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Title: Northern Nut Growers Association Report of the Proceedings at the 41st Annual Meeting - Pleasant Valley, New York, August 28, 29 and 30, 1950
Author: Northern Nut Growers Association [Editor]
Language: English
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+------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|DISCLAIMER                                                              |
|                                                                        |
|The articles published in the Annual Reports of the Northern Nut Growers|
|Association are the findings and thoughts solely of the authors and are |
|not to be construed as an endorsement by the Northern Nut Growers       |
|Association, its board of directors, or its members. No endorsement is  |
|intended for products mentioned, nor is criticism meant for products not|
|mentioned. The laws and recommendations for pesticide application may   |
|have changed since the articles were written. It is always the pesticide|
|applicator's responsibility, by law, to read and follow all current     |
|label directions for the specific pesticide being used. The discussion  |
|of specific nut tree cultivars and of specific techniques to grow nut   |
|trees that might have been successful in one area and at a particular   |
|time is not a guarantee that similar results will occur elsewhere.      |
+------------------------------------------------------------------------+



Northern Nut Growers Association

Incorporated

Affiliated with the American Horticultural Society

41st ANNUAL REPORT


Annual Meeting at

PLEASANT VALLEY, NEW YORK

August 28, 29 and 30, 1950



TABLE OF CONTENTS


   _Cross-pollinating Chestnut Trees_                               3

   Officers and Committees, 1950-51                                 6

   State and Foreign Vice-Presidents                                7

   Attendance at the 1950 Meeting                                   8

   Constitution                                                     11

   By-Laws                                                          12

   Proceedings of the Forty-first Annual Meeting. Starting on       15

   Secretary's Report--J. C. McDaniel                               15

   Treasurer's Report--Sterling A. Smith                            16

   Report of Publications--Lewis E. Theiss                          18

   Discussion of Time and Place of Meeting                          19

   Report of Nominating Committee                                   20

   President's Address--Mildred Jones Langdoc                       22

   Association Sends Greetings to Dr. Deming                        24

   Talk by the Oldest Member---George Hebden Corsan                 25

   The 1949 Persian Walnut Contest with Notes
   from Persian Walnut Growers--Spencer B. Chase                    27

   Plans for the 1950 Carpathian Walnut Contest--Spencer B. Chase   30

   Carpathian Scions for Testing                                    32

   The Persian Walnut in Pennsylvania and Ohio--L.
   Walter Sherman                                                   34

   Notes on Persian Walnuts in England--Sargent Wellman             40

   Prospects for Persian Walnuts in the Vicinity of
   St. Paul, Minn.--Carl Weschcke                                   43

   Discussion on Persian Walnut Climatic Adaptation                 46

   Grafted Black and Persian Walnuts in Michigan--Gilbert Becker    48

   The Carpathian Walnut in Indiana--W. B. Ward                     51

   Notes on Nut Growing in New Hampshire--Matthew Lahti             55

   Is the Farmer Missing Something?--John Davidson                  56

   How to Lose Money in Manufacturing
   Filbert Nut Butter--Carl Weschcke                                60

   Filberts, Walnuts and Chestnuts on the
   Niagara Peninsula--Elton E. Papple                               63

   Nut Varieties: A Round Table Discussion--H.
   L. Crane, Chairman                                               66


   SECOND DAY'S SESSION

   Discussion on the Bunch Disease of Walnuts                       89

   The Japanese Beetle and Nut Growing--J. A. Adams                 92

   Insecticides for Nut Insects--E. H. Siegler                     100

   _Nut Insects and Injuries_                        103, 105, and 107

   Observations of Effects of Low Temperatures in the Winter
   1949-1950 on Walnuts and Filberts in Oregon and
   Washington--John H. Painter                                     109

   Effects of the Winter of 1949-1950 on Nut Trees in
   British Columbia--J. U. Gellatly                                 113

   Recipes--J. U. Gellatly                                          116

   Description of Filazel Varieties--J. U. Gellatly                 116

   Experiments with Tree Hazels and Chestnuts--J. U. Gellatly       118

   Our Experience with Hickory Nut Varieties--Gilbert L. Smith      120

   How About the Butternut?--L. H. MacDaniels                       125

   Progress in Nut Culture at the Pennsylvania State College--W. S.
   Clarke, Jr.                                                      132

   Nut Tree Culture in Missouri--T. J. Talbert                      134

   Chestnut Breeding: Report for 1950--Arthur Harmount Graves       145

   A Method for Maintaining Blight--Susceptible Chestnut Trees--Arthur
   Harmount Graves                                                  149

   Experiences with Chestnuts in Nursery and Orchard in
   Western New York--George Salzer                                  152

   Chestnuts in Upper Dutchess County, New York--Alfred Szego       154

   Demonstration of Method of Propagating Nut Trees
   in Greenhouse--Stephen Bernath                                   156

   Experiences in Nut Growing Near Lake Erie--Ross Pier Wright      165

   Discussion of Mulches                                            168

   Nominating Committee Elected                                     170

   Resolutions                                                      171

   Report of Auditing Committee                                     172

   Election of 1950-51 Officers                                     173

   Note on the Annual Tour, August 30, 1950                         175

   Obituaries                                                       176

   Letters                                                          177

   List of Members, etc.                                            184



Officers of the Association

1951


~President~--William M. Rohrbacher, M.D., 811 E. College, Iowa City, Iowa

~Vice-President~--Dr. L. H. MacDaniels, Cornell University, Ithaca, New
York

~Treasurer~--Sterling A. Smith, 630 W. South St., Vermilion, Ohio

~Secretary~--J. C. McDaniel, Dept. of Horticulture, U. of I., Urbana,
Illinois

~Additional Directors~--Mildred Jones Langdoc (Ill.) and H. F. Stoke (Va.)

~Nominating Committee~--Dr. H. L. Crane, (Chairman) Plant Industry
Station, Beltsville, Maryland; Spencer B. Chase, Norris, Tenn.; Raymond
E. Silvis, Massillon, Ohio


EXECUTIVE APPOINTMENTS, 1950-51

~Program~--Dr. A. S. Colby, Chm. (Ill.); J. C. McDaniel (Ill.); Prof. Geo.
L. Slate (N. Y.); Royal Oakes (Ill.); Prof. W. D. Armstrong (Princeton,
Ky.); Dr. H. L. Crane (Md.); D. C. Snyder (Ia.); W. W. Magill (Ky.);
Prof. F. L. O'Rourke (Mich.); Ira M. Kyhl (Ia.); H. Gleason Mattoon
(Pa.)

~Publications~--Editorial Section: Dr. Lewis E. Theiss, Chm. (Pa.); Dr. W.
C. Deming (Conn.); Dr. J. Russell Smith (Pa.); Prof. George L. Slate (N.
Y.); H. F. Stoke (Va.); John Davidson (O.); Dr. L. H. MacDaniels (Dept.
of Floriculture and Ornamental Horticulture, Cornell University, Ithaca,
N. Y.)

Printing Section--John Davidson, Chm. (O.); J. C. McDaniel (Ill.); Prof.
George L. Slate (N. Y.); Carl F. Prell (Ind.)

~Place of Meeting~--J. F. Wilkinson, Chm. (Ind.); R. P. Allaman (Pa.);
John A. Gerstenmaier (O.)

~Varieties and Contests~--Spencer B. Chase, Chm. (Tenn.); G. J. Korn,
(Mich.); J. F. Wilkinson (Ind.); A. G. Hirschi (Okla.); L. Walter
Sherman (Mich.); Sylvester Shessler (O.); Dr. L. H. MacDaniels (N. Y.);
Fayette Etter (Pa.); Gilbert L. Smith (N. Y.)

Standards and Judging Section of this Committee--Spencer B. Chase, Chm.
(Tenn.); Dr. L. H. MacDaniels (N. Y.); Dr. J. Russell Smith (Pa.)

~Survey and Research~--H. F. Stoke, Chm. (Va.); and the State and Foreign
Vice-presidents.

~Membership~--D. C. Snyder, Chm. (Ia.); Stephen Bernath (N. Y.); Sterling
A. Smith (O.); Raymond E. Silvis (O.); Carroll D. Bush (Wash.)

~Exhibits~--J. F. Wilkinson, Chm. (Ind.); R. P. Allaman (Pa.); Fayette
Etter (Pa.); A. G. Hirschi (Okla.); G. J. Korn (Mich.); H. F. Stoke
(Va.); G. H. Corsan (Ont.); Edwin W. Lemke (Mich.); Carl Weschcke
(Minn.)

~Necrology~ Mrs. Herbert Negus, Chm. (Md.); Mrs. C. A. Reed (D. C.); Mrs.
G. A. Zimmerman (Pa.)

~Auditing~ Raymond E. Silvis (O.); Carl F. Walker (O.)

~Finance~ Sterling A. Smith, Chm. (O.); Carl Weschcke (Minn.)

~Legal Adviser~ Sargent Wellman (Mass.)

~Official Journal~ American Fruit Grower, Willoughby, Ohio



State and Foreign Vice Presidents


 Alabama                       Edward L. Hiles, Loxley
 Alberta, Canada               A. L. Young, Brooks
 Belgium                       R. Vanderwaeren, Bierbeekstraat, 310,
                                 Korbeek-Lo
 British Columbia, Canada      J. U. Gellatly, Box 19, Westbank
 California                    Thos. R. Haig, M.D., 3021 Highland Ave.,
                                 Carlsbad
 Connecticut                   A. M. Huntington, Stanerigg Farms, Bethel
 Delaware                      Lewis Wilkins, Route 1, Newark
 Denmark                       Count F. M. Knuth, Knuthenborg, Bandholm
 District of Columbia          Edwin L. Ford, 3634 Austin St., S.E.,
                                 Washington, 20
 Florida                       C. A. Avant, 960 N.W. 10th Avenue, Miami
 Georgia                       William J. Wilson, North Anderson Ave.,
                                 Fort Valley
 Hong Kong                     P. W. Wang, 6 Des Voeux Rd., Central
 Idaho                         Lynn Dryden, Peck
 Illinois                      Royal Oakes, Bluffs (Scott County)
 Indiana                       Ford Wallick, Route 4, Peru
 Iowa                          Ira M. Kyhl, Box 236, Sabula
 Kansas                        Dr. Clyde Gray, 1045 Central Avenue, Horton
 Louisiana                     Dr. Harald E. Hammar, 608 Court House,
                                 Shreveport
 Maryland                      Blaine McCollum, White Hall
 Massachusetts                 S. Lathrop Davenport, 24 Creeper Hill Rd.,
                                 North Grafton
 Michigan                      Gilbert Becker, Climax
 Minnesota                     R. E. Hodgson, Southeastern Exp. Station,
                                 Waseca
 Mississippi                   James R. Meyer, Delta Branch Exper. Station,
                                 Stoneville
 Missouri                      Ralph Richterkessing, Route 1, Saint Charles
 Nebraska                      Harvey W. Hess, Box 209, Hebron
 New Hampshire                 Matthew Lahti, Locust Lane Farm, Wolfeboro
 New Jersey                    Mrs. Alan R. Buckwalter, Route 1, Flemington
 New Mexico                    Rev. Titus Gehring, P. O. Box 177, Lumberton
 New York                      George Salzer, 169 Garford Road, Rochester 9
 North Carolina                Dr. R. T. Dunstan, Greensboro College,
                                 Greensboro
 North Dakota                  Homer L. Bradley, Long Lake Refuge, Moffit
 Ohio                          A. A. Bungart, Avon
 Oklahoma                      A. G. Hirschi, 414 N. Robinson,
                                 Oklahoma City
 Ontario, Canada               George H. Corsan, Echo Valley, Toronto 18
 Oregon                        Harry L. Pearcy, Route 2, Box 190, Salem
 Pennsylvania                  R. P. Allaman, Route 86, Harrisburg
 Prince Edward Island, Canada  Robert Snazelle, Forest Nursery, Rt. 5,
                                 Charlottetown
 Rhode Island                  Philip Allen, 178 Dorance St., Providence
 South Carolina                John T. Bregger, P. O. Box 1018, Clemson
 South Dakota                  Herman Richter, Madison
 Tennessee                     W. Jobe Robinson, Route 7, Jackson
 Texas                         Kaufman Florida, Box 154, Rotan
 Utah                          Harlan D. Petterson, 2076 Jefferson Avenue,
                                 Ogden
 Vermont                       Joseph N. Collins, Route 3, Putney
 Virginia                      H. R. Gibbs, Linden
 Washington                    Carroll D. Bush, Grapeview
 West Virginia                 Wilbert M. Frye, Pleasant Dale
 Wisconsin                     C. F. Ladwig, 2221 St. Laurence, Beloit



Attendance at the 1950 Meeting

Pleasant Valley, New York


 Dr. J. Alfred Adams, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station,
   Route 33, Poughkeepsie, New York
 Mr. R. P. Allaman, 8032 16th St., Harrisburg, Pennsylvania
 Mrs. R. P. Allaman, 8032 16th St., Harrisburg, Pennsylvania
 Mr. R. D. Anthony, State College, Pennsylvania
 Mrs. Lillian V. Armstrong, 40 Earl Street, Toronto, Canada
   (Now Mrs. George Hebden Corsan)
 Mr. Richard Barcus, Massillon, Ohio
 Mr. Alfred L. Barlow, 13079 Flanders Ave., Detroit 5, Michigan
 Mrs. Irene M. Barlow, 13079 Flanders Avenue, Detroit 5, Michigan
 Miss Betty Barlow, 13079 Flanders Ave., Detroit 5, Michigan
 Mr. Leon Barlow, 13079 Flanders Ave., Detroit 5, Michigan
 Mrs. Alice M. Bernath, Pleasant Valley, New York
 Mr. Stephen Bernath, R. D. 3, Poughkeepsie, New York
 Mr. Charles B. Berst, Erie, Pennsylvania
 Mr. Harold Blake, Saddle River, New Jersey
 Mr. Harold Blake, Jr., Saddle River, New Jersey
 Mrs. Katherine Blake, Saddle River, New Jersey
 Mr. George Brand, R. D. 45, Lincoln, Nebr. (Now in California)
 Mr. William G. Brooks, Monroe, New York
 Mrs. Alan R. Buckwalter, Flemington, New Jersey
 Mr. Redmond M. Burr, 320 S. 5th Avenue, Ann Arbor, Michigan
 Mrs. R. M. Burr, 320 S. 5th Avenue, Ann Arbor, Michigan
 Mr. David H. Caldwell, 217 W. Hickory Street, Canastota, New York
   (New York State College of Forestry)
 Mr. Spencer B. Chase, Norris, Tennessee
 Mr. William S. Clarke, Jr., Box 167, State College, Pennsylvania
 Dr. Arthur S. Colby, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois
 Mrs. Arthur S. Colby, Urbana, Illinois
 Mr. George Hebden Corsan, Echo Valley, Toronto 18, Ontario
 Mr. George E. Craig, Dundas, Ohio
 Dr. H. L. Crane, Plant Industry Station, Beltsville, Maryland
 Mrs. H. L. Crane, Hyattsville, Maryland
 Mr. L. H. Dowell, 529 North Avenue, N.E., Massillon, Ohio
 Mr. Aaron L. Ebling, R. D. 2, Reading, Pennsylvania
 Mr. Ralph W. Emerson, Highland Park, Michigan
 Mr. Edwin L. Ford, Washington, D. C.
 Mr. Wilbert M. Frye, Pleasant Dale, West Virginia
 Mr. Charles Gerstenmaier, Massillon, Ohio
 Mr. John A. Gerstenmaier, Massillon, Ohio
 Mrs. J. A. Gerstenmaier, Massillon, Ohio
 Mrs. Bessie J. Gibbs, Linden, Virginia
 Mr. H. R. Gibbs, Linden, Virginia
 Mr. Ralph Gibson, Williamsport, Pennsylvania
 Mr. S. H. Graham, Bostwick Road, Ithaca, New York
 Mrs. S. H. Graham, Bostwick Road, Ithaca, New York
 Mr. Henry Gressel, R. D. 2, Mohawk, New York
 Mrs. Nora Gressel, R. D. 2, Mohawk, New York
 Mr. Earl C. Haines, Shanks, West Virginia
 Mr. Walter Hasbrouck, New Paltz, New York
 Mrs. Walter Hasbrouck, New Paltz, New York
 Mr. Andrew Kerr, Barnstable, Massachusetts
 Mr. Frank M. Kintzel, Cincinnati, Ohio
 Mr. Ira M. Kyhl, Sabula, Iowa
 Miss Bertha Landis, 425 Marion Avenue, Mansfield, Ohio
 Mr. James D. Lawrence, R. D. 3, Middletown, New York
 Mr. Frederick L. Lehr, Hamden, Connecticut
 Mr. James Lowerre, R. D. 3, Middletown, New York
 Dr. L. H. MacDaniels, Ithaca, New York
 Prof. J. C. McDaniel, 104 Horticultural Field Laboratory,
 University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois
 Mr. J. W. McKay, Plant Industry Station, Beltsville, Maryland
 Mr. Elwood Miller, Hazleton, Pennsylvania
 Mrs. Elwood Miller, Hazleton, Pennsylvania
 Mr. Louis Miller, Cassopolis, Michigan
 Dr. James K. Mossman, Ramapo, New York
 Mrs. Herbert Negus, Mount Ranier, Maryland
 Mr. Royal Oakes, Bluffs, Illinois
 Mrs. Royal Oakes, Bluffs, Illinois
 Mr. F. L. O'Rourke, Hidden Lake Gardens, Michigan State College,
   Tipton, Michigan
 Mr. John H. Page, Dundas, Ohio
 Mr. Philip P. Parkinson, 567 Broadway, Newark, New Jersey
 Mrs. Philip P. Parkinson, 567 Broadway, Newark, New Jersey
 Mr. Christ Pataky, Jr., Mansfield, Ohio
 Mrs. Christ Pataky, Mansfield, Ohio
 Mr. Gordon Porter, Windsor, Ontario
 Mrs. Penelope Porter, Windsor, Ontario
 Mrs. C. A. Reed, 7309 Piney Branch Road, Washington 12, D. C.
 Mr. John Rick, 438 Penn Street, Reading, Pennsylvania
 Dr. William M. Rohrbacher, Iowa City, Iowa
 Mrs. Elizabeth I. Rohrbacher, Iowa City, Iowa
 Mr. George Salzer, Rochester, New York
 Mrs. George Salzer, Rochester, New York
 Mr. Rodman Salzer, Rochester, New York
 Mr. L. Walter Sherman, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania
 Mrs. L. W. Sherman, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania
   (The Shermans now in Michigan)
 Mr. Raymond E. Silvis and Family, Massillon, Ohio
 Mr. George L. Slate, Geneva, New York
 Mr. Douglas A. Smith, Vermilion, Ohio
 Mr. Gilbert L. Smith, Millerton, New York
 Mr. Jay L. Smith, Chester, New York
 Mr. Sterling A. Smith, 630 W. South Street, Vermilion, Ohio
 Mr. Harwood Steiger, Red Hook, New York
 Mrs. Sophie H. Steiger, Red Hook, New York
 Mr. H. F. Stoke, 1436 Watts Avenue, Roanoke, Virginia
 Mrs. H. F. Stoke, 1436 Watts Avenue, Roanoke, Virginia
 Mr. Alfred Szego, 77-15A 37th Avenue, Jackson Heights, New York, N. Y.
 Prof. T. J. Talbert, Columbia, Missouri
 Dr. Lewis E. Theiss, Lewisburg, Pennsylvania
 Dr. Frank A. Washick, Philadelphia 11, Pennsylvania
 Mr. Harry R. Weber, Cincinnati, Ohio
 Mr. Sargent H. Wellman, Topsfield, Massachusetts
 Mrs. Laura L. Whiteford, Pleasant Valley, Duchess County, New York
 Mr. J. F. Wilkinson, Rockport, Indiana,
 Mr. William J. Wilson, Fort Valley, Georgia
 Mrs. William J. Wilson, Fort Valley, Georgia
 Mrs. G. A. Zimmerman, Route 1, Linglestown, Pennsylvania

Complete membership list is in back of this volume.



CONSTITUTION

of the

NORTHERN NUT GROWERS ASSOCIATION, INCORPORATED

(As adopted September 13, 1948)


NAME

~Article I.~ This Society shall be known as the Northern Nut Growers
Association, Incorporated. It is strictly a non-profit organization.


PURPOSES

~Article II.~ The purposes of this Association shall be to promote
interest in the nut bearing plants; scientific research in their
breeding and culture; standardization of varietal names; the
dissemination of information concerning the above and such other
purposes as may advance the culture of nut bearing plants, particularly
in the North Temperate Zone.


MEMBERS

~Article III.~ Membership in this Association shall be open to all persons
interested in supporting the purposes of the Association. Classes of
members are as follows: Annual members, Contributing members, Life
members, Honorary members, and Perpetual members. Applications for
membership in the Association shall be presented to the secretary or the
treasurer in writing, accompanied by the required dues.


OFFICERS

~Article IV.~ The elected officers of this Association shall consist of a
President, Vice-president, a Secretary and a Treasurer or a combined
Secretary-treasurer as the Association may designate.


BOARD OF DIRECTORS

~Article V.~ The Board of Directors shall consist of six members of the
Association who shall be the officers of the Association and the two
preceding elected presidents. If the offices of Secretary and Treasurer
are combined, the three past presidents shall serve on the Board of
Directors.

There shall be a State Vice-president for each state, dependency, or
country represented in the membership of the Association, who shall be
appointed by the President.


AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION

~Article VI.~ This constitution may be amended by a two-thirds vote of the
members present at any annual meeting, notice of such amendment having
been read at the previous annual meeting, or copy of the proposed
amendments having been mailed by the Secretary, or by any member to each
member thirty days before the date of the annual meeting.



BY-LAWS

(Revised and adopted at Norris, Tennessee, September 13, 1948)


SECTION I.--MEMBERSHIP

Classes of membership are defined as follows:

~Article 1. Annual members.~ Persons who are interested in the purposes of
the Association who pay annual dues of Three Dollars ($3.00).

~Article 2. Contributing members.~ Persons who are interested in the
purposes of the Association who pay annual dues of Ten Dollars ($10.00)
or more.

~Article 3. Life members.~ Persons who are interested in the purposes of
the Association who contribute Seventy Five Dollars ($75.00) to its
support and who shall, after such contribution, pay no annual dues.

~Article 4. Honorary members.~ Those whom the Association has elected as
honorary members in recognition of their achievements in the special
fields of the Association and who shall pay no dues.

~Article 5. Perpetual members.~ "Perpetual" membership is eligible to any
one who leaves at least five hundred dollars to the Association and such
membership on payment of said sum to the Association shall entitle the
name of the deceased to be forever enrolled in the list of members as
"Perpetual" with the words "In Memoriam" added thereto. Funds received
therefor shall be invested by the Treasurer in interest bearing
securities legal for trust funds in the District of Columbia. Only the
interest shall be expended by the Association. When such funds are in
the treasury the Treasurer shall be bonded. Provided: that in the event
the Association become defunct or dissolves, then, in that event, the
Treasurer shall turn over any funds held in his hands for this purpose
for such uses, individuals or companies that the donor may designate at
the time he makes the bequest of the donation.


SECTION II.--DUTIES OF OFFICERS

~Article 1.~ The President shall preside at all meetings of the
Association and Board of Directors, and may call meetings of the Board
of Directors when he believes it to be to the best interests of the
Association. He shall appoint the State Vice-presidents; the standing
committees, except the Nominating Committee, and such special committees
as the Association may authorize.

~Article 2.~ Vice-president. In the absence of the President, the
Vice-president shall perform the duties of the President.

~Article 3.~ Secretary. The Secretary shall be the active executive
officer of the Association. He shall conduct the correspondence relating
to the Association's interests, assist in obtaining memberships and
otherwise actively forward the interests of the Association, and report
to the Annual Meeting and from time to time to meetings of the Board of
Directors as they may request.

~Article 4.~ Treasurer. The Treasurer shall receive and record
memberships, receive and account for all moneys of the Association and
shall pay all bills approved by the President or the Secretary. He
shall give such security as the Board of Directors may require or may
legally be required, shall invest life memberships or other funds as the
Board of Directors may direct, subject to legal restrictions and in
accordance with the law, and shall submit a verified account of receipts
and disbursements to the Annual meeting and such current accounts as the
Board of Directors may from time to time require. Before the final
business session of the Annual Meeting of the Association, the accounts
of the Treasurer shall be submitted for examination to the Auditing
Committee appointed by the President at the opening session of the
Annual Meeting.

~Article 5.~ The Board of Directors shall manage the affairs of the
association between meetings. Four members, including at least two
elected officers, shall be considered a quorum.


SECTION III.--ELECTIONS

~Article 1.~ The Officers shall be elected at the Annual Meeting and hold
office for one year beginning immediately following the close of the
Annual Meeting.

~Article 2.~ The Nominating Committee shall present a slate of officers on
the first day of the Annual Meeting and the election shall take place at
the closing session. Nominations for any office may be presented from
the floor at the time the slate is presented or immediately preceding
the election.

~Article 3.~ For the purpose of nominating officers for the year 1949 and
thereafter, a committee of five members shall be elected annually at the
preceding Annual Meeting.

~Article 4.~ A quorum at a regularly called Annual Meeting shall be
fifteen (15) members and must include at least two of the elected
officers.

~Article 5.~ All classes of members whose dues are paid shall be eligible
to vote and hold office.


SECTION IV.--FINANCIAL MATTERS

~Article 1.~ The fiscal year of the Association shall extend from October
1st through the following September 30th. All annual memberships shall
begin October 1st.

~Article 2.~ The names of all members whose dues have not been paid by
January 1st shall be dropped from the rolls of the Society. Notices of
non-payment of dues shall be mailed to delinquent members on or about
December 1st.

~Article 3.~ The Annual Report shall be sent to only those members who
have paid their dues for the current year. Members whose dues have not
been paid by January 1st shall be considered delinquent. They will not
be entitled to receive the publication or other benefits of the
Association until dues are paid.


SECTION V.--MEETINGS

~Article 1.~ The place and time of the Annual Meeting shall be selected by
the membership in session or, in the event of no selection being made
at this time, the Board of Directors shall choose the place and time for
the holding of the annual convention. Such other meetings as may seem
desirable may be called by the President and Board of Directors.


SECTION VI.--PUBLICATIONS

~Article 1.~ The Association shall publish a report each fiscal year and
such other publications as may be authorized by the Association.

~Article 2.~ The publishing of the report shall be the responsibility of
the Committee on Publications.


SECTION VII.--AWARDS

~Article 1.~ The Association may provide suitable awards for outstanding
contributions to the cultivation of nut bearing plants and suitable
recognition for meritorious exhibits as may be appropriate.


SECTION VIII.--STANDING COMMITTEES

As soon as practical after the Annual Meeting of the Association, the
President shall appoint the following standing committees:

   1. Membership
   2. Auditing
   3. Publications
   4. Survey
   5. Program
   6. Research
   7. Exhibit
   8. Varieties and Contests


SECTION IX.--REGIONAL GROUPS AND AFFILIATED SOCIETIES.

~Article 1.~ The Association shall encourage the formation of regional
groups of its members, who may elect their own officers and organize
their own local field days and other programs. They may publish their
proceedings and selected papers in the yearbooks of the parent society
subject to review of the Association's Committee on Publications.

~Article 2.~ Any independent regional association of nut growers may
affiliate with the Northern Nut Growers Association provided one-fourth
of its members are also members of the Northern Nut Growers Association.
Such affiliated societies shall pay an annual affiliation fee of $3.00
to the Northern Nut Growers Association. Papers presented at the
meetings of the regional society may be published in the proceedings of
the parent society subject to review of the Association's Committee on
Publications.


SECTION X--AMENDMENTS TO BY-LAWS

~Article 1.~ These by-laws may be amended at any Annual Meeting by a
two-thirds vote of the members present provided such amendments shall
have been submitted to the membership in writing at least thirty-days
prior to that meeting.



REPORT OF THE PROCEEDINGS at the Forty-First Annual Meeting of the
Northern Nut Growers Association, Inc.

Held at PLEASANT VALLEY, DUTCHESS COUNTY, NEW YORK on AUGUST 28, 29 and
30, 1950

TOGETHER WITH OTHER PAPERS ON NUT CULTURE



MONDAY MORNING SESSION

The meeting was called to order by the Vice-President, Dr. L. H.
MacDaniels, in the absence of the President.


DR. MacDANIELS: I have here the official gavel of The Northern Nut
Growers Association, which was sent to me by Mildred Jones Langdoc, who
unfortunately is not able to come to this meeting. She, of course, is
our president. She expected to come until fairly recently but on her
doctor's orders changed her plans and wrote to me a very short time ago
asking me if I would preside at this meeting.

Does anyone present know the history of this gavel?

MR. GEORGE SLATE: It was presented to the Association by Mr. Littlepage,
and was made from Indiana pecan wood.

DR. MacDANIELS: But anyway here it is, and we declare the Association in
session.

This morning the meeting is quite brief. We will start the meeting with
the report from the Secretary, Mr. McDaniel.



Secretary's Report

J. C. McDaniel


MR. J. C. McDANIEL: My report before the meeting will be very brief. It
may be extended a little later for the publication.

The last count for this Association's membership made last week shows
the Association has 575 paid members, plus 20 subscribers and one
foreign exchange membership, totalling 596. There have been a few more
members come in since then, so I might say we have in round figures
about 600 members to date in 1950, a few less than last year.

I probably owe the members an explanation on the delay in the printing
of the Fortieth Annual Report. That was finally taken up by the printing
company and should be printed by now. It was ready to put on the
press--in fact, some of it was on the press when I left Nashville two
weeks ago, and we have every reason to believe that it will be ready for
mailing in about another week. The Treasurer said he heard me say that
six months ago. That's six months nearer to being the truth now.

I requested that the printer send up two copies, whether they are bound
or not, so they may be in to show you later during the meeting.

I believe that's about all I will say at this time, Mr. President.

DR. MacDANIELS: This matter of the report not being here I know is the
cause of considerable dissatisfaction, and it arises out of our attempt
to get the report printed cheaply. We have had the same trouble before.
The Corse Press did this at one time and did it cheaply, because they
would work it in with the other business. The last time they did it, and
other business was so heavy that it was delayed.

The printers who do it at Nashville also did the Legislative printing
and other things cut in, so that it was not carried on. Now, I think
that we have some ideas in mind for printers for the next issue, so that
if we get the papers in on time, the report will be coming out fairly
promptly.

Is the Treasurer ready with his report? Mr. Sterling Smith.


Treasurer's Report

Sept. 1, 1949 to Aug. 25, 1950

RECEIPTS:

    Annual Membership Dues                      $1,689.55

   (Contributing Members: Arp Nursery Co. and
   Mr. Hjalmar W. Johnson
   $10.00 each)
   Life Membership (Herschel L. Boll)              75.00

   Contributions
                    Mr. A. M. Huntington           50.00
                    Mr. Geo. L. Slate               2.00

   Sale of Reports                                186.00
   Interest on U. S. Bonds                         31.25
   Worcester County (Mass.) Hort. Society          25.00
   Advertisement                                    5.00
   Miscellaneous                                   18.00
                                                -------
   Total Income                                          $2,081.80

DISBURSEMENTS:

   U. S. Bond "G"                               $ 500.00
   American Fruit Grower Subscriptions            224.00
   Supplies, Stationery, etc. for Secretary        96.75
   Secretary's 50c per Member                     275.00
   Secretary's Expense                             88.00
   Treasurer's Expense                             66.52
   Reporting Beltsville Meeting                    60.00
   Mr. Reed's Memorial                             10.00
   Bank Service Charge                              3.33
   Miscellaneous                                   21.00
                                                  -------
   Total Disbursements                                   $1,344.60


   Cash on deposit at Erie County United Bank   $2,292.97
   Petty Cash on Hand                               12.70
   Disbursements                                 1,344.60
                                                ---------
   Total                                                 $3,650.27

   On Hand Sept. 1, 1949                        $1,568.47
   Receipts Sept. 1. 1949, to Aug. 25, 1950      2,081.80
                                                ---------
   Total                                                 $3,650.27

   U. S. Bonds in Safety Deposit Box            $3,000.00

DR. MacDANIELS: Thank you, Mr. Smith. I think it is usual to accept the
report and then refer it, I believe, to an auditing committee.

A MEMBER: I so move.

DR. MacDANIELS: It is moved that the report be accepted and turned over
to the auditing committee.

MR. SZEGO: Second.

DR. MacDANIELS: Seconded. Any remarks? (No response.)

(A vote was taken on the motion, and it was carried unanimously.)

DR. MacDANIELS: I'd like to appoint Mr. Royal Oakes and Mr. Weber as
Auditing Committee, and I think they report at the final business
session, which comes at the banquet.

I will say that matter of $25.00 I didn't know anything about, except
now I recall the circumstances. At the convention I took over what was
left of the exhibits--nobody wanted them--and took them back to Ithaca,
thinking I would send them to the Massachusetts Horticultural Society. I
didn't have time to do that, but I did send them to Worcester (Mass.)
Horticulture Society, and apparently I was out of the country and they
sent the award to the Treasurer, and that accounts for the $25.00. It's
the first I have heard of it, but anyway, we have it.

The treasurer's report indicates we have some little surplus in the
treasury, but after our report is paid for, that will be reduced to the
amount of about $800.00. That is the net surplus at the present time,
and if we face the facts of the matter, it means that we are not living
within our income, that is, with printing costs going up. The reports
used to cost $600.00, instead of $1400.00, and what not.

The reason we have kept going has been the use of life memberships and
the extra contribution of Mr. Archer Huntington.

The matter of deficit financing seems to be good for the Government, but
I don't think it is any good for the society. I think, however, we can
adjust our affairs so as to get along. It is proposed we make a change
in the by-laws which will set up another type of membership. That is, at
the present time we have an annual membership of $3.00 and a
contributing membership of $10.00 and life membership for $75.00. Taking
the pattern from some other societies, it at least was discussed that we
put up a membership of $5.00, which was a sustaining membership, and
anybody who felt that he could do that easily could do so, not receiving
any additional benefits, except, perhaps, a star in front of his
name,--just considering it a contribution to the society.

What we had in mind is that we know that there are some of the
membership that find the $3.00 is plenty high enough. There are others
to whom probably it means another dinner, or something of that kind, and
it doesn't make so much difference. And what we propose to do is to make
it easy for those who can to give that additional support.

That amendment will be proposed at the last business meeting in some
form, and it will have to go over until the next meeting, according to
our constitution, which provides for the amendment of the by-laws.

Mr. Secretary, do we have a report of the editor?

MR. J. C. McDANIEL: Yes, I have that here, a short report from Dr. Lewis
E. Theiss, who will be at the meeting in the morning.



Report of Publications and Publicity

DR. LEWIS E. THEISS, Chairman


The annual Report, which should be issued very soon, will speak for
itself. Delay more than usual was occasioned by an effort to make the
publication fully complete. To that end, printing was held up so that,
for one thing, we could include Dr. J. Russell Smith's remarkable
summary or survey of nut experimentation in the U. S. and Canada.

We cannot overemphasize the great services of our secretary, Mr.
McDaniel, in the preparation of this work. He collected the material,
forwarded it to me for editing, did much editing himself, secured the
printing contract, and in general oversaw the production of the volume.

To edit the manuscripts for a book of this size is in itself quite a
chore. Proof reading is a great burden. In the preparation of this
Report, we have had the hearty cooperation and help of Mrs. Herbert
Negus (Md.); Professor George Slate (New York); Dr. A. S. Colby (Ill.);
Mr. Spencer Chase (Tenn.); and Mr. Alfred Barlow (Mich.). We are
indebted to all of these members for their fine support. We hope that
this present issue will be a worthy successor to the many fine ones that
have preceded it.

LEWIS E. THEISS, Chairman Publications Committee Read at meeting
8/28/50.

MR. J. C. McDANIEL: I might say, by the way, it will be 8 pages larger
than last year's, totalling 232 pages.

DR. MacDANIELS: Thank you, Mr. Secretary.

The question is going to arise as to the size of our report. That is,
the reports up to the last two have been something less than 200 pages,
I believe. This one is running over considerably, and the question comes
up as to whether or not we should economize by reducing the size of the
report. It was the general opinion of the Directors in discussing the
matter that perhaps somewhat closer editing should be done, but we
realize that for many members of the Association the report is the one
tangible thing that they get out of the whole picture and that the
reports should be kept, certainly, at a good length and high grade.

I think those are all of the officers' reports. Are there reports of the
committees? Program Committee, Mr. Slate, do you have a brief report?

MR. GEORGE L. SLATE: The report of the Program Committee has been
published, and the programs are on this table in the rear of the room.

DR. MacDANIELS: Brief and to the point. In other words, Mr. Slate has
written around to the persons who are going to be on the program, sort
of cranking them up. This society is in a situation where its members
don't just flock to the call of requests for papers, and they have to be
solicited. Well, Mr. Slate has done a very good job of soliciting
papers, and the report speaks for itself in the program which has been
prepared.

Reports of any special committees? Do we have a committee on
contests?--of the Carpathian walnut contest?

MR. McDANIEL: I believe that will be taken up in the afternoon program.

DR. MacDANIELS: The matter of old business. Do we have any old business,
Mr. Secretary?

MR. McDANIEL: I don't know of any that's carried over now.


Discussion on Time and Place of Meeting

DR. MacDANIELS: Coming to new business. There is always the time and the
place of the next convention. I think that that is usually in the hands
of a committee, but in the open meeting the matter is discussed, and we
are open for any suggestions.

I have heard that Dr. Colby of Illinois is going to have a suggestion
that we come to Illinois.

MR. McDANIEL: That's my understanding, and he should be here a little
later.

DR. MacDANIELS: Anybody else have any suggestions?

I think, with regard to our time and place of meeting, we have in mind
alternating between the East, and the Middle West. The center of
membership appears to be about Central Ohio, is that right? And I don't
think we have gone any farther west than Center Point, Iowa.

MR. WEBER: That was back in 1930.

DR. MacDANIELS: That probably is about as far West as we are going to
get, unless we get a lot of members out farther.

Now, suggestions that have been made have been that next year the
meeting would be in Illinois--at the University of Illinois--and the
year following somewhere in the East, possibly Pennsylvania, although we
haven't been invited to Pennsylvania. I don't know whether we can get
one or not. And the next year west again, possibly Michigan, and beyond
that we haven't thought. But I think there is a real advantage in having
time blocked out in advance for at least two years so that people can
make their plans as to where they will go. That is, I think often in
planning vacations and what not, it goes that far ahead.

MR. JAY SMITH: Mr. Chairman, the last week in August seems to be better
than the first week in September, from the point of view of the school
openings in early September.

MR. WELLMAN: I think we should wait a little while and see what kind of
attendance we get at this meeting this time of the year.

MR. RICK: If we could arrange it, we'd like to appeal to the membership
to have a meeting in Lancaster County. I think Mr. Hostetter has quite a
number of things that could be shown and perhaps some others in the
neighborhood that might make it quite interesting.

DR. MacDANIELS: We can refer that to the committee.

MR. ALLAMAN: Mr. President, I think that is a very fine suggestion. One
of our nut growers in Pennsylvania lives in Lancaster County, and he has
told me he has 29,000 nut trees, including filberts, and is still
planting.

DR. MacDANIELS: That sounds almost like the Government debt, only not
quite.

We will let that matter go until the committee reports when Dr. Colby
arrives.

Is there any other business which we ought to transact at this time? If
not, I think the next item is the president's address, which has just
arrived. Mrs. Bernath just brought it in. It just came in under the
wire, I guess.

DR. CRANE: Mr. Stoke has just come in.

DR. MacDANIELS: We will have the report of the nominating committee, Mr.
Stoke.



Report of Nominating Committee

MR. STOKE: We bore in mind when we were making nominations for the
presidency that we will probably hold our next meeting in the West, so
we have nominated Dr. William Rohrbacher of Iowa for president, and Dr.
MacDaniels, our perennial vice-president be nominated again and hope
that we get him across next year as president. He has served a pretty
good apprenticeship. Our secretary, J. C. McDaniel, has been nominated
for re-election and Sterling Smith as treasurer. The last two
ex-presidents will be on the Board of Directors. Those, with the other
officers named, constitute our entire Board of Directors.

DR. MacDANIELS: Thank you, Mr. Stoke.

You have heard the report of the nominating committee.

DR. CRANE: Move that they be accepted.

MR. ALLAMAN: Second.

DR. MacDANIELS: Are there remarks? (No response.) If not, we will take a
vote.

(Whereupon, a vote was taken on the motion, and it was carried
unanimously.)

DR. MacDANIELS: The election comes at the time of the banquet, and
nominations may be made from the floor at the time of election.

Dr. Colby, I believe, came in. Do you want to say something about
Illinois as a meeting place for next year. Dr. Colby of the University
of Illinois.

DR. COLBY: I don't know whether there was any malice aforethought in
that committee nomination! Before I left Urbana a few weeks ago, Dean H.
P. Rusk of our College of Agriculture asked me to invite you people to
come to Urbana, Illinois for your meeting next year. So that, Mr.
President, is an official invitation. We hope that you can all come. I
see some of our Illinois friends here, and we are all working together
to provide an interesting meeting at that time.

Now, as to the date, that will have to be settled a little later.

DR. MacDANIELS: Thanks very much, Dr. Colby. That makes it official.

MR. WEBER: Mr. President, I move we accept the invitation.

MR. JAY SMITH: I second.

DR. MacDANIELS: Moved and seconded we go to Illinois, the time to be
arranged by the committee. Any remarks? (No response.)

(Whereupon, a vote was taken on the motion, and it was carried
unanimously.)

DR. MacDANIELS: That fixes that, and the time will depend somewhat on
the availability of dormitories. If the meeting is held the last week in
August, the dormitories would be available, would they not?

Mr. Weber: Get away from the Labor Day problem, too.

DR. MacDANIELS: Any other business? Has anyone else come in in the
meantime who has a report?

If not, we will go ahead with the next item, which is the President's
Address, and I will ask Mr. Weber of Cincinnati to read this. I am much
pleased to do this because of Mr. Weber's friendship for the president.



President's Address

MILDRED JONES LANGDOC, Erie, Illinois


I have been a member of this organization for a good many years, and I
have always had a deep interest in its success. Our members are in a
position to encourage the planting of good varieties of nut trees which
may some day be appreciated even more for food and other uses as our
population increases than we as a nation appreciate them today. Tree
crops are a means of conserving our soils, both from the point of
erosion and moisture holding content. I like the opportunity we have to
be far-sighted in encouraging the planting of nut trees which will play
a large part in the future well-being of our country.

Our N.N.G.A., as it is today, has been built on the unselfish efforts of
a number of far-sighted men who had an ideal and a will to see that
ideal accomplished. I think I was fortunate to know a number of the
early founders of the organization either through their visits to my
home where my father and they would talk their favorite subject of nut
varieties known, just found, or the ideal variety they hoped they'd
locate--perhaps in the next nut contest. In lighter mood--usually around
the dinner table--they would sometimes reminisce about this joke or that
which some member played on another. Altogether our early founders and
officers were really great men, bringing experiences from various walks
of life. Today we have a still wider variety of occupations listed among
our membership, and an even greater opportunity to make acquaintances
and friends. I hope every member will make full use of his leisure time
here at this convention to make new acquaintances and to renew old ones.
Knowing the members as I do, I know you will treasure these
acquaintances during your entire lifetime.

The Association can serve its members in a number of ways, but I would
place special emphasis on our reports carrying from year to year a
progressive report on varieties. In other words, I think our survey
reports are one important part of our means of learning about the
performance of varieties in various sections of the country where they
are being tried. I would urge every member to make a definite effort to
co-operate with the survey committee in sending the information they
require, because these men making the survey are busy men, too, just
like the rest of us, and they have to make a real effort to find time to
tabulate the information they receive, and they want to receive more, so
they are willing to do their part to tabulate the information which will
help us as an organization to be more definite about encouraging or
discouraging the planting of a certain variety.

There is a question in my mind whether the very best nut so far as
cracking quality is concerned will be the best variety for the average
home planter. I think we should consider whether the variety will bear
good crops consistently, and if it doesn't bear well--why? Perhaps it is
a matter of soil condition which can be corrected, a matter of a variety
being planted in a climate where it cannot bear well, and perhaps
elevation above sea level is another factor. We may even find with the
hickories and walnuts that certain varieties will perform better with
certain other varieties as pollinators. When we think of these things
there is much to be done in the evaluation of varieties, although there
has been a start in the right direction.

It seems to me that nut contests at regular intervals help to stimulate
interest in better varieties of nuts and we do gain a certain amount of
free advertising through newspapers and magazines. The results of the
contest should state, in my opinion, the comparison of the varieties
selected as the best of the contest with the ratings of varieties
already named and now in propagation. This would mean using the same
score card always. Remembering that the very best rated cracking nut is
not always the best bearing variety, it would help to accompany this
variety report with data as to the location of the tree--soil it is
growing in--soil type--good drainage or a damp location--rainfall during
the year--days between frost--whether the tree has had good care or
not--whether it's a heavy bearer--and any other information which may
have a bearing upon the health and vigor of the tree. If notes can be
taken on the blooming and bearing habit of other trees of the same
species close by which may influence this particular variety through
cross-pollination, then we would have a good record immediately on each
variety.

I realize in stating the above that we must rely on the human mind which
colors and evaluates everything our senses perceive, so it's up to us as
individuals to try constantly to train ourselves to evaluate a variety
as it really is. I feel that much of the success of our organization in
the gathering of nut tree varieties has been due to an honest effort
towards reporting only facts and we will do well to enlist the aid of
our college trained scientific minds to help us individuals in asking
ourselves the necessary questions about our nut tree varieties.

According to the phrase "Life begins at 40," we are now just beginning
to live as an organization. Let us then examine every means to set our
course towards the definite goal of evaluating the worth of all the
named varieties of northern grown nut trees, let us report our findings
without prejudice, let us continue to make our annual reports so
necessary as a clearing house for the year's progress in nut culture, so
valuable, that anyone interested in nut culture can't afford not
belonging to and being an active part of our group. I would especially
like to see other active state groups as the Ohio group all bringing
together their yearly information in one book form--our Annual Report.
The Ohio group deserves special recognition on the wisdom of their
officers to work towards a unified northern nut growers group, each
helping the other where they can.

I want to express my appreciation to our Secretary, Mr. McDaniel, for
his work this year which can be doubly appreciated by those who know the
excellent job he has performed in spite of many adversities. I hope he
will continue as Secretary.

Our Treasurer, Mr. Smith, has been right on the job, and we can all be
of special help to him by sending or giving to him here and now our dues
for the coming year. We would not waste any time by paying our dues
promptly, but we would save a tremendous amount of time for him. We can
in this way make his association and work for us most pleasant and in
that way show him how much we appreciate his help. I express the hope
that Mr. Smith will be our Treasurer for a long time.

I want to thank the Board of Directors and all of the committees who
have labored so faithfully during the year. Our convention program for
this year is evidence that our Program Committee has spent much time in
thought, correspondence and work and we all appreciate and give them our
hearty thanks.

Since I cannot be with you this year, Dr. MacDaniels has consented to
occupy the Chair and the 41st annual meeting will now go forward under
his able direction. I am with you in thought.

   Sincerely,
     MILDRED JONES LANGDOC

       *       *       *       *       *

MR. WEBER: By the way, since I am on the floor and I am on my feet, I
will pass this attendance record. Will you all please sign your names
and addresses. It doesn't bind you to anything.

MR. CORSAN: You might tell the audience--there are some strangers
here--who the president is whose address you just read.

MR. WEBER: I read her name, the former Mildred Jones, whose father was
the late J. F. Jones who was one of the pioneers in the propagating of
nut trees, and was formerly living in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania,
three miles south of Lancaster on U. S. 222. His daughter continued his
work after his death, has since married and is now living out at Erie,
Illinois, which is west of Chicago near the Mississippi River. Her name
now is Langdoc.

DR. MacDANIELS: Our president brought out two points in which I most
heartily concur. One is our search for new varieties and the evaluation
of varieties, and the other, the more extensive rating of the varieties
we already have. There will be this round-table this evening on
evaluation of varieties, of which Dr. Crane will be the chairman.


Association Sends Greetings to Dr. Deming

DR. McKAY: I'd like to bring up this matter--I'd like to make this in
the form of a motion, that in view of the long and active service of Dr.
W. C. Deming to this organization, I think it would be appropriate for
this organization to send him greetings. I would like to make that in
the form of a motion.

MR. BERNATH: I second it.

DR. MacDANIELS: Moved and seconded to send Dr. Deming greetings from the
meeting. We had hoped that he would be here. He may come yet, unless
somebody knows definitely to the contrary. George Slate saw him a while
ago and said he hopes to get here.[1]

[1] Dr. Deming was present at the lunch stop on the Wassaic State School
grounds during the third day's tour.--Ed.

MR. WEBER: I have just been informed that Dr. Deming will be 89 years
old on September first.

DR. MacDANIELS: That's something.

How old is Mr. Corsan?

MR. WEBER: The question arises: How old is Mr. Corsan? The gentleman is
here, and he will speak for himself.



Talk by the Oldest Member

MR. CORSAN: I don't know how old I am. I know I was born near Rockport,
New York, and my father brought me across the river to Hamilton,
Ontario, when I was seven, and according to my aunts and uncles and
people who told me, they say I was born June 11, 1857. So here I am
kicking around, but I am not blowing how long I will live. I don't know,
but I will try my best.

I have joined the Vegetarian Society many years ago, and I am still
hanging onto that idea, and I hope that we have a vegetarian banquet
some of these times, because nearly all vegetarian associations are very
deeply interested in the Northern Nut Growers Association. That's what
they all told me at the convention at Lake Geneva last August a year
ago. And I just came back from visiting Rodale. I thought I'd see
Rodale. He looks a good deal like this gentleman here (indicating Mr.
Bernath), our friend here, about the size and appearance of him. But he
is of the greatest ancestry in the world. He is Jewish, and he doesn't
know exactly how to eat, because he has jowls and dewlaps and he is too
fat, but he is a very fine man; beautiful, clear, honest eyes, he has,
and I hope to have him consider the planting of nut trees on his place.
He has a disgraceful looking place in comparison to mine.

This year my place is just loaded down with nuts, except filberts. Last
year I had so many filberts that I have half a ton left over yet. And I
want to see people beautify the country. I started off one day with a
thought that came to my head. I heard that there were a half a million
widows and orphans buried in the Hudson Hill Cemetery. And I thought:
Why, those dead people can be working; they can be doing something. Let
them feed the roots of the Japanese heartnut. And as a try, I sent them
1100 seeds just as a start. And the Japanese heartnut, a stranger to
this country, isn't anywhere near any other nut, and it grows true to
form, and a lot of the trees are much hardier up on Lake Ontario. It
does not grow well on the north of the lake, but south of the lake it
grows enormous crops every year, and the nuts come out whole. But there
is a better shaped nut without that kind of groove in the center, and
it's the father or the mother--father, probably--of the finest heartnuts
in the world, and there is nothing that beats a heartnut for eating.
Every time I sell heartnuts to eat I have ruined myself, because they
won't eat any other nut. So that shows just exactly what the general
public thinks of it. Even Italians. There I have a half a ton of
filberts. I bring the heartnuts down to Florida, the Fairchild and my
hybrid trees and butternuts and Japanese heartnuts, and I have a package
of almonds and another package of brazil nuts, and I let them taste
those. They are woody in comparison to our heartnuts and hybrids. They
are not anything, they are just like so much wood in comparison.

Now, I have received from John W. Fowler, Secretary to Albert Williams
of the Department of Corrections on 100 Center Street. New York, a
beautiful letter accepting those nuts, and I had my housekeeper--I was
down in Florida--send them to them early in February, and they are
planted. And the breezes going up and down the Hudson are going to wave
the two-foot-long leaves of the most beautiful deciduous trees in the
world, the Japanese heartnut, healthiest, hardiest nut in the world,
and these dead people will be feeding them. Just think! five thousand
children without a name or number. Now, they have erected a monument
just recently, but the real monuments are the living trees. I am going
to send them a lot more, because I want to see them working. I might
come back and eat some of these nuts myself.

       *       *       *       *       *

DR. MacDANIELS: Thank you, Mr. Corsan.

(Applause.)

DR. MacDANIELS: Mr. Corsan is certainly well on his way to being a
hundred, and I think if eating nuts and other vegetables will do that,
more of us ought to pay attention.

I think we voted on that motion. I think it was unanimous that we send
this greeting to Dr. Deming in his eighty-ninth year.

(The following telegram was sent to Dr. Deming:

"AT THIS FORTY-FIRST ANNUAL MEETING OF THE NORTHERN NUT GROWERS
ASSOCIATION IN CONVENTION ASSEMBLED AT PLEASANT VALLEY, NEW YORK, THE
MEMBERS SEND YOU THEIR LOVE AND ALSO EXTEND THEIR BEST WISHES FOR YOUR
CONTINUANCE OF GOOD HEALTH.")

Any other business?

MR. McDANIEL: There is one elective committee that probably will need to
be acted on, which is always done at the meeting before, and that's the
nominations committee for next year. That's elective.

DR. MacDANIELS: The Resolutions Committee. Mr. Allaman, will you take
chairmanship for that? And Mr. Porter of Windsor, will you help Mr.
Allaman on the Resolutions Committee?

MR. PORTER: Do I act now, in this meeting?

DR. MacDANIELS: Yes, during the time you are here work out with Mr.
Allaman the resolutions that pertain to this particular meeting.

Anything else? If not, this first session is adjourned. Meet again
promptly this afternoon at one o'clock,

(Whereupon, at 10:40 o'clock, a.m., the meeting was recessed, to
reconvene at 1:00 o'clock, p.m. of the same day.)


MONDAY AFTERNOON SESSION

DR. MacDANIELS: I will call the meeting to order, the afternoon session.
This afternoon we have the session given over mostly to the Carpathian
walnut. The first paper, by Spencer Chase of Norris, Tennessee.

MR. CHASE: First, with the president's permission, I thought perhaps a
short report of the 1949 contest would be in order. As you probably
recall, we conducted a Persian walnut contest last year for Northern
Nut Growers members only. In this contest we had 31 entries submitted.



The 1949 Persian Walnut Contest with Notes from Persian Walnut Growers

SPENCER B. CHASE, Contest Chairman Tennessee Valley Authority Norris,
Tennessee


The Persian Walnut Contest of 1949 attracted 31 entries from Association
members. The following sent nut samples: E. W. Lemke (Michigan) (4), Ray
McKinster (Ohio) (1), S. Shessler (Ohio) (2), F. S. Hill (N. Y.) (3), R.
C. Lorenz (Ohio) (1), Benton and Smith Nut Tree Nursery (N. Y.) (16), A.
S. Colby (Illinois) (2), E. M. Shelton (Ohio) (1), and N. W. Fateley
(Indiana) (1). The Contest Committee appreciates their interest in this
informal contest.

It was not practical for all of the judges to convene at one place to
evaluate the samples. Therefore, the following system was used: One nut
from each sample was sent to H. F. Stoke (Va.), Gilbert Becker
(Michigan), G. J. Korn (Michigan), and J. C. McDaniel. These four judges
were asked to select the best five of the 31 entries. The Chairman then
made the final selections based on their findings. Therefore, the
samples were actually subjected to five evaluations. The results
indicate that this method was very satisfactory.

First place went to the sample submitted by Ray McKinster, Columbus,
Ohio., It is significant that four of the five judges selected this
sample as the best entry. Mr. McKinster reports that his tree is a
Carpathian obtained as seed from the Wisconsin Horticultural Society in
1939. The 11 year old tree has a circumference of 26 inches at the base
and has withstood 17 degrees below zero without injury. It began bearing
in 1944 and yielded approximately one-half bushel in 1949. The yield is
an estimate since squirrels play havoc with the crop. The nuts weighed
12.9 grams with 6.8 grams of kernel. Four judges considered this an
outstanding Carpathian.

Second place went to a sample submitted by Sylvester Shessler, Genoa,
Ohio. Three judges selected this sample for second place, one placed it
first and the other selected it for third place. Again it was
significant that the judges were in close agreement. The parent tree is
growing in Clay Center, Ohio, and is estimated to be 50 years old. It
began bearing in 1920. It yielded an estimated two bushels in 1947,
three pecks in 1948, and one bushel in 1949. It has withstood 15 degrees
below zero without damage. The source of this seedling is unknown. The
nut weighed 8.8. grams with 5.2 grams of kernel. The nut is round with a
smooth shell and has a very attractive kernel. This selection has been
named ~Hansen~.

Third place, after some disagreement, also went to Mr. Shessler for his
entry now named ~Jacobs~. This sample received one vote for second place
and one for third place. Two judges agreed on another sample for third
place but in a comparative test involving more nuts the Jacobs sample
was selected. The nut weighed 12.8 grams with 6.0 grams of kernel. The
parent Jacobs tree is located in Elmore, Ohio, and is estimated to be 70
years old. Bearing since 1915, it yielded an estimated 300 pounds in
1947, 100 pounds in 1948, and 200 pounds in 1949. The tree has withstood
15 degrees below zero. The seed which produced this tree came from
Germany.

Fourth and fifth places were awarded to samples S-66 and S-XD submitted
by Benton and Smith Nut Tree Nurseries, Millerton, N. Y. Three judges
selected these two entries for fourth and fifth places while the other
two judges selected other entries. S-66 weighed 13.3 grams with 6.2
grams of kernel. S-XD weighed 12.6 grams with 7.1 grams of kernel. Both
selections were raised from Carpathian walnuts obtained from the
Wisconsin Horticultural Society in 1935. The nuts entered in the contest
came from 9-year old grafted trees located at the Wassaic State School,
Wassaic, N. Y. They began bearing a few nuts at six years of age. Both
have withstood 34 degrees below zero.

In addition to the five prize winners other entries are worthy of
mention. Four additional Benton, and Smith selections (S-61, S-25, S-9,
S-32), selection Illinois 10 from Dr. Colby, and a sample from Mr.
Lorenz were all considered in the first five by at least one judge. The
Carpathian sample from N. W. Fateley was outstanding for size of nut and
kernel. Unfortunately, the kernels were shriveled. Since this sample
arrived late all of the judges did not have an opportunity to evaluate
it. Mr. Lemke also entered a very large Persian walnut. It was
considered for third place by two judges but was discarded in the final
judging because of shriveled kernels. Both of these large selections
should be tested further.

It must be borne in mind that in this, as in all similar contests, only
nut characteristics of one year's crop could be evaluated. Whether these
selections are adapted to our varying conditions will have to be
determined. In other words, this contest should be considered as a
preliminary exploration and not as a final selection of suitable
varieties.

Following is a summary table containing data on the prize winners:

   Results of Persian Walnut Contest

 --------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                     Nut     Kernel  Kernel
 Rank   Entry            Name and Address           Weight   Weight   Per-
                                                                    centage
 --------------------------------------------------------------------------
  1     No. 1    Ray McKinster, 1632 S. 4th St.,
                     Columbus 7, Ohio                12.9     6.8      52.7
  2     Hansen   S. M. Shessler, RFD, Genoa, Ohio     8.8     5.2      59.6
  3     Jacobs   S. M. Shessler, RFD, Genoa, Ohio    12.8     6.0      46.8
  4     S-66     Benton & Smith Nut Tree Nursery,
                     Rt. 2, Millerton, New York
  5     S-XD     Benton & Smith Nut Tree Nursery,
                     Rt. 2, Millerton, New York      15.6     7.1      45.8
 --------------------------------------------------------------------------

To obtain information on the culture of hardy Persian walnut a
questionnaire was sent to members known to have experience with ~Juglans
regia~. The following information, based on the reports of thirteen
growers, should prove valuable to those interested in testing Persian
walnut.

