year; and it is
  often the case that the purchases they have made in
  Moscow by the time they arrive at their destination are
  out of fashion. The Hebrew merchant is obliged to appear
  personally at Moscow, and dares not send his agent there
  to transact his business.

  "Your Excellency will be pleased to consider the great
  expenses he must incur before he has the opportunity of
  offering his goods for sale, and the impossibility of
  his becoming prosperous in business whilst he is obliged
  to repair to Moscow for such goods as his Christian
  neighbour can import from the nearest factory in the
  interior of the land.

  "The imperial city of Saint Petersburg the Israelite
  must never visit on commercial business; he is only
  allowed to appear there in connection with a law suit,
  or in some other particular occasion, of very rare
  occurrence. The Hebrew merchant thus has to contend with
  numerous difficulties in being obliged to import his
  goods from foreign countries, for the duty he has to pay
  on them is exceedingly high, therefore making it
  impossible for him to compete with his Christian
  neighbour. These disadvantages have reduced the
  commerce of the Israelites to a deplorably low ebb, and
  are banishing prosperity from amongst them. And it is a
  fact that in one of the principal cities where formerly
  there were thirty Hebrew Moscow merchants, there are at
  present only two, and these can only preserve their
  commercial standing by extreme exertion.

  "Your Excellency will further condescend to take into
  consideration that there are various other disadvantages
  which the Israelites have to contend with, and which I
  shall merely mention in a few words for fear of
  encroaching upon your Excellency's most valuable time.
  His Majesty's Hebrew subjects are deprived of their
  congregational unions known by the Hebrew term Kahal,
  and are thus debarred from the advantage of any great
  measure for their common relief, which might otherwise
  be effected through the community. The Kahal served as a
  central point in which every individual had an interest,
  and there were able to do something for the amelioration
  of their own town in particular cases, which cannot be
  done now. It is true their financial affairs are
  generally under the best care, being administered by the
  members of the Town Hall (Dume), where according to His
  Majesty's gracious Ukase, Israelites are entitled to be
  admitted; yet it appears they are excluded from the
  enjoyment of this privilege in some important cities
  where they were first refused admission as members of
  the magistracy, and subsequently excluded from
  participating in the administration in the Town Hall.
  The Israelites, under these circumstances, greatly
  suffer from the dissolution of their congregational
  unions. A Hebrew is not allowed to engage the assistance
  of any Christian servant, neither is he permitted to
  settle as an agriculturist within four or five wersts
  from the habitation of a Christian. He is not permitted
  to keep posting establishments. He is further prohibited
  from keeping brewhouses either in towns or villages. A
  Hebrew, when serving in the army or navy of His Majesty,
  can never rise even to become a subaltern. The Israelite
  suffers from all the above-named restrictions,
  notwithstanding the distinct desire of His Imperial
  Majesty that he should be allowed to partake of all
  civil rights like all the other subjects of His Imperial
  Majesty. I have thus endeavoured to present to your
  Excellency a brief view of some of the causes which
  operate to deprive my brethren of the full enjoyment of
  those privileges intended for them by their illustrious
  and most humane Sovereign.

  "There are, however, other causes which I fear also tend
  to this unhappy result. I refer more particularly to
  certain charges made against the Israelites, too
  important to be passed over unnoticed, and which,
  entreating your Excellency's kind attention, I will now
  proceed to enumerate and comment upon.

  "I have ascertained on enquiry that the following
  charges are preferred against the Israelites, viz.:

  "That they are inclined to an idle course of life, and
  prefer petty commerce to agriculture; hence the
  prohibition not to live in Old Russia.

  "That they impose upon the peasant, and in return for a
  small quantity of spirit, deprive him of all his
  property (hence the removal from all the villages in the
  Guberniums of Whitebsk and Moghelew).

  "That all of them living near the frontiers have the
  reputation of dealing in contraband goods; hence the
  removal from all the towns and villages within the fifty
  wersts.

  "In answer to the above accusations in general, your
  Excellency will permit me to say that I am far from
  being inclined to aver that an Israelite of a bad
  disposition is less capable of doing wrong than any
  other individual of bad principles belonging to any
  other creed, but I feel confident that a wise and just
  Government, like that of His Imperial Majesty, will not
  deem it right to punish many thousands of its Hebrew
  subjects for the transgressions of a few. Let him who
  offends against the law of the country, or violates the
  rights of his fellow creatures, be punished, but let all
  the rest enjoy the comfort designed for them by their
  magnanimous Monarch. I entreat your Excellency to
  consider that the number of Hebrews who maintain
  themselves by commercial enterprises is but a small
  portion of the whole, for, as I had the opportunity of
  seeing, most of them are either mechanics or common
  labourers; they do not appear to be of idle disposition;
  on the contrary, they seek work as far as they are
  permitted to extend their movements. In all those
  Guberniums where Israelites have the privilege of
  settling, there are some of them who are tailors,
  shoemakers, farriers, glaziers, &c., &c., others who
  employ themselves with a more laborious occupation, as
  that of a blacksmith, locksmith, bricklayer, carpenter,
  &c. There is a class which may be reckoned amongst the
  artizans, such as watchmakers and goldsmiths, and
  another, which may be considered as a most numerous one,
  is that which consists of people who break stones on the
  chaussees, cut wood for fuel, or dig the ground and
  carry water, or remove heavy loads from one place to
  another. Your Excellency will, I believe, bear me out in
  this statement, for the Israelites to this very day
  remember with gratitude when your Excellency, in the
  spring of 1845, feelingly expressed your approbation to
  General Bulmering of his having allowed the Israelites
  to break stones on the road. There is also another
  instance which speaks favourably for the Israelites in
  this respect. I allude to two of the finest houses at
  Wilna, the one belonging to Count Teschkewetz, and the
  other to the nobleman Wilgatzke, but inhabited by the
  present civil Governor, both of which were entirely
  constructed by the Israelites. This, I venture to say,
  is a satisfactory proof of their being most anxious to
  work, and if the fact of their being seen walking about
  the streets without any occupation be urged against my
  assertion, I may be permitted to answer in their defence
  that want of work (within the boundary of those places
  where they are authorised to live) may be assigned as
  the cause of it; for the Israelite cannot, like his
  Christian neighbour, quit one Gubernium and repair to
  another, where he may be sure to find occupation.

  "Indeed there are often a great many Christian labourers
  to be seen in the Jewish Guberniums, in consequence of
  their business being slack in their own district.

  "Your Excellency will now permit me to state my humble
  opinion with regard to the accusation of the Israelites
  feeling disinclined to cultivate the land. The great
  facilities which His Majesty's benevolent Government
  afforded me for the purpose of having the necessary
  intercourse with my brethren, enabled me to learn that
  they were always desirous, and are at present most anxious
  to devote themselves to agriculture. I shall adduce the
  following statement in support of this assertion:--In the
  year 1835, when His Imperial Majesty most graciously
  declared that the Israelites should cultivate the land, a
  great many of them shewed their willingness to desert
  their homes and move even to the remotest parts of the
  country. Unfortunately after several hundreds of
  Israelites had sold all their moveable and immoveable
  property to repair to Tobolsk and Omsk, in Siberia (these
  two places having been assigned to them), and actually
  succeeded, though not without great sufferings on the
  road, in reaching, with their wives and children, the
  above-named colonies, it was intimated to them that the
  land was not to be cultivated by the Israelites. In the
  year 1840, a great many families went to Kherson for the
  same purpose, but a considerable number of them on their
  arrival found their plans frustrated. They were most
  kindly treated, it is true, by His Excellency the Governor
  of Wilna. Every adult received forty-eight copecks banco
  assignations, and every child half that sum. They were
  also provided with the necessary vehicles for their
  conveyance, one being assigned to each family; but as they
  proceeded thence into the other Guberniums the adults
  received only twenty-four copecks banco and the children
  twelve copecks banco each, and the number of vehicles was
  reduced to one for every two families. The emigrants had
  to wait several days before the vehicles were ready for
  their use, during which time they were not provided with
  the necessary diet money. They were further furnished with
  boats for the purpose of performing part of the journey on
  the river Berezina and Dnieper. The money requisite to pay
  the hire of these boats was deducted from the amount
  allotted for their diet. The Israelites were assured that
  it would take them only a fortnight's time to make the
  passage on the rivers, and for this reason only received
  money to defray the expenses of their diet during that
  period; but the passage occupied seven weeks, and they had
  to sustain themselves out of their own means. Many of them
  were great sufferers from severe cold and hunger, and a
  considerable number who had not even the smallest coin
  beyond that which they received from Government, being
  left without food, whilst they had to endure the
  inclemency of the season, necessarily perished.

  "The survivors, on arriving at the places of their
  destination, found that they could not obtain possession
  of the houses, agricultural implements, and cattle
  assigned for them in the month of May in accordance with
  the decree of His Majesty's Government, but had to wait
  for them until the month of August, and for the articles
  furnished to them which were of a very bad description,
  they were subject to a charge considerably exceeding their
  value.

  "The rye seed which the Israelites ought to have received
  in the month of August, was not given to them before the
  month of October; the consequence was, that the crops of
  the first year did not prosper, and they were obliged to
  take provision from the Government for the next year also.
  The seed for the summer crops which ought to have been
  given them in the month of March, they did not receive
  before the month of May; thus they were obliged to put the
  seed into the ground very late in the season, and heavy
  rains which followed again caused the crops to fail. The
  habitations assigned for their occupation being of very
  bad materials, and badly constructed, most of them soon
  fell to the ground.

  "Then followed an epidemic disease among the cattle, and
  the Israelites suffered a considerable loss. In
  consequence of this misfortune the Government benevolently
  ordered passports to be granted in order that they might
  repair to other places for the purpose of gaining their
  daily bread; but instead of paying for a passport valid
  for a year, according to the law of the country, they had
  sometimes to pay most exorbitantly.

  "In addition to this and other similar hardships, I may
  mention the fact of the Poll Tax being demanded from the
  old settlers who are not liable to it.

