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Title: Northern Nut Growers Association Report of the Proceedings at the 44th Annual Meeting - Rochester, N.Y. August 31 and September 1, 1953
Author: Northern Nut Growers Association [Editor]
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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+------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|DISCLAIMER                                                              |
|                                                                        |
|The articles published in the Annual Reports of the Northern Nut Growers|
|Association are the findings and thoughts solely of the authors and are |
|not to be construed as an endorsement by the Northern Nut Growers       |
|Association, its board of directors, or its members. No endorsement is  |
|intended for products mentioned, nor is criticism meant for products not|
|mentioned. The laws and recommendations for pesticide application may   |
|have changed since the articles were written. It is always the pesticide|
|applicator's responsibility, by law, to read and follow all current     |
|label directions for the specific pesticide being used. The discussion  |
|of specific nut tree cultivars and of specific techniques to grow nut   |
|trees that might have been successful in one area and at a particular   |
|time is not a guarantee that similar results will occur elsewhere.      |
+------------------------------------------------------------------------+



_44th Annual Report_

OF THE

Northern Nut Growers Association

Incorporated

AFFILIATED WITH THE AMERICAN HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY

       *       *       *       *       *

_Annual Meeting at_

ROCHESTER, NEW YORK

August 31--September 1, 1953

[Illustration: NORTHERN NUT GROWERS ASSOC.

ROCHESTER N.Y.-1953]



Table of Contents

   Officers and Committees 1953-54                                     4
   State and Foreign Vice-Presidents                                   6
   Constitution and By-laws                                            8
   Call to Order, 44th Annual Meeting                                 11
   Address of Welcome--Wilbur Wright                                  12
   Business Session--Secretary's Report--Treasurer's Report   13, 14, 15
   Blossoming Habits of the Persian Walnut--H. F. Stoke               18
   President's Address--Richard B. Best                               22
   About Nuts--Ira M. Kyhl                                            28
   Natural Variation Observed in Shagbark Hickory, Carya ovata
     (Mill.) K. Koch. in Central New York--David H. Caldwell          29
   The Control of the Hickory Weevil (Curculio caryae)                39
   Round Table Discussion--What's Your Problem                        43
   The International Chestnut Commission and the Chestnut Blight
     Problem in Europe, 1953--G. Flippo Gravatt                       52
   Rooting Chestnuts from Softwood Cuttings--Roger W. Pease           56
   Evaluating Chestnuts Grown under Forest Conditions--Jesse
     D. Diller                                                        59
   Panel Discussion--Chestnuts                                        62
   Development of the Nut Industry in the Middle West--J. F.
   Wilkinson                                                          70
   Some Aspects of the Problem of Producing Curly-Grained
     Walnuts--L. H. MacDaniels                                        72
   Late Rev. Paul C. Crath--L. K. Devitt                              80
   The Eastern Black Walnut as a Farm Timber Tree--John Davidson      84
   The McKinster Persian Walnut--P. E. Machovina                      89
   Carpathian Walnuts in the Colombia River Basin--Lynn Tuttle        94
   Walnuts and Filberts in Southern Wisconsin--C. F. Ladwig           95
   Biology, Distribution and Control of the Walnut Husk
     Maggot--F. L. Gambrell                                           98
   Panel Discussion: The Persian Walnut Situation                    104
   Banquet Session--Resolutions Committee Report                     109
   Walnuts in Lubec, Maine--Radcliffe B. Pike                        115
   My Thirty Years Experience with Nut Trees--Carl Weschcke          116
   Growing American Chestnuts and Their Hybrids Under Blight
     Conditions--Alfred Szego                                        119
   Experiences and Observations on Nut Growing in Central
     Texas--Kaufman Florida                                          121
   Propagation of the Hickories--F. L. O'Rourke                      122
   A Root Disease of the Persian Walnut--G. Flippo Gravatt           127
   Factors That Influence Nut Production--W. B. Ward                 129
   Pictorial Record of Grafting at Climax Michigan--W. M. Beckert    134
   Rock Phosphate for Nut Trees--Harry B. Burgart                    135
   A Report from Southern Minnesota--R. E. Hodgson                   136
   Chestnut Breeding--Report for 1953--Arthur Harmount Graves and
     Hans Nienstaedt                                                 136
   Dr. W. C. Deming--John Davidson                                   144
   The Nomenclature of Nut Varieties--George H. M. Lawrence          145
   The New Code for the Naming of Cultivated Plants--J. S. L. Gilman 149
   Exhibit at the Harvest Show of the Massachusetts Horticultural
     Society                                                         158
   Attendance Register, Rochester, N. Y. 1953                        159
   Membership List                                                   160



Officers for 1953-54

   President                             Richard B. Best, Eldred, Illinois
   Vice-President                         Gilbert Becker, Climax, Michigan
   Secretary                        Spencer B. Chase, Knoxville, Tennessee
   Treasurer           William S. Clarke, Jr., State College, Pennsylvania
   Directors                        Dr. L. H. MacDaniels, Ithaca, New York
                                   Dr. William Rohrbacher, Iowa City, Iowa
   Dean of the Association       Dr. W. C. Deming, Litchfield, Connecticut



EXECUTIVE APPOINTMENTS 1953-54

   Program Committee:
       Dr. Lloyd L. Dowell, Royal Oakes, Dr. J. W. McKay, Roy D. Anthony,
       J. G. McDaniel, Lewis E. Theiss, W. B. Ward.

   Local Arrangements:
       Mrs. Herbert Krone, R. P. Allaman, John Rick, Elwood B. Miller,
       Victor Brook.

   Place of Meeting Committee:
       To explore meeting places for three years, Michigan and Connecticut
       as possible places for the 1955 and 1956 annual conventions. W. M.
       Beckert, R. P. Allaman, Carl Prell, Lloyd L. Dowell.

   Publication Committee:
       Professor George L. Slate, Dr. L. H. MacDaniels.

   Varieties and Contests Committee:
       J. C. McDaniel, Dr. L. H. MacDaniels, Sylvester M. Shessler, H. F.
       Stoke, Royal Oakes.

   Standards and Judging Committee: (Section of Varieties Committee)
       Dr. L. H. MacDaniels, Dr. H. L. Crane, Louis Gerardi, Spencer B.
       Chase, Professor Paul E. Machovina.

   Survey and Research Committee:
       H. F. Stoke (With all state and foreign vice-presidents).

   Exhibits Committee:
       Dr. L. H. MacDaniels, Fayette Etter, H. F. Stoke, Royal Oakes, J. F.
       Wilkinson, G. J. Korn.

   Understock Committee:
       J. C. McDaniel, Albert B. Ferguson, Dr. Aubrey Richards, Louis
       Gerardi, Dr. A. S. Colby, Max Hardy, Gilbert L. Smith.

   Auditing Committee:
       Raymond E. Silvis, Sterling A. Smith, Edward W. Pape.

   Legal Advisor:
       Sargent H. Wellman, Esq.

   Finance Committee:
       Carl F. Prell, Ford Wallick, Sterling A. Smith.

   Necrology Committee:
       Mrs. H. L. Crane, Mrs. C. A. Reed, Mrs. Wm. J. Wilson.

   Nominating Committee:
       (Elected at Rochester, N. Y.) Paul E. Machovina, Raymond Silvis,
        George Salzer, Dr. H. L. Crane, Ira M. Kyhl.

   Membership Committee:
       Gilbert Becker, Raymond E. Silvis, Edward W. Pape, Gordon Pulliam,
           Hon. Paul C. Daniels, Max B. Hardy.

   Publicity Committee:
       Paul E. Machovina, Wm. J. Wilson, Carl F. Prell, Frank M. Kintzel.

   Change of Name Committee:
       Elwood B. Miller, John Davidson, Dr. J. W. McKay, Dr. H. L. Crane.



State and Foreign Vice-Presidents

 Alabama             Edward L. Hiles, Loxley
 Alberta             A. L. Young, Brooks
 Arkansas            W. D. Wylie, Univ. of Ark., Fayetteville
 Belgium             R. Vanderwaeren, Bierbeekstraat, 310, Korbeek-Lo
 British Columbia,
   Canada            J. U. Gellatly, Box 19, Westbank
 California          Thos. R. Haig, M.D., 3021 Highland Ave., Carlesbad
 Colorado            J. E. Forbes, Julesburg
 Connecticut         A. M. Huntington, Stanerigg Farms, Bethel
 Delaware            Lewis Wilkins, Route 1, Newark
 Denmark             Count F. M. Knuth, Knuthenborg, Bandholm
 District of
   Columbia          Ed. L. Ford, 3634 Austin St., S.E. Washington 20
 Florida             C. A. Avant, 960 N. W. 10th Ave., Miami
 Georgia             William J. Wilson, North Anderson Ave., Fort Valley
 Hawaii              John F. Cross, P. O. Box 1720, Hilo
 Hong Kong           P. W. Wang, 6 Des Voeux Rd., Central
 Idaho               Lynn Dryden, Peck
 Illinois            Royal Oakes, Bluffs (Scott County)
 Indiana             Edw. W. Pape, Rt. 2, Marion
 Iowa                Ira M. Kyhl, Box 236, Sabula
 Kansas              Dr. Clyde Gray, 1045 Central Ave., Horton
 Kentucky            Dr. C. A. Moss, Williamsburg
 Louisiana           Dr. Harald E. Hammar, 608 Court House, Shreveport
 Maryland            Blaine McCollum, White Hall
 Massachusetts       S. Lothrop Davenport, 24 Creeper Hill Rd., North
                                                                Grafton
 Michigan            Gilbert Becker, Climax
 Minnesota           R. E. Hodgson, Southeastern Exp. Station, Waseca
 Mississippi         James R. Meyer, Delta Branch Exp. Station, Stoneville
 Missouri            Ralph Richterkessing, Route 1, Saint Charles
 Montana             Russel H. Ford, Dixon
 Nebraska            Harvey W. Hess, Box 209, Hebron
 New Hampshire       Matthew Lahti, Locust Lane Farm, Wolfeboro
 New Jersey          Mrs. Alan R. Buckwalter, Route 1, Flemington
 New Mexico          Rev. Titus Gehring, P. O. Box 177, Lumberton
 New York            Stephen Bernath, Route No. 3, Poughkeepsie
 North Carolina      Dr. R. T. Dunstan, Greensboro College, Greensboro
 North Dakota        Homer L. Bradley, Long Lake Refuge, Moffit
 Ohio                Christ Pataky Jr., 592 Hickory Lane, Route 4,
                                                          Mansfield
 Oklahoma            A. G. Hirschi, 414 North Robinson, Oklahoma City
 Ontario, Canada     Elton E. Papple, Cainsville
 Oregon              Harry L. Pearcy, Route 2, Box 190, Salem
 Pennsylvania        R. P. Allaman, Route 86, Harrisburg
 Prince Edward Is.
   Canada            Robert Snazelle, Forest Nursery, Route 5,
                                                      Charlottetown
 Rhode Island        Philip Allen, 178 Dorance St., Providence
 South Carolina      John T. Bregger, P. O. Box 1018, Clemson
 South Dakota        Herman Richter, Madison
 Tennessee           W. Jobe Robinson, Route 7, Jackson
 Texas               Kaufman Florida, Box 154, Rotan
 Utah                Harlan D. Petterson, 2076 Jefferson Ave., Ogden
 Vermont             A. W. Aldrich, R. F. D. 2, Box 266, Springfield
 Virginia            H. R. Gibbs, Linden
 Washington          H. Lynn Tuttle, Clarkston
 West Virginia       Wilbert M. Frye, Pleasant Dale
 Wisconsin           C. F. Ladwig, 2221 St. Lawrence, Beloit



   CONSTITUTION
   of the
   NORTHERN NUT GROWERS ASSOCIATION, INCORPORATED
   (As adopted September 13, 1948)


NAME

ARTICLE I. This Society shall be known as the Northern Nut Growers
Association, Incorporated. It is strictly a non-profit organization.

PURPOSES

ARTICLE II. The purposes of this Association shall be to promote
interest in the nut bearing plants; scientific research in their
breeding and culture; standardization of varietal names; the
dissemination of information concerning the above and such other
purposes as may advance the culture of nut bearing plants, particularly
in the North Temperate Zone.

MEMBERS

ARTICLE III. Membership in this Association shall be open to all persons
interested in supporting the purposes of the Association. Classes of
members are as follows: Annual members, Contributing members, Life
members, Honorary members, and Perpetual members. Applications for
membership in the Association shall be presented to the secretary or the
treasurer in writing, accompanied by the required dues.

OFFICERS

ARTICLE IV. The elected officers of this Association shall consist of a
President, a Vice-president, a Secretary and a Treasurer or a combined
Secretary-treasurer as the Association may designate.

BOARD OF DIRECTORS

Article V. The Board of Directors shall consist of six members of the
Association who shall be the officers of the Association and the two
preceding elected presidents. If the offices of Secretary and Treasurer
are combined, the three past presidents shall serve on the Board of
Directors.

There shall be a State Vice-president for each state, dependency, or
country represented in the membership of the Association, who shall be
appointed by the President.

AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION

ARTICLE VI. This constitution may be amended by a two-thirds vote of the
members present at any annual meeting, notice of such amendment having
been read at the previous annual meeting, or copy of the proposed
amendments having been mailed by the Secretary, or by any member to each
member thirty days before the date of the annual meeting.



BY-LAWS

(Revised and adopted at Norris, Tennessee, September 13, 1948)


SECTION I.--MEMBERSHIP

Classes of membership are defined as follows:

ARTICLE I. ANNUAL MEMBERS. Persons who are interested in the purposes of
the Association who pay annual dues of Three Dollars ($3.00).

ARTICLE II. Contributing members. Persons who are interested in the
purposes of the Association who pay annual dues of Ten Dollars ($10.00)
or more.

ARTICLE III. LIFE MEMBERS. Persons who are interested in the purposes of
the Association who contribute Seventy-Five Dollars ($75.00) to its
support and who shall, after such contribution, pay no annual dues.

ARTICLE IV. HONORARY MEMBERS. Those whom the Association has elected as
honorary members in recognition of their achievements in the special
fields of the Association and who shall pay no dues.

ARTICLE V. PERPETUAL MEMBERS. "Perpetual" membership is eligible to any
one who leaves at least five hundred dollars to the Association and such
membership on payment of said sum to the Association shall entitle the
name of the deceased to be forever enrolled in the list of members as
"Perpetual" with the words "In Memoriam" added thereto. Funds received
therefor shall be invested by the Treasurer in interest bearing
securities legal for trust funds in the District of Columbia. Only the
interest shall be expended by the Association. When such funds are in
the treasury the Treasurer shall be bonded. Provided: that in the event
the Association becomes defunct or dissolves, then, in that event, the
Treasurer shall turn over any funds held in his hands for this purpose
for such uses, individuals or companies that the donor may designate at
the time he makes the bequest of the donation.


SECTION II.--DUTIES OF OFFICERS

ARTICLE I. The President shall preside at all meetings of the
Association and Board of Directors, and may call meetings of the Board
of Directors when he believes it to be the best interests of the
Association. He shall appoint the State Vice-presidents; the standing
committees, except, the Nominating Committee, and such special
committees as the Association may authorize.

ARTICLE II. Vice-president. In the absence of the President, the
Vice-president shall perform the duties of the President.

ARTICLE III. Secretary. The Secretary shall be the active executive
officer of the Association. He shall conduct the correspondence relating
to the Association's interests, assist in obtaining memberships and
otherwise actively forward the interests of the Association, and report
to the Annual Meeting and from time to time to meetings of the Board of
Directors as they may request.

ARTICLE IV. Treasurer. The Treasurer shall receive and record
memberships, receive and account for all moneys of the Association and
shall pay all bills approved by the President or the Secretary. He shall
give such security as the Board of Directors may require or may legally
be required, shall invest life memberships or other funds as the Board
of Directors may direct, subject to legal restrictions and in accordance
with the law, and shall submit a verified account of receipts and
disbursements to the Annual meeting and such current accounts as the
Board of Directors may from time to time require. Before the final
business session of the Annual Meeting of the Association, the accounts
of the Treasurer shall be submitted for examination to the Auditing
Committee appointed by the President at the opening session of the
Annual Meeting.

ARTICLE V. The Board of Directors shall manage the affairs of the
association between meetings. Four members, including at least two
elected officers, shall be considered a quorum.


SECTION III.--ELECTIONS

ARTICLE I. The Officers shall be elected at the Annual Meeting and hold
office for one year beginning immediately following the close of the
Annual Meeting.

ARTICLE II. The Nominating Committee shall present a slate of officers
on the first day of the Annual Meeting and the election shall take place
at the closing session. Nominations for any office may be presented from
the floor at the time the slate is presented or immediately preceding
the election.

ARTICLE III. For the purpose of nominating officers for the year 1949
and thereafter, a committee of five members shall be elected annually at
the preceding Annual Meeting.

ARTICLE IV. A quorum at a regularly called Annual Meeting shall be
fifteen (15) members and must include at least two of the elected
officers.

ARTICLE V. All classes of members whose dues are paid shall be eligible
to vote and hold office.


SECTION IV.--FINANCIAL MATTERS

ARTICLE I. The fiscal year of the Association shall extend from October
1st through the following September 30th. All annual memberships shall
begin October 1st.

ARTICLE II. The names of all members whose dues have not been paid by
January 1st shall be dropped from the rolls of the Society. Notices of
non-payment of dues shall be mailed to delinquent members on or about
December 1st.

ARTICLE III. The Annual Report shall be sent to only those members who
have paid their dues for the current year. Members whose dues have not
been paid by January 1st shall be considered delinquent. They will not
be entitled to receive the publication or other benefits of the
Association until dues are paid.


SECTION V.--MEETINGS

ARTICLE I. The place and time of the Annual Meeting shall be selected by
the membership in session or, in the event of no selection being made at
this time, the Board of Directors shall choose the place and time for
the holding of the annual convention. Such other meetings as may seem
desirable may be called by the President and Board of Directors.


SECTION VI.--PUBLICATIONS

ARTICLE I. The Association shall publish a report each fiscal year and
such other publications as may be authorized by the Association.

ARTICLE II. The publishing of the report shall be the responsibility of
the Committee on Publications.


SECTION VII.--AWARDS

ARTICLE I. The Association may provide suitable awards for outstanding
contributions to the cultivation of nut bearing plants and suitable
recognition for meritorious exhibits as may be appropriate.


SECTION VIII.--STANDING COMMITTEES

As soon as practical after the Annual Meeting of the Association, the
President shall appoint the following standing committees:

   1. Membership
   2. Auditing
   3. Publications
   4. Survey
   5. Program
   6. Research
   7. Exhibit
   8. Varieties and Contests


SECTION IX.--REGIONAL GROUPS AND AFFILIATED SOCIETIES

ARTICLE I. The Association shall encourage the formation of regional
groups of its members, who may elect their own officers and organize
their own local field days and other programs. They may publish their
proceedings and selected papers in the yearbooks of the parent society
subject to review of the Association's Committee on Publications.

ARTICLE II. Any independent regional association of nut growers may
affiliate with the Northern Nut Growers Association provided one-fourth
of its members are also members of the Northern Nut Growers Association.
Such affiliated societies shall pay an annual affiliation fee of $3.00
to the Northern Nut Growers Association. Papers presented at the
meetings of the regional society may be published in the proceedings of
the parent society subject to review of the Association's Committee on
Publications.


SECTION X.--AMENDMENTS TO BY-LAWS

ARTICLE I. These by-laws may be amended at any Annual Meeting by a
two-thirds vote of the members present provided such amendments shall
have been submitted to the membership in writing at least thirty days
prior to that meeting.



Proceedings

44th Annual Meeting

Northern Nut Growers Association

Rochester, New York

August 31--September 1, 1953


MONDAY MORNING SESSION

PRESIDENT BEST: We are opening this 44th Annual Meeting of the Northern
Nut Growers Association with this historic gavel which was made from
wood grown in the Thomas Littlepage pecan grove near Washington, D. C.
Opening each session with this gavel has been a custom of this
organization for many, many years.

We are very anxious to have you folks meet some of the men who have made
our meeting possible here at Rochester. I would first like to introduce
Mr. W. Stephen Thomas, Director of the Rochester Museum of Arts and
Sciences. Mr. Thomas.

MR. THOMAS: Thank you, Mr. Best.

We are always glad to welcome groups such as yours. You represent a
unique organization to us with interests not in our field. We are a
public institution, and are glad to have you here.

I feel there are many things of interest in this museum and in our
program to interest you, because you are horticulturists and people
interested in the out-of-doors.

This museum is owned by the City of Rochester. By the way, there are
only about 12 museums throughout the country that are supported as we
are. We get 98 per cent of our funds from the City of Rochester. It is
not endowed. It is the people's museum. In the exhibit upstairs are
three dimensional models showing the evolution of the Genesee Valley in
New York from early times to the present. Here you will see a beautiful
panorama of what it looked like two hundred million years ago right
where we are sitting and standing now when the seas overlay the area
during the Devonian and Silurian times. We have reconstructed the little
sea creatures that lived in the rocks in their natural colors.

Another exhibit is the Indian story, primitive man, not just before the
white man came, but going back 1500 years. On the top floor you may see
how the pioneer man worked here as a woodcutter and running flour mills
and how the city came about. The whole story of our region is in the
museum.

But more important than these exhibits is what we do through the
educational system; adult lectures, and so forth. That is just a little
background of our work. I know you have your important business at hand,
but I hope you will have a little time to view the exhibits. We want to
help you in any way we can. If there is anything we can do, don't fail
to ask.

PRESIDENT BEST: Thank you, Mr. Thomas. Most of you met Mr. Wilbur Wright
last night out at the park. He is going to make an address of welcome
from the City of Rochester and from the parks. Mr. Wright.

MR. WRIGHT: Ladies and gentlemen, on behalf of the City of Rochester and
the Park Department, we want to welcome you to The Friendly City. We
want you to feel that Rochester has its hand out for a wide open welcome
for anything we can do to make you happy while you are here.

The parks are particularly interested in the fact that you have chosen
Rochester as your conference city for 1953. The parks, as you know, are
a good deal like the museum. They are botanical collections in the heart
of the city, the money coming from the city; the taxpayers pay the bill.
We have a tremendous botanical collection here, and are known the
country over for our lilac and other collections.

We have, in the past two years, appointed Bernard Harkness to take
charge of our plant collections, with the title of taxonomist. It took
quite a bit of backing to get Civil Service to break down and make such
a title. There wasn't such a title in the State of New York, and they
couldn't understand why they should give it.

Mr. Grant is another good Cornellian coming along as Assistant
Superintendent of Parks, and he is, again, looking after the maintenance
and upkeep of the various plant materials that we have.

We have a very large organization here, the Parks Division includes the
cemeteries, 90,000 street trees, 56 playgrounds, and about 2,000 acres
of parks. Our peak employment is 756 people. All-in-all we have a
tremendous amount of interest in our parks, and they are increasing. We
are exchanging plants with about 25 foreign countries right now, and we
expect to expand that now with the various facilities we are setting up
at our new herbarium, which you visited last night.

We are proud of Rochester, and the park system. We are doing our best to
continue the excellent work of Dunbar, Laney, and Slavin who built up
the park collections. Our aim is to increase the collections, and make
the park system better for the people to enjoy. We hope you have a fine
time while you are here. Thank you.

PRESIDENT BEST: Dr. MacDaniels, ex-president of our Association will
give our organization's response.

DR. MACDANIELS: Chairman Best, Director Thomas and Director Wright, I
don't know whether I am particularly well qualified for this particular
assignment, but I am certainly very happy to express the thanks of the
Northern Nut Growers Association for the excellent cooperation in
arranging the facilities which we have found here in Rochester. Few of
us can recall any situation in which the Association has been helped all
along the way, as they have been here, and we feel most welcome in this
truly friendly city.

Before the meeting I thought I was going to be able to claim a sort of
paternal interest in the training of Director Wright in that he studied
just prior to the war in the Department of Floriculture and Ornamental
Horticulture at Cornell University where I am stationed. Although we saw
a good deal of him after the war, he came directly here, so I can't say
that I knew him "way back when" he was an undergraduate student. Still
we do have a proprietary interest in all Cornellians, and we like to see
the home team make good as has certainly been the case here.

Fortunately, Ithaca is close enough to Rochester, so that our classes
can come to the Rochester parks on field trips where we have always
received the most friendly cooperation and help just as the Northern Nut
Growers is receiving today. I assure you that we are most grateful.

PRESIDENT BEST: We will proceed with the business of the organization.
On the Resolutions Committee which will give us resolutions for adoption
at our final night session, I appoint Mr. Davidson, Mr. Allaman, Mr.
Oakes and Mr. Snyder.

The next item of business is the election of a Nominating Committee.
This committee is to nominate the officers which will be elected at our
next annual meeting. Nominations are now in order.

DR. MCKAY: I nominate Mr. Machovina.

MR. DAVIDSON: Mr. Silvis.

DR. CRANE: I'd like to nominate Mr. Salzer.

MR. DAVIDSON: I think Dr. Crane ought to be nominated.

MR. STOKE: I nominate Mr. Kyle from Iowa.

DR. DOWELL: I move nominations be closed.

PRESIDENT BEST: Is there a second to Dr. Dowell's motion that
nominations be closed? (Motion seconded and passed.)

PRESIDENT BEST: Nominations are closed. Those in favor of this list, Mr.
Kyle, Dr. Crane, Mr. George Salzer, Mr. Silvis, Mr. Machovina, for
Nominating Committee for next year make it known by saying "Aye."
(Chorus of "ayes") Opposed? (None.)

PRESIDENT BEST: May we have the report of the Program Committee. They
have been at work, we can see that. The evidence is on every hand. Dr.
McKay?

DR. MCKAY: The program you have in your hands represents the work of the
Program Committee. The work of the Program Committee is done prior to
the meeting and I want to say that this year I really did have fine
cooperation from the members and from the members of the committee in
responding to requests for numbers on the program. That always makes the
work of a committee easy. Because of this fine cooperation I can say
truthfully that the effort on my part was relatively small.

As all of you know, we now have a larger group of people to draw from
for our programs than formerly. We always go back, of course, to our
tried and true members who, year after year, give us numbers for the
program, but we also like to give the new members a chance and recruit
from new sources whenever possible. I haven't analyzed the program
enough to know exactly how many new members are listed on the program
this year, but I think you will find a few, and as the organization
continues to grow, it will be desirable to use these new sources of
information for items on the program as much as we can.

PRESIDENT BEST: That's fine. I don't think we can emphasize that too
much, this new-member proposition.

We are ready now for the report of the Secretary, Mr. Chase.

MR. CHASE: About the only report that I have to make is one that was
prepared by Mr. Carl Prell, and I don't see why in the world he didn't
give it, since it's such a fine job of getting together the information
on membership. I am going to try to sum this up for you, in order that
you will know the progress we made in the membership drive to which so
many of you contributed.

On the books as of today we have 1013 paid up members. (Applause.) In
addition to that, we have 15 more who will begin membership the
beginning of our fiscal year, and in addition to that, there are ten
more too new to be acknowledged yet. So we are in pretty good shape on
membership.

New members total is 455, which is, I think, just about double from last
year, if my memory serves me correctly. Leader in the members by state
is our good, old friend Ohio with 126. They produced 42 new members this
year. Second on the list is Illinois, with 102, and they came up with 38
new members.

DR. MACDANIEL: I think this is the first year we have had a hundred
members from any state.

MR. CHASE: Pennsylvania has 83, with 26 new members. New York 78, with
27 new members. Indiana 70 with 31 new members. Michigan 58 with 28 new
members. That covers the top six states.

During the year we lost 71 members. That breaks down to five deceased,
12 resigned and 54 that we haven't heard from. Out of the 12 that
resigned, seven were one-year old and only 5 older members. Now, of the
54 not heard from, 40 were one-year members and 14 were older members.
Total loss is 71, actually. We had 14 reinstatements this year.

Does anyone have a question on membership? There are quite a few folks
in the Association who are really working hard to get new members, and a
great number have come up with at least one. But, actually, I believe,
Carl, it's a very small percentage of the membership that's really
working, is that correct?

MR. PRELL: I am afraid so.

MR. CHASE: And the 71 lost, you considered about normal, didn't you? We
have to figure on losing about 10 per cent. Well, we can't afford to
lose a hundred.

I don't have too much to report as Secretary, except we might briefly
review this hectic year since the little sub-zero walnut story appeared
in the Farm Journal. In June a year ago I received a request for an
article on the hardy English walnut. I handled it as a routine request
and sent it to the Farm Journal. Of course, Joe McDaniel was secretary,
and I referred all the interested readers to him for further
information. The first batch of mail hit Joe right after our meeting in
Rockport, and he had 1500 inquiries within two weeks. I forgot to warn
him that this might be coming up, and he went ahead and handled about
1500 of these inquiries, and then I don't know what happened to him, he
started sending them down to me. Between myself, my secretary, my wife,
and my boy we handled the other 4,000, and they are still, as Joe says,
actually coming in.

To handle that, took some of our funds as you see under "promotion
business", in the treasurer's report. The mimeographing was gratis, also
the assembling and mailing, but the postage we had to pay for.

So all we have to show for that is about how many members, Carl?

MR. PRELL: I will say 200.

MR. CHASE: That's about right. As these inquiries came in we compiled
lists of names and sent them to Mr. Best. Then Mr. Best mimeographed a
letter and some other material, along with an application folder and
followed up these inquiries except the last 500. So we hit them once
with a three-page information sheet from the Secretary's office, then
Mr. Best at least once again with a follow-up letter, and out of almost
5,000 we get about 200 members, which is pretty good. And there are a
lot of other folks I know would join if somebody would contact them.

MR. CHASE: So ever since last October I don't know what side is up so
far as N.N.G.A. is concerned. I don't pretend it hasn't taken a good
deal of effort and a lot of time from some things that I should have
done, but I enjoyed doing it for the Association, and I have no regrets.
The only thing I am sorry about is that we didn't get 500 instead of
just 200 members.

PRESIDENT BEST: Thank you. Spencer. (Applause.) That's a fine report.

May we hear from our Auditing Committee, Mr. Silvis.

MR. SILVIS: The report of the Treasurer, which I have just had an
opportunity of inspecting, is the most professional document I have ever
had the pleasure of examining as a member of this Auditing Committee on
which I have been several times. And I think a testimonial is due our
Treasurer, Mr. Carl Prell, who has combined the rare talents of
bookkeeping and comparative reporting.

The Auditing Committee, composed of Sterling Smith, who was not able to
be here, Mr. Pape of Indiana, and myself, accept this report of Carl
Prell on behalf of this Northern Nut Growers Association,

PRESIDENT BEST: Let's have the Treasurer's report. Mr. Prell



Report of the Treasurer

CARL PRELL, _South Bend, Indiana_

At the beginning of this fiscal year it seemed likely to your Board of
Directors that the Association's investment in government bonds would
have to be converted into cash to meet the year's expenses. There was
barely enough money in the treasury to pay for the 42nd Annual Report,
which should have been billed the preceding year.

Normally, the treasurer collects only enough money to pay for one
report, plus the year's operating expenses. The problem this year was to
pay operating expenses and to discharge our obligation on two reports.

Anticipating this problem, and in an effort to correct recurring
deficits, your Board made plans back in 1951 for a drive to increase
membership. Some momentum was gained by the end of last year, which
carried into this year with increasing force. The result was the
substantial gain in membership reported upon by your Secretary--with a
substantial increase in revenue.

Membership drives, of course, are a mixed blessing. They may produce
more dues; but they certainly cost money. Our promotion expenditure
jumped from practically nothing in 1951 to $115 in 1952 to $620 in 1953.
However, our dues collection from new members thus gained, were more
than $1200 in 1953 alone--twice as much as was spent. And it is
important to note that an expenditure to gain a member is made only
_once_, whereas the member's dues continue year after year.

In any event, increased membership was a factor in keeping us from
cashing our reserves.

Another important factor was the very generous response of the
membership to a plea for Sustaining and Contributing dues. Thirty
percent of our old members responded with $10.00 payments for
Contributing Memberships or $5.00 payments for Sustaining Memberships.
This help was needed. It is deserving of special mention in this report.

One other factor contributed to successful operation this year, as it
has in other years. This factor does not show up in figures in a
financial statement for the simple reason that the figures are modestly
withheld from the treasurer. I refer to the out-of-pocket and unreported
expenditures of officers and committeemen, which expenditures sometimes
are sizeable. Certainly they were this year. The fact that such
contributions were made should be noted.

The sum total of all this is a financial showing for the year that may
be considered satisfactory. Our debts are all paid. No bonds were
cashed. Nothing was borrowed. And we have money in the bank.

At this time last year we had a cash balance of $1313.78. Today our
balance is $303.70. We spent $1,000 more than we took in. But we paid
for two Annual Reports. The lesser report cost $1200. If this were
subtracted from this year's business, where it does not belong, our cash
balance would be $1500.00. In short, on this year's business--even with
all its unusual expenses for promotion--our income was more than our
disbursements--by $200.00. This reverses the deficit trend of recent
years.

   _RECEIPTS_
     Membership Dues                                            $3,638.05
     Sale of Annual Reports                                        394.00
     Advertising in Nutshell                                       110.00
     Contributions                                                  39.00
     Interest on Government Bonds                                   37.50
                                                                _________
       TOTAL                                                    $4,218.55

   _DISBURSEMENTS_
     42nd Annual Report (Urbana)                                $1,205.53
       Printing (1000 copies)                       $1,050.00
       Reporting (addi. billing)                        97.05
       Postage & Addressing                             58.48
     43rd Annual Report (Rockport)                              $1,760.72
       Printing (1200 copies)                       $1,477.42
       Envelopes, 800                                   19.60
       Reporting                                       100.00
       Postage & Addressing                            163.70
     The Nutshell
       Printing, 4 issues                                          353.11
     American Fruit Grower                                          39.00
       73 Subscriptions at 50¢                          36.50
        2 Subscriptions at 75¢                           1.50
        1 Subscription at 1.00                           1.00
     Association Promotion                                         620.47
       Application folder, printing 11,200             164.28
       Stationery for Sub-Zero and V. P. campaigns     337.24
       Mimeo Sub-Zero and follow-up, 1500               59.00
       Postage, Things of Science                       59.95
     Secretary's Fee, 50¢ per member                               517.50
       1952-53 Fee to date                             506.50
       Balance of 1951-52                               11.00
     Stationery and Supplies                                       268.22
     Secretary's Expense                                           315.87
     Treasurer's Expense                                           143.21
     Dues, American Horticultural Society                            5.00
                                                                _________
       TOTAL                                                    $5,228.63

   Cash on deposit, First Bank, South Bend                       $ 303.70
   Disbursements                                                 5,228.63
                                                                _________
                                                                $5,532.33

   On hand, August 18, 1952                                     $1,313.78
   Receipts                                                      4,218.55
                                                                _________
                                                                $5,532.33
   U. S. Bonds in Safety Deposit Box                            $3,000.00

MR. PRELL: I am going to close right now with this information which the
Association, I think, should have. The membership promotion consisted of
a campaign called the "Vice-president's Campaign" sparkplugged by Mr.
Best. Thousands of letters were sent out through the vice-president's
and from the president's office to the membership. You may have received
some of them. In addition to that, thousands of other letters were sent
out to people who had responded to a story that appeared in Farm Journal
wanting to know about the Association. I can't calculate how many went
out, I have never been told, but I would guess about 5,000 of them. And
those all went out from Mr. Best's office. In addition, our
addressograph plate system was not in very good shape, due to the fact
the organization was too poor to keep it up. Mr. Best supplied
addressograph plates for the whole list.

I wrote to Mr. Best on April 27th, as I wanted all the bad news, and I
wrote to some other people. I said, "You have not yet rendered a bill
for postage on your mailing. Will you please make your request?" And he
answered,

"I was surprised you asked about the postage charge from here. It has
been my intent from the beginning of the campaign to carry the postage
charge myself."

Thank you very much.

PRESIDENT BEST: Carl, I know you have done a lot of hard work, and I'd
like to say for the organization that we do appreciate what you have
done for us.

I see Mr. Slate has come in back here. Mr. Slate have you a word from
the Publications Committee?

MR. SLATE: I have no formal report. The part of the Publications
Committee with which I am concerned is the proceedings. The speed with
which that job was done depends upon how fast the papers come in and the
transcript of the proceedings finished. The transcript is rather
complicated and a lot of things are said that shouldn't go into the
report. It takes a lot of work with the blue pencil to boil the material
down to something that's useful and worth paying a printing bill for.

One other thing that I should mention is the cost of mailing. I don't
know whether that has been mentioned previously or not. We had a little
difficulty with the Post Office Department. Carl Prell can tell you
about that.

PRESIDENT BEST: Yes, he did. I have heard only good reports of your fine
job. I think we all agree that it was a scholarly production.

Do we have anything from the Survey Committee?