The members contacted are testing 35 named varieties in addition to many
seedlings. Of the varieties, Broadview appears to be represented in more
plantings than any other variety. Gilbert Becker (Michigan) has most of
the named Crath selections in addition to seedlings. H. F. Stoke
(Virginia) has a large assortment of Crath and other Persian varieties.
Fayette Etter (Pennsylvania) reports that he has approximately 150
Persian walnut trees while Royal Oakes (Illinois), Sylvester Shessler,
and Gilbert Becker each report 60 trees. Many others have from 25 to 40
grafts or trees while Ray McKinster has only one seedling Carpathian
which took top honors in the contest. Most of these members have been
testing Persian varieties for more than 13 years. Mr. Stoke has some
trees 20 years old.

~Yields~--Most trees reported on began bearing at five to eight years.
Topworked trees start bearing several years sooner. It is generally
agreed that Persian varieties bear annually. Many trees are bearing only
small nut crops. Lack of pollination is given as a reason for these low
yields. In addition, winter injury and spring frosts can seriously
reduce nut crops. Apparently, none of the trees have borne more than a
bushel of nuts at 12 years of age. Accurate records of nut crops were
generally lacking. Since this is a very important factor in the
selection of varieties, growers should keep accurate yield records for
each variety. Where pests are a factor in reducing final yield, a crop
estimate should be made early in the season.

~Varieties~--Mr. Stoke considers Bedford, Broadview and Lancaster best
under his conditions. Mr. Becker's choice is McDermid but he thinks
Crath No. 1 a potential commercial variety. Mr. Oakes likes Crath No. 1
and Ill. No. 3. Mr. Etter lists Burtner and Alleman as his best
varieties. Mr. Fateley especially favors one tree because of nut and
bearing qualities. Other growers have not as yet evaluated their
varieties.

~Hardiness~--Only several growers in the colder regions felt that lack of
winter hardiness was a serious limiting factor with their varieties.
Those with winter temperatures ranging from 10 to 23 degrees below zero
report little damage. Spring frosts are serious to many, especially in
the southern states.

~Pests~--Several insects causing damage to Persian walnut were reported.
The butternut curculio was most frequently mentioned. Others included
leaf hoppers, tent caterpillars, and husk maggots. Few effective control
measures have been developed. Squirrels are an ever present threat to
nut crops in some localities, as are blackbirds.

~Cultural Practices~--Most growers apply varying amounts of fertilizer or
manure to their trees in some form or other. Few mulch their trees. All
do some pruning, mainly of a corrective nature.

~Pollination~--Most growers agree that usually, but not always, pistillate
flowers are produced several years before the occurrence of catkins.
Generally, Persian varieties do not adequately pollinate themselves but
exceptions are reported. The problem is one of variable dichogamy. Some
varieties shed pollen before pistillate flowers are receptive; others
shed pollen when pistillate flowers are no longer receptive. This
unfortunate situation probably explains the low yields experienced by
some growers. Mr. Stoke lists the flowering dates of 13 varieties in the
1942 NNGA Annual Report which clearly illustrates dichogamy in Persian
walnut.

Some varieties are considered sufficiently self-pollinating to produce
at least light crops. However, this may be influenced by weather
conditions. During an unusually warm spring catkins develop more rapidly
than terminal growth containing the pistillate flowers. Mr. Stoke
reports that ~Bedford~ produces both flowers simultaneously and that
~Caesar~ is practically self-pollinating. Mr. Etter finds ~Burtner~ fully
self-pollinating and ~Alleman~ partially. Mr. McKinster's tree is
apparently self-pollinating.

To overcome dichogamy it is necessary to have varieties which pollinate
one another. Again Mr. Stoke's list referred to above is useful in
selecting varieties for cross-pollination. Mr. Becker finds that ~Crath
No. 1~ and ~Carpathian D~ pollinate each other under his conditions.

More information on the pollination of Persian varieties is definitely
needed. Members are urged to record the flowering date of their
varieties. Such information will be very helpful in variety selection.

~Handling the Nut Crop~--The nuts are harvested and dried promptly.
Methods of drying vary. Some have drying screens in which the nuts are
placed several layers deep. Some dry the nuts in the sun; others prefer
a shady place. Following drying, the nuts are stored in a cool place.

At least one grower has enough walnuts to sell locally; others feel that
local markets would take all they could produce. Many of the growers
sell the nuts for seed purposes. Of course, all have a supply for home
use.

~Future Prospects~--Growers see good prospects for Persian walnut in most
of their respective regions if improved varieties are developed. Many
growers are planning to increase the size of their plantings with
promising varieties. Others would like more trees but lack the necessary
space.

The 1949 contest uncovered several very promising selections. The 1950
National Contest should produce many more.

(Applause.)

DR. MacDANIELS: I believe, Mr. Chase, your second paper has to do with
the 1950 Carpathian walnut contest, which is just a matter of
explanation, I take it, as to what is going to happen.



Plans for the 1950 Carpathian Walnut Contest

SPENCER CHASE, Norris, Tenn.


MR. CHASE: The 1950 contest plans have not been fully formulated. Our
main problem will be one of advertising. Our good secretary has agreed
to help out on that. Mr. Sherman and Dr. Anthony have agreed to help out
in their region. I was successful in getting Mr. Neal of the ~Southern
Agriculturist~ to promise to give us a little Southern publicity on
contest.

MR. McDANIEL: I wrote him; also wrote Mr. Niven of the ~Progressive
Farmer~ at Memphis and Chet Randolph with the ~Prairie Farmer~ at Chicago.

MR. CHASE: As I say, we plan on handling it the same as we did the 1949
contest. It will be simply the submission of entries. We may want to
consider the method of judging a little further.

The problem of prize money needs to be resolved, how much the
Association is going to offer--feels that they could stand to offer--for
first, second, or how many prizes we are going to have. That's about all
that we have to report now concerning the contest. But we do need,
before we can proceed too far, some commitment on prize money. Last year
we did not offer prizes simply because it was for the membership, and
there has been some question whether prizes are necessary. Of course, it
wasn't necessary from the Association standpoint, but it probably will
stimulate some others not in the Association to submit samples from
their trees.

Do any of the contest committee or members have any suggestions? We'd be
very happy to have them.

DR. MacDANIELS: Will this include all Persian walnuts?

MR. CHASE: That was another problem that came up the last time, and we
talked about it as being a Carpathian contest, and we decided, who can
tell a Carpathian from another Persian, and we decided to make it a
Persian walnut contest.

DR. MacDANIELS: No Persian walnut will be refused?

MR. CHASE: Yes, sir.

DR. MacDANIELS: Should they be sent to you?

MR. CHASE: Yes.

DR. MacDANIELS: Mr. Spencer Chase at Norris.

MR. CHASE: Then, shall we exclude the Northwestern states?

MR. McDANIEL: Last year we limited it to those trees which stood at
least zero temperature. That would eliminate most of California, at
least.

DR. MacDANIELS: That makes sense.

MR. SHERMAN: How many nuts are expected?

MR. CHASE: Last year we asked and received fifteen. We'd like to have
twenty-five. That gives us a better opportunity for the tasting
department. We have a lot of tasters. We don't have many crackers, but a
lot of tasters.

MR. McDANIEL: I found that the mice in the State Capitol at Nashville
weren't very particular as to variety. They took to any that were open.

DR. MacDANIELS: Are we men, or are we mice?

MR. CHASE: In case you didn't notice, downstairs we have all the entries
in the contest with the exception of some which human mice got from me,
two samples, I believe. But all the rest I managed to save. And I, of
course, have not seen too many Persian walnuts, being down there where
the spring frost gets them. I was very favorably impressed by the
appearance of all these samples. We simply picked five, as I said, and
pointed out that this should be considered a preliminary finding and not
definite, but all those samples were fine. Some were, of course, more
bitter to the taste than others. That's where we lost a lot of nuts,
trying to find out the least bitter. But many were an improvement on the
commercial varieties, as far as I was concerned.

I think if we all get active on hunting out these Persians the way we
have blacks, we can make very good progress.

MR. McDANIEL: Even on appearance I think some of them beat what you see
in the stores.

MR. CHASE: Yes, on appearance. Of course, some of them were handed back
and forth and competing against each other, that's what happened.

DR. McKAY: I'd like to ask how much importance you ascribe to tree
characteristics and not the nut itself.

MR. CHASE: I asked for that information and tabulated it, and it didn't
mean much. We found we couldn't do it. So then we came back to the nut
first.


Carpathian Scions for Testing~

There is one other point I might mention. Last year you may recall that
I reported on our planting of Carpathian seedlings at Norris, some 500
of them, which were frosted every single year. We have babied them along
now for almost ten years, and I don't see any prospects of getting any
nuts on them.

Now, among those 500 there must be one good one, and I will be very
happy to collect scion wood of all those trees and send it to members
who are willing to top-work them and see what they will do. So if any of
you folks are interested in some of these varieties--not varieties yet,
but seedlings--I'd like to see them fruit, and I am sure we never will
at Norris.

DR. MacDANIELS: Where did you get the seed?

MR. CHASE: From the Wisconsin State Horticultural Society.

DR. MacDANIELS: In other words, it's just as good seed as any other.

MR. FRYE: You are in a frost pocket.

MR. CHASE: The whole place is a frost pocket. They are up on the
hill--the frosty spot.

A MEMBER: When were they planted?

MR. CHASE: In the spring of 1939.

MR. CORSAN: Let me understand that. You say there are 500 trees that did
nothing at all?

MR. CHASE: We have approximately 500 of the Crath seedlings, and each
year they are frosted.

MR. CORSAN: Let me explain that. I have had the same trouble. Mr. Crath,
not knowing the nature of my place, put some of the best nuts in wet
places, in frost pockets, but he had two rows of one kind of nut that
grew very rapidly the first year, but they are not any bigger now, and
that was many years ago, back in 1935 they were planted. And there were
about 80 varieties he got from Russia, he being able to speak four
Russian dialects, his father being the Burbank of Russia and the
gardener to the Czar, he had a lot of information, and he knew just what
he was doing. But he was too hopeful and got some varieties from the
foothills, some up a little higher, some up half way, some up towards
the snow line, and they are tremendously hardy.

Now, I have given these nut trees away to people south of Lake Ontario.
You see, I am north of Lake Ontario, and those are around St.
Catherines. There trees will grow and succeed. I have been told there is
no check by frost on them. I have given a lots of those away. But with
me they are absolutely worthless north of the Lake, and there is a vast
difference in them.

Now, I thought, looking at a great, big nut, the Rumanian giant, thought
sure a nut that big would be bitter. I thought sure that it wouldn't be
hardy, but at any rate, I planted a few, and I have a nearly perfect
reproduction of those nuts, and one is very hardy and very productive,
and the other is not quite so hardy. It's a huge nut and not so
productive. However, size has nothing to do with it. I noticed a certain
type and shape of nut was sometimes quite tender, and then again the
same shape of nut but different variety was quite hardy.

I sold a lot of trees in varying sizes, keeping the small and the runts
and those that were injured by the tractor and other trees for myself,
but I have enough varieties every year to come down and see some
wonderful results.

For instance, I slashed one up badly to dwarf it, and it had a little,
wee nut that big (indicating). When I cracked that nut, the shell was
crammed full of meat, and it was exceedingly sweet, and it tasted like a
hickory nut. So I cut my own throat, as it were.

       *       *       *       *       *

DR. MacDANIELS: Mr. Chase's problem right now is to get these trees out
somewhere where they can be tested further, and he has asked any of you
if you want scions to get in touch with him.

MR. CORSAN: I say, send them south.

DR. MacDANIELS: The farther south you go the worse they are.

MR. H. F. STOKE: May I also say a word? Also send them north. Sometimes
the winter sun will start the growth activity, and then wind comes along
and kills it. The original Crath that was started in Toronto, I had it
killed back to five-year-old wood thick as my wrist one winter, when the
sun moved it to activity. It was hardy in Toronto, but it wasn't hardy
in Roanoke, Virginia.

DR. MacDANIELS: Let's have a showing of hands of those who have that
trouble, starting in the spring and freezing back. (Showing of hands.)
About five or six.

       *       *       *       *       *

The next paper will be, "The Persian Walnut in Pennsylvania and Ohio,"
Mr. L. Walter Sherman.

MR. SHERMAN: Ladies and gentlemen, Mr. Chairman: First I'd like to tell
you who I am. Some of you have been to my place and know who I am, but
last fall Pennsylvania started something new--a little bit different.
They put on a survey of the nut trees of Pennsylvania. Two of us were
selected for the job, and I would like to introduce Dr. Anthony--stand
up so they can see. He and I were the two that were selected to put on
the tree crop survey of that State of Pennsylvania.

Pennsylvania is a big state, and there is lots to see. They not only
made it a survey of the nut trees, but any trees that are potential food
for wildlife. Well, that made it the acorns and the honeylocust and,
well, what have you, How big a job they hung on two fellows! Well, we
have done the best we can, and we want to bring you this afternoon just
a little of those results.



The Persian Walnut in Pennsylvania and Ohio

L. WALTER SHERMAN, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania Pennsylvania Department of
Agriculture Tree Crop Survey, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania


As members of the Northern Nut Growers Association, most of you are
familiar with the early history of the Persian walnut, its introduction
into the United States by the early settlers, and how it finally found a
home in California. You also know of the more recent introduction into
this country of nuts and other material from the Carpathian Mountains by
the Rev. Mr. Crath, who was assisted by members of your organization.
(1)

These recent Crath introductions are supposed to be much hardier than
the former ones, and probably able to establish themselves in northern
United States and southern Canada.

When the Pennsylvania legislature authorized a survey of the nut trees
of the state, very few people realize the foothold that the Persian
walnut already had in Pennsylvania.

Early in this survey, we visited Fayette Etter, who is Pennsylvania's
Luther Burbank with nut trees. He is well informed concerning the
Persian walnut in his section, and he surprised us by his estimate of
several thousand trees in his county of Franklin. The adjoining counties
of Adams, York, and Lancaster, along the southern border of the state,
have fully as many trees of this species, so it is a very conservative
estimate that there are ten thousand of these trees in Pennsylvania.
These are located, for the most part, in the southeastern corner of the
state below one thousand feet elevation.

Local grown Persian walnuts were found on sale last fall in the farm
markets of York, Lancaster, and Harrisburg and at many grocery stores.
Wherever we found such local nuts on sale, we asked where and by whom
they were grown. Many of them came from Halifax and Linglestown, in
Dauphin County; from Lampeter, Lancaster County; and from Seven Valleys,
York County.

Farther investigation revealed the facts that in all but one of the
centers of production, the trees were seedling trees and that there were
from four to 23 trees planted relatively close together. In one
instance, a lone tree produced the nuts being sold, and in another case
the nuts were from several grafted trees.

The lone tree, which produced three bushels in 1949, was of interest.
Investigation revealed that the nearest Persian walnut tree was at least
a city block distant. Was this lone tree self pollinating or receiving
pollen from a tree this far away? We still are not sure of the answer.

Jacob Houser, of Lampeter, was selling Pomeroy seedling nuts and nuts
from three Rush Persian walnuts grafted on black walnut stock. They were
growing close enough for cross-pollination.

Driving through the counties of southeastern Pennsylvania, we found many
thousand seedling Persian walnut trees as shade trees about the farm
homes. Investigations revealed that most of these trees never produced
any nuts. Repeatedly we are told that, "my tree never has any nuts, but
a certain tree on an adjoining farm always produces," or "I have two
trees, one of which bears quite regularly but the other never has
borne." They are the same age and both seem to be growing equally well.
Some produce only a few handfulls of nuts when they should be producing
five to ten bushels, judging by their size.

You as nut growers know the answer, but the general public does not.
Even some of you have made the mistake of planting one tree by itself
and expecting it to produce. This seldom happens. Mixed plantings of
several varieties or several seedlings planted close together is the
safe rule to plant by.

I know of one planting of ten grafted trees of one variety of Persian
walnuts, now twenty years old, that has never produced any nuts even
though they are planted so that cross-pollination would be expected. In
1950 only a few catkins developed. These produced pollen early and were
on the ground before the pistilate bloom opened and was receptive. I
never saw a nicer pistillate bloom on any Persian walnuts than these
trees had, yet not a single nut set. They are in the center of a
fifty-five acre black walnut orchard, and when the pistillate bloom was
at its peak, the black walnuts surrounding were shedding pollen. Do not
try to tell me that native black walnuts will satisfactorily pollinate
the Persian walnut. After this demonstration, I know different. Were all
the Persian walnut trees of Pennsylvania properly pollinated, the crop
of nuts, in my estimation, would be increased a hundredfold over what it
is normally. Lack of pollination is probably the greatest factor causing
non-production in our Persian walnuts. It is far more important that the
fertility factor which is so important in production of the common black
walnut. (2)

Fayette Etter and Milo Paden both feel that the Broadview variety is
self-pollinating, but even this variety may prove to be benefited by
cross pollination.

The Persian walnut has developed in Pennsylvania and Ohio in a rather
interesting pattern. Trees planted fifty to a hundred and fifty years
ago managed to live and produce nuts. From these trees, seedlings were
grown and planted by neighbors and friends. These trees and their
seedlings in turn have now grown to producing age. Some few that produce
good crops of nuts you hear about, but the vast majority are just
non-producing shade trees. Until you look for them you little realize
how numerous they are.

At Linglestown, Dauphin County, however, we find a striking exception to
this. Here all the trees are productive. The question there is not why
don't my trees produce, but is quite spirited as to who harvests the
largest crop and best nuts.

About seventy-five years ago Alfred Kleopfer planted some Persian
walnuts of unknown origin, but probably from Germany. He grew three
trees which were planted, one beside the village blacksmith shop, one
across the street, and the third at a neighbor's. One tree lived for
only a short time. The blacksmith shop has been replaced by a modern
dwelling but the walnut tree was saved and has grown to be a tree 6' 6"
in circumference and probably 60 feet high. The one across the street is
of nearly equal size but the top has been damaged by storm and the tree
is not as tall.

These two trees were able to cross-pollinate and one tree was especially
productive. Miles Bolton recognized its value and began growing seedling
trees and distributing them to his neighbors. Some of them were quite
skeptical and even refused to take them as a gift and plant them.
However, he got the village pretty well planted to Persian walnut trees,
so that today there are 145 nice trees within the village, and two small
orchards on farms nearby.

Standing in the village square, one can see at least six Persian walnut
trees higher than the house tops. Pollination is not a problem, and all
trees are good producers. Young trees are in demand for planting, and
seedling trees, coming up in the flower beds, compost piles, fence
corners, and other places where squirrels have hidden nuts, are
carefully transplanted to permanent locations.

The story of the development of the Persian walnut at Linglestown, with
minor variations of course, can be repeated many times in southeastern
Pennsylvania. In Linglestown, the development has been concentrated
within a village, whereas in most places it has been spread over a
farming community, with less opportunity for cross-pollination. The
result has been a very high percentage of barren trees. However, Persian
walnut seedling trees have taken over and are making good in this milder
climate area of Pennsylvania.

About the same can be said of northern Ohio, though the development is
probably 50 years behind that in Pennsylvania. The climate there
apparently is not so well suited to the Persian walnut, and fewer trees
have been able to thrive. A few, however, are growing nicely and their
seedlings are rapidly spreading. The Jacobs tree at Elmore, Ohio,
produced 300 pounds of nuts in 1947, at 30 years of age, and many nuts
from this tree are being planted. The Ohio Nut Growers are propagating
vegetatively from the outstanding trees and rapid development is taking
place. Named varieties are thus being developed from superior trees, and
future success will be based on these named varieties rather than on
seedlings.

During the last few years, some of the seedlings developed from the
Crath Carpathian importations are coming into bearing in parts of
Pennsylvania and Ohio, and wherever I have seen them they look very
promising indeed. The Crath Carpathians are doing well at Mt. Jackson,
Lawrence County, Pennsylvania, along with Broadview, for Riley Paden and
Howard Butler. A. W. Robinson, of Pittsburgh, has five trees of Crath
seedlings, two of which are in bearing. All these trees seem to be
perfectly hardy. The nuts of course vary, but all are good.

Riley Paden, at Mt. Jackson, is grafting Broadview on black walnut
stock, and for him this variety is doing well. He has about forty trees
of it from two to fifteen years of age. His prize fifteen-year-old tree
produced one bushel of nuts in 1949. A sample of these nuts is on the
table for your inspection. Paden says he can grow Broadview anywhere
peaches will do well. Fayette Etter at Lemasters, Franklin County,
considers Broadview too bitter flavored for him. He thinks Burtner,
which is a local seedling, superior for his section to all other
varieties that he has tested.

With an estimated ten thousand Persian walnut seedlings growing in
Pennsylvania, the Pennsylvania nut growers are faced with a big task to
sort out the best and get them tested in different sections of the
state. We should find the best half dozen varieties for each section.

The Persian walnut is established in Pennsylvania and in northern Ohio.
There are not just a few scattered trees having a hard time to survive
but there are many thousands of them, growing vigorously, some producing
big crops of fine nuts, others not producing any. They are ready now for
the intelligent development you can give to them. Nature has gone about
as far as she will without your assistance. The job now is up to you nut
growers.


REFERENCES

   (1) Northern Nut Growers Annual Report          Vol.  Page
       Persian walnuts
            history of in Penna. Rush                5   93
            history of in Cal. Reed, C. A.           6   51
            introduction of Carpathian. Crath       27  103
            distribution of Carpathian. Rahmlow     27  112
            survey in Penna. Fagan                   6   23
   (2) Persian walnut protandrous. Craig             2  106


Discussion

MR. FRYE: How about butternuts for pollenization?

MR. SHERMAN: I don't know. I have one hybrid, and that's a sample
downstairs that I think is an English walnut crossed with a butternut.
The nut looks like a butternut; the tree looks like an English walnut,
but it has the butternut bark. They will occasionally pollinate, I
think, but don't depend on them.

MR. CORSAN: I'll tell you how you can tell. That butternut-English
walnut cross is the most powerful tree I ever came across, especially
for good wood. I got a tremendous one.

MR. STOKE: I produced, I think, 22 seedling trees from the Lancaster
Persian walnut. About five per cent are hybrids. There was one
strong-growing black × Persian hybrid that I am sure of. There are three
or four very dwarfish trees that undoubtedly were crossed with the
heartnut. They were all dwarf. I haven't been able to get one to bear. I
have had one grafted five or six years on a black walnut, but that was
the heartnut and not the butternut.

MR. SHERMAN: That study of the hybrid is another story and really
doesn't belong in this discussion at all.

MR. CORSAN: Here is a point on that. When they are only that high
(indicating)--if they are only babies, I can tell them. You know,
occasionally. Look at the leaflets on the compound leaf, and if there
are over seven, they are hybrids, and if they are extra vigorous
growing, they are hybrids, because they occasionally pollenize.

MR. SHERMAN: Those are all characteristics of the hybrids, but here is
what I want to bring out now, and Dr. Anthony is going to stress it on
his chestnuts a little bit later: You people have a wealth of material
to select from. Nature has gone about so far, and I am just a believer
enough in what the Bible says, that God made the heavens and the earth
and put man here to tend and keep it, and made him master of everything
above the earth and every creeping thing on the earth and everything
beneath the earth, and it is up to you fellows to direct intelligently
this mass of material you have to direct. You have got nuts growing
where they are hardy, you have got big nuts, you have got little nuts,
you have got everything under the sun you can think of. What more do you
want for a nice job ahead? It's up to you fellows to do. It's going to
be not a one-year job, not a two-year job, not a five-year job; you will
be at this, and your children and your grandchildren.

MR. CORSAN: Make you live long.

MR. SHERMAN: Maybe you will live long enough, but it's a century's job,
and not the job for one man's lifetime.

(Loud applause.)

DR. MacDANIELS: Thank you, Mr. Sherman. Any questions?

MR. CHASE: Yes, sir. I want to ask Mr. Sherman, should I be thinking
about receiving 10,000 entries in this contest?

MR. SHERMAN: No, because there aren't 10,000 trees producing. Out of
that 10,000 maybe there are a thousand of them producing. The nine
thousand others are nothing but shade trees, and never produce any nuts.
You don't hear of them, but if you travel through York, Lancaster, and
Adams Counties down there and look for Persian walnuts, you will find
them on--I was going to say 50 per cent of the farm homes. You can see
them along the road everywhere.

My wife travels with me a good deal of the time. She will say, "Why
don't you stop and look at that Persian walnut? There are some over
there. Why don't you stop there?"

A MEMBER: Don't they bloom a month later than most of the others?

MR. CORSAN: Did you find a good French variety?

MR. SHERMAN: But those French varieties--I can't take you to a good
French variety in Southeastern Pennsylvania that has been producing the
nuts. They produce the nuts, but folks won't even pick them up.

A MEMBER: They are good for pollen.

MR. SHERMAN: If you want a good pollenizer go to Fayette Etter and get
his Burtner. It's a very late pollen producer. This year I took some
buds from his Burtner and put them in the top of those ten trees in that
55-acre black walnut orchard to see if I can't do something. Maybe it
won't stick--maybe I hadn't better tell you.

MR. CORSAN: Mr. Chairman, there is one point raised by the last speaker
that's not understood; that the young black walnut trees, when they
first blossom, they come out with a mass of male blossoms. Then the
English walnut, when it comes out, it sometimes comes out with a mass of
pistillate flowers which people might not know are the female flowers.
They make the nuts, but there is not even one catkin. I have seen that
time and again.

Those trees in Russia would be dependent upon larger trees to pollinate
them. But here you have young trees, and you have to wait till they get
a certain growth, and then they produce their catkins.

DR. MacDANIELS: Thank you, Mr. Corsan.

The next paper, by Mr. J. F. Wilkinson of Rockport, Indiana,
"Observations and Experiences with the Persian Walnut in Southern
Indiana." Mr. Wilkinson.

(Paper not available for this Report.)

DR. MacDANIELS: We have a choice of doing several different things.
There are several other papers we have here, the authors of which are
not present. Then the other possibility would be to go on and have some
papers that require the use of the lantern, as long as we have this all
fixed up.

Perhaps the thing to do is to have Dr. Anthony's paper on chestnuts,
using the lantern, and then have these other papers on the Persian
walnut summarized after that. Does that seem to be a reasonable thing to
do?

(Chorus of yeses.)

DR. MacDANIELS: We will go ahead on that basis, then. Dr. Anthony has
the talk on chestnuts.

(This talk, withdrawn for revision, may appear in next Report.)

MR. CORSAN: Dr. Anthony, I knew Captain Sober very well, and he showed
me quite a group--a double handful--of Korean sweet chestnuts. They were
a little thicker than the native Pennsylvania chestnut, they are rounder
and a little larger, but they weren't as large as some of the Chinese or
nearly as large as the Japanese. What about those nuts, because, you
see, the blight killed all his Paragon chestnuts--you know, the cross
between the European and the American chestnuts--killed them all off
completely, as it did with me.

DR. ANTHONY: In our detective work we were instructed to follow down
that plantation. Mrs. Sober is still alive, living in Lewisburg. The
planting has practically disappeared. I am going over there next week.
It is still with the man who wrote "Chestnut Culture in Pennsylvania."
MR. CORSAN: It broke his heart.

DR. ANTHONY: We are going over there next week, but I think that whole
planting has disappeared. When these things change hands, another man
comes in who is not interested, and things disappear very rapidly.

(Continue with paper.)

MR. CORSAN: I want to tell you how to keep the deer out of the chestnut
orchard. Plant filberts five feet apart all around the place, and after
while just put one single electrified wire five feet from the ground,
and the deer won't get in through that.

DR. ANTHONY: Glad to hear that, because deer is one of our problems.

(Continue with paper.)

DR. ANTHONY: There is a tree beside the blacksmith shop, and the old man
used to go there early in the morning as a boy to get chestnuts. Today
he has taken down the old blacksmith shop and built a home, but he
preserved that tree in Linglestown. It practically covers his house, six
feet six inches in trunk circumference, 60 feet high and a spread of 60
feet. It isn't too long before we will have chestnuts that big to eat
alongside the old blacksmith shop.

DR. MacDANIELS. It is about three o'clock. We will take a five-minute
recess.

(Whereupon, a short recess was taken.)

DR. MacDANIELS: For the first paper after the recess, we will call on
Sargent Wellman to speak to us about the Persian walnuts in England. Mr.
Wellman.



Notes on Persian Walnuts in England

SARGENT WELLMAN, Topsfield, Massachusetts


MR. WELLMAN: Members of the Association: I was fortunate enough to be in
England last summer, and I agreed that I would say a few words about nut
growing there. What I am really going to do is largely to read you a few
things from some articles that I found there.

I was very much impressed with the little interest that there is in nut
growing in England, and I was very much surprised at it. Of course, you
all know that the walnut grows there. The chestnut grows there. There
are some fine, marvelous trees in Kew Gardens, of course, that I saw,
and if you read the English poets, you will remember how they talk about
chestnut blossoms on chestnut trees, but curiously enough, there is now
very little interest.

MR. McDANIEL. When they speak of the blossom, they speak of the
horsechestnut, do they not?

MR. WELLMAN: Not always, but there are pink flowered horsechestnuts in
France, particularly, whole avenues of pink ones. The cob nut, as they
call the filbert, is very common there, grown in hedges. One year when I
was in England previously I brought home a few in my pocket, and I have
a seedling which grew from one of those, which is comparable to the
filberts I have, but apparently there is no interest in that, so far as
I can see--I mean, any investigation and any experimentation and
encouragement of its planting. But there is about the walnut. That's the
one nut tree in which they are interested.

I picked up two reports, both of them made by Elizabeth M. Glenn, who is
the woman connected with the East Malling Station down in Kent and is
the one person who is doing more with walnut work than anybody else, as
far as I could find out. Unfortunately, the day I was there she was on
vacation, so I couldn't see her, but they were very kind to me and took
me around and showed me everything.

As you know, the East Malling Station is the place where they have done
all that work with apple root stocks. This one is a reprint from the
annual report for the East Malling Station for 1946. And then "The Men
of the Trees," which is a forestry society there which some of you may
have heard of, have reprinted in the Autumn, 1949, number another
article by Elizabeth Glenn on "The Selection and Propagation of
Walnuts." And I think if I make a few comments and read a few things
from these, you will be interested.

She says, "The earliest record of a walnut tree in England is 1562, but
remains of walnut shells have been found in Roman villas, and it is
probable that the Romans planted some nuts and raised trees in this
country."

She says, "There is a large tree of it"--black walnut--"at Kew, near the
entrance to the Rock Garden." Of course there are some rootstocks, and
they are all specimen trees, but they are not used for nuts. She says
somewhere here, "In this country the nuts are of little value, although
in America they are used for confectionery purposes."

The East Malling Station is really a fruit research station, as I said,
and they are the ones who are primarily interested in walnut crops and
not timber production. "However, there is no reason why a tree shouldn't
produce both good crops and good timber."

"The French, have been grafting walnuts for well over 100 years, and the
famous Grenoble nuts all come from grafted trees of named varieties."
She emphasizes the fact that almost all of the English walnuts are grown
on seedling trees and are very much inferior to those that come from the
Continent and from this country. And of course that was the purpose of
their work, to encourage the use of grafted trees.

I was interested in this sentence: "The late Mr. Howard Spence began the
survey and collection of good varieties growing in this country and
abroad, and collaborated with East Malling in the trial of selected
varieties." He was always interested in our society and was an honorary
member of it for a good many years prior to his death.

I was interested in the fact that the problems that they have over there
in the way of climate and some other things are very similar to our
problems. She speaks a good deal about the matter of climate. I will
come to that as I go along.

"Work on walnuts, started at East Malling in 1925, soon showed that the
budding or grafting of walnuts out of doors was far too chancy in this
climate to be relied upon as a means of raising young trees," so that
all their grafting is done in the greenhouse, and they don't try to do
anything outdoors.

"Outdoor grafting can be done successfully only where the mean
temperature from May to September is above 65° F." Then she gives a
description of the greenhouse grafting, bringing in the seedlings and
potting them in November, in the fall, and then starting along in
February in grafting, and then taking them out and planting them in the
spring. I won't go into that; there is nothing particularly interesting
I think, for us about that.

Patch budding she also describes.... She says it's a much cheaper method
than grafting under glass but at the moment the results are far less
reliable.

"The walnut will tolerate a wide range of soils so long as the drainage
is good and the soil is not too acid. Lime should be applied before
planting, unless there is plenty present in the soil.

"The site should not be in a valley or frost hole, because, although the
dormant tree is quite hardy and can stand severe frost, the young
growths and catkins are very easily killed by spring frosts." They are
talking about the same problem we have. In fact, in spite of the fact
that the weather is warmer than in Boston and New England, they don't
have the severe winters, but they do have this late frost.

Manuring. They recommend mulching with farmyard manure or compost put on
the soil and worked in and no artificial nitrogen because that again
gives too much late growth, and you have trouble with killing back.

She goes over the problems that we have been talking about this
afternoon, about the time of leafing out in the spring and what the
difference in the varieties is and the effects of that on the winter
killing.

Now, I am not going to read much more. I will just read over the names
of the varieties which may interest you. This first article, the 1946
one, lists Franquette, Mayette, Meylanaise, Chaberte, Excelsior of
Taynton, Northdown, Clawnut, and Secrett. The latter article, which was
published last year, says that in 1929, with the help of Dr. Taylor, the
Royal Horticultural Society held a walnut competition. "Over 700 entries
were received and were subjected to severe tests. Most of the nuts were
far below the required standards, but five Were selected for propagation
and further tests. The owners of the trees from which these nuts came
supplied scion wood to raise grafted trees for trial at East Malling."
The best ones came from a tree which they called "Champion of Ixworth."
The second one was called "Excelsior of Taynton," which was in the list
I read previously. Another variety is called "Lady Irene." I am not
going into the description of these varieties here, because if any of
you are interested, you can get hold of these publications and get it.
She lists the Stutton seedling and then the Northdown Clawnut.

Also in this article she mentions the French varieties, of course, which
were mentioned before.

Well, I thought it might just interest you that in another part of the
world they are doing the same sort of thing we are, and they are having
the same sort of problems and working on it. (Applause.)

DR. MacDANIELS: Several of these papers which were scheduled will be
either summarized or read. One of them will be read now by Mr. Silvis of
Ohio. The paper is by Carl Weschcke.



Prospects for Persian Walnuts in the Vicinity of St. Paul, Minnesota

CARL WESCHCKE


Although I was asked to prepare a paper on the Carpathian walnut, I feel
that my other experiences with Persian or so-called English walnut (the
botanical name of which is _Juglans regia_) are also of some value to
those who might be tempted to try this species of walnut in cold
climates.

When I first started my experiments with nut bearing trees, I included
the English walnut among the possibilities for our section. Mr. J. F.
Jones of Lancaster, Pennsylvania, gave me much information and a great
deal of help in trying out what he considered hardy strains. There was a
walnut tree in Boston, known as the Boston walnut, of which he sent
scions, and which I grafted on butternut. This was about the year 1920,
and was included in my grafting experiments together with black walnut,
heartnut, hickories, and hybrids between hickory and pecan. Later on, he
sent me scionwood from other known hardy varieties which I placed on
butternut, and many of these made tremendous growths but were
winterkilled the very first winter. None of the English walnut with
which I continued experiments lived over the first winter until I
received scionwood from Prof. James Neilson of Canada, who sent the
Broadview. These Broadview scions were grafted on butternut and black
walnut, and a few of the scions survived for possibly three seasons,
even producing staminate and pistillate blossoms and small nuts which
grew only to about the size of a quarter and then dropped off.

Clarence A. Reed arranged to have some small seedling Chinese strain of
_Juglans regia_ sent from Chico, California; these were planted in
favorable places and survived a few winters. I also planted seeds of the
Chinese strains which gave me no better results than the seedlings.

Then I bought walnuts from A. C. Pomeroy, of Lockport, New York. These
were even more tender than other varieties with which I had
experimented, although they were very much publicized by Mr. Pomeroy in
the Nut Grower during that era as being extra hardy, because they were
growing near the south shore of Lake Erie.

I next went to Mr. Jones, who was then selling quite a quantity of Wiltz
Mayette and Franquette strains of English walnut grafted on black
walnut. These proved to be among the most tender varieties I have ever
tested here. Then he sent me scions of the Hall and Holden varieties,
which he felt were considerably more winter hardy, but here they failed
to survive even one winter.

We have not neglected the Rush English walnut either, which was tested
in a similar manner without any good practical results.

This now brings us to the convention at Geneva, New York, in 1936 when
the Rev. Mr. Crath and George H. Corsan presented a new strain of
English walnuts, known as the Carpathian strain, originating in the
Carpathian mountains in Poland. This so impressed me that after talking
it over with my father we decided to finance a trip into the same region
that Mr. Crath had been in, to locate new and better varieties for a
real test. The story of the Rev. Mr. Crath's and my adventure along
these lines, during the winter of 1936-37, has been printed in the
records of the Northern Nut Growers Association, and I will bring out
only the high spots that seem to be important 14 years later.

In the shipments of hardy material collected were some 4,000 scions of
possibly a dozen different good strains of what Mr. Crath considered
hardiest and best. In addition to that, there were around 500 trees
ranging in size from small whips of one foot long to some that were over
eight feet; also there were some 400 pounds of nuts to be planted to
produce seedlings.

These nuts had been gathered from superior hardy trees with the
expectation that the seedlings would produce nearly true imitations of
their parents in the quality of their fruit and hardiness. These
seedling nuts produced somewhat over 12,000 seedling trees, which were
planted in about six large strips of land so as to give room for
cultivation. The 500 trees received from Poland were planted in
favorable locations and many of them are still alive. The scionwood was
put on native butternut and black walnut. Some of it was grafted to
young nursery stock, but most of it was put on large mature trees, being
top worked. Grafting was started in April and continued into the early
part of June. The later grafts were much more successful than the
earlier ones, although some of the April grafts grew and flourished.
Many of these grafts bore flowers and had little nutlets but none of
them ripened nuts. After about three seasons some of the grafts that
continued to live produced a few nuts.

Three varieties were practically mature, and then the native insect
pests caught up with them. Also, there was a black rot or wilt which I
am fairly sure was walnut bacteriosis disease, although specimens sent
out to competent authorities did not corroborate this diagnosis. What
turned out to be the butternut curculio attacked all grafted and
seedling trees with such vigor that there was no way to combat it. I
sprayed some of the grafted specimens and kept it up for several years,
trying to hold on to them, but it became too much for me and my
equipment; I doubt now whether any amount of poison would have saved the
trees because the butternut curculio is difficult to kill with poison.
One of the varieties, known as the Kremenetz, grafted on black walnut,
was sent to Harry Weber. It thrives and bears nice crops at his country
estate in Cleves, Ohio, near Cincinnati. He has sent me scions of this
variety, and this spring I grafted them back on black walnut, as the
butternut curculio is not nearly as bad as it was when there was so much
English walnut foliage for them to feed on (this foliage is their choice
over all other foliage). These insect pests also wiped out several
heartnut varieties which came from J. U. Gellatly, of Westbank, B. C,
Canada; for next to English walnuts the curculio loves heartnut foliage
and its new branch growth.

We have about 60 to 70 acres of woods which contain a large percentage
of butternut, therefore it is next to impossible to wipe out their
native food. I doubt very much whether this would have benefited the
situation at all, as the curculio would have then centered all its
activities on the English walnut foliage and perhaps have attacked
hickories, pecans, and black walnuts, on which they sometimes try their
appetites. Hybrids between butternut and black walnut are viciously
attacked by this curculio. Hybrids between English walnut and other
species of walnut which I have here also become a prey to curculio. So
there is no trick species which would be immune to their attack.

The English walnut usually vegetates too early in the spring to escape
some of our late frosts. Because this new growth generally contains the
flowers, the fruiting of such trees would be very unreliable and only
occasional. We even have trouble with black walnut and butternut in this
respect. The hickory is much better, and the pecan is even later in
respect to vegetation. I mention this because even though everything had
gone well it is doubtful whether reliable crops of English walnuts would
ever have been produced from the so-called hardy Carpathian series.

A year or so following the experiment with the Carpathian walnut, I
imported about 100 pounds of seeds from Austria. They came in two
different lots: one of them was more expensive than the other seed, and
it proved to be much the hardier. The larger lot of smaller seeds was
not as hardy. Although we have several hundred trees of this better seed
lot which remain alive, they are no better off in any respect than the
Carpathian seedlings. In fact, I could not see much difference between
the behavior of these seedlings and the behavior of the Carpathian
walnut strain.

While in California in 1939 I picked up about five pounds of seeds from
a hardy tree growing in the Sierra Nevadas in Sonora, also some native
black walnuts. These survived a few years but finally were winter-killed
entirely, root and all. The Carpathians are never killed out entirely
but continue to grow from the root systems, even though they are frozen
back to the ground; but the insect and the fungus have destroyed many
thousands of the original group of trees so that there are today perhaps
between 1000 and 2000 living trees, which sprout up each spring and kill
back each fall with clock-like regularity. Among these; However, are a
few outstanding varieties which extend some hope that there may be among
these survivors one or more trees which resist the butternut curculio
and have become acclimated, to such an extent that they do not entirely
kill back but only a little of their new growth is killed. These
specimens usually are the ones that make a shorter growth during the
summer, in fact have more of a tendency to be a genuine dwarf type of
tree. Three such seeding trees were known to have sprouted from
exceptionally large and very thin-shelled walnuts, which I believe the
Rev. Mr. Crath calls the giant type.

I will now summarize and express my own private opinion regarding the
future possibilities of introducing the English walnut into such an
extreme northern latitude as we are in. First, experiments started
thirty years ago, which period gives a reasonable period of time that
any man should feel is necessary to devote to giving a species a
try-out. Secondly, we have used material from every reasonably known
source. Third, persons in charge had a reasonable amount of skill and
success with other varieties to have insured success if the material had
been responsive. My opinion, for what it may be worth, is that the
species is out of its range in this northern latitude, more particularly
because it is too tender to fight its own battles as to insect life
which attacks it, particularly the butternut curculio. Grasshoppers,
leaf eating insects, and worms of different sorts, also attack it more
than they do other nut tree foliage. The possibilities of a break in the
strong cycle of insect life is a hopeful prospect which we are helping
by breeding tens of thousands of toads and frogs. This might allow
some, of the more vigorous specimens to acquire sufficient size to
overcome this weakness. In my opinion, the climate itself is not the
main governing factor which would kill out all hope of raising English
walnuts here; but certainly, coupled with the disastrous attack of
insect life and susceptibility to blight, these three foes are almost
insurmountable. And then in view of the early vegetating habit of these
species, there is the possibility that even though you had a hardy tree,
immune to insects, you would never get much fruit.


Discussion

DR. MacDANIELS: Remember, the climate up around St. Paul is a bit
rugged, and I think that work of that kind is certainly of value to give
us an idea of the limits at which we can grow these trees, but I don't
think that we have by any means explored the whole field.

In the Morris collection at Ithaca there is a little Persian walnut
about the size of the end of this finger (indicating), a very small nut,
that was given to Dr. Morris by a consul from the interior of Asia up in
the Himalaya Mountains in Tibet, from of an elevation of about 10,000
feet. That little walnut had a hard shell, harder than some of our
shellbark hickory nuts, and a bound kernel that I would say was much
less promising than many of the nuts which we discard.

Somewhere, it seems to me, in this vast range of material we ought to be
able to find some variety or clone of these species that would be
adapted to practically every part of the United States. There at Ithaca
we have the difficulties with the Persian walnut mainly of winter cold.
That is the absolute low temperature that wipes out the trees, now that
I have seen them come and go in my place there and in the vicinity. The
old Pomeroy strain is killed at about 20 below zero Fahrenheit. It
stayed there in fairly good condition up in the Lockport region until
the extreme cold of 1933-34. Once the temperatures went down to nearly
30 below zero, except for a small region around the Niagara peninsula,
where it hit only 12. Those trees are still there in that little
circumscribed area around Niagara, and we saw a picture of one of them
in Mr. Sherman's collection. But the Pomeroy trees, I have learned--I
haven't seen them myself--were practically wiped out, as were the
others, in what was thought to be the protected area along Lake Erie.

I remember the trees on the Whitecroft farm along Keuka Lake. Some of
you saw those when the Nut Growers Association met at Geneva. They are
on a bench close to Keuka Lake, which up to 1933-34 had not been frozen
over for many years. They had grown, produced good crops, were in
excellent condition, but that year the temperature went down to about 30
below zero and stayed there for a number of days. The lake froze over,
and the trees were severely damaged. A California redwood which was
there--had been there for 80 years--was killed outright, and so it goes.

Now, just for these Carpathian strains it seems to me that we have
pretty well--perhaps you might say--licked this question of winter cold;
that is, at least down to perhaps 30, 35 below zero Fahrenheit, but we
certainly haven't licked the problem of early vegetation. That is, it
starts out with warm days in the spring, the shoots get about this long
(indicating), you get temperature going down to, say, 26, 27, 28, and
your shoots are all killed back and you have lost your year's crop. So
that's the problem which in the selection of varieties for this northern
country, we have got to keep in mind, as I think that's one thing to
look for among your Carpathian trees. It's one which will mature its
foliage in the fall fairly early and which does not start out too
quickly in the spring.

Now, we know there are some that don't start out in the spring, like
these Chinese types, but what we want is a combination of short-season,
late-starting, winter-hardy walnuts, and I think we can find them if we
keep at it.

I didn't start out to talk so long, but I thought that was perhaps a
sort of a summary of some of these things which we are looking for.

DR. CRANE: I'd just like to make a few comments. There is one thing that
you have got to be very careful about, I think, in watching for these
late-blooming Persian walnut trees that start in to grow, in Oregon,
particularly, although the same thing is true in some areas of
California where we are growing large quantities of Persian walnuts. You
know that a deficiency of boron will cause trees to go into a condition
which the growers out there now call "sleepers." They will stay dormant
for quite a long period of time in the spring before they start growth.
That's due to a severe boron deficiency.

Now, we have a lot of boron deficiency here in the East, and in areas in
which we have trouble with growing vegetables, like cauliflower that has
a hollow stem, or beets or turnips that split and crack, or where we
have so-called drouth spot or internal corking in apples, you can be
sure that you can't grow a Persian walnut, because the boron requirement
alone is many, many times that of an apple or of most vegetables.

In Oregon on the same soils where we are growing apples, we put on a
half a pound of borax per tree to control boron deficiency on apples. On
walnuts we have to use anywhere from five to ten or twelve pounds for a
tree of the same size. We have to have a boron content in walnuts very,
very much higher than that of apples. We have got to be careful about
that.

So if you do find late-sleeping walnut trees, or walnut trees that are
late in starting to grow, you will probably find that is a result of
boron deficiency.

MR. CORSAN: Mr. Chairman, I visited the Pomeroy Nursery in 1934. I had,
in my own planting, about a score of trees and they were a most amazing
sight. The big trees were all seriously damaged by that 1933-34 winter,
as were all Ben Davis apple orchards. So what amazed both of us was the
fact that Pomeroy's young trees weren't dead.[2] Of the Pomeroy, all the
big trees were dead. I ordered some more from him, and I planted them,
but the trees froze down to the ground. Just as a very few varieties of
the Crath Carpathians did. They froze twigs and they froze buds and
sometimes they froze the trunk. Only a couple of Carpathian varieties
froze down to the ground, but every one of the Pomeroy did. I was quite
sorry, because I had a Chinese English walnut from North China that was
extremely hardy and lived through that winter almost undamaged. The
nut, though, had a bitter tang, and Pomeroy's nuts were quite sweet and
delicious, but I haven't a Pomeroy on the place. They are all stone
dead.

[2] See Mr. Gellatly's paper in this volume.--Ed

DR. MacDANIELS: Thank you, Mr. Corsan.

Mr. Harry Weber will give us a paper by Gilbert Becker on Persian and
black walnuts in Michigan.



Grafted Black and Persian Walnuts in Michigan

GILBERT BECKER, Climax, Michigan


The performance of grafted Persian walnuts in southwestern Michigan has
been so satisfactory that I would not hesitate to recommend them, in
preference to grafted black walnuts. One of the nicest things about
grafted Persian walnuts is that when they start to produce nuts, they
bear _every_ year--there is not an off-season, as with the black walnut.
Our locality may be especially suitable to them. Our skies are cloudy,
and it is cool through much of the spring, thus preventing early growth
before conditions are right for the buds to develop unhampered by late
spring frosts. We have had an occasional late freeze that caused the
lower nuts to drop, while the higher ones remained on the tree,
unharmed.

In this article I would like to answer briefly our most often asked
question, as to which varieties do we think best from our experience
with them? Our climate must be quite different from that found around
Ithaca, New York, because we have never had winter injury in certain
Persian varieties, as occurs in that area. (And we had 26 below zero in
February, 1949.) An instance of this difference is in regard to the
McDermid variety, which happens to be our choice. We honestly believe
the Crath No. 1 variety to have great commercial possibilities, because
of its heavy production of large, thin-shelled nuts, of average quality.
The Broadview is another. The Carpathian "D", apparently, pollinates the
Crath No. 1 well. This one, however, is small, with a very white kernel
that is sweet. We have many other varieties producing, some with their
first crop this year; but we are not able to recommend any of them yet.

The black walnut varieties must be rather limited, because of the
brooming disease trouble; so we select from those that are quite able to
resist it, or that seem immune to the trouble. The Thomas and Grundy
varieties lead with us, and two other local nuts, the Adams and the
Climax, rate high in our estimation. We have some nice grafts of the
Homeland bearing their third crop, which we like very much, and they
appear disease free. The Elmer Myers, Michigan, and other varieties are
now badly affected with brooming disease.

Several years ago I reported on my observations on the brooming disease.
Now, I wish to report a little more upon the subject, especially in
regard to how certain varieties have withstood its ravages. I hesitate
to make any estimation as to how prevalent the disease is in the wild
black walnut today, for it could be quite a controversial subject, with
some claiming I was very wrong. Anyway, many of our native walnuts are
now affected. Outward appearances are often very deceiving; but, when
one cuts the top off a seedling and attempts to graft it, he may be
amazed at the broomy growth that soon appears from the stock, should his
graft fail to take. Trees that appear healthy, but have made slow or
poor growth are often affected. Short, twiggy, upright growth that soon
becomes dead or partly so, and arises from the main framework of an
apparently healthy tree, is one of the signs that disease is there.

I have claimed there are two, or possibly, three forms of brooming
disease, and I am still as convinced as ever. The so-called
"witches-broom," as commonly seen in the Japanese walnut, is the form
most people seem to think of. The second form is the rapid-growing type,
that lops, or arches downward, is gray or green in color of wood, is
very brittle and easily broken in the wind, ripping off good sized
limbs, and winter-injures badly. An investigation, will, however, show
much dead wood comes before severe weather. This form has some broomy,
upright growth, like the first, but it is never bunched. The other, or
possibly, the third form, is the latent type that doesn't seem to do
much harm, merely causing poorly filled nuts. The latent form is
difficult to note, and can be detected only by the many short, dead, or
partly dead, upright twigs scattered along the main framework of older
trees. Cutting off part of the top will cause the typical growth to
arise, thus identifying itself.

Early observation showed that certain walnut varieties were almost
unaffected, or could even be immune, to the brooming disease. Different
limbs of a large tree were topworked to the Thomas and the Allen
varieties of black walnut. The Allen "took" the disease at once, while
the Thomas grew thriftily and has always produced good crops of nuts.
Later, the Calhoun variety was grafted on some lower limbs, and has
remained healthy. The diseased Allen grafts are still in the tree, are
now 15 years old, and are more or less alive, but in very poor
condition, with the signs as found in what I call the latent form. In
1938, the McDermid Persian walnut was grafted into this same tree, and
its grafts produced good crops of nuts.

I wish to cite another instance of how little the Persian walnut is
affected, regardless of variety. In 1938 a large black walnut near the
house was grafted with Persian grafts, on stubs that had failed the
previous year. The tree had the second, or rapid growing form, of
brooming disease. I have pictures showing how badly the 1938 grafts took
the rapid growing form of growth; while two 1937 Persian grafts showed
no signs of trouble. The tree started to bear in 1941, and has made
remarkable growth. It is now one of the nicest Persian walnut trees I
have, bearing heavily every year. It is about 30 feet tall and 20 feet
broad, with no apparent signs that it was ever affected.

I feel we should recognize the fact that eradication of brooming disease
is impossible; but one should plant, or graft, those varieties known to
bear good crops in spite of this trouble. The Thomas and Grundy black
walnuts do very well here, as well as the two local nuts mentioned. I do
not know of any Persian varieties affected. I do not have any Persian
trees with the typical broomy bunch, as is so often seen in the Japanese
walnut, and its hybrids. The native black walnuts, when affected, seem
to fail to fill properly, are immature, and watery, black veined, and
worthless at harvest time, shriveling to a dark, hard, kernel when
cured.

I think this answers the oft-asked question, "Why do not my black
walnuts fill as they used to?" There is a strange relation to the
filling of the native black walnut and the days of 1934 and 1935, when
we had the great walnut caterpillar scourge!--when the trees were
stripped of all their leaves. Ever since, we have had the brooming
disease to contend with. One could jump to the conclusion that improper
filling and this trouble were caused by a lack of certain nutrients; but
seedlings in nursery rows are often affected, even where they are given
every care.

At one time this spring I thought I had found a new way of
"bench-grafting" walnuts. Seven grafts, on black root, were made in
December, and were planted directly in a frost-proof coldframe, as
lilacs can be grafted. All seven grafts made good growth, that is, over
three inches, by early May, but failed later. There is only one alive
today, I do not think this an impossible method, but there must be a
better way of handling to give success, such as attention to shading and
careful watering. One may find more on this subject in "Propagation of
Trees, Shrubs, and Conifers," by Wilfrid G. Sheat.

In our greenhouse work we have used several nutrient preparations, with
poor to good results. There is one that has proved quite remarkable, and
may be of use to the nut grower. Our concern has been to promote
greener, healthier leaves, and the product "Ra-Pid-Gro" is most
outstanding. Our tests in regards to nut growing are very limited. A pan
of Chinese chestnut seed mixed in pure sand was set under the greenhouse
bench last winter. The seed sprouted too early to be planted out, and
trees have been left inside. Since the sand had no food value,
Ra-Pid-Gro was applied to the leaves, allowing the drippings to go into
the sand throughout the summer. Today, the little seedlings are indeed
nice. Outside, a Persian walnut had yellow-toned leaves, and Ra-Pid-Gro
was applied--now the leaves are green! It is amazing how quickly yellow
leaves will become green. This appears to be a very useful product.

_I believe we can have scions too dormant to graft!_ Last winter I had
to make a new scion-box for storage, so copied it after the Harrington
method, sinking it in the ground north of some evergreens. Scions have
kept perfectly--maybe too perfectly--because they were absolutely
dormant at grafting time, and have given poor success. It was rather
late to save scionwood when I received an order to cut some of Mr.
Hostetter's "Special Thomas" wood, so I cut a little extra for myself,
and some wood from a little seedling Persian walnut that I wished to
hasten by topworking. The buds were very much swollen that day, and the
terminal buds were partly expanded. At grafting time I was quite
surprised to find the wood I had cut late to be in exactly the same
condition as it was the day I cut it. When grafted, every scion
grew--all nine grafts made of the little Persian walnut were smaller
than a lead pencil--and were _pithy_ as well! This experience is so
encouraging, I hope to have most of my wood in this advanced condition
another year. Absolutely dormant wood might well be brought out of
storage several days before grafting, in order to get it adjusted from
winter to summer conditions.

DR. MacDANIELS: I think Dr. Crane is going to talk about the bunch
disease tomorrow morning and will give us some indication about the work
that has been done with that.

This matter of dormancy of scions we could probably get into an argument
about, but that isn't the subject right now.

MR. CORSAN: I find that you mustn't go cutting back much. They don't
like to be pruned. They are an open tree that grows a branch here, a
branch there. They don't get anything like the dense branches of, say,
the Turkish tree hazel. They are the very opposite, and they don't want
to be pruned, and if you go pruning them, they are likely to have the
witches'-broom.

MR. McDANIEL: There is another paper by Mr. Ward of Lafayette, Indiana,
"The Carpathian Walnut in Indiana." The first part of it, the
introduction, covers pretty much the same thing we have heard before
from some of the other speakers about the Carpathian strains in this
country.



The Carpathian Walnut in Indiana

W. B. WARD

Extension Horticulturist, Purdue University

West Lafayette, Indiana


The Carpathian or hardy Persian walnuts (_Juglans regia_), as grown in
Indiana, are nearly all seedling trees resulting from the desire of some
hobbyists to try something new. Other than a few exceptions, most of the
seedling trees were planted during the period of 1934 to 1938. Credit is
due to the Wisconsin Horticultural Society in offering the seedling nuts
for sale and from these plantings numerous trees grew and fruited. A few
test winters, with the temperature as low as minus 20 degrees F., left
only those trees hardy in wood and bud. The seedling trees under
observation have been fruiting for the past six to eight years, with
some trees producing as much as five to six bushels of nuts per year.

The tree grows best in well drained, fertile soil and a bluegrass sod.
Small amounts of nitrate fertilizer, about the same quantity used on
fruit trees, have stimulated growth and no doubt have helped in the
sizing up of the nuts. The tree does not do well under cultivation or
mulching, as winter injury to the tree has been recorded when compared
to bluegrass sod. There is also a possibility that the tree will respond
to applications of liquid or soluble nitrates when mixed in spray
materials. Six walnut trees were sprayed with "Nu Green" on May 9th and
May 28th, 1950, using the same mixture as is recommended for
apples--five pounds per 100 gallons of spray mix. These trees were
observed weekly, and by late August had made more growth and gave better
response than trees in comparable unsprayed rows. As the walnut trees
are of different varieties, no definite comparisons may be drawn, but
the trees so sprayed outgrew the unsprayed plot, although both plots had
received a spring application of fertilizer of equal amount.


Set of Fruit Depends on Pollination

The best yields of fruit are found on trees that have a good pollinator
close by. Oftentimes the catkins of the Persians dry up, fail to shed
pollen when the pistillate flowers are receptive or fail to produce
staminate flowers. It was noted early this spring that the catkins on
the Persians were very few. Pollen was gathered from the butternut
(_Juglans cinerea_) for pollinating the pistillate flowers that opened
early. The mid-season flowers were pollenized with black walnut
(_Juglans nigra_), and the later blooms were fertilized with pollen from
the heartnut (_Juglans sieboldiana cordiformis_). Many of the pistillate
flowers were bagged and remained receptive for a long period.

The best set of fruit on trees this year is on trees that have either
the black walnut or the heartnut near by as pollinizers. The pollen from
the butternut seemed to dwarf the fruit size on those trees where the
pistillate flowers were bagged in the Purdue planting. We have little
doubt that the Persian walnut develops a preponderance of pistillate
flowers and relies on pollen from kindred species for a good set of
fruit.