  "In the year 1844, when an Imperial Ukase appeared again
  inviting the Hebrews to agriculture, with a grant of
  support out of the Korabka, His Majesty's Hebrew subjects,
  desirous to avail themselves of this Ukase, not only
  forwarded their humble petitions on the subject to the
  Governors of their respective towns and villages, but even
  made voluntary offers to defray the necessary expenses
  from their own means. Your Excellency has full evidence of
  this fact in the numerous applications addressed to your
  illustrious person, and I feel convinced that your
  Excellency will be surprised to hear that difficulties are
  thrown in the way on occasions like the following.

  "Some Crown land situate in the vicinity of Wilna and
  Kowno was offered to the public by auction, and Israelites
  were prohibited from being amongst the applicants,
  although many of them distinctly declared their
  willingness to cultivate the land in question personally.
  All this, I trust, will be sufficient to satisfy your
  Excellency that the Israelites are not averse to
  agricultural pursuits, and that there is no foundation for
  the charge brought against them in this respect.

  "Having thus, I trust, convinced your Excellency that
  there is no just ground for the accusation that my
  brethren are disinclined to work laboriously and cultivate
  the land, I now humbly request your Excellency to consider
  with your wonted justice the two other charges brought
  against them, viz.:--

  "That they impose upon the peasant and deal in contraband
  goods, these vices being traceable to a disposition to
  idleness. I trust, however, I have succeeded in proving
  that idleness is unjustly charged against them, and in
  further refutation of these two imputations against the
  Israelites generally, I may also be justified in observing
  that a man, however inclined he may be to accumulate
  riches, will not readily give up an occupation which
  insures him bread in comfort, and respectability for a
  business that is attended with little profit and great
  risk of life. I have already stated to your Excellency
  that only the fourth part of the Hebrew population in each
  town or village is engaged in commercial pursuits, and
  supposing even for a moment, that all the merchants in any
  one town might be liable to transgress the law of excise
  and customs (which case, I think, almost impossible, as
  the Hebrew law distinctly forbids such transgressions),
  surely so wise and benevolent a Government will not cause
  the removal of the entire Hebrew population from the
  Austrian and Prussian frontiers, because a few among them
  may have acted in opposition to the law? For these
  delinquents I do not intercede, His Majesty's wise and
  paternal Government will treat them like similar offenders
  in the Imperial cities of Saint Petersburg and Moscow,
  where I believe it will appear from the records preserved
  by His Majesty's Minister of Finance, there exists a great
  number of them notwithstanding the entire absence of
  Israelites. I implore only the extension of its merciful
  protection to the rest of the Hebrew inhabitants.

  "The presence of the Israelites in the various villages
  throughout the Empire is said to be pernicious to the
  peasants. From the information I received, your Excellency
  will perceive that this cannot be the case. My informants
  assured me that since the Israelites were obliged to leave
  the Guberniums of White Russia and Little Prussia, the
  peasants have found themselves in a most deplorable state,
  and are very often in such an unfortunate condition that
  they are even without the seeds necessary for the future
  crops, which never happened whilst the Israelites were
  amongst them.

  "There is also another striking proof which your
  Excellency, I am confident, will agree with me to be in
  their favour. If the Israelites had indeed imposed upon
  the peasants and impoverished them, the former, as they
  were obliged to quit the villages and join their brethren
  in the towns, would undoubtedly have carried some property
  with them, but their utter destitution was apparent from
  almost all of them becoming immediately a heavy burthen on
  the congregation, and many of them actually perished from
  want before they could reach the town fixed upon for their
  future abode.

  "Your Excellency will also be pleased to reflect that the
  proprietors of the various establishments let on rent to
  the Israelites being themselves good and charitable
  Christians, and naturally most benevolently inclined
  towards their brethren in faith, would not have suffered
  their Hebrew tenants to impose upon them, and had the
  Israelites in reality been guilty of the crime, the
  proprietors would of themselves have driven them away.

  "The circumstances, explanations of which I have now had
  the honour of submitting to your Excellency, have,
  however, in consequence perhaps of similar endeavours not
  having been made previously to the present moment,
  produced an unfavourable impression on the mind of His
  Majesty's Government; so much so, that His Majesty the
  Emperor, in his august solicitude for the welfare of the
  Hebrew population resident in his dominions, appointed a
  special committee to investigate the causes of the
  unsatisfactory state in which the population remains to
  this day, and to deliberate on the means fittest to be
  applied as remedies. The result of these enquiries was
  that the Israelites were represented to the Committee in
  very erroneous and unfavourable colours. Those who were
  characterised as rebellious and disobedient were therefore
  subjected to coercive measures as idlers who prove a
  burthen to the society of which they are members, and in
  order to be able to institute a just discrimination
  between such Israelites as have sought to make themselves
  useful, and such as do not yet carry on a trade or some
  other legal occupation, His Majesty's Government calls
  upon the latter to enrol themselves in one of the four
  following classes: 1st, one of the three guilds of
  merchants; 2nd, the burgess of a town by the purchase of a
  piece of land or a house; 3rd, a corporation of artizans,
  after having given the proof of ability required by the
  law; or 4th, the grand body of agriculturists, whether on
  their own property or under a proprietor. And such
  Israelites as shall not have placed themselves by the
  appointed time (the 1st January 1850) in one of the four
  classes are to be subject to such restrictive measures as
  the Government shall think it right to employ.

  "Believing that in consequence of such classification more
  than four-fifths of the Hebrew population will necessarily
  have to be enlisted amongst those who, according to the
  above declaration, will be regarded as a burthen on
  society at large, I feel it a duty humbly and earnestly to
  make a few observations to your Excellency, and beg at the
  same time that your Excellency will be pleased to give
  credit to my assurance that in this instance I am
  regarding the Israelites not with the sympathy natural to
  a brother in faith, but with the impartiality of a perfect
  stranger; the sentiments which I now shall have the honour
  to express to your Excellency being those only of a friend
  to humanity.

  "There cannot exist a doubt that the above imperial decree
  will be a most beneficial incentive to a large number of
  the Hebrew communities to enrol themselves in some one of
  the four classes in question; and his most gracious
  Majesty will now have the high gratification of knowing
  that in future those amongst his Hebrew subjects can,
  under no pretence whatever, be accused of idleness, the
  nature of their occupation being registered in the
  archives of the respective Guberniums they inhabit. I,
  however, humbly venture to suggest the addition of two
  other classes to the four already specified, as a
  proceeding in accordance with the enlightened views of His
  Majesty's Government. I allude, first, to labourers of
  every description, domestic servants, clerks, commercial
  agents, brokers and employees, water-carriers, porters,
  waggoners and carmen, provision dealers, cutters of wood
  for fuel, and persons engaged in similar occupations. The
  nature of their pursuits does not qualify them to be
  enrolled in any of the four classes, yet they are a body
  of people who, as your Excellency will admit, deserve to
  be looked upon with an eye of mercy for two reasons.
  First, because they are continually exerting themselves by
  their incessant labours to maintain themselves and their
  families in an honest and respectable way; and, secondly,
  because the existence of such individuals is most
  essential to the promotion of the welfare and comfort of
  His Majesty's Hebrew subjects belonging to any of the four
  classes. For if the latter were obliged to devote their
  time and attention to all the work originally intended to
  be executed by their inferiors, what would become of their
  business? Would it then not appear quite natural that in
  the course of time their situation would become precarious
  to such a degree that they would have to give up their
  avocations altogether. Another class of people which I am
  particularly anxious to introduce to the consideration of
  His Majesty's Government is that which comprises the
  spiritual leaders of the congregations, assessors of the
  Hebrew ecclesiastical courts, scribes qualified to write
  the sacred scrolls of the Pentateuch, and other religious
  documents, persons qualified to slay animals for food in
  conformity with the Jewish law, readers of prayers in the
  Synagogue, readers of the Pentateuch to the congregation,
  operators of circumcision, students who devote themselves
  to the study of Hebrew theology, and teachers of religion.
  The body of people just mentioned, your Excellency will
  give me leave to say, I regard as the very soul of the
  congregation, for it is religion alone that makes a man
  true and faithful to his fellow creatures, and sincere and
  loyal to the Government under which he lives.

  "His Imperial Majesty being sensible of this sacred truth,
  in his great mercy and paternal love to all his subjects
  without reference to their religious creeds, granted
  permission to his Hebrew subjects, the soldiers at St
  Petersburg, to have Synagogues of their own, and I assure
  your Excellency that I cherish with feelings of the
  deepest gratitude to His Majesty, the memory of those days
  when, by his gracious permisssion, I was enabled to join
  my brethren in prayer. This event alone is a sufficient
  assurance to me that His Majesty's Government will in its
  wisdom add all those individuals to the classes of those
  who are considered as subjects useful to society. There
  are also individuals, though they cannot be brought under
  any of these various classes, to whom the Government will,
  I dare hope, extend its mercy. I mean persons advanced in
  age, or in an infirm state of health, and others who have
  no choice but to cultivate the soil, but have not the
  means to purchase land and agricultural implements. In
  short, these observations are merely to show that an
  immense number of people still exist who may be in every
  respect useful, honest, industrious, learned, and
  distinguished in various branches without finding a place
  in any of the four classes. A wise and humane Government
  then will surely not suffer them to be regarded as a
  burthen to the congregations, and cause them to be
  subjected to coercive measures.

