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Title: Report of the National Library Service for the Year Ended 31 March 1958
Author: New Zealand. National Library Service
Language: English
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New Zealand Parliamentary Library and the Online Distributed


[Coat of Arms]



REPORT

OF THE

NATIONAL LIBRARY SERVICE

FOR THE YEAR ENDED

31 MARCH 1958


_Presented to the House of Representatives by Leave_


BY AUTHORITY: R. E. OWEN, GOVERNMENT PRINTER, WELLINGTON, NEW
ZEALAND--1958



CONTENTS


                                                                      PAGE

Letter of Transmission                                                  3
  Scientific, Technical, and Commercial Library Service                 3
  Regional and District Library Service                                 4
  National Library Proposal                                             5
  Book Stock                                                            5
  Request Service                                                       5
  Expenditure                                                           5

Country Library Service                                                 6
  Free Public Libraries                                                 6
  Book Van                                                              7
  Minimum Standards for Public Libraries Participating in the
    Country Library Service                                             8
  Independent Subscription Libraries                                    9
  Hamper Service                                                        9
  Lighthouse Service                                                    9
  Free Service to Ministry of Works, State Hydro-electric, and
    New Zealand Forest Service Camps and Stations                       9
  Hospital and Institutional Library Service                            9
  Loan Collections                                                     10
  Periodicals Service                                                  10

School Library Service                                                 10
  Loans to Smaller Public Libraries                                    11
  Information and Request Service                                      11
  Book List                                                            11
  Assistance to Islands Schools                                        13

Library School                                                         14

National Library Centre                                                14
  Inter-library Loan                                                   15
  Central Bureau for Library Book Imports                              15
  Libraries of Government Departments                                  16
  Book Resources Committee of the NZLA                                 16
  Union Catalogue                                                      16
  Bibliographical Section                                              16



The Hon. the MINISTER OF EDUCATION.


Wellington, 16 July 1958.

SIR,

I have the honour to submit the following report of the activities of
the National Library Service. The report covers the work of the Service
as a whole and its four divisions--Country Library Service, School
Library Service, Library School, and National Library Centre.

The functions of the Service may be summed up as the provision of such
assistance to any New Zealand library maintained directly or indirectly
from public funds as circumstances and policy permit. More specifically,
help is given by a lending service to rural, borough, and county
libraries, by the provision of books for school libraries, by advancing
professional training through the Library School, and by maintenance of
records of all library holdings of books and periodicals, as well as
other facilities and stock to aid the cooperative use of this material.

The National Library Service was formed in 1945 from the Country Library
Service by Cabinet decision with the strong support of the New Zealand
Library Association. During the war the Country Library Service had been
given responsibility for several tasks of national scope, such as the
War Library Service, the Central Bureau for Library Book Imports, the
formation of a Union Catalogue, and the operation of part of the
inter-library loan scheme.

The Country Library Service, which began in 1938, has maintained
its van services to rural areas and has been brought into closer
contact with its districts by decentralisation to three district
offices--Christchurch in 1944, Palmerston North in 1948, and Hamilton
in 1953.

The number of free libraries regularly receiving service has grown to
112. Special assistance in a number of cases has been given to libraries
serving a population of up to 50,000 operating a free and rental
service. The assistance given to the Gisborne and Wanganui Public
Libraries has continued. New Plymouth Public Library which changed to
free service in November 1957, and Palmerston North Public Library,
which is expanding its service, have also received assistance. The
fundamental principle of encouraging full local responsibility for
adequate rate-supported libraries has continued.

The School Library Service has continued to bring a wide range and
variety of books to school children, the rate of issue now exceeding one
million copies annually. Distribution is effected through 15 centres.

During the year this Service received three valuable sets of books
chosen to represent all phases of American life and thought. The
Carnegie Corporation of New York made these sets available to some 26
libraries in New Zealand.

_Scientific, Technical, and Commercial Library Service_--A
recommendation has been made by the New Zealand Library Association that
impetus be given to scientific and technical library service, chiefly
through public libraries. At a time when increasing reliance is being
placed on the efficiency of our secondary industry the necessity of
providing the fullest technical information to aid manufacturers will be
apparent. Authority was obtained 12 years ago to establish such a
service but it was not then possible to obtain qualified persons to
begin it. It is hoped that conditions will permit a senior appointment
during the present financial year to inaugurate the service.

