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Title: Stamp Collecting as a Pastime
Author: Nankivell, Edward James, 1848-1909
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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                                 THE

                Stanley Gibbons Philatelic Handbooks.



                           STAMP COLLECTING
                             AS A PASTIME



                                  BY

                         EDWARD J. NANKIVELL
                MEMBER OF THE INSTITUTE OF JOURNALISTS
              MEMBER OF THE PHILATELIC SOCIETY OF LONDON



                                London
               STANLEY GIBBONS, LTD., 391, STRAND, W.C.
                               New York
                            167, BROADWAY
                                 1902



PREFACE


Many people are at a loss to understand the fascination that surrounds
the pursuit of stamp collecting. They are surprised at the
clannishness of stamp collectors, and their lifelong devotion to their
hobby. They are thunderstruck at the enormous prices paid for rare
stamps, and at the fortunes that are spent and made in stamp
collecting.

The following pages will afford a peep behind the scenes, and explain
how it is that, after nearly half a century of existence, stamp
collecting has never been more popular than it is to-day.

And perchance many a tired worker in search of a hobby may be
persuaded that of all the relaxations that are open to him none is
more attractive or more satisfying than stamp collecting.

Its literature is more abundant than that devoted to any other hobby.
Its votaries are to be found in every city and town of the civilised
world. Governments and statesmen recognise, unsolicited, the claims of
stamp collecting--the power, the influence, and the wealth that it
commands. From a mere schoolboy pastime it has steadily developed into
an engrossing hobby for the leisured and the busy of all classes and
all ranks of life, from the monarch on his throne to the errand boy in
the merchant's office.

In the competition of modern life it is recognised that those who
must work must also play. The physician assures us that the man who
allows himself no relaxation, no recreation, loses his energy, and
ages earlier than the man who judiciously alternates work and play.

As stamp collecting may be indulged in by all ages, and at all
seasons, it is becoming more and more the favourite indoor relaxation
with brain-workers. It may be taken up or laid down at any time, and
at any stage. Its cost may be limited to shillings or pounds, and it
may be made a pleasant pursuit or an engrossing study, or it may even
be diverted into money-making purposes.

So absorbing is the hobby that in stamp circles there is a saying,
"Once a stamp collector, always a stamp collector."



CONTENTS


I. STAMP COLLECTING AS A PASTIME

II. THE CHARM OF STAMP COLLECTING

III. ITS PERMANENCE

IV. ITS INTERNATIONALITY

V. ITS GEOGRAPHICAL INTEREST

VI. ITS HISTORICAL FINGER POSTS

VII. STAMPS WITH A HISTORY

VIII. GREAT RARITIES

IX. THE ROMANCE OF STAMP COLLECTING

X. PHILATELIC SOCIETIES AND THEIR WORK

XI. THE LITERATURE OF STAMPS

XII. STAMPS AS WORKS OF ART

XIII. STAMP COLLECTING AS AN INVESTMENT

XIV. WHAT TO COLLECT AND HOW TO COLLECT

XV. GREAT COLLECTIONS



[Illustration:]

I.

As a Pastime.


According to the authorities, the central idea of a pastime is "that
it is so positively agreeable that it lets time slip by unnoticed; as,
to turn work into pastime." And recreation is described as "that sort
of play or agreeable occupation which refreshes the tired person,
making him as good as new."

Stamp collectors may fairly claim that their hobby serves the double
purpose of a pastime and a recreation. As a pastime, it certainly
makes time pass most agreeably; for the true student of the postal
issues of the world, it turns work into a pastime. As a recreation, it
is of such an engrossing character that it may be relied upon to
afford the pleasant diversion from business worries that so many tired
mental workers need nowadays.

For nearly half a century it has maintained unbroken its hold as one
of the most popular of all forms of relaxation, and its popularity
extends to all classes and to all countries.

But this very devotion of stamp collectors to their hobby has puzzled
and excited the uninitiated. The ordinary individual, especially the
man who has no soul for a hobby of any kind, regards it as a passing
fancy, a harmless craze, a fashion that must have its day and
disappear, sooner or later. But the passing fancy has endured for
nearly half a century, the harmless craze still serves its useful
purpose, and the fashion has acquired such a permanence as to convince
most people that it has come to stay.

Of all pastimes, and of all the forms of recreation, not one can claim
more lifelong devotees than this same stamp collecting. And where is
another pastime with such international ramifications? In every
civilised country, in every city, and in every town of any importance,
the wide world over, thoughtful men and women are to be found formed
into sociable groups, or societies, quietly and pleasantly enjoying
themselves in the harmless and enduring pursuit of stamp collecting.

There must be some reason for this popularity, this devotion of all
classes to a pursuit, this unbroken record of progress. It cannot be
satisfactorily accounted for as a passing fancy or fashion. It has too
long stood the test of years to be so easily explained away. Fancies
and fashions come and go, but stamp collecting flourishes from decade
to decade. Princes and peers, merchants and members of Parliament,
solicitors and barristers, schoolboys and octogenarians, all follow
this postal Pied Piper of Hamelin,

     "Grave old plodders, gay young friskers, Fathers, mothers, uncles,
     cousins,"

all bent upon the pursuit of this pleasure-yielding hobby.

Why is it? Whence comes the fascination?

To the unprejudiced inquirer the reply is simple. To the leisured man
it affords a stimulating occupation, with a spice of competition; to
the busy professional man it yields the delight of a recreative
change; to the studious, an inexhaustible scope for profitable
research; to the old, the sociability of a pursuit popular with old
and young alike; to the young, a hobby prolific of novelty, and one,
moreover, that harmonises with school studies in historical and
geographical directions; to the money maker, an opening for occasional
speculation; and to all, a satisfying combination of a safe investment
and a pleasure-yielding study.

Old postage stamps--bits of paper, as they are contemptuously called
by some people--may have no intrinsic value, but they are,
nevertheless, rich in memories of history and of art; they link the
past with the present; they mark the march of empires and the
federation of states, the rise and fall of dynasties, and the peaceful
extension of postal communication between the peoples of the world;
and, some day in the distant future, they may celebrate even yet more
important victories of peace.

[Illustration:]



[Illustration:]

II.

The Charm of Stamp Collecting.


His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, in a letter to a
correspondent, referring to stamp collecting, wrote: "It is one of the
greatest pleasures of my life"; and the testimony of the Prince of
Wales is the testimony of thousands who have taken up this engrossing
hobby.

The pursuit of a hobby is very often a question of expense. Many
interesting lines of collecting are practically closed to all but the
wealthy. But stamp collecting is open to all, for the expenditure may
in its case be limited at the will of the collector to shillings or
pounds. Indeed, the adaptability of this hobby is one of its chiefest
charms. The rich collector may make his choice amongst the most
expensive countries, whilst the man of moderate means will wisely
confine himself to equally interesting countries whose stamps have not
gone beyond the reach of the man who does not wish to make his hobby
an expensive one. The schoolboy may get together a very respectable
little collection by the judicious expenditure of small savings from
his pocket money, and the millionaire will find ample scope for his
surplus wealth in the fine range of varieties that gem the issues of
many of the oldest stamp-issuing countries, and which only the
fortunate few can hope to possess.

In all there are over three hundred countries from which to make a
selection. In the early days collectors took all countries, but as
country after country followed the lead of England in issuing adhesive
stamps for the prepayment of postage, and as series followed series of
new designs in each country, the task of covering the whole ground
became more and more hopeless, and collector after collector began
first to restrict his lines to continents, and then to groups or
countries, till now only the wealthy and leisured few attempt to make
a collection of the world's postal issues.

This necessary restriction of collecting to groups and individual
countries has led to specialism. The specialist concentrates his
attention upon the issues of a group or country, and he prosecutes the
study of the stamps of his chosen country with all the thoroughness of
the modern specialist. He unearths from forgotten State documents and
dusty files of official gazettes the official announcements
authorising each issue. He inquires into questions surrounding the
choice of designs, the why and wherefore of the chosen design, the
name of the engraver, the materials and processes used in the
production of the plates, the size of the plates, and the varying
qualities of the paper and ink used for printing the stamps--in fact,
nothing that can complete the history of an issue, from its inception
to its use by the public, escapes his attention. He constitutes
himself, in truth, the historian of postal issues. The scope for
interesting study thus opened up is almost boundless. It includes
inquiries into questions of heraldry in designs, of currency in the
denominations used, of methods of engraving dies, of the transference
of the die to plates, of printing from steel plates and from
lithographic stones, of the progress of those arts in various
countries, of the manufacture, the variety, and the quality of the
paper used--from the excellent hand-made papers of early days to the
commonest printing papers of the present day--of postal revenues and
postal developments, of the crude postal issues of earliest times, and
the exquisite machine engraving of many current issues.

He who fails to see any justification for money spent and time given
up to the collecting of postage stamps will scarcely deny that these
lines of study, which by no means exhaust the list, can scarcely fail
to be both fascinating and profitable, even when regarded from a
purely educational standpoint. It is true it may be contended that all
collectors do not go thus deeply into stamp collecting as a study;
nevertheless the tendency sets so strongly in the direction of
combining study with the pleasure of collecting, that the man who
nowadays neglects to study his stamps is apt to fall markedly behind
in the competition that is ever stimulating the stamp collector in his
pleasant and friendly rivalry with his fellows.

Then, again, an ever-increasing supply of new issues from one or other
of the many groups of stamp-issuing countries periodically revives the
interest of the flagging collector, and binds him afresh to the hobby
of his choice. Old, seasoned collectors, whose interest once set never
flags from youth to age, relegate new issues to a back seat. They find
more than enough to engage their lifelong devotion in the grand old
issues of the early settlements. But the collector of modern issues
who cannot afford to indulge in the great rarities, finds new issues a
source of perpetual enjoyment. They follow one another month after
month, and infuse into the collector's life the irresistible charm of
novelty, and every now and again an emergency issue comes as a
surprise. There is a scramble for possession, and a spice of
speculation in the possibility, never absent from a makeshift and
emergency issue, that the copies may be scarce, and may some day ripen
into rarity.

[Illustration:]



[Illustration:]

III.

Its Permanence.


Ever since the collection of postage stamps was first started it has
been sneered at as a passing craze, and it has been going to die a
natural death for the past forty years. But it is not dead yet.
Indeed, it is very much more alive than it has ever been. Still the
sneerers sneer on, and the false prophets continue to prophesy its
certain end.

To the unsympathetic, the ignoramus, the lethargic, the brainless,
everything that savours of enthusiasm is a craze. The politician who
throws himself heart and soul into a political contest is "off his
head," is seized with a craze. The philanthropist who builds and
endows hospitals and churches is "a crank," following a mere craze.
The earnest student of social problems is "off the track," on a craze.
The man who seeks relaxation by any change of employment is certain to
be classed by some idiot as one who goes off on a craze. You cannot,
in fact, step off the beaten track tramped by the common herd without
exciting some remark, some sneer, perchance, at your singularity.

The most ignorant are the most positive that stamp collecting is only
a passing fancy of which its votaries will tire, sooner or later; and
yet for the last forty years, with a brief exception, due to an
abnormal depression in trade, it has always been on the increase.
Indeed, it has never in all those years been more popular with the
cultured classes than it is to-day. The Philatelic Society of London
has an unbroken record of regular meetings of its members extending
over a quarter of a century. The literature devoted to stamp
collecting is more abundant than that of any other hobby. Its votaries
are to be found in every city and town of the habitable globe.

"All very fine," say our bogey men, our prophets of impending evil;
"but blue china has gone to the wall, autographs are losing caste, old
books and first editions are on the downgrade, pipes are relegated to
the lumber-room, metallurgical cabinets are coated with dust, and even
walking-sticks survive only at Sandringham!" Just so. We are
all--Governments, people, and weather--going to the bad as fast as we
can go, according to the croakers, the wiseacres, and the
self-appointed prophets. Nevertheless, stamp collecting has survived
the sneers and the evil prophecies of forty years, and so far as human
foresight can penetrate the future, it seems likely to survive for
many a generation yet.

And why not? In the busy, contentious bustle of the competition of the
day, the brain, strained too often to its utmost tension, demands the
relaxation of some absorbing, pleasure-yielding hobby. Those who have
tried it attest the fact that few things more completely wean the
attention, for the time being, from the vexations and worries of the
day than the collection and arrangement of postage stamps. In fact,
stamp collecting has an ever-recurring freshness all its own, a scope
for research that is never likely to be exhausted, a literature varied
and abundant, and a close and interesting relation to the history and
progress of nations and peoples that insensibly widens the trend of
human sympathies and human knowledge.

What more do we want of a hobby? We cannot ensure, even for the
British Empire, an eternity of durability: nations decay and fashions
change. Some day even stamp collecting may be superseded by a more
engrossing hobby. The indications, however, are all in favour of its
growing hold upon its universal public. The wealth invested in it is
immense, its trading interests are prosperous and international, and
no fear of changing fashion disturbs either dealer or collector.

[Illustration:]



[Illustration:]

IV.

Its Internationality.


Wherever you go you find the stamp collector in evidence. The hobby
has its devotees in every civilised country. Its hold is, in fact,
international. In Dresden there is a society with over two thousand
members upon its books; in out-of-the-way countries like Finland there
are ardent collectors and flourishing philatelic societies. The Prince
of Siam has been an enthusiastic collector for many years, and even in
Korea there are followers of the hobby. Australia numbers its
collectors by the thousand, and many of its cities have their
philatelic societies, all keen searchers for the much-prized rarities
of the various States of the Commonwealth. In India, despite the
difficulty of preserving stamps from injury by moisture, there are
numbers of collectors; one of the best-known rajahs is collecting
stamps for a museum, recently founded in his State, and the Parsees
are keen dealers. There are collectors throughout South Africa, in
Rhodesia, and even in Uganda. Wherever a postage stamp is issued there
may be found a collector waiting for a copy for his album. In no part
of the world can an issue of stamps be made that is not at once
partially bought up for collectors. If any one of the Antarctic
expeditions were to reach the goal of its ambition, and were to
celebrate the event there and then by an issue of postage stamps, a
collector would be certain to be in attendance, and would probably
endeavour to buy up the whole issue on the spot. The United States
teems with collectors, and they have their philatelic societies in the
principal cities and their Annual Congress. From Texas to Niagara, and
from New York to San Francisco, the millionaire and the more humble
citizen vie with each other in friendly rivalry as stamp collectors.

Many countries are now making an Official Collection, and there is
every probability that some day in the near future most Governments
will keep a stamp collection of some sort for reference and
exhibition. Under the rules of the Postal Union, every state that
enters the Union is entitled to receive, for reference purposes, a
copy of every stamp issued by each country in the Postal Union. Hence
every Government receives valuable contributions, which should be
utilised in the formation of a National or Official Collection. And
some day stamp collectors will be numerous and influential enough to
demand that such contributions shall not be buried in useless and
forgotten heaps in official drawers, but shall be systematically
arranged for public reference and general study.

Not a few countries are every year rescued from absolute bankruptcy by
the generosity with which collectors buy up their postal issues; and
many other countries would have to levy a very much heavier burden of
taxation from their peoples if stamp collecting were to go out of
fashion.

So widespread indeed is our hobby that a well-known collector might
travel round the world and rely upon a cordial welcome at the hands of
fellow-collectors at every stopping-place en route.

International jealousies are forgotten, and even the barriers of race,
and creed, and politics, in the pleasant freemasonry of philatelic
friendships.

[Illustration:]



[Illustration:]

V.

Its Geographical Interest.


A few years ago many heads of colleges prohibited stamp collecting
amongst their boys. They found they were carrying it too far, and were
being made the easy prey of a certain class of rapacious dealers. Now
the pendulum is swinging in a more rational direction, and many
masters themselves having become enthusiastic collectors, judiciously
encourage the boys under their care to collect and study stamps as
interesting aids to their general studies. They watch over their
collecting, and protect them from wasteful buying. In some schools the
masters have given or arranged lectures on stamps and stamp
collecting, and the boys have voted such entertainments as ranking
next to a jolly holiday.

The up-to-date master, who can associate work and play, study and
entertainment, is much more likely to register successes than the
frigid dominie who will hear of nothing but a rigid attention to the
tasks of the day. In the one case the lessons are presented in their
most repellent form, in the other they are made part and parcel of
each day's pleasant round of interesting study.

The genuine success of the Kindergarten system in captivating the
little ones lies in its association of play with work. The same
principle holds good even to a much later age. The more pleasant the
task can be made, the more ready will be the obedience with which the
task will be performed. The openings for the judicious and helpful
admixture of study and entertainment are so few, that one wonders that
such a helpful form of play as stamp collecting has not become more
popular than it has in our colleges.