  "I have now shown (I trust clearly) to your Excellency
  that the reasons advanced for not extending to the
  Israelites the mercy of their most illustrious and
  benevolent Monarch are unfounded incorrect
  representations, a circumstance which, of course, I am far
  from attributing to the most honourable and distinguished
  Committee appointed for the purpose, but to parties for
  unaccountable reasons inimically inclined towards the
  Israelites. I have further proved to your Excellency that
  the Israelites in general are not of an idle disposition;
  that, moreover, most of them are anxious to cultivate the
  land, and even pray for such occupation; that the majority
  of the Israelites dwelling near the Austrian and Prussian
  frontiers are so circumstanced that an accusation of
  transgressing the laws of excise and customs cannot in
  justice be preferred against them. I have also represented
  to your Excellency that the numerous restrictions under
  which the Israelites of all classes suffer are a cause
  that their commerce can have no chance whatever of
  prospering, but that, on the contrary, they must from day
  to day sink into deeper distress; and, further, that the
  last measure adopted for the amelioration of their
  condition would tend to a contrary effect, unless the
  number of classes be increased. It is an unquestionable
  fact that the great body of the Israelites in His
  Majesty's empire are in a state of extreme misery. I do
  not venture to discuss again the causes of these evils,
  but only speak of the reality and depth of their
  existence. His Majesty himself has seen them, the Special
  Commission has verified the fact, and I myself having had
  His Majesty's most gracious permission to visit my
  brethren, have been a sorrowful witness of it. This, then,
  being so, I am convinced His Majesty and his Government
  will bear with me while, with heartfelt gratitude for the
  goodness which His Majesty has already extended to the
  House of Israel in his solicitude to be made acquainted
  with their real condition, I venture to submit to your
  Excellency my own very humble but earnest belief of the
  principles of policy which, if brought into action, would
  surely remedy most extensively the evils already
  described, and bring the work of investigation which His
  Majesty and his Government have begun to a most happy,
  glorious, and honourable consummation.

  "I venture to hold my own views on this subject with
  confidence and decision, only because I know most
  intimately the feelings of my brethren. I have observed
  them closely in different parts of the world; have watched
  over them through a long life with very anxious attention;
  and could now, if it would benefit them, lay down that
  life for what I know to be their true character.

  "Their natural disposition as a body, your Excellency, is
  not what it may have appeared to be. Expelled long ago
  with fearful slaughter from their ancient country, and
  dispersed in every land under heaven, the oppression of
  ages may have given them, in the eyes of His Majesty's
  Government, the semblance of a character which is not
  their own. That which they may appear to have may be
  artificial and superficial, forced upon them by long
  existing, most extraordinary, and peculiar circumstances.
  For these evils His Majesty the Emperor holds the full and
  most efficacious remedy in his own most gracious heart and
  most powerful hands, under the blessing of Almighty God,
  which would surely rest upon him in the prosecution of
  such an unspeakably benign object.

  "Will His Majesty deign to hear my most humble and most
  earnest petition, and graciously put this remedy into
  application?

  "I beseech indulgent consideration while, confiding in the
  nobleness of His Majesty's mind, and in the high wisdom of
  His Majesty's Ministers, I proceed to describe it.

  "It consists primarily in nothing more than the full and
  real accordance to Israelites of the boon which His
  Majesty's Ministers have informed me has been already
  designed for them by the Imperial Government--videlicit,
  "Equal rights with all other subjects of the empire." This
  great favour bestowed by His Majesty publicly,
  immediately, and without reserve would, I am deeply
  persuaded, produce the most beneficial results. It would
  cancel at once the heavy despondency produced by the
  degradation of ages; it would call forth the ardent
  gratitude which I assure your Excellency abounds in the
  hearts of my brethren, and it would present to His
  Majesty's other subjects, and to the world at large, a
  most distinguished proof of His Majesty's paternal mercy,
  wisdom, condescension, and high magnanimity.

  "I would not argue that this favour, if it had been
  granted without limit at other times, and under other
  circumstances, would have been productive of the same
  advantages. I would only humbly urge that now at this
  moment, when the minds of my brethren and of other men
  have been so powerfully drawn to observe His Majesty's
  attention to their condition, such a measure must be
  followed by most happy consequences.

  "Entering with the deepest respect into the details of
  this subject, I would most earnestly solicit and
  supplicate--

  "_1st._ That my brethren should enjoy without reserve the
  fullest and completest right of settling at their own
  choice in any part of the Russian territory comprised
  within seventeen governments or provinces, a surface
  occupying 17,000 square miles, and that to this end His
  Majesty the Emperor would be most graciously pleased to
  cancel all laws and customs which prevent them from
  settling in any towns and villages of the Guberniums of
  Livonia and Courland, in the cities of Kiew (formerly a
  most considerable Hebrew congregation), Nicolaiew, and
  Swatopol, and in the villages situated in the Guberniums
  of Whitebsk, Mogilew, Tschornigow, and Poltawa, and that
  His Majesty would further graciously and mercifully deign
  to cancel entirely the Ukases which order the removal of
  all Israelites for fifty wersts from the frontiers and
  sea shores, leaving to summary individual punishment any
  evil disposed persons who might participate in offences
  against the revenue, and by His Majesty's great kindness
  exciting the good and loyal to combine amongst themselves
  to put down all such nefarious practices, as I faithfully
  believe that moved by His Majesty's high policy and favour
  they would do.

  "_2nd._ That they should be allowed to live in every town
  or village situated within the already mentioned space of
  17,000 square miles without being confined to any
  particular street or restricted locality, and to establish
  manufactories. It should be borne in mind that the Hebrew
  population has greatly increased since the period
  (December 9, 1804) when they were first confined to the
  above-named space. From my own observation I can affirm
  that in many places the Hebrew people live crowded
  together to such a degree, that four or five families have
  no more room to occupy than that which would barely
  suffice for one family in any other Gubernium inhabited by
  His Majesty's subjects of another creed.

  "_3rd._ The suspension of the Ukase respecting the removal
  from the inns in the villages, and permission to the
  Hebrew inhabitants of the Gubernium of Courland to keep
  farms, inns, and baiting stables agreeably to an Imperial
  Ukase of the 13th April 1835-64.

  "_4th._ The admission of the Hebrew mechanics, artizans,
  and tradesmen inhabiting Courland into the Christian
  corporations of their respective trades, or to substitute
  the privilege of forming their own corporations so that
  the Israelite might have the advantage of being allowed to
  keep his journeymen, apprentices, or other assistants to
  his trade belonging to his own creed or to any other, and
  thus avert inevitable distress.

  "_5th._ Permission to Hebrew merchants throughout Russia
  belonging to any one of the three guilds to travel into
  the interior of Russia for commercial purposes, and to
  visit Moscow and St Petersburg with the same freedom as
  the merchants of other creeds, and the extension of this
  permission to their agents, and also to mechanics of every
  description, and to carmen, waggoners, and labourers for
  the more successful prosecution of their business; of
  course upon the condition of their being provided with the
  customary passports. Respecting those individuals who do
  not belong to any of the four classes, my humble petition
  to His Majesty's Government would be to permit them to go
  into the neighbouring Guberniums for the purpose of their
  making purchases of the produce of the land and necessary
  provisions. Such privileges to Hebrew merchants and
  others, instead of being a disadvantage to commercial
  persons of other creeds, would, I think, operate to their
  great benefit, for competition and activity are the
  mainsprings of prosperous commerce, and these elements
  would become increased universally amongst the trading
  classes by this act of favour.

  "_6th._ Permission to re-establish the congregational
  unions called Kahals, which serve them as their natural
  point of centralization; and to leave all congregational
  offices in the hands of Israelites, so that their
  finances, their charitable institutions, and their minor
  duties may be under their own administration. This boon
  would, I am sure, be particularly satisfactory to my
  brethren, and would especially call forth at the same time
  their confidence and affection towards His Majesty's
  person and his Government, and that proper feeling of
  self-respect without which they cannot be expected to rise
  from their present condition of despondent degradation.

  "_7th._ Permission to Israelites to avail themselves of
  the assistance of Christians in the various occupations of
  life--a measure which would tend strongly to soften down
  those feelings of difference which now exist between these
  two classes of His Majesty's subjects, and to obliterate
  that line of demarcation which His Majesty and his
  Government justly regard with so much regret.

  "_8th._ Permission to the Israelites to live as
  agriculturists in the vicinity of their Christian
  neighbours.

  "_9th._ The right of keeping brewhouses.

  "_10th._ Promotion from the ranks of Hebrew soldiers or
  sailors who distinguish themselves in the Imperial army or
  navy.

  "_11th._ And, in fine, the removal from the Israelites of
  all such taxes and restrictions as at present they are
  made to bear in a greater number and to a greater extent
  than other classes of His Majesty's subjects, and in
  particular that of the Sabbath Light, which presses so
  heavily on the poor.

  "Such are the general details of the request that I most
  respectfully solicit your Excellency to lay before His
  Majesty the Emperor. I most humbly and earnestly pray,
  that in the great opportunity which Divine Providence has
  opened to His Majesty, he will raise the fallen, relieve
  the oppressed, cheer the desolate, and by a high and
  magnanimous measure of policy set an example which the
  whole world, and especially my brethren, will never cease
  to remember with gratitude and admiration.

  "Your Excellency will observe that what I here entreat in
  the name of my brethren, as well as in that of every
  friend of humanity, amounts in fact to nothing more than
  that which your Excellency's most enlightened and
  benevolent Sovereign has already accorded to His Hebrew
  subjects, by the declaration contained in the document
  with which your Excellency obligingly furnished me.

  "Under existing circumstances, deprived as they are of the
  means adverted to in that declaration, of turning their
  activity to useful objects, and of establishing their
  prosperity upon a safe basis, poverty, distress, and the
  annihilation of all hope must be the fate of His Imperial
  Majesty's most faithful and loyal Hebrew subjects, and
  indeed they appear already reduced to the lowest depth of
  distress.

  "I therefore most humbly approach His Majesty's
  philanthropic Government with my fervent prayer, that it
  will be pleased to carry out without delay the good and
  humane intentions of His Most Gracious Majesty the
  Emperor, manifested in his decrees.