_Regional and District Library Service_--Study has continued on the
problems of ensuring an efficient and soundly based library service for
New Zealand's whole population. The problems facing a local authority
overseas with a population of 2,000,000 within a radius of a few miles
are minor ones compared with those facing New Zealand library
authorities, where the secondary cities are small, where the pattern of
local government is uneven, and where the population as a whole has a
high standard of education and is avid for books. Costs in New Zealand,
per head of population, are bound to be relatively high; vigilance is
necessary to ensure that they are no higher than they need be.

It has been apparent that cooperation between local authorities will be
the major factor in making economies on a national scale. A note of the
work of the Working Party on Library Cooperation of 27-28 August 1956
appeared in last year's annual report, and it was recorded that the
Minister of Education, at the request of the New Zealand Library
Association, had authorised payment of travelling expenses for its
Committee on Regional Planning to enable its work to be carried out.

The committee worked during the year and met in Wellington for two
full-day sessions on 6 and 7 June 1957 for consideration of the
"establishment of regional and district library services as the best
method of providing a more effective library service for the whole
country". Its report was made to the New Zealand Library Association.
After consideration by the executive of the Local Authorities Section,
some amendments were made and the report published by the Association as
_Co-operation: A New Phase_. Fifteen hundred copies were printed and
were circulated to all local authorities for discussion.

The report states:

"1. The main problems facing public libraries are:

     (i) The unfair distribution over the whole community of the costs
         of library service.

     (ii) The continuing growth of the cost of municipal government to
          the point where it has become an embarrassment to the cities
          and boroughs concerned.

     (iii) The failure of some local authorities to provide for library
           services."

"8. The basic factor in improving library services will be cooperation
among local authorities. Such cooperation should be the condition of
increased Government assistance."

"10. Government assistance to such federations should take the form of
cash subsidies on all expenditure approved for subsidy by the
federation, and by the Minister (or National Library Board)."

This report formed the main topic of discussion at the New Zealand
Library Association conference in Invercargill in February 1958. The
Association approached the Government for favourable consideration of
the proposals contained in the report on 11 April 1958.

In the meantime the work of the Royal Commission on Local Government
Finance is being followed carefully, as its findings will have
considerable bearing on the problem of library finance.

An effort is also being made to foster among local authorities the
willingness to cooperate, but progress in this field is slow.

_National Library Proposal_--The report of the Working Party of the
Public Service Commission on the National Library proposal was earlier
considered by the Government, which had approved it in principle. The
House of Representatives last year approved the terms of reference of a
Select Committee to be appointed to make recommendations for "ways and
means of carrying out the decision of the Government to establish a
National Library" and to consider various other associated matters. The
decision to appoint such a Committee was reaffirmed in February 1958,
the Committee was named shortly afterwards and has since met on several
occasions. Independently of any solution of the accommodation problems
of the Service which such a move might bring, the proposal merits the
most careful consideration.

_Book Stock_--During the year, 19,283 fiction and 35,573 non-fiction
were added to stock, a total of 54,856. Of these, 10,442 separate titles
of non-fiction and 205 fiction titles were added to the headquarters
collection, which now contains approximately 135,000 titles together
with 11,000 volumes of periodicals; 15,305 volumes were
withdrawn--12,134 fiction and 3,171 non-fiction--making the net
additions 39,551. The total of headquarters and Country Library Service
stock now amounts to 652,308, comprising 176,600 fiction and 475,708
non-fiction. As at 31 March 1958 the stock of the School Library Service
was 1,091,189 the grand total of stock in the Service as a whole being
1,743,497.

_Request Service_--All libraries and groups receiving library service
from the Country Library Service and all Government Departments may ask
for special short-term loans of books of an informational type from the
headquarters stock of this Service and, in addition, the headquarters
stock is used extensively to satisfy inter-library loan requests. (See
also the report of the Librarian, National Library Centre.)

                   BOOKS REQUESTED AND SUPPLIED
                                      Year Ended 31 March     Increase
                                         1957      1958       Per Cent

To Country Library Service libraries    55,782    61,870        10.9
To Government Department libraries       6,423     6,998         8.9
To interloan libraries                   8,051     8,801         9.3

     Total issues                       70,256    77,669        10.6

During the year, 26,047 requests (an increase of 9.2 per cent) were
referred to Wellington. Of the total issues, 4,975 were books belonging
to other libraries throughout New Zealand, whose willing cooperation is
gratefully acknowledged.

_Expenditure_--Expenditure under Subdivision XII, vote "Education", for
the year was £264,956. This figure includes £94,544 for the purchase of
books, of which £45,357 was for books and periodicals on behalf of
Government Departments. The expenditure on behalf of Departments
represents 12,146 books and standing orders for approximately 11,000
serial publications.