Blossoming Habits of the Persian Walnut

H. F. STOKE, _Roanoke, Va._


The Survey Committee, as its project for the current year, has
undertaken a study of the blossoming habits of the Persian walnut. The
prime object of this study is to solve the problem of pollination, so
that the planter may be reasonably sure of a satisfactory crop, whether
his planting be a single tree or an orchard.

While this study has dealt exclusively with the Persian species,
_Juglans regia_, the habits and principles involved apply equally to all
walnut species.

In most plants the reproductive function inheres in a single bisexual
flower, consisting of both male and female elements. In walnuts, as well
as most other nuts, the male and female functions are performed by
unisexual flowers of very different type and appearance.

Both the male or staminate flower and the female or pistillate flower
spring from buds that are formed in the axils at the base of leaves of
the previous season's growth. In the Persian walnut they may be detected
as early as July. The staminate bud that forms the pollen-producing
catkin of the next season, can be distinguished by its checkered
appearance, something like a tiny pine cone. They occur in the axils of
the lower leaves of the shoot of the current season.

The pistillate bud, which produces the nut, occurs at or near the tip of
the growth of the current season. It can usually be distinguished from
leaf buds by its larger size and plumpness.

When these blossom buds develop the following season, the male or
staminate blossom assumes the form of a catkin, which elongates rapidly
a few days before maturity. As the pollen is shed, beginning at the
stem end, the pale yellow-green of the bursted pollen capsule turns dark
or black, proceeding to the tip of the catkin. This change readily shows
that pollen is shedding, which may be confirmed by touching such a
catkin with the tip of the finger, and noting the yellow pollen that
adheres, or rises in a tiny cloud.

Making note of the date when a given variety begins shedding pollen, and
the date when all catkins on the tree have opened, gives the period
during which that variety is effective as a pollinizer.

The female, or pistillate flower, does not, like the catkin, spring
directly from the wood of last season's growth, but occurs at the end of
the new growth of the current year, being preceded by a number of leaves
which nourish the young nut to maturity.

The pistillate blossom assumes the form of one or more tiny nutlets with
little sharp-pointed tips. When the blossom has become receptive to
pollen, each tip has separated into two separate pistils which spread
apart and present fresh, slightly sticky surfaces, which are known as
stigmas. This is the time that pollination can take place, which period
continues until the stigmas have lost their freshness and stickiness.
This period marks the time during which pollination can occur.

In many cases Persian walnut trees remain barren when planted alone, not
because of incompatibility between the pollen and the pistillate flower,
but because pollen shedding and receptivity do not occur at the same
time. Sometimes pollen shedding is over before pistils are receptive.
Such blooming is termed protandrous by botanists. In about an equal
number of cases the pistils lose their receptivity before pollen is
shed. Such blooming is termed protogynous. There are quite a number of
varieties, however, that mature both types of blossoms simultaneously,
in which the variety is self-fertile and will produce crops, even if
isolated from other trees of the species. Of these Hanson and Bedford
are representative. On some other trees there is some overlapping of the
shedding and receptive periods, enough to produce partial, but not full
crops.

Warm weather hastens blooming; cool cloudy weather retards it. A warm
spell may start blossoming early, but if broken by a cool wave the
period of bloom may be greatly extended.

A southern exposure with a light soil will cause a variety to blossom
earlier by some days than in the same locality in heavy soil. The
blossoming period is generally shorter in the North than in the South.

Climax, Michigan reports blooming beginning May 10 and ending May 31, a
period of 21 days. Millerton, N. Y., and Massillon, Ohio, report the
same.

Urbana, Ill., reports blooming beginning May 5 and ending June 1, a
period of 27 days.

At Roanoke, Va., the period begins April 9 and ends May 10, running 31
days.

At Greensboro, North Carolina, the season began April 2 and ended May 5,
a total of 33 days.

The report of Mr. Royal Oakes of Bluffs, Ill., is unique in the
shortness of the blossoming period, both of individual varieties and as
a whole. Blossoming began April 29 and ended (estimated) May 13, a
period of only 14 days. The reason may partly lie in the weather and
partly because the planting is on high bluffs overlooking the broad
Illinois River valley, affording excellent air drainage.

One major difficulty the Committee encountered in tabulating the reports
was the fact that so few of the same varieties were being grown by the
various reporters, making it difficult and sometimes impossible to
synchronize the blossoming period of the various varieties from
different places with sufficient accuracy. Because of this, two tables
have been prepared.

Table Number 1 shows named varieties, for the most part.

Table Number 2 shows varieties that are being propagated asexually, but
have not yet been given variety names. Seedlings not propagated by
budding or grafting, if recognized have been omitted because of
individual variability.

Each table consists of five vertical columns, earliest to the right,
successively later towards the left.

Varieties above the dividing line are shedding pollen at the time
varieties in the same column below the line are receptive. A variety
like Hanson, appearing in the same column both above and below the line,
is self-pollinizing. Varieties appearing in more than one column
indicate a long blooming period.

MR. BECKER: The Crath No. 1 I have been able to propagate is what Mr.
Neilson gave to me as Crath No. 1--I guess he called it Crath.

MR. STOKE: We may have to discard a number of other Crath No. 1's,
because the variation between them indicates a mixture of several clones
with the same name.

PRESIDENT BEST: The next thing to consider is this resolution which is
given word for word on page 26 of our 1952 annual report.

   TABLE 1.

 ----------------------------------------------------------------------
     Broadview     Bijur         Carpathian D    Beckman       Parnell
     Lancaster     Cutleaf S     Bayer           Bedford       Watt
     McDermid      Fort Custer   Beckman         Caesar
 [symbol: male]    Hanson        Breslau         Etter
                   Hilltop       Caesar          Eureka
                   Ill. No. 23   Eureka          Lake
                   Mundt         Grande          S-24
                   Metcalfe      James
                                 Lancaster
                                 Littlepage
                                 McKinster
 ----------------------------------------------------------------------
     Caesar        Beckman       Bijur           Bayer         Burtner
     McKinster     Bijur         Cutleaf         Bedford       Dewey
                   Breslau       Colby           Broadview     Etter
                   Fort Custer   Fickes No. 22   Etter         Eureka
                   Carpathian D  Hanson          Fort Custer   Franquette
                   Colby         Hilltop         Grande        Mayette
                   Cutleaf S     Jacobs          Ill. No. 23   L-2
 [symbol: female]  Fickes No. 22 James           Lake
                   Hansen        Lake            Lancaster
                   Jacobs        Lancaster       Mundt
                   Keener        S-24            S-24
                   McDermid      Metcalfe        Metcalfe
 ----------------------------------------------------------------------

 TABLE 2.

 ----------------------------------------------------------------------
                     Early       Medium early  Midseason  Medium late  Late

                     S-6         S-6           S-12       S-22         S-17
 [symbol: male]      S-12        S-12          S-22       S-24         S-57
                     S-33        S-66          S-24       S-25
                     Littlepage  S-XD          S-25       S-29
                                               S-29       S-32
                                               S-33       S-41
                                               S-35       S-45
                                               S-66       S-66
                                               S-XD
 ----------------------------------------------------------------------
                     S-5         S-5           S-6        S-6          S-7
 [symbol: female]    S-25        S-17          S-17       S-12         S-12
                     S-29        S-22          S-22       S-17         S-33
                     S-32        S-24          S-32       S-35
                     S-35        S-25          S-38       S-46
                     S-66        S-29          S-41       S-57
                                 S-35          S-45       Littlepage
                                 S-38          S-46
                                 S-41          S-48
                                 S-45          S-XD
                                 S-48          Littlepage
                                 S-XD
                                 Littlepage
 ----------------------------------------------------------------------

It was made by Mr. Dowell of the Ohio group, although it is of interest
to every state that has an affiliated group or a chapter. Last year the
matter was referred to the Board for their consideration. The Board
carefully considered the resolution of the Ohio group, and the spirit of
the Dowell resolution, was approved.

The matter was finally left with a committee made up of J. C. McDaniel,
Mr. Carl Prell and Mr. Machovina. It is now in order to hear from these
men the changes necessary in our by-laws to create the right atmosphere
for the formation and operation of our state organizations, because we
do want to encourage them. After hearing the proposals, a motion will be
in order that they be approved. If approved, a year from now we will
vote on the amendments to the by-laws. Mr. McDaniel will give the report
of the committee.

DR. MACDANIEL: Your committee agreed on the suggested revision of Section
IX, which covers chapters and affiliations. If this meets with the
approval of the members here, final action must be deferred until the
45th annual meeting. Proposed amended Section IX of the by-laws reads as
follows:

     "Section IX.--Chapters and Affiliations.

     "Article 1. The Association shall encourage the formation of
     regional groups of its members into chapters, which may elect their
     own officers and organize local field days and other programs. Such
     chapters need not limit their membership to members of the parent
     organization. They may publish their proceedings and selected
     papers in the proceedings of the parent society subject to review
     of the Association's Committee on Publications.

     "Article 2. Any independent association or society interested in
     nut tree culture may affiliate with the Northern Nut Growers
     Association by payment of an annual affiliation fee of $5.00.
     Selected papers presented at the meetings of such an affiliated
     society may be published in the proceedings of this society subject
     to review of the Association's Committee on Publications."

It is the thought of this special committee that the new wording
simplifies and clarifies these two articles in regard to organization of
chapters or sections, and second, affiliation of independent
organizations. We thought we shouldn't limit it to affiliation of nut
growers associations as such but to extend affiliation possibility to
any society from garden club on up which is interested in nut growing.
And under Article 1, whether we call this state group a chapter or a
section doesn't seem to matter materially. I believe the Michigan group
prefers to be called a chapter. The Ohio group, I think, will take it
either way. At the present I think we have called that the Ohio Section
of the Northern Nut Growers Association.

Any discussion? I submit this proposed amendment, Mr. President, to be
printed in the 44th annual report for action at next year's meeting, the
45th annual meeting of this Association.

PRESIDENT BEST: Do we have a motion to accept the report? (The motion to
accept was made by Dr. Crane, seconded and passed without dissent.)

PRESIDENT BEST: I was in hopes that we wouldn't have time for the next
feature, but since some of the committees haven't reported yet, I am
afraid that we have. That is the address by the president.



President's Address

RICHARD B. BEST, _Eldred, Ill._


The task of setting down ideas for the reflection of the NNGA fills me
with consternation. My scanty rills of thinking are inadequate.

You remember the old Arabian tale of the poor student who was shut up in
an enchanted room in the bosom of the earth. You remember how the earth
opened only once each year. The student was waited upon by demons and
spirits who furnished deep and dark knowledge. When the door opened, the
student emerged, loaded with great lore and pertinent facts. Like this
Arabian student, by delving into antiquity and our old annual reports of
the NNGA, I have put together some thoughts from men living and dead.

Irving says: this pilfering disposition which some of us have may be
implanted in us for a good reason. Maybe through us pilferers or
borrowers, Heaven takes care of the seeds of knowledge and wisdom from
age to age. The worthwhile thoughts which some of our early members gave
us may be purloined by me and made to sparkle again in today's light,
even though the early members' general idea is obsolete.

So, just as nature has provided for the distribution of her plant
varieties through the maws of birds and animals, so it may be that
Heaven has provided for the fine thoughts of our old members to be
caught by us predatory individuals and made to bear fruit again in this
new day. Really this is one way we exist and go forward in our
organization.

A crop of "tares" which we read about in the scripture enriches the soil
for the next crop. As a forest dies, a new crop of trees spring up. Even
a dead tree gives rise to a whole creation of countless bacteria and
fungi.

So on "ad infinitum." Members who have talked and studied our problems
in the past have made possible our work here today. So, likewise, our
words will sleep with the others from whom we have borrowed. So, to
escape with a good conscience, to avoid having fingers pointed at me, of
hearing cries of--"you stole this from me," I will try to give credit
where credit is due.

Otherwise, I might be, figuratively speaking, stripped of my material
here piece by piece, and I would finally stand before you with hardly a
loin cloth of an idea which I could call my own.

There is a popular appeal to the nut business which most of us are
susceptible to,--like wanting to produce large nuts,--and of seeing the
first nut,--and to again gather nuts like we did as children. Ask a man
how large a nut he found and he will lie as he will about a fish he has
just caught.

Then, there is the romantic visionary who would transform the whole
universe into a sort of fairyland nut grove--where there are no insects,
diseases, or squirrels,--and where the nuts fall polished into open
bags.

Then, there are those of us--and I am one--who reasoning that the
"groves were God's first temples," flee to a twilight hill top or to a
forest shade, and, as Mr. Stokes said, "Sit humbly at the feet of the
great mother of us all. There is wisdom and healing in the shadow of her
wings."

We need this philosophical attitude to generate encouragement and
inspiration to withstand the hard knocks that we have had--and will have
coming. But, the NNGA must be more realistic and really do some
grappling.

Read the experiences which all our reports are filled with. Mr. G. A.
Miller on page 99 of the 1940 report handles this matter of success and
failure very well. We live on our successes and not on our failures. Nut
culture is pioneering, and it is well to be fully aware of the
possibility of failure so that we may be steeled for it when it comes.
Failure makes our successes sweeter.

Abraham Lincoln's life was a series of failures. Thomas Edison usually
failed. Plant breeders at our stations nearly always fail. But, once in
a while they succeed. In the nut business, if we succeed 1 in 10,000
times, success may be cheap at that.

Dr. MacDaniels stated so many important aspects of the NNGA that I want
to list his outline here and then simply hang some thoughts on the
skeleton of his report. For your own enjoyment and understanding, please
read again Dr. MacDaniels's address "The Forward Look," which is found
on page 27 of our 1952 report. I just mention his subjects and comment
on them for emphasis.

1. _Variety Evaluation_

The Ohio Nut Growers did a fine job of getting this job of evaluation in
the groove. Read about it on page 29 of the 1946 report. How many of us
here have wasted years on varieties that good evaluation might have
discarded, before we started to plant the nut.

2. _Judging Standards_

Which covers such things as--

   (a) Sealing of nuts
   (b) Recovery of halves
   (c) Size, quality, etc.

Evaluation and judging include all those fine things we look for in a
nut.

3. _The Naming of Varieties_

Many of us have the same tree growing but calling it a different name.

4. _Securing New Varieties_

And getting them into as many channels. Mr. Wilkinson started several
"Chief" pecan trees last year and gave them all away. Chief is a fine
new variety of pecan. If we had a few more Ford Wilkinsons in this
organization, "God bless him," we wouldn't have so many problems.

5. _The Work of Individuals_

There is always the possibility of finding the "perfect nut," so we need
to continue our search through the earth for better varieties.

Scientific techniques must be applied before we breed better nuts.

We simply cannot have nuts put in our coffins expecting to continue our
work in the next world; so we need to do the next best thing to
this--that is of instructing our sons in the little we have found and
where our different varieties are planted. Then, some of our sons will
start where we left off.

Private research is playing a more important part in the world today.
Private research, using the large amount of basic research available,
could accomplish wonders in the nut world.

I am deeply grieved when I see vast estates which have had a fortune
spent in plantings that had little practical value. The men who spent
this money would gladly have furnished the land, labor, capital and
management for a nut breeding program had we been there to have sold
them on nut trees.

As Mr. Churchill said--"Too little and too late."

But members of the NNGA forget "what might have been." New estates are
developing and younger men are wondering how they can immortalize their
lives and work. Men pass away; their names perish from record and
recollection; their history is only a tale and their tombstone becomes a
ruin, but a good nut tree bearing a man's name, gives that name
immortality.

6. _Work of the Experiment Stations._

In the most practical vein, our basic research and most of our actual
breeding must still be done by our Experiment Stations.

Any nut project is a long-time program and it lends itself best to an
Experiment Station which is not set up on "a three score and ten" basis
like we as individuals are. Stations also have trained workers and
information at hand.

7. _The Real Aim of the NNGA_

Is better living on the farm and the improvement of the garden and
farmstead. Almost every farm and home, especially in the great corn
belt, needs shelter, shade trees, and the beautifying effect of trees.

Psalm 19:1-4 says: "The heavens declare the glory of God; and the
firmament showeth his handiwork. Day unto day uttereth
speech and night unto night showeth knowledge. Their voice goes out
through all the earth, and their words to the end of the world."

8. _Nut Growing as a Hobby._

For people who like to see things growing, there are few projects that
yield more genuine satisfaction than hardy-adapted varieties of nut
trees.

Few people know what a heart nut or chestnuts are, and most have never
cracked a butternut. Most of us have never tasted a good persimmon, and
the paw-paw is practically unknown. We of the NNGA have something to
offer our members.

9. _Keep our Organization Solvent and Functioning._

All costs have increased. Our strength lies in our letters, reports and
information which we send to our membership. To keep this information
coming through letters and our annual report takes money.

10. _How to Finance the NNGA._ Dr. MacDaniels makes the following
suggestions after stating that we have reached the point where
increasing the dues will not give us more income, because of loss of
membership.

   (a) Increase our number of members.
   (b) Provide different types of membership to encourage contributions.
   (c) Gifts.
   (d) Special fund raising projects.

Increasing the membership seems to have the most promise in the future.

We are now at the cross roads. Do we want a strong, hard-hitting
organization, capable of doing these things which we know NNGA can do,
or do we want to ease down the other road to a whimpering senile
existence, in the plant society world?

We have increased our membership 40% the past year, and after hurriedly
congratulating ourselves, let us hurry on to this problem of setting
ourselves another goal for 1954.

What shall our new goal be? 30%, 50%, 100%--let us think "high." It is
easier to come down than to go higher.

I'd like to have someone's idea in the audience here. Does anybody have
some figure we should hit at? 10%, 20%, 25%?

MR. KINTZEL: I think since we have a thousand members, for each of the
thousand to bring in one more member and make it a hundred per cent.

PRESIDENT BEST: Now, the high man is going to win here, you know. Is
there anyone that can raise this man, that can say that we increase our
membership more than a hundred per cent? If not shall we take that as a
goal?

We have now reached the point in this discussion of goals where we can
make the following profound deduction--"Nothing is worth two cents until
it is sold."

Our church bells ring to tell the world that something good is being
offered and that the church has something to sell. Everything in this
world must be sold. The NNGA is competing not only with the resistance
people offer it, but also against every other human activity. People buy
what they think will give them the most satisfaction.

We are living in a cold-blooded society and people are not going to
choke with emotion when we mention the old hollow tree where the possums
hatched, or the wide spreading chestnut. People may not even want to
join our NNGA. This is a free country and people can just sit in the sun
on the bare ground if they want to. They may not want trees and can eat
grape nuts if they want. We know they need the hobby--the shade--the
beauty--the protection or even nuts which nut trees will bring them.

Because we know people need these fine things, then we must ask them to
join the NNGA. If everybody knew what you know about the NNGA, we would
have a membership of 100,000 members. But they do not.

This is what we mean by selling our organization. Indirectly as we sell
our memberships to help other people, we help our organization.

Finally, let me suggest that we build up a backlog of ideas here at
Rochester to add to what we have on increasing our membership.

Give your ideas to our Vice President, Mr. George Salzer and his
publicity committee and you will be helping to solve our NNGA problems.

MR. DAVIDSON: It seems to me the most successful thing that was done
during the past year, as far as the raising of membership was concerned,
was done by Mr. Chase, when he wrote that article on Persian walnuts
that survived sub-zero temperatures. That had a tremendous impact on the
public imagination, and it got a tremendous number of inquiries. I think
it had more effect than even the work of individual members, so I would
suggest that anybody who has an idea that can be sent to a magazine that
would have a public appeal should do that thing.

MR. MACHOVINA: The thought strikes me that in addition to the goal for
new members, we should also work to keep these members we have picked up
this year. That means the older members should contact the newer
members, help them, give them trees. Otherwise, a lot can be lost
quickly.

PRESIDENT BEST: In this world no matter whether we are selling seed
corn--if you will pardon that little plug--or you are running a
restaurant or any form of human activity, you can figure each year about
a 10 per cent loss in your clientelle or your customers, whatever you
want to call them, and we of N.N.G.A. are no exception to that rule. We
do have to keep working for that replacement; otherwise, in 10 or 12
years we are going to be out of business entirely.

MR. KERR: I am a Spanish War veteran. At the national convention in
Portland, Oregon, in 1938, one of my comrades showed me a walnut tree
that he planted before he went to the Philippines during that war. It
was on the banks of the Willamette River where he had planted three
nuts. Two were so near the river that a log boom had torn them out, but
one was left. It was 80 feet high, four feet in diameter, and on one
occasion had produced almost a ton of very good nuts.

I told that to the science editor of the Associated Press, and he put a
little article in the local paper, but no picture. If he had a picture
with that article, everybody would have read it. I think we need more
publicity on these old trees that are bearing nuts. I live in Plymouth,
Mass., where the Pilgrims settled. In their settlement papers they
mentioned the groves of walnuts and other wild nuts in the territory. We
found a low-branched walnut 5 feet in diameter and over 450 years old.

MR. BROOK: Let me suggest Mr. Kerr write such an article for such a
magazine, because he is just the person.

MR. KERR: I have already written a few articles for several men's clubs,
and I am writing another article.

MR. BROOK: When are you releasing it?

MR. KERR: Pretty soon. The Northern Nut Growers will get a copy.

PRESIDENT BEST: The report of the Place of Meeting Committee, Mr.
Allaman?

MR. ALLAMAN: A year ago this summer I went to Lancaster to visit the
Franklin Marshall College to see if we could hold our convention there
next year. They considered it quite an honor to have us there, feeling
that it is an educational feature. They can furnish us a nice auditorium
with a cafeteria nearby. Sleeping quarters would be scattered throughout
the grounds. They can furnish our meals and a banquet. About ten days
ago I checked to see if things were still all right, and they said,
"Come ahead," so I am suggesting that the Association hold its next
annual convention at Lancaster, Pa. at Franklin Marshall College.

Our field trip at Lancaster would be to Mr. W. W. Posey's orchard. He
has by far the biggest planting in the state with trees of various ages
and many different varieties. He entertained the Pennsylvania group a
year ago. He has a nice pavilion up on the hill, where we can have our
lunch. We had a most enjoyable time, and he is delighted to have us. Mr.
Posey is owner of the Posey Iron Works in Lancaster.

For 1955 we were thinking about Michigan, probably Michigan State
College. For the following year we were wondering about Connecticut.
Just the place in Connecticut has not been given any thought.

Session adjourned.



MONDAY AFTERNOON SESSION


PRESIDENT BEST: In the morning session Mr. Allaman proposed that we hold
our next convention in Lancaster, Pa. Is there a motion to that effect?

MR. RICK: I move that our next meeting, 1954, be held in Lancaster
County, Pennsylvania. That is supposed to be one of the garden counties
in the country. It has stood first and second in production. I don't
know what it stands now, but it wouldn't be far from the top. It would
be most interesting to all our members, I am sure, to pay Lancaster
County a visit. Motion seconded by Mr. Ellis and passed.

PRESIDENT BEST: According to the by-laws, we get a report of the
Nominating Committee at this time. We have our election at the last
business session.

MR. SLATE: The Nominating Committee, consisting of Max Hardy as chairman
and some others, including myself, presents the following candidates:
For President, R. B. Best. For vice-president, Gilbert Becker; for
Treasurer, W. S. Clark; and for Secretary Spencer Chase.

PRESIDENT BEST: Are there other nominations? (No response.) You will
have a chance for further nominations at our last business session.

PRESIDENT BEST: Now, then, we have an opportunity to hear from a group
of what we might call authorities in their various fields. We have quite
an assortment. The only way I know of to express it is to say we have
the wise men out of the east and the wild men out of the west. I think
we first might hear from Mr. Kyhl of Sabula, Iowa. Mr. Kyhl, you come up
and give us your version of the nut business.



About Nuts

IRA M. KYHL, _Sabula, Iowa_


What we all have in mind at this time is nuts and more nuts. One way to
get them is to plant more nut trees. Why not start a campaign in this
direction? Where I live in the midwest the black walnut is at home and
likewise the hickory, hazel, etc. Farmers may be reluctant to set aside
acreage for this purpose but they could be planted along fence rows
around the entire farm and would produce shade for livestock, an
abundance of marketable nuts, and later a fortune in saw logs. The
average size farm of 160 acres could support a great many black walnuts
if planted along fence rows which ordinarily grow up to brush and weeds.
Seedlings are cheap or one could buy 2 or 3 bushels of Thomas nuts and
raise their own. One could also plant hickories, heartnuts, filberts and
chestnuts if variety is desired along fence rows, but the main thing is
to get this work started. We could no doubt get cooperation from County
Agents and Conservation Departments because of wind breaks and erosion
control. Farmers who could be induced to do this work would no doubt
become nut enthusiasts in due time.

I feel that at this time it may be in line to pay a slight tribute to
our friend the squirrel. I wonder how many of us gave a thought as to
who was responsible for all of our wild trees, such as black walnuts,
butternuts, hickories, hazels and so forth, and how they came about.
The answer is simple, the squirrels, of course. They have been planting
nuts for centuries and without their good work in the past, there would
be very few wild nut trees.

The squirrel has been wrongfully condemned for his apparently good work
and has even been cussed a little for living on the efforts of his own
labor, and due to my appreciation of his good work, I have grafted or
rather topworked some of the trees he planted to Persian walnuts,
pecans, etc., so that he may have more of a variety of nuts. Someday I
expect to have some of the largest and fattest squirrels in America. I
cover some of the choice varieties with stove pipe. They seem to take
the hint and don't bother the nuts. One more thing, there does
not seem to be enough nuts to go around, that is, enough for both the
squirrels and ourselves. So let's plant more trees so that the squirrels
can't possibly eat them all and when we have done that, then let's plant
a lot more.

We now have many species of nuts and many varieties of each species,
many of which have proven hardy in cold climates. It is very encouraging
to note the good work that is being done to produce better and more
varieties. One very fine nut that doesn't seem to have had much work
done on it is the hard shell almond. It does very well for me, is
self-pollinating, bears very heavily, and can be grafted on peach stocks
with good results. I have also had very good success with Persian
walnuts, heartnuts, filberts, chestnuts, hickories, pecans, hazels and
black walnuts.



Natural Variation Observed in Shagbark Hickory, _Carya ovata_ (Mill.) K.
Koch. in Central New York

DAVID H. CALDWELL, _N. Y. State College of Forestry, Syracuse, N. Y._


The shagbark hickory has been extremely important in the economy of the
United States during its period of early development. The handles of the
axes which leveled extensive forested areas in Colonial days were
frequently made from sturdy hickory wood. The nuts furnished food for
man in the form of oil or nutmeats and often hogs were fattened on
hickory nuts, beechnuts and chestnuts. As settlement progressed, the
demand on hickory as wood for wagon parts increased while the use of the
thick-shelled nuts for food decreased except by the country boy or girl
who wandered from tree to tree in the fall collecting nuts for cracking
by the fireside in the wintertime.

The author remembers bounding out of bed as a child in the fall before
dawn on the nights when there had been a frost or a heavy wind, in an
effort to beat the squirrels in the race to obtain the rich harvest of
hickory nuts to be found lying beneath the fine old trees near Herkimer,
N. Y. By some coincidence, both the boys and the squirrels knew of the
same trees which were most sought after for their crops of nuts. It was
at this time that the variability of hickory nuts was first observed.
Thus it was that the nuts of certain trees were never gathered, while
the grass beneath other favorite trees was gleaned carefully for all
fallen nuts.

The present investigation of the shagbark began in the fall of 1949 and
continued through the summer of 1953. It was initiated with the previous
knowledge of the extreme variability to be observed between the nuts of
individual shagbark hickory trees and was conducted for the purpose of
determining whether or not that variability was also expressed through
other features of the tree such as buds, leaves, bark or form.
Consequently, a systematic study was begun of individual trees totaling
158 found mostly in Onondaga County, New York plus the edges of
surrounding counties. The trees were observed throughout the growing
season so that the various tree parts could be observed for comparison.
It was a preconceived idea by the author that there might be several or
more distinct subdivisions into which individuals of shagbark might be
placed through the use of macroscopic characters.

Observations were made over a period of three growing seasons on the
following characters of each tree:

   (1) bark
   (2) buds and twigs
   (3) leaves
   (4) flowers
   (5) fruit

Each character was observed more than once for each tree as a check on
possible yearly variation for specific characteristics in the trees from
which data was collected.

The generalized description for shagbark hickory is as follows:

    SIZE--a tree ranging at maturity from 50 to 100+ feet in height,
    generally 2 to 3 feet in diameter and very occasionally reaching 4
    feet in diameter.

    BARK--usually under 3/4 of an inch in thickness, occasionally up to
    1 inch thick with a characteristic light or smoky-gray color when
    dry and breaking up into long plates or strips loosely attached to
    the trunk near the middle of the plate.

    BUDS--terminal buds usually 3/8 to 3/4 of an inch long, subglobose
    to narrowly ovate, with 8-10 imbricate scales, the outermost of
    which are a blackish brown with dark brown tomentum, and a short
    mucronate or attenuate apex, inner scales light brown with longer
    lanate pubescence and apex acute to obtuse; lateral buds smaller,
    about 1/4 of an inch with tightly appressed scales.

    TWIGS--angled or rounded, reddish brown to yellowish brown, or gray,
    turning more or less gray with age; pubescent the first year.

    LEAVES--compound--ranging from 3-7 ovate to oblong lanceolate
    leaflets, usually 5, terminal leaflet as large or larger than the
    first two laterals, usually 4-8" long, generally glabrous on both
    surfaces but with a finely serrate, ciliate margin; total leaf size
    ranging from 8-15" for mature leaves.

     FLOWERS--(a) _female_--occurring in 2 to several flowered spikes,
    with a one-celled ovary, about 1/4 to 1/3 inch long covered with
    tomentum; flowers rusty to yellowish green in color; stigma with two
    stigmatic lobes; bracts much longer than the lateral bractlets. (b)
    _male_--in three parted or branched aments, each flower usually
    containing 4 stamens with a 2 or a 3 lobed calyx; aments 3-4" long
    with glandular hairs.

    FRUIT--oval, globose or pear shaped, consisting of a woody husk 1/4
    to 1/2" thick breaking usually along 4 lines of suture exposing a
    flattened nut generally 4 ridged, smooth or slightly roughened;
    usually white or cream in color, seed sweet with 2 cotyledons.


RESULTS OF FIELD OBSERVATIONS

    BARK--Most of the shagbark hickory trees observed were found to have
    a smoke-gray, shaggy bark from 20 years of age to maturity. However,
    among the 158 individual hickory trees observed, there were found 7
    trees which had a bark much more blackish than the normal shagbark
    type and with closely furrowed bark consisting of inter-lacing scaly
    ridges more similar in character to that of _Carya ovalis_
    (Wangenh.) Sarg.

    The trees found growing under timberland conditions rather than as
    open field or hedgerow trees did not have the characteristic shaggy
    bark except for the upper trunk which had been exposed to the
    weather conditions of the forest canopy. Where the trunks of the
    trees were somewhat protected from direct rays of the sun and force
    of the wind, the bark was smooth, gray and but slightly plated with
    none of the shagginess typical of open field grown shagbark.

    BUDS AND TWIGS--The buds of shagbark were observed to divide
    themselves into two general groups based upon terminal bud shapes
    and two more groups based upon the sizes of the attenuated apex of
    the outermost bud scales. In all cases the bud scales were observed
    to be pubescent though the degree of pubescence varied considerably
    in the outer scales only.

    The two general bud shapes were globose-ovate and narrowly
    elliptical. The broadly oval (Fig. 1a) type of buds were smaller,
    generally under 1/2 inch in length while the elliptical (Fig. 1b)
    type of buds were usually over 1/2 inch in length.

[Illustration: Fig. 1a Fig. 1b

Shagbark Hickory Terminal Buds (1-X)]

The long attenuated apex on the outer bud scales of the elliptical type
of buds is evident in Figs. 1b and 2b.

[Illustration: Fig. 2a Fig. 2b

Shagbark Hickory Terminal Bud Scales (1-X)]

The number of lateral buds at one position varied considerably with the
usual number being one (Fig. 3a) bud located just above the lobed leaf
scar. On exceedingly vigorous sprout growth, or on very vigorous
terminal growth twigs, it was found that 2, 3, 4 and occasionally 5
superposed buds might occur (Fig. 3b).

Twigs of shagbark varied considerably both in the rapidity of growth and
in color. Frequently the color seemed to be associated with the incident
rays of the sun and orientation of the twig on the branch seemed to
largely control color.

Twigs upon the same tree would vary from gray to reddish brown to
yellowish brown or tan. The majority of observed trees had a reddish
brown as the predominant color. Terminal shoot growth of as much as 40
inches was observed and as little as 2-3 inches in very slowly growing
mature trees.

[Illustration: Fig. 3a Fig. 3b

Shagbark Hickory Lateral Buds (1-X)]

[Illustration: Fig. 4a Fig. 4b

Shagbark Hickory Leaves (1/3X)]

The degree of pubescence on the surface of the twigs varied considerably
and was found to frequently follow group location patterns. Thus nearly
all of the individuals growing in one field might be found with dense
pubescence on the twigs while a similar group several miles away might
have, for all practical purposes, no pubescence on the twigs. In
general, the most rapidly growing trees (or twigs) had the least amount
of pubescence on the twigs.

LEAVES--There was extreme variability found with the leaves of the 158
individual trees observed. All trees were found to have compound leaves,
but the leaflet numbers varied greatly. The typical number for shagbark
is 5, but 3 to 7 were found; three leaflets were common, 5 were abundant
and 7 leaflets were rare. Six cases of leaves with 7 leaflets were
obtained from the vast number of leaves checked on the 158 trees; thus
the frequency of occurrence is quite low for the group as a whole. Where
7 leaflets were observed, 5 of the leaves were normal pinnately compound
leaves (Fig. 4a), while one leaf consisted of five palmately arranged
leaflets plus two normal pinnately compound leaflets (Fig. 4b). The
leaflets on each tree were fairly uniform in shape but the shape of
leaflets between trees varied considerably. Thus one tree might have 5
leaflets quite broadly ovate to obovate in shape while another equally
valid shagbark would be found with narrowly elliptical to lanceolate
leaflets similar to those of red hickory (oval pignut hickory), _Carya
ovalis_ (Wangenh.) Sarg.

[Illustration: Fig. 5a Fig. 5b Fig. 5c

Shagbark Hickory Fruits (1/2X)]

The margins of the leaflets were generally finely serrate and disposed
to be ciliate--i.e. with a fringe of hairs along the serrate margins.
The presence of cilia tend to differentiate shagbark hickory from red
hickory in the field. This feature is a consistently good one if a hand
lens is available but the degree of ciliation varies considerably from
tree to tree and during different parts of the growing season. The
presence of cilia on the margin of the leaflets should not be used as a
means of differentiating shagbark from shellbark hickory, _Carya
lacinoisa_ (Michx. f.) Loud., since shellbark also has a ciliate margin
on the leaflets.

FLOWERS--The female flowers of shagbark are found on short 1 to 5
flowered spikes produced on the current season's growth. Most of the
flowers are around 1/3" long, sessile and covered with a tawny tomentum.
Each flower tends to have two yellowish green stigmatic lobes but
three-lobed stigmas may be found and one case of a 4-lobed stigma was
observed. Various amounts of an amber, or yellow scurfy, substance was
also observed on the new flowers. The male flowers occur on 3 parted,
slender, glandular-hairy aments from the basal portion of the current
season's growth. The aments are usually 3-4 inches long with individual
flowers consisting of 4 stamens with their surrounding bract and calyx
lobes. The anthers are yellowish or greenish yellow. Occasionally a two
branched ament may be found but this seems to occur when one branch of
the ament has failed to develop due to an injury of some sort. One case
of an unbranched ament was observed.

Both female and male flowers are found to be mature after the leaves
have grown to nearly their fully expanded mature size. There are more
male aments to be found on the lower branches than female spikes of
flowers, which would tend to aid in cross pollination of the flowers by
wind action. In general the stigmatic lobes are not quite mature at the
time that the bulk of the pollen is being shed, yet individual trees, at
a considerable distance from another pollen bearing shagbark tree, will
bear considerable quantities of nuts indicating self fertility.

FRUIT--The husk of the shagbark is extremely variable in size, shape,
thickness and opening habits. In general the husk consists of 4 segments
which split along 4 sutures and fall apart at maturity dropping the nut
to the ground. In many cases the husk falls to the ground with the nut
and does not break apart until it reaches the ground. A few of the trees
examined had husks which were not quite deciduous to the base and were
retained on the tree until after the nut had been released. One tree
among the 158 examined consistently had a 5 parted husk.

The husks varied considerably in thickness, the dried measurements
ranging from 1/8 to 1/2 inch with the bulk of the measurements averaging
around 1/4" thick. Two trees had husks so thin as to be more typical of
red hickory while only 6 trees had husks 1/2 inch thick or more.

The overall shape of the husk around the nut ranged from globose (Fig.
5a) to ovoid (Fig. 5b) to obovate (Fig. 5c).