  "With respect to the real disposition of my brethren, I
  feel it right to mention that from communications which I
  held with the Russian authorities during my permitted
  visit to the Israelites in His Majesty's dominions, I have
  reason to think that my co-religionists have been
  generally exempt from the commission of capital crimes,
  and that even in regard to ordinary morality and the
  greater proportion of minor offences, their conduct is of
  a very exemplary kind. I sincerely hope that this
  statement will accord with the reports in the possession
  of His Majesty's Government. I feel confident that His
  Majesty's Government will reflect upon another pleasing
  fact of which I was also informed, that the Israelites
  have never been connected with the formation of any plot
  or scheme against those in authority, but on the contrary
  have endeavoured on all occasions to serve their country
  with earnest zeal, and with most unanimous sacrifices of
  life and property. As an instance, I shall only mention
  their exertions in favour of the Empire which they have
  the happiness to inhabit, during the presence of the
  French in Russia, in the year 1812, and more particularly
  in the revolt of the year 1830. On the latter occasion the
  Israelites were highly gratified by a proclamation, which
  their magnanimous Monarch caused to be issued in his name,
  by the Adjutant General Prince Nikolai Andrewitz
  Dolgarukow, in which His Majesty condescended to express
  his great satisfaction with my brethren, and, moreover,
  renewed his assurance to them that they should find in
  Russia, under the glorious sceptre of their exalted
  Monarch, a fatherland and security of their property and
  privileges.

  "I am happy to repeat my statement to your Excellency that
  the same loyal sentiments towards His Majesty's
  Government, which they have invariably cherished, still
  animate their hearts, and that they embrace with avidity
  every opportunity to accede to the wishes of the
  Government.

  "The following fact will, I trust, bear me out in my
  assertion. On His Majesty's desiring that the Israelites
  should change their costume, for which, as having been
  peculiar to themselves and their ancestors, they had a
  natural predilection, they have shown their obedience to
  this desire, though this was not done without considerable
  pecuniary sacrifice and ruinous loss to many whose
  warehouses were well provided with furs and silks.

  "I beg to assure your Excellency they are ready to
  cultivate the land; they are prepared to undertake any
  work however laborious; they wish to establish
  manufactories of every description; they are desirous to
  cultivate their minds to the best of their power by the
  study of modern science and literature. Be assured that
  poverty, restriction, and disproportioned taxation have
  alone heretofore prevented them from effecting these
  objects. But it is in the power of His Majesty's
  Government to raise and revive them all, by simply
  decreeing the removal of existing impediments to their
  full enjoyment of all the privileges which their most
  humane and paternal Emperor has granted them.

  "I beg to assure your Excellency that I well know how to
  appreciate the great confidence which His Majesty's
  Government has placed in me, in granting the privilege of
  personally witnessing the state of my brethren in Russia.
  The influence which I flatter myself that I have with
  them, I have exercised for the purpose of strengthening
  them in their continual efforts to meet the wishes of His
  Majesty's Government.

  "With your Excellency's kind permission I shall have the
  honour from time to time to address your Excellency on the
  important matter which forms the subject of my present
  communication, and to which His Majesty's enlightened
  Government has devoted itself with so much zeal and
  humanity.

  "I shall ever gratefully remember the kindness and
  attention which your Excellency was always pleased to
  evince towards me during my stay in the Imperial city, and
  your Excellency will give me leave to say that my visit to
  Russia will ever be remembered with heartfelt gratitude
  for the greatest condescension and humanity of the most
  illustrious and magnanimous Emperor Nicholas, from whose
  royal lips I heard that I should have the satisfaction of
  taking with me his assurances and the assurances of his
  Ministers that he was desirous to improve the condition of
  my co-religionists.

  "In most fervent prayers I unite with two millions of His
  Majesty's faithful Hebrew subjects, supplicating the most
  High to grant long life and everlasting glory to their
  beneficent Sovereign, who we further pray may behold the
  fruition of his desire to ensure the happiness of every
  class in his dominions, and thus reap the sincerest
  gratitude of every humane and philanthropic heart.

  "It may be proper to observe that, mindful of the
  condescension and confidence reposed in me by His Imperial
  Majesty, I consider this report, together with the two
  reports by which it is accompanied, a private and
  confidential communication.

  "In conclusion, I entreat your Excellency's indulgence to
  pardon the length at which I have ventured to intrude on
  your Excellency's attention, and with feelings of the most
  profound respect, I have the honour to be your
  Excellency's most faithful and devoted humble servant,

  (Signed) "Moses Montefiore."



CHAPTER XLV.

1846.

REPORT TO COUNT OUVAROFF ON THE STATE OF EDUCATION AMONG THE JEWS
IN RUSSIA AND POLAND--VINDICATION OF THE LOYALTY OF THE JEWS.


The report to Count Ouvaroff, Minister of Public Instruction at
St Petersburg, was as follows:--

  "To His Excellency, le Comte Ouvaroff, Ministre de
  l'Instruction publique de sa Majesté l'Empereur de Russie,
  &c., &c., &c.

  "May it please your Excellency,--The zealous and untiring
  energy which your Excellency evinces in continual efforts
  to promote education, and to diffuse amongst all classes
  of His Imperial Majesty's subjects that important
  blessing, Knowledge, will, I feel assured, induce you to
  pardon me if I venture to lay before your Excellency such
  observations on the present condition of my brethren in
  Russia, with respect to their educational establishments,
  as by your Excellency's favour I have been enabled to
  make.

  "Previously to my doing so, I beg leave to present my
  warmest acknowledgments for the very kind and
  condescending manner in which your Excellency was pleased
  to convey to me the sentiments of His Imperial Majesty's
  Government. I shall ever remember with gratitude the
  assurances your Excellency gave me, that the Russian
  Government was anxious to promote only such education as
  is based upon pure religion; that it did not entertain
  sentiments inimical to the Jewish faith; that on the
  contrary the Government was anxious to institute with
  respect to the Israelites such measures as would tend to
  prove to them the paternal kindness of His Majesty; and
  that for this reason the Government had called together a
  Committee of Chief Rabbis, eminent for their piety, in
  order to gain the perfect confidence of all their
  brethren.

  "These assurances enabled me with pleasure to undertake
  the task, the result of which I now have the honour to
  submit to your Excellency, feeling convinced that your
  Excellency's noble and enlightened sentiments will induce
  you to give a due consideration to a subject of such
  infinite importance.

  "It must be to your Excellency a source of the highest
  gratification to hear that His Imperial Majesty's Hebrew
  subjects are far from depreciating the advantages which
  the human mind in general derives from education. Wherever
  and whenever I had an opportunity of addressing them on
  that subject, they assured me that they were ever ready
  most zealously to assist in the promotion of their mental
  and social improvement, and they joyfully hailed every
  opportunity presented to them of enriching their minds by
  pure and wholesome knowledge. 'An Israelite,' they said,
  'cannot underrate the value of knowledge. Every page in
  our history proves the reverse. Our ancestors, from the
  earliest period of that history, have been remarkable for
  their zeal to uphold science and literature as the
  greatest and holiest acquisitions. We refer the enquirer
  to the works of Bartholocci, Wolf, De Rossi, Rodriguez de
  Castro, by which it will be at once ascertained that
  Israelites have always kept pace in useful learning with
  their neighbours, and that all circumstances considered,
  they possess in most instances fully as much general
  knowledge as falls to the share of their non-Israelite
  fellow-subjects in a corresponding grade of society.' And
  in corroboration of this statement, I beg to inform your
  Excellency that many of the Israelites in His Imperial
  Majesty's dominions have distinguished themselves by their
  writings in Hebrew theology and literature, and that their
  works are very highly appreciated by the learned in
  Germany. 'To improve the mind and promote every kind of
  useful and sound information which tends to elevate a man
  before God and his fellow-creatures, they deem to be an
  important injunction of the sacred law.' I therefore had
  no difficulty whatever in persuading them of the good
  intentions which His Majesty's Government entertained with
  respect to the organisation of schools for their benefit.
  They overwhelmed me with quotations from the sacred
  writings, tending to show that with the Israelite it is an
  imperative duty to give the best effect to such
  benevolence.

  "Their notions of religion in general, and of the sacred
  books which treat thereon, are not less correct, and I had
  opportunities of hearing them frequently elucidate many
  Scriptural texts, in a manner which proved to me that they
  were possessed with the true spirit of their religion, and
  that they derive from the perusal of the Oral Law such
  beneficial instruction as must tend to make them faithful
  to their God, loyal to the Government of the country in
  which they live, and good men to all their fellow
  creatures.

  "Their arguments on this subject, and the excellent
  quotations which they advanced in support of them,
  appeared to me to be of so much importance that I cannot
  forbear submitting them to your Excellency's kind
  consideration, bearing particularly in mind that the
  adherents to the Oral Law, as the sacred and only
  authorized commentary to the holy Scripture, have been
  represented to your Excellency in a light certainly not
  calculated to throw much lustre on Israel at large.

  "The Talmud distinctly forbids us appropriating unlawfully
  from our neighbour, whether he be Israelite or
  non-Israelite, any object whatever, even of the smallest
  value. ('Khoshen Mishpat, Hálákhot Génébah,' ch.
  ccclxxviii., secs. 1, 2.) Every kind of deception is
  interdicted without respect to the person subject thereto
  being Israelite or non-Israelite. (Maimonides, 'Hálákhot
  Déot,' ch. ii., sec. 6.) By the same authority we are
  bound to act with equal fairness in the sale of any
  article, be the purchaser Israelite or the follower of any
  other faith. ('Khoshen Mishpat,' ch. ccxxviii.;
  Maimonides, 'Hálákhot Makhiva,' ch. xviii., sec. 1.) That
  every temptation to do wrong may be avoided, an Israelite
  is enjoined not to keep under his roof any bad coin,
  unless he deface it so that it cannot be used as current
  coin in dealing with any person, whatever be his religious
  faith. ('Peroosh Hamishnayot tehárámbam Tract Kelim,' ch.
  xii., Mishna 7.) The prohibition of such practices is
  understood in the sacred text in Deuteronomy, ch. xxv., v.
  16: 'For all that do such things, and all that do
  unrighteously, are an abomination unto the Lord thy God.'

  "Principles like these must surely tend to create good
  feeling between all Israelites and their neighbours of
  every faith.