Expenditure under Subdivision III for the purchase of books by the
School Library Service was £50,580.

G. T. ALLEY, Director.



SECTION I--COUNTRY LIBRARY SERVICE


On 31 March 1958, 989 towns and small centres were receiving regular
loans of books, an increase of 32 centres over the previous year. In
addition, 54 Ministry of Works, State Hydro-electric, and New Zealand
Forest Service camps and stations were given library service. Books are
also on loan to six places in the Chatham Islands, and to Niue,
Rarotonga, and Pitcairn Island. Free loans of books on a population
basis are given to mental hospitals and prisons situated both in country
and urban districts.

Books, periodicals, and information are available to country people in
the following ways:

(a) Free loans of books on a population basis to libraries controlled by
    the local authorities, which in turn agree to make their libraries
    free and to maintain reasonable standards of library service.

(b) Loans of books to independent subscription public libraries at a
    small annual charge per fifty books loaned.

(c) Loans of books through hamper collections to isolated groups of
    readers at a small annual charge.

(d) Free loans of books to lighthouse keepers and similar very remote
    readers.

(e) Free loans of books on a population basis to Ministry of Works,
    State Hydro-electric, and New Zealand Forest Service camps.

All libraries served under (a) and (b) and the majority under (c)
receive regular visits from one of the especially equipped book vans of
this Service; at least three visits being paid to each library during a
normal year. In addition, all persons, by whichever of the above means
they receive library service, may obtain loans of requested books by
post.


FREE PUBLIC LIBRARIES: "A" SERVICE

On 31 March 1958 there were participating in the service 107 libraries
controlled by the following local authorities:

Administrative counties           5
Borough councils                 94
Independent town districts        6
Dependent town districts          2

In addition, the following counties contribute to the funds of a public
library supplying a free service to county residents:

County              Public Library
-----------         --------------
Eltham              Eltham
Patea               Waverley
Wairoa              Wairoa
Golden Bay          Takaka
Lake                Queenstown

These libraries served an estimated local population of 437,000, with a
considerable number in surrounding areas. Besides the many requested
books and periodicals 91,954 books are on regular loan to them.

By arrangement with the Waitemata, Patangata, Egmont, and Rangitikei
County Councils the public libraries at Titirangi, Otane, Opunake, and
Bulls respectively receive a free service.

Library buildings continue to improve. During the year new libraries
were opened in Geraldine, Greymouth, New Lynn, and Morrinsville, and new
buildings are planned in several other centres. This Service continues
to assist in making available material on good overseas practice and New
Zealand achievement. Assistance is also given in the design of the
interiors of libraries and in specifications for equipment.

The best results are achieved when a local authority and the librarian
prepare a written building programme, specifying the functions of the
library, the various areas to be provided, the relationship between
each, the number of books, readers, and librarians to be accommodated,
and the equipment to be housed for efficient service. Such a document
gives a clear directive to the architect, but at the same time allows
him complete freedom of expression in designing the building.

The shortage of trained librarians continues. Three students from the
1957 Library School professional course accepted positions in public
libraries serving centres of under 20,000 population, but they were all
replacements for qualified librarians who had taken library work in
other fields, so there was no net gain. There was at least one public
library in a small town unable to fill its vacancy for a qualified
librarian.

The short course for librarians from smaller centres, held at the
Library School from 12 to 30 August 1957, was of great value to the
participating librarians. The demand for training is very great and,
with such eagerness to learn, the training given is immediately
effective.

Cooperation between libraries participating in the Country Library
Service has been developing slowly. A little more interest has been
shown in the cooperative book-buying scheme fostered by this Service.
There are now 22 libraries taking part. Libraries working together in
this way for the first time this year are Blenheim, Cambridge, Kaikoura,
Morrinsville, Picton, Putaruru, and Te Kuiti.

Assistance in staffing was given to the public libraries at Morrinsville
and Picton for reorganisation and extension of local services. Field
librarians continue to advise and assist on their regular visits.

A collection of 300 books was lent to the New Zealand IGY party at Scott
Base, Ross Dependency, as had been done in the case of the New Zealand
Antarctic Expedition a year earlier.

During the year ministerial approval was given for provision of a
full-time librarian and complete service to be granted to the library at
the new Benmore camp, subject to the Ministry of Works providing a
satisfactory building.

_Book Van_--During the year one of three book vans operating in the
South Island was replaced. Using experience gained in recent
replacements in the North Island the new van is constructed of aluminium
alloy on a four-ton, long-wheel-base chassis. Particular care was taken
in providing good sealing against dust and water, adequate natural
lighting, and the best possible insulation.