Take, for example, the study of geography, so important to the boys of
a great commercial nation. The boy who collects stamps will readily
separate the great colonising powers, and group and locate their
separate colonies. How many other boys, even after they have passed
through the last stage of their school life, could do this?
Little-known countries and states are too often a puzzle to the
ordinary schoolboy, which are familiar places to the stamp collecting
youth. Ask the ordinary schoolboy in which continents are such places
as Angola, Annam, Curaçao, Funchal, Holkar, Ivory Coast, Liberia,
Nepaul, Reunion, St. Lucia, San Marino, Sarawak, Seychelles, Sirmoor,
Somali Coast, Surinam, Tahiti, Tobago, or Tonga, and how many of all
these places, so familiar to the young stamp collector, will he
properly place? Not many; and the same question might probably be
asked of many an adult with even less satisfaction.

The average series of used stamps are now so cheap that a lad may get
together a fairly representative collection for what he ordinarily
spends at the tuck shop. Some educationists have advocated the making
and exhibiting of school collections of stamps as aids to study. Such
collections would certainly be much more profitably studied than most
of the maps and diagrams that nowadays cover the walls.

With few exceptions, every stamp has the name of the country, or
colony, of its issue on its face; and most colonial stamps bear some
family likeness to the stamps of the mother country. Our British
colonial stamps are distinguished by their Queen's heads; the stamps
of Portugal and its colonies by the portraits of the rulers of
Portugal; those of Germany by the German currency; those of France
mostly by French heraldic designs; those of Spain by the portraits of
the kings and queens of Spain. So that the postage stamp is a key to
much definite, valuable, and practical information.

[Illustration:]



[Illustration:]

VI.

Its Historical Finger Posts.


When considered from the historical point of view, postage stamps
attain their highest level of educational value. They are finger posts
to most of the great events that have made the history of nations
during the last fifty years. Here are a few out of many examples which
might be quoted.

The introduction of adhesive stamps for the prepayment of postage
found France a Republic. A provisional government had just been
established on the ruins of the monarchy which had been swept out of
existence in the revolution of 1848. As a consequence, the first
postage stamp issued by France, on New Year's Day of 1849, bore the
head of Ceres, emblematic of Liberty. Three years later Louis Napoleon
seized the post of power, and, as President of the Republic, his head
figures on a stamp issued in 1851, under the inscription "REPUB.
FRANC." Two years later the Empire was re-established, and the words
"REPUB. FRANC." were changed to "EMPIRE FRANC." over the same head. In
1863 the customary laurel wreath, to indicate the first victories of
the reign, won in the war with Austria, was added to the Emperor's
head. In 1870 the Franco-German War resulted in the downfall of the
monarchy, and the head of Liberty reappears on a series of postage
stamps issued in Paris during its investment by the German army. The
issue of the stamps of Alsace and Lorraine in 1870 marks the
annexation of the conquered territory.

Italy in 1850 was a land of many petty states, each more or less a law
unto itself, and each, in the fifties, issuing its own separate series
of postage stamps. The stamps of the Pontifical States are made
familiar by their typical design of a tiara and keys, and pompous King
Bomba ordered the best engraver to be found to immortalise him in a
portrait for a series of stamps. The other states had each its own
heraldic design till the foundations of the Kingdom of Italy were
laid, in 1859-60, by the union of the Lombardo-Venetian States, the
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, the Duchies
of Parma and Modena, the Romagna and the Roman (or Pontifical) States
with Piedmont. The first issue of stamps of the newly formed kingdom
bore a portrait of King Victor Emmanuel II. with profile turned to the
right. In 1863, after the Kingdom of Sardinia had been merged in the
Kingdom of Italy, a new series was issued for united Italy. The same
king's portrait appears, but turned to the left. In 1879 King Humbert
succeeded Victor Emmanuel, and his portrait appeared on an issue in
the year of his accession. The assassination of King Humbert and the
accession of his son as Victor Emmanuel III. are followed by the new
portrait of the new king on the current series of the stamps of Italy.

The stamps of Germany tell a somewhat similar story. They mark the
stages of gradual absorption into a confederation of states, and the
ultimate creation of a German Empire. The postal issues of Baden
ceased in 1871, when the Grand Duchy was incorporated in the Empire.
Bavaria, though also incorporated, holds out in postal matters, and
still issues its separate series. Bergedorf was in 1867 placed under
the control of the free city of Hamburg, and thereupon ceased issuing
stamps. Bremen, Brunswick, Hamburg, Lubeck, Mecklenburg-Strelitz,
Oldenburg, Prussia, Saxony, and Schleswig-Holstein formed the North
German Confederation, and closed their postal accounts with collectors
in 1868. Hanover became a province of Prussia after the war of 1866,
and thereupon ceased its separate issue of postage stamps; and Thurn
and Taxis followed suit in 1867. In 1870 the North German
Confederation was merged in the German Empire, which issued its first
postage stamp with the Imperial eagle in 1872. But the Empire is not
yet sufficiently united to place a portrait of the Emperor upon its
Imperial postal series.

Indian postage stamps, overprinted with the initials "C.E.F.", for the
China Expeditionary Force, _i.e._ the Indian troops sent to China in
1901 to relieve the besieged Embassies, mark an historical event of no
small import.

The early provisional issues of Crete of 1898 indicate the joint
interference of the Great Powers in its affairs, and the later issues,
in 1900, bear the portrait of Prince George of Greece as High
Commissioner of Crete.

The Confederate locals of America, issued, in 1861-3, by the
postmasters of the Southern States when they were cut off by the war
from the capital and its supplies of postage stamps, and each town was
thrown upon its own resources, proclaim the period of the great
American Civil War.

Collectors are all familiar with the long series of portraits of past
Presidents of the United States, from Washington to Garfield.

The stamps of Don Carlos mark the Carlist rising in Spain in 1873.

But amongst the most interesting of all stamps that may be classed as
historical finger posts, none equal in present-day interest the stamps
of the Transvaal, for they tell of the struggle for supremacy in South
Africa. In 1870 the Boers issued their first postage stamp, and a
crude piece of workmanship it was, designed and engraved in Germany.
Till 1877 they printed their supplies of postage stamps in their own
crude way from the same crude plates. Then came the first British
Occupation, when the remainders of the stamps of the first South
African Republic were overprinted "V.R. TRANSVAAL," to indicate
British government. Then, in 1878, the stamps of the Republic were
replaced by our Queen's Head. In 1881 the country was given back to
the Boers, when they in turn overprinted our Queen's Head series in
Boer currency, to indicate the restoration of Boer domination. And
now, finally, in 1900 we have the second British Occupation, and a
second overprinting of South African Republic stamps "V.R.I.", to
signalise once more, and finally, the supremacy of British rule in
South Africa. The Mafeking stamps are also interesting souvenirs of a
gallant stand in the same historical struggle.

The war which Chili some years ago carried into Bolivia and Peru has
been marked in a special manner upon the postage stamps of Chili. As
in the case of our own troops in South Africa, so the Chilian troops
in Bolivia and Peru were allowed to frank their letters home with the
stamps of their own country. So also the Chilians further overprinted
the stamps of Peru with the Chilian arms during their occupation of
the conquered country in the years 1881-2. Chilian stamps used along
the route of the conquering army, and postmarked with the names of the
towns occupied, are much sought after by specialists. These postmarks
include Arica, Callao, Iquique, Lima, Paita, Pisagua, Pisco, Tacna,
Yca, etc.

And so the stamp collector may turn over the pages of his stamp album,
and point to stamp after stamp that marks, for him, some development
of art, some crisis in a country's progress, some struggle to be free,
or some great upheaval amongst rival powers. In fact, every stamp
issued by a country is, more or less, a page of its history.

[Illustration:]



[Illustration:]

VII.

Stamps with a History.


There are numbers of stamps that have an interesting history of their
own. They mark some official experiment, some curious blunder or
accident, some little conceit, some historical event, or some crude
and early efforts at stamp production.

What is known as the V.R. Penny black, English stamp, is said to have
been designed as an experiment in providing a special stamp for
official use, its official character being denoted by the initials
V.R. in the upper corners; but the proposal was dropped, and the V.R.
Penny black was never issued. For a long time it was treasured up as a
rarity by collectors, but now that its real claims to be regarded as
an issued stamp have been finally settled, it is no longer included in
our stamp catalogues. In the days of its popularity it fetched as much
as £14 at auction. It is now relegated to the rank of an interesting
souvenir of the experimental stage in the introduction of Penny
Postage.

Of curious blunders, the Cape of Good Hope errors of colours are
amongst the most notable. In 1861 the 1d. and 4d. triangular stamps,
then current, were suddenly exhausted, and before a stock could be
obtained from the printers in England, a temporary supply had to be
provided locally. This was done by engraving imitations of the
originals. Stereos were then taken, and made up into plates for
printing. By an oversight a stereo of the penny value was dropped into
the fourpenny plate and a fourpenny into the penny plate.
Consequently, each sheet printed in the required red ink from the
penny plate yielded a fourpenny wrongly printed in red instead of
blue, its proper colour; and every sheet of the fourpenny likewise
yielded a penny stamp printed in blue instead of red. These errors are
highly prized by collectors, and are now extremely scarce, even poor
specimens fetching from £50 to £60. At the time, copies were sold by
dealers for a few shillings each. Similar errors are known in the
stamps of other countries.

Now and again the sheets of a particular value have, by some
extraordinary oversight, been printed and issued in the wrong colour.
In 1869 copies of the 1s. of Western Australia were printed in bistre
instead of in green, and a few years later the twopence was discovered
in lilac instead of yellow. In 1863 a supply of shilling stamps was
sent out to Barbados printed in blue instead of black; but this latter
error was, according to Messrs. Hardy and Bacon, so promptly
discovered, that it is doubtful if any of the wrong colour were issued
for postal use. In 1896 the fastidiously careful firm of De la Rue and
Co. printed off and despatched to Tobago a supply of 6,000 one
shilling stamps in the colour of the sixpenny, _i.e._ in orange-brown
instead of olive-yellow. Several are said to have been issued to the
public before the error had been noticed. Indeed, the firm at home is
credited with having first discovered the mistake, and is said to
have telegraphed to the colony in time to prevent their issue in any
quantity.

Another and much more common error in the early days of stamp
production was the careless placing of one stamp on a plate upside
down. Stamps so placed are termed _tête-bêche_. They have to be
collected in pairs to show the error. The early stamps of France
furnish many examples of this class of error. They are also to be
found on the 6d. and 1s. values of the first design of the stamps of
the Transvaal, on the early issues of Roumania, on some of the stamps
of the Colombian Republic, and other countries.

Stamps requiring two separate printings--_i.e._ stamps printed in two
colours--have given rise to many curious errors in printing. A sheet
passed through the press upside down after one colour has been printed
results in one portion of the design being inverted. In the 1869 issue
of the stamps of the United States no less than three of the values
had the central portions of their designs printed upside down. The
4d., blue, of the first issue of Western Australia is known with the
Swan on its head. Even the recently issued Pan-American stamps,
printed in the most watchful manner by the United States official
Bureau of Engraving and Printing, are known with the central portions
of the design inverted, and these errors, despite the most searching
examination to which each sheet is several times subjected, escaped
detection, and were sold to the public. When, however, it is
remembered that stamps are now printed by the million, it will be
wondered that so few mistakes escape into the hands of collectors.

As a bit of conceit, the issue of what is known as the Connell stamp
is probably unequalled. In loyal Canada, in 1860, Mr. Charles Connell
was Postmaster-General of the little colony of New Brunswick, which in
those days had its own government and its own separate issue of
stamps. A change of currency from "pence" to "cents" necessitated new
postage stamps. It was decided to give the new issue as much variety
as possible by having a separate design for each stamp. Two of the
series presented the crowned portrait of the Queen, and one that of
the Prince of Wales as a lad in Scotch dress. Connell, apparently
ambitious to figure in the royal gallery, gave instructions to the
engravers to place his own portrait upon the 5 cents stamp. His
instructions were carried out, and in due time a supply of the 5 cents
bearing his portrait was delivered. But before many were issued the
news spread like wildfire that Connell had outraged the issue by
placing his own portrait upon one of the stamps. Political opponents
are said to have taken up the hue and cry. The matter was immediately
brought before the higher authorities, and the unfortunate stamp was
promptly suppressed. Half a million had been printed off and delivered
for sale, but very few seem to have escaped the outcry that was raised
against them, and to-day copies are extremely scarce. Poor Connell
took the matter very much to heart, threw up his appointment, and
forthwith retired into private life. But the portrait of the bluff
mechanic type of countenance will be handed down from generation to
generation in stamp catalogues and costly stamp collections long after
the authorities that suppressed him are forgotten.

Some folks question the appearance of the Baden-Powell portrait upon
the Mafeking stamps as a similar bit of conceit; but whatever may be
said in criticism of Baden-Powell's stamp, most people will be
inclined to accept it as a pleasant souvenir of an historic siege and
a determined and gallant stand against great odds.

But of all the portraits that have appeared upon postal issues, none
probably occasioned so much trouble and fuss as that of the notorious
King Bomba of Sicily. The most eminent engraver of his day--Aloisio--was
commissioned to prepare an exact likeness of His Sacred Majesty. After
much ministerial tribulation the portrait was approved and engraved, and
to this day it is regarded as a superb piece of work. A special
cancelling stamp had to be designed and put into use which defaced only
the border of the stamp and left the sacred portrait untouched. During
the preliminaries necessary to the production of the sacred effigy the
fate of ministers and officials hung in the balance. One official was
actually marked for degradation for having submitted a disfigurement
which turned out to be a carelessly printed, or rough, proof impression.

Numerous stamps have been designed, especially of late years, to
represent some historical event in connection with the country of
issue. The United States, in 1869, in the confined space of an
unusually small stamp, endeavoured to represent the landing of
Columbus, and in another stamp the Declaration of Independence. In a
much more recent series, stamps of an exceptionally large size were
adopted to give scope for a Columbus celebration set of historical
paintings, including Columbus soliciting aid of Isabella, Columbus
welcomed at Barcelona, Columbus restored to favour, Columbus
presenting natives, Columbus announcing his discovery, the recall of
Columbus, Isabella pledging her jewels, Columbus in chains, and
Columbus describing his third voyage. Greece has given us a set of
stamps illustrating the Olympian Games. But collectors look with
considerable suspicion upon stamps of this showy class, for too many
of them have been produced with the sole object of making a profit out
of their sale to collectors, and not to meet any postal requirement.

Crude productions of peculiar interest belong more to the earlier
stages of the introduction of postage stamps. Local attempts at
engraving in some of our own early colonial settlements were of the
crudest possible description, and yet they are, because of their very
crudeness, far more interesting than the finished product supplied by
firms at home, for the local effort truly represented the country of
its issue in the art of stamp production. The amusingly crude attempts
which the engravers of Victoria have made from time to time, during
the last fifty years, to give us a passable portrait of Her late
Majesty Queen Victoria, have no equal for variety. The stamps of the
first South African Republic, made in Germany, are very appropriate in
their roughness of design and execution. For oddity of appearance the
palm must be awarded to those of Asiatic origin, such, for instance,
as the stamps of Afghanistan, of Kashmir, and most of the local
productions of the Native States of India, marking as they do their
own independent attempts to work up to European methods of
intercommunication.

[Illustration:]



[Illustration:]

VIII.

Great Rarities.


Of the many stamps that are set apart, for one cause or another, from
the ordinary run, as having a history of their own, those that by the
common consent of collector and dealer are ranked as great rarities
are the most fruitful source of astonishment to the non-collector.
They are the gems of the most costly collections, the possession of
the few, and the envy of the multitude. In a round dozen that will
fetch over £100 apiece there are not more than one or two that can lay
any claim to be considered works of art; indeed, they are mostly
distinguished by their surpassing ugliness. Nevertheless, they are the
gems that give tone and rank to the finest collections. Some of them
are even priceless.

To the average man it is astonishing that anyone in his senses can be
so foolish as to give £1,000 for an ugly little picture that has
merely done duty as a postage stamp. He contends there can be no
intrinsic value in such scraps of paper, and that settles the matter,
in his opinion. But is it not so with precious stones and pearls? They
are of value merely because they are the fashion. There is no
intrinsic value in them. If they were not fashionable they would be
of little or no value. Long-standing fashion, and fashion alone, has
given them their value. So it is with stamps; fashion has given them
their value, and every decade of continued popularity adds to that
value as it has added to the value of precious stones and pearls.
There is no sign that precious stones are likely to become worthless
by the withdrawal of popular favour. Fashion changes from one stone to
another without affecting the popularity of precious stones in
general. So it is with stamps. Fashions change from one line of
collecting to another without in the slightest degree affecting the
stability or popularity of collecting as a whole. Precious stones and
pearls minister to the pride of the individual, and stamps to his
pleasure; and each has its own strong and unshakable hold upon the
devotees of fashion and pleasure. There is a fluctuating market in the
case of each of these favourites, but I venture to think that there
is, and has been for the past forty years, a steadier rise in the
value of stamps than in the value of precious stones.

