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´╗┐Title: Reminiscences of Pioneer Days in St. Paul
Author: Moore, Frank, 1843?-
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Reminiscences of Pioneer Days in St. Paul" ***

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A Collection of Articles Written for and Published in the Daily
Pioneer Press.




If James M. Goodhue could revisit the earth and make a tour among the
daily newspaper offices of St. Paul he would discover that wonderful
strides had been made in the method of producing a newspaper during
the latter half of the past century. Among the first things to attract
the attention of this old-timer would be the web-perfecting press,
capable of producing 25,000 impressions an hour, instead of the old
hand press of 240 impressions an hour; the linotype machine, capable
of setting 6,000 to 10,000 ems per hour, instead of the old hand
compositor producing only 800 to 1,000 ems per hour, and the mailing
machine, enabling one man to do the work of five or six under the
old method. Think of getting out the Sunday Pioneer Press with the
material in use fifty years ago. It would take 600 hand presses, 600
hand pressmen and 600 boys three hours to print the edition, and as
there were no means of stereotyping in those days the forms would have
to be set up 600 times, requiring the services of 5,000 compositors.
Papers printed under these conditions would have to be sold for one
dollar each, and there would not be much profit in it at that. The
first daily papers printed in St. Paul were not conducted or a very
gigantic scale, as the entire force of one office generally consisted
of one pressman, five or six compositors, two editors and a business
manager. A few reminiscences of the trials and tribulations of the
early newspaper manager, editor and compositor may not be wholly
devoid of interest.

       *       *       *       *       *

In 1857 there occurred in Minnesota an election of delegates to the
constitutional convention to provide for the admission of Minnesota
into the galaxy of states. The election was so close, politically,
that when the delegates met there was a division, and the Republicans
and Democrats held separate conventions. At the conclusion of the work
of the two conventions the contract for printing was awarded to the
two leading papers of the state--the Pioneer and the Minnesotian--the
Pioneer to print the proceedings of the Democratic body and the
Minnesotian that of the Republican. This contract called for the
expenditure of considerable money for material with which to perform
the work. Mr. Moore, the business manager of the Minnesotian, went to
New York and purchased a Hoe press, the first one ever brought to the
state, and a large quantity of type; also a Hoe proof press, which is
still in use in the Pioneer Press composing room. When the book was
about completed the business manager of the Minnesotian was informed
that an injunction had been issued prohibiting him from drawing
any money from the state until the question of the right of the
Minnesotian to do any state printing had been determined by the
district court. Mr. Goodrich was state printer and claimed he had a
right to print the proceedings of both constitutional bodies. This
action on the part of the Pioneer produced great consternation in the
Minnesotian office, as most of the men had not received more than half
pay for some time, and now, when the balance of their pay was almost
in sight, they were suddenly compelled to await the slow and doubtful
action of the courts before receiving pay for their summer's work. The
district court, subsequently confirmed by the supreme court, decided
in favor of the Minnesotian, and the day following the decision Mr.
Moore, of the Minnesotian, brought down a bag of gold from the capitol
containing $4,000, and divided it up among his employes.

       *       *       *       *       *

In 1858, when the first Atlantic cable was laid, the news was
anxiously looked for, and nearly every inhabitant of the city turned
out to greet the arrival of the Gray Eagle and Itasca, two of the
fastest boats on the river, which were expected to bring the news
of the successful laying of the cable. The Gray Eagle started from
Dubuque at 9 o'clock in the morning and the Itasca started from
Prairie du Chien, about 100 miles farther up the river, at noon of the
same day. When the boats reached the bend below the river they were
abreast of each other, and as they reached the levee it was hardly
possible to tell which was ahead. One of the passengers on the Gray
Eagle had a copy of the Dubuque Herald containing the Queen's message,
tied up with a small stone on the inside of it, and as he threw it to
the shore a messenger from the Minnesotian caught it and ran up Bench
street to the Minnesotian office, where the printers were waiting,
and the Minnesotian had the satisfaction of getting out an extra some
little time before their competitors.

       *       *       *       *       *

In the summer season the newspapers had to rely, to a considerable
extent, on the steamboats for late Dubuque and Chicago papers for
telegraph news. There were three or four daily lines of steamers to
St. Paul, and every one of them could be distinguished by its whistle.
When it was time for the arrival of the boat bringing the newspapers
from which the different papers expected to get their telegraphic
news, messengers from the different offices would be at the levee, and
as the boat neared the shore they would leap for the gangplank, and
there was always a scramble to get to the clerk's office first.
James J. Hill and the late Gus Borup were almost always at the levee
awaiting the arrival of the steamers, but as they were after copies
of the boats' manifest they did not come in competition with the
adventurous kids from the newspaper offices.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Minnesotian was probably the first daily paper in the West to
illustrate a local feature. During the summer of 1859 a man by the
name of Jackson was lynched by a mob in Wright county, and Gov. Sibley
called out the Pioneer Guards to proceed to the place where the
lynching occurred and arrest all persons connected with the tragedy.
The Pioneer Guards was the crack military company of the state, and
the only service any of its members ever expected to do was in the
ballroom or to participate in a Fourth of July parade. When they were
called out by the governor there was great consternation in the ranks.
One of the members, who is still a prominent politician in the city,
when told that his first duty was to serve his country, tremblingly
remarked that he thought his first duty was to provide for his wife
and family.

A number of them made their wills before departing, as they thought
the whole of Wright county was in open rebellion. After being absent
for about a week they proudly marched back to the city without ever
firing a gun or seeing an enemy. The late J. Fletcher Williams was
city editor of the Minnesotian, and he wrote an extended account of
the expedition, and It was profusely illustrated with patent medicine
cuts and inverted wood type and border, the only available material at
that time that could be procured.

       *       *       *       *       *

The year 1859 was a memorable one in the political history of
Minnesota. Alexander Ramsey and George L. Becker, both now living in
this city, were the rival candidates for governor. The Republicans
made extraordinary efforts to elect their state and legislative
tickets, as both governor and United States senator were at stake.
Among the speakers imported by the Republicans were the Hon. Galusha
A. Grow of Pennsylvania and Hon. Schuyler Colfax of Indiana. Mr. Grow,
then as now, represented the congressional district in Pennsylvania in
which I formally resided, and I was very anxious to hear him, as the
first political speech I had ever heard was made by him in a small
village in Pennsylvania. The speakers were announced to speak at the
old People's theater, on the corner of Fourth and St. Peter streets,
and I was among the first to enter. The theater was packed to
overflowing. Mr. Grow had made a very interesting speech of about an
hour's duration, and Mr. Colfax was to follow for an equal length of
time. After Mr. Colfax had spoken about ten minutes an alarm of fire
was sounded and in less than fifteen minutes the entire structure was
burned to the ground. This happened about 9:30 o'clock in the
evening, and, strange to relate, not one of the morning papers had an
announcement of the fact the next day. The morning papers at that time
were something like an evening paper of to-day. They were set up and
made up in the afternoon and generally printed in the early part of
the evening. The result of that election was very gratifying to the
Republicans. I can see old Dr. Foster now writing a double column
political head for the Minnesotian, the first two lines of which were:
"Shout, Republicans, Shout! We've Cleaned the Breech Clouts Out!"

Dr. Foster was the editor of the Minnesotian and was quite a power in
the Republican party. He wielded a vigorous pen and possessed a very
irascible temper. I have often seen him perform some Horace Greeley
antics in the composing room of the old Minnesotian. At the time of
the execution of John Brown for his attempted raid into Virginia, I
remember bringing the Chicago Tribune to the doctor, containing the
announcement of the execution. I had arranged the paper so that the
doctor could take in the contents of the heading at the first glance.
The doctor looked at the headlines a second and then exclaimed, loud
enough to be heard a block, "Great God! In the nineteenth century, a
man hung for an idea!"

At another time the doctor became very much enraged over some news
that I had laid before him. In the early 50's Galusha A. Grow, of
Pennsylvania, introduced into the house of representatives the first
homestead law and the Republican party soon afterward incorporated
the idea into their platform as one of their pet measures. After
superhuman effort the bill passed the house of representatives, that
body being nearly tie politically, and was sent to the senate. The
Democratic majority in the senate was not very favorably impressed
with the measure, but with the assistance of the late President
Johnson, who was senator from Tennessee at that time, the bill passed
the senate by a small majority. There was great rejoicing over the
event and no one supposed for a moment that the president would veto
the measure. When I laid the Chicago Tribune before the excitable
doctor containing the announcement of Buchanan's veto the very air was
blue with oaths. The doctor took the paper and rushed out into the
street waving the paper frantically in the air, cursing the president
at every step.

       *       *       *       *       *

From 1854, the date of the starting of the three St. Paul daily
papers, until 1860, the time of the completion of the Winslow
telegraph line, there was great strife between the Pioneer,
Minnesotian and Times as to which would be the first to appear on the
street with the full text of the president's message. The messages of
Pierce and Buchanan were very lengthy, and for several days preceding
their arrival the various offices had all the type of every
description distributed and all the printers who could possibly be
procured engaged to help out on the extra containing the forthcoming
message. It was customary to pay every one employed, from the devil to
the foreman, $2.50 in gold, and every printer in the city was notified
to be in readiness for the approaching typographical struggle. One
year one of the proprietors of the Minnesotian thought he would
surprise the other offices, and he procured the fastest livery team In
the city and went down the river as far as Red Wing to intercept the
mail coach, and expected to return to St. Paul three or four hours in
advance of the regular mail, which would give him that much advantage
over his competitors. Owing to some miscalculation as to the time the
stage left Chicago the message was delivered in St. Paul twenty-four
hours earlier than was expected, and the proprietor of the Minnesotian
had the pleasure of receiving a copy of his own paper, containing the
complete message, long before he returned to St. Paul. The management
always provided an oyster supper for the employes of the paper first
out with the message, and it generally required a week for the typos
to fully recover from its effect.

       *       *       *       *       *

As an evidence of what was uppermost in the minds of most people at
this time, and is probably still true to-day, it may be related that
in the spring of 1860, when the great prize fight between Heenan and
Sayers was to occur in England, and the meeting of the Democratic
national convention in Charleston, in which the Minnesota Democrats
were in hopes that their idol, Stephen A. Douglas, would be nominated
for president, the first question asked by the people I would meet on
the way from the boat landing to the office would be: "Anything from
the prize fight? What is the news from the Charleston convention?"

       *       *       *       *       *

"The good old times" printers often talk about were evidently not the
years between the great panic of 1857 and the breaking out of the
Civil war in 1861. Wages were low and there was absolutely no money to
speak of. When a man did occasionally get a dollar he was not sure it
would be worth its face value when the next boat would arrive with
a new Bank Note Reporter. Married men considered themselves very
fortunate when they could get, on Saturday night, an order on a
grocery or dry goods store for four or five dollars, and the single
men seldom received more than $2 or $3 cash. That was not more than
half enough to pay their board bill. This state of affairs continued
until the Press was started in 1861, when Gov. Marshall inaugurated
the custom, which still prevails, of paying his employes every
Saturday night.

       *       *       *       *       *

Another instance of the lack of enterprise on the part of the daily
paper of that day:

During the summer of 1860 a large party of Republican statesmen and
politicians visited St. Paul, consisting of State Senator W.H. Seward.
Senator John P. Hale, Charles Francis Adams, Senator Nye, Gen. Stewart
L. Woodford and several others of lesser celebrity. The party came to
Minnesota in the interest of the Republican candidate for president.
Mr. Seward made a great speech from the front steps of the old
capitol, in which he predicted that at some distant day the capitol
of this great republic would be located not far from the Falls of St.
Anthony. There was a large gathering at the capitol to hear him, but
those who were not fortunate enough to get within sound of his voice
had to wait until the New York Herald, containing a full report of
his speech, reached St. Paul before they could read what the great
statesman had said.

       *       *       *       *       *

In the fall of 1860 the first telegraph line was completed to St.
Paul. Newspaper proprietors thought they were then in the world, so
far as news is concerned, but it was not to be so. The charges for
telegraph news were so excessive that the three papers in St. Paul
could not afford the luxury of the "latest news by Associated Press."
The offices combined against the extortionate rates demanded by the
telegraph company and made an agreement not to take the dispatches
until the rates were lowered; but it was like an agreement of the
railroad presidents of the present day, it was not adhered to. The
Pioneer made a secret contract with the telegraph company and left the
Minnesotian and the Times out in the cold. Of course that was a very
unpleasant state of affairs and for some time the Minnesotian and
Times would wait until the Pioneer was out in the morning and would
then set up the telegraph and circulate their papers. One of the
editors connected with the Minnesotian had an old acquaintance in the
pressroom of the Pioneer, and through him secured one of the first
papers printed. This had been going on for some time when Earle S.
Goodrich, the editor of the Pioneer, heard of it, and he accordingly
made preparation to perpetrate a huge joke on the Minnesotian. Mr.
Goodrich was a very versatile writer and he prepared four or five
columns of bogus telegraph and had it set up and two or three copies
of the Pioneer printed for the especial use of the Minnesotian. The
scheme worked to a charm. Amongst the bogus news was a two-column
speech purporting to have been made by William H. Seward in the senate
just previous to the breaking out of the war. Mr. Seward's well-known
ideas were so closely imitated that their genuineness were not
questioned. The rest of the news was made up of dispatches purporting
to be from the then excited Southern States. The Minnesotian received
a Pioneer about 4 o'clock in the morning and by 8 the entire edition
was distributed throughout the city. I had distributed the Minnesotian
throughout the upper portion of the city, and just as I returned to
Bridge Square I met the carrier of the Pioneer, and laughed at him for
being so late. He smiled, but did not speak. As soon as I learned what
had happened I did not do either. The best of the joke was, the Times
could not obtain an early copy of the Pioneer and set up the bogus
news from the Minnesotian, and had their edition printed and ready to
circulate when they heard of the sell. They at once set up the genuine
news and circulated both the bogus and regular, and made fun of the
Minnesotian for being so easily taken in.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Pioneer retained the monopoly of the news until the Press was
started, on the 1st of January, 1861. The Press made arrangements with
Mr. Winslow for full telegraphic dispatches, but there was another
hitch in the spring of 1861 and for some time the Press had to obtain
its telegraph from proof sheets of the St. Anthony Falls News, a paper
published in what is now East Minneapolis. Gov. Marshall was very much
exercised at being compelled to go to a neighboring town for telegraph
news, and one night when news of unusual importance was expected he
had a very stormy interview with Mr. Winslow. No one ever knew exactly
what he told him, but that night the Press had full telegraphic
reports, and has had ever since.

       *       *       *       *       *

Gov. Marshall was a noble man. When the first battle of Bull Run
occurred the earlier reports announced a great Union victory. I
remember of going to Dan Rice's circus that night and felt as chipper
as a young kitten. After the circus was out I went back to the office
to see if any late news had been received. I met Gov. Marshall at the
door, and with tears rolling down his cheeks he informed me that the
Union force had met with a great reverse and he was afraid the
country would never recover from it. But it did, and the governor
was afterward one of the bravest of the brave in battling for his
country's honor.

       *       *       *       *       *

Printers were very patriotic, and when Father Abraham called for
"three hundred thousand more" in July, 1862, so many enlisted that
it was with much difficulty that the paper was enabled to present a
respectable appearance. The Press advertised for anything that could
set type to come in and help it out. I remember one man applying
who said he never had set any type, but he had a good theoretical
knowledge of the business.

One evening an old gentleman by the name of Metcalf, father of the
late T.M. Metcalf, came wandering into the office about 9 o'clock and
told the foreman he thought he could help him out. He was given a
piece of copy and worked faithfully until the paper went to press.
He was over eighty years old and managed to set about 1,000 ems. Mr.
Metcalf got alarmed at his father's absence from home and searched the
city over, and finally found him in the composing room of the Press.
The old man would not go home with his son, but insisted on remaining
until the paper was up.

       *       *       *       *       *

Although Minnesota sent to the war as many, if not more, men than any
other state in the Union in proportion to its population, yet it was
necessary to resort to a draft in a few counties where the population
was largely foreign. The feeling against the draft was very bitter,
and the inhabitants of the counties which were behind in the quota did
not take kindly to the idea of being drafted to fight for a cause they
did not espouse. A riot was feared, and troops were ordered down from
the fort to be in readiness for any disturbance that might occur.
Arrangements for the prosecution of the draft were made as rapidly as
possible, but the provost marshal was not in readiness to have it take
place on the day designated by the war department. This situation
of affairs was telegraphed to the president and the following
characteristic reply was received: "If the draft cannot take place, of
course it cannot take place. Necessity knows no law. A. Lincoln." The
bitterest feeling of the anti-drafters seemed to be against the
old St. Paul Press, a paper that earnestly advocated the vigorous
prosecution of the war. Threats were made to mob the office. A company
was organized for self-defense, and Capt. E.R. Otis, now of West
Superior, one of the Press compositors at that time, was made post
commander. Capt. Otis had seen service in the early part of the war
and the employes considered themselves fortunate in having a genuine
military man for a leader. The office was barricaded, fifteen old
Springfield muskets and 800 rounds of ammunition was brought down from
the capitol and every one instructed what to do in case of an attack.
I slept on a lounge in the top story of the old Press building
overlooking Bridge Square, and the guns and ammunition were under my
bed. I was supposed to give the alarm should the mob arrive after the
employes had gone home. As there was no possible avenue of escape in
case of an attack, it looks now as if the post commander displayed
poor judgment in placing a lone sentinel on guard. But there was no
riot. The excitement gradually died away and the draft took place
without interruption.

       *       *       *       *       *

Before and some time after the war the daily newspapers took advantage
of all the holidays and seldom issued papers on the days following
Christmas, New Year's, Washington's birthday, Fourth of July
and Thanksgiving. On the Fourth of July, 1863, the Pioneer made
arrangements to move from their old quarters near the corner of Third
and Cedar streets to the corner of Third and Robert. It happened
that on that day two of the greatest events of the Civil war had
occurred--the battle of Gettysburg and the surrender of Vicksburg. The
Pioneer being engaged in moving their plant could not issue an extra
on that occasion, and the Press had the field exclusively to itself.
The news of these two great events had become pretty generally known
throughout the city and the anxiety to get fuller particulars was
simply intense. The Press, having a clear field for that day, did not
propose to issue its extra until the fullest possible details had
been received. A great crowd had assembled in front of the old Press
office, anxiously awaiting details of the great Union victories. I had
helped prepare the news for the press and followed the forms to the
press room. As soon as a sufficient number of papers had been printed
I attempted to carry them to the counting room and place them on sale.
As I opened the side door of the press room and undertook to reach the
counting room by a short circuit, I found the crowd on the outside had
become so large that it was impossible to gain an entrance in that
direction, and undertook to retreat and try another route. But quicker
than a flash I was raised to the shoulders of the awaiting crowd and
walked on their heads to the counting room window, where I sold what
few papers I had as rapidly as I could hand them out. As soon as the
magnitude of the news got circulated cheer after cheer rent the air,
and cannon, anvils, firecrackers and everything that would make a
noise was brought into requisition, and before sundown St. Paul had
celebrated the greatest Fourth of July in its history.

       *       *       *       *       *

I arrived in St. Paul on the morning of the 17th of April, 1858, and
Immediately commenced work on the Daily Minnesotian, my brother, Geo.
W. Moore, being part owner and manager of the paper. I had not been at
work long before I learned what a "scoop" was. Congress had passed
a bill admitting Minnesota into the Union, but as there was no
telegraphic communication with Washington it required two or three
days for the news to reach the state. The Pioneer, Minnesotian and
Times were morning papers, and were generally printed the evening
before. It so happened that the news of the admission of Minnesota was
brought to St. Paul by a passenger on a late boat and the editors of
the Pioneer accidentally heard of the event and published the same
on the following morning, thus scooping the other two papers. The
Minnesotian got out an extra and sent it around to their subscribers
and they thought they had executed a great stroke of enterprise. It
was not long before I became familiar with the method of obtaining
news and I was at the levee on the arrival of every boat thereafter.
I could tell every boat by its whistle, and there was no more scoops
'till the telegraph line was completed in the summer of 1860.

       *       *       *       *       *

During the latter part of the Civil war the daily newspapers began to
expand, and have ever since kept fully abreast of the requirements of
our rapidly increasing population. The various papers were printed on
single-cylinder presses until about 1872, when double-cylinders were
introduced. In 1876 the first turtle-back press was brought to the
city, printing four pages at one time. In 1880 the different offices
introduced stereotyping, and in 1892 linotype type-setting machines
were installed. The next great advance will probably be some system of
photography that will entirely dispense with the work of the printer
and proofreader. Who knows?



"Right this way for the Fuller house!" "Right this way for the Winslow
house!" "Right this way for the American house!" "Merchants hotel
on the levee!" "Stage for St. Anthony Falls!" These were the
announcements that would greet the arrival of travelers as they would
alight from one of the splendid steamers of the Galena, Dunleith,
Dubuque and Minnesota Packet company during the days when traveling
by steamboat was the only way of reaching points on the upper
Mississippi. Besides the above hotels, there was the Central house,
the Temperance house, the City hotel, Minnesota house, the Western
house, the Hotel to the Wild Hunter, whose curious sign for many years
attracted the attention of the visitor, and many others. The Merchants
is the only one left, and that only in name. Messengers from newspaper
offices, representatives of storage and commission houses, merchants
looking for consignments of goods, residents looking for friends, and
the ever alert dealers in town lots on the scent of fresh victims,
were among the crowds that daily congregated at the levee whenever the
arrival of one of the packet company's regular steamers was expected.
At one time there was a daily line of steamers to La Crosse, a daily
line to Prairie du Chien, a daily line to Dubuque and a line to St.
Louis, and three daily lines for points on the Minnesota river.
Does any one remember the deep bass whistle of the Gray Eagle, the
combination whistle on the Key City, the ear-piercing shriek of the
little Antelope, and the discordant notes of the calliope on the
Denmark? The officers of these packets were the king's of the day, and
when any one of them strayed up town he attracted as much attention as
a major general of the regulars. It was no uncommon sight to see six
or eight steamers at the levee at one time, and their appearance
presented a decided contrast to the levee of the present time. The
first boat through the lake in the spring was granted free wharfage,
and as that meant about a thousand dollars, there was always an
effort made to force a passage through the lake as soon as possible.
Traveling by steamboat during the summer months was very pleasant,
but it was like taking a trip to the Klondike to go East during the
winter. Merchants were compelled to supply themselves with enough
goods to last from November till April, as it was too expensive
to ship goods by express during the winter. Occasionally some
enterprising merchant would startle the community by announcing
through the newspapers that he had just received by Burbank's express
a new pattern in dress goods, or a few cans of fresh oysters. The
stages on most of the routes left St. Paul at 4 o'clock in the
morning, and subscribers to daily newspapers within a radius of forty
miles of the city could read the news as early as they can during
these wonderful days of steam and electricity.