Nut Displays Have Educational Value

The interest in the Persian walnut in Indiana has developed to the
extent that several commercial fruit growers have set out small
acreages. Most of the trees are seedlings from trees previously fruited,
although several growers have budded or grafted the better seedlings on
the native black walnut. The public has become enthused through the
various displays at local and state fairs and through the state nut show
now being held annually. The exhibits have brought out some very
desirable seedlings, each listed under the owner's name. Some of the
seedling nuts have averaged about two inches in diameter, and 12 year
old trees have produced as much as 50 pounds of cured nuts.

The largest Persian walnut tree found in Indiana is at Lafayette, it
being 12 inches in diameter and possibly 40 feet high. This tree has
been fruiting for the past 15 years. There are probably five or six
bushels of nuts on this large tree at the present time. This tree was
placed as a yard tree for its ornamental value and for the fruit.

Numerous persons have inquired about the Persian walnut as a specimen
tree in their landscaping program and the demand far exceeds the supply.
As many of the elms, oaks, and some chestnuts are going out from disease
troubles, the Persians may be used as a replacement. The food value of
the walnut compares very favorably with that of other native nuts,
according to Dr. A. S. Colby, of the University of Illinois.

   -----------------------------------------------------------------------
                   % Water  % Protein  % Fat  % Carbo- % Ash  No. Calories
                                               hydrate         per Pound
   Persian walnut    2.8       16.7     64.4    14.8    1.3       3305
   Black walnut      2.5       27.6     56.3    11.7    1.9       3105
   Hickory nut       3.7       15.4     67.4    11.4    2.1       3495
   Pecan             3.0       11.0     71.2    13.3    1.5       3633
   -----------------------------------------------------------------------


Nut Data Important in Classification

Three students enrolled in Horticulture have classified several of the
seedlings. Paul Bauer, 1947-48, and Edward Burns and Gilbert Whitsel,
1949-50, have been using such information for their special project work
as graduate and undergraduate students. These workers found a difference
in the habits and performance of the seedling trees and two such
examples follow.


Nut Data Sheet

   1. Common Name: _Fateley No. 1_

   2. Scientific Name: _Juglans regia_

   3. Source or Owner: _Nolan Fateley_
          City: _Franklin_
          State: _Indiana_

   4. Average Size: inches 1.7x1.8

   5. Average Number Per Lb.: 23

   6. Average Wt. Each Nut: 15.8 _gm._

   7. Shell
         Texture: _Wrinkled and furrowed_
         Crackability: _Very good, thin shell_
         Separation: _Very good_
         Average Wt. Per Nut: 7.1 _gm._

   8. Kernel
         Color: _Light tan_
         Quality: _Very good, bland_
         Average Wt. Per Nut: 8.7 _gm._

   9. Percent Kernel: 40.5%

   10. Remarks:
         _Exceptionally large, well formed kernel, appealing taste.
            Bore 50 lb._
         _1949. Tree set as 1 year seedling 1939._ (_Carpathian strain._)


Nut Data Sheet

   1. Common Name: _Fateley No. 3_

   2. Scientific Name: _Juglans regia_

   3. Source or Owner: _Nolan Fateley_
         City: _Franklin_
         State: _Indiana_

   4. Average Size: inches 1.3x1.54 _long_

   5. Average Number Per Lb.: 34

   6. Average Wt. Each Nut: 12.3 _gm._

   7. Shell
         Texture: _Smoothly wrinkled_
         Crackability: _Very good, paper thin shell_
         Separation: _Very good to best_
         Average Wt. Per Nut: 6.9 _gm._

   8. Kernel
         Color: _Light tan_
         Quality:  _Good, desirable taste_
         Average Wt. Per Nut: 6.4 _gm._

   9. Percent Kernel: 54.5%

   10. Remarks:

   _Fairly large, well filled, attractive shape and size with a thin shell.
   This seedling placed first at the Indiana State Fair and the State Nut
   Show, 1949. Tree medium in size, planted as one year seedling in 1939.
   This tree bore 24 pounds of cured nuts in 1949 and has been in good
   production for 7 years. (Carpathian strain.)_

The descriptions given of the two Fateley trees are typical of some of
the forty seedlings coming from various parts of Indiana, as shown in
the following list.

The distribution of the Persian walnut to the public depends on the
ability of the nurserymen to propagate and list the available varieties
or unnamed seedlings. There is a great demand and a wonderful
opportunity for the hardy Persian walnuts all over the Middle West or
where apples will produce, not only for the nutritious fruits but for
the ornamental value and for something different.


Indiana Counties with Carpathian Walnuts Under Observation and Test

(North to South and West to East on Map)

   Northern

   Porter (on Lake Michigan)
   Elkhart (adjoins Michigan)
   La Grange (adjoins Michigan)
   Kosciusko
   Whitley
   Allen (adjoins Ohio)
   Miami (Peru here)
   Wells


   Central

   Tippecanoe (Lafayette here)
   Carroll
   Howard
   Grant
   Delaware
   Henry
   Wayne (adjoins Ohio)
   Marion (Indianapolis here)
   Rush
   Johnson (Franklin here)


   _Southern_

   Greene (Linton here)
   Monroe (Bloomington here)
   Brown
   Gibson (adjoins Illinois)
   Pike
   Posey (adjoins Illinois and Kentucky)
   Vanderburg (Evansville here)
   Warrick
   Spencer (Rockport here)
   Harrison
   (Last 5 counties are on Ohio river,
   opposite Kentucky.)

DR. MacDANIELS: Is Mr. I. W. Short of Taunton, Massachusetts here, or
does he have his paper here?

MR. McDANIEL: I haven't received it.

There is a paper here, however, "Notes on Nut Growing in New Hampshire,"
by Matthew Lahti of Boston, Massachusetts. Mr. Wellman.

MR. WELLMAN: This is very short. It is just a report of bad winters in
New Hampshire. Mr. Lahti I knew in Boston. His farm is in Wolfeboro, New
Hampshire, about 75 or a hundred miles north of Boston.



Notes on Nut Growing in New Hampshire

MATTHEW LAHTI, Wolfeboro, New Hampshire


I will bring up to date my experience on nut growing in Wolfeboro, N.
H., and supplement my reports for the years 1947 and 1948.

We had late frosts this spring, so that there is not a peach on any of
my peach trees this year. This may also account for the fact that there
are no black walnuts either on the Tasterite, the wood of which has
withstood the winters very well, or on the Thomas. The Thomas black
walnut which I reported in 1948 as having suffered no winter injury the
previous winter, apparently did suffer considerable damage, which became
evident later. It has borne no nuts since, and there is a lot of dead
wood this year and the leaves are sickly looking. I am afraid that the
tree is going to die.

The filberts, Medium Long, Red Lambert, and No. 128 Rush x Barcelona,
which started to bear in 1947, have since then borne a few nuts each
year, but the crop is not heavy enough to recommend them for planting in
our climate. While the wood suffers no winter injury, the catkins for
the most part get winter killed and, consequently, there is a very
sparse crop. What is needed for northern latitudes is a filbert that
will ripen in our fairly short growing season, and whose catkins are
immune to winter kill. The Winkler seems to be more hardy than the
others, but the nuts do not ripen. This year even the Winkler catkins
were killed, although the catkins of a wild hazel growing nearby were
not.

I have two Crath Persian walnuts planted in 1938 which are the survivors
of perhaps a dozen seedlings. These two trees have shown no injury. One
is bearing seven nuts this year for the first time, and the other one,
bearing for the second year, has 80 nuts on it at the present time. Last
year the squirrels got all the nuts so that I could not evaluate them,
but I will take precautions to save some this year.

The Broadview Persian walnut has thirty nuts on it this year, but the
wood of the Broadview definitely is not hardy in our climate.

Summing up my experience with the various nut trees as previously
reported, I would say that our climate is not suited for commercial nut
growing, but for home use named varieties of butternuts and hickories
that crack out easily and possibly one or two of the Crath walnuts
should give satisfactory results. My chief difficulty with hickories has
been the poor union at the graft, resulting in slow starvation and death
in a few years. I have only three left out of approximately 25 trees
that I have planted.

MR. CORSAN: A professor from the University of New Hampshire wrote to me
that they were very much interested in planting a nut arboretum. Does
anybody know what result came of it? I sent them some hybrids of the
Japanese heartnut (female blossom) crossed with our native butternut
(male blossom).

DR. MacDANIELS: I guess they are somewhat interested. They have very
little possibility of growing very much except the butternuts, and
sometimes hybrid filberts.

MR. WELLMAN: I have a friend who is up a little farther north than that,
in Woodsville, and they have been urging him to set out filberts for
wildlife food there, and he has shown me some of those that he has
started. It's been quite a movement up there. I don't know how wide. He
has about a hundred seedlings that are used for propagation by the
state.



Is the Farmer Missing Something?

JOHN DAVIDSON, Xenia, Ohio

(Read by title)


The farmer is a specialist; a producer of edible crops. Like any other
specialist, his thinking tends to be channeled along the lines of his
specialty, to the exclusion of other lines.

For example, the average farmer probably knows little and cares less
about teleology, metaphysics, or, let us say, forestry. He is a farmer.
He makes his living by raising crops. And yet, a better knowledge and
practice of forestry will not only make him a better farmer wherever he
is located but, in certain locations, this knowledge and practice is
absolutely essential to his continued existence.

In a recent decision of the U. S. Supreme Court upholding a decision
made by the Supreme Court of the State of Washington, a principle has
been approved which may have a profound influence upon our future
well-being. It affirmed the constitutionality of a Washington State law
which requires the owners of land used for commercial logging to provide
for its reforestation.

Such a law is novel indeed. What? May private owners of the earth's
resources not use or destroy them as they see fit? The court, in effect,
says they have no such right. In the court's own words, the "inviolate
compact between the dead, the living, and the unborn requires that we
leave to the unborn something more than debts and depleted natural
resources. Surely, where natural resources can be utilized, _and at the
same time perpetuated_ for future generations, what has been called
'constitutional morality' requires that we do so."

The New York Times, in commenting upon this revolutionary but perfectly
sane decision, says: "Time is truly running short; the annual cut of
saw-timber, with natural losses, is 50% greater than annual growth....
If the individual forestland owner is too lazy, short-sighted, or
indifferent to act, the Federal Government will have to enter the
picture."

It is a complex picture. The American farm owner is, by every
implication, also involved along with the forestland owner. He, too, has
a duty to the unborn, but it is an opportunity as well as a duty. It is
only because of what J. Russell Smith calls his insane obstinacy, that
the average farmer is now operating a one-story agriculture in place of
a two-story agriculture. If he were thinking and doing more about his
debt to the unborn, he would also be serving himself better.

I am convinced that the farmer is the key man in forest husbandry. And
the best way to interest him in tree planting is through his
specialty--through _crop_ production. A _two-story_ agriculture! Tree
crops along with other crops!

The farmers' education along this line has been very inadequate. We have
been very stupid. Can we never learn to begin, as Hitler began--as the
Russians are even now beginning--with the nation's children?

Perhaps we are learning a little. It is heartening to know that school
and community forests are fast increasing in number, notably in New
England. When fully used and well managed, they can work a revolution in
the thinking of the young people who are so fortunate as to have some of
their schooling out in the open. These future American leaders are
learning at first hand through the ways of the woods how to make the
work of their hands live far beyond the span of their lives.

Perhaps, as the result of this training early in life, a new interest
among the farmers will emerge and some of our sins of omission will be
remedied. As a planter of trees for the future, the American farmer,
both of yesterday and today, has notoriously, thoughtlessly, and
disastrously failed both his children and himself. By all standards, he
should be the first-ranking tree planter of the land. As a matter of
fact, it is practically impossible to interest the average farmer at
all. State experiment stations and forestry departments make some effort
to stimulate interest in the planting of trees by furnishing seedling
stocks of forest trees at nominal prices and by issuing occasional
bulletins. However well intentioned and, within their limits, well done
these bulletins may be, the fact remains that in proportion to their
numbers, farmers are still not notable planters of trees. Perhaps one
reason for this failure is that most of the literature upon the subject
seems aimed at lumbermen, and not at farmers. As to the bulletins which
are aimed primarily at the farmer, examples of advice on forestry which
is given in these rather too specialized and somewhat near-sighted
publications are typically of the following kind: "Fence off the woodlot
and never pasture it," "Use your best land for field crops; your waste
land for trees." "You are interested in nuts? You can not have nuts and
timber, too."

It is evident that these rules are prepared by foresters--not farmers.
Is it any wonder that the inquiring farmer finds them rather
frustrating?

It should be remembered that practices which are valid and helpful in
the care of an already existing forest or woodlot where mature growth is
periodically harvested and where young sprouts are encouraged for
replenishment may be of little use in the management of an entirely new
planting of certain kinds of trees where cultivation, at least for a
time, is necessary. Deep-rooted trees, for example. Such rules have been
of little use to me in my own planting of American black walnuts upon an
Ohio farm. Indeed, to have followed them would have been disastrous.

My planting is not large. It is modest enough to be within the power of
nearly any farmer. It has been treated as a farmer would treat it,
without too much pampering. We now have a few more than three thousand
trees planted upon forty acres. Most of them are now fifteen years old.
Here are some of the things we have learned in fifteen years from our
trees:

1. Trees spaced 80 feet apart in good deep soil have not made as much
growth as seedling black walnut trees spaced 8 feet apart in rows 20
feet apart, also in good soil. However, these wider spaced trees are
grafted pecans and Persian walnuts.

2. The seedling trees which stand in good soil have made surprisingly
good growth. Some better than 8 inches diameter, breast height. One
measured tree has grown 7 feet 1/2 inch this year to date--Aug. 20. (No
fertilizer used, but cultivated.) Those which stand in shallow, thin
soil are dwarfs, worthless. Walnuts have deep taproots. They need deep,
rich earth.

3. Trees grown from planted seed make the best timber trees. Upon the
other hand, if production of known quality is the primary objective,
grafted trees of known varieties must be planted. The seedling _of good
parentage_ is an exciting gamble. It may be, and usually is a
commonplace producer of nuts. Upon the other hand, it is more likely
than the tree of poor parentage to win a place among the named
varieties, set aside for propagation by budding or grafting upon other
stocks.

4. Walnut seedlings like human beings tend to show marked inherited
trends, erratic and undependable though they may be. Thus, seedlings
grown from vigorous and upright trees _tend_ to be vigorous and upright.
Conversely, trees of poor parentage, either as timber or nut producers,
will tend to reproduce the poor characteristics of their parent. This is
more markedly true where the parent tree stands isolated from the pollen
of other walnut trees of the same species.

5. I have found no real evidence that walnuts of our planting are toxic
to other trees standing immediately beside them. To test this, we
planted a few apple, peach, and plum trees in the walnut rows. They
still stand literally arm in arm. This is, of course, all wrong. No tree
should be so crowded. The apple trees monopolize space by excessive
lateral growth. The plums send up unwanted shoots from their roots. The
peach trees are passing out. Two or three of the apple trees are half
dead. Others still live, but I am not very hopeful that, after the
walnut trees are more mature, any of the apples will survive. The usual
diseases and insects, plus shading by the walnuts seems to account for
most if not all of the dead trees to date.

6. Grass growth is excellent right up to the trunks of all of the trees.
It has never been necessary for us to lose the use of the land upon
which the trees are planted. While the trees were young, of course, no
pasturing was permitted. The land between the rows was cultivated. In
these strips we raised berries and other crops. Now that the trees are
tall enough to be beyond the danger of damage from livestock, we graze
the pasture under and between the trees. No damage is evident from
trampled earth (the walnuts are deep-rooted) and the hazard of fire is
eliminated because there is now no need to mow excessive grass, weeds,
or brush.

7. The most precocious seedling walnuts began to bear nuts at about 7
years of age. New bearers are coming in each year. All are still counted
as adolescent trees, yet, last fall, picking up the nuts from none but
trees marked for their better quality of nuts, we gathered some 40
bushels of nuts in the shell.

8. Today, we can count about 2,000 walnut trees which promise to be of
good timber quality 35 years hence. At a reasonable estimate, 1,000
trees will then survive, be 50 years old, be worth $50.00 each, at
present prices. Total, $50,000.00. This represents an annual increment
in value of $1,000.00 per year for the 20 acres which are closely
planted to black walnuts. Can the average farmer _save_ that much in his
lifetime? Can even the exceptional farmer do it on 20 acres? With as
little investment of money and work? If so, how?

Any farmer can do as well, or better, without losing a single
immediately productive acre. Why doesn't he?

The answer is in the very nature of the farmer's business. As has
already been said, he is primarily a producer of food. If trees stand in
the way, he chops them down. He has always chopped them down. It has
become a habit. If the farmer is to be persuaded to change his ways and
turn to planting trees, instead of destroying them, I repeat, the
entering wedge into his interest will be, I believe, through
dual-purpose trees--trees for food crops, as well as for timber crops.
Of these species, the black walnut of eastern America is probably the
most outstanding one of all, at least in the mid-section of America. The
butternut--"white walnut"--flourishes better in the north. The chestnut
is another--a tree almost literally raised from the dead by the efforts
of a few miracle workers like Dr. Arthur H. Graves of the Connecticut
Experiment Station, who, with others of his kind, has been in the throes
of producing a blight-resistant, tall-growing hybrid timber tree out of
the bushy Chinese chestnut, a producer of the sweetest of nuts. The
pecan, too, is being pushed northward. Great groves of wild pecans have
firmly established themselves along the Ohio River. Their timber is
fair; not wonderful. The mulberry tree is still another. The American
species produces a timber which is remarkably durable under ground. Its
fruit is not sufficiently appreciated. It makes an unsurpassed jam or
jelly or pie when combined with a tart fruit like the cherry, grape, or
currant. And who does not know the precious wood of the wild cherry? Its
rosy warmth of color is the pride of the "antique" connoisseur; its
fruit beloved by birds and squirrels; its juice, the secret of the
cherry cordial. Even that foreigner, the Persian "English" walnut, of
Carpathian strains, is pushing north into Canada and the East Coast
region. Its wood, too, under the name of "Circassian," is famous for its
figured beauty[3].

[3] Some of the "Circassian walnut" is another genus, the wingnut
(Pterocarya).--Ed.

One might go on and on with a list of trees and tree crops easily
available, mostly native, all of which should be both figuratively and
actually right down the farmer's alley.

Perhaps the education which can come through the agency of many school
forests will in good time turn the attention of young and impressionable
minds to the potential wealth to be found in the trees. Normally, the
young, who, of all people, should be forward-looking, are least
concerned with the long-term future. They are not given to making plans
or building estates for their grandchildren. As a consequence, the
planting of trees is traditionally taken over by the aged, or at least
by the mature. This is all wrong. The young farmer who plants
interesting trees is preparing for some of the most exciting and
prideful moments in the years which follow. And he is also building, at
low cost, and with little labor, a priceless estate.



How to Lose Money in Manufacturing Filbert Nut Butter

CARL WESCHCKE, St. Paul, Minnesota


Inasmuch as there are so many words of wisdom and advice showing the
reader how to make money in different ways, I have started a new line of
caption with the hope that it might serve as a warning for those who
would stick their necks out, as the term applies to those people who
venture beyond safe margins of restraint. Since this is a recital of
facts, and since Professor George L. Slate has requested me to report on
my experiences, I submit the following for what interest it may hold for
the readers.

Most ventures are backed by optimism of some sort or other, coupled with
some experience, capital, hopes, and ambition. The project which sparked
the entrance into the manufacture of filbert butter was the success that
I was having with hybridizing our best native hazels with the best known
filberts, such as crossing of the wild American hazel with Barcelona,
DuChilly, Italian Red, Purple Aveline, Red Aveline, White Aveline, also
filbert strains from J. U. Gellatly of Westbank, B. C., Canada, and
strains from J. F. Jones, hybrids, European strains of filberts from the
Carpathian mountains, and any right pollen which could be obtained from
known filbert parents. Today we have over 2,000 seedling hybrids of
which between 500 and 600 have come into bearing. Some of these are
really surprising varieties of the combination hazels and filberts, but
a complete history of the hybridization work and the results really
deserve a separate account to be published some time in the future. I
merely mention this because the success of these plants in producing
nuts leads me to contemplate the future production of these hybrid nuts,
called Hazilberts,[4] on a large scale.

[4] Another coined name, by Mr. Gellatly, is "Filazel."

My problem was to engineer a scheme whereby I could interest farmers in
setting out small acreages of these plants and guarantee that there
would be a market when the plants produced nuts, which would be in about
three years from the time they were planted. Seeing that the filbert
producers in the west were struggling for a better market, since
conditions were not too favorable for the filbert in its competition
with the foreign nuts and the California produced Persian walnut, I
decided that nuts in the shell were a little bit old-fashioned. Many of
our prominent members of the NNGA have from time to time advised the
marketing of nut kernels rather than nuts in their natural containers,
and I thought a step in the right direction would be to manufacture a
ready-to-eat product from the kernels. And what could be nicer than a
butter similar to peanut butter?

So I began scouring the market for a grinding machine that would grind
filberts to the consistency of a smooth peanut butter. My first machine
was a Hobart peanut grinder. When buying this machine the mistake I made
was to let the agent of the manufacturer demonstrate how good it was to
grind Spanish peanuts; I should have had it tested on filberts as they
are much tougher, even though they do carry more oil. This machine was
installed, but it was a complete failure and I decided to buy more
expensive machinery, and also put in a cracking plant and buy the nuts
by the ton or carload, if necessary, directly from the growers on the
Pacific Coast or through their organization, the Northwest Nut Growers.
I located a satisfactory machine for the purpose, which required about 7
horse power to run. Since this was during the war and no motors of the
right speed and power were available at the time, I set up my own
generating plant, using a 25 kilowatt generator driven by a Diesel
engine which generated direct current so that I could use direct current
motors which I already had among my machinery supplies. Then a
separating machine, which required a 10 horse power motor just to
operate the fan, which is part of that equipment, was purchased. Also, a
nut cracking machine was secured from a West Coast manufacturer. Along
with tanks and containers and other necessary equipment, all set up in a
little factory building I had available for that purpose, I commenced
the manufacture of filbert butter on a commercial scale.

The product was declared by every one to be excellent. We were quite
sure of this since we had taken pains to buy up any product that
purported to be a nut butter, and had tested those products in many ways
to assure ourselves that we had a product superior to anything that we
could find on the market at that time. The Owens Illinois Glass Company
designed our label and gave us the benefit of their experience with
containers. Then we placed our initial order for glass containers and
re-shipping cases. Every detail in handling this material was properly
taken care of, to insure that if the orders came rolling in we would be
able to supply the demand and have our shipments reach the consumer in
first class shape.

Then we initiated an advertising campaign, coupled with sampling, and
received many fine letters which encouraged us to hire a salesman who
sold the product to the stores in the Twin City area so as to have
proper distribution. Advertising was done also in two national
magazines, so we sat back, hopefully anticipating the big orders that we
were soon to receive. The reorders from the local stores came in slowly,
too slowly for our set-up. We received suggestions from the store
keepers and from other persons that perhaps the product was too high
priced, so we made experiments in other towns where we set the price so
low that there was no profit. In fact, there would be a loss of money
were we to do business on that basis. Yet there was no stimulation of
sales due to this reduction in price.

Many good suggestions came in; among these was the suggestion that the
product lent itself nicely to an ice cream topping; by mixing it with
honey or with syrup we interested our largest manufacturer of ice cream
in this locality and he did a lot of experimental selling. He was very
cooperative. He also sold it in his branch stores as milk shakes;
everybody liked it. No complaints whatsoever except that the manager
said it was too expensive to compete with a chocolate flavor on which he
made much more money. Finally this whole thing fizzled out and was
discontinued.

The next experiment was with candy; as a candy center it was one of the
finest tasting confections that had ever been made, but the oil which
would ooze through the chocolate coatings prevented the practical use of
it. You see, the filbert has about 65% oil, and when it is ground into
a fine, creamy butter, this oil will come out and sometimes be an inch
or more in depth over the top of the butter in the glass container in
which it was marketed. So we investigated several methods by which we
could eliminate the oil. We could pour it off and sell the oil
separately; we could emulsify the product with the addition of certain
emulsifiers, so as to keep the oil mixed with the starch and protein of
the filbert nut. We tried many ways; there is only one method that we
haven't used and that is to combine solidified or hydrogenized peanut
oil with the filbert butter in order to prevent this liquid oil from
rising to to the top of the product. The reason we did not do this is
quite apparent--we did not want to mix peanuts and filberts, as we
considered peanut butter a cheaper and inferior product. We could not
hope to compete with peanut butter with the prices already set for
peanut butter recognized by the trade.

Among the products that came to our attention, however, was one which
had both filbert butter and solidified peanut oil in it. When we tested
this product among many of our friends, they declared it tasted too much
like peanut butter. It spoiled the delicate, fine flavor of the natural
filbert butter (which we were marketing without adding any sort of
seasoning, and without roasting the product the way peanuts are roasted
before they are ground into butter.)

Now, if any of you readers think that we have left out something
important which would have insured the success had we done it that way,
we would certainly like to hear from you, or we have some nice machinery
that we will sell cheap in case you want to experiment with it yourself.
I would be the last one to condemn the future possibility of producing a
commercial nut butter, and yet it is strange that the only successful
nut butter is not a nut butter at all. Peanut butter is not a nut butter
because peanuts are a legume like a pea or bean. To my knowledge, we do
not have any nut butters on the market today with the exception of the
cashew nut butter, which recently had a distribution in our locality,
but which seems now to have run its course much as our products did. We
bought the cashew butter and tried to interest everybody to use it, just
to see whether it was any different than our product in its popularity.
In our meager tests we found that the filbert butter was slightly more
popular than the cashew, since the cashew reminded people too much of
peanuts again. It was also very expensive. However, there must be a way
to make a satisfactory butter out of filberts or hybrid nuts, as they
carry the hope of the cheapest nut product, which is fundamentally
necessary to manufacture a popular food item.

The method of propagation of the Hazilbert is by layers instead of
grafting--layering is a cheaper and more satisfactory method. Also, the
nuts are the most satisfactory to crack as they have no inner partitions
which would require intricate machinery to extract the kernel. Their
keeping quality is excellent; we have tested this out over a number of
years, and filbert butter properly processed will easily keep a year
without turning rancid or having an unfavorable flavor. The tonnage of
nuts that can be produced on an acre of land is unbelievably high. I
have measured individual plants and their production, and the area that
they covered, and it is safe to say that we can expect to produce a ton
of nuts in the shell per acre in favorable locations on good deep soil.
Even at 10c per pound for the nuts this is a good return. New methods
of gathering the nuts after they fall from the involucre or husk are
being discovered and improved by the western growers from time to time,
so that the old expensive method of hand-picking is being eliminated.
This should make the filbert even cheaper to harvest.

It is not my intention here to discourage the manufacture of filbert
butter, but to point out the difficulty that I have had personally to
promote the idea in a commercial way. Neither is it my intention to
stimulate too much interest in the planting of the new filbert varieties
which are still under test. I feel that it is necessary to test a plant
for at least a five-year period before it can be singled out as a plant
to propagate. We have not yet reached the point where we care to sell
these plants, as much better ones might crop up among the untested
plants, which number over 1000, and which have never yet had a chance to
bear so as to show what they can do. At some future time I expect to
write an article on filbert hybrid culture (Hazilberts) for the whole
central, north, and northeastern part of the United States, and at that
time I believe that tests will have progressed to such a point that
recommendations can be made.

DR. MacDANIELS: There was one more paper that the Secretary has that was
not scheduled, from Mr. Elton E. Papple, of Ontario. Title, "Filberts,
Walnuts, and Chestnuts on the Niagara Peninsula."



Filberts, Walnuts and Chestnuts on the Niagara Peninsula

ELTON E. PAPPLE, Cainsville, Ontario


My brother and I have been interested in growing nut trees for some
time, and have had some interesting experiences and some success. A few
years ago, Mr. Slate sent us from Geneva some varieties of filberts
which he considered quite hardy. We purchased some from Mr. Gellatly in
Westbank, British Columbia, some from Mr. Troup, Jordan Station, Ontario
(near Vineland); also from J. F. Jones Nursery, then in Lancaster, Pa.
Mr. Slate sent us scionwood and we grafted these scions in the spring
and layered them shortly afterwards. By the following spring they were
rooted well enough to be planted out in the nursery row. This gave us
our material to work with, and about the third year we started making
crosses between different varieties. The first year we obtained quite a
few crosses, and had a good number of these seeds to germinate in the
spring after taking from stratified storage and planting them in the
nursery row. These trees have now started to come into bearing, and they
promise to be better than their parents in some instances.

We made a number of crosses since, but we have been very busy and the
young trees of these crosses have just about perished through neglect.
In this last lot we had a cross of the filbert on the beak or horn
hazel[5], and of a cluster of three, had one to grow, which in turn was
promptly eaten off by a rabbit or rodent of some description. The reason
for this cross originally, was that, so far as we could see in the last
fifteen years the male catkins never winter-kill; whereas filbert trees
are subject to this hazard. Some of the filbert varieties have the
ability to withstand changeable weather and not lose all of their
catkins. Others will winter-kill in the wood as well. We have removed
all our Barcelona and Du Chilly trees because they winter-killed almost
one hundred percent.

[5] Corylus rostrata.--Ed.

With the experience we have had with filberts, we believe that before
they could be commercialized, it would be necessary to have hardy
catkins that will withstand changeable weather: not altogether
resistance to extreme cold, but to temperatures that vary from warm to
freezing in a few hours. A mulch does help where the warm period is for
a short duration; but last winter we had a week or more of warm weather
in January, with rain and then a cold snap. Even then, some of the
catkins on the German varieties and others came through fairly well.

Selection of varieties for machine cracking or eating from the shell
should determine varieties one should grow, but hardiness should be the
key factor in selecting varieties. The following table shows some of the
crosses we made. Most of these seedlings have borne a few nuts to date,
but we cannot give anything definite as to whether the catkins are
hardier than those of the parents.

   Table of Crosses:

        Female              Male

   Italian Red           Medium Long
      "     "            Red Lambert
   Medium Long            "     "
   Cosford                "     "
      "                  Vollkugel
   Comet                 Cosford
     "                   Vollkugel
   Craig                 Red Lambert
   Gellatly              Vollkugel
   Carey                 Red Lambert
   Fertile de Coutard     "     "
   Barcelona             Vollkugel
   Seedling (W)          Red Lambert
      "     (E)          Vollkugel

I would like to make a few remarks on our heartnut and Carpathian walnut
trees. Most of the heartnut varieties came from B. C. and we think that
Mr. Gellatly has some of the best obtainable anywhere in North America.
The Bates heartnut from J. F. Jones Nursery seems to be very hardy here,
and quality of nut is very good. We have found--comparing a heartnut
rootstock which grows two weeks later in the fall than some of our black
walnuts--that the same variety of heartnut will live one hundred percent
on black walnut stock and winter-kill severely on the heartnut
rootstock. We believe that the root system for the north, either
heartnut or black, should be carefully selected for its growth habits
before considering its use as material for rootstock in grafting or
budding. I might add here that we also found that if the variety of
heartnut was not hardy, it did not help any in regard to hardiness to
use black walnut at the rootstock. There is a good crop of heartnuts on
the trees here this year.

In grafting Carpathian walnuts on black, we found that some varieties
graft or take more readily than others. Also some would give a better
union. The Broadview winter-kills with us, but it is not hard to graft
it almost one hundred percent. We have quite a number of the Carpathians
bearing and they seem to be quite hardy, of good size and quality, and
bear every year. As the catkins were killed on all but one variety, due
to the unseasonable weather experienced last winter, there will be only
a light crop. The hardy variety has late blooming male catkins which
might account for its catkin hardiness. It is of good size and excellent
flavor. Possibilities for commercial planting of these Carpathian
varieties in the north appear promising in favored localities.

Our Chinese chestnut trees seem to be hardy and this year have produced
a few burs for the first time. We have planted out about sixty young
trees this year and they are all growing nicely. The weather has been
wet and just the thing to get them started.

Our hickory trees, which we grafted, are growing well and we set some
more out last year. When we started grafting hickories, we had one
hundred percent failure, but kept at it until we got almost a perfect
take. The hickory seems very slow in forming a union. A lot can happen
to the graft before it gets started. Filberts graft as easily as apple.
Our findings in grafting nut trees are that any amateur can graft apple
trees, but nut trees are something different. We have a number of odds
and ends besides what has been mentioned.

Being a member of the N.N.G.A. has helped us in growing nut trees, and
the information in the Annual Reports should help anyone who has just
become interested in growing nut trees. The information is up-to-date
and fairly accurate. All one has to do is apply his findings to his own
planting.

MR. CORSAN: Doctor, in that same neighborhood is a man who called on me
who has a nut aboretum of 40 acres on Grand Island in the Niagara River.
That's above Niagara Falls, of course. I thought he'd call again, but I
didn't get his name, or at least I have lost it, and what do you think
he is growing in the way of nuts? Can anybody guess:

A MEMBER: Coconuts!

A MEMBER: Peanuts!

MR. CORSAN: I am growing coconuts in Florida--but on that one 40-acre
tract on Grand Island, New York--he lives in Buffalo--he is growing
evergreen nuts from Swiss stone pine (_Pinus cembra_), Korean pine,
Philippine pine, _Pinus Lambertiana_, _Pinus Monophylla_, _Pinus edulis_
and Digger pine (_Jeffreyi_). He is growing these evergreen pine nuts,
and he says he is making very good success of it.

MR. STERLING SMITH: Chas. F. Flanigen is his name. He's a member.

MR. WEBER: I'd like to ask the members, or those present, whether they
have failed to sign the registry of attendance.

DR. MacDANIELS: That ends the formal program this afternoon. It's always
been a criticism that things are too crowded. We have an opportunity now
for about half an hour to visit, look over exhibits and then later on we
will meet at six o'clock at The Stone Chimney.

(Whereupon, at 4:35 p.m., the Monday afternoon session was closed.)



MONDAY EVENING SESSION


DR. MacDANIELS: Without any question at all, I think, the most important
single consideration in determining the planting of nuts is the matter
of varieties, and I know that Dr. Crane has some ideas along that line
which he wishes to develop, and without any further talk on my part, I
will introduce Dr. Harley Crane, United States Department of
Agriculture.

(Applause.)



Nut Varieties: A Round Table Discussion

H. L. CRANE, Chairman


DR. CRANE: Mr. President, members of the Northern Nut Growers'
Association: I think it is, without a question of doubt, of the greatest
importance that we consider this question of varieties. After all, a
variety of any plant, in my opinion--which I think can be well
supported--is the most important thing that anyone can consider when it
comes to planting or developing a nut tree or a fruit tree or anything
in the fruit line. We can cultivate and fertilize and spray and do
everything that is needed to be done today in a modern fruit or nut
orchard farm, but if the variety is not suited to the climate, if it is
not a good variety, all our efforts that we make towards developing a
good tree and bringing it into fruiting are wasted.

I know that every one of you appreciates old varieties of corn and just
what has been done in our new varieties of hybrid corn, how hybrid corn
has changed the variety situation. Now it's hybrid this and hybrid that,
because hybrid varieties are generally superb.

Now, at this time in our nut work we are a long way yet from growing
good hybrid varieties, and I feel that there has been an effort on the
part of a lot of people to capitalize on the word "hybrid," because
hybrid corn has been such a success; and we figured that by carrying it
over into other plants, particularly the nut trees, we would get the
same remarkable performance from hybrid nuts that we do from hybrid
corn. But that is not the case.

We will come to that some day in the future, maybe--not in our lifetime,
but we will have hybrid varieties, because, after all, our great
improvements that have come in most of our plants, in corn and in wheat,
and in other plants, have come through the mixing of the genes, or the
characters that we have differing between species.

In our nuts, now, with the exception of hicans, we are still dealing
with pure species, and most, if not quite all, of our hicans are
worthless at the present time, largely because of sterility.

A good variety is the most outstanding thing that a horticulturist can
get or can have, because of the fact that it does have the character in
it which will make good growth. It will set a lot of nuts, it will carry
them through to maturity and it fills them, and if a variety doesn't do
that, it's not a good variety. Then after we get the nuts filled,
cracking quality, eating quality or oil content, and all these things
come next.

Now, this brings us next to the very important consideration of how are
we going to get a new good variety? Well, we can do that by selecting
from seedling nuts, or we can make controlled pollinations, crossing
different varieties, or varieties of different species, planting the
nuts or growing new trees and then selecting out of them those that have
the desirable characters.

But the first thing that we have got to do after we have either selected
the nut or made the hybrid and selected the nut is to evaluate the nut
as to whether it does have the first character, or proper characters,
that we ought to have in the nut. Does the crop ripen evenly? Whether it
hulls readily or comes free of the husk is a minor consideration,
provided that the nut itself has the desired characteristics. By that I
mean, does it have a good, large kernel which is well filled and bright
in color, or good flavor free from any objectionable characters? How
about its shell, percentage of shell in relation to kernel? Those are
some of the things that we have first got to consider.

That's what we can do in holding our contests to find good varieties.
Those are the ones submitted by growers and others. They are in
competition with nuts from other sources, and then the committee, or
someone, goes over and rates them, and places them, just as has been
done by Mr. Chase and others in their Carpathian walnut contest for
members of the Northern Nut Growers' Association.

Now, at the present time we have no standard method for evaluating the
nut. It's the opinion of the judges that do the scoring or rating which
determines the placing that the nuts get. Well, now, that's one of the
things that we members of the Northern Nut Growers' Association have
been working on for a long while, but we still haven't arrived at any
definite place.

Well, then, what's the next step that we take up? The next thing we do,
some growers find out that a Persian walnut from Mr. Shessler, for
example, placed second in the contest this year. They will get some
scions from Mr. Shessler, or somebody else, and they will make a few
grafts and grow some trees, and then they will make a study of these
nuts and find out how well they do and what they are like under their
conditions, and that's about as far as it goes.

Well, now, we cannot continue to do that kind of a job, as I see it. If
we go back over the reports of the Northern Nut Growers' Association we
will find that this matter of varieties is discussed in a very large
majority of the papers that have been presented. But those that have
taken part in investigations and in advising the public, like those in
the Extension Services of the colleges, those teaching in the
universities, those doing research, like myself, anybody who has to
answer correspondence from would-be nut growers, almost always get the
question, "What variety should I plant?" Then they put it up to me or
Dr. McKay, or Dr. Colby, and think that you could just name right and
left, and they ask, "What varieties shall we plant?" They put you right
down on the spot. Here you are, you are supposed to be a real expert,
know all things, and they are asking you for advice, and they will take
that advice and carry it out.

Now, today it puts a fellow in an awfully hot spot, because as you read
the reports of the Northern Nut Growers' Association you find that there
is absolutely no unanimity of opinion. Every grower is absolutely
certain in his ideas, and they are different from every other grower's.

Well, you can't recommend them all. It's really impossible. Now, this is
one of the things that the Northern Nut Growers have been dealing with
all of these years. This is the forty-first annual meeting. You'd have
thought in 41 years we'd have come up with something, but we haven't
yet. Now, I feel that it's about time that we stop and take stock of our
situation.

I am not going to do the talking tonight, I am just making a few
suggestions and trying to direct the thought a little bit. But one of
the nuts that we have done so much with and have said so much about in
our reports is the black walnut. It's very interesting to read the
reports on varieties of black walnuts and how those who have grown black
walnuts differ in their opinion, regardless. Well, I don't know. When I
get a letter coming in from most anywhere in the country wanting to know
what variety of black walnut to plant, do you know what I tell them?

MR. CALDWELL: Let them find out for themselves.

DR. CRANE: No, sir, they will never find out, not in their lifetime. I
tell them to plant Thomas. Thomas, Thomas Thomas! Why?

MR. KINTZEL: Because we know more about that than any other.

DR. CRANE: That is right. I expect there are four or five times as many
Thomas walnuts propagated and sold by nurserymen in the United States as
all other varieties.

MR. CORSAN: It always has a bigger crop, too.

DR. CRANE: It bears, that's one thing. It may not always fill, but
Thomas is a good variety. But we in the Nut Growers' Association haven't
the nerve to come out and say the Thomas is a good variety. It has its
faults. I know I am going to be wrong in a lot of cases by planting
Thomas.

MR. CORSAN: But don't plant it outside the peach belt.

DR. CRANE: Well, the peach belt is an awful lot of territory. I know I
am going to be wrong, but I know I am going to be safer with Thomas
variety than I would be with some of the others.

Now, I think that it's time, and I think that the biggest thing that the
Northern Nut Growers' Association can do is to give very serious thought
and take action at this meeting some way looking towards the
Association's giving consideration to methods and means whereby we can
properly evaluate varieties that we have that are growing so that we can
recommend and tell others the varieties that they should grow.

You know, here is the situation exactly. In the territory of the
Northern Nut Growers we don't have a commercial industry at the present
time. I doubt if there is a single family of the Northern Nut Growers
who are here that depend on the sale of nuts for their living. Well,
when your living depends on something, you take an awful lot of interest
in it. And that has been true in the case of apples, for example. I
don't know how many there are, but twenty years ago or more there have
been fifteen or sixteen thousand apple varieties that have been
described and have been planted and propagated, and you can name all of
the commercial apple varieties grown in the United States almost on the
fingers of your hands. That is, the important ones. Oh, the list has
grown, would probably take in 200, but that 190 hardly make a drop in
the bucket as compared to the ten big ones.

Well, the same thing is true with peaches. The Elberta peach just is
completely outstanding. It's a big commercial peach. Now, in all of the
Association here, almost every paper that is presented always has some
commercial aspect mentioned in the paper, but we could never have any
commercial industry as long as we are fooling with a lot of these
varieties with nobody giving them the serious consideration that they
deserve, in an effort to properly evaluate them.

This evaluation of a variety is our problem. I have given an awful lot
of thought to it over the years and how to get around it, how to come up
with the proper answers within the near future so that we can be of help
to others and stop a lot of our amateurs, those who are attracted to the
industry, from making mistakes and getting discouraged. That is the
problem. And that is the thing that I want all of you to be thinking
about tonight and help us with the suggestions.

Now, we could just start almost, I expect, in dogfights, if we were to
conduct this round table to get to discussing the different qualities or
desirability or other aspects among varieties, and each fellow would be
right, because I know there wouldn't be agreement. It would make an
interesting round table, but I don't know how constructive it would be.
So I have tried in these preliminary remarks to get you to thinking
about this problem, of evaluation.

Now, there is one other way that we could go about it. For years we have
had in the Northern Nut Growers Association a group of officers that are
known under the title of State Vice-Presidents, and I think if you judge
by their performance in the past, the main reason that we have had these
State Vice-presidents is that we were attempting to confer some honor on
somebody, the honor being in having them so designated and their names
published as State Vice-presidents in the proceedings. In many cases
their performance hasn't warranted that honor, because, after all, a
vice-president is supposed to be a working vice-president, not an
ornament. The ornament is supposed to be the president, if we have any
such thing. At least, that's what I have heard. I have never been
president. And I have thought that if in the consideration of our State
Vice-presidents we select the ones who are particularly active and very
much interested in this variety problem and in the Northern Nut Growers'
Association, that we might take up this variety problem and get us
information by two ways.

One would be through surveys made in their states by contact with the
growers, either personal contacts or by letters. Then those reports
could be assembled, and we could have our variety committee over all, so
the Association could attempt to evaluate. That would be one start.

Another thing would be that our State Vice-president in collaboration
with the President, would appoint a state committee. Now, we have a lot
of growers in some states that are vitally interested. In Pennsylvania,
for example, and in Ohio and New York we have a lot of growers who are
members of this or state associations that are vitally interested in
this thing. You have a State Vice-president appointing a committee in
collaboration with the president of the National to evaluate the variety
situation as it exists in their state.

Now, we would expect them to do some honest work on this thing and come
up with a report in which the different members could agree. Then we
would be nearer getting unanimity of opinions. We have got to get this
some way so that we can agree upon what we do with the answers to
individuals better than we have been doing in the past.

There may be some error to this. Well, you see, I know that some of you
must be familiar with the New Jersey Peach Testing Association. I am not
sure just what the name of it is, but it's something like that.

A MEMBER: New Jersey Peach Council.

DR. CRANE: It has been a great power and a great help in regard to the
selection and evaluation of peach varieties in the State of New Jersey.
In New Jersey the experiment station has had a peach breeding program
going for a number of years. They have done outstanding work, and they
have brought out some very good varieties. Well, the station has
selected the good ones and discarded the poor ones, or what they thought
were the poor ones. They call in members of this Peach Growers' Council,
and they have the peaches evaluated. They are passing them on to the
fruit growers. "Do you think, in your opinion, that this would be a good
peach for us to grow? Is it better? Does it have better flavor than
other peach varieties?" They will, out of that group, select some of
these new ones, maybe. Then the New Jersey Experiment station will see
to it that the trees of these varieties are propagated, and they are
given to the members of that Association in order that they can plant
them under their conditions and grow them to fruiting and see how they
do.

Well, then, this committee still continues to evaluate them, and if the
members of the Association say, "Well, that's a variety we should grow,"
then they will grow it. If they feel it isn't as good as some they
already have, they throw it away and that's the end of it. But they
don't clutter up the variety situation with a lot of poor stuff. And
they make profits, because always two heads are better than one, even
though one is a sheep's head, as the old saying goes. Well, when you get
four or five or more in a group and they agree, you can be sure that
their opinion is far better than five individual opinions or judgments.

I am very anxious to see that tonight we agree in open discussion of
this whole variety evaluation problem and that we start work some way,
somehow, towards working out some means whereby we can properly and more
effectively and more quickly evaluate our varieties than we have up to
this time. Now, that's the end of my story. The talk and the rest of it
is up to you folks.

Mr. Anthony and Mr. Sherman have been working over here in Pennsylvania.
They have found a lot of new material known only to a few people. They
are just wringing their hands over there to know how in this wide world
this stuff can be evaluated, the good saved, and that which is not
worthy of doing anything with, well, "just pass it up" and let it go.
That's the way we make profits.

Their experience is no different from all the rest. We have nut growers
with whom I have had correspondence in years past who want to propagate
material that this Association should have flatly condemned years ago,
because the majority of the group here knows it is worthless, but they
just haven't done it. Now, it's time that we change this thing, or I
will tell you frankly in a lot of ways the Nut Growers' Association has
become a social institution, rather than one which we learn from and
recommend practices to the new groups that are coming on to keep them
from making mistakes.

Now, I have talked from the bottom of my heart tonight, and I want some
of the rest of you here to express your opinions and give suggestions as
to how we might do that.

MR. WEBER: Dr. Crane, I think I will start the ball rolling, and I think
Ohio has taken the lead in the very thing you have been talking about.
It's the Northern Ohio group. They have been very active in finding out
the better nut varieties that were suitable to Ohio conditions, both the
black walnuts and the hickories. They have conducted contests, both for
black walnut and hickories. They practice what they preach. They have
traded their information. They are up in the northern part, and I am
down in the southern part, too far to be included with them, so I am not
blowing my own horn; I am blowing it for the other fellows. And I think
they are a worthwhile group, and if you look to the membership in this
Association in Ohio, I think it has the largest membership. And you get
that Northern Ohio group, they test out varieties, and a man will fight
for a particular one in his group against the variety from another. And
so they are not afraid to stand up and say what they think.

But having done that, we need the aid of our different state agriculture
groups. You must have a place where they can go and put those trees on a
testing ground so the people can go there and see them. You can go there
to this Ohio experiment station and you will see this variety growing,
or you go over to the other branch and see this variety growing, and
then when they find the state has taken it up, it gives them confidence
more than a fellow blowing his horn for one variety against another
variety.

You have to get the members in their own states to form their own local
organizations and carry out what you have been talking about here and
find out in their particular states which are the best varieties. And
then you get a starting point, and each individual state's agricultural
experiment station should take it up, follow it up, if they have the
funds. Where if one individual gives his mite and then his health fails
or life fails, why, he has contributed his mite, and it will be
perpetuated. But if it's on my place or someone else's place, the next
fellow doesn't appreciate it, and if they need the wood handy, down
comes that tree. It has no memories from then on, and it's not
perpetuated.

So I think some of the Northern Ohio members--I think Mr. Smith is here,
are there any other members? Silvis--deserve a lot of credit.

MR. McDANIEL: I would like particularly to hear if the Northern Ohio
group has got together on a discard list. Have they agreed on any one
variety they don't want to plant?

MR. STERLING SMITH: I am glad you brought out the black walnut. I am
more familiar with it than with other species, and I have been
personally thinking along your line for several years. We have in black
walnuts probably over 200. I started to count them up one time. I got
196, and I know there were more than that, I don't know how many. And
among those nearly 200 varieties of black walnuts I am confident there
must be 150 at least that aren't worth being grown--that is, in Northern
Ohio. They may be good in some other places, or they may be worthwhile
for experimental purposes. But to grow them for commercial means or for
home use, they are not good varieties. And I have suggested to different
ones eliminating them, or trying to work out, say, maybe 25 or 50 and
then from those 50 try to pick out ten. There has not much been done on
it. There is a lot of difficulty in a situation like that.

DR. CRANE: That's right.

MR. STERLING SMITH: Here is one thing: What one person has varieties
which correspond with what his neighbor or somebody ten miles down the
road will have? We will take Grundy, for example, or Rohwer, some of
those. Two or three of them might have that, but the ten or fifteen
other members in the near vicinity won't have that variety. That's one
of the difficulties.

And I have thought personally that there should be some sort of
committee set up along the line you suggested, not necessarily on state
lines, but more on zone or regional lines.

DR. CRANE: Yes, sir, that's what I mean.

MR. STERLING SMITH: Because those suitable in Northern Ohio wouldn't
necessarily be suitable in Southern Ohio, and so with any of the states
along that tier of states. And I think there should be some type of
committee set up to judge these different varieties as far as we can,
and also to enlarge their testing plan.

Mr. Shessler, I believe, has somewhere in the neighborhood of 100 under
test, maybe three or four of the same tree. For myself, I don't know
exactly what I do have, somewhere between 40 and 50 varieties, but there
are only about 10 or 12 of them bearing. And I have of late years
started working on that line, having sort of a test orchard, having one
or two trees of the several varieties so I can find out what to plant.

Not too many years ago I was in the position of the amateur who wanted
to know what to plant. Should I plant Stabler, Ohio, Thomas? It was just
like you spoke about concerning the inquiries that you have. I have
earnestly read all the reports and have earnestly looked where I could
get them in time for the current year. I read so I would know what the
new varieties are and what different people's opinions on them were. And
I think there should be a central committee, probably like you
suggested.

And another suggestion I would like to make would be that before we
permit, as far as possible, any further new varieties of black walnut to
be mentioned or published, that they be passed upon by several of the
members, oh, maybe ten of the members, at least, to learn what their
opinion is before they are mentioned. Lots of times one or two persons
have a good opinion of the nut, and immediately something is published
about it, and as you say, immediately a half dozen fellows write for it,
as in your Persian walnut contest. And it would be better if that nut
weren't allowed to be named until it has been passed upon by a qualified
group of, we will say, experts. And that same condition should be
carried out with the Persian walnut and the hickories and northern
pecans and other groups of nuts we are interested in.

MR. CORSAN: I'd like to suggest that we get started on this matter of
varieties, because we can say an awful lot and then say nothing. I have
tested a great many varieties of black walnuts, and as soon as I hear
people talk about the Stabler walnut, I know they know nothing about
nuts at all, because the Stabler has a crop on it only about once in
twenty years, and then it's a small crop. It's a very good nut to eat
and crack, but it's not for crops. As this gentleman says, the Thomas.
We all know the Thomas. There is one point about the Thomas, you have
got to keep it within just the northern limits of the peach belt where
the peach will grow. There are years that come around when the Thomas
will not mature. The frost will come on. It has a very thick outer
shell, the hull, and the hull comes off the nut itself quite clean. And
then we hear people talking about the Ohio. Now, what about it? Well,
it's a monster nut when you look at it on the tree, but knock the thick
hull off of it, the strong, sturdy hull, and there's only a little nut
in it. Yet you have something that cracks well enough. The nuts I would
condemn right away are the Ohio and Stabler. No doubt about it.

Now the Cresco, very, very rich! That tree will actually kill itself,
just overbearing. You know a tree can kill itself. Some people kill
themselves having 24 or 30 children, but that's about what that tree
will do.

Then we have the nut that years ago I saw, the Snyder, and I said to Mr.
Snyder, "Look, it's a sure nut." He said, "Never saw it." He looked at
it, examined it, and it's a marvelous nut. I think I have the backing of
our friend, Mr. Gilbert Smith. I think he'd back me in saying that that
is one of the best nuts in the world, even with the Thomas.

But we don't quite want to reduce--comb down the list of varieties like
the apple grower has. When you go to Boston and ask a peddler or hawker
about "apples," he won't know what you are talking about. Apples?--they
wonder what the word is. It is "McIntosh." They will go around the
street shouting, "McIntosh, McIntosh." You won't hear the word "apple"
in Boston, it's "McIntosh."

Now, let's get down to nuts, and let us know our nuts.

MR. CALDWELL: (New York State College of Forestry.) I suppose this is my
first time at a meeting of this sort, and probably I should observe with
a critical mind. But when you speak about a committee to pass upon
varieties, immediately I start wondering exactly what you mean by a
variety, and then I start wondering what your approach is in picking
that so-called variety.

First of all, a "variety" that you use is not really a variety. It is
just a vegetation of one particular tree that you happened upon. You
decided by chance it was a tree you wanted to use and then passed it
around to your friends and decided you want it.

DR. CRANE: I want to correct you, for one reason: It is truly a
horticultural variety or clone that has just as much standing or
identity as the botanist's or forester's "variety."

MR. CALDWELL: It is a clone, and I agree with you, but a variety seems--

DR. CRANE: You are speaking from the forester's point of view.

       *       *       *       *       *

MR. CALDWELL: That's why I make this other statement.

DR. CRANE: When you have got something by controlled breeding, you don't
know when you have got it. That's the whole story in a nutshell.

Now, I am going to tell you about using controlled breeding. We started
almond breeding in California, where we have one of the biggest
commercial nut industries in the country. We started almond breeding in
1920 with the best known almonds. In the 30 years of almond breeding we
have introduced two varieties. We had a panel of 125 commercial almond
growers who decided on those two varieties out of more than 20,000 known
controlled crosses that were made of trees that were grown to fruiting.
But it took a panel of 125 commercial growers to determine whether or
not these two varieties, the Jordanolo and the Harpareil, were
commercial varieties.

Those two varieties were planted. The nurserymen planted them, the
grower took them over, and they couldn't grow enough trees to supply the
demand. These two varieties have been introduced for commercial planting
now for 14 years. Of the two, one has stood the test of time, and it
stands now as probably the second most important almond variety in all
the United States, has been taken to foreign countries and is being
extensively propagated. One of them made the grade, the Jordanolo. The
Harpareil is still in the running, but it is down with the 30 or 40
varieties that are of lesser importance.

MR. CALDWELL: Can you reproduce that result?

DR. CRANE: No.

MR. CALDWELL: Then you don't know what that is or the happenstance that
got it.

DR. CRANE: Certainly, because you don't know about breeding nut trees.

MR. CALDWELL: That's what I say should be learned.

DR. CRANE: In the first place, the chromosomes are so small and there
are so many, that you can't identify them, and you can't tell which
genes, and they have got a heterozygous population, and the variety is
self-sterile and has to be cross-pollinated, so there is only one way
from a horticultural standpoint by which we can do anything, and that is
through clones.

DR. MacDANIELS: I think we are getting a little bit off.

DR. CRANE: We are off, way off.

DR. MacDANIELS: How to get a new variety I don't think is what we are
trying to decide this evening. As I have looked at this whole field of
what we are trying to do, I think we have analogies that we can point
to. I think any project of this kind in nut varieties goes through
various stages. The first is finding what material there is that is
available that you can use. The next is the evaluation of that material
to see what's worth keeping, and setting up your standards of what you
are trying to get, and then from then on out perhaps breeding that sort
of thing.

Now, as far as we are concerned, it seems to me the Northern Nut
Growers' Association made a pretty good stab at surveying the materials
available. In other words, I think an additional nut contest is not
going to turn up the perfect nut. That is, we have one contest after
another, and the ones that win the first prizes as the best nuts we can
find are not markedly better. There is no great difference away from the
average that we have had in the others.

I think that's a valuable thing to keep going along so we don't miss a
trick and let anything be lost. But the next thing is to take these
things that we have selected and evaluate them, and it seems tome that's
exactly where we stand at the present time.

I also think that we should not in this situation get ideas that are too
big. That is, if you get something that's impossible, you are licked
before you start. If you have got to wait before you do anything and
make a complete study of chromosomes of any one of these nut trees,
99.44 percent of the Northern Nut Growers Association might as well quit
doing it. I am not capable of doing it, and Dr. McKay is probably the
only one that is capable of looking at these things from that
standpoint. But we have, it seems to me, to use the machinery we have
and take some definite action which will be of some value within a year
or perhaps two.

I agree that this idea of putting the State Vice-presidents to work is a
very good thing. I think each one could if we could find the right
man--take his state and divide it into two parts, and also take in
groups of growers of nut trees that are members, and all the others that
we can find, and get their pooled opinions on what varieties are
available, together with the record of these varieties in that
particular locality.

Then I think on the basis of one of the committees we have, that is, our
standards and judging subcommittee, we could set that up in such a way
that they could evaluate things about which there is some doubt.

But before we do that, we have got to clear the decks and adopt judging
standards, standards by which we wish to work or to evaluate different
varieties. I don't know whether anyone else has done more judging than I
have or not, but I know I have given this a lot of attention through the
years.

We had one system of judging which was worked out some years ago and was
based on previous judging systems, and they went to a point where it
seemed to me and to the others who were working along with me that they
just didn't have any real basis in the factual situation that warranted
its continuance; that is, a system which was based on percentages of
kernel and penalties for empty nuts or flavor, and other things which
could not be effectively measured. And they quit with that system and
started out on a new tack. And to do that we got Dr. Atwood, who is
head of the Department of Plant Breeding Genetics at Cornell, to go
through some extensive tests which he applied as a biometrical
statistical method, to find out what is the sample which will give you
specific results and then to measure the qualities that give you what
you want. And I think we are nearer that than before. But I think the
schedules are relatively simple and haven't been used to any great
extent. They need further testing.

But it seems to me that the Association as such must decide whether we
want that schedule, making it an official schedule and going ahead on
that basis.

Now, a judging schedule for nuts will not tell you anything about the
tree; it will just tell you the characteristics of the sample. That's
the first thing you want to find out: Is the nut itself intrinsically
the type of thing you want to deal with? Then whether the tree bears
annually or whether it alternates, or what diseases it is subject to.
Those are other matters.

So I think this is a way out, or at least I suggested the plan we could
go along with of putting the vice-presidents to work and setting up a
committee under the title of judging and standards and try to bring out
a report at the next session. It seems to me that would be right
practical.

Where we go from there in production of new varieties I think should be
a subject for a round table discussion sometime. I think the gentleman
in forestry has a good idea. I think we will get a long way if you have
proper control of the first elements of the first varieties, and from
them we can build up. But it seems to me we have to be practical about
things that we can do, then go ahead and do them.

DR. CRANE: Thank you, thank you.

DR. COLBY: I would like to add one point, that we must "zone" all these
varieties. In a state as long as Illinois, over 400 miles long, growing
conditions are different in the south than in the north. In the north we
don't find that Thomas fills out very well and that's true also at
Urbana in the central section of the state. Beck and Booth and some of
the smaller nuts do fill out. The zones I mentioned may well run across
several states where environmental conditions are similar.