  "Sincere attachment and perfect obedience, the strictest
  loyalty we are enjoined to evince towards the Government
  of the country in which we live, and this is a truth, my
  brethren rightly aver, prominently taught in our sacred
  writings. Therefore, in the first place, we look upon the
  monarch, though of another faith and nation, as the
  anointed of the Lord (Isaiah ch. xlv., v. 1), and consider
  his Government as a resplendence of the heavenly
  Government ('Tract Berakhot,' p. 58). We are enjoined to
  fear the Eternal Being and the King, and not to
  confederate with those who are given to change (Proverbs
  xxiv., v. 21). The prophets, in speaking of a
  non-Israelite ruler, say: 'Serve the King of Babylon, and
  ye shall live;' and they also command us to 'seek the
  peace of the city whither the Almighty has caused us to be
  carried away captives, and pray unto the Lord for it'
  (Jer. xxix., v. 7). The reverence we are enjoined to
  testify towards our earthly sovereign is further shown in
  our glorifying the Almighty Power for conferring a
  similitude of His boundless Majesty upon a mortal. We are
  enjoined not to swear against the King even in thought
  (Kohelit ch. x., v. 20), and to regard the decrees of the
  Monarch as inviolable ('Tract Baba Kama,' p. 112). We are
  distinctly ordered not to act in opposition to the King's
  laws relating to the customs and excise, _even though the
  Israelite be the most heavily taxed_ ('Baba Kama,' 112;
  'Pesakhim,' cxii. p. 2; Maimonides, 'Hálákhot Melakhim,'
  ch. iv., sec. 1; 'Khoshen Mishpat,' ch. ccclxix., sec. 6);
  and from the same authority it is incumbent on us to show
  the same veneration to those who are representatives of
  the monarch as to himself ('Tract Shébuot,' xlvii. p. 2).

  "The high esteem in which the Israelite holds every human
  being who is distinguished by moral and mental qualities,
  is clearly stated in Maimonides, 'Hálákhot Shemita
  Weyóbel,' ch. xiii., sec. 13, and of this the most
  striking confirmation is found in the words of our Talmud
  ('Baba Kama,' xxxviii. p. 1), where we are told that a
  Gentile who applies himself to the study of the sacred law
  is to be held in equal esteem with the High Priest, which
  is likewise declared in the book 'Tana debé Eliyahoo,' in
  the beginning of the ninth chapter.

  "I had another most gratifying instance of the sound and
  clear perceptions which they have of the pure doctrines of
  our religion and the traditional commentary to the sacred
  Scripture, in the sublime elucidation which they gave to
  that most important point in our creed which refers to the
  Messiah.

  "'We are praying for a time,' said they, 'when the ideas
  of mankind at large are to be noble and sublime; for a
  time when, as the prophet describes, Gentiles will come to
  the light of Zion and kings to the brightness of her
  rising (Isaiah lx., v. 3); when nations will fear the name
  of the Lord, and all the kings of the earth His glory
  (Psalms ch. cii., v. 10; Daniel ch. vii., v. 27).

  "Our sentiments are more distinctly stated by the immortal
  Maimonides in the following words ('Hálákhot Melakhim,'
  ch. xii, secs. 4, 5): 'The wise men and the prophets did
  not desire the advent of the Messiah, that they might
  attain the power of any terrestrial government, that they
  should be elevated in worldly rank by the nations, or
  enjoy every terrestrial comfort. No! this was not the
  object of their fervent prayer; their object was, in that
  glorious period, to be enabled to devote themselves wholly
  and in perfect freedom to the study of the holy law and
  its sacred literature, through which they might, at the
  end of their worldly career, attain the bliss of
  immortality. That period is expected to be full of peace;
  no war, no disturbance, no hatred; no jealousy between men
  will then exist; happiness will be the lot of every
  creature, and the whole world will only be anxious to
  acquire the knowledge of the law. Then will Israel be
  enlightened by the Word of God, for the world is to be
  filled with the knowledge of the Lord, even as the waters
  cover the sea.'

  "A most remarkable feature in the purity of that
  particular article of our creed is, that whilst the prayer
  for the Messiah regards the welfare of the whole human
  race, it also strongly inculcates a sentiment that no kind
  of coercive measures ought to be used by any person for
  the purpose of hastening the advent of that blissful
  period. Our Talmud declares that the Omnipotent enjoined
  the Israelites not to press events to bring on that
  promised season of peace, nor ever to oppose the nations
  ('Tract Ketubot," 1. cx. p. 1).

  "Having made these preliminary remarks, I shall now
  proceed to describe to your Excellency the state of the
  schools which I visited in the course of my journey
  through Russia and Poland.

  "Being anxious to convince myself of the real condition of
  my brethren, I often took them by surprise, and I am happy
  to say, although they had not teachers of profane
  sciences, still most of the pupils in some schools knew
  how to write and to read in the Russian, Hebrew, and
  German languages. In Wilna I found the schools organised
  agreeably to the command of His Imperial Majesty's
  Government; they were well provided with competent
  masters, and the pupils answered most satisfactorily
  questions in the various branches of tuition--in Latin,
  Russian, and German grammars, geography, arithmetic, and
  history.

  "In Hebrew, however, they could only obtain instruction
  during three hours each week. The pupils who frequent the
  gymnasium also attended whilst I was there the schools
  thus organised, and I had an opportunity of ascertaining
  that a considerable number of them were well versed in
  various branches of science and secular education. The
  girls' schools are in a most flourishing state, and your
  Excellency will be pleased to hear that the pupils excel
  in the knowledge of the Russian, Polish, French, Hebrew,
  and German languages, in addition to their knowledge of
  geography, Russian history, and arithmetic. With respect
  to the Talmud Tora schools (your Excellency having
  expressed so zealous a desire to advance the study of the
  Hebrew language and its literature), I feel much pleasure
  in assuring your Excellency that I examined a great number
  of pupils, and their knowledge of Hebrew was surprising.
  Sometimes they were addressed in that language, and they
  translated it into German, or _vice versâ_; on various
  occasions they continued to recite any sacred text in the
  Bible after the first word of the chapter or verse was
  given to them. At Warsaw also I found the schools
  organised upon the principles laid down by His Imperial
  Majesty's Government in a flourishing state. The pupils
  are well versed in the Russian, Polish, French, Hebrew,
  and German languages, independently of their knowledge of
  geography, history, arithmetic, and composition. I was
  equally satisfied in inspecting the girls' school. Like
  those at Wilna, these schools may be regarded as models,
  for they are upon an equality with similar establishments
  in my own country. The school of industry I also found to
  be a most excellent establishment, which, in the course of
  time, will confer great benefits upon the rising
  generation. With respect to the Talmud Tora schools, in
  which a knowledge of Hebrew language and its literature is
  exclusively taught, I beg leave to assert that there is
  not any school in the most distinguished Hebrew
  congregation in Europe that deserves to rank higher than
  those established in Warsaw and Wilna. Of the various
  Hebrew schools which I visited in the smaller towns on my
  route, I was frequently surprised in a most agreeable
  manner. At those where I expected it the least the pupils
  were well acquainted with the Hebrew language and its
  literature, and on many occasions wrote in my presence
  various sentences in the Russian, Hebrew, and German
  languages.

  "I particularly inquired the reason why the Talmud Tora
  schools had no professors appointed for the Russian
  language and other branches of secular science and
  literature, this deficiency having struck me the more
  after having heard such powerful arguments in favour of
  studying these, showing that a knowledge of worldly
  science and literature, when combined with that of Hebrew
  and the observance of pure religion, was well adapted to
  improve an Israelite. The answer to my inquiry was, that
  they had not the means to procure such professors; that
  to have a master of that description would have given them
  the highest pleasure, but that having themselves to
  contend with innumerable difficulties in obtaining the
  ordinary and most urgent necessaries of life, they deemed
  it their first duty morally and religiously to procure,
  with the limited means they had, such instruction for
  their children as is essential for the enjoyment of their
  religion, leaving other kinds of learning for more
  favourable opportunities. Of their real feeling on this
  head the following incident is an example. I offered the
  means of procuring masters for the Russian language,
  geography, history, writing, and arithmetic in several
  schools, and my offer was most eagerly accepted, and the
  following day masters were engaged.

  "With respect to the inclination of the Israelites to
  frequent public schools, I found that a considerable
  number of the Jewish youth do attend these institutions,
  and many more would do so were it not that a most
  difficult question arises to their parents, who say, 'We
  thoroughly appreciate the great advantages derivable from
  additional acquirements, but what is to become of our
  children after their minds shall have been so instructed
  in the higher branches of knowledge and their
  sensibilities thereby necessarily refined? or how are we
  to provide them with proper habiliments and books required
  for the purpose if we can hardly afford to satisfy them
  with bread?' Very many Israelites are also much afraid
  that the mode of instruction at some public schools, and
  at some established for the Israelites exclusively, may
  induce their children to abjure the Jewish faith, which of
  course is dear to Israelites, and which they are ready to
  defend with their lives. For there are schools where
  persons, who are apostates from the Hebrew religion, are
  allowed to instruct the pupils, a course of tuition which
  must give rise to the most painful anxiety in the minds of
  those by whom that religion is still cherished.

  "I beg leave now to state, with the most profound respect
  for your Excellency's judgment on this important subject,
  that I have given it most serious consideration, and
  knowing from ample evidence that my brethren in the
  Russian empire are most anxious to advance their mental
  and social improvement, I humbly submit to your Excellency
  that they are in a fit condition for receiving the
  benefits which their most benevolent and merciful monarch
  intended to bestow upon them.

  "My humble petition to your Excellency is, that by your
  humane and kind intercession supplications may be brought
  effectually before His Imperial Majesty's Government.

  "Those supplications I will thus set forth. In the first
  place, that they may be permitted to have the management
  themselves of their Hebrew theological schools. This is
  essential to their dearest sympathies and interests, as no
  other persons could promote the study of Hebrew literature
  more effectually. In all regions where civilisation has
  made any marked progress, wherever its blessings are
  really experienced, Hebrew literature is regarded as its
  most precious feature, and all nations ardently cultivate
  its study and render homage to its worth. May it therefore
  please the Imperial Government to allow the Israelites
  themselves, the people by whose agency this boon has been
  given to mankind, to have the direction of those
  establishments in which they are to be trained in the true
  knowledge of their own inalienable inheritance. For the
  acquirement of knowledge in secular science and literature
  they should also have the appointment of their own
  teachers, such whose competency may be approved of by His
  Majesty's Minister of Public Instruction, or should be
  allowed to avail themselves of the public educational
  establishments, subject, of course, to such periodical
  examinations as may be deemed necessary to test the
  progress of the pupil.

