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Title: Kalli, the Esquimaux Christian - A Memoir
Author: Murray, Thomas Boyles
Language: English
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KALLI, THE ESQUIMAUX CHRISTIAN.

by

THE

REV. T. B. MURRAY, M.A.



Published Under the Direction of
the Committee of General Literature and Education,
Appointed by the Society for Promoting
Christian Knowledge


LONDON.

Printed for the
Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge,
Sold at the Depositories,
Great Queen Street, Lincoln's Inn Fields,
4, Royal Exchange, and 16, Hanover Street, Hanover Square,
and by All Booksellers

_Price Sixpence._

[Illustration: Kallihirua, signature]


KALLI, THE ESQUIMAUX CHRISTIAN.

A Memoir

by

THE REV. T. B. MURRAY, M.A.

Author of "Pitcairn, the Island, the People, and
the Pastor"


Published Under the Direction of
the Committee of General Literature and Education,
Appointed by the Society for Promoting
Christian Knowledge

London

Printed for the
Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge
Sold at the Depositories
Great Queen Street, Lincoln's Inn Fields,
4, Royal Exchange, and 16, Hanover Street, Hanover Square
and by All Booksellers

1856



CONTENTS

                                                PAGE
Kallihirua the Esquimaux                           7
Her Majesty's Ship "Assistance"                    8
Cape York                                          9
Kallihirua on board the "Assistance"              10
The Esquimaux Graves                              11
Kallihirua's Family                               12
Lines on "Kallihirua in the Ship"                 13
Description of the Esquimaux                      15
Admiral Beechey's Account                         16
The Seal                                          17
The Narwhal                                       18
Sir W. Edward Parry's Account                     19
Need of Christian Instruction                     21
Kallihirua's Tribe                                22
Kallihirua in England                             ib.
His fondness for Prints and Drawings              23
Seal Hunter                                       24
Sights in England                                 25
Great Exhibition of 1851                          26
St. Augustine's College                           27
College Studies                                   28
Reverence for Sacred Places                       29
Illness from changes in the Weather               30
Greenland-Esquimaux Vocabulary                    31
Visit to Kalli at College                         32
His Amusements and Occupations                    34
Baptism of Kallihirua                             36
Stanzas by the Warden                             43
Kalli at St. John's, Newfoundland                 45
Death of Archdeacon Bridge                        47
Intelligence from Newfoundland                    48
Allusion to Prince Le Boo                         49
Accounts from St John's                           50
Letter from Kalli                                 51
Kalli's Illness and Death                         52
Legacy to a Friend                                56
Funeral                                           57
Intended Memorial                                 58
Practical Reflections                             59
Conclusion                                        60


ILLUSTRATIONS

Portrait of Kallihirua           _To face Title Page_
Map, including his Birthplace    _To face Page_   10
Entrance to a Snow Hut           _Page_           15
Esquimaux Striking a Narwhal                      18
Seal Hunter                                       24
Walrus and Seal                                   35
St. Martin's Church, Canterbury  _To face page_   39



KALLIHIRUA THE ESQUIMAUX.


Kallihirua, notwithstanding the disadvantages of person (for he was
plain, and short of stature, and _looked_ what he was,--an Esquimaux),
excited a feeling of interest and regard in those who were acquainted
with his history, and who knew his docile mind, and the sweetness of
his disposition.

Compliance with the precept in the Old Testament, "Love ye the
stranger[1]," becomes a delight as well as a duty in such an instance
as that about to be recorded, especially when we consider the
affecting injunction conveyed in the Epistle to the Hebrews, "Be not
forgetful to entertain strangers, for thereby some have entertained
angels unawares[2]."

[Footnote 1: Deut. x 18.]

[Footnote 2: Heb. xiii 2.]



Her Majesty's Ship "Assistance"


Erasmus Augustine York, whose native name was Kallihirua, was brought
to England on board Her Majesty's ship "Assistance," Captain Erasmus
Ommanney, in 1851. Captain Ommanney was second in command of the
expedition under the orders of Captain Horatio Austin, C.B., which was
dispatched in May, 1850, in search of the missing vessels of Sir John
Franklin, the "Erebus" and "Terror". Franklin had quitted England on his
perilous and fatal enterprise in May, 1845.

Much interest was attached to the young Esquimaux, who was considered
to be about sixteen years of age in August, 1850. He was one of a
tribe inhabiting the country in the vicinity of Wolstenholme Sound, at
the head of Baffin's Bay, in 76° 3' north latitude, the nearest
residents to the North Pole of any human beings known to exist on the
globe. He was the only person ever brought to this country from so
high a northern latitude. His tribe was met with by the late Sir John
Ross, during his voyage in 1818, and was by him called the Arctic
Highlanders.



Cape York


It appears that, when the expedition under Captain Austin's command
was passing Cape York, in August, 1850, after its release from the ice
in Melville Bay, natives were seen from the "Assistance".
Captain Ommanney went with the "Intrepid" (one of the vessels
comprising the expedition) to communicate with them, when it was
ascertained that H.M.S., "North Star," had passed the winter in the
neighbourhood. The fate of this vessel was then a matter of anxiety,
as by her instructions she had been cautioned to avoid passing the
winter in those regions. The tribe thus discovered consisted of only
three families, residing in their summer huts at Cape York. As no
steamer had ever before found its way to these seas, it was
interesting to watch the impression upon the singular beings now
visited, when they descended into the engine-room. The large furnaces
and machinery astonished them. The latter, on being put in motion,
made them take to their heels with fright, and they ran out of the
engine-room on deck as fast as they could.



Kallihirua on board the "Assistance"


It was after this first interview that the report was raised of the
massacre of two ships' crews in 1846. Captain Ommanney, accompanied by
Captain Penny, with his interpreter, immediately returned to Cape
York, and had a long interview with the natives. They most
emphatically denied the whole statement, adding, that no ship had
ever been on their coasts except the "North Star," and passing
whalers. Then it was, that Kallihirua consented to show Captain
Ommanney where the "North Star" had wintered, and to join the ship,
for the purpose of being useful as an interpreter, in the event of
their meeting with any natives during the search for the missing
expedition under Sir John Franklin. Parting (for awhile, as he
supposed) with his immediate relatives, and with the only people whom
he knew on earth, he threw himself into the hands of strangers in
perfect confidence. Having arrived on board the "Assistance," he put
off his rough native costume, submitted to the process of a good
washing, and, being soon clad in ordinary European clothing, which was
cheerfully contributed by the officers, the young Esquimaux with much
intelligence performed the duty of pilot to the place where the "North
Star" had wintered.



The Esquimaux Graves


On entering Wolstenholme Sound[3], Kallihirua, or, as he was
familiarly called, KALLI, directed Captain Ommanney and the officers
to the late winter-station of his tribe, the spot having been
abandoned in consequence of some epidemic, probably influenza, which
had carried off several persons. On entering the huts, a most
distressing sight presented itself. A heap of dead bodies, about
seven, in a state of decomposition, lay, one over the other, clad in
their skin-clothing, as if suddenly cut off by the hand of death. The
survivors, from fear of infection, had left the remains of their
relatives unburied. It was an affecting scene in such a remote and
desolate region, separated from all communication with the human race.
Near the huts was the burial-ground, with several well-formed graves
of heaps of stones. On one lay a spear, which one of the officers of
the "Assistance" took up, to bring away. Some of the crew were
examining the graves to see whether they contained any of our missing
countrymen. Seeing this, Kalli ran up to the officer, and, with tears
and entreaties, as well as he could make himself understood, begged
him and the men to desist from the work of desecration.