It would seem that the shape of the nut enclosed within the husk might
be predetermined by examination of the husk itself. The obovate husk
shape could most frequently be depended on to produce either elliptical
or obovate nuts but this was not an absolute certainty. The thickness of
the husk effectively concealed the true shape of the nut beneath; the
thinnest husks most nearly conforming to the true nut shape.

The size of the mature shagbark hickory nut and husk ranged from as
small as one inch in a tree which had a seed barely 3/8" wide to as
large as 2-1/4 inches. The size of husk and nut is variable and adjacent
trees which may have developed from the same parent seldom have similar
nuts in the area examined.

The nut itself exhibited the greatest variability of all features
examined on the test trees. These trees exhibited striking
dissimilarities in:

   (1) nut size
   (2) nut shape
   (3) shell color
   (4) thickness of shell
   (5) sweetness or palatability of nutmeat.

One tree was discovered with a nut which might have caused a taxonomist
to coin the name _Carya ovata_ var. _microcarpa_ due to the very small
dimensions of about 3/8 x 3/8 x 3/4 inches in width, thickness and
depth. Even the squirrels of the area did not feel that this tree
deserved their attention The largest nut
obtained had overall dimensions of 1 x 3/4 x 1 inches in width,
thickness and depth. The majority of average sized nuts were roughly 3/4
x 1/2 x 3/4 inches.

The nut shapes have fallen into a general pattern which include the
following normal types:

    Type A--The normal 4 angled nut, nearly rectangular in cross section
    (Fig. 6a).

    Type B--An elliptical form, nearly oval in cross section (Fig. 6b).

    Type C--A smooth oval nut, oval or elliptical in cross section (Fig.
    6c).

    Type D--An obovate nut, oval to angled in cross section (Fig. 6d).

    Type E--A fat globose nut, broadly oval to orbicular in cross
    section (Fig. 6e).

[Illustration: Type A Type B Type C Type D Type E

Fig. 6a Fig. 6b Fig. 6c Fig. 6d Fig. 6e

Normal Fruit Forms of Shagbark Hickory (1X)]

[Illustration: Type F Type G Type H

Fig. 6f Fig. 6g Fig. 6h

Abnormal Fruit Forms of Shagbark Hickory (1X)]

In addition to the afore mentioned 5 normal types, three abnormal types
were encountered:

   Type F--A smooth or angled nut, triangular in cross section--found
   in the same trees as normal nut forms (Fig. 6f).

   Type G--A smooth or angled nut square in cross section--found
   on the same trees as normal nut forms (Fig. 6g).

   Type H--A Siamese twin form occurring very rarely on the same
   trees as other normal forms (Fig. 6h).

Type A was the commonest form of nut found in the Onondaga County area.
It roughly exceeded Types B, D and E by a 2:1 ratio. Type C exceeded
Types B, D and E with a ratio of about 7:5 in frequency of occurrence.
Types B and D were the two most easily cracked nut forms when using a
hammer and anvil for a cracking device. It should be noted at this time
that _all_ of the abnormal fruit types were found in _conjunction with_
normal fruit types. Thus, one individual tree used as a collection might
produce _both_ a normal nut type (A, B, C, D or E) _and_ an abnormal nut
type (F, G or H). Occasionally a few nuts in a collection from one tree
might be classed as a _second_ normal type. This was rare however (5
cases) and only occurred in "borderline trees" which were then
classified and recorded as per the dominant nut type for the tree. It
should be noted here that the nut type did _not_ vary from year to year
for the trees examined. Also the frequency of nut crops varied
considerably; less than 1/4 of the sample trees produced nuts each year.
Most of the trees produced crops in alternate years, and a very few have
not fruited in the third year following a heavy nut crop.

 The 158 trees examined provided the following distribution by fruit types:
 ---------------+------------------+--------------------------------
                | Number of        | Number of abnormal types found
  Fruit Type    | Individual Trees | in conjunction with
                |                  | normal types
 -----------+---+------------------+--------------------------------
            |   |                  |    F       G        H
 -----------+---+------------------+--------------------------------
  Normal    | A |      54          |    5       2        1
            | B |      23          |    2                1
            | C |      36          |    1                2
            | D |      21          |    7                1
            | E |      24          |            4        1
 -----------|---+------------------+--------------------------------
            |   | 158 collections  |
 -----------+---+------------------+--------------------------------
  Abnormal  | F |      15          |                    15
            | G |       8          |                     8
            | H |       4          |                     4
 ---------------+------------------+--------------------------------
 27 collections

Shell color of the nuts varied between a brownish white and a pinkish
white color when fully dried. From the trees used as a sample, there
were 14 which might be classed in the brownish white categories, and the
remainder (144) as pinkish white or creamy white. Types B and C were the
ones which most frequently were found with the brownish white nutshell
color. Type A was typically pinkish or creamy white in color.

Nutshell thickness varied somewhat. In all but 2 cases, the nuts were
too hard to crack with the teeth. The thin-shelled ones are
_comparatively_ thin only, being about like paper-shelled pecans with
the shell thinnest on the sides of the nut. It is not suggested that
these two thin-shelled nuts be exploited as paper-shelled shagbarks
since they are poorly formed nuts and of small size. One of the two
trees might be a hybrid since it does not have a ciliate leaflet margin
although the buds, bark and leaves are typical of shagbark hickory. The
minimum shell thickness observed for the side of the nut was 1/2 a
millimeter (0.5 mm.) and the thickest was 2.0 millimeters. As previously
stated, nut types B and D (the elliptical and obovate nut forms) were
the easiest to crack. Nut type A was the most difficult and had
generally the thickest shell.

The seed coat color range was from a light tan to a bronze color. The
seed itself was in all cases sweet although certain of the nuts had a
more pleasing taste than others. The nuts eventually became rancid
though 3 years of storage in a heated room did not cause the bulk of the
test samples to change in flavor. This is unlike the pecan which, stored
in the same room with the hickory nuts, became rancid by the following
year after collection.


Summary of Observations

The following observations concerning shagbark hickory may be made from
this study:

    (1) The buds of shagbark fall into 2 classes based on bud shape, (1)
    globose-ovate and (2) elliptical, the latter being the largest bud
    as a rule.

    (2) The buds of shagbark fall into 2 classes based upon the length
    of the attenuated apex of the outer bud scales. The elliptical form
    of bud consistently had the longest drawn out apex.

    (3) Normal buds of shagbark occur singly on the twigs above the
    lobed leaf scar; however, 2, 3 or 4 superposed buds may occur on
    very fast grown sprouts or terminal shoots of vigorously growing
    trees.

    (4) The twigs of shagbark are pubescent but range in degrees from
    almost none to densely pubescent. The fastest grown twigs are apt to
    be the least pubescent.

    (5) Leaves are compound with 3-5 leaflets commonly found and 7
    leaflets rarely found.

    (6) Leaflet shapes varied from tree to tree being ovate, obovate or
    elliptical.

    (7) Leaflet margins with one exception were more or less ciliate.

    (8) Most female flowers of shagbark have 2 stigmatic lobes, however,
    3 stigmatic lobes resulting in triangular nuts are not uncommon.

    (9) The typical male ament is three branched but one and two
    branched aments have been observed.

     (10) The husk of shagbark varies in thickness from 1/8 inch to 1/2
    inch in thickness when dry. The usual husk is 4-parted but one tree
    bore 5-parted husks consistently.

    The average husk thickness is around 1/4 inch.

    (12) There are three general fruit shapes, (1) globose, (2) ovoid
    and (3) obovate.

    (13) There are at least 5 general types of normal nut shapes for
    Onondaga County, N. Y. as listed in the text of this paper.

    (14) Three abnormal nut types were also encountered growing
    concurrently with the normal types.

    (15) Nutshell color varied from brownish to creamy white. The darker
    colors were generally associated with the elliptical, oval or
    obovate nut forms.

    (16) Nutshell thickness varied between 1/2 and 2 millimeters; the
    more angled the nut, the thicker the shell.

    (17) All of the hickory nuts tested had sweet, edible seeds. The
    seed coats varied from a light tan to a bronze in color.


Conclusions

Within the single species of nut tree called shagbark hickory, _Carya
ovata_ (Mill.) K. Koch., in central New York, there exists a great
degree of diversity. However, in spite of these differences, the
examined sample trees may be placed without a question in their proper
genus and species and the author would venture the opinion that the
advisability of placing variety names on portions of the species is a
doubtful and hazardous procedure until much more is known concerning the
species than is known at present.

MR. PAPE: This paper is the result of the fact that some of us down in
Indiana are losing 75 to 95 per cent of our hickory crop each year by
the curculio, and what we are trying to do is work up a little interest
with this paper, so at the conclusion of this we can get a discussion
started and learn the experiences of other people. Maybe you will be
able to help us down in Indiana.



The Control of the Hickory Weevil (Curculio caryae)

EDWARD W. PAPE, _Marion, Indiana_


It is our thought that if some effort were made to bring to this
assembly, a digest of what has been done to control the Hickory weevil,
we might arouse enough interest to carry on some experiments.

If, at the conclusion of this paper, we can get enough discussion, we
will be able to avail ourselves of the knowledge and experiences of
others who have made attempts to control this pest, it would be to our
advantage.

The Pecan weevil of the south and the Hickory weevil are identical and
we learn the following from the experiments carried out by G. F.
Moznette, Bureau of Entomology, U.S.D.A.

Pecan weevil damage is of two types--(1) that resulting from attack
before the shell-hardening period in July and August and causing all
affected nuts to drop, and (2) that resulting from attack after kernel
formation and usually causing the shuck of infested nuts to stick tight
to the shell instead of opening normally. Weevil-injured nuts of the
second type contain grubs which destroy the kernels, or they contain
holes about one-eighth inch in diameter which mature grubs have bored
and through which they escaped after destroying the kernels. The first
type of damage often passes unnoticed and is due to the feeding of early
emerging weevils, which puncture the immature nuts with their long
lancelike beaks to feed on the juices within. Since all nuts punctured
in this way before the shell-hardening period drop to the ground, the
entire crop may be lost if weevils are abundant and the crop is light.
Such damage may be heavy even when a large crop is attacked. The second
type of damage is generally noticeable at harvest-time in October and
November, and in seasons when large numbers of weevils have been present
practically the entire crop may be wormy at harvest.

Since the weevils do not feed very much on the outer surface of
developing pecan nuts, stomach poisons applied to trees have been of
little practical value in control. In 1944, however, laboratory tests
showed that DDT could kill the adults, and that it was worthy of field
trial.

Field tests were made at Fort Valley, Georgia, with DDT and the
conclusions drawn from these tests show that the effectiveness of two
applications of DDT at the rate of 6 pounds of a 50-percent wettable
powder to 100 gallons of water in reducing harvest infestations to 1
percent gives rise to the hope that this treatment, applied for several
seasons, will eliminate a pecan weevil infestation in an orchard, or
will reduce it to such an extent that spraying every year will not be
necessary.

The time of the first application of DDT cannot be based on the time of
the first drop of nuts, because other pecan insects also cause the nuts
to drop during July and August. However, pecan growers who wish to make
the effort can time the first application accurately by spreading a
sheet on the ground beneath an infested tree and lightly jarring the
branches to dislodge the weevils. When the weevils are disturbed they
fall and "play possum" and can be easily collected. When a minimum of
six weevils can be taken by jarring the branches on any one tree, it is
time to make the first application.

While the above will probably give an indication as to what can be done,
using DDT to control the Hickory weevil, for those who have large
plantings and can afford the expensive spraying equipment necessary, it
will be necessary to look farther for control methods for the small
orchard, where expensive equipment is not feasible.

The following is part of a letter from Dr. C. C. Compton, Entomologist
for the Julius Hyman and Company.

"It is our thought that since DIELDRIN is so highly toxic to
Curculionids it might be possible to take advantage of the habits of
this insect and control it by spraying the soil surface. The larval
stage of this insect leaves the nuts and enters the soil sometime in the
fall. It is believed that the larvae penetrate the soil rather deeply,
to a depth of perhaps a foot or more and remain in the soil over winter.
In the spring or early summer the larvae transform to adults and emerge
to lay their eggs. In some regions at least the adults do not emerge
until the second year after the larvae enter the ground.

It is our thought that if DIELDRIN was applied to the surface of the
soil that many of the larvae would be killed upon entering the soil or
would be killed at some later time when the adults emerge.

Dr. C. L. Fluke at the University of Wisconsin has been working for the
past several years with DIELDRIN applied as an orchard spray for the
control of plum curculio. In Dr. Fluke's work he applied the DIELDRIN to
the orchard floor or cover. He has had some very promising results. Dr.
Fluke has used two application rates, namely, six pounds and three
pounds of DIELDRIN per acre. Since he obtained a high degree of control
at the three pound level, it would seem worthwhile to investigate the
possibilities of applying even a lower rate, say one and a half pounds
per acre. In Dr. Fluke's work he applied the DIELDRIN to the soil in the
orchard using a DIELDRIN emulsifiable concentrate containing one and a
half pounds per gallon.

DIELDRIN is now available impregnated on a 30-60 mesh attapulgus clay.
Such formulations are now available containing 5%, 10%, and 15%
DIELDRIN. The DIELDRIN granules would appear to have certain advantages
over liquid sprays where the grove has considerable ground cover. A high
percentage of the insecticide is retained by the cover and does not
reach the soil. The 30-60 mesh granules have the advantage of
penetrating even the densest cover and their application results in a
maximum deposit of the insecticide on the soil surface.

Groves or orchards under cultivation can be sprayed or treated with the
granules. In either case it is advisable to disc the insecticide into
the soil following application.

The granules are free flowing and can be applied quite readily with any
fertilizer or distributor.

Without any field experience to go by it would seem that a 5% 30-60 mesh
DIELDRIN granule formulation would be most convenient to use. By using a
5% DIELDRIN granule material you would obtain a dosage of 1-1/2 pound of
actual DIELDRIN per acre by applying 30 pounds of granules per acre.
Likewise, 60 pounds of the granules per acre would give a dosage of 3
pound of DIELDRIN. On the basis of work done with DIELDRIN for the
control of the Japanese beetle, 3 pounds of DIELDRIN per acre will
control this insect for more than 5 years. While it is not safe to
assume that we could expect the same results in the case of the Hickory
weevil, it does give us something to go by."

It seems likely that the foregoing will create some interest and that by
the time of the next annual meeting we should have the results from the
use of DIELDRIN to control the Hickory weevil.

MR. PAPE: It is my thought now if we could get a little discussion here
concerning what some of you have been doing to control this pest, we
might get somewhere, or at least get enough suggestions or get enough
parties interested to carry on some experiments in different parts of
the country.

MR. SILVIS: What company makes Dieldrin?

MR. PAPE: Julius Hyman Company is the one that sent the most literature
and Shell Corporation local agents handle it. Also in Indiana the Farm
Bureau Cooperative store handles it. The cost in small quantities is two
pounds for 85 cents.

MR. KYHL: Is Dieldrin poison?

MR. PAPE: It's poison like all of these modern sprays, but it isn't as
dangerous as Parathion.

MR. STOKE: In Virginia I have had no experience with DDT, except with
chestnut, and it takes three sprays at two-week intervals to control the
pest.

DR. GRAVES: What time of the year?

MR. STOKE: Apply the last spray about two weeks before the nuts ripen.
That means, with us, starting in late July. You have to figure it for
your own region.

MR. GRAVATT: There is literature available from the Bureau of Entomology
in Washington on spraying to control pecan and chestnut weevils. They
have done quite a bit of research on it.

MR. STOKE: If this ground treatment is effective, I'd like to try it.
It's a lot easier.

MR. PAPE: That would be very nice if you would repeat the work in
Virginia. I know that the Pecan Growers will work on the problem in the
South. If we could get work done in the Central States, it would be an
advantage for all of us.

MR. STOKE: In my area the control of the pest is complicated by the
presence of the chinquapin.

PRESIDENT BEST: We have a surprise feature this afternoon. Dr. Graves of
the Connecticut Experiment station, who, as you know, is the father of a
lot of this work on chestnuts, has consented to discuss with us certain
new procedures that he used in grafting chestnuts.

DR. GRAVES: We have worked with this method of inarching blighted
chestnuts so long and found it so successful that I felt it my duty to
tell you people something about it. It's really a method of cure for the
blight on Oriental chestnuts and their hybrids. I have not found it to
work well on the American chestnut.

Now, suppose we have our tree, with a blighted area on the trunk. I am
assuming that the blight starts near the base of the tree as it usually
does.

When you see it, you cut it out with a sharp knife removing the bark to
the wood. Blighted trees send up shoots from the base, below the
blighted bark. So you take one of these shoots, sharpen it at the top
and insert this sharpened tip under the healthy bark at the top of the
blighted area. The shoot should be a little longer than the blighted
area so that you can get a spring to the shoot as you push its tip in
between the bark and the trunk. Even if it goes up above and breaks the
bark a little bit, it doesn't matter. This inarched shoot renews the
connection between the leaves and the roots across the blighted area.

You know the leaves make the food of the tree, which goes down in the
bark to the roots. The reason blight kills these trees is that it begins
to girdle and sometimes does girdle the tree and destroys the connection
between the leaves and the roots, so the roots eventually die. But by
this method of inarching you restore that connection between leaves and
roots.

Now, you'd be surprised to see how well that's worked with us. We tried
it first in 1937. We have been doing it now for 16 years. Every spring
we take our trees that show the blight, our hybrids and Oriental
chestnuts, and inarch, and the whole thing doesn't take more than a few
minutes. Then after our shoot is inarched here, we tie it with
old-fashioned string. The tips of the inarched grafts should be covered
with grafting wax or paraffin.

The scion will probably send out shoots which should be removed. And
another thing, cut the string when you know the graft has taken above.

If the blighted area is higher up in the tree, you can use bridge graft.
This, you can see, is a kind of bridge grafting. But in bridge grafting,
the scion must be anchored in the bark both above and below the lesion.

As I say, we have cured our hybrids. There doesn't need to be anybody
losing a Chinese chestnut tree ever, using this method. No sense in it.
You can usually do this grafting in the spring about April when the
leaves and the buds are beginning to show their green.

Any questions?

MR. DAVIDSON: You say you paint the wood?

DR. GRAVES: Yes, with any ordinary paint. There is a tree wood paint, I
know, that's better, but we use ordinary paint.

Meeting adjourned at 4:50 o'clock, p.m.



MONDAY EVENING SESSION

"What's Your Problem?"--Round Table Discussion

_Moderator_: J. W. McKay

_Panel_: J. C. McDaniel, D. C. Snyder, Jesse D. Diller, Stephen Bernath


DR. MCKAY: In these panel discussions the moderator usually lays a
little background as an introduction to the subject of the evening. This
title came from a conversation with Dr. Crane. We were talking about
people asking questions about their problems, and decided to have a
panel discussion. Right there we chose the title, "What's your problem?"

All of us have problems to deal with in every walk of life. We run up
against difficulties, and usually much of our time is taken up in
solving or coping with them. At Beltsville we answer a great many
letters, and a great many people ask us about their problems. In
answering problems, we push the industry forward, because we remove
something that is holding it back.

Sometimes the answer to a problem is found by trying to analyze our
successes. In growing nut trees we may have an unusually good crop on a
particular variety or tree. The question is, why does that tree bear
well that particular year, and very frequently it is difficult to
understand why. It is very difficult, for example, in the case of one
success, to repeat that success, because the second time you try to do
it, something else comes in, and you probably have a failure and, well,
you don't know why. It is frequently very difficult to analyze our
successes. Another way of stating it is, of course, that our successes
are often Nature's gift, and we do not know the factors and the forces
that go into that gift.

I want to digress here just a little bit by quoting one thing that Mr.
Best said. I wish, by the way, that we could incorporate some of his
homey philosophy into some of our minutes so as to really benefit by
some of his remarks. I was impressed this morning by his statement in
dealing with a "fairyland of nuts," you remember that language he used,
"no diseases, no insects, no failures."

DR. MACDANIEL: No squirrels.

DR. MCKAY: Wouldn't that be wonderful? I was impressed with another
thing he said; I wrote it down here: "People are not going to break down
with emotion when we talk about the old hollow tree down in the corner
of the pasture where the 'possums were hatched." Language like that, to
me, strikes a very harmonious note. I want to continue this digression a
little to consider the fact that all of us, in a sense, are hobbyists in
nut growing.

Hobbies in this day and age are coming to be more important all the
time, because of the fast pace at which we live. We need to leave our
regular duties once in a while and get out in the garden or the forest
where we can observe nature and get away from some of the stresses and
strains that modern living places upon us.

On this trip we were taking a hike along the north rim of Grand Canyon
in an organized nature walk. The trees, bushes and flowers were all
labelled right down the walk, and we came to this little poem on a
regulation label. It goes like this:

   "If you keep your nose to the grindstone rough,
     And you keep it there long enough,
   You will cease to hear the birds that sing,
     And the brooks that babble in early spring,
   And finally all that your world will compose,
     Will be the grindstone and your poor, old nose."

So that little poem strikes a real note about a person's hobby. You keep
your nose to the grindstone, you will forget all these things. You need
to get away from the grindstone once in a while. I don't mean to neglect
your work, but I do mean to at least take a little time to go out and
look at your trees and forget your troubles and relax and get away from
the stresses and strains that modern living places on us.

Going back now to the subject; we asked you, through the Nutshell and
through members of the Program Committee, to send in the biggest problem
in connection with whatever nut species you grow.

The seventeen replies received included eight problems as follows: (1)
brooming disease of walnut; (2) early vegetating particularly of
Carpathian walnut and frost damage resulting therefrom; (3) delayed
fruiting of chestnut seedlings; (4) season too short for ripening of
fruit; (5) squirrels get the nuts; (6) failure of hicans to set fruit;
(7) grafting problems under which are grouped all asexual propagation
and cuttings; and, finally, (8) getting hickory trees established.

This is a rather low number, but I think out of those eight problems
submitted you have a good representation of some of the things about
which members of this Association talk when they come to meetings. I
will first ask the audience if there is any one who would like to ask a
particular question at this time.

MR. BECKER: At the Weber planting at Rockport, Indiana last year, we saw
no nuts on the trees. I would like to know what is the cause for those
trees not bearing.

DR. MACDANIEL: I would think that failure to bear was caused by a
combination of things; lack of soil fertility, in the first place, soil
physical conditions, probably insect damage and diseases like
anthracnose keeping the trees from being vigorous, overcrowding now,
with many of them, and perhaps to some extent genetic, some varieties
that just naturally don't fruit very heavily.

DR. McKAY: Any others in the audience care to comment on that question?

MR. STOKE: Weather conditions, freezing may have caused it.

DR. MACDANIELS: My impression was that the trees were starving to death.
Cutting down the competition with the weeds and feeding them nitrate
would help.

DR. MCKAY: I think most members felt there that the trees were probably
crowding each other.

MR. BECKER: They had never borne, had they?

MR. WILKINSON: I don't like to comment on it. My opinion is it's due to
the undergrowth under the trees. Keeping the circulation of the air to
the roots of the trees has an effect on its non-bearing. Up until they
quit cultivating and pasturing the orchard, it bore, but after they
quit, production stopped. There is a two- or three-year growth of grass
and weeds, a mat on the ground, and I think it's a lack of air to the
roots of the trees.

DR. MCKAY: Mr. Wilkinson, I heard the question raised as to whether the
orchard had ever produced heavily or not. Can you answer that?

MR. WILKINSON: Yes, it certainly did for several years. As long as it
was cared for, it was a heavy producer.

DR. MCKAY: How long ago was that, could you say?

MR. WILKINSON: That's been eight years and farther back. Nothing has
been done for it in the past eight years.

MR. BEST: May I make a comment? Last year in our part of the country,
which is a little bit west of the orchard we are talking about, we had
almost zero weather in November before the leaves were off of the trees,
and I felt that that took all the buds off our trees. We didn't have any
nuts even on varieties that would bear every year. There are hardly any.
And I think that cold freeze in the fall before the buds really got
ready for it did a lot of damage.

DR. MACDANIEL: I believe that was a factor in the light walnut crop in
that area last year, though some trees did bear.

DR. MCKAY: Of course, I think many of us fail to realize that a tree is
a thing that's confined to one spot, and when it fills the ground with
feeding roots and mines the soil of all nutrients near it, it's stymied,
so to speak, until we give it some more food. Isn't that right, Dr.
Crane.

DR. CRANE: That's right.

DR. MCKAY: And trees, when they reach out as far as they can and can't
get any more food and no more leaves are allowed to fall on the ground,
nature doesn't add any nutrients anymore, naturally, those trees are in
a bad way and will continue to be until fertilizer is applied in some
way.

A MEMBER: I'd like to trim my Persian walnuts so I can walk under the
lowest limb. Does that have an adverse effect upon the bearing of the
tree?

MR. BERNATH: I don't think that's good, to trim them too high. I think
the lower the tree the better it handles all along. Take the fruit
growers, they aim to have the trees as low as possible to make picking
and spraying easy. If you prune a tree, especially the Persian walnut,
too much, it will have a bad effect on the tree.

DR. McKAY: What about the effect on bearing?

MR. BERNATH: You won't have fruit for several years until the tree
recovers what it has lost in foliage.

MR. KINTZEL: I have followed the orchards in California, and I have
noticed they follow the practice of leaving the lower branches on the
trees, and I have noticed that the lower branches have a lot of nuts on
them, also. The branches are hanging down on the ground.

MR. KERR: In France and Germany, they are crazy to get wood, and so they
cut off all the low limbs. I have a Persian walnut that is beside the
walk, and they cut off the low limbs because they hit the sidewalk. This
year I got a tremendous crop.

MR. SILVIS: I think this man has a tree that he wants to walk under.
Under these circumstances he can cut off the low limbs. I agree with Mr.
Bernath, however, that it will reduce the crop for two or three years.

MR. BERNATH: Yes, but he should start pruning when the tree is young. A
tree is just like a child: you have to start to train them while they
are young.

MR. STOKE: You must consider the tree at all ages. In the young tree Mr.
Bernath is right, it will produce sooner if you leave all the leaves on.
But we must consider the mature tree. The branches that are low to the
ground have to have the sunlight and if they do not get it they become
practically barren during later years. If the lower branches are cut
back when they are young and the tree headed higher, the Persian walnut
will have a trunk, say, 10 feet to 14 feet to the first limb, but these
will produce walnuts ultimately. I think the gentleman is right in
having the tree pruned high enough to walk under, and he will get more
nuts in the long run than if he lets the lower limbs develop and then
eventually cut them down.

DR. MACDANIEL: We had an example of that with that huge black walnut tree
with black walnuts starting out 30 feet in the air arching down and
touching the ground. But you wouldn't want to do that immediately with a
young tree, take all the branches up so high.

A MEMBER: Do you have any control for the stink bug on filberts?

DR. MCKAY: We haven't worked with the control of stink bug, because it
is what might be classed as one of our minor problems. The damage is not
so great but what we can overlook it at the present time.

DR. CRANE: In pecan and almond growing in California the effective
control measure for stink bug is the elimination of the host plants on
which the stink bug breeds. Peach growers have the same problem. Stink
bug will, if allowed to multiply in a peach orchard, ruin the peaches,
making injuries very similar to that caused by the plum curculio. The
only satisfactory method of control of stink bug injury is to eliminate
the host plants on which they live, such as most legume plants,
blackberry briars and other brambles. In an orchard, in a grass sod,
stink bug is no problem, but where we have soy beans or cow peas or
something like that growing in the orchard, or we have blackberry briars
or wild raspberries nearby, stink bug is a bad problem.

DR. GRAVATT: I have filbert trees, and the stink bug gets practically
all the nuts. The entomologists looked into the situation, and the
condition that Dr. Crane mentioned was borne out. If there are
blackberries around, it will be quite a problem to control the stink
bugs.

DR. MCKAY: Now I am going to take up the problems that have been sent in
by mail. The one dealing with early vegetating and frost damage to
Persian walnuts was sent in by the most people.

Mr. Snyder lives in a fairly cold country. I am going to ask him to give
us his ideas on this problem and what might be done with it.

MR. SNYDER: I am not qualified to discuss that problem, because we can't
do anything much with Carpathian walnuts. We do have some grafted this
year, and we will have one, in particular, Carpathian, No. 5--I don't
know where it got that number--Crath No. 5, I believe it is, on a young
grafted black walnut tree which is ripening up almost ahead of the black
walnut, and both have made a remarkable growth. But so far as the spring
is concerned, I don't know how they will come out.

DR. MCKAY: Mr. Bernath, what are your views? You live in a fairly cold
area. You propagate Persian walnuts. What is your opinion of this
problem?

MR. BERNATH: Well, there is a way to help that situation. After the
ground freezes, keep that ground frozen. That will delay the growth of
that tree, if you have the time and patience to keep the ground frozen.

MR. SNYDER: I don't believe it.

MR. BERNATH: Yes, it will.

DR. MCKAY: It seems to me we have a difference of opinion here between
Mr. Snyder and Mr. Bernath. The question is this: During a warm spell in
the spring will a tree with frozen roots grow up here in the air. That's
the question.

(There was a chorus of "yes"es from the audience).

MR. STOKE: I would say that one good solution is to select late
vegetating varieties. Mr. Oakes in a report to me on the blooming habits
of Persian walnuts, stated that the variety Schaeffer did not start
growth until the 29th of April. That is almost four weeks later than
most other varieties. And I know from the tabulations that I have made
that some varieties are weeks ahead of others. So let's select the late
varieties that are good and worthwhile and plant those.

In my section our latest spring frost averages the 20th of April, and
yet I have several varieties that do not bloom until after the first of
May. That's the ideal condition.

DR. MCKAY: That's true, Mr. Stoke, but here is another point to
consider. Persian walnuts have a short cold requirement, you know that.
Hence, in February or early March or any time, even in January, when we
have a warm spell of a week or ten days or even shorter, sap will rise
in the trees, and they will start to grow.

MR. STOKE: Not all. In plants of some varieties new growth will hardly
start.

DR. MCKAY: Perhaps you may have varieties that will not start, but the
tendency is to start.

MR. STOKE: If you have one with that early tendency, cut it out.

DR. MCKAY: I'd like to get back to this opinion here on the question of
frozen ground, dormant roots and the effect it has on the top of the
tree. Now, how about our academicians over here, Dr. MacDaniels or Dr.
Crane. Let's hear from one of you.

DR. MACDANIELS: It is my opinion that with a walnut tree of good size
the frozen ground would have little or no effect on the buds starting
growth. The twigs and the trunk would warm up to the temperature of the
air, and when that happens growth occurs. Water is available from that
in the trunk and the deeper roots. This would happen regardless of how
the surface roots were treated.

DR. MACDANIEL: Or whether the tree had any roots on at the time.

DR. MACDANIELS: The best solution to the frost damage problem is to find
trees which vegetate late enough to avoid the spring frosts. Somewhere
on this terrestrial globe there must be some, because I remember years
ago J. F. Jones sent out some Persian walnuts of Chinese origin. I
planted three, and they did not start any growth until about the first
of July, and they were still growing strong when frost hit them in the
fall. Now, somewhere in between these extremes, somewhere in the
climatic analogue of our region we will find Persian walnuts which will
have a delayed vegetating period, and that will be the final answer. At
least, I think so.

DR. MACDANIEL: I'd like to ask a question. In F-2 hybrid walnuts do you
find much segregation of those for later initiation of vegetation?

DR. MCKAY: Yes, we find in those seedlings in some cases the tendency to
vegetate very early and others very late. The most striking case that I
know is an F-1 hybrid which is a very, very late starter in the spring.
It is perfectly dormant when the other young walnuts are in practically
full leaf. We do not have any offspring from that particular one yet,
but it gives us some hope that from this hybrid we may get something
later.

MR. BECKER: With us I don't think this early vegetation means anything.
We are in Michigan. Dark, cold weather continues until about the middle
of May, when frost ends, and then all of a sudden spring breaks loose,
everything comes out, and we don't have any setback, as a rule, from
then on. So early vegetation matters little, means nothing, the way I
feel about it.

DR. CRANE: Mr. Moderator, you ought to point out that most of the United
States isn't Michigan. If we had climatic conditions that Michigan has,
we wouldn't have that problem, but this problem becomes much more acute,
for example, as you go south.

The north knows nothing about cold injury, absolutely nothing. If you
want to see cold injury, you go south. I told Dr. George Potter that
twelve years ago. He was born and raised in Wisconsin and spent 17 years
in the mountains of New Hampshire. I told him he never saw any winter
injury, and he said, "Why, I never heard such a wild statement in my
life." Well, that was because of the fact he had never seen it. He has
been in the South now for 12 years, and he says, "You made a very
truthful statement." He has seen the injury.

In Oregon in 1950 or '51 we had a fall freeze. The temperature was
measured by the Experiment Station in Eastern Oregon, where they are
trying to grow some fruit and nut trees so they will have something else
to eat besides sage brush. They had extensive plantings of walnuts,
Mayette, Franquette and all of those hardy varieties, and along with
them they had some Carpathians. The temperature there in the fall
dropped to 36 degrees below zero, and all of their walnuts of these
other strains were killed to the ground, but the Carpathian came through
uninjured. In the spring of the year however it warmed up, the
Carpathians leafed out and were about ready to bloom when there was a
sharp freeze, and the Carpathians sure got it in the neck. So what
difference does it make whether you lose the trees in the winter or you
lose them in the spring? You have lost them just the same. I think we
ought to hear Spencer Chase cite the history of their big collection of
Carpathians in Tennessee Valley Authority. I understand from him that
they have never fruited any Carpathians down there at all. It's not
winter hardiness, it's this early foliation. So we have got a lot of
areas that are vastly different from that peninsula in Michigan which
the Good Lord designed to make a favored country in a lot of respects.

DR. MCKAY: I recognize Mr. Devitt, who is here from Canada and is well
qualified to discuss Reverend Crath's work there.

MR. DEVITT: It is interesting to me to hear of this early budding and
late fruiting. Along the north shore of Lake Ontario and down through
the Niagara Peninsula our climate is quite consistent. There was only
one year when we had a late frost--it was on May 19th. That was in the
year 1936. Every other year since they have bloomed every year.

MR. STOKE: I'd like to speak of a tree Mr. Crath sent me. The tree was
bearing in Toronto 20 years ago. With me it winter kills sometime in the
winter each year, I don't know when. In some years it has been killed
back to 5-year-old wood, and this spring I found it was all dead. This
tree comes out of dormancy as soon as the sun gets warm. It's hardy in
Toronto but not hardy in Virginia.

DR. MCKAY: I think you can all see why this problem is one of the most
acute ones we have to deal with today. This variation over the country
in the behavior of this so-called hardy strain of walnut is of great
interest now to people everywhere. People are believing that it can be
grown, and there are still problems we have not solved. I would like to
have just a brief statement from Spencer Chase on the performance of
Carpathian varieties at Norris, Tennessee.

MR. CHASE: We reported this, I think, at our Beltsville meeting several
years ago. Trees we had at Norris are Carpathian types secured from the
Wisconsin Horticultural Society about 1940. After two years in the
nursery they were planted, and last year, 1952, was the first year that
they bore any nuts. But that was simply because we did not have a late
frost last year. This year, they were all frosted again. So we have, in
the South, from Virginia and Tennessee to a little farther southward,
a problem of early vegetation of English walnuts. We should encourage
everyone to watch for any late vegetating kinds for trial in the South.

MR. STOKE: Dr. Dunstan reported two walnut trees in North Carolina,
where the season is about ten days earlier than at my place in Virginia
that blossomed after the first of May. I am going to investigate these
trees further.

DR. MCKAY: We have about five minutes that we might devote to some other
problem. Nearly all of us do grafting work of one sort or another. Do I
have a question from the floor on grafting?

MR. MACHOVINA: With cleft grafts or splice grafts held with grafting
rubbers, do you have to cut the rubbers?

DR. MACDANIEL: If it's a chestnut and you have it waxed, I think the
answer is yes.

MR. MACHOVINA: The wax is a hot wax and the rubber does not disintegrate
very quickly.

DR. MACDANIEL: Probably you will have to cut it on species in which the
growth bulges up between the turns of the rubber. This is true of
chestnuts in particular, possibly persimmons, walnuts probably not quite
so much trouble. Let's hear from one of the nurserymen.

MR. BERNATH: I think the best way is after the union is firm enough, to
cut the rubber with a sharp knife.

MR. STOKE: I'd make one qualification. I said I didn't think you had to
cut rubber. I think that's true with grafting above ground. Underneath
ground, with moisture around it, it should be cut.

MR. BERNATH: If you leave the rubber on and bury it, that lasts for
years. Even above ground you find it sometimes.

MR. PATAKY: If you get a fast-growing callus, you have to cut the rubber
band, but if it is rather slow you don't. I do a lot of budding with
roses. I don't cut the rubber bands off, because they will eventually
drop off. If you graft a black walnut or Persian, you will have to cut
it or it will girdle the graft.

MR. STOKE: It doesn't do it for me.

A MEMBER: Has anybody done work with polyethylene film in grafting?