  "Secondly, they consider it a just regulation that, in
  those schools which His Majesty's Government has
  originated solely for their benefit, no convert from
  Judaism be appointed a teacher. Particular allusion is
  here made to the Rabbinical school at Warsaw, where a
  person who was tutor, whilst belonging to that faith,
  continues to hold that situation even after having abjured
  it and embraced another. No permanent satisfaction can
  result from such an anomaly, which will surely deter
  sincere Israelites from sending their children to
  institutions placed in similar circumstances, as they will
  naturally suppose that His Imperial Majesty's Government
  encourages conversion, but which I am assured, by a
  statement from your Excellency, it does not desire. Such
  appointments of instructors should be made as would remove
  all misconception on this vitally important subject.

  "Thirdly, I submit to your Excellency that it is just that
  the Ukase issued on the 24th November 1836, declaring that
  all such Hebrew books as are pronounced by the Chief Rabbi
  not to contain inimicable sentiments to the government of
  the country, be permitted to remain with the Israelites,
  do continue in full force, because unfortunately during
  the last eleven months, the Hebrew libraries of private
  individuals have been in the hands of the police, and many
  books which they were authorized to keep by the Chief
  Rabbi, having thereon his seal and signature, were taken
  away from them, and even those books on which the
  Committee of Censors would find nothing wrong, are still
  kept back by the Committee. May it therefore please your
  Excellency to order that the books be returned to the
  owners.

  "Finally, I have to petition your Excellency to take
  seriously into consideration all that I have here advanced
  on my suffering brethren's behalf. Your Excellency, I am
  aware, entertains the most philanthropic views, and when
  your Excellency reflects on the earnest desire of my
  brethren in His Imperial Majesty's dominions to benefit by
  education in the most comprehensive and useful sense of
  the word, and the restrictions which as Israelites impede
  a beneficial progress therein, I am sure that your
  Excellency's enlightened judgment will accord them your
  powerful advocacy with His Imperial Majesty's Government.

  "Your Excellency may indeed believe that I assert as my
  solemn conviction, that when they shall fully enjoy those
  privileges and opportunities which their paternal and
  beneficent Sovereign has designed for them, the result
  will be surprising to those who have underrated their
  talents and inclinations, and most gratifying to all who
  like your Excellency have evinced a sincere desire to
  promote their welfare, equally with that of the other
  numerous people over whom His Imperial Majesty reigns.--I
  have the honour to be, with the highest consideration and
  the most profound respect, your Excellency's most faithful
  servant.

  (Signed) "Moses Montefiore."



CHAPTER XLVI.

1846.

REPORT TO COUNT KISSELEFF ON THE STATE OF THE JEWS IN
POLAND--PROTEST AGAINST THE RESTRICTIONS TO WHICH THEY WERE
SUBJECTED.


The last of the three important reports made by Sir Moses Montefiore
to the Ministers of the Emperor of Russia was to Count Kisseleff, and
ran as follows:--

  "To his Excellency Le Comte de Kisseleff, Ministre du
  domaine de l'Empire de sa Majesté l'Empereur de Russie,
  &c., &c., &c.

  "May it please your Excellency,--My first and principal
  report had reference, as your Excellency will have seen,
  to the condition and wants of my brethren in Russia. In
  obedience, however, to the permission which His Majesty
  the Emperor most graciously gave me, and to your
  Excellency's most benevolent desire, it is incumbent on me
  to make some remarks (which for the sake of clearness I
  prefer submitting in a distinct paper) in regard to those
  who are inhabitants of the kingdom of Poland. In so doing,
  I would humbly beseech His Majesty the Emperor, your
  Excellency, and His Majesty's Government at large, so far
  as it may be made acquainted with the subject, to receive
  such remarks, and any requests that may stand connected
  with them, with great and indulgent consideration.

  "Humble as is my position in life, when compared with the
  most exalted stations of the high persons to whom I
  venture to address myself, I nevertheless have laid upon
  me by the high benevolence itself which I have
  experienced, a heavy responsibility to Almighty God, to
  His Majesty the Emperor and his Government, to my
  brethren, and I believe to the whole civilized world.

  "I most sincerely believe that the human race at large
  would experience solid and lasting benefit, if His Majesty
  would deign to carry out fully and completely his gracious
  expressions of desire for the welfare of his Hebrew
  subjects. With these views I would most humbly and
  earnestly supplicate that the great and sublime course of
  proceeding already commenced by His Majesty, which I have
  ventured to solicit for the Israelites in Russia, should
  be extended as fully to those of my brethren who are
  resident in Poland. I supplicate the powerful Russian
  Government to prove to the whole civilized world that the
  amelioration of the condition of the Hebrew race, for
  which it is so graciously desirous, can be produced with
  completeness and effect, by measures that would appeal to
  the gratitude and love of a loyal and warm-hearted people.

  "Permit me in the first place to direct your Excellency's
  attention to two paragraphs, the fifth and seventh of the
  Organization Statute of Poland promulgated in the year
  1832, and which are immediately connected with the subject
  in question.

  "Therein His Majesty the Emperor and King of Poland
  declares that 'the difference from the Christian modes of
  worship cannot be regarded as a cause of exclusion to any
  person whatever from the rights and privileges granted to
  all other inhabitants professing the Christian religion.

  "'The protection of the law equally extends to all the
  inhabitants of the kingdom without any distinction of rank
  or social condition.'

  "With the profoundest respect I will now proceed to lay
  before your Excellency the following brief enumeration of
  serious restrictions under which my brethren in Poland are
  weighed down.

  "_1st._ Concerning their confined habitations.

  "(_a_) There are towns in Poland in which Israelites are
  never allowed to reside.

  "(_b_) In these towns or marts where they have permission
  to live it extends only to a few streets.

  "(_c_) From every habitation situated near the high roads
  they are entirely excluded.

  "(_d_) They are prohibited from settling within three
  geographical miles of the frontier, which, in a country of
  the dimensions of Poland, excludes them from a
  considerable tract of territory.

  "_2nd._ Regarding mechanics (trade).

  "(_a_) An Israelite following any trade or mechanical
  operation is not allowed to keep apprentices, neither can
  he declare such as journeymen. This naturally involves the
  Hebrew mechanic in innumerable difficulties, for he is
  entirely dependent upon his own personal exertions, and
  can never avail himself of the assistance of his
  fellow-mechanics.

  "(_b_) He is prohibited from working with a Christian
  master, and in consequence of his not being acknowledged
  as a master among the corporations, he is always
  considered as a person who injures the trade.

  "_3rd._ With respect to agriculture, crown lands, or
  ecclesiastical property.

  "The Israelite is prohibited from taking on lease, nor is
  he ever allowed to be the proprietor of any lands, however
  small in extent; for even the property of private
  individuals he can only rent by paying heavy taxes for the
  patent, and then even is not allowed to employ Christian
  assistants.

  "_4th._ Additional taxes.

  "(_a_) An Israelite has to pay a tax of three kopecs,
  besides the usual tax, upon each pound of beef or veal
  lawfully prepared for his use; fifteen kopecs silver for a
  turkey, five kopecs silver for a fowl, eight kopecs silver
  for a duck, and nine kopecs silver for a goose.

  "(_b_) A Hebrew labourer living in the vicinity of Warsaw
  cannot enjoy the advantage of bringing his goods or the
  produce of his land into the capital, there being a law
  that every Israelite from the provinces who comes to town
  should pay, daily, ten silver kopecs for permission to
  stay, and seven and a-half silver kopecs for the duty on
  the stamp.

  "(_c_) An Israelite dealing in spirituous liquors lies
  exclusively under taxes for such a privilege. Thus an
  individual having a brewhouse and brandy distillery has to
  pay 25 dollars to the City Exchequer, 66-2/3 dollars to
  the finances of the State, 66-2/3 for the distillery,
  66-2/3 for the brewery, amounting to 291-2/3 dollars
  annually; and although he pays for such a privilege
  dearly, he cannot bequeath it to his child, for only those
  are allowed to enjoy it who obtained permission in the
  year 1809.

  "_5th._ Other restrictions.

  "(_a_) An Israelite is not allowed to appear as a witness
  in a case of lawsuit against a Christian, for his evidence
  is not considered valid. The great injury he must sustain
  from such a law or practice is incalculable.

  "(_b_) As soldiers, although they may distinguish
  themselves in the army or navy, they are not permitted to
  rise in rank. The mode of enrolling recruits is also most
  painful; for, notwithstanding a distinct decree having
  been issued by His Majesty's Government in the year 1843,
  that recruits should be given up to the authorities by the
  community, without the interference of any officer, still
  great wrongs are committed by some of the petty officers,
  which cause the ruin of numerous families.

  "(_c_) They have not the advantage, like other subjects of
  His Majesty, of renting the local revenues derived from
  the sale of spirits. Not, however, that I would consider
  this restriction a hardship, excepting so far as it is a
  distinctive mark upon the Israelites in Poland.

  "(_d_) They are excluded from the great advantages
  derivable from the acquirement of science and literature,
  by being prohibited from following the professions of
  chemists, architects, lawyers, and several other similar
  avocations.

  "Like their brethren in Russia, the Israelites of Poland
  are accused of great aversion to every kind of manual
  labour, preferring to gain a livelihood by devotion to
  petty commerce. It is alleged also, that they are
  disinclined to agriculture, avoid every mechanical
  pursuit, and defraud the Government of the excise and
  customs; that they distinguish themselves from the rest of
  the inhabitants by their particular costume; and finally,
  that the precepts of their religion, to which they most
  scrupulously adhere, are of antisocial tendency.