[Footnote 3: For Wolstenholme Sound and Cape York see the annexed map.]

[Illustration: Map of Western Arctic]

[Illustration: THE ARCTIC REGIONS OF AMERICA
_London. Published by the Society for protecting Christian Knowledge._]



Kallihirua's Family


Poor Kalli's lamentations were quite heartrending. His feelings were,
of course, respected, the graves were at once built up again, and the
spear replaced. Captain Ommanney learnt afterwards from Kalli, that
it was his father's grave, over which the spear had been placed by
friends of the deceased. They have a tradition that in a future state
the means of hunting are still required, and, because in this world
the search of food is the chief object of life, the hunting-lance is
deposited on the grave.

The young stranger subsequently lived on board the "Assistance". He
was placed under the care of the serjeant of Marines, who instructed
Kalli in the rudiments of reading and writing, and to whom he became
much attached. By his amiable disposition he made himself welcome and
agreeable to all the expedition, and, as, in consequence of the state
of the ice, no opportunity was offered of landing him on his native
shores, on the return of the vessel past York Inlet, he was brought to
England. The leaders of the expedition conferred the surname of York
upon him, from the locality in which he was found. To this the name of
Erasmus was prefixed, after that of the gallant Captain Ommanney.



Lines on "Kallihirua in the Ship"


Kalli was a twin. His father, whose grave has been mentioned, had been
dead for some years, but he had a mother living, of whom he often
spoke with duty and affection. His father's name was Kirshung-oak. His
mother's Sa-toor-ney. He had two sisters living with their mother. A
touching circumstance, connected with his first introduction to our
countrymen, has been adverted to, which gave rise to the following
lines by the writer of this memoir. They were published in the "Gospel
Missionary," in the year of the arrival of Kallihirua, and are
supposed to be spoken by a British sailor on board the "Assistance"--


KALLI IN THE SHIP

A frost, like iron, held the air,
  A calm was on the sea,
But fields of ice were spreading there,
  And closing on our lee.

Our ship half bound, as if aground,
  Was scarcely seen to go.
All hands on deck were gather'd round
  The little ESKIMAUX.

For he had come amongst our crew,
  A week or so before,
And now we knew not what to do
  To put him safe ashore.

Poor lad, he strain'd his eyes in vain,
  Till tears began to come,
And tried if he could see again
  His mother and his home.

The Captain then saw through his glass
  The Inlet, and the Bay,
But floes of ice, as green as grass,
  And icebergs block'd the way.

"Up with the sail!--the wind's awake!"
  Hark to the Captain's call,
"I see, my boys, we shall not make
  York Inlet, after all."

We look'd upon the swarthy lad,
  Then look'd upon each other,
And all were sure that he was sad
  With thinking of his mother.

We cheer'd him up, and soon he grew
  So useful and so kind,
The crew were glad, and Kalli too,
  He was not left behind.

He learn'd to make the best of it,
  And now, by time and care,
They tell us he can read a bit,
  And say an easy prayer.

O Kalli, fail not, day by day,
  To kneel to God above;
Then He will hear you when you pray,
  And guard you with his love.

Go on, my friend, in years and grace,
  Your precious time employ,
And you will pass, in wisdom's race,
  The idle English boy.

Nay, if you learn and practise too
  The lessons of your youth,
Some heathen tribes may gain from you
  The light of Gospel truth.



Description of the Esquimaux


It may here be interesting to say a few words respecting the people
who inhabit the gloomy abodes whence Kallihirua came, and where he had
passed the greater part of his life.

[Illustration: ENTRANCE TO A SNOW-HUT]



Admiral Beechey's Account


"The characteristic features of the Esquimaux," says Admiral Beechey,
"are large fat round faces, high cheek-bones, small hazel eyes,
eyebrows slanting like the Chinese, and wide mouths." They are
generally under five feet high, and have brown complexions. Beechey,
in his Narrative of a Voyage to Behring's Strait, &c., in H.M.S.
"Blossom," gave a curious and particular description of the habits and
customs of the Esquimaux, their wretched hovels, or "yourts,"
snow-dwellings, and underground huts, and the general want of
cleanliness in their persons and dwellings.

Speaking of a tribe which he visited, he says, "We found them very
honest, extremely good-natured and friendly. Their tents were
constructed of skins, loosely stretched over a few spars of
drift-wood, and were neither wind nor water tight. The tents were, as
usual, filthy, but suitable to the taste of their inhabitants, who no
doubt saw nothing in them that was revolting. The natives testified
much pleasure at our visit, and placed before us several dishes,
amongst which were two of their choicest,--the entrails of a fine
seal, and a bowl of coagulated blood. But desirous as we were to
oblige them, there was not one of our party that could be induced to
partake of their hospitality. Seeing our reluctance, they tried us
with another dish, consisting of the raw flesh of the narwhal, nicely
cut into lumps, with an equal distribution of black and white fat, but
they were not more successful here than at first."



The Seal


The seal's flesh supplies the natives with their most palatable and
substantial food, which however has a fishy flavour, as the creatures
feed chiefly on fish. Seals are sometimes taken on land, when
surprised basking in the sun, with their young. As soon as they are
alarmed by the sight of their enemies, they scuttle away, and make for
the sea[4]. It is on the great deep that the Esquimaux, driven by
hunger, chiefly seeks his precarious food. In his light canoe, which
is made of seal-skins stretched over a slight framework of wood, he
hunts, in all weathers, for his prey, especially for the much-prized
Narwhal.

There, tumbling in their seal-skin boat,
Fearless, the hungry fishers float,
And from the teeming seas supply
The food their niggard plains deny.

[Footnote 4: See ZOOLOGICAL SKETCHES, _Common Seal_. Published by the
Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge.]



The Narwhal


[Illustration: ESQUIMAUX STRIKING A NARWHAL]

The same intrepid boldness is shown in their chase of the reindeer,
the bear, and the fox. Over the boundless deserts of snow they are
borne rapidly along by their faithful dogs, which are harnessed to a
sledge, six or seven to the team, and which scamper away, often in
seeming confusion, but with a precision of aim and object which is
perfectly surprising. No country presents a finer specimen of that
honest, affectionate, much-enduring creature, the dog. Kindness to
animals is always praiseworthy, and to the honour of the Esquimaux
women it must be said, that they are remarked for their humane
treatment of these dogs. They take care of them when they are ill, and
use them better than the men do. Still under blows and hard usage the
dogs are faithful, and willing to labour.



Sir W. Edward Parry's Account


The Esquimaux sometimes use slabs of ice for the walls of their huts,
cementing them together with snow and water. Kennels for their dogs
are also made of the same material. The late Admiral Sir W. Edward
Parry, in the course of a voyage commenced in May, 1821, the chief
object of which was the discovery of the North-West passage, availed
himself of a winter's imprisonment in the ice, to observe and record
the ways and manners of the Esquimaux, whose guest he was. His account
is on the whole satisfactory. "I can safely affirm," said he, "that,
whilst thus lodged beneath their roof, I know no people whom I would
more confidently trust, as respects either my person or my property,
than the Esquimaux."