Excellent insulation is achieved by a thick layer of expanded
polystyrene on all sides, roof, and floor. Very efficient lighting
without excessive heat problems has been provided by the installation of
two large roof lights of double glazed, toughened, anti-sun polished
plate, the upper light being held an inch above the roof line with a
free flow of air between the panes. This form of construction has
contributed to the good handling qualities of the van. Approximately
2,000 books are carried.

_Minimum Standards for Public Libraries Participating in the Country
Library Service_--Overseas, most national and State organisations
consider it their responsibility to publish statements of standard
library practice, and codes for its evaluation. The most important
statement is _Public Library Service: A Guide to Evaluation, with
Minimum Standards_, which was approved by the Council of the American
Library Association and published by the Association in Chicago in 1956.

In 1952 the New Zealand Library Association Standards Research Committee
prepared its "Basic Standards for New Zealand Libraries, 1952", which
was published in _New Zealand Libraries 15_:121-131; 145-150, Jl-Ag, S
'52. This was based on the survey attempted by the visiting American
librarian, Miss Miriam Tompkins, in 1950, but was not a formal
pronouncement of the Association.

For the Country Library Service the problem has been present since 1938.
Assistance to local authorities has been given on three conditions,
approved by the Minister of Education at the inception of the Service.
The third of these conditions is that the "local authority should
maintain the library at a reasonable standard of service".

Country Library Service assistance to libraries has always been planned
as service to assist local effort, not to supplant it. Where the local
service does not reach a certain standard a certain proportion of the
Country Library Service assistance loses its force. No matter how much
the assistance is increased the local people cannot benefit fully from
it unless the local authority houses it in a fair building, grafts it on
to a reasonable local book collection, and has the whole serviced by an
active and informed librarian. Continuity of good service is assured
only when the basic objectives of library service are enunciated and
clearly understood by the local authority.

Local authorities have not abused the flexible interpretation given to
the "reasonable standard of service" condition, but have appreciated the
fact that the Country Library Service always took into consideration any
local difficulties that existed. Libraries generously supported by their
local authorities without exception have made full use of all the
services the Government has offered, and the local people have benefited
from a first-class library service in its fullest cultural and
educational sense.

Local provision has naturally varied, but since 1950 the pattern of
local achievement has become more apparent, and the possibility was seen
of drawing up some code for evaluation. Local authorities participating
in this service were consulted and agreed to provide statistical notes
on their own work. These data formed the basis of a draft statement
which set out standards under headings of functions, service, staff,
books, and buildings, and which was sent to local authorities for
comment. It was gratifying to receive replies from so many, saying that
they would consider such a statement quite fair and reasonable.
Accordingly, the "Minimum Standards for Public Libraries Participating
in the Country Library Service" was approved by the Minister of
Education on 22 April 1958 and issued formally.

The document emphasises that it gives standards for minimum provision,
and that local authorities aiming to give good service will not be
satisfied until they are exceeded. That they are exceeded in several
centres is a matter for congratulation, and the local authorities
concerned have reason to be proud of their libraries, and are in every
case anxious to maintain their good record.


SMALL INDEPENDENT SUBSCRIPTION LIBRARIES: "B" SERVICE

During the year, 832 of these libraries were linked with this Service,
compared with 801 for the previous year. Of these libraries, 253 are
served from Hamilton, 191 from Palmerston North, and 388 from
Christchurch.

Altogether 75,997 books were on loan to the 832 libraries, an average of
over 91 books per library. Over the past 10 years the average for each
library has increased from 79 books, or 15 per cent, thus demonstrating
the increasing interest that country readers are taking in the type of
books supplied by this Service. The figures shown as basic issues do not
include the thousands of books loaned to these libraries on short term
through the "request service".


"C" OR HAMPER SERVICE

In places where no library exists and where it is not possible for one
to be formed and visited by a book van, a service to properly
established groups by means of hampers is provided. During the year 45
of these groups received service, there being 3,325 books on regular
loan to them. The hamper service is also extended to six places in the
Chatham Islands and to Pitcairn Island.


LIGHTHOUSE SERVICE

The postal service has been continued to lighthouse keepers, fire
lookouts in State Forests, and a few very remote readers in coastal
islands. During the year a total of 1,851 books was issued, mostly by a
hamper service.


FREE SERVICE TO MINISTRY OF WORKS, STATE HYDRO-ELECTRIC, AND NEW ZEALAND
FOREST SERVICE CAMPS AND STATIONS

During the year 54 camps or stations received visits from the book van,
in addition to one receiving hamper service from the Christchurch
office. Altogether 7,691 books are on loan to such places.