  "I entreat your Excellency's kind consideration of the few
  observations which I deem it essential to offer, in
  reference to the foregoing imputations. The statistical
  accounts of Poland shew that, in proportion to the number
  of Hebrew inhabitants, there are more mechanics amongst
  them than amongst any other class of His Majesty's Polish
  subjects; they devote themselves to the most laborious
  occupations, and it may be easily ascertained that there
  is not only a great number of Hebrew brickmakers,
  blacksmiths, paviors, and carpenters, but there may be
  found two thousand Israelites who break stones on the
  chaussees. As a most striking instance, I shall name to
  your Excellency a small town of the name of Kalnary, where
  there exist no less than 486 families following mechanical
  pursuits, amongst a Hebrew population of 1500 families, as
  I believe may be proved by the official accounts of the
  police.

  "Your Excellency, I am confident, will be of opinion that
  it may be justly inferred, if, under the restrictions
  against which the Hebrew mechanic has daily to contend, he
  still perseveres in his pursuits with honesty, and remains
  spotless in his character, this class of persons would be
  greatly augmented if all those obstacles were to be
  removed which now press so heavily on industrial exertion.

  "With respect to agriculture, permit me to mention that in
  the year 1823, when the decree was issued, under his late
  Majesty, the Emperor Alexander of blessed memory, that the
  Polish Jews should cultivate the land, though they were
  denied the privilege of becoming proprietors, and though
  they had to contend with various other restrictions
  connected with agriculture, under the hand of an
  Israelite, to which I have already alluded in the
  preceding pages, nevertheless a considerable number of
  them offered themselves to cultivate the land, but,
  unfortunately, could not succeed in their applications.
  The local authorities always replied to the petitioners
  that the land in question was not qualified for them as
  Israelites, that they should look out for some other piece
  of ground which the Government could dispose of to them.
  In consequence of these answers, the applicants petitioned
  for a list of all the land which might be accessible to
  Israelites, yet I regret to say that twenty-three years
  have since passed without any reply having been given to
  this humble request. Thus circumstanced, they petitioned
  to the effect that the wealthier classes amongst them
  might be permitted to purchase land from private
  individuals, either to cultivate the same in person, or to
  let it out in small portions to the poor, yet under the
  condition that the space of land should not extend to more
  than would be sufficient for five or ten farmers to
  cultivate. Moreover, the proposed purchasers declared
  their willingness to relinquish any right and privilege
  any other (non-Israelite) proprietor of land might be
  entitled to. They went still further, for in their anxious
  desire to secure the honest object of their petition, they
  offered the forfeiture of the land in case any of the
  parties connected with its agriculture were to be found
  withdrawing from personally cultivating it, or were to be
  proved guilty of calling in Christian peasants, however
  few, for the assistance of the new agriculturists.

  "I have no doubt that, equally with their Russian
  brethren, the Israelites of Poland are most desirous to
  adopt agricultural pursuits.

  "It has been charged against the Israelites of Poland,
  that they do not render any personal service to the
  country in which they live. This charge might not have
  been without foundation eighteen or twenty years ago, when
  they paid an annual tribute of many hundred thousand
  dollars for the privilege of being exempted from personal
  military service, but not so at present, for many thousand
  Israelites have evinced their devotion to the cause of
  their native land, by sacrificing their lives on numerous
  occasions, and their services in the army and in the navy
  have already been appreciated by their exalted Monarch
  himself.

  "With respect to the peculiar costume which most of the
  Israelites have been accustomed to wear for many
  centuries, from what I had an opportunity of seeing I can
  assure your Excellency that most of them have already
  adopted the European habit, and I have not the least doubt
  that, in the course of time, the ancient dress will have
  entirely disappeared. It is erroneous to suppose that the
  ancient costume is enjoined by, or has any foundation in
  religion. Such is not the fact. It originated from a
  decree of the Government in existence three hundred years
  ago, when the Israelites were commanded under a most
  severe punishment to assume this garb to distinguish them
  as members of the Jewish faith. The truth of this
  statement may be ascertained by referring to 'Vol. Leg.
  Polon. Sub. Anno 1538,' Vol. I., p. 254.

  "Having now, as I trust to the satisfaction of your
  Excellency, refuted all the arguments which have hitherto
  been held of sufficient moment to deprive many hundred
  thousands of Israelites of the rights and privileges
  which, as faithful subjects, they, in accordance with His
  Imperial Majesty's humane intention, ought to enjoy, I
  most humbly implore His Majesty's Government in its great
  wisdom to remove from His Majesty's Hebrew subjects all
  restrictions which may prove obstacles to their honest
  pursuits in life, and in particular those restrictions
  which I have previously alluded to, and which I have
  endeavoured to classify.

  "Possibly your Excellency, though animated with the
  noblest feelings of humanity, may, in the fulfilment of
  the duty your high position imposes, deem it necessary to
  call my attention to the existence of certain restrictions
  which, on account of the pecuniary advantages the State
  derives from them, cannot easily be removed; such, for
  instance, as the meat tax, which annually amounts, to
  300,000 silver roubles. But in answer to this, permit me
  to observe that in conformity to His Majesty's most
  gracious decree issued in the year 1817, the Israelites
  were, on entering the army or navy, to be free from paying
  the exemption money, and in addition to this were to enjoy
  the same privileges in every respect as all the other
  inhabitants of the country.

  "The Israelites are now acting to the very letter of the
  Imperial Ukase, for they serve personally in the army and
  navy, and are acknowledged to be good, brave, and
  faithful. I submit, therefore, that they are now entitled
  to the same privileges as are granted to all other
  inhabitants, and as a matter of course, to be free from
  the payment of exemption money. Considerations of economy
  will not, I feel persuaded, be permitted to overrule the
  just and humane intentions of His Imperial Majesty.

  "I entreat your Excellency distinctly to understand that I
  have not written with this comparative brevity on the
  subject of the Israelites in Poland, because I think their
  position less deserving the attention of the Imperial
  Government than that of the Russian brethren. On the
  contrary, in Poland affliction and degradation are the
  more severe; and what stronger fact can be offered in
  support of the urgency of the claim of the Israelites of
  the last named country on the justice and humanity of His
  Imperial Majesty than this, that these persons constitute
  one fourth of the whole population.

  "I have written less fully concerning my Polish brethren,
  only because I am most unwilling to trespass more than my
  absolute duty requires upon the gracious consideration
  which I supplicate; and I would further observe, that my
  report as to my brethren in Russia has been drawn up with
  the intention that those who are resident in Poland should
  be included in its general arguments.

  "It would be to me a source of the deepest regret, if from
  any observations made in this or the preceding letter the
  impressions were produced on the mind of His Majesty that
  I had responded to his most gracious conduct towards me by
  a tone of unsuitable complaint in regard to the state of
  my brethren. Such a course, I earnestly assure your
  Excellency, I have been most desirous to avoid. I have
  given the most anxious care to the investigation of the
  facts to which I have adverted, and I have made no
  representation of the truth of which I have not received
  very strong evidence.

  "I have endeavoured to elucidate the causes which tend to
  produce the evils to which I have directed the attention
  of your Excellency, and if I have commented on them with
  frankness, I trust it will be conceded that this was my
  duty, and that in so doing I have best fulfilled the
  wishes of His Imperial Majesty, who, by experience, I know
  to be as condescending as he is powerful.

  "I therefore call upon the unbounded justice of His
  Majesty's Government; I pray, in the name of suffering
  humanity, to that most exalted and mighty Monarch, whose
  noble heart is filled with love and deep affection towards
  his faithful subjects, to consider the case of my
  brethren, and show mercy to the many hundred thousands of
  them who daily send up to the Eternal Ruler of myriads of
  worlds their most devout and fervent prayers to prolong
  the glorious life of His Majesty, their Emperor and King.
  I feel myself in sacred duty bound to impress upon your
  Excellency's noble mind that the benign words I had the
  honour of hearing from your illustrious person, to promote
  the welfare of Israel, was one of the principal causes
  which emboldened me to lay the case of my brethren so
  close at your heart. I therefore entreat your Excellency's
  powerful influence with His Majesty's Government on behalf
  of those who look up for help with the greatest anxiety to
  their benevolent and magnanimous Sovereign.

  "Everlasting blessings will be showered down from Him in
  whose hand the welfare of every creature lies upon the
  exalted throne of His Imperial Majesty. Generation to
  generation will proclaim his glory and righteousness;
  every mouth will sing praise to the Lord, and every heart
  will bear gratitude for being permitted to live under the
  benign rays of the merciful sceptre of Russia.--I have the
  honour to be, with the highest consideration and the most
  profound respect, your Excellency's most faithful servant,

  (Signed) "Moses Montefiore."



CHAPTER XLVII.

1847.

THE CZAR'S REPLY TO SIR MOSES' REPRESENTATIONS--COUNT OUVAROFF'S
VIEWS--SIR MOSES AGAIN WRITES TO COUNT KISSELEFF--SIR MOSES IS
CREATED A BARONET.


The reports given in the foregoing chapters were forwarded to Lord
Bloomfield, the British Ambassador at St Petersburg, who in letter
dated January 3rd, 1847, informed Sir Moses that he had forwarded them
to their respective addresses. Lord Bloomfield, having read the
reports, adds: "I need scarcely assure you that I have perused them
with great interest, and have gleaned much useful information from
this result of your labours."

Count Kisseleff prefaces his reply to Sir Moses, dated November 5th,
1847, with the following words:--

  "Monsieur,--J'ai en l'honneur de recevoir les deux
  memoires que vous avez bien voulu m'adresser en date du 10
  Novembre dernier (1846) sur la situation des Israélites de
  l'Empire et du Royaume de Pologne. L'une et l'autre de ces
  pieces out été placées sous les yeux de l'Empereur, et Sa
  Majésté Impériale, appréciant les sentimens de
  philantropie qui les out dictées, a daigné a cette
  occasion exprimer une fois de plus tout l'intérêt qu' Elle
  porte à Ses sujets Israélites, dont le bien-être et
  l'avancement moral ne cesseront d'être l'objet de sa
  constante sollicitude.

  "Vos deux mémoires seront portés, par ordre de l'Empereur,
  à la connaissance du Comité, et serviront à appeler son
  attention sur différens détails. Cette disposition vous
  prouvera, combien Sa Majésté Impériale s'est plue à rendre
  justice aux intentions qui ont dicté votre travail et à
  l'esprit dans lequel il est conçu.