I recall a little survey I made when I was honored by being president of
your association several years ago, in which I tried to list all of the
work that was in progress at the different national and state experiment
stations, and most of those stations were carrying on some work in nut
growing. I am sure that if you check that matter now, several years
later, you would find that many more are carrying on investigations of
that nature. They have expanded as much as their facilities will permit.
For example, just the other day I visited the station at the University
of New Hampshire, and there they were growing chestnut trees from seed
that had been brought in from Korea. Little trees just two years from
the seed were full of burs this year. Whether they are going to fill a
place in New Hampshire remains to be seen. They were not as yet attacked
by blight, but, of course, the trees were small, and there were no
cracks in the bark as yet.

I am sure that most of the station workers know that you at Beltsville
are extremely interested in testing new nuts as they become available.
In cooperation with other workers it may be found that this variety is
good in ~this~ zone and that variety is good in ~that~ zone. Nurserymen
might well include maps of such zones in their catalogs.

DR. ANTHONY: Now that the experiences of the Northern Ohio growers has
been brought up and you have mentioned many times your own experience as
the Northern Nut Growers, I think the Northern Ohio group, a closely
knit group, rather closely geographically related, has worked for almost
twenty years, and hasn't gotten too far, and this organization has
worked for 41 years and hasn't gotten too far. So that if we want to get
anywhere, we must have a more closely knit organization with a better
financial backing back of it and a better sense of responsibility back
of it.

DR. CRANE: That's right.

DR. ANTHONY: You have mentioned the New Jersey Peach Council. We have
been talking to our own Pennsylvania nut growers just as we have been
talking to you today, telling them that they had a marvelous opportunity
in all of these seedlings that we have been finding around the state. I
think we have got them quite stirred up. But now they are considering
the possibilities of organizing along the line of New Jersey Peach
Council, a nut tester's council, which will be an off-shoot and part of
the Pennsylvania Nut Growers Association.

Now, why have such a thing? Why have it in Pennsylvania? Why not have it
as an organization of the Northern Nut Growers. The problem of varieties
actually in its final analysis is a local problem. We have one area in
Pennsylvania where on one side of the river it's McIntosh and the other
side of the river it's Stayman. There are meteorological differences on
each side of the Susquehanna River at Scranton-Wilkes Barre where the
varieties shift. In the northern area we go from the northern hardwood
with the beech-birch-sugar maple, into the oaks right in the state, with
a third of the state in the northern hardwoods and the rest of the state
in the oaks. We have no idea that any one variety of black walnuts or
English walnuts or chestnuts will fill our needs any more than we know
that any one apple will fill our needs, that one grape or one cherry
will fill our needs, even one peach, not even the Elberta.

So it comes down to a regional problem, and for that reason I think that
the state should be the logical center for your close knit organization
to test your varieties.

There is another reason. I don't believe that any group of growers
facing a problem of this magnitude can get very far unless you secure
continuity by tying your organizations in some way to your state
experiment station. I think you have got to have your continuity by
making your tie-up there.

DR. CRANE: That's right.

DR. ANTHONY: I have said a number of times in our own group that one of
the great disadvantages of our amateur nut growers in Pennsylvania is
that most of them are 70 years old or older. That's fine for them, but
it's hard on the industry, because just the time that they should be
giving us the most valuable returns, they aren't there. So to secure the
continuity you want, you are going to have to tie in your experiments
with the experiment station. You are going to have to make a group, you
are going to have to incorporate, because you are going to face the
problem of propagation. You might have one good tree, and it's of no
value for you, and you have got to plant it in more than one spot to
know how good it is.

If the Delicious apple or Grimes Golden had appeared in our seedling
blocks, we'd have thrown them away. I know we have thrown many things
out at Geneva which in other places might have survived. We took a
number of those and planted them in Pennsylvania and found them worthy
of naming. That means you have got to propagate in more than one place
and you have got to propagate in conditions where you know you have got
the demand.

And all of that means that you have got to have a tight legal
organization. Valuable as the Northern Nut Growers Association is, I
don't think you are going to get it out of your present organization. I
think you have got to find some way to condense your stuff into some
tighter organization. In Pennsylvania I think it's going to be a nut
tester's council, legally organized, financially responsible, tied up to
the experiment station, if we can make it just as the New Jersey council
is.

The New Jersey council was a success because they had the best possible
tie-up between Morris Plains, 15 or 20 miles on the other side, and a
good nursery in between. That's why they made a success.

The New York State Fruit Testing Association is a success because they
have had continuity. Mr. King has been manager of that association for
25 years, I think, and you have a legal organization doing its own
propagation where they know the material is true to name.

Use your vice-presidents all you can, use every committee that you have
but you have to have something that's tighter.

DR. CRANE: Thank you. Just one comment that I want to make. You have
suggested an awful big camel to get over. Now, we are trying to start.
If we could just get a little start towards the end we could grow into
it.

DR. ANTHONY: We have got to start.

MR. O'ROURKE: I am one of those unfortunate ones who is supposed to know
everything when an inquiry comes in to the college. I happen to have the
privilege of answering the nut inquiries at Michigan State College. The
first thing people want to know is, "what varieties do I plant?" The
second is, "Where do I buy them?" I am very sorry to say I can answer
neither one of those questions at the present time satisfactorily to
myself, nor to the people of the State of Michigan, and I feel that we
do need action, and we need it quick in order that we can select a
certain number of varieties that we can conscientiously recommend to the
grower, and also a very few varieties to recommend to the nurserymen of
the state so that they will propagate them and make them available to
prospective customers.

MR. SLATE: I want to support Mr. Anthony's remarks that there are too
many old men testing nut tree varieties.

DR. ANTHONY: Not too many, no.

MR. SLATE: And there are too many squirrels involved. If a man gets the
idea that he is going to take up the nuts, by the time he accumulates a
collection of nuts, when these come into bearing the squirrels get most
of the nuts, and they don't seem to be very much concerned about
evaluation. Then the man dies and the collection goes to pot. There must
be some continuity, and as far as I can see, that will have to come
through state experiment stations.

Now, just how you are going to get the experiment stations started in
testing nut tree varieties, I don't really know. Many of the projects at
the experiment stations are there because they are catering to the
larger industries in the state, and sometimes the projects are there
because somebody in an administrative position has an idea which he
wishes to see developed.

Now, I would like to comment on the remark of our forester friend here,
and I think he won't take offense at what I am going to say. It seems to
me that the foresters are not in a good position to criticize the
horticulturists. The forester's knowledge of variety improvement for a
long, long time has been based upon the problem of lots of seed from
certain geographical areas, and I feel sure that foresters as a class
have only very, very recently become aware of the importance of the
clone as we use it in horticulture.

Now, horticulturists, that is, pomologists, nut culturists, people who
deal with ornamentals, have been keenly aware of the horticultural clone
for a long, long time. There have been brought improvements into our
cultivated plants through the hybridization of clones that all of the
horticulturists are familiar with. The blueberry work done by the
Department of Agriculture is probably the most striking example of this
work, because it was all carried out during the lifetime of one man.

I feel that we will not get much further in searching for wild nuts. We
have had contests for hickories and black walnuts, and I doubt whether
we have made any very substantial increases. I feel certain, and I know
there are a number here who will back me up, that future improvements,
if they are to be really substantial--that is, if they are to be
substantial advances over what we already have--such improvements will
have to come through breeding work.

DR. McKAY: Mr. Chairman, I have been listening to these remarks, and I
have been trying to think of some comment that could be made in
connection with some practical suggestions that we could arrive at
tonight, a starting point, perhaps, in connection with the chairman's
remarks about doing something tonight at this meeting. I'd like to say
that it seems to me that the thing we could probably do right now to
start things off would be to have this regional committee or this group
that represents a wide area, decide on, say, five varieties based on all
the evidence that can be obtained as to which five would be most likely
to succeed over a wide area.

Now, the chairman has commented at length on our lack of unanimity when
it comes to varieties. I think most of that problem has come out of the
fact that our information is all based on little, piecemeal bits of work
done here and there, and it does not refer to variety testing over a
wide area. Now with all due respect to Dr. Anthony's remarks about
varieties being a local situation, we still have, as mentioned by the
chairman, the apple situation. The varieties in the final analysis are
going to be adopted over a wide area, and if our nurserymen and all our
growers could know or understand that these five varieties have been
selected by opinion of people that ought to know that those five
varieties stand the best chance to succeed over a wide area, then we
would have something definite to tie to.

The way it is now, we in our office feel that Thomas is probably the
most widely adapted variety of black walnut we have, and probably the
best performing variety. We are not sure, but that's our opinion. I
might mention another variety, the Stabler. I think most people would
agree that that is a variety that used to be thought well of, yet is no
more, and so it is out of the picture. Those two varieties we have
information about, based on a wide area of territory.

Now, it seems to me, coming down to something specific, what we could do
here, or as soon as we can get to it, would be to have a large
committee, a committee representing opinion over a wide area, come to
some conclusion about the five varieties that will be the ones to test
and to grow over a wide area and give our nurserymen or our growers
something to tie to in the matter of selecting varieties to grow.

DR. CRANE: Thank you, Dr. McKay. There is one other comment that I want
to make. I think that if we were to take a vote tonight in here, get an
expression on the variety Stabler, we'd say, "Yes, it's a curious nut,
it's a curiosity. Some trees sometimes bear single-lobe nuts in varying
proportions. It is a fine nut when you get it, but they don't bear
enough and they don't bear regularly enough. That is the criticism of
the Stabler."

Yet we have nurserymen, lots of them, that are propagating Stabler and
still selling them to people.

MR. McDANIEL: I know one nursery which has recently discontinued it.
That's Armstrong, way out in California.

MR. CALDWELL: Why doesn't it produce a good nut? Can you answer that
question?

DR. CRANE: It does produce a good nut ~when~ it produces.

MR. CALDWELL: If it doesn't produce all the while, why doesn't it? If
you can solve that--

DR. CRANE: Why didn't you grow up to a six-foot-six guy weighing 250
pounds?

MR. CALDWELL: It would be physically impossible for me to do so with my
constitution, which is what I am trying to apply to the nut trees.

MR. WILKINSON: Don't condemn it over all territories[6]. At my place,
the Stabler produces nuts as regular as the Thomas, and in the nursery
it outsells the Thomas two to one, if not more. I have handled nut sales
for Mr. Weber's orchard, one of the largest black walnut orchards in the
United States. When the people come there we will crack a Stabler
walnut to make a customer out of them, and we have to get on to
something else to keep them from buying all the Stablers first. And if I
were planting a hundred walnut trees today, the majority of them would
be Stabler. They have been bearing since 1918 when I started producing
Stabler walnuts.

[6] The territory giving best reports on Stabler lies along the
Mississippi and Ohio rivers from about Cincinnati to no farther south
than Memphis.--J.C.McD.

DR. CRANE: That's what we are talking about tonight.

MR. CALDWELL: Yet your committee throws the thing out.

MR. CHASE: I'd like to say a few words. First off, I am in agreement
with the idea of some sort of a regional testing set-up.

Now here we are getting into discussion about individual varieties, and
that is not the purpose of this, as I understand, but all of you
gentlemen have been propagating the various varieties simply because one
has become available to you at a certain time, and you have grafted it.
Our committee on varieties, of which I am a member, probably should be
criticized, because we have not gathered that information from the folks
who have grafted trees, and they are scattered over the region. We don't
need the regional set-up, it's already set up. In other words, if we
have varieties to be tested, we could have selected members in our group
to graft it, if they do not already have it grafted. In a few years we
can get some pretty definite information on a few varieties.

Now, in 1938, in our work we recognized the advisability of quickly
doing something about the 100-and-some varieties existing in the
proceedings, and finally we have culled that down to, I think, 43,
which, on the basis of nut characteristics only, are very close
together. Now, we started out in 1938 and established four or five test
plantings containing the first ten varieties. Ten trees of ten
varieties, a hundred trees in the planting. It took quite an area.

Since that time we have set out variety test plantings of 43 varieties
scattered over seven states at various geographical locations within the
seven states.

MR. KINTZEL: How many trees do you have in a planting now?

MR. CHASE: Twenty-five now. Twenty-five of five varieties. This work is
being carried on at the state experiment stations in the Tennessee
Valley. In fact, they have become more and more interested in the
testing program which we have been trying to get them interested in, and
we hope to have some information for our region on some of these
varieties, the better varieties as we consider them.

But back to this problem. I think it is very simple to set out. I think
the Varieties Committee--I believe Dr. Crane is chairman--

DR. MacDANIELS: You are chairman.

MR. CHASE: No. It has a job on its hands: first to find out what our
members have. Certainly they are spread over the region we are
interested in, aren't they? Well, it simply becomes a secretary's job to
canvass our membership to find out which varieties we have, so that the
Varieties Committee can go to work.

Let's be realistic. We are not going to influence all the experiment
stations to do this work. It is not going to be practicable for them.
They probably would very much like to do it, but it's not in the
picture, as I see it now. Therefore, we are not going to wait, as our
forester would have us wait, until we breed one. Let's get these good
ones that we have got and cull them out so Dr. Crane can answer a letter
without having a guilty conscience.

DR. CRANE: That's right. Folks, I want to make one comment on Mr.
Chase's remarks--also Mr. Slate's remarks, about tying this work up to
the experiment stations. There is one thing that, in my experience, we
can't place too much dependence on. Of course, in the Department of
Agriculture our main interests that we are likely to contend with are
our four major nut industries in the country. That is pecans, Persian
walnuts, filberts and almonds. In the case of those, we can get very
little help from the experiment stations, with the possible exception of
California.

MR. CORSAN: There is lots of truth in that.

DR. CRANE: They haven't got the interest in it. They haven't got the
money, they haven't got the support. They depend more on the U. S.
Department of Agriculture. Well, the Department of Agriculture can't
carry it. Hence, it comes back to growers. The grower organizations,
even in the great state of California, with all their great wealth and
abundance, go to the California experiment stations more than to any
other experiment stations in the United States. But the commercial
growers out there have already set up organizations for the testing of
these varieties and for trial plantings. You can't come back to the
experiment stations and just as has been pointed out, many of the
experiment stations have only one or two or, at most, three different
kinds of nuts of their own. They have got to go out just the same as we
do ~with the growers~; we co-operate with them. And we have already got a
lot of these experimental plantings. There is Sterling Smith with--I
have forgotten how many he said--60 walnut varieties, and Mr. Shessler
with a hundred, there in Ohio.

I'd like to know from Sterling Smith and Mr. Shessler which are the best
five walnut varieties.

MR. KINTZEL: In that section?

DR. CRANE: In that section, that's what I want to know.

MR. CORSAN: That's what we are here for tonight. Let us talk it over.

MR. WEBER: Put the question to him, Dr. Crane, and let him tell you what
he thinks to be his best five. Put him on the spot right now.

DR. CRANE: That would be just a waste of time, because that would be his
opinion. It's just like what Mr. Wilkinson says, that if he were
planting a hundred walnut trees they would be Stablers.

MR. WEBER: In his particular locality.

MR. CORSAN: And he may be quite right in that locality. I am not going
to dispute it.

DR. CRANE: But we want to know how some other folks agree with him and
study this situation over and find out why Stabler was doing its stuff
right there.

MR. CALDWELL: That's what I asked you.

DR. CRANE: And how much evidence did he base his conclusion on? That's
what we have got to discover.

MR. CORSAN: I base my conclusion on the experiment station that put out
the Redhaven peaches. Dr. George Slate here has made a very big point,
and it went to pot. Those words there are what we have got to be careful
about, that our institution doesn't go to pot. I have started affairs
that went with a fury, and when I let go of them, they just went to pot.

Take Michigan State College's Bird Sanctuary, the W. K. Kellogg Bird
Sanctuary. What is it now? A colorless affair. It's gone to pot, and we
want to see that the nut growers don't allow ~their~ institutions to go to
pot.

DR. CRANE: That's right: You hit the nail on the head, there, but it's
up to the nut growers to see that they don't. And how many experiment
stations or their actions have been influenced by the Northern Nut
Growers Association?

MR. CORSAN: I have built upon the experience of J. F. Jones and Neilson
and Professor Slate and all of them. Now, here is what I did. I picked
out a section of land that floods every spring, about four times the
width of this room and has sometimes eight feet of water. Now, nobody is
going to build houses on that and tear my nut trees down. They are there
forever, and it will always be a nut haven, and nobody will be able to
destroy it. Now I have got to be careful to see that it doesn't go to
pot, as Professor Slate said, by selecting some brains to succeed me, to
carry on. Is that right, Professor Slate?

PROFESSOR SLATE: (Nods.)

MR. SILVIS: We can't spend too much time thinking about the atomic bomb.
We can't think too much about getting an organization to start this, it
just takes somebody to go ahead and do it. We don't need experiment
stations to develop the nut, either. The nut was here a long time before
the experiment station was ever developed.

I wrote in a letter here two or three or maybe four years ago--I think
it was after the Norris meeting, to every vice-president in NNGA that
commercial possibilities of a nut must first be apparent before any
experiment station is interested, because then money is involved,
capital has been invested. Before capital can be invested must come
coordination. Coordination is labor. That's grafting or flowering, or
whatever you want to call it--back-breaking exercise.

I still think we have the organization here. We don't need to argue
about any more organization. We have organization right here in our own
State Vice-presidents. I tried to bring that out, the suggestion as to
the fact that I thought maybe the State Vice-president would serve on a
perpetual committee, if he lived into perpetuity, to get these zones
within his state. If Illinois is 400 miles long and he has 16 zones of
climate, let him get 16 plantings of the same kind of a nut in those 16
zones. The same way with Texas, the same way with Montana or Ohio.

MR. SHERMAN: I think both Mr. Stoke and Mr. Davidson thought that it
might be a good idea to give somebody a job instead of an honorary
position by naming a State vice-president for that sort of a job. Now,
we have got to start somewhere, and that would be a good place to start:
give somebody something to do, like some of these other dead people that
will feed these nuts that Corsan was telling us about this afternoon.

But the commercial possibilities are always apparent. You can subsidize
them, you know. If you can get enough money behind it, you can subsidize
it. I think our problem still is the same as it was before: We are still
trying to find out what the other guy has that's better than our own.
And if we have got five nuts that are any good, I'd like to know about
them myself.

DR. CRANK: That's right.

MR. SILVIS: I will make this statement in favor of the Homeland black
walnut--if we are on black walnuts. I came in a little late on account
of the mud here. The Homeland is growing in Massillon, and Mr. Stoke
sent me the scions. All it did was produce staminate bloom. I gave some
of the wood to John Gerstenmaier in Massillon. It is doing very well.

I also favor the Thomas black walnut, and I think the hickories and
everything else have commercial possibilities. Just let somebody go
ahead and correlate these factors. Life is very short. I have copies of
these letters, four letters out of 50 or 60 that I prepared.

DR. CRANE: Mr. Jay Smith. We are going to have to limit this to not over
three minutes' time.

MR. JAY SMITH: My experience is somewhat limited. I have a few seedling
trees that are good, and I have a few named varieties that seem to be
good. I just want to point out one reason why we should have a number of
varieties. One of my choice varieties in my back yard has five nuts on
it this year, and it has produced a good crop other years. And the
answer seems to be that the pollen came out during a period of very
rainy weather and the tree did not fertilize. Now, other trees
apparently blossomed before or after, mostly after, but this one was a
rather early blooming tree, and I have more nuts on other types of
trees.

One of my good seedling trees has very few nuts on this year. Possibly
that might be for a similar reason. So regardless of how good these
varieties may be, we must have several varieties. Don't put all your
eggs in one basket.

I have some good filberts that came from Geneva, and they have had
trouble with wood damage due to the beetles laying eggs in the wood, and
the beetles may possibly have come from nearby willows. And I have had
some of the willow growing, too, because I thought it looked nice. Now I
have cut down all of the willow, and there is some birch in the
neighborhood, and I understand the birch harbors this same thing, some
variety of Agrilus beetle,[7] and we have a lot of angles to work on in
order to get rid of our drawbacks. And we have the matters of season
and soil and elevation. It's quite a big problem.

[7] Agrilus anxius Gory, the bronze birch borer.

DR. CRANE: It ~is~ a big problem, but we will never settle it the way we
are going. We have got to do better.

MR. STOKE: I don't know whether I have anything that is really pertinent
to say. The thought I had in mind should have come sooner. That is: Why
are we growing nuts? There are two angles from which we can approach
that, two natural angles. Here is the angle of the amateur that wants to
grow nuts to eat. After all, that's what I suppose they are for. There
is the commercial grower who wants to grow them to make a profit, and I
think we should approach our subject, evaluation of nuts, from either
one of those two angles, or work along two different channels. I think
that's very necessary.

You take the Elberta peach. If you want a peach in your back yard, you
are not going to plant Elberta peaches to eat. If you want to make a
commercial success, you are going to plant the Elberta, if you know
anything about it. Are we commercial nut growers, or do we grow them for
home consumption? Go downstairs and look at the nuts we judged last year
and the eye appeal of some that didn't rate at all would sell those nuts
ahead of the prize winner. But if you want to grow them to eat, those
three prize winners are the best nuts down there.

And if we thrash over this field, I think we have got a definite idea of
what we are after, and I think we should have had that to start with.

DR. CRANE: That's right, and there is one other point of view, too.
There is a third reason for growing nut trees. That is simply for the
ornamental value. That hasn't been dealt with.

MR. WELLMAN: I'd just like to ask a question. There has been some
reference to apples here. I don't know very much about it, but I
understand that the American Pomological Society got out a list of
apples nearly a century ago, which they have kept changing and adding to
and subtracting from over all of that time. Is there any analogy there
that would help us in anything we can do? They made mistakes and put
apples on there that they are sorry they put on and they have had to
take off. People don't use those varieties in one part or another part
of the country for some reason. Is there any reason why we shouldn't
follow some suggestion such as that, stick our necks out and go ahead?

DR. CRANE: That is right, no reason in the world why you can't.

MR. SHERMAN: I'd like to do some commenting. You are doing here tonight
what you have done at the last meeting. You have talked varieties. I
thought the purpose of that was to get a committee appointed some way,
some organization that will say, "Here are certain varieties that should
be tested. Make arrangements to propagate those varieties and have them
tested."

I made a demonstration right downstairs here; some of you witnessed it.
You have got some black walnuts that you are cracking. I went out to
the car and got some that would crack in four nice quarters that laid
out. I tried it again. Sure, they cracked and cracked good. Where can I
get some trees? There are a lot of you right here who would take them
just that quick (snapping fingers), take them home and test them.

This meeting was to get an organization or discuss a means of getting an
organization that will get those trees propagated and spread out for
testing. Now, I think it's just as simple as A, B, C. It's a prolonged
job. You have got to have an organization that's going to perpetuate
itself for the next century, because if you start that organization
right it will be here a hundred years from now, and you will be just as
busy a hundred years from now as you are right now.

What that committee has got to be, whether it is a statewide or a
nationwide, Northern Nut Growers or Pennsylvania Nut Growers or Ohio Nut
Growers, is a committee of five--I will say five, you can make it 10 or
15--that will say, "Now, for Ohio here are ten varieties that we think
should be tested. Get 50 trees of each of those ten propagated and
spread out over Ohio and find out where they will grow." That will apply
for some of Western Pennsylvania, too. It isn't just state lines,
understand, but the main thing is to get that variety tested before your
nurseryman is spreading it all over everywhere.

And how can you get it tested? You have got to have some trees
propagated, and you have got to have some nurseryman who knows about the
propagation. And I will say a lot of you nurserymen, and there are a lot
of you here, take it or leave it, don't know how to propagate a decent
black walnut tree. I have had them sent to me with a 6-inch sprout
growing in the top of a club. I have had others two years old with a
nice whip five feet high, one-year-old growth. You have got to have good
trees. You have got to have a nurseryman who knows how to propagate
those ten and send them out.

Now, the next meeting was to find out what sort of an organization you
have got to have to get that done, not talk about a Stabler, whether
this is good or that is good. That's what you have been doing for 40
years.

MR. SLATE: It takes more than a committee, it takes land, labor, tools,
supervisory people.

MR. SHERMAN: I can point to 25 members that will take ten varieties that
they will test--and pay for them.

MR. O'ROURKE: I would like to say, are we going to wait until we test
all of those varieties? We have no information to answer all those
letters that are coming in. We want something, not tomorrow, we want
something today, that we can give them, information which, at least to
the best of our knowledge of today is accurate. And the only way we can
get that accurate information is to get a committee together in each
region.

MR. SHERMAN: That won't take care of the future. That will answer our
present questions to the best of our knowledge, but we want an
organization that will take care of the future.

DR. CRANE: There is one other thing that I should mention. We in the
Department of Agriculture have released a number of new varieties. We
have got others coming on, not only your chestnuts, but filberts and
others, pecans, and so on. But we haven't got any organization in any
way, shape or form. We can put these out with the growers who test them,
but gee whiz, we have put them out and put them out; and look what kind
of information we get. We haven't got facilities or the money or
anything else to follow up. We have got to have some organization some
way, somehow, that could take this material and test it, at least give
some idea as to how it performed.

Now, then, the question is what kind of an organization? If the Northern
Nut Growers is not the one that should do it, what kind of an
organization can be effective to do it?

MR. CORSAN: Now I'd just like to say one more thing tonight. That
chestnut blight, I honestly believe, was a godsend to this country. I
can remember way back when I'd go into a store and buy a lot of these
Paragon chestnuts in New York City in the finest grocery store, and they
were crammed full of weevils. Now, the chestnut blight came, and it has
about annihilated the weevil, because there was no chestnut to weevil
in. And I would like to have some report about the weevil.

MR. WILSON: They are in Georgia.

MR. McDANIEL: They are in Virginia and Indiana.

DR. MacDANIELS: Mr. Chairman, I suppose I should have the chair. This is
a committee of the whole.

DR. CRANE: That's right.

DR. MacDANIELS: I have a right to speak,

DR. CRANE: That's right.

DR. MacDANIELS: I say we have always come down to the point, here we
are, where do we go from here and what do we do next? There, in a word,
"Here we are." Lots of discussion, much of it irrelevant. I will just
propose, along the lines I spoke before, that what comes out of this is
that We recommend to the incoming president to organize a survey and
testing campaign along the lines that seem to meet with some agreement;
namely, getting the state vice-presidents busy in finding out the
regional evaluation of different varieties.

Supposing we try black walnuts; just one species for this year, and that
he organize his state according to zones and come up with that
information with regard to that state.

And the other thing would be that these findings be sent to the
committee. We have a committee on surveys and one on judging and
standards, and let that be compiled by them jointly or set up in some
way that would seem to be effective and come up next year with this
overall evaluation along those lines.

I'd make that motion.

DR. COLBY: Second the motion.

DR. MacDANIELS: Any discussions?

DR. ANTHONY: In Pennsylvania two of us have worked full time for a year,
and I am not sure we'd be able to evaluate the black walnut yet.

DR. CRANE: We are not evaluating the black walnut, though.

DR. ANTHONY: You are asking one man to do that, your vice-president.

DR. CRANE: He is to appoint a committee.

DR. MacDANIELS: Any way he chooses to mark them out.

DR. ANTHONY: He is organizing a nut tester association.

DR. MacDANIELS: No, an evaluation association. As I would say, you have
the Ohio Association already formed; that would be their problem to come
up with an answer for their state. We have the Pennsylvania organization
already organized. They will come up with some sort of evaluation: No.
1, Thomas, No. 2, whatever it is, No. 3, whatever it is. Now, in your
other states we don't have an organization; do it some other way. I
don't care how they do it.

DR. CRANE: There are some others in these other states, too, that are
already formed.

Any other discussion?

(Whereupon, a vote on the motion was called for, and it was carried
unanimously.)

MR. SILVIS: Just one thing. It was made with the express purpose that we
start maybe just the black walnut. At the same time in certain areas you
may as well raise a hickory or a Persian right along with the black
walnut, or the filbert.

MR. McDANIEL: No objection, but this year we are surveying the black
walnut named varieties only.

MR. SALZER: I am just a buck private in the rear rank, but we have been
having little local meetings in New York, and they appointed me
vice-president for the State of New York, the Empire State, and here
Ohio has their organization, Pennsylvania has their organization. What
am I going to do? I can work Western New York, but I have got to have
someone to help me in Eastern New York.

DR. MacDANIELS: Take the membership list and take the men who can do it.

DR. CRANE: There are a lot of good men in Eastern New York.

Now, if there isn't anything else, I will turn the meeting back to Dr.
MacDaniels.

DR. MacDANIELS: Thank you, Dr. Crane. I think these talks are good for
the soul. We can let our hair down and know what we all think. And I do
think it's important that we do make some progress on this particular
problem. I think this is one way to do it. There may be a half dozen
ways and other ways better, but at least you have to agree on something
and go on from there.

Now, the meeting in the morning begins at nine o'clock, the full
program.

If there is no further business, then, this session is adjourned.

(Whereupon, at 10 o'clock, p.m., the meeting was adjourned, to reconvene
at 9 o'clock, a. m. the following day, August 29, 1950.)



TUESDAY MORNING SESSION

August 29, 1950


DR. MacDANIELS: I want to make the remark that this isn't church, you
can sit up front if you want to.

The first paper this morning has to do with a nut tree disease that is
bothering a good many of us, I think, particularly in Michigan, as you
recall from Mr. Becker's paper, the Bunch Disease of Walnuts, by Dr. H.
L. Crane and Dr. J. W. McKay. I don't know which one is going to give
it. Dr. McKay?



The Bunch Disease of Walnuts

Discussion


(Manuscript too late for publication.)

(Drs. Crane and McKay reported that there had been little further
development in knowledge regarding the walnut bunch disease since 1948,
when G. F. Gravatt and Donald C. Stout of the U.S.D.A. Division of
Forest Pathology reported on it with illustrations at the N.N.G.A.
meeting (see our report for 1948 pp. 63-66.) Since then the state of
California has prohibited the entry of all walnut nursery trees and
scions from the Rocky Mountain states or farther east.--Ed.)

DR. CRANE: I'd like to make one additional remark. You see, we call this
trouble "bunch disease" rather than "brooming," to distinguish it from
other diseases that are caused by known parasites. We have a disease
very similar to this one affecting walnuts and pecan and hickory, and
that one has been studied more carefully than has the bunch disease. It
is unquestionably caused by virus, and in our pecan orchards we have a
situation that exists that is a parallel to what it is in the black
walnut. The variety Stuart practically never has shown any symptom of
the bunch disease. Yet it performs very much like a lot of our black
walnuts do. They just don't bear; they don't have the proper foliage;
they don't make the proper kind of growth. So we are not sure whether
they are symptomless carriers, that is, in terms of the lack of
expression of virus growth and this bunchy condition on them.

Really, we feel that all people that are interested in the walnuts and
that are trying to grow them should make careful observations on these
trees to study just what the situation is, how it develops, and note the
performance of these trees that become diseased; because we feel that
it's a much more serious thing than people appreciate at the present
time.

In much of Eastern Shore Maryland and of the area around Washington and
Beltsville and over in Virginia, a great majority of the trees are
affected by it, particularly Japanese walnuts of all types and the
butternuts. I feel it is so bad on Japanese walnuts and butternuts that
they shouldn't be propagated in the area.

MR. McDANIEL: I had the bunch growth developed on a new species this
year in my planting in north Alabama, a 12-year-old tree of ~Juglans
rupestris~. It is a growth that looks practically the same as the bunch
disease on the Japanese walnut. I believe that's the first time it's
been observed on that species. There are no butternuts or Japanese
walnuts on the farm. There are dozens of black walnuts (seedlings and
several varieties) none of which show the bunch symptoms. However, it is
typically developed on some Japanese trees a few miles away.

At Whiteville, Tenn., Dr. Aubrey Richards has a suspicious looking tree
among some two year old seedlings of ~Juglans major~ from Arizona seeds.

MR. CHASE: I'd like to add to that, too, Mac. In our walnut arboretum we
had some ~rupestris~, and I had been suspicious of its being diseased for
a number of years. I finally have decided that it had the bunch disease,
and those trees down at Norris have all passed out.

MR. McDANIEL: My tree came from Norris, 10 years ago.

DR. MacDANIELS: ~Juglans rupestris~ killed by the disease.

MR. STOKE: Just because this is a little contradictory to what you have
heard, I want to say that my experience has been this: I have an old
nursery--well, there is a butternut in the row and also heartnut--Japs.
One of those Japs has had the bunch disease for six or eight years. None
of the others has been affected. It was a variety I wanted to
perpetuate. I took an apparently healthy scion from that and put it on
another tree, and that grafted tree also had the disease. But there has
been no evidence of contagion from this Jap to the other Japanese,
butternuts and black walnut in the same planting in the immediate
neighborhood--in fact, they crowd each other. That's a statement of
fact.

I spoke a little while ago of an old black walnut tree that had that
disease for a number of years and none other in that planting had it.

MR. O'ROURKE: Is there any correlation between the age of the tree and
the expression of the disease?

DR. McKAY: It's been our observation that we haven't had it in our
nursery to any extent. We have seen it in the nursery of J. Russell
Smith on Persian walnut. It, to my knowledge, is the only place where we
have seen it on nursery trees. It may be that our nursery happened to be
free of the inoculum, because it's been about a mile from the orchards.

MR. O'ROURKE: Would you by any chance think it might be seed borne?

DR. McKAY: We have no information on that virus.

MR. GILBERT SMITH: I have one statement to put in at this time. Dr.
Crane questioned whether the Japanese walnut should be grown. I wonder
if the Japanese walnut might not be a safeguard in the area where they
don't have the disease, in that you will detect the disease the quickest
on the Japanese walnut, and in that way anyone would become wise to it,
rather than if it was in the black walnut. It might be so insidious that
it could be well spread before persons knew they had it at all. I
wonder if the Japanese walnut, through its quickness in showing the
disease, might not be a safeguard to the other walnuts?

DR. MacDANIELS: That's a technique that's used with some other plants.

MR. CORSAN: I go on the principle that a tree that's well fed might not
resist every disease, but it will resist a great many diseases and most
of the diseases, if it's well fed. Now, the feeding of trees is very
important. I noticed that in going back and forth between Florida and
Toronto. I examine the pecan situation every fall and spring, and just
to think of Stuarts--you know the size of Stuart pecan--coming in good,
big crop of nuts that size (indicating with fingers). Can you see that?
And you know that is less than half the size the Stuart should be. It's
a great nut for cracking by machinery. In fact, a lot of people grow
nothing but Stuart. And last year they had such a crop. Last year I
pointed to a farm right near the highway. "Do you see that? For years I
have been trying to get you to put that sawdust, which is nearly 40 feet
high in a pile, around your pecans and see the vast difference in your
pecans." You know there was no rain down there all last summer, and the
pecans were half the proper size. Now, that sawdust would keep the
moisture in. I am a great believer in the use of sawdust. It's a tree
product itself and it has some of the constituents of what the pecan
should feed on.

As Dr. Waite told us one time in Washington--you will probably remember
the remark he made about the pecan trees in an orchard which were
absolutely fruitless year after year. He went through that orchard, and
he saw a pecan here and a pecan there that had a good, big crop right
among the empty trees. He examined them and found signs driven into the
trees, and some of the signs were put up with zinc covered nails. Those
signs that had the steel covered nails had no nuts on, but those that
had zinc in had a huge crop. It excited the growth of the female
blossom.

Now, we have got an awful lot to discover, as you gentlemen say in this
nut culture, way beyond the imagination of the human mind.

DR. MacDANIELS: We had better limit discussion to this particular
problem. Is there more comment?

MR. McDANIEL: On that problem, I have observed the brooming in the
heartnut seedlings about three years old, which were seedlings of the
Fodermaier variety growing at Norris in the late 30's. Brooming
developed in some of them in either the second or third year from seed.

DR. MacDANIELS: That answers their remark about the young trees.

MR. SLATE: A plant that is well fed and making very vigorous growth may
be more attractive to the insect vector. Therefore, a healthy tree might
take it.

MR. McDANIEL: These trees were very vigorous.

DR. MacDANIELS: How many growers of nut trees have this bunch disease on
their property?

MR. KINTZEL: Black walnuts?

DR. MacDANIELS: On anything at all. (Showing of hands.) There are at
least a dozen.

When Mr. Burgart up in Michigan finds out that the limiting factor
practically cleans him out, there is this question of bunch disease with
witches'-broom resulting from ground deficiency. I know in the Wright
plantings in the vicinity of Westfield they had brooming trees of the
Japanese walnut which apparently recovered after treatment with zinc.
And, of course, we know on the West Coast you get witches'-broom in the
Persian walnut which cannot be cured by zinc.

Is there any other discussion on this point?

(No response.)

We will go on to the next paper.

MR. CORSAN: Anybody passing through Toronto can drop in and see my
Japanese walnuts with 24 to the cluster and not a sign of bunch disease.

DR. MacDANIELS: Yes, you may not have the bunch disease near you. We
hope you haven't.

The next paper is by J. A. Adams, who is from the Experiment Station
here at Poughkeepsie. This experiment station is a branch of the Geneva
Agricultural Experiment Station. I believe that's right, isn't it, Mr.
Adams?

MR. ADAMS: That's right, and it is concerned primarily with the fruits
down here in this region.

DR. MacDANIELS: His subject is "Some Observations on the Japanese Beetle
on Nut Trees." Let me say Mr. Adams would like to show some slides, but
it didn't seem feasible to close this window down.



The Japanese Beetle and Nut Growing

J. A. ADAMS

Associate Professor of Entomology, New York State Agricultural
Experiment Station, Geneva and Poughkeepsie, New York


It is a pleasure to attend this meeting of the Northern Nut Growers.
Association and to take part in your program. I shall discuss the
Japanese beetle as it seems to affect nut culture, and outline our
methods of control.

The Japanese beetle evidently came into this country in the soil about
some roots of plants imported to a nursery near Philadelphia nearly 40
years ago. Since 1916, its distribution, habits, and control have been
closely studied by the federal Japanese Beetle Laboratory at Moorestown,
New Jersey. The insect has become generally distributed in the coastal
area, as far north as Massachusetts, as far south as Virginia, and as
far west as West Virginia. Beyond these limits, it has established local
colonies in New Hampshire, Vermont, Western New York, Ohio, Michigan,
and North Carolina. In most of the states affected there is an
investigator who, like myself, carries on local studies, more or less in
cooperation with the federal laboratory. In New York we now have, in
addition to the generally infested areas on Long Island and in the
Hudson Valley, about 50 isolated infestations in the central and western
parts of the state.

Might I have a showing of hands by those who have Japanese beetle
already? (Showing of hands.) There is quite a sprinkling of you who have
them. Many of you do not have them yet, but, since the insect is
spreading every year, you can expect them some day, especially if you
live in the Northeast. It is expected that this pest will not thrive in
the drier central States, but it might become established in the Pacific
States some day, unless prevented.

You can see these beetles anywhere in and around Poughkeepsie. From
Poughkeepsie I have watched them spread in the past few years to
Pleasant Valley and eastward. This morning as I parked my vehicle by
this building I picked these specimens from the smartweed, ~Polygonum
persicaria~. (Passing of specimens.) These insects also feed on the
flowers and foliage of purple loosestrife, ~Lythrum salicifolia~, so
plentiful and showy in our swampy fields. The most conspicuous damage is
done to the foliage of wild grape vines. You will observe this when you
visit Mr. Stephen Bernath's nut plantation. You will note the
conspicuous defoliation of the vines on the fence rows. Willow is
another host heavily attacked. I believe you have the beetles at your
plantation at Wassaic, Mr. Smith?

MR. GILBERT SMITH: Plenty of them.

DR. ADAMS: You will also observe the damage at Mr. Smith's place. You
will see that it is strictly a matter of skeletonization of the leaves.

A MEMBER: They eat the fruit, too.

DR. MacDANIELS: You have damage on fruit.

A MEMBER: They eat berries.

DR. ADAMS: Yes, but on nut plants the damage above ground is confined to
leaf skeletonization. It varies widely, depending on the kind of nut
plant. Before visiting Mr. Bernath's planting, I sought out the
botanical names of the commoner nut plants in Dr. MacDaniels' Cornell
Extension Bulletin No. 701, on "Nut Growing." Of the ~Juglans~ species,
the black walnut, ~J. nigra~, is sometimes heavily attacked. There are
large black walnut trees near one of our peach orchards. I have seen
hordes of beetles gather in these trees in July and August,
skeletonizing the leaves until the defoliation reached 40% or more. Late
in August the beetles seemed to leave the walnut foliage and descend
upon the ripening peaches. The heart nut, ~J. sieboldiana~ var.
~cordiformis~, was moderately fed upon at Mr. Bernath's nursery. The
butternut, ~J. cinerea~, is only lightly attacked, as a rule.

The hickories and pecans are not attacked to any appreciable extent, but
at least some of the chestnuts are very attractive to this pest. I have
seen shoots of ~Castanea dentata~ with their foliage reduced to lace. Some
of the small Chinese chestnuts, ~C. mollissima~, at Mr. Bernath's place,
were about one-fourth defoliated in mid-August.

The hazels seem to be attractive to these beetles. When the Japanese
beetle spreads to Prof. Slate's plantings of ~Corylus~ at Geneva, we may
get more information on varietal preferences. I find that exposed
foliage of ~C. americana~, the common wild hazel here, is sometimes fairly
heavily fed upon. I am holding up to the window a portion of a hazel
bush; you can see that the leaves along one side are skeletonized. It is
probable that the species, hybrids, and varieties of ~Corylus~ will show
the same marked variation in susceptibility that is shown in so many
other genera of plants.

Among the oaks, the pin oak, ~Quercus Palustris~, and the English oak, ~Q.
robur~, are commonly one-third defoliated while the common white and red
oaks are almost immune. Among the maples--to go farther afield from
nuts--the Norway, ~Acer platanoides~, and the Japanese, ~A. palmatum~, are
often severely injured, where the sugar maple, ~A. saccharum~, is only
lightly injured and the delicate-leaved red maple and silver maple, ~A.
rubrum~ and ~A. saccharinum~, remain untouched.

Since the Japanese beetle is here to stay, and to spread, these
differences are worth considering where plant materials are being
selected for new ornamental plantings. In our bulletin on Japanese
beetle (Cornell Extension Bulletin 770) we have to warn the reader that
planting chestnuts may bring him trouble with the Japanese beetle,
trouble which he would not have with flowering dogwood, ~Cornus florida~,
or the common lilacs, ~Syringa vulgaris~, which are immune to this pest.

It may be, however, that some of the chestnuts carry immunity factors.
In the U. S. Department of Agriculture Circular No. 547, published in
1940, "Feeding Habits of the Japanese Beetle," by I. M. Hawley and F. W.
Metzger, ~Castanea crenata~, the Japanese chestnut, is listed with beech
and chestnut oak as "generally lightly injured." I understand you
consider the nut of this species poor, but if resistance factors are in
the genus, there can be hope of finding or developing a chestnut
resistant to Japanese beetle.

We might be able to do with chestnuts what has been done with poplars.
The common poplars range from the Lombardy, ~Populus nigra italica~, which
is heavily damaged by the beetle, to the white, ~P. alba~, which is
immune. The forest geneticist, E. J. Schreiner, has written an article,
"Poplars can be bred to order," which appears on pages 153 to 157 in
"Trees," the Yearbook of Agriculture for 1949, published by the U. S.
Department of Agriculture. Schreiner provides an interesting diagram of
random planting of 102 poplar hybrids, in plots of 50 trees each,
representing 30 parentages. He writes, "Japanese beetle infestation was
heavy in ~1947~; as late as September 9 beetles were as numerous as 10 to
12 per leaf on the most susceptible plants. Although the insects were
feeding everywhere on the sparsely scattered weeds growing under the
hybrids, beetle feeding was found on only nine hybrids, representing
four parentages. Three of these parentages include hybrids that were
entirely free of beetle feeding during the entire infestation." Among
five hybrids of ~P. charkowiensis~ and ~P. caudina~, three were highly
susceptible, one moderately susceptible and one was non-susceptible.

Japanese beetles, when infesting rows of plants of the same variety,
usually occur unevenly on the individual plants. Some of the factors
have to do with the vigor or color of the tree. In my observation on
peach, I have repeatedly seen a sickly, yellow and half-wilted tree with
thousands of beetles in it, while other similar but healthy trees in the
same row averaged only a few hundred beetles. You can make one branch of
a tree more attractive to the insects than the rest of the branches by
partly girdling it or permitting borers or cankers to damage the base of
the branch. This observation suggests that the increased sugar content
raises the attractiveness of the leaf. It coincides with what is already
known that extracts of plants preferred by the Japanese beetle have, in
general, a higher sugar content, or more of a fruit-like odor than those
not attacked. (Metzger et al, Jour. Agric. Research, ~49~ (11): 1001-1008.
1934. Washington, D. C.)

There are other observations you can easily make yourselves. The
Japanese beetle avoids shade, except on the hottest days, and its
feeding in dense trees shows up most in the tops; its feeding on uniform
plantings tends to show up most in the edge rows. Nursery-size trees are
more extensively defoliated than larger ones. At this point we must
consider that the insect usually has to fly into a planting from the
outside, for it breeds chiefly in lawns and meadows. If the foliage mass
of the nut planting is small and the grass areas nearby are large, the
beetles are likely to do heavier damage than where the planting is very
large and grass areas negligible. A small planting in a suburban area,
beside a large golf course, cemetery or dairy farm, is going to be more
heavily attacked than a large one set in a clearing in the woods.

~Control of the adult:~ The safest, most direct measure is to pick or
knock the beetles off the plants, preferably in the early morning, when
they are cool. They may be dropped in a pail with a little kerosene in
it. Some plants can be shielded with thin nets which can be placed on
them by day. We do not recommend Japanese beetle traps. These yellow
traps, which are baited with geranoil and other essential oils, can draw
beetles in from a considerable distance but we have found that, possibly
because many beetles miss the trap, the population of beetles remains
high near the trap, in spite of heavy daily catches. Although the use of
one trap to the acre on a block 10 miles square would probably get
results, the use of a few traps on a small nut planting is likely to be
disappointing.

A MEMBER: Will birds or any kind of poultry eat them?

DR. ADAMS: Yes, poultry will eat them, as far as they can reach. Certain
birds, of course, will feed on them to some extent, but birds, in
summer, seem to have plenty of other things to eat, and they certainly
leave plenty of beetles in plain sight uneaten. We can see that the
birds are a fairly constant helpful factor, but are not to be relied
upon to prevent injury occurring in a beetle outbreak.

Rotenone, which, I believe, is one of your main insecticides in nut
culture, is fairly effective on Japanese beetles. It kills the beetles
hit with the spray and gives protection for several days thereafter. If
you apply it often enough, rotenone can take care of the plants so that
they don't become disfigured by the beetles. Using cube powder, you may
apply five ounces of 4% rotenone in 10 gallons of water. Of course, in
many cases there is no objection to using DDT wetable powder or dusts,
unless you are afraid of a mite problem arising after DDT is used. If
DDT can be sprayed on the plants, it needs to be applied only about
three times during a summer, or sometimes only twice. For plants that
are growing very fast, the new growth, of course, has to be kept
treated. You may prefer to spray once heavily over all the plants in
July and then, after that, keep the beetles off by spraying or dusting
the new growth, during August. For more directions see U.S.D.A. Farmers
Bulletin No. 2004.

Now, there are new chemicals that will kill Japanese beetles very
quickly. Parathion will kill them, but its toxicity necessitates great
care in handling and, on peaches, we find it protects the plants for
only a few days. Chlordane, which has a very important use in connection
with these insects in the grub stage, is not recommended above ground;
it is too brief in its action. Methoxychlor may be used instead of DDT.
It is less effective, but much less poisonous, and should be applied
more frequently.

Now, the other aspect of control is to try to reduce beetle production
over the whole area so that you don't have so many beetles flying in to
the plants during the summer and you don't have to spray so frequently,
if at all. This is the phase to which I wish to give particular
attention, after we consider the life history.

~Life history:~ The Japanese beetles in the adult stage are in evidence
here from late June to late September, or, roughly, for the summer
season. The adults lay their eggs in the soil, mostly in lawns, mowed
grassy fields and pastures. The adults die but the eggs give rise to
tiny, bluish-gray larvae which feed chiefly on grass roots. The larvae
grow through the fall and spring, and, if more numerous than about 40 to
the square foot in September, or about 25 in April and May, can cause
severe lawn damage.

MR. CORSAN: That's the stage when the pheasants and starlings eat them.

DR. ADAMS: Yes, in the grub stage.

MR. CORSAN: I see thousands of starlings gorging themselves.

DR. ADAMS: Yes, scratching birds, crows and skunks can take them out;
the starlings make a hole the size of a pencil point to do so. In our
survey areas grub populations sometimes seem to drop rapidly in May,
when the birds are feeding their nestlings. In June, the surviving
larvae mostly change into pupae, and by July they are appearing as
beetles. From the lawns and grassy fields they readily fly to weeds,
shrubs, grapevines and trees. They fly at least a few hundred yards, if
need be, to find their host plants. Well kept, sunny, lawns with good,
moist soil, which carry 40 grubs to the square foot in the fall may
still have plenty at transformation time in early summer. A lawn of
5,000 square feet could thus produce 100,000 beetles. Yards, roadways
and pastures commonly produce as many as six beetles to the square foot,
which means a quarter million to the acre.

~Chemical control in the grub stage:~ In New York we suggest that on a
home property the more valuable sections of permanent lawn be
grub-proofed with chemicals as soon as there are 5 to 10 grubs to the
square foot. This grub-proofing has two effects: (a) it stops beetle
production from that lawn, and (b) it prevents the lawn grass being
damaged by the grubs of this and other annual grub species and by the
birds and animals, including moles, which damage grubby turf. For
grub-proofing I prefer to use chlordane. It may be applied in a spray,
at 8 ounces of 50% wettable powder to 1,000 square feet, or it may be
purchased in the more bulky 5% form and applied dry with a two-wheeled
lawn fertilizer spreader. For each 1,000 square feet I take 5 pounds of
5% chlordane and, since it tends to clog the spreader, I mix it in a
cardboard drum with 5 pounds of a dry, granular material such as the
activated-sludge fertilizer known as "Milorganite." The ten pounds of
mixture is then spread on the 1,000 square feet, half east and west,
half north and south.

If applied in the fall or early spring there will be no beetles coming
out in July and no grubs for several years. DDT at 6 pounds of 10% DDT
to 1,000 square feet will give an even longer grub-proofing effect. Our
plots so treated in 1944 are still grub-free. The possible trouble with
DDT is that it is too nearly permanent, and if you should plow up a
piece of lawn treated with it and try to raise tomatoes or strawberries,
you might find the soil too toxic.

~Biological control in the grub stage:~ The chemical grub-proofing of the
sunny parts of the front or main lawn on a property is desirable for the
reasons stated, but it does not usually stop more than a fifth of the
beetle production around the property, because there are usually plenty
of neighbors' lawns, pastures, public grounds, and other
beetle-producing turf areas nearby. How are you to reduce the beetle
crop on these places, mostly on ground you don't control? Here is where
biological control comes in, something which I feel will appeal to you
in this group. The parasitic insects known as spring Tiphia, imported
from the Orient and well established on hundreds of estates, golf
courses, and cemeteries around Philadelphia and New York, may be
introduced in your vicinity when grubs reach about 5 to the square foot.
The parasites, which are like flying ants, appear above ground in spring
and feed on honey-dew. The female burrows in the soil and attaches her
eggs singly to Japanese beetle grubs. A maggot hatches and consumes the
grub. I have charge of the distribution of these parasites in New York.
I like to liberate at least one colony in each village or town division.
Some of you may help me plan the liberation for your vicinity, possibly
on a cemetery near your place. The colonies enlarge to about a square
mile in 10 years, and may cut beetle production by 50%.

Another biological agent which can be added to grub-carrying turf is the
bacterium causing Japanese beetle grubs to turn milky white and die. A
powder is made from diseased grubs and talc and this milky disease spore
inoculum is applied with a teaspoon in dots or spots over the turf. The
important point is that the spore powder must be used on a plot where
there are grubs to get the disease, and not on chemically grub-proofed
soil. Milky disease spore powder is sold under three brand names,
"Japidemic," "Japonex" and "Sawco-Japy." One-half pound, suitably
applied, will cost you about $2.50 and be an act of good citizenship,
for the disease slowly spreads to any grubby soil in surrounding
properties. I can supply addresses of the producers and detailed
reprints of my studies.


Discussion

MR. McDANIEL: Does this disease affect any other beetles we have in
America, besides the Japanese?

MR. ADAMS: Yes, one other species; it causes some sickness in the grubs
of the turf pest known as the Oriental beetle.

MR. McDANIEL: How about the green June beetle?

DR. ADAMS: No, unfortunately, it doesn't work on that beetle, which is a
pest on Long Island and in the South.

A MEMBER: How much area would a (1/2-pound) can like that treat?

DR. ADAMS: It depends. You can apply a half-pound to a quarter acre, or
any smaller space you want to put it on. If you want to put spots down
closer together, say every three feet, it will treat about 1,000 square
feet. It suggests on the label that you do. But if you treat a plot on a
large field, I'd recommend you put it out at about a teaspoonful every
ten feet. In other words, I wouldn't put less than a half-pound on the
plot set aside for it on my place. The application is just a starter to
introduce the disease in the area, and it doesn't matter too much
whether you spot it at 10-foot intervals on a pasture or put it at
fairly close intervals on an area about the size of this room. The point
is that it mustn't be broadcast, because that spreads the spores too
thin. Grubs don't get the disease if they eat only a few spores. We
assume that where you put the spots down on the ground the grubs under
those spots will get the disease and wander off and die. When a grub
dies, it multiplies the number of spores up to many millions. That
portion of soil becomes infective, and more grubs going through the
infective portions carry the disease to intervening areas until the
whole piece of turf is unhealthful to these grubs. Droppings of birds
feeding on sick grubs spread the disease.

MR. FRYE: One application is all that's needed?

DR. ADAMS: One application is all that's needed. Control is slight at
first, but increases with the passage of the years.

MR. CORSAN: Quail feed on them. Why can't we have quail around the farms
instead of shooting them?

DR. ADAMS: I would be for that, but we have to find other methods for a
lot of people. Besides, we need something that will intercept some of
the grubs in the fall, before they get big. After all, by the time the
quail are interested in them, they have already done some damage in the
ground. In the ground the grubs can do two kinds of damage. They can
make turf loose so it can be rolled back like a rug. Second, if you
should plow up a piece of sod that has many grubs in it and try to plant
row crops or nursery stock, they may eat the roots off the planting in
the spring.

DR. McKAY: I'd like to ask what effect low temperature has on them and
how far north you think will be their limit?

DR. ADAMS: The soil temperature at which the grubs begin to die in
hibernation is 15 degrees, and I have never seen the soil temperature
that low here under turf. (I operate a soil thermograph on my lawn.)

A MEMBER: How far down do they go?

DR. ADAMS: They hibernate at 4 to 8 inches in the ground. It's rare to
have it drop below 27 degrees at these depths.

MR. STERLING SMITH: What do you mean, Fahrenheit?

DR. ADAMS: That is Fahrenheit.

A MEMBER: That's frozen solid. That's at 32 degrees.

DR. ADAMS: The deeper soil will drop only a few degrees below freezing.
The soil here usually remains no lower than 32 degrees, except within an
inch or two of the top.

A MEMBER: Do you think soil temperature is going to be a limiting
factor?

DR. ADAMS: I think the limiting factor northward is the coolness of the
summers. In Northern Japan their life history gets altered because of
the shortness of the summer, and I think in the Adirondack area they
won't be serious for that reason.

MR. WEBER: Will this spore powder kill other kinds of grubs that are in
the sod?

DR. ADAMS: Not to any practical extent. It does not control the grubs of
the "June bugs," or brown June beetles, or what are called "white
grubs."

MR. LOWERRE: Would the DDT kill the parasitic wasps?

DR. ADAMS: Turf treated with chlordane or DDT is grub-proofed and is not
of any use to the flying parasites as a place to lay eggs, or for
bacteria to multiply. So we don't want to put chemicals on top of
biological control plots. For instance, on an average home property I
would treat the front lawn, the more valuable piece, with chemicals so
that it would be 100% grub-proofed to protect the turf and to take that
much turf out of beetle production. Then on the back lawns or grassy
fields adjoining, I would apply at least a half-pound of this milky
disease material, and in that way provide a complete treatment; the
parasites can be added on some large public turf area nearby. And don't
think you are going to stamp the Japanese beetle out just by spraying
all the adult beetles you see each summer on the cultivated plants,
because there are lots more on the shade trees, weeds and vines.

A new book, "The Insect Enemies of Eastern Forests," contains a great
deal of information on the insects feeding on nut trees. Unfortunately,
it isn't indexed to crops, so you can't look up "walnut" and find what
insects bother you. You have to know what the insect is, and you will
find it with its insect family. That is U. S. Department of Agriculture
Miscellaneous Publication 657, by George E. Craighead. Price $2.50, from
the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C.

MR. CORSAN: What in the world has become of the black walnut
caterpillar, that big, black fellow with the grey hairs?

DR. ADAMS: Maybe they are at a low point in a cycle. Mr. Bernath will
show you a few of them.

MR. CORSAN: He might show me a few of them, but I have been pestered
with them for years, and this year I haven't got any.

DR. ADAMS: I suppose natural conditions have taken care of them for a
while, but they will come back again.

(Applause.)

DR. MacDANIELS: Thank you, very much, sir. We will take a few minutes
recess now.

(Whereupon, a short recess was taken.)

Editor's Note: The following paper which was delayed, was originally
scheduled for our 1949 Report.



Insecticides for Nut Insects

E. H. SIEGLER United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural
Research Administration Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine


Fortunately, the growers of nuts do not have to combat a large number of
injurious insect species. However, some species do at times cause a
heavy loss of nuts and may also damage the vegetation growth of the
trees. Injury by insects will vary from year to year, due to various
causes, and insects frequently show varietal host preferences. Timely
use of insecticides is the most effective means of combating many
harmful species.

Until the beginning of World War II a rather limited number of
insecticides was available, such as lead arsenate, cryolite, nicotine,
mineral oil emulsions, and rotenone. Some injurious insects were
satisfactorily controlled through the timely application of one or the
other of these materials, or combinations of them; others survived in
damaging numbers in spite of all attempts to suppress them.

During and since World War II, both in the United States and abroad,
work on insecticides has been stepped up markedly. As a result, many new
insecticides have been developed and are available for general use.

The first of the new insecticides about which we heard was DDT.
Actually, the compound itself was not a new one, since it was prepared
by a German student chemist in 1874. However, no use was found for it
until 1939, when a Swiss chemist found it promising as an insecticide
against the Colorado potato beetle. It was first tested in the United
States a few years later.

Since the successful introduction of DDT, promising new insecticides
have become available more frequently and in greater numbers than ever
before. Among these materials are certain chlorinated hydrocarbons
related to DDT. These include methoxychlor and TDE, neither of which is,
on the whole, as useful as DDT but both of which are of value and have
an important advantage over DDT in that they are reported to be less
toxic to warm-blooded animals. Other new chlorinated hydrocarbons
include benzene hexachloride, synthesized in 1828 and first tested
against insects in France in 1941 and discovered about the same time in
England; chlordane, developed in the United States a few years ago; and
toxaphene. Several organic phosphorus compounds, including hexaethyl
tetraphosphate, tetraethyl pyrophosphate, and parathion, have also been
developed.