HOSPITAL AND INSTITUTIONAL SERVICE

Visits have continued from the book vans to 12 general hospitals with an
exchange of 1,405 books. Twelve mental hospitals received 3,910 books
and 13 prisons 3,125 books. During the year assistance has been given to
the Department of Justice in book and periodical selection.

Difficulties occur from time to time in connection with the service to
prisons and mental hospitals. They arise from the lack of supervision of
these libraries by trained library staff. Officers engaged in other
duties are not in a position to organise the full service which would be
of such benefit to patients and prisoners.

From the special TB collection 1,620 books were exchanged at
four-monthly intervals for 15 sanatoria and tuberculosis wards of public
hospitals. Three hundred and thirteen books were sent on request (250
non-fiction and 63 fiction). Sixty-four requests could not be fulfilled
as the required books were not available through the stock or through
purchase, and the resources of other collections are not used for these
borrowers.


LOAN COLLECTIONS

Collections of books, pamphlets, and periodicals to illustrate
particular subjects are available for short periods not only to
affiliated libraries but also to university and the larger public
libraries.


USE OF LOAN COLLECTIONS

                              Year ended 31 March
                                 1957      1958

Number of collections sent        628       640
Number of books included       26,667    26,645


PERIODICALS SERVICE

A total of 1,127 titles is now taken by the Wellington office, of which
821 copies are circulated regularly to Government Department libraries.
Four hundred and eighty copies are sent direct from the publishers to
the Country Library Service offices in Hamilton, Palmerston North, and
Christchurch, and are sent out regularly to 93 affiliated libraries. In
addition, the periodicals held in Wellington are available on short-term
loan to public and other libraries which are interested in them.



SECTION II--SCHOOL LIBRARY SERVICE


In 1941 the Minister of Education approved the establishment of a New
Zealand School Library Service, the purchasing of books to be financed
from the augmented item "School and Class Libraries" in the vote
"Education", the administration being undertaken by the Country Library
Service, as it then was. This new service was to provide not school text
books, but a wide and varied choice of books of high imaginative quality
or technical excellence, suitable for children at all levels of ability
and stages of development. The smaller and more remote country schools
were to be given priority. Books were to be freely available for reading
at home.

The provision of supplies of books which circulate among schools goes
some way towards setting free the money for library books, available to
schools by way of annual capitation grant and from local contribution,
which is eligible for subsidy. These funds may then be used to build at
each school (a) a collection of such basic reference books as are needed
always at hand; (b) reading material for the preparatory classes; (c)
books of purely local interest; (d) other books which it is desired to
have permanently.

By cooperation between the Education Board and the Dunedin City Council
considerable progress had been made in service to schools in Otago since
1938. Vigorous exploitation of a book stock selected in terms of
children's interests followed the most enlightened overseas practice,
linking skilfully the activities of home, school, and public library, as
well as introducing to this country books not previously known here.

Beginning in Canterbury in March 1942 by incorporating the Travelling
Library for Rural Schools, the School Library Service has developed
until, today, exchanges of books are sent to 2,490 schools with a total
roll (excluding primers) of 298,317. These figures do not include those
for post-primary schools, which make use of the information and request
service only.

Services available to schools and to the smaller public libraries can be
broadly defined as general exchanges of books, information and request
service, provision of book lists, and advice on library planning.

General exchanges of books, changed regularly, are sent to all primary,
intermediate, and district high schools and the primary departments of
registered private schools which join the service, for the use of pupils
in Standard 1 and upwards. These books are intended mainly for
recreational reading, both at home and at school. The number sent in
each exchange is based on the school roll, exclusive of primer classes,
on a scale of not fewer than one per child, while for small schools it
is usually possible to increase this to two or three books per child.
Exchanges are made at least once a year, with further exchanges during
the year for smaller schools to the extent that books and staff make
possible. Where satisfactory arrangements for storage and adequate use
can be made, exchanges of suitable books are also sent to the smaller
public libraries which provide free service in their children's and
young adults' sections. The number of books sent is based on the
population of the area controlled by the local authority. Post-primary
schools depending, as they do, mainly on their own libraries, do not
receive exchanges of books but participate with the other schools in the
information and request and other services available. The post-primary
departments of district high schools are eligible for all services,
including exchanges.