MR. BECKER: I hesitate to tell you my experiment. I don't think much of
it. I used polyethylene bags on chestnuts early in the season, and
practically every one grew, but everything else that was out in the hot
sun boiled. In the hot weather of June the grafts actually cook in the
bags.

MR. MACHOVINA: Did you use a bag over the whole graft, or just a tube
around it?

MR. BECKER: A bag over the whole thing. I have a few Carpathian grafts
that grew well. I think I have better luck with hot wax than anything
else.

DR. McKAY: Our time is up. I want to thank the panel, although we didn't
work you too hard. The panel is adjourned.

PRESIDENT BEST: Dr. Gravatt will show a film entitled: "It Bringeth
Forth Much Fruit."

       *       *       *       *       *

DR. GRAVATT: Mr. President, ladies and gentlemen, you all are familiar
with the fact that the chestnut blight is loose in Europe. It was
reported in Italy in 1938, and it spread rather rapidly in Italy. It had
been there many years before they found it. In spite of our numerous
warnings to get them to watch for it, they let it get away. It has
spread into Switzerland, caused a great deal of damage there with no
hope of saving the larger chestnuts there or in Italy. It's spreading
into Yugoslavia. They are making very energetic efforts to control the
disease in Yugoslavia, trying to delay it as much as possible. It
happens the forest pathologist who handles this work is a young lady,
and she has got the forester and other people interested to try to hold
it back as long as possible.

The threat of the chestnut blight to the entire chestnut growth in all
of Southern Europe helped to bring about the organization of an
International Chestnut Council and Congress. This is made-up of
delegates from a number of the European countries, Spain, Portugal,
France, Switzerland, Yugoslavia, Greece, Turkey, Japan and the United
States. They have been meeting every other year, first for two years in
succession, but the plan now is to meet every other year. They had a
meeting in Spain and Portugal this past June, and the State Department
paid my expenses over, and so forth, to attend as a delegate from the
United States at this international meeting.

The meeting was very enjoyable. They have a very fine system there. They
hire big buses to take you around over the country. Your hotel is all
arranged for in advance, and you go sightseeing to the orchards and
utilization plants. We have meetings just here and there along the way
where we stop a half day or a day.

The next meeting will probably be held in about two years. They have
decided now that the meetings will be more in the way of conferences,
because the last three meetings have been partly sightseeing to observe
chestnut orchards and laboratories.

The possibility of holding the meeting in the United States has been
discussed by the delegates there. But it involves a lot of expense and
the delegates were of the opinion that there would be a very small
meeting in the United States, because the countries over there simply
couldn't afford the expense of sending them over here.

The problem in Italy is very serious, because they have something over a
million acres of grafted chestnut orchards, all of which they are
probably going to lose, and something like a million acres of coppice
growth that is going to be damaged but not such a severe loss. In
connection with the work in Italy I suggested the production of a movie
film that could be shown to the Italian people showing the chestnut
industry and also the chestnut blight. This was to be shown in different
parts of Italy to arouse more interest in watching out for the disease.
They have more opportunity there of slowing up the disease if they will
work hard at it, but they are not doing too much.

As some of you know when a lot of different people and agencies work on
a movie film there must be all sorts of compromises. This was done by a
temperamental Italian director, and other people had parts in it, so
what you see is a compromise. They made 30 copies in Italian. H has been
shown in many moving picture houses, and it is also on the loan basis to
the United States. There are extensive film loan libraries, located in
different parts of Italy, so any high school, college forestry group can
borrow films showing different operations, many of them prepared in the
United States and part of them in Italy.

DR. MACDANIEL: What about this so-called Korean chestnut? Is it actually
a third species?

DR. GRAVATT: I don't think so, We had quite a bit of argument on this
question, because in Spain where I found chestnut blight on chestnuts
brought from Japan, we found the name Korean chestnut. Sometimes the
Korean chestnut looks more like a Jap, sometimes it looks more like a
Chinese, and usually it's sort of a blend between the two. We prefer to
recognize these two species and call the Korean a natural hybrid. Both
species are grown in pure form in Korea, and they intercross readily,
and we do not regard it as a new species.

MR. WILSON: Are the Italian enough aware of their problem so that they
will have developed an Asiatic chestnut in time to replace their present
orchards, so that there will not be an interim?

DR. GRAVATT: There will be a big interim. That's an opportunity in this
country to get the market before the Italians ever come back, I think.

(The film, "It Bringeth Forth Much Fruit" was shown.)



The International Chestnut Commission and the Chestnut Blight Problem in
Europe, 1953

G. FLIPPO GRAVATT, _Senior Pathologist, U. S. Plant Industry Station,
Beltsville, Maryland_


The International Chestnut Commission was organized under the auspices
of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. The aim
of the Commission is to promote international cooperation in the study
of all scientific, technical, and economic questions relating to
chestnut growing. The main problem facing all chestnut culture in Europe
is the rapid spread of the chestnut blight. France, Italy, Japan,
Portugal, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey, United States and Yugoslavia are
members of the organization. A representative from the F.A.O. in Rome
serves as Secretary of the Commission. An international conference on
chestnut problems was held in France in 1950, the first meeting of the
Commission was held in Italy and Switzerland in 1951 and the second in
Spain and Portugal, June 18-30, 1953. The average attendance at the
meetings was 50 to 60 persons. I have attended all three conferences as
the representative from the U.S. Departments of State and Agriculture.

The International Chestnut Commission meetings differ from the meetings
of the Northern Nut Growers Association in many ways. Our Northern Nut
Growers Association meets annually for 2-1/2 days while the meetings of
the International Chestnut Commission last from 10 to 12 days but not
every year. In Europe the members travel mostly in a large tourist bus,
which carries the party for hundreds of miles, visiting nurseries,
orchards, chestnut utilization plants and not neglecting the scenic
parts of the route. All lodging and meals are carefully arranged for in
advance. The group in Europe is made up quite largely of Federal and
State professional workers, University professors, and representatives
from the chestnut utilization industries.

Among the places which the delegates visited in Spain in 1953 was the
Agricultural Experiment Station at La Coruna, where the Phytophthora ink
disease of the chestnut has been studied extensively. They also visited
the Experiment Station at Pontevedra, where new methods of propagating
chestnuts are being studied. At Bilboa and at Villa Presente Nursery,
Santander, we inspected plantings of Asiatic chestnuts; I found chestnut
blight present on several trees at both locations and recommended
immediate removal of the diseased trees. Fortunately, the Asiatic
chestnuts are some distance from any native European chestnuts at each
place and, according to the local foresters, the blight has not spread
to the distant stands of native chestnut. Some years ago the Spanish
authorities imported seed from Asia; chestnut blight probably was
brought in on these nuts. All infected trees that are found are being
destroyed, but a thorough inspection and eradication program is needed
to control the disease before it spreads into the native European
chestnut stands, from which the disease probably would spread into
Portugal and southwestern France.

In Portugal we inspected many very fine chestnut orchards. These
orchards are composed of grafted varieties, with only 3 or 4 varieties
in each locality or region. Because of this there is a more standard nut
product in most of Portugal than in the other European countries where
mixtures of local varieties are frequently grown. A very large portion
of the European chestnut orchards in Portugal are made up of seedling
trees, topworked with local selections. In Portugal most of the orchards
are located on the lower slopes and various crops are grown among the
trees. In most other European countries the orchards are on rougher
mountain land which is grazed.

In Portugal the State Road Department has established a number of
roadside plantings of chestnut. These plantings are very productive. The
State Road Department sells the nut crop to the highest bidder and uses
the funds for additional roadside tree plantings.

In northern Portugal authorities have conducted a large-scale program to
control the Phytophthora ink disease of chestnut by the following
treatment: The soil is removed from the base of the tree and larger
roots. The base and roots are sprayed with a sticker compound and then
dusted with copper oxide and copper sulfate before the soil is replaced.
Treatment is repeated every 5 to 7 years. Government officials secured
the cooperation of owners of chestnut stands in treating practically all
trees over large areas. Although this treatment for the Phytophthora ink
disease was originally worked out by the Spanish pathologists at La
Coruna, it has not been used extensively in Spain. The Phytophthora root
disease is damaging chestnut orchards throughout southern Europe. In
1950 I noted that this disease was causing severe damage even in Asia
Minor. In the southern part of the United States this same disease (here
called Phytophthora root rot) caused heavy losses at lower elevations.

The 1953 Chestnut Commission meeting terminated on June 30 at the famous
Palace Hotel at Bussaco, Portugal, where the Under Secretary of
Agriculture gave the delegates an official farewell dinner. No definite
plans were made for the next meeting of the Commission. It was the
general opinion that a meeting in the United States would be poorly
attended because of the expense of sending the delegates from Europe.

After the conclusion of the meeting, the U. S. Foreign Agriculture
Services sponsored my trip to France, Italy, Switzerland, and
Yugoslavia, to consult with Federal and local authorities on their
chestnut blight problems. This disease was found in Genoa, Italy, in
1938; later it was determined that the disease was present at that time
in other localities in Italy. The blight is spreading rapidly and is
almost completely destroying the orchard and larger forest trees of
European chestnut in Italy in localities where the disease has been
present for some time. The blight occurs in many areas in northern Italy
and as far south as Naples. The young chestnut coppice is not so
seriously affected, but the losses caused by the blight will make
growing coppice on a 10- to 20-year rotation basis less profitable than
formerly.

The chestnut blight is abundantly present on the east slopes of the
mountains along the French-Italian border; although it has not yet been
found in France, its distribution in adjoining Italy makes it highly
probable that advance spot infections are already present in France. The
blight has spread into Tessin Province in southeastern Switzerland where
it is destroying many of the orchards and forest trees. A large chestnut
extract plant in this Province uses wood in making tannin for leather
manufacturers. However, this plant, as well as some of the extract
plants in northern Italy, is unable to utilize the chestnut wood as fast
as the blight is killing chestnut trees.

In Yugoslavia, chestnut blight is spreading rapidly in the orchards and
native growth along the Italian border. Authorities are actively cutting
out all advance spot infections, to delay or possibly stop its spread
across their country. In Yugoslavia, chestnut stands frequently are
widely separated, a natural advantage in delaying the spread of the
blight.

Chestnut blight has been controlled in western North America, where
chestnut orchards and plantings are not numerous. Scattered infections
have been found during the last 30 years in California, Oregon,
Washington, and British Columbia; infected trees have been removed.
Strict State Quarantine regulations have been enforced, to prevent
chestnut blight from spreading to the West Coast.

The chestnut blight fungus is attacking three of the important oaks of
Europe. The typical fanlike mycelial growth can be observed in the bark
of infected oaks. In 1953 in Yugoslavia I observed vigorous young
durmast oak (_Quercus petraea_) being killed by the blight. In Italy I
found the disease killing pubescent oaks (_Q. pubescens_) and causing
minor injury to the holly oak (_Q. ilex_). Before we can estimate the
probable damage to these European oaks, we need more information on the
effects of this disease on oaks of various ages and under various
environmental conditions. In the United States the post oak (_Quercus
stellata_) is the only oak species that has been seriously damaged by
the blight.

Thus, the blight is threatening not only the native chestnut forest
growth and orchards of Europe, but also the oaks. A steady extension of
the blight throughout Italy can be expected. Advance infections in
Yugoslavia are being cut out but how long the disease can be held back
depends on future efforts along this line. Delay work in Yugoslavia also
delays the time of loss of the chestnut and damage to the oak growth of
Greece and Turkey. The inspection and eradication work being carried out
in Spain may result in the elimination of this threat to the chestnuts
and oaks in Spain, Portugal and southwest France. However, there is the
possibility of the blight occurring anywhere in Europe. People working
with chestnut should be on the alert to find and eradicate the first
infections.

The film entitled "It Bringeth Forth Much Fruit", shown here today, was
prepared at my suggestion by the U. S. Foreign Agricultural Services at
Rome. It is being used to aid local authorities in Italy in attempts to
delay the spread of the chestnut blight.

The Italian authorities, with assistance from the United States Foreign
Agricultural Service, have purchased blight-resistant chestnuts in this
country for planting in Italy. These resistant chestnuts are doing very
well in Italy so far. However, the development of a new orchard industry
with the Chinese chestnut and its hybrids in Italy will be a slow
process. It is expected that shipments of chestnuts from Italy to this
country, which is now going on at a rate of 15 to 18 million pounds per
year, will gradually decrease.

DR. GRAVATT: I will talk on while they are fixing this next film.

Much of the trouble in Italy is that so many of the chestnut orchards
are overgrazed, sadly overgrazed, and as these chestnut orchards are
killed by the blight, the land is going back into this overgrazed
condition, which leads to serious erosions. Italy needs all the water
that can be saved. The mountains are eroded down to the rock in many
areas and when you get to the rock, you can never bring the soil back.
It's a serious problem to meet because of the tremendous
over-population. Every little twig of wood is used. As these chestnut
orchards are killed it's going to be a very difficult problem to plant
them again because the land is overgrazed. Protecting the plantings
against sheep and the goats is quite a problem.

(The film, "The Filbert Valleys," was shown.)

MR. STOKE: I noticed them grafting chestnut trees several feet from the
ground. Why are they doing that?

DR. GRAVATT: They are doing it in order to develop a quick supply of
scion wood. But the procedure is bad. It is much better to graft close
to the ground, and mound it up with dirt. The blight gets in below the
graft if the graft is high on the trunk. They have had success grafting
below the ground level and find they may get a shoot six feet high the
first year.

DR. MACDANIEL: How about the incompatibility in the graft? Does that
show up much?

DR. GRAVATT: We don't know yet, because they always get a certain number
of failures. I looked over quite a lot of grafting of Chinese chestnuts
on Japanese-European hybrids, and they are thriving. After four years
they are already regular trees with big crops on them.


TUESDAY MORNING SESSION

PRESIDENT BEST: Our first paper is "Rooting Chestnuts from Softwood
Cuttings" by Roger W. Pease.



Rooting Chestnuts from Softwood Cuttings

ROGER W. PEASE, _West Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station,
Morgantown, W. Va._


Some 15 or 20 years ago the West Virginia Agricultural Experiment
Station undertook to develop, if possible, blight resistant chestnuts
from American chestnut stock. With the passage of time the approach to
the problem has changed. During the early days little thought was given
to procedures for propagation, but recently the emphasis has shifted
toward methods for propagation when and if there are found hardy,
timber-type, blight-immune chestnuts of any species.

The practicability of budding or grafting chestnuts is debatable. We are
leaving budding and grafting to experienced workers throughout the
country and are endeavoring to develop a method for rooting chestnuts
from softwood cuttings. Results so far are encouraging, but the work is
still in the experimental stage. We do not advise anyone to start
rooting chestnuts on a commercial basis, but we hope that further
experimental work will be done by interested agencies.

To give complete details of several years' work would take more time
than is feasible here. Circular 87, _Growing American Holly from
Cuttings--Cold Frame Method_, obtainable from the Mailing Room, West
Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station, Morgantown, West Virginia,
gives construction details of a suitable bottom-heated cold frame.
However, with chestnuts, natural shade was not used and half of the
sunlight was excluded. An article in the October issue of _The National
Horticultural Magazine_--"Rooting Chestnuts from Cuttings"--outlines
procedure and results through 1952.

In this paper I will present a resumé of our experiences and
observations. Our facilities were limited so that the number of cuttings
set in each case was very small. Percentages of failure or success
should be taken as indicative only.

In the propagation experiments, preliminary observations were made by
placing softwood cuttings in a bottom-heated cold frame at intervals
during the growing season. The soil medium was two thirds washed sand
and one third peat moss. Daily watering was by a hand hose. The
root-inducing substance was indole-butyric acid crystals in a talc based
mixture, one to one hundred. The results were completely negative.

The next season a small cold room was constructed in which conditions
thought to be desirable could be maintained. Air temperature was kept at
approximately 65° F., fog nozzles were operated continuously except for
an occasional airing of the cold room, and about 200 foot candles of
white fluorescent light were delivered upon the rooting surface. The
rooting medium was white, washed, building sand placed over one half
inch of sphagnum moss. The moss, in turn, had been laid in a rooting
bench with a hardware cloth bottom exposed to the air. The interior air
circulation was maintained by an electric fan operating day and night.
The soil temperature was held at 70° F.

Cuttings were taken at intervals throughout the season and their basal
sections soaked in a water-based solution of indole-butyric acid
crystals at concentrations varying around 60 parts per million. During a
70-day period roots were formed on cuttings taken in June, July, and
August. Among the successful cases the poorest result was 66-2/3%, and
the best was 100%.

The young plants were fed nutrient solution and later transplanted to a
light, sandy soil within a bottom-heated cold frame. Some roots were
dead at the time of transplanting, burned, perhaps, by the nutrient
solution. The soil temperature within the cold frame was maintained at
70° F. until late in the fall, and then the plants were hardened by
reducing the water content of the soil medium and lowering the
temperature. All of the plants were dead when they were inspected in
March.

The next year a bottom-heated cold frame was equipped with fog nozzles.
The soil medium was white, washed, building sand. Softwood cuttings,
treated the same as the previous year, were inserted on August 20.
Cuttings from juvenile American chestnut seedling trees, juvenile
Chinese trees, and mature Chinese trees were used. Within a 70 day
period heavy root systems were formed on 54-6/11% of the cuttings from
the juvenile Chinese trees, 50% from mature Chinese trees, and 20% from
juvenile American trees. No nutrient solution was applied, the young
plants were transplanted to a sandy soil in another cold frame, were
hardened as during the previous year, but the soil medium was not
allowed to freeze during the winter. In April the plants showed
well-formed terminal buds starting to swell and turn green. Some were
transplanted into pots and placed in the greenhouse; others were
transplanted into a light soil in a lath house. All died subsequent to
transplanting. Inspection of the roots showed severe breakage. It was
concluded that repeated transplanting had been fatal, and that in the
future cuttings would be rooted in plant bands or pots and transplanted
only once.

It is too early in the current season for accurate results to be
recorded. However, modifications have been tried and observations made.
These are presented here in outline.

     _Type of cutting:_

     a. Cuttings with soft, growing tips will apparently root more
     quickly than hardened shoots, but the leaves tend to turn brown and
     the plant dies. Conversely, cuttings from short, lateral growth,
     well-hardened, will retain their leaves better and eventually show
     a higher percentage of success.

     b. Cuttings made from the basal and intermediary sections of long
     shoots show a greater death incidence than do well-hardened,
     terminal sections. Both types root satisfactorily.

     c. Apparently sucker shoots and water sprouts are useless.

     _Time of taking cuttings:_

     a. Cuttings taken in late May, with soft growing tips, rooted
     quickly--some within two weeks. On the other hand, their foliage
     darkened quickly, and death followed. Short, lateral shoots,
     well-hardened, were not available in May.

     b. As the season progressed, the percentage of rooted cuttings with
     healthy foliage apparently rose, at least through July, but roots
     were formed more slowly by the late season cuttings.


_Condition of parent tree:_

Apparently tree vigor as indicated by healthy, dark green foliage, is
more important than vigor as indicated by the length of current season's
growth. In Morgantown this has been one of the driest seasons on record.
Cuttings from trees with pale or brown foliage, or with foliage tending
to be brittle from lack of water soon lost their leaves. Whether this
was caused by the condition of the parent tree or of the individual
cutting is not apparent. It is too early to determine whether or not the
drought will cause a general lowering of rooting percentages this year.


_Root formation:_

Cuttings may or may not callus. Roots seldom if ever spring from the
extreme base of a cutting. Well above the base the stem enlarges, turns
white, cracks, and sends out roots. Often the bottom inch of the cutting
is black and dead, with a healthy and vigorous root system above the
blackened portion.


_Plant bands and pots:_

Plant bands are apparently preferable to small pots. The slope of the
pots tends to pack the soil medium and interfere with aeration. Bands or
pots less than three inches in diameter tends to cramp the rapidly
growing roots.


_Cold room vs. cold frame:_

Last year higher percentages of success were obtained in the cold room
than in the bottom-heated cold frame. This year the cold frame was
definitely superior. Because construction and operation of a suitable
cold room is expensive, we do not plan to continue its use in chestnut
work.


_Fog nozzles:_

In the cold frame, fog nozzles operating during eight hours each day are
apparently more effective than nozzles operating continuously.


_Auxin:_

No success has been attained with indole-butyric acid crystals in a
talc-based powder or with untreated cuttings.


_Formula for preparing auxin:_

The auxin solution is prepared as recommended by G. H. Poesch in the
Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station Bimonthly Bulletin, 191, April,
1938. One gram of indole-butyric acid crystals is dissolved in 125 cc.
of 95% alcohol. Then 125 cc. of distilled water is added. This makes a
stock solution of four thousand parts to a million in strength. The
stock may be cut to the desired strength with distilled water. For late
August cuttings, well-hardened, 80 parts per million is not too strong.
For early June cuttings, forty parts per million appears to be adequate.
The softer the cuttings, the weaker should be the solution.


_Algae:_

In both the cold frame and the cold room the growth of algae is a
problem. The sand medium becomes crusted, with subsequent interference
with aeration. The algae sometimes creeps up the stems of cuttings,
coats the leaves, and covers terminal buds. Starting each season with
completely clean sand and equipment will not prevent the appearance of
algae over a long season of continuous operation. On August 20 of this
year the interior of the cold frame, including all of the plants, was
well dusted with tri-basic copper sulphate, according to manufacturer's
directions. To date no effect is noticeable either on the algae or on
the plants.

The various observations reported here should be verified by further
tests. They are offered merely as aids to anyone planning to experiment
with rooting chestnuts. When sufficient data and experience have been
gained, a complete Station circular will be published.

PRESIDENT BEST: If you have any questions, please save them until later.
It's been suggested that we hear from Dr. Jesse D. Diller next, and that
will give our good work horse, Dr. Crane, a chance to build up again for
us, because we are going to work him mighty hard.

DR. DILLER: I'd like to have the title of my paper changed to,
"Evaluating Chestnuts Grown Under Forest Conditions."



Evaluating Chestnuts Grown under Forest Conditions

JESSE D. DILLER, _Pathologist, Division of Forest Pathology, Bureau of
Plant Industry, Soils, and Agricultural Engineering, U. S. Department of
Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland_


During the 49-year period since chestnut blight was first reported from
New York City, the U. S. Department of Agriculture has made more than
500 importations of chestnut seeds and scions, including nearly every
species of chestnut in the world, as well as some closely related
chinkapins and Castanopsis species. As early as 1909 the Department
initiated chestnut breeding work. It was known that few, if any, of the
chestnut, or related species, possess the timber-type characteristics of
our American chestnut. It was also known that, in general, the Asiatic
species show great natural resistance to the blight. But little, or
nothing, was known about their site requirements.

In 1927 the U. S. Division of Forest Pathology began breeding chestnuts
to produce timber-type trees. The chestnut breeding work was expanded
and has been carried on actively to date. From 1927 to 1930, the
Division conducted an extensive exploration in search of orchard and
timber-type chestnut in China, Korea, and Japan, and imported over 250
bushels of chestnut seed, representing four species.

During the early 1930's the Division of Forest Pathology distributed
thousands of chestnut seedlings, grown from the imported chestnut seed.
The planting stock was made available to interested Federal and State
agencies, as well as to owners of farm woodlands, located in 32 Eastern
States. The cooperators were asked to establish small experimental
forest plantings with the trees furnished them. It was believed that
such wide distribution of the many kinds would readily demonstrate which
ones possess the desired timber-tree form, or possessed the ability to
bear large crops of nuts suitable to wildlife; and would furnish
valuable information on their site requirements.

As we now know, most of these early cooperative experimental forest
plantings were doomed to failure because often the chestnut trees were
planted on dry, grassy areas having infertile, shallow soil. Another
serious contributing factor in poor establishment was the severe general
droughts that occurred over most of the eastern half of the United
States in the early thirties. But despite these heavy losses, a few
plantations succeeded, in part, and from these limited areas, and from a
few earlier plantations that succeeded, valuable information on their
general site requirements was obtained; however, we still lacked
information on specific differences in behavior between the progeny, as
fast-growing forest trees or nut producers in the forest.

From these early plantings we learned that (1) Asiatic chestnuts and
hybrids are more likely to develop into forest trees when planted on
cool, moist, fertile situations; (2) in their silvicultural
characteristics they are more nearly like our native yellow-poplar,
northern red oak, and white ash, than like our American chestnut and
native chinkapins; (3) with respect to tolerance of shade, they are much
like our northern red oak; and (4) neither the Chinese nor the Japanese
chestnut has quite the same forest-type growth as that of our native
American chestnut.

With this background of experience, the U. S. Division of Forest
Pathology from 1936 to 1939 established a series of 21 climatic test
plots on above-average sites on Federal- and State-owned forest land in
eight Eastern States. Fortunately, we still had available suitable
planting stock of the many kinds of chestnut, chinkapins, and hybrids
for conducting such an extensive test. At this point we should also
mention that from 1947 to date, the Division of Forest Pathology, in
cooperation with the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, also
established 11 hybrid test plots in Arkansas, Connecticut, Illinois,
Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, and West
Virginia. In 1930 the Brooklyn Botanic Garden also began breeding
blight-resistant chestnuts of timber type, and in 1947 transferred this
project to the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station.

The 21 climatic test plots ranged from one to two acres each, and were
planted with more than 20 progenies represented, as well as forest-tree
chinkapin and some hybrids. Nearly all of the 21 climatic test plots
were fenced against deer and domestic livestock. The 11 hybrid test
plots, approximately 1/4 acre each, were planted with 100 hybrids (50
furnished by each of the two agencies), and 50 Chinese chestnuts--P.I.
58602, the most outstanding Chinese chestnut from the forestry
standpoint, thus far discovered. The climatic test plots were
established on freshly cleared forest sites, with trees randomized, and
planted 8 feet apart. In the hybrid test plots, the seedlings were
planted under forest growth and the overstory trees were girdled; the
seedlings were randomized in these plots, with spacing of 10 by 10 feet.

The 1- to 6-year period of testing for the hybrid chestnut, and the 14-
to 17-year period of testing of the chestnuts planted in the climatic
test plots are too short for final judgment of performance; however,
certain characteristics are appearing with reference to blight
resistance, winter hardiness, timber-tree form, early fruiting, and rate
of growth. The present paper does not attempt to summarize all of the
data obtained from all these climatic plots but rather to point out some
striking results obtained from several widely separated climatic plots.
Results from the hybrid test plots are not included in this discussion.


Discussion

A performance rating of 28 chestnuts, chestnut hybrids, and forest-tree
chinkapins, tested in forest plantings for 12 to 13 years in Indiana,
Iowa, North Carolina, and Pennsylvania showed that certain kinds always
produce better trees than others. P.I. 58602 is the best Chinese
chestnut tested thus far, as determined by performance in the
above-mentioned test plots and in several plantations established in
1926. In the Middle Western States, all Japanese chestnuts, Henry
(forest-tree) chinkapins, and the "ever-blooming" Sequin chestnuts have
shown poor growth or have died. They do not appear to be winter hardy.

On the basis of these findings, the Division of Forest Pathology since
1946, has made available to Federal and State agencies only one
introduction of Chinese chestnut--P.I. 58602--for planting as forest
trees. They were distributed in lots of 50 trees, and used to establish
1/4-acre demonstration forest plots. All are located on public-owned
land on favorable forest sites where Asiatic chestnuts would be expected
to do well. The underplanting-and-girdling method was recommended in the
establishment of all the plots.

Chinese chestnut P.I. 58602, because of its superiority in performance
as a forest tree, is now also being used extensively at Beltsville,
Maryland, in hybridizing work. Nearly all of the Japanese chestnut,
Henry chinkapin, and Sequin chestnuts, as well as inferior hybrids in
the climatic test plots during the past several years have died a
natural death or have been destroyed. They have been replaced with
Chinese chestnut (P.I. 58602) replants--thus gradually converting the
climatic test plots into future Chinese chestnut "seed" plots of the
very best Chinese chestnuts.

During the spring of 1953 several nurserymen members of the Northern Nut
Growers' Association furnished the Division of Forest Pathology a total
of 2,600 Chinese chestnut seedlings for tests to determine their
suitability for forest planting. These and 600 seedlings of Chinese
chestnut P.I. 58602 are now being tested for performance, in randomized
plots, on favorable forest sites in North Carolina, Ohio, and Illinois.


Conclusions

Of 28 Asiatic chestnuts, forest-tree chinkapins, and hybrids grown in 21
climatic test plots in the eastern United States under forest
conditions, only certain Chinese and hybrid chestnuts show promise of
becoming satisfactory timber-type trees. The best Chinese chestnut
discovered thus far is P.I. 58602--a seed importation made by the U. S.
Department of Agriculture in 1924, from Nanking, China. Foresters, as
well as farm woodland owners, interested in growing Asiatic chestnuts as
timber trees, should accept only planting stock that, through
performance under forest conditions, is known to develop into straight,
single-stemmed trees.

PRESIDENT BEST: I think that Dr. Crane has his panel ready.

DR. CRANE: Mr. President, before I start, I have a few slides here to
illustrate a couple of points before we call the panel to the rostrum.
(Several slides were shown illustrating sunscald injury to the Southwest
side of high headed Chinese chestnut tree trunks.)

DR. CRANE: On this panel, I want to get representatives from the various
states. Mr. Wilson, from Georgia. Mr. Stoke from Virginia. Mr. Silvis
from Ohio. Mr. Allaman from Pennsylvania. There is another good man down
there who grows a lot of chestnuts, by the name of Gibbs.

Now, there seems to be a lot of disagreement in regard to the Chinese
chestnut in two or three respects. One is the problem of named varieties
versus seedlings. Another big problem is hardiness, how hardy they are,
these Chinese chestnuts. Where can we grow them and where are they going
to fail? A third question is the ability of the Chinese chestnut to
compete with other vegetation as Dr. Diller has discussed. I think we
ought to settle some of these questions for once and maybe for all, or
at least for this meeting, through a discussion. Nurserymen and others
have emphasized that chestnuts, to be successful in the United States
and hardy, should come from North China, at the Great Wall or beyond.
Others don't agree, claiming that chestnuts in China are grown from the
extreme south to the extreme north and that we ought to do the same in
this country also.

MR. STOKE: I haven't enough knowledge on it to express an opinion. I
planted a good many seeds I got from the Yokahama Nursery Company, and
the nuts were rather inferior as to size. They were healthy and hardy,
but I don't know where they came from. I presume they came from Korea,
but I am not sure. The size and productivity wasn't too high of that
seedling stock I secured there.

DR. CRANE: What do you folks think? Anyone in the audience that has an
idea?

MR. PATAKY: At our fall meeting in the Ohio group we had two bushels of
chestnuts from Sterling Smith. As far as I know the seed is Korean
chestnut, which is obviously a Chinese variety. He had three bushels
last fall and they looked identically like the American chestnut. Mr.
Stoke said the quality wasn't so good in what he had. That might be
true, but I tested a lot of these chestnuts from Sterling Smith, and
compared them with American chestnuts. They were just as good or better
than the American.

MR. CALDWELL: I spent about a year in China travelling pretty well
throughout the country. I believe you will find the better seed sources
in the southern part. China is like Southern Florida or warmer for part
of the year and yet in the other six months it would be colder than it
is right here in Rochester.

They have timber trees, some as big as 50 or 60 feet high and two or
three feet in diameter. In the warmer area you find better seed by far.
What Dr. Diller describes as No. 58602 is not just one tree, but a whole
collection of trees from a certain area where the trees have proven
their resistance not only to cold but to frost injury in the spring or
in the fall, which is even more important than the straight cold
hardiness. Some people have mistaken ideas about the value of seed from
trees in the northern part of China above the Great Wall. This area may
have intense cold in the wintertime, but not in the spring or fall.

DR. GRAVES: Dr. Caldwell is right about No. 58602 being a mixture. Dr.
Gravatt could tell you about that. It is a strain coming from several
trees. It's evidently a very fine type, and I think we ought to know for
the record just what 58602 is.

DR. GRAVATT: Professor Reisner's 58602 that Dr. Diller has been testing
so widely is made up from a collection of seed from a number of isolated
valleys of the Nanking area. It is rather southern in its native home,
but Dr. Diller's tests and other tests have shown that it's hardy up
north and it's hardy down south. As some of you have noticed, the nuts
are very variable, with a number of different types mixed in together.

Dr. Diller and I have been discussing the question of hybrid vigor. It
may be involved that each of these seedlings is a cross between
different local strains. We must remember that the foresters have gone
into this question of hardiness in great detail. You will find that you
can't plant trees in Germany in a certain area unless the parent trees
grew in a certain area, with comparable altitude and latitude. Minimum
and maximum temperatures and other factors are also taken into
consideration.

Pennsylvania started a program along the same line. They have divided
their state into about five areas, and in each of those areas they are
locating sources of seed that are going to be suited to those areas.
They have evidence that many of these Chinese introductions coming from
way down south are going to be hardy way up north, but in this matter of
hardiness you sometimes have to wait for 50 or 100 years before you are
sure of your conclusions.

DR. CRANE: That's right.

The next question I was going to ask these growers in the areas growing
chestnuts is how much trouble they have had with hardiness or cold
injury to chestnut trees that they have had. Has there been any?

MR. STOKE: I have had none.

MR. SILVIS: We have had none in Massillon.

DR. CRANE: Wilson, how about Georgia?

MR. WILSON: None.

MR. KEPLINGER: Dr. Meader sent me some stock from seed that he brought
from near Seoul, Korea in 1947. They are very productive up there at
Durham, New Hampshire. I have two trees from seed from these trees. They
have much more narrow leaves, than any Chinese chestnuts I have seen so
far.

DR. CRANE: Are you sure they are pure Chinese?

DR. MACDANIEL: I am sure they are not. I have seen pictures and had some
correspondence with Dr. Meader on them. They seem to be the Japanese
species, C. crenata type, or possibly hybrid, not strictly Japanese.

MR. PEASE: I want to throw in something a little bit aside. I think we
kid ourselves and the public in assuming, tacitly, that Chinese
chestnuts, no matter how narrow the strain, are going to breed true or
anywhere near true. Any one lot of seedlings are likely to show great
variation in hardiness, disease resistance and other characters. There
is a great difference between resistance and immunity. I speak this way
because I have seen plenty of people selling Chinese chestnuts who
actually believe they are immune, and I have seen customers mad enough
to shoot them when they have seen half of them die of blight.

MR. MILLER: When considering hardiness, climate is one thing and air
drainage is another. In any climatic zone the exact location or site,
particularly air drainage is important. I have my orchard on a southwest
slope with perfect air drainage. I have 250-some trees that are six or
seven years old growing very nicely, and I have not had any loss, even
with English walnut, the Carpathian or any of the other trees. I think
that many of us are overlooking the fact that air drainage and location
of the orchard is one of the main things. I don't think this has
anything to do with the particular seed or the varieties, but I think
that is one thing that we must consider.

DR. CRANE: No question about that. Chinese chestnuts are like peaches,
and they start pretty early in the spring.

MR. GIBBS: Chinese chestnuts are hardy from Maine to Florida. I think
they winter kill because of unhealthy condition of the tree. The place
that I did live, at McLean, Virginia, was low in a frosty place, and the
first spring they killed back three times before they took off. Where I
live now in the Blue Ridge Mountains, which is orchard country, the
Chinese chestnut killed back in the spring, but there is nothing the
matter with their winter hardiness. They stand winter cold as good as a
walnut tree.

DR. GRAVES: I want to make the point that it is in part a question of
age, to my mind, as to whether these trees get winter killed. I know we
had some trees from the Department of Agriculture, Division of Forest
Pathology, back in 1925, and in the very cold winter, 1933-34, they
killed back almost to the ground. Again in the severe winter of 1943
Chinese chestnuts were killed. But I feel that when a tree is of good
size with its roots down in the ground, it's not so liable to winter
kill as are the small seedlings.

DR. CRANE: We have spent enough time on this matter. The question of
growing seedlings as compared to grafted trees is up for discussion. Mr.
Wilson is a big operator growing chestnuts in Georgia. I would like to
have him tell what he thinks of this matter of seedlings versus
varieties for nut production.

MR. WILSON: Dr. Crane, I am fully convinced if we ever make an industry
out of this chestnut business it's going to have to be based on grafted
trees of good varieties. I have one block of approximately 200 grafted
trees of Meiling and Kuling. Those trees have a nice crop on this year.
They have different age tops, but we have a nice crop of nuts on them.
I have another block of some 260 seedlings that were planted in 1948.
The crop on these trees, with the same fertilization and cultivation
ranges from no nuts to a heavy crop of nuts. You can't have an industry
on that kind of yield. There are probably only 30 trees out of 260 that
have a paying crop of nuts. That won't go as a paying proposition. You
have got to have nuts on all the trees, and I am fully convinced if we
ever make an industry out of it, the grower has got to produce nuts.
Trees are not enough, he can't sell the tree; he wants to keep his tree.
He wants nuts to sell, and you can't get them on the seedling trees. I
am fully convinced you can't do it.

DR. MACDANIEL: Have any of your grafts gone bad?