Technical benzene hexachloride is a mixture of several isomers, the
gamma isomer being the most toxic to insects. The practically pure
isomer is known as lindane. A handicap to the general use of benzene
hexachloride on fruit is its tendency to cause off-flavor condition when
applied too close to harvest. Lindane is less likely to cause off-flavor
in fruit than technical benzene hexachloride but may not overcome this
fault altogether.

The organic phosphate insecticides, like DDT, were first found of value
in Europe and were introduced into the United States after the close of
World War II. Parathion in particular shows great promise for the
control of many insect pests. Although these compounds are very
poisonous and must be handled strictly in accordance with the
manufacturers' recommendations, a recent announcement by Arnold J.
Lehman, of the Food and Drug Administration, indicates that their
residues are not likely to be harmful. He has stated that "parathion is
not stored in the tissues to an appreciable extent--it is rapidly
destroyed by the tissues of the body which in turn is an added mechanism
for the prevention of tissue accumulation." Residues of hexaethyl
tetraphosphate and tetraethyl pyrophosphate persist for only a short
time and residues of parathion drop to a low level within 10 to 14 days
after application. This information, however, does not make it
unnecessary for the user to observe strictly all warnings and
precautions issued by the manufacturers of parathion and of other
organic phosphates. Serious effects and deaths have occurred though
excessive exposures to parathion.


General Information Regarding the Use of the New Organic Insecticides

~Handling the insecticides.~ All the new organic insecticides, the organic
phosphates in particular, are to some degree toxic not only to many
insects but to man and animals as well. Even the most toxic ones can be
used, however, without harmful effects on the operator, provided all the
cautions issued by the manufacturer are properly followed. Special care
must be taken in handling concentrated insecticides preparatory to
making diluted spray or dust applications.

~Spray concentrations.~ DDT has been used more extensively than any of the
other newer insecticides and for this reason there is considerable
information relative to the spray concentrations known to be effective
against insects susceptible to it. For spray purposes DDT is generally
employed at the rate of 1-1/2 to 4 pounds of 50 percent wettable powder
per 100 gallons of water.

Parathion is being used at 1/2 to 1-1/2 pounds of 15 percent wettable
powder per 100 gallons of water for mites and up to 2 pounds to 100
gallons of water for insects more resistant to it. The occurrence of
injury to the foliage and fruit of some varieties of apples when this
insecticide is used is under investigation.

Benzene hexachloride (10 percent gamma isomer, wettable) is being used
at 2 to 4 pounds, and sometimes less depending upon the insect, per 100
gallons of water. Wettable mixtures containing 25 percent of lindane
(approximately pure gamma isomer) are used at dosages which would give
an equivalent quantity of the gamma isomer in the diluted spray.

Chlordane is usually employed at the rate of 2 to 3 pounds of 50 percent
wettable powder and toxaphene at 2 to 4 pounds of 40 percent wettable
powder per 100 gallons.

These insecticides are also being sold for use as dusts, either ready to
use or in a more concentrated form which can be reduced to dusting
strength through the addition of inert material.

~Spray Residues.~ Spray residues are not important on nut crops, but on
fruits it is important to time the insecticide applications so that
harmful residues are avoided. Animals should not be allowed to graze
vegetation beneath trees recently treated. Instructions on the packaged
insecticide should be followed.

~Effect on beneficial insects.~ Since the more potent of the newer organic
insecticides are toxic to many parasitic and predatory insects, all of
which help to reduce the populations of injurious species, these
insecticides, if used, must be largely relied upon to effect control by
themselves. Often no immediate assistance is forthcoming from beneficial
insects after these materials have been used.


Nut Insect Investigations

Except for studies on the chestnut weevils, nut insect investigations by
the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine are being conducted
primarily on the pecan at southern laboratories. Many of the remarks in
this paper are therefore based on information obtained from these
laboratories. In view of the short time the new organic insecticides
have been available, work to determine their place in nut insect control
programs is largely in the experimental stage. Much further work will be
necessary before detailed instructions can be given for their general
use.


Insects Attacking the Nuts

~The Pecan weevil.~ The adult of the pecan weevil[8] is a snout beetle
that attacks not only pecan throughout the South but also hickory in the
eastern half of the United States. During mid-season, previous to the
formation of the kernel, nuts are frequently punctured for feeding
purposes. This results in failure of the nuts to complete their
development. The principal injury, however, is caused by grubs that
develop from eggs laid in the nuts after the kernels have formed. This
is usually during September on pecans in the South. The grubs feed on
the kernels and may consume them completely (Fig. 1).

[8] ~Curculio caryae~ (Horn).

Applications of sprays containing 6 pounds of 50 percent DDT wettable
powder per 100 gallons of water just previous to and during the
oviposition period have proved effective against this pest.

[Illustration: Fig 1.--Nut infested with larvae of the pecan weevil.]

[Illustration: Fig. 2.--Larva of the butternut curculio in Japanese
walnut shoot.]

[Illustration: Fig. 3--Adults of the walnut husk maggot on black walnut.
Enlarged.]

[Illustration: Fig. 4.--Adult of a leaf-footed bug. Enlarged.]

[Illustration: Fig. 5.--Defoliation caused by the black pecan aphid.]

Nut curculios. Several species of curculios, such as the butternut
curculio[9] (Fig. 2) and the hickorynut curculio,[10] infest the fruit
of these and other nut trees. Their life histories and methods of attack
are somewhat alike and for the purpose of this report the butternut
curiculio is given as an example. This insect lays its eggs in both
the young shoots and nuts, which usually drop as a result of the injury.
The larvae then develop to maturity within the dying tissues after which
they enter the soil and transform to adults. Subsequently they leave the
soil to pass the winter above ground protected from low temperatures by
weeds or other vegetation.

[9] ~Conotrachelus juglandis~ Lee.

[10] ~Conotrachelus affinis~ Boh.

Lead arsenate, 4 pounds per 100 gallons of water, has been relied upon
in the past for control of various nut curculios. Among the newer
insecticides, benzene hexachloride (6 percent gamma), 4 to 6 pounds per
100 gallons, has shown promise against a shoot curculio on pecans when
applied soon after the trees start growth in the spring.

~Hickory shuckworm.~ The hickory shuckworm[11] is another serious pest of
pecan and hickory nuts. Early in the year, previous to the hardening of
the shells, the kernels are eaten. This injury causes many of the nuts
to drop. In the fall, the later generations tunnel within and feed upon
the shucks only. The affected nuts are usually smaller than normal; in
addition the shells are often stained and are more difficult to separate
from the husks.

[11] ~Laspeyresia caryana~ (Fitch).

Extensive experimentation in the control of this insect has been carried
out without much success. No effective insecticide treatment can be
recommended for its control.

~Walnut husk maggot.~ The adult of the walnut husk maggot[12] is a fly
(Fig. 3); it is related to other injurious fruit flies such as the apple
maggot, Mediterranean fruit fly, and the oriental fruit fly, which has
recently been found in Hawaii. Adults emerge from the soil and fly to
the trees in midsummer. Egg laying follows in 1 to 3 weeks, the eggs
being deposited on the husks of several kinds of nuts. The maggots feed
within the husks. Not only is the quality of infested nuts lowered, but,
in addition, the husks are more difficult to remove. A closely related
species is particularly damaging to the Persian or English walnut in
California.

[12] ~Rhagoletis suavis~ Loew.

Lead arsenate, 2 to 4 pounds per 100 gallons of water, in combination
with an equal quantity of hydrated lime is quite effective in destroying
the adults of the walnut husk maggot when applied at the time they are
present.

~Stinkbugs and leaf-footed bugs.~ There are a number of stinkbugs and
leaf-footed bugs (Fig. 4), in addition to the species mentioned,[13][14]
which are responsible for important injuries to pecans, filberts, and
other nuts. These insects puncture the immature nuts with their beaks.
The punctured areas become spongy, somewhat dark in color, and are
bitter to the taste; on pecan the typical injury is referred to as black
pit and kernel spot.

[13] ~Nezara vizidula~ (L.).

[14] ~Leptoglossus phyllopus~ (L.).

Crops of favorable host plants such as cowpeas and soybeans should not
be planted in or adjacent to nut orchards subject to attack by these
sucking bugs. In general, orchard sanitation should be practiced.

[Illustration: Fig. 6.--Galls produced by the pecan phylloxera.]

[Illustration: Fig. 7.--Injury to young pecan tree by the fall webworm.]

[Illustration: Fig. 8.--Larvae of the walnut caterpillar.]

[Illustration: Fig. 9.--Caterpillar of the hickory tussock moth.]

[Illustration: Fig. 10.--Rose chafer beetles on chestnut blossoms.]


Insects Attacking the Foliage

~Black pecan aphid.~ Pecan trees at times suffer sufficient damage from
the black pecan aphid[15] to cause considerable defoliation (Fig. 5)
during the latter part of the season. The injury to foliage in its
earlier stages consists of irregularly shaped yellowish areas which turn
brown when the tissues die.

[15] ~Melanocallis caryaefoliae~ (Davis).

This aphid is usually controlled with nicotine sulfate (40 percent
nicotine), 3/8 pint plus summer oil emulsion, 2 quarts per 100 gallons
of spray. Parathion and benzene hexachloride have given good results in
experimental work but are not yet generally recommended.

~Pecan phylloxera.~ The pecan phylloxera[16] is related to aphids. It
attacks principally the vegetative parts of the tree such as the leaves,
petioles, and shoots on which galls (Fig. 6) are produced. Pecans,
hickories, and other species of nuts are subject to infestation.

[16] ~Phylloxera devastatrix~ Perg.

In the past a spray of nicotine sulfate (40 percent nicotine) 13 ounces
combined with either lime-sulfur solution, 2-1/2 gallons per 100 gallons
of water, or lubricating-oil emulsion, 2 quarts per 100 gallons, applied
in the late dormant period has been the standard recommendation. In
recent experiments in the South with some of the new organic sprays,
benzene hexachloride and some of the dinitro compounds have indicated
good promise.

~Fall webworm,~[17] ~walnut caterpillar,~[18] ~and hickory tussock
moth.~[19] The caterpillars of these species (Figs. 7, 8, 9) are
frequent pests on the foliage of nut trees. They often defoliate entire
branches.

[17] ~Hyphantria cunea~ (Drury).

[18] ~Datana integerrima~ (G. and R.)

[19] ~Halisidota caryae~ (Harr.)

The best time to apply control measures is as soon as possible after the
caterpillars hatch. The insects can be readily destroyed with lead
arsenate, 3 pounds, or DDT (2 pounds) of 50 percent wettable powder, per
100 gallons, applied when they appear. Other new organic insecticides
may also be effective but have not been widely tested.

~The rose chafer and Japanese beetle.~ Adults of the rose chafer[20] (Fig.
10) and the Japanese beetle[21] are voracious feeders on the foliage of
nut trees and must be destroyed if severe injury is to be avoided.

[20] ~Marcordactylus subspinosus~ (F.).

[21] ~Popillia japonica~ Newm.

Fortunately these insects may now be controlled by spraying with DDT, 2
pounds of 50-percent wettable powder per 100 gallons of water, when the
beetles appear. In the case of the Japanese beetle a second application
may be necessary if the infestation is heavy.

~Spider mites.~ Nut trees, especially those which have been sprayed with
DDT, may become seriously injured by various species of mites.[22] DDT
is very toxic to the natural insect enemies of plant-feeding mites and
therefore the mites build up to injurious numbers.

[22] ~Tetranychus~ sp. and others.

Of the various miticides recently tested on pecan, a spray of parathion
was the most promising. In some recent tests for the control of spider
mites on chestnut trees, 1-1/2 pounds of 15 percent parathion wettable
powder per 100 gallons of water was effective. Do not use parathion
unless you observe all the precautions contained on the package label of
the material.

[Illustration: Fig. 11.--Larva of the twig girdler. Enlarged.]

[Illustration: Fig. 12.--Adult of the flatheaded apple tree borer.
Enlarged.]

[Illustration: Fig. 13.--Larvae of the flatheaded apple tree borer.]

[Illustration: Fig. 14.--Scars on trunk of pecan tree caused by cutting
out flatheaded apple tree borers from their tunnels.]

[Illustration: Fig. 15.--Adult of the buffalo treehopper. Enlarged.]

[Illustration: Fig. 16.--Twig scarred as a result of egg laying by the
buffalo treehopper.]


Insects Attacking the Trunk and Branches

A number of insects cause important damage to the trunk and branches of
nut trees.

~Obscure scale and others.~ The obscure scale[23] infests a variety of nut
trees. On pecan the chief injury results from attacks on branches under
three inches in diameter.

[23] ~Chrysomphalus obscurus~ (Comst.).

The obscure scale and other scale insects can be controlled with
lubricating-oil emulsion during the dormant period. However, nut trees
are often susceptible to oil damage, especially at 3 percent
concentration. Since healthy trees are more resistant to oil injury, it
is therefore advisable to watch for scale infestations so as to spray
them before the trees are weakened.

~Twig girdler.~ Nut trees are sometimes attacked by the twig girdler[24]
(Fig. 11). This beetle lays eggs in the twigs, which are girdled so as
to stop the flow of sap that would normally prevent hatching. The
girdled twigs usually become detached from the trees and as a result the
nut-bearing wood is reduced.

[24] ~Oncideres cingulata~ (Say).

The standard recommendation for control of this insect has been to
gather and destroy the infested twigs in the orchard and from any
infested trees nearby. Recent tests on pecan in northern Florida
indicate that DDT and parathion may be effective against this insect.
Three applications (the first on August 26 when the first girdled twigs
were observed and the others on September 9 and 23) of DDT, 4 pounds of
50 percent wettable powder per 100 gallons of water, or parathion, 3
pounds of 15 percent wettable powder per 100 gallons, gave complete
control. Further experiments will be required to determine the minimum
effective concentration of spray and the number of applications needed
for control. It is suggested that DDT be used for the control of this
insect until more information is available on how to handle and to use
parathion.

~Flatheaded apple tree borer.~ The adult beetle of the flathead apple tree
borer[25] (Fig. 12) deposits its eggs throughout the summer season,
preferably in the small grooves of bark on the unshaded portions of the
trunk of pecan and other trees. The borers (Fig. 13) hatch and tunnel
through the bark to the cambium layer. Young trees may readily be
girdled (Fig. 14).

[25] ~Chrysobothris femorata~ (Oliv.).

To avoid this insect as far as possible, orchard sanitation should be
practiced and the trees should be kept in a healthy condition. In some
plantings wrapping the trunks with paper or burlap to protect against
egg laying and maintaining low branches to shade the trunk have been
helpful. Cutting out the borers with a knife has also been resorted to;
trunk washes have likewise been used but have not been very effective.

~Buffalo treehopper and periodical cicada.~ Buffalo treehoppers[26] (Fig.
15) and the periodical cicada[27] weaken twigs by inserting their eggs
in them. The injured bark becomes roughened as it heals (Fig. 16), and
the growth of the limb is retarded.

[26] ~Ceresa bubalus~ (L.).

[27] ~Magicicada septendecim~ (L.).

Pruning of weakened twigs is recommended for wood injured by the cicada.
If treehoppers are a pest, clean cultivation will help. Cover crops of
cowpeas or clovers should not be planted. In preliminary tests two or
three applications of tetraethyl pyrophosphate (20 percent), 3/4 pint
per 100 gallons of water, have given promising results in controlling
the periodical cicada. The first application should be made after the
cicadas appear and the others as needed to prevent damage.



Observations on Effects of Low Temperatures in Winter 1949-1950 on
Walnuts and Filberts in Oregon and Washington

JOHN H. PAINTER

Horticulturist, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural
Research Administration, Bureau of Plant Industry, Soils, and
Agricultural Engineering, Oregon State College, Corvallis, Oregon


In western Oregon and Washington, where the Japan Current is supposed to
keep the winter temperatures moderate, something happens every now and
then and we get really severe winters. We can't blame it on the "A" bomb
because we had severe winter injury in 1919 and 1935 long before the "A"
bomb.

The last two winters have been exceptionally cold, but this past winter
of 1949-1950 was much more severe than the previous one.

In 1948-1949, the cold came rather suddenly in the latter part of
December. In the past winter, 1949-1950, the real cold came on January
30, with temperatures ranging from 10 to 30 degrees below zero F. Most
official temperatures were higher; but at Corvallis the official
temperatures were taken at least 60 feet above the ground level, on the
roof of the Agricultural Building, which is over a steam-heated building
and is old enough to be not very well insulated. This cold continued in
somewhat modified form for a week.

During the previous winter the lowest temperature recorded in the nut
growing areas was about 10 to 11 degrees above zero F., and the severe
cold lasted for only a couple of days.

In both winters the ground was fairly well covered with snow, but with
considerably more snow this past winter than the previous winter.

No apparent damage to Persian walnuts was observed as a result of the
cold in the 1948-1949 winter, but in certain low-lying areas catkins of
Barcelona and Daviana filberts were killed, especially those of the
latter. Considerable dieback of filberts occurred; but during the
following growing season recovery was effected and at the end of the
summer very little evidence of winter injury was visible.

The injury resulting from the cold weather of the past winter was much
more severe than that of the previous winter. Whereas filberts were the
only nut trees injured in 1948-1949, they escaped with relatively little
damage in 1949-1950 in comparison with Persian walnuts.

On February 11, 1950, ten days after the really severe week, several
walnut growers of long experience held grave fears for the entire
industry. Peach and apple trees, which seem to exhibit winter injury
more quickly than walnuts, showed so much damage then that walnut
growers thought the injury to the Persian walnut would be even worse.

From February 11, 1950, to the present date (July 30) I have been making
observations from time to time in different locations with special
attention to walnuts and with some to filberts. It is thought that
certain of these observations might be of interest to nut growers in
other areas, even though there is nothing particularly new or startling
about them. They do, however, tend to show how surprisingly well the
Persian walnut trees can withstand severe cold if it occurs after they
have once gone into dormancy.

Generally speaking, the winter injury to walnuts has been spotty. No
areas of great size have been either free of injury or severely injured.
Usually, where a difference in severity of damage is found between areas
close together, some reason for the difference can be found, but it is
not always evident on the surface.


Injury to Walnuts

With the possible exception of southern Oregon, it is safe to say that
100 percent of the walnut trees in Oregon and Washington suffered some
twig injury as a result of last winter's cold. In many cases the
subsequent dieback of the twigs may extend only a few inches, but
sometimes the injury involves not only the past season's growth but that
of three or even four years back.

As might well be expected, this twig injury of necessity has meant the
loss of many terminal and lateral buds which bear the female flowers; so
for that reason, if for no other, this twig injury has assumed serious
aspects.

In many cases the catkins were severely injured even where there was
little or no twig injury. The catkins of the Persian walnut seem to be
extremely sensitive to cold. Many Persian walnut trees in Oregon this
year failed to produce any catkins at all. Some produced very few normal
catkins, but some half-developed and deformed catkins. An examination of
these partially injured catkins, however, revealed the fact that they
did produce some pollen. It will always remain a mystery to me how as
many walnuts were pollinated and set as there were, with the scant crop
of catkins.

In practically every orchard examined, where the temperature got as low
as minus 10 degrees F., the pith cells were blackened. This is not
uncommon in other tree crops following severe winter injury. Fairly good
peach crops have been borne in Georgia on trees that had the pith cells
completely blackened.

In the case of walnuts this year, many growers were considerably worried
by the fact that even the wood tissue outside the pith region was black
and watersoaked. However, to date (July 30, 1950) this condition has
not proven serious; as long as the cambium cells were not injured no
real trouble has developed. In some cases under observation, even where
some injury to the cambium cells was known to have existed, enough live
ones have been left to effect recovery. Compared to peach, holly, and
even apple trees the Persian walnut has put up a marvelous fight to
recover from the injury sustained.


Factors Accentuating Winter Injury in Walnuts

After the several months of observation, certain factors appear
invariably to account for excessive damage to walnut orchards. Elevation
seems to be a principal factor. The hillside orchards or those on upland
sites (soils) were far less injured than the river-bottom or
valley-floor orchards, even though the latter may be on a better soil as
far as fertility is concerned. My early prediction of 50 percent of a
crop in the hillside orchards seems now to have been about 10 percent
short, unless other factors become involved. On the other hand, my early
prediction of 25 percent of a crop in the valley-floor orchards has been
close to correct. Of course, certain valley-floor orchards with a
combination of adverse factors won't have even a 5 percent crop.

Older orchards were more severely hurt than younger orchards with
otherwise similar conditions. This is possibly due to the lack of vigor
and of reserve material, resulting from crowding and competition for
elements of nutrition.

The size of the crop the preceeding year seems invariably to have had an
effect upon amount of damage done. The matter of reserves is again
involved. Two orchards that bore a reduced crop last year because of
spring frost injury have come through much better than some other
similar orchards, at practically the same elevation and age, that bore a
crop last year.

Two adjacent hillside orchards show considerable difference in degree of
winter injury and crop prospects for this year. It is believed that this
difference was due to the fact that in one orchard 35 percent of the
crop was destroyed by blight last year, in comparison with a 1 percent
loss in the other. The owners and I estimate that there is at least 20
percent larger crop this year in the orchard which had the heavy loss
from blight last year.

In several orchards where different levels of fertilization have been
used by the grower, it appears that the more liberal the application of
fertilizer, particularly nitrogen, the less severe was the winter damage
sustained.

At the college orchard in Corvallis, the one tree that got no additional
nitrogen last year and that bore the heaviest crop of nuts is
outstandingly the most severely winter injured of the 17 trees involved.

Only two varieties of walnuts have been studied, Franquette and Mayette,
and some Carpathian seedlings in one orchard. Here in Oregon the Mayette
seems to have generally withstood the winter injury better than the
Franquette. It is my belief that they are just naturally a little more
vigorous than the Franquette. Yet they never seem to overproduce as the
Franquette sometime does. Last year was the "on" year for Franquettes
and that might easily account for the generally apparent better
condition of the Mayettes this year.


Carpathians Resist Winter Best

Near Ontario, Oregon, I saw 7 seedling Carpathian walnut trees early
this spring. They were leafed out and the catkins were elongated before
any Franquettes, even in the Willamette Valley, had started breaking
buds. No sign of winter injury was apparent on the Carpathian trees at
that time, yet Franquettes at the Malheur Experiment Station, a mile
away, were obviously killed to the groundline. The owner, Mr. Peter
Countryman, says these trees are often damaged by spring frosts but they
always produce some nuts.

A letter dated August 4, from Mr. Countryman, indicates that a hard
frost on the morning of April 24 when the temperature dropped to 22
degrees, did considerable damage to the new growth and catkins on the
lower half of the Carpathian walnut trees. He estimates not to exceed
one-third of a crop on these Carpathian trees this year; but he says
that since the freeze the trees have made good growth, the new terminals
being about 18 inches in length and the nuts on them are very large.

To sum up the walnut situation, then, the encouraging thing is that no
walnut orchards have been called to my attention that were completely
killed. Several badly neglected orchards and two orchards where it is
said that the temperature dropped lower than minus 25 degrees F. are so
severely damaged that it is impractical to try to save them, but even
these are not completely killed.


Injury to Filberts

From the less comprehensive observations made on filberts following the
severe winter just past, it appears in general that when the filbert
tree has gone into dormancy it is more tolerant of cold than the walnut.
The difference of one month in time of occurrence of the cold in the two
winters seems to have had more bearing on the damage to filberts than
the difference in temperature. In the Forest Grove, Oregon, area, and in
Clark County, Washington, filbert trees, however did suffer severely
from the cold last winter, but these two areas were the "cold spots" of
the Northwest.

It seems as if the same factors that accentuate winter damage in walnuts
work in a similar way on filberts, except that the elevation factor
does not seem to be of so great importance. Age of tree, level
of nutrition, and size of preceeding year's crop seem to be more
important than elevation. Young filbert orchards, on either hillside or
valley-floor sites, seem to be much less severely hurt than older
orchards on the same sites. It is the acreage of _young_ filbert trees
that will make good the agricultural statistician's estimate of 40 to 50
percent of a filbert crop this year.

I have seen one 32-acre orchard of 24-year-old filbert trees that was
injured beyond repair, but they were crowded and unfertilized. At the
very same location a 14-acre orchard of 15-year-old filberts with
adequate spacing was not seriously injured, even though the trees were
not fertilized.

One other orchard in a poor location and on waterlogged soil, which has
had little or no care, has likewise been lost. Filberts definitely were
hurt in the two "cold spots" previously mentioned, but official reports
of minus 18 degrees F. were common in that area.

There was a noticeable difference in damage to catkins between Daviana
and DuChilly. Very few Daviana catkins produced pollen; but DuChilly
seemed to be fairly normal.

Injury in filberts was confined mostly to the catkins and twigs.
Excessive sucker growth up and down the main trunk and branches has
taken place in the filberts, as is the case in walnuts.

In neither walnuts nor filberts was there much splitting of the bark on
the trunk. This was probably because there was no sudden fluctuation in
temperatures and sunshine was not excessive during the critically cold
days.

It has been previously stated that the filbert is possibly more tolerant
of cold than the walnut. In spite of this there probably has been more
extensive damage to filberts than to walnuts; but it must be remembered
that filberts are the principal nut crop in those two "cold spots." Not
many walnuts are grown there, but the ones that are were likewise
injured.

Editor's Note: Mr. Gellatly's following papers were read by title.



Effects of the Winter of 1949-50 on Nut Trees in British Columbia

J. U. GELLATLY

Box 19, Westbank, B. C.

(Orchard at Gellatly, B. C.)


Our district is just recovering (in August) from the effects of the
toughest winter we have experienced here in the past 50 years. This gave
the weather test to the tune of -22° F., official. The unofficials were
of 30 to 40 below--depending on distances and location from Okanagan
Lake, a deep body of water three to four miles wide and eighty miles
long. This lake rarely freezes over completely, especially near our
section; so the open water acts as a thermostat during most winters. But
the past one pulled a new stunt and it froze over completely giving zero
winds a vast open sweep, so that to be near the lake was a disadvantage,
for it was colder there than it was farther back, in more sheltered
locations.


Heartnuts and Hybrids

The bright spot in the nut tree picture is our heartnut trees. They all
came through in good shape, making rampant growths and carrying a heavy
crop. These include: 2 Walters, 4 O.K. Heart, 1 Canoka, 1 Slioka, 1
Rover, 2 Calendar, 1 Westoka, 1 Nursoka, 1 Aloka, 1 Symoka, 15 select
unnamed bearing seedlings, yet on trial. All are promising. Also we have
three of the Elfin paper shell heartnut hybrids. I have failed to find a
good pollinator for these Elfins, so they are shy croppers, although
producing plenty of the female blooms. All of the above trees are 6
inches in diameter and up to 20 inches.

Then come the Buart nuts. I coined this name to designate the hybrids I
had made having the butternut (~J. cineria~) as the pollen parent and
Calendar heartnut (~J. sieboldiana cordiformis~) as the mother tree.
Possibly the seven best of these are: Leslie, Dunoka, Fioka, Okanda,
Kingsbury, Penoka, Flavo. These trees are all carrying crops and most of
them are making good growth.


Filberts

Ackerman, Brag, Comet, Craig, Holder, Petoka, Carey, Baroka, Barcelona,
Bawdin, Firstoka (Gellatly No. 1). These have made a good showing, as
the majority of the trees or bushes under 4 to 6 inch crown diameter of
these varieties, are doing well and carrying good crops, while many
above these diameters suffered in varying degrees from slightly to
severely, apparently regardless of variety, location, or soil on which
they grew. It may be noted that all these varieties have been hardy in
the past, but age was adding up and age evidently had somewhat to do
with their inability to take the punishment they got this past winter.
For all my large Bing and Lambert cherry trees were severely injured or
entirely winter killed, as were nearby peaches, apricots, pear, and some
apple trees, particularly in the larger sizes, while many of these
younger trees were uninjured, except that they are fruitless this
season.


Soft Shell Walnuts

(Juglans regia)

Broadview variety on Gellatly Farm, of 20 bearing trees, all suffered
winter injury for first time in 20 years. This injury varied all the way
from freezing back two to three feet of all higher branches and twigs,
to an actual loss of one-third to two-thirds of entire tree and trunk.
At date of writing all are staging a good comeback with no care but a
"wait-and-see" policy as to final treatment. There was so much loss as
to involve too much work if pruning and after care of sprouts were
undertaken. It was decided to leave the dead limbs and branches as a
protection to the fast growing new sprouts, which, without this
protection, would probably have been badly damaged by wind and rain
storms. Even large birds lighting on these new sprouts might break them
down.

The dead limbs will be gradually removed later, as the new limbs harden
up and take over. Many of these will be left as supports for at least
two years, when I expect most of these trees will be back in production,
if we get a return to normal (minus 10° F.) winters, many will produce
in 1951, as the new wood is showing a good growth of catkins. Although
all bearing trees on my place were injured, the younger trees in my
nursery were not hurt to any noticeable extent. At Summerland
Experimental Station, 25 miles south of Gellatly, grow two large
Broadview walnut trees supplied by myself. I had grafted on these black
walnut roots (~J. nigra~) at the ground line, in every respect like my
own. These trees are carrying a good crop. One shows slight winter
injury, the other none at all. The official low for their location was
22° below F. with nearby unofficials to 30° below.

Their present location is at least 200 feet above lake level, and on
very well drained sandy loam. Mine are about 30 feet above the lake and
on somewhat heavier loam. I note that trees on my more gravelly soil
came through in the best shape at official-22° F., unofficial 24 to 28
below. My Broadview that made best survival had grown the previous year
in a chicken yard. Ground was well scratched over and droppings
incorporated in top 4 inches of soil. Tree was flood irrigated three or
four times in dry season. On this tree only outer new branches were
killed and tree gives every indication of being back in crop in 1951
season.

The crop record on this tree is from 1945 and reads '45--35 pounds;
'46--75 pounds; '47--91 pounds; '48--36 pounds; '49--100 pounds. Weight
is for clean, undried, and partly dried nuts at time of picking up. Some
of the other Broadview trees have higher crop records, although of same
age and size, with possibly a bit better soil, in same grove. One tree
in six years, '44 to '49 inclusive, had an average of 74 pounds per
year; another had an average for the same years of 104 pounds per year.
Just recently I made a special trip to see how the parent Broadview tree
had wintered. I found it had sustained severe damage to two-thirds of
the upper part of the trunk and main branches. The lower third was
staging a good comeback, despite unofficials of 35 to 40 below zero F.
as reported by neighboring farmers.

The following varieties of soft shell bearing walnut trees were also
winter injured: Munsoka, badly, top two-thirds of trunk; Linoka, badly,
top two-thirds of trunk; Myoka (Jumbo type) one-third of top branches;
Geloka (Jumbo type) frozen to ground line but sprouts two feet high now
growing. On Sirdar (a Jumbo type long nut), only outer tips of branches
were killed. This was a surprise to me, as it is a second generation
seedling of Italian source. The parent tree grew and cropped well for
many years on bench land at Sirdar, in southern interior of B. C. until
the winter of 1935-36, when it was so badly damaged that the owner had
it removed. I rather looked for a similar fate in this one. There is
this difference: mine was not as old nor had it been cropping heavily as
yet. The season here is barely long enough to develop fully the kernels
of Sirdar.


Crath Carpathian Walnut No. 46

This walnut was grafted on black walnut (~J. nigra~) root in 1944 and
planted here on low loam soil in 1945. It never has been hardy under our
conditions, winter killing some every winter since it was planted. This
past winter it was killed to below snow line 18 inches above union,
whereas Broadview trees alongside, which are the same in every respect,
never were injured until this past winter. Then only minor damage to
soft new growth was done. So it looks as though Broadview is still the
best bet for our conditions.

I am of the opinion that extreme temperature is not the sole determining
factor in causing winter injury to nut or other trees. This opinion is
based on the behavior of trees that have winter killed continuously
while in certain soil, but on being moved to another spot having
enriched soil of similar make-up and drainage located only 200 yards
away, have never winter killed since removal, and have taken much worse
winters, including the one just past.

The fact that many of our introductions grow and thrive 150 to 200 miles
north of here, where temperatures drop to minus 35° to 40°, with
occasional drops to 54° below zero. Check this on your map of Interior
of B. C. on 53° latitude at Quesnel, B. C. I see a geology map lists
that district as sedimentary and volcanic rocks. My informant grows
butternuts, chestnuts, and filberts. Another grower at Clinton, located
on 50° latitude, central B. C. with temperatures to minus 40° F., grows
Japanese and black walnuts, also Pioneer almond. We are sure that the
same temperatures with our conditions would kill most of our trees.



Recipes

J. U. GELLATLY


Walnut Honey Sandwich

   1 Teaspoon crystallized Honey (the coarser the crystal the better)
   3 Broadview walnut half kernels or quarters.

Place honey on one-half kernel, then stick the other half on the honey,
making a small sandwich, or kernel covered ball of honey. This is a
delightful confection.


Potato Nut Soup

   1. Grate 1 tablespoon onion.
   2. Grate 1 good-sized potato.

Place in double boiler, stir while adding boiling water, to a thin
paste. Stir until cooked clear like corn starch pudding. Add hot whole
milk to bring to creamy soup. At this stage add one-fourth cup filbert
kernels. First put nuts through one of the new nut planing gadgets.
These are better than the old grinder shredders or choppers, as shavings
are so thin and soft they just melt in hot liquid. (Also delightful on
ice cream or fresh fruit.) Have potatoes well cooked before adding milk
or nut flakes. Cooking nuts too long sets up some chemical change that
thins the creamy texture of the soup.



Description of Filazel Varieties[28]

[28] Since the Peace River hazel is apparently ~Corylus rostrata~ these
filbert hybrids of Mr. Gellatly belong to a different category from the
"hazilberts" of Mr. Weschcke and the "Mildred filberts" which had ~C.
americana~ parentage.--J. C. McD.

J. U. GELLATLY


The name (Filazel) I coined to designate those crosses I had made,
having the Peace River hazel as the mother tree and Craig and others of
our large filberts as the pollen parent.


Peoka

Has thin shell. Clean, well-filled kernel. Is heavy cropper and free
husker. Nuts mature early. Are well filled by August fifth with shells
starting to brown. Fully ripe by August tenth to fifteenth.


Manoka

One of the best of my first selections. Very attractive, heavy cropper,
well-filled kernels by August first, shells coloring by August fifth.
Ripe and falling August fifteenth.


Fernoka

Good cropper of roundish nuts, having short open husks and good clean
kernels.


Myoka In clusters 1 to 6. Has short open husks. Leaves color well in the
fall. Has ornamental value.


Fairoka

One to 7 nuts in cluster in fancy frilled and rolled back husk. Nuts
roundish, of fair size and color. Flavor, good. Leaves color well in
fall. Has ornamental value.


Maroka

Medium-sized nut exposed in clusters 4 to 6. Open husk, folded back.


Ureoka

Medium size for Filazel. Thin-shelled roundish nut, 4 to 6 in clusters.
Very short, partially closed husk.


Orvoka

Two to 5 nuts in cluster. Clean kernels. Husk half-inch longer than nut.
Has open side. Good cropper.


Brenoka

Long husk like parent hazel, but lacking prickles of the wild. Medium
sized nut in clusters, 1 to 4.


Eloka

Two to 4 in cluster. Medium sized nut with clean kernels in open husks.


No. 500

Four to 10 nuts in cluster. Has short open husk. Good-sized nut of
Barcelona type. Is a good cropper of clean kernels. Shell heavy.


No. 502

Largest Barcelona type Filazel that has fruited to date. Clusters
contain 4 to 8 nuts enclosed in heavy medium-length closed husks.


No. 503

One to 9 nuts in cluster, having clean, full kernels in thick shells
enclosed in short open husks.


No. 505

One to 6 nuts in cluster, having closed, medium length husks. A good
cropper.


No. 509

Two to 6 roundish nuts in long closed husks free of prickles so common
on wild hazels. A good cropper. The parent hazels used for these crosses
mature the nuts by the first of August and were winter hardy at-60° F.
in Peace River, Alberta.


Other Hazels

Manchurian short bush hazel, distinctive clipped off top on leaf with
some colored (of reddish hue). This bush retains leaves all winter, and
would make a good protective covering for wild life. Has well-flavored,
clean kernels fully developed by August seventh, 1950. Kernel is
enclosed in heavy, squat shells encircled with distinctive short closed
husk, as if folded together just covering nut. The leaf shape and
markings carry through and appear in the young seedlings.



Experiments with Tree Hazels and Chestnuts

J. U. GELLATLY


Corylus jacquemontii

(Smooth Bark) India Tree Hazel

Tree No. 1. Location--N.W. corner Lot 6, subdivision Lot 487, Scions
from Kew Botanical Garden, England. Top grafted on Craig filbert 10 feet
from ground line. This made good annual growth and compatibly well
adjusted unions, which after many years are still in line and not
readily detected except by difference in color and character of
bark--the grafted top being smooth and lighter of color than Craig
stock. Although stocks were bearing when cut for grafting, and scions
were from bearing trees and had catkins on when received, grafts were
trained to take over and become the main growth and leading tree from
the Craig crown. This grafted tree did not produce catkins or nuts for
four or five years, but branches on the stock went right on bearing, as
did also other Craig sections on same root crown or filbert clump used
for grafting above tree hazel. At date of writing, and following the
severest winter of the past 45 years, when temperatures dropped to -24°
F., followed by brief, bright sunshine and rapid rise of temperature,
all ungrafted filberts of over three to four inches in diameter are dead
or nearly so, while suckers 2-1/2 inches in diameter and smaller are
quite sound and making good growth. So, also, are the stocks or sections
top grafted to the tree hazel--even the larger 4 to 4-1/2 inches in
diameter trunks. I ask why, as by all ordinary results the grafted trees
should have been the easiest damaged. This tree, and the other sections
of filberts on same crown, had cropped for three years past, so that
from that angle they should have been on an equal footing. Only a few
clusters of nuts grew on this ~Corylus jacquemontii~ this 1950 season.

Data on tree size: Height 32 feet--was grafted about 10 feet above
ground line. Circumference of tree--12 inches above ground is 15 inches.
At 4 inches below the graft, it is 10 inches, and the same four inches
above graft union, which is very uniform, and if this combination could
be reversed we would have an ideal non-suckering stock for commercial
filbert orchards. ~Jacquemontii~ also buds well on cork bark ~C. colurna~
tree hazel.


   Corylus jacquemontii
   Smooth Bark India Tree Hazel on
   Cork Bark Turkish Tree Hazel


Corylus colurna Stock

Tree No. 2 Location--S.W. corner of Lot 6, subdivision Lot 487. Budded
August 15, 1941, at six feet from ground line, to one inch two year
growth. Two years later top was removed and bud made to take over
leadership. From then on it made good growth. Removal of top was not
done at one operation, but first year leader was cut one-third way
through, on long slope from bud downward on both sides, and allowed to
callus over one year. Second year leader was cut further and when
callused, top was then removed. This treatment gave good coverage of
wound on trunk. Tree bore first crop 1949, eight years after budding.
Nuts 1/2 inch in diameter, moderate shell of roundish form, well filled,
with good flavor, clean kernels. August 4, 1950--Tree has a base
circumference at ten inches above ground of 18-1/2 inches--at six feet
above, 14 inches--below union circumference is 14 inches, while four
inches above union it is 11 inches. No evidence of any winter injury
after taking a-24° F. temperature. No crop this year, but has a good
crop of catkins showing for 1951.


Corylus hetrophyllia Japanese Tree Hazel

Tree No. 3. Location--N. W. corner of Lot 6, subdivision Lot 487. Scions
from Kew Botanical Gardens, England, top grafted on Craig Filbert stocks
10 feet from ground line. Made very good union. Present circumference
four inches below union is 7-3/4 inches, and four inches above union is
8 inches.

The bark on this graft is similar to the Craig on which it is growing
but lighter in color. There is no winter injury in evidence at this date
except a very much lighter crop than usual. Has small, oval,
light-colored nut of good flavor and color--clean kernels.


Corylus colurna (Thin Bark) Turkish Tree Hazel, also Cork Bark

Tree No. 4. Source of Scions--Oregon, U.S.A. Top graft on Craig stock
six feet above ground. This Craig filbert clump has several divisions.
Main one now six inches above ground. Has a circumference of 20 inches,
and just above this branches into four main limbs of similar size, which
at a height of six feet were grafted--two to the thin bark above, and
two to the cork bark type. The thin bark type have made very compatible
unions--well healed over. The circumference four inches below the graft
is now 9-1/2 inches and at similar distance above is now 10 inches.
July, 1950:--These are bearing a few nuts, following a winter
temperature of-24° F. Although the two branches worked to the cork bark
type have no crop this season, they have over-grown graft unions, and
the tops are oversize for stocks. Circumference four inches below union
is now 7 inches, and at same distance above is 9 inches. Both these
types have thick shelled roundish nuts which are hard to get out of the
husks, and so far have many blank nuts. India tree hazels also contain
many blanks and are very difficult to separate from the husks. Trees are
all hardy and vigorous.

Best of 25 seedling ~C. colurna~ (cork bark tree hazels). Circumference
twelve inches above ground line is 31 inches, and at six feet above
ground is 25 inches. Height about forty feet. On August 3, 1950, I
climbed thirty feet into upper branches to see if there was any crop,
but none was to be seen, but heavy crop of catkins was developing for
1951. I have many hybrids from all of these tree hazels and filberts,
nearing the bearing age, and they give interesting promise of new
strains, as all sorts of crossing are evident.


Tibet Hazel (C. tibicia)

Vigorous grower, upright, good cropper, fair size round nuts. Clean
kernels, nut clusters, 4 to 6 nuts in open medium husks. Nuts fall free.
These clusters differ from usual run of filberts or hazels in that each
husk is separate on short neck from center of cluster.

Timber Type Tree Chinese Chestnut (Castanea mollissima)

Seed secured direct from China. All select large nuts. So far, only a
very few produce trees that yield nuts of as large size as those
planted. All that have are timber type trees. All the bush or dwarf
spreading type trees yield small to medium-sized nuts, all of good
quality and flavor. (Selection to 1950 date referred to.)


One Chinese Chestnut Selection Named

Skioka. Most promising timber type to date of this group of seedlings.
Has one straight trunk 38 feet tall, base circumference 1 foot above
ground, is 22 inches; and 6 feet above ground line circumference is 15
inches. To date, tree is sparse cropper. Started bearing in 1945, with
three very large sized nuts in large fleshy burs. It has borne every
year since, with gradual increase in number. In 1949 it matured 12 large
nuts of 1-5/8 inch diameter. A good peeler and solid kernel. I have four
other trees of similar size and all winter hardy this past winter, at
24° below. Skioka is the most promising to date of the four as to size
of nut.


Bush or Peach Tree Type of C. mollissima

Of this type I have about 30 trees. Many seem 100% hardy and came
through in good shape. However, for some years they, with the tree type,
seemed to be having trouble with some soil deficiency or else some
excess of soil salts which caused a lot of leaf fading, followed by
browning and drying up. Some trees almost defoliate themselves, while
others nearby and alongside are O.K., possibly due to individual
tolerance of conditions.

       *       *       *       *       *

DR. MacDANIELS: The first paper after recess has to do with the
varieties of hickory nuts. I know of no one who is in a better position
to talk on this subject on their performance here in this part of New
York State than Gilbert L. Smith of Millerton. He began a number of
years ago topworking trees on a hillside and propagating trees as a
nurseryman and probably is, as far as I know, one of the best men in nut
shade trees and hickory varieties that there is anywhere in the country.
Mr. Gilbert Smith.

MR. SMITH: I am no good at making a speech, so I am just going to read
this. This is our experience with hickory varieties so far. That's just
up to date, but not any further.



Our Experience with Hickory Nut Varieties

GILBERT L. SMITH, Route 2, Millerton, N. Y.


Because we are located so far north, 41° 45' North Latitude, we have
paid particular attention to the earliness of ripening of the various
varieties of hickory.

While we have living grafts of more than a hundred named varieties of
hickory, only a comparative few have started to bear nuts. Of these, I
will give a brief discussion, starting with the earliest and going
through the list in order of their ripening.

ANTHONY, shagbark--We believe that this is Anthony No. 1 but as there
are four or five varieties named Anthony with a number following the
name, we are not absolutely sure. This variety has ripened very early
with us. It is rather small but cracks very well and has borne well with
us. We consider it to be an excellent variety.

WESCHCKE, shagbark--Is our second earliest variety so far. It is also
rather small, with a distinctive shape, tapering from a rather broad
blossom end to a sharp point at the stem end. Our graft has had one very
good crop, but it is younger than many of our other grafts. We consider
it a very good variety.

CROWN POINT, shagbark--Is our third variety in order of ripening. This
is a rather small nut with some of them being very small; that is, there
is quite a variation in the size of the nuts. It cracks quite well and
is of very good quality. It has also borne as well or better than any
other variety we have under test. We have never propagated it for sale
as we have hardly thought it quite good enough.

In fourth place of ripening order, we have four ties, namely; Bauer,
Cedar Rapids, Hines, and Independence.

BAUER, shagbark--Has borne well, is of good size, good quality and
cracks well. It is also a very good shaped nut. We consider it to be one
of the very good hickories.

CEDAR RAPIDS, shagbark--While our graft of this variety has borne but
moderately, we consider it to be a very good variety. It is of good
size, cracks well, is of good quality and attractive shape.

HINES, shagbark--While our graft of this variety has borne well, cracks
well and is of good quality, it is so small that we have never
propagated it for sale.

INDEPENDENCE, shagbark--The nuts of this variety are so small that we
have paid little attention to it.

FOX, shagbark--This variety is in fifth place in order of ripening.

Fox won first prize in the 1934 N.N.G.A. contest. But there is a deep
mystery connected with this variety as subsequent crops, grown on
grafts, have not produced nuts of such top qualities. There have been
many theories advanced but no one has solved the mystery yet. One theory
is that there is bud variation in the parent tree and that Mr. Fox,
quite naturally, cut scion wood from the lower parts of the tree, which
were most readily accessible. During the war, I secured a special
allotment of gasoline and made the trip to Fonda, N. Y., to cut scions
from all parts of the tree. The scions from the various parts of the
tree were labeled separately and were grafted on stocks in our test
orchard. While not all of these grafts lived, we have living grafts from
nearly all parts of the tree. I note that at least one of these grafts
has nuts on it this year. If there is bud variation we hope that we will
have at least some grafts of the superior Fox nuts.

In spite of all this, Fox is an excellent variety, being of good size,
cracks well, and is of very good quality. While it is fifth in order of
ripening, it is still an early hickory and will succeed considerably
farther north than our location.

In sixth place we have two varieties, namely; Clark and Stocking.

CLARK, shagbark--Our graft of this variety has borne well, the nuts
being of good size, crack well and are of good quality. We consider it
to be a very good variety.

STOCKING, shagbark x bitternut--While our graft has grown very well, it
has produced but very few nuts. We were not very greatly impressed with
these.

In seventh place in order of ripening, we have two varieties, Camp No. 2
and Stratford.

CAMP NO. 2, shagbark--We did not find this variety good enough to
interest us very much. Subsequent crops may show up better.

STRATFORD, not sure whether shagbark or hybrid[29]--Our Stratford graft
has been poorly tended and has had little chance to show its merits. So
while it has an excellent reputation, we know very little about it.
However we have several good sized grafts of it, growing in nursery row,
which have several nuts on this year, so we will find out more about it
soon.

[29] It is a bitternut hybrid.--Ed.

In eighth place we have three varieties; Proper, Shaul, and Wilcox.
While being in eighth place, these are still medium early varieties.

PROPER, shagbark--This is a little known variety, our graft is rather
young and we have had too few nuts to form any opinion of this variety
as yet.

SHAUL, shagbark--While this is a very good nut, being of good size,
cracks well and of good quality, our graft on shagbark stock has grown
slowly and it is the one variety so far that we have found will not do
well on our bitternut stocks.

WILCOX, shagbark--So far this is our favorite variety. The graft has
grown into a fine tree and has borne good crops of nuts which are of
good size, crack almost perfectly and are of very good quality.

MINNIE, shagbark--While we have not had a crop of this variety since
starting to keep a ripening record, it ripens about the same time as
Wilcox and is a very good variety.

Ninth on our list we have two varieties; Davis and Peck Hybrid. It so
happens that I discovered both of these varieties.

DAVIS, shagbark--First prize winner in the New York and New England
Contest of 1934. Incidentally, a sample of Fox nuts was awarded tenth
place in this same contest. You will note that this was the same year in
which Fox won first place in the N.N.G.A.

Davis has pretty well lived up to expectations. Grafts of this variety
are rapid growers. It is the only variety we have ever succeeded in
making live on pignut stocks. While the grafts are slower growing on
pignut stocks, they have lived for several years and have borne nuts.
But as the squirrels have stolen all of the nuts, we do not know how
they compare with the nuts grown on other stocks.

Our grafts of Davis have borne well, the nuts are of good size and crack
well, although not as well as those of Wilcox. It is also of very good
quality. We consider it to be a top rate nut.

PECK HYBRID, shagbark x bitternut--The nuts of this variety are large,
thin shelled, crack well and are of good quality. It also bears well.
The drawback is that only about one third to one half of the nuts are
well filled. I can take freshly shucked nuts of this variety and by
placing them in water can pick out a sample of nuts that are just about
as good hickory nuts as you can find anywhere, but these will be only
about one third of the nuts involved. For this reason we have never
propagated it for sale.

In tenth place we have three varieties; Berger, Strever, and Triplett.

BERGER, shellbark--While this variety is quite small for a shellbark, it
is quite large when compared with the shagbarks. Our graft of the Berger
has borne fairly well, cracks well and is of very good quality.
Incidentally our graft is the true Berger. There was some mix-up with
the Berger wood, and some who thought they had Berger found that they
had something else when their trees started to bear.

STREVER, shagbark--The original tree of this variety is growing near
Pine Plains here in Dutchess County, on the Old Strever Homestead. This
property was later sold to people named Owre, who tried to have the
variety named after them. I believe that Strever is the more proper
name.

While this variety is of good size and quality, it has not cracked quite
well enough to rate it as a top flight hickory.

TRIPLETT, shagbark--This is a large shagbark which cracks well and is of
good quality. Our graft bears well. I believe that it was discovered by
Dr. Deming and the late Mr. Beeman. This is a variety which can well
bear considerable attention in the future. We are propagating some of
the trees for sale.

In eleventh place we have nine varieties, namely: Bridgewater, Griffin,
Hagen, Harman, Kirtland, Lingenfelter, Manahan, Oliver, and Wampler.

BRIDGEWATER, shagbark--A large fine variety, cracks well, yields well
and is of good quality. This is another discovery of Dr. Deming's and
Mr. Beeman's. We have started to propagate it for sale.

GRIFFIN, shagbark--I have mislaid my comments on this variety and cannot
remember much about it, except that it is of good size and bears well.

HAGEN, shagbark--We have not had enough nuts of this variety to enable
us to form an opinion of it.

HARMAN, shagbark--A large nut. We did not think much of our first crop
of this variety but the second crop was very good.

KIRTLAND, shagbark--This is a fine large nut, but with the one good
crop, we have had, only about half of the nuts were well filled. The
other half were floaters, only partly filled.

LINGENFELTER, shagbark--Here again we have had too few nuts to enable us
to form an opinion. Mr. Reed thought very well of it.

MANAHAN, shagbark--This nut is of southern origin and I fear that we are
too far north for it. However we have had one crop that was very good.
All other crops have not been matured. It is evidentally a very good nut
where it can be grown.

OLIVER, shagbark--Too few nuts to form an opinion.

WAMPLER, shellbark--Too few nuts to form an opinion.

In twelfth place on our list, in order of ripening, we have Bowman and
Redcay. These are both shellbarks and the nuts have not been well
filled, as borne on our grafts.

In last place on our list, we have a southern shagbark, Booth, and two
hicans, Bixby and Burlington. We have not been able to form an opinion
of Booth. Bixby and Burlington have, so far, been very shy bearers and
the nuts have not been well filled. They are of very large size and very
excellent quality.

The time elapsed between the earliest and latest ripening of these
different hickory varieties was 36 days. The time between the different
steps were about three days. I do not give the dates because they will
vary from year to year. In early years, Anthony has been ripe very early
in September.

Summarizing this report shows that our tests so far indicate that the
following varieties are good and well worthy of propagation: Anthony
(probably No. 1), Weschcke, Bauer, Cedar Rapids, Fox, Clark, Wilcox,
Minnie, Davis, Berger, Triplett, Bridgewater, Manahan (farther south).
Instead of listing these 13 varieties alphabetically or in order of
their merits, I have listed them in order of their ripening, earliest
first, and so on. Those varieties in the first half of the list can be
grown in locations considerably farther north than our location, which
is 41° 45' North Latitude, while those in the last half of the list are
not likely to be adapted to locations farther north than ours.

You will note that five of these varieties are not well known, but are
good varieties. They are, namely; Bauer, Cedar Rapids, Clark, Triplett,
and Bridgewater.[30]

[30] The Bridgewater pollenizes the male-sterile Weschcke variety in
Wisconsin. See Mr. Weschcke's discussion, pp. 193-95 in NNGA Report for
1948.--Ed.

This is only a preliminary or progress report, and should not be taken
as final in any respect. Neither does it cover all or near all, of the
top-rate hickory varieties. For instance, you will note, the variety
named Glover has not been mentioned. This is because our grafts of it
have not started to bear yet, so we have no comparable basis for
including it in this report. Yet there can be no question as to the
merits of Glover, for it is one of the very best. There are, no doubt,
many other very excellent varieties not mentioned here.

The hickory is the slowest growing, takes the longest to start to bear,
is the nurseryman's headache (it taking about five years to grow stocks
large enough to graft or bud, during which time they should have been
transplanted at least twice to develop a better root system), they are
about (the hardest of the nut species to transplant and their nuts are
one of the smallest of the nut species only the filbert and the chestnut
being as small). Yet because of their delicious flavor and other good
qualities, hickories are probably the favorite nut of more people than
any other of the nut species that can be grown in the northern part of
this country.

(Applause.)

DR. MacDANIELS: I think we need more reports of that kind to get us
oriented with our hickory varieties. I think when we get through with
the walnut survey that the hickory nut survey would be next.

MR. CORSAN: Hickory was Dr. Charles S. Sargent's favorite tree, and he
planted poison ivy under all of them, and it's there yet and they can't
get rid of it. He wanted to keep the boys from gathering the nuts.

DR. MacDANIELS: I have poison ivy under some of mine, but not for that
purpose.

MR. McDANIEL: It grows under all good trees.

DR. MacDANIELS: The next paper is one which George Slate kind of foisted
off on me. He came around and said he thought something more should be
said about the butternut and asked if I would get out a report and
discuss the standards for evaluation. That is the reason for this paper,
which I will read. It will take only about ten minutes.



How About the Butternut?

DR. L. H. MacDANIELS, Ithaca, New York


The purpose in presenting this paper is to summarize what is known about
the butternut in the light of my own experience, and to find out from
you in discussion what additional facts are available and what some of
the problems in the culture of butternuts may be. A good summary by S.
H. Graham is to be found in the 34th Annual report of the Northern Nut
Growers Association, and short reports appear elsewhere. In general,
however, judging from the proceedings of this Association, the butternut
has not received much attention through the years. The lack of interest
in the butternut indicates unsatisfactory experience with this nut on
the part of those who have tried to grow and use it. An analysis of its
good and bad characteristics is in order.

Of all the species of nuts with which the Association is concerned, the
butternut is the most hardy and the most likely to succeed on poor soil.
In general, the trees are easy to transplant, are early bearing,
sometimes within two years from the graft, and are easy to grow. The
flavor of the butternut is very distinctive and palatable, and usually
much more flavorful than similar nuts derived from the Japanese
butternut and the heartnut. Some people consider the butternut flavor
the best of all nuts.

On the other hand, the butternut has a reputation for being short lived
because of susceptibility to various diseases. The seedling trees which
are usually sold are slow in bearing. The common wild nuts are hard to
crack with a hammer, and the better named varieties are not well known
or widely grown. The trees also have a reputation for being difficult to
propagate. Of these faults, probably the difficulty of propagation and
cracking are the most important in restricting its use.

Botanically the butternut (_Juglans cinerea_) belongs to a group of
species within the genus Juglans that bears its fruit in long clusters
or racemes, as contrasted with the walnut group which bears nuts singly
or in clusters of two or three. The butternuts also have the fruit and
leaves covered with sticky hairs instead of being smooth. The group is
further characterized by having a cushion of hairs above the leaf scars
and pointed terminal buds on the twigs. Other species within the group
are the Japanese butternut _J. Sieboldiana_, its variety _cordiformis_,
the heartnut, and several less well known species including _J.
mandshurica_ and _J. cathayensis_, both native to central Asia. These
closely related species apparently hybridize with each other, but
accurate information as to the nature and extent of such hybridization
is not available.

The natural geographical range of the butternut covers a broad area of
Northeastern North America, extending from New Brunswick southward to
the mountains of Georgia and westward to Western Ontario, Dakota, and
Arkansas. In this range it is most frequent in calcareous soils,
reaching its best development in rich woodland, but persisting on poorer
upland soils also. It thus has the most northern range of our native nut
species, along with the Pignut, _Carya glabra_, and one species of
hazelnut, _Corylus rostrata_. The other related species are of variable
and uncertain hardiness and are not reliable in this northern range.

It is recognized that the butternut has little commercial value except
as it is used in the New England states, particularly in Vermont, where
it is combined with maple sugar in making maple-butternut candy. Anyone
who has travelled through the New England states is familiar with the
roadside advertising of this excellent product. On the general market,
butternut kernels are not sold in quantity comparable to those of the
black walnut, but are somewhat comparable to the kernels of the hickory
which also do not have a commercial outlet except locally.

The greatest use of the butternut is, and will continue to be, for the
home grounds and local consumption. I think it is highly probable that
if the easy cracking varieties already named were better known, they
would be much more widely planted. The common wild butternuts are really
difficult to handle. They crack only after considerable hammering with a
heavy hammer and then, when cracked, the kernels shatter to such an
extent that recovery is very unsatisfactory for the labor expended.
After butternuts have been gathered from the wild with some enthusiasm
during the fall months, they often remain in the cellar or attic without
ever being used. Even the squirrels and the rats will not go to the
bother of extracting the kernels if other nuts are available.

For best results the nuts are usually cracked with a heavy hammer, the
nut being held vertically against a solid vice or block, so it can be
hit on the end. A glove to protect the fingers holding the nut is useful
if many are to be cracked. Good results can be secured by holding the
nut on its side and tapping it on the suture. This, however is
difficult, as it necessitates shucking the nut and even then it is
difficult to identify the suture.

Through the years many varieties of butternut have been named. Mr. R. L.
Watts in the 35th annual report of the Association lists 26 names, and I
am sure there are others. I personally have had experience with only
three or four varieties. One of these, the Crax-ezy, has borne good
crops and the nuts crack well. Another one, which I have named the
Johnson, coming from Tonawanda, New York, cracks well but is a smaller
nut. At one time I had Thill variety topworked on _Juglans Sieboldiana_
stock, but the stock was killed by cold winter. Samples of Kinnyglen and
Mandeville were furnished by Mr. Graham for testing. We do not, however,
have any comparative rating of many varieties based on comparative
tests, nor are there recognized standards of quality.