The information and request service, available to all schools which have
joined the service, supplies to both children and teachers, on
short-term loan, books and other material to meet individual needs not
satisfied by the general exchanges. The particular aim is to meet
requests for children's books and books for school purposes. Schools
have been urged to make the fullest use of this service which helps to
ensure that the right book reaches the child who needs it, for classroom
activity or any other worth-while purpose. Material for the personal or
study needs of teachers cannot usually be supplied by the School Library
Service; such requests can, however, be handed to the nearest public
library or "B" library group linked with the Country Library Service.
When schools are establishing new libraries extra help by way of special
collections or indefinite loans is given. All public libraries and
groups receiving library service from the Country Library Service may
use the information and request service. During the year 328,482 books
were sent out in response to requests.

The preparation of book lists, which have proved of value to schools and
public libraries has been continued this year. The supplements to
_Junior Fiction_ and _Non-Fiction for Primary Schools_ are annotated
lists of the better, recently published children's books, other than
those appearing in countries with which there are currency difficulties;
these supplements are distributed twice a year to schools and public
libraries which ask to be placed on a mailing list. "For the
Post-primary Library", a series of annotated lists of current titles,
has been appearing regularly in the _Education Gazette_ since 16 July
1951. Public libraries and larger post-primary schools will find further
suggestions in the cyclostyled series "Books for Young Adults" which
appears at intervals; it includes books for recreational reading and
gives special consideration to suitable adult titles. Other lists are
prepared for publication as the need arises. A bibliography of material
published by the Service from its inception in 1942 appeared in the
annual report for the year ended 31 March 1956. Since that date the
following items have been added:

     Books for young adults: List 5, October 1956; List 6, June 1957;
     List 7, November 1957.

     Books for young people, 1957.

     Interim list of subject headings for New Zealand school libraries,
     o.p.

     Junior fiction.

     Supplements: April 1956 to September 1956; October 1956 to March
     1957; April 1957 to September 1957.

     Non-fiction for primary schools. (Supplements have title, _Junior
     Non-fiction_.)

     Supplements: April 1956 to September 1956; October 1956 to March
     1957; April 1957 to September 1957.

     Quick-reference books for high-school libraries, 1956.

     Sets of books for French classes, August 1956.

In addition to this published material, buying and reading lists are
constantly being prepared to meet the special needs of individual
schools, public libraries, and groups concerned with the reading of
children and adolescents.

Assistance is given to schools planning new libraries or reorganising
existing libraries. The visiting of schools to give help where needed
and to discuss the use of books is still limited by staff shortages.

Except for small parcels which are sent by post, books are distributed
in hampers or cartons by rail or road transport from 15 centres--North
Island: Whangarei and Hastings public libraries; offices of the Country
Library Service in Hamilton and Palmerston North and of the School
Library Service in Auckland, Napier, New Plymouth, Wanganui, and
Wellington. South Island: Greymouth, Timaru, Dunedin, and Invercargill
public libraries; the office of the Country Library Service in
Christchurch and of the School Library Service in Nelson. Schools are
usually served by the nearest School Library Service office.

The headquarters office at Wellington is responsible for the
coordination of the service, for the selection, ordering, classifying,
and cataloguing of new books and their dispatch to district offices, the
maintenance of a comprehensive collection of children's and young
people's books used to meet requests which cannot be supplied from local
offices, and the distribution of books to schools and public libraries
in or near Wellington city and the Hutt Valley. To enable children at
smaller country schools to see and to choose for themselves from a wide
range of books, the possibilities of service by book van are being
considered.

Since its establishment schools joining the service have paid a
subscription at the rate of 1s. per pupil (Standard 1 and upwards) for
each of the first two years. Ministerial authority was given during the
year to discontinue this levy.

Schools borrowing books are asked to accept responsibility for (a)
safe-keeping of books while on loan to the school, including books
issued to members of staff for school use; (b) return of books when due;
(c) payment for books lost or damaged beyond fair wear and tear; (d)
payment of freight and postal charges from school to School Library
Service office.

Books are made available to special institutions controlled by the
Education Department. Primary pupils of the Correspondence School are
provided with individual postal service from district offices. Child
welfare institutions, training centres, health camps, and other special
groups are given service according to their needs. Teachers' training
colleges, young people's groups, kindergartens, and nursery play centre
supervisors are also helped. Visits to School Library Service offices by
teachers in training are arranged wherever possible.

Assistance to several Pacific Island schools has been continued from the
Auckland office by means of extended loans. Under this system the
schools receive an original bulk loan which they check annually,
reporting losses and returning damaged and worn books for replacement,
wherever possible, by new titles, so that loans will not degenerate into
collections of old books. The schools concerned were listed in last
year's annual report. The desirability of extension of this service is
constantly in review.