He also described their domestic character. The affection of the
parents towards their children showed itself in a thousand ways, and
the children on their part have so much gentleness and docility as to
render any kind of chastisement unnecessary. Even from their earliest
infancy, they are said to possess that quietness of disposition,
gentleness of demeanour, and uncommon evenness of temper, for which in
more mature age they are for the most part distinguished. Disobedience
is scarcely ever known; a word or even a look from a parent is enough.

These traits, added to industry and endurance of various kinds of
difficulty, form the fair side of the picture, such as that amiable
and distinguished officer was fond of presenting. The exhibition of
these features of character was probably called forth, in a great
degree, by his own kindness and good management, whilst living among
them.



Need of Christian Instruction


But doubtless there are other and less favourable points of view in
which these people must be sometimes considered. At all events, it is
sad to learn, from the silence of some travellers, and the actual
statements of others, that the Esquimaux do not appear to have any
idea of the existence of a Supreme Being, or to hold any notion of
religion. Separated from the whole civilized world, and frequently
finding it a struggle to live, even with the help of their faithful
dogs, they are objects of pity and concern, rather than of sanguine
hope and expectation to the Christian mind. But were an opportunity to
occur of carrying the Gospel to their snow-clad land, there is little
doubt that the remark of Parry, applied to an individual of one of
their tribes, might be used of all: "On dispositions thus naturally
charitable, what might not Christian education, and Christian
principles effect?"



Kallihirua's Tribe


Certainly, the instance now before the reader affords a good
illustration of this view of the Esquimaux character. It is Captain
Ommanney's opinion that Kallihirua's tribe may be regarded as a
remnant of the pure race which, no doubt, in ages past migrated from
Asia along the coasts of the Parry Group of Islands and Barrow's
Straits. The features, and formation of skull, bespeak Tartar
extraction. "Their isolated position," he adds, "being far north of
the Danish settlements in Greenland, and far removed from the American
continent, has kept them uncontaminated with any of the various mixed
breeds of which the Esquimaux in those regions must be composed."



Kallihirua in England


Captain Ommanney, soon after his arrival in England, brought young
Kallihirua to the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. At that
time he could only speak a few words, such as "Ship," "Sea," "Very
sick;" "England, things very nice," "Captain very good". From his
language and gesture it was gathered, that he had suffered much from
sea-sickness on the voyage; that he had been treated with the utmost
care and kindness on board, and that he was highly pleased with
English fare, and with the reception which he had met with in this
country.

His manners were so gentle, and even polite, without any seeming
effort, as to excite astonishment in those who knew how short a time
he had enjoyed the advantages of education. It was clear that great
pains had been taken with him on board the "Assistance," where his
great study had been to adapt himself to the habits and manners of
those among whom his lot was so singularly cast. "In this," says
Captain Ommanney, "he succeeded; for people were surprised at his good
address, when he reached England."



His Fondness for Prints and Drawings


He was always much pleased with the company of young people, and
appeared quite at home with them. Some books and prints were placed in
the hands of the youth, and he expressed the greatest delight in
seeing views of ships in the ice, and the figure of an Esquimaux
watching for a seal. After gazing for a few moments at the latter, he
uttered a cry of pleasure, and said, "This one of my people!" It
seemed as if, for the time, he had been carried back to his own land,
which, however homely, was once his home. Had any proof been wanting
of the faithfulness of the representation, his hearty and joyous
approval of it would have afforded sufficient evidence of its
accuracy.

The reader shall see the engraving of the lonely seal-hunter which so
much pleased poor Kalli.



Seal Hunter

[Illustration: Seal Hunter]


In this situation, we are told, a man will sit quietly for ten or
twelve hours together, at a temperature of thirty or forty degrees
below zero, watching for the opportunity of killing and taking the
seal, which is supposed to be at work making its hole beneath in the
ice. The Esquimaux, partly sheltered from the "winter's wind," and
fast-falling snow, by a snow-wall, has got his spear and lines ready,
and he has tied his knees together, to prevent his disturbing the seal
by making the slightest noise.



Sights in England


Kalli, whilst in London, on a visit to the author, was taken to the
British Museum. With some of the objects there he was much gratified.
The antiquities, sculpture, and specimens of art and science, had not
such charms in his sight as had the life-like forms of stuffed animals
in that great national collection. With the seals, reindeer, and a
gigantic walrus, with bright glass eyes, he was especially struck and
amused, lingering for some time in the attractive apartment which
contained them.

He had now and then much to bear from rudeness and incivility on the
part of some thoughtless persons, who derided his personal appearance,
though they were not successful in putting him out of temper. The
author recollects an instance of this in a street in London. He was
walking with Kalli, when two young men, who ought to have known
better, stared at the youth in passing, and laughed in his face: then
presently turning round, they said, as they pointed at him, "There
goes a Chinese!" He merely looked up, smiling, as if at their
ignorance, and want of proper feeling.

It has been observed of the people of his nation, that they evince
little or no surprise or excitement at such things as occasion
admiration in others. When Kalli first came up the river Thames with
Captain Ommanney, and travelled from Woolwich by the railway, thence
proceeding through the wonderful thoroughfare from London Bridge to
the West End of the town, passing St. Paul's Cathedral, and Charing
Cross, he merely said, _It was all very good_.

"I took him with me," said the Captain, "to the Great Exhibition, the
Crystal Palace, in Hyde Park. He beheld all the treasures around him
with great coolness, and only expressed his wonder at the vast
multitude of people."



Great Exhibition of 1851


This is natural enough. Many of our readers may recall the feelings of
astonishment with which they viewed that large assemblage. On one of
the shilling days, in October, 1851, ninety-two thousand human beings
were collected together in the Crystal Palace at one time[5]. The
force of contrast could perhaps go no further than in this instance.
A young stranger who, in his own country, in a space of hundreds of
miles around him, had only three families (probably twelve persons) to
count, makes one of a multitude of more than ninety thousand of his
fellow-creatures, in a building of glass, covering only eighteen acres
of ground!

[Footnote 5: This was the case on Tuesday, Oct. 7, 1851. The total
number of visitors on that day alone was 109,915.]

He was taken to see the Horse Guards' Stables. On seeing a trooper
mount his charger, (both being fully accoutred,) Kalli was puzzled. He
could not account for the perfect order and discipline of the animal,
and the mutual fitness of the man and his horse, the one for the
other.



St. Augustine's College


In November, 1851, Kallihirua was placed, by direction of the Lords of
the Admiralty, at the suggestion of the Society for the Propagation of
the Gospel, in the Missionary College of St. Augustine's, at
Canterbury. This college, built on the site of the ancient monastery
of St. Augustine, was established in 1848, for the reception of
students intended for the work of the sacred Ministry in the colonies
and dependencies of the British Empire, as well as among the heathen.
The College, to which the Queen gave a charter of incorporation, owes
its origin chiefly to the munificence of A. J. B. Beresford Hope,
Esq., who purchased the ground, and gave the site. The College Chapel
was consecrated on the morning of St. Peter's Day, June 29th, 1848,
when seven prelates, with the Archbishop of Canterbury at their head,
were present.