[Illustration:]

British Guiana, 1856, 1 c.--In 1856 this colony was awaiting a supply
of stamps from England, and pending its arrival two provisional stamps
were issued, a 1 c. and a 4 c. These were set up from type in the
office of the _Official Gazette_. A small illustration of a ship, used
for heading the shipping advertisements in the daily papers, was
utilised for the central portion of the design. Of the 1 c. value only
one specimen is known to-day, and that is in the collection of M.
Philipp la Renotiérè (Herr von Ferrary). Doubts have been expressed as
to the genuineness of the copy, but Mr. Bacon, who has had an
opportunity of inspecting it, says: "After a most careful inspection I
have no hesitation whatever in pronouncing it a thoroughly genuine one
cent specimen. The copy is a poor one, dark magenta in colour, and
somewhat rubbed. It is initialled 'E. D. W.', and dated April 1st, the
year not being distinct enough to be read."

This stamp may safely be placed at the head of great rarities. Of its
value it is impossible to form any opinion. If a dealer had the
disposal of the copy in question, he would probably want between
£1,000 and £2,000 for it, with a decided preference for the larger
sum.

[Illustration:]

Mauritius, "Post Office," 1d. and 2d.--The best known, the most
quoted, and probably the most popular of all the great rarities is the
"Post Office" Mauritius, so called because the words "Post Office"
were inscribed on one side of the stamp instead of the words "Post
Paid." There were two values, 1d. and 2d. They were designed and
engraved by a local watchmaker, and were printed from single dies, and
issued in 1847. The tedious process of printing numbers of stamps from
single dies was soon abandoned, and only 500 copies of each value were
struck. Of those 1,000 stamps only twenty-two copies are known to
exist to-day. There are in the hands of leading collectors two copies
of the 1d. unused, and three copies of the 2d. unused, twelve copies
of the 1d. used, and five copies of the 2d. used. These rarities were
only in use for a few days, and were mostly used in sending out
invitations to a ball at Government House.

The value, according to condition, is from £800 upwards for each
value, but unused they are of course worth a great deal more.

[Illustration:]

Hawaii, 1851, 2 cents, blue.--Like so many rare stamps, this first
issue of Hawaii was designed and set up from type in a printer's
office. About twelve copies are known to exist. The stamp was in use
but a very short time, as the Post Office of Honolulu was burnt down,
and the stock of stamps of this first issue was completely destroyed.

This 2 cents stamp is worth about £750.

[Illustration:]

British Guiana, 1850, 2 cents.--This is popularly known as the 2 cents
circular Guiana, because of its shape. A notice in the local Official
Gazette, dated February, 1851, announced that "by order of His
Excellency the Governor, and upon the request of several of the
merchants of Georgetown, it is proposed to establish a delivery of
letters twice each day through the principal streets of this city."
Certain gentlemen were named as having consented to receive letters
for delivery at their respective stores, and it was further announced
that "each letter must bear a stamp, for which 2 c. will be charged,
or it will not be delivered, and when called for will be subject to
the usual postage of 8 c." A supply of the required 2 c. stamps was
provided by a locally type-set design enclosed in a ring. It is said
that this delivery of letters was discontinued soon after it was
started, hence rarity of the stamp.

Only eleven copies of this quaint postage stamp are known, and its
market value is probably somewhere about £600.

[Illustration:]

Moldavia, 1858, 81 paras.--This rare stamp formed one of a set of four
of the first postage stamps issued in Roumania. The values were 27
paras for single letters travelling, and not carried more than about
seventy miles, 54 paras for double that distance, 81 paras for heavier
letters, and 108 paras for registered letters, all within the limits
of Moldavia. The 81 paras is the rarest of the series, as will be seen
from the following inventory taken in February, 1859, of the then
unsold stock:--

 27 paras, printed 6,000, sold 3,675.
 54   "       "   10,000   "   4,756.
 81   "       "    2,000   "     693.
108   "       "    6,000   "   2,568.

All these stamps were printed by hand on coloured paper in sheets of
thirty-two impressions in four rows of eight stamps. An unused copy of
the 81 paras has fetched as much as £350.

[Illustration:]

United States, Millbury, 1847, 5 c.--In the United States the general
adoption of postage stamps was preceded by what may be termed
preliminary issues, of a more or less local character, and known as
"Postmaster stamps." These "Postmaster stamps" were issued by various
country postmasters by way of experiment. The Providence stamp is the
commonest example. One of the rarest is the 5 c. stamp, with a
portrait of Washington, issued by the postmaster of Millbury, in
Massachusetts, in 1847. This stamp is said to be worth about £300.
There are others reputed to be equally rare. Among the local stamps
issued by various unofficial carriers and express agencies, there are
many of which very few copies are known, and as they are practically
all held by enthusiastic collectors, and never come into the market,
there are no data as to their current value.

[Illustration:]

Cape of Good Hope, 1861. _Errors of Colour_.--In making up the plate
of a provisional issue of triangular stamps, pending the arrival of
supplies from England, a stereo of the 1d. got inserted by mistake in
the 4d. plate, and a 4d. in the 1d. plate. Consequently each sheet of
the 1d. contained a 4d. printed in red, the colour of the 1d., instead
of blue. And the sheets of the 4d., in like manner, each contained a
1d, which, when the 4d. was printed in its proper colour of blue, was
also printed in blue instead of red, the proper colour. These errors
are very scarce, especially in an unused condition. The 1d., blue, is
the rarer of the two, and is worth about £70 used; it is not known
unused.

[Illustration:]

Tuscany, 1860, 3 lire.--In the early days of stamp production high
values, such as we are now accustomed to get from most countries, were
very rarely issued. For nearly thirty years Great Britain was content
with a shilling stamp as its highest value. In 1860 the Provisional
Government of Tuscany issued a stamp of 3 lire, for which there seems
to have been very little use. It represented but two shillings and
sixpence of English money, but it is nevertheless one of the great
rarities to-day, especially in an unused condition. Used copies are
worth about £65, and unused about £120.

[Illustration:]

Transvaal, 1878. _Error_ "Transvral."--This error occurred once in
each sheet of eighty of the 1d., red on blue, of the first British
Occupation. It was evidently discovered before a second lot was
required, as it does not recur in the next printing of 1d., red on
orange. It is a very rare stamp. Used it is worth about £50, but
unused it is one of the great rarities, and has changed hands at about
£150.

[Illustration:]

Ceylon, 1859, 4d. and 8d., imperforate.--Several of the first issues
of this colony, designed and engraved by Messrs. Perkins Bacon and
Co., and issued in 1857-9, are esteemed as great rarities in an
imperforate and unused condition. The 4d., 8d., 9d., 1s., and 2s. are
the rarest. The 4d., so long ago as 1894, fetched £130 at auction.
These stamps are amongst the few great rarities that may be entitled
to rank as works of art, and every year they are more sought after and
more difficult to get in fine condition.

[Illustration:]



[Illustration:]

IX.

The Romance of Stamp Collecting.


The story of the development of stamp collecting, and of the trade
that has sprung up with it, is full of romance.

Our publishers' business, with its world-wide ramifications, was begun
by young Gibbons putting a few sheets of stamps in his father's shop
window. The father was a chemist, and it was intended that the lad
should follow in his father's footsteps; but the stamps elbowed the
drugs aside, and eventually yielded a fortune which enabled this
pioneer of the stamp trade to retire and indulge his globe-trotting
propensities to the full. He sold his business for £25,000, and, still
in the prime of life, retired to a snug little villa on the banks of
the Thames. The business was converted into a Limited Liability
Company, and the Managing Director may be said to be a product of the
original business, for it was a present of a guinea packet of Stanley
Gibbons's stamps that first whetted his appetite for stamp collecting,
and eventually for stamp dealing. Mr. Gibbons had for a great many
years conducted his business from his private house. The new broom
changed all that, and opened out in fine premises in the Strand,
W.C., where the Company now occupy the whole of one house and the
greater part of the adjoining premises. In every room busy hands are
at work all the day long endeavouring to keep pace with a world-wide
business which began with a few sheets in the corner of a chemist's
shop window in the town of Plymouth.

And now, looking back on the humdrum days of the beginnings of the
stamp trade, what opportunities do they not seem to have missed! Could
they but have foreseen the present-day developments, a few
unconsidered trifles, valued at a few pence in those days, put away in
a bottom drawer, would to-day net a fortune. Young Gibbons, amongst
his early purchases, bought from a couple of sailors at Plymouth for
£5 a sackful of triangular Cape of Good Hope stamps, a large
proportion being the rare so-called Woodblocks, with many of the
Errors described in the list of great rarities in another chapter.
Those Errors he disposed of at 2s. 6d. each. They are now worth from
£60 to £75 each. And the ordinary Woodblocks, which were so
plentifully represented in that sackful, are now catalogued at from
50s. to £9 apiece. Strange as it may seem, those were the common
stamps of those days, and they are the rarities of to-day.

A well-known collection, full of rare stamps of the value of from £5
to £50, has been largely formed by the fortunate possessor out of
stamps for which he paid 2s. per dozen just a little over twenty years
ago.

A leading collector once conceived the idea of scouring the
little-visited country towns of Spain for rare old Spanish stamps, and
a most successful hunt he made of it. He secured most valuable and
unsuspected hauls of unused and used blocks and pairs of rare
Portuguese; but before returning home he decided to treat himself to a
trip to Morocco, and during that ill-fated extension of his tour he
lost nearly the whole of his patient garnerings of rare Spanish
stamps, for during an inland trip some very unphilatelic Bedouins
swooped down on his escort in the desert and carried off the whole of
his baggage. He, being some distance ahead of his escort, escaped, and
brought home only a few samples of the grand things he had found and
lost.

In all forms of collecting the hunt for bargains adds zest to the
game, and probably more so in stamps than in any other hobby, not even
excepting old china; and, as in other lines of collecting, the bargain
hunter must be equipped with the expert knowledge of the specialist if
he would sweep into his net at bargain prices the unsuspected gems to
be found now and again in the philatelic mart. Many a keen stamp
collector turns his years of wide experience to good account as a
bargain hunter, and at least one innocent amateur is credited with
netting a revenue which would make many a flourishing merchant green
with envy.

Many a match has probably been due to stamp collecting. Not long ago
we were told of a young lady who wrote to an official in a distant
colony for a few of the current stamps issued from his office. The
stamps were forwarded and a correspondence ensued. There was
eventually an exchange of photographs, and finally the official
applied for leave, returned home, and married his stamp collecting
correspondent.

Truly the scope of the stamp collector for pleasure, for profit, and
for romance is as wide as the most imaginative could desire.



[Illustration:]

X.

Philatelic Societies and their Work.


Most of the great cities of Europe, the British Colonies, and the
United States have their Philatelic Societies. They are associations
of stamp collectors for the study of postage stamps, their history,
engraving, and printing; the detection and prevention of forgeries and
frauds; the preparation and publication of papers and works bearing
upon postal issues; the display and exhibition of stamps, and the
exchange of duplicates.

The premier society is the Philatelic Society of London, which was
founded so long ago as 1869, and has as its acting President H.R.H.
the Prince of Wales. For over thirty years, without a break, this
Society has held regular meetings during the winter months. Its
membership comprises most of the leading collectors in Great Britain
and her Colonies and many of the best-known foreign collectors. On the
membership roll are three princes, several earls, baronets, judges,
barristers, medical men, officers in the Army and Navy, and many
well-known merchants. This society has published costly works on the
stamps of Great Britain, of the Australian Colonies, of the British
Colonies of North America, of the West Indies, of India and Ceylon,
and of Africa. It publishes an excellently-got-up monthly journal of
its own, which now claims shelf-room in the philatelic library for ten
stately annual volumes. It has held two very successful International
Philatelic Exhibitions, one opened by the late Duke of Edinburgh and
the other by the Prince of Wales, then Duke of York. At its
fortnightly meetings, papers are read and discussed on various matters
relating to the hobby. Other meetings are held for the friendly
exchange of duplicates.

In the provinces, the principal societies are those of Manchester and
Birmingham. The Birmingham Society possesses a collection of its own,
which it keeps up to date, as a work of reference for its members.
Several of the societies hold periodical exhibitions, in which members
compete for medals, and in many other ways they lay themselves out to
encourage and promote the collection of postage stamps as a popular
pastime.

The names of the various societies and the addresses of the
secretaries are published at the commencement of each winter season in
Stanley Gibbons' _Monthly Journal_.

Apart from their pleasant sociability, these societies are of immense
help to the collector, especially to the beginner. At each meeting
papers are read and discussed, in which the most experienced
collectors retail, for the benefit of the less experienced, the result
of their latest researches, and eminent specialists display their
splendid and carefully-arranged collections for the inspection,
edification, and enjoyment of their fellow-members. This continual
meeting and comparing of notes, this concentration of study upon the
issues of a particular country, gradually ripens even the veriest tyro
into an advanced and experienced collector.

Under such conditions difficulties are cleared up, and the way made
plain for wise and safe collecting. In too many lines of collecting
the specialist carefully guards his knowledge for his own ultimate
personal profit. The Philatelist, on the other hand, is more
frequently than not generously and candidly helpful to his less
advanced fellow-collector, especially if he happens to be a
fellow-member of the same philatelic society.

[Illustration:]



[Illustration:]

XI.

The Literature of Stamps.


Few hobbies, if any, can boast of such a varied and extensive
literature as stamp collecting. Expensive works have been published on
the postal issues of most countries. They have been published in
English, French, German, Italian, Spanish, Dutch, Danish, and Swedish.
Those published in English alone would make a library of some hundreds
of volumes.

From its foundation, in 1869, the Philatelic Society of London has set
itself the task of studying and writing up the postal history of Great
Britain and her Colonies. Towards the accomplishment of this great
task, it has already presented its members with splendid monographs on
the Australian Colonies, the Colonies of North America, of the West
Indies, of India and Ceylon, two volumes on the British Colonies of
Africa, a separate monograph on Tasmania, and last, and most ambitious
of all, a massive and comprehensive history of the postal issues of
Great Britain. All these works are expensively illustrated with a
profusion of full-page plates and other illustrations, and they
represent years of patient toil, far-reaching investigation, and
untiring research. The _History of the Adhesive Postage Stamps of
Europe_ has been written in two volumes by Mr. W. A. S. Westoby, and
the same author, in collaboration with Judge Philbrick, some twenty
years ago published a work on _The Postal and Telegraph Stamps of
Great Britain_. Messrs. W. J. Hardy and E. D. Bacon, in a work
entitled _The Stamp Collector_, have sketched the general history of
postage stamps. Other works too numerous to mention here have been
written from time to time for the edification of the stamp collector,
and the list is continually being increased by the addition of even
more important works.

One of the most interesting and comprehensive series of philatelic
works, still in course of publication, was commenced by Messrs.
Stanley Gibbons, Ltd., in 1893, in the form of philatelic handbooks.
These handbooks are written by leading philatelic authorities. Each
important country, _i.e._ important from the stamp collector's point
of view, has a separate volume devoted to it, and into each handy
volume is condensed as much as may be necessary to guide the advanced
collector in specialising the postal issues of the country which he
favours. There have already been published:--_Portuguese India_, by
Mr. Gilbert Harrison and Lieut. F. H. Napier, R.N.; _South Australia_,
by Lieut. F. H. Napier and Mr. Gordon Smith; _St. Vincent_, by Lieut.
F. H. Napier and Mr. E. D. Bacon; _Shanghai_, by Mr. W. B. Thornhill;
_Barbados_, by Mr. E. D. Bacon and Lieut. F. H. Napier; _Reprints and
their Characteristics_, by Mr. E.D. Bacon; and _Grenada_, by Mr. E. D.
Bacon and Lieut. F. H. Napier.

For the instruction of the beginner, Major Evans, R.A., has compiled
an excellent glossary of philatelic terms, under the title of _Stamps
and Stamp Collecting_; and there is, further, _A Colour Dictionary_,
by Mr. B. W. Warhurst, designed to simplify the recognition and
determination of the colours and shades of stamps--a by no means
unimportant matter when the value of a stamp depends upon its shade.

But the most popular of all the philatelic publications are, of
course, the monthly periodicals. The first stamp journal is said to
have been _The Monthly Intelligence_, published at Manchester in 1862.
It had but a short life of ten numbers out of the twelve required to
complete Vol. I. But other journals followed in rapid succession, with
more or less success, from year to year, till in 1893 a list of the
various ventures in this line totalled up to nearly a couple of
hundred. _The Stamp Collectors' Magazine_, started in 1863, may be
said to survive in Alfred Smith and Son's _Monthly Circular; The
Philatelic Record_, established in 1879, is now in its twenty-fourth
yearly volume; Gibbons' _Monthly Journal_ is in its twelfth yearly
volume; and _The London Philatelist_ is in its eleventh yearly volume;
and all may be said to be going strong. How many ordinary periodicals
can boast of equally robust lives? And yet some people are still to be
found who speak in all seriousness of stamp collecting as only a
passing craze.