During the year members of the staff acted as librarians at the usual
teachers' refresher courses. Appropriate collections of books always
create considerable interest. Discussions at these courses have been
helpful in the selection of books and have brought about an increased
awareness of the uses of books in a wide range of schools.

Below are tables showing details of the School Library Service as at 31
March 1958. The figures for the number of "schools" and "pupils" include
those for primary schools and post-primary departments of district high
schools but do not include those for other post-primary schools as these
do not receive general exchanges of books. (Figures in parentheses are
for the previous year.)

                                            Schools         Pupils
                                           Receiving      (Standard 1
                                           Exchanges      and upwards)

Education Board schools                 2,004 (1,973)   252,469 (241,148)
Departmental schools and institutions     211   (216)    13,996  (14,270)
Private schools                           275   (260)    31,852  (28,175)

      Totals                            2,490 (2,449)   298,317 (283,593)


                                               Year Ended 31 March
      Books Supplied                              1958       1957
In exchanges to--
  All schools, Standard 1 to Form II            676,637    648,816
  District high schools, Form III to Form VI     34,452     32,439
  Public libraries, children's departments       34,639     30,926
  Public libraries, young people's sections      22,724     22,307

      Total for exchanges                       768,452    734,488

On request and in loan collections, including
indefinite loans--
  Primary                                       263,374    244,175
  Post-primary                                   72,956     78,358

      Totals                                  1,104,782  1,057,021

_Book Stock_--Additions to stock were 70,228 fiction and 48,789
non-fiction. Withdrawals were 47,645 fiction and 11,834 non-fiction. The
stock now stands at 1,091,189, of which 656,911 are fiction and 434,278
are non-fiction. One thousand four hundred and sixty-nine new titles
were added during the year.



SECTION III--LIBRARY SCHOOL


1957 PROFESSIONAL COURSE

At the end of November nine diplomas and five certificates were awarded
to 14 students who completed the course. For health reasons one student
accepted under the Colombo Plan returned to his own country at the end
of the first term. Of the successful students two returned to the
libraries in which they had been employed before attending the school,
three were appointed librarians of smaller public libraries, four joined
the staffs of city public libraries, two are now members of the School
Library Service staff, and one the librarian of the Central Military
District. The two holders of UNESCO Fellowships are consolidating their
training by carrying out practical work in the Delhi Public Library for
three months.

1958 PROFESSIONAL COURSE

This course began on 4 March with 17 New Zealand students and the three
Indonesian students who have been working in libraries in New Zealand
since February 1957.

Four students have a master's and nine a bachelor's degree in arts, one
a bachelor's degree in music, and two are holders of the New Zealand
Library Association's Certificate.

NEW ZEALAND LIBRARY ASSOCIATION TRAINING COURSE

Part II of this course was held at the Library School from 14 January to
15 February. Twenty-two students attended and all were recommended for
the award of the Association's certificate.

1957 SHORT COURSE

A short course for librarians and library assistants mainly from smaller
public libraries was held from 12 to 31 August. There were 21 students
from the following public libraries: Birkenhead, Blenheim, Dargaville,
Devonport, Hawera, Howick, Huntly, Inglewood, Kaiapoi, Kaikohe, Kaitaia,
Martinborough, Mataura, Nelson Institute, Otaki, Palmerston, Rangiora,
Taumarunui, Upper Hutt, Waiuku, Warkworth, and a field librarian from
the Country Library Service, Hamilton.

In addition to lectures and practical exercises, several hours were set
aside for the informal discussion of problems and special questions
raised by the students. Senior members of National Library Service
headquarters joined the staff of the school in these discussions.

Limits imposed by the size of the school made it necessary to defer
acceptance of some students eligible for this course.

A short course on similar lines will be offered again in August this
year to librarians or library assistants of small public libraries who
are not able to take advantage of other means of training.

As in previous years we wish to acknowledge the valuable contribution
made to these courses by visiting lecturers and the libraries which lend
us books.



SECTION IV--NATIONAL LIBRARY CENTRE


The National Library Centre, in addition to acting as the division
responsible for the headquarters work of the Service, has continued to
promote the cooperative use of library resources. Staff at headquarters
are still working under very difficult conditions and there is a
continuing and pressing need both for administrative working space and
adequate housing for the book collections.

_Inter-library Loan_--All inter-library loan requests for books and
periodicals the location of which is not known are sent to the National
Centre. Items which are not found in the Union Catalogue of non-fiction
books, the _Union List of Serials_, or other bibliographical sources are
listed in the weekly publication _Book Resources_, which is sent to 39
libraries for checking.