College Studies


Kallihirua remained a student of the College, attending to the
instruction given him, and conducting himself well and properly in all
respects. Under the kind auspices of the Rev. H. Bailey, the learned
and judicious Warden of the College, who took the greatest interest in
him, he availed himself, as far as his powers admitted, of the
advantages of the institution. He appeared rightly to understand and
value the blessings of education in a civilized community, and
received with reverence the simple and saving truths of the Gospel. It
was hoped, that, should he willingly and intelligently embrace the
Christian faith, he might at no distant period convey the "glad
tidings of good things" as a missionary or catechist to his own
benighted friends and countrymen.

In September, 1852, the Warden, in a letter, informed the author, that
Kallihirua had been in good health all the summer. "We consider him,"
said he, "a youth of intelligence, and quick observation. His progress
in reading is necessarily slow, though he can manage words of four or
five letters, he is fond of writing, and succeeds very well. He is
very devout at prayers, and attentive to the religious instruction
given him. I think he will one day be of essential use to a missionary
in some northern region. He is grateful to you for your kind offer of
books, and will write a letter of acknowledgment."



His Reverence for Sacred Places


It was but a short time after his settling at St. Augustine's College,
that one of the students took him to see Canterbury Cathedral. The
reverent regard with which he had been taught to look upon a church,
as a place where prayer was made to God, manifested itself in his
inquiry, when entering the nave, "Whether he might cough there?" This
tendency to cough, arising from an ailment, the seeds of which had
probably been sown long before, was often observable; and he was very
susceptible of cold.



Illness from Changes in the Weather


In the spring of 1853 he suffered much from the variableness of the
season. The mode in which he described his state to a friend is very
simple and affecting. The original letter, which was entirely his own,
both in composition and handwriting, is here copied verbatim. It
commences with his signature:--

"E. YORK, St. Augustine's College. April, 1853.

"My dear Sir,

         "I am very glad to tell, How do you do, Sir? I been
         England, long time none very well. Long time none
         very well. Very bad weather. I know very well, very
         bad cough. I very sorry, very bad weather,
         dreadful. Country very difference. Another day
         cold. Another day wet, I miserable.

         "Another summer come. Very glad. Great many trees.
         Many wood. Summer beautiful, country Canterbury."

Should any reader be disposed to look with the smile of a critic on
this humble but genuine effort, let him bear in mind the difficulties
which poor _English_ adults have to encounter in learning to read and
write; and then let him judge of the obstacles in the way of one whose
existence had been spent with his native tribe, on fields of ice, and
in dark snow-huts.

In all attacks of illness he was attended with assiduous kindness by
Mr. Hallowes, of Canterbury, the skilful surgeon employed by the
College, who showed much hospitality to Kalli. One of Mr. Hallowes'
family circle on Christmas-day was always the good-humoured
broad-faced Esquimaux. At their juvenile parties, the youth joined
cheerfully in the sports of the children, and he sometimes sung them
some of the wild and plaintive airs peculiar to his tribe.

It is believed that Kalli never omitted his morning and evening
prayers by his bed-side, and his utterance was full of devout
earnestness. Mr. Bailey remembers once travelling with him to Deal,
and while in the railway carriage, the youth quietly took out of his
pocket a little book, which was afterwards found to be a collection of
texts for each day in the year. For some time he was reading
thoughtfully the text for the day. No notice was taken of this to him;
and as for himself, never perhaps was any one more free from the least
approach to ostentation.



Greenland Esquimaux Vocabulary


In the year 1853, Kalli rendered essential Service in the preparation
of a Greenland Esquimaux Vocabulary, for the use of the Arctic
Expedition of that year. The work was printed by direction of the
Lords of the Admiralty, with a short Preface acknowledging the
advantage of his assistance. Captain Washington, R.N., Hydrographer of
the Admiralty, says in the Preface, "Every word has now been revised
from the lips of a native. In the Midsummer vacation in 1852
Kallihirua passed some days with me, and we went partly over the
Vocabulary. I found him intelligent, speaking English very fairly,
docile and imitative, his great pleasure appearing to be a pencil and
paper, with which he drew animals and ships. At the Christmas
holidays, we revised more of the Vocabulary, &c."

A member of the Expedition afterwards visited St. Augustine's College
and stated that the Vocabulary had been found to be of much service.



Visit to Kalli at College


The writer of this Memoir well recollects the circumstances of a visit
which he paid with his family to St. Augustine's College, Canterbury,
on a bright day, in August, 1853, when (it being the vacation) only
three students remained in residence. These were 1. Kallihirua, 2. a
young Hindoo by name Mark Pitamber Paul, and 3. Lambert McKenzie, a
youth of colour, a native of Africa, sent to the College by the Bishop
of Guiana. Kalli, who was the only one of these personally known to
the author, did not at first appear. He had strolled out to witness a
cricket-match in a field near Canterbury, but Blunsom, the College
porter, said that he had promised to return by two o'clock, and that
he was very punctual.

It is here due both to Blunsom and his wife, to say that they were
most kind friends to Kalli, watching over him with the most thoughtful
attention, and the tenderest care throughout.

As the Cathedral clock struck two, Kalli entered the College-gates.
With hair black as the raven's wing, and eyes sparkling with
good-humour, he made his appearance; and soon showed a desire to do
the honours of the College. His dress was neat, like that of a young
English gentleman, and he had a gaiety of look and manner, but far
removed from foppery of apparel or demeanour. With true
politeness--that of the heart--he accompanied the visitors over the
Library, the Chapel, the Common Hall and the Dormitories of the
College; each student having a small bed-room and study to himself.



His Amusements and Occupations


Kalli took great pleasure in exhibiting the carpenter's shop, a
spacious crypt below the Library. Attention was there called to the
wooden frame of a small house, in the construction of which, it
appeared, he had borne a part. He said, when asked, that he should
most probably find the knowledge of carpentering valuable some day,
and that he should like to teach his countrymen the many good and
useful things which he had learned in his College. He spoke little,
and was evidently conscious of his imperfect pronunciation, but in
answer to a question on the subject, he said he hoped to tell his
people about religion, and the truths of the Gospel which he had been
taught in England.

His amusements were of a quiet and innocent kind. He made small models
of his country sledges, one of which, a very creditable performance,
is in the Museum in the College Library, and a rough rustic chair, now
in the College garden, is of his manufacture. He was fond of drawing
ships, and figures of the Seal, the Walrus, the Reindeer, the
Esquimaux Dog, and other objects familiar to him in the Arctic
regions.

[Illustration: WALRUS AND SEAL.]

His sketches of animals and ships were very correct, and he used
sometimes to draw them for the amusement of children.

When on board the "Assistance," he made a good sketch of the coast
line of the region which his tribe frequented, from Cape York to
Smith's Sound.

The use which he made of the needle must not be forgotten. For a year
and a half, whilst at Canterbury, he went regularly for five hours a
day to a tailor to learn the trade, and was found very handy with his
needle. He proved to be of much use in the ordinary work of the trade.