MR. WILSON: I have had no incompatibility, except on one tree. My oldest
grafts are four and five years old, top grafted in place on two and
three year old seedlings.

DR. CRANE: Mr. Stoke, what is your experience?

MR. STOKE: I have two trees in my yard at home. Dr. Reed gave me credit
for doing the first grafting of Mollissima in this country. I don't know
whether it's true or not. Those were grafted in '31. They made perfect
union, and they are perfect today, and they will be perfect when I am
dead and gone. I find no incompatibility between Mollissima and
Mollissima. One acre of good, select varieties, grafted, will produce as
many nuts as three or four acres of seedlings.

DR. CRANE: Mr. Bernath, how about the situation up in the Hudson Valley?

MR. BERNATH: My trees are of small size. We have some in bearing, but as
far as having any difficulty with them or freezing back, we have none.

DR. CRANE: Mr. Snyder, how about the situation out in Iowa?

MR. SNYDER: I am not trying to grow Chinese chestnuts anymore. We have
had two different lots from U.S.D.A. and both of them have gone out in
the winters sooner or later. We have had nice seedling rows, and Dr.
Colby sent over a collection of scions, enough to graft each one. Every
one grew. This winter they are all gone. We can grow American chestnuts,
but we can't grow the Chinese.

DR. CRANE: Joe, you have had a lot of experience, made a lot of
observations of this matter of seedlings versus grafted varieties. What
do you think of the situation?

DR. MACDANIEL: I will follow Mr. Stokes' opinion on that. I think grafted
trees, if you have a compatible graft, are worth several times as much
as average seedling trees. At the University of Illinois most of our
trees are seedling trees. We are just getting started with grafted
Chinese chestnuts.

DR. CRANE: That's the way it is with us. Anybody in the audience that
has an opinion that they think seedlings are better than grafted trees?

MR. CALDWELL: I was going to say seedlings are better, but I think this
is one thing everybody should realize: The emphasis has been based on
early production. In many cases we have found in forest trees that early
seed production doesn't necessarily mean heavy late seed production.
Some of those that didn't produce early went ahead and 40 or 50 years
later produced heavily. So be a little bit careful when you start
swinging too heavily on early production.

DR. CRANE: Yes, but, Dr. Caldwell, we in the United States haven't time
to wait. We haven't time to wait.

MR. CALDWELL: You are going to have to take it.

DR. CRANE: It's just like Mr. Wilson said. He planted seedlings in 1948,
and he is telling me that most of them haven't come into bearing, so he
is going to ply the axe or top work them. He hasn't time to wait. He's
got to make his bread and butter out of that, and when it comes to
growing nuts, we can't wait 40 or 50 years for a tree to come in. That
might be all right for posterity, but we have got to be sure of it, or
our posterity is not going to be able to pay the national debt.

DR. MACDANIELS: According to the experience I have had, the chestnut is
only a little more hardy than the peach, and behaves pretty much the
same as regards wood injury. At 30° below zero the trees have been
killed outright or to the ground. At about 25° below they will black
heart with killing of sapwood and serious injury to the bark. At 20 they
will survive. This experience involves perhaps 125 seedling trees from
various sources, but mostly from the U.S.D.A. It is quite likely that
there may be more hardier strains that will withstand these low
temperatures. The other point is the matter of grafted trees. It is my
opinion that the failure of the graft is a form of cold injury related
to delayed maturity of the tissues at the graft union. Certainly failure
of grafts is much more persistent in the north than in the south.

My experience has been that I haven't been able to keep grafted trees.
They appear to thrive for three or four years and then die. I have tried
it over and over again. It appears that the grafted tree in Georgia and
Virginia is one thing. In New York it's another.

MR. WALLICK: I have never bought a grafted chestnut tree that grew. They
all die. And seedlings mostly do not have the kind of nuts you want.
Also they may be susceptible to disease.

DR. MCKAY: I want to make one observation about our experience at
Beltsville on the question of seedlings versus varieties as regards
bearing. We topworked scions of some of our good varieties, like Nanking
and Meiling, onto large seedlings we have at Beltsville that are poor
bearers. These grafted portions in the top of these trees under poor
conditions--our soil is poor at Beltsville--set tremendously heavy
crops, but the nuts are smaller in size than normal, and therefore the
crop is not as desirable as it would be if it were grown under good
conditions. The point is that those varieties bear even under poor
conditions. Bearing is a variety characteristic, and wherever it grows
it will bear though it may not produce a good-sized nut.

MR. PEASE: I believe what's coming out in this discussion on bearing is
also true in hardiness, growth, and any characteristic we want. We may
select seeds from trees at an elevation of 6,000 feet, and still have
some which will be not hardy.

DR. CRANE: That's right.

MR. SILVIS: I'd like to make a point. If in your observation you find a
tree seedling in your locality that is producing good crops plant that.
Don't get one from Georgia. We can take a little bit of advice from the
fruit grower, and not plant too much from the south, even though it came
from China.

DR. GRAVATT: I'd like to Comment about conditions in Europe with
reference to seedlings and varieties. The general practice there is for
each little farmer to graft from the best variety in his section,
especially in Italy where you find hundreds of varieties.

In Portugal we were all very much impressed with one area where the
government has had an active program in persuading the chestnut owners
to topwork all their trees to three varieties. These varieties are very
good ones, and they are getting a very greatly increased price on
account of the high quality and uniformity of the nuts they export.

It seems to me that in the discussion on the Chinese chestnut in this
country we have done a little bit of injustice to the seedlings, so far
as the discussion has gone. I am in perfect agreement with what's been
said about the low production the first few years, but over on the
Eastern Shore Mr. Hemming's trees are producing just about as much in
the way of a crop as the tree can bear, and the grafted varieties there
don't produce any more than his 17 or 18 seedlings.

DR. MACDANIEL: I believe Hemming has some exceptional seedlings in that
lot.

DR. GRAVATT: Yes, they are very valuable, don't misunderstand me. After
the first ten years you may find a seedling orchard is going to produce
a very good crop, tree by tree. We have had a lot of experience, similar
to that reported in New York, with grafted trees dying. We get seedling
trees dying, too, but I agree that there is more damage from fall
freezes, spring freezes and perhaps from straight low temperature winter
injury with the grafted trees than with the seedling trees. Furthermore,
I am very critical of the tactics of some of the nurseries. They have
grafted on seedlings of absolutely unknown origin or mixed origin. They
will take a South Chinese variety and graft it on seedlings that for
hundreds of years have been grown in North China. That's just inviting
trouble. The nearer you can get to having seedling and scion from the
same climatic origin, the better off you are. In fact, we have advised
growers to get seedlings of the Nanking and graft Nanking on them.

Dr. McKay is doing a lot of good, basic research work on this problem,
and he will have more information for us in times to come. I am firmly
convinced that we are going to come some day to the grafted chestnuts,
especially in the South, because a lot of the southern producers right
now are giving a black eye to Chinese chestnuts, because they are
shipping lots of mixed nuts, and by the time they get to the consumer
half of them are rotten. This will ruin the market. We have been buying
some six or seven thousand pounds of nuts to ship to Italy, and we know
something about the conditions of nuts when they reach us. There is no
quicker way of killing a market than to be shipping in a whole lot of
nuts that are going to spoil or are in the process of spoiling when they
reach the consumer. Grafted varieties are one way of getting away from
this, especially in the South.

MR. WILSON: I am far enough south so that in peach production we often
have winters so warm that the trees don't wake up. This question of rest
period is quite important with us. We have a warm winter, and the
Mayflower peach just keeps on sleeping. Eventually bloom will break, and
a little peach will sit up there waiting for the leaf to come out. There
is apparently a rest period with the Chinese chestnut there also. The
time of breaking of the rest period in my seedling trees varies as much
as three to four weeks, and that would lead me to believe that, in the
long run, we will have to plant locally adapted varieties.

PRESIDENT BEST: I am sorry that we have to stop this very interesting
discussion.

At this time is there any item of general interest to the group that
anyone would like to bring up?

MR. MILLER: For sometime I have been considering the desirability of
changing the name of the Northern Nut Growers. I am inclined to think
that maybe some of our southern friends or from the Far West or
Southwest would be a little dubious of joining the Northern Nut Growers,
because they think we are perhaps exclusive for the north tier of states
and we didn't want them.

I thought perhaps the International Nut Growers, or the United States
Nut Growers Association were names worth considering. I think that would
have a desirable psychological effect on our membership. We are a big
organization, and I think a lot of people would think it was a whole lot
larger if the name would imply that. I think the "Northern Nut Growers"
just looks like we are concerned with the northern tier of states, and I
think we would do a whole lot better by changing the name. I would like
to have some suggestions. Possibly, it could be American Nut Growers.

MR. KERR: Mr. Chairman, I am a charter member of the American Farm
Bureau, and that goes over big. It's a real success as an organization,
and I think the American Nut Growers--take in South America and North
America--would hit our proposition about right.

PRESIDENT BEST: All right, is there another suggestion? We mustn't take
so much time on this, but it is mighty important.

MR. BECKER: My final opinion is that it's best to leave it as it was.

MR. STOKE: It seems to me that this matter was well decided some time
ago. We have certain definite problems to work out. I think we had
better stay on those problems and work them out before we spread over
the whole universe. We will have too many other problems coming in our
lap.

MR. DAVIDSON: That matter was taken up some five or six years ago, and
for the reason that Mr. Stoke mentioned, the fact that we have special
problems and the very difficult problems that don't concern southerners
was the reason for voting that proposition down before. I think it would
be better, at least, for us to consider the matter rather thoroughly
before we vote on it, maybe postpone it until another year.

DR. MACDANIELS: It just occurs to me that the Northern Nut Growers
Association was formed to tackle problems that weren't being covered
anywhere else. There are other local organizations which are concerned
with the Persian walnut and the Northwest Filbert and the Southern
Pecan. The Northern Nut Growers Association was organized to save
America's nut heritage, as somebody said, in a rather restricted area.
Possibly the time has come to get into a larger organization with a
greater scope, but I will say with Mr. Davidson that we want to
consider very carefully what the gain or loss might be for the change in
emphasis.

PRESIDENT BEST: Would someone make the suggestion here that we keep this
thing in mind for a year and maybe at our next meeting take a little
time to discuss it thoroughly.

DR. CRANE: I'd like to make a few remarks and offer a motion. I believe
I am correct as to the history of the organization when I state that the
oldest nut growers' organization was the old National Nut Growers
Association, and that covered the nut interests of the country of all
kinds. Then out of that came the National Pecan Growers Association, and
almost at the same time, the Northern Nut Growers Association. The old
National Nut Growers Association folded up, as did the National Pecan
Growers Association. They were victims of the depression. I think we
could discuss this at great length and not get anywhere, and therefore I
make the motion that the president appoint a committee of three members
to study the possibilities, both advantages and disadvantages of a
change in the name of the association and report back to the association
their recommendations at the next meeting.

(Motion seconded.)

PRESIDENT BEST: The motion has been made and seconded that we appoint a
committee to handle this thing and report back to us. Is there any
discussion?

DR. GRAVATT: I'd like to point out that research work is being started
in Europe that is going to be very valuable to us. They are now working
on the Chinese chestnuts on a very large scale, starting in Yugoslavia,
France, Switzerland, and they are already doing quite a bit of breeding
work in Spain and Portugal along these lines. The things that they
develop, will be Chinese chestnut hybrids so they are going to have the
same problems in Europe working with the chestnuts that we have here. In
the past they have been working entirely with the European chestnut. I
think we are now on a basis whereby the European growers can feel that
they can profit by taking our publication, and, that both continents
will benefit.

DR. GRAVES: Do you put that as an argument for changing our name to
American Nut Growers?

DR. GRAVATT: I don't think "American" would help at all. And,
furthermore, when you talk about "American", a lot of people think of
South America.

MR. SLATE: It's what the members get out of the proceedings and meetings
that brings them in and keeps them, it's not the name of the
organization.

DR. MACDANIEL: Mr. President, as former state vice-president in Alabama,
Florida and Tennessee, I don't believe the change of name would result
in any great immediate increase in membership in the Southeast.

PRESIDENT BEST: Now, are you ready for the question?

(The question was called for, and carried unanimously.)



Development of the Nut Industry in the Midwest

J. F. WILKINSON, _Rockport, Ind._


The development of the northern nut tree industry in the midwest really
began about 1910. Prior to that time W. C. Reed and son of Vincennes,
Indiana had done some experimental work with the Indiana and Busseron
varieties of pecan, as they had located these two parent trees. E. A.
Riehl of Godfrey, Illinois had been experimenting with the walnut and
chestnut, and it was at this time that T. P. Littlepage, R. L. McCoy and
established our nurseries here in southern Indiana.

We then began the search for the best parent trees for propagation in
the midwest.

We located Warrick, Hoosier, Major, Greenriver, Posey, Kentucky,
Butterick and several other varieties most of which have since been
discarded.

A number of varieties have since been introduced, by Messrs. Gerardi,
Whitford, Snyder, Burkhart, Bolten, and others who are either nurserymen
or propagators, of pecan, walnut, hickory and chestnut.

The Littlepage and McCoy nurseries were discontinued about thirty years
ago though I have continued the search for new and better varieties, and
several years ago located, named, and introduced the Giles pecan, in
southeast Kansas which is proving very satisfactory. I have recently
located, named, and am now introducing a new variety, CHIEF, from
Illinois. This is the largest northern pecan that I have ever seen and
it promises to be an outstanding variety.

In the territory from southern Indiana to eastern Kansas are countless
thousands of native pecan trees in the valleys of the Ohio, Mississippi
and Missouri rivers and their tributaries.

On the uplands in this same territory, the black walnut is found almost
everywhere. Thousands of pecan and walnut are of suitable size for
top-working and could be made valuable by being grafted over to these
fine varieties. These may be found in any quantity from a single tree to
a native grove (especially pecan) of thousands of trees.

One of the largest pecan groves is in Gallatin county, Illinois along
the Wabash river where it has been estimated there are as many as twenty
thousand pecan trees of bearing size in one locality.

Other sections where large native groves may be found are in Henderson
county, Kentucky near the mouth of Green River, along the Mississippi
river in western Kentucky, across the river in southern Illinois, along
the Illinois river in central Illinois, along the Missouri river in
central Missouri, in eastern Kansas, along the Neosho and Spring rivers,
and in Bates county Missouri along the Osage river, in southwestern
Missouri.

It has been my pleasure to visit one or more times each of the above
places as well as every other section of note where the northern pecan
grows naturally.

One of the most interesting places that I have seen is in Bates county,
Missouri. I was there in May to top-work trees for Mr. Wesley Heuser,
where he has a tract of land along the Osage river on which there is a
large native pecan grove making it a profitable possession. Mr. Heuser
is increasing its value by planting budded, or grafted trees in the open
land and top-working the small native seedlings.

Adjoining this place is one owned by Mr. Fred Marquardt who recently
bought it from the estate of the late J. F. Tiedke who had spent years
of work there cleaning up the native grove, and top-working the small
seedlings to the better varieties. Mr. Marquardt told me there was an
estimated four thousand bearing size native trees, and two thousand
top-worked trees most of which are of bearing size and many of them
top-worked as long as twenty years ago. Mr. Marquardt is taking splendid
care of this place making it a profitable as well as a most beautiful
nut orchard.

Mr. Tiedke in topworking these small trees, selected those as nearly as
possible in rows giving it the appearance in places of a planted
orchard.

Along the Illinois river in central Illinois is a great pecan section.
It is there that Mr. R. B. Best is located, and he probably has more
grafted and top-worked trees than any other person in the midwest. The
late Charles Stephens of Columbus, Kansas, had topworked several hundred
trees in southeastern Kansas and Stanley Walberts planted a 35 acre
pecan orchard there at Columbus that at the last time I visited it was a
beautiful and well kept orchard.

Mr. W. F. Thielenhaus of Buffalo, Kansas is doing a lot of work there
both in planting and top-working trees.

In western Kentucky, Professors W. W. Magill, and W. D. Armstrong of the
University of Kentucky with county agent John B. Watts of Hickman,
Kentucky cooperating, interested Mr. Roscoe Stone, who had a large
acreage of land in developing the young seedling pecan trees by
top-working them to better varieties. Mr. Sly and I went there the first
time in the spring of 1948 and each spring since then we have worked
trees on this land, and for others around Hickman to the number of
possibly 500 trees.

Last year a number of the trees that were worked in the spring of 1948
produced quite a few nuts. I was there in May at which time there was a
splendid crop of nuts on these trees. On August 3, I had a letter from
Mr. Watts stating "I feel that many of these trees will bear a good crop
of nuts this year, and although we are having a drought here, the trees
on the Stone farm are not suffering much.

The largest planting of nut trees that I know in the midwest is that
planted by the late Harry R. Weber near Rockport which consists of about
70 acres mostly walnuts, with some pecans, hybrids, hickories, and
filberts.

Many smaller plantings of nut trees have been made throughout the
midwest and thousands of seedling trees having been top-worked.

Most of the native walnut trees through this section have been cut for
timber and the native chestnut has been killed by the blight, making a
shortage that should be replaced with the better varieties of walnut and
the Chinese chestnut.

The earlier plantings of the Persian walnut from France and England were
not hardy in the midwest but the Carpathian walnut from Poland seems to
be doing well.

Some parts of this territory are suitable for almost any kind of nut
trees. There is a vast field in the Midwest awaiting development in nut
culture.



Some Aspects of the Problem of Producing Curly-Grained Walnut

L. H. MACDANIELS, _Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y._


About 15 years ago a tree of the Lamb Curly Walnut was planted at
Ithaca, N. Y. After the tree had grown to a height of about 12 feet, it
was topworked about 8 feet from the ground to scions of the Cornell
variety of Black Walnut with the idea that it would be possible to grow
a trunk of curly walnut and a top of a named variety. The tree grew
rapidly and in the fall of 1952 had a trunk 10 inches in diameter at the
base. Sometime in 1952 the tree became infected with bunchy-top disease
and was cut in an attempt to eliminate this disease from the premises.
It was expected that the trunk would show figured curly grain and plans
were made to have at least a part of the log cut into veneer. On cutting
the tree, however, and examining the wood, there was no evidence of
curly grain detectable either by casual personal observation or from
samples sent to the Forest Products Laboratory at Madison, Wisconsin.
This, of course, was a disappointment because J. F. Wilkinson had shown
samples of walnut grown from scions of the Lamb Walnut obtained from the
late W. B. Bixby which showed evidence of curly grain. A photograph of
the wood secured from Mr. Wilkinson is shown in figure 1. Wood samples
from a tree growing at Beltsville, Maryland, which was also secured from
Mr. Bixby by C. A. Reed, does not show evidence of curly grain.

The simplest explanation of the failure of the tree in Ithaca to show
curly grain would be that somehow the tree was not properly labelled or
that scions were mixed in propagation and that the trunk was not derived
from the original Lamb Curly Walnut. However, the fact that only a few
trees were concerned makes it improbable that trees were mislabelled in
the Ithaca planting and there is no good reason to believe that the tree
planted at Beltsville was not authentic.

[Illustration: Fig. 1. Radial face of wood of grafted Lamb black walnut
grown by J. F. Wilkinson. Wavy or curly grain is apparent on right side
which is the outer part of the log (about natural size).]

Another possibility is that the original Lamb Walnut was a chimera. Such
a tree would have mixed tissues in its growing points, some having the
curly grain character and others not. In such a tree some scions would
produce curliness and others straight grain. It may be that these were
mixed in the original collection.

A third possibility is that curliness is produced by the interaction of
several factors, one a tendency to curliness inherent in the Lamb tree
and the others environmental such as growth rate, nutrient supply, the
nature of the soil or other such conditions.

Theoretically curly grain in walnut or any other tree is related to the
nature of the growth of the cambium layer. In normal growth the cells of
this layer are much elongated as seen in tangential section and are
relatively straight. The nature of these cambium cells is shown in
figure 2.

[Illustration: Fig. 2. The cambium of a straight-grained black walnut
tree as seen in tangential section. The nature and regularity of these
cells determines the nature and regularity of the cells of adjacent wood
and bark (× 150).]

It is well known from studies of cambial growth that irregularities in
the growth of the cambium are reflected in the irregularities in the
shape and position of the wood fibers and vessels, which it forms.
Ordinarily, if the cambium is wounded, the first cells formed are
irregular in shape and orientation but after a wound is healed over the
cambium cells resume their normal position. In parts of trees in which
the grain is irregular or confused such as in the inner angle of
crotches the shape of the cambium cells determines the nature of the
grain beneath as shown in figure 3 (Ref. 1). This has been established
also in the study of the nature of spiral-grained Douglas Fir and in
various experimental work where it has been possible to change the
direction or extent of the cambium cells through various experimental
means. (Ref. 2)

[Illustration: Fig. 3. Section through cambium and underlying wood in a
crotch of an apple tree where the grain of the wood is not straight. The
shape and direction of the wood fibers or grain of the wood, and bark is
determined by the shape and direction of the cambium cells that form
them (X 100).]

There seems to be no doubt, therefore, that curly grain in walnut is
directly related to the curly condition to be found in the cambium,
which produces such curly grain. The basic question to be resolved is
what makes the cambium of a curly-grain tree assume the curly or wavy
character. As indicated above, one hypothesis is that several factors
may be operating. For example, a tree might have the inherent capacity
to produce wavy grain but would only do so under special environmental
conditions. These environmental conditions might be related to rapidity
of growth, water and nutrient supply, or various other habitat
characteristics, which affect the nature of growth. The fact that the
tree in question at Ithaca was growing rapidly might have been
responsible for the failure of the curly grain to develop. There is
evidence that trees with figured grain grow slowly. (Ref. 3, 4) On the
other hand the specimens from the tree at Beltsville, Maryland, were
from a slowly growing plant and did not show curly grain.

Another hypothesis is that development of the curly grain is dependent
upon the foliage of the tree. This has been demonstrated to be true in
instances where the foliage of fruit plants determines the
characteristics of the growth of the trunk and roots and of the fruit
itself. (Ref. 5, 6) It might be, therefore, that the failure of this
particular trunk to show curly grain is related to the fact that the top
of the tree at Ithaca was of another variety than the original Lamb.
Possibly the foliage of the original variety producing the curly
character is necessary to produce the curly grain. An argument against
this interpretation is that the tree at Beltsville, Maryland, is not
topworked.

It would be valuable at the present time to survey all the trees of the
Lamb walnut, which are growing in various parts of the country, to see
under what circumstances they may be showing the curly characteristic of
the original tree. Dr. M. Y. Pillow of the Forest Products Laboratory at
Madison, Wisconsin, in an unpublished report, has pointed out that it is
possible to determine the curly nature of the grain by shaving off the
outer bark, exposing the inner bark just outside of the cambium.
Inasmuch as the same cambium cells form fiber cells both on the inside
to make the wood and towards the outside to make the bark, the direction
and nature of the fibers in the bark are a direct indication of the
direction of the fibers underneath the cambium in the wood.

The appearance of the normal straight grained wood and bark and wood and
bark of a curly grained tree are shown in figures 4 and 5. Shaving off
the outer bark in this manner will not harm the trees, if it is done
carefully so it would be possible to make this survey without injury to
the trees. Examining a number of trees of the Lamb walnut in this way
and finding that some were curly, might give evidence as to the
conditions under which the Lamb walnut will produce curly grain.

Dr. Pillow of the Forest Products Laboratory, kindly furnished me with
his file on curly and birdseye grained wood. In this file is a very
interesting group of manuscripts and letters including a report from Mr.
Willard G. Bixby reporting a trip to New Hampshire to study the
occurrence of birdseye maple and also his early experiments with the
Lamb walnut. The Lamb walnut trees at that time were too young to give
any indication of curly grain. Other letters of interest on the subject
were from Mr. J. F. Wilkinson, A. S. Colby and C. A. Reed. These letters
mention the desirability of propagating figured walnut but aside from
indicating that trees of the Lamb had been propagated there was no
indication that curliness had developed. The first definite indication
that curliness would develop in a grafted tree was reported by Mr.
Wilkinson (Ref. 7) at the Norris meeting of the Northern Nut Growers
Association. At that time the wood photographed in figure 1 was shown.

In the literature somewhat conflicting reports are found as to whether
or not curliness will show up early in the growth of a tree or late.
Apparently it was possible to trace curly grain into the twigs a few
years old in the original Lamb walnut (unpublished letters). Various
statements, however, indicate that curliness may not develop until the
trees are 20 years old or more. It would seem that with the propagation
and introduction of the Lamb walnut in 1926-27 and distribution soon
thereafter it ought to be possible to locate and examine these trees
which are now more than 20 years old.

[Illustration: Fig. 4. Slightly enlarged photograph of black walnut with
straight grain in the wood (light-colored area) and also in the bark
(dark-colored area). U. S. Forest Service Forest Products Laboratory
Photo.]

In the various literature and other material available on the subject of
birdseye and curliness, it appears that the birdseye grain is different
in its origin from curliness although both may be related to the
functioning of the cambium and definitely seem to be related to slow
growth. (Ref. 8)

[Illustration: Fig. 5. Slightly enlarged photograph of black walnut with
curly grain in the wood (light-colored area, upper left) and also in the
bark (dark-colored area). U. S. Forest Service Forest Products
Laboratory Photo.]

Curliness is reported in other kinds of trees. Curly grained white
poplar has been propagated from hybrid trees by growing cuttings of
shoots from the roots of the curly trees (Ref. 9). In Sweden it has been
possible to grow figured birch, much of which has the curly type grain.
In birch, seedling strains producing curly grain have been developed and
are being grown. It is of interest to note that with these birches, the
trees with curly grain grow only about half as fast as the normal trees
and have to be staked during their early growth years in order to make
straight trunks or to stand erect (Ref. 4).

The original Lamb walnut tree was curly throughout. Other trees,
particularly maples and birches may be curly only in part of their
trunks and sometimes only in restricted segments. Trees frequently have
curly grain at the base where the trunk joins the roots but not
elsewhere. Such curliness may be related to the shortening of the curve
where the root joins the trunk, thus causing distortion. W. G. Bixby
states (Ref. 3) that a birdseye maple tree 170 years old was only about
a quarter as large in diameter as normal trees of the same age. I know
of no comparison of curly walnut with other types of walnut. The
original Lamb walnut tree was apparently a very large one.

In conclusion, it is obvious that our knowledge of the possibility of
producing curly grained walnut logs by grafting is as yet incomplete.
Much more information is needed and at the present time undoubtedly much
can be gained by examining the Lamb walnut trees, which are growing in
various parts of the country. This can be done without seriously
injuring the trees as described earlier in this paper. Those in the
Northern Nut Grower's Association, who have Lamb trees are urged to
examine them to find out if we can gain further useful information
regarding this rather important subject. Obviously, if it is possible to
grow curly walnut through vegetative propagation, we should know under
what conditions a grower can expect to successfully produce a curly
grained log.


References

   1. MacDaniels, L. H. The apple tree crotch, histological studies and
       practical considerations. Cornell Univ. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 419:
       1-22. 1923.

   2. ---- and Otis F. Curtis. The effect of spiral ringing on solute
       translocation on the structure of the regenerated tissue of the
       apple. Cornell Univ. Agr. Exp. Sta. Memoir 133:1-32. 1930.

   3. Bixby, W. G. Field work at Warren, New Hampshire. Unpublished
       Report. 1932. (On file with U. S. Forest Products Laboratory,
       Madison, Wisconsin.)

   4. Heinkinheimo, O. Om odling ar masurbjork (The cultivation of
       figured birch). Skogen 27:165-167. 1940. (Translation in U. S.
       Forest Products Laboratory.)

   5. Heinicke, A. J. Influence of scion leaves on the quality of apples
       borne by the stock. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. Proc. 24:143-146. 1927.

   6. Swarbrick, Thomas and R. H. Roberts. The relation of scion variety
       to character of root growth in apple trees. Wisconsin Univ. Agr.
       Exp. Sta. Res. Bul. 78:1-24. 1927.

   7. Wilkinson, J. F. The grafted curly walnut as a timber tree. Northern
       Nut Growers Ass'n. Proc. 39:139-142. 1948.

   8. Pillow, M. Y. Dormant buds are not the cause of bird's eyes in
       maple. Wood Working Industries 5:26-27. Sept. 1929.

   9. Grober, Samuel. Science shows the way. Chemurgic Digest 5:152.
       1946.

DR. CRANE: Dr. MacDaniels, the idea prevails on the part of some I know
that this curliness would show up more at the base or crown of the tree
than it would be likely to show on the trunk, and at the base of large
limbs we tend to have curliness. Of course, the Lamb walnut was supposed
to be curly throughout, but in the case of other trees I wonder if
that's true. You have emphasized the change in the direction of the
grain at the crown between the root and trunk and in the crotches. I
wonder just where would be the best place to scrape this bark or pare it
down in examination to determine whether it was curly or not. Would that
be, in your opinion, more likely to show up on the trunk of the tree or
base of some limb or near down to the crown?

DR. MACDANIELS: I'd be inclined to take it where you can work at it most
easily; down towards the base. If the grain is curly only in restricted
areas the log is not very valuable.

A MEMBER: I have been told by a sawmill man that he could tell by the
convolutions of the bark. Instead of being straight, they would be
fluted.

DR. MACDANIELS: That might be. I was told during the First World War
when they wanted straight-grained spruce for airplanes they found they
could tell a straight-grained spruce from a spiral, so they wouldn't
waste their time getting logs with spiral grain.


TUESDAY AFTERNOON SESSION

PRESIDENT BEST: The first item on the program is the life story of the
Late Reverend Crath and the Crath Carpathian walnut in Ontario. We are
going to have Mr. L. K. Devitt of Toronto, Canada, get into this subject
for us. Mr. Devitt did know Reverend Crath since 1934. Mr. Devitt
supported his expedition to the Ukraine in 1934. He has a few slides for
us and then he is going to talk to us about a number of features.

Mr. Devitt is in the school system in Toronto, and he is a graduate of
the University of Toronto, and so without further introduction, take
over and give us your story.

MR. DEVITT: Thank you. Mr. Chairman, ladies and gentlemen, when I wrote
a letter to the secretary of the Association about Reverend Crath, I
thought it was also fitting that at the next meeting I should come here
and say a little more about the life and work of the Reverend Crath and
the Crath Carpathian walnut in Ontario and the progress for the last 20
years.



Late Rev. Paul C. Crath

L. K. DEVITT, _Toronto, Ontario_


Rev. Crath was born near Kiev in Greater Ukraine, Poland, in 1883. He
was the son of an Agricultural College Professor. It is assumed that he
enjoyed the life of the upper class, being a graduate of two
universities; and speaking fluently at least six languages of Central
and Western Europe, and having travelled almost everywhere in Europe. He
possessed a wide knowledge of the peoples, the history and the culture
of all the Central European Countries.

He migrated to Canada in 1908 and settled in Western Canada. He was
employed at various, clerical occupations before entering the
Theological College of the University of Manitoba from where he
graduated as a Presbyterian minister in 1922.

He was the minister of a Ukranian Presbyterian Church in Toronto for two
years. From 1924 to 1936 he served as a Presbyterian missionary in
Poland, organizing some thirty missions in Galicia and Volynia. For some
years before the war, he spent considerable time on a farm near Welcome,
Ontario, building up a European Nursery and in the winters he served
with the Home Missions mostly in Western Canada. During the last ten
years of his life he had to curtail his activities more and more, owing
to poor health and a heart condition.

I met Rev. Crath when he was on furlough in 1934.

I went to the National Exhibition and among the various exhibits I came
across a rather unique exhibit of nuts, grown by the late Geo. H.
Corsan, Echo Valley, Islington.

In the course of our conversation along came the late Prof. Jas. Neilson
and we continued to talk about nut-growing. Prof. Neilson was
interesting indeed. I could see he was a sincere man and most
enthusiastic about the subject. He told me there was a Presbyterian
Ukranian missionary in town who had brought out some hardy English
walnuts from the Carpathian Mountains--a variety which he was sure would
survive in Ontario and the Northern States and that it had great
possibilities. The missionary was returning to Europe to bring out a
shipment but needed, backing for the expedition. I met Prof. Neilson the
following day. The sum required was $400.00 and he agreed to guarantee
the sale of $400.00 worth in the U.S. at least. The next day I met Rev.
Crath at the Exhibition display. We met off and on for two or three
days. I could see no flaw in the project, so I raised the $400.00 by a
bank-note. The banker thought I was crazy--and the missionary was on his
way by the end of the week.

He arrived by mid-September and having had so many charges in the
Ukraine, he knew where to go and just when the crop was being harvested.
The walnuts were selected, dried, boxed and shipped by the middle of
October. The shipment arrived in Toronto the first week of
November--nearly two tons of them. I received with them, a bill of
lading with port charges, export duties and freight. I was out another
$100.00.

In two weeks, the Winter Fair opened and Mr. Corsan was invited to put
on his nut exhibit as an attraction. In the meantime he was on the
radio once a week to talk on health, food and various subjects, always
getting around to nuts as a food--and this new discovery, the Carpathian
walnut. The radio broadcasts brought interested people right to his
exhibit. He gave an hourly talk on nuts and a pamphlet was given out.
The Winter Fair sales grossed $300.00 and there was another $100.00 on
follow-up sales by Christmas. The situation was at least easier.

Prof. Neilson before Christmas had taken ill and passed away in
February. However into the picture came another man, H. J. Rahmlow,
secretary of the Wisconsin Horticultural Association with about 600
affiliated societies. He wrote an article in the Country Gentleman and
circularized the expedition of Rev. Crath to the Carpathian Mountains.
We sent four shipments to Mr. Rahmlow in 25 and 50 lb. lots. Sales came
in from all over Canada and the United States until spring. By spring we
had cleared all expenses and had about $200.00 on hand, but the next
problem was, what to do with the rest of the walnut seeds?

On Mr. Corsan's Echo Valley, there were two fields, one in the valley
and one over the road. We broke up out of sod an acre in each field and
planted about 40,000 seeds. Rev. Crath took to a farm near Welcome, Ont.
about another 20,000. Our plantation required a good deal of attention,
work and expense during the growing season. However 90% of the walnuts
germinated and grew to trees about 6 inches high. Over 30,000 trees
survived the next cold winter.

The following year we could scuffle them between the rows. Our nursery
required less care and expense. During the summer they grew about a foot
higher (15 in. average) but developed a very thick carrot-like tap root
with numerous root hairs. By autumn 1936 it was evident we had to
transplant. The seeds were planted originally 8 inches apart. So we
divided up the lot by each taking one out of every three trees, thus
leaving the trees in Echo Valley now 2 ft. apart. Rev. Crath took his
trees to the farm at Welcome, 80 miles east of Toronto. They were
planted on a slope below a thick woods from where melting snow and
spring rains kept the field cold and wet until mid-summer. Rev. Crath's
trees were practically a failure; in fact the area seemed to be
unsuitable for walnut seedlings. Mr. Corsan's trees continued to grow,
but even here the soil did not seem to be the most suitable.

I took mine to a sandy garden soil that had been under sod for 20 years.
The sod was broken and thoroughly disced. The spring was wet and very
favourable for transplanting. The trees on this soil grew very well
without any fertilizer at all; nor did they require any spraying. The
trees continued to grow deep and do better each succeeding year.

In the spring of 1939 I started to sell trees wholesale to the Dominion
Nursery, Georgetown, Ont. Mr. Bradley, the president, carried more
novelty items in his catalogue than any other nurseryman in Canada. I
continued to plant more seeds until 1939.--The war stopped further
importations, and I sold out all the trees by the spring of 1943.

So from my nursery probably went out some 10,000 trees; the weaker
seedling always perished during the winter. From Mr. Corsan's nursery,
another 10,000 trees--about half of these went to his son, Hebden Corsan
in Michigan. Rev. Crath's nursery yielded not more than 5000. He
imported a number of cherries, plums, grapes and others fruits, all of
which did not do too well either.

During the period before the war, orders came in from everywhere--from
British Columbia to Nova Scotia, even Newfoundland, besides nurseries in
the United States. Orders from the prairie provinces were dissuaded but
some customers insisted on a trial basis. Walnut seed, the first two
years went mostly to Western Ontario, British Columbia and Nova Scotia.
By 1939 the seedling nursery business that I had apparently fallen into,
looked good. Rev. Crath and I talked the situation over. We decided to
go to the country, lease some land. I would select
the land and continue to grow seedlings and besides, import selected
grafts to develop in Canada a hardy high quality grafted walnut tree.

In September we prepared to make another expedition. My banker was most
agreeable this time. Rev. Crath got as far as New York where, awaiting
the S. S. Batory to sail, the war broke out. The S. S. Pilsudski was
sunk just out of Gdynia the next day. The S. S. Batory never did sail
back to Poland. When he arrived home we went to the bank on a Saturday
morning. The travellers' cheques were cancelled.

Rev. Crath in the 1936 expedition brought out a shipment of walnuts
selected from the most northerly port of the Ukraine for Mr. Weschcke,
St. Paul, Minn. I am not familiar with this part of his work.