In order to set up standards of quality for butternuts, the following
tentative schedule for judging has been worked out along the same lines
as the schedule for judging black walnuts. Twenty-five nuts are used in
a sample and the score is made up of the weight in grams of the kernels
recovered on the first crack, plus total weight of kernels divided by 2,
plus 1/2 point for each whole half kernel recovered. A nut should not be
considered worthy of propagation unless practically all of the kernels
come out in whole halves.


   Proposed Schedule For Testing Butternuts

   25 Nut Samples

   Score = Wt. kernels first crack + total wt. kernels ÷ 2 + no. whole
   halves ÷ 2.

                  Weight      Total
                  Kernels    Weight
                 1st crack   Kernels     No.
    Variety        Grams      Grams    Halves   Score   Remarks

   Kinnyglen        52.0       57.5      36      98.8
   Crax-ezy         48.0       56.0      44      98.0
   Mandeville       53.6       66.0      10      91.6
   Johnson          38.5       45.5      40      81.3
   Seedling No. 1   36.5       45.0       7      62.5
   Seedling No. 2   26.0       43.0      22      58.5
   Seedling No. 3   20.0       44.5      10      47.3

In this schedule the crackability of the sample is measured by the
weight of first crack and the number of halves. The yield of kernels is
measured by the total weight of kernels in the sample. The first crack
includes only those kernels that either fall out or can be removed
easily with the fingers. The remaining kernels are rescued with a pick
or by recracking. In my judgment, the score accurately measures the
merit of the samples. In the Mandeville, the large size is measured by
the weight of kernels which in part offsets poor cracking quality. Poor
cracking is usually caused by the edges of the halves being curved so
as to be bound in the shell. Much more testing should be done to
determine the value of the schedule.

Opinions regarding the ease of propagation of the butternut differ, but
mostly it is considered difficult to propagate, with often complete
failure. This merely means that the matter is not well understood. In my
own experience I have had just about as many failures as successes, and
must confess that I do not have much idea of what has been responsible
for either success or failure. Best results have been secured by using
inlay or bark slot grafts on stubs about 2 inches in diameter. This
agrees with the experience of Mr. Burgart, of Michigan, and Mr. Weshcke,
of Minnesota, who report that grafts must be made several feet from the
ground and not at the crown.

Shield budding has apparently not been satisfactory. Mr. D. C. Snyder
writes that chip budding is more successful. It is recommended by others
and I agree that grafting should be done early, just as growth starts
rather than later when trees are in leaf. Special care must be used in
tying the new shoots of the graft to braces to prevent breakage by wind
or birds. The butternut wood is very brittle and the grafts are often
lost by breakage. The whole matter of butternut propagation merits
further careful study.

Butternut varieties may be grafted on black walnut, butternut, or _J.
Sieboldiana_ stocks. Mr. Burgart, Mr. Weschcke, and Mr. D. C. Snyder
consider black walnut to be better than the others, giving a more
vigorous long lived tree. Varieties on butternut stocks are apparently
relatively short lived and _J. Sieboldiana_ stocks have a different
growth rate and are not hardy. Mr. Burgart uses bark slot grafts on
black walnut seedling stocks, 2-3 years old.

Butternut trees on their own roots transplant relatively easily because
there is no taproot as with the black walnut and the hickory, and there
are many fibrous surface roots that can be lifted when the tree is dug.
Black walnut stocks are not difficult to manage, particularly if the
taproots are cut on the seedlings. Culture is no special problem.
Mulching and supplying nitrogenous fertilizer is good practice.

The butternut has the reputation of being susceptible to disease and
hence being short lived as a tree. Whether or not this is actually the
case is perhaps questionable. Many butternut trees, particularly those
in favorable situations of soil and moisture, live to be of large size
and old age. Trees on poorer, thinner soils apparently die off earlier
than those under better conditions. In any case, it is well recognized
that the butternut has a shorter life span on the average than the black
walnut, which frequently lives to a large size and old age. There are
two common diseases of the butternut. One is leaf spot caused by the
fungus _Marsonia_, which defoliates the trees fairly early in the season
and probably predisposes them to injury from other fungous attack. This
is the same leaf spot that attacks the black walnut leaves. The other
disease, which may cause trouble, is a fungous walnut blight known more
specifically as Melanconis blight. It has not been established that this
disease is an active parasite. The evidence indicates rather that it
attacks trees that are already somewhat weakened by defoliation or other
injury. It is a fact that many of the dead limbs on butternut trees are
found to be affected with the disease. It is a matter of observation
that trees growing under favorable conditions are less damaged by the
disease than those growing under poor conditions of soil and water,
therefore, keeping trees vigorous is good practice.

As with other nut tree species, there are troublesome insects. One of
these, the butternut snout beetle or curculio, attacks both the
butternut and the Japanese walnut. Control has apparently been secured
by dusting foliage with DDT. Sometimes the leaves of butternuts are
badly distorted with galls caused by mites. The bunchy top or
witches'-broom caused by a virus, that is serious on the Japanese
walnut, _Juglans Sieboldiana_, does not appear to be so virulent on
butternut. This, however, is a matter of personal observation and is not
based on a thorough study.

In conclusion, let me say that in my judgment, the butternut is worthy
of more attention than it has had so far received, particularly by home
owners in the northern states who would like to have trees in their
yards that will bear nuts under conditions that are unfavorable for most
other kinds. If it were publicized that varieties are available that
will crack out in halves with relatively little effort, the chances are
that with these facts in mind those interested in nut trees would give
the butternut much more attention. The difficulty at the present time
seems to be related to a lack of knowledge as to the relative merit of
different varieties and a scarcity of trees because of difficulty of
propagation. If we have time and the chairman will permit, I would
welcome comments on the propagation problem and would also like to
obtain any information on the merit of the named varieties. Let me also
state that if any of you have a sample of 30 nuts of any named variety
in this or last fall's crop that you can spare, I would be much pleased
to have you send it to me for testing.


Discussion

MR. STOKE: It grows in New Brunswick, and I have had specimens from
north of Lake of the Woods.

MR. CORSAN: They grow at Brooks, Alberta. I have the Helmick and it
grows 14 to the cluster, has a thin shell and heavy meat, and the leaves
are persistent. They don't drop off the first of September. That's the
Helmick. It's grafted on black walnut stock, and the black walnut stock
comes up like that (indicating) and the Helmick recedes.

DR. MacDANIELS: The black walnut overgrows it. There are about 40
varieties, and I would like very much to get hold of any of the samples
I can get.

MR. CORSAN: Go up to Silver Bay, Lake George, and on the shore there the
Indians have bred the butternut, and it's 10 to the cluster among those
trees by Silver Bay, Lake George, New York. Ernest Thompson Seaton and I
examined that grove years ago.

DR. MacDANIELS: Wish we had them where we could get at them. Any other
comment on the butternut?

MR. McDANIEL: The Helmick is considered to be a "butter-jap" seedling of
heartnut, possibly the other parent was a butternut.

DR. MacDANIELS: That is something we will have to decide in the
Association, whether or not we are going to throw in these hybrids and
the heartnut along with the butternuts in standards or try to keep them
separate.

MR. CORSAN: Hybrid heartnut cross is very, very superior in every way to
the butternut in my estimation, except for hardiness.

MR. STOKE: That is a hybrid. I have it. The Mitchell hybrid.

DR. MacDANIELS: The ordinary run of seedlings are not worth keeping, no
question about that, and it's too much work to recover the kernels.

There are several announcements I'd like to make. One has to do with
this hall. It is the American Legion hall, which they do not charge rent
for. They do, however, and will expect some sort of a token of
appreciation that will be fairly substantial. There is no provision for
that in the budget, so any of you who are feeling a little mellow and
flush, if you want to approach the treasurer with a contribution towards
the use of this hall, that will be appreciated; otherwise, the matter
will have to be settled out of the treasury as such.

MR. CORSAN: How about a dance in this hall?

DR. MacDANIELS: If we stay over, we might do something like that.

Then there is the other matter, and that is the prize for the proposed
Carpathian walnut contest. There is no prize money available at the
present time. If any of you wish to provide a first, second, or third
prize, we might even tag it with your name, if that would be possible.

I think probably they will be able to get some publicity backing through
farm papers and what not, but still if we have a backlog of prize money,
why, that's much to your advantage.

Do you want to say anything further on that, Mr. Chase?

MR. McDANIEL: Mr. Sherman, I believe, has a word.

MR. SHERMAN: Not in this connection.

MR. PATAKY: Do any of the members here have shelled butternuts or
hickory nuts that they would sell? If they do, I'd like to get their
names and get in touch with them. I do have a demand for some shelled
butternuts which I have trouble getting, and I do have trouble getting
shelled hickory nuts. It is for the Wideman Company out of Cleveland. I
got shelled butternuts before the war, but since the war they don't have
the trade, but if they could get them, I think that would be the company
that would take them. The Wideman Company of Cleveland, Ohio. They are a
big wholesale house. Write to Christ Pataky, Mansfield, Ohio, R.D. 4.

MR. KINTZEL: Do you sell them in the shell?

MR. PATAKY: I do sell them in the shell, too, but there are a lot of
people who won't buy them in the shell. We do have a demand for them,
not too much on the butternut, but we do have for hickory nuts. I think
we could sell a lot more hickory nut meats than hickory nuts even at the
difference of the price. I know the price was quite high before the war.
They paid somewhere around a dollar a pound before the war for shelled
ones, and we even sold them at a profit for that, and we haven't been
able to get any since the war. I don't know what happened, whether the
kids are too busy playing basketball or football.

DR. MacDANIELS: They get too much for mowing lawns.

MR. WEBER: There is a nut crackery at Mitchell, Indiana. The man who
cracks them cracks hickory nuts and puts them out in his name, John
Eversol. Mr. Wilkinson can tell you exactly what his name is. He was
down there last year. He is cracking walnuts, and in addition cracks
hickory nuts and puts them in fine shape.

MR. CORSAN: Isn't it true that nuts have more Vitamin E than any other
food in the world, and isn't Vitamin E the greatest antidote against
anemia?

DR. MacDANIELS: I wouldn't know. You have a medical man here?

DR. WASHICK: I don't think you are right.

MR. CORSAN: In the West they say Vitamin E is a cure for anemia and they
are having wonderful success, and they claim there is more vitamin E in
nuts than any other food. I don't know, they are keeping me alive.

~Editor's Note~: Green walnuts are rich in Vitamin C. See 1942 Report,
page 95.

DR. MacDANIELS: You are Exhibit 1.

I think Mr. Salzer has slides he wanted to show this afternoon.

MR. SALZER: I had a few. Perhaps we can use those blankets and just fix
up, perhaps, a few of these windows in front, and I think we could
probably show the slides.

DR. MacDANIELS: If you can leave the blankets here for a short time, we
will get them later.

Any other questions?

I think our lunch is ready for us downstairs. We will come back up here
at one o'clock.

(Whereupon, at 11:50 o'clock, a. m., the meeting was recessed, to
reconvene at 1 o'clock of the same day.)


TUESDAY AFTERNOON SESSION

DR. MacDANIELS: Calling the afternoon session to order.

This afternoon I am going to turn the gavel over to our good friend,
Spencer Chase, to carry on.

MR. CHASE: Thank you, thank you.

All of us are interested in the various experiment stations doing more
work with nut trees, and we are very fortunate this afternoon in having
two experiment stations represented, and we will first hear from Bill
Clarke from Penn State, who will talk on, "Progress in nut culture at
the Pennsylvania State College." Mr. Clark.



Progress in Nut Culture at the Pennsylvania State College

W. S. CLARKE, JR., State College, Pennsylvania


Work in nut growing at the Pennsylvania State College was formally begun
in 1946, when a project on this subject was approved by the college
authorities. A few acres of land were set aside for this work, and the
following spring about half an acre was planted with a few nut trees of
different species. At the present time an area of about twenty acres is
set aside for nut plantings, although a few spots on this land are not
plantable on account of rock outcrops.

We now have out in the field sixty black walnuts, all but three of them
named varieties, which were received from Tennessee in 1949. Seventeen
varieties are represented in this collection.

In the nursery are more than 200 seedling black walnuts. These were
planted from nuts gathered from local trees in the fall of 1946. They
were transplanted at the end of their first season and have remained in
their present position for three years. They were planted largely for
the sake of experience in handling the nuts and the young trees. Some of
them have been grafted, and this year a few grafts of Thomas and Stabler
were successful. On account of their size, all these trees will have to
be taken out at the end of the present growing season.

About twenty Persian walnuts have been received from the United States
Department of Agriculture. These are all budded trees, the buds having
been taken from special selections with the best nuts from trees
originally introduced from northern Europe and central Asia. Three out
of four seedling Persian walnuts and one out of two Japanese walnuts
planted in 1947 have survived and are included in our planting. One
named variety of butternut is in our collection, and a number of
seedlings in our nursery.

It has been our experience that walnut trees can be moved rather easily.
The percentage of loss in transplanting has been negligible. On account
of an emergency, this spring we had to move several walnuts which were
already in full leaf. Some of the leaves were trimmed off, and the trees
have survived and have even made some additional growth.

On our grounds is one Chinese chestnut left from a planting of eight in
1930. It was killed back to the ground in 1934 after winter temperatures
of close to 30 degrees below zero, but it has since grown up to be a
tree of moderate size. It suffered considerable injury to buds and twigs
in 1948 from temperatures down to 23 degrees below zero, but has since
recovered. In several years it has borne a crop of burs, but no other
tree is available for cross-pollination, and the nuts have seldom
filled.

Twelve seedling Chinese chestnut trees from different sources have been
planted, and an area of several acres has been set aside to extend the
work on chestnuts.

A start has been made toward a collection of filberts. Five named
varieties of European filberts were planted in 1947. All have suffered
from winter injury, but only one tree has been killed outright. Very few
nuts have been produced. About 25 seedlings of European filberts and 25
of the American were received from Tennessee two years ago. About 90%
have survived and are growing nicely.

Several other species of nuts have been tried without success. Two trees
of the red hickory were set out several years ago, but they failed to
leaf out. Four young trees of the golden chinkapin of the Pacific Coast
were planted and grew well the first summer, but all four were killed by
the first freeze in the fall. About a pound of nuts of the Turkish tree
hazel were planted several years ago; these failed to come up the first
year. The next winter the mice and rabbits discovered them and ate up
most of the planting. A few germinated, but most of these were lost in
transplanting, and today only two are left of the entire lot.

MR. CHASE: Thank you, Mr. Clarke.

(Applause.)


Discussion

MR. SHERMAN: I'd like to say, just before you leave this subject, that
the speaker barely mentioned the fertilization experiment that was
started in Pennsylvania on black walnuts. I think the members of the nut
survey stuck their necks out and got their heads hit a little bit when
we said that the black walnut as an orchard industry in Pennsylvania was
sick. We hadn't been able to find crops of black walnuts. We found
individual trees, but we couldn't find orchards of black walnuts, and as
a result of that, this fertilization experiment was started, in a
55-acre black walnut orchard with Ohio, Stabler and Thomas varieties.

The owner, Truman Jones, said, "I don't care what you do with the
Stablers, you can't hurt them, anyway; they are no good to begin with."
But this orchard, evidently from all outward appearances, has been
growing very slowly for quite a number of years. It isn't the size it
should be, and we think the main trouble there is lack of fertility, and
that's the reason why this fertilization experiment was started.

It's quite an ambitious experiment. It takes in about 93 trees in the
center of a 55-acre planting of black walnuts. They haven't had a crop,
I think, for five or six or seven years. They don't have a crop this
year, but we are hoping that some of them next year will have a crop,
but if not then the year following.

They are asking about the cultivation. There has been no cultivation
there in the orchard for a number of years. It's down in a pretty heavy
bluegrass sod. In a portion of that we put the disc in on the tractor
and disced and redisced until we got what we thought was a pretty fair
seedbed. They found that vertical profile a mixture, and we are hoping
to have clover sod instead of bluegrass sod. That's combined with
fertility work. I won't take time to go into that, but I think this
group is interested in knowing that there is quite an extensive
fertility experiment on black walnuts to see why the large plantings are
not producing.

I might say in this connection, Mr. Hostetter isn't here this afternoon,
hasn't been here, but he has a dandy bang-up nice crop of nuts this
year, and Ohio and Thomas are his main varieties.

MR. CRAIG: Did he use any fertilizers?

MR. SHERMAN: Yes, the fertilizer was disced in, and he tried to disc
under that bluegrass sod and get that rotting under there. There are
quite a few ramifications to that program.

MR. CORSAN: Did you mention Turkish tree hazel?

MR. CLARKE: Yes, we have two trees of it left.

MR. CORSAN: It takes two years to sprout from the time you plant the
seed. Have you tried the European beechnuts in your locality?

MR. CLARKE: No, we haven't.

MR. CORSAN: It will produce far more than the American beechnut and is
more successful in every way. They can be gotten from Holland quite
cheaply. They sell the European beech, and they are beautiful and loaded
with nuts and the Europeans think far more of them than the Americans
do. The cut-leaf beech is an European beech, and I have seen the tree in
Southern Michigan and at the Old Soldiers' Home at Dayton, Ohio, loaded
with nuts. And frequently, not just once in every 13 years, like our
beechnut. And they are a bigger nut.



Nut Tree Culture in Missouri

T. J. TALBERT, University of Missouri, Columbia, Mo.


The wide interest now being shown in the planting of nut trees
throughout the State emphasizes the need of information on nut culture.
Although nut trees may be grown with less care and attention than fruit
trees, yet to be successful in starting plantings a knowledge of
successful practices developed by the Missouri Agricultural Experiment
Station at Columbia should prove of great value.

The information which follows applies particularly to the native black
walnuts, butternuts, hardy northern pecans, hickories, chinkapins, and
hazelnuts. All these nut plants are native to Missouri and may do well
if given proper attention in the various districts of the state to which
they are adapted.


NUTRITIVE VALUE OF NUTS

Nuts are now given in the diet a higher rating than ever before. This is
true because recent studies in nutrition show that they supply not only
the elements needed for health and growth, proteins, oils, and
carbohydrates but also an abundance of vitamins A, B1, and G. In fact,
the nuts compare very favorable with meats in rankings for the above
vitamins. Most of the nuts are especially noteworthy in high vitamin A
and B1 content. It is also believed generally that nuts contain nearly
all of the mineral essentials demanded for the promotion of healthy
nutrition.

Moreover, nuts are usually palatable in the raw stage and are prized
most highly for dessert purposes. The black walnut is particularly
outstanding because it retains its flavor after cooking. Nuts now have a
very extensive use in the preparation of confectioneries, cakes, breads,
and salads. They enhance the flavor of many other foods.

The value of nuts as food accessories has long been recognized. They
also supply so much body fuel in so compact a form that they are
particularly well suited for the use of mountain climbers, "hikers," and
even soldiers engaged in long marches and maneuvers.


USES FOR NUT TREES

~As Shade Trees~--If during the past 40 or 50 years, a large portion of
the shade trees planted had been nut trees like the native walnut,
pecan, hickory, chestnut, and chinkapin of the better varieties, it is
easy for anyone to see that great benefits would have resulted.

~For Highway Planting~--No other native trees lend themselves so admirably
to highway use as the so-called northern or native pecan, the black
walnut, and the hickories. These nut trees are all generally
well-shaped, reach considerable heights particularly on fertile soils,
are stately in appearance, and add beauty and attractiveness to the
landscape wherever they are grown.


SOILS AND FERTILIZERS

~Soils Needed for Good Growth~--The nut trees adapt themselves to a very
wide range of soil conditions. In fact, few other trees are capable of
such a wide range of adaptability to soil types. The uplands usually
planted to corn and wheat and the flood plains of the river basins may
both be well suited to nut growing.

For good growth and production deep well-drained soils are required.
Under proper conditions the trees develop rapidly, have an extensive
root system, and eventually may reach a great age. Furthermore, nut
trees cannot grow successfully on wet poorly-drained land where water
stands on or just beneath the surface a considerable portion of the
year. Lowlands which may be found well adapted to the growth of willow
and gum trees, may be too wet and sour for the growth of nut trees. It
would also be well to avoid dry, very thin, and very sandy soils.

In their native range the pecan, hickory, and walnut thrive on the
alluvial soils of the Missouri and Mississippi River Valleys. They grow
well also on the upland sandy loam soils adapted to the growth of corn,
oats, and wheat. All of these nut trees are usually influenced more by
the fertility, humus, and moisture content of the soil, than by any
particular soil type.

~Fertilizers for Nut Trees~--The deep rich alluvial soils of river and
creek valleys do not present the same fertilizer problems as light and
heavy upland soils. Manure supplemented with superphosphate at the rate
of about 20 to 30 pounds to a ton should prove to be a satisfactory
fertilizer on depleted soils. It is spread in a circle around the trees
extending out about twice the spread of the branches and plowed or
harrowed into the soil. A moderate application would range from 8 to 12
tons to the acre.

Leguminous cover crops are particularly valuable for building up the
nitrogen and humus content of the soil when plowed under. Their
judicious use with non-leguminous cover crops and supplemented with
commercial fertilizers to increase the tonnage for plowing under, will
usually bring good returns in growth and production.


CARE OF THE PERMANENT PLANTINGS

Since but few diseases and insects attack nut trees in Missouri, very
little if any spraying work will be required while the trees are young.
As the trees grow older, however, it may be necessary to give pest
control more attention. Caterpillars that infest the foliage of the
trees in late summer and early fall can usually be destroyed by cutting
off the comparatively few branches on which the worms have clustered and
burning them. The pest may also be destroyed on high branches by means
of torches. If the trees can be sprayed thoroughly, arsenicals and other
insecticides used in spraying apple orchards will be found very
effective while the worms are small.

As in the care of a young apple or peach orchard, it is important that
the young trees for at least the first two or three years be given
cultivation and some fertilization on lands of lower fertility if a good
growth is not being made. A heavy mulch of straw or litter around the
trees may prove very satisfactory.

Moreover, livestock should be kept away from the trees until they are
established and the branches of sufficient height to be out of danger of
injury. It is a serious mistake to plant or grow from seed small nut
trees and leave them unprotected from farm animals. If the land is to be
grazed, each tree may be guarded with strong posts and barbed or woven
wire spaced about 8 to 10 feet from the trees.

Once the young nut orchard is thoroughly established and growing
thriftily, grass may be grown beneath the trees and furnish nearly as
much hay or pasture as though the trees were not present. If livestock
is allowed to graze in the orchard, which is a questionable practice
while the trees are young, the trees should be pruned and trained to
fairly high heads.

~Spacing for Nut Trees~--The growing of nut trees for timber alone
requires a spacing of about 25 to 35 feet apart with other species of
trees common to the area growing up later between the nut trees to
facilitate the development of tall clean trunks. Under such conditions
nut production is inhibited and harvests may be comparatively small. Nut
trees grown mainly for nut production rather than for timber may be
planted 60 to 80 feet apart on the square plan.

The Thomas black walnut may bear a few nuts the second year following
transplanting. Different varieties and species of grafted walnuts,
pecans, and hickories often begin bearing from two to four years after
setting. Chestnut seedlings may also bear in the second or third year.
Black walnuts from seed sometimes bear a few nuts at 8 to 10 years of
age. Profitable bearing, however, may not be expected in the average nut
orchard until the trees are at least 10 to 12 years old.


PRUNING WALNUT, PECAN AND HICKORY NUT TREES

For the most part these nut trees do not require heavy pruning.
Superfluous branches, dead limbs, and unsymmetrical ones, should be
removed from time to time while the trees are young and becoming
established. A uniform top is desirable. The pruning is begun when the
trees are 2 or three years old by removing the lowest branches. The rule
is to cut away only one branch a year. But trees making a very strong
growth may stand more pruning and those making a poor growth may need
none.

Cultivation and other orchard practices may be greatly simplified in
commercial plantings by pruning and training the tree heads to heights
of six or eight feet. Even then the lower branches will ultimately be
pressed downward by the weight of nuts and foliage when bearing begins.

Regular annual pruning is required generally to prevent the limbs from
interfering with orchard practices. Furthermore, branches lower than six
or eight feet high, should be subdued by cutting back while the trees
are young. These limbs should be removed ~only~ when the trees have become
anchored strongly enough in the soil to prevent the directions of the
trunk being influenced by the prevailing winds.


THE BLACK WALNUT

There is something about the distinctive flavor of our native black
walnut kernels that appeals to the American people. And there is much
about the black walnut tree itself that makes it much admired and
respected.

It grows rapidly, and yet it is one of our most valuable timber trees.
It is an excellent tree for the grounds about the home. Not only does it
yield an annual crop, but it is a lovely shade tree--beautiful to look
at--and has the further advantage that the lawn grasses grow well
beneath it.

~Has Wide Distribution~--It is a very cosmopolitan tree in that it will
thrive almost anywhere if given half a chance. From lower Canada to the
Gulf of Mexico and from the Atlantic to the Pacific Coast, it may be
found in various states of production. On the fertile lands, however, of
the Mississippi and Ohio River basins it reaches perhaps its highest
development. The 10 high ranking states in walnut lumber production are
as follows, in order of their importance: Missouri, Illinois, Kentucky,
Ohio, West Virginia, Iowa, Tennessee, Arkansas, Indiana, and Texas.

~Valuable Timber Tree~--Some of the main or principal uses of the wood may
be enumerated as follows: For the making of gun stocks, it stands
supreme. Since walnut does not warp or swell when wet it does not
interfere with the action of the gunlock in gun stocks. The wood also
may be made into a sharp edge and fit snugly against the metal parts,
while the dark color and beautiful grain produces an attractive
implement. It is a standard and a favorite for musical instruments
notably pianos and organs; sewing machine tables, cases, small airplane
propellers, picture frames, caskets, cabinet work, moldings and many
forms of ornaments. The shells of the nuts were, during World War I,
manufactured into carbon and used for gas masks.

The wood possesses unusual and rare combinations of qualities which make
it superior in the manufacturing of the articles mentioned above. Its
freedom from warping, checking, or splitting when subjected to alternate
wetting and drying is an unusual quality. It works easily with all kinds
of tools, has remarkable durability in the presence of wood-decaying
fungi and insects. Moreover, it is hard, durable, heavy, stiff and
strong. The dark color of the wood does not allow soiling stains to show
and the grain of the wood and its texture make it easy to grip.

~Produces a Nutritious Food~--The kernels of the black walnut are now used
not only in candy making but to a large extent in breads, cakes, salads,
waffles, and other forms of food. In the cities the kernels are sold
yearly in increasing amounts not only from wholesale and retail grocers
but by street venders as well. One may often find the kernels for sale
at food stands and in other places where fruits and vegetables are sold.

~Changing Seedling Trees to Named Varieties~--On nearly every farm, walnut
trees are growing along ravines, fence rows, and on rough land which is
more or less out of the way and inaccessible. Most of these may be
top-worked by one or more methods to the named and more desirable kinds
of black walnuts without imparing the value of the timber. In 5 to 7
years seedling trees ranging in age from 15 to 40, if topworked, may
produce crops equal to untreated trees. Still younger and smaller trees
from one to 10 or 12 years old, may generally be top-worked with less
difficulty than older trees.

~Results from Top-working Experiments~--Cleft grafting work performed at
the Missouri Agricultural Experiment Station has been very successful.
In fact, walnut top-working has been but little if any more difficult
than apple or pear top-working. With reasonable care and fairly good
technique the grafting operation is not difficult to perform. It is
believed, however, that the common practice in top-working pecan,
hickory, and walnut has been to dehorn too severely. This may induce
insect and disease injury which often results in a very poor tree after
10 or 12 years. For good results, six inches in diameter should be the
maximum size of the limb for top-working.

~Encourages New Industry~--A wider interest in black walnut kernels has
caused a new industry to spring up. This consists of nut cracking or
shelling establishments which have been located in the walnut growing
districts. The plants in many instances buy walnuts in large quantities.
The nut meats are removed and sold at wholesale, usually in barrel lots
containing 180 pounds of nut meats. In most districts the new industry
is in operation for most of the year.

Power driven machines feeding from large hoppers are used for cracking
the nuts. Nearly all the workers pick the meats from the cracked nuts.
Women are generally employed and are paid on a piece-work basis or by
the pound. Moreover, employees are often given a premium for nut meats
removed from the shells with the "halves" unbroken.

This new black walnut industry has increased and heightened the interest
in planting the trees for both nut and timber production. Consequently,
in the districts where these nut cracking mills have been established,
many producers are planting either small or large blocks of black walnut
trees. In some cases the plantings are made up of grafted or budded
trees of named varieties, while in others the nuts are planted and the
seedlings later top-worked to the kinds desired.

The named varieties and better seedling sorts bring the highest price in
the form of nuts and as kernels. In fact, the nuts of the named
varieties usually sell for twice the price paid for the average seedling
nuts. Some of the chief varieties most highly prized for their thin
shells, weight of kernels, cracking quality, and flavor are Thomas,
Stabler, Tucker, Ohio, and Miller.

To obtain a marketable and paying product, care in the gathering,
husking and extracting of kernels, is necessary. Culling the nuts and
cracking none but the good ones are also important. Through such
methods, many producers are able to supply city markets and roadside
stands with kernels which sell readily and at good prices.

~Returns from Trees~--Walnut trees will give returns in general in
proportion to the care given. They are fairly rapid growers under good
culture. At an age of 20 years the trees may reach a height of 35 feet
with 50 feet at 30 years and about 70 feet at 50 years. In other words,
a growth of about 2 feet a year for 20 years is not unusual. After this
age the trees slow down gradually to about a foot of growth a year.

It is estimated that walnut trees from 60 to 70 years of age will
produce on the average from 100 to 150 board feet of lumber. Trees of
such an age may also produce an average of all the way from four or five
bushels of nuts per tree each year up to as many as ten to fourteen or
more bushels per year.


THE BUTTERNUT

Among our native walnuts the butternut is valued highly especially for
home use. On the markets, however, the rough shell and comparatively
small size of the kernel have in general tended to keep prices low and
the demand limited. There are now prospects for the introduction and
growing of superior hybrid varieties. Grafted varieties which bear
particularly good nuts are becoming more available through nut
nurseries.

The trees may become very large in height, spread and trunk diameter.
They are attractive and stately in appearance and it is the hardiest
member of the walnut genus as its native range extends well into Canada.
The bark is gray in color and the wood is soft. Heartwood decay is
common in old trees, although they may reach great age. The species has
a rather restricted range within the Eastern states, but it occurs
naturally as far west as eastern Kansas and Nebraska. In Missouri, its
growth is confined largely to the central and northern areas where black
walnuts are plentiful.

The nuts are oblong, sharp-pointed at the apex, cylindrical, bluntly
rounded at the base, rough and jagged over the surface, and as a rule
thick-shelled. In spite of this, some varieties have good shelling
quality, and the kernels possess usually a rich, agreeable flavor. In
confections the butternut kernel may compete successfully with the
popular flavor of the black walnut kernels. The butternut may be
propagated and grown successfully by adopting the practices suggested
for the culture of the black walnut. As is true with the black walnut it
may be inter-grafted upon other walnuts or used as a stock for them, but
its propagation, particularly as an understock, is more difficult.


THE PECAN

The pecan is a member of the hickory group and its range in this
continent extends from Iowa to Mexico. Other hickories extend into
Canada. The hickories are valuable for both nuts and timber. Fifteen
different species of the hickory group have been recorded. Of these only
three or four produce nuts of outstanding value. In nut production, the
pecan hickory is the most important of all the hickories. For crop value
of nuts it rivals the Persian (English) walnut and the tree is one of
the largest east of the Rocky Mountains. The pecan tree is native to the
south and south central parts of the United States and it is found in
the forests as a native tree throughout Missouri.

Commercial production within the state may reach 800,000 pounds or more
in good crop years, and according to the State-Federal Crop Reporting
Service there are now about 88,000 pecan trees in the State of bearing
age. All of these consist of seedling groves except the comparatively
recent orchard plantings of the southeastern area. Commercial culture of
standard varieties in the United States is confined largely to Georgia,
Texas, Oklahoma, Louisiana, Alabama, Mississippi and Florida.

The natural habitat is along streams and on river bottom lands. At the
present time the commercial varieties consist mainly of the large
so-called "paper-shell" sorts of southern origin. These require a
comparatively long growing season for their development. Consequently
the southern types may not be productive in the more northern regions.

The cultural range of the pecan may be divided into two rather large
belts, known as southern and northern. In fact, pecan culture is
sometimes designated as "southern" and "northern" due to differences in
size of nut, thickness of shell, and time required for maturity of nuts.
The approximate northern limit of the southern area is near the extreme
southeastern boundary line between Missouri and Arkansas. The northern
belt extends into Nebraska and Iowa and includes approximately the
entire state of Missouri.

The chief difference between these areas is the length of the growing
season. In general, the southern or "paper-shell" varieties require from
240 to 250 days to mature their nuts, while the northern varieties which
produce usually nuts of smaller size with somewhat thicker shells need
from 180 to 200 days.


VARIETIES

There is no factor in pecan growing of greater importance than the
proper selection of varieties for planting. Fertile soils and good
culture will not make poor varieties profitable or low yielding kinds
fruitful.

Only in southeast Missouri are the southern varieties such as Stuart,
Pabst, Moneymaker, Success, Schley, and others a success. This is true
because the fruit buds of these varieties in other sections of Missouri
are generally killed by winter cold. Furthermore even if they escape the
winter cold, the growing periods for all sections except southeast
Missouri may not be long enough for the full maturity of the nuts.

Since none of the sorts adapted to the southern belt are sufficiently
hardy to justify their planting in Missouri except in the southeastern
section, growers in other parts of the state should confine their
interests and selections to the so-called northern varieties. Some of
the best of these are the Major, Niblack, Giles, Indiana, Busseron,
Greenriver, and Posey.

Chance seedlings which have not been named are now and then found that
may be equally as worthy or better for planting locally than any of the
named varieties listed above. In fact, these suggested sorts were
derived from chance seedling trees. Producers generally, therefore,
should be on the lookout for seedling trees of merit. When so
discovered, the Missouri Agricultural Experiment Station at Columbia
will be glad to make tests free of charge and report upon the cracking
percent, amount of kernel, appearance, flavor, texture, quality, oil
content, etc.

The nuts produced by the hardy varieties adapted generally to Missouri
conditions are usually smaller in size and have somewhat thicker shells
but may possess equally as high or even higher oil content and kernel
quality than the southern sorts. The better varieties of this group,
however, rank high enough to compete favorably on the markets of the
country in both shelled and unshelled state with the southern varieties.

A full crop of pecans would run from 30 to 35 carloads, the majority of
which are produced along the Mississippi river in the bottom lands from
Ste. Genevieve southward. Heavy shipments are made in a good year
especially from Ste. Genevieve, St. Mary's, Menfro, Caruthersville and
Hornersville, and in these sections are some of the largest and best
nuts.

Pecans are found along the Mississippi river from St. Charles north to
Hannibal, but too generally in that area the trees are scarce and the
production smaller, with nuts of thicker shells.

Pecan trees are also found growing wild along the Missouri river bottom
as far west as Lexington, and up the Grand river bottoms to Chillicothe,
and the nuts in this area are about the size of those in the north
Mississippi valley section, but are sweet with high oil content.

There is a pecan production district along the Osage river and the
Kansas border, with heavy shipping section at Rockville and Schell City.

Missouri pecans are classed as Westerns in the commercial market. They
are favored by the confectionery trade. A great many native trees are
found in the south Mississippi section, but there is a growing interest
in budded pecan trees, especially around Caruthersville.

The total of the budded varieties of pecan trees in Missouri does not
constitute more than approximately one per cent of the total of growing
trees.

Many years ago a large acreage of the bottom lands along the Mississippi
river were thick with immense, heavy-producing pecan trees--but most of
this pecan timber was cut down either for fuel wood or saw timber.
Short-sighted people have been known to chop down trees simply to secure
the nuts.


THE HICKORIES

The native hickories of Missouri have been held in high esteem since
early settlements were established. They are notorious on account of
their slow rate of growth yet they offer greater possibilities to nut
growers than is usually believed. As shade trees they have a high
ranking.

Promising varieties may now be had by obtaining scions from superior
bearing seedling trees and from young named and grafted trees in the
nurseries of commercial concerns. Grafted trees may come into bearing in
three or four years after the operation.

Perhaps as many as five species are native of Missouri. The big
shellbark or kingnut is common to the south and southwest regions, but
its range is not as wide as others. The shagbark which is the most
valuable nut producer of all the hickories, is rather widely distributed
particularly in northern and central Missouri. Numerous varieties have
been described and named because of their particular merits. Shellbark
nuts may be large and attractive, but are often poorly filled.

The pignut, mockernut, and bitternut have a rather general distribution
especially in the central and northern parts of the state. These nuts
are not considered of great value except for their hybrids with other
species. Perhaps the most natural type of hybrid occurring among the
hickories is crosses between the shagbark and shellbark, one of the best
varieties of which is Weiker.

The pecan and shellbark hybrids include McAllister, Nussbaumer, and
Rockville, while the Burton is believed to be a pecan-shagbark cross.
The natural crosses of the pecan and hickory found in the wild have not
been entirely satisfactory. The trees vary greatly in fruitfulness and
the nuts in thickness of shells, size, shape, and kernel quality. A
strong tendency to produce nuts with imperfect kernels is common among
the pecan-shellbark crosses.

Local varieties selected from the wild may have merit for use in
top-working hickories or pecans. The pecan is suggested because it makes
a good stock for the hickories and as it grows more rapidly. Some of the
best of the older named sorts for planting or for use in top-working
appear to be the following: Barnes, Fairbanks, Stanley, Weiker,
Kentucky, Swain, Laney, Kirtland, and Rieke.


THE CHINKAPINS

The chinkapin is related closely to the chestnut and resembles it
strikingly in most of the important characteristics. It occurs in two
well known forms. West of the Mississippi River, the Ozark chinkapin
tree may reach a height of sixty feet in good soil, while the other form
(Allegany chinkapin) in the eastern range grows to a height of about 15
feet. Each may be grafted or budded upon the other without difficulty.
Named varieties of the chinkapin are not available at this time. The
Japanese, Chinese, and European chestnuts are introduced species.

The blight disease has almost wiped out the great American chestnut
forests of the East. As yet, however, the malady has not been
introduced into Missouri. (The oak wilt, however, has been found
there.--Ed.) The chinkapin of this area is highly resistant to the
blight and some of the hybrids carry the resistant quality and bear nuts
of good size and high quality. The native chinkapin forests especially
of southwest Missouri are valued highly not only for their nuts but
particularly for post timber.

The native chinkapin tree in Missouri grows to large size in good soil
and it may be found as one of the largest forest trees on the stony
ridge lands of southwestern sections of the Ozark Mountains. The nuts
are very much like those produced by chestnut trees except they are
smaller. In flavor and quality the nuts may be found equal or superior
to the chestnuts.

Both the chinkapin and chestnut may be grafted or budded one upon the
other. In fact, the western chinkapin may be used successfully as a
stock for the chestnut.

The European chestnut is very susceptible to the blight. A very large
coarse nut is produced by the Japanese chestnut and it does not blight
quite as readily as the American sorts. The Chinese chestnut is the most
resistant to blight and it is admired for its beauty as a lawn tree.
Promising varieties include Abundance, Nanking and Meiling.

Some desirable varieties of the American and hybrid chestnuts for
growing in Missouri are as follows: Boone, Fuller, Paragon, Progress,
Rochester, and Champion.


FILBERTS AND HAZELNUTS

The European filbert which is grown so successfully in Oregon and
Washington has not been generally successful in Missouri. This has been
due mainly to winter injury, resulting either in the killing of the
staminate catkins by cold, or of the developing catkins by late spring
freezes and frosts. For good fruiting they need cross pollination. Some
of the well-known and popular filbert varieties are Barcelona, Du
Chilly, Medium Long and Italian Red. Rush, Winkler, and others, are
partly or purely American hazelnuts.

The native hazelnut which may be found throughout the State is hardy and
generally a fairly regular cropper. Seedling nuts, while not as large
usually as the Northwestern filbert, are found now and then that
approach them closely in size and cracking quality. Furthermore, the
native seedling nut kernels may excel occasionally in flavor and
quality.

Interested nut growers are, therefore, urged to perpetuate the most
promising hazelnuts of the wild by simple layerage. Until hardier
varieties of the filbert are found, the chief attention may be well
spent on the propagation and culture of the native seedling sorts of
merit. As yet none of the Missouri native seedlings have been described,
named and propagated for sale and distribution.

Tip or simple layering seems to be the most satisfactory method of
propagating the hazelnut and filbert. Shoots or suckers, one-year old
and arising from the base of the plant are used. They are left attached
to the mother plant and are bent over until the ends of tips rest upon
the soil.

To encourage root growth, the underside of the branch to be covered with
soil is frequently notched or ringed. The part of the branch in contact
with the moist soil is then covered leaving a small portion of the end
protruding. The branches are sometimes pegged down with forked sticks or
weighted with stones. After one season's growth, the branch should be
established with roots and top. It is then cut from the parent and
removed for transplanting to its permanent location.

Well, now, my good friends, I have talked about five or ten minutes
longer than I intended to, but you just listened so attentively you
encouraged me, so it's your fault. I am happy to be here. Show me an
organization like the Northern Nut Growers Association, as full of vim
and vigor and vinegar and going ahead, and I will show you a successful
organization.

Thank you.

MR. CHASE: Thank you, Professor Talbert, for a very nice message.

I am still a little angry at Professor Talbert because I realize now
that if he had accepted my invitation to come to another good southern
state two years ago our meeting would have been a much better one at
Norris.

Now, we have several papers here which deal with chestnuts, and there
seems to be a good deal of interest among the membership concerning
chestnuts this year, and perhaps before we get into chestnuts for nut
production we might hear a short resume of Dr. Graves' breeding work for
timber type chestnut. This problem of chestnut for timber purposes, of
course, accounts for the presence of Chinese and Japanese chestnuts in
the country today, and yet most of our efforts to establish chestnut
plantings for timber purposes have been unsuccessful. You heard from Dr.
Diller last year concerning these efforts.

This paper will deal with the breeding work which is now under way by
Dr. Graves in Connecticut, and I have asked Dr. McKay to give us a brief
digest of this paper.



Chestnut Breeding Work: Report for 1950

   ARTHUR HARMOUNT GRAVES
   Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, Conn.
   and
   Division of Forest Pathology, U.S.D.A. Plant Industry Station,
   Beltsville, Maryland


In southern Connecticut the 1950 season for vegetative growth and
development was excellent except for the dry period in September. The
chief fault lay in much more cloudy weather than usual,[31] and the
deficiency in sunlight coupled with a slightly lower average temperature
in the spring, and cool nights, combined to delay the chestnut flowering
season for as much as ten days. The main body of our cross pollination
experiments did not begin until July 4, whereas last year it began on
June 23 and 24, and was nearly completed by July 4.

[31] For example, the report of the U. S. Weather Bureau at New Haven,
Conn., for May, 1950, says, "The feature of the month was the lack of
sunshine which retarded the growth of crops in this area." See also
report of the New York City Station for April, 1950.

This year 103 crosses were made, not all different combinations, but
each one with either different or reciprocal parents. The principal
combination was a cross of Japanese chestnut with Chinese-American or
American-Chinese, a mixture that in recent years has given excellent
results. This year also, as in the past, our CJA's were crossed with
American chestnut.

[Illustration: Fig. 1. Cross pollinating Chinese chestnuts. Sleeping
Giant Plantation, Hamden, Conn. Trees near left of center and at left,
with drooping catkins, are Japanese-American hybrids. Photo July 13,
1950, by B. W. McFarland.]

~Cooperation with Italy.~ A considerable part of the cross pollination
work this year has been undertaken for the benefit of the Italian
authorities, namely experiment stations at Florence and Rome. This has
been done at the suggestion of the Division of Forest Pathology,
Beltsville, Md., which has been working along the same line.

As is now generally known, the chestnut blight was discovered in Italy
in 1938, and has been making rapid headway in a country 15 percent of
whose forests are in chestnut. To the Italians the chestnut means much
as an article of food. They use the timber also, and the various ages of
coppice growth in many ways[32]. Particular effort this year has been
directed toward the breeding of promising nut-bearing types for them and
especially resistant strains that bear large nuts like the cultivated
European chestnut.

[32] Graves, Arthur Harmount. Breeding Chestnut Trees: Report for 1946
and 1947. 38th Ann. Rept. Northern Nut Growers Assn. p. 85. 1947.

Now, we have found that many of our Chinese chestnuts are practically
immune to the blight. Even if the disease does appear, in most cases it
is in the outer bark only, and is soon healed over. Moreover, the
Chinese chestnut has a large nut, comparable in size to the cultivated
Europeans with pollen from our best Chinese trees, and at the same
successful crosses of the European and Chinese are made.

Last fall, as a result of an article in the _New Haven Register_ by Mr.
A. V. Sizer, I learned of two European chestnut trees of bearing age in
New Haven back yards. So, this summer we have crossed these Europeans
with pollen from our best Chinese trees, and at the same time have taken
the pollen from one of them (in the other the pollen was sterile) and
applied it to the female flowers of our Chinese trees. Most of the
resulting nuts have been sent to the Italian scientists in the hope that
some of them will develop into desirable nut-producing,
disease-resistant hybrids. Some will be retained for testing here. If
the resulting trees are not sufficiently blight-resistant, they will be
crossed again with the Chinese.

In the summer we received by air mail from Dr. Aldo Pavari, of the
_Stazione Sperimentale di Selvicoltura_ in Florence, Italy, two tubes of
pollen of the European chestnut, _Castanea sativa_, of the varieties
_pistolese_ and _selvatico_. These pollens were also applied to our best
Chinese trees. They resulted in 12 good nuts which have been shipped to
Dr. Pavari.

Further, we have on our Sleeping Giant Plantation, Hamden, Conn.,
several hybrids, now 16 years old, of the Seguin and the Chinese
chestnuts, the former species being also a native of China, but dwarf
and everblooming and remarkably prolific. These hybrids are excellent as
nut producers, since they inherit the large-sized nut of the mollissima
parent, combined with the increased productivity of the Seguin parent.
Furthermore they are extremely blight-resistant.[33] These hybrids have
therefore been intercrossed among themselves this year, chiefly for the
benefit of the Italian people. One hundred and eight nuts from
reciprocal crosses of these hybrids were shipped to Italy. Also, in
response to a request, we sent nuts of our best Chinese and Japanese
trees and of the _mollissima-seguini_ hybrids to M. C. Schad of the
_Station d'Amelioration du Chataignier_, Clermont-Ferrand, France.

[33] These hybrids will shortly be put on the market, under the
sponsorship of the Conn. Agr. Expt. Sta. and the Division of Forest
Pathology, U.S.D.A. As regards the everblooming habit of the Seguin
parent, that character seems to be lost or at least partly suppressed. A
second flowering of one of the hybrids usually occurs in August.

~Other crosses.~ Two Chinese-American trees in our plantation at the White
Memorial Foundation near Litchfield, Conn., bore a considerable number
of female flowers this year for the first time. They have been crossed
with the fine Japanese tree of Mr. A. N. Sheriff at Cheshire, Conn.,
figured in my report for 1948-49. (P. 92, fig. 3, of 40th Rept. of
N.N.G.A.) From them, 75 nuts were harvested of the combination CAxJ.
Four crosses were made on the trees at Redding Ridge, Conn., in the
cooperative plantation of Mr. Archer M. Huntington, resulting in 73
nuts. Also, the resistant Americans on Painter Hill, Roxbury, Conn.,
were again crossed with CJA's and Chinese from our Sleeping Giant
Plantation and from these were obtained 247 nuts. Finally, we have this
year succeeded in making a cross between _Castanea henryi_, the Henry
Timber Chinkapin from southern and central China, which is said to
attain a height of 90 feet, and _C. mollissima_, the Chinese chestnut.
Since _henryi_ blooms very early, much before our _mollissima_, the
Division of Forest Pathology mailed us pollen of _C. mollissima_, which
reached us just in time to be applied to _henryi_. Seven good nuts of
this cross were gathered.

Altogether, as the overall result of our cross pollination work, we
harvested 1259 nuts, more than twice as many as obtained in any other
year since we began this work in 1930.

   ------------------------------------------------------
   TABLE 1

   Heights of Some of Largest Trees, as of Oct. 1, 1950.
   All at Sleeping Giant Plantation, Hamden, Conn.

   Species or                                  Height
     Hybrid     Location         Age in yrs.   in ft.      Remarks
   -----------------------------------------------------------------------
     J × A      Row  4 Tree 10       19          30   Repeatedly inarched
     J × A       "   4  "    4       14          33   Grafted on Jap.
                                                      stock, Apr. 1937
     J × A       "   4  "   12       19          29   Repeatedly inarched
     J           "   7  "    5       20          23
     C           "   1  "    4       24        30-3/4
     CJA         "  60  "   39       13          29
     CJA         "  61  "   48       13          24
     CJA         "   8  "    8        4          14   Grafted on Chinese
                                                      stock, spring, 1947.
                                                      Fruited this yr.
                                                      1st time.
   ------------------------------------------------------------------------
   J=_Castanea crenata_
   A=_Castanea dentata_
   C=_Castanea mollissima_

~Nuts, Scions and Pollen Received.~ During the fall of 1949 we received
nuts from New Hampshire, Mass., Conn., N. Y., N. J., W. Va., N. C.,
Ohio, and Ill. Scions were received in March and April from Mr. R. M.
Viggars of the Bartlett Tree Expert Co. station at Wilmington, Del. (_C.
dentata_); and from Messieurs Schad and G. A. Solignat, _Centre de
Recherches Agronomiques_, Clermont-Ferrand, France, (_C. crenata_ and
_sativa_.) During June and July, pollen of _C. dentata_ came from Mr. E.
J. Grassmann, Elizabeth, N. J., Mr. Paul Maxey, Montcoal, W. Va., Mr.
Malcolm G. Edwards, Asheville, N. C.; _C. mollissima_ and _dentata_ from
the Division of Pathology, U.S.D.A.; _C. sativa_, vars. _pistolese_ and
_selvatico_ from Dr. Aldo Pavari, _Stazione Sperimentale di
Selvicolture,_ Florence, Italy; and _C. pumila_ and _dentata_ from Mr.
Alfred Szego, Flushing, N. Y. This list is presented as evidence of the
widespread interest in our work. It is a pleasure to acknowledge this
cooperation and to thank the many donors. We are especially glad to
report that several "catches" have been made with the C. sativa scions
from France and those of the tall _mollissimas_ at Mt. Cuba, Del., from
Mr. Viggars.

May I again caution those who send us nuts not to allow them to become
dried out. The embryos, when dried, are killed. The nuts should be
wrapped in moist cotton, peat moss, or something similar, and mailed to
me not later than a few days after harvesting, at 255 South Main Street,
Wallingford, Conn.

~Insects, bad and good.~ The cankerworms were rather destructive in May at
our Sleeping Giant Plantation (not at the others) but fortunately later
than usual. The mite, _Paratetranychus bicolor_, attacked the leaves of
some of the trees on the Sleeping Giant Plantation rather late in the
season, so that on September 8 we sprayed with the Station's power
sprayer, using Aramite effectively. Shade and humidity seem to favor the
spread of this pest. Japanese beetles appeared but have never been very
destructive with us. As happened last year, we sprayed twice for the
weevils, August 14 and September 8, with excellent results.

This spring in early June, four hives of bees were placed in one of our
Sleeping Giant Plantations by bee experts of the staff of the Conn.
Expt. Station. Improved results in pollination and the resulting nut
harvest cannot be affirmed with only one season's trial.



A Method of Controlling the Chestnut Blight on Partially Resistant
Species and Hybrids of Castanea

   ARTHUR HARMOUNT GRAVES
   Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven
   and
   Division of Forest Pathology, U.S.D.A. Plant Industry Station,
   Beltsville, Maryland


This method has been in use since 1937 on our chestnut plantations, and
has been so remarkably successful that we believe all chestnut growers
should be thoroughly acquainted with it.

[Illustration: Fig. 1.]

Whenever chestnut trees are attacked by the blight fungus, suckers arise
below the lesion, and if the lesion is at or near the base of the tree,
as often happens, these suckers grow from the base of the tree, i.e. at
the root collar. It is then a simple matter to cut out the diseased bark
of the lesion with a sharp knife, paint over the wound, and graft the
tip of one or more of these suckers _above_ the lesion, into the healthy
bark. Of course the sucker must be long enough to reach the healthy part
of the bark above the lesion. It is measured roughly by the eye and then
cut off at a proper length, usually a little longer than seems
necessary. The tip is then sharpened into two beveled surfaces coming up
to a thin sharp transverse edge like a long wedge. (Fig. 1a.) The tip
edge must be very sharp in order to push up easily between the bark and
wood. Now, or rather, before trimming the sucker, in the healthy bark
above the blight lesion cut an inverted T, making the cut into the bark
as far as the wood and then cut a gradual slope from the surface of the
bark down to the horizontal part of the inverted T. Next, lift the bark
gently from the wood above the horizontal cut and insert the end of the
sucker. If the sucker, or scion, is slightly longer than the upper end
of the cut, it can be bent outward at the same time that the scion is
being inserted and thus a spring is secured making it easier to force
the scion up between bark and wood. I should add that if the lesion is
not at the base of the tree, suckers usually arise just below it in any
case, and these can be inarched in the same way as the basal shoots.

[Illustration: Fig. 2

Fig. 2 Showing inarching method of controlling the chestnut blight a
Chinese-Japanese hybrid chestnut, 13 yrs. old, infected toward base with
Chinese type of blight, i.e. in outer bark only. Right: sucker inarched
in spring of 1946; left, inarched spring of 1950. (The black figure
resembling an arrow, about half way up, is accidental, being a cluster
of labels.) b. Grafted tree (the large tree of Japanese-American
chestnut on Japanese stock); graft made in 1937 where finger is
pointing; left: inarch of 1947, itself inarched near base in 1950;
right, inarch of 1949. c. Japanese-American hybrid chestnut with
principal inarch made in 1943; other later inarchings showing in part.
All photos by Louis Buhle, Brooklyn Botanic Garden, and loaned courtesy
of the Garden.]

The next step is to bind together the parts being grafted, winding
strong, cotton string firmly around the cut with its scion enclosed,
covering practically all of the vertical cut of the inverted T. Finally,
melted paraffin--not too hot--is applied to the union, every part being
carefully covered in order to exclude air and thus prevent drying out.
We use Clarke's melter which, with adjustment of the flame, will keep
the paraffin at a temperature slightly above the melting point and thus
will not get too hot. Grafting wax may also be used instead of paraffin.
The best time to perform the operation in Connecticut is during April or
early May.

Our first scions or inarches, grafted in 1937, are now 6 inches in
diameter at ground level and constitute the main tree. If they become
blighted, other suckers are inarched into them, and so on. The purpose
of the inarching is to restore the communication between leaves and
roots, which is so essential to the life and health of the tree, and
which the diseased bark of the blight lesion interrupts, eventually
causing girdling and death of the trunk or branch attacked. A series of
these inarchings of different ages is shown herewith. (Fig. 2.) On our
plantations we no longer dread the chestnut blight, since we can usually
circumvent it by this method. However, with the American chestnut,
because the fungus advances rapidly in this species, the girdling is
often completed before the scions can take hold. Therefore, with that
species or with the least resistant hybrids the method is often though
not always ineffectual.

This method of grafting is not new. It is similar to bridge grafting and
has been known and practiced for centuries. The only credit we can claim
is for its application to the chestnut blight as a method of control.


MR. CHASE: We will now hear from Mr. George Salzer, Rochester, New York,
"Experiences with Chestnuts in Nursery and Orchard in Western New York."
Mr. Salzer.



Experiences with Chestnuts in Nursery and Orchard in Western New York

GEORGE SALZER, Rochester, New York


My work with Chinese chestnut trees during the past ten years has been
most interesting. The first trees were grown in our back-yard garden;
then, when more seed was available locally, a building lot was purchased
for use as a nursery. Seed is planted in the spring because when fall
planting was tried, the rodents took most of the nuts.

Up until last year, chestnut seed was stratified in perforated cans in
the open ground with fairly good results. Last fall, we tried the method
used and described by Dr. Crane and Dr. McKay in the 1946 report of this
Association. Crimp top cans were used with nail holes in the top and
bottom. Instead of using regular storage facilities, the cans were
stored in a concrete block storage pit built below the floor of the
garage. This proved very successful. Not only were the nuts in excellent
condition for eating in the spring, sweet and of good flavor, but a much
larger percentage of the seed germinated. This storage pit also serves
to hold trees dormant and in good planting condition from digging time
in March until early June.

Last year, many young seedlings were lost during the dry weather and
hand weeding between the trees was next to impossible. This spring, we
tried the method of planting used and described by Mr. Sam Hemming in
the 1947 report of this Association. We planted the seed in a narrow
trench two inches deep; then filled the trench with saw dust; level with
the surface. The saw dust serves as a mulch to hold moisture for the
young seedlings and hand weeding between trees is reduced to a minimum.
It is also possible to use the wheel cultivator between the saw dust
marked rows before the shoots appear. This was a great help in
controlling early weed growth.

We were troubled with cutworms cutting off the new seedlings close to
the ground, the same as they cut off young tomato plants. We controlled
them by using a poison-bran bait as described in Leaflet Number Two
issued by the Department of Agriculture.

All trees are grown from seed of trees growing in the Rochester area.
These had their origin from north of Pekin, China. Most of the trees are
three years old when sold and have been transplanted at least once. This
gives us a good sized tree that transplants well and should bear some
chestnuts in three or four years. Sales are to people in our locality,
although a few mail orders have been filled. So far, we have had no
complaints. These are all seedling trees and until grafting or budding
of named varieties becomes stabilized, I believe we should concentrate
on growing large numbers of seedlings at a price within the reach of all
who want chestnut trees.

This spring some large chestnut seed received from a southern grower was
planted for experimental purposes. I will bring them into bearing to
learn whether they will bear as large a nut in our climate as they do in
the southern states, and whether the kernel will be as sweet and have as
good flavor as those grown in upstate New York. I have yet to see a tree
growing in the Rochester area bearing as large a nut as those grown in
the southeast, and all the large nuts I have tasted did not seem to be
as sweet as ours. Probably the old saying "the smaller the nut, the
sweeter the nut" is true. Of course these are all seedling trees, but by
this time we should know whether size of nut and sweetness of kernel are
determined by climate or individual trees.

Our largest trees are eleven-year old seedlings of unknown origin. One
is, I believe, outstanding. It started bearing when four years old and
has consistently been a good producer. The nut is real chestnut in color
and good size, running about seventy to the pound. I have not found a
tree in this area bearing a larger nut. The kernel is sweet and the
flavor excellent. The tree has good shape and limb structure, always
sending up a central leader. This is the tree I would like to propagate.


Small Nuts Sell Better

Last fall, I tried a selling experiment with chestnuts for eating, and
sold small quantities of small and medium sized nuts at the rate of
$1.50 a pound. However, no one seemed interested in the larger ones.
They thought they were European chestnuts that sold here for $.25 a
pound. I did not have many for sale, but I am convinced there is a
market for good sweet chestnuts. It seems useless to compete with those
imported from Italy. Ours are far superior, and many who remember the
American chestnut, will, I believe pay a luxury price for good quality
chestnuts.

In 1946, we purchased a 10-1/2 acre piece of land, 16 miles southwest of
Rochester for the purpose of planting a chestnut orchard. This land had
not been worked for about twelve years. The soil is heavy and fertile,
typed as Poygan clay loam. Bed rock is sixty feet below the surface. The
following spring, we planted about 300 trees and each year more are set
out. There are now about 700 trees from two to five years old, and most
of them are growing well.