Baptism of Kallihirua


We now come to an important event in the history of Kallihirua; his
Baptism, which took place on Advent Sunday, Nov. 27th, 1853, in St.
Martin's Church, near Canterbury. "The visitors present on the
occasion," said an eye-witness[6], "were, the Rev. John Philip Gell
(late Warden of Christ's College, Tasmania), accompanied by Mrs. Gell,
daughter of the late Sir John Franklin; Captain Erasmus Ommanney, R.N.
(who brought Kallihirua to England), and Mrs. Ommanney, Captain
Washington, R.N., of the Admiralty, and the Rev. W. T. Bullock. The
Rev. T. B. Murray, Secretary of the Society for Promoting Christian
Knowledge, who had been invited, was, in consequence of engagements in
London, unfortunately unable to be present".

[Footnote 6: St. Augustine's Occasional Paper.]

[Illustration: St. Martin's Church]

"Towards three o'clock in the afternoon, small parties began to issue
from the College gateway in the direction of St. Martin's,--that
picturesque little church, looking from its calm hill-side over the
broad Stour valley, and over the cathedral and the steeples of the
town half emerging from the smoke. In the interior of this oldest of
the English churches there is an ancient font, which stands upon the
spot (if it be not the very font itself), where King Ethelbert, the
firstfruits of the Anglo-Saxon race, was baptized more than twelve
hundred and fifty years ago by Augustine.

"In the enclosure round this font sat Kallihirua, and his 'chosen
witnesses' Captain Ommanney, and the Subwarden, Mrs. Bailey, and Mrs.
Gell. The remainder of the church was quite filled with an attentive
and apparently deeply-interested congregation, many of them of the
poorer class to whom Kalli is well known either by face (as indeed he
could not well fail to be), or as the comrade of their children in the
spelling-class at school.

"After the Second Lesson, the Warden proceeded to the font, and the
Baptismal Service commenced. Kallihirua, as an adult, made the
responses for himself, and in a clear firm tone, which seemed to
intimate that he had made his choice for once and for ever, that he
had cast in his lot with us, and taken our people for his people, and
our God for his God, and felt with an intelligent appreciation the
privilege of that new brotherhood into which he was admitted.

"May his admission within the pale of Christ's holy Church be, (as was
the prayer of many, beyond the walls of St. Martin's, on that day,)
both to himself and to many of his race, an event pregnant of eternal
issues! 'May the fulness of God's blessing,' to use the words of one
of our most valued friends, 'rest upon it, and make it the first
streak of a clear and steady light, shining from St. Augustine's into
the far North.' The Christian names added to his original Esquimaux
name, were 'Erasmus,' after Captain Ommanney, and 'Augustine,' in
remembrance of the College.

"The service being concluded, an excellent sermon was preached by the
Rev. J. P. Gell, on the text, Isaiah lxv. 1: 'I am sought of them that
asked not for me; I am found of them that sought me not: I said,
Behold me, behold me, unto a nation that was not called by my name.'
Afterwards the same kind friend attended our Sunday evening meeting in
the Warden's house, and gave us some interesting details of the
missionary work (in which he had himself borne a part) in Van Diemen's
Land. The drift of his remarks was to give encouragement to the
principle of steady faithful persevering energy, undamped by early
difficulties, and not impatient of the day of small things; and to
show by convincing examples (especially that of Mr. Davis, a devoted
missionary in that country) how such conduct is sure in the end to
meet with a success of the soundest and most permanent kind, because
founded on the spontaneous sympathy of the people, and on the
blessings of the poor, 'not loud but deep.'

"Kallihirua had received a very handsome present in the shape of a
beautifully bound Bible and Prayer Book, as a baptismal gift from the
Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge."

It may be interesting to add, that the water used in the baptism was
from the river Jordan, and that it had been brought from thence by
Captain Ommanney himself.

In the _Gospel Missionary_ for February, 1854, was a pleasing
description of the Baptism of Kallihirua: and this was the sound and
practical conclusion:--

    "Before we conclude, we may, perhaps, express the hope that
    our young friends will sometimes think kindly of their new
    Christian brother, ERASMUS AUGUSTINE KALLIHIRUA, and that
    they will pray that God will bless him, and make him to
    advance more and more in the knowledge and the love of His
    dear Son JESUS CHRIST. When they thus think of him who is now
    made their own brother by baptism, and is thus brought into
    the family of CHRIST'S people, let them learn to value the
    good things which GOD has given _them_ in such rich
    abundance. Let them be thankful that they were born in a
    Christian country, in which they have been taught from
    children to know the Holy Scriptures, which are able to make
    them wise unto salvation through faith which is in CHRIST
    JESUS."



Stanzas by the Warden


The following stanzas, written by the Warden on the occasion of the
baptism, will be read with pleasure, especially by those who are aware
how faithfully the amiable writer of them fulfilled his part in
preparing Kallihirua, not only for the right performance of such
duties as seemed to await him in life, but (what was far more
important) for an early death.


THE BAPTISM OF KALLIHIRUA

"I WILL TAKE YOU ONE OF A CITY, AND TWO OF A FAMILY, AND I WILL BRING
YOU TO ZION."--Jer. iii. 14.

            Far through the icy bounds
            Of Greenland's barren shore,
          At duty's call, on mercy sent,
            The brave are gone before.

            Beyond the haunts of men
            They urge their tedious way,
          When lo! a wandering tribe appears
            By yonder northern bay.

            But who so wild, so lost
            In ignorance and sin!
          No God they know, no Saviour own,
            Is there a soul to win?

            Yes, in that heathen race
            One heart at least is found
          That yearns for better things, by grace
            In unseen fetters bound.

            Warm is the Christian's heart,
            Outstretch'd the Christian's hand,
          "Assistance" lends her friendly aid
            To reach a Christian land.

            In this our calm retreat
            He finds a peaceful home,
          Is taught such learning as is meet,
            In store for years to come.

            He learns to know and love
            His Saviour and his God,
          And now he is a brother dear,
            By faith in Jesu's blood.

            O gracious Spirit! hear
            Our prayer with one accord;
          And train this new-born Christian heart
            In thy most holy Word.

            Have pity on his race!
            And bring them still to see
          Their wretched state, and teach them all
            The Father, Son, and Thee!

            To God the Father, Son,
            And Spirit, glory be,
          Who call'd, and saved, and sanctifies,
            The co-eternal Three!

Some of these verses were sung in the College Chapel on the evening of
Advent Sunday, 1853.



Kalli at St. John's, Newfoundland


The time having now arrived at which, according to the opinion of the
Bishop of Newfoundland, and the Warden of St. Augustine's, the
qualifications of Kallihirua might be turned to some account, as an
aid to missionaries in their efforts among the Esquimaux of Labrador,
he left England, in the autumn of the year 1855, for further training
at St. John's, Newfoundland. This step was taken at the expense of the
Admiralty, who agreed to allow him 25 pounds a year for three years.

The following notice of his character appeared in the 'Occasional
Paper,' published in St. Augustine's College at the time of his
removal to Newfoundland. At every step of his short but remarkable
course, such willing testimony always awaited him.