Rev. Crath was a cheerful soul, an interesting and pleasant individual
to talk to. He loved people and, especially, meeting people. He
possessed a great love for humanity; he bore malice toward no one and
charity to all except the Bolsheviks. He was a restless man--"always on
the go". One could see he preferred to be missionary rather than a
resident minister. Although he was away a good part of the time he was
dearly loved by his family.

Shortly after his death, as an appreciation of his services as a
minister among Ukranian families, special memorial services were held in
Toronto, Oshawa and Detroit. I was invited to attend the Toronto
service.

On a visit one day last August, 1952, to places where his Carpathian
walnut trees were coming into bearing, he examined them and gazed at
them with a look of joy and sadness. On the way home he was somewhat
upset, he looked at me and said "Mr. Devitt, my good friend, at last our
experiment is a success. Promise me two things; continue our work and go
to the convention and tell our American friends to continue the work."

       *       *       *       *       *

This is the story of the introduction of hardy Carpathian walnuts
(_Juglans regia_) into Canada and the United States by the late Rev.
Crath.

Looking back on the whole adventure (now twenty years ago) it would be
only fair that I mention the names of three other men for the work they
did to make the expedition a success. The late Professor James Neilson
whose research in nut growing in Ontario and the United States was
already well known should be mentioned. It was he who really "sparked"
the expedition. To the late George H. Corsan whose nut growing
experiment at Echo Valley was something unique in Ontario, credit is due
for his enthusiasm and support of the late Reverend Crath. The American
nut growers who were fortunate to obtain walnut seeds at the time
through Wisconsin Horticultural Society can thank Mr. H. J. Rhamlow,
then secretary. He took over the task of distributing the walnut seeds
through the affiliated societies. He insisted that the seeds be tested
for germination, kept in proper storage, and did everything possible to
ensure success. However none of these men as I knew them then, and
including myself, would want any credit, but we give full recognition to
Reverend Crath for his work.

During the years spent in Poland Reverend Crath must have given the idea
of growing hardy walnuts in Ontario and the Northern States considerable
thought. He examined trees and nuts wherever he went; and continued
gathering information each year. When I first met him I could see he had
given walnut growing a great deal of study. He had great faith in his
idea, and when leaving on his expedition 1934 he felt he was on a great
mission. It should be remembered he made this arduous trip without pay
and that he made very little money from the sale of walnut seeds or
trees. No one did for that matter. It is also significant that in
bringing these Carpathian walnuts out of Poland at that time, 1934, he
did something that could never be done again. The trees he saw then
probably went into rifle butts for use in World War II. The introduction
of these walnuts into Ontario, met with varied success. Many bought them
on a trial basis and were eventually rewarded; some looked on with
skepticism and ridicule and a few thought that the growing of walnuts in
Ontario was impossible. The intervening years, however, have brought
forth a different picture. These seedling walnut trees are now bearing
in Ontario and as late Reverend Crath predicted more than half of them
are producing fair to good quality nuts. This is also true in the United
States. In Ontario they grow well in the commercial apple districts and
with variations mature nuts fully in 90 to 120 days (between Sept. 15 to
October 15.) All of the best varieties should now be propagated by
grafting to produce hundreds of hardy Crath Carpathian walnut trees.
This project should always be one of the foremost with the members of
the Northern Nut Growers Association. Twenty years from now and later,
the number of hardy walnut trees producing nuts (Crath strain) should
make a living monument to this obscure missionary--Rev. Paul C. Crath.

PRESIDENT BEST: Thank you very much, Mr. Devitt, for this very
intriguing story. Truth is sometimes stranger than fiction. And we want
to keep in touch with you, and we want to keep hearing from you, because
you have got a big job to do yet.

MR. DEVITT: There is only one thing, ladies and gentlemen: I don't want
to run into 5,000 letters to answer. Keep my name out of this. That is
my walking-out request now. That's the story. I am going to continue to
keep collecting samples. I hope some day to have a number myself of the
best, and I might come back again sometime. I can't say every year;
circumstances may be that I can't come. However, it's been a great
pleasure for me to be here. I have wanted to come for 20 years, and I
thought this year that I should come, because I am on this special
mission of Reverend Crath's. Now you know what's going on in Ontario.

MR. SLATE: Mr. Chairman, I think the Association will answer the 5,000
letters, if he will ask.

MR. DEVITT: I didn't ask. Are there any questions?

DR. MCKAY: I'd like to ask a question. Was any scion wood ever brought
over?

MR. DEVITT: There was some scion wood brought over by the Reverend Crath
in the spring of 1935, and it was brought over on the boat. I remember
in those years only one that grew on a tree belonging to Mr. Corsan. I
don't think the other scion wood proved any good at all.

MR. STOKE: I got a little of that scion wood, and it had been waxed. The
bark was nice and green, but the buds were dead.

MR. CALDWELL: Do you have a plantation of young, producing trees?

MR. DEVITT: No. My place, where I had those trees is now $3 million
worth of buildings on 15 acres. You'd be looking down a street. They
moved in in 1944, and built up 15 acres where I had one acre in the 15.



The Eastern Black Walnut as a Farm Timber Tree

JOHN DAVIDSON, _Xenia, Ohio_


Most people instinctively love trees. Perhaps this is an inherited
result of arboreal ancestry. Even so, very few of us realize what an
astonishingly close tie exists between the survival of trees and the
well-being of the human race. Probably even fewer realize the very great
importance, in the economy of animal life, of trees which bear nuts. Not
alone for the sake of their nuts are they important, valuable as nuts
are, but also for the sake of the unmatched timber which some of them
produce, as well as for the sake of their service as soil conservers and
builders, as beautifiers, and as silent, persistent builders of capital
values.

In view of these outstanding qualities, it is strange that nut trees are
today unfortunately and shamefully neglected in the north. Especially, I
claim, is this true of the Eastern Black walnut. Here is a mystery. Why
do not northern planters of trees plant more Eastern Black walnuts for
their exceedingly valuable timber?

"Backward" Burma could give us lessons in intelligent forestry. It is
said that the Burmese are permitted to clear their thickets and tropical
woodlands for agricultural use only after they agree to plant a definite
amount of that land in teak, perhaps the most valuable of all woods. It
is said that, due to the effectiveness of this system, some 35,000 acres
have now been stocked with this valuable timber.

There are two or three main reasons why the planting of Eastern Black
walnut for timber is thus far not very common in America. (1). The
native and favorable area of this tree is limited to a comparatively
small section. (2), The tree grows well only in deep, fertile soil where
quick-money crops have had the first call. Strip-mine planting is better
than none at all, but such soil as is left after a strip-mine operation
is hardly the best. (3) We are in too great a hurry. (4) Most farmers
must have annual incomes, or they must quit farming.

What, then, are the offsetting reasons why this kind of planting should
have an appeal to far-seeing people who are favorably located? In the
first place, the Eastern Black walnut yields wood of unique quality.
Pattern makers, who must work within tolerances of thousandths of an
inch, prefer it. Walter Page, a well known sports writer has this to
say: "Few woods come as close as walnut to fulfilling all the demands of
a good gunstock: beauty of grain, workableness with cutting tools,
resistance to warpage, weight or density in proportion to strength."

Another example of the many-sided versatility of this wood can be found
in those timbered regions of America where termites are a problem for
home owners. Termites seem to leave black walnut wood very much alone.
It probably has a taste which termites cannot stomach. This is one
reason why so many of the old rail fences of our ancestors in the walnut
area were made of black walnut. The "ground-chunks," in particular,
which were laid upon the ground under the corners of the worm-fences
were often either of rock, or of walnut.

Just this year I watched the demolition of part of an old log cabin
which was being riddled by termites. Many of the ordinary logs were in
ruins but the walnut boards which had served as weather-boarding over
the ends of some of the termite-infested logs were as sound and as
beautifully preserved as they had been when they were placed there.

Is it any wonder that so many of the pioneers who had lived long enough
in the termite area to see what could happen to other lumber, chose
walnut, whenever they could get it, for structural work and for
weatherboard protection?

Safety of operation is still another matter for consideration. If I wish
to create an estate for my family or for my last years, how can I go
about it with the best chance for success? Shall I go prospecting for
precious metals? Thousands have failed at that job where but few have
succeeded. Shall it be manufacturing? Count up the failures. For each
success, at least ten go broke. Wall Street? The Wall Street journals
themselves give the statistics. More than 90 percent of all persistent
Wall Street gamblers lose money in the end. Farming? Much safer, but
most farmers who have made much money in the past have accomplished it
by way of an increase in the value of their land rather than through
their farming operations. This is the result of fluctuating prices. Bad
years often eat up the savings of good years. Then, too, the good farmer
is a busy man. The better the year the busier he is. Very little time
remains for side issues, such as the planting of trees.

As a matter of fact, as erosion of the soil progresses, as good,
productive land becomes more scarce, and as farm labor becomes more and
more difficult to employ, the attention of informed farm owners and
operators has been turning more and more to soil-building, perennial,
permanent and labor-saving crops. Of these, grass and tree crops are,
far and away, the most promising today.

In view of what I have found out during the last 20 years, I am quite
sure that, if I were starting now, I should expect to make farming a
major element in my estate building, but it would be mostly tree and
grass farming, not grain farming. I should need livestock, of course, to
make use of the grass. And I like livestock.

This is what I ask of life: First of all, I must enjoy my work. I do not
care to spend all my days in getting ready to live. My job must lie
along the road I like to travel. I do not care to work at a task so
burdensome, so time-consuming that I have no heart for the enjoyment of
living. At the same time, a big part of the plan must be to find a good,
safe way to build an estate. It must be feasible, practical, enjoyable.

I believe, in the light of my own recent experience, that if one is
properly situated, there is much to be said for the idea of undertaking
the practice of forestry upon a rather liberal scale using Eastern Black
walnut trees as a foundation.

In the first place, I ask, what living thing upon one's farm will cause
less labor than a forest tree? I know of none. This fulfills the first
requirement. A forest tree calls for a minimum of attention as
compared with other crops. This is especially true if one permits
livestock to keep down weeds and brush. And here I am likely to be
called a heretic. The authorities say, "No grazing in a forest".
However, in this field of forestry there are some traditional maxims
which, to say the least, are not capable of universal application. The
authorities, too, have been known to rely upon what other authorities
tell them--without investigating the facts for themselves. It is not
well to rely too implicitly or trustfully upon the "authorities", either
ecclesiastical or scientific. "No grazing" is a valid enough rule to
follow in the ordinary forest, but I have found that after the trees are
well grown we can graze the land under a deep-rooted walnut tree which
is planted in deep, rich soil as we would graze any meadow land--in
reason and in moderation. The practice is profitable for annual income
and it keeps down the fire hazard. One bad fire in an ungrazed or unmown
piece of brush-covered undergrowth can destroy in an hour 50 years of
timber growth. If we plant deep-rooted nut trees in deep, rich soil, and
if we fertilize that soil as any valuable permanent pasture land is
fertilized, we can graze that land without injury to the trees or the
land.

One other reason which is given for the prohibition of grazing is the
desire to save young tree growth. This is justified in ordinary forestry
practice by the need to get annual income through successive cuttings.
The young growth must be encouraged to come on. Even so, it must be
thinned as it comes. However, a forest of black walnut trees yields its
annual income in another way--through its nuts and its livestock.

Trees in such a forest should be planted close enough together to cause
them to reach straight up as they grow. They will not all reach straight
up, of course, but enough will do so to produce as many saw-logs as will
normally grow in a forest; that is, if they have been properly planted
in the first place.

In my own modified forest-type planting, the black walnut trees stand 8
feet apart in rows 20 feet apart. The 20-foot spacing between rows was
planned to provide more sunlight for nut production during the early
years. No one ever planted a forest in that way, so far as I know. The
trees are now 17 years old, about 3250 of them in all. In the best soil
of this 20 acres I can count about 1000 forest-type, straight,
well-grown trees. There are about 1500 lesser trees, low-limbed trees
which will eventually be used, perhaps, for posts or some such purpose.
There are, I regret to say, about 750 trees that will never be worth
anything. An eroded slope and a hidden clay bed explain these
misbegotten dwarfs.

The variable growth of these trees proves that the first care in making
a planting of walnut for timber should be to plant in good soil, deep
and well drained. Bottom land, even some that is occasionally
overflown with flood-water, and therefore not the best wheat land,
should be excellent for Eastern Black walnuts if the drainage is good.
Rule two:--Select your seed or seedlings from large, straight-growing,
healthy parents. This rule needs explanation.

In last October's NUTSHELL, an organ of the Northern Nut Growers'
Association, Spencer Chase, its editor, called attention to a showing of
Carpathian Persian walnuts by Mr. H. F. Stoke which illustrated what was
called "the variability of seedling trees." The progenitor
of these seedlings was a Lancaster Carpathian Persian walnut tree.
Differences in size, appearance and quality of nuts from these seedlings
were said to have been remarkable. Such differences, we know, are
greater with some species than with others. A variable ancestry often
results in a variable progeny. On the other hand, I know that my Eastern
American black walnuts do tend to reproduce the characteristics of their
parents. I have long rows of seedling trees, all from one parent tree,
standing alongside long rows of seedlings from another parent. The
similarity of the tree growth and nut production of the trees in their
own rows, and their contrast in growth of trees and nuts to those in
adjoining rows is striking and to me conclusive. A photograph taken by
Dr. O. D. Diller, of Ohio State University, in 1946, shows trees in a
right-hand row grown from seed of a tree on the Kinsey farm, while on
the left are seedlings of a tree on the McCoy farm. The circumference of
trunks of Kinsey seedlings averages more than twice that of McCoy trees.
Same soil, same age (11 years), same treatment.

Those same trees, now 17 years old, still show these striking
characteristics. It is true that each tree in a row of seedlings is an
individual in its own right. No others are exactly like it.
Nevertheless, the family resemblances in that row are very like those in
human families. They are especially noticeable in the nuts--with, for
example, rough shells in one row and smooth shells in another; mainly
large nuts in one and mainly small nuts in an adjoining family. Also,
some rows have mostly straight-growing trees, others are predominantly
branchy, like the Thomas.

It should be said in this connection that practically all of the parent
trees of these seedlings stood in isolated positions and little subject
to pollination from other trees.

So much for the Eastern Black walnut's evidence of hereditary influence.
So, let us take inventory.

Today, I figure that the thousand well-grown trees in this planting are
each adding a dollar per year to the value of the 20 acres upon which
they stand. $1000 per year in all. This estimate, which of course seems
optimistic, is based upon the statement of a walnut tree buyer--a
sawmill man--who tells me that a well grown, deep-soil, 50-year-old
Eastern Black walnut tree should average about $50 in value. Thus far,
my 17-year-old youngsters, some of them nearly 3 feet in girth (9-1/2 to
11 or more inches in diameter at breast height) look promising.

In addition to the potential added value of $1000 per year, this 20
acres has produced about two tons of in-hull nuts from selected trees
only, in each of the past two years, (with more than that in prospect
this year), while the land beneath the trees grows good pasture and
helps to support a small herd of cattle and calves.

Once the trees were thoroughly established, the labor investment has
been very small. Nature, for the most part, has done her own pruning,
and has done it better than I deserve. Since the first half-dozen years,
there has been no cultivation. The trees have been practically
trouble-free. Winds have damaged a few and one wet spot has killed three
trees. There are a few black locust trees among the walnuts. I can see
no evidence that the walnuts have made either better or poorer growth
because of the proximity of these nitrogen storers. Perhaps the evidence
will show up later. We shall see.

The last item in this inventory, added value to the estate, is still
potential, but the potential is surprising. If my walnut timber buyer's
estimate is trustworthy, in 17 years the best 1000 trees have added
17,000 potential dollars to the value of that 20 acres. And they have
done it with safety, with little labor on my part and, lately, with
annual dividends of excellent nuts and good pasture. No other kind of
forestry that I know of can do that.

It would, of course, be foolish to claim that the kind of management
here described would be wise or workable with other forest species. Wise
forest management requires, first of all, that the choice of species
shall be adapted to the soil and climate favored by that species. It
requires a proper density of stand. Finally, good management demands
that a choice be made of the most valuable type of timber that can be
produced upon your land. If you can grow walnut successfully, it would
be foolish to grow Willow or Box Elder.

One necessary thing I must do, a thing that I should advise others
similarly situated to do, namely, place a tight legal fence around this
twenty acres in order to assure the trees' survival until 50 years have
proved or disproved my faith. For, after all, these trees are guinea
pigs--pioneering. They break some traditional rules. The land they stand
on is grazed. They are not set the traditional 80 feet apart. Their nut
crops may dwindle away. One never sees walnut trees growing in pure
stands--always with other species which scatter their seeds and push in.
They are not monopolists--like the pines.

Very well, we shall see. My own small experiment in unorthodox ways has
the temerity to suggest a new treatment for a species of timber tree
which I personally regard as America's very best gift of its kind to the
world. For 17 years my modified forest-type planting of black walnut
trees has not disappointed me. That is why I now believe that the farmer
in the Eastern black walnut's native habitat who fails to set out these
nut trees wherever he can is losing a good opportunity.



The McKinster Persian Walnut

P. E. MACHOVINA, _Columbus, Ohio_


The McKinster Persian walnut first attracted public attention when it
received first place in the preliminary Persian walnut contest conducted
by the Northern Nut Growers Association in 1949. In the follow-up
contest of 1950, the variety was granted third place. The McKinster tree
resulted from Crath Carpathian seed secured through the Wisconsin
Horticultural Society by Mr. Ray McKinster of Columbus, Ohio. The seed
was obtained and planted in the spring of 1938, hence the tree is now 15
years of age. Probably this seed was secured by Rev. Crath during his
last trip when, presumably, he made some of his most careful selections.

Altogether, Mr. McKinster planted eleven Crath nuts in the back yard of
his small city lot, nine of which germinated. All but two of the
resulting seedlings were distributed to friends and relatives living in
the countryside. Many of these trees have disappeared due to accidents
and lack of care; a few, however, have produced nuts which apparently
are not exceptional. One such nut examined was of medium size with a
fairly thick shell; the kernel was of good flavor but somewhat bitter.
Of the two trees retained by Mr. McKinster, both were permitted to grow
where the seed was planted, however one died of an unknown cause when
five years of age. Nuts produced by this tree were inferior to those
produced by the survivor which later became known as the McKinster
variety.

[Illustration]

[Illustration]

The McKinster tree may be viewed in the accompanying illustrations which
show it without foliage and with foliage. The pictures were taken in
March and August, respectively, 1953. Since it is a very beautiful and
relatively clean tree, the McKinster would be desirable in any yard.
From the pictures, it will be noted that the site is unfortunate being
restricted by two garages, an alley, and with numerous overhead utility
wires. Some effort was made two years ago to keep the tree out of the
wires by cutting back top growth. The trimming stimulated the usual
vigorous, annual growth to produce terminals as great as 10 feet in one
year. Ordinarily, annual growths of 6 feet of husky wood are not
unusual. New wood and buds are hardy in appearance and assume a rich
brown color upon maturing. With such growth, cutting 1000 feet of scion
wood annually would be no problem. The tree is now about 35 feet in
height with a like spread.

The bearing record of the McKinster Persian has been excellent. Its
first crop of five or six nuts was borne at five years of age and large
crops have been consistently set each year since with but one exception.
Crop records have been impossible to maintain since the tree is located
in a section of the city where squirrels abound. Any nuts saved must be
protected by screen-wire cages. The hunger of the squirrels for the nuts
is amazing. For example, in 1951, they descended upon the tree during
the first week of July and destroyed all nuts of the large crop within
two weeks. These nuts could not possibly have been filled and,
consequently, could have been of little nutrient value. In their
voracity, the squirrels frequently work on the cages and sometimes
manage to break through. To facilitate this endeavor, limbs up to one
inch in diameter carrying cages are sometimes cut off so the squirrels
can attack more conveniently from the ground.

[Illustration]

It could be that nuts saved by caging are sometimes inferior. The cages
used are made by folding window screen into a doubled, 4 to 6 inch
square, producing an "envelope" with wire sewn edges. Crowding from one
to three nuts into a cage may result in inhibited development,
especially since considerable leaf surface must be removed when
installing a cage. Because Mr. McKinster has been ill for several
years, it has been difficult to accomplish the caging; consequently, but
few nuts are saved. For example, in 1950, there were insufficient nuts
to meet the 25 nut sample required by the contest judges. All available
nuts, some probably inferior, were entered, and it is a matter of
conjecture whether the nuts might have been judged higher under
different circumstances. Also conjectural are the questions of crop size
and regularity of bearing in the event the tree was permitted to mature
its nuts.

The McKinster nuts, which were the principal consideration in the
contests rather than the tree itself, are excellent in nearly all
aspects. They are of medium size, averaging around 35 to the pound, with
about 52 per cent kernel. The shell is moderately thin, light in color,
well sealed, of a satisfactory shape (see illustration), and with
excellent cracking qualities. The kernel is light, plump, of excellent
flavor, and in the words of one authority, "probably rank with the best
in freedom from bitterness." The nuts are matured by the middle of
September and, later, drop, free of the husk.

Blooming of the parent tree usually occurs during the first week of May.
In 1951, the staminate flowers were first observed April 29 and the
pistillate flowers May 2. The narrator visited the tree on May 4 at
which time some catkins had fallen; it was estimated that one-half to
two-thirds of the pollen had been shed. The pistillate flowers appeared
to be either receptive or slightly past at this stage. Mr. McKinster
commented that the blooming period of 1951 was from a few days to a week
earlier than usual. In 1952, the shedding of pollen started on April 29.
From the foregoing, it may be noted that the McKinster Persian is
entirely or largely self-pollinating. No other Persian walnut trees
which might assist in pollination occur in the vicinity and all known
seedlings raised from nuts of the parent McKinster tree have appeared to
be pure Persian. Leafing out starts about a week before the bloom
appears. In the fall, leaves are colored a beautiful bronze and are
brought down in a great shower by the first frost.

A sample of the soil in which the McKinster tree is growing, taken at a
depth of 6 inches, was tested in July 1950. The results specify that the
soil is mostly silt with an average amount of organic matter and that
evidence indicates it to contain ashes. The acidity is specified as
"neutral", potash "high", and phosphate "low". No mention is made of
available nitrogen; however, the dark green color of the leaves and
vigorousness of growth would indicate a satisfactory supply. Fertilizer
in small amount was applied once or twice during the early life of the
tree; also, during this period, Mr. McKinster "spaded in" garbage, etc.,
to increase the humus content of the soil. In 1951, the narrator checked
the pH of the soil near the surface and obtained a value of 6.5.

Only one instance of damage due to climatic conditions and none
whatsoever from insects and diseases has ever been observed with the
parent McKinster tree. Undoubtedly, the city location offers some
protection from frost, but may also be detrimental, on occasion, through
heat reflected from the many surrounding white-painted buildings. For
example, an unseasonable warm spell occurred in Columbus during the
latter part of the first week in April of the current year. The heat,
lasting for several days, reached a high of 80.4 degrees and, as a
result, the McKinster tree started vegetating. Leaf growths of from
one-half to one inch had been reached when normal conditions returned.
Two weeks later, a cold spell with snow and temperatures of 22 degrees
killed the new growth but did not injure the wood. Following this,
leafing re-occurred, but at a slower rate and somewhat later than
normal. The size ultimately attained by the leaves is about one-half
their usual size, and, consequently, the accompanying illustration,
taken this summer, does not exhibit the usual luxuriant appearance of
the tree. A large part of the bloom was damaged by the cold, hence the
tree set a lighter crop of nuts than usual.

In connection with early vegetating, it may be remarked that Mr.
McKinster, several years ago, presented two small grafted trees of his
variety to a relative living in eastern Kentucky. These trees were
planted on low ground and were killed the first year by late spring
frosts after leafing out twice. Thus it seems evident that the McKinster
tree has the fault, common in Carpathians, of leafing out too early and
being injured by late spring frosts, especially when planted too far
south. Three other trees, grafted by Mr. McKinster and now about four
years from the graft, are situated in the countryside several miles
south of Columbus, Ohio, where they are doing excellently, having never
been damaged.

The writer has several three year old McKinster grafts at his property
in southeastern Ohio which were deliberately set on stocks located in a
bad frost pocket. The grafts, which are adjacent to a woods, have made
fair growth each spring but are injured during the summer by an insect
laying eggs in the succulent growth. The portion of terminal above the
point of sting invariably dies the following winter and has the
appearance produced by winter killing. This damage has not been unique
with the McKinster, having also occurred with the McDermid, Watt,
Burtner, and other Persian varieties growing nearby; some of the latter
were killed outright the first winter after grafting.

A one-year McKinster grafted tree with three feet of growth above the
graft was cut back and transplanted by the writer to the yard of his
Columbus, Ohio, home during the winter of 1952. Growth the following
spring was about two feet and obtained in rather poor soil. After a long
absence during the summer which was attended by a prolonged drouth, the
tree was found in a dying condition, having lost all its leaves. Hurried
watering resulted in a complete new coat of leaves and a small amount of
additional terminal growth. The tree matured its growth and withstood
the winter nicely, but suffered, similar to the parent, from the April,
1953, unseasonable weather. Growth this summer from adventitious buds
has been poor.

Unfortunately, the McKinster variety saw but little testing in other
parts of the country prior to its recognition in 1949. So that this
report might be as complete as possible, requests were sent to several
dozen experimenters who are known to have grafted the McKinster, asking
for their experiences and opinions of the variety. The requests went to
people scattered generally throughout the northeastern portion of the
country, a very few of which had received scion wood in 1950, a larger
portion in 1951, and the bulk in 1952. For the most part, replies
indicate satisfaction and even enthusiasm; very few report failure.
Definite conclusions cannot be drawn because of the short time of
trial; however, a general description of experiences will provide
indications.

Few experimenters report failure in grafting, most stating the variety
to be "easy to graft." Any who mention the characteristic,
state that "grafts are vigorous," or that "it is a fairly rapid grower."
For the experimenters, the McKinster seems to be about "average" in its
time of leafing out. Many report a set of nuts the second year after
grafting. As to time of maturing new growth, the reply of Mr. Stephen
Bernath of New York, "New growth matures about the end of September," is
fairly typical, as is the reply of Dr. R. T. Dunstan of North Carolina,
"It appears to harden wood well ahead of frost." Most reports indicate
no winter injury but are tempered by cautious observations that
temperatures had not been low. Mr. H. F. Stoke of Virginia, who grafted
the McKinster in the spring of 1950, reports: "Pistillate buds developed
during the summer of 1951 were killed by a frost catching new growth in
the spring of 1952." Mr. John Howe of Missouri was the sole reporter of
catastrophe when he stated: "My McKinster graft was killed by the
November, 1951, cold while the Lake and McDermid varieties close by were
not hurt." Mr. Sylvester Shessler of northern Ohio reports: "The
McKinster withstood, without injury, the 1951 winter which killed 4
hybrids and a Crath, and injured several others." Mr. Harry P. Burgart
of Michigan reports the variety as doing extra well for him. The only
reply mentioning disease came from Dr. Dunstan who says: "It has been
fairly clean in foliage so far, less susceptible to leaf spot than
some." Mr. John Gerstenmaier of Massillon, Ohio, grafted the McKinster
in 1951 and reports excellent growth with a diameter of 2 inches at the
graft after two years. He reports temperatures of 16 degrees very early
in November which caused no harm, and pistillate bloom from May 8 to 16,
1952, which materialized into a crop of two nuts; pollen was supplied by
adjacent Carpathians. Leafing out ordinarily starts about a week prior
to the bloom for Mr. Gerstenmaier; but, in April, 1953, the unseasonable
weather conditions also occurring in his vicinity caused early
vegetating and killing, while at nearby Orrville, the variety was
undamaged.

Mr. Gilbert Becker of Michigan, who is enthusiastic about the McKinster
variety, believes the qualities of the nut to be superb and the
characteristics of the tree satisfactory. He is of the opinion that the
too-short dormancy of the variety is not a serious objection,
particularly with climatic conditions such as those experienced in
Michigan. Even in central Ohio, where peach and apple crops are
frequently lost due to spring frosts, the McKinster has not been injured
when located in the countryside and injured but once during its 15
years, with a resultant smaller than usual crop, when located in the
city.

In closing, it might be well to comment on the fact that nuts of the
McKinster, Hansen and Jacobs varieties alone placed high in both the
1949 and 1950 N.N.G.A. contests and that different panels of judges
served in the two events. Certainly the nuts of these varieties are of a
superior quality, and it would seem important to determine those parts
of the country where these varieties are sufficiently hardy to be of
commercial value. Certainly these varieties should be given every
opportunity to prove themselves.



Carpathian Walnuts in the Columbia River Basin

LYNN TUTTLE, _Clarkston, Wash_.


Mr. Chairman and friends of the nut culture, I regret that I cannot meet
with you at this time, but fate seems to have decreed otherwise. The
pleasant memory of the meeting at Guelph is still with me and I must
admit a feeling of humility as I prepare this paper for a group of
sincere and devoted people united in a common interest.

The Pacific Northwest extends from the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific
Ocean. This area is divided by the Cascade Mountains which run north and
south. Between the Cascades and the Pacific we have a coastal area
wherein winters are generally mild, summers cool, and rainfall abundant.
Under these, conditions many plants do not attain a high degree of
dormancy. Zero weather in Seattle will damage walnuts as much as will
twenty-five degrees below zero in the more continental climate east of
the Cascades. Carpathian walnuts have proved their value under both
coastal and interior conditions. This hardiness is at least partially
due to their tendency to mature their buds and harden their growth
earlier in the fall than do other types of English walnuts.

Between the Cascades and the Rockies is a vast area part plateau and
part mountains. It is scarred with deep canyons and crossed by swift
streams fed from springs and mountain snows. Roughly the elevation of
farm lands varies from five hundred to over forty-five hundred feet.
Depending largely on slope and elevation, rainfall varies from about
eight to twenty-five inches. In general, summer days are bright, dry,
and fairly hot. Nights are clear and cool. Winters are unpredictable but
always vary much according to location and elevation. Infrequently
temperatures may drop to more than twenty below zero at Clarkston. Other
areas of similar elevation may be five to ten degrees colder.

For the sake of clarity and to reduce the territory covered, we will
confine ourselves largely to that part of the Columbia Basin irrigated
and to be irrigated in Central Washington. The application is general,
however.

Grand Coulee Dam has made feasible the irrigation of about 1-1/4 million
acres of sage brush, bunch grass, and marginal wheat lands. Irrigation
is already practised over other vast acreages. This land is level to
rolling, and is of sandy loam nature. It is deeply under-laid by layers
of lava rock--in places thousands of feet thick. As in most arid
climates the soil is rich in minerals but low in nitrogen and organic
matter. Under irrigation production is amazing. The growing season is
sufficiently long for Carpathian walnuts anywhere in the irrigated area.

Walnuts originally from Southern Europe have proved unsatisfactory
because they killed at 20 to 25 below zero. It was discouraging to have
a ten or fifteen year old tree killed outright by an unusual winter. But
it was just these conditions that led to the discovery of the Schafer
walnut. This tree survived the winters of 1936 and 1937 in a part of the
Yakima valley where all other varieties similarly located were killed.
So far as I know, none of these were Carpathians.

Many Carpathians are now being planted, mostly for yard trees, but
promise to eventually become one of the big commercial crops of the
area. However, skepticism on the part of the public and scarcity of
nursery stock has delayed commercial planting. A fair portion of good
growers are now convinced that commercial growing is profitable and
stock, our own and others, is becoming more plentiful.

Our experience has been confined largely to the Schafer walnut and it
is, aside from some promising seedlings, so far as we know, the only
proven Carpathian in this area. We do not wish to discredit
possibilities of any other variety, but must speak out of our own
observations. There are numerous small, commercial plantings now
producing, the nuts being sold locally. Accurate production figures are
not available and if available would vary greatly due to the care given
the trees. The Schafer, and this will undoubtedly hold true of some
other Carpathians, bears more at five years than a Franquette does at
ten. I have seen apple boxes (about one bushel) of nuts harvested from
five and six years old trees. Production increases rapidly with age.

As with fruit trees good air drainage and good soil drainage are
desirable for the walnut orchard. The Schafer starts fairly early in the
spring and new leaves are easily nipped by late frosts. A severe late
freeze might also injure new growth although I do not recall a crop
having been lost due to this cause. Although pollinizers have not been
used, we think that on young trees and in some years they might insure a
better crop. We are now propagating two pollinizing varieties the
catkins of which come out later than the Schafer.

Trees planted sixty feet apart permit inter-planting to row and other
crops for several years. Columbia Basin lands under irrigation produce
enormous crops of potatoes, beans, sugar beets, rutabagas, green peas,
clover or alfalfa seed, peppermint oil, and fruit. Average potato--20
tons, alfalfa hay--7 tons (three cuttings), alfalfa seed--800 pounds,
dry beans--2,500 pounds, wheat--70 to 100 bushels. In some areas peach
or apricot trees make good fillers.

Carpathians also fit into the picture as yard trees, for border
plantings,--either to utilize run-off water or to use water wasted along
ditches and pipe lines and for wind breaks. This open country is
naturally windy and trees greatly reduce the ground velocity of wind.

Nut production in this area appears to be much heavier than on the coast
or in California with varieties now being grown there. So far we are
pest-free. The potentials of good Carpathian walnuts in this area are
unlimited.



Walnuts and Filberts in Southern Wisconsin

C. F. LADWIG, _Beloit, Wisc._


My farm is located a few blocks north of the Illinois-Wisconsin line on
a rise overlooking the city of Beloit, whose western limits are almost
adjacent to my land. Temperature in this section ranges from 100 degrees
above to 30 degrees below zero; rarely reaching either extreme--with an
average frost free period of 173 days. Rainfall averages approximately
35 inches. Walnut, butternut, bitternut, hazel and hickory are native,
but just about non-existent in my vicinity except on my place in the
young state.

The land on my place has been tobaccoed and corned out for over 100
years and its once rich clay loam with sandy streaks was unable to grow
ragweed over 2 inches high when I bought it. Trying to grow nut trees in
this soil presents problems as you well know. My problem was not to get
them to grow vigorously but to get them to grow at all. However, by
using fertile spots, formerly barnyard and around the house, I got
several walnuts and filberts started.

I have an eight year old Crath #1, two Myers black walnuts, about the
same age, Cochrane and Thomas, 6 years, all obtained from Mr. Berhow,
and a fine assortment of Jones hybrid filberts from Mrs. Langdoc, a Rush
filbert from Mr. Burgart, two European filberts from the New York State
Fruit Testing Association, some hybrid seedlings, some native hazels
from seed, some bitternut seedlings from Mr. Weschcke, a few native
hickory seedlings, an American chestnut seedling from Scarff, 2
butternut seedlings, 2 nice Chinese tree hazels from Mr. Shessler,
several Jacobs walnut seedlings, and _regia_ & _hindsii_ hybrids from
seed of Mr. Pozzi, some Crath seedlings and a number of Thomas black
walnut seedlings--also native walnut seedlings.

Mr. Shessler and Prof. J. C. McDaniel have been a source of
help, advice, and inspiration to me and I am
deeply indebted to them, as well as to many other members of the
N.N.G.A. who have shared their experiences with me.

How have the trees done? The Crath #1 is bearing a few nuts this year.
It had no catkins, but the Cochrane was loaded with staminate bloom at
the right time. I got busy with the Cochrane pollen and a brush and went
to work on the Crath pistillate bloom. Very pleased with this cross I
looked the Crath over a few days later to check on progress. I picked
the little nutlets off the ground and inspected them carefully, then
threw them into the chickens to see if they would eat them. Back in my
mind was the feeling that Mother Nature thought I was getting too big
for my britches and decided to teach me a lesson. However she generously
allowed a few air pollinated nutlets to grow, and so there will be a
small crop of the round and plump smooth green balls.

The Crath #1 is not perfectly hardy as it freezes back an inch or two in
the cold winters. Two years ago the warm wet fall left it unprepared for
the sudden onslaught of winter and several whole branches died and the
trunk split open, the split sounding like a rifle shot one cold, crisp
evening. I happened to be standing by it at the time.

The Myers black walnuts are splendid trees and just about hardy. They
bore a few nuts and second and third year from planting, which sapped
their vitality. They then bore nothing for about three years, which
happened to be unfavorable years for walnuts anyway, and began to bear
again this year with a moderate crop. It looks like the plum curculio,
my arch insect enemy, is trying the nuts for size. I saved some Cochrane
pollen and went to work on the Myers, with you know what results.
However three of the nutlets stayed on the tree; so that I may have
effected a cross between Myers and Cochrane.

Thomas has acted peculiarly for me. It went thru the devastating
winters of 1950 and 1951 in fine shape, then froze back last winter when
the temperatures never went below 5 degrees below zero. The very dry
fall should have ripened all branches to perfection. My mule, Zombie,
took a liking to the branches and leaves of this tree, so it is now
trimmed up like an umbrella. The small nut crop must have also gone down
Zombie's gullet. He is more destructive to walnut and plum than the
curculio. (Tie him up. Ed.) Thomas does not seem to have a great future
up here.