       *       *       *       *       *

Probably no election ever occurred in Minnesota that excited so much
interest as the one known as the "Five Million Loan Election." It was
not a party measure, as the leading men of both parties favored it;
although the Republicans endeavored to make a little capital out of it
at a later period. The only paper of any prominence that opposed the
passage of the amendment was the Minnesotian, edited by Dr. Thomas
Foster. That paper was very violent in its abuse of every one who
favored the passage of the law, and its opposition probably had an
opposite effect from what was intended by the redoubtable doctor. The
great panic of 1857 had had a very depressing effect on business
of every description and it was contended that the passage of this
measure would give employment to thousands of people; that the
rumbling of the locomotive would soon be heard in every corner of the
state, and that the dealer in town lots and broad acres would again be
able to complacently inform the newcomer the exact locality where a
few dollars would soon bring to the investor returns unheard of by
any ordinary methods of speculation. The campaign was short and the
amendment carried by an immense majority. So nearly unanimous was
the sentiment of the community in favor of the measure that it was
extremely hazardous for any one to express sentiments In opposition to
it. The city of St. Paul, with a population of about 10,000, gave a
majority of over 4,000 for the law. There was no Australian law
at that time, and one could vote early and often without fear of
molestation. One of the amusing features of the campaign, and in
opposition to the measure, was a cartoon drawn by R.O. Sweeney, now
a resident of Duluth. It was lithographed and widely circulated. The
newspapers had no facilities for printing cartoons at that time. They
had to be printed on a hand press and folded into the papers. It was
proposed, by the terms of this amendment to the constitution, to
donate to four different railroad companies $10,000 per mile for every
mile of road graded and ready to iron. Work Was commenced soon after
the passage of the law, and in a short time a demand was made by the
railroad companies upon Gov. Sibley for the issuance of the bonds, in
accordance with their idea of the terms of the contract made by the
state. Gov. Sibley declined to issue the bonds until the rights of
the state had been fully protected. The railroad companies would not
accept the restrictions placed upon them by the governor, and they
obtained a peremptory writ from the supreme court directing that they
be issued. The governor held that the supreme court had no authority
to coerce the executive branch of the state government, but on the
advice of the attorney general, and rather than have any friction
between the two branches of the government, he, in accordance with the
mandate of the court, reluctantly signed the bonds. Judge Flandrau
dissented from the opinion of his colleagues, and had his ideas
prevailed the state's financial reputation would have been vastly
improved. Dr. Foster did not believe Gov. Sibley was sincere in his
efforts to protect the interests of the state, and denounced him with
the same persistence he had during the campaign of the previous fall.
The doctor would never acknowledge that Gov. Sibley was the legal
governor of Minnesota, and Tie contended that he had no right to sign
the bonds: that their issuance was illegal, and that neither the
principal nor the interest would ever be paid. The Minnesotian carried
at the head of its columns the words "Official Paper of the City," and
it was feared that its malignant attacks upon the state officials,
denouncing the issuance of the bonds as fraudulent and illegal, would
be construed abroad as reflecting the sentiment of the majority of the
people in the the community in which it was printed, and would have a
bad effect in the East when the time came to negotiate the bonds. An
effort was made to induce the city council to deprive that paper of
its official patronage, but that body could not see its way clear to
abrogate its contract. Threats were made to throw the office into the
river, but they did not materialize. When Gov. Sibley endeavored
to place these bonds on the New York market he was confronted
with conditions not anticipated, and suffered disappointment and
humiliation in consequence of the failure of the attempt. The bonds
could not be negotiated. The whole railway construction scheme
suddenly collapsed, the railroad companies defaulted, the credit of
the state was compromised, "and enterprise of great pith and
moment had turned their currents awry." The evil forbodings of the
Minnesotian became literally true, and for more than twenty years
the repudiated bonds of Minnesota were a blot on the pages of her
otherwise spotless record. Nearly 250 miles of road were graded, on
which the state foreclosed and a few years later donated the same to
new organizations. During the administration of Gov. Pillsbury the
state compromised with the holders of these securities and paid 50 per
cent of their nominal value. Will she ever pay the rest?

       *       *       *       *       *

In the latter part of May, 1858, a battle was fought near Shakopee
between the Sioux and the Chippewas. A party of Chippewa warriors,
under the command of the famous Chief Hole-in-the-day, surprised a
body of Sioux on the river bottoms near Shakopee and mercilessly
opened fire on them, killing and wounding fifteen or twenty. Eight or
ten Chippewas were killed during the engagement. The daily papers
sent reporters to the scene of the conflict and they remained in that
vicinity several days on the lookout for further engagements. Among
the reporters was John W. Sickels, a fresh young man from one of the
Eastern cities. He was attached to the Times' editorial staff and
furnished that paper with a very graphic description of the events of
the preceding days, and closed his report by saying that he was unable
to find out the "origin of the difficulty." As the Sioux and
Chippewas were hereditary enemies, his closing announcement afforded
considerable amusement to the old inhabitants.

       *       *       *       *       *

The celebration in St. Paul in honor of the successful laying of the
Atlantic cable, which took place on the first day of September, 1858,
was one of the first as well as one of the most elaborate celebrations
that ever occurred in the city. The announcement of the completion of
the enterprise, which occurred on the 5th of the previous month, did
not reach St. Paul until two or three days later, as there was no
telegraphic communication to the city at that time. As soon as
messages had been exchanged between Queen Victoria and President
Buchanan it was considered safe to make preparations for a grand
celebration. Most of the cities throughout the United States were
making preparations to celebrate on that day, and St. Paul did not
propose to be outdone. The city council appropriated several hundred
dollars to assist in the grand jubilation and illumination. An
elaborate program was prepared and a procession that would do credit
to the city at the present time marched through the principal streets,
to the edification of thousands of spectators from the city and
surrounding country. To show that a procession in the olden time was
very similar to one of the up-to-date affairs, the following order of
procession is appended:


  Escort of Light Cavalry.
  Pioneer Guard.
  City Guard.
  City Battery.
  Floral procession with escort of Mounted Cadets,
    representing Queen Victoria, President Buchanan,
    the different States of the Union, and
    other devices.
  The Governor and State Officers in carriages.
  The Judges of the State in carriages.
  The Clergy.
  Officers of the Army.
  Officers of the Navy.
  The Municipal Authorities of Neighboring Cities.
  The Board of Education in Carriages.
  The Mayor and City Council.
  Knights Templars on Horseback.
  Odd Fellows.
  Typographical Corps.
  Officers and Crews of Vessels in Port.
  German Reading Society.
  German Singing Society.
  Attaches of Postoffice Department.
  Citizens in Carriages.
  Citizens on Horseback.
  Brewers on Horseback.
  Butchers on Horseback.

Col. AC Jones, adjutant general of the state, was marshal-in-chief,
and he was assisted by a large number of aides. The Pioneer Guards,
the oldest military company in the state, had the right of line. They
had just received their Minie rifles and bayonets, and, with the
drum-major headgear worn by military companies in those days,
presented a very imposing appearance. The Pioneer Guards were followed
by the City Guards, under Capt. John O'Gorman. A detachment of cavalry
and the City Battery completed the military part of the affair. The
fire department, under the superintendence of the late Charles H.
Williams, consisting of the Pioneer Hook and Ladder company, Minnehaha
Engine company, Hope Engine company and the Rotary Mill company was
the next in order. One of the most attractive features of the occasion
was the contribution of the Pioneer Printing company. In a large car
drawn by six black horses an attempt was made to give an idea of
printers and printing in the days of Franklin, and also several
epochs in the life of the great philosopher. In the car with the
representatives of the art preservative was Miss Azelene Allen, a
beautiful and popular young actress connected with the People's
theater, bearing in her hand a cap of liberty on a spear. She
represented the Goddess of Liberty. The car was ornamented with
flowers and the horses were decorated with the inscriptions
"Franklin," "Morse," "Field." The Pioneer book bindery was also
represented in one of the floats, and workmen, both male and female,
were employed in different branches of the business. These beautiful
floats were artistically designed by George H. Colgrave, who is
still in the service of the Pioneer Press company. One of the unique
features of the parade, and one that attracted great attention, was a
light brigade, consisting of a number of school children mounted, and
they acted as a guard of honor to the president and queen. In an open
barouche drawn by four horses were seated two juvenile representatives
of President Buchanan and Queen Victoria. The representative of
British royalty was Miss Rosa Larpenteur, daughter of A.L. Larpenteur,
and the first child born of white parents in St. Paul. James Buchanan
was represented by George Folsom, also a product of the city. Col.
R.E.J. Miles and Miss Emily Dow, the stars at the People's theater,
were in the line of march on two handsomely caparisoned horses,
dressed in Continental costume, representing George and Martha
Washington. The colonel looked like the veritable Father of His
Country. There were a number of other floats, and nearly all the
secret societies of the city were in line. The procession was nearly
two miles in length and they marched three and one-half hours before
reaching their destination. To show the difference between a line of
march at that time and one at the present day, the following is given:


Up St. Anthony street to Fort street, up Fort street to Ramsey street,
then countermarch down Fort to Fourth street, down Fourth street to
Minnesota street, up Minnesota street to Seventh street, down Seventh
street to Jackson street, up Jackson street to Eighth street, down
Eighth street to Broadway, down Broadway to Seventh street, up Seventh
street to Jackson street, down Jackson street to Third street, up
Third street to Market street.

Ex-Gov. W.A. Gorman and ex-Gov. Alex. Ramsey were the orators of the
occasion, and they delivered very lengthy addresses. It had been
arranged to have extensive fireworks in the evening, but on account of
the storm they had to be postponed until the following night.

It was a strange coincidence that on the very day of the celebration
the last message was exchanged between England and America. The cable
had been in successful operation about four weeks and 129 messages
were received from England and 271 sent from America. In 1866 a new
company succeeded in laying the cable which is in successful
operation to-day. Four attempts were made before the enterprise was
successful--the first in 1857, the second in 1858, the third in 1863
and the successful one in 1865. Cyrus W. Field, the projector of the
enterprise, received the unanimous thanks of congress, and would have
been knighted by Great Britain had Mr. Field thought it proper to
accept such honor.

       *       *       *       *       *

Some time during the early '50s a secret order known as the Sons of
Malta was organized in one of the Eastern states, and its membership
increased throughout the West with as much rapidity as the Vandals and
Goths increased their numbers during the declining years of the Roman
Empire. Two or three members of the Pioneer editorial staff procured a
charter from Pittesburg in 1858 and instituted a lodge in St. Paul.
It was a grand success from the start. Merchants, lawyers, doctors,
printers, and in fact half of the male population, was soon enrolled
in the membership of the order. There was something so grand, gloomy
and peculiar about the initiation that made it certain that as soon
as one victim had run the gauntlet he would not be satisfied until
another one had been procured. When a candidate had been proposed for
membership the whole lodge acted as a committee of investigation,
and if it could be ascertained that he had ever been derelict in his
dealings with his fellow men he was sure to be charged with it when
being examined by the high priest in the secret chamber of the
order--that is, the candidate supposed he was in a secret chamber from
the manner in which he had to be questioned, but when the hood had
been removed from his face he found, much to his mortification, that
his confession had been made to the full membership of the order.
Occasionally the candidate would confess to having been more of a
transgresser than his questioners had anticipated.

The following is a sample of the questions asked a candidate for
admission: Grand Commander to candidate, "Are you in favor of
the acquisition of the Island of Cuba?" Candidate, "I am." Grand
Commander, "In case of an invasion of the island, would you lie awake
nights and steal into the enemy's camp?" Candidate, "I would." Grand
Commander, "Let it be recorded, he will lie and steal," and then an
immense gong at the far end of the hall would be sounded and the
candidate would imagine that the day of judgment had come. The scheme
of bouncing candidates into the air from a rubber blanket, so popular
during the days of the recent ice carnivals was said to have been
original with the Sons of Malta, and was one of the mildest of the
many atrocities perpetrated by this most noble order.

Some time during the summer a large excursion party of members of the
order from Cincinnati, Chicago and Milwaukee visited St. Paul.
Among the number was the celebrated elocutionist, Alf. Burnett of
Cincinnati, and Gov. Alexander Randall of Wisconsin. They arrived at
the lower levee about midnight and marched up Third street to the hall
of the order, where a grand banquet was awaiting them. The visitors
were arrayed in long, black robes, with a black hood over their heads,
and looked more like the prisoners in the play of "Lucretia Borgia"
than members of modern civilization.

On the following day there was an immense barbecue at Minnehaha
Falls, when the visitors were feasted with an ox roasted whole. This
organization kept on increasing in membership, until in an evil hour
one of the members had succeeded in inducing the Rev. John Penman
to consent to become one of its members. Mr. Penman was so highly
Indignant at the manner in which he had been handled during the
initiation that he immediately wrote an expose of the secret work,
with numerous illustrations, and had it published in Harper's Weekly.
The exposition acted like a bombshell in the camp of the Philistines,
and ever after Empire hall, the headquarters of the order, presented
a dark and gloomy appearance. The reverend gentleman was judge of
probate of Ramsey county at the time, but his popularity suddenly
diminished and when his term of office expired he found it to his
advantage to locate in a more congenial atmosphere.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Minnesotian and Times, although both Republican papers, never
cherished much love for each other. The ravings of the Eatanswill
Gazette were mild in comparison to the epithets used by these little
papers in describing the shortcomings of their "vile and reptile
contemporary." After the election in 1859, as soon as it was known
that the Republicans had secured a majority in the legislature, the
managers of these rival Republican offices instituted a very lively
campaign for the office of state printer. Both papers had worked hard
for the success of the Republican ticket and they had equal claims
on the party for recognition. Both offices were badly in need of
financial assistance, and had the Republican party not been successful
one of them, and perhaps both, would have been compelled to suspend.
How to divide the patronage satisfactorily to both papers was the
problem that confronted the legislature about to assemble. The war of
words between Foster and Newson continued with unabated ferocity. The
editor of the Minnesotian would refer to the editor of the Times
as "Mr. Timothy Muggins Newson"--his right name being Thomas M.
Newson--and the Times would frequently mention Dr. Foster as the
"red-nosed, goggle-eyed editor of the Minnesotian." To effect a
reconciliation between these two editors required the best diplomatic
talent of the party leaders. After frequent consultations between the
leading men of the party and the managers of the two offices, it was
arranged that the papers should be consolidated and the name of the
paper should be the Minnesotian and Times. It can readily be seen
that a marriage contracted under these peculiar circumstances was
not likely to produce a prolonged state of connubial felicity. The
relations between Foster and Newson were no more cordial under one
management than had hitherto existed when the offices were separate.
This unhappy situation continued until about the time the legislature
adjourned, when the partnership was dissolved. Dr. Foster assumed
entire control of the Minnesotian and Maj. Newson was manager of
the Times. George W. Moore was associated with Dr. Foster in the
publication of the Minnesotian prior to the consolidation, but when
the offices separated it was stipulated that Mr. Moore should have the
printing of the Journals of the two houses of the legislature as part
payment of his share of the business of the late firm of Newson,
Moore, Foster & Co., thus entirely severing his relations with the
paper he helped to found. After the arrangement was made it was with
the greatest difficulty that it was carried into effect, as Orville
Brown of Faribault had entered the field as a candidate for state
printer and came within a few votes of taking the printing to that
village. The Times continued under the management of Mr. Newson until
the first of January, 1861, when he leased the office to W.R. Marshall
and Thomas F. Slaughter, who started the St. Paul Daily Press with
its material. The Press proved to be too much of a competitor for the
Minnesotian, and in a short time Dr. Foster was compelled to surrender
to its enterprising projectors, they having purchased the entire
plant. This ended the rivalry between the two Republican dailies. Dr.
Foster and Maj. Newson, some time afterward, received commissions in
the volunteer service of the army during the Civil war, and George W.
Moore was appointed collector of the port of St. Paul, a position he
held for more than twenty years.

       *       *       *       *       *

Does any one remember that St. Paul had a paper called the Daily North
Star? The historians of St. Paul and Ramsey county do not seem to ever
have chronicled the existence of this sprightly little sheet. During
the presidential campaign of 1860 we had two kinds of Democrats--the
Douglas and the Breckinridge or administration Democrats. There
were only two papers in the state that espoused the cause of
Mr. Breckinridge--the Chatfield Democrat and the Henderson
Independent--and as they had been designated by the president to
publish such portion of the acts of congress as it was customary
to print at that time, it was quite natural that they carried the
administration colors at the head of their columns. They were called
"bread and butter papers." The supporters of Mr. Breckinridge thought
their cause would present a more respectable appearance if they had an
organ at the capital of the state. Accordingly the late H.H. Young,
the editor of the Henderson Independent, was brought down from that
village and the Daily North Star soon made its appearance. It was not
necessary at that time to procure the Associated Press dispatches, a
perfecting press and linotype machines before embarking in a daily
newspaper enterprise, as a Washington hand press and five or six
cases of type were all that were necessary. This paper was published
regularly until after election, and as the returns indicated that the
officeholders would not much longer contribute toward its support it
soon collapsed.

St. Paul had another paper that is very seldom mentioned in newspaper
history. It was called the St. Paul Weekly Journal, and was edited by
Dr. Massey, formerly of the Ohio Statesman and private secretary to
Gov. Sam Medary. This paper was started in 1862, but on account of its
violent opposition to the prosecution of the war did not meet with
much favor, and only existed about eight months.

       *       *       *       *       *

Some time during the year 1858 the Minnesotian office received about
half a dozen cases of very bad whisky in payment of a very bad debt.
They could not sell it--they could not even give it to any one.
Occasionally the thirst of an old-time compositor would get the
better of him and he would uncork a bottle. The experiment was never
repeated. Think of half a dozen cases of whisky remaining unmolested
in a printing office for more than two years. During the campaign
of 1860 the Wide Awakes and the Little Giants were the uniformed
political organizations intended to attract the attention of voters.
One dreary night one of the attaches of the Minnesotian office, and an
active member of the Wide Awakes, met the Little Giants near Bridge
Square as they were returning to their hall after a long march.
In order to establish a sort of entente cordiale between the two
organisations the Little Giants were invited over to the Minnesotian
office in hopes they would be able to reduce the supply of this
nauseating beverage. It was a golden opportunity. The invitation was
readily accepted, and in a short time fifty ardent followers of the
advocate of squatter sovereignty were lined up in front of a black
Republican office, thirsting for black Republican whisky. Bottle after
bottle, was passed down the line, and as it gurgled down the throats
of these enthusiastic marchers they smacked their lips with as much
gusto as did Rip Van Winkle when partaking of the soporific potation
that produced his twenty years' sleep. One of the cardinal principles
of the Democracy, at that time was to "love rum and hate niggers." As
the entire stock was disposed of before the club resumed its line of
march, the host of the occasion concluded that at least one plank of
their platform was rigidly adhered to.



In July and August, 1862, President Lincoln issued proclamations
calling for the enlistment of 600,000 volunteers for the purpose of
reinforcing the army, then vainly endeavoring to suppress the Southern
rebellion. It was probably one of the most gloomy periods in the
history of the Civil war. McClellan had been compelled to make a
precipitous and disastrous retreat from the vicinity of Richmond;
the army of Northern Virginia under Pope had met with several severe
reverses; the armies in the West under Grant, Buell and Curtis had not
been able to make any progress toward the heart of the Confederacy;
rebel marauders under Morgan were spreading desolation and ruin in
Kentucky and Ohio; rebel privateers were daily eluding the vigilant
watch of the navy and escaping to Europe with loads of cotton, which
they readily disposed of and returned with arms and ammunition to aid
in the prosecution of their cause. France was preparing to invade
Mexico with a large army for the purpose of forcing the establishment
of a monarchical form of government upon the people of our sister
republic; the sympathies of all the great powers of Europe, save
Russia, were plainly manifested by outspoken utterances favorable to
the success of the Confederate cause; rumors of foreign intervention
in behalf of the South were daily circulated; the enemies of the
government in the North were especially active in their efforts
to prevent the enlistment of men under the call of the president;
conspiracies for burning Northern cities had been unearthed by
government detectives, and emissaries from the South were endeavoring
to spread disease and pestilence throughout the loyal North. It was
during this critical period in the great struggle for the suppression
of the Rebellion that one of the most fiendish atrocities in the
history of Indian warfare was enacted on the western boundaries of

       *       *       *       *       *

It can readily be seen that the government was illy prepared to cope
with an outbreak of such magnitude as this soon proved to be. By the
terms of the treaty of Traverse des Sioux and Mendota in 1851 the
Sioux sold all their lands in Minnesota, except a strip ten miles wide
on each side of the Minnesota river from near Fort Ridgely to Big
Stone lake. In 1858 ten miles of the strip lying north of the river
was sold, mainly through the influence of Little Crow. The selling of
this strip caused great dissatisfaction among the Indians and Little
Crow was severely denounced for the part he took in the transaction.
The sale rendered it necessary for all the Indians to locate on the
south side of the Minnesota, where game was scarce and trapping poor.
There was nothing for them to live upon unless they adopted the habits
of civilization and worked like white men. This was very distasteful
to many of them, as they wanted to live the same as they did before
the treaty--go where they pleased, when they pleased, and hunt game
and sell fur to traders. The government built houses for those who
desired to occupy them, furnished tools, seed, etc., and taught them
how to farm. At two of the agencies during the summer of the outbreak
they had several hundred acres of land under cultivation. The
disinclination of many of the Indians to work gradually produced
dissension among themselves and they formed into two parties--the
white man's party, those that believed in cultivating the soil; and
the Indian party, a sort of young-man-afraid-of-work association, who
believed it beneath the dignity of the noble Dakotan to perform
manual labor. The white man's, or farmer's party, was favored by the
government, some of them having fine houses built for them. The other
Indians did not like this, and became envious of them because they
discontinued the customs of the tribe. There was even said to have
been a secret organization among the tepee Indians whose object it was
to declare war upon the whites. The Indians also claimed that they
were not fairly dealt with by the traders; that they had to rely
entirely upon their word for their indebtedness to them; that they
were ignorant of any method of keeping accounts, and that when the
paymaster came the traders generally took all that was coming, and
often leaving many of them in debt. They protested against permitting
the traders to sit at the pay table of the government paymaster and
deduct from their small annuities the amount due them. They had at
least one white man's idea--they wanted to pay their debts when they
got ready.

       *       *       *       *       *

For several weeks previous to the outbreak the Indians came to the
agencies to get their money. Day after day and week after week passed
and there was no sign of paymasters. The year 1862 was the the second
year of the great Rebellion, and as the government officers had been
taxed to their utmost to provide funds for the prosecution of the war,
it looked as though they had neglected their wards in Minnesota. Many
of the Indians who had gathered about the agencies were out of money
and their families were suffering. The Indians were told that on
account of the great war in which the government was engaged the
payment would never be made. Their annuities were payable in gold and
they were told that the great father had no gold to pay them with.
Maj. Galbraith, the agent of the Sioux, had organized a company to go
South, composed mostly of half-breeds, and this led the Indians to
believe that now would be the time to go to war with the whites and
get their land back. It was believed that the men who had enlisted
last had all left the state and that before, help could be sent they
could clear the country of the whites, and that the Winnebagos and
Chippewas would come to their assistance. It is known that the Sioux
had been in communication with Hole-in-the-Day, the Chippewa chief,
but the outbreak was probably precipitated before they came to an
understanding. It was even said at the time that the Confederate
government had emissaries among them, but the Indians deny this report
and no evidence has ever been collected proving its truthfulness.

       *       *       *       *       *

Under the call of the president for 600,000 men Minnesota was called
upon to furnish five regiments--the Sixth, Seventh, Eighth, Ninth
and Tenth--and the requisition had been partially filled and the men
mustered in when the news reached St. Paul that open hostilities had
commenced at the upper agency, and an indiscriminate massacre of the
whites was taking place.

       *       *       *       *       *

The people of Minnesota had been congratulating themselves that
they were far removed from the horrors of the Civil war, and their
indignation knew no bounds when compelled to realize that these
treacherous redskins, who had been nursed and petted by officers
of the government, and by missionaries and traders for years, had,
without a moment's warning, commenced an indiscriminate slaughter of
men, women and children. It was a singular fact that farmer Indians,
whom the government officers and missionaries had tried so hard
to civilize, were guilty of the most terrible butcheries after
hostilities had actually commenced.

       *       *       *       *       *

A few days previous to the attack upon the whites at the upper agency
a portion of the band of Little Six appeared at Action, Meeker county.
There they murdered several people and then fled to Redwood. It was
the first step in the great massacre that soon followed. On the
morning of the 18th of August, without a word of warning, an
indiscriminate massacre was inaugurated. A detachment of Company B of
the Fifth regiment, under command of Capt. Marsh, went to the scene
of the revolt, but they were ambushed and about twenty-five of their
number, including the captain, killed. The horrible work of murder,
pillage and destruction was spread throughout the entire Sioux
reservation, and whole families, especially those in isolated portions
of the country, were an easy prey to these fiendish warriors.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Wyoming massacre during the Revolution and the Black Hawk and
Seminole wars at a later period, pale into insignificance when
compared to the great outrages committed by these demons during this
terrible outbreak. In less than one week 1,000 people had been killed,
several million dollars' worth of property destroyed and 30,000 people
rendered homeless. The entire country from Fort Ripley to the southern
boundary of the state, reaching almost to the mouth of the Minnesota
river, had been in a twinkling depopulated. How to repel these
invaders and drive them back to their reservations and out of the
state as they had forfeited all rights to the land they had occupied,
was the problem that suddenly confronted both the state and national

       *       *       *       *       *

Shortly after the news of the outbreak at Redwood had been received,
word was sent from Fort Ripley to the effect that the Chippewas were
assuming a warlike attitude, and it was feared that the Sioux and
Chippewas--hereditary enemies--had buried the hatchet, or had been
influenced by other causes, and were ready to co-operate in an
indiscriminate massacre of the whites. Indian Agent Walker undertook
to arrest the famous chief Hole-in-the-day, but that wily warrior had
scented danger and suddenly disappeared, with his entire band, which
caused grave apprehension among the settlers in that locality, and
they were in daily dread of an attack from these hitherto peaceable

       *       *       *       *       *

The suddenness with which the outbreak had occurred and the
extraordinary rapidity with which it spread, driving the defenseless
settlers from their homes and causing desolation and ruin on every
side, rendered it necessary for the governor to call an extra session
of the legislature for the purpose of devising means to arm and equip
volunteers, and assist the homeless refugees in procuring places of
shelter where they would be safe from molestation by these dusky
warriors. Could anything be more terrible than Gov. Ramsey's picture
of the ravages of these outlaws in his message to the legislature?
"Nothing which the brutal lust and wanton cruelty of these savages
could wreak upon their helpless and innocent victims was omitted from
the category of their crimes," said the governor. "Helplessness and
innocence, indeed, which would inspire pity in any heart but theirs,
seemed to inspire them only with a more fiendish rage. Infants hewn
into bloody chips of flesh or torn untimely from the womb of the
murdered mother, and in cruel mockery cast in fragments on her
pulseless and bleeding breast; rape joined to murder in one awful
tragedy; young girls, even children of tender years, outraged by
these brutal ravishers till death ended their shame; women held into
captivity to undergo the horrors of a living death; whole families
burned alive; and, as if their devilish fancy could not glut itself
with outrages on the living, the last efforts exhausted in mutilating
the bodies of the dead. Such are the spectacles, and a thousand
nameless horrors besides which this first experience of Indian
warfare has burned into the minds and hearts of our frontier people;
and such the enemy with whom we have to deal."