"Kallihirua, whose name is known as widely as that of his College, has
arrived at another crisis in his eventful history. Having resided more
than three years in College, he has been transferred to the
experienced care of the Bishop of Newfoundland, with the view to his
probable usefulness among the Esquimaux of Labrador. If integrity of
moral principle, gentleness of spirit, docility of manners,
willingness to be useful, and true Christian politeness, are essential
requisites in a Missionary, then is Kallihirua certain to fill his
place well, if only the right place is found for him."

Kalli arrived in St John's, Newfoundland, on the 2nd October, 1855,
and, on the following day, wrote a letter to Captain Ommanney, telling
him that he had suffered on the voyage from the motion of the vessel,
which had caused severe headaches. He added, "St John's puts me in
mind of my own country. I have already found a great number of kind
friends, and feel so happy."

He was immediately admitted into the College of the Theological
Institution for further training, and it was the Bishop's intention to
have taken him in the summer of 1856 in the Church-ship to the coast
of Labrador, with the view particularly of comparing his language with
that of the Esquimaux on the American continent, who are included
under the government, and consequently in the diocese, of
Newfoundland.

That he was not unfitted for this task, appears from a passage in the
preface to the Greenland-Esquimaux Vocabulary. Captain Washington
observes: "On comparing the Labrador with the Greenland dialect of the
Esquimaux, it was found that nearly one-half the words given by Mr.
Platon were similar to the former. On going over the vocabulary with
Kallihirua, generally speaking he recognized the Greenland word. When
he did not do so, the Labrador was mentioned, which, in most cases, he
caught at directly. These words have been added. There would thus
appear to be even a greater degree of similarity between the Labrador
and Greenland dialects than might have been expected, and it is
evident that the Greenland dialect, as Mr. Platon states, is spoken by
all the Esquimaux to the head of Baffin's Bay."

Kalli had some conversation with a Moravian Missionary from Labrador.
The language was in most respects similar, though there was evidently
a difficulty in understanding each other.



Death of Archdeacon Bridge


It may be mentioned, as a circumstance of melancholy interest, that,
besides Kallihirua, the late Venerable T. F. H. Bridge, Archdeacon of
Newfoundland, was to have accompanied and assisted the Bishop in this
voyage, which it was proposed should have extended to the Moravian
settlement. Moravian Missions have been established in Greenland for
more than a century. But the expedition contemplated by the Bishop
was more particularly designed to open Sandwich and Esquimaux Bays to
the much-needed Missionary.

These projects it was determined, in the good providence of God, were
not to be realized. Archdeacon Bridge was prematurely carried off, in
the midst of his zealous and successful labours, at the end of
February, 1856. "He worked himself to death!" said the Bishop. "His
death was felt in the colony as a public loss."



Intelligence from Newfoundland


The author of this memoir had written to Kallihirua, whilst he was at
St. Augustine's, and had received from him a letter shortly, and
plainly expressed, which the Warden stated to have been composed and
written by the youth himself, and which proved how anxious he was to
do well that which was given him to do. The author afterwards often
thought of the amiable Kalli, and was in hopes of soon hearing from
him in his new abode in Newfoundland. But man proposeth, and God
disposeth. A St. John's paper, _The Newfoundland Express_, taken up
casually in July, 1856, conveyed the intelligence that Kallihirua had
passed away from this busy anxious world to another, and, we humbly
and reasonably hope, a better and happier.

A melancholy interest generally attaches to the history of individuals
dying in a foreign and strange land, far from friends and home. The
separation from all they have known and loved is, in their case, so
entire, the change of their circumstances, habits, and associations,
so great, that such a dispensation specially appeals to the sympathy
of all Christian hearts.



Allusion to Prince Le Boo


Feelings of this kind are excited by the narrative of the early death
of Prince Le Boo, a youthful native of the Pelew Islands, who was
brought over to this country in July, 1784, and who, in the
spring-time of life, after little more than five months' stay in
England, fell a victim, to the small pox. In the memoir of that young
prince, who died at Rotherhithe, and was buried in the church-yard
there, in December, 1784, there are some points of resemblance to the
case under our notice. The natural and unforced politeness of the
youth, his aptness at conforming, in all proper things, to the habits
and customs of those to whose hospitality he was intrusted; his warm
and single-hearted affection for such persons, in whatever station,
as showed him kind offices, his desire for mental improvement; his
resignation and submission in his last illness to the will of God,
these are features which remind us of the subject of our present
memoir. Many are the tears which have fallen over the story of the
young and amiable Prince Le Boo.



Accounts from St. John's


But to resume the thread of the narrative respecting Kalli. During the
winter of 1855 and 1856 he had suffered frequently from cough, and
shown other signs of constitutional weakness. His cheerfulness,
however, had seldom failed him; his readiness to please, and be
pleased, to oblige, and be obliged, never. In letters which he sent to
friends in England, he always spoke with gratitude of the kindness
shown him, and of being very happy.



Letter from Kalli


The following letter to Mr. Blunsom, who, as it will have been seen,
had treated him with constant kindness, and done him much good
service, will be read with interest.

"St John's College, Newfoundland,
January 7, 1856.

                 "I received your kind letter by the December
         mail, and am very sorry to hear of your illness. The
         weather here is very cold, I feel it more than at
         Cape York. I have begun to skate, and find it a
         pleasant amusement. There is a lake a little
         distance from the College, called, 'Quidi Vidi,' on
         which we practise. The Bishop is very kind and good
         to me. College here is not so large and fine a
         place as St. Augustine's: nor are there so many
         students. I hope that all my kind friends at
         Canterbury are quite well. Please remember me
         kindly to Mr. and Mrs. Gipps, and all at St.
         Augustine's. With kind love to yourself,

                            "I remain, yours affectionately,

                                                    "KALLI."



Kalli's Illness and Death


With respect to the fatal attack under which he soon sunk, it has to
be mentioned, that he had gone out to bathe with one of his
fellow-students at St. John's, on Saturday, the 7th June. From
continuing too long in the water, which was very cold, he caught a
chill, and showed many symptoms of inflammation for some days. On
Wednesday, good medical assistance was called in, but his constitution
had received too violent a shock. The Surgeon had fears from the first
that his patient would not recover. It has been observed by medical
men, that Esquimaux have but little stamina, and generally fail under
the first attack of serious illness. Kalli was kindly watched and
assisted by the Rev. J. G. Mountain, and Mrs. Mountain, and his
fellow-students. He got rapidly worse. On the Thursday he seemed
utterly powerless, and could not lift up his arms, nor put them out of
his bed. He was very restless during the greater part of Friday night.

"Soon after ten o'clock on Saturday morning, June 14th," said the
Bishop of Newfoundland, "his gentle soul departed. I saw him
frequently during his illness (three times the last day), and he
always assented most readily, when I reminded him of God's gracious
goodness in visiting him; and that it would be better for him to
depart, and be with Christ. It was remarkable that his English was
more clear and distinct in his illness than I had ever known it; and
though he said but very little, he seemed to understand better than
ever before. The last seizure was so sudden and violent, that he did
not articulate at all. He expired, whilst I was commending his soul to
his faithful Creator and most merciful Saviour."

He is stated to have died of "melanosis of the lungs," a disease in
which the whole substance of the lungs turns completely black. It is
very slow in its first advances, but fearfully rapid in its latter
stages. The Bishop had the chest examined after death, and sent a copy
of the Surgeon's report to the Warden of St. Augustine's.