Now Cochrane is different. If that little tree has as many nuts on it as
it had catkins this year, I'm going to have to move the corn out of the
crib and put the walnuts in there. It is not a fast growing tree, but
this may be the fault of the spot it is in, judging by the color of the
leaves. I never got around to fertilizing it.

Now that I told you about the Cochrane, I'll have to tell you about the
"Wayne" black walnut. It is eight years old, stands about eight feet
high and is hardy. My Black Walnut seedlings stand from six inches to
six feet high. They go back to six inches every other year when I cut
them down to graft them. Nobody in the nut tree field can call me a
grafter. I'll make him prove it!

The hickory, butternut, bitternut, and chestnut are step children and
fend for themselves on less desirable soil. All are small. The
regia-hindsii hybrids are small and young and are being given special
care, but may not be perfectly hardy. They grow well.

The Jones hybrid filberts stand from six to eight feet high, except
those planted recently. This year they have a fair crop. The catkins
came thru the winter in good shape for the most part. My two European
filberts, which have lost their identity, but are either Italian Red,
Cosford, or Medium Long, (one of the three perished) usually suffer the
loss of their catkins and occasionally lose a branch or two to
winter's icy fingers.

To me, the filberts are fascinating at all times of the year. When the
snow is deep and the cold bites deep, their tight little catkins always
hold forth the comfortable promise of spring. When spring does come the
thrill of the tiny red blossoms and lumbering catkins is as real and
enduring as the promise of a crop of the shiny nuts is fickle. Then, of
course, after the last tiny blossom has faded and the last catkin has
withered, the leaves push forth. To me, these tiny leaves are a sight
comparable to the opening and unfurling of the various varieties of the
grape. Then enters the element of suspense, between the time of leafing
out and the time when the little nut clusters appear.

My bushes are all growing together on a rise of ground near an old barn
foundation. The ground is rich and they love it. Each bush is individual
and distinctive as are their nuts--some tucked far in the husk, some
bulging out in a precarious fashion, some fat and round, others long and
narrow. They're interesting. I can let the butternuts, bitternuts and
hickories pass, the heartnuts, chestnuts, and pecans can wait until I am
sure they will bear here. The walnut will grow up along with the other
trees--blending into the landscape, but the filberts, like Zombie, call
attention to themselves every day of the year.

Somebody said recently that the emphasis in England is in being, and in
our country in becoming. I imagine our land stopped being with the
disappearance of the Indian and the primeval forest and is now in the
process of becoming something else. What that something else is we don't
know, and each generation carries a new set of values, but we all know
that to become something better, trees must and will figure in the plans
of all generations--better and more useful and more disease resistant
trees. It is significant that nut trees lead in these requirements.



Biology, Distribution and Control of the Walnut Husk Maggot

DR. F. L. GAMBRELL, _New York State Agricultural Experiment Station,
Geneva, N. Y._


DR. GAMBRELL: Mr. Chairman, ladies and gentlemen, some 22 years ago, I
believe it was, I attended one of your meetings at the Experiment
Station in Geneva, and at that time I gave a little talk on the walnut
husk maggot. Perhaps some of you are old enough to have been there and
remembered something about it, or maybe you are old enough so that you
have forgotten as much as I have, so it would be worth talking over
again. At any rate, when the chairman of your program committee wrote
Dr. Chapman, asking him if he might talk, he came to me and said, "Would
you be willing to do this?" I said I'd be willing but I didn't know
whether I'd be able. But finally, the pressure was so great that I said
yes, and I am here.

After I accepted the invitation, I made up my mind that I would like to
bring myself up to date as much as possible on recent developments on
walnuts, so I took the liberty of writing to a lot of our entomological
colleagues and talking to one of your members, Mr. Slate, in the hope
that I might get some more recent information on the maggots, or,
particularly, the control of this walnut husk maggot. I wrote to some 10
or 15 entomologists in 15 states, as well as the United States
Department of Agriculture in Washington and to our neighbors on the
north in Ottawa. I must say that I have had a very fine response from
everybody. They were all very willing to help, but practically all of
them had the same answer: while they knew there was such a bug, they
didn't know too much about it as an economic pest. So that left us all
right in the same boat, with about two exceptions, as when we began. Our
friends to the north in Canada sent some very nice information. We also
had some information from the U. S. Bureau of Entomology and Plant
Quarantine, Washington, D. C., together with some illustrated material.
Also our good friend, Dr. Boyce, at the Citrus Experiment Station, in
Riverside, California, with whom I have discussed the walnut husk maggot
problem quite a few years ago, had a very nice bit of information and
illustrative material which he provided. Incidentally, he is the man who
has been mainly responsible for the development of the walnut husk fly
control program for the nut industry in California. I would certainly
like to take this opportunity to acknowledge any contributions he or the
other people have made towards this discussion.

In New York State we have in our official list of insects about 30
species of fruit flies that are catalogued, but only about five of these
can be classified as of economic importance. Two of these occur on the
cherries, both sweets and sours, and are called the cherry maggots.
Another one on apples, known as apple maggot, and a related form on
blueberry. And then, of course, the walnut husk maggot, and one other
which occasionally occurs on currants, but this one, of course, is of
less importance than the others.

The fruit industry, of course, in New York is quite large, both apples
and cherries, so that there is a considerable problem there as far as
control is concerned. The growers spend thousands of dollars every year
in combatting the various species of fruit flies. The interesting thing
in this connection is that throughout the last 25 years with which I am
familiar with the cherry fruit flies--in fact, that was one of the first
projects I worked on in cooperation with Dr. Hugh Glasgow when I came to
the Experiment Station in 1925--the control measures which we developed
in 1925 to 1927 are essentially the ones which we are still using today;
that is, for the most part. There have been various attempts to change
the control program through the introduction of these newer
insecticides, and some progress has been made, but in every case they
have been wrought with some difficulties. At the present time the
official state recommendations for the control of apple maggot and
cherry maggot still include the use of arsenate of lead under some
conditions. I mention that at this point because it is of some
significance in the overall control. I am going to discuss that later
on.

As far as the host plants and distribution of the walnut husk maggot is
concerned, according to the original description which was published
almost a hundred years ago, it was listed as occurring in and to the
Middle States. That is a little bit indefinite, but at least it occurs
all over the Eastern United States and as far west as Kansas. Then the
one which occurs in California, which has since been called _Rhagoletis
completus_ (?) looks very similar to the one that we have here, but
there are slight taxonomic differences, so at least it is considered a
different species. At any rate, it is very similar to the one we have
here, and this whole group of fruit flies that we have been talking
about have a lot of similarity in their wing patterns and things of that
sort.

And the fact that I mentioned the control as generally as I did is of
significance in that all of these flies of the various species are
apparently susceptible to the same type of control measure.

As far as the host plants are concerned, I have personally observed
injury on all of our common _Juglans_ species that I have run across in
New York State and in some of the states to the south of us, including
butternut, Japanese walnut, English walnut and black walnut. I have seen
reports of infestations which were recorded in hickory, but I personally
have not seen them.

I'd just like to have a show of hands. How many in the audience here
have had experience with the walnut husk maggot or had injury on the
fruit? (Showing of hands.) I see the majority of you certainly know what
it is, but just as a brief reminder, the type of injury, of course,
varies somewhat depending possibly on the variety and time of year at
which the fruits first become infested. We know, of course, that the
flies do not begin to puncture the husk until they attain a certain
degree of softness. Early in the season they are not able, apparently,
to penetrate the husk with the ovipositor, and that, of course, varies
not only with hardness but with varieties. The flies, of course, may be
seen on the fruit even though they are not able to penetrate the husk
and deposit their eggs. These husks, of course, many of them, become dry
and hard after they have been tunnelled out, and it is almost impossible
to clean the shells. Occasionally you have nuts in which you have a
separation of the suture, and in those cases you very frequently get the
exudate from the husk penetrating through the suture in the shell onto
the kernels themselves, and in those cases molds may grow on the kernels
so that those fruits are no good.

In connection with this injury I am going to show you some slides in a
few minutes, but the preceding speaker made reference to a type of
injury which occurred on the terminal growth of a walnut tree and that
is one that we have had a lot of inquiries at the Experiment Station
about, injury to the new terminal growth fairly early in the season.
That probably, in most cases, is caused by the butternut or the walnut
curculio. Early in the season these adults begin feeding on the new
terminal growth, and they even puncture the new growth and lay their
eggs there before the nuts are large enough for them to attack and very
often considerable killing back of the terminal growth occurs. I have
seen it on English walnut seedlings in nursery rows where there would be
very large kill-back from the walnut curculio. Superficially the injury
on the fruit is quite similar to that of the husk maggot.

(First slide.) This first slide is just to give you some idea of the
general areas of fruit growing and distribution in New York State. The
eastern section, right-hand side, Champlain Valley and Hudson Valley,
are primarily apple maggot regions. Some walnut husk fly probably occurs
there, but they are predominantly apple-growing areas. In the central
part of the state, northern, particularly, we have fruit, and as far as
I know, there are no plantings of walnuts there, though you people may
know of some. In The Ontario Plains section south of Lake Ontario is one
of our big fruit belts in the State. Some walnuts are also grown here.
Consequently this area has in it apple, walnut and cherry maggot flies,
and, of course, they will be lapping over in all those areas into
surrounding territories. But this gives you an idea, in a general way,
of the distribution of the host plants and the flies about which I have
been speaking.

(Next slide.) Those flies get pretty big when you get them up there.
They are not that easy to see in the field. The ones on the top are the
species found on cherries. The one on the lower left is the apple
maggot, the one on the lower right is walnut husk maggot. The only
difference you can see here is in the wing pattern but in nature they
differ in color. They all have a little different wing pattern. Also,
there is a little difference in size, the walnut husk maggot being the
biggest of the four species shown here.

(Next slide.) I have shown here the emergence date of the various
species, including the cherry fruit flies, the apple maggot and the
walnut husk fly. And you notice that beginning over about the first week
in June you have emergence of the cherry fruit flies, and you have a
continuance of emergence of some of these species up until at least the
first or second week in August. These points going up and down just show
the number of flies that were taken on given dates, and there is a very
definite correlation between the proportion of flies that emerge on any
given day with the temperature or moisture condition. Some years, when
you have very hot, dry weather, there is considerable mortality of these
flies as they just do not seem to be able to emerge from the soil, which
is a good thing.

(Next slide.) This photograph is one that I wasn't sure I was going to
get back in time for the meeting, but it is a Kodachrome of a pair of
flies mating on an English walnut. This happened to occur on some of our
own trees at the station, so that we are not immune from attack by this
bug.

(Next slide.) That is a close-up of an egg puncture, just a very tiny
little hole in the husk, and once in a while they lay an egg even on the
surface. Those eggs are quite small, about a millimeter in length and
about two-tenths of a millimeter in width, but the next slide will show
you that what they normally do is to put them inside that puncture in
groups. They vary quite a bit, but the average number of eggs is about
20 in each puncture. But that doesn't mean you won't have maybe four or
five different punctures on a given nut, so you may end up with at least
a hundred or more maggots in a shuck.

(Next slide.) And the next picture is a photograph of the same English
walnut taken about six or seven days later, showing the young maggots
that have just hatched out. What they will do, they will begin boring
in, and they will just radiate out in all directions into the shuck.
When they have gotten that far along, of course, there is no hope for
control.

(Next slide.) This slide is one taken when the maggots were almost
mature, showing the type of damage that you get.

(Next slide.) This is the resting stage, or the pupa, the one which
spends the winter in the soil and from which the flies emerge in New
York, at least in our section, beginning about July 15th and going
through up until August 15th.

(Next slide.) The one at the top is normal fruit. I mentioned a while
ago that this butternut curculio causes quite a bit of concern and also
spoke about its being in terminals. If you look carefully you see a very
definite hole here in the husk. That is where the adult punctured the
husk. It may have been a feeding puncture first and later an egg was
laid inside, and then you get the maggot or the grub of the curculio
developing in there, so that superficially that discoloration looks very
much like the walnut husk maggot. But in this case you may not find over
one or two maggots in a nut. And the other difference is that these
fruits which are attacked usually fall during July and August, whereas
the ones that have maggots in, many of them stick right on the trees and
don't come off at all.

(Next slide.) I have two or three slides just showing the variations in
the degree of injury on English walnuts from the point where you'd have
an egg puncture. The puncture was made on the other side of the nut, on
top here, and this is just the exudate running down around the nut which
dries and becomes black. But these walnuts up above show just a lot of
dark spots where the maggots are beginning to find their way through the
husk. I have with me some injured nuts similar to those shown on the
screen if you'd like to see them when I have finished my talk. They will
give you a little idea what maggot injury looks like.

(Next slide.) This is the same type of injury on butternut. Maybe you'd
have one egg puncture and as many as a hundred or 120 maggots inside the
shuck.

(Next slide.) This is a picture of maggot injury on black walnut. They
don't seem to like the black walnuts as well as they do the Persian
walnut and butternut.

(Next slide.) This is one of the hybrid English walnuts that is located
on the grounds at the Geneva Experiment Station. It's quite a large
tree. I don't know the name of it. Maybe you do, George.


MR. SLATE: It has no name.

DR. GAMBRELL: It's not very fruitful, anyway, is it? But it is also
susceptible to injury.


(Next slide.) This photograph was made quite a few years ago, and that
explains some of the lines around it, but at any rate, this pile of nuts
shows the damaged ones that came from one tree, and also the ones that
were not infested. In other words, about two-thirds of the nuts on that
particular tree had been infested with maggots.

(Next slide.) That's a close-up view and is the type of thing I was
trying to describe to you earlier where the shucks dry up and stick to
the nut so that you cannot remove them. Those on the left, of course,
would be absolutely no good for commercial purposes.

(Next slide.) Now, I suppose you are all interested in this matter of
control. Unfortunately, I must admit that I have not worked on the
walnut husk maggots very much in the last 15 or 20 years. You may recall
that we had a severe freeze back in 1933 or 1934, which took out quite a
lot of our Persian walnuts in Western New York, and only the hardier
trees remained. But prior to that time we had been getting numerous
complaints, from growers about injury from walnut husk maggots, and we
did some work at that time and also worked with the Farm Bureau people
in the counties where walnuts were grown fairly commonly. In many cases
these Persian walnuts were grown on fruit farms where they also have
apples and other fruits. So that in those cases it was not a difficult
problem to obtain control. We worked out a program whereby, say,
beginning about July the 20th to the 25th, at which time quite a few of
the flies would have emerged, if the orchardist, when he was going
through with his regular spray operation on his fruit trees, would give
his walnuts at least two applications at about two weeks intervals, he'd
cease to have a maggot problem. That pretty well solved it, as far as
they were concerned. But there were also these other plantings where
you'd have just a few trees, or possibly one tree in a back yard,
something of that sort, which is a little bit more difficult to control.

Dr. Glasgow and I found that on cherry maggot in the city, while a
material like lead arsenate is very effective in a commercial orchard,
it's very ineffective for just one little tree in your own back yard,
providing your neighbors have some trees and they don't spray them. The
reason is very obvious: the flies don't necessarily stay on the same
tree. They visit around from tree to tree, they feed on the surface of
the leaves or fruit. Therefore, it's possible for them to be over on
someone else's unsprayed tree and still come over and lay eggs in the
nuts of a sprayed walnut tree before being killed. So you can see that
such activity may create somewhat of a problem.

At any rate, the lead arsenate spray of three pounds to a hundred
gallons, with or without fungicides, has given good control in the past.
That No. 3 combination of lime sulphur and lead arsenate was used west
of Rochester here around Hilton where this grower had a commercial fruit
planting, but he also had a number of English walnuts. The year prior to
the time these trees were sprayed he had about 40 per cent of the nuts
infested, and the year these were sprayed the infestation dropped they
came down to about one percent. Notice the comment at the foot of the
table which states that the trees that were not treated the following
year went back up to 20 per cent of the nuts infested. There were about
20 per cent of the trees that had infestation. Of course, the flies
moved around enough that the trees became reinfested. It simply brings
out the point that unless you have a pretty good-sized planting, you are
going to have to spray pretty thoroughly in order to get control, and
also, if you only have one or two trees and you have a lot of
surrounding shrubbery and a lot of trees, it would be very wise to also
spray those, unless they are plums or peaches, which are quite
susceptible to arsenical injury. But most things would stand the
arsenate of lead, and it would be very desirable, wherever you can, to
spray surrounding trees and shrubs close to the walnuts themselves, and
in so doing you would get pretty effective control. It is quite possible
to use this control method and obtain over 80 per cent reduction in
infestation.

I am sorry to say I don't have any information on these newer materials,
like DDT, methoxychlor and parathion. You have probably read about all
of those in the magazines. Some of the men in our department have done
quite a bit of work with these insecticides on the apple maggot in the
Hudson Valley and in Western New York and they find, as I mentioned
earlier, while it's possible to obtain control of apple maggot, say,
with DDT, it requires much more frequent application. In that case, if
any of you are orchardists or follow the apple-growing insect problems
at all, the first application of the walnut maggot spray should go on at
about the time the last cover spray for the coddling moth goes on for
the first brood. That sounds a little involved, but from the calendar
point of view it would be about July 25th in Central or Western New
York. Normally, with us here the cherries are being harvested by about
July 15th, sometimes a little earlier, but at any rate, that's the time
the flies usually begin to emerge.

We have what we call a pre-oviposition period of about two weeks, during
which time the flies are not laying any eggs in the shucks and are
moving around feeding. Of course, that is the time you have to get this
spray material on, before they have punctured the nuts and deposited
eggs inside.

I think, unless there are questions, that's all I have to say.

A MEMBER: You recommend No. 3 to be used?

DR. GAMBRELL: Lead arsenate at 3 lbs./100 gallons and 2 gal. of lime
sulphur would be an effective insecticide-fungicide mixture. I have used
both the wettable sulphur and lime sulphur, as shown here, without any
injury to foliage. Sometimes, as you know, if it's real hot, like today,
sulphur could cause you a lot of foliage injury. Dr. MacDaniels will
certainly bear me out on that.

PRESIDENT BEST: Now I think Joe McDaniel has a little idea here he wants
to introduce at this time.

DR. MACDANIEL: I have been talking with Mr. Devitt. He is interested in
following up these Carpathian trees in Ontario and is willing to act as
our agent in securing seed nuts from some of the better selected trees.
As I understand it, this Association couldn't properly act as a sales
agency for them, but I believe there are some of the members who would
like to get these superior seed nuts of Ontario, and I would be willing
to take the names of persons who are interested in them, either for
their personal planting or for resale. Mr. Devitt thinks he can secure
the nuts at about 60 cents a pound from the owners who have these good
trees and deliver them to the United States at around a dollar a pound.
Anyone who is interested in that, see me or Spencer Chase during the
remainder of the meeting.



Panel Discussion: The Persian Walnut Situation

_Moderator_: S. B. CHASE; _Panel Members_: H. L. CRANE, GILBERT BECKER,
J. C. MCDANIEL, H. F. STOKE.


MR. CHASE: To introduce the subject, Lynn Tuttle sent a paper, and in
addition he sent a few slides. We won't give the paper, but we are going
to run through a few slides very hurriedly, because he took the trouble
to send them. I am going to read the captions off very quickly. (A
series of slides of Persian Walnut were shown).

The moderator isn't going to do anything other than ask for any
questions that you folks have on Carpathians at this time. I am going to
ask Dr. Crane to comment on this question: Are we going overboard
building up our varieties as we know them now? In other words, we have
selected four or five varieties that won a contest and our judges
selected them as best, and these are the only ones we are hearing about.

DR. CRANE: Mr. Moderator, I don't believe we are, provided that we
maintain high standards in the varieties distributed and tested. I feel
that when we select a variety we should select it because it is a good
nut, not that it's a world beater, for big size and thick, rough, rugged
shell that is not sealed, and which is of no value for human use or
consumption, excepting for firewood or fuel. Those big nuts won't fill.
The best nuts are of reasonably large size, well filled with a well
sealed shell and with a kernel that is sweet. Don't figure on selling
nuts that have bitter kernels to anybody else. We have nut varieties of
the Carpathians that are not going to go over because of the faults that
I have mentioned. I should say, too, that we do not know how widely a
variety is going to be adapted to different climates. If we select
rigidly for good, outstanding varieties that bear good nuts and good,
vigorous trees, we won't get too many.

MR. CHASE: That was one point I wanted brought out, that we are now just
in the preliminary stage of this Carpathian variety selection business.
Of the selections made some have been made by default, because there
weren't enough of other samples to compete with. On the other hand, the
several we have we all consider outstanding in some respect, or other,
and are of value as a beginning provided we bear in mind that we haven't
scratched the surface on Carpathian walnuts yet.

MR. STOKE: And let's not confine ourselves to Carpathian walnuts,
because Hanson is not Carpathian walnut, and that's an excellent nut.

MR. CHASE: Mr. Stoke, what is going to be NNGA's policy in trying to
give recommendations for the planting of Carpathian or Persian walnuts?
In other words, does it make any real difference whether it's a
Carpathian or whether it is not, as long as it has proved hardy and of
good quality?

MR. STOKE: We are dealing with Persian walnuts, and Carpathian happens
to be one class of Persian, and Broadview happens to be a Persian that
came from Russia, and Lancaster is one that came from somewhere in
Europe and landed up in Lancaster, Pennsylvania. I would emphasize the
name Persian as the over all name. The Carpathian is merely a Persian
walnut which has been brought from the Carpathian mountains of Poland.

MR. BECKER: Last summer a group of nut growers went to Lee Sommers',
which is in the central part of Michigan. In the invitation to our nut
growers I said, "This is the only pure Carpathian orchard we know in
Michigan." That didn't set well with some of them and they took issue
with me. In answering this issue, I said that Mr. Sommers had planted
Carpathian Persian walnut seed that came from Poland direct. Many of us
have a mixture. Even Mr. Shessler has the Hanson and Jacobs and a number
of others. If he sells you seed, you are going to get it mixed. In a few
years we will have a job keeping pure Carpathian.

DR. MACDANIELS: Isn't it a matter of straight terminology? _Juglans
Regia_ is the Persian walnut. Carpathians are a regional strain of
_Juglans Regia_.

MR. CHASE: I think we all understand that.

MR. MACHOVINA: Can we speak of a Carpathian strain. Crath himself said
there were many. He even found walnuts growing in clusters like grapes.

DR. MACDANIELS: It would be a regional group of clones with a certain
origin not a strain in the genetic sense.

MR. STOKE: They are just Persian walnuts that happened to come from the
Carpathian region.

DR. CRANE: There is a little difference. I believe that in the northern
countries we have had more or less inbreeding and we could consider them
more nearly a line, not a strain, because of that. When the original
seed was introduced by Reverend Crath, probably each one of those lots
of nuts come from different trees, as a line, but, now this second
generation stuff that's coming along, it's just _Juglans Regia_. It's a
hardy Persian walnut.

MR. STOKE: I think I can offer a word of explanation of those growing in
clusters. I have no doubt that when the barbarians swept over the wall
centuries ago they brought Asiatic walnuts with them from as far as
Manchuria. They grew in clusters there like butternuts and heartnuts. No
doubt some of them reached Europe, and some of them may have hybridized
with the Persian, and I think really that's the answer.

DR. MACDANIELS: The same situation existed with peaches 20 years ago. We
had five geographical races of peaches that were more or less distinct.
With the exception of one, the Peento, they have all lost their identity
now because there has been no attempt to keep them distinct.

DR. CRANE: That's right.

MR. CHASE: Then we end up, there is no such thing as a Carpathian, it's
just a name for a hardy walnut that came from a certain region, that
distinguishes it from others.

MR. KEPLINGER: In my parents' old home in Eastern Germany in the
Bohemian mountains there is an English walnut tree that's 300 years old
and bears a hundred bushels of walnuts a year. They stand 40 below zero
there, too, and the nut cracks and hulls well. It has a record on
standing the cold, but there hasn't been any of them brought out here
and planted in this country, but they are there. I know they are there,
because they are on our estate.

DR. CRANE: Mr. Moderator, there is one remark that I want to make. Here
we are, the Northern Nut Growers Association, and yet we still use the
term, "English walnut," when we are talking about Carpathian walnut and
Persian walnut. This "English walnut" is the worst form of terminology
that can be used. England doesn't have any walnuts; they have never
grown any Persian walnuts or English walnuts, they haven't in the past
and they aren't today. They have a few trees but are in the same fix
that we are in the Northern Nut Growers Association; they are trying to
find a variety of Persian walnut that they can grow in England, and yet
here we call them English walnuts. They should be Persian walnuts, or
Chinese walnuts. We don't know where they came from. The best
authorities seem to think that they originated in Persia; others think
they originated in China, but the abundance of evidence is on Persia.

We want to get this thing kind of straight. They are all the same thing,
_Juglans Regia_.

MR. CLARKE: I'd like to make a suggestion. I don't know as you have any
authority or power to change, but the term _Juglans Regia_ means "royal
walnut." Why not work for the adoption of a name like that, and it will
include all of them.

DR. MACDANIEL: That's what they call them in France. This country has a
little complication; there is another Royal walnut, one of the hybrids
between the California black and the Eastern black.

DR. GRAVATT:-While we are talking about bringing English walnuts,
Persian walnuts, whatever you want to call them, from Europe, I want to
give a warning about a disease that is killing thousands of trees in
Southern France. Just recently I saw quite a few of them in France and
the edge of Italy. I don't know whether it's virus or what it is, but
it is certainly killing out the English walnuts there at a very rapid
rate, and I advise very strongly against introducing walnut seed, scions
and such, from those areas in France and Switzerland or other areas in
southern Europe where this disease is prevalent. We will know more later
about it, because quite a team of pathologists is working on it in
Europe.

MR. CHASE: Has anybody else got any comments about _Juglans Regia_? I am
afraid to say anything else.

DR. MACDANIEL: I will say that this Carpathian strain, of _Juglans
Regia_ is the first walnut of the Persian type that we have had for
Illinois. The Pomeroy, other Eastern strains and California varieties
have not survived very long in the climate of the state of Illinois. We
do know now that some of the Carpathian seedlings have been fruiting for
10 or 12 years and do show considerable promise there. I don't know
whether it will ever develop into a commercial industry but they are
worth growing.

MR. CHASE: Thank you. I'd like to ask George Slate what he knows about
the Northern Star Persian walnut. Very hardy, and so forth? I think
maybe the members might be interested in that.

MR. SLATE: Spencer asked me to find out about the North Star _Juglans
Regia_, which was advertised in the Flower Grower. I called up the local
nursery that was selling them, and they said they got their seeds from
some Pomeroy trees in the western part of the state. I guess they are
just _Juglans Regia_.

MR. STOKE: Down in Virginia we have Virginia Thin Shell purchased
sometimes one place and sometimes another.

MR. CHASE: The secretary's office had an inquiry from the executive
secretary of the American Nurserymen's Association wanting to know if
those claims could be substantiated. I couldn't say on the basis of what
information I had, and I so told him. Apparently they, through their
organization, have stopped further advertising of that strain under the
claims that they made for it.

MR. KORN: We find our public at large, not only our members, seem to be
fascinated by the fact that the Persian walnut can be grown in this
latitude. So in speaking to them about it, when I am speaking to our
members, I try to say Persian walnut, but when speaking to the public at
large, they don't know what I am talking about so I come out flatly and
say English walnut. I tell them that we can't expect to grow the
California type, but we have a hardier type coming from the Carpathian
mountains or Germany or Russia or Holland, that can be grown
successfully in this part of the country.

MR. CHASE: I think that's the only approach you can use.

MR. KORN: That's the one I use, and I think it quickly helps people to
understand what you are talking about, and doesn't get them confused. If
you talked to them about Persian walnuts, they wouldn't know what you
were talking about, but if you say English walnuts, immediately they
understand, or should, at least.

MR. CHASE: I believe Dr. Crane meant that in our inner sanctum he would
prefer _Juglans Regia_.

DR. CRANE: I would like to ask if there are any growers here who have
propagated the Persian walnut on Eastern black walnut, that is,
experienced any trouble with graft union failure on them.

MR. STOKE: I haven't.

DR. MACDANIEL: Mr. Oakes?

MR. OAKES: I haven't.

MR. CHASE: No graft union failure on _Regia_ and _Nigra_.

MR. STOKE: And my experience is they come in much quicker than on their
own roots as seedlings.

DR. CRANE: How old are your oldest grafts?

MR. OAKES: Put on in 1938?

DR. CRANE: That's 15 years.

MR. STOKE: I have them at least 20 years.

MR. BECKER: Mine are twenty.

DR. MACDANIEL: Mr. Moderator, I have in my brief case a translation of
the French book on walnut culture, and there is a section on root
stocks. This was a publication issued about 1941, and according to that
book, _Juglans Nigra_ is the best stock they have for general use in
France. They have reported no difficulty on this. A second one they were
trying of the American walnuts, with some promise, was _Juglans major_,
the Arizona black walnut.

DR. CRANE: The reason why I asked, as I reported in previous
meetings--they are having very serious difficulty in Oregon and in parts
of Washington with graft union trouble which is known as "black line."
All or practically all of the walnuts in both Oregon and California and
also what few are grown in Washington have been propagated on the
Northern California black walnut, _Juglans Hindsii_. No graft union
trouble evidence shows up before the tree has been grafted about 8
years, and then such cases are very rare. But after the trees or the
grafts attain an age of 15 years or more, graft union failures are
numerous. For three years now we have been making surveys in the State
of Oregon, and we have surveyed tree by tree, year after year, the same
orchards, the same trees, and our observations now go into the
thousands, and we find that this black line is a terrifically serious
thing. In some orchards 22 per cent of the trees will develop black line
in one year's time. So, you see, at that rate it would only take you
five or six years with a good bearing orchard until you wouldn't have
any.

DR. MACDANIEL: Is that always with the Franquettes?

DR. CRANE: That is not only true with Franquettes but also with other
varieties in California, even in Contra Costa County.

MR. STOKE: Where those trees are so grafted, does it tend to overgrow,
or just the opposite?

DR. CRANE: No, it appears much like our _Crenata-mollissima_ chestnut
graft union failure.

MR. STOKE: Is there a tendency for the top to be more vigorous, to have
more growth, or vice versa or is growth uniform?

DR. CRANE: It may be uniform. Depends somewhat on the varieties and the
seedlings. There may be some overgrowth or some outgrowth, but there is
only one test for it, and that is at the graft union. With an axe or
knife and you cut out a strip of bark across the union. It may look
absolutely perfect, but if there is a black line developed there that is
just like a lead pencil line between the stock and the scion, the tree
is on the way out. It's just a matter of time. Ultimately the bark
between the stock and scion will split, and you get infolding, just like
on the chestnut.

One of the reasons that they have propagated their trees on Northern
California black walnut was that they had the idea that the Northern
California produced a stronger, more vigorous seedling and that they
grew much faster than seedlings of the Persian walnut. And, furthermore,
somebody at some time circulated the idea that Northern California
walnuts were immune to infection by the mushroom root rot fungus. We
have surveyed thousands of trees of Persian on Persian roots, and we
have never found a single case of black line developing or graft union
failure as long as it's a Persian on Persian, and we find the same
percentage of infection from mushroom root rot fungus on Persian as on
Northern California black.

MR. CHASE: In other words, we should watch our stocks and perhaps try
out some _Regia_ on _Regia_?

DR. CRANE: That's right.

MR. CHASE: Now, folks, we could talk for a long time, but let me make
one request before we close our panel: I would be interested in
receiving from any member pictures, good, glossy photographs of the
newer Carpathian varieties so that we can perhaps publish them in the
newsletter and give some folks an opportunity to see what these nuts
look like. Some of the folks who never come to a meeting never see a
sample and just read about it. It's much better if we can show them a
picture now and then. So if you have some good pictures, or plan to take
some good pictures, remember, I'd like to have a copy.



TUESDAY EVENING BANQUET SESSION

PRESIDENT BEST: We will now hear from the Resolutions Committee, Mr.
Davidson.

MR. DAVIDSON: Before reading any resolutions, I have been asked to read
a letter that came to Mr. Chase dated August 16th of this year, from Dr.
W. C. Deming:

     "Mr. Spencer B. Chase, Secretary, NNGA.

     "My Dear Child and Grandchildren:" What a beautiful greeting, that.

     "This is to let you know that your father and grandfather still
     holds a house at this hospital and rejoices in your vitality and in
     your coming convention but especially in the energy and ability of
     your secretary who gets out those wonderful Nutshell letters which
     are so stimulating to all nut growers.

     "More than 20 years ago I planted an Italian chestnut tree on the
     grounds of this hospital. The main trunk was killed by blight, but
     many shoots have come and now it appears to be flourishing because
     there are no other chestnut trees near. About that time I grafted
     nut trees commercially in Westchester County, New York at the
     Westchester Country Club, asking and getting $50 a day for my
     services and material and never a kick. But I have forgotten the
     results and the name of the beneficiaries. From my home in
     Litchfield, Connecticut, my sister, aged 85, saved for me--that is,
     saved from the squirrels--a double handful of nice chestnuts--no
     other chestnut tree nearby--and three green walnuts, Carpathians.
     Both were from my grafts.

     "I shall never forget the NNGA and your splendid services. Ever
     faithfully devoted, Dr. W. C. Deming."

A beautiful letter.

Now, then, the Resolutions Committee recommends that we send this
letter;

     "Dear Dr. Deming:

     "Once more we are happy to greet you and to wish you well. Today
     the representatives of more than a thousand members of your thought
     child, the Northern Nut Growers Association, are here gathered in
     Rochester, New York, to carry on the work in which you had so large
     a part in starting. It must be a source of great satisfaction to
     you to be able to see so important a project which you helped to
     start continuing and expanding fruitfully. We envy you.

     "May your tribe increase. Affectionately, the Northern Nut Growers
     Association."

Now, shall I go on with the rest of the resolutions, and perhaps you can
act on them all at once.

     "_Be it Resolved_: That we hereby acknowledge our longstanding
     indebtedness to the men of the United States Department of
     Agriculture and of similar departments of the various states who
     have so faithfully and efficiently upheld the work of this
     Association. Without their loyal help, doubtless our efforts would
     languish or suffer severely. It is such a spirit as theirs that
     continues to make America the great pioneer it has always been."

     "_Be it Resolved_: That the members of this Association acknowledge
     with deep appreciation the outstanding' hospitality of the City of
     Rochester at the hands of its representative Park Commissioner
     Wilbur Wright, Dr. Roy B. Anthony, Mr. Harkness, and their helpers
     who have done so much to make the visit of this organization not
     only welcome but extremely enjoyable and informative. We shall
     always remember Rochester's exceptional hospitality and its
     generously free provision of so beautiful a meeting place. This is
     sincerely appreciated."

     "_Be it Resolved_: That this Association extends to Mr. George
     Salzer, Mr. Victor Brook its thanks for their work which has
     resulted in so pleasant and profitable a meeting here in Rochester;
     also to many others due our thanks, to Dr. McKay for organizing a
     splendid program, to Mrs. Negus for organizing the registration, to
     Mrs. Gibbs and finally to our outstandingly efficient officers who
     have so skillfully organized our work and the Association's
     expansion."

     "In order to correct a tendency toward increasing confusion arising
     from the too great multiplicity of names and nut varieties, the
     Resolutions Committee offers the following motion: We move that the
     President be authorized to appoint a self-perpetuating Northern Nut
     Growers Association Committee on Variety Nomenclature, and we
     recommend to our members that they refer to this committee for its
     official approval any new nut discoveries they may wish to name
     and to propagate." That is in the form of a motion, which, I
     believe, requires a second and some action.

PRESIDENT BEST: I think we had better act first on this motion of Mr.
Davidson's about this committee for naming of nuts, and then we can have
another motion to accept the resolutions. Is there a second to that
motion that we have a committee on nomenclature of nuts?

DR. MACDANIEL: Mr. President, I second that motion.

PRESIDENT BEST: Is there any discussion?

DR. CRANE: I wanted to suggest that the motion should provide that the
committee use the rules of nomenclature approved by the American
Pomological Society.

DR. MACDANIEL: I will accept that amendment, Mr. President.

(A vote was taken on the amendment, and was passed.)

MR. MACHOVINA: Is that a proposal to amend the by-laws of this
organization? It would, if it's a self-perpetuating committee.

MR. DAVIDSON: May I suggest you withdraw the word "self-perpetuating."
The idea, Mr. Best, was to make this a permanent committee, if possible.
That was the reason for putting that word in there, but if it is an
abridgment of the constitution, we don't want to do it, of course.

MR. KINTZEL: I'd like to know what the rules of nomenclature of the
American Pomological Society are.

DR. MACDANIEL: The rules cover about two pages. I can give you the gist
of it, I think. One provision is that the discoverer or introducer of a
new variety has the privilege of selecting a name for it. Another rule
is that it shall not duplicate a name given previously for a variety of
the same class of fruit or nut. The name should preferably be one word
or, at most, two words, without hyphens, without possessives. That a nut
not be named for a person without his permission during his lifetime.
That covers the meat of it.