  "Agréez, Monsieur, l'assurance de ma considération
  distinguée,

  "Le Cte. de Kisseleff."

  (_Translation._)

  "Sir,--I have had the honour to receive the two memorials
  which you addressed to me on the 10th of November last
  (1846) respecting the situation of the Israelites in the
  Empire and in the Kingdom of Poland.

  "Both documents have been placed before the Emperor, and
  His Imperial Majesty, appreciating the feelings of
  humanity which have dictated them, has been pleased to
  express once more the interest which he takes in his
  Israelite subjects, whose welfare and moral advancement
  will not cease to be the object of his constant
  solicitude.

  "Your two memorials will be brought to the knowledge of
  the Committee, by order of the Emperor, and they will
  serve to direct its attention to various details. This
  proceeding will show you how much His Imperial Majesty has
  been pleased to do justice to the intentions which have
  dictated your labour, and to the spirit in which it has
  been conceived.--I have the honour to be, &c.,

  "Count Kisseleff."

Count Ouvaroff, the Minister of Public Instruction, acknowledged the
receipt of the report addressed to him as follows:--

  "Monsieur,--J'ai reçu la lettre que vous m'avez fait
  l'honneur de m'adresser en date du 10 Novembre 1846. Vos
  observations, sur l'état, de nos écoles Israélites,
  m'ont vivement intéressé, et je vous sais gré de les
  juger favorablement car ce ne sont que les premiers
  commencements, d'une ère nouvelle dans l'éducation de
  vos corréligionaires en Russie. Il est cependant permis
  d'espérer que l'organisation des fonds, spécialement
  destinés à cet effet, nous applanira la voie des
  améliorations désirées.

  "Quant à votre sollicitude sur l'éducation réligieuse
  des Israélites, vous connaissez, Monsieur, mes
  sentiments à cet égard et vous avez pu apprécier
  vous-même le soin, avec lequel on évite dans nos
  reglements scolaires tout ce qui pourvait choquer, leurs
  moeurs on exciter leur susceptibilité réligieuse.

  "Agréez, Monsieur, l'assurance de ma considération
  distinguée.

  "Le Cte. Ouvaroff."

  "St Petersbourg,
  "_ce 26 Février_
  _______________
  "_10 Mars 1847._"

  (_Translation._)

  "Sir,--I have received the letter which you did
  me the honour to address to me under date of November
  10th, 1846.

  "Your observations on the state of our Israelite schools
  have greatly interested me, and I thank you for
  expressing a favourable opinion of them, as they are
  only the first beginning of a new era in the education
  of your co-religionists in Russia. But we may be
  permitted to hope that the organisation of the funds
  specially intended for this purpose will smooth the way
  to the desired improvements.

  "With regard to your solicitude about the religious
  education of the Israelites, you know my feeling with
  regard to this matter, and you were able to judge for
  yourself of the care we take to avoid in our school
  regulation all that could give offence to their
  observances or awaken their religious susceptibilities."

  (Signed) "Count Ouvaroff."

Sir Moses, with a view of both conveying his gratitude to the
Ministers for their very courteous communications and of making an
additional effort to impress on their minds the object of his visit to
Russia, addressed each of them again in a special letter. To Count
Kisseleff he wrote (1848):--

  "May it please your Excellency,--I have had the honour
  to receive, through the kindness of Baron Brunnow, your
  Excellency's esteemed favour of the 5th November last,
  the contents of which were highly gratifying to me.

  "I was delighted to learn that the reports (in which, by
  His Imperial Majesty's gracious permission, I was
  enabled to represent the condition of the Russian and
  Polish subjects of His Imperial Majesty professing the
  Jewish faith) had come under the personal notice of the
  Emperor, that on that occasion His Imperial Majesty was
  pleased to reiterate his anxious desire to promote the
  welfare of his Jewish subjects, and that by His Imperial
  Majesty's directions, these reports would be submitted
  to the consideration of the Committee specially
  appointed to investigate the state of the Jews in the
  vast Empire of His Imperial Majesty, so that the
  attention of the Committee might be called to the
  several details contained in such reports. These
  evidences of His Imperial Majesty's paternal solicitude
  have made a deep impression on my heart, and cannot fail
  to be gratefully appreciated by every friend of
  humanity.

  "The sentiments which your Excellency has been pleased
  to express in the name of the Emperor, fully confirm the
  high opinion of His Majesty's exalted principles,
  entertained by myself in common with all who have had
  the good fortune to visit the numerous nations living
  under His Majesty's benignant sway.

  "I notice with sincerest satisfaction that the
  honourable committee in question have at present under
  consideration a measure to facilitate the presence of my
  co-religionists, for commercial purposes, in the
  capitals of Russia, and also the allowance of the
  privilege to cultivate land in the vicinity of Christian
  settlements.

  "These acts of His Majesty's high favour cannot fail to
  elevate the commercial standing of His Majesty's Jewish
  subjects, and by affording them still greater
  encouragement, to the maintenance of social intercourse
  with their fellow countrymen of other religious
  denominations, must necessarily lead to the improvement
  of all as citizens of one great Empire.

  "I am confidently convinced that my brethren in Russia
  and Poland understand and appreciate the benevolent
  intentions of His Imperial Majesty; that they feel
  assured that the Emperor's sole object is to improve
  their condition, and that they are impressed with the
  conviction that their truest wisdom will be to acquiesce
  cheerfully in the measures designed for their welfare by
  their powerful and enlightened Sovereign, and to adopt
  with alacrity the course which, in his paternal care,
  His Majesty may direct.

  "The gracious reception which His Imperial Majesty has
  already given to my reports, emboldens me to hope that
  the existing restrictions calculated to impede the
  well-being of my Russian brethren will be speedily
  removed. By this means I feel assured will not only
  their happiness and prosperity be promoted, but their
  character as good, useful, and most loyal subjects will
  be abundantly testified.

  "I trust that the documents to which I have referred
  will satisfy the Committee that the Israelites of His
  Majesty's Empire are not of an idle disposition, but, on
  the contrary, most of them are anxious to cultivate
  land, and even pray for such occupation, and that under
  the fostering protection of His Imperial Majesty they
  will gladly apply themselves to industrial pursuits.

  "On the whole, my heart is filled with hope that the
  honourable and distinguished Committee will take into
  consideration, the circumstances of extreme misery in
  which the great body of Israelites in His Majesty's
  Empire is placed, and that the Committee will kindly and
  speedily proceed to the arduous, but noble and sacred,
  task of carrying out the intentions of His Imperial
  Majesty to a most happy and glorious conclusion.

  "In fine I beg to express to your Excellency my
  sincerest acknowledgments for the kind and condescending
  manner in which your Excellency was pleased to convey
  to me your very gratifying communication; and with
  fervent prayers that your Excellency may soon find the
  happy opportunity of signifying to me some good tidings
  of the progress which may have been made in the further
  extension of His Imperial Majesty's favour to my
  brethren, I have the honour to remain, with the most
  profound respect, your Excellency's humble servant,

  (Signed) "Moses Montefiore."

We now return to the diary of 1846, in the entries of which, from June
20th to the end of the year, we find a succession of pleasing
evidences of the motives which prompted him and Lady Montefiore to
undertake the journey to Russia.

In an interview which he had with Sir Robert Peel, the latter told him
that he would be happy to do everything, either privately or publicly,
to forward his benevolent objects; that he would write to Count
Nesselrode to say that he had seen the favourable impression made on
the public mind by Sir Moses' report of the promises made to him; and
that, if His Excellency rightly valued its effect, those promises
would in the result be confirmed by their strict fulfilment.

_June 28th._--Sir Robert conveyed to Sir Moses, in a letter dated from
Osborne, Isle of Wight, the gratifying news that Her Majesty had
conferred on him the dignity of Baronet of the United Kingdom of Great
Britain and Ireland.

"I have the satisfaction of acquainting you," he writes, "that the
Queen has been graciously pleased to confer on you the dignity of a
baronet. This mark of Royal favour is bestowed upon you in
consideration of your high character and eminent position in the ranks
of a loyal and estimable class of Her Majesty's subjects agreeing with
you in religious profession, and in the hope that it may aid your
truly benevolent efforts to improve the social condition of the Jews
in other countries by temperate appeals to the justice and humanity of
their rulers."

The honour thereby conferred on Sir Moses by Her Majesty was not
only a cause of great happiness to himself, individually, but
also a source of the highest gratification to all his brethren in
the British Empire and on the continent, inasmuch as it
undoubtedly manifested Her Majesty's solicitude for the welfare
of all the Jews in other parts of the world.

A deputation from the elders of the Spanish and Portuguese
Jews Synagogue, headed by their President, Mr Hananel de
Castro, waited on Sir Moses to request, in the name of their
co-religionists, that he would sit for his portrait, to be
placed in the Vestry-room, to which he consented.

Sir George Hamilton, whom he had requested, when at Berlin, to
present a petition to the King of Prussia in favour of the Jews
at Krakau, informs him (June 12th) that, when dining with his
Majesty at Sans Souci, he had an opportunity of speaking to him
on the subject which Sir Moses had entreated him to explain to
His Majesty. "The King," he wrote, "was very gracious on the
occasion;" and he sent to His Majesty the petition prepared by
Sir Moses. The King regretted very much not to have seen him at
Berlin, and wished Sir Moses could have remained there until his
return.

The good offices rendered by Sir George in engaging His Majesty's
favourable consideration on the subject became a cause of much
happiness to Sir Moses.

_July 11th._--He attended the Lord Mayor's grand entertainment
given to His Highness Ibrahim Pasha. His Lordship introduced him
to the latter before dinner, and proposed his health to the
company, which was extremely well received.

Sir Moses concludes his diary for the year with expressions of
deep gratitude to Heaven for all mercies bestowed on him and his
affectionate consort.


END OF VOL. I.


Transcriber's Note:

Some Hebrew text has been transliterated into Latin characters
if one was not already provided. These passages are marked with
[Hebrew] where they occur.





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