In a full communication, made to the Warden, the Bishop said, "The
almost suddenness of our good gentle Kalli's removal makes it
difficult to realize the fact that 'he is gone.' I still look for his
familiar strange face among the students, wondering at his unwonted
absence. He seemed quite identified with our little company. We all
miss him greatly, but he has now entered on that perfect rest which he
seemed made for, and is delivered from a troublesome, naughty world
for which he was certainly not made."

The Bishop also spoke of Kalli's _submission to those set over him;
his kindness to all around him, and his attention to all his religious
duties_.

Many young persons, born and bred in our own country, and brought up
from the cradle in the very midst of Christian instruction, may glean
a valuable lesson from the character of this lamented Esquimaux
Christian. They may ask themselves, with some feeling of self-reproof,
whether they should have merited such praise from one so revered, and
so well qualified to judge. "Perhaps," added Bishop Feild, "I was a
little proud at being able to exhibit a far-off Esquimaux brought
near, and among my own scholars."

During Kalli's last illness, which, though short, was not without
considerable suffering, the same spirit of resignation and
thankfulness, which he had always shown, was evinced. "Mr. D---- very
kind," "K---- very kind," "Mrs.---- very kind," "Sorry to give so much
trouble," were expressions continually on his lips, as he was visited
and assisted by his fellow-students, and other friends in succession.
His gentle spirit departed in the presence of the Rev. Thomas Wood,
the Rev. Principal of the College, and all his fellow-students.

The Rev. J. F. Phelps, Vice-Principal of St. John's College,
Newfoundland, who had been a fellow-student of Kalli's, at St.
Augustine's, wrote thus, June 25, 1856, respecting him.

"I have every reason to believe and hope that he has been translated
to a better state, and that he now rests in his Saviour: for though
he had not much knowledge, yet few indeed act up to their knowledge so
well and consistently as he did to his. It must be a comfort to you,
Sir, to be assured that in his last moments he was cared for, and
attended by all members of the College here, the students constantly
being with him, as well as Mr. and Mrs. Mountain and myself. He showed
himself very grateful for all that was being done for him, and
expressed great sorrow at giving so much trouble. He always spoke of
his friends in England with great affection, and was delighted
whenever he received letters from them, which he was always eager to
answer. Altogether, his was a very amiable character, and we all felt
his loss very much."

In another letter from Mr. Phelps is the following passage:--

"During his last illness, in his conversation with me, it was evident
that he quite understood the principle on which we Christians ought to
bear our sufferings, patiently, and even thankfully, because of the
still greater sufferings which we deserve, and which our Divine
Saviour bore for us. I was, I confess, surprised at the readiness
with which he realized the truth and the force of this reasoning."



Legacy to a Friend


The author had often remarked the very grateful manner in which the
youth acknowledged any kindness shown towards him. He spoke with the
utmost affection of his dear friends, Captain Ommanney, Captain
Austin, R.N., the Rev. the Warden of St. Augustine's College, and Mrs.
Bailey. Mrs. Bailey, he said, taught him constantly his readings in
the New Testament, heard him his hymns, and corrected his
writing-exercises. The Rev. A. P. Moor, Sub-Warden of the College, was
also very kind to him, and gained his regard.

Of the moderate means placed at his disposal he was always properly
careful, expending very little upon himself. He had a few pounds laid
up in the Savings' Bank at Canterbury. This amount, together with his
humble store of goods and chattels, consisting chiefly of the prints
which had adorned his room, he left, by a kind of will, to his
untiring and constant friend, Captain Ommanney, in token of gratitude
and regard.



Kalli's Funeral


The remains of Kallihirua were borne to the grave by his
fellow-students, and followed by the Vice-Principal of the College,
and by the Bishop of Newfoundland, as chief mourner. The Burial
Service in the church (St. Thomas's) was conducted by the Rev. Mr.
Wood, and in the cemetery by the Rev. Mr. Mountain, the Principal of
the College. The quiet solemnity of the service was in keeping with
the life and death of the gentle Kalli.

Mrs. Mountain, of St. John's, Newfoundland, in whose house he lived,
and who had kindly assisted in instructing him, wrote as follows:--

"It is in sincere sorrow and mourning that I write to inform you that
we yesterday followed to the grave our poor Erasmus Kallihirua. He
died after only a few days' illness, brought on by incautiously going
out to bathe with one of our other students. On the following day,
when he came to me to read, as usual, he complained of great pain in
the chest and side, and so rapid was the inflammation, that the usual
remedies were unavailing.

"Poor fellow, he was as patient and gentle during his illness, as he
always was when he was well and strong, and expressed perfect
resignation to God's will, and much thankfulness to those who
ministered to him. We all loved him for his unvarying kindness and
gentleness, his submission to those set over him, and his willingness
to serve all. I miss him so very much, not only in his daily lessons,
but in his constant knock at our door, to know whether I had any thing
for him to do in the garden, or a message in the town when he was
going out for a walk.

"He looked very nice, lying in his silver-white coffin, covered with
flowers, and a bunch of lilies and wild pear-blossoms on his bosom. We
trust that he was one of the blessed meek who shall inherit the earth.
We were all with him when he breathed his last, the Bishop, and the
Principal of St. John's College, commending his soul to his faithful
Creator."



Intended Memorial


It is proposed to inscribe a record of Kalli, and of other deceased
students of St. Augustine's College, on a tablet in the crypt under
the College Chapel. A memorial stone will be erected over Kalli's
grave in St. John's, Newfoundland.

With reference to the recent decease of some hopeful students of St.
Augustine's, who, after giving promise of much usefulness in the cause
of missions, had been removed from this earthly scene, Mr. Phelps
observed in a letter lately printed at the St. Augustine's College
Press:--

"The whole College is again reminded, that 'all flesh is grass,' and
that our life 'is even a vapour that appeareth for a little time, and
then vanisheth away.' Poor Kalli is no longer with us. He has been
made fit for the Master's use, and has been taken back by Him who lent
him to us."



Practical Reflections


The writer in the "Newfoundland Express" made the following practical
reflections on Kalli's early death, which suggest serious though
cheering thoughts:--

"It may seem to some persons but folly, and to others but mere
boasting, to point to this young man, as any fruit of, or recompense
for, the costly and calamitous Arctic expeditions. But others may not
think it all in vain, if thereby one soul has been saved, and an
example left to a few young men, of thankfulness and kindness to men,
duty and devotion towards God. Such was Erasmus Augustine Kallihirua,
once a poor benighted Esquimaux, but brought out of darkness into the
marvellous light of the Gospel, to be a pattern to some, who, with
much greater advantages, are far inferior in the best graces of the
Christian."



Conclusion


All that has been written will tend to show that Kallihirua was held
in much esteem and affection by those who knew him, and that some
tribute, (such as even this little memoir,) is due to the memory of
one who was well called "Erasmus," or "beloved."