       *       *       *       *       *

The old saying that the only good Indians are dead ones had a noble
exception in the person of Other Day, who piloted sixty-two men,
women and children across the country from below Yellow Medicine to
Kandiyohi, and from there to Hutchinson, Glencoe and Carver. Other Day
was an educated Indian and had been rather wild in his younger days,
but experienced a change of heart about four years before the outbreak
and had adopted the habits of civilization. Other Day arrived in St.
Paul a few days after he had piloted his party in safety to Carver,
and in the course of a few remarks to a large audience at Ingersoll
hall, which had assembled for the purpose of organizing a company of
home guards, he said: "I am a Dakota Indian, born and reared in the
midst of evil. I grew up without the knowledge of any good thing. I
have been instructed by Americans and taught to read and write. This
I found to be good. I became acquainted with the Sacred Writings, and
thus learned my vileness. At the present time I have fallen into great
evil and affliction, but have escaped from it, and with sixty-two men,
women and children, without moccasins, without food and without a
blanket, I have arrived in the midst of a great people, and now my
heart is glad. I attribute it to the mercy of the Great Spirit." Other
Day had been a member of the church for several years and his religion
taught him that the Great Spirit approved his conduct.

       *       *       *       *       *

It was apparent that the Indian war was on in earnest. Ex-Gov. Sibley,
on account of his long familiarity with Indian character, was placed
in command of the troops ordered to assemble at St. Peter, and in
a few days, with detachments of the regiments then forming,
half-uniformed, poorly armed and with a scant supply of ammunition,
commenced offensive operations against the murderous redskins. The
newspapers and the people were crying "On to Ridgely!" which was then
beleaguered, with the same persistency as did Horace Greeyley howl "On
to Richmond!" previous to the disaster at Bull Run.

       *       *       *       *       *

Any one who has seen the thrilling realistic Indian play of "The Girl
I Left Behind Me" can form some idea of the terrible suspense of the
little garrison at Port Ridgely previous to being relieved by the
forces under command of Gen. Sibley. Fort Ridgely was a fort only
in name, and consisted of two or three stone and several wooden
buildings, surrounded by a fence, which did not afford much protection
when attacked by a large force. The garrison was under the command of
Lieut. T.J. Sheehan. His force consisted of about 150 men from the
Fifth regiment, fifty men of the Renville Rangers, and a number of
civilians. He was surrounded by 700 or 800 Sioux, fully armed and
equipped. Although there were only two attempts made to capture the
garrison by assault, yet the siege was kept up for several days. In
addition to about 300 refugees who had gathered there for support
and protection, the $72,000 of annuity money, which had been so long
expected, arrived there the day before the outbreak. After bravely
defending the fort for more than a week, the little garrison was
relieved by the arrival of about 200 mounted volunteers under command
of Col. McPhail, being the advance of Gen. Sibley's command. During
the siege many of the men became short of musketry ammunition, and
spherical case shot were opened in the barracks and women worked with
busy hands making cartridges, while men cut nail rods in short pieces
and used them as bullets, their dismal whistling producing terror
among the redskins.

Almost simultaneously with the attack on Fort Ridgely the Indians in
large numbers appeared in the vicinity of New Ulm, with the evident
intention of burning and pillaging the village. Judge Charles E.
Flandrau of this city, who was then residing at St. Peter, organized a
company of volunteers and marched across the country to the relief of
that place. The judge received several acquisitions to his force while
en route, and when he arrived at New Ulm found himself in command of
about 300 men, poorly armed and wholly without military experience.
They arrived at New Ulm just in time to assist the inhabitants in
driving the Indians from the upper part of the village, several
citizens having been killed and a number of houses burned. Two or
three days afterward the Indians appeared in large force, surrounded
the town and commenced burning the buildings on its outskirts. After
a desperate encounter, in which the force under command of Judge
Flandrau lost ten killed and about forty wounded, the Indians retired.
There were in the village at the time of the attack about 1,200 or
1,500 noncombatants, and every one of them would have been killed had
the Indian attack been successful. Provisions and ammunition becoming
scarce, the judge decided to evacuate the town and march across the
country to Mankato. They made up a train of about 150 wagons, loaded
them with women and children and the men who had been wounded in the
fight, and arrived safely in Mankato without being molested. Nearly
two hundred houses were burned before the town was evacuated, leaving
nothing standing but a few houses inside the hastily constructed
barricade. The long procession of families leaving their desolated
homes, many of them never to return, formed one of the saddest scenes
in the history of the outbreak, and will ever be remembered by the
gallant force under the command of Judge Flandrau, who led them to a
place of safety.

       *       *       *       *       *

As soon as Gen. Sibley arrived at Fort Ridgely a detail of Company A
of the Sixth regiment, under command of Capt. H.P. Grant of St. Paul,
and seventy members of the Cullen Guards, under the command of Capt.
Jo Anderson, also of St. Paul, and several citizen volunteers,
all under the command of Maj. Joseph R. Brown, was sent out with
instructions to bury the dead and rescue the wounded, if any could
be found, from their perilous surroundings. They were St. Paul
organizations and most all of their members were St. Paul boys. They
never had had an opportunity to drill and most of them were not
familiar with the use of firearms. After marching for two days, during
which time they interred a large number of victims of the savage
Sioux, they went into camp at Birch Coulie, about fifteen miles from
Fort Ridgely. The encampment was on the prairie near a fringe of
timber and the coulie on one side and an elevation of about ten feet
on the other. It was a beautiful but very unfortunate location for the
command to camp, and would probably not have been selected had it been
known that they were surrounded by 400 or 500 hostile warriors. Maj.
Brown had about one hundred and fifty men under his command. About 4
o'clock on the following morning the Indians, to the number of 500 or
600, well armed and most of them mounted, commenced an indiscriminate
fire upon the almost helpless little command. For two days they
bravely defended themselves, and when relief finally arrived it was
found that about half their number had been killed or wounded. When
the news of the disaster reached St. Paul there was great excitement.
Relatives and friends of the dead and wounded were outspoken in
their denunciation of the civil and military authorities who were
responsible for this great sacrifice of the lives of our citizens. It
was feared that the city itself was in danger of an attack from the
savages. Home guards were organized and the bluffs commanding a view
of the city were nightly patrolled by citizen volunteers. There was no
telegraph at that time and rumors of all sorts were flying thick
and fast. Every courier reaching the city would bring news of fresh
outrages, and our panic-stricken citizens had hardly time to recover
from the effect of one disaster before the news of another would be
received. Settlers fleeing from their homes for places of safety were
arriving by the score, leaving crops to perish in the field and their
houses to be destroyed. The situation was appalling, and many of our
citizens were predicting the most direful results should the army fail
to check the savage hordes in their work of devastation and ruin.

Every boat from the Minnesota river would be crowded with refugees,
and the people of St. Paul were often called upon to assist in
forwarding them to their place of destination.

Home guards were organized in almost every village of the threatened
portion of the state, but the authorities could not furnish arms
or ammunition and their services would have been of little account
against the well-armed savages in case they had been attacked.

Advertisements appeared in the St. Paul newspapers offering rewards of
$25 a piece for Sioux scalps.

       *       *       *       *       *

Gov. Ramsey endeavored to allay the apprehensions of the people and
published in the papers a statement to the effect that the residents
of the Capital City need not be alarmed, as the nearest approach of
the Indians was at Acton, Meeker county, 80 miles away; Fort Ripley,
150 miles away, and the scenes of the tragedy in Yellow Medicine
county, 210 miles distant. This may have been gratifying to the
residents of the Capital City, but was far from reassuring to the
frontiersmen who were compelled to abandon their homes and were
seeking the protection of the slowly advancing militia.

       *       *       *       *       *

About 12 o'clock one night during the latter part of August a report
was circulated over the northern and western portion of St. Paul that
the savages were near the city, and many women and children were
aroused from their slumber and hastily dressed and sought the
protection of the city authorities. It was an exciting but rather
amusing episode in the great tragedy then taking place on the
frontier. Rumors of this character were often circulated, and it was
not until after the battle of Wood Lake that the people of St. Paul
felt that they were perfectly safe from raids by the hostile Sioux.

       *       *       *       *       *

As soon as Gen. Sibley had collected a sufficient force to enable
him to move with safety he decided upon offensive operations. He had
collected about 2,000 men from the regiments then forming, including
the Third regiment, recently paroled, and a battery under command of
Capt. Mark Hendricks. The expedition marched for two or three days
without encountering opposition, but on the morning of the 23d of
September several foraging parties belonging to the Third regiment
were fired upon in the vicinity of Wood Lake. About 800 of the command
were engaged in the encounter and were opposed by about an equal
number of Indians. After a spirited engagement Col. Marshall, with
about 400 men, made a double-quick charge upon the Sioux and succeeded
in utterly routing them. Our loss was four killed and forty or fifty
wounded. This was the only real battle of the war. Other Day was with
the whites and took a conspicuous part in the encounter. After
the battle Gen. Pope, who was in command of the department of the
Northwest, telegraphed the war department that the Indian war was
over and asked what disposition to make of the troops then under his
command. This request of Gen. Pope was met with a decided remonstrance
by the people of Minnesota, and they succeeded in preventing the
removal of any of the troops until they had made two long marches
through the Dakotas and to Montana. Gen. Sibley's command reached Camp
Release on the 26th of September, in the vicinity of which was
located a large camp of Indians, most of whom had been engaged in the
massacres. They had with them about two hundred and fifty mixed bloods
and white women and children, and the soldiers were very anxious to
precede at once to their rescue. Gen. Sibley was of the opinion that
any hostile demonstration would mean the annihilation of all the
prisoners, and therefore proceeded with the utmost caution. After a
few preliminary consultations the entire camp surrendered and the
captives were released. As soon as possible Gen. Sibley made inquiries
as to the participation of these Indians in the terrible crimes
recently perpetrated, and it soon developed that a large number of
them had been guilty of the grossest atrocities. The general decided
to form a military tribunal and try the offenders. After a series of
sittings, lasting from the 30th of September to the 5th of November,
321 of the fiends were found guilty of the offenses charged, 303 of
whom were sentenced to death and the rest condemned to various terms
of imprisonment according to their crimes. All of the condemned
prisoners were taken to Mankato and were confined in a large jail
constructed for the purpose. After the court-martial had completed
its work and the news of its action had reached the Eastern cities,
a great outcry was made that Minnesota was contemplating a wholesale
slaughter of the beloved red man. The Quakers of Philadelphia and the
good people of Massachusetts sent many remonstrances to the president
to put a stop to the proposed wholesale execution. The president,
after consulting his military advisers, decided to permit the
execution of only thirty-eight of the most flagrant cases, and
accordingly directed them to be hung on the 26th of December, 1862.

       *       *       *       *       *

Previous to their execution the condemned prisoners were interviewed
by Rev. S.R. Riggs, to whom they made their dying confessions. Nearly
every one of them claimed to be innocent of the crimes charged to
them. Each one had some word to send to his parents or family, and
when speaking of their wives and children almost every one was
affected to tears. Most of them spoke confidently of their hope of
salvation, and expected to go at once to the abode of the Great
Spirit. Rattling Runner, who was a son-in-law of Wabasha, dictated the
following letter, which is a sample of the confessions made to Dr.
Riggs: "Wabasha, you have deceived me. You told me if we followed the
advice of Gen. Sibley and gave ourselves up, all would be well--no
innocent man would be injured. I have not killed or injured a white
man or any white person. I have not participated in the plunder of
their property; and yet to-day I am set apart for execution and must
die, while men who are guilty will remain in prison. My wife is your
daughter, my children are your grandchildren. I leave them all in your
care and under your protection. Do not let them suffer, and when they
are grown up let them know that their father died because he followed
the advice of his chief, and without having the blood of a white man
to answer for to the Holy Spirit. My wife and children are dear to me.
Let them not grieve for me; let them remember that the brave should be
prepared to meet death, and I will do as becomes a Dakotah."

Wabasha was a Sioux chief, and although he was not found guilty of
participating in any of the massacres of women and children, he was
probably in all the most important battles. Wabasha county, and
Wabasha street in St. Paul were named after his father.

After the execution the bodies were taken down, loaded into wagons and
carried down to a sandbar in front of the city, where they were all
dumped into the same hole. They did not remain there long, but were
spirited away by students and others familiar with the use of a
dissecting knife.

Little Crow, the chief instigator of the insurrection was not with the
number that surrendered, but escaped and was afterward killed by a
farmer named Lamson, in the vicinity of Hutchinson. His scalp is now
in the state historical society. Little Crow was born in Kaposia, a
few miles below St. Paul, and was always known as a bad Indian. Little
Crow's father was friendly to the whites, and it was his dying wish
that his son should assume the habits of civilized life and accustom
himself to the new order of things, but the dying admonitions of the
old man were of little avail and Little Crow soon became a dissolute,
quarrelsome and dangerous Indian. He was opposed to all change of
dress and habits of life, and was very unfriendly to missionaries and
teachers. He was seldom known to tell the truth and possessed very few
redeeming qualities. Although greatly disliked by many of the Indians,
he was the acknowledged head of the war party and by common consent
assumed the direction of all the hostile tribes in their fruitless
struggle against the whites.

       *       *       *       *       *

Between the conviction and execution of the condemned Indians there
was great excitement throughout the Minnesota valley lest the
president should pardon the condemned. Meetings were held throughout
the valley and organizations were springing into existence for the
purpose of overpowering the strong guard at Mankato and wreaking
summary justice upon the Indians. The situation became so serious
pending the decision of the president that the governor was compelled
to issue a proclamation calling upon all good citizens not to tarnish
the fair name of the state by an act of lawlessness that the outside
world would never forget, however great was the provocation. When
the final order came to execute only thirty-eight there was great
disappointment. Petitions were circulated in St. Paul and generally
signed favoring the removal of the condemned Indians to Massachusetts
to place them under the refining influence of the constituents of
Senator Hoar, the same people who are now so terribly shocked because
a humane government is endeavoring to prevent, in the Philippines, a
repetition of the terrible atrocities committed in Minnesota.

       *       *       *       *       *

The balance of the condemned were kept in close confinement till
spring, when they were taken to Davenport, and afterward to some point
on the Missouri river, where a beneficent government kindly permitted
them to sow the seed of discontent that finally culminated in the
Custer massacre. When it was known that the balance of the condemned
Indians were to be transported to Davenport by steamer. St. Paul
people made preparations to give them a warm reception as they passed
down the river, but their intentions were frustrated by the government
officers in charge of their removal, as they arranged to have the
steamer Favorite, on which they were to be transported, pass by the
city in the middle of the night. St. Paul people were highly indignant
when apprised of their escape.

Little Six and Medicine Bottle, two Sioux chiefs engaged in the
outbreak, were arrested at Fort Gary (Winnipeg), and delivered at
Pembina in January, 1864, and were afterward taken to Fort Snelling,
where they were tried, condemned and executed in the presence of
10,000 people, being the last of the Indians to receive capital
punishment for their great crimes. Little Six confessed to having
murdered fifty white men, women and children.

       *       *       *       *       *

One of the most perplexing problems the military authorities had to
contend with was the transportation of supplies to the troops on the
frontier. There were, of course, no railroads, and the only way to
transport provisions was by wagon. An order was issued by the military
authorities requesting the tender of men and teams for this purpose,
but the owners of draft horses did not respond with sufficient
alacrity to supply the pressing necessities of the army, and it
was necessary for the authorities to issue another order forcibly
impressing into service of the government any and all teams that could
be found on the streets or in stables. A detachment of Company K of
the Eighth regiment was sent down from the fort and remained in the
city several days on that especial duty. As soon as the farmers heard
that the government was taking possession of everything that came over
the bridge they ceased hauling their produce to the city and carried
it to Hastings. There was one silver-haired farmer living near the
city limits by the name of Hilks, whose sympathies were entirely with
the South, and he had boasted that all of Uncle Sam's hirelings could
not locate his team. One of the members of Company K was a former
neighbor of the disloyal farmer, and he made it his particular duty
to see that this team, at least, should be loyal to the government. A
close watch was kept on him, and one morning he was seen to drive down
to the west side of the bridge and tie his team behind a house, where
he thought they would be safe until he returned. As soon as the old
man passed over the bridge the squad took possession of his horses,
and when he returned the team was on the way to Abercrombie laden
with supplies for the troops at the fort. Of course the government
subsequently reimbursed the owners of the teams for their use, but in
this particular case the soldiers did not think the owner deserved it.

Gov. Ramsey's carriage team was early taken possession of by the
military squad, and when the driver gravely informed the officer in
charge that the governor was the owner of that team and he thought it
exempt from military duty, he was suavely informed that a power
higher than the governor required that team and that it must go to
Abercrombie. And it did.

       *       *       *       *       *

It was necessary to send out a large escort with these supply trains
and It was easier to procure men for that purpose than it was for the
regular term of enlistment. On one of the trains that left St. Paul
was a young man by the name of Hines. He was as brave as Julius
Caesar. He said so himself. He was so heavily loaded with various
weapons of destruction that his companions called him a walking
arsenal. If Little Crow had attacked this particular train the Indian
war would have ended. This young man had been so very demonstrative of
his ability to cope with the entire Sioux force that his companions
resolved to test his bravery. One night when the train was camped
about half way between St. Cloud and Sauk Center, several of the
guards attached to the train painted their faces, arrayed themselves
in Indian costume and charged through the camp, yelling the Indian war
hoop and firing guns in every direction. Young Hines was the first to
hear the alarm, and didn't stop running until he reached St. Cloud,
spreading the news in every direction that the entire tribe of
Little Crow was only a short distance behind. Of course there was
consternation along the line of this young man's masterly retreat,
and it was some time before the panic-stricken citizens knew what had
actually happened.

       *       *       *       *       *

In response to the appeal of Gov. Sibley and other officers on the
frontier, the ladies of St. Paul early organized for the purpose of
furnishing sick and wounded soldiers with such supplies as were not
obtainable through the regular channels of the then crude condition of
the various hospitals. Notices like the following often appeared in
the daily papers at that time: "Ladies Aid Society--A meeting of the
ladies' aid society for the purpose of sewing for the relief of the
wounded soldiers at our forts, and also for the assistance of the
destitute refugees now thronging our city, is called to meet this
morning at Ingersoll hall. All ladies interested in this object are
earnestly invited to attend. All contributions of either money or
clothing will be thankfully received. By order of the president,

"Mrs. Stella Selby.

"Miss M.O. Holyoke, Secretary."

Mrs. Selby was the wife of John W. Selby, one of the first residents
of the city, Miss Holyoke was the Clara Barton of Minnesota, devoting
her whole time and energy to the work of collecting sanitary supplies
for the needy soldiers in the hospitals.

Scores of poor soldiers who were languishing in hospital tents on
the sunburnt and treeless prairies of the Dakotas, or suffering from
disease contracted in the miasmatic swamps of the rebellious South
have had their hearts gladdened and their bodies strengthened by being
supplied with the delicacies collected through the efforts of
the noble and patriotic ladies of this and kindred organizations
throughout the state.

Many instances are recorded of farmers leaving their harvesters in the
field and joining the grand army then forming for the defense of the
imperilled state and nation, while their courageous and energetic
wives have gone to the fields and finished harvesting the ripened

       *       *       *       *       *

By reason of the outbreak the Sioux forfeited to the government, in
addition to an annual annuity of $68,000 for fifty years, all the
lands they held in Minnesota, amounting in the aggregate to about
750,000 acres, worth at the present time something like $15,000,000.
Had they behaved themselves and remained In possession of this immense
tract of land, they would have been worth twice as much per capita as
any community in the United States.




       *       *       *       *       *

  Brave relics of the past are we,
    Old firemen, staunch and true,
  We're thinking now of days gone by
    And all that we've gone through.
  Thro' fire and flames we've made our way,
    And danger we have seen;
  We never can forget the time
    When we ran with the old machine.

  In numbers now we are but few,
  A host have pased away,
  But still we're happy, light and free,
    Our spirits never decay
  We often sigh for those old days
    Whose memory we keep green,
  Oh! there was joy for man and boy,
    When we ran with the old machine.
                         --Gus Wiliams.

       *       *       *       *       *

Instruments for extinguishing fires were introduced in various parts
of Europe more than three hundred years ago. The fire laddies of that
period would probably look aghast if they could see the implements
in use at the present time. One of the old time machines is said to
consist of a huge tank of water placed upon wheels, drawn by a large
number of men, and to which was attached a small hose. When the water
in the tank became exhausted it was supplied by a bucket brigade,
something on the plan in use at the present time in villages not able
to support an engine.

The oldest record of a fire engine in Paris was one used in the king's
library in 1684, which, having but one cylinder, threw water to a
great height, a result obtained by the use of an air chamber. Leather
hose was introduced into Amsterdam in 1670, by two Dutchmen, and they
also invented the suction pipe at about the same period. About the
close of the seventeenth century an improved engine was patented in
England. It was a strong cistern of oak placed upon wheels, furnished
with a pump, an air chamber and a suction pipe of strong leather,
through which run a spiral piece of metal. This engine was little
improved until the early part of the last century.

In the United States bucket fire departments were organized in most of
the cities in the early part of the last century, and hand engines,
used by the old volunteer firemen, did not come into general use until
about fifty years later. The New York volunteer fire department was
for a long time one of the institutions of the country. When they had
their annual parade the people of the surrounding towns would flock
to the city and the streets would be as impassible as they are to-day
when a representative of one of the royal families of Europe is placed
on exhibition. At the New York state fairs during the early '50s the
tournaments of the volunteer fire department of the various cities
throughout the state formed one of the principal attractions. Many
a melee occurred between the different organizations because they
considered that they had not been properly recognized in the line of
march or had not been awarded a medal for throwing a stream of water
farther than other competitors.

A Berlin correspondent of the Pioneer Press many years ago, said that
when an alarm of fire was sounded in the city, the members of the fire
companies would put on their uniforms and report to their various
engine houses. When a sufficient number had assembled to make a
showing the foreman would call the roll, beer would be passed down the
line, the health of the kaiser properly remembered and then they would
start out in search of the fire. As a general thing the fire would
be out long before they arrived upon the scene, and they would then
return to their quarters, have another beer and be dismissed.

To Cincinnati belongs the credit of having introduced the first paid
steam fire department in the United States, but all the other large
cities rapidly followed.

       *       *       *       *       *

In the fall of 1850 the town fathers of St. Paul passed an ordinance
requiring the owners of all buildings, public or private, to provide
and keep in good repair, substantial buckets, marked with paint the
word "Fire" on one side and the owner's name on the other, subject
to inspection by the fire warden and to be under his control when
occasion required. The first attempt at organizing a fire brigade, was
made by R.C. Knox in the fall of 1851. Mr. Knox raised a small sum of
money by subscription, with which he purchased several ladders, and
they were frequently brought into requisition by the little band of
men whom Mr. Knox had associated with him. Mr. Knox was a man of
enormous stature, and it was said he could tire out a dozen ordinary
men at a fire.

       *       *       *       *       *

Two public-spirited citizens of St. Paul, John McCloud and Thompson
Ritchie, purchased in the East and brought to the city at their own
expense the first fire engine introduced in the Northwest. Although
it was a miniature affair, on numerous occasions it rendered valuable
assistance in protecting the property of our pioneer merchants. Mr.
Ritchie is still living, his home being in Philadelphia.