Properly speaking, tradesmen's catalogues can scarcely be regarded as
literature, and yet it would be very remiss on my part to close this
chapter without a reference to the excellent catalogues with which
stamp collectors are provided. What other hobby can boast of such
comprehensive and detailed catalogues, giving the actual selling price
of almost every item, and regularly revised and brought up to date
from year to year? Messrs. Stanley Gibbons' Priced Catalogue is
comprised in four volumes:--Part I., The British Empire, 244 pages;
Part II., Foreign Countries, 458 pages; Part III., Local Postage
Stamps, 122 pages; Part IV., Envelopes, Post Cards, and Wrappers, 317
pages; in all, 1,141 closely printed double-column pages of small
type, with thousands of illustrations. This excellent catalogue is at
once guide, philosopher, and friend to the stamp collector. Some
people irreverently style it "the Philatelist's Bible." It does not
profess to be anything more or less than a mere catalogue of goods for
sale, but it is an open secret that it represents the combined work
and the combined knowledge of the best Philatelists of the day, and
that neither trouble nor expense is spared to include within its pages
everything that a collector needs to know to enable him to gather his
treasures together, and to arrange them in the best possible and most
authoritative order.

Much the same story might be told of the literature of stamp
collecting in other countries. In the United States, in France, and in
Germany there are numbers of robust periodicals, some stretching back
into the early days, and there are scores of volumes of philatelic
lore, many of which find a well-deserved place on the shelves of
English collectors.

As an indication of the value attached to philatelic literature, I may
mention the fact that an English collector recently paid over £2,000
for a by no means complete collection of works relating to stamp
collecting.



[Illustration:]

XII.

Stamps as Works of Art.


Some artists scout the idea of attempting anything that may be
considered a work of art in the ridiculously limited space of a
postage stamp. The restriction of a postage stamp when viewed
alongside a canvas measuring several yards in length and height is
probably hopeless enough. Nevertheless, many a stamp collector who is
not devoid of art can find stamps which seem to him to be entitled to
rank high even in the art world. In beauty of design, in the exquisite
workmanship of the best modern steel engraving, aided by the most
delicate machinery, and in unequalled printing, there are many gems
within the very limited space of a postage stamp that excite and
deserve, and not unfrequently win, the admiration of the most exacting
critics. There are scores of little medallions, mostly on the postage
stamps of foreign states, that surely would pass muster with an
impartial judge of art. They are not the rarities of the stamp album.
Some are even regarded as weeds in the philatelic garden. They are too
often made to serve the revenue-producing necessities of the issuing
state, and for that reason probably, more than for any other, they
are made as attractive as modern art applied to stamp production can
make them.

Great commercial countries, producing their postage stamps by hundreds
of millions, are as contemptuous in their consideration of the art
possibilities of a postage stamp as the cynical artist whose days and
years are devoted to the disfigurement of wall space. This country has
no cause to be proud of the designs or the printing of its postage
stamps. The chief consideration seems to be a low contract price for
the production of recognisable labels for the indication of the
prepayment of postage. That is the commercial view. And yet there are
some foolish people who believe that an artist who could design an
effective and acceptable postage stamp for the British Empire would
add materially to his own fame and to the art standard of the Empire
itself.

Brother Jonathan across the sea is not unmindful of art in the
production of his postage stamps, despite his commercial inclinations
and training. From the first he has put his patriotism into his
postage stamps. The portraits of the Presidents, from George
Washington to Lincoln, and from Lincoln to McKinley, who have ruled,
wisely and well, the destinies of the great Republic, Jonathan
engraves in his best style, in his own official engraving
establishment, and proudly places upon his postage stamps for the
admiration of all good citizens and the edification and envy of the
effete old countries beyond the seas.

We, with our richer memories and our stately galleries of great men
who have ruled or governed or fought through the centuries, must be
content with an Empire postage stamp that is little better, from an
art point of view, than an ordinary beer label, and we must be
content to be told that it is the penalty of success, of the dire
necessity of long numbers, and of a needy Treasury that sorely hungers
for still greater profits from the Post Office.

Meanwhile, small struggling states revel in beautiful stamps. The
latest trend is in the direction of miniature portraiture. The
Argentine Republic and Bolivia have in recent years issued some very
fine examples in this direction. A very useful innovation is the
addition of the name under the portrait. In this way thousands have
been familiarised with the names and faces of men who before were
almost unknown beyond their own country. Historic features, such as
those of Columbus and Pizarro, have occasionally been added to the
growingly interesting gallery of stamp portraits.

The recently issued New Zealand picture series, illustrating most
effectively some of the choicest bits of colonial scenery, and some of
the rarest birds of the colony, engraved by Messrs. Waterlow and Sons,
afforded an interesting and successful experiment in an art direction.
As a result it is said that a strong demand has been generated in
other colonies for similarly beautiful and localised designs in
preference to the stereotyped mediocrity supplied by the ordinary
label process.



[Illustration]

XIII.

Stamp Collecting as an Investment.


When a stamp collector is charged with being extravagant, with
spending money lavishly and foolishly on a mere hobby, he may very
justifiably reply that even his most extravagant spendings may be
regarded as an investment.

The ordinary investor in, say, industrial securities is fairly content
if he can, with a little risk, secure a steady six or seven per cent.
If he launches out into more speculative shares, yielding higher rates
of interest, he must be content to face a much greater risk of the
capital invested. Now, the severest test of an investment is the yield
of interest over a series of years covering periods of depression as
well as periods of prosperity. The stamp collector who has used
ordinary discretion in his purchases may confidently submit his
investment to this test.

Some years ago, when I was writing in defence of stamp collecting as
an investment, I received a very indignant letter from a collector who
had made a large collection, complaining that he had then recently
endeavoured to sell, but could get only a very small percentage of his
outlay back, and that the very firms from whom he had bought most of
his stamps scouted the idea of paying him anything like what they had
cost him. He therefore ridiculed the idea that stamp collecting could
be regarded as a safe investment, as in his case it had been a
delusion and a snare. He was quite right, and it is still possible to
make big collections--of, say, five thousand, ten thousand, and even
larger--of stamps that are never likely to appreciate, and it is
possible to buy those stamps at such a price that any attempt to
realise even a small percentage of the original outlay must result in
a woeful eye-opener.

Let me explain. In the stamp business, as in all other branches of
commerce, there are wholesale and retail dealers. The wholesaler buys
by the thousand stamps that are printed by the million. I refer, of
course, to used stamps. In some cases the price paid per thousand is
only a few pence for large quantities that run into millions. The
wholesaler sells to the retail dealer at a small advance per thousand.
Those stamps the ordinary dealer makes up into packets at a further
profit, but still at a comparatively low price. Good copies he picks
out for sale in sets and separately. Those have to be catalogued.
Therefore, the catalogue price of common stamps bought and sold by the
million eventually comes before the general collector at "one penny
each," and the man who makes a collection of common stamps of the "one
penny each" class can scarcely be expected to realise a fortune out of
his stamp collecting. When he offers his gatherings of years to the
self-same dealer, and asks, say, only the half of what he paid, he is
astounded when the dealer has the audacity to tell him frankly, "I can
buy most of those stamps at a few shillings per thousand, and you want
an average of a halfpenny each for them!" "But," retorts the
collector, "I paid you one penny each for them years ago, and now you
won't give me half that amount. A pretty thing investing money in
stamps!" The reply of the dealer will be, "My dear fellow, you have
put your money into the wrong stamps. I bought, and can still buy,
those stamps wholesale at a few shillings per thousand, some of them
at a few pence per thousand; but I have to pay clerks for handling
them and sorting them out, other assistants for cataloguing them, and
the printers for printing the catalogue, so that in the end I cannot
afford to sell them _separately_ for less than about one penny each,
but if you want a few thousand of any value I can sell them to you at
a price enormously below what you ask for your collection." The
collector's eyes are opened.

It is impossible to get away from the necessity of regarding stamps as
an investment. Even the schoolboy cannot afford to put his shilling
into stamps unless he can be fairly assured that he may get his money
back at critical periods, which will crop up even in school life.
Indeed, it may be said that there are few, if any, stamp collectors
nowadays who do not put more money into stamps than they could afford
to do if there were not some element of investment in view. In some
instances large fortunes are actually invested in stamps, and I was
only recently told of a collector who had taken his money out of a
very profitable business and put it into stamps, and had netted very
much larger profits than he ever realised in his regular business. But
to do that sort of thing requires a profound knowledge of stamps and a
ready command of a very large banking account.

Generally speaking, the best countries from an investment point of
view are British Colonials, especially those of the small colonies
that have small populations, and therefore very small printings of
stamps. Obviously, countries that put stamps into circulation by the
million can never be a very good investment, so far as their common
values are concerned. Those who buy with a keen eye on the investment
purpose, always buy unused copies of uncommon values. Unused are not
likely to depreciate, and they may appreciate.

In fact, it may be safely said that, all round, the thing to do in
stamps is to buy _unused_ for investment. When stamps are printed by
the million, _used_ supplies will be available for no one knows how
long; but in the case of unused, when a new issue is made, the
obsolete stamp is on the road to an advance in value. It is true
dealers stock large quantities of all stamps, but there are so many
countries to be stocked now that no dealer can afford to hoard unused
to any great extent, and even if he did, the dead capital would be an
item which would compel him to advance the price of unused to protect
himself from loss. Let us say a stamp becomes obsolete this year, and
a dealer buys £100 worth. It would be a moderate estimate to place the
earning power of stamps at 10 per cent. In seven years that £100 hoard
would, reckoning compound interest, represent £200, or double face. Of
course, no dealer would hoard up £100 worth of a common stamp, but
from the day that it becomes obsolete it must be hoarded up by
someone, and interest must be accruing on the investment which will
have to be added to the value of the stamp, unless someone is to stand
the loss. It will, therefore, be obvious that unused stamps must
appreciate while used may remain stationary, for the simple reason
that the limit of supply has been reached in one case but not in the
other.

Taking almost haphazard a few stamps, most of which have been within
the reach of all collectors during the last fifteen years, the
following table will give some idea of the appreciation in prices
which has been steadily going on in good stamps:--

                              |1875  |1880  |1886  |1890  |1893  |1897  |1902  |
                              |s. d. |s. d. |s. d. |s. d. |s. d. |s. d. |s. d. |
Bremen, 1867, 5 sgr., green,  |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
_unused_                      |1 0   |1 6   |2 6   |4 0   |5 0   |25 0  |17 6  |
Bechuanaland, 1886, 1s.,      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
_used_.                       |--    |--    |--    |2 6   |2 6   |6 6   |30 0  |
"   1888-9, 4d.,              |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
_unused_                      |--    |--    |--    |1 0   |2 0   |2 0   |3 0   |
British Guiana, 1860, 1 c,    |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
brown. perf., _used_          |3 6   |4 0   |12 6  |30 0  |32 6  |80 0  |80 0  |
Cape of Good Hope, 1d.,       |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
 [triangle]_unused_           |0 4   |0 6   |1 6   |2 0   |4 0   |8 0   |15 0  |
Cape of Good Hope, 1d.,       |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
 [triangle] Woodblock,        |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
_used_                        |2 6   |3 6   |15 0  |25 0  |45 0  |90 0  |95 0  |
Cyprus, 1880, 6d., _unused_   |--    |--    |1 6   |7 6   |12 0  |30 0  |25 0  |
  "      "    1s., _unused_   |--    |--    |2 6   |10 0  |15 0  |40 0  |55 0  |
Danish West Indies, 1872,     |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
4 c., blue, _unused_.         |0 6   |0 6   |1 6   |3 6   |5 0   |17 6  |25 0  |
Danish West Indies, 1873,     |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
14 c., _unused_               |1 0   |1 0   |2 6   |3 6   |5 6   |24 0  |32 0  |
Egypt, 1866, 5 piastres,      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
_unused_                      |2 0   |2 0   |5 0   |8 6   |16 0  |22 6  |25 0  |
  "     "    10   "           |2 6   |1 6   |6 0   |12 0  |20 0  |26 0  |27 6  |
Gambia, 4d., imperf.,         |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
_unused_                      |0 8   |0 8   |2 6   |5 0   |6 0   |20 0  |32 0  |
Gibraltar, 1886, 1s.          |--    |--    |1 9   |3 6   |7 6   |70 0  |75 0  |
Hayti, 1881, 20 c., _unused_  |--    |--    |2 0   |2 0   |2 6   |7 6   |20 0  |
Hungary, 1871, 3 k., litho.,  |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
_used_                        |0 2   |0 2   |1 6   |3 6   |6 6   |30 0  |40 0  |
Newfoundland, 1866, 5 c.,     |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
brown, _used_.                |1 0   |2 6   |3 6   |7 6   |12 6  |28 0  |25 0  |
New South Wales, 1d., Sydney  |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
Views, _used_.                |2 6   |4 0   |17 6  |30 0  |35 0  |40 0  |40 0  |
Orange River Colony, 1877, 4  |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
on 6d., _unused_              |--    |1 0   |1 0   |3 0   |3 0   |5 0   |30 0  |
Tonga, 1892, 8d.              |--    |--    |--    |--    |2 0   |5 0   |10 0  |
  "     "    1s.              |--    |--    |--    |--    |3 0   |4 0   |15 0  |
Transvaal, 1878-9, 4d.,       |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
_unused_                      |--    |0 8   |1 0   |1 0   |0 9   |1 6   |20 0  |
  "         "      1s.   "    |--    |1 9   |2 0   |2 0   |4 6   |15 0  |40 0  |
Trinidad, 1896, 10s.          |--    |--    |--    |--    |--    |14 0  |70 0  |
Turks Islands, 1879, 1s.,     |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
blue, _unused_                |--    |1 9   |2 6   |3 0   |5 0   |20 0  |25 0  |
Zululand, 1888, 9d.           |--    |--    |--    |1 6   |1 6   |12 0  |17 6  |

Of foolish investors there will always be a generous supply, who will
ever be ready to offer themselves as evidence of the worthlessness of
any and every form of investment, forgetful of the fact that the shoe
is more often on the other foot. In stamps, as in every other class of
investment, the foolish may buy what is worthless instead of what is
valuable. There are stamps specially manufactured and issued to catch
such flats, and they are easily hooked by the thousand every year,
despite the continual warnings of experienced collectors.

But if we turn to the result of experienced collecting we find
abundant evidence of the fact that the stamp collector may enjoy his
stamps and, when the force of circumstances compels him to abandon
them, he may retire without regret for having put so much money into a
mere hobby.

Mr. W. Hughes Hughes, B.L., started his collection in 1859, and kept a
strict account of all his expenditure on his hobby, and in 1896 he
sold to our publishers for close on £3,000 what had cost him only £69.

In 1870 a stamp dealer in London, as a novelty and an advertisement,
papered his shop windows, walls, and ceiling with unused Ionian
Islands stamps, which were then a drug in the market. The same stamps
would now readily sell at 10s. per set of three; in other words, the
materials of that wall-paper would now be worth at least £5,000.

The late Mr. Pauwels, of Torquay, made a collection which cost him
£360 up to 1871, when it was put on one side and left untouched until
1898. It was then purchased by our publishers for the sum of £4,000,
and yielded them a very fair return on their investment.

In the International Philatelic Exhibition, held in the Galleries of
the Royal Institute of Painters in Water Colours in Piccadilly,
London, in 1897, one collector marked over each stamp of his exhibit
the price which he had paid for it, and the market price of the day.
The collection had been got together during the previous fifteen
years, and had cost its owner £25 2s., while by the then latest
catalogue value it totalled up to £368 1s. 3d.

Shrewd business men are those who frequently invest large sums in
stamps. The amounts spent annually by some wealthy collectors range
from £1,000 to £10,000. One well-known Parisian collector, whose life
has been largely devoted to his philatelic treasures, and who employs
two secretaries to look after his collection, has, it is estimated,
spent at least £200,000 on his stamps since 1870.

If investment were the Alpha and Omega of stamp collecting, every
collector of standing would bemoan lost opportunities. Many a great
rarity of to-day could have been had for a few shillings a few years
ago. The Cape errors were sold by Stanley Gibbons at 2s. 6d. each. The
"Transvral" error was sold by the same generous firm at 4s., and
others in similar proportion in the day of opportunity.

To-day it is the fashion to look back with regret on those lost
opportunities, and to nurse the belief that such opportunities are
never likely to return. But experience shows that in every decade of
stamp collecting the common stamp of to-day may be the rarity of
to-morrow. In many a series of stamps some one of the lot from some
cause or another gets scarce, and the price appreciates from year to
year till the original price paid for the stamp in pence is
represented by pounds.