This, however, is not the chief end which the author had in view in
presenting an account of Kalli's short career among his adopted
countrymen. He would fain convey, amidst other wholesome lessons, that
of the uncertainty of life, and the necessity of working while it is
day. When we reflect on the departure of one, whose face and figure
still dwell in the minds of many of us, it would be wise to remember,
that we ourselves are making for the same point of our journey, the
concluding scene of this short existence, the end of our probation.
How trifling and insignificant do all other events appear, compared
with the close of the race, and the arrival at the looked-for goal!
May God grant us grace to act constantly on this conviction, as to all
our plans and prospects!

THE END


GILBERT AND RIVINGTON, PRINTERS, ST. JOHN'S SQUARE, LONDON



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                                                           s  d
Aera of Mahomet                                            1  4
Annals of the Colonial Church (Fredericton)                1  0
----------------------------- (New Zealand)                3  4
----------------------------- (Toronto)                    3  4
----------------------------- (Quebec)                     3  8
Anson's (Lord) Voyage round the World, _with map_          4  8
Australia and its Gold Regions (A Visit to)                2  8
Bede (The Venerable)                                       0  1
Bingley's (Rev. W.) Celebrated Voyagers                    4  0
------------------- Celebrated Travellers                  4  0
Biographical Sketches, _with cuts_                         1  4
Bonnell, James, Esq. (Life of)                             3  4
Burton's (Rev. Dr. E.) History of the Christian Church
                                            _cloth_        5  0
Channel Islands (Rambles among the), by a Naturalist       3  0
China, _with cuts_                                         1  8
Church History, Sketches of                                1  4
Conqueror (The) and his Sons                               0  6
Conquest of Peru, _with a map_                             0  8
Conversations on the History of Russia Part I.             2  0
-------------------------------------- Part II.            2  8
Council of Constance (The)                                 2  4
Country round the Sea of Galilee            _per dozen_    0  8
Davies of Devanden (Memoir of), _portrait_                 1  8
Defoe on the Plague (Abridgment of), with Evelyn's
  Account of the Fire of London                            1  8
Donne (Dr. John), Life of, _with cuts_                     0  4
Eldad the Pilgrim.  Part I.                                1  6
Evenings at Wychwood Rectory                               0  6
Genoa, _with cuts_                                         0  8
Gilpin's (Rev. W.) Life of Trueman and Atkins, _stitched_  0  8
Gosse's History of the Jews, _School Edition_              2  0
Herbert (Rev. George), Life of, _with cuts_                0  4
History of Greece, by the Rev. R. W. Browne                5  4
---------- Rome, _with map and cuts_                       5  4
Historical Accompaniment to the Holy Scriptures            1  6
Hone's (Rev. R. B.) Lives of Eminent Christians,
    _with portraits_
  Vol I.--Bishop Wilson, Archbishop Usher, Dr. Henry
    Hammond, and John Evelyn                               4  6
  Vol II.--Bernard Gilpin, Philip de Mornay, Bishop
    Bedell, and Dr Anthony Horneck                         4  6
  Vol III.--Bishop Ridley, Bishop Hall, and Hon.
    Robert Boyle                                           4  6
  Vol IV.--John Bradford, Archbishop Grindal, and Sir
    Matthew Hale                                           4  6
Holy Sites in the Land of Promise                          0  4
Jerusalem and the adjacent Country, _with cuts_            0  6
Journal of a Visit to Mount Aboo                           0  4
Journey through Palestine, _with cuts_                     0  4
Keightley's Crusaders, _with views, &c._         _cloth_   7  0
Life of Alfred the Great (Sketches of)                     0  3
------- Henri Quatre                                       0  4
------- Howard the Philanthropist                          2  4
Marlborough (Duke of), Life of the                         1  9
Maundrell's Journey to Aleppo                              2  0
Mexico, _with cuts_                                        2  0
Mountains (The) of Scripture                               2  8
Naimbanna (Memoir of)                                      0  2
Naples                                                     1  8
Narrative of a Journey through Part of New Zealand         0  4
------------ Two Voyages to Hudson's Bay                   1  8
Natives of Africa, _with maps_                             0  4
Nelson (Lord), Life of                                     2  8
New Zealand, _with map and cuts_                           1  8
Norway, Sweden, and Lapland, _with cuts_                   1  8
Old Arm Chair (The)                                        3  0
Palestine and Lebanon (Three Weeks in)           _cloth_   2  0
---------, _with a map and cuts_                           0  6
Peep at St. Petersburgh                                    0  6
------- Constantinople                                     0  6
------- Amsterdam                                          0  6
Perseverance under Difficulties                            0  6
Persia, _with cuts_                                        1  8
Pitcairn, the Island, the People, and the Pastor,
        _fifth edition_                                    2  0
Readings in Biography                            _cloth_   3  6
Scenes beyond the Atlantic, _with cuts_                    0  4
Scripture Manners and Customs, illustrated by Extracts
  from Modern Travellers                                   4  0
Scripture Topography (_Palestine_)                         4  8
-------------------- (_Gentile World_)                     4  8
Sea of Galilee (The)                         _per dozen_   0  8
Seven Churches of Asia, _with map and cuts_                0  4
Shipwrecks of the Lady Hobart Packet, Cabalva, Centaur,
  and Lichfield (Narrative of the), _with cuts_            1  6
Short Memoirs of Eminent Men, _with a plate_               1  6
Spain, _with cuts_                                         2  0
Stevens (Wm., Esq.), Memoir of, by Hon. Mr. Justice Park   2  0
Stories of the Norsemen                                    1  6
Storm (The)                                  _per dozen_   0  8
St. Patrick                                                0  2
Summer in the Antarctic Regions, _with a map and cuts_     3  0
Tayleur (Wreck of the)                                     0  2
Taylor's History of Mohammedanism and the Mohammedan
  Sects, _with views, &c._                       _cloth_   4  0
Tent (The), or, a Traveller's Recollections, _with cuts_   1  8
Thugs (The)                                                0  4
Travels in Africa, _with plates_                           1  9
---------- North America, _with plates_                    1  9
---------- South America, _with plates_                    1  9
---------- Northern Asia, _with plates_                    1  9
---------- South-Eastern Asia, _with plates_               1  9
---------- South-Western Asia, _with plates_               1  9
---------- European Russia, _with plates_                  1  9
---------- Spain, _with plates_                            1  9
---------- Sweden, _with plates_                           1  9
---------- Switzerland, _with plates_                      1  9
Travels (Arctic), or an Account of the Land Expedition
  to the Continent of North America                        1  9
Tribes of Israel (The)                       _per dozen_   0  8
Tweed (Wreck of the), _sewed_                              0  8
--------------------, _in cloth boards_                    1  0
Venice, _with cuts_                                        0  9
Visit to Cairo                                             0  6
Voyages in the Arctic Seas, in 1818, 1819, 1820            1  9
--------------------------, from 1821 to 1825              1  9
-------------- Pacific Ocean                               1  9
-------------- North Pacific Ocean                         1  9
Walton's (Isaac) Lives, _entire, with portraits_           4  0
Watering Places of England                                 0  9
Wellington (Military Life of), _new edition_               2  0
Willmott's (Rev. R. A.) Lives of Sacred Poets, 2 vols.
  _with portraits_                               _cloth_   9  0
Wilson and Hildesley (Bishops), Lives of, _stitched_       0  5
Winter in the Arctic Regions, _with cuts_                  2  0
Wotton (Sir H.), Life of, _with cuts_                      0  4





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