       *       *       *       *       *

In November, 1854, Pioneer Hook and Ladder Company No. 1 was organized
under provisions of the city charter. A constitution and by-laws were
adopted and the members agreed to turn out promptly on all occasions
of fire alarms. As compensation for their services they were excused
from jury duty, poll tax, work on the roads, or state military
service, for the period of five years. The original constitution of
the Pioneer Hook and Ladder company contained the following membership
roll: Foreman, Isaac A. Banker; assistant foremen, H.B. Pearson and
George F. Blake; treasurer, Richard Galloway; secretary, Robert Mason;
members, Henry Buell, John W. Cathcart, Charles D. Elfelt, Edward
Heenan, Thompson Ritchie, Philip Ross, Wash. M. Stees, J.W. Stevenson,
Benjamin F. Irvine, R.I. Thomson, John McCloud, J.Q.A. Ward, Charles
J. Williams. Of the above John McCloud is the only one living in the
city at the present time. Mr. McCloud was a member of the firm of
McCloud & Bro., hardware dealers, and they occupied the building on
the southwest corner of Third and Cedar streets.

This was the first full-fledged fire organization in the city, and as
Mr. McCloud took the initiative in forming this company he may justly
be called the "Father of the Volunteer Fire Department of St. Paul."

The old hook and ladder company was one of the representative
institutions of the city. From the date of its organization up to the
time of the establishment of the paid fire department many of the most
prominent men of the city were enrolled among its members. All of the
property of the company was owned by the organization, but in 1856,
having become somewhat financially embarrassed, their accounts were
turned over to the city and they were thereafter under the control of
the city fathers. At that time they possessed one truck, hooks and
ladders, and one fire engine with hose. Washington M. Stees was
made chief engineer and Charles H. Williams assistant. This scanty
equipment did not prove adequate for extinguishing fires and petitions
were circulated requesting the council to purchase two fire engines of
the more approved pattern, and also to construct a number of cisterns
in the central part of the city, so that an adequate supply of water
could be readily obtained. The city fathers concluded to comply with
the request of the petitioners and they accordingly purchased two
double-deck hand fire engines and they arrived in the city in August,
1858. They were soon tested and pronounced satisfactory. Our citizens
then congratulated themselves upon the possession of a first-class
fire department and they predicted that thereafter a great fire would
be a thing of the past.

One of the most irrepressible members of Pioneer Hook and Ladder
company in the early days was a little red-headed Irishman by the name
of A.D. Martin. He was foreman of the Daily Minnesotian office and he
usually went by the name of "Johnny Martin." Now Johnny always kept
his fire paraphernalia close at hand, and every time a fire bell
sounded he was "Johnny on the spot." After the fire was over Johnny
generally had to celebrate, and every time Johnny celebrated he would
make a solemn declaration that it was his duty to kill an Irishman
before he returned to work. He would accordingly provide himself with
an immense Derringer and start out in quest of a subject upon whom he
proposed to execute his sanguinary threat. Strange to relate he
never succeeded in finding one of his unfortunate countrymen, and it
generally required two or three days to restore him to his former
equilibrium. If Johnny was a member of the fire department to-day he
would probably discover that the task of finding one of his countrymen
would not be so difficult.

       *       *       *       *       *

In 1857 Hope Engine Company No. 1 was organized, and they petitioned
the common council to purchase 500 feet of hose for their use. In
the fall of 1858 this company was given possession of one of the new
engines recently purchased and it was comfortably housed at their
headquarters in an old frame building on the southwest corner of
Franklin and Fourth streets, and in a short time removed to a new
brick building on Third street, fronting on Washington. Michael Leroy
was made the first foreman and R.C. Wiley and Joseph S. Herey were
his assistants. The membership contained the names of John H. Dodge,
Porteus Dodge, John E. Missen, Joseph Elfelt, Fred Whipperman, John T.
Toal, J.H. Barstow, J.C. Grand, Charles Riehl, John Raguet, E. Rhodes,
B. Bradley, Charles Hughes, Bird Boesch, T.F. Masterson, John J.
Williams and V. Metzger. During the fall of 1858 a large number of the
most prominent business men in the vicinity of Seven Corners joined
the organization and continued in active membership until the arrival
of the first steamer.

       *       *       *       *       *

In the winter of 1857-1858 Minnehaha Engine. Company No. 2 was
organized, and it was provided with an engine house near the corner
of Third and Jackson streets. The first officers were H.P. Grant,
foreman; M.J. O'Connor and H.B. Terwilliger, assistants; members,
Harry M. Shaw, Nicholas Hendy, John B. Oliver, F.A. Cariveau, H.A.
Schlick. C.D. Hadway, N. Nicuhaus, L.R. Storing, William T. Donaldson,
Daniel Rohrer, J. Fletcher Williams, N. W. Kittson, Alfred Bayace,
John McCauley and a number of others. The Minnehahas were a prosperous
organization from the first, and their engine house was always kept
open and served as a general lounging and reading-room for such of its
members as had nothing particular to do.

       *       *       *       *       *

Rotary Independent Company No. 1 was the third engine connected with
the St. Paul fire department, but that was a private institution and
was only used when there was a general alarm and on the days of the
annual parade of the department. This engine was purchased from the
government by John S. Prince when Fort Snelling was abandoned, and was
used for the protection of the property of the mill, which was located
on lower Third street.

       *       *       *       *       *

By the formation of Minnehaha Engine company the city fathers thought
they were possessed of quite a respectable fire department, and from
that time on the annual parade of the St. Paul fire department was one
of the events of the year. The first parade occurred on the 12th
of September, 1859, and was participated in by the following

  Pioneer Hook and Ladder Company No. 1.
  Hope Engine Company No. 1.
  Minnehaha Engine Company No. 2.
  Rotary Independent Company No. 1.

These four companies numbered 175 men, and after completing their line
of march were reviewed by the mayor and common council in front of the
old city hall.

In 1858 the legislature passed an act requiring the sextons of the
different churches to ring the church bells fifteen minutes whenever
there was an alarm of fire. The uptown churches would ring their
bells, the downtown churches would ring their bells, and the churches
in the central part of the city would ring their bells. There was a
regular banging and clanging of the bells.

  "In the startled air of night,
  They would scream out their afright,
  Too much horrified to speak,
  They could only shriek, shriek,
  Out of tune."

Every one turned out when the fire bells rang. Unless the fire was of
sufficient volume to be readily located, the uptown people would be
seen rushing downtown, and the downtown people would be seen rushing
uptown, in fact, general pandemonium prevailed until the exact
location of the fire could be determined.

Whenever there was a large fire the regular firemen would soon tire
of working on the brakes and they would appeal to the spectators to
relieve them for a short time. As a general thing the appeal would be
readily responded to, but occasionally it would be necessary for the
police to impress into service a force sufficient to keep the brakes
working. Any person refusing to work on the brakes was liable to
arrest and fine, and it was often amusing to see the crowds disperse
whenever the police were in search of a relief force.

       *       *       *       *       *

Upon the breaking out of the war a large number of the firemen
enlisted in the defense of the country and the ranks of the department
were sadly decimated. It was during the early part of the war that the
mayor of St. Paul made a speech to the firemen at the close of their
annual parade in which he referred to them as being as brave if not
braver than the boys at the front. The friends of the boys in blue
took serious umbrage at this break of the mayor, and the press of the
city and throughout the state were very indignant to think that the
capital city possessed a mayor of doubtful loyalty. The excitement
soon died away and the mayor was re-elected by a large majority.

       *       *       *       *       *

There was not much change in the condition of the department until
the arrival of the first steamer, Aug. 11, 1866. The new steamer was
lodged with Hope Engine company, and an engineer and fireman appointed
at a salary of $1,600 per year for the two. The boys of Hope Engine
company did not like the selection of the engineer of the new steamer
and took the matter so seriously that their organization was disbanded
and St. Paul Hose Company No. 1 was organized, and they took charge
of the new steamer. The rapid growth of the city necessitated the
frequent purchase of new fire apparatus, and at the present time the
St. Paul fire department has 211 paid men, 15 steamers, 4 chemicals, 8
hook and ladder companies and 122 horses.

       *       *       *       *       *

The volunteer fire department had no better friend than the late Mrs.
Bartlett Presley. She was the guardian angel of the fire department.
No night so cold or storm so great that Mrs. Presley was not present
and with her own hands provide coffee and sandwiches for the tired and
hungry firemen who had been heroically battling with the flames. She
was an honored guest at all entertainments with which the firemen
were connected, and was always toasted and feasted by the boys at the
brakes. She will ever be remembered, not only by the firemen, but by
all old settlers, as one of the many noble women in St. Paul whose
unostentatious deeds of charity have caused a ray of sunshine in many
sad homes.

Mrs. Presley's death was deeply regretted, not only by the fire
department, but by every resident of the city.

       *       *       *       *       *

Among the many brilliant members of the legal fraternity in St. Paul
in early times no one possessed a more enviable reputation than
the Hon. Michael E. Ames. He was the very personification of
punctiliousness and always displayed sublime imperturbability in
exigencies of great moment. One dreary winter night his sleeping
apartment in uppertown was discovered to be on fire, and in a short
time the fire laddies appeared in front of his quarters and commenced
operations. As soon as Mr. Ames discovered the nature of the
disturbance he arose from his bed, opened the window, and with
outstretched arms and in a supplicating manner, as if addressing a
jury in an important case, exclaimed: "Gentlemen, if you will be kind
enough to desist from operations until I arrange my toilet, I will be
down." The learned counsel escaped with his toilet properly adjusted,
but his apartments were soon incinerated.

       *       *       *       *       *


       *       *       *       *       *


  Daniels house, near Seven Corners.
  Sintominie hotel, Sixth street.
  Rice house, near Rice Park.
  New England hotel, Third street
  Hotel to the Wild Hunter, Jackson street.
  Montreal house, Robert street.
  Canada house, Robert street.
  Winslow house, Seven Corners.
  American house, Third street.
  International hotel, Seventh and Jackson streets.
  Franklin house, Marshall avenue.
  Dakota house, Seven Corners.
  Washington house, Seven Corners.
  Cosmopolitan hotel, Third street.
  Western house, Third street.
  Garden City house, Fourth street.
  City hotel, Fourth street.
  Central house, Bench street.
  Emmert house, Bench street.
  St. Paul house, Bench street.
  Luxemborg hotel, Franklin street.
  Farmers' hotel, Fourth street.
  Greenman house, Fifth street.
  Mansion house, Wabasha street.
  Haine's hotel, Lake Como.
  Aldrich house, Lake Como.
  Park Place hotel, Summit avenue.
  Carpenter house, Summit avenue.
  Paul Faber's hotel, Third street.

       *       *       *       *       *

The first hotel fire of any importance was that of the Daniels house,
located on Eagle street near Seven Corners, which occurred in 1852.
The building had just been finished and furnished for occupancy. A
strong wind was raging and the little band of firemen were unable
to save the structure. The names of Rev. D.D. Neill, Isaac Markley,
Bartlett Presley and W.M. Stees were among the firemen who assisted in
saving the furniture.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Sintominie hotel on the corner of Sixth and John streets, was the
second hotel to receive a visit from the fire king. This hotel was
constructed by the late C.W. Borup, and it was the pride of lower
town. Howard Ward and E.C. Rich were preparing to open it when the
fire occurred. Owing to the lack of fire protection the building was
totally destroyed.

       *       *       *       *       *

Early in the winter of 1856 the Rice house, commonly supposed to
be the first brick building erected in St. Paul, was burned to the
ground. It was three stories high, and when in process of building was
considered a visionary enterprise. The building was constructed by
Henry M. Rice, and he spared no expense to make it as complete as the
times would allow. It was situated on Third street near Market, and
in the early days was considered St. Paul's principal hotel. In its
parlor and barroom the second session of the territorial legislature
was held, and the supreme court of the territory also used it for
several terms.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Canada house and the Galena house, two small frame structures on
Robert near Third, were the next hotels to be visited by the fiery
element. These hotels, though small, were well patronized at the time
of their destruction.

       *       *       *       *       *

On the 16th of March, 1860, the most destructive fire that had ever
occurred in St. Paul broke out in a small wooden building on Third
street near Jackson, and though the entire fire department--three
engines and one truck, manned by one hundred men--were promptly on
hand, the flames rapidly got beyond their reach. Nearly all the
buildings on Third street at that time from Robert to Jackson were
two-story frame structures, and in their rear were small houses
occupied by the owners of the stores. When the fire was at its height
it was feared that the whole of lower town would be destroyed before
the flames could be subdued, but by dint of superhuman effort the
firemen managed to cut off the leap across Robert street and soon had
the immense smouldering mass under control. Thirty-four buildings, the
largest number ever destroyed in St. Paul, were in ashes. Of the two
blocks which lined the north and south sides of Third street above
Jackson, only three buildings were left standing, two being stone
structures occupied by Beaumont & Gordon and Bidwell & Co., and
the other a four-story brick building owned and occupied by A.L.
Larpenteur. The New England, a two-story log house, and one of the
first hotels built in St. Paul was among the ruins. The New England
was a feature in St. Paul, and it was pointed out to newcomers as the
first gubernatorial mansion, and in which Gov. and Mrs. Ramsey had
begun housekeeping in 1849. The Empire saloon was another historic
ruin, for in its main portion the first printing office of the
territory had long held forth, and from it was issued the first
Pioneer, April 10, 1849. The Hotel to the Wild Hunter was also
destroyed at this fire.

       *       *       *       *       *

In the fall of 1862 the Winslow house, located at Seven Corners, was
entirely destroyed by fire. A defective stovepipe in the cupola caused
the fire, and it spread so rapidly that it was beyond the control
of the firemen when they arrived upon the scene. A few pieces of
furniture, badly damaged, was all that was saved of this once popular
hotel. The Winslow was a four-story brick building, and with the
exception of the Fuller house the largest hotel in the city. The hotel
was constructed in 1854 by the late J.M. Winslow. Mr. Winslow was one
of the most ingenious hotel constructors in the West. In some peculiar
manner he was enabled to commence the construction of a building
without any capital, but when the building was completed he not only
had the building, but a bank account that indicated that he was a
financier as well as a builder. The proprietors of the Winslow were
arrested for incendarism, but after a preliminary examination were

       *       *       *       *       *

The American house, on the corner of Third and Exchange streets, was
one of the landmarks of the city for a good many years. It was built
in 1849, and the territorial politicians generally selected this hotel
as their headquarters. Although it was of very peculiar architecture,
the interior fittings were of a modern character. On a stormy night in
the month of December, 1863, an alarm of fire was sent in from this
hotel, but before the fire department reached the locality the fire
was beyond their control. The weather was bitter cold, and the water
would be frozen almost as soon as it left the hose. Finding their
efforts fruitless to save the building, the firemen turned their
attention to saving the guests. There were some very narrow escapes,
but no accidents of a very serious nature. As usual, thieves were
present and succeeded in carrying off a large amount of jewelry and
wearing apparel belonging to the guests.

       *       *       *       *       *

In the year of 1856 Mackubin & Edgerton erected a fine three-story
brick building on the corner of Third and Franklin streets. It was
occupied by them as a banking house for a long time. The business
center having been moved further down the street, they were compelled
to seek quarters on Bridge Square. After the bank moved out of
this building it was leased to Bechtner & Kottman, and was by them
remodeled into a hotel on the European plan at an expense of about
$20,000. It was named the Cosmopolitan hotel, and was well patronized.
When the alarm of fire was given it was full of lodgers, many of whom
lost all they possessed. The Linden theatrical company, which was
playing at the Athenaeum, was among the heavy sufferers. At this fire
a large number of frame buildings on the opposite side of the street
were destroyed.

When the Cosmopolitan hotel burned the walls of the old building were
left standing, and although they were pronounced dangerous by the city
authorities, had not been demolished. Dr. Schell, one of the best
known physicians of the city, occupied a little frame building near
the hotel, and he severely denounced the city authorities for their
lax enforcement of the law. One night at 10 o'clock the city was
visited by a terrific windstorm, and suddenly a loud crash was heard
in the vicinity of the doctor's office. A portion of the walls of the
hotel had fallen and the little building occupied by the doctor had
been crushed in. The fire alarm was turned on and the fire laddies
were soon on the spot. No one supposed the doctor was alive, but after
the firemen had been at work a short time they could hear the voice
of the doctor from underneath the rubbish. In very vigorous English,
which the doctor knew so well how to use, he roundly upbraided the
fire department for not being more expeditious in extricating him from
his perilous position. After the doctor had been taken out of the
ruins It was found that he had not been seriously injured, and in the
course of a few weeks was able to resume practice.

       *       *       *       *       *

During the winter of 1868 the Emmert house, situated on Bench street
near Wabasha, was destroyed by fire. The Emmert house was built in
territorial times by Fred Emmert, who for some time kept a hotel and
boarding house at that place. It had not been used for hotel purposes
for some time, but was occupied by a colored family and used as a
boarding-house for colored people. While the flames were rapidly
consuming the old building the discovery was made that a man and
his wife were sick in one of the rooms with smallpox. The crowd of
onlookers fled in terror, and they would have been burned alive had
not two courageous firemen carried them out of the building. It was
an unusually cold night and the colored people were dumped into the
middle of the street and there allowed to remain. They were provided
with clothing and some of the more venturesome even built a fire for
them, but no one would volunteer to take them to a place of shelter.
About 10 o'clock on the following day the late W.L. Wilson learned
of the unfortunate situation of the two colored people, and he
immediately procured a vehicle and took them to a place of safety, and
also saw that they were thereafter properly cared for.

       *       *       *       *       *

On the site of the old postoffice on the corner of Wabasha and Fifth
streets stood the Mansion house, a three-story frame building erected
by Nicholas Pottgieser in early days at an expense of $12,000. It was
a very popular resort and for many years the weary traveler there
received a hearty welcome.

A very exciting event occurred at this house during the summer of
1866. A man by the name of Hawkes, a guest at the hotel, accidentally
shot and instantly killed his young and beautiful wife. He was
arrested and tried for murder, but after a long and sensational trial
was acquited.

       *       *       *       *       *

The greatest hotel fire in the history of St. Paul occurred on the
night of Feb. 3, 1869. The International hotel (formerly the Fuller
house) was situated on the northeast corner of Seventh and Jackson
streets, and was erected by A.G. Fuller in 1856. It was built of brick
and was five stories high. It cost when completed, about $110,000. For
years it had been the best hotel in the West. William H. Seward and
the distinguished party that accompanied him made this hotel their
headquarters during their famous trip to the West in 1860. Gen. Pope
and Gen. Sibley had their headquarters in this building, and from here
emanated all the orders relating to the war against the rebellious
Sioux. In 1861 the property came into the possession of Samuel Mayall,
and he changed the name of it from Fuller house to International
hotel. Col. E.C. Belote, who had formerly been the landlord of the
Merchants, was the manager of the hotel. The fire broke out in the
basement, it was supposed from a lamp in the laundry. The night was
intensely cold, a strong gale blowing from the northwest. Not a soul
could be seen upon the street. Within this great structure more than
two hundred guests were wrapped in silent slumber. To rescue them from
their perilous position was the problem that required instant action
on the part of the firemen and the hotel authorities. The legislature
was then in session, and many of the members were among the guests who
crowded the hotel. A porter was the first to notice the blaze, and
he threw a pail water upon it, but with the result that it made no
impression upon the flames. The fire continued to extend, and the
smoke became very dense and spread into the halls, filling them
completely, rendering breathing almost an impossibility. In the
meantime the alarm had been given throughout the house, and the
guests, both male and female, came rushing out of the rooms in their
night Clothes. The broad halls of the hotel were soon filled with a
crowd of people who hardly knew which way to go in order to find their
way to the street. The servant girls succeeded in getting out first,
and made their way to the snow-covered streets without sufficient
clothing to protect their persons, and most of them were without
shoes. While the people were escaping from the building the fire was
making furious and rapid progress. From the laundry the smoke issued
into every portion of the building. There was no nook or corner that
the flames did not penetrate. The interior of the building burned with
great rapidity until the fire had eaten out the eastern and southern
rooms, when the walls began to give indications of falling. The upper
portion of them waved back and forth in response to a strong wind,
which filled the night air with cinders. At last different portions of
the walls fell, thus giving the flames an opportunity to sweep from
the lower portions of the building. Great gusts, which seemed to
almost lift the upper floors, swept through the broken walls. High up
over the building the flames climbed, carrying with them sparks and
cinders, and in come instances large pieces of timber. All that saved
the lower part of the city from fiery destruction was the fact that a
solid bed of snow a foot deep lay upon the roofs of all the buildings.
During all this time there was comparative quiet, notwithstanding the
fact that the fire gradually extended across Jackson street and also
across Seventh street. Besides the hotel, six or eight other buildings
were also on fire, four of which were destroyed. Women and men were to
be seen hurrying out of the burning buildings in their night
clothes, furniture was thrown into the street, costly pianos, richly
upholstered furniture, valuable pictures and a great many other
expensive articles were dropped in the snow in a helter-skelter
manner. Although nearly every room in the hotel was occupied and
rumors flew thick and fast that many of the guests were still in their
rooms, fortunately no lives were lost and no one was injured. The
coolest person in the building was a young man by the name of Pete
O'Brien, the night watchman. When he heard of the fire he comprehended
in a moment the danger of a panic among over two hundred people who
were locked in sleep, unconscious of danger. He went from room to room
and from floor to floor, telling them of the danger, but assuring them
all that they had plenty of time to escape. He apparently took command
of the excited guests and issued orders like a general on the field of
battle. To his presence of mind and coolness many of the guests were
indebted for their escape from a frightful death. The fire department
worked hard and did good service. The city had no waterworks at that
time, but relied for water entirely upon cisterns located in different
parts of the city. When the cisterns became dry it was necessary
to place the steamer at the river and pump water through over two
thousand feet of hose.

Among the guests at the hotel at the time of the fire were Gen. C.C.
Andrews, Judge Lochren, Capt. H.A. Castle, Gen. W.G. Le Duc, Selah
Chamberlain, Gov. Armstrong and wife, Charles A. Gilman and wife,
Dr. W.W. Mayo, I.W. Webb, Dr. Charles N. Hewitt, M.H. Dunnell, Judge
Thomas Wilson and more than two hundred others.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Park Place hotel on the corner of Summit avenue and St. Peter
street, was at one time one of of the swell hotels of the city. It
was a frame building, four stories high and nicely situated. The
proprietors of it intended it should be a family hotel, but it did not
meet with the success anticipated, and when, on the 19th of May, 1878,
it was burned to the ground it was unoccupied. The fire was thought
to be the work of incendiaries. The loss was about $20,000, partially
insured. Four firemen were quite seriously injured at this fire, but
all recovered.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Carpenter house, on the corner of Summit avenue and Ramsey street,
was built by Warren Carpenter. Mr. Carpenter was a man of colossal
ideas, and from the picturesque location of his hotel, overlooking the
city, he could see millions of tourists flocking to his hostelry. The
panic of 1857, soon followed by the great Civil war, put a quietus on
immigration, and left him stranded high on the beach. Mr. Carpenter's
dream of millions were far from being realized, and when on the 26th
of January, 1879, the hotel was burned to the ground, it had for some
time previous passed beyond his control.

       *       *       *       *       *

At one time there were three flourishing hotels on Bench street.
The average citizen of to-day does not know that such a street ever
existed. The Central house, on the corner of Bench and Minnesota
streets, was the first hotel of any pretension built in the city,
and it was one of the last to be burned. The first session of the
territorial legislature of Minnesota was held in the dining room of
this old hotel building, and for a number of years the hotel did a
thriving business. As the city grew it was made over into a large
boarding house, and before the war Mrs. Corbett was manager of the
place. It was afterward kept by Mrs. Ferguson, George Pulford and Ben
Ferris, the latter being in possession of it when it was destroyed by
fire. The building was burned In August, 1873.

       *       *       *       *       *

A hotel that was very popular for some time was the Greenman house,
situated on the corner of Fifth and St. Peter streets, the site of the
Windsor hotel. It was a three-story frame structure and was built in
the early seventies. Mr. Greenman kept the hotel for some time, and
then sold it to John Summers, who was the owner of it when it was

       *       *       *       *       *

The Merchants is the only one of the old hotels still existing, and
that only in name, as the original structure was torn down to make
room for the present building many years ago.

       *       *       *       *       *

Aside from the hotel fires one of the most appalling calamities that
ever occurred at a fire in St. Paul took place in May, 1870, when the
old Concert Hall building on Third street, near Market, was destroyed.
Concert Hall was built by the late J.W. McClung in 1857, and the hall
in the basement was one of the largest in the city. The building was
three stories high in front and six or seven on the river side. It
was located about twenty-five feet back from the sidewalk. Under the
sidewalk all kinds of inflamable material was stored and it was from
here that the fire was first noticed. In an incredibly short time
flames reached the top of the building, thus making escape almost
impossible. On the river side of the building on the top floor two
brothers, Charles and August Mueller, had a tailor shop. The fire
spread so rapidly that the building was completely enveloped in flames
before they even thought their lives were endangered. In front of them
was a seething mass of flames and the distance to the ground on the
river side was so great that a leap from the window meant almost
certain death. They could be plainly seen frantically calling for
help. There was no possible way to reach them. Finally Charles Mueller
jumped out on the window sill and made a leap for life, and an instant
later he was followed by his brother. The bewildered spectators did
not suppose for a moment that either could live. They were too much
horrified to speak, but when it was over and they were lifted into
beds provided for them doctors were called and recovery was pronounced
possible. After months of suffering both recovered. August Mueller is
still living in the city. A lady by the name of McClellan, who had a
dressmaking establishment in the building, was burned to death and it
was several days before her body was recovered.