The rows are twenty feet apart and the trees stand fifteen to twenty
feet apart, in the row. I know this will be too close when the trees are
full grown, but we have the trees and I want to bring as many into
bearing as possible, searching for the ideal tree. We also expect to
lose some trees through wild life and other causes.

Many of the first trees planted were lost the following year due to
excessive rainfall, poor surface drainage, rabbit and meadow mouse
damage. In 1948 two 400 foot drainage ditches were dug across the
property. This made it possible to plant trees successfully on most of
the land. However, another ditch is needed to eliminate a low spot, then
all of the land can be used.

The meadow mouse that girded so many trees could not be controlled by
the use of poison bait and the rabbit also did considerable damage.
Through the wild life service of the Department of the Interior, we
obtained a repellant that was effective. It is distributed in the
eastern states by the Rodent Control Fund of the University of
Massachusetts. We have used it now for two years and have no more mouse
or rabbit damage.

The woodchuck does considerable damage even though we have eliminated
all their dens on our land. They come in to feed from the neighboring
areas and will have to be controlled by shooting. Deer are also present
but have as yet caused no damage. Probably, they are waiting for the
trees to grow larger.

Last spring, new growth on the trees was killed by a late freeze--a most
unusual occurance for this area. This was caused by an excessively warm
April, followed by below-freezing temperature in the middle of May. It
was the first time in the memory of the oldest residents that black
locust and native black walnut trees were damaged by a spring freeze.
However, most of the trees recovered, but their growth was retarded.

This spring several of the trees blossomed, but set no burs. In a few
years, I hope to have more to report on this orchard project.

(Here was shown a chestnut tree picture.)

MR. SALZER: If anyone has any comments, if they think it has good limb
structure, that's what we are looking for.

MR. SHERMAN: We could tell you better if we could see it when it's
dormant.

MR. WEBER: What sort of a cultivator do you use?

MR. SALZER: Wheel cultivator.

MR. WEBER: Why don't you get a Wheelmaster? You may not want to
cultivate as often as if you had a power one.

MR. CHASE: We shall now have another chestnut paper by Alfred Szego of
Long Island.



Chestnuts in Upper Dutchess County, New York

ALFRED SZEGO 77-15A 37th Ave., Jackson Heights, New York City


Pulvers' Corners, a collection of farmhouses, a gas station and ice
cream parlor is located about 8 miles from the northern Connecticut
border not too far from the southwestern tip of Massachusetts.

The Berkshire hills roll through here and at this point we find
ourselves at approximately the northern limits of the deciduous hardwood
forest belt.

Here the American chestnut is native formerly growing in great abundance
until stricken a mortal blow by the invincible chestnut blight.

Just a few hundred feet north of here on a hilltop, I started in 1945, a
different kind of nut tree plantation.

Placing main emphasis on the chestnut, a start was made on the
cultivation of the thousands of sprouts and seedlings on my 43 acre
coppice forest.

A cluster of ~Castanea dentata~ seedlings that appeared promising was
selected. The following practices proved fairly successful in keeping a
few trees healthy, and bringing one into bearing in 1950. For the
interest of fellow members working along a similar line, I enumerate the
following practices.

1. Clean and thorough tree surgery, cutting out blight cankers
immediately upon discovery.

2. Removal of all very blight susceptible nearby sprouts and the burning
of all infected branches and material.

3. Artificial watering during drought periods.

4. Application of superphosphate, muriate of potash and trace elements.
Es-Min-El was used in our case. Our soil tests high in nitrogen.

5. Removal of all overstory trees and other interfering growth.

It may be noted that the importance of hygiene and sanitation cannot be
stressed too strongly.

Our own native chinkapin, ~Castanea pumila~ when brought up north proves
itself a delightful subject. Outside of the weevil-infested area, it
becomes a hardy producer of superb little chestnuts. This species offers
great promise to the plant breeder because of its very early bearing
(3-4 years from seed). Perhaps hybridization with ~Castanea mollissima~
varieties may bring something very fine and valuable. This species is
tender during its first year but perfectly hardy afterwards. Northern
growers require special techniques to grow chinkapins from seed.

The strains of Chinese chestnut, ~Castanea mollissima~ in most cases do
not seem extremely happy here. The trees appear to sustain varying
degrees of winter injury. The tips of the branches often freeze. Usually
the branch comes into leaf on the lower part first and then upwards.
However, a few individuals appear perfectly hardy. The outlook is
excellent for the discovery of exceptional individuals suitable for the
northern zones.

The Japanese chestnut, ~Castanea crenata~ shows very good adaptation to
this region. Although my trees of this species are young, very vigorous
growth indicates some value here. Unfortunately, the nuts have a bad
after-taste when eaten raw thus limiting its commercial possibilities. I
have noticed this undesirable characteristic in tasting hybrid nuts
derived from trees possessing ~Castanea crenata~ parentage. I was informed
at Beltsville that the hybrid known as S8, a cross between ~Castanea
pumila~ and ~C. crenata~, was rejected for its poor quality nuts.

I have established many other species of chestnuts and their hybrids.
Some of these are from seed obtained from the Bell experimental plot of
the U.S.D.A. at Glenn Dale, Maryland. Seed from this source has produced
a much better grade of seedlings than those from anywhere else.

A somewhat different version of the tin can planting method is now being
used here. Number two size and larger tin cans have a few punctures made
with a hammer and nail in the bottom. These have their tops removed, of
course, and after being filled with loose soil, are used as pots in
which to start chestnuts.

In the early spring germinating chestnuts are removed from jars, kept in
my refrigerator. One is planted in each can flat side down, barely
beneath the soil level.

After the season has warmed up these "canned plants" are set out in a
trench, buried to the rim. Rock wool is placed around the stems of the
seedlings covering the soil and the nut. This has acted as a rodent
deterrent.

The "canned plants" are then, at leisure, set out in their permanent
places. Just before doing this an ordinary beer can opener is used to
enlarge the punctures in the bottom of the can to permit the roots to
penetrate better. In a few years the can should disintegrate entirely
and at no time will interfere with root growth.

By holding the chestnuts under refrigeration and not planting in the
fall I have kept my plantings free of the chestnut weevils.

I found that by planting the flat side down, the stem seems to go down
very easily, and the sprout coming up from it seems to go up more
easily, also.


Discussion

MR. RICK: Are they planted permanently in the can?

MR. SZEGO: Yes, they are planted in the can. The can will disintegrate
in two or three years.

MR. RICK: Don't you have those in rows?

MR. SZEGO: No, I sometimes place them on the grass. The morning dew
seems to provide enough moisture to carry through the dry spells. But,
again, I live in a mountainous area. This may not apply out in Oklahoma.

MR. CHASE: Next on the program is a demonstration of his method of
propagating nut trees in pots in the greenhouse by Mr. Bernath, who has
been very successful with this method. Mr. Bernath.



Demonstration of Method of Propagating Nut Trees in Greenhouse

STEPHEN BERNATH, Poughkeepsie, N. Y.


Here is the way I handle the nut trees when we propagate under glass in
the greenhouse. These are two-year seedlings potted up. That root is cut
away and any large lateral roots that are too large to bend well we cut
them off, and we take all the fibrous roots we can and put them in this
pot. Put your soil around it first, and when you have it nearly full,
just the same as if you take your son and lay him on your knee and spank
the butt good and put the soil around the roots. Then pack it with your
thumb and your potting is done.

(Taking scion) I use only one bud. One bud is good as a dozen.
(Cutting-with pruning knife.)

MR. WEBER: How do you cut above the bud that you use above the graft?

MR. BERNATH: If the nodes are far enough apart I put it farther, but I
like to put it as short as I can but allow not less than half inch or an
inch or more on top, and you cut it away after the union has taken and
the growth started. Sometimes some of them may have a growth of two
inches before you take them out of the case. They are not uniform. Some
of them are way in advance of some of the others. Some of them are
tardy, slow.

This is my budding knife, here, which is about 40 years old.

MR. CHASE: The question is asked, this isn't the time of year that you
would do this, is it?

MR. BERNATH: No, sir. I start in January. You can continue into April.
You can take a batch out and put another batch in.

MR. RICK: How many weeks, usually, before you graft, after these are put
in the case?

MR. BERNATH: I would say that with most of your varieties it's from four
to six weeks, with the exception of ornamentals. That will take six to
eight, sometimes longer, but nut trees generally come on quickly. I have
known them to have two inches of growth, I think, in three weeks.
(Sharpening knife.)

A MEMBER: You are like the violinist. You have to tune up first.

MR. BERNATH: Yes, and never forget to wipe your knife. And remember not
to put your finger on the fresh cut. (Cutting). Here is the cut before I
insert the scion. In cutting your scion wood, now here is the butt. Cut
on the inside. When you cut on this side it throws the bud a little bit
far out because it's on an angle. You know about the depth of the cut
here, and you go like this: (Cutting).

A MEMBER: Do you come down to a pretty good point?

MR. BERNATH: (Holding up scion.)

A MEMBER: Is that a side graft you are making there?

MR. BERNATH: Yes. (Inserting scion in cut.) Now, on this one I am going
to use a rubber strip.

DR. MacDANIELS: Hold it up so we can see the whole thing as you have it
stuck in there. That is a side graft with the bud next to the stock.

MR. BERNATH: That's right.

MR. RICK: The scion was cut on both sides, was it, or one side?

MR, BERNATH: Yes, on both sides.

MR. WEBER: Wedge shape.

MR. KINTZEL: An inch below the bud.

MR. BERNATH: (Wrapping graft) Here is where your thumb comes into play.
As you put this on, start right here (stretching rubber). See how far
that can stretch? You cross it and you can take your finger off. Now
release it. Have your finger on it. Put this finger right here. All
right, you see you get under, pull right up there. There it is, the
graft is done.

MR. EMERSON: You don't use any wax?

MR. BERNATH: No wax whatsoever. Never use any.

MR. CORSAN: Or any latex?

MR. BERNATH: No, nothing at all.

MR. RICK: How do you slope this?

MR. BERNATH: I have a little, miniature box here, and that would
represent a bench in the greenhouse. (Demonstrating).

Here is another one (taking another scion).

MR. CORSAN: That's used by dentists and plastic surgeons.

MR. BERNATH: Now watch the difference. If the scion wood happened to be
smaller than your stock, you cut accordingly. In other words, you are
not going in as far. See (showing). Or else you can cross it. Now, just
a minute, we will get that (making cut in stock; slicing scion off
diagonally). You don't go up as high on this side. Now, then, you take
it, if you are a pretty good hand with a knife. That's all right, even
if it's not shaped at all. There it is (inserting in cut). But one
thing--I want to warn you, if you want to follow this, be careful not to
rub the bud off in handling it. If you do, you might as well throw it
away, because you are licked.

MR. WEBER: That is one reason for having the bud face the stock?

MR. BERNATH: No, but makes a better growth.

Persian walnut, I find, unless it's way far down on the trunk of a tree,
will not form adventitious buds. Now, you can do it with a chestnut. You
can rub the main bud off and you will find two or three of them coming,
or more, right around that place. But one of these walnuts will not form
an adventitious bud, so you might as well throw it away, or if you knock
off even the new growth on it, you might as well dump it, because it
will not form a tree.

Now here is a tape that I use.

MR. KINTZEL: Rubber tape?

MR. BERNATH: No, no, cloth.

MR. STOKE: That's about the same as surgical tape?

MR. BERNATH: Made especially for grafting, Mr. Stoke.

Now, you have to watch it closely because this is a tricky thing.

MR. CORSAN: This is not called Scotch Tape?

MR. BERNATH: No, this is made especially for grafting. You can get this
from some of the boys.

MR. WEBER: A. M. Leonard and Son, Piqua, Ohio.

MR. RICK: That will require more attention than the rubber. The rubber
takes care of itself, where this one you have to take off.

MR. WEBER: No, this decays.

MR. BERNATH: You start right here on the stock. Now you make sure that
the scion--

MR. WEBER: You start at the top?

MR. BERNATH: The top, always on the top.

MR. WEBER: And that has a tendency to keep the scion worked down,
whereas if you started at the bottom you might push it up.

MR. BERNATH: You have quite a pressure right around there--watch it,
because it will tear, and if it tears with you, why, it's so hard to get
straightened out--and then press together.

MR. WEBER: And you don't wax either the top, or anything?

MR. BERNATH: No. Now, the reason for leaving this under stock that long:
if you are not careful, fungus growth will set in. If you cut right
here, then the whole thing is affected with it, see. Wrap it firmly and
that is there on both sides, and when the union forms and the growth
begins here, when you take them out of the case, for instance, now, you
take a sharp pair of shears and cut as close as you can. (Removes top of
understock.) Never mind if you cut the cloth, it doesn't make any
difference. Just cut it right there. Snip it right off. But that is when
you take them out of the grafting case.

A MEMBER: Wouldn't it also be all right to leave that stub on to tie
your sprout to so it won't want to break?

MR. BERNATH: No, you might be better off if you had a stake. Put a stake
on the side of it. When everything is right that surface will callus
over right quickly. It may not seem so. It does make a perfect union
unlike a graft of some other types.

MR. WEBER: When you make that cut of the excess understock, you don't
even wax?

MR. BERNATH: No. You can if you want to, but I don't wax. Just leave it
like that.

Now the next operation. Here is this miniature greenhouse. It's moist
peat. That's just about the right substance. Would anybody like to look
at this? Don't get it too wet. Just walk right up here.

MR. WEBER: It feels as if it's ground up.

MR. BERNATH: It is.

MR. CORSAN: Mr. Bernath, would that be the right stuff to put sweet
chestnuts in in the fall?

MR. BERNATH: You mean for sprouting?

MR. CORSAN: Yes.

MR. BERNATH: That would be all right.

MR. CORSAN: That's not too damp?

MR. BERNATH: No.

MR. CORSAN: I have put it in that and had the greatest success.

MR. CHASE: Now, folks, let's everybody sit down, and please keep quiet
and try to absorb what's going on here. We can't have 10 or 15
individual conversations going on.

MR. BERNATH: Now here we have two pots grafted. Now, of course, the
bench in the greenhouse is wider and longer. Here is what you do. You
start the first row, just move the peat back like that, and you lay them
in like that, one after the other, the pots on the side.

MR. WEBER: With the bud side up?

MR. BERNATH: That's right. Now, you go right along. When you come to the
next row, here is what you do (piling up peat) like that. If you want to
cover the scion, all right; if you don't, perfectly all right. You can
put electric heating coils under it.

MR. RICK: Is there any advantage in sloping the top? Would it matter if
it was flat?

MR. BERNATH: No, no, doesn't matter. This just happened to be an old
melon box. I had started melons early in the spring.

Now, while the grafts are in the process of forming the unions, that is,
when the cambium begins to form, you do not water until you take these
out of the case. Add no more water, but make sure your pots are moist
enough. For instance, in this one, there is plenty of moisture for the
period of incubation.

MR. KINTZEL: How long? Couple of weeks?

MR. BERNATH: No. Sometimes they start to grow in three weeks, but
generally four weeks, maybe a little over. Sometimes less; depends on
everything.

MR. SHERMAN: What temperature in the greenhouse?

MR. BERNATH: Well, if you note in the springtime when the trees are
beginning to grow, you know the night temperature goes down, while
daytime may go up to 75, 80 in the spring. All right, you follow nature,
and you'll never go wrong.

Now, the temperature, at night, if it does go down around the fifties,
or even less, doesn't do any harm. That's the house temperature. But
under the benches where you have your heat coils, that's of course, at
least 60, maybe a little better, and, of course, in daytime it
may--well, it's all right if it goes up to 70, 75. Then, of course, you
have to ventilate through the house, and as a matter of fact, under the
benches. Take a lot of bags and nail them along the walk to keep the
heat under the benches. That gives you the bottom heat.

Now, as I understand, some of our members have tried this method, but
they applied too much heat. They burned them. If they didn't burn them,
fungus growth set in, because there's high humidity in that box. You
will see the moisture condensation on the glass. Drops of water
accumulate, and that's a thing you will have to guard against. So every
morning give it at first about a 5-minute period when you take a dry
cloth and wipe the surface moisture off the glass, the under side, to
prevent the water from dripping on the unions here, to keep it dry. Then
as you go along you can increase that period, but not over 15 minutes,
until around the fourth week, you can generally put a stick under the
glass to give more ventilation. When you see that the union is formed
and everything is all right, take the glass off, take your grafts out
and stand them up straight, and from there on you can water them, but
not before.

And then you cut these stocks off right there as close as you can get
it, sort of an upward movement, like that (demonstrating with knife).

MR. WEBER: It doesn't make any difference if you cut the rubber band
that's on it or not?

MR. BERNATH: No, not too much, if it's callused up good, if the union is
hard enough. And then, of course, you put the glass on, and then you
keep these grafts in the greenhouse. But don't forget now, something
that is important, when you graft these. Here we have a greenhouse over
us. This little box represents the batch of grafts. Don't forget you
have to shade them. If you didn't shade these, they would burn to a
crisp. I have lost several hundred blue spruce grafts by going away on a
day when it was cloudy and I forgot to tell Mrs. Bernath, "If the sun
comes out, raise the sash." When I came home, this part of the
greenhouse was shaded; now, in this corner here I think it was around
250 beautiful grafts but the next day I was going to take them out. They
were burnt to a crisp. I saved a few trees right where it was shady.

MR. CALDWELL: The blue spruce are grafted by the same method?

MR. BERNATH: Yes, I use this method for inside grafting for everything.

MR. CALDWELL: Use this method for shagbarks the same way?

MR. BERNATH: Yes, same way with hickories and oaks.

MR. WEBER: What sort of shading element do you use? Anything real tight,
or how?

MR. BERNATH: Yes, air tight. The grafting case has got to be air tight.

MR. WEBER: The shade?

MR. BERNATH: Oh, any kind of cloth, cheesecloth, muslin. I know that
will do it.

MR. CHASE: Whitewash?

MR. BERNATH: That's all right, too. If you use whitewash, I would
recommend using white lead with gasoline and just spray it on. That will
help a lot, but I generally use a cloth for shade.

MR. O'ROURKE: Why do you place the scions so that the bud is on the
inside?

MR. BERNATH: It makes a straighter tree. The other way it's inclined to
grow out this way (indicating). It grows toward the stock, makes a
straighter tree.

MR. STOKE: I think there is one more advantage there. On the edge next
to the stock you get a better contact than you do on that lip on the
outside, and it leads more directly into the bud.

DR. CRANE: Less danger, too, that that bud will rub off.

MR. BERNATH: Keep them shaded, but only 50 per cent shade. And then in
about two weeks you take the shade off, let the sun shine on it. It
doesn't hurt--over the glass. And then you take these pots when danger
of frost is over, plant them out, in nursery rows, or, if you want to
put them in permanent places, it's perfectly all right. Take this, put
your finger under like that (demonstrating), give her a tap, and the
ball comes out of the pot in your hand. And if it's permanent, plant it
down to here; cover the union.

MR. WEBER: And the scion eventually forms its own root?

MR. BERNATH: It will. You will find that pot will be filled up with
fibrous root.

MR. SZEGO: When do you take the tape off?

MR. BERNATH: Don't take it off at all. It will decay.

MR. MILLER: But the same graft can't be used outside without grafting
wax, can it?

MR. BERNATH: Yes, you have to wax outside. That's right, you have to use
wax. Otherwise the grafting method is the same for top-working.

MR. MILLER: Because in there you have it air tight. Outside you have to
wax.

MR. BERNATH: You can't do it without wax, not outside. But budding you
can do without wax outside.

This is a whole plant right here. That's a whole plant root, and this is
right in this four-inch pot. That tap root is cut away and all the
lateral roots, finer roots, put right in there and put in soil like any
transplanted plant.

DR. ROHBACHER: When do you put that stock in the house?

MR. BERNATH: If you want to start work in January, towards the end of
December after the understock has had the rest period. You can store
them, unless you are in a place where you don't get much frost in your
ground.

DR. ROHBACHER: You have to dig those up in the fall?

MR. BERNATH: You have to dig these up about three weeks before you want
to graft. There is another point I should have been wide awake enough to
tell you in the beginning: when you put these in the bench put them in
peat moss like that, because otherwise it would be next to impossible to
keep those plants moist enough.

MR. WEBER: That's standing upright.

MR. BERNATH: Upright until you graft. That's only the understock. Watch
them closely, say about two weeks, and you may test it. In other words,
knock these out and examine the root system. When you see those little
white rootlets beginning to grow like thin macaroni, white, most of
them, that's a sign that you had better get busy grafting.

MR. WEBER: But not until you see the edges of those roots poking
through.

MR. RICK: And the stock isn't in the case until you are ready to graft?

MR. BERNATH: They are in the benches, but not in the case. No outside
cover except just the glass of the house.

That's about all there is to it. It isn't much.

MR. RICK: It's been a wonderful demonstration.

MR. SZEGO: When do you cut your scion wood?

MR. BERNATH: Oh, I get scion wood from December on, late December,
January and February.

MR. RICK: It would be all right just to go out to the tree and cut your
scions and bring them in and the next day graft?

MR. BERNATH: Yes. Well, no. I like to store them a little bit, for the
reason that the starches will form. It's amazing how wood will act after
you cut it, provided it doesn't dry out. All those cells, you know, in
that they form what we call a certain type of starch. You can do it all
right with apple trees and pear trees. You can put it right on the tree
right from the tree, but I wouldn't advise it on the nut trees.

MR. RICK: Do you keep your scions cool until you are ready to use them?

A MEMBER: My way of keeping it is in fresh sawdust. That's the best
means.

MR. WEBER: Do you dampen it any?

MR. BERNATH: Yes. And I have nothing but an earth cellar where I store
my scion wood, and they keep well until June.

MR. RICK: To prevent fungus would it be a good idea to dip them in a
weak solution of Bordeaux?

MR. BERNATH: I never tried it. I couldn't say. That's one reason why
sometimes some of our members here wonder why I write and say, "Please
do not wax." I do not want a waxed scion. As far as I am concerned, I
would throw them right out. I wouldn't bother to graft them.

MR. CORSAN: You just put them in damp sawdust?

MR. BERNATH: Yes, put them in damp peat or even damp newspaper, wrap it
and ship it.

(Newspaper is very good for this purpose.--J. C. McD.)

MR. CORSAN: And no waxing.

MR. BERNATH: No.

MR. STOKE: I agree with you. I got some scions that were waxed, and the
scion was beautifully green and every bud was dead.

MR. BERNATH: That's it again. The reason for that is that you have to
heat the wax to make it thin enough, and the reaction of the heat is bad
for the scion wood.

MR. STOKE: I don't believe it's that alone. I believe a bud can't go
without air for a great length of time. It is a living organism and
needs the air. Those scions had come from Europe, and every one was
dead.

MR. BERNATH: Mr. Silvis will tell you how he keeps his scions good.

MR. SILVIS: Through Goodrich Chemical Company I was interested in what
Dr. Shelton, another Ohio member who is a chemist, had available, an
emulsion called "Goodrite Latex VL-600." That's the agricultural and
horticultural designation for its use. Otherwise, industrially it's
known as Geon 31 XX, and some other names.

MR. CORSAN: That is the latex that congeals quickly?

MR. SILVIS: Yes. It's water soluble and makes a very stiff; impervious
water barrier on everything it becomes attached to. Therefore, if you
dipped the entire scion--usually I go out and cut scion wood and maybe
even as late as the next day dip it in the latex. Then after it's dried
for five minutes, I can take and throw it in the garage and leave it
there until June, July and August, and I can take it to the
refrigerator, the same thing. I think the refrigerator is the best
place.

MR. SHERMAN: You know last March, at the Ohio meeting there was some
wood dipped there, and the latter part of May I came through and picked
up a piece and brought it in to Harrisburg in the back of my car in the
window where it was cooked in transportation, and it made two inches of
growth in the Harrisburg office just lying on my desk.

MR. SILVIS: I have seen it happen, and it doesn't restrict the growth. I
have had it on filberts, Persian walnut, and hickory. Then when I cut my
stock by using a simple splice graft, in grafting it I use a rubber
band, same rubber band they used here, tie it and just forget about it.
You don't need the additional shading, and you don't need additional
waxing.

DR. MacDANIELS: Can you use that material as a wax? Do you put on
additional wax?

MR. SILVIS: It isn't necessary in a splice graft, because you have got a
good union.

DR. MacDANIELS: Suppose you haven't got a good union?

MR. SILVIS: I wouldn't use it anyway, because you are covering the cut
portion pretty well anyhow.

MR. RICK: Is this outside or inside?

MR. SILVIS: I would say outside. You dip the wax at 70 degrees
temperature. Any colder than that would allow it to congeal. It's thick.
I am not sure about this, but I think you can dilute it with about eight
parts water, if you wish, six or eight parts water to one part latex. It
still will make a complete coverage.

That's for scion storage, and it does eliminate making boxes in some
places where they have storage problems. It eliminates the storage
problem and eliminates waxing immediately after grafting.

MR. WEBER: Your method completely shuts off the air from the bud the
same as waxing would do.

MR. SILVIS: And any water going in.

MR. STOKE: I was wondering how long you kept it. You said it was soluble
in water. You mean before it sets up?

MR. SILVIS: Before it sets up.

MR. LOWERRE: That's if it's a suspension. It is some time before the
water sets up.

MR. STOKE: Retaining moisture and yet being soluble, and that's the
thing I wanted to clarify.

MR. SILVIS: If you leave it out, it is a dispersal, let's call it, but
it appears like shellac after it is dry.

(Editor's Note: See fuller discussion in 1949 Report, pp. 30-37.)

MR. CHASE: I think we all owe Mr. Bernath a vote of thanks for showing
us this. (Applause.) We will visit his place tomorrow, and if you have
additional questions, I am sure he will be glad to answer them for you.
He has left the grafting case over here for anyone to see.

MR. SHERMAN: In case of heavy rain tomorrow, what are the plans?

MR. SALZER: Wear rubbers.

MR. CHASE: We are not going to have any rain tomorrow.

(He was right.--Ed.)

We have a short paper here that I have asked Dr. Anthony to summarize
for us, "Experiences in Nut Growing Near Lake Erie," by Ross P. Wright,
Erie, Pennsylvania.

DR. ANTHONY: Mr. Wright is a very interesting man and has a very
interesting plantation. He is a manufacturer and fortunately has a son
who is mature and married and as interested in the work as he, so there
is a continuity that we are pretty sure of.



Experiences in Nut Growing Near Lake Erie

ROSS PIER WRIGHT, Erie, Pennsylvania


This report should be made by my son Richard Wright. He is in charge of
the farm but is on a trip to Europe with his family and will not return
in time for your meeting.

The farm is located in the Chautauqua Grape Belt; due to the proximity
of Lake Erie, which acts as a heat reservoir, it is not as a rule
bothered by the late frosts in the Spring or early frosts in the Fall,
this making it a very satisfactory climate for Concord grapes. Peaches
are also grown commercially.

The village of Westfield is located on the main road between Erie and
Buffalo, and the Wright family has lived there for the past 136 years.
We have several hundred acres and really started the endeavor more with
the idea of seeing if nuts might be profitably grown, without any idea
of going into the nut business.

In 1915, 35 years ago, we planted a three acre plot with several
varieties of nut trees obtained from nurseries. They were black walnuts,
hickories, hazel nuts, pecans, English walnuts, and Japanese heartnuts.

The black walnuts are native of Westfield and the trees we planted have
done well. The only hickories that survived were two Siers hickories. We
did not think much of them until recently as they did not fill out any
too well, but the last three or four years they have for some reason
decided to fill better. Due to the extremely thin shell they are very
easily cracked and at the moment we think quite highly of these Siers
hickories.

We have a nut cracker made by the Dazey Corporation of St. Louis,
Missouri, which costs $5.00 or $6.00. It is very effective with the
Siers but does not crack thick shelled hickories very well. On the other
hand it is ideal for pecans and English walnuts.

The filberts in this field are not very satisfactory, with the exception
of the Winkler hazel. These usually bear very well. The trouble with the
filberts is that the catkins are quite prone to winter kill but the
Winkler hazel seems to be more hardy. There again we think more of them
since we have used the Dazey Nut Cracker. The Winkler nuts are rather
small and have quite a hard shell and if a hammer is used it is quite
likely to crush the kernel.

The English walnuts we planted at that time were not of a hardy type and
were prone to winterkill. There are really only two stunted trees left.

The pecans do not winterkill but the nuts do not fill.

The Japanese heartnuts we planted were successful. One of them we
consider very satisfactory and is worthy of propagation. We call it the
Lobular heartnut.

In the Spring of 1923, 27 years ago, we obtained a half bushel of
heartnuts from our representative in Japan and planted them. Three years
later we interplanted some of the trees in a four acre field in which we
were planting as permanent trees some Snyder and Thomas black walnuts.
Reporting on that field as it is today we will say that these walnuts
and heartnuts, up to five years ago, bore very well indeed and the nuts
filled properly, but the last few years the nuts have not filled
properly although they have received nitrate of soda. We are somewhat in
a quandry as to the reason for it.

Adjoining the field is a black walnut tree, probably 150 years old,
which always bore nuts and they have always filled up to the last few
years. In this field where the majority of the seedling heartnuts have
been planted there was the usual interesting difference in the nuts.
Some were of the true heartnut variety, some had the rough shaggy shell
and shape of a butternut and others were round and looked like English
walnuts. Some of the heartnut trees have developed a disease called
witches'-broom or bunch disease. There does not, to date, seem to be any
cure for it. We used some heavy applications of zinc sulphate and
thought the trouble had improved but the improvement seems to have been
only temporary.

In this field also are the trees which Clarence Reed designated as the
Wright heartnut and the Westfield heartnut.

In 1933 to 1935, 15 to 17 years ago, we grafted about 35 hickories with
various varieties. They were grafted in a grove of hickories which were
on our farm and which were perhaps eight inches in diameter. This
endeavor did not prove to be much of a success. Some of the grafts died
after a year or two and the others which have continued to live do not
appear to bear to any extent. We would have to mark that particular
endeavor down as very close to a failure.

Perhaps if we had given the grafting endeavor more attention we might
have had different results but we are in the manufacturing business in
Erie, Pennsylvania, and really look upon the Westfield, New York, farm
as a type of relaxation. In those years 1933 to 1935 industry was
experiencing a major distress and I am afraid most of our attention was
given to our factory rather than our farm. In fact, that situation
applies very largely to all of our nut endeavors. There is an old Scotch
saying "The eye of the master fattens the kine," and during the last 15
or 20 years when we in industry have experienced a tremendous depression
followed by a war it has meant that those interested have had to watch
their manufacturing plants to the detriment of their other interests
regardless of how much they regretted it.

In 1934, 16 years ago, we became interested in chestnuts as a possible
commercial crop. We purchased a quantity from J. Russell Smith,
interplanting them in a vineyard we expected to pull out as it was
getting too old. Two years later, through the cooperation of Clarence
Reed, Dr. Gravatt, also others at Beltsville, Maryland, we got some
2,000 seedlings of various types, some being hybrids. As some of these
bore we planted what we thought were the best nuts in a nursery and at
present have about 3000 chestnut trees ranging from three years old up
to 16 years. There is some blight occasionally showing which appears to
be on the hybrids. About 35 acres of the chestnuts were interplanted in
vineyards which we were planning to pull out. During the war, however,
the price of grapes was quite high and we left the grapes, pulling the
last of them out this Spring. Due to cultivation of the grapes an
appreciable number of the nut trees were cut out accidentally, and have
later been filled in with seedlings, with the result that the orchard
has a rather peculiar appearance. The mature trees, this year, have been
doing, we think, very well, and a great majority of them are bearing
from a light crop to a rather heavy crop.

Up to date we have had no trouble with worm in our chestnuts. In fact we
have not found a single wormy chestnut. This interests us appreciably,
as when the old American chestnuts were common on our farm it would seem
as if hardly a chestnut escaped a worm hole if you kept them long
enough. If you ate the chestnuts immediately it wasn't so bad--the worms
were probably too small to be observed.

We understand that in some sections Chinese chestnuts are attacked by
worms but I repeat we haven't had one to date.

Our chestnuts are planted largely in Volusia clay loam on fields where
chestnuts formerly flourished. This soil is not fertile, as soils go,
and the trees will probably not grow as large nor will they grow as fast
as if planted in a more fertile soil. At first we used a spacing of 36
feet but we now use 24 feet, which we think will be satisfactory for our
farm.

Since the chestnuts have come into bearing and the project has become to
some extent a commercial one, we are more interested in doing what we
can for the trees. We are convinced that the mulching process is to be
recommended. There is some sawdust to be obtained in this section and as
far as it goes we have covered the ground under the branches of the
trees with a mulch of sawdust about five or six inches deep. We will not
know how successful that is for a few years.

We have planted the fields with a cover crop of rye grass and orchard
grass, and this month are cutting it and throwing it under the trees.
We have some adjoining fields which were in hay but which had rather run
out. We are cutting these likewise and throwing the hay under the trees.
We believe if we keep this practice up for a few years we will have a
reasonable mulch under the trees. We have become interested in Reed
canary grass. We have had a few sample patches of it and are going to
plant a couple of outside fields with it to be used for mulch. It grows
stronger than any other northern grass with which we are conversant, and
therefore would produce more mulch. We are also giving the land two
rather heavy applications of mixed fertilizer each year.

We think the chief thing we have learned about chestnuts is that the
first few years the trees should be cultivated, fertilized, watered, and
mulched. You cannot handle them the way you could, for instance,
Christmas trees by simply sticking them in a field of grass. The first
year they should be watered every ten days if they require it, and
watered the second year if there is a real drought.

In closing we would say that as far as our immediate section is
concerned, it is our guess that chestnuts are the only nuts which might
appear to have commercial possibilities. Of course, at present, the nuts
sell at quite a high price and I fear beyond their value. What will
happen when the numerous orchards which have been planted in the last
few years come into bearing is any man's guess.

We do not believe that the black walnuts would ever prove a commercial
success here, although they normally do well. Of course the trouble is
the competition of the wild nuts from other sections. On the other hand,
if some one had the time to give to working up a market for the improved
black walnuts, he might get some profit out of it.

If I were younger, I might want to try growing a number of Winkler hazel
nuts. I think hazel nuts covered with chocolate make a very attractive
candy, and here, in this section, the Winkler seems to be immune to
blight and other troubles. This year, for the first time in our
recollection, the frost got them and the crop is very light.

I do not know just what to say about the heartnuts. They might not have
enough flavor to suit some people, but when eaten with salt I think they
are delicious. They are very free cracking. We have one, the Lobular,
which as soon as they are cracked can be shaken out of the shell. I am
disturbed however over the bunch disease to which some of them are
subject.

Please note that our remarks in regard to the commercial possibilities
of these various nuts has reference to our farm at Westfield and to no
other place.

I regret I am not going to be at your meeting to endeavor to answer any
question which might be asked.


Discussion of Mulches

DR. ANTHONY: Mr. Sherman and I were there a few years ago, and he has
very definitely given up the heartnut and black walnut. Many trees in
this area are affected with this bunch disease, which caused failure to
set, and he has very definitely decided that he is out of those two
nuts.

MR. FRYE: That sawdust, how old must it be, and how green have you used?

DR. ANTHONY: We have used sawdust in our fruit tree work. There is a
period when I don't like it. When it's raw and going down, it uses a
good deal of nitrogen. Also, if it gets dry, it will blow. Also when it
gets dry it will run off with the water, and I would like to use it
pretty well rotted down when I get it, and usually you can find old
rotted piles. If you do use it on trees where nitrogen is a factor, you
probably will have to use additional nitrogen.

Now, with the chestnut where you want to mature them fairly early in the
fall, it might work all right, because it will withhold the nitrogen in
the breakdown of your sawdust. But apparently, it works pretty well. I
think it was Mr. Sam Hemming who suggested using it in the rows. Most of
our State Forests and Waters nurseries in their seedling beds, plant
their seedlings, including chestnuts, make a mixture of sawdust and
sand, about one of sawdust and two of sand, and then broadcast that
right over their seeds. The seeds are broadcast on the firm soil, then
this mixture of sawdust and sand is broadcast over the seeds. That gives
a uniform planting of your seeds and gives a very nice protection. There
is one place that I think sawdust works very nicely.

Straw mulch, any material of that kind, in breaking down takes nitrogen
from the soil. They are all good if you balance that loss of nitrogen
that is lost during the period of breakdown. Now, there comes a time, if
you put a mulch on the soil and let it stay there for six or eight years
and keep building it up, when you pass imperceptibly from straw into
soil, and when you reach that time, your breakdown of your straw is
usually done without taking nitrogen from your soil itself, and from
that time on you may release nitrogen. But until you get that
imperceptible transformation from straw to soil, there is a time when
the breakdown of the straw uses your nitrogen, which is all right, if
it's late in the season, but not early. I'd want to watch my trees and
get my nitrogen on early, then let the straw use it later on.

A MEMBER: The migration of nitrogen--is there some such migration, and
is it just in the case of the sawdust?

DR. ANTHONY: You put it right on top, it's much worse. You can put it
right on top and it will take a year or two to pass through that period
where the utilization in the breaking down of the straw is greater than
the release of nitrogen. If it's mixed in the soil, the tree gets more
of it.

MR. STOKE: How deep is that effect on the soil?

DR. ANTHONY: We have used straw, hay, weeds, sawdust, chips, anything of
the kind, putting on a 5 to 6-inch layer. As I say, it takes from one to
three years to get through that period.

Now, Massachusetts has the longest continuous use--all of New England
has--of mulch, and they are reaching a point now where some of the
mulches are ten years old where the release of nitrogen is too much and
they get poor color on McIntosh. I think with the Chinese chestnut this
is one thing we have got to watch to get good maturity. Going farther
and farther south, you have more trouble. As you go to the north, our
trees color more easily, and there you wouldn't want to force them, as
our New England people find. They are releasing too much nitrogen late
in the season. So I would not want to use long, continued mulch in the
chestnut, I'd watch my maturity, and the minute they get a little slow
in maturing, I'd quit.

MR. BERST: How about corn cobs?

MR. JAY SMITH: How about anything in the street, leaves?

DR. ANTHONY: Anything like that, whether it's oak or maple. One goes
down as quickly as the other.

MR. CORSAN: On the way down here I called in to see Rodale, and we found
him in a mass of brewer's hops and ground up corn cobs. He had them in
the chicken house, and you know how a chicken house smells. He had no
smell in the chicken house. We looked all through his place, and we saw
another big pile of furs, mink, and such trimming off of them, a big
pile about that high (indicating), and that will go down. He had
everything under the sun in the way of mulch, but corn cobs ground up
fine was the chief one in sight.

Personally, I like to grow the mulch on the land right there. We can
grow it--up to 10 ton of green mulch to the acre. I have done it many,
many times. You have something there that goes down quickly. The very
growing of that through the latter part of the summer also uses the
nitrogen and hardens up your trees. Then we turn it down and within two
to three weeks we have it reseeded, and so we are growing a constant
supply in the soil-itself. You get the same effect as hauling in your
mulch. It's cheaper, usually, and you get, I think, a little bit better
control. Your mulches are not dry, they are turned under when--well,
it's crimson clover in the red, right in the blossom. They go down very
quickly. We leave as much as possible on the surface. I think it's a
little cheaper and a little more satisfactory control. I put them on
quite green. I find they rot much quicker.

MR. CHASE: I will now turn the gavel back to Dr. MacDaniels, who will
take over.

DR. MacDANIELS: Thank you, very much, Mr. Chase.

Perhaps we had better take a 10-minute recess.

(Whereupon, a short recess was taken.)


Nominating Committee Elected

DR. MacDANIELS: We will proceed with the election of a nominating
committee. That committee is elected. It is a committee of three, and
the nominations come from the floor. The present nominating committee is
Mr. Stoke, Mr. Sylvester Shessler, and Mr. Sterling Smith. Now, I guess
it is a good plan to change the nominating committee, and I think we
ought to have regional representation. I think that is important. Does
anybody have a nomination? Say we start in the Middle West.

A MEMBER: Mr. Silvis.

DR. MacDANIELS: He will take it. That's middle. Another nomination from
the farther west.

MR. CHASE: Mr. Chairman, I nominate Dr. Crane.

DR. MacDANIELS: That would be South Atlantic.

MR. WEBER: I nominate Mr. Chase.

DR. MacDANIELS: Do you wish to nominate more than three and have a
ballot?

MR. FRYE: I move nominations be closed.

DR. MacDANIELS: Nominations closed. Do you move to have the secretary
cast a unanimous ballot?

DR. McKAY: So move, Mr. Chairman.

MR. WEBER: Proceed with the election.

DR. MacDANIELS: The motion is that nominations be closed and the
secretary be instructed to cast a ballot for the slate as nominated. Any
further discussion? If not, all in favor say "aye."

(A vote was taken on the motion, and it was carried unanimously.)

DR. MacDANIELS: Carried.


Resolutions

DR. MacDANIELS: Is the Resolutions Committee here? Mr. Allaman, I
believe you are president of the Pennsylvania group, are you not?

MR. ALLAMAN: Yes.

"In the passing of Clarence A. Reed, who was a nut culturist of the
United States Department of Agriculture, we not only lost a friend in
the experimental field, but also a dear personal friend. Mr. Reed was
keenly interested in all phases of nut culture, devoting practically his
entire life to this work. We are more deeply indebted to him than can be
expressed. Paraphrasing what Lincoln said of the dead soldiers at
Gettysburg, it remains for us to continue the effort and build upon the
foundation to which he so largely contributed.

"Therefore, be it resolved that the secretary of this Association spread
upon the record this resolution and send a copy to Mrs. Reed."

DR. MacDANIELS: You have heard this resolution. I think it would be
appropriate we move to accept and adopt this by a rising vote.

(Whereupon, a rising vote was taken.)

DR. MacDANIELS: There are two other resolutions Mr. Allaman will read.

MR. ALLAMAN: "The Northern Nut Growers Association in its forty-first
meeting expresses its appreciation for the fine accomodations for its
meeting place supplied by Post No. 739 of the American Legion. The
Association also desires to compliment the Post on its foresight in
providing this community with such a satisfactory meeting place.

"May it therefore be resolved that the secretary spread this upon the
minutes and send a copy to the Legion."

Another resolution: "We, the members of the Northern Nut Growers
Association, express our keen appreciation of the very efficient
services of Mrs. Stephen Bernath and Gilbert L. Smith and others for
their splendid accommodations at this convention."

DR. MacDANIELS: These two resolutions, do you wish to accept them or
adopt them together?

DR. CRANE: Move that they be adopted as a whole.

DR. MacDANIELS: Moved that they be adopted together. Any discussion? If
not, all in favor say "aye."

(Whereupon, a vote was taken on the motion, and it was carried
unanimously.)

DR. MacDANIELS: Passed without dissent.

Are there other resolutions anyone has from the floor?

(No response.)


Report of Auditing Committee

DR. MacDANIELS: The auditing committee's report.

MR. WEBER: I have it. "We have found from our examination of the
treasurer's records that his accounts are in proper balance and that the
statement of his bank account, issued by his bank as of August 11, 1950,
shows he had on deposit in the Erie County United Bank of Vermilion,
Ohio, the sum of $2280.37. We feel our treasurer, Mr. Sterling A. Smith,
has faithfully discharged his duties during the current year and
recommend his continuance in that office, nomination for which has
already, of course, taken place. Royal Oakes, Chairman, Auditing
Committee." (Applause.)

DR. MacDANIELS: It all sounds very legal. I think it's all right. I take
it that applause indicates the acceptance of the report. Unless I hear
dissent, we will take that to be so.

DR. CRANE: Move the report of the Auditing Committee be accepted.

DR. MacDANIELS: O.K., we will make it legal. Who will second the motion?

MR. STOKE: Second.

DR. MacDANIELS: Moved and seconded that the Auditing Committee report be
accepted.

(A vote was taken on the motion, and it was carried unanimously.)


Election of 1950-51 Officers

DR. MacDANIELS: Next will be the election of officers, and we will ask
the chairman of the Nominating Committee to give his report. Inasmuch as
I am apparently concerned, I will hand the gavel to Mr. Chase for the
election.

MR. CHASE: We'd like to hear the report from the chairman of the
Nominating Committee, Mr. Stoke.

MR. STOKE: Most of you no doubt heard the report of the Nominating
Committee at our first session, but we nominated Dr. William Rohrbacher
of Iowa City, Iowa, for president, and for vice-president our perennial
candidate here, who has disappeared from the scene, renominating Dr. L.
H. MacDaniels. We hope to make him president next time. If he doesn't
make it next time, I think we will have to throw him out. And for the
secretary, our friend, Joe McDaniel. They are not relatives. And the
treasurer, repeating officer, Sterling Smith. The secretaryship and
treasurership shouldn't change any more often than necessary.

MR. STERLING SMITH: I object.

Before you move on that, I'd like to say that it isn't really legal, I
think, that I should have been on the nominating committee, and being
one of the officers, it would be very well taken on my part if there
were any nominations from the floor.

MR. CHASE: We are coming to that.

Any objections that we have nominations from the floor? Are there any
nominations for president?

MR. WELLMAN: Move nominations be closed.

MR. CHASE: Are there any other nominations for vice-president? (No
response.) I am sure we must have one for the treasurer. (No response.)
Do we have any for secretary?

MR. CORSAN: Why not have the former Miss Jones president again?

MR. STOKE: She becomes a member of the Board of Directors, and I think
it would be out of order to elect her to another office.

MR. CORSAN: I withdraw it.

MR. CHASE: Now I will entertain your motion, Mr. Wellman.

MR. WELLMAN: I move it.

MR. CHASE: It has been moved that the slate by the nominating committee
be accepted.

DR. CRANE: Second.

(Whereupon, a vote was taken on the motion, and it was carried
unanimously.)

MR. CHASE: Dr. MacDaniels, you may come in now.

DR. CRANE: We moved that nominations be closed. We haven't accepted
them.

MR. STOKE: When you are through, I have a resolution to offer.

DR. CRANE: Move that the report of the nominating committee be accepted
and we proceed with the election by voice vote. All in favor of having
the secretary cast a ballot for the slate nominated by our nominating
committee please signify by saying "aye."

(A vote was taken on the motion, and it was carried unanimously.)

MR. STOKE: I would like to make a motion that we elect a
parliamentarian, and I wish to nominate Dr. Crane.

MR. STERLING SMITH: Second the motion.

(A vote was taken on the motion, and it was carried unanimously.)

MR. FRYE: We elected a parliamentarian last year. I wonder how it's
coming on.

DR. CRANE: I have a report on it.

MR. WEBER: Mr. John Davidson, Xenia, Ohio.

MR. McDANIEL: He was parliamentarian before we made him our president.

MR. WEBER: That's passed on to Dr. Crane.

MR. CHASE: Now, Dr. MacDaniels, you may come in.

DR. MacDANIELS: Hope it's legal.

Is there any further business? Do you think of any, Mr. Weber?

MR. WEBER: Hold it open until after the banquet. Then if we think of
something that we have left out, we haven't adjourned.

DR. MacDANIELS: I will adjourn this particular session and give the
gavel to our new president.

MR. WEBER: We adjourn until this evening at the banquet.

DR. ANTHONY: Before you bang it down, may I make one announcement? I
thought you would be interested in an action that the Pennsylvania Nut
Growers have taken. Mr. Allaman, it is O.K. to report that committee
appointment?

DR. MacDANIELS: The question is raised as to the time of the next
meeting. The place has been decided. The time, I think, has to be left
to be worked out with the authorities at Illinois, is that right? Do you
want to say a word, Dr. Colby?

DR. COLBY: It is difficult, if not impossible, to give an exact date
right now, because we don't know at this time what our facilities for
meeting rooms and lodging will be on any particular date in the latter
part of the month of August. We will have to check and find out the best
days, if that is agreeable to the group.

DR. MacDANIELS: Does this group wish to express a preference as to the
last week in August or the first week in September? In other words, it
would be the week before Labor Day, or the week after. That wouldn't
necessarily fix it, but it would give the committee, if there were no
other restrictions as to available facilities, would be a guide for a
choice.

MR. WELLMAN: Call for a show of hands.

DR. MacDANIELS: I will do that. Those who would prefer a meeting date
comparable to this year? (Showing of hands.)[34] Those who prefer the
week after Labor Day? (No hands raised.)

[34] The 1951 meeting will be at the University of Illinois in Urbana,
August 28 and 29, to be followed with a tour in western Illinois for
those who can stay through the morning of August 31.

MR. STERLING SMITH: Maybe those who prefer the after Labor Day date
aren't here now.

DR. ROHRBACHER: I just want to say I appreciate very much the honor that
has been bestowed upon me. I appreciate the fact that the president is
purely an emblem, a figurehead, but with the staff that's under him,
it's the same as in the Post Office Department of the United States, the
head receives all the salary and his understudies do all the work. So
it's a very appropriate setting, and we should go forward under a very
good staff of men that have been elected to the positions under that of
the president.

One thing I want to say in regard to the problem that came up last night
that was discussed: that as the president, I can assure you that the
vice-presidents are certainly not going to be emblems if they expect to
continue on in their positions in the various states that are in the
group, because the working out of this problem, the success of it, is
going to depend on how well these vice-presidents carry out their work.

I thank you.

DR. MacDANIELS: We will close this session until tonight. I will give
Dr. Rohrbacher the gavel.

(Whereupon, at 4:50 o'clock, p.m., the Tuesday afternoon session of the
Northern Nut Growers Association was closed.)



Note on the Annual Tour, August 30, 1950


The third day of the Annual meeting, as is customary with the
Association, was spent touring interesting nut plantings in the
vicinity. The first stop was Bernath's Nursery, southwest of Pleasant
Valley, where he has his greenhouse, young nut plants, and a number of
fruiting trees. The second stop was on the grounds of the State School
at Wassaic, where many grafted nut trees, particularly walnuts, are
thriving, due to the interest and activity of Gilbert L. Smith, when he
was on the staff there. A picnic lunch was served in the recreational
area of the school grounds. Here Dr. W. C. Deming of Hartford, Conn.,
Dean of the Association, was on hand to greet many of his old friends.
After lunch we visited Mr. Stephen Bernath's farm nut planting, then the
topworked hickory woods on Mr. Wm. A. Benton's farm out of Millerton. At
the Benton and Smith Nut Nursery, also on the farm, the tour was
concluded.



OBITUARIES


Harry R. Weber

Members were saddened to hear of the death, on his way home, of Harry R.
Weber, who had taken an active part in the meeting at Pleasant Valley,
as he did in most of the meetings since the very earliest years of the
Association. We shall have a more complete obituary in the next volume.


George B. Rhodes

COVINGTON, Tenn., Dec. 16, 1950--Services for George B. Rhodes of Mt.
Carmel who died Saturday at 5:15 p.m. at his home will be held Sunday
afternoon at 3 at the Clopton Methodist Church. The Rev. David Olhansen,
pastor of the church, assisted by the Rev. E. D. Farris of Henning will
officiate. Burial will be in the Clopton Cemetery.

Mr. Rhodes, who was 82, was born at Clopton, Tenn., and spent his entire
lifetime in Tipton County. He was the first county agent of Tipton
County. He was interested in the budding of pecans and had operated a
nursery for the past 20 years. He was a member of the Clopton Methodist
Church.

He leaves his wife, Mrs. Ivie Drake Rhodes of Covington; two sons, Sol
Rhodes of Tampa, Fla., and Marion Rhodes of Beverly Hills, Calif.; two
daughters, Mrs. R. B. Davie of Covington and Mrs. Lillian Bringley of
Memphis; two sisters, Mrs. Pauline Meacham of Senatobia, Miss., and Mrs.
Mattie Nelson of Forrest City, Ark., and two brothers, Sam Rhodes of
Bolivar, and Duke Rhodes of San Francisco, Calif.; seven grandchildren
and five great grandchildren.--Reprinted from a Memphis paper.

Mr. Rhodes' greatest contribution to nut growing was the discovery and
first propagation of a heartnut variety mow called Rhodes. It is the
most successful heartnut yet tried in western Tennessee, a reliable and
heavy cropper, and one of the best cracking varieties of all known
heartnuts. It deserves testing in other areas.

Note: The following members of the N. N. G. A. have died recently, and
we hope to have fuller obituaries on them in the next volume:

Charles C. Dean, of Anniston, Ala. (Died September 21, 1950.)

Henry Gressel, of Mohawk, N. Y. (Died in June, 1951.)

W. N. Achenbach, of Petoskey, Mich.

L. B. Hoyer, of Omaha, Nebr.


Life Member Wang Is in Hong Kong

In our 1942 Report there was a note that our only Chinese member, P. W.
Wang, had probably died, since he had not been heard from since 1930.
Mr. Wang, we are happy to report, has recently written to us from Hong
Kong. Many of the nut trees he planted while secretary of the Kinsan
Arboretum at Chuking (not Chungking) in Kiangsu Province had survived
the Japanese invasions and were fruiting in 1945, but are now in
Communist hands. Mr. Wang hopes some day to be able to send to America
scions of a fine pecan (seedling of Teche variety) which he fruited at
Chuking. Meanwhile, he wishes to have nut literature and catalogues sent
to him at his present address: P. W. Wang, c/o China Products Trading
Corporation, 6 Des Voeux Road, Central, Hong Kong.



Letters


Nuts in Quebec

   July 16, 1950

   Dr. George L. Slate,
   Associate Professor,
   New York State Agricultural Experiment Station,
   Geneva, New York

   Dear Dr. Slate:

I am very much flattered by your invitation to prepare a paper on nut
culture in Quebec. My only regret is that for two reasons I am unable to
comply with your request.

The first is that I am quite ignorant on the subject. It is only lately
that I have developed an interest in this matter when I suddenly found
myself responsible for a so-called "arboretum" which is now mainly empty
space that I am endeavoring to fill. The fact that shagbark hickory and
butternut were common in our woods and that some of our neighbors have
apparently flourishing individual trees of black walnut served to arouse
my interest in the question. One neighbour has a tree of what he calls
"French walnut" because they came from near Lyons, France, which are
evidently the ordinary English or Persian walnut. Furthermore, I have
been advised that there is quite a grove of black walnut near
Lotbiniere, Quebec, which is on the south shore of the St. Lawrence not
far from the city of Quebec. I understand that it was planted some
seventy-five years ago and trees are now timber size. Indeed, I was told
that the owner was offered a considerable sum during the war--the wood
was wanted for gun stocks. I have not been there to verify this. However
it occurred to me that it would be a good idea to get several specimens
of various nut species that might grow here to place in the
arboretum--this might incidentally give some information on what species
would survive our winters.

The second reason that I am unable to write any article on nut culture
in Quebec is because as far as I know there is no nut culture here. Most
of the trees I refer to were simply planted as ornamentals. I have never
been able to locate anyone who has taken any particular interest in
growing them for the nuts.

I would like very much to extend my knowledge on the subject by
attending your meeting at Poughkeepsie, New York, on August 28th to
30th, but unfortunately I will be absent in Nova Scotia on those dates.

Following your information I secured some literature on northern nut
culture and will look forward to receiving any further information along
this line that may be forthcoming.

Again thanking you for your courtesy and assuring you of my continued
interest, I am,

   Yours very truly,

   W. H. BRITTAIN
   Vice-Principal,
   Macdonald College of McGill University

   Macdonald College, Quebec, Canada

Note: I believe that perhaps the things mentioned in his second
paragraph should be followed up.--H.L.S.


Pecans Produce Poorly in Middle Atlantic States

   November 13, 1950

   Dr. Lewis E. Theiss
   Lewisburg, Pennsylvania

   Dear Dr. Theiss:

Speaking of pecans, we have harvested the first crop this year here on
the station, from trees planted in 1932, of the varieties Indiana,
Greenriver, Busseron and Major. Even though these nuts were not
harvested until November 9 they are poorly filled. It seems that we just
cannot mature them here in an average season. Our trees have not grown
satisfactorily and although they may bloom, the nuts normally fail to
mature.

Our summers are not long enough and the day and night temperatures are
not high enough uniformly to satisfactorily produce pecans even in this
area.

   Very truly yours,

   H. L. CRANE
   Principal Horticulturist,
   Division of Fruit and Vegetable
   Crops and Diseases

   U. S. Plant Industry Station.
   Beltsville, Maryland

~Editor's Note:~ Dr Crane's experience is exactly similar to my own. The
pecans in the grounds at my country home were well loaded with nuts this
year, 1950. I doubt if a single nut was half filled.--L. E. T.


Nut Tree Diseases in Europe and Turkey

   November 17, 1950

   Dr. Lewis E. Theiss
   Lewisburg, Pennsylvania

   Dear Dr. Theiss:

I have only recently returned from three and one-half months spent in
Europe, primarily on chestnut problems, as a consultant for the Economic
Cooperation Administration. The trip was made at the request and expense
of European interests, except while I was up in the Scandinavian
countries and at the 7th International Botanical Congress. I gave a
paper at the Congress, entitled "The world-wide spread of forest
diseases," in which chestnut blight received limited attention.

In Italy, chestnut blight, ~Endothia parasitica~, was first reported at
Genoa in 1938, although it started there much earlier. It is now widely
distributed here and there as far south as the Naples area. No confirmed
infections have been reported from Sicily, Sardinia, or French Corsica,
though inspection work has been very, very limited. In all the places
where I saw it, the disease was increasing rapidly, with numerous
recently-blighted trees. It is expected that the disease will ultimately
kill the 988,000 acres of coppice growth, which produces few nuts, and
the 1,111,500 acres of grafted orchards. The time of death of isolated
stands like the two islands and many other areas can be materially
decreased by careful inspection and removal of the earliest infections,
just as we have held the disease under control in the European chestnut
orchards in California. It is doubtful if this will be done however, in
spite of their large unemployment problem.

As the blight continues its rapid spread over Italy, the production of
nuts will steadily decrease. The Italian exports to this country will
decrease, and the market for the rapidly expanding production of Chinese
chestnuts in the eastern United States will improve. The Italian
foresters are growing large quantities of Chinese chestnuts which they
purchased in this country, but the difficulties of quickly
reestablishing a large nut industry are very great. This Bureau,
including Dr. Graves, has been sending pollen, scions, and plants of our
selections to help with this work. It is of vital importance to have a
sound economy in Italy to help prevent the Communists from taking over,
and loss of their forest and nut orchards and part of their oaks from
the blight will be a sad blow to their economy.

The chestnut blight fungus in Italy is attacking three important
European oaks, ~Quercus ilex~, ~Q. Pubescens~, and ~Q. sessiliflora~. These
are more important in some countries than chestnuts. For instance, Spain
has 3,705,000 acres of ~Q. ilex~ orchards, grown largely for acorn hog
feed. This will interest Dr. Smith. Possibly the disease may be less
destructive to oaks in other countries than I fear, my opinion being
based on the examination of only a limited number of diseased oaks in
Italy.

I assume you have heard that Mr. Bretz of our Division has found that
the oak wilt fungus has attacked some of our Chinese chestnuts in
Missouri. What it will amount to, no one knows. The oak wilt continues
to spread southward and eastward, and this year one infection was
reported by the State authorities on oaks in your own Pennsylvania.