[Illustration]

XIV.

What to Collect and How to Collect.


The questions, "What to collect?" and "How to collect?" are much more
easily asked than answered. Each individual will differ in taste, in
inclination, in method, in time at his disposal, and last, but not
least, in the depth of his pocket. The most that can be done is to
outline a general plan, founded upon general experience.

Collectors are divided into two classes--the general collector and the
specialist. The general collector takes everything that comes in his
way, and knows no limitations, no exclusions of this country or that.
The specialist, on the other hand, confines his attention to the
stamps of one or more particular groups or divisions, or even to one
particular country.

The most experienced collectors, whether general or specialist, almost
invariably advise the beginner to start as a general collector. As a
beginner he will have no experience to guide him in the choice of a
particular group or division; and until he has travelled over the
ground as a general collector it will be difficult for him to make a
choice which he may not have cause to regret. As a general collector
he will gather together a general knowledge of stamps in all their
peculiar varieties, which can scarcely fail to be immensely useful to
him even should he subsequently drift into specialism. Indeed, it is
an accepted truism that the man who starts as a general collector
invariably makes the best specialist in the end.

Starting, then, as a general collector, the beginner purchases an
album--for choice say the "Imperial," published by Stanley Gibbons,
Ltd., which on one page has a printed and illustrated list of the
stamps of a country, and on the opposite page ruled and numbered
spaces for every stamp mentioned in the printed list. A catalogue,
setting forth the prices at which stamps may be purchased, should also
be obtained.

One of the very first questions to be settled at the start will be the
choice that must be made between the collection of used and of unused.
The general collector who wishes to collect economically should
certainly start with what is cheapest; and as the common stamps are
cheapest in the used condition, used should be selected. When a
collector can afford to spend his money liberally, the best and
safest, and cheapest in the long run, will be stamps unused and in the
pink of condition. Such stamps generally turn out to be a safe and not
unfrequently a splendid investment.

The beginner will find that he can fill up a large proportion of the
spaces in his album with comparatively common stamps, and these are
much more economically purchased in the form of cheap packets. The
blanks that remain will then represent stamps worth searching for
separately, and buying singly as good opportunities occur. Many may be
obtained in exchanging duplicates with other collectors.

After some experience as a general collector, preferences will
gradually materialise, and the utter hopelessness of making a thorough
collection of the postal issues of the world will be apparent. At this
stage the collector generally sells the bulk of his collection,
reserving only a few countries to be followed up in future on
specialist lines. The remedy and the change are drastic, and, like
most drastic remedies, are much too sweeping. Wiser and keener
Philatelists nowadays retain their general collections, so far as they
have gone with them, and upon their basis give play to their
specialist inclinations. That is to say, they single out a country,
and work at that exclusively on specialist lines; and when they tire
of that country, or exhaust it so far as their means allow, they have
in their general collection the nucleus of another country with which
to build up another specialist collection. On this plan a collector
can always be working in sympathy and on the lines of the fashionable
country of the day. He can take up and open out whatever country
happens to be the vogue. In this way a neglected country every now and
again comes to the front, and the nucleus of that country which may be
found in the general collection may suddenly acquire an interest and a
value never dreamt of. A recent case in point is that of the Orange
Free State. Its stamps went a-begging for purchasers. Then trouble,
and unrest, and war brought them into notice, and now the almost
worthless have become valuable, and the pence have run into shillings,
and the shillings into pounds.

For many persons, however, limitations and exclusions are necessary
from the start. In their case a choice must be made, and the safest
choice will be that of the British Colonies, or, if a still more
restricted line must be drawn, one of the Continental groups of
Colonies. A glance at a priced catalogue will be the best guide for
selection. If it must be an economical selection, the catalogue will
speak for itself. There is abundant choice in every direction. There
are colonies with few and simple and inexpensive issues, and there are
others that require ample means and patient research. But the cheapest
countries, from an expenditure point of view, are foreign
countries--such as Sweden, Norway, Denmark, German Empire, Italy,
Chili, China, and so on.

[Illustration]



[Illustration]

XV.

Great Collections.


Great collections of postage stamps, like great collections of
pictures, in these days acquire an international rank and reputation.
The great stamp collections of to-day are in a few hands, and have
been built up by lavish wealth and lavish industry. Wealth alone will
not suffice to gather together a really great philatelic collection.
There must be patient research, and there can be no research apart
from that full knowledge which comes only to the industrious and
painstaking Philatelist. The gem that is wanted to complete the finest
page in the rich man's collection has not unfrequently to be
personally sought for in the byways, the alleys, and lanes of stamp
collecting; and despite the keenest search of the wealthy, it
sometimes, after all, falls by grim mischance into the laboriously
gathered collection of the man of very limited means.

The Prince of Wales is known to be an enthusiastic and keen stamp
collector. He is the acting President of the Philatelic Society of
London. During his recent tour round the world he displayed his great
interest in the postal issues of the colonies which he visited, and
brought home much valuable philatelic information and a number of
proofs of sheets of old colonial stamps which will help to clear up
many doubtful points. H.R.H. collects only the stamps of Great Britain
and her colonies, and he possesses many specimens that are absolutely
unique.

The collection which was made by the late Mr. T. K. Tapling, M.P., is
now in the keeping of the British Museum, having been bequeathed to
the nation by its possessor, who was one of the most cultured and
shrewdest collectors of his day. His collection was his
life-work--from boyhood till his early death in 1891. It was largely
made up of the amalgamation of great collections. In his day Tapling
had the first pick in every direction, and, as a result, his
collection is to-day one of the grandest and richest and most
scientific general collections extant. Great rarities may be said to
be conspicuous by their prominence and by their matchless condition.

But the greatest collection of all is that of M. Philipp la Renotiérè,
of Paris, known to most collectors as Herr von Ferrary. In the course
of the last thirty years he has purchased many well-known old
collections, amongst which may be mentioned that of Judge Philbrick
for £7,000, Sir Daniel Cooper's for £3,000, W. B. Thornhill's
Australians, etc. M. la Renotiérè has been a large buyer in the
leading capitals of Europe for a great many years. His expenditure
with our own publishers is said to average from £3,000 to £4,000 a
year. He employs two secretaries who are paid large salaries, one to
look after the postage stamps and the other the post cards, envelopes,
and wrappers.

Mr. F. Breitfuss, of St. Petersburg, who has been collecting since
1860, is credited with the third finest collection in the world. He
is an omnivorous, but scientific general collector.

Mr. H. J. Duveen, the well-known art connoisseur of London and New
York, although he did not take to stamp collecting till 1892, has
already got together the finest collection, outside the British
Museum, in this country. It is celebrated not only for the beauty of
its specimens, but also for its completeness, neatness, and scientific
arrangement. The value of the collection is probably close on £80,000.
It is enclosed in seventy handsome Oriel albums.

Mr. W. B. Avery, head of the well-known firm of scale-makers of
Birmingham, has one of the finest general collections. It is justly
celebrated for the large number of great rarities that it contains,
amongst which are the two rare "Post Office" Mauritius in superb
unused condition. The collection cannot be worth at present far short
of £50,000.

Mr. M. P. Castle, the Vice-President of the Philatelic Society of
London, who succeeded the late Mr. Tapling in office, is one of the
keenest of keen collectors. His general collection became so large
that he parted with it in 1877, and then specialised in Australians.
This latter collection he sold, in 1894, to our publishers for
£10,000, at that time the largest sum ever paid for a single
collection. He subsequently made a grand specialised collection of
Europeans. This, arranged in sixty-seven volumes, he sold, in 1900,
for nearly £30,000, and he has now returned to his love for
Australians.

The Earl of Crawford and Balcarres is a collector of only recent date,
but he has already formed a really magnificent collection based on
broad historical lines. He confines himself mostly to the stamps of
the British Empire, the United States, and the Italian States. His
lordship is a member of the Council of the Philatelic Society of
London, and, when in England, a regular attendant at its meetings.

The Earl of Kintore is also the possessor of a very fine collection of
English Colonials, etc.; among his greater rarities being the "Post
Office" Mauritius, the complete set of Hawaiian Islands (first issue),
the 2 cents, rose, British Guiana, and many other gems. He also is a
member of the London Philatelic Society.

In France the place of honour, after M. la Renotiérè, is deservedly
taken by M. Paul Mirabaud, the well-known banker of Paris, whose
magnificent collection of Switzerland was shown in the last Paris
Exhibition. It forms, however, only a small portion of his fine
collection.

In Italy probably the most famous collection is that of Prince Doria
Pamphilj, which is exceptionally rich in the interesting issues of the
Italian States.

In the United States of America there are many notable collections,
several of them being worth from £30,000 to £50,000, amongst which may
be mentioned the Crockers', of San Francisco, Mr. F. W. Ayer's, of
Bangor, Maine, and Mr. Paul's, of Philadelphia.

In Germany the greatest collection is doubtless that of Mr. Martin
Schroeder, the well known merchant of Leipzig.

[Illustration:]



Stanley Gibbons, Ltd.

_CAPITAL, £75,000. ESTABLISHED 1856._

HIGHEST POSSIBLE AWARDS.

_GOLD MEDAL, Paris, 1892._

_GOLD MEDAL, Chicago, 1893._

FIVE MEDALS
(_Highest in each Class_),
GENEVA, 1896.

FOUR MEDALS
(_Highest in each Class_),
LONDON, 1897.

The above-mentioned high rewards gained by the Firm have been awarded
for the perfect condition and completeness of Stamp Collections, and
for general excellence in Stamp Albums, Catalogues, and Handbooks.

       *       *       *       *       *

Rare
Stamps
Bought, Sold, or Exchanged.

       *       *       *       *       *

_LARGE NEW PROSPECTUS_
(_Seventy-six Pages_),

With full details of all
STAMP ALBUMS,
CATALOGUES, HANDBOOKS,
and List of nearly
2,000 SETS and PACKETS
at Bargain Prices,

_sent post-free on application_.

       *       *       *       *       *



STANLEY GIBBONS,

LIMITED,

New Announcements.

_ANNUAL SALE OVER THIRTY THOUSAND PACKETS._

NOW READY, the following Popular Series of

PACKETS OF FOREIGN POSTAGE STAMPS

_All the Stamps contained in the following Packets are warranted
absolutely genuine, free from reprints. They are also in good
condition and perfect._

These Packets cannot be sent by book post to Postal Union Countries.
The cost by letter rate is 2-1/2d. for every 100 Stamps. The amount
required for postage can therefore be reckoned, and should be added
when remitting.

       *       *       *       *       *

_New and Improved Packets of Used and Unused Stamps._

No. 1.--The Sixpenny Packet of Mixed Continental Stamps contains 100,
including many obsolete and rare. (This packet contains duplicates.)
Post-free, 7d.

No. 2.--The Sixpenny Packet of Used Foreign Stamps contains 50
varieties, all different, including Egypt, Spain, Chili, New South
Wales, Transvaal, Roumania, Porto Rico, Argentine, Sweden, Brazil,
Turkey, &c. Post-free, 7d.

No. 3.--The Sixpenny Packet of Used Colonial Stamps contains 12
varieties, including Natal, Ceylon, India H.M.S., Cape of Good Hope,
British Guiana, Mauritius, Tasmania, New South Wales Service,
Victoria, Jamaica, South Australia O.S., &c. All different. Post-free,
7d.

No. 4.--The Shilling Packet of Used and Unused Foreign Stamps contains
50 varieties, including French Soudan, Spain, Bulgaria, Portugal,
Sandwich Isles (head of King), Italy, Turkey, Finland, Brazil,
Roumania, Portugal, Argentine Republic, Ecuador, Salvador, Greece,
Mexico, Shanghai, Philippine Isles, Japan, and others rare. All
different and warranted genuine. Post-free, 1/1.

No. 5.--The Shilling Packet of Colonial Stamps contains 25 varieties,
including Cyprus, Natal, Jamaica, provisional South Australia,
Victoria 1/2d. rose, surcharged Ceylon, Straits Settlements, India
Service, Queensland, Hong Kong, Barbados, Swan River, South Australia,
Centennial New South Wales, Mauritius, Malta, and others rare. All
different and warranted genuine. Post-free, 1/1.

No. 6.--The Eighteenpenny Packet of Used Foreign Stamps contains 100
varieties, including Mauritius, Hong Kong, Finland, Japan 15 and 25
sen, Barbados, Chili, Brazil, Greece, Russia, Porto Rico, India
envelope, Jamaica, Belgium, Spain, Canada, &c. All different and
warranted genuine. Post-free, 1/7.

No. 7.--The Two Shilling Packet of Rare Used and Unused Foreign Stamps
contains 100 varieties, including Porto Rico, Colombia, New Zealand,
registered Canada, rare Turkish, Dutch Indies, Ceylon, Mozambique,
Mauritius, Portugal, French Colonies, O. F. State, Cyprus, Norway,
Sardinia, Belgium, West Australia, Chili, Egypt, Bavaria, and others
rare. All different and warranted genuine. Post-free, 2/1.



Approval Sheets and Collections of Stamps.

NEW SHEETS OF STAMPS FOR BEGINNERS AND MEDIUM COLLECTORS.


We have just been arranging our Approval Sheets of Stamps on an
entirely new and much simpler plan than formerly. The Stamps are
mounted on Sheets, containing an average of 100 Stamps per Sheet. They
are all arranged in the order of our New Catalogue. First, Great
Britain and the Colonies, then all Foreign Countries. These Sheets
contain about 5,000 different Stamps, and a Sheet of any particular
country will be sent on demand. The Sheets arranged to date are over
forty in number, and contain all Great Britain and the Colonies, and
all Foreign Countries.

TO ADVANCED COLLECTORS.--For Collectors more advanced we have an
assortment of many hundreds of small books of Choice picked Stamps of
every Country or District in the World. Most of these special books
contain twenty pages (5×3-1/2 inches), and can be sent by post in an
ordinary registered envelope to all parts of the world. These books,
as a rule, include Used and Unused Stamps, but Special Approval Books
will be made up to suit individual requirements. Collectors writing
for such should state if they wish for Used or Unused Stamps; if
singles, pairs, or blocks of 4 are required; also, in Used Stamps, if
special Postmarks are sought for. In all cases, in these books, we
shall lay ourselves out to meet the special requirements of each
individual client, whether the amount required be large or small.

Great Rarities are our Speciality. We have a large number of Stamps on
hand from £100 to £750 each, and shall be pleased to give prices and
particulars to advanced Philatelists.

We purchase really Rare Stamps at a much higher Cash Price than that
paid by any other Stamp Merchant.



Grand Collection Packets.

NEW AND GREATLY REDUCED PRICES FOR 1902.


No. 64 CONTAINS 100 VARIETIES,

Including used and unused. Price 6d.; post-free, 7d.

No. 65 CONTAINS 250 DIFFERENT VARIETIES,

Both used and unused Stamps, Envelopes [box] and Post Cards [box] and is
well recommended as a capital start for a collector. Price 3/-;
post-free, 3/1.

No. 66, 500 VARIETIES,

And is strongly recommended as the cheapest collection of 500
different Stamps ever offered--the Stamps could not be bought
separately for three times the marvellously low price at which it is
now offered. The Stamps, &c., are clean, picked specimens fit for any
collection. The best 500 varieties in the trade.

Price 6/-; post-free, 6/1.

No. 67, 1,000 VARIETIES.

This packet contains 1,000 different Stamps (and no Envelopes, Bands,
and Cards), and is the cheapest packet ever offered by S. G., Ltd.,
satisfaction being absolutely guaranteed. The price it is offered at
is the lowest ever quoted for such a collection, embracing as it does
scores of scarce varieties, provisionals, new issues, and many very
fine and obsolete varieties.

Price £1, post-free and registered.

No. 68, 1,500 VARIETIES.

Each specimen is in perfect condition, and the 1,500 different Stamps
form a noble start for anyone. A large number of really rare and
valuable Stamps are contained in this collection; but it is impossible
to enumerate them, as we are constantly adding New Issues and Older
Stamps when we purchase such. Satisfaction is guaranteed. Price £2
10s., post-free and registered.

No. 69, 2,000 VARIETIES.

A grand packet for a dealer or collector, every Stamp being different
and genuine, and thus forming a choice collection in itself or a stock
to make up sheets or for exchange purposes. Price £4 10s., post-free
and registered.

No. 69A, 3,000 VARIETIES.

A very fine packet, containing many rare stamps, all arranged in
order, and mounted ready to price or remove to a collection.

Price £11 10s., post-free and registered.

No. 69B, 4,000 VARIETIES.

A valuable collection, all mounted on sheets in order. Really good
value; being sold by us to collectors at less than the price usually
charged in the trade.

Price £18, post-free and registered.



Grand New Variety Packets.