The following named men have been chiefs of the St. Paul fire

  Wash M. Stees,
  Chas. H. Williams,
  J.C.A. Pickett,
  W.T. Donaldson,
  J.B. Irvine,
  J.E. Missen,
  Luther H. Eddy,
  B. Rodick,
  M.B. Farrell,
  J.C. Prendergast,
  Bartlett Presley,
  Frank Brewer,
  R.O. Strong,
  John T. Black,
  Hart N. Cook,
  John Jackson.



Very few of the 200,000 inhabitants of St. Paul are aware that the
three-story, three-cornered building on Third street at Seven Corners
once contained one of the most popular amusement halls in the city. It
was called Irvine hall, and at one time Melodeon hall. Dan Emmet had a
minstrel company at this hall during the years 1857 and 1858, and an
excellent company it was, too. There was Frank Lombard, the great
baritone; Max Irwin, bones, and one of the funniest men who ever sat
on the stage; Johnny Ritter, female impersonator and clog dancer, and
a large number of others. Frank Lombard afterward achieved a national
reputation as one of the best baritone singers in the country. He
was much sought after for patriotic entertainments and political
conventions. His masterpiece was the Star-Spangled Banner, and his
great baritone voice, which could be heard for blocks, always brought
enthusiastic applause. Some time during the summer of 1858 the
Hutchinson family arranged to have the hall for a one-night
entertainment. By some means or other the troupe got separated and one
of the brothers got stalled on Pig's Eye bar. When their performance
was about half over the belated brother reached the hall and rushed
frantically down the aisle, with carpetbag in hand, leaped upon the
stage, and in full view of the audience proceeded to kiss the entire
tribe. The audience was under the impression they had been separated
for years instead of only twenty-four hours. The next evening Max
Irwin was missing from his accustomed place as one of the end men, and
when the performance had been in progress for about fifteen minutes
Max came rushing down the aisle with carpetbag in hand and went
through the same performance as did the lost brother of the Hutchinson
family. The effect was electrical, and for some time Max's innovation
was the talk of the town. Dan Emmet, though a wondering minstrel, was
a very superior man and was his own worst enemy. He was a brother of
Lafayette S. Emmett, chief justice of the supreme court of the State
of Minnesota. The judge, dignified and aristocratic, did not take
kindly to the idea of his brother being a minstrel. Dan was not
particularly elated because his brother was on the supreme bench. They
were wholly indifferent as to each other's welfare. They did not even
spell their names the same way. Dan had only one "t" at the end of his
name, while the judge used two. Whether the judge used two because
he was ashamed of Dan, or whether Dan used only one because he was
ashamed of the judge, no one seemed to know. Dan Emmet left a legacy
that will be remembered by the lovers of melody for many years. What
left the judge? When Emmet's company left St. Paul they got stranded
and many of them found engagements in other organizations. Dan turned
his attention to writing negro melodies. He wrote several popular
airs, one of them being "Dixie," which afterward became the national
air of the Confederate States. When "Dixie" was written Emmet was
connected with Bryant's Minstrels in New York city, and he sent a copy
to his friend in St. Paul, the late R.C. Munger, and asked his opinion
as to its merits and whether he thought it advisable to place it
in the hands of a publisher. Mr. Munger assured his friend that he
thought it would make a great hit, and he financially assisted Mr.
Emmet in placing it before the public. One of the first copies printed
was sent to Mr. Munger, and the first time this celebrated composition
was ever sung in the West was in the music store of Munger Bros, in
the old concert hall building on Third street. "Dixie" at once became
very popular, and was soon on the program of every minstrel troupe in
the country. Dan Emmet devoted his whole life to minstrelsy and he
organized the first traveling minstrel troupe in the United States,
starting from some point in Ohio in 1843.

The father of the Emmets was a gallant soldier of the War of 1812, and
at one time lived in the old brown frame house at the intersection of
Ramsey and West Seventh streets, recently demolished. A correspondent
of one of the magazines gives the following account of how "Dixie"
happened to become the national air of the Confederate States:

"Early in the war a spectacular performance was being given in New
Orleans. Every part had been filled, and all that was lacking was a
march and war song for the grand chorus. A great many marches and
songs were tried, but none could be decided upon until 'Dixie' was
suggested and tried, and all were so enthusiastic over it that it
was at once adopted and given in the performance. It was taken up
immediately by the populace and was sung in the streets and in homes
and concert halls daily. It was taken to the battlefields, and there
became the great song of the South, and made many battles harder
for the Northerner, many easier for the Southerner. Though it has
particularly endeared itself to the South, the reunion of American
hearts has made it a national song. Mr. Lincoln ever regarded it as a
national property by capture."

       *       *       *       *       *

The Hutchinson family often visited St. Paul, the enterprising town of
Hutchinson, McLeod county, being named after them. They were a very
patriotic family and generally sang their own music. How deliberate
the leader of the tribe would announce the title of the song about to
be produced. Asa Hutchinson would stand up behind the melodeon,
and with a pause between each word inform the audience that
Shoes.'" And sister Abby would sing it, too. During the early
part of the war the Hutchinson family was ordered out of the Army of
the Potomac by Gen. McClellan on account of the abolition sentiments
expressed in its songs. The general was apparently unable to interpret
the handwriting on the wall, as long before the war was ended the
entire army was enthusiastically chanting that beautiful melody to the
king of abolitionists--

  "John Brown's body lies moldering in the grave
  And his soul is marching on."

Gen. McClellan was at one time the idol of the army, as well as of the
entire American people. Before the war he was chief engineer of the
Illinois Central railroad and made frequent trips to St. Paul to see
the future Mrs. McClellan, a Miss Marcy, daughter of Maj. R.B. Marcy
of the regular army, who lived in the old Henry M. Rice homestead on
Summit avenue. When Gen. McClellan was in command of the Army of the
Potomac Maj. Marcy was his chief of staff.

One of the original Hutchinsons is still living, as indicated by the
following dispatch, published since the above was written:

"Chicago, Ill., Jan. 4, 1902.--John W. Hutchinson, the last survivor
of the famous old concert-giving Hutchinson family, which
was especially prominent in anti-bellum times, received many
congratulations to-day on the occasion of his eighty-first birthday,
Mr. Hutchinson enjoys good health and is about to start on a new
singing and speaking crusade through the South, this time against the
sale and us of cigarettes. Mr. Hutchinson made a few remarks to the
friends who had called upon him, in the course of which he said: 'I
never spent a more enjoyable birthday than this, except upon the
occasion of my seventy-fifth, which I spent in New York and was
tendered a reception by the American Temperance union, of which I was
the organizer. Of course you will want me to sing to you, and I
think I will sing my favorite song, which I wrote myself. It is "The
Fatherhood of God and the Brotherhood of Man." I have written a great
many songs, among them "The Blue and the Gray," "Good old Days of
Yore," and some others that I cannot remember now. I sang the "Blue
and the Gray" in Atlanta six years ago, at the time of the exposition
there, and McKinley was there. I had the pleasure of saying a few
words at that time about woman's suffrage. I wrote the first song
about woman's suffrage and called it "Good Times for Women." This is
the 11,667th concert which I have taken part in.'"

The venerable singer is reputed to be quite wealthy. A few years ago
one of the children thought the old man was becoming entirely too
liberal in the distribution of his wealth, and brought an action in
the New York courts requesting the appointment of a guardian to
his estate. The white-haired musician appeared in court without an
attorney, and when the case was about to be disposed of made a request
of the judge, which was granted, that he might be sworn. After Mr.
Hutchinson had made his statement to the court the judge asked a few
questions. "How is your memory?" said the judge. "Memory," replied the
old man. "I remember the flavor of the milk at the maternal fountain."
The judge concluded that Mr. Hutchinson was fully capable of managing
his own affairs.

       *       *       *       *       *

Concert hall, built in 1857 by J.W. McClung, had room for 400 or 500
people, but it was somewhat inaccessible on account of its being in
the basement of the building and was not very much in demand. Horatio
Seymour made a great speech to the Douglas wing of the Democracy in
the hall during the campaign of 1880, and Tom Marshall, the great
Kentucky orator, delivered a lecture on Napoleon to a large audience
In the same place. On the night of the presidential election in 1860 a
number of musicians who had been practicing on "Dixie" and other music
in Munger's music store came down to the hall and entertained the
Republicans who had gathered there for the purpose of hearing the
election returns. There was a great deal more singing than there was
election returns, as about all the news they were able to get was from
the four precincts of St. Paul, New Canada, Rose and Reserve townships
and West St. Paul. We had a telegraph line, to be sure, but Mr.
Winslow, who owned the line, would not permit the newspapers, or any
one else, to obtain the faintest hint of how the election had gone in
other localities. After singing until 11 or 12 o'clock, and abusing
Mr. Winslow in language that the linotype is wholly unable to
reproduce, the crowd dispersed. Nothing could be heard of how the
election had gone until the following afternoon, when Gov. Ramsey
received a dispatch from New York announcing that that state had
given Mr. Lincoln 50,000 majority. As that was the pivotal state the
Republicans immediately held a jollification meeting.

       *       *       *       *       *

Tom Marshall was one of the most eloquent orators America ever
produced. He was spending the summer in Minnesota endeavoring to
recover from the effects of an over-indulgence of Kentucky's great
staple product, but the glorious climate of Minnesota did not seem to
have the desired effect, as he seldom appeared on the street without
presenting the appearance of having discovered in the North Star State
an elixer fully as invigorating as any produced in the land where
colonels, orators and moonshiners comprise the major portion of the
population. One day as Marshall came sauntering down Third street he
met a club of Little Giants marching to a Democratic gathering.
They thought they would have a little sport at the expense of the
distinguished orator from Kentucky, and they haulted immediately in
front of him and demanded a speech. They knew that Mr. Marshall was a
pronounced Whig and supported the candidacy of Bell and Everett, but
as he was from a slave state they did not think he would say anything
reflecting on the character of their cherished leader. Mr. Marshall
stepped to the front of the sidewalk and held up his hand and said:
"Do you think Douglas will ever be president? He will not, as no man
of his peculiar physique ever entered the sacred portals of the White
House." He then proceeded to denounce Douglas and the Democratic party
in language that was very edifying to the few Republicans who chanced
to be present. The Little Giants concluded that it was not the proper
caper to select a casual passer-by for speaker, and were afterward
more particular in their choice of an orator.

       *       *       *       *       *

One night there was a Democratic meeting in the hall and after a
number of speakers had been called upon for an address, De Witt C.
Cooley, who was a great wag, went around in the back part of the hall
and called upon the unterrified to "Holler for Cooley." The request
was complied with and Mr. Cooley's name was soon on the lips of nearly
the whole audience. When Mr. Cooley mounted the platform an Irishman
in the back part of the hall inquired in a voice loud enough to be
heard by the entire audience, "Is that Cooley?" Upon being assured
that it was, he replied in a still louder voice: "Be jabers, that's
the man that told me to holler for Cooley." The laugh was decidedly on
Cooley, and his attempted flight of oratory did not materialize.

Cooley was at one time governor of the third house and if his message
to that body could be reproduced it would make very interesting

       *       *       *       *       *

The Athenaeum was constructed in 1859 by the German Reading society,
and for a number of years was the only amusement hall in St. Paul with
a stage and drop curtain. In 1861 Peter and Caroline Richings spent
a part of the summer in St. Paul, and local amusement lovers were
delightfully entertained by these celebrities during their sojourn.
During the war a number of dramatic and musical performances were
given at the Athenaeum for the boys in blue. The cantata of "The
Haymakers," for the benefit of the sanitary commission made quite a
hit, and old residents will recollect Mrs. Winne, Mrs. Blakeley and
Prof. Perkins, who took the leading parts. Prof. Phil Roher and Otto
Dreher gave dramatic performances both in German and English for some
time after the close of the war. Plunkett's Dramatic company, with
Susan Denin as the star, filled the boards at this hall a short time
before the little old opera house was constructed on Wabasha street.
During the Sioux massacre a large number of maimed refugees were
brought to the city and found temporary shelter in this place.

       *       *       *       *       *

In 1853 Market hall, on the corner of Wabasha and Seventh streets, was
built, and it was one of the principal places of amusement. The Hough
Dramatic company, with Bernard, C.W. Couldock, Sallie St. Clair and
others were among the notable performers who entertained theatergoers.
In 1860 the Wide Awakes used this place for a drill hall, and so
proficient did the members become that many of them were enabled to
take charge of squads, companies and even regiments in the great
struggle that was soon to follow.

       *       *       *       *       *

In 1860 the Ingersoll block on Bridge Square was constructed, and as
that was near the center of the city the hall on the third floor
was liberally patronized for a number of years. Many distinguished
speakers have entertained large and enthusiastic audiences from the
platform of this popular hall. Edward Everett, Ralph Waldo Emerson and
John B. Gough are among the great orators who have electrified and
instructed the older inhabitants, and the musical notes of the Black
Swan, Mlle. Whiting and Madame Varian will ever be remembered by
those whose pleasure it was to listen to them. Mrs. Scott Siddons, an
elocutionist of great ability and a descendant of the famous English
family of actors of that name, gave several dramatic readings to her
numerous admirers. When Sumter was fired on, Capt. W.H. Acker used
this hall as a rendezvous and drill hall for Company C, First regiment
of Minnesota volunteers, and many rousing war meetings for the purpose
of devising ways and means for the furtherance of enlistments took
place in this building.

In February, 1861, the ladies of the different Protestant churches of
St. Paul, with the aid of the Young Men's Christian association, gave
a social and supper in this building for the purpose of raising funds
for the establishment of a library. It was a sort of dedicatory
opening of the building and hall, and was attended by large
delegations from the different churches. Quite a large sum was
realized. A room was fitted up on the second story and the beginning
of what is now the St. Paul library soon opened up to the public.
About 350 books were purchased with the funds raised by the social,
and the patrons of the library were required to pay one dollar per
year for permission to read them. Dr. T.D. Simonton was the first
librarian. Subsequently this library was consolidated with the St.
Paul Mercantile Library association and the number of books more than
doubled. A regular librarian was then installed with the privilege of
reading the library's books raised to two dollars per annum.

       *       *       *       *       *

The People's theater, an old frame building on the corner of Fourth
and St. Peter streets, was the only real theatrical building in
the city. H. Van Liew was the lessee and manager of this place of
entertainment, and he was provided with a very good stock company.
Emily Dow and her brother, Harry Gossan and Azelene Allen were among
the members. During the summer of 1858 Mr. and Mrs. J.W. Wallack came
to St. Paul and played a two weeks' engagement. They were the most
prominent actors who had yet appeared in this part of the country.

"The Man in the Iron Mask" and "Macbeth" were on their repertoire.
Probably "Macbeth" was never played to better advantage or to more
appreciative audiences than it was during the stay of the Wallacks.
Mrs. Wallack's Lady Macbeth was a piece of acting that few of the
present generation can equal. Col. R.E.J. Miles was one of the stars
at this theater, and it was at this place that he first produced the
play of "Mazeppa," which afterward made him famous. A.M. Carver,
foreman of the job department of the St. Paul Times, often assisted in
theatrical productions. Mr. Carver was not only a first-class printer,
but he was also a very clever actor. His portrayal of the character of
Uncle Tom in "Uncle Tom's Cabin," which had quite a run, and was fully
equal to any later production by full fledged members of the dramatic
profession. Mr. Carver was one of the first presidents of the
International Typographical union, and died in Cincinnati many years
ago, leaving a memory that will ever be cherished by all members of
the art preservative.

This theater had a colored gallery, and the shaded gentry were
required to pay as much for admission to the gallery at the far end of
the building as did the nabobs in the parquet. Joe Rolette, the member
from "Pembina" county, occasionally entertained the audience at this
theater by having epileptic fits, but Joe's friends always promptly
removed him from the building and the performance would go on

       *       *       *       *       *

On the second story of an old frame building on the southeast corner
of Third and Exchange streets there was a hall that was at one time
the principal amusement hall of the city. The building was constructed
in 1850 by the Elfelt brothers and the ground floor was occupied by
them as a dry goods store. It is one of the very oldest buildings in
the city. The name of Elfelt brothers until quite recently could be
seen on the Exchange street side of the building. The hall was named
Mazurka hall, and all of the swell entertainments of the early '50s
took place in this old building. At a ball given in the hall during
one of the winter months more than forty years ago, J.Q.A. Ward,
bookkeeper for the Minnesotian, met a Miss Pratt, who was a daughter
of one of the proprietors of the same paper, and after an acquaintance
of about twenty minutes mysteriously disappeared from the hall and got
married. They intended to keep it a secret for a while, but it was
known all over the town the next day and produced great commotion.
Miss Pratt's parents would not permit her to see her husband, and they
were finally divorced without having lived together.

For a number of years Napoleon Heitz kept a saloon and restaurant in
this building. Heitz had participated in a number of battles under
the great Napoleon, and the patrons of his place well recollect the
graphic descriptions of the battle of Waterloo which he would often
relate while the guest was partaking of a Tom and Jerry or an oyster

       *       *       *       *       *

During the summer of 1860 Charles N. Mackubin erected two large
buildings on the site of the Metropolitan hotel. Mozart hall was on
the Third street end and Masonic hall on the Fourth street corner. At
a sanitary fair held during the winter of 1864 both of these halls
were thrown together and an entertainment on a large scale was
held for the benefit of the almost depleted fundes of the sanitary
commission. Fairs had been given for this fund in nearly all the
principal cities of the North, and it was customary to vote a sword
to the most popular volunteer officer whom the state had sent to the
front. A large amount of money had been raised in the different cities
on this plan, and the name of Col. Marshall of the Seventh regiment
and Col. Uline of the Second were selected as two officers in whom it
was thought the people would take sufficient interest to bring out a
large vote. The friends of both candidates were numerous and each side
had some one stationed at the voting booth keeping tab on the number
of votes cast and the probable number it would require at the close
to carry off the prize. Col. Uline had been a fireman and was very
popular with the young men of the city. Col. Marshall was backed by
friends in the different newspaper offices. The contest was very
spirited and resulted in Col. Uline capturing the sword, he having
received more than two thousand votes in one bundle during the last
five minutes the polls were open. This fair was very successful,
the patriotic citizens of St. Paul having enriched the funds of the
sanitary commission by several thousand dollars.

       *       *       *       *       *

One of the first free concert halls in the city was located on Bridge
Square, and it bore the agonizing name of Agony hall. Whether it
was named for its agonizing music or the agonizing effects of its
beverages was a question that its patrons were not able to determine.

       *       *       *       *       *

In anti-bellum times Washington's birthday was celebrated with more
pomp and glory than any holiday during the year. The Pioneer Guards,
the City Guards, the St. Paul Light Artillery, the St. Paul fire
department and numerous secret organizations would form in
procession and march to the capitol, and in the hall of the house of
representatives elaborate exercises commemorative of the birth of the
nation's first great hero would take place. Business was generally
suspended and none of the daily papers would be issued on the
following day.

In 1857 Adalina Patti appeared in St. Paul for the first time. She was
about sixteen years old and was with the Ole Bull Concert company.
They traveled on a small steamboat and gave concerts in the river
towns. Their concert took place in the hall of the house of
representatives of the old capitol, that being the only available
place at the time. Patti's concert came near being nipped in the bud
by an incident that has never been printed. Two boys employed as
messengers at the capitol, both of whom are now prominent business
men in the city, procured a key to the house, and, in company with a
number of other kids, proceeded to representative hall, where they
were frequently in the habit of congregating for the purpose of
playing cards, smoking cigars, and committing such other depradations
as it was possible for kids to conceive. After an hour or so of
revelry the boys returned the key to its proper place and separated.
In a few minutes smoke was seen issuing from the windows of the hall
and an alarm of fire was sounded. The door leading to the house was
forced open and it was discovered that the fire had nearly burned
through the floor. The boys knew at once that it was their
carelessness that had caused the alarm, and two more frightened kids
never got together. They could see visions of policemen, prison bars,
and even Stillwater, day and night for many years. They would often
get together on a back street and in whispered tones wonder if they
had yet been suspected. For more than a quarter of a century these two
kids kept this secret in the innermost recesses of their hearts,
and it is only recently that they dared to reveal their terrible

       *       *       *       *       *

A few days after Maj. Anderson was compelled to lower the Stars and
Stripes on Sumter's walls a mass meeting of citizens, irrespective of
party, was called to meet at the hall of the house of representatives
for the purpose of expressing the indignation of the community at the
dastardly attempt of the Cotton States to disrupt the government.
Long before the time for the commencement of the meeting the hall was
packed and it was found necessary to adjourn to the front steps of
the building in order that all who desired might take part in the
proceedings. Hon. John S. Prince, mayor of the city, presided,
assisted by half a dozen prominent citizens as vice presidents. Hon.
John M. Gilman, an honored resident of the city, was one of the
principal speakers. Mr. Gilman had been the Democratic candidate for
congress the fall previous, and considerable interest was manifested
to hear what position he would take regarding the impending conflict.
It was very soon apparent that Mr. Gilman was in hearty sympathy with
the object of the meeting and his remarks were received with great
demonstrations of approbation. Hon. J.W. Taylor followed Mr. Gilman
and made a strong speech in favor of sustaining Mr. Lincoln. There
were a number of other addresses, after which resolutions were adopted
pledging the government the earnest support of the citizens, calling
on the young men to enroll their names on the roster of the rapidly
forming companies and declaring that they would furnish financial aid
when necessary to the dependant families of those left behind. Similar
meetings were held in different parts of the city a great many times
before the Rebellion was subdued.

       *       *       *       *       *

The first Republican state convention after the state was admitted
into the Union was held in the hall of the house of representatives.
The state was not divided into congressional districts at that time
and Col. Aldrich and William Windom were named as the candidates for
representatives in congress. Col. Aldrich did not pretend to be much
of an orator, and in his speech of acceptance he stated that while
he was not endowed with as much oratorical ability as some of his
associates on the ticket, yet he could work as hard as any one, and
he promised that he would sweat at least a barrel in his efforts to
promote the success of the ticket.

       *       *       *       *       *

Aromory hall, on Third street, between Cedar and Minnesota, was built
in 1859, and was used by the Pioneer Guards up to the breaking out of
the war. The annual ball of the Pioneer Guards was the swell affair of
the social whirl, and it was anticipated with as much interest by
the Four Hundred as the charity ball is to-day. The Pioneer Guards
disbanded shortly after the war broke out, and many of its members
were officers in the Union army, although two or three of them stole
away and joined the Confederate forces, one of them serving on Lee's
staff during the entire war. Col. Wilkin Col. King, Col. Farrell,
Capt. Coates, Capt. Van Slyke, Capt. Western, Lieut. Zernberg and
Lieut. Tuttle were early in the fray, while a number of others
followed as the war progressed.

       *       *       *       *       *

It was not until the winter of 1866-67 that St. Paul could boast of a
genuine opera house. The old opera house fronting on Wabasha street,
on the ground that is now occupied by the Grand block, was finished
that winter and opened with a grand entertainment given by local
talent. The boxes and a number of seats in the parquet were sold at
auction, the highest bidder being a man by the name of Philbrick, who
paid $72 for a seat in the parquet. This man Philbrick was a visitor
in St. Paul, and had a retinue of seven or eight people with him. It
was whispered around that he was some kind of a royal personage, and
when he paid $72 for a seat at the opening of the opera house people
were sure that he was at least a duke. He disappeared as mysteriously
as he had appeared. It was learned afterward that this mysterious
person was Coal Oil Johnny out on a lark. The first regular company to
occupy this theater was the Macfarland Dramatic company, with Emily
Melville as the chief attraction. This little theater could seat about
1,000 people, and its seating capacity was taxed many a time long
before the Grand opera house in the rear was constructed. Wendell
Philips, Henry Ward Beecher, Theodore Tilton, Frederick Douglass and
many others have addressed large audiences from the stage of this old
opera house. An amusing incident occurred while Frederick Douglass was
in St. Paul. Nearly every seat in the house had been sold long before
the lecture was to commence, and when Mr. Douglass commenced speaking
there was standing room only. A couple of enthusiastic Republicans
found standing room in one of the small upper boxes, and directly in
front of them was a well-known Democratic politician by the name of
W.H. Shelley. Mr. Shelley had at one time been quite prominent in
local Republican circles, but when Andrew Johnson made his famous
swing around the circle Shelley got an idea that the proper thing to
do was to swing around with him. Consequently the Republicans who
stood up behind Mr. Shelley thought they would have a little amusement
at his expense. Every time Mr. Douglass made a point worthy
of applause these ungenerous Republicans would make a great
demonstration, and as the audience could not see them and could
only see the huge outline of Mr. Shelley they concluded that he was
thoroughly enjoying the lecture and had probably come back to the
Republican fold. Mr. Shelley stood it until the lecture was about
half over, when he left the opera house in disgust. Mr. Shelley was a
candidate for the position of collector of customs of the port of St.
Paul and his name had been sent to the senate by President Johnson,
but as that body was largely Republican his nomination lacked

       *       *       *       *       *

About the time of the great Heenan and Sayers prize fight in England
a number of local sports arranged to have a mock engagement at the
Athenaeum. There was no kneitoscopic method of reproducing a fight at
that time, but it was planned to imitate the great fight as closely as
possible. James J. Hill was to imitate Sayers and Theodore Borup the
Benecia boy. They were provided with seconds, surgeons and all
the attendants necessary for properly staging the melee. It was
prearranged that Theodore, in the sixth or seventh round, was to knock
Hill out, but as the battle progressed, Theodore made a false pass and
Hill could not desist from taking advantage of it, and the prearranged
plan was reversed by Hill knocking Theodore out. And Hill has kept
right on taking advantage of the false movements of his adversaries,
and is now knocking them out with more adroitness than he did forty
years ago.