In Switzerland, in Tessin province, which is along the Italian border,
the blight is spreading rapidly. The disease undoubtedly is in
Yugoslavia, as there is so much infection in nearby Italy, but I was not
in Yugoslavia. In Spain, there are several infections of blight that
came in on the original importations of chestnuts directly from Japan. I
made two trips into Spain and the authorities there have promised to do
everything possible to eradicate these small spot infections.

In Denmark, England, France, Germany, Portugal, and Turkey no blight had
been reported by the authorities with whom I conferred, but in most of
these countries very little inspection work has been conducted. Any
inspection for blight in southern Europe is complicated by the presence
of the ink root rot disease, which from a distance looks like the
blight. I remember one grafted orchard planting, in the Asia Minor part
of Turkey, where a large proportion of the trees were dead or dying,
with yellow leaves hanging, resembling the blight. Incidentally, here,
as at a number of other places in different countries, orchards, forest,
and nearby agricultural land was owned by the village itself.

In southern France I was impressed by a most serious and widely
distributed disease of Persian walnuts. Vigorously growing trees start
to decline and within a year or two they are dead. The French
authorities had no satisfactory explanation of the trouble. I informed
them that it looked a lot like trees killed by ~Phytophthora cinnamomi~,
the cause of the chestnut root and ink disease in America and Europe.
This fungus also attacks both Persian and black walnuts and other trees
(including apples) under certain conditions.

   Sincerely,
   G. F. GRAVATT
   Senior Pathologist,
   Division of Forest Pathology

   U. S. Plant Industry Station, Beltsville, Md.


Nut Work of the Minnesota Experiment Station

   March 27, 1950

   Mr. Gilbert Becker,
   Climax, Michigan

   Dear Mr Becker:

I have heard that not long ago you sent out a questionnaire relative to
nut growing and grafting. Perhaps you would like to include the work
which has been going on at the Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station
since 1918.

When this study was started, we had no information to give to many who
came to us with questions on nut growing possibilities in this state. At
no time have we attempted to promote commercial development as the
interest here seems to be almost wholly amateur.

Our first efforts, begun in 1918, were designed to test kinds and
varieties which could be grown in Minnesota. Black walnut varieties
such as Thomas, Ohio, Ten Eyck, Stabler and Miller were planted at
University Farm. Also sweet chestnuts Boone, Rochester, Cooper, Paragon,
Fuller and Progress were set out. Hickory varieties and hybrids planted
in 1918 and 1919 were Kirtland, Weiker, Stanley, Siers, Hales and
McCallister. We planted a few trees of the Franquette Persian walnut,
the Indiana, Niblack and Posey pecans and a few filberts such as Minnas
Zellernuss, Daviana, and Large Globe. Some seedling trees of the
shagbark hickory also were set out in 1918 and 1919.

To supplement this test somewhat similar collections were sent to
cooperators in what seemed to be favorable locations.

We had the usual difficulty in establishing these trees and winter
temperature eliminated all the pecans, sweet chestnuts, Persian, walnuts
and filberts. Some of the seedling hickories survived and have grown
vigorously but after thirty-two years have borne no nuts.

Since 1939 cooperative work has been under way with Professor R. E.
Hodgson at the Southeast Experiment Station, Waseca. Efforts there
mainly have been to establish varieties of black walnut and hickory by
grafting. Black walnut and hickory varieties have been grafted also at
the Fruit Breeding Farm, Excelsior.

The accompanying record is taken from a report for the Experiment
Station in 1949. It should tell you in brief the status of our
investigations at present.

   Very truly yours,
   W. G. BRIERLEY

   University of Minnesota
   Department of Agriculture
   Division of Horticulture


Nature and Extent of Work Done this Year

All black walnut and hickory trees made fairly satisfactory growth in
1948 in spite of deficient rainfall. The "Gideon Seedling Hickories"
(~Carya laciniosa~) planted in 1945 have become established at Waseca,
Rochester, Lakeville, Mound and at the Fruit Breeding Farm.

Attempts to establish nut varieties by top-working on seedling trees
again met with poor success. At Waseca 5 of 14 hickory grafts and 4 of
25 black walnut grafts grew. At the Fruit Breeding Farm only 6 of 33
hickory grafts grew. In this case, the poor results were due in large
part to use of an asphalt grafting compound which injured the callus
tissue at the union. Better than usual success was obtained with black
walnuts as 19 of 37 grafts grew.

As in previous seasons, the best temperature for storage of scion wood
was 34 to 36 degrees F.


Major Results

The best black walnut varieties for Minnesota are Thomas, Ohio,
Stambaugh, Smith and Schwartz. Of these Thomas produces the best nuts,
but the tree is somewhat straggly in growth. The Ohio produces large
nuts of good quality and is by far the best tree in ornamental value. It
also is the hardiest of all varieties tested as it has shown no injury
during 16 winters. Of lesser value are Ten Eyck which apparently is not
fully hardy, and Mintle in which quality is poor here. Varieties which
have not shown sufficient merit to warrant recommendation here are
Stabler, Monterey, and Clark. Varieties which have not fruited are
Allen, Cochrane, Huber, Kraus and Myers.


Practical Application of Results or Public Benefits

Results obtained have been used frequently as basis for recommendations
relative to kinds and varieties for planting, and for grafting methods.
Scionwood of the better varieties has been distributed to interested
growers.


Progress of Work

Success with walnut grafts under all conditions during 16 years at the
Fruit Breeding Farm has averaged only 32 per cent. In individual seasons
success has varied from zero to 54 per cent.

Hickories not only are grafted with difficulty but also are very slow to
reach bearing age. No nuts have been produced as yet from the following
varieties grafted on the dates shown: Anthony (1939) Lingenfelter (1942)
Burlington (1944) Gerardi hican (1944) Miller (1947) Barnes (1948) Last
(1948) Marquette (1948) and Schinnerling (1948). Some seedling trees
planted in 1948-1949 have produced no nuts in 32 years.

Hickory varieties established at Waseca by grafting are Beaver (1939),
Fairbanks (1939), Burlington (1939), Anthony (1947), Billeau (1947),
Hagen (1947), Wilcox (1947), Last (1948). Marquette (1948) and Stratford
(1948). A tree of Hales planted in 1921, which grew very slowly for
several years has borne no nuts in 27 years. One tree of Fairbanks
grafted in 1939 bore a few nuts in 1944 but has not borne since then.

There has been a long-standing belief among horticulturists that grafts
of ~Carya ovata~, the shagbark hickory are incompatible on bitter hickory
~C. cordiformis~. At Waseca, grafts of Beaver, Burlington and Fairbanks
make in 1939 have healed completely and made excellent unions with the
bitter hickory stock. That the varieties named are of hybrid origin may
account for the compatibility apparent in this case.



Vegetarian, 93, and Bride, 60, Honeymoon Among Bananas, Nuts

MIAMI, Fla., Jan. 4--(UP)--A 93-year-old vegetarian and his 60-year old
bride settled down today for a honeymoon among the nuts and bananas they
say keep them young.

George Hebden Corsan and Lillian Armstrong, whose pert looks belie her
years, were married here Tuesday. Wedding guests were served orange
juice and coconut cream milk.

The bridegroom has been wintering here for the past 13 years. His home
is Echo Valley, Islington, Toronto. His wife retired last month after 30
years of teaching in Toronto public schools.

"I'm sure we'll be happy," Mrs. Corsan said. "We have mutual interests"

Both credit their youthfulness and agility to vegetarianism, drinking
gallons of fruit juices and staying outdoors as much as possible.

Corsan, whose sturdy 155 pounds are stretched on a six-foot frame, can
husk a coconut with his bare hands in less than two minutes, no mean
feat.

He operates a large experimental nut farm in Toronto, and has a 16-acre
tract just south of here where he grows seven varieties of bananas and
experiments with macadamia nuts, furnished him by the University of
Hawaii. He works the farm singlehanded.

Corsan says he taught another physical culturist, Bernarr MacFadden, to
swim in 1909 when he was an instructor at a Brooklyn YMCA. He says
swimming helps keep him in shape and takes a daily dip in the ocean.

The Corsans will spend their honeymoon right on the nut farm.

"We might have a few fights," he said. "But they won't last long. She's
too young to fight. And besides, she can outrun an English hare."



Broken Neck Fails to Halt Plans of "Youngster", 94


TORONTO, June 12--Physical Culturist George Hebden Corsan--just turned
94--says he is going to throw a birthday party Saturday, Right now he's
in the hospital recovering from a broken neck suffered when he fell 20
feet from a tree May 27.

Mr. Corsan--a vegetarian who once labeled medicine "a jumbled heap of
ignorance"--didn't want to go to the hospital at all. But doctors
thought he'd better, since the fracture was about like that suffered by
a man hanged on the gallows. He agreed to go after being assured the
visit would only be for X-rays.

Since he's been in the hospital Mr. Corsan has fared--over the protest
of dietitians--on nothing but orange juice. Yesterday he observed his
birthday by eating a banana and a little black bread.

Doctors said Mr. Corsan missed severing his spinal cord by a quarter
inch and had two skull fractures. To almost any other person, they said,
the injury would be fatal.

Mr. Corsan was married for the third time last January in
Florida.--Washington Evening Star, June 13, 1951.



Membership List

As of July 3, 1951


  *Life member
 **Honorary member
  §Contributing member
  +Sustaining member

 ALABAMA

 Deagon, Arthur, 128 Broadway, Birmingham. ~Farm in Penna.~
 Hiles, Edward L., ~Hiles Auto Repair Shop~, Loxley


 BELGIUM

 R. Vanderwaeren, Bierbeekstraat, 310, ~Korbeek-Lo.~


 CALIFORNIA

 Armstrong Nurseries, 408 N. Euclid Avenue, Ontario
   ~General nurserymen, plant breeders~
 Brand, George, U.S.N.G.B.C, Mob. 5, Port Hueneme
 Buck, Ernest Homer, Three Arch Bay, 16 N. Portola, South Laguna
 Deckard, L. A., 741 La Verne Avenue, Los Angeles 22
 Flagg, Dr. Don P., 10365 Fairgrove Ave., Tujunga
 Haig, Dr. Thomas R., 3021 Highland Avenue, Carlsbad, California
 Linwood Nursery, Route No. 2, Box 476, Turlock
 Parsons, Charles E., Felix Gillet Nursery, P. O. Box 1025, Nevada City.
   ~Nurseryman~
 Pentler, Dr. C. F., 806 Arguello Blvd., San Francisco 18.
   ~American Friends Service Committee~
 Pozzi, P. H., 2875 S. Dutton Ave., Santa Rosa. ~Brewery worker~, ~farmer~
 Serr, E. F., Agr. Experiment Station, Davis. ~Associate Pomologist~
 Welby, Harry S., 500 Buchanan Street, Taft. ~Private and Corp. Hort.~


 CANADA

 Brown, Alger, Route 1, Harley, Ontario. ~Farmer~
 Collins, Adam H., 42 Seaton St., Toronto 2, Ont.
 Cornell, R. S., R.R. No. 1, Byron, Ontario
 Corsan, George H., Echo Valley, Toronto 18, Ontario. ~Nonagenarian.~
 **Crath, Rev. Paul C., 299 Rosewell Ave., Toronto 12, Ontario
 Crisp, Dr. Allan G., Suite 204, 160 Bloor St. W., Toronto, Ontario
 English, H. A., Box 153, Duncan, B. C. ~Farmer~, ~fruit and nut grower~
 Filman, O., Aldershot, Ontario. ~Fruit and veg. grower~
 Gellatly, J. U., Box 19, Westbank, B. C. ~Plant breeder~, ~fruit grower~,
   ~nurseryman~
 Goodwin, Geoffrey, Route No. 3, St. Catherines, Ontario. ~Fruit grower~
 Harrhy, Ivor H., Route 1, Burgessville, Ont. ~Fruitgrower and poultry~
 Housser, Levi, Route 1, Beamsville, Ontario. ~Fruit farmer~
 *Neilson, Mrs. Ellen, 5 Macdonald Avenue, Guelph, Ont.
 Papple, Elton E., Route 3, Cainsville, Ont.
 Porter, Gordon, 258 McKay, Windsor, Ont. ~Chemist~
 Smith, E. A., Sparta, Ont. Farmer
 Snazelle, Robert, Forest Nursery, Route No. 5, Charlottetown, P. E. I.
   ~Nursery Supt.~
 Short, J. R., 70 Wickstead Ave., Leaside, Ont.
 Trayling, E. J., 509 Richards St., Vancouver, B. C. ~Jeweller~
 Wagner, A. S., Delhi, Ont.
 Walker, J. W., c/o McCarthy & McCarthy, 330 University Ave., Toronto, Ont.
 Wharton, H. W., Route No. 2, Guelph, Ont. ~Farmer~
 White, Peter, 30 Pear Ave., Toronto 5, Ont.
 Willis, A. R., Route No. 1, Royal Oak, Vancouver Island, B. C.
   ~Accountant~
 Woods, David M., 48 South Front St., West, Toronto, Ont. ~Vice President,
   Gordon McKay, Ltd.~
 Young, A. L., Brooks, Alta.


 CONNECTICUT

 Daniel, Paul C., Lakeville
 **Deming, Dr. W. C., 141 Fern St., Hartford. (Summer address: Litchfield)
   ~Dean of the Association~
 Frueh, Alfred J., Route 2, West Cornwall
 Graves, Dr. Arthur H., 255 S. Main St., Wallingford.
   ~Consulting Pathologist, Conn. Agr. Expt. Station, New Haven, Conn.~
 Henry, David, Blue Hills Farm, Route 2, Wallingford.
 *Huntington, A. M., Stanerigg Farms, Bethel. ~Patron~
 Lehr, Frederick L., 45 Elihu St., Hamden
 *Newmaker, Adolph, Route No. 1. Rockville
 Pratt, George D., Jr., Bridgewater
 Risko, Charles, City Tobacco & Candy Co., 25 Crescent Ave., Bridgeport
 White, George E., Route No. 2, Andover. ~Farmer~


 DELAWARE

 Brugmann, Elmer W., 1904 Washington St., Wilmington. ~Chemical Engineer~
 Logue, R. F., Gen. Mgr., Andelot, Inc., 2098 du Pont Bldg., Wilmington
 Wilkins, Lewis, Route 1, Newark. ~Fruit grower~


 DENMARK

 Granjean, Julio, Hillerod.  (See New York.)
 Knuth, Count F. M., Knuthenborg. Bandholm


 DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA

 American Potash Inst., Inc., 1155-16th St., N.W., Washington
 Ford, Edwin L., 3634 Austin St., S.E., Washington
 Kaan, Dr. Helen W., National Research Council, 2101 Constitution Avenue,
   Washington. ~Research Associate~
 Reed, Mrs. Clarence A., 7309 Piney Branch Rd., N.W., Washington 12


 ECUADOR, SOUTH AMERICA

 Acosta Solis, Prof. M., Director del Departmento Forestal, Ministerio de
   Economia, Quito. (~Exchange.~)


 ENGLAND

 Baker, Richard St. Barbe, The Gate, Abbotsbury, Weymouth, Dorset.
   (~Founder, Men of The Trees.~)
 The Gardeners Chronicle, London. (~Exchange.~)


 FLORIDA

 Avant, C. A., 940 N.W. 10th Ave., Miami ~Real Estate, Loans.~
   (~Pecan orchard in Ga.~)
 Estill, Gertrude, 153 Navarre Dr., Miami Springs.
   (Summer address under Mich.)


 GEORGIA

 Edison, G. Clyde, 1700 Westwood Ave., S.W., Atlanta.
 Hardy, Max, P. O. Box 128, Leeland Farms, Leesburg. ~Nurseryman~, ~farmer~
 Hunter, Dr. H. Reid, 561 Lake Shore Dr. N.E., Atlanta. ~Teacher~,
   ~nut farmer~
 Noland, S. C., Box 1747, Atlanta 1. ~Owner, Skyland Farms~
 Wilson, William J., North Anderson Ave., Fort Valley.
   ~Peach and pecan grower~


 HOLLAND

 Institute for Horticultural Plant Breeding. Herenstraat 25. Wageningen.
   (~Exchange~)


 HONG KONG

 *Wang, P. W., c/o China Products Trading Corp., 6 Des Voeux Rd., Central


 IDAHO

 Baisch, Fred, 627 E. Main St., Emmett
 Dryden, Lynn, Peck. ~Farmer~
 Hazelbaker, Calvin, Route No. 1, Box 382, Lewiston


 ILLINOIS

 Albrecht, H. W., Delavan
 Allen, Theodore R., Delavan. ~Farmer~
 Andrew, Col. James W. (See under Washington)
 Anthony, A. B., Route No. 3, Sterling. ~Apiarist~
 Baber, Adin, Kansas
 Best, R. B., Eldred. ~Farmer~
 Blodgett, Thomas, 3610 Pine Grove Ave., Chicago 13
 Blough, R. O., Route No. 3, Polo
 Blyth, Colin R., Math. Dept., U. of I., Urbana. (Farm in northern Ontario)
 *Boll, Herschel L., 2 Hort. Field Lab., Univ. of Ill., Urbana.
   ~Asst. in Pomology~
 Brock, A. S., 1733 North McVicker Ave., Chicago 39
 Churchill, Woodford M., 4323 Oakenwald Ave., Chicago 5
 Colby, Dr. Arthur S., U. of Illinois, Urbana
 Daum, Philip A., North Sixth St., Carrollton
 Dietrich, Ernest, Route No. 2, Dundas. ~Farmer~
 Dintelman, L. F., State Street Road, Belleville
 Douglass, T. J., 309-1/2 North St., Normal
 Fordtran, E. H., Route No. 2, Box 197-A, Palatine
 Frey, Frank H., 2315 W. 108th Place, Chicago 43.
   ~Asst. to V. P., CRI & P RR.~
 Frey, Mrs. Frank H., 2315 W. 108th Place, Chicago 43. ~Housewife~
 Gerardi, Louis, Route No. 1., Caseyville. ~Nut and fruit nurseryman~
 Grefe, Ben, Route No. 4, Box 22, Nashville. ~Farmer~
 Heberlein, Edward W., Route No. 1, Box 72A, Roscoe
 Helmle, Herman C., 526 S. Grand Ave., W., Springfield. ~Div. Eng.,
   Asphalt Inst.~
 Hockenyos, G. L., 213 E. Jefferson St., Springfield. ~Business man~
 Jungk, Adolph E., Route No. 1, Jerseyville, Illinois
 Kammarmeyer, Glenn, 1711 E. 67th St., Chicago 49
 Kreider, Ralph, Jr., Route No. 1, Hammond. ~Farmer~
 Langdoc, Mildred Jones (Mrs. Wesley W.) P. O. Box 136, Erie. ~Nursery~,
   ~farm~, ~housewife~
 McDaniel, J. C., c/o Hort. Field Lab., U. of I., Urbana. ~Horticulturist.
   (Sec'y of Ass'n.)~
 McDaniel, J. C., Jr., Urbana
 Oakes, Royal, Bluffs (Scott County)
 Pray, A. Lee, 502 N. Main St., LeRoy
 Robbins, W. J., 885 N. LaSalle St., Chicago 10. ~Insurance~
 Sonnemann, W. F., Experimental Gardens, Vandalia. ~Lawyer~,
   ~farm operator~
 Spencer, H. Dwight, 275 W. Decatur St., Decatur. ~Attorney~
 Warnecke, Martin H., 714 First Avenue, Maywood
 Whitford, A. M., Farina. ~Nurseryman~
 Zethmayr, Gordon, Route No. 1, Box 130, West Chicago


 INDIANA

 Aster Nut Products, Inc., George Oberman, Mgr., 1004 Main St., Evansville
 Bauer, Paul J., 123 S. 29th St., Lafayette
 Bolten, Ferd, Route 3, Linton. ~Farmer, fruit grower.
   (Carpathian walnut seeds.)~
 Boyer, Clyde C., Nabb
 Buckner, Dr. Doster, 421 W. Wayne St., Ft. Wayne 2.
   ~Physician and Surgeon~
 Clark, C. M., C. M. Clark & Sons Nurseries, Route 2, Middletown
   ~Nurseryman~, ~fruit farmer~
 Dooley, Kenneth R., Route No. 2, Marion. ~Gardener~
 Eagles, A. E., Eagles' Orchards, Wolcottville. ~Walnut grower~,
   ~apple orchardist~
 Eisterhold, Dr. John. A., 220 Southwest Riverside Drive, Evansville 8.
   ~Medical Doctor~
 Fateley, Nolan W., 26 Central Avenue. Franklin. ~Auditor and cashier.
   (Carpathian walnut seeds.)~
 Glaser, Peter, Route No. 9, Box 328, Koening Road, Evansville
 Grater, A. E., Route 2, Shipshewana.

 §Johnson, Hjalmar W., Rt. 4, Valparaiso. ~V. P. Inland Steel Co.~
 Pape, Edw. W., Route 2, Marion
 Prell, Carl F., 1414 E. Colfax Avenue, South Bend 17
 Richards, E. E., 2712 South Twyckenham Drive, South Bend.
   ~Studebaker Corp.~
 Russell, A. M., Jr., 2721 Marine St., South Bend 14
 Skinner, Dr. Chas. H., Rt. 1, Thorntown
 Sly, Miss Barbara, Route No. 3, Rockport
 Sly, Donald R., Route 3, Rockport. ~Nurseryman,~, ~nut tree propagator~
 Wallick, Ford, Rt. 4, Peru
 Ward, W. B., Horticulture Bldg., Purdue University, Lafayette.
   ~Ext. Horticulturist~, ~Vegetables~
 Whitsel, Gilbert L., Jr., 515 S. 15th Street, Lafayette
 Wichman, Robert P., Route No. 3, Washington. ~General farming~
 Wilkinson, J. F., Indiana Nut Nursery, Rockport. ~Nurseryman~


 IOWA

 Berhow, Seward, Berhow Nurseries, Huxley
 Boice, R. H., Route No. 1, Nashua. ~Farmer~
 Cole, Edward P., 419 Chestnut Street, Atlantic
 Ferguson, Albert B., Center Point. ~Nurseryman~
 Ferris, Wayne, Hampton. ~President of Earl Ferris Nursery~
 Huen, E. F., Eldora. ~Farmer~
 Inter-State Nurseries, Hamburg. ~General nurserymen~
 Iowa Fruit Growers Assn., W. H. Collins, Sec'y, State House,
   Des Moines 19. ~Cooperative buying organization~
 Kaser, J. D., Winterset. ~Farmer~
 Knowles, W. B., Box 476, Manly
 Kyhl, Ira M., Box 236, Sabula. ~Nut nurseryman~, ~farmer~, ~salesman~
 Martazahn, Frank A., Route No. 3, Davenport. ~Farmer~
 McLeran, Harold F., Mt. Pleasant. ~Lawyer~
 Orr, J. Allen, 535 Frances Bldg., Sioux City 17
 Rohrbacher, Dr. William, 811 East College Street, Iowa City.
   ~Practice of Medicine~ (~President of the NNGA.~)
 Schlagenbusch Brothers, Route No. 2, Fort Madison. ~Farmers~
 Snyder, D. C., Center Point. ~Nurseryman, nuts and general.~
 Tolstead, W. L., Central College, Pella
 Wade, Miss Ida May, Route No. 3, LaPorte City. ~Bookkeeper~
 Watson, Vinton C., 106 E. Salem St., Indianola
 Welch, H. S., Mt. Arbor Nurseries, Shenandoah
 White, Herbert, Box 264, Woodbine. ~Rural Mail Carrier~
 Williams, Wendell V., Route No. 1, Danville. ~Farmer~


 KANSAS

 Baker, Fred C., Troy. ~Entomologist~
 Borst, Frank E., 1704 Shawnee Street, Leavenworth
 Breidenthal, Willard J., Riverview State Bank, 7th and Central,
   Kansas City. ~Bank President~
 Funk, M. D., 612 W. Paramore Street, Topeka. ~Pharmacist~
 Gray, Dr. Clyde, 1045 Central Avenue, Horton. ~Osteopathic Physician~
 Harris, Ernest, Box 20, Wellsville. ~Farmer~
 Leavenworth Nurseries, Carl Holman, Proprietor, Route No. 3, Leavenworth.
   ~Nut nurseryman~
 Mondero, John, Lansing
 Thielenhaus, W. F., Route No. 1, Buffalo. ~Retired postal worker~
 Underwood, Jay, Riverside Nursery, Uniontown


 KENTUCKY

 Alves, Robert H., Nehi Bottling Company, Henderson
 Armstrong, W. D., West Ky., Exp. Sta., Princeton. ~Horticulturist~
 Magill, W. W., Horticulture Dept., U. of Ky., Lexington
 Miller, Julian C., 220 Sycamore Drive, Paducah
 Moss, Dr. C. A., Willlamsburg. ~Bank President~
 Rouse, Sterling, Route No. 1, Box 70, Florence. ~Fruit grower~,
   ~nurseryman~
 Tatum, W. G., Route 4, Lebanon. ~Commercial orchardist~
 Tallaferro, Philip, Box 85, Erlanger
 Usrey, Robert, Star Route, Mayfield
 Walker, William W., Route No. 1, Dixie Highway, Florence


 LOUISIANA

 Hammar, Dr. Harald E., USDA Chemical Lab., 606 Court House, Shreveport
   ~Chemist~
 Perrault, Mrs. Henry D., Route No. 1, Box 13, Natchitoches. ~Pecan grower~


 MARYLAND

 Case, Lynn B., Route 2, Box 208, Federalsburg
 Crane, Dr. H. L., Bureau of Plant Industry Station, Beltsville.
   ~Principal Horticulturist, USDA.~
 Eastern Shore Nurseries, Inc., P. O. Box 743, Easton. ~Chestnut growers~
 Graff, George U., Harding Lane, Rt. 3. Rockville
 Gravatt, Dr. G. F., Plant Industry Station, Beltsville.
   ~Research Forest Pathologist~
 Hodgson, William C., Route No. 1, White Hall. ~Farmer~
 Kemp, Homer S., (Proprietor) Bountiful Ridge Nurseries, Princess Anne
 McCollum, Blaine, White Hall. ~Retired from Federal Government~
 McKay, Dr. J. W., Plant Industry Station, Beltsville.
   ~Government Scientist~
 +Negus, Mrs. Herbert, 4514 32nd Street, Mt. Rainier
 Porter, John J., 1199 The Terrace, Hagerstown. ~Farm Owner~
 Shamer, Dr. Maurice E., 3300 W. North Avenue, Baltimore 16. ~Physician~


 MASSACHUSETTS

 Babbit, Howard S., 221 Dawes Avenue, Pittsfield. ~Service station owner
   and part time farmer~
 Bradbury, H. G., Hospital Point, Beverly
 Brown, Daniel L., Esq., 60 State Street, Boston
 Bump, Albert H., P. O. Box 275, Brewster
 Davenport, S. Lathrop, 24 Creeper Hill Road, North Grafton. ~Farmer~,
   ~fruit grower~
 Fitts, Walter H., 39 Baker St., Foxboro. ~General foreman,
   instrument company~
 Kendall, Henry P., Moose Hill Farm, Sharon
 Kerr, Andrew, Lock Box 242, Barnstable
 La Beau, Henry A., North Hoosic Road, Williamstown. ~Stat. engineer~
 O'Brien, Howard C., 25 Irvington Street, Boston 16
 Rice, Horace J., 515 Main Street, Wilbraham. ~Attorney~
 *Russell, Mrs. Newton H., 12 Burnett Avenue, South Hadley
 Wellman, Sargent H., Esq., Windridge, Topsfield. ~Lawyer~
 Weston Nurseries, Inc., Weston
 Wood, Miss Louise B., Pocassett, Cape Cod


 MICHIGAN

 Ainsworth, Donald W., 5851 Mt. Elliott, Detroit 11
 Andersen, Charles, Route No. 2, Box 326, Scottsville, ~Nurseryman~
 Barlow, Alfred L., 13079 Flanders Avenue, Detroit 5
 Becker, Gilbert, Climax
 Boylan, P. B., Route No. 1, Cloverdale. ~Homesteader~
 Bumler, Malcolm R., 2500 Dickerson, Detroit 15. ~Insurance trustee~
 Burgart, Harry, Michigan Nut Nursery, Box 33, Union City. ~Nurseryman~
 Burgess, E. H., Burgess Seed & Plant Company, Galesburg
 Burr, Redmond M., 320 S. 5th Avenue, Ann Arbor. ~General Chairman, The
   Order of Railroad Telegraphers, Pere Marquette District, C&O Ry. Co.~
 Cook, Ernest A., M.D., c/o County Health Dept., Centerville
 Corsan, H. H., Route No. 1, Hillsdale. ~Nurseryman~
 Dennison, Clare, 4224 Avery, Detroit 8
 Emerson, Ralph, 161 Cortland Avenue, Detroit 3
 Estill, Miss Gertrude. (See under Florida, Summer Address: Route 4,
   Box 762, Battle Creek)
 Hackett, John C., 3321 Butterworth Rd., S.W., R. R. 5, Grand Rapids 6
 Haseler, L. M., Route No. 4, Box 130 South Haven
 Hagelshaw, W. J., Route No. 1, Box 394, Galesburg. ~Grain farmer~,
   ~contractor~
 Hay, Francis H., Ivanhoe Place, Lawrence. ~Farmer~
 **Kellogg, W. K., Battle Creek
 Korn, G. J., 309 N. Church Street, Kalamazoo 11. ~Shop worker~
 Lee, Michael, P. O. Box 16, Milford
 Lemke, Edwin W., 2432 Townsend Ave., Detroit 14. ~Engineer~,
   ~nut orchardist~
 McCarthy, Francis W., Box 392, Algonac
 Miller, O. Louis, 417 N. Broadway, Cassopolis. ~Forester~
 O'Rourke, Prof. F. L., Hidden Lake Gardens, Tipton. ~Professor of
   ornamental horticulture, Mich. State College~
 Pickles, Arthur W., 760 Elmwood Avenue, Jackson
 Prushek, E., Route No. 3, Niles. ~Plant breeding~
 Sherman, L. Walter, 3308 Mackinaw St., Saginaw
 Simons, Rev. R. E., Flat Rock
 Somers, Lee, Route No. 1, Perrinton
 Tate, D. L., 959 Westchester St., Birmingham
 Ullrey, L. E., 1209 Cambridge Drive, Kalamazoo 27


 MINNESOTA

 Hodgson, R. E., Dept. of Agriculture, S.E. Experiment Station, Waseca
 Tulare, Willis E., 300 3rd Avenue, S.E., Rochester
 Weschcke, Carl, 96 S. Wabasha St., St. Paul. ~Proprietor Hazel Hills
   Nursery Co.~


 MISSISSIPPI

 Gossard, A. C., U. S. Hort. Field Station, Route No. 6, Meridian.
   ~Associate Horticulturist, USDA~
 Meyer, James R., Delta Branch Experiment Station, Stoneville.
   ~Cytogeneticist (cotton)~


 MISSOURI

 Bauch, G. D., Box 66, Farmington. ~Farm Forester~
 Hay, Leander, Gilliam
 Howe, John, Route No. 1, Box 4, Pacific
 Huber, Frank J., Weingarten. ~Farmer~
 James, George, James Pecan Farms, Brunswick
 Logan, George F., Oregon
 The M-F-D Co., 1305 Moreland Ave., Jefferson City
 Nicholson, John W., Ash Grove. ~Farmer~
 Ochs, C. Thurston, Box 291, Salem. ~Foreman in garment factory~
 Richterkessing, Ralph, Route No. 1. St. Charles. ~Farmer~
 Rose, Dr. D. K., 230 Linden, Clayton 5
 Stark Bros. Nursery & Orchard Co., Attn. Mr. H. W. Guengerich, Louisiana
 Wuertz, H. J., Route No. 1, Pevely


 NEBRASKA

 Brand, George. (See under California.)
 Caha, William, 350 W. 12th, Wahoo
 Hess, Harvey W., The Arrowhead Gardens, Box 209, Hebron
 Sherwood, Jack, Nebraska City


 NEW HAMPSHIRE

 Demarest, Charles S., Lyme Center
 Lahti, Matthew, Locust Lane Farm, Wolfeboro. ~Investment banker~


 NEW JERSEY

 Anderegg, F. O., Pierce Foundation, Raritan
 Blake, Harold, Box 93, Saddle River
 Bottoni, R. J., 41 Robertson Road, West Orange. ~President of Harbot
   Die Casting Corp.~
 Brewer. J. L., 10 Allen Place, Fair Lawn
 Buckwalter, Mrs. Alan R., Route. No. 1, Flemington
 Cox, Philip H., Jr., 30 Hyde Rd., Bloomfield
 Cumberland Nursery, William Wells, Proprietor, Route No. 1, Millville.
   ~Nurserymen~
 Donnelly, John, Mountain Ice Company, 51 Newark St., Hoboken
 Dougherty, William M., Broadacres-on-Bedens, Box 425, Princeton
   ~Secretary, U. S. Rubber Co.~
 Ellis, Mrs. Edward P., Strawberry Hill, Route No. 1, Box 137, Keyport
 Kass, Leonard P., 82 E. Cliff St., Somerville
 Lamatonk Nurseries, A. H. Yorks, Proprietor, Neshanic Station
 Lippencott, J. C., 15 Mundy Ave., Spotswood
 McDowell, Fred, 905 Ocean Avenue, Belmar
 Parkinson, Philip P., 567 Broadway, Newark 4. ~Engineer and appraiser~
 Ritchie, Walter M., Route No. 2, Box 122-R, Rahway
 Rocker, Louis P., The Rocker Farm, Box 196; Andover. ~Farmer~
 Sheffield, O. A., 283 Hamilton Place, Hackensack. ~Dunn & Bradstreet~
 Sorg, Henry, Chicago Avenue, Egg Harbor City. ~Manufacturer~
 Van Doren, Durand H., 310 Redmond Road., South Orange. ~Lawyer~
 Williams, Herbert H., 106 Plymouth Ave., Maplewood


 NEW MEXICO

 Gehring, Rev. Titus, Box 177, Lumberton


 NEW YORK

 Barton, Irving Titus, Montour Falls. ~Engineer~
 Bassett, Charles K., 2917 Main St., Buffalo. ~Manufacturer~
 Beck, Paul E., Beck's Guernsey Dairy, Transit Road, East Amherst.
   ~Dairy Executive~
 Benton, William A., Wassaic.  ~Farmer, and Sec'y, Mutual Insurance Co.~
 Bernath, Stephen, Bernath's Nursery, Route No. 3, Poughkeepsie.
   ~Nurseryman~
 Bernath, Mrs. Stephen, Route 3, Poughkeepsie
 Bixby, Henry D., East Drive, Halesite, L. I. ~Executive V.P., American
   Kennel Club, N. Y. City~
 Brook, Victor, 171 Rockingham Street, Rochester 7. ~Sales Engineer~
 Brooks, William G., Monroe. ~Nut tree nurseryman~
 Bundick, Clarkson U., 35 Anderson Ave., Scarsdale. ~Mechanical engineer~
 Caldwell, David H., N. Y. State College of Forestry, Syracuse. ~Instr.
   in wood technology~
 Carter, George, 428 Avenue A, Rochester 5
 Cassina, Augustus, Valatie, Columbia County
 Feil, Harry, 1270 Hilton-Spencerport Road, Hilton. ~Building contractor~
 Ferguson, Donald V., L. I. Agr. Tech. Institute, Farmingdale
 Flanigen, Charles F., 16 Greenfield St., Buffalo 14. ~Executive manager~
 Freer, H. J., 20 Midvale Rd., Fairport. ~Typewriter sales and service~
 Fribance, A. E., 139 Elmsdorf Ave., Rochester 11
 Glazier, Henry S., Jr., 1 South William St., New York 4
 Graham, S. H., Bostwick Road, Route No. 5, Ithaca. ~Nurseryman~
 Granjean, Julio, c/o K. E. Granjean, 9406 6th Ave., Forest Hills
 Gressel, Henry, Route 2, Mohawk. ~Retired chief lock operator,
   N. Y. S. Barge Canal~
 Hasbrouck, Walter, Jr., 19 Grove St., New Paltz. ~Post office clerk~
 Hill, Francis S., Sterling. ~Letter carrier on rural route~
 Iddings, William A., 1931 Park Place. Brooklyn 33
 Irish, G. Whitney, Fruitlands, Route No. 1, Valatie. ~Farmer~
 Kettaneh, F. A., 745 Fifth Ave., New York 22
 Knipper, George M., 333 Chestnut Ridge Rd., Churchville
 Knorr, Mrs. Arthur, 15 Central Park, West, Apt. 1406, New York
 Kraai, Dr. John, Fairport. ~Physician~
 Larkin, Harry H., 189 Van Rennsselaer Street, Buffalo 10
 *Lewis, Clarence (Retired.)
 Lowerre, James, Route 3, Middletown
 *MacDaniels, Dr. L. H. Cornell University. Ithaca. ~Head, Dept.
   of Floriculture and Ornamental Hort.~
 Miller, J. E., Canandaigua. ~Nurseryman.~
 Mitchell, Rudolph, 125 Riverside Drive, New York 24. ~Mechanical engineer~
 *Montgomery, Robert H., 1 E., 44th Street, New York
 Mossman, Dr. James K., Black Oaks, Ramapo
 Newell, Palmer F., Lake Road, Route No. 1. Westfield
 Owen, Charles H., Sennett. ~Superintendent of Schools~
 Pura, John J., Green Haven, Stormville
 Salzer, George, 169 Garford Road, Rochester 9. ~Milkman~,
   ~chestnut tree grower~
 Schlegel, Charles P., 990 South Ave., Rochester 7
 Schlick, Frank, Munnsville
 Schmidt, Carl W., 180 Linwood Avenue, Buffalo
 Shannon, J. W., Box 90, Ithaca
 Sheffield, Lewis J., c/o Mrs. Edna C. Jones, Townline Road, Orangeburg
 Slate, Prof. George L., Experiment Station, Geneva. ~Fruit Breeder~
 Smith, Gilbert L., Benton & Smith Nut Tree Nursery, Route 2, Millerton.
   ~Nurseryman~, ~retired teacher~
 Smith, Jay L., Chester. ~Nut tree nurseryman~
 Spahr, Dr. Mary B., 116 N. Geneva St., Ithaca
 Steiger, Harwood, Red Hook. ~Artist-designer~
 +Szego, Alfred, 77-15 A 37th Avenue, Jackson Heights, New York
 Timmerman, Karl G., 123 Chapel St., Fayetteville
 Wadsworth, Willard E., Route No. 5, Oswego
 Wheeler, Robert C., 36 State Street, Albany
 Windisch, Richard P., c/o W. E. Burnet Company, 11 Wall St., New York 5
 *Wissman, Mrs. F. De R. ~(Retired.)~


 NORTH CAROLINA

 Brooks, J. R., Box 116, Enka
 Dunstan, Dr. R. T., Greensboro College, Greensboro
 Finch, Jack R., Bailey. ~Farmer~
 Parks, C. H., Route No. 2, Asheville. ~Mechanic~


 NORTH DAKOTA

 Bradley, Homer L., Long Lake Refuge, Moffit. ~Refuge Manager~


 OHIO

 Ackerman, Lester, Route No. 3, Ada
 Glen Helen Department, Antioch College, Yellow Springs
 Barden, C. A., 215 Morgan Street, Oberlin. ~Real Estate~
 Beede, D. V., Route No. 3, Lisbon
 Bitler, W. A., R. F. D. I, Shawnee Road, Lima. ~General contractor~
 Borchers, Perry E., 412 W. Hillcrest Ave., Dayton 6
 Brewster, Lewis, Route No. 1, Swanton. ~Vegetable grower~
 Bridgewater, Boyd E., 68 Cherry St., Akron. ~V. P. Bridgewater
   Machine Co.~
 Bungart, A. A., Avon
 Cinadr, Mrs. Katherine, 13514 Coath Ave., Cleveland 20. ~Housewife~
 Clark, Richard L., 1517 Westdale Rd., South Euclid 21. ~Sales manager~
 Cook, H. C., Route No. 1, Box 125, Leetonia
 Cornett, Charles. L., R. R. Perishable Inspection Agency, 27 W. Front St.,
   Cincinnati. ~Inspector~
 Craig, George E., Dundas (Vinton County). ~Fruit and nut grower~
 Cranz, Eugene F., Mount Tom Farm, Ira
 Cunningham, Harvey E., 420 Front Street, Marietta
 Daley, Jame R., Route No. 3, Foster Park Road, Amherst. ~Electrician~
 Davidson, John, 234 East Second Street, Xenia. ~Writer~
 Davidson, Mrs. John, 234 East Second Street, Xenia
 Diller, Dr. Oliver D., Dept. of Forestry, Ohio Exp. Sta., Wooster
 Distelhorst, P. E., 3532 Douglas Road, Toledo 6
 Dowell, Dr. Lloyd L., 529 North Ave., N. E., Massillon. ~Physician~
 Farr, Mrs. Walter, Route No. 1, Kingsville
 Garden Center of Greater Cleveland, 11190 East Blvd., Cleveland
 Gerber, E. P., Kidron
 Gerstenmaier, John A., 13 Pond S. W., Massillon. ~Letter carrier~
 Goss, C. E., 922 Dover Avenue, Akron 20
 Grad, Dr, Edward A., 1506 Chase Street, Cincinnati 23
 Hansley, C. F., Box 614, Sugar Grove. ~Contractor~
 Hawk & Son Nursery, Route No. 2, Beach City. ~Chestnut trees~
 Hill, Dr. Albert A., 4187 Pearl Road, Cleveland
 Hornyak, Louis, Route No. 1, Wakeman
 Howard, James R., 2908 Fleming Road, Middletown
 Irish, Charles F., 418 E. 105th St., Cleveland 8. ~Arborist~
 Jacobs, Homer L., Davey Tree Expert Company, Kent
 Kappel, Owen, Bolivar
 Kerr, S. E., M. D., Route No. 1, North Lawrence
 Kintzel, Frank W., 2506 Briarcliff Ave., Cincinnati 13 ~Principal~,
   ~Cincinnati public schools~
 Laditka, Nicholas G., 5322 Stickney Ave., Cleveland 9. ~Electrician~
 Leaman, Paul Y., Route No. 1, Creston
 Lorenz, R. C., 121 North Arch Street, Fremont
 Machovina, Paul E., 1228 Northwest Blvd., Columbus 12. ~College professor~
 McKinster, Ray, 1632 South 4th Street, Columbus 7
 Meister, Richard T., ~Editor, American Fruit Grower~, Willoughby
 Metzger, A. J., 724 Euclid Avenue, Toledo 5
 Oches, Norman M., R. D. 1, Brunswick. ~Mechanical Engineer~
 Osborn, Frank C., 4040 W. 160th St., Cleveland 11. ~Tool and die maker~
 Page, John H., Box 34, Dundas (Vinton County)
 Pataky, Christ, Jr., 492 Hickory Lane, Route No. 4, Mansfield.
   ~Produce market~, ~grocer~
 Pattison, Aletheia, 5 Dexter Place, E. W. N., Cincinnati 6
 Pomerene, Walter H., Route No. 3, Coshocton. ~Agricultural Engineer,
   Hydrological Research Station~
 Purdy, Clyde W., 19 Public Square, Mt. Vernon
 Ranke, William, Route No. 1, Amelia
 Roberts, J. Pearl, Rt. 3, Freeport
 Rummel, E. T., 16613 Laverne Avenue, Cleveland 11. ~Sales manager~
 Schoenberger, L. Roy, Green Pines Farm, Route No. 2, Nevada
 Seas, D. Edward, 721 South Main Street, Orrville
 Sebring, R. G., 1227 Lincoln Road, Columbus
 Shelton, Dr. Elbert M., 1468 W. Clifton Blvd., Lakewood 7
 Shessler, Sylvester M., Genoa. ~Farmer~
 Silvis, Raymond E., 1725 Lindbergh Avenue, N. E., Massillon. ~Realty~
 Smith, Sterling A., 630 W. South Street, Vermilion. ~Telegrapher, NYC RR
   (Treasurer of the Assn.)~
 Spears, Ernest G., 4326 Forest Ave., Norwood 6
 Spring Hill Nurseries Company, Tipp City. ~General nurserymen~
 Steinbeck, A. P., East Nimisilla Rd., North Canton. ~Rubber worker,
   Firestone Tire & Rubber Co.~
 Stocker, C. P., Lorain Products Corp., 1122 F. Street, Lorain
 Stolz, Thomas O., 334 Claranna Ave., Dayton 9
 Thiesing, J. R., 113 S. Washington, New Bremen
 Thomas, Fred, Route No. 1, Bedford Road, Masury
 Toops, Herbert A., 1430 Cambridge Blvd., Columbus 12. ~College Professor~
 Underwood, John, Route No. 4, Urbana
 Urban, George, 4518 Ardendale Road, South Euclid 21. ~Mayor~
 Van Voorhis, J. F., 215 Hudson Avenue, Apt. B-1, Newark
 Von Gundy, Clifford R., R. F. D. No. 8, Cincinnati 30
 Walker, Carl F., 2851 E. Overlook Rd., Cleveland 18. ~Consulting engineer~
 Weaver, Arthur W., R.F.D., Box 196B, Cass Rd., Maumee
 *Weber, Harry R., Esq. (Deceased.)
 Weber, Mrs. Martha R., Route No. 1, Mahawe Farm, Cleves
 Willett, Dr. G. P., Elmore
 Williams, Harry M., 221 Grandon Road, Dayton 9. ~Engineer~
 Wischhusen, J. F., 15031 Shore Acres Drive, N. E., Cleveland 10
 Yates, Edward W., 3108 Parkview Avenue, Cincinnati 13.
   ~Mechanical engineer~
 Yoder, Emmet, Smithville


 OKLAHOMA

 Butler, Roy, Route No. 2, Hydro. ~Farmer~, ~cattleman~
 Cross, Prof. Frank B., Dept. of Horticulture, Oklahoma A&M College,
   Stillwater.
   ~Teaching and Experiment Station Work~
 Gray, Geoffrey A., 1628 Elm Ave., Bartlesville
 Hartman, Peter E., 3002 S. Boston Pl., Tulsa 5. ~Nurseryman~
 Hirschi's Nursery (A. G. Hirschi), 414 North Robinson, Oklahoma City
   ~Dry cleaning business, nurseryman~
 Hughes, C. V., Route No. 3, Box 614, 5600 N. W. 16th Street, Oklahoma City
 Keathly, Jack, Marland. ~Farmer~
 Kissick, E. A., State Board of Agr., 122 State Capitol Bldg., Oklahoma
   City. ~Marketing Specialist~
 Meek, E. B., Route 2, Wynnewood
 Pulliam, Gordon, 1605 Osage Ave., Bartlesville
 Scales, Charles D., 3200 N. W. 26th St., Oklahoma City 7


 OREGON

 Miller, John E., Treasuredale, Route No. 1, Box 312-A, Oswego
 Pearcy, Harry L., Route 2. Box 190, Salem. ~H. L. Pearcy Nursery
   Co. (Nut trees.)~


 PENNSYLVANIA

 Allaman, R. P., Route 86, Harrisburg. ~Farm superintendent~
 Amsler, E. W., 707 Main St., Clarion
 Anthony, Roy D., 215 Hillcrest Ave., State College. ~Tree Crops Advisor,
   Pa. Dept. of Agr.~
 Arensberg, Charles F. C., First Nat'l Bank Bldg., Pittsburgh 22
   ~(Chinese chestnut seed grower.)~
 Banks, H. C., Route No. 1, Hellertown
 Beard, H. K., Route No. 1, Sheridan. ~Insurance agent~
 Beck, Dr. William M., 200 Race St., Sunbury
 Berst, Charles B., 11 W. 8th Street, Erie. ~Inspector, Lord Mfg. Co.,
   Erie, Pa.~
 Bowen, John C., Route No. 1, Macungie
 Brown, Morrison, Ickesburg
 Buckwalter, Geoffrey R., c/o F. H. Levey Co., Inc., 1223 Washington Ave.,
   Philadelphia 47
 Clarke, William S., Jr., P. O. Box 167, State College
 Colwell, Dr. Frederick A., R.F.D. No. 1, Collegeville
 Damask, Henry, 1632 Doyle Street, Wilkinsburg 21. ~Telephone man~
 Ebling, Aaron L., Route No. 2, Reading
 Etter, Fayette, P. O. Box 57, Lemasters. ~General foreman for
   an electric company~
 Gage, Charles K., 1429 Newman Road, Havertown
 Gardner, Ralph D., 4428 Plymouth St., Harrisburg.
   ~Assistant State Fire Marshal~
 Good, Orren S., 316 N. Fairview Street, Lock Haven. ~Retired~
 Gorton, F. B., Route No. 1, East Lake Road, Harborcreek.
   ~Electrical contractor~
 Hammond, Harold, 903 South Poplar Street, Allentown
 Hershey, John W., Route No. 1, Downingtown. ~Nurseryman~
 Hostetter, L. K., Route No. 3, Lancaster. ~Farmer~, ~black walnut grower~
 Hughes, Douglas, 1230 East 21st Street, Erie
 Johnson, Robert F., 1630 Greentree Road, Pittsburgh 20
 Jones, Mildred M. (See Mrs. Langdoc--under Illinois)
 Jones, Dr. Truman W., Walnut Grove Farm, Parksburg
 Kaufman, Mrs. M. M., Box 69, Clarion
 Knouse, Charles W., Colonial Park, Harrisburg. ~Coal dealer~
 Laboski, George T., Route No. 1, Harborcreek. ~Fruit grower
   and nurseryman~
 Leach, Will, 406-410 Scranton Life Bldg., Scranton 3. ~Lawyer~
 Mattoon, H. Gleason, Box 304, Narberth. ~Consultant in Arborculture~
 McKenna, Philip M., P. O. Box 186, Latrobe
 Mecartney, J. Lupton, 918 W. Beaver Ave., State College. ~Pomologist~
 Miller, Elwood B., Mill and Chapel Sts., Hazleton
 Miller, Robert O., 3rd and Ridge Streets, Emmaus
 Moyer, Philip S., 80-82 U. S. F. & G. Bldg., Harrisburg. ~Attorney~
 Niederriter, Leonard, 1726 State Street, Erie. ~Merchant~
 Nonnemacher, H. M., Box 204, Alburtis. ~Line foreman, Bell Tel.
   Co. of Pa.~
 Ranson, Flavel, 728 Monroe Avenue, Scranton. ~Farmer~
 Reidler, Paul G., Ashland. ~Manufacturer of textiles~
 Rick, John, 438 Penna. Sq., Reading. ~Fruit grower and merchant~
 Schaible, Percy, Upper Black Eddy. ~Laborer~
 Scott, J. Lewis. 5-A Camberwell Drive, R.F.D. No. 2, Pittsburgh 15
 Shade, Earl L., 1027 E. 26th St., Erie
 Sherman, L. Walter. (See under Michigan.)
 Smith, Dr. J. Russell, 550 Elm Ave., Swarthmore. ~Retired teacher, writer
   and nurseryman~
 Stewart, E. L., Pine Hill Farms Nursery, Route No. 2, Homer City
 Theiss, Dr. Lewis E., 110 University Ave., Lewisburg. ~Retired professor~
 Thompson, Howard A., 311 West Swissvale Ave., Pittsburgh 18
 Twist, Frank S., Box 127, Northumberland. ~Salesman~
 Waite, Knighton V., M. D., Renton
 Washick, Dr. Frank A., S. W., Welsh & Veree Roads, Philadelphia 11.
   ~Surgeon~
 Weaver, William S., Weaver Orchards, Macungie
 Weinrich, Whitney, P. O. Box 225, Wallingford. ~Chemical engineer~
 Wister, John C., Scott Foundation, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore.
   ~Horticulturist~
 Wright, Ross Pier, 235 W. 6th Street, Erie. Manufacturer
 Zimmerman, Mrs. G. A., R. D., Linglestown


 RHODE ISLAND

 Allen, Philip, 178 Dorance Street, Providence


 SOUTH CAROLINA

 Bregger, John T., Clemson. ~Research Supervisor (Soil Conservation),
   Orchard Erosion Investigations~
 Gordon, G. Henry, 13-1/2 Main St., Union. ~Returned Mariner~


 SOUTH DAKOTA

 Richter, Herman, Madison. ~Farmer~


 TENNESSEE

 Alpine Forest Reserve, c/o J. Edwin Carothers, Alpine
 Boyd, Harold B., M. D., 3418 Waynoka St., Memphis 11. ~Physician~
 Chase, Spencer, T. V. A., Norris. ~Horticulturist~
 Garrett, Dr. Sam Young, 1902 Hayes St., Nashville. ~Surgeon~
 Holdeman, J. E., 855 N. McNeil St., Memphis 7
 Howell Nurseries, Sweetwater. ~Ornamental and chestnut nurserymen~
 McDaniel, J. C. (See under Illinois)
 Meeks, Hamp, c/o Jackson Elec. Dept., Jackson. ~Electrical Engineer~
 Murphy, H. O., 12 Sweetbriar Avenue, Chattanooga. ~Fruit grower~
 Richards, Dr. Aubrey, Whiteville. ~Physician~
 Roark, W. F., Malesus. ~Farmer~, ~chestnut grower~
 Robinson, W. Jobe, Route No. 7, Jackson. ~Farmer~
 Sammons, Julius, Jr., Pecan Row Farm, Whiteville. ~Farmer~, ~orchardist~
 Saville, Chris, 118 Church St., Greeneville
 Shipley, Mrs. E. D., 3 Century Court, Knoxville 16. ~Housewife~
 Smathers, Rev. Eugene, Calvary Church, Big Lick. Minister, farmer
 Southern Nursery & Landscape Co., Attn. Hubert Nicholson, Winchester.
   ~General nurserymen~


 TEXAS

 Arford, Charles A., Box 1230, Dalhart. ~R. R. engineer~,
   ~amateur horticulturist~
 Brison, Prof. F. R., Dept, of Horticulture, A. & M. College, College
   Station
 Florida, Kaufman, Box 154, Rotan
 Kidd, Clark, Arp Nursery Co., P. O. Box 867, Tyler. ~Nut nurseryman~
 Winkler, Andrew, Route 1, Moody. ~Farmer and pecan grower~


 UTAH

 Petterson, Harlan D., 2076 Jefferson Avenue, Ogden. ~Highway engineer~


 VERMONT

 Aldrich, A. W., R.F.D. No. 3, Springfield
 Collins, Joseph N., Route No. 3, Putney. ~Civil engineer~, ~farmer~
 ~Ellis, Zenas H., Fair Haven. Perpetual member, "In Memoriam."~
 Holbrook, F. C., Scott Farm, Brattleboro


 VIRGINIA

 Acker Black Walnut Corp., Box 263, Broadway. ~Walnut processors~
 Burton, George L., 722 College Street, Bedford
 Curthoys, George A., P. O. Box 34, Bristol
 Dickerson, T. C., 316-56th Street, Newport News. ~Statistician~, ~farmer~
 Dudley, Charles L., Glen Wilton
 Gibbs, H. R. Linden. ~Carpenter~, ~wood worker~
 Gunther, Eric F., Route No. 1, Box 31, Onancock. ~Retired business man~
 Lee, Dr. Henry, 806 Medical Arts Building, Roanoke 11
 Narten, Perry F., 6110 N. Washington Blvd., Arlington 5
 Pinner, Henry, P. O. Box 155, Suffolk
 Stoke, H. F., 1436 Watts Avenue N. W., Roanoke
 Stoke, Mrs. H. F., 1436 Watts Avenue, N. W., Roanoke
 Stoke, Dr. John H., 21 Highland Avenue, S. E., Roanoke 13. ~Chiropractor~
 Thompson, B. H., Harrisonburg. ~Manufacturer of nut crackers~


 WASHINGTON

 Andrew, Col. James W., Hqts. 39 Wing, A.P.O. 942 c/o P. M., Seattle.
   (Farm in Illinois.)
 Bartleson, C. J., Box 25, Chattaroy. ~Office worker~
 Brown, H. B., Greenacres
 Bush, Carroll D., Grapeview. ~Chestnut grower and shipper~, ~nurseryman~
 Denman, George L., East 1319 Nina Avenue, Spokane 10. ~Dairyman~
 Eliot, Craig P., P. O. Box 158, Shelton. ~Electrical engineer~,
   ~part time farmer~
 Erkman, John O., Apt. 85, 1219 Washington Way, Richland. ~Physicist~
 Kling, William L., Route No. 2, Box 230, Clarkson
 Latterell, Miss Ethel, 408 N. Flora Rd., Greenacres. ~Greenhouse worker~
 Linkletter, Frank D., 115 4th Ave. North, Seattle 9. ~Retired~
 Naderman, G. W., Route 1, Box 381, Olympia. ~Caretaker of summer resort~
 Ross, Vevel C., 4025 Rucker Ave., Everett
 Shane Brothers, Vashon
 Shepard, Will, Chelan Falls
 Tuttle, Lynn, Nursery, The Heights, Clarkston. ~Nut nurseryman~

 WEST VIRGINIA

 Cannaday, Dr. John E., Charleston General Hospital, Charleston 25.
   ~Physician~
 Engle, Blaine W., Mutual Fire Ins. Co. of W. Va., Goff Bldg., Clarksburg
 Frye, Wilbert M., Pleasant Dale. ~Retired~
 Gold Chestnut Nursery, c/o Mr. Arthur A. Gold, Cowen. Chestnut nurseryman
 Haines, Earl C., Shanks
 Long, J. L., Box 491, Princeton. ~Civil engineer~
 Mish, Arnold F., Inwood. ~Associational farmer~
 Reed, Arthur M., Moundsville. ~Proprietor, Glenmount Nurseries~

 WISCONSIN

 Ladwig, C. F., 2221 St. Laurence, Beloit. ~Grocer and (hobby) farmer~
 Mortensen, M. C., 2117 Slauson Avenue, Racine
 Raether, Robert, Route No. 1, Augusta (Eau Claire County)



Subscribers and Standing Library Orders


Brooklyn Botanic Garden Library, 1000 Washington Avenue, Brooklyn 25, N.
Y.

Clemson College Library, Clemson, South Carolina.

Cleveland Public Library, Leta E. Adams, Order Librarian, 325 Superior
Avenue, Cleveland 14, Ohio.

Connecticut Agr. Exp. Sta., Genetics Dept., 123 Huntington St., New
Haven 11, Conn.

Cornell University, College of Agriculture Library, Ithaca, New York.

Detroit Public Library, 5201 Woodward Avenue, Detroit 2, Michigan.

University of Maine (Library), Orono, Maine.

Library, University of Miami, Coral Gables 34, Florida.

Library, University of New Hampshire, Durham, N. H.

Oregon State College Library, Corvallis, Oregon.

Peachey, Enos D., P. O. Box 22, Belleville, Pennsylvania.

Rhode Island State College, Library Dept., Green Hall, Kingston, Rhode
Island.

Rutgers University, Agricultural Library, Nichol Avenue, New Brunswick,
N. J.

St. Louis Public Library, Olive, 13th and 14th Streets, St. Louis,
Missouri.



ADVANCE ORDERS FOR THE 41st ANNUAL REPORT


Alabama Polytechnic Institute (Main Library), Auburn, Alabama.

Massachusetts Horticultural Society Library, Horticultural Hall, 300
Massachusetts Ave., Boston 15, Massachusetts.

North Carolina State College (D. H. Hill Library), Raleigh, North
Carolina.

Pennsylvania State College Agricultural Library, Room 101, Patterson
Hall, State College, Pennsylvania.

Purdue University Agr. Library, Lafayette, Indiana.





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including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.



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