In order to meet the wishes of a great number of our customers, we
have prepared a series of packets, as under, entirely different from
one another, no stamp in any one packet being in any of the rest of
the series; and the purchaser of the series of eight packets will have
1,305 extra good varieties, and no duplicates.

These packets do NOT contain any Post Cards, cut Envelopes, Fiscals,
or Reprints, and are well recommended as good value, and are only a
small proportion of the Catalogue value of the single stamps contained
in them.

No. 70 contains 500 Stamps of Europe, all different.   Price 7/6; post-free, 7/8.
 "  71    "     125 Stamps of Asia           "               7/6      "      7/7.
 "  72    "     125 Stamps of Africa         "               7/6      "      7/7.
 "  73    "     105 Stamps of Australia      "               7/6      "      7/7.
 "  74    "     125 Stamps of West Indies    "               7/6      "      7/7.
 "  75    "     125 Stamps of South America, all different.  7/6      "      7/7.
 "  76    "     100 Stamps of North America          "       7/6      "      7/7.
 "  77    "     100 Stamps of Central America        "       7/6      "      7/7.

The set of eight packets, containing 1,305 varieties, if all bought at
one time, will be supplied at the special reduced price of 55/-.
Postage abroad 2-1/2d. extra for each 125 stamps.

       *       *       *       *       *

_THE JUBILEE EXHIBITION PACKETS._

No. 78.--The "Queen's Portrait" Packet. 100 Stamps. Price 10s.

The Ten Shilling Packet contains 100 Unused Postage Stamps, each one
bearing a likeness of HER MAJESTY QUEEN VICTORIA. This packet contains
perfect specimens only, nearly all with original gum. This is a real
bargain, but as an extra inducement to purchasers we present a
specimen of a Diamond Jubilee Stamp with each packet; thus each buyer
becomes a subscriber to H.R.H. the Prince of Wales' Hospital Fund.

No. 79.--The "Queen's Portrait" Packet. 100 Rare Colonials. Price £1
10s.

The Thirty Shilling Packet contains 100 rare unused Postage Stamps,
each one bearing a likeness of HER MAJESTY QUEEN VICTORIA. The stamps
in this packet are entirely different from those in No. 78, and
purchasers of both will thus possess two hundred distinct varieties.
Most of the English Colonies are represented by carefully-selected
specimens of the higher value stamps. With this packet we present the
Half-crown Diamond Jubilee Stamp; thus each purchaser subscribes that
sum to H.R.H. the Prince of Wales' Hospital Fund.

No. 80.--The "Picturesque" Packet. 100 Pictures. Price 12s. 6d.

Contains 100 Unused Stamps in perfect condition, each one being
especially selected for beauty, quaintness, or originality of design.
Among others, we mention:

Natives Paddling on the Congo River.
Native Village and Scenery in the Congo District.
A Native Village in Djibouti. The Bridge of Sighs in Kewkiang.

ZOOLOGY IS REPRESENTED BY--The Elephant, the Hippopotamus, the Bird of
Paradise, the Stag, the Codfish.

Three of the exquisite Portraits of Her Majesty, as depicted on the
Canadian Jubilee Stamps, showing the Vignettes of the Queen in 1837
and 1897, form an appropriate addition to this choice and remarkable
packet.



GREATER BRITAIN PACKETS

OF

_British Colonial Stamps_.

NO DUPLICATES.


EVERY Packet of this series contains different varieties, no Stamp
being included in two Packets, and purchasers will by this novel
method be saved the inconvenience of acquiring duplicates, which is as
a rule the bane of most packet buying.

                                                 |Price.  |Post-free. |
                                                 |s. _d._ |s. _d_.    |

No. 111| contains |20 varieties of Stamps of ASIA| 0 6    | 0 7       |

    112|    "     |25      "     "    "          | 2 0    | 2 1       |
       |          |                              |        |           |
    113|    "     |40      "     "    "          | 3 6    | 3 7       |
       |          |                              |        |           |
    114|    "     |40      "     "    "          | 6 6    | 6 7       |
       |          |                              |        |           |
    115|    "     |50      "     "    "          |16 6    |16 7       |
       |          |                              |        |           |
    116|    "     |45      "     "    "          |12 0    |12 1       |
       |          |                              |        |           |
    117|    "     |30      "     "    "          | 4 0    | 4 1       |
       |          |                              |        |           |
    118|    "     |40      "     "    "          |21 0    |21 1       |
       |          |                              |        |           |
    121|    "     |20      "     "    "    AFRICA| 0 6    | 0 7       |
       |          |                              |        |           |
    122|    "     |25      "     "    "          | 2 6    | 2 7       |
       |          |                              |        |           |
    141|    "     |20      "     "    WEST INDIES| 0 9    | 0 10      |
       |          |                              |        |           |
    142|    "     |20      "     "    "          | 2 0    | 2 1       |
       |          |                              |        |           |
    151|    "     |25      "     "    AUSTRALASIA| 0 6    | 0 7       |
       |          |                              |        |           |
    152|    "     |30      "     "    "          | 1 6    | 1 7       |
       |          |                              |        |           |
    153|    "     |30      "     "    "          | 4 6    | 4 7       |

FOREIGN COUNTRIES PACKETS

OF

_European Stamps_.

EVERY Packet in this series contains different varieties, no
particular stamp being included in two Packets, and purchasers will by
this method be saved the inconvenience of acquiring duplicates.

                                                  |Price.  |Post-free.|
                                                  |s. _d._ |s. _d_.   |

No. 201 contains| 50 varieties of Stamps of Europe|0 9     |0 10      |

202        "    |40      "      "    "    "    "  |1 0     |1 1       |
                |                                 |        |          |
203        "    |50      "      "    "    "    "  |2 0     |2 1       |
                |                                 |        |          |
204        "    |30      "      "    "    "    "  |2 6     |2 7       |
                |                                 |        |          |
205        "    |50      "      "    "    "    "  |3 6     |3 7       |
                |                                 |        |          |
206        "    |60      "      "    "    "    "  |7 6     |7 7       |



THE 20th CENTURY PACKETS

Of Envelopes, Registered Envelopes, Wrappers, and Letter Sheets,

ALL UNUSED, ENTIRE, AND GUARANTEED GENUINE ORIGINALS.

NO DUPLICATES.

Every Packet of this series contains different Envelopes, etc., no
piece being included in two Packets, and purchasers will by this novel
method be saved the inconvenience of acquiring duplicates, which is as
a rule the bane of most packet buying.

The prices of these new Packets are wonderfully cheap, as we are
clearing off our stock of entires.

_These Packets cannot be sent by book post abroad. The average rate
abroad by letter post or parcel post varies so much that sufficient
should be remitted, and balance, if any, will be credited or returned.
The prices quoted "post-free" are for Great Britain only._

       *       *       *       *       *

ENVELOPE PACKETS.

_Section I.--GREAT BRITAIN & COLONIES._

No. 601.--Contains 29 common varieties, including Bechuanaland,
Chamba, Cochin, Leeward Isles, etc. Price 2/-; post-free, 2/1.

No. 602.--Contains 36 scarce varieties, including Great Britain
compound, Bahamas, Barbados, Canada, Cape, Ceylon, Gibraltar, Grenada,
Heligoland, etc. Price 8/6; post-free, 8/7.

No. 603.--Contains 36 scarce varieties, including Newfoundland, New
South Wales, St. Vincent, South Australia, Trinidad, and a really
grand lot of Victorian. Price 10/-; post-free, 10/1.

No. 604.--Contains 47 varieties of Great Britain only, including a
superb lot of the rarer compound Envelopes, old dates and high values;
also scarce Registered Envelopes, Wrappers, etc. A very fine packet
and good value. Price 40/-; post-free, 40/2.

No. 605.--Contains 50 _rare_ varieties of Bahamas, Barbados, British
Bechuanaland, British Central and East and South Africa, British
Guiana, Canada, Cape, and Ceylon. Price 25/-; post-free, 25/3.

No. 606.--Contains 45 _rare_ varieties, including some very scarce
Ceylon registered, Cyprus, Gibraltar, Gold Coast, Grenada, Heligoland,
and India. Price 27/6; post-free, 27/9.

No. 607.--Contains 34 varieties of the Indian States, including
Chamba, Gwalior, Jhind, Nabha, Puttialla, Bamra, Charkhari, Cochin,
Duttia, Holkar, Hyderabad, and Travancore. Price 10/-; post-free,
10/1.

No. 608.--Contains 29 scarce varieties of Leeward Isles, Malta,
Mauritius, Newfoundland, New South Wales, New Zealand, and Niger
Coast. Price 12/-; post-free, 12/2.

No. 609.--Contains 29 scarce varieties of Queensland, St. Lucia, St.
Vincent, Sierra Leone, South Australia, Straits Settlements, Tasmania,
Tobago, Trinidad, and Victoria. Price 12/6; post-free, 12/8.

SPECIAL OFFER.

Packets 601 to 609 inclusive, containing 335 different varieties of
Envelopes, Wrappers, etc., of Great Britain and her Colonies. Price £6
10s. Postage extra.



ENVELOPES.

_Section II.--FOREIGN COUNTRIES._

No. 610.--Contains 20 common varieties. Price 1/-; post-free, 1/1.

No. 611.--Contains 21 scarcer varieties. Price 2/6; post-free, 2/7.

No. 612.--Contains 21 varieties, including Argentine, Brazil, Ecuador,
Guatemala, etc. Price 4/6; post-free, 4/7.

No. 613.--Contains 24 varieties, including Persia, Russia, Shanghai,
Uruguay, etc. Price 6/6; post-free, 6/7.

No. 614.--Contains 41 scarce varieties of Argentine, Austria, Austrian
Italy, Hungary, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Chili, and Costa Rica. Price
16/6; post-free, 16/8.

No. 615.--Contains 62 varieties of Danish West Indies, Ecuador, Egypt,
France, and Envelopes of _twenty_ different French Colonies. Price
12/6; post-free, 12/8.

No. 616.--Contains 43 _rare_ varieties of the German States, including
very scarce Lubeck, Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Mecklenburg-Strelitz,
Prussian, Saxony, Thurn and Taxis, Wurtemberg, etc. A really good
packet and exceptional value. Price 50/-; post-free, 50/3.

No. 617.--Contains 40 varieties of Guatemala, Hawaiian Isles, Holland,
Dutch Indies, and Honduras. Price 12/6; post-free, 12/8.

No. 618.--Contains 35 scarce varieties of Japan, including rare plate
numbers, Liberia, Mexico, Monaco, and Montenegro. Price 20/-;
post-free, 20/3.

No. 619.--Contains 30 varieties of Nicaragua, especially strong in the
older issues. Price 6/-; post-free, 6/1.

No. 620.--Contains 38 scarce varieties of Paraguay, Persia, Peru,
Portugal, Roumania, Russia, etc. Price 18/6; post-free, 18/9.

No. 621.--Contains 39 scarce varieties of Finland, Russian Local
Envelopes, Shanghai, Transvaal, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey,
and Uruguay. Price 17/6; post-free, 17/9.

No. 622.--Contains 77 varieties of Salvador, including many really
rare and provisional issues. A very fine and interesting set. Price
25/-; post-free, 25/3.

No. 623.--Contains 32 old varieties of the United States of America,
including scarce dies and papers of the Reay and Plimpton issues, and
the old 3 cent letter sheet on blue paper. Price 15/-; post-free,
15/3.

SPECIAL OFFER.

PACKETS 610 to 623 inclusive, containing 527 varieties of Envelopes,
Wrappers, etc., of Foreign Countries. Price £9 5s. Postage extra.



THE 20th CENTURY PACKETS

Of Post Cards and Letter Cards.

_ALL UNUSED, ENTIRE, AND GUARANTEED GENUINE ORIGINALS._

NO DUPLICATES.

POST CARD PACKETS.

_Section I.--GREAT BRITAIN & COLONIES._

No. 650.--Contains 13 common varieties. Price 1/-; post-free, 1/1.

No. 651.--Contains 13 common varieties, different from the last. Price
1/-; post-free, 1/1.

No. 652.--Contains 16 common varieties, all different from those in
the other packets. Price 1/3; post-free, 1/4.

No. 653.--Contains 24 scarce varieties of Cards, including Bangkok,
Barbados, British Central Africa, etc. Price 4/6; post-free, 4/7.

No. 654.--Contains 26 scarce varieties, including Falkland, Gibraltar,
Heligoland, Hong Kong, etc. Price 4/6; post-free, 4/7.

No. 655.--Contains 23 scarce varieties, including Nevis, Newfoundland,
North Borneo, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, etc. Price 4/-; post-free, 4/1.

No. 656.--Contains 24 scarce varieties, including Tasmania, Tobago,
Trinidad, Turks Islands, Virgin Isles, Zululand, etc. Price 4/-;
post-free, 4/1.

No. 657.--Contains 38 rare varieties, including scarce Cards from
Great Britain, Antigua, Bahamas, Barbados, Bermuda, etc. Price 10/-;
post-free, 10/2.

No. 658.--Contains 47 rare varieties from British Central, East, and
South Africa, Canada, Ceylon, Cape of Good Hope, Cyprus, Gambia, etc.
Price 10/6; post-free, 10/8.

No. 659.--Contains 47 rare varieties from Gibraltar, Gold Coast,
Grenada, Heligoland, Hong Kong, India, Chamba, Gwalior, Puttialla,
etc. Price 12/6; post-free, 12/8.

No. 660.--Contains 39 rare varieties from Sirmoor, Cashmere, Jamaica,
Labuan, Montserrat, Natal, Nevis, etc. Price 12/6; post-free, 12/8.

No. 661.--Contains 41 rare varieties, including New South Wales, New
Zealand, Niger Coast, North Borneo, Queensland, St. Lucia, Seychelles,
Sierra Leone, etc. Price 9/6; post-free, 9/8.

No. 662.--Contains 41 rare varieties from South Australia, Straits,
Tasmania, Tobago, Trinidad, Turks Islands, Victoria, Western
Australia, etc. Price 10/-; post-free, 10/2.

SPECIAL OFFER.

Packets 650 to 662 inclusive, containing a really grand collection of
392 varieties of Post Cards of Great Britain and Colonies. Price £4.
Postage extra.



Section II.--FOREIGN COUNTRIES.

No. 670.--Contains 20 common varieties. Price 1/6; post-free, 1/7.

No. 671.--Contains 27 other common varieties. Price 2/6; post-free,
2/7.

No. 672.--Contains 38 varieties, including some scarce. Price 3/-;
post-free, 3/1.

No. 673.--Contains 35 varieties, including some scarce ones. Price
3/6; post-free, 3/7.

No. 674.--Contains 31 scarcer varieties, including Austrian Italy,
Hungary, Belgium, Congo, and Brazil. Price 6/-; post-free, 6/1.

No. 675.--Contains 31 scarce varieties, including Bulgaria, Chili,
Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Morocco, Tunis, etc. Price 4/-;
post-free, 4/1.

No. 676.--Contains 36 scarce varieties, including German East Africa,
Greece, Guatemala, Hawaiian Islands, Holland, Curaçao, Dutch Indies,
Surinam, etc. Price 6/-; post-free, 6/2.

No. 677.--Contains 45 scarce varieties, including Italy, Eritrea, San
Marino, Japan, Luxemburg, Mexico, etc. Price 8/-; post-free, 8/2.

No. 678.--Contains 48 scarce varieties, including Monaco, Montenegro,
Nicaragua, Orange Free State, Paraguay, Persia, Peru, Azores, Madeira,
etc. Price 10/-; post-free, 10/2.

No. 679.--Contains 39 scarce varieties from Roumania, Russia, Finland,
Servia, Shanghai, Siam, South African Republic, Spain, etc. Price 7/-;
post-free, 7/2.

No. 680.--Contains 45 scarce varieties from Cuba, Norway, Sweden,
Switzerland, Turkey, Uruguay, etc. Price 9/6; post-free, 9/8.

No. 681.--Contains 39 rare varieties from Argentine, Austrian Italy,
Hungary, etc. Price 6/6; post-free, 6/7.

No. 682.--Contains 51 rare varieties from Belgium, Congo, Bolivia,
Brazil, etc. Price 15/-; post-free, 15/2.

No. 683.--Contains 54 rare varieties from Bulgaria, Chili, Colombia,
Costa Rica, Denmark, Iceland, etc. Price 10/-; post-free, 10/2.

No. 684.--Contains 54 rare varieties from Ecuador, Egypt, France,
Tunis, Baden, Bavaria, etc. Price 10/-; post-free, 10/2.

No. 685.--Contains 72 rare varieties from Wurtemberg, Greece,
Guatemala, Hawaiian Islands, Hayti, Holland and Colonies. Price 15/-;
post-free, 15/3.

No. 686.--Contains 62 rare varieties from Italy, Japan, Luxemburg,
Mexico, etc. Price 14/-; post-free, 14/3.