       *       *       *       *       *

  E.Y. Shelly,
  George W. Moore,
  John C. Devereux,
  Martin Williams,
  H.O. Bassford,
  Geo. W. Benedict,
  Louis E. Fisher,
  Geo. W. Armstrong,
  J.J. Noah,
  M.J. Clum,
  Samuel J. Albright,
  David Brock,
  D.S. Merret,
  Richard Bradley,
  A.C. Crowell,
  Sol Teverbaugh,
  Edwin Clark,
  Harry Bingham,
  William Wilford,
  Ole Kelson,
  C.R. Conway,
  Isaac H. Conway,
  David Ramaley,
  M.R. Prendergast,
  Edward Richards,
  Francis P. McNamee,
  E.S. Lightbourn,
  William Creek,
  Alex Creek,
  Marshall Robinson,
  Jacob T. McCoy,
  A.J. Underwood,
  J.B. Chaney,
  James M. Culver,
  Frank H. Pratt,
  A.S. Diamond,
  Frank Daggett,
  R.V. Hesselgrave,
  A.D. Martin,
  W.G. Jebb,
  R.F. Slaughter,
  Thos. Slaughter,
  William A. Hill,
  H.P. Coates,
  A.J. Sterrett,
  Richard McLagan,
  Ed. McLagan,
  Robert Bryan,
  Jas. Wright,
  O.G. Miller,
  J.B.H. Mitchell,
  Chas. R. Stuart,
  Wm. F. Russell,
  D.L. Paine,
  Benj. Drake,
  J.C. Terry,
  Thomas Jebb,
  Francis P. Troxill,
  J.Q.A. Ward,
  A.J. Morgan,
  M.V.B. Young,
  H.L. Vance,
  A.M. Carver,
  W.H. Wheeler,
  J.M. Dugan,
  Luke Mulrean,
  H.H. Young,
  W.G. Allen,
  Barrett Smith,
  Thos. C. Schenck.

Of the above long list of territorial printers the following are the
only known survivors: H.O. Bassford, George W. Benedict, David Brock,
John C. Devereux, Barrett Smith, J.B.H. Mitchell, David Ramaley, M.R.
Prendergast, Jacob T. McCoy, A.S. Diamond, R.V. Hesselgrave, H.P.
Coates, J.R. Chaney, M.J. Clum.


Much has been written of the trials and tribulations of the pioneer
editors of Minnesota and what they have accomplished in bringing to
the attention of the outside world the numerous advantages possessed
by this state as a place of permanent location for all classes of
people, but seldom, if ever, has the nomadic printer, "the man behind
the gun," received even partial recognition from the chroniclers of
our early history. In the spring of 1849 James M. Goodhue arrived in
St. Paul from Lancaster, Wis., with a Washington hand press and a few
fonts of type, and he prepared to start a paper at the capital of the
new territory of Minnesota. Accompanying him were two young printers,
named Ditmarth and Dempsey, they being the first printers to set foot
on the site of what was soon destined to be the metropolis of the
great Northwest. These two young men quickly tired of their isolation
and returned to their former home. They were soon followed by another
young man, who had only recently returned from the sunny plains
of far-off Mexico, where he had been heroically battling for his
country's honor. Capt. E.Y. Shelly was born in Bucks county, Pa.,
on the 25th of September, 1827. When a mere lad he removed to
Philadelphia, where he was instructed in the art preservative, and, on
the breaking out of the Mexican war, he laid aside the stick and rule
and placed his name on the roster of a company that was forming to
take part in the campaign against the Mexicans. He was assigned to
the Third United States dragoons and started at once for the scene of
hostilities. On arriving at New Orleans the Third dragoons was ordered
to report to Gen. Taylor, who was then in the vicinity of Matamoras.
As soon as Gen. Taylor was in readiness he drove the Mexicans across
the Rio Grande, and the battles of Palo Alto, Monterey and Buena Vista
followed in quick succession, in all of which the American forces
were successful against an overwhelming force of Mexicans, the Third
dragoons being in all the engagements, and they received special
mention for their conspicuous gallantry in defending their position
against the terrible onslaught of the Mexican forces under the
leadership of Santa Ana. Soon after the battle of Buena Vista, Santa
Ana withdrew from Gen. Taylor's front and retreated toward the City
of Mexico, in order to assist in the defense of that city against the
American forces under the command of Gen. Scott. Peace was declared in
1848 and the Third dragoons were ordered to Jefferson barracks, St.
Louis, where they were mustered out of the service. Capt. Shelly took
passage in a steamer for St. Paul, where he arrived in July, 1849,
being the first printer to permanently locate in Minnesota. The
Pioneer was the first paper printed in St. Paul, but the Register and
Chronicle soon followed. Capt. Shelly's first engagement was in the
office of the Register, but he soon changed to the Pioneer, and was
employed by Mr. Goodhue at the time of his tragic death. When Col.
Robertson Started the Daily Democrat Capt. Shelly was connected
with that office, and remained there until the Pioneer and Democrat
consolidated. Capt. Shelly was a member of the old Pioneer guards, and
when President Lincoln called for men to suppress the rebellion the
old patriotism was aroused in him, and he organized, in company with
Major Brackett, a company for what was afterward known as Brackett's

Brackett's battalion consisted of three Minnesota companies, and they
were mustered into service in September, 1861. They were ordered to
report at Benton barracks, Mo., and were assigned to a regiment known
as Curtis horse, but afterward changed to Fifth Iowa cavalry. In
February, 1862, the regiment was ordered to Fort Henry, Tenn., and
arrived just in time to take an important part in the attack and
surrender of Fort Donelson. Brackett's battalion was the only
Minnesota force engaged at Fort Donelson, and, although they were
not in the thickest of the fight, yet they performed tremendous and
exhaustive service in preventing the rebel Gen. Buckner from receiving
reinforcements. After the surrender the regiment was kept on continual
scout duty, as the country was overrun with bands of guerrillas and
the inhabitants nearly all sympathized with them. From Fort Donelson
three companies of the regiment went to Savannah, (one of them being
Capt. Shelly's) where preparations were being made to meet Gen.
Beauregard, who was only a short distance away. Brackett's company was
sent out in the direction of Louisville with orders to see that the
roads and bridges were not molested, so that the forces under Gen.
Buell would not be obstructed on the march to reinforce Gen. Grant.
This timely precaution enabled Gen. Buell to arrive at Pittsburg
Landing just in time to save Gen. Grant from probable defeat. For
three months after this battle Capt. Shelly's company was engaged in
protecting the long line of railroad from Columbus, Ky., to Corinth,
Miss. On the 25th of August, 1862, Fort Donalson was attacked by the
rebels and this regiment was ordered to its relief. This attack of the
rebels did not prove to be very serious, but on the 5th of February,
1863, the rebels under Forrest and Wheeler made a third attack on Fort
Donelson. They were forced to retire, leaving a large number of their
dead on the field, but fortunately none of the men under Capt. Shelly
were injured. Nearly the entire spring and summer of 1863 was spent in
scouring the country in the vicinity of the Tennessee river, sometimes
on guard duty, sometimes on the picket line and often in battle. They
were frequently days and nights without food or sleep, but ever kept
themselves in readiness for an attack from the wily foes. Opposed to
them were the commands of Forest and Wheeler, the very best cavalry
officers in the Confederate service. A number of severe actions ended
in the battle of Chickamauga, in which the First cavalry took a
prominent part. After the battle of Chickamauga the regiment was kept
on duty on the dividing line between the two forces. About the 1st
of January, 1864, most of Capt. Shelly's company reinlisted and they
returned home on a thirty days' furlough. After receiving a number
of recruits at Fort Snelling, the command, on the 14th of May, 1864,
received orders to report to Gen. Sully at Sioux City, who was
preparing to make a final campaign against the rebellious Sioux. On
the 28th of June the expedition started on its long and weary march
over the plains of the Dakotas toward Montana. It encountered the
Indians a number of times, routing them, and continued on its way.
About the middle of August the expedition entered the Bad Lands, and
the members were the first white men to traverse that unexplored
region. In the fall the battalion returned to Fort Ridgley, where
they went into winter quarters, having marched over 3,000 miles since
leaving Fort Snelling. Capt. Shelly was mustered out of the service in
the spring of 1865, and since that time, until within a few years, has
been engaged at his old profession.

Capt. Shelly was almost painfully modest, seldom alluding to the many
stirring events with which he had been an active participant, and it
could well be said of him, as Cardinal Wolsey said of himself, that
"had he served his God with half the zeal he has served his country,
he would not in his old age have forsaken him." Political preferment
and self-assurance keep some men constantly before the public eye,
while others, the men of real merit, who have spent the best part of
their lives in the service of their country, are often permitted by an
ungrateful community to go down to their graves unhonored and unsung.

       *       *       *       *       *


Capt. Henry C. Coates was foreman of the job department of the Pioneer
office. He was an officer in the Pioneer Guards, and when the war
broke out was made a lieutenant in the First regiment, was in all the
battles of that famous organization up to and including Gettysburg;
was commander of the regiment for some time after the battle. After
the war he settled in Philadelphia, where he now resides.

Jacob J. Noah at one time set type, with Robert Bonner. He was elected
clerk of the supreme court at the first election of state officers;
was captain of Company K Second Minnesota regiment, but resigned early
in the war and moved to New York City, his former home.

Frank H. Pratt was an officer in the Seventh regiment and served
through the war. He published a paper at Taylor's Falls at one time.
After the war he was engaged in the mercantile business in St. Paul.

John C. Devereux was foreman of the old Pioneer and was an officer in
the Third regiment, and still resides in the city.

Jacob T. McCoy was an old-time typo and worked in all the St. Paul
offices before and after the rebellion. Mr. McCoy was a fine singer
and his voice was always heard at typographical gatherings. He
enlisted as private in the Second Minnesota and served more than four
years, returning as first lieutenant. He now resides in Meadeville,

Martin Williams was printer, editor, reporter and publisher, both
before and after the war. He was quartermaster of the Second Minnesota

Robert P. Slaughter and his brother, Thomas Slaughter, were both
officers in the volunteer service and just previous to the rebellion
were engaged in the real estate business.

Edward Richards was foreman of the Pioneer and Minnesotian before the
war and foreman of the old St. Paul Press after the war. He enlisted
during the darkest days of the rebellion in the Eighth regiment and
served in the dual capacity of correspondent and soldier. No better
soldier ever left the state. He was collector of customs of the port
of St. Paul under the administration of Presidents Garfield and
Arthur, and later was on the editorial staff of the Pioneer Press.

The most remarkable compositor ever in the Northwest, if not in the
United States, was the late Charles R. Stuart. He claimed to be a
lineal descendant of the royal house of Stuart. For two years in
succession he won the silver cup in New York city for setting more
type than any of his competitors. At an endurance test in New York he
is reported to have set and distributed 26,000 ems solid brevier in
twenty-four hours. He was originally from Detroit. In the spring of
1858 he wandered into the Minnesotian office and applied for work. The
Minnesotian was city printer and was very much in need of some one
that day to help them out. Mr. Stuart was put to work and soon
distributed two cases of type, and the other comps wondered what he
was going to do with it. After he had been at work a short time
they discovered that he would be able to set up all the type he had
distributed and probably more, too. When he pasted up the next morning
the foreman measured his string and remeasured it, and then went over
and took a survey of Mr. Stuart, and then went back and measured it
again. He then called up the comps, and they looked it over, but no
one could discover anything wrong with it. The string measured 23,000
ems, and was the most remarkable feat of composition ever heard of in
this section of the country. It was no uncommon occurrence for Mr.
Stuart to set 2,000 ems of solid bourgeois an hour, and keep it up for
the entire day. Mr. Stuart's reputation as a rapid compositor spread
all over the city in a short time and people used to come to the
office to see him set type, with as much curiosity as they do now to
see the typesetting machine. In 1862 Mr. Stuart enlisted in the Eighth
regiment and served for three years, returning home a lieutenant. For
a number of years he published a paper at Sault Ste Marie, in which
place he died about five years ago. He was not only a good printer,
but a very forceful writer, in fact he was an expert in everything
connected with the printing business.

E.S. Lightbourn was one of the old-time printers. He served three
years in the Seventh Minnesota and after the war was foreman of the

M.J. Clum is one of the oldest printers in St. Paul. He was born in
Rensselar county, New York, in 1832, and came to St. Paul in 1853.
He learned his trade in Troy, and worked with John M. Francis, late
minister to Greece, and also with C.L. McArthur, editor of the
Northern Budget. Mr. Clum was a member of Company D, Second Minnesota,
and took part in several battles in the early part of the rebellion.

J.B. Chancy came to Minnesota before the state was admitted to the
Union. At one time he was foreman of a daily paper at St. Anthony
Falls. During the war he was a member of Berdan's sharpshooters, who
were attached to the First regiment.

S J. Albright worked on the Pioneer in territorial days. In 1859 he
went to Yankton, Dak., and started the first paper in that territory.
He was an officer in a Michigan regiment during the rebellion. For
many years was a publisher of a paper in Michigan, and under the last
administration of Grover Cleveland was governor of Alaska.

M.R. Prendergast, though not connected with the printing business
for some time, yet he is an old time printer, and was in the Tenth
Minnesota during the rebellion.

A.J. Underwood was a member of Berdan's Sharp-shooters, and was
connected with a paper at Fergus Falls for a number of years.

Robert V. Hesselgrave was employed in nearly all the St. Paul offices
at various times. He was lieutenant in the First Minnesota Heavy
Artillery, and is now engaged in farming in the Minnesota valley.

William A. Hill came to St. Paul during the early '50s. He was a
member of the Seventh Minnesota.

Ole Johnson was a member of the First Minnesota regiment, and died in
a hospital in Virginia.

William F. Russel, a compositor on the Pioneer, organized a company of
sharpshooters in St. Paul, and they served throughout the war in the
army of the Potomac.

S. Teverbaugh and H.I. Vance were territorial printers, and were both
in the army, but served in regiments outside the state.

There were a large number of other printers in the military service
during the civil war, but they were not territorial printers and their
names are not included in the above list.


One of the brightest of the many bright young men who came to
Minnesota at an early day was Mr. James Mills. For a time he worked on
the case at the old Pioneer office, but was soon transferred to the
editorial department, where he remained for a number of years. After
the war he returned to Pittsburgh, his former home, and is now and for
a number of years has been editor-in-chief of the Pittsburgh Post.

Among the numerous printers of St. Paul who were musically inclined
no one was better known than the late O.G. Miller. He belonged to the
Great Western band, and was tenor singer in several churches in the
city for a number of years. Mr. Miller was a 33d Degree Mason, and
when he died a midnight funeral service was held for him in Masonic
hall, the first instance on record of a similar service in the city.

George W. Moore came to St. Paul in 1850, and for a short time was
foreman for Mr. Goodhue. In 1852 he formed a partnership with John P.
Owens in the publication of the Minnesotian. He sold his interest
in that paper to Dr. Foster in 1860, and in 1861 was appointed by
President Lincoln collector of the port of St. Paul, a position he
held for more than twenty years.

Louis E. Fisher was one of God's noblemen. When he first came to St.
Paul he was foreman of the Commercial Advertiser. For a long time he
was one of the editors of the Pioneer, and also the Pioneer Press. He
was a staunch democrat and a firm believer in Jeffersonian simplicity.
At one time he was a candidate for governor on the democratic ticket.
Had it not been for a little political chicanery he would have been
nominated, and had he been elected would have made a model governor.

George W. Armstrong was the Beau Brummel of the early printers. He
wore kid gloves when he made up the forms of the old Pioneer, and he
always appeared as if he devoted more attention to his toilet than
most of his co-laborers. He was elected state treasurer on the
democratic ticket in 1857, and at the expiration of his term of office
devoted his attention to the real estate business.

Another old printer that was somewhat fastidious was James M.
Culver. He was the first delegate from St. Paul to the International
Typographical Union. Old members of the Sons of Malta will recollect
how strenuously he resisted the canine portion of the ceremony when
taking the third degree of that noble order.

Who has not heard of David Ramaley? He is one of the best as well as
one of the best known printers in the Northwest. He has been printer,
reporter, editor, publisher and type founder. Although he has been
constantly in the harness for nearly fifty years, he is still active
and energetic and looks as if it might be an easy matter to round out
the century mark.

H.O. Bassford, now of the Austin Register, was one of the fleetest and
cleanest compositers among the territorial printers. He was employed
on the Minnesotian.

Francis P. McNamee occupied most all positions connected with the
printing business--printer, reporter, editor. He was a most estimable
man, but of very delicate constitution, and he has long since gone to
his reward.

The genial, jovial face of George W. Benedict was for many years
familiar to most old-time residents. At one time he was foreman of the
old St. Paul Press. He is now editor and publisher of the Sauk Rapids

The old St. Paul Times had no more reliable man than the late Richard
Bradley. He was foreman of the job department of that paper, and held
the same position on the Press and Pioneer Press for many years.

D.L. Paine was the author of the famous poem entitled "Who Stole Ben
Johnson's Spaces." He was employed in several of the St. Paul offices
previous to the rebellion.

The late John O. Terry was the first hand pressman in St. Paul.
He formed a partnership with Col. Owens in the publication of the
Minnesotian. For a long time he was assistant postmaster of St. Paul,
and held several other positions of trust.

J.B.H. Mitchell was a, member of the firm of Newson, Mitchell & Clum,
publishers of the Daily Times. For several years after the war he was
engaged as compositor in the St. Paul offices, and is now farming in
Northern Minnesota.

Among the freaks connected with the printing business was a poet
printer by the name of Wentworth. He was called "Long Haired

Early in the war he enlisted in the First Minnesota regiment. When
Col. Gorman caught sight of him he ordered his hair cut. Wentworth
would not permit his flowing locks to be taken off, and he was
summarly dismissed from the service. After being ordered out of the
regiment he wrote several letters of doubtful loyalty and Secretary
Stanton had him arrested and imprisoned in Fort Lafayette with other
political prisoners. He never returned to Minnesota.

Marshall Robinson was a partner of the late John H. Stevens in the
publication of the first paper at Glencoe. At one time he was a
compositor on the Pioneer, and the last heard from him he was state
printer for Nevada.

Andrew Jackson Morgan was brought to St. Paul by the late Col.
D.A. Robertson and made foreman of the Democrat. He was a
printer-politician and possessed considerable ability. At one time he
was one of the editors of the Democrat. He was said to bear a striking
resemblance to the late Stephen A. Douglas, and seldom conversed with
any one without informing them of the fact. He was one of the original
Jacksonian Democrats, and always carried with him a silver dollar,
which he claimed was given him by Andrew Jackson when he was
christened. No matter how much Democratic principle Jack would consume
on one of his electioneering tours he always clung to the silver
dollar. He died in Ohio more than forty years ago, and it is said that
the immediate occasion of his demise was an overdose of hilarity.

Another old timer entitled to a good position in the hilarity column
was J.Q.A. Ward, commonly known as Jack Ward. He was business manager
of the Minnesotian during the prosperous days of that paper. The first
immigration pamphlet ever gotten out in the territory was the product
of Jack's ingenuity. Jack created quite a sensation at one time by
marrying the daughter of his employer on half an hour's ball room
acquaintance. He was a very bright man and should have been one of the
foremost business men of the city, but, like many other men, he was
his own worst enemy.

Another Jack that should not be overlooked was Jack Barbour. His
theory was that in case the fiery king interfered with your business
it was always better to give up the business.

A.M. Carver was one of the best job printers in the country, and he
was also one of the best amateur actors among the fraternity. It was
no uncommon thing for the old time printers to be actors and actors to
be printers. Lawrence Barrett, Stuart Robson and many other eminent
actors were knights of the stick and rule. Frequently during the happy
distribution hour printers could be heard quoting from the dramatist
and the poet, and occasionally the affairs of church and state would
receive serious consideration, and often the subject would be handled
in a manner that would do credit to the theologian or the diplomat,
but modern ingenuity has made it probable that no more statesmen will
receive their diplomas from the composing room. Since the introduction
of the iron printer all these pleasantries have passed away, and the
sociability that once existed in the composing room will be known
hereafter only to tradition.

The late William Jebb was one of the readiest debaters in the old
Pioneer composing room. He was well posted on all topics and was
always ready to take either side of a question for the sake of
argument. Possessing a command of language and fluency of speech that
would have been creditable to some of the foremost orators, he would
talk by the hour, and his occasional outbursts of eloquence often
surprised and always entertained the weary distributors. At one time
Jebb was reporter on the St. Paul Times. Raising blooded chickens
was one of his hobbies. One night some one entered his premises and
appropriated, a number of his pet fowls. The next day the Times had a
long account of his misfortune, and at the conclusion of his article
he hurled the pope's bull of excommunication at the miscreant. It was
a fatal bull and was Mr. Jebb's reportorial finish.

A fresh graduate from the case at one time wrote a scurrilous
biography of Washington. The editor of the paper on which he was
employed was compelled to make editorial apology for its unfortunate
appearance. To make the matter more offensive the author on several
different occasions reproduced the article and credited its authorship
to the editor who was compelled to apologize for it.

In two different articles on nationalities by two different young
printer reporters, one referred to the Germans as "the beer-guzzling
Dutch," and the other, speaking of the English said "thank the Lord we
have but few of them in our midst," caused the writers to be promptly
relegated back to the case.

Bishop Willoughby was a well-known character of the early times. A
short conversation with him would readily make patent the fact that he
wasn't really a bishop. In an account of confirming a number of people
at Christ church a very conscientious printer-reporter said "Bishop
Willoughby administered the rite of confirmation," when he should have
said Bishop Whipple. He was so mortified at his unfortunate blunder
that he at once tendered his resignation. Of course it was not

Editors and printers of territorial times were more closely affiliated
than they are to-day. Meager hotel accommodations and necessity for
economical habits compelled many of them to work and sleep in the same
room. All the offices contained blankets and cots, and as morning
newspapers were only morning newspapers in name, the tired and weary
printer could sleep the sleep of the just without fear of disturbance.

Nearly all the early editors were also printers. Earle S. Goodrich,
editor-in-chief of the Pioneer: Thomas Foster, editor of the
Minnesotian; T.M. Newson, editor of the Times, and John P. Owens,
first editor of the Minnesotian, were all printers. When the old Press
removed from Bridge Square in 1869 to the new building on the corner
of Third and Minnesota streets, Earle S. Goodrich came up into the
composing room and requested the privilege of setting the first type
in the new building. He was provided with a stick and rule and set
up about half a column of editorial without copy. The editor of the
Press, in commenting on his article, said it was set up as "clean as
the blotless pages of Shakespeare." In looking over the article the
next morning some of the typos discovered an error in the first line.