                                              1956-57          1957-58
                                          Number     %     Number      %

Interloan cards received                  7,197  100.0     7,640   100.0
Supplied from National Library Service    4,312   59.9     4,411    57.7
Supplied from other Wellington libraries    171    2.4       139     1.8
Supplied from Union Catalogue records       949   13.2     1,055    13.8
Supplied from _Union List of Serials_       101    1.4       173     2.3
Not supplied for various reasons            641    8.9       664     8.7
Listed on _Book Resources_                1,023   14.2     1,198    15.7

Four hundred and seventy-five titles not found in any library were
ordered for national stock.

The number of requests received by the centre represents probably less
than half the total volume of traffic among New Zealand libraries, the
proportion of direct interloan being higher in the special and
university libraries. Interloan was devised and introduced among
libraries by the New Zealand Library Association and in its operation
the responsibility of the National Library Service is not merely to act
as a clearing house but to provide all the material it reasonably can to
make the system effective. Other libraries participate reciprocally, or
lend so that they may the more freely borrow. The contribution, as has
always been expected, is a varying one and one or two libraries may
consider that they have a substantial and unrealisable credit balance in
their favour. The point beyond which certain libraries may feel they
cannot go in the common interest has not so far been determined
administratively but it may be necessary to consider this. If so, it is
better that it be done quantitatively on the basis of a common library
policy rather than that the present procedure should become an
embarrassment or be administered capriciously or conservatively.

_Central Bureau for Library Book Imports_--After the introduction of
import control in January the Government approved that the facilities of
the bureau should be extended to meet the situation and assure libraries
of their essential supplies. The bureau was set up in 1940 as a
responsibility of the Country Library Service as a result of discussions
between the Government and the Library Association. Because libraries
undertook to avoid unnecessary duplication and develop cooperative ways
of recording and using their holdings, the 50 per cent cut in book
imports made in 1939 was restored and the necessary machinery
established to safeguard the country's supply of essential publications.

The situation now is that recommendations for licences are made to the
Comptroller of Customs in two categories: firstly, block licence in
annual or six-monthly lots to cover a full licensing period, on behalf
of public libraries serving a population of 20,000 and over, university
libraries, and a few special libraries; secondly, individual
recommendations on behalf of smaller libraries which are made on the
basis of orders sent in when making application. Book-sellers are
expected to give libraries a proportionate share of their 1956
transactions on which their current licence would be computed.

Block licence recommendations, normally made at the end of the year--and
for some years only for anticipated imports from scheduled countries,
chiefly the dollar area--were held over until the present calendar year
and statistically will be included in the figures for the 1958 licensing
period.

_Libraries of Government Departments_--A total of £45,357 was spent on
behalf of Government Departments financed from the Consolidated Fund and
purchasing through the National Library Service. Of this total, £25,344
was for standing orders, chiefly periodical subscriptions. The value,
nationally, of a range of periodicals wider than that which is now
received by all the libraries would scarcely be disputed, but the degree
of duplication between and particularly within Departments continues to
cause concern.

_Book Resources Committee of the New Zealand Library Association_--The
Book Resources Committee of which the Librarian, National Centre, is
Secretary, has continued to act as the national planning and advisory
body in the cooperative acquisition, recording, and use of publications.
In June and July of this year Dr K. D. Metcalf, Librarian Emeritus of
Harvard, at the joint invitation of the United States Educational
Foundation in New Zealand and the New Zealand Government, will visit New
Zealand. Dr Metcalf will visit the main centres and will have
discussions with the committee and the Government on policy matters.

_Union Catalogue_--During the year 26,033 new titles were added
including 2,928 from the microfilmed record of library catalogues. The
catalogue now includes over 400,000 entries.


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL SECTION

_Union List of Serials_--The typing and printing of the sixth
(cumulative) supplement to the _Union List of Serials_ has commenced and
publication is anticipated early in 1959.

_Index to New Zealand Periodicals_--The 1956 issue of the index, the
first for which the National Library Service has accepted the
responsibility of publication, was printed by photo-offset and
distributed. The 1957 issue is being prepared in the same way. The
possibility of simplifying production by printing direct from the typed
cards is being explored.

_General_--Printed catalogue cards for 247 New Zealand books and
pamphlets were issued during the year. Work on the national
bibliography, from 1890 to 1950, has continued and it is hoped to
commence the typing of a preliminary check list of holdings at the end
of the year.


BY AUTHORITY:
R. E. OWEN, GOVERNMENT PRINTER, WELLINGTON, NEW ZEALAND--1958
_Price 1 s._                          96098-58 G





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