No. 687.--Contains 50 rare varieties from Monaco, Montenegro,
Nicaragua, Paraguay, Persia, etc. Price 10/-; post-free, 10/2.

No. 688.--Contains 59 rare varieties from Peru, Portugal and Colonies,
Roumania, etc. Price 15/-; post-free, 15/3.

No. 689.--Contains 78 rare varieties from Russia, Finland, Salvador,
etc. Price 15/-; post-free, 15/3.

No. 690.--Contains 48 rare varieties from Shanghai, Siam, Spain and
Colonies, Sweden, etc. Price 16/6; post-free, 16/8.

No. 691.--Contains 43 rare varieties from Switzerland, Turkey, United
States, Uruguay, Venezuela, etc. Price 9/6; post-free, 9/8.

SPECIAL OFFER.

Packets 670 to 691 inclusive, containing a superb collection of 1,005
varieties of _Post Cards_ of Foreign Countries; a bargain. Price £8
10s. Postage extra.



SIXTIETH THOUSAND.

_1/- each_.

THE SEVENTH EDITION OF

The Improved Postage Stamp Album,

No. 0.

THE BEST AND LARGEST SHILLING ALBUM EVER PUBLISHED.

176 large pages. Spaces for 4,700 Stamps.

48 extra pages added in this Edition without extra charge.

_This Album is now selling at the rate of over 1,000 copies a month_.

The demand for this Album has simply been phenomenal, and it gives
universal satisfaction--not a single complaint has been received. The
last Edition had nearly 20 extra pages added, and now another 48 pages
have been added, and all the Geographical and Historical Notes brought
up fully to date. All the newest Stamp-issuing countries, such as
Ichang, Las Bela, Tientsin, Bundi, Dhar, etc. etc., have been added.
At the top of each page there is the name of the country, and a mass
of valuable information, including date when Stamps were issued,
population, area, reigning sovereign, capital, etc. Spaces of proper
sizes are provided for all Stamps, and the book is bound in a superior
manner in gilt cloth. The Album contains a pocket to hold duplicate
Stamps, and fifty Stamps will be presented _gratis_ with each Album.
There is also an Illustrated Frontispiece of the Rarest Stamps, with
prices attached that we pay for each.

Price, bound in handsome gilt cloth, 1/-, or post-free 1/3.

     E. S. says: "I asked a friend where the best place was to buy a
     Stamp Album cheap. He referred me to you, saying that he had bought
     one and sold it next day for 1/6, after keeping the stamps."

     A. A. writes: "I received your Stamp Album on Thursday, and I
     wonder how you can sell it so cheap; for as soon as a friend saw it
     he offered me 2/- for it. Please send me another."

     C. A. W. writes: "Please send me one of your marvellous 1/- Albums,
     with packet of stamps, in order that I may convince my incredulous
     friends that such a thing is possible."

     Miss M. R. writes from Piccadilly: "I was greatly pleased with the
     Album I received this morning, which all my friends admired, and
     thought it very cheap."



THE

Improved Postage Stamp Album.

_FOURTEENTH EDITION_.

GREATLY ENLARGED AND RE-WRITTEN.

Size of Page, 10 by 7-3/4 ins.

_One Hundred Stamps, all different, are presented with each Album
sold_.

[Illustration: COVER OF NO. 3.]

This new Edition is printed on a _superior_ quality paper, especially
made for it. The shape is oblong, and spaces are provided according to
the different requirements of the various countries.

A large number of guards have been provided so that the Album shall
not bulge when full.

The Album is divided into Continents, and the name of the country only
is given at the head of each page.

Fifty-seven different watermarks are illustrated in actual size, and
lists are given of the various watermarks of the different countries.

Two pages of illustrations of _rare stamps_ are given, with the price
under each stamp that we will pay for it.

Special attention has been paid to the binding, which is exceptionally
strong, and the covers are artistically designed.

       *       *       *       *       *

_PRICES (all well Packed)._

No. 2.--Strongly and neatly bound in Plain Cloth, gilt lettered back
and sides, 304 pages. Price 3/6; post-free, 3/11; abroad, 4/6.

No. 3.--Well bound in Art Vellum, as illustration, blocked in gold and
colours, 304 pages. Price 5/-; post-free, 5/6; abroad, 6/2.

No. 4.--Handsomely half-bound, Art Vellum sides, gold lines and gilt
letters on back, gilt edges, with extra leaves after each continent
for new issues, making in, all 368 pages. Price 7/6; post-free, 8/-;
abroad, 8/9.

       *       *       *       *       *

EXTRA LEAVES

_Can be supplied to this and the older small sizes, as under._

14th (New) Edition.
               Plain edges, for Nos. 2 or 3 ... 9d. per doz.; 5/- per 100.
               Gilt    "     "   No. 4      ... 1/3   "       8/6   "

12th or 13th Edition (smaller size)--
               Plain edges, for Nos. 2 or 3 ... 6d.   "       3/9   "
               Gilt    "     "   No. 4      ... 1/-   "       7/-   "



NEW EDITION.

_100 POSTAGE STAMPS, all genuine and
different, and of a catalogue value of over 8/-, are presented with
each STRAND ALBUM_.

THE STRAND POSTAGE STAMP ALBUM.

Well arranged, reliable, and thoroughly correct.

       *       *       *       *       *

The book, which is printed on an unusually good quality paper, is
bound in a new and specially designed cover. The shape is as
illustrated, and the size a new and convenient one, viz. 9-1/2 in. by
7-1/2 inches. Sufficient guards have been inserted so that when the
Album is full the covers shall be level with each other, and not
bulged, as is often the case in imperfectly constructed books.

Nos. 15 and 16 include a series of Six Maps, specially engraved for
this Publication, and beautifully printed in Colours.

No. 14. 320 pages. Spaces for 8,000 Stamps.

Nos. 15 and 16. 400 pages. Spaces for 11,000 Stamps.

Concise Geographical and other particulars with Illustrations are
given at the head of each country, the pages being divided into
rectangles, as is usual, with this most important innovation, that
they vary in size so as to conveniently accommodate the Stamps desired
to be placed in position. This is an advantageous improvement that
will commend itself to every collector. Post Cards are not provided
for, as all Philatelists of experience know it is best to collect them
separately.

A new and very important departure has been made in Nos. 15 and 16, in
including for the first time in any Philatelic Album a series of Six
specially drawn Maps, printed in colours, and giving the names of all
Stamp-issuing Countries. They are of course fully brought up to date,
and are not needlessly encumbered with unnecessary names, so as to
increase their usefulness for easy and instant reference.

Each Album now has four full-page Illustrations of the Watermarks
found on all Stamps.

       *       *       *       *       *

PRICES.

No. 14.--Strongly and neatly bound in plain cloth, gilt lettered, 320
pages, 2/6; post-free, 2/11; abroad, 3/4.

No. 15.--Strongly and handsomely bound in plain cloth, with gilt edges
and lettering, and 6 Maps, and 80 extra leaves, 5/-; post-free, 5/5;
abroad, 6/-.

No. 16.--Handsomely bound in half morocco, lettered on back, plain
cloth sides, with 6 Maps, gilt edges, 400 pages, 8/6; post-free, 9/-;
abroad, 9/6.

BLANK LEAVES. For No. 14.--9d. per dozen; 5/- per 100, post-free. For
No. 15 or 16, gilt edges.--1/3 per dozen; 9/- per 100, post-free.



THE CENTURY ALBUM.

[Illustration: ALL THE WORLD IN ONE VOLUME.]

_NOW READY. In One Volume, 580 pages. Size of each page 10 by 13
inches._

The CENTURY ALBUM

OF THE

Postage Stamps of the World.

_Including a full Descriptive Catalogue, and Illustrated with several
thousand full-sized reproductions of the Stamps_.

       *       *       *       *       *

This Album is produced in a very large edition at a cost of between
£2,000 and £3,000, and will be found to fulfil a long-felt want for an
Album in One Volume, of high-class style, and on thoroughly good and
highly surfaced paper, well and strongly bound.

The Century Album is printed on one side of the paper only, catalogue
and illustrations on the left, and numbered spaces to correspond on
the right-hand pages.

All minor varieties of perforation, watermark, and type are omitted,
and only such varieties are included as can be distinguished by the
young Philatelist.

Space has been provided for some 18,000 stamps, and provision made for
new issues by the insertion of numerous blank pages.

IN TWO QUALITIES.

No. 21.--On extra stout highly glazed paper, strongly bound in cloth,
gilt lettered and artistically designed cover, coloured edges.

Price 12/6; post-free in Great Britain, 13/4.

No. 22.--As last, but half bound in morocco, plain sides, raised
bands, and gilt lettering on back, gilt edges; supplied in strong box.

Price 25/-; post-free in Great Britain, 26/-.

Extra Blank Leaves for this Album, 8d. per dozen, plain; or 1/- per
dozen with gilt edges.



THE IMPERIAL ALBUM

(OPEN), SHOWING GENERAL ARRANGEMENTS.

[Illustration:]

The Sale of these Albums averages over 6,500 per annum.

IMPERIAL ALBUM.

_NOW READY. NINTH EDITION_, 1902.

Great Britain and Colonies.

504 pages. Size of pages, 8-3/4 by 11-1/2 inches. About 1,800
Illustrations.

Since the publication of the previous edition of this Album, we have
published the "Century" Album, designed for those who desire to
collect in the simplest form, without regard to perforations or
watermarks, and who desire a complete Album in one volume.

In order, however, to further the wishes of those who collect on more
elaborate methods, the present edition has been prepared and very
considerably enlarged, and for all practical purposes runs parallel
with our current Postage Stamp Catalogue.

The close of the century marks an epoch in the history of postage
stamps, and the present edition may be considered as

A PERMANENT ALBUM

_Of the Postage Stamps issued during_

THE NINETEENTH CENTURY.

New issues appearing after the date of this edition are best collated
and arranged in blank albums, preferably with movable leaves, such as
our ORIEL or PHILATELIC ALBUMS.

       *       *       *       *       *

_This Album is issued in FOUR qualities only (No. 6 has been
discontinued) of paper, binding, &c._

No. 5.--On extra stout paper, bound in embossed cloth, gilt lettering,
sprinkled edges. _Marone-colour covers_.

Price without postage, 10/-; post-free in Great Britain, 11/-.

No. 7.--On extra stout paper, handsomely bound, extra gilt, bevelled
boards, gilt edges, and patent expanding clasp. _Dark green covers_.

Price without postage, 15/-; post-free in Great Britain, 16/-.

No. 8.--On highly rolled plate paper, extra strongly bound in half
green morocco, lettered on back, cloth sides, gilt edges, no locks or
clasps.

Price without postage, 25/-; post-free in Great Britain, 26/-.

No. 9.--On highly rolled plate paper, magnificently bound in finest
green Levant morocco, rounded corners, with gold line round the
bevelled edges, lettered on back, gilt edges, patent expanding lock.

Price without postage, 50/-; post-free in Great Britain, 51/-.

       *       *       *       *       *



IMPERIAL ALBUM.

_NOW READY. NINTH EDITION, 1902._.

Foreign Countries.

870 pages, measuring 8-3/4 x 11-1/2 inches. About 2,400 Illustrations.

       *       *       *       *       *

_This Album is issued in FOUR qualities only of paper, binding, &c.
(No. 66 has been discontinued.)_

No. 65.--On extra stout paper, bound in embossed cloth, gilt
lettering, sprinkled edges. _Marone-colour covers_.

Price without postage, 15/-; post-free in Great Britain, 16/-.

No. 67.--On extra stout paper, handsomely bound, extra gilt, bevelled
boards, gilt edges, and patent expanding clasp. _Dark green covers_.

Price without postage, 21/-; post-free in Great Britain, 22/-.

No. 68.--On highly rolled plate paper, extra strongly bound in half
green morocco, lettered on back, cloth sides, gilt edges, no locks or
clasps.

Price without postage, 30/-; post-free in Great Britain, 31/-.

No. 69.--On highly rolled plate paper, magnificently bound in finest
green Levant morocco, rounded corners, with gold line round the
bevelled edges, lettered on back, gilt edges, patent expanding lock.

Price without postage, 60/-; post-free in Great Britain, 61/-.

       *       *       *       *       *

These Albums are too heavy for book post abroad, but can be sent by
parcel post where same is in operation; the weight is about 8 to 10
lbs., and cost can be calculated for each country.



The PHILATELIC ALBUMS A to E.

_As described on page_ 20.

[Illustration]

The "ORIEL" Albums are of a similar style, but more portable and in a
superior binding. _See page_ 21.

The leaves in this Album are retained in their places by an original
and newly patented plan, entirely doing away with the unsightly screws
hitherto necessary on the outside of books of this class.

Pronounced by all who have seen it an ingenious and admirable
arrangement, pre-eminently adapted for the purpose, and completely
solving a difficulty experienced by collectors in general.

       *       *       *       *       *

THE FIFTH EDITION OF

THE PHILATELIC ALBUM.

The most suitable Album published for Advanced Collectors.

       *       *       *       *       *

Several important improvements have been introduced into this New
Edition, suggested by increased experience, and greatly enhancing the
use of this Work. Especially produced in answer to numerous inquiries
for a really permanent blank Album. It will be found suitable for the
reception of the most extensive and complete collection possible. It
is also adaptable for Post Cards, Revenue Stamps, or entire Envelopes.
Collectors using Albums of this class frequently resort to books not
specially manufactured for the purpose, and hence unsuitable, or the
more expensive and very often unsatisfactory mode of having them
expressly made; it is to meet this want that this Album is published,
and all that experience can suggest has been carried out to make it
worthy the use of even the most advanced collectors, and adaptable to
any arrangement that may be desirable.

It is likewise especially applicable for the use of those Philatelists
who arrange their collections by the Catalogue published by ourselves
or any other standard list. This Album is also peculiarly suitable for
those who collect special countries only, taking as their guide the
various lists published by the London Philatelic Society, etc. Each
leaf has a double linen joint on an entirely new plan, allowing the
leaves to set properly when the book is opened, and giving strength at
the same time. A narrow marginal border embellishes each page, with a
semi-visible network of quadrillé dotted lines, designed to assist the
correct insertion of the specimens to be mounted. The leaves are 100
in number, and printed on one side only, on a very fine quality white
card paper. They are movable, allowing rearrangement or extension into
two or more volumes, as may be desired at any future time. It is
hardly necessary to point out the advantage of this; moreover, if a
page becomes spoilt, it can be at once replaced. A handsomely arranged
title is included. An inspection is desired where possible.

PRICES.

A.--Strongly bound in half morocco, gilt ornaments and lettering;
packed in a box, 30/-; carriage extra. Under 11 lbs., can be sent by
parcel post for 31/-.

B.--Handsomely bound in full Persian morocco, bevelled boards, gilt
edges, double-action expanding lock and key; packed in a box, 50/-;
carriage paid, 51/-.

Spare blank linen-jointed leaves can be had, 1/9 per dozen, or 2/3 per
dozen if with gilt edges, post-free; abroad extra. A sample leaf sent
for 2-1/2d., post-free.

       *       *       *       *       *

At the request of several London collectors we have prepared an Album
of portable size, and convenient for taking to meetings of the
Philatelic Society, etc. Our large blank Albums, as described above,
are found to be too heavy and cumbersome for such purposes, and our
new book will be found a very suitable one.

The size of the pages in E is 11 x 9-1/2. Weight, 7 lbs. 100 leaves.

E.--Strongly bound in half morocco, gilt ornaments and lettering;
packed in a box, 25/-, or 25/9 by parcel post.



THE ORIEL

Postage Stamp Album.

This new album has been based on a special order from Mr. M. P.
CASTLE, Vice-President of the Philatelic Society of London, to whom we
have supplied 60 of these books, and to whom reference is kindly
permitted. It has met with such an unusually favourable reception from
those Collectors who have already used it that, on account of its
general adaptability, it must undoubtedly quickly take a front rank in
this class of publication. Amongst its numerous advantages, one
especially may be named, and that is, its convenient size, rendering
it extremely portable, and suitable for attending philatelic meetings,
etc.

To those Philatelists who are unable to personally inspect same at our
Establishment, a brief description will be acceptable:--

Each Album contains 50 leaves of the best hand-made paper, faced with
Japanese tissue paper, so as to prevent all friction, and is bound in
half red morocco, with cloth sides finished in gold. A space on the
back of the cover is left plain, so that a Collector can have his
books lettered or numbered to show the contents. Each Album is
contained in a cloth drop-in case lined with lamb's wool. The leaves,
unless specially ordered, are supplied perfectly blank, without any
lined border or background, but if desired special leaves can be
supplied with a fine quadrillé background, as supplied to the other
Philatelic Albums of this form. Exact size of leaves from the outside
edges, 10 inches by 10-1/4; available for mounting stamps, 8-3/4
inches by 10-1/4.