Every Minnesotian's heart swells with pride whenever mention is made
of the grand record of the volunteers from the North Star State in the
great struggle for the suppression of the rebellion. At the outbreak
of the war Minnesota was required to furnish one regiment, but so
intensely patriotic were its citizens that nearly two regiments
volunteered at the first call of the president. As only ten companies
could go in the first regiment the surplus was held in readiness for
a second call, which it was thought would be soon forthcoming. On the
16th of June, 1861, Gov. Ramsey received notice that a second regiment
would be acceptable, and accordingly the companies already organized
with two or three additions made up the famous Second Minnesota. H.P.
Van Cleve was appointed colonel, with headquarters at Fort Snelling.
Several of the companies were sent to the frontier to relieve
detachments of regulars stationed at various posts, but on the 16th of
October, 1861, the full regiment started for Washington. On reaching
Pittsburgh, however, their destination was changed to Louisville, at
which place they were ordered to report to Gen. W.T. Sherman, then in
command of the Department of the Cumberland, and they at once received
orders to proceed to Lebanon Junction, about thirty miles south of
Louisville. The regiment remained at this camp about six weeks before
anything occurred to relieve the monotony of camp life, although there
were numerous rumors of night attacks by large bodies of Confederates.
On the 15th of November, 1861, Gen. Buell assumed command of all the
volunteers in the vicinity of Louisville, and he at once organized
them into divisions and brigades. Early in December the Second
regiment moved to Lebanon, Ky., and, en route, the train was fired at.
At Lebanon the Second Minnesota, Eighteenth United States infantry,
Ninth and Thirty-fifth Ohio regiments were organized into a brigade,
and formed part of Gen. George H. Thomas' First division. On Jan. 1,
1862, Gen. Thomas started his troops on the Mill Springs campaign
and from the 1st to the 17th day of January, spent most of its time
marching under rain, sleet and through mud, and on the latter date
went into camp near Logan's Cross Roads, eight miles north of
Zollicoffer's intrenched rebel camp at Beech Grove. On the night of
Jan. 18, Company A was on picket duty. It had been raining incessantly
and was so dark that it was with difficulty that pickets could be
relieved. Just at daybreak the rebel advance struck the pickets of
the Union lines, and several musket shots rang out with great
distinctness, and in quick succession, it being the first rebel shot
that the boys had ever heard. Then all was quiet for a time. The
firing soon commenced again, nearer and more distinct than at first,
and thicker and faster as the rebel advance encountered the Union
pickets. The Second Minnesota had entered the woods and passing
through the Tenth Indiana, then out of ammunition and retiring and no
longer firing. The enemy, emboldened by the cessation and mistaking
its cause, assumed they had the Yanks on the run, advanced to the rail
fence separating the woods from the field just as the Second Minnesota
was doing the same, and while the rebels got there first, they were
also first to get away and make a run to their rear. But before
they ran their firing was resumed and Minnesotians got busy and the
Fifteenth Mississippi and the Sixteenth Alabama regiments were made
to feel that they had run up against something. To the right of the
Second were two of Kinney's cannon and to their right was the Ninth
Ohio. The mist and smoke which hung closely was too thick to see
through, but by lying down it was possible to look under the smoke and
to see the first rebel line, and that it was in bad shape, and back of
it and down on the low ground a second line, with their third line
on the high ground on the further side of the field. That the Second
Minnesota was in close contact with the enemy was evident all along
its line, blasts of fire and belching smoke coming across the fence
from Mississippi muskets. The contest was at times hand to hand--the
Second Minnesota and the rebels running their guns through the fence,
firing and using the bayonet when opportunity offered. The firing was
very brisk for some time when it was suddenly discovered that
the enemy had disappeared. The battle was over, the Johnnies had
"skedaddled," leaving their dead and dying on the bloody field. Many
of the enemy were killed and wounded, and some few surrendered. After
the firing had ceased one rebel lieutenant bravely stood in front
of the Second and calmly faced his fate. After being called on to
surrender he made no reply, but deliberately raised his hand and shot
Lieut. Stout through the body. He was instantly shot. His name proved
to be Bailie Peyton, son of one of the most prominent Union men in
Tennessee. Gen. Zollicoffer, commander of the Confederate forces, was
also killed in this battle. This battle, although a mere skirmish when
compared to many other engagements in which the Second participated
before the close of the war, was watched with great interest by the
people of St. Paul. Two full companies had been recruited in the city
and there was quite a number of St. Paulites in other companies of
this regiment. When it became known that a battle had been fought
in which the Second had been active participants, the relatives and
friends of the men engaged in the struggle thronged the newspaper
offices in quest of information regarding their safety. The casualties
in the Second Minnesota, amounted to twelve killed and thirty-five
wounded. Two or three days after the battle letters were received from
different members of the Second, claiming that they had shot Bailie
Payton and Zollicoffer. It afterward was learned that no one ever
knew who shot Peyton, and that Col. Fry of the Fourth Kentucky shot
Zollicoffer. Lieut. Tuttle captured Peyton's sword and still has it in
his possession. This sword has a historic record. It was presented to
Bailie Peyton by the citizens of New Orleans at the outbreak of the
Mexican war, and was carried by Col. Peyton during the entire war.
Col. Peyton was on Gen. Scott's staff at the close of the war, and
when Santa Anna surrendered the City of Mexico to Gen. Scott, Col.
Peyton was the staff officer designated by Scott to receive the
surrender of the city, carrying this sword by his side. It bears
this inscription: "Presented to Col. Bailie Peyton, Fifth Regiment
Louisiana Volunteer National Guards, by his friends of New Orleans.
His country required his services. His deeds will add glory to
her arms." There has been considerable correspondence between the
government and state, officials and the descendants of Col. Peyton
relative to returning this trophy to Col. Peyton's relatives, but so
far no arrangements to that effect have been concluded.

It was reported by Tennesseeans at the time of the battle that young
Peyton was what was known as a "hoop-skirt" convert to the Confederate
cause. Southern ladies were decidedly more pronounced secessionists
than were the sterner sex, and whenever they discovered that one of
their chivalric brethren was a little lukewarm toward the cause of the
South they sent him a hoop skirt, which indicated that the recipient
was lacking in bravery. For telling of his loyalty to the Union he
was insulted and hissed at on the streets of Nashville, and when he
received a hoop skirt from his lady friends he reluctantly concluded
to take up arms against the country he loved so well. He paid the
penalty of foolhardy recklessness in the first battle in which he

A correspondent of the Cincinnati Commercial, who was an eye-witness
of the battle, gave a glowing description of the heroic conduct of the
Second Minnesota during the engagement. He said: "The success of the
battle was when the Second Minnesota and the Ninth Ohio appeared in
good order sweeping through the field. The Second Minnesota, from its
position in the column, was almost in the center of the fight, and in
the heaviest of the enemy's fire. They were the first troops that used
the bayonet, and the style with which they went into the fight is the
theme of enthusiastic comment throughout the army."

It was the boast of Confederate leaders at the outbreak of the
rebellion that one regiment of Johnnies was equal to two or more
regiments of Yankees. After the battle of Mill Springs they had
occasion to revise their ideas regarding the fighting qualities of the
detested Yankees. From official reports of both sides, gathered after
the engagement was over, it was shown that the Confederate forces
outnumbered their Northern adversaries nearly three to one.

The victory proved a dominant factor in breaking up the Confederate
right flank, and opened a way into East Tennessee, and by transferring
the Union troops to a point from which to menace Nashville made the
withdrawal of Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston's troops from Bowling Green,
Ky., to Nashville necessary.

Confederate loss, 600 in killed, wounded and prisoners. Union loss,
248 in killed and wounded. Twelve rebel cannon and caissons complete
were captured. Two hundred wagons with horses in harness were
captured, as were large quantities of ammunition, store and camp
equipments--in fact, the Union troops took all there was.

Col. Fry's version of the killing of Zollicoffer is as follows: While
on the border of "old fields" a stranger in citizen clothes rode up by
his side, so near that he could have put his hand upon his shoulder,
and said: "Don't let us be firing on our own men. Those are our men,"
pointing at the same time toward our forces. Col. Fry looked upon him
inquiringly a moment, supposing him to be one of his own men, after
which he rode forward not more than fifteen paces, when an officer
came dashing up, first recognizing the stranger and almost the same
instant firing upon Col. Fry. At the same moment the stranger wheeled
his horse, facing Col. Fry, when the colonel shot him in the breast.

Gen. Zollicoffer was a prominent and influential citizen of Nashville
previous to the war, and stumped the state with Col. Peyton in
opposition to the ordinance of secession, but when Tennessee seceded
he determined to follow the fortunes of his state. The day before the
battle Gen. Zollicoffer made a speech to his troops in which he said
he would take them to Indiana or go to hell himself. He didn't go to

The poet of the Fourth Kentucky perpetrated the following shortly
after the battle:

  "Old Zollicoffer is dead
  And the last word he said:
  I see a wild cat coming.
  Up steps Col. Fry.
  And he hit him in the eye
  And he sent him to the happy land of Canaan.
  Ho! boys, ho!
  For the Union go!
  Hip hurrah for the happy land of freedom."

The loyal Kentuckians were in great glee and rejoiced over the
victory. It was their battle against rebel invaders from Tennessee,
Mississippi and Alabama, who were first met by their own troops of
Wolford's First cavalry and the Fourth Kentucky infantry, whose blood
was the first to be shed in defense of the Stars and Stripes; and
their gratitude went out to their neighbors from Minnesota, Indiana
and Ohio who came to their support and drove the invaders out of their
state. On Feb. 24, 1862, the Second Minnesota was again in Louisville,
where the regiment had admirers and warm friends in the loyal ladies,
who as evidence of their high appreciation, though the mayor of the
city, Hon. J.M. Dolph, presented to the Second regiment a silk flag.
The mayor said. "Each regiment is equally entitled to like honor, but
the gallant conduct of those who came from a distant state to unite
in subduing our rebel invaders excites the warmest emotions of our

On Jan. 25 President Lincoln's congratulations were read to the
regiment, and on Feb. 9, at Waitsboro, Ky., the following joint
resolution of the Minnesota legislature was read before the regiment:

Whereas, the noble part borne by the First regiment, Minnesota
infantry, in the battles of Bull Run and Ball's Bluff, Va., is
yet fresh in our minds; and, whereas, we have heard with equal
satisfaction the intelligence of the heroism displayed by the Second
Minnesota infantry in the late brilliant action at Mill Springs, Ky.:

Therefore be it resolved by the legislature of Minnesota, That while
it was the fortune of the veteran First regiment to shed luster upon
defeat, it was reserved for the glorious Second regiment to add
victory to glory.

Resolved, that the bravery of our noble sons, heroes whether in defeat
or victory, is a source of pride to the state that sent them forth,
and will never fail to secure to them the honor and the homage of the
government and the people.

Resolved, That we sympathize with the friends of our slain soldiers,
claiming as well to share their grief as to participate in the renown
which the virtues and valor of the dead have conferred on our arms.

Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions, having the signature
of the executive and the great seal of the state, be immediately
forwarded by the governor to the colonels severally in command of
the regiments, to be by them communicated to their soldiers at dress

The battle at Mill Springs was the first important victory achieved by
the Union army in the Southwest after the outbreak of the rebellion,
and the result of that engagement occasioned great rejoicing
throughout the loyal North. Although the battle was fought forty-five
years ago, quite a number of men engaged in that historic event
are still living in St. Paul, a number of them actively engaged in
business. Among the number are J.W. Bishop, J.C. Donahower, M.C.
Tuttle, R.A. Lanpher, M.J. Clum, William Bircher, Robert G. Rhodes,
John H. Gibbons, William Wagner, Joseph Burger, Jacob J. Miller,
Christian Dehn, William Kemper, Jacob Bernard, Charles F. Myer,
Phillip Potts and Fred Dohm.



The battle of Pittsburg Landing on the 6th and 7th of April, 1862, was
one of the most terrific of the many great battles of the great Civil
war. It has been likened to the battle of Waterloo. Napoleon sought to
destroy the army of Wellington before a junction could be made with
Blucher. Johnston and Beauregard undertook to annihilate the Army of
the Tennessee, under Gen. Grant, before the Army of the Cumberland,
under Buell, could come to his assistance. At the second battle of
Bull Run Gen. Pope claimed that Porter was within sound of his guns,
yet he remained inactive. At Pittsburg Landing it was claimed by
military men that Gen. Buell could have made a junction with Grant
twenty-four hours sooner and thereby saved a terrible loss of life had
he chosen to do so. Both generals were subsequently suspended from
their commands and charges of disloyalty were made against them by
many newspapers in the North. Gen. Porter was tried by court-martial
and dismissed from the service. Many years after this decision was
revoked by congress and the stigma of disloyalty removed from his
name. Gen. Buell was tried by court-martial, but the findings of the
court were never made public. Gen. Grant did not think Gen. Buell
was guilty of the charges against him, and when he became
commander-in-chief of the army in 1864 endeavored to have him restored
to his command, but the war department did not seem inclined to do so.
About two weeks before the battle of Pittsburg Landing Gen. Grant
was suspended from the command of the Army of the Tennessee by Gen.
Halleck, but owing to some delay in the transmission of the order, an
order came from headquarters restoring him to his command before he
knew that he had been suspended. Gen. Grant's success at Fort Henry
and Fort Donelson made his superiors jealous of his popularity. He was
ordered arrested by Gen. McClellan, but the order was held up by the
war department until Gen. Grant could be heard from. The reason for
his arrest was that he went to Nashville to consult with Buell without
permission of the commanding general. Dispatches sent to Grant for
information concerning his command was never delivered to him, but
were delivered over to the rebel authorities by a rebel telegraph
operator, who shortly afterward joined the Confederate forces.

Many years after the war Gen. Badeau, one of Grant's staff officers,
was in search of information for his "History of Grant's Military
Campaigns," and he unearthed in the archives of the war department the
full correspondence between Halleck, McClellan and the secretary of
war, and it was not until then that Gen. Grant learned the full extent
of the absurd accusations made against him.

After the battle of Pittsburg Landing Gen. Halleck assumed personal
command of all the forces at that point and Gen. Grant was placed
second in command, which meant that he had no command at all. This
was very distasteful to Gen. Grant and he would have resigned his
commission and returned to St. Louis but for the interposition of his
friend, Gen. W.T. Sherman. Gen. Grant had packed up his belongings
and was about to depart when Gen. Sherman met him at his tent and
persuaded him to refrain. In a short time Halleck was ordered to
Washington and Grant was made commander of the Department of West
Tennessee, with headquarters at Memphis. Gen. Grant's subsequent
career proved the wisdom of Sherman's entreaty.

When Gen. Halleck assumed command he constructed magnificent
fortifications, and they were a splendid monument to his engineering
skill, but they were never occupied. He was like the celebrated king
of France, who "with one hundred thousand men, marched up the hill and
then down again." Gen. Halleck had under his immediate command more
than one hundred thousand well equipped men, and the people of
the North looked to him to administer a crushing blow to the then
retreating enemy. The hour had arrived--the man had not.

"Flushed with the victory of Forts Henry and Donelson," said the
envious Halleck in a dispatch to the war department, previous to
the battle, "the army under Grant at Pittsburg Landing was more
demoralized than the Army of the Potomac after the disastrous defeat
of Bull Run."

Soon after the battle the venerable Gen. Scott predicted that the
war would soon be ended--that thereafter there would be nothing but
guerrilla warfare at interior points. Gen. Grant himself in his
memoirs says that had the victory at Pittsburg Landing been followed
up and the army been kept intact the battles at Stone River,
Chattanooga and Chickamauga would not have been necessary.

Probably the battle of Pittsburg Landing was the most misunderstood
and most misrepresented of any battle occurring during the war. It
was charged that Grant was drunk; that he was far away from the
battleground when the attack was made, and was wholly unprepared to
meet the terrible onslaught of the enemy in the earlier stages of the
encounter. Gen. Beauregard is said to have stated on the morning
of the battle that before sundown he would water his horses in the
Tennessee river or in hell. That the rebels did not succeed in
reaching the Tennessee was not from lack of dash and daring on their
part, but was on account of the sturdy resistance and heroism of their
adversaries. According to Gen. Grant's own account of the battle,
though suffering intense pain from a sprained ankle, he was in the
saddle from early morning till late at night, riding from division to
division, giving directions to their commanding officers regarding the
many changes in the disposition of their forces rendered necessary
by the progress of the battle. The firm resistance made by the force
under his command is sufficient refutation of the falsity of the
charges made against him. Misunderstanding of orders, want of
co-operation of subordinates as well as superiors, and rawness of
recruits were said to have been responsible for the terrible slaughter
of the Union forces on the first day of the battle.

       *       *       *       *       *

The battle of Pittsburg Landing is sometimes called the battle of
Shiloh, some of the hardest lighting having been done in the vicinity
of an old log church called the Church of Shiloh, about three miles
from the landing.

The battle ground traversed by the opposing forces occupied a
semi-circle of about three and a half miles from the town of
Pittsburg, the Union forces being stationed in the form of a
semi-circle, the right resting on a point north of Crump's Landing,
the center being directly in front of the road to Corinth, and the
left extending to the river in the direction of Harrisburg--a small
place north of Pittsburg Landing. At about 2 o'clock on Sunday
morning, Col. Peabody of Prentiss' division, fearing that everything
was not right, dispatched a body of 400 men beyond the camp for the
purpose of looking after any body of men which might be lurking in
that direction. This step was wisely taken, for a half a mile advance
showed a heavy force approaching, who fired upon them with great
slaughter. This force taken by surprise, was compelled to retreat,
which they did in good order under a galling fire. At 6 o'clock the
fire had become general along the entire front, the enemy having
driven in the pickets of Gen. Sherman's division and had fallen with
vengeance upon three Ohio regiments of raw recruits, who knew nothing
of the approach of the enemy until they were within their midst. The
slaughter on the first approach of the enemy was very severe, scores
falling at every discharge of rebel guns. It soon became apparent that
the rebel forces were approaching in overwhelming numbers and there
was nothing left for them to do but retreat, which was done with
considerable disorder, both officers and men losing every particle of
their baggage, which fell into rebel hands.

At 8:30 o'clock the fight had become general, the second line of
divisions having received the advance in good order and made every
preparation for a suitable reception of the foe. At this time many
thousand stragglers, many of whom had never before heard the sound
of musketry, turned their backs to the enemy, and neither threats or
persuasion could induce them to turn back. The timely arrival of Gen.
Grant, who had hastened up from Savannah, led to the adoption of
measures that put a stop to this uncalled-for flight from the battle
ground. A strong guard was placed across the thoroughfare, with orders
to hault every soldier whose face was turned toward the river, and
thus a general stampede was prevented. At 10 o'clock the entire line
on both sides was engaged in one of the most terrible battles ever
known in this country. The roar of the cannon and musketry was without
intermission from the main center to a point extending halfway down
the left wing. The great struggle was most upon the forces which had
fallen back on Sherman's position. By 11 o'clock quite a number of the
commanders of regiments had fallen, and in some instances not a single
field officer remained; yet the fighting continued with an earnestness
that plainly showed that the contest on both sides was for death or
victory. The almost deafening sound of artillery and the rattle of
musketry was all that could be heard as the men stood silently and
delivered their fire, evidently bent on the work of destruction which
knew no bounds. Foot by foot the ground was contested, a single narrow
strip of open land dividing the opponents. Many who were maimed fell
back without help, while others still fought in the ranks until they
were actually forced back by their company officers. Finding it
impossible to drive back the center of our column, at 12 o'clock the
enemy slackened fire upon it and made a most vigorous effort on our
left wing, endeavoring to drive it to the river bank at a point about
a mile and a half above Pittsburg Landing. With the demonstration of
the enemy upon the left wing it was soon seen that all their fury was
being poured out upon it, with a determination that it should give
way. For about two hours a sheet of fire blazed both columns, the
rattle of musketry making a most deafening noise. For about an hour it
was feared that the enemy would succeed in driving our forces to the
river bank, the rebels at times being plainly seen by those on the
main landing below. While the conflict raged the hottest in this
quarter the gunboat Tyler passed slowly up the river to a point
directly opposite the enemy and poured in a broadside from her immense
guns. The shells went tearing and crashing through the woods, felling
trees in their course and spreading havoc wherever they fell. The
explosions were fearful, the shells falling far inland, and they
struck terror to the rebel force. Foiled in this attempt, they now
made another attack on the center and fought like tigers. They found
our lines well prepared and in full expectation of their coming. Every
man was at his post and all willing to bring the contest to a definite
conclusion. In hourly expectation of the arrival of reinforcements,
under Generals Nelson and Thomas of Buell's army, they made every
effort to rout our forces before the reinforcements could reach the
battle ground. They were, however, fighting against a wall of steel.
Volley answered volley and for a time the battle of the morning was
re-enacted on the same ground and with the same vigor on both sides.
At 5 o'clock there was a short cessation in the firing of the enemy,
their lines falling back on the center for about half a mile. They
again wheeled and suddenly threw their entire force upon the left
wing, determined to make the final struggle of the day in that
quarter. The gunboat Lexington in the meantime had arrived from
Savannah, and after sending a message to Gen. Grant to ascertain in
which direction the enemy was from the river, the Lexington and Tyler
took a position about half a mile above the river landing, and poured
their shells up a deep ravine reaching to the river on the right.
Their shots were thick and fast and told with telling effect. In the
meantime Gen. Lew Wallace, who had taken a circuitous route from
Crump's Landing, appeared suddenly on the left wing of the rebels. In
face of this combination the enemy felt that their bold effort was for
the day a failure and as night was about at hand, they slowly fell
back, fighting as they went, until they reached an advantageous
position, somewhat in the rear, yet occupying the main road to
Corinth. The gunboats continued to send their shells after them until
they were far beyond reach. This ended the engagement for the day.
Throughout the day the rebels evidently had fought with the Napoleonic
idea of massing their entire force on weak points of the enemy, with
the intention of braking through their lines, creating a panic and
cutting off retreat.

The first day's battle, though resulting in a terrible loss of Union
troops, was in reality a severe disappointment to the rebel leaders.
They fully expected, with their overwhelming force to annihilate
Grant's army, cross the Tennessee river and administer the same
punishment to Buell, and then march on through Tennessee, Kentucky and
into Ohio. They had conceived a very bold movement, but utterly failed
to execute it.

Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston, commander of the Confederate forces,
was killed in the first day's battle, being shot while attempting to
induce a brigade of unwilling Confederates to make a charge on the

Gen. Buell was at Columbia, Tenn., on the 19th of March with a veteran
force of 40,000 men, and it required nineteen days for him to reach
the Tennessee river, eighty-five miles distant, marching less than
five miles a day, notwithstanding the fact that he had been ordered to
make a junction with Grant's forces as soon as possible, and was well
informed of the urgency of the situation.

During the night steamers were engaged in carrying the troops of
Nelson's division across the river. As soon as the boats reached the
shore the troops immediately left, and, without music, took their way
to the advance of the left wing of the Union forces. They had come up
double quick from Savannah, and as they were regarded as veterans, the
greatest confidence was soon manifest as to the successful termination
of the battle. With the first hours of daylight it was evident that
the enemy had also been strongly reinforced, for, notwithstanding they
must have known of the arrival of new Union troops, they were first to
open the ball, which they did with considerable alacrity. The attacks
that began came from the main Corinth road, a point to which they
seemed strongly attached, and which at no time did they leave
unprotected. Within half an hour from the first firing in the morning
the contest then again spread in either direction, and both the main
and left wings were not so anxious to fight their way to the river
bank as on the previous day, having a slight experience of what they
might expect if again brought under the powerful guns of the Tyler and
Lexington. They were not, however, lacking in activity, and they
were met by our reinforced troops with an energy that they did not
anticipate. At 9 o'clock the sound of the artillery and musketry fully
equaled that of the day before. It now became evident that the rebels
were avoiding our extreme left wing, and were endeavoring to find a
weak point in our line by which they could turn our force and thus
create a panic. They left one point but to return to it immediately,
and then as suddenly would direct an assault upon a division where
they imagined they would not be expected. The fire of the united
forces was as steady as clockwork, and it soon became evident that
the enemy considered the task they had undertaken a hopeless one.
Notwithstanding continued repulses, the rebels up to 11 o'clock had
given no evidence of retiring from the field. Their firing had been as
rapid and vigorous at times as during the most terrible hours of
the previous day. Generals Grant, Buell, Nelson and Crittenden were
present everywhere directing the movements on our part for a new
strike against the foe. Gen. Lew Wallace's division on the right had
been strongly reinforced, and suddenly both wings of our army were
turned upon the enemy, with the intention of driving the immense body
into an extensive ravine. At the same time a powerful battery had been
stationed upon an open field, and they poured volley after volley into
the rebel ranks and with the most telling effect. At 11:30 o'clock the
roar of battle almost shook the earth, as the Union guns were being
fired with all the energy that the prospect of ultimate victory
inspired. The fire from the enemy was not so vigorous and they began
to evince a desire to withdraw. They fought as they slowly moved back,
keeping up their fire from their artillery and musketry, apparently
disclaiming any notion that they thought of retreating. As they
retreated they went in excellent order, halting at every advantageous
point and delivering their fire with considerable effect. At noon it
was settled beyond dispute that the rebels were retreating. They were
making but little fire, and were heading their center column for
Corinth. From all divisions of our lines they were closely pursued,
a galling fire being kept up on their rear, which they returned at
intervals with little or no effect. From Sunday morning until Monday
noon not less than three thousand cavalry had remained seated In their
saddles on the hilltop overlooking the river, patiently awaiting the
time when an order should come for them to pursue the flying enemy.
That time had now arrived and a courier from Gen. Grant had scarcely
delivered his message before the entire body was in motion. The wild
tumult of the excited riders presented a picture seldom witnessed on a
battlefield. Gen. Grant himself led the charge.

       *       *       *       *       *

Gen. Grant, in his memoirs, summarizes the results of the two days'
fighting as follows: "I rode forward several miles the day of the
battle and found that the enemy had dropped nearly all of their
provisions and other luggage in order to enable them to get off with
their guns. An immediate pursuit would have resulted in the capture
of a considerable number of prisoners and probably some guns...." The
effective strength of the Union forces on the morning of the 6th was
33,000 men. Lew Wallace brought 5,000 more after nightfall. Beauregard
reported the rebel strength at 40,955. Excluding the troops who fled,
there was not with us at any time during the day more than 25,000 men
in line. Our loss in the two days' fighting was 1,754 killed, 8,408
wounded and 2,885 missing. Beauregard reported a total loss of 10,699,
of whom 1,728 were killed, 8,012 wounded and 957 missing.

On the first day of the battle Gen. Prentiss, during a change of
position of the Union forces, became detached from the rest of the
troops, and was taken prisoner, together with 2,200 of his men. Gen.
W.H.L. Wallace, division commander, was killed in the early part of
the struggle.

The hardest fighting during the first day was done in front of the
divisions of Sherman and McClernand. "A casualty to Sherman," says
Gen. Grant, "that would have taken him from the field that day would
have been a sad one for the Union troops engaged at Shiloh. And how
near we came to this! On the 6th Sherman was shot twice, once in the
hand, once in the shoulder, the ball cutting his coat and making a
slight wound, and a third ball passed through his hat. In addition to
this he had several horses shot during the day."

During the second day of the battle Gen. Grant, Col. McPherson and
Maj. Hawkins got beyond the left of our troops. There did not appear
to be an enemy in sight, but suddenly a battery opened on them from
the edge of the woods. They made a hasty retreat and when they were
at a safe distance halted to take an account of the damage. In a few
moments Col. McPherson's horse dropped dead, having been shot just
back of the saddle. A ball had passed through Maj. Hawkins' hat and a
ball had struck the metal of Gen. Grant's sword, breaking it nearly

On the first day of the battle about 6,000 fresh recruits who had
never before heard the sound of musketry, fled on the approach of the
enemy. They hid themselves on the river bank behind the bluff, and
neither command nor persuasion could induce them to move. When Gen.
Buell discovered them on his arrival he threatened to fire on them,
but it had no effect. Gen. Grant says that afterward those same men
proved to be some of the best soldiers in the service.

Gen. Grant, in his report, says he was prepared with the
reinforcements of Gen. Lew Wallace's division of 5,000 men to assume
the offensive on the second day of the battle, and thought he could
have driven the rebels back to their fortified position at Corinth
without the aid of Buell's army.

       *       *       *       *       *

At banquet hall, regimental reunion or campfire, whenever mention is
made of the glorious record of Minnesota volunteers in the great Civil
war, seldom, if ever, is the First Minnesota battery given credit
for its share in the long struggle. Probably very few of the present
residents of Minnesota are aware that such an organization existed.
This battery was one of the finest organizations that left the state
during the great crisis. It was in the terrible battle of Pittsburg
Landing, the siege of Vicksburg, in front of Atlanta and in the great
march from Atlanta to the sea, and in every position in which they
were placed they not only covered themselves with glory, but they were
an honor and credit to the state that sent them. The First Minnesota
battery, light artillery, was organized at Fort Snelling in the fall
of 1861, and Emil Munch was made its first captain. Shortly after
being mustered in they were ordered to St. Louis, where they received
their accoutrements, and from there they were ordered to Pittsburg
Landing, arriving at the latter place late in February, 1862. The day
before the battle, they were transferred to Prentiss' division of
Grant's army. On Sunday morning, April 6, the battery was brought out
bright and early, preparing for inspection. About 7 o'clock great
commotion was heard at headquarters, and the battery was ordered to be
ready to march at a moment's notice. In about ten minutes they were
ordered to the front, the rebels having opened fire on the Union
forces. In a very short time rebel bullets commenced to come thick and
fast, and one of their number was killed and three others wounded. It
soon became evident that the rebels were in great force in front
of the battery, and orders were issued for them to choose another
position. At about 11 o'clock the battery formed in a new position
on an elevated piece of ground, and whenever the rebels undertook to
cross the field in front of them the artillery raked them down with
frightful slaughter. Several times the rebels placed batteries In the
timber at the farther end of the field, but in each instance the
guns of the First battery dislodged them before they could get into
position. For hours the rebels vainly endeavored to break the lines
of the Union forces, but in every instance they were repulsed with
frightful loss, the canister mowing them down at close range. About 5
o'clock the rebels succeeded in flanking Gen. Prentiss and took part
of his force prisoners. The battery was immediately withdrawn to an
elevation near the Tennessee river, and it was not long before firing
again commenced and kept up for half an hour, the ground fairly
shaking from the continuous firing on both sides of the line. At
about 6 o'clock the firing ceased, and the rebels withdrew to a safe
distance from the landing. The casualties of the day were three killed
and six wounded, two of the latter dying shortly afterward. The fight
at what was known as the "hornet's nest" was most terrific, and had
not the First battery held out so heroically and valiantly the rebels
would have succeeded in forcing a retreat of the Union lines to a
point dangerously near the Tennessee river. Capt. Munch's horse
received a bullet In his head and fell, and the captain himself
received a wound in the thigh, disabling him from further service
during the battle. After Capt. Munch was wounded Lieut. Pfaender took
command of the battery, and he had a horse shot from under him during
the day. On the morning of April 7, Gen. Buell having arrived, the
battery was held in reserve and did not participate in the battle
that day. The First battery was the only organization from Minnesota
engaged in the battle, and their conduct in the fiercest of the
struggle, and in changing position in face of fire from the whole
rebel line, was such as to receive the warmest commendation from the
commanding officer. It was the first battle in which they had taken
part, and as they had only received their guns and horses a few weeks
before, they had not had much opportunity for drill work. Their
terrible execution at critical times convinced the rebels that they
had met a foe worthy of their steel.

       *       *       *       *       *

Among the many thousands left dead and dying on the blood-stained
field of Pittsburg Landing there was one name that was very dear in
the hearts of the patriotic people of St. Paul,--a name that was as
dear to the people of St. Paul as was the memory of the immortal
Ellsworth to the people of Chicago. Capt. William Henry Acker, while
marching at the head of his company, with uplifted sword and with
voice and action urging on his comrades to the thickest of the fray,
was pierced in the forehead by a rebel bullet and fell dead upon the
ill-fated field.

Before going into action Capt. Acker was advised by his comrades not
to wear his full uniform, as he was sure to be a target for rebel
bullets, but the captain is said to have replied that if he had to die
he would die with his harness on. Soon after forming his command into
line, and when they had advanced only a few yards, he was singled out
by a rebel sharpshooter and instantly killed--the only man in the.
company to receive fatal injuries. "Loved, almost adored, by the
company," says one of them, writing of the sad event, "Capt. Acker's
fall cast a deep shadow of gloom over his command." It was but for
a moment. With a last look at their dead commander, and with the
watchword 'this for our captain,' volley after volley from their guns
carried death into the ranks of his murderers. From that moment but
one feeling seemed to possess his still living comrades--that of
revenge for the death of their captain. How terribly they carried out
that purpose the number of rebel slain piled around the vicinity of
his body fearfully attest.

The announcement of the death of Capt. Acker was a very severe blow to
his relatives and many friends in this city. No event thus far in the
history of the Rebellion had brought to our doors such a realizing
sense of the sad realities of the terrible havoc wrought upon the
battlefield. A noble life had been sacrificed in the cause of
freedom--one more name had been added to the long death roll of the
nation's heroes.

Capt. Acker was born a soldier--brave, able, popular and
courteous--and had he lived would undoubtedly been placed high in rank
long before the close of the rebellion. No person ever went to the
front in whom the citizens of St. Paul had more hope for a brilliant
future. He was born in New York State in 1833, and was twenty-eight
years of age at the time of his death. He came to St. Paul in 1854 and
commenced the study of law in the office of his brother-in-law, Hon.
Edmund Rice. He did not remain long in the law business, however, but
soon changed to a position in the Bank of Minnesota, which had just
been established by ex-Gov. Marshall. For some time he was captain of
the Pioneer Guards, a company which he was instrumental in forming,
and which was the finest military organization in the West at
that time. In 1860 he was chosen commander of the Wide-Awakes, a
marching-club, devoted to the promotion of the candidacy of Abraham
Lincoln, and many of the men he so patiently drilled during that
exciting campaign became officers in the volunteer service in that
great struggle that soon followed. Little did the captain imagine at
that time that the success of the man whose cause he espoused would so
soon be the means of his untimely death. At the breaking out of the
war Capt. Acker was adjutant general of the State of Minnesota, but he
thought he would be of more use to his country in active service and
resigned that position and organized a company for the First Minnesota
regiment, of which he was made captain. At the first battle of Bull
Run he was wounded, and for his gallant action was made captain in
the Seventeenth United States Regulars, an organization that had
been recently created by act of congress. The Sixteenth regiment was
attached to Buell's army, and participated in the second day's battle,
and Cat. Acker was one of the first to fall on that terrible day,
being shot in the identical spot in the forehead where he was wounded
at the first battle of Bull Run. As soon as the news was received in
St. Paul of the captain's death his father, Hon. Henry Acker, left for
Pittsburg Landing, hoping to be able to recover the remains of his
martyred son and bring the body back to St. Paul. His body was easily
found, his burial place having been carefully marked by members of the
Second Minnesota who arrived on the battleground a short time after
the battle. When the remains arrived in St. Paul they were met at
the steamboat landing by a large number of citizens and escorted to
Masonic hall, where they rested till the time of the funeral. The
funeral obsequies were held at St. Paul's church on Sunday, May 4,
1862, and were attended by the largest concourse of citizens that
had ever attended a funeral in St. Paul, many being present from
Minneapolis, St. Anthony and Stillwater. The respect shown to the
memory of Capt. Acker was universal, and of a character which fully
demonstrated the high esteem in which he was held by the people of St.

When the first Grand Army post was formed in St. Paul a name
commemorative of one of Minnesota's fallen heroes was desired for the
organization. Out of the long list of martyrs Minnesota gave to the
cause of the Union no name seemed more appropriate than that of the
heroic Capt. Acker, and it was unanimously decided that the first
association of Civil war veterans in this city should be known as
Acker post.


       *       *       *       *       *

The terrible and sensational news that Abraham Lincoln had been
assassinated, which was flashed over the wires on the morning of
April 15, 1865 (forty years ago yesterday), was the most appalling
announcement that had been made during the long crisis through which
the country had just passed. Every head was bowed in grief. No tongue
could find language sufficiently strong to express condemnation of the
fiendish act. The entire country was plunged in mourning. It was not
safe for any one to utter a word against the character of the martyred
president. At no place in the entire country was the terrible calamity
more deeply felt than in St. Paul. All public and private buildings
were draped in mourning. Every church held memorial services. The
services at the little House of Hope church on Walnut street will long
be remembered by all those who were there. The church was heavily
draped in mourning. It had been suddenly transformed from a house of
hope to a house of sorrow, a house of woe. The pastor of the church
was the Rev. Frederick A. Noble. He was one of the most eloquent and
learned divines in the city--fearless, forcible and aggressive--the
Henry Ward Beecher of the Northwest. President Lincoln was his ideal

The members of the House of Hope were intensely patriotic. Many of
their number were at the front defending their imperiled country.
Scores and scores of times during the desperate conflict had the
eloquent pastor of this church delivered stirring addresses favoring
a vigorous prosecution of the war. During the darkest days of the
Rebellion, when the prospect of the final triumph of the cause of the
Union seemed furthest off, Mr. Noble never faltered; he believed that
the cause was just and that right would finally triumph. When the
terrible and heart-rending news was received that an assassin's bullet
had ended the life of the greatest of all presidents the effect was
so paralyzing that hearts almost ceased beating. Every member of the
congregation felt as if one of their own household had been suddenly
taken from them. The services at the church on the Sunday morning
following the assassination were most solemn and impressive. The
little edifice was crowded almost to suffication, and when the pastor
was seen slowly ascending the pulpit, breathless silence prevailed. He
was pale and haggard, and appeared to be suffering great mental agony.
With bowed head and uplifted hands, and with a voice trembling with
almost uncontrollable emotion, he delivered one of the most fervent
and impressive invocations ever heard by the audience. Had the dead
body of the president been placed in front of the altar, the solemnity
of the occasion could not have been greater. In the discourse that
followed, Mr. Noble briefly sketched the early history of the
president, and then devoted some time to the many grand deeds he had
accomplished during the time he had been in the presidential chair.
For more than four years he had patiently and anxiously watched the
progress of the terrible struggle, and now, when victory was in sight,
when it was apparent to all that the fall of Richmond, the surrender
of Lee and the probable surrender of Johnston would end the long war,
he was cruelly stricken down by the hand of an assassin. "With malice
towards none and with charity to all, and with firmness for the right,
as God gives us to see the right," were utterances then fresh from the
president's lips. To strike down such a man at such a time was indeed
a crime most horrible. There was scarcely a dry eye in the audience.
Men and women alike wept. It was supposed at the time that Secretary
of State Seward had also fallen a victim of the assassin's dagger.
It was the purpose of the conspirators to murder the president, vice
president and entire cabinet, but in only one instance did the attempt
prove fatal. Secretary Seward was the foremost statesmen of the
time. His diplomatic skill had kept the country free from foreign
entanglements during the long and bitter struggle. He, too, was
eulogized by the minister, and it rendered the occasion doubly

Since that time two other presidents have been mercilessly slain by
the hand of an assassin, and although the shock to the country was
terrible, it never seemed as if the grief was as deep and universal
as when the bullet fired by John Wilkes Booth pierced the temple of
Abraham Lincoln.


       *       *       *       *       *


       *       *       *       *       *


As the sun was gently receding in the western horizon on a beautiful
summer evening nearly a century ago, a solitary voyageur might have
been seen slowly ascending the sinuous stream that stretches from the
North Star State to the Gulf of Mexico. He was on a mission of peace
and good will to the red men of the distant forest. On nearing the
shore of what is now a great city the lonely voyageur was amazed
on discovering that the pale face of the white man had many years
preceded him. "What, ho!" he muttered to himself; "methinks I see a
paleface toying with a dusky maiden. I will have speech with him." On
approaching near where the two were engaged in some weird incantation
the voyageur overheard the dusky maiden impart a strange message to
the paleface by her side. "From the stars I see in the firmament, the
fixed stars that predominate in the configuration, I deduce the future
destiny of man. 'Tis with thee. O Robert, to live always. This elixer
which I now do administer to thee has been known to our people for
countless generations. The possession of it will enable thee to
conquer all thine enemies. Thou now beholdest, O Robert, the ground
upon which some day a great city will be erected. Thou art destined to
become the mighty chief of this great metropolis. Thy reign will be
long and uninterrupted. Thou wert born when the conjunction of the
planets did augur a life of perfect beatitude. As the years roll
away the inhabitants of the city will multiply with great rapidity.
Questions of great import regarding the welfare of the people will
often come before thee for adjustment. To be successful In thy calling
thou must never be guilty of having decided convictions on any
subject, as thy friends will sometimes be pitted against each other in
the advocacy of their various schemes. Thou must not antagonize either
side by espousing the other's cause, but must always keep the rod and
the gun close by thy side, so that when these emergencies arise and
thou doth scent danger in the air thou canst quietly withdraw from the
scene of action and chase the festive bison over the distant prairies
or revel in piscatorial pleasure on the placid waters of a secluded
lake until the working majority hath discovered some method of
relieving thee of the necessity of committing thyself, and then, O
Robert. thou canst return and complacently inform the disappointed
party that the result would have been far different had not thou been
called suddenly away. Thou canst thus preserve the friendship of all
parties, and their votes are more essential to thee than the mere
adoption of measures affecting the prosperity of thy people. When the
requirements of the people of thy city become too great for thee alone
to administer to all their wants, the great family of Okons, the
lineal descendants of the sea kings from the bogs of Tipperary, will
come to thy aid. Take friendly counsel with them, as to incur their
displeasure will mean thy downfall. Let all the ends thou aimest at be
to so dispose of the offices within thy gift that the Okons, and the
followers of the Okons, will be as fixed in their positions as are the
stars in their orbits."

After delivering this strange astrological exhortation the dusky
maiden slowly retreated toward the entrance of a nearby cavern, the
paleface meandered forth to survey the ground of his future greatness
and the voyageur resumed his lonely journey toward the setting sun.

       *       *       *       *       *


After the lapse of more than four score of years the voyageur from the
frigid North returned from his philanthropic visit to the red man. A
wonderful change met the eye. A transformation as magnificent as it
was bewildering had occurred. The same grand old bluffs looked proudly
down upon the Father of Water. The same magnificent river pursued
its unmolested course toward the boundless ocean. But all else had
changed. The hostile warrior no longer impeded the onward march of
civilization, and cultivated fields abounded on every side.
Steamers were hourly traversing the translucent waters of the great
Mississippi; steam and electricity were carrying people with the
rapidity of lightning in every direction; gigantic buildings appeared
on the earth's surface, visible in either direction as far as the
eye could reach; on every corner was a proud descendant of Erin's
nobility, clad in gorgeous raiment, who had been branded "St. Paul's
finest" before leaving the shores of his native land. In the midst of
this great city was a magnificent building, erected by the generosity
of its people, in which the paleface, supported on either side by the
Okons, was the high and mighty ruler. The Okons and the followers of
the Okons were in possession of every office within the gift of the
paleface. Floating proudly from the top of this great building was an
immense banner, on which was painted in monster letters the talismanic
words: "For mayor, 1902, Robert A. Smith," Verily the prophecy of the
dusky maiden had been fulfilled. The paleface had become impregnably
intrenched. The Okons could never be dislodged.

With feelings of unutterable anguish at the omnipresence of the Okons,
the aged voyageur quietly retraced his footsteps and was never more
seen by the helpless and overburdened subjects of the paleface.


       *       *       *       *       *

When I was about twelve years of age I resided in a small village in
one of the mountainous and sparsely settled sections of the northern
part of Pennsylvania.

It was before the advent of the railroad and telegraph in that
locality. The people were not blessed with prosperity as it is known
to-day. Neither were they gifted with the intellectual attainments
possessed by the inhabitants of the same locality at the present time.
Many of the old men served in the war of 1812, and they were looked up
to with about the same veneration as are the heroes of the Civil War
to-day. It was at a time when the younger generation was beginning to
acquire a thirst for knowledge, but it was not easily obtained under
the peculiar conditions existing at that period. A school district
that was able to support a school for six months in each year was
indeed considered fortunate, but even in these the older children were
not permitted to attend during the summer months, as their services
were considered indispensable in the cultivation of the soil.

Reading, writing and arithmetic were about all the studies pursued in
those rural school districts, although occasionally some of the better
class of the country maidens could be seen listlessly glancing over a
geography or grammar, but they were regarded as "stuck up," and the
other pupils thought they were endeavoring to master something far
beyond their capacity.

Our winter school term generally commenced the first week in December
and lasted until the first week in March, with one evening set apart
each week for a spelling-match and recitation. We had our spelling
match on Saturday nights, and every four weeks we would meet with
schools in other districts in a grand spelling contest. I was
considered too young to participate in any of the joint spelling
matches, and my heart was heavy within me every time I saw a great
four-horse sleigh loaded with joyful boys and girls on their way to
one of the great contests.

One Saturday night there was to be a grand spelling match at a country
crossroad about four miles from our village, and four schools were to
participate. As I saw the great sleigh loaded for the coming struggle
the thought occurred to me that if I only managed to secure a ride
without being observed I might in some way be able to demonstrate to
the older scholars that in spelling at least I was their equal. While
the driver was making a final inspection of the team preparatory to
starting I managed to crawl under his seat, where I remained as quiet
as mouse until the team arrived at the point of destination. I had not
considered the question of getting back--I left that to chance. As
soon as the different schools had arrived two of the best spellers
were selected to choose sides, and it happened that neither of them
was from our school. I stood in front of the old-fashioned fire-place
and eagerly watched the pupils as they took their places in the line.
They were drawn in the order of their reputation as spellers. When
they had finished calling the names I was still standing by the
fireplace, and I thought my chance was hopeless. The school-master
from our district noticed my woebegone appearance, and he arose from
his seat and said:

"That boy standing by the fireplace is one of the best spellers in our

My name was then reluctantly called, and I took my place at the
foot of the column. I felt very grateful towards our master for his
compliment and I thought I would be able to hold my position in the
line long enough to demonstrate that our master was correct. The
school-master from our district was selected to pronounce the words,
and I inwardly rejoiced.

After going down the line several times and a number of scholars had
fallen on some simple word the school-master pronounced the word
"phthisic." My heart leaped as the word fell from the school-master's
lips. It was one of my favorite hard words and was not in the spelling
book. It had been selected so as to floor the entire line in order to
make way for the exercises to follow.

As I looked over the long line of overgrown country boys and girls I
felt sure that none of them would be able to correctly spell the word.
"Next!" "Next!" "Next!" said the school-master, and my pulse beat
faster and faster as the older scholars ahead of me were relegated to
their seats.

At last the crucial time had come. I was the only one left standing.
As the school-master stood directly in front of me and said "Next," I
could see by the twinkle in his eye that he thought I could correctly
spell the word. My countenance had betrayed me. With a clear and
distinct voice loud enough to be heard by every one in the room
I spelled out "ph-th-is-ic--phthisic." "Correct," said the
school-master, and all the scholars looked aghast at my promptness.

I shall never forget the kindly smile of the old school-master, as he
laid the spelling book upon the teacher's desk, with the quiet remark:
"I told you he could spell." I had spelled down four schools, and my
reputation as a speller was established. Our school was declared to
have furnished the champion speller of the four districts, and ever
after my name was not the last one to be called.

On my return home I was not compelled to ride under the driver's seat.


Pioneer Press, April 18, 1908:--Frank Moore, superintendent of the
composing room if the Pioneer Press, celebrated yesterday the fiftieth
anniversary of his connection with the paper. A dozen of the old
employes of the Pioneer Press entertained Mr. Moore at an informal
dinner at Magee's to celebrate the unusual event. Mr. Moore's service
on the Pioneer Press, in fact, has been longer than the Pioneer
Press itself, for he began his work on one of the newspapers which
eventually was merged into the present Pioneer Press. He has held his
present position as the head of the composing room for about forty

Frank Moore was fifteen years old when he came to St. Paul from Tioga
county, Pa., where he was born. He came with his brother, George W.
Moore, who was one of the owners and managers of the Minnesotian. His
brother had been East and brought the boy West with him. Mr. Moore's
first view of newspaper work was on the trip up the river to St. Paul.
There had been a special election on a bond issue and on the way his
brother stopped at the various towns to got the election returns.

Mr. Moore went to work for the Minnesotian on April 17, 1858, as a
printer's "devil." It is interesting in these days of water works and
telegraph to recall that among his duties was to carry water for the
office. He got it from a spring below where the Merchants hotel now
stands. Another of his jobs was to meet the boats. Whenever a steamer
whistled Mr. Moore ran to the dock to get the bundle of newspapers the
boat brought, and hurry with it back to the office. It was from these
papers that the editors got the telegraph news of the world. He also
was half the carrier staff of the paper. His territory covered all
the city above Wabasha street, but as far as he went up the hill
was College avenue and Ramsey street was his limit out West Seventh
street. There was no St. Paul worth mentioning beyond that.

When the Press absorbed the Minnesotian in 1861, Mr. Moore went with
it, and when in 1874 the Press and Pioneer were united Mr. Moore
stayed with the merged paper. His service has been continuous,
excepting during his service as a volunteer in the Civil war. The
Pioneer Press, with its antecedents, has been his only interest.

While Mr. Moore's service is notable for its length, it is still more
notable for the fact that he has grown with the paper, so that
to-day at sixty-five he is still filling his important position as
efficiently on a large modern newspaper as he filled it as a young man
when things in the Northwest, including its newspapers, were in the
beginning. Successive managements found that his services always gave
full value and recognized in him an employe of unusual loyalty and
devotion to the interests of the paper. Successive generations of
employes have found him always just the kind of man it is a pleasure
to have as a fellow workman.

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Reminiscences of Pioneer Days in St. Paul" ***

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