The price of the Album is 30/-; post-free, 30/7 (too heavy for post
abroad, so will be sent carriage forward).

The Leaves, either plain or with quadrillé background, can be supplied
at the price of 4/6 per dozen, or 32/6 per 100.



THE PHILATELIST'S COLLECTING BOOK.

FOR THE COAT POCKET.

With Patent Fastening to Flap.

_Size, 6-1/2 by 4-1/4 inches. Handsomely bound in Art Cloth._

Each book contains 12 pages, having four strips of linen, 3/4-inch
wide, arranged horizontally, glued at the bottom edge and with the
upper one open, for the safe retention and preservation of recent
purchases or duplicates. A large pocket is also provided at the back
for Envelopes or Stamps in bulk. In daily use by leading London
Collectors.

No. 17.--As illustrated. Price 2/6; post-free, 2/7.

No. 18.--Oblong, twenty-four pages, six strips on each page,
interleaved with strong glazed paper to prevent rubbing. Price 5/-;
post-free, 5/3.

       *       *       *       *       *

THE MONTHLY JOURNAL.

_Edited by MAJOR E. B. EVANS._

Published on the 1st of each month, and chiefly noted for:--

1st.--Verbatim Reports of all Law Cases of Interest to Philatelists.

2nd.--Earliest Information on New Issues.

3rd.--Largest Stamp Journal Published: recent numbers containing from
50 to 72 pages.

4th.--Quality of its Articles; with MAJOR EVANS as Editor this can be
taken for granted.

5th.--Entirely Original Articles by the leading Philatelic Writers of
the day.

SUBSCRIPTION--2/- per annum, or 5/- for three years.

_Sample Copy sent gratis and post-free on application._

All Subscriptions must be prepaid, and commence with the JULY Number.
The Prices for Back Numbers will be found in the current number of the
_Journal_. There is no discount to the Trade.

_The Monthly Journal_ now includes the Addenda to our Current Priced
Catalogue. The old method of publishing addenda quarterly has been
discontinued; and in the months of March, June, September, and
December a Special Number of the Journal is sent to all Subscribers,
containing lists of all Stamps, etc., that have appeared since the
publication of the Catalogue. In the other months there will be quoted
Special Bargains, Rarities, and prominent Alterations in Prices.

_We therefore_ STRONGLY RECOMMEND _all purchasers of the Catalogue to_
SUBSCRIBE TO "THE MONTHLY JOURNAL"--_forming, as it does, a complete
continuation of the Catalogue up to date._



The Stamp King.

A PHILATELIC NOVEL.

BY MESSRS. BEAUREGARD AND GORSSE.

_Translated from the French by_ EDITH C. PHILLIPS.

       *       *       *       *       *

_The story commences at the New York Philatelic Club, and traces out
in a most amusing manner the struggles of the two leading members to
secure the rarest stamp in the world. The chase leads these collectors
to London, Paris, and Naples, and ends, after many curious adventures,
in New York._

       *       *       *       *       *

EXTRACTS FROM REVIEWS.

The Daily News says: "A delightful addition to modern books of
adventure.... Incidentally, there is a marvellous revelation of the
inner affairs and methods of the stamp-collecting world; but the main
interest of the book, to our mind, is its remarkable story, and it can
and will be read with pleasure by many who care nothing whatever about
the philatelic mania.... It would be spoiling a very good thing to
tell the rest of the story of the adventures of these two, ... and we
shall be much mistaken if this book, in popular form, does not meet
with phenomenal favour."

The Spectator says: "A most diverting extravaganza, rather in the
style of Jules Verne.... The apology of the translator for the lack of
verisimilitude in the last scene is entirely unnecessary; otherwise
she has done her work with credit, while M. Veilliemin's spirited
illustrations heighten the attractions of a most entertaining and
ingenious story."

The People: "A novel that will certainly interest the ordinary reader
and doubly interest the Philatelist. It is profusely illustrated, and
with a class of illustration that puts to shame much of the rubbish
that we find in English novels."

The London Philatelist says: "It may at once be said that it is
amusing in the extreme, and cannot fail to entertain all its readers.
We have to heartily congratulate the translator upon the accuracy and
excellence of her handiwork. _The Stamp King_, we should add, is both
superbly illustrated and beautifully printed, and will assuredly
command a wide circle of readers."

Vanity Fair: "This very sprightly novel on the stamp-collecting mania
is most amusing, and might be just the thing for a present to young
folks who are ardent collectors and readers of cheery, harmless
fiction. It is excellently 'got up,' the illustrations are very good,
and the story itself is quite exciting. All people who love (or
loathe) stamp collecting are honestly advised to read the racy story
of Miss Betty Scott."

The Liverpool Mercury: "The enthusiasm of Philatelists in their
favourite pursuit is well illustrated in this capital story. It
possesses many merits, the interest being sustained throughout. The
translation is admirable, scarcely a trace is to be seen of French
idiom, while the rendering into American vernacular is particularly
clever and satisfactory."

The Court Circular: "A very great amount of interest is taken in stamp
collecting, and a book pleasantly dealing with the stamp hobby, such
as the one before us, will be sure to find a wide circle of readers."

The Lady's Pictorial: "This curious story is unique, for never before
or since its publication has the stamp-collecting hobby been turned to
account as the central idea of a really interesting romance and love
story."

Gentlewoman: "The story is full of exciting incidents."

_Half bound in Art Buckram, cloth sides, gilt lettering, plain edges,
200 pages, 80 fine illustrations. Price 6/-; post-free, 6/4; abroad,
6/8._



The Stamp Collector.

By HARDY and BACON.

This well-known and most interesting handbook was published in 1898 by
Mr. George Redway in his _Collector Series_. On the failure of this
publisher lately, we purchased the balance of the edition--about 1,200
copies--and are now able to offer the work at a great reduction on its
original price.

_The chief contents are as follows:_

The Issue of Postage Stamps. Collecting--Its Origin and Development.
Stamps made for Collectors. Art in Postage Stamps. Stamps with
Stories. History in Postage Stamps. Local Stamps. The Stamp Market.
Post Cards. Famous Collections. List of Philatelic Societies.

       *       *       *       *       *

Well bound in art cloth, gilt lettered, 247 illustrations, 294 pages.
Price 4/6; post-free, 4/10; abroad, 5/1.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Mulready Envelope and its Caricatures.

This Work is a reprint in book-form, with a few alterations and
additions, of a series of papers that have appeared in "The Monthly
Journal." The book consists of 240 pages and some 45 full-page
Illustrations of the most curious varieties of these interesting
Caricatures. This New Work will be of interest, not only to Stamp
Collectors, but also to those interested in Engravings--especially in
the works of LEECH, MULREADY, CRUIKSHANK, DOYLE, PHIZ (H. K. BROWNE),
THEO. HOOK, etc. etc. The Work has been produced in a very superior
manner, and is printed on special paper with extra large margins; and
by the kind permission of the Board of Inland Revenue an Illustration
of the original Mulready is also included.

       *       *       *       *       *

No. 1.--Strongly bound in extra cloth, gilt lettering, marbled
burnished edges, &c., 6/-; post-free, 6/4; abroad, 6/8.

No. 2.--_Edition de Luxe_, handsomely bound, extra gilt, hand-made
paper, with uncut edges, 10/-; post-free, 10/4; abroad, 10/8.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Illustration]

The "Philatelists' Vade Mecum."
_(SECURED BY LETTERS PATENT.)_

Is an entirely New and Original Invention for enabling Collectors to
Mount Stamps without handling them, and is a _multum in parvo_ of
Philatelic requisites.

It consists of a pair of broad-headed flat metal tongs, one of which
is fitted with a solid wedge. The object of this is to permit the free
end of a mount held by the tong to be bent over, moistened, applied to
the back of the stamp, and pressed down, and the mount can then be
released, the stamp lifted, the other end of the mount moistened, and
the stamp fastened thereby on the page. In the handle is inserted a
glass of high magnifying power. On one side of the middle part is a
millimètre scale (divided to half millimètres), and on the other a
two-inch scale (divided to sixteenths), both accurately marked off.
The stamp can be firmly held along either scale by the tongs. The
tongs are made of solid nickel, polished, and fit into a handsome
velvet-lined case, the size of which, when closed, is slightly less
than 6 inches long, 1-3/4 inches wide, and only 1/2 inch thick.

_PRICE, with case complete, 2/6; post-free, 2/7; abroad, 3/9._



SECOND EDITION. REVISED TO DATE.

A GLOSSARY FOR PHILATELISTS,

ENTITLED

Stamps and Stamp Collecting.

BY MAJOR E. B. EVANS.


This Work is intended to fill a void which has hitherto existed in the
Philatelist's Library. It will be found invaluable as a most useful
and indeed a standard book to refer to in all cases of doubt or
obscurity appertaining to Postage Stamps and their surroundings.

The Collector is not infrequently perplexed by the various terms
employed, and the fullest explanations are here given of such.

Much interesting information is also included as to the various
classes of and the manufacture of the paper employed, the typography,
the embossing, the perforating or rouletting, together with many
instructive and interesting details connected with the fascinating
science of Stamp collecting.

_Price 2/- in strong Paper Cover, 4/- in Gilt Cloth; post-free, 3d.
extra._

       *       *       *       *       *

A COLOUR DICTIONARY,

GIVING OVER

_Two Hundred Names of Colours used in Printing, &c._

Specially prepared for Stamp Collectors by B. W. WARHURST.

Useful for many businesses in which coloured articles are bought and
sold, and to give a more definite idea of the colours represented by
certain names in common use, which are very frequently misunderstood.

SUITABLE FOR USE IN SCHOOLS.

Printed in TEN differently coloured inks on as many different papers,
and further explained by diagram and ILLUSTRATED IN FIFTY-EIGHT
COLOURS.

_Price 2/6 in strong Paper Cover, 4/6 in Gilt Cloth; postage 3d.
extra._

       *       *       *       *       *

POCKET MAGNIFYING GLASSES.

After examining some scores of different sorts, we have been able to
get one combining the greatest power with the largest field obtainable
for pocket use. These glasses are mounted in handsome vulcanite
frames, and are very compact. There are two lenses in each, which may
be used singly, or if a very strong power is desired, may be combined.

_Price 7/6; post-free, 7/7; abroad, 8/4._

       *       *       *       *       *

SURCHARGE MEASURER.

[Illustration:]

The accompanying illustration will give the best idea of what this is.
It consists of a pair of needle-pointed spring compasses, capable, by
means of an adjusting screw, of measuring with the greatest accuracy
all surcharges up to 40 millimètres in length. In addition to the
measure a millimètre gauge is obtained by running the head of the
screw along a piece of paper, a series of lines exactly a millimètre
apart being thus indented in the paper. For measuring surcharges on
such stamps as Natal, Straits Settlements, &c., this will be found
invaluable, and also in the detection of forgeries--a forgery or
forged surcharge very seldom being _exactly_ the same size as the
original.

_Price 7/6; post-free, 7/7; abroad, 7/11._

       *       *       *       *       *



Prepared Stamp Mounts.

ACTUAL SIZE AND SHAPE.

[Illustration: No. 1. No. 2. No. 3.]


For affixing Stamps in Collections neatly and expeditiously. Far
superior to the old plan of gumming the Stamps, and inserting them so
that it is only with great difficulty they can be withdrawn. These
Mounts are made of a thin strong white paper, and are ready gummed. By
their use, Stamps can be removed at any time without injuring them, or
in any way disfiguring the Collection. They are invaluable to those
who collect watermarks. They should be used on the hinge system; thus,
Moisten the Stamp, attaching the back of it to one half of the mount,
the other half being fastened to the Album. The Stamp will then be
facing the page; but do not turn it over until perfectly dry. A
Collection with the Stamps mounted in this manner is far more
valuable, if at any time a sale is desired. Three sizes are kept in
stock: No. 2, medium size, suitable for ordinary-sized adhesives; No.
1, smaller size; No. 3, large size--for such Stamps as old Portuguese,
or for cut Envelopes. This size may also be used for Cards by using
two mounts for each card.

PRICES:

_No. 1, 2, or 3 size, 3d. per 100; 1/6 per 1,000, post-free; 5,000,
6/6; 10,000, 12/-._

_The Prepared Paper can be supplied in Large Sheets, ready Gummed, at
3d. per Sheet, post-free_.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Illustration: No. 4. No. 5. No. 6.]

NEW CHEAP MOUNTS. At the request of many clients we have prepared a
New Cheap Mount, made from a thicker paper; a gum is employed that
permits the Mount to be removed from a book or sheet without damage to
the paper, or tearing the Mount, which can thus be used several times
over, such Mounts being particularly serviceable for exchange clubs,
or for use in dealers' stock books, &c. The Mounts are put up in neat
glazed card boxes, 1,000 of a size in a box, and are sold in sets of
three sizes, viz., three boxes and 3,000 Mounts for 2/6; 9,000, price
6/6; or _separately, any size_, at 1/- per 1,000 post-free.

       *       *       *       *       *



NEW SPECIALITY.

FOR STAMP COLLECTORS.

_SPECIAL POCKET BOOKS, PURSES,_

AND

CARD CASES.

Each of the following New and Useful Specialities has separate
compartments provided for Postage Stamps, consisting of strips of thin
celluloid protecting the stamps, and enabling them to be seen at once,
and arranged so that the stamps can be put in or withdrawn in an
instant without damage.

70.--TUCK CASE FOR THE WAISTCOAT. Pocket size.                   _s. d._
3-1/2 x 2-3/8. Very thin, made in morocco leather, lined
leather of a neutral colour, with transparent pockets through
which stamps can be seen.
                                         Price 2/6; post-free,    2 7

71.--BEST MOROCCO GENTLEMAN'S CARD CASE, with usual pockets for
visiting cards, and special compartments for stamps secured by a
tuck flap fastening. (HIGHLY RECOMMENDED.)
                                         Price 4/6; post-free,    4 7

72.--BEST MOROCCO WALLET. 5-3/4 x 3-1/2 inches. Lined leather
throughout, flap and nickel lock fastening, gusset and tight
pockets for letters; special provision for stamps under
transparent pockets secured by an inner flap, and tuck fastening;
leather covered notebook. (Highly Recommended.)
                                         Price 10/-; post-free,  10 2

73.--LIMP MOROCCO LETTER CASE. Size, 6-1/4 x 4 inches. With
gusset pocket for private letters, tight pocket for foreign post
cards, and an array of transparent pockets for stamps.
                                         Price 3/6; post-free,    3 7

74.--Ditto, ditto, with a gilt-edged ruled book under an elastic.
                                         Price 4/-; post-free,    4 1

75.--BEST MOROCCO LETTER CASE, lined leather throughout, with
gusset pocket for private letters, and special pocket containing
an ingenious receptacle to hold a large assortment of stamps.
Being detachable, it can be used either with or without the outer
case.
                                         Price 5/6; post-free,    5 8

76.--BEST MOROCCO PURSE. 4 x 2-1/2 inches. Flap and nickel lock
fastening, stitched expanding pockets. The front to open out,
displaying transparent pocket for stamps, with a separate flap to
fasten. The purse can be used independently of the stamp
compartment.
                                         Price 6/6; post-free,    6 7



STANLEY GIBBONS'

New Stamp Catalogue.

_5,000 NEW AND ENLARGED ILLUSTRATIONS._

POCKET SIZE, IN TWO VOLUMES.

VOL. I. contains all

ADHESIVE STAMPS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND THE BRITISH COLONIES.

New and Enlarged Edition. Price 2/-; post-free, 2/3.

       *       *       *       *       *

VOL. II. contains the

POSTAGE STAMPS OF THE REST OF THE WORLD.

Price 2/-; post-free, 2/3.

       *       *       *       *       *

Orange River Colony, Transvaal, and Mafeking Siege Stamps are
transferred to Part I., being now English Colonies.

Particular attention has--in both volumes--been given to the
production of enlarged illustrations of many minor varieties, which
can easily be distinguished from a large print, but which are
difficult to describe.

Many important countries have been thoroughly revised and re-written.
_One hundred extra pages_ have been added to the two volumes without
any extra charge.

       *       *       *       *       *

REAL MARKET PRICES.

It is, above all things, highly important that Collectors and Dealers
should know the exact and real market values of all Stamps. This Firm
has taken the greatest pains to arrive at these prices, and the prices
quoted in these Catalogues are those at which STANLEY GIBBONS will
supply the Stamps if unsold at the time of the order.

To facilitate business in all parts of the world, an Introduction,
Details as to Approval Selections, Glossaries of Philatelic Terms,
etc., are given in English, French, German, Spanish, and Portuguese.

       *       *       *       *       *

STANLEY GIBBONS, LTD., 391, STRAND, LONDON, W.C.





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