MR. CHASE: Such a committee would give official status and recognition
to your discovery. I believe it would prevent, on a large scale, such
things as this Morning Star hardy English walnut. In other words, we'd
have a committee to examine a nut sample from your tree, anybody's tree,
pass on it and see that the name that you select meets the requirements
of this American Pomological Society's rules of nomenclature, which are
quite reasonable. I think it is an excellent step that we should take at
this time.

MR. CALDWELL: Mr. President. The variety we are using is not a variety,
it's a clone. Maybe we had better get together with taxonomists and
botanists. That's all they are, selections, they are not varieties, in
the botanical sense, even though the term has been badly misused by the
nut growers. I don't see why we should continue with mis-application of
a term just because somebody set up rules for application of names.

DR. CRANE: Mr. President, I want to get this straight. This Association
is talking about horticultural varieties, not botanical varieties. A
correct term for a horticultural variety is a clone.

The American Pomological Society is over a hundred years old, and they
have followed all types of experiences and usages, and they are up to
date, and we can't follow any better pattern than what the American
Pomological Society has done all down through the years. The Northern
Nut Growers Association would be the laughing stock of the world who are
in the know if they don't adopt the rules of nomenclature as set forth
by the American Pomological Society.

MR. SLATE: Mr. President, we already have a committee on Varieties and
Standards. I don't see why that committee can't be revived. If we set up
another committee by resolution, we are duplicating the work of that
committee, or overlapping. I'd like to see this matter referred to the
Committee on Varieties or Judging Standards and possibly report another
year. I am not in favor of setting up this committee at the present
time.

I would like to amend that motion to refer this matter to the present
Committee on Varieties and Judging Standards.

DR. MCKAY: Second that amendment.

DR. MACDANIELS: There is one other angle to this. The International
Committee on Nomenclature of Cultivated Plants, has during the past year
published a report. I think it would be only wise for us to delay our
action on this matter until our committee at least gets the opportunity
to study the suitability of this international code for nomenclature of
cultivated plants and see how it applies to our situation. In other
words, I am complete in accord with Mr. Slate's motion.

MR. DAVIDSON: I would suggest that we refer it to that committee and
think about it for another year.

(A vote was taken on the amendment, and it was passed.)

PRESIDENT BEST: The motion of the Resolutions Committee is now referred
to the Committee on Varieties and Judging Standards.

MR. STOKE: I move we proceed with the adoption of the resolutions that
were presented before the motion.

(Motion seconded and passed.)

PRESIDENT BEST: We'd like to hear from the Nominating Committee.

MR. SLATE: For president the Nominating Committee proposed R. B. Best. I
think he is about one of the best presidents we have ever had. For
vice-president Gilbert Becker of Michigan. For treasurer W. S. Clarke of
Pennsylvania, and for secretary, our very efficient and very effective
Spencer Chase of Tennessee.

PRESIDENT BEST: Are there further nominations?

A MEMBER: I move nominations be closed.

A MEMBER: Second the motion. (Motion passed.)

DR. CRANE: Mr. President, I move that the Secretary of the Association
be instructed to cast a unanimous ballot for the nominations made by the
Nominating Committee. Seconded and passed.

PRESIDENT BEST: Is there any further business to come before the group?
Spencer Chase here has an item.

MR. CHASE: Now, for the feature of the evening, that honor which is
bestowed upon the most deserving member of the organization, I will call
on Mr. Wilkinson for the comments about the Big Nut. Mr. Wilkinson.

MR. WILKINSON: Four years ago at Beltsville, Maryland, Dr. Crane made a
suggestion that someone ought to be the King Nut of the Association. If
I remember, Mr. Stoke immediately took the floor and nominated Dr.
Crane, and he was unanimously elected the Big Nut. One year later he
bestowed that honor on Spencer B. Chase. The next year Mr. Chase passed
it on to Dr. Colby. One year ago Dr. Colby passed it on to me. Now it's
my duty to pass this on to someone else tonight.

Well, I didn't know just exactly how to do it, so I fell back on my
friend, Mrs. Negus for her suggestion. She suggested that the King Nut
should wear a crown, so I said, "Now, that's your suggestion; I will
leave it up to you." So here is the crown she made, with an ornament
from the Chief pecan, which in my opinion today is the king nut of the
Northern Nut Growers Association.

I don't know whose head she measured to make the crown, she didn't tell
me, but it looks to me like it would just about fit George Salzer.
(Applause.) George, it's a pleasure that I pass that on to you as I
received it, and I hope you will wear it for a year or longer (putting
crown on Mr. Salzer's head).

MR. SALZER: Well, they can't say I am big-headed. Why, honestly, folks,
my very good friends of the Association, honestly, I don't know what to
say. This is the greatest honor that I ever thought would come to me. I
always refer to myself as one of the buck privates in the rear rank, and
here I am the King Nut. I will assure you, every one of you that I
really appreciate this, I honestly do, right from the bottom of my
heart.

Ever since I have been a member of this organization and attended the
meetings, I have had the finest times, most pleasant associations and
the closest friends I ever had in my entire life right here among you
people. Thanks a million.

MR. CHASE: Now I think we are entitled to a few words from our new and
best president, Mr. Best.

PRESIDENT BEST: Ladies and gentlemen, it is quite a responsibility to
take this job on again. It's the first time that I have ever questioned
your judgment about anything, but I think there are other people here
that could have done the job better than I could.

When I was asked if I would accept if I were elected, I turned to my
wife, and I said, "Are you willing to do the work again for another
year?" and she said, "Yes, I suppose I'll have to." And I said, "Well,
then, I will accept." There is a lot more truth in that than there is
poetry. Honestly, we just don't give these officers that work for us
enough recognition. There is a whole page of them, as you know, about 11
committees, and all those folks have all done a fine job, at the expense
of their work at home. I am not talking about myself, because I don't do
any of it, I have it done, as I explained. But Carl Prell made a great
sacrifice when he handled the Northern Nut Growers business in a very,
very fine, thorough, business-like way.

I ought to give you a good example of what salesmanship really means and
how it operates. This morning Carl was going down to the museum in a
taxi. The taxi man professed an interest in nuts. Well, what did Carl
do? Did he say, "Well, that's all right, but I can't get into that?" No,
he said, "Man, you ought to belong to the Nut Growers Association. The
fact that you don't know anything about it, that's nothing. Come right
into the museum here, and I will show you the exhibits," and he took the
taxi man in, and I don't know whether he sold him a membership, but he
passed him on to the next man. He's got him going out to see
Irondequoit, and we, are going to get a sale there. That's the spirit
that it's going to take to get this job done.

I am reminded of a little story in Kipling. You know the story about the
sergeant in India. He was a sergeant in the cavalry. They had been out
in the hills, and the weather was hot, and they had an awful, awful
time. Well, when the men came in and lined up, this sergeant got off his
horse and he said, "Well, boys, I realize it's been hot, I know you
sweat. But," he said, "from here on in this campaign we are not going to
sweat, we are going to lather." That's what it's going to take to get
this 2,000 members that we have set for our goal. It's going to take a
lot of hard work, and our job is not to peer into the dim future, but to
attack those problems which are right with us every day and ask some of
our friends to join the Nut Growers Association. We are all widely
separated in different walks of life, and each in his own world is just
apt to see things a whole lot like the goldfish in a bowl. That is, he
will see it twisted and distorted. So when all is said and done, it's up
to us to support these committee heads and help get this job done.

A preacher had in his congregation an old lady who was ill. On one of
his visits to her she appeared to be growing weaker all the time, and
fearing the worst he said as he left her, "Well, sister, I suppose that
we will meet Up There." And she looked at him and she said,

"Well, Parson, it's up to you." So from here on out now it's up to you.
Thank you. (Applause.)

MR. CHASE: Now I think we ought to have just a brief word from Gilbert
Becker, our new vice-president. Mr. Becker.

MR. BECKER: This was really a great surprise to me. It is humbly I tell
you this, because I was on the Nominating Committee myself, and that is
a very embarrassing position to be in, to find that I, as a member of
Nominating Committee, appear as an officer. But it was a pleasant
surprise, and in doing vice-president work I shall try my best, and I
shall surely spend much time and much thought to it. Thank you.
(Applause.)

MR. CHASE: Now, Bill Clark, will you come up here for a few words? Bill
will succeed Carl Prell as Treasurer and handle your finances during the
coming year.

MR. CLARK: Friends, I thank you for this honor and that you should have
enough confidence in me to trust me with your funds for the coming year.
I will do the best I can, and thank you very much.

MR. CHASE: There will be a joint meeting of the new officers and old
officers immediately after we adjourn.

George Salzer says the last time we met in Rochester was 1922, and we
figure the next time we will be here is 1984.

(Whereupon, the meeting was adjourned.)



Walnuts in Lubec, Maine

RADCLIFFE B. PIKE, _University of New Hampshire, Durham, N. H._


In the 1930's, when the Wisconsin Horticultural Society distributed
seeds of the Carpathian Walnut from Poland, my brother secured some and
we planted them. From these nuts we now have four trees, one of which
has been bearing for the last four years.

Lubec, Maine is located at the extreme eastern tip of the United States
just a few miles south of the 45th parallel. The site where the trees
are planted is on a peninsula extending out into the Bay of Fundy which
gives very low summer temperatures and moderate winter temperatures. The
night temperature in the summer is usually in the 50°s F. with day
temperatures rarely reaching 80° F. Winter temperatures seldom go to
-10° F. and only lower than this about once in ten years. During the
early summer, fogs are usually heavy and continuous. Day length is, of
course, longer in the summer than in most of the United States but it is
similar to that of the Northern tier of States from the Great Lakes
West.

The trees have grown well being about 18 feet tall and even more in
spread. They are multiple trunked having never been pruned. The foliage
is remarkably clean and glossy and has not been bothered by insects or
disease and it ripens and turns yellow in the late fall before killing
frosts at the end of October. Excessive late terminal growth is usually
winter-killed but this sort of growth has not been as great since
bearing started. The staminate flower buds are more likely to be winter
killed than the pistillate but the whole of them have never been
entirely killed.

The trees do not leaf out until mid-June, after the danger of killing
frosts is over. They have not been frost injured at any time in the
spring. The nuts ripen and are shed from the husks in late September and
early October while the tree is in full foliage. The nuts are shed
perfectly clean with husk either falling separately or remaining on the
tree. The nuts will germinate and seedlings have been raised. In 1953,
one tree bore 315 nuts. This number represents just a fraction of the
pistillate bloom, for while this tree is self fertile, the catkins bloom
for a much shorter period than the pistillate blossoms, the latter
extending over nearly a month.

In the same year that the above Carpathian variety of _Juglans regia_
was planted, my brother and I also planted some _Juglans mandshurica_
secured from F. L. Skinner of Dropmore, Manitoba which had originated in
Harbin, Manchuria. The resulting trees agree well with many of the
specimens in the Herbarium of the Arnold Arboretum at Boston labelled
_Juglans mandshurica_. These trees have done remarkably well in Lubec,
the trunks being 8-9 inches in diameter, while the height is 15 feet or
more and the spread 20 feet. They have borne annually since 1939. They
are planted less than 1000 feet from the ocean exposed to the summer
storms, winter gales and salt spray. These trees leaf-out a month
earlier than the Carpathians yet the foliage has only been partially
frost injured once. Wind whipping sometimes injures the leaves in early
summer while they are still tender but this sort of injury has never
been serious.

The nuts are borne in clusters of up to six and the shells are hard and
thick. The flavor of the kernels is excellent having more character than
the butternut yet not as strong as the black walnut. Cracking is easy
with the Hershey nut cracker. The kernels resemble our American
butternut in shape which may account for the fact that _J. mandshurica_
is sometimes called the Oriental butternut.

The nuts germinate well and make trees quickly. In one case, I had
mature nuts five years after planting the seed. This particular tree was
unusually vigorous having leaves 36 inches long and 23 inches wide.

In my experience, _J. regia_ and _J. mandshurica_ do not hybridize
easily if at all, at least with the individuals and under the conditions
with which I have been working. After several attempts I now have two
progenies of reciprocal crosses of which a few seedlings seem to show
hybridity in the vegetative parts. However, there is such a range of
characters in the herbarium specimens labelled _J. mandshurica_ that
there will be a doubt in my mind until I see the mature trees, or it may
be possible that some of the herbarium specimens may have been collected
from naturally occurring hybrids, as the two species overlap in their
distribution in Manchuria. If the best vegetative and fruiting
characters from these two species can be combined the result should be
good for our northern sections.



My Thirty Years Experience With Nut Trees

CARL WESCHCKE, _St. Paul, Minn._


From time to time I have submitted articles for our annual report, as
well as other publications, which had to do more or less specifically
with certain species of nut trees, but since there are so many species,
and since most nut growers are interested in at least two or more, it
might be well to bring the story up to date of how a nut orchard might
be viewed or evaluated after twenty years.

Thirty years ago we did not have knowledge which has been gained by the
experimenters in the nut growing industry in the interim. Therefore no
one could foresee what the future would be. We hopeful ones of that era
planted trees and experimented with seeds from all over the world
because we thought nut trees deserved a place not only in the orchard
but in the dietary needs of the human being as well. Many of the wisest
and most respected experimenters of this era have passed beyond this
life; however, their lives were made much more interesting because of
their horticultural activities.

Here in the midwest in the 45th parallel we have established probably
what would be considered the practical northern limits of nut tree
cultivation. When I purchased trees it was by the hundreds, and
sometimes thousands, because I knew from reading Luther Burbank's works
that this work had to be done on a rather large scale in order to make
any kind of an adequate test.

Let us start by taking the most obvious species, the black walnut,
which, because of its native hardiness, and public popularity might have
succeeded the best in a commercial way if everything had gone right. I
have planted at least five hundred black walnut trees altogether; these
included the Thomas, Ohio, Ten Eyck and Stabler, and later on the
Patterson, Rohwer, Pearl, the Throp, Adams and others were added. The
Ohio probably produced the first nuts, with the Thomas a close second.
For a few years I was able to make good reports on the Stabler and its
behavior but since that, our severe test winters of recent years have
wiped them out and have substantially proved that the only one of the
older varieties which can be trusted in this territory is the Ohio, and
although derogatory things have been said of the Ohio because of its
hull, I am inclined to put it high on the list because of its fine
cracking quality and excellent flavor, also it has been a prolific
variety, bearing good crops most of the years.

The Thomas grew faster, and the nuts were considered a better commercial
product when hulled, but, alas, it could not take our winters nearly so
well, and today the Thomas has a poor physical appearance although it
shows tremendous power of recovery and seldom a tree will die entirely.

The Ten Eyck was a negligible experiment, and the Stabler as mentioned
before, is much too tender for this climate. The Rohwer and the
Patterson from Iowa did much better and even in an off year, like this
one, some of these trees had fairly good crops. I like the Patterson the
best of these--it is a roundish nut that cracks quite well and the
kernels are on the sweet side.

The Throp was a curiosity and we did not have any of our grafted Throp
trees bear.

Pearl has borne several crops of good nuts; they are large but are
inclined not to ripen in time.

Vandersloot was considered the largest nut of any variety at one time.
It has a very rough appearance but aside from its size it is of no
particular interest as compared to others.

Adams, a long narrow type of nut similar to the Ohio, but still more
elongated, was one of the best crackers I have ever seen, but did not
seem to be prolific although it has lived and demonstrated its
hardiness.

I am patenting a new walnut at this time which I consider the best for
our locality. Some day it may produce well in orchard form if trees
become available. One thing is certain about it--it is very hardy and is
reasonably easy to propagate.

And so we can conclude the walnut chapter by saying that at least we
have some giants in the orchard to show for our trouble and expense,
which bear nice edible walnuts in favorable seasons. When comparing this
with the wild butternut crop from butternuts in the adjacent woods,
which has consistently failed each year for the last ten years, it is
quite encouraging.

It was my hard luck to have an uncongenial soil for my experiments in
chestnuts, and the knowledge of this came so late that I thought the
chestnut was not meant to succeed in our territory. So I put my efforts
on hickory nuts and filberts. Both of these succeeded to a degree and
with my present knowledge and experience on hickory nuts I would not be
a bit afraid to start an orchard on good deep clay or other
satisfactory soil which hickories like, using grafted trees of
Bridgewater and Weschcke.

A few Kirtland and Deveaux No. 2 would be planted for extra pollination
and the extra variety in nuts. There are of course many other varieties
of hickories that have succeeded in this territory but those above
mentioned, have possibilities of commercial success in orchard
formation.

The hickory is a difficult tree to transplant and I would advise that
grafted trees be dug with a ball of dirt for shipping, similar to an
evergreen, as I have found that, with the greatest of care and
experience, the hickory is very slow to re-establish itself unless
handled that way.

The hybrid hazels are perhaps the hardiest and certainly bear the
earliest of any of the nut trees. My own hybrids show great
possibilities for commercial enterprise, but as yet no nurserymen are
carrying these varieties and I have not found help enough to promote
them myself.

I am convinced that had I spent as much time with the chestnuts on
favorable soil as I did with hickories that they would probably head the
list of successful nut trees growing. Recently I have purchased an
adjoining piece of property which has the necessary well-drained, sandy
or gravelly soil, which chestnuts seem to like, and I have started my
chestnut orchard there along with a sprinkling of hickory and walnut
trees, merely as a matter of test.

This year the chestnuts are again putting on a fair crop for the number
and the size of the trees involved. As yet, in order to get a reasonable
number of nuts for planting, I have to cross-pollinize them by hand, and
I was surprised and pleased this year to find one Chinese chestnut tree
with staminate bloom, allowing me to make a cross pollinization with an
American sweet chestnut and a Chinquapin type chestnut, which grows to
be a tall tree. These crosses ought to insure trees with a great degree
of hardiness, and should the blight ever strike this territory in the
future they should be highly resistant as well. A few of my chestnut
trees produce nuts that may be the size of the best Chinese chestnuts,
but I am just as fond of the smaller and sweeter chestnuts of the
several Chinquapin type trees which seem to be consistent bearers and
certainly are prolific. There are three trees in a close group which are
strains of the European chestnut combined with American chestnut. These
bear rather large nuts and usually every year have a few and of high
quality. It is conceivable that by crossing this hybrid with Chinese
pollen that something unusual could be produced.

The pure Chinese strain has not proved hardy in this territory and I
have never matured a pure variety. However, there are dozens of
seedlings that are not old enough to prove whether there might be a
hardy specimen among them that may at some time in the future be relied
upon for this species of chestnut.

One other species of nut requires a little space here since it has shown
that it can bear crops and is hardy enough to be included among the
hardy nuts. It is the Gellatly heartnut. It is very subject to the
butternut curculio, but in spite of that it continues to grow quite well
when grafted on black walnut,--a difficult piece of propagation,
however. A tree in St. Paul, on the boulevard, thrives next to a large
butternut, and bears nuts practically every year which the squirrels
delight in cutting down while still green. This tree is not bothered by
the curculio since the curculio does not infest the large butternut near
it.

In summing up the whole situation, I would say that my experiments over
thirty years quite adequately prove that the walnuts, hickories, hybrid
hazels and chestnuts can most certainly be set out in orchard form and
in favorable locations. However, pecan, hiccan, English walnuts and
almonds have not proved hardy enough to indicate that they can be relied
upon for steady crops of nuts although in some instances varieties show
a great hardiness such as the Rockville hiccan. Of course the native
butternut is perfectly hardy and prolific but until such time as the
butternut curculio ceases to be a major pest we cannot expect to have
good crops of them.



Growing American Chestnuts and Their Hybrids Under Blight Conditions

ALFRED SZEGO, _Jackson Heights, N. Y._


An interesting group of young American chestnut trees growing on my land
near Pine Plains, N. Y. has been under observation since 1946. As they
are growing closely together which suggests a common parental origin, we
have named this group the "Dutchess Clone" for reference purposes. This
name was chosen merely because Pine Plains is situated in Dutchess
County.

Their reaction to the deadly chestnut blight was studied at great length
and at different seasons. Sometimes branches were inoculated with the
fungus to test resistance more precisely. It was learned that blight
resistance, in this group of trees, was at an apparently low ebb from
March until May. After this period the fungus seemed to make almost no
progress at all. This might suggest that the resistant substance was
manufactured by the leaves. Of course, such conclusions cannot be
accepted in a scientific sense without an involved system of checks and
measurements.

Pollination problems are exactly the same as with our Chinese Chestnuts
that we are more familiar with today. Unlike the latter, in the
American, species the bloom is concentrated near the top of the tree.

The burs are so high up as to create difficulties if we intend to
anticipate nature and harvest our crop prematurely. The burs open during
the month of October with or without frost. High temperatures in 1953
did not interfere with the harvest. The best method of harvesting is to
use a long slender pole with a metal hook at the extreme end, and by
gently pulling and twisting, remove the burs from the tree.

Unless this is done promptly before the nuts fall, the rodents will get
almost every nut.

Tree growth is about 2 to 3 feet per year in height. At present some are
nearly 40 feet tall. Bearing starts at about 12 years of age. The nuts,
three in a bur are somewhat wedge shaped and average 5/8 of an inch in
diameter. One tree has nuts almost an inch in diameter. This is
definitely worth propagating and I will gladly furnish scions in the
spring free to anyone who is interested. These are probably
incompatible with Chinese understocks, but may be grafted on European
and some Japanese seedlings.

As we are listed as cooperators with the U.S.D.A., Division of Forest
Pathology, Beltsville, Md., we prepare semi-annual reports for Dr.
Frederick H. Berry and also send a portion of our American chestnut seed
to him. In this way we insure the continuation of the "Dutchess" clone
after our lifetimes.

The American chestnut is not as sweet as Chinese chestnut but is much
finer in texture and richer in subtle pleasing flavor. We would say that
the quality is higher. _Castanea dentata_ has the most uniformly
delicious nuts. It is excelled, however, by many individuals of _C.
pumila_. In our opinion these possess the highest quality nuts in the
entire genus.

Our American chestnuts hybrids, especially those with _C. Sequinii_, are
very interesting. The latter make a dwarf tree that bears incredible
amounts of small chestnuts. They have pollination problems to be solved
and the nuts are seldom filled. Pollen sterility is a common feature
with them. They are also everbearing.

Some Northern strains of Chinese chestnut seem barely hardy but promise
to survive. Of the grafted varieties we have, Abundance is the most
vigorous. "Nanking" has winter-killed here and it has been replanted
this year. These are very blight resistant, and rarely lose a branch to
this disease after winter injury. The Japanese behave in much the same
way.

We have many obscure chestnut species and hybrids growing here. They are
grown for study, hybridizing purposes, and as a source of supply to
interested members. When mature, we hope to obtain some cash crops from
our Chinese and Japanese Chestnut trees. Blight in Europe will no doubt,
in about 5 years more, reduce imports of chestnuts thus creating higher
prices and a more favorable market.

Chinese chestnuts do not keep well when stored using standard commercial
practices. European chestnuts are shipped in barrels and kept in open
fruit boxes for weeks at a time in front of fruit and vegetable stores
in New York City. Storekeepers never moisten these believing that rot
would result. These are viable even in January and sometimes as late as
March. Will our present Chinese chestnuts keep as well under these
conditions? We think not. American Chestnuts can be kept in bulk only.

We are continually striving to obtain by selection and subsequent
hybridization, the best chestnuts that can be grown in our severe
climate. The Chinese chestnut has performed miracles in the Southeast,
but we regret that it is not the answer to our problems. Only a long
period of seed selection will turn up better trees of this species.

Prolonged heat and drought caused us much concern this year. Some one
year old seedlings died outright but older trees only suffered varying
degrees of defoliation. In some areas, the subsoil was reported powder
dry to a depth of six feet. Even the native forest trees dropped much
foliage and went into premature dormancy. Oddly enough, the American and
Japanese chestnuts suffered much less defoliation than the common
Allegheny chinkapin, _C. pumila_. _C. henryi_, a rare species, a native
of China, and the several chinkapins native to the Gulf Coast seemed
inherently adjusted to drought and heat, and thrived without apparent
damage. The Ozark tree chinkapins did well also.

Hybrid hazels and choice native seedlings have been set out here in the
last few years. We are adding a few every year and planting them between
chestnuts to prevent the latter from forming extensive root grafts. This
is done in anticipation of oak wilt, which has not yet made its
appearance here.



Experiences and Observations on Nut Growing in Central Texas

KAUFMAN FLORIDA, _Rotan, Texas_


In view of my membership in the Association for some twelve or fourteen
years it would be quite reasonable to expect of me more observations in
connection with nut growing in my area than I'm able to make. Though
I've followed the proceedings of NNGA with great interest, the
difficulty of earning a living (from farming) and putting a little
something aside has caused me to neglect and put off from year to year
the planting of the kind of experimental orchard I've long hoped for. I
have lately acquired a reasonably well situated plot of land and,
barring a continuation of the drouth of the past two or three years,
plan to put out a few young trees next year.

My original interest in nut trees sprang from the hope that a tree
combining beauty, utility and long-life might be found to replace the
Chinese elm--a "weed tree" if there ever was one. In spite of many
shortcomings the Chinese elm (along with two or three other equally
undesirable trees) is to be found in most homestead plantings in my
area.

Here, in my locality of north-west central Texas, the total rainfall
ranges from a low of about twelve inches in some years to a high of
about forty-two inches in others, and the annual average is about
twenty-one inches. Our principal limiting conditions in nut tree growing
is want of sufficient rainfall, though late spring frosts following a
period of balmy weather would be a hazard in some instances. It appears
to me that if a nut tree planting in this part of the country is to
live, every drop of water that falls must be conserved; if it is to
thrive, additional water falling on adjacent uplands and carried down in
flash floods must be diverted to it. Terraces and retainer dams are
usually essential. Cultivation and weed control are necessary. The
addition of a mulch helps.

I have tried the Chinese chestnut here. The plants arrived in good
condition and had excellent care with what I believe was adequate water
and fertile soil. They put out in April and grew off most encouragingly
until about July, and then, in an interval of about a week, every tree
withered and died as though from heat and drouth. But until other
evidence to the contrary comes in, I shall strongly suspect that the
real trouble was that the Chinese chestnut demands an acid soil and is
highly allergic to even a slight alkalinity. My impression is that the
soil here has a reading of about pH 7-7-1/2.

Experience and observation here on the western fringe of the native
pecan belt lead me to believe the pecan, black and Persian walnuts do
well when they can be irrigated, or when they are planted on a site
where a first class water conservation system can be devised and
properly constructed.

The black walnut has not been damaged by any insect, disease or mineral
deficiency of the soil that I know of. A very limited and inconclusive
experience with Clark, Thomas, Myers, Mintle, Sifford, Snyder and
Sparrow varieties led to the suggestion that the Thomas might be a
slightly more thrifty tree.

The pecan (both nut and tree) seems more subject to insect damage than
the walnut. It is also sensitive to a zinc deficiency in some soils. But
a proper mineral and insecticide spray usually serves to control these
problems when they occur.

I have observed only one named variety of Persian walnut--a Mayette. The
tree was a vigorous grower and precocious in putting on nutlets, but to
my knowledge never bore staminate blooms and over a period of several
years matured only one nut. No other Persian walnuts grew in the
locality and I assumed the matured nut must have been pollinized by a
black walnut. The tree never seemed damaged by late spring frosts or
other cause.

A few members of NNGA have manifested an interest in the honey locust
and the Chinese jujube. Both of these trees grow well in this region
with a minimum of care. The Oriental persimmon, like the nut trees,
requires more than casual attention and ordinary growing conditions.

The Chinese jujube, a little known but hardy and attractive tree may
deserve more attention in the southwest. I have trees of the Li and Lang
varieties which bear annually and have never been bothered by insects or
disease. I am not overly enthusiastic about the fruit but understand it
"compares favorably with the fig and date in food value. Dried jujubes
carry more protein than dried figs or dates and more (50%) sugar than
figs."--T.A.E.S. Bulletin no. 41. But the jujube has the disagreeable
habit of sending up root sprouts which are a nuisance to destroy and,
because the tree is grafted, the sprouts are worthless seedlings. It has
occurred to me that this bad feature of the jujube might be partly
offset if cuttings of the improved varieties could be made to grow by
means of some of the root inducing chemicals.



Propagation of the Hickories[1]

F. L. O'ROURKE, _Department of Horticulture, Michigan State College_


The genus _Carya_ comprises all the hickories and pecans found in the
United States. The eighth edition of Gray's Manual of Botany lists the
following species as being native to the United States:

[1] The survey of literature pertaining to this review was completed in
August, 1952.

   _Carya aquatica_--Water hickory, Bitter Pecan
   _Carya cordiformis_--Bitternut, Swamp Hickory
   _Carya glabra_--Pignut
   _Carya illinoensis_--Pecan
   _Carya laciniosa_--Shellbark, Kingnut
   _Carya ovalis_--Sweet Pignut, False Shagbark, Red Hickory
   _Carya ovata_--Shagbark
   _Carya pallida_--Pale Hickory
   _Carya texana_--Black Hickory
   _Carya tormentosa_ (C. alba)--Mockernut

Nut growers are interested primarily in the pecan and the shagbark,
although a few selections have been made of the shellbark species. The
bitternut is quite often used for rootstocks for the shagbark and
shagbark hybrids.

Hickories, like other nut and tree species, do not come true from seed,
so superior selected clones are propagated by budding and grafting on
other trees known as rootstocks. These rootstocks are produced from
seed.


Seed Propagation

Investigations by Barton(1) showed that some seedlings were produced
when the nuts were planted immediately in a warm greenhouse without
pretreatment, but that germination was markedly increased when the nuts
were held in a cool moist environment from one to four months before
bringing into the greenhouse. She also found that fall planting of
hickory nuts resulted in a good stand of seedlings the following spring
if the soil was mulched, but that the freezing and thawing of
unprotected ground resulted in an exceedingly poor stand of seedlings.

Burkett(6) advocated stratifying pecan seed over winter in moist sand
and planting in moist soil in the very early spring. He observed that
thin-shelled nuts germinate more quickly than thick-shelled ones, and
warned against "damping-off" fungi which often killed young seedlings.

Brison(5) stated that some nurserymen prefer seed of certain pecan
varieties as Riverside and Burkett for rootstock purposes as these
produce strong vigorous seedlings. He reported that while the pecan seed
does not have a rest period, germination is increased by stratifying in
moist sand for 2 to 3 weeks or soaking in water, changed daily, for 4 to
5 days previous to planting.


Propagation by Layering

No records are available in regard to any hickory species or variety
other than pecan having been propagated by any method of either soil or
air layering. The writer(14) while experimenting with aerial layering in
1945 found one instance of root production on a hickory where the branch
was girdled at the base of the one-year wood. This method offers
possibilities, especially now that polythene plastic is available for
retaining moisture in the moss about the girdle or wound on the layered
branch.

Gossard(9) reported success in producing roots from the tops of small
grafted and budded pecan trees by trench layering and from older trees
by aerial layering with marcot boxes. He indicated that a favorable
combination of etiolation, moisture, rooting medium, and a root-inducing
chemical was desirable for successful rooting.

Propagation by Cuttings

Hardwood cuttings of pecan were rooted by Stoutemyer and O'Rourke(23) in
1938 by first callusing the bases of the cuttings in warm moist peat
moss, and then treating with an aqueous solution of indole butyric acid
before planting. Both roots and shoots grew well for three to four weeks
and then the shoots wilted and died. It was observed that the roots were
thickened and presented an abnormal appearance. Trials during succeeding
years gave no better results and the experiments were discontinued.
Cuttings taken from native hickories during these same years failed to
produce roots.

Romberg(17) reported a small measure of success in rooting hardwood
stem cuttings to which young seedlings had been grafted by the inarch
method. The influence of the seedling on the nourishment of the cutting
was gradually diminished by girdling caused by a copper wire which was
tied about the seedling stem.

Apparently root cuttings of pecans and other hickories have never been
tried. In 1896 Corsa(7) observed that "when the lateral roots of the
pecan are broken by the plow, the ends of these roots frequently send up
thrifty shoots." Such a response would indicate that adventitious shoots
may arise from roots and that root cuttings may be successful.


Propagation by Grafting

A search of the literature failed to reveal a discussion of any method
of bench grafting with hickories, although presumably it must have been
tried. Propagators may have been discouraged in using bench graft
methods by the sparse roots usually found on two-year seedlings. It is
suggested that undercutting and root pruning the seedlings several times
while in the nursery row should produce a more adequate root system
which would transplant well after grafting. Brison(5) remarked that
bench grafting is not used in the propagation of pecans in Texas on
account of transplanting difficulties.

Commercial nurserymen now prefer to bud hickories and pecans rather than
to graft, but formerly Reed(15) reported the whip-and-tongue method was
used on thrifty one-year seedlings in the nursery row. It is conceivable
that the cleft graft could be used at this stage when the diameter of
stock and scion are quite similar but no record of its use is available.

Top-working or grafting in the branches is commonly practiced on
seedling trees and sometimes used to change varieties in the orchard.
Reed(15), Sitton(19), Rosborough et al(18), MacDaniels(11), and
Stoke(22) have described various methods that have proven successful.
Practically all agree that the bark graft or a modification thereof is
best. Morris(12), Benton(3), MacDaniels(11), Wilkinson(25), and others
have shown that a greater per cent of survival is secured when the
stocks are cut 10 days to 2 weeks before grafting. During this time the
stubs heal somewhat and excess bleeding is decreased. It has been
reported by Becker(2) that the success of walnut grafting is greater
when the grafts are set just after the leaves are full grown but no such
data is available for hickories. The use of paper bags or other shading
device over the scion is advocated by Morris(13), MacDaniels(11),
Shelton(20) and others.


Propagation by Budding

Patch budding is now almost universally used by commercial nurserymen in
the propagation of hickories and pecans. Patches are usually cut with a
double-bladed knife although some use the rectangular Jones
patch-budding tool. The "plate" or "skin" bud is also used to some
extent. The thick bark of hickories and pecans discourages the use of
the shield or "T" bud.

Budding is usually done in late summer with mature buds of the season
growth which remain dormant until the following spring. Occasionally
dormant budwood taken in winter is held in cold storage until the bark
of the stock slips in the spring. These spring-set buds are forced the
same season by cutting the stocks back shortly after setting.
Patch-budding is described by Reed(15) and by Rosborough et al(18).
Reed(15) mentioned that it may be advisable to make the cuts in the
stock from one to three weeks before the bark is removed so that the
healing process may be under way at the time the bud patch is inserted.


Storage and Handling of Scions and Budwood.

Shelton(20) reported an easy and unique method of keeping scions moist
by storing in a closed container with a small amount of sodium sulphate
(Glauber's salt). Slightly moist peat moss is an excellent packing
material. Brison(4) reported that a temperature of 32° F to 38° F in
storage is satisfactory for keeping the buds dormant, and that a few
days from 80° F to 85° F will stimulate cambial activity so that the
patches will "slip" easily when cut. Scionwood is sometimes dipped in
wax, paraffin, or plastic resin before storing in order to prevent loss
of moisture and guard against pathogenic organisms.


Waxes and Wound Dressings

Sitton(19) used a large number of variously formulated waxes on pecan
and found that the most successful from the standpoint of graft survival
was one composed of 10 parts rosin, 2 parts beeswax, and 1 part filler
such as kieselguhr, talc, or aluminum powder. Under Louisiana conditions
a light-colored wax was preferable to dark colored one. Asphalt
emulsions were not satisfactory.


Rootstocks and Interstocks for Hickories

Reed(16) summarized the rootstock studies at Beltsville, Maryland, by
stating that pecans were best on pecan seedlings and that shagbarks were
successful on either shagbark or pecan rootstocks. He reported a lack of
congeniality between shagbark and bitternut hickory. Smith(21), however,
found that pecan stocks were unsuccessful for shagbarks as few scions
lived and growth of those which survived was poor. He also reported that
bitternut was practically as good as shagbark for shagbark varieties.
He stated that pignut was absolutely useless as a stock for shagbark.
Weschcke(24) reported that shagbark varieties grew well on bitternut but
also indicated that a slow growing variety would be stimulated in growth
by working on pecan stocks which are more vigorous in growth than the
other hickories. Dunstan(8) reported that pecan provides a perfectly
satisfactory rootstock for shagbark, shagbark hybrid, and hican
varieties. A number of varieties have been tested over a period of
several years with favorable results as shown by lasting unions and
better than average yields.

The Fairbanks hybrid has often been used as an intermediate stock
between bitternut and some shagbark varieties and Last(10) has stated
that the variety Rockville is useful for interstock purposes on account
of its exceptional vigor.


Nursery Problems

Hickories and pecans have long tap-roots with few branches and hence do
not transplant well. Some few have grown the seedlings for one year in
beds underlain with wire screen netting or have undercut the seedlings
to promote branching of the roots. The stocks must grow two years from
seed to attain a diameter permitting of patch budding and must remain
one or two years more to allow the scion to form a tree. The resulting
plant is large in both root and stem and requires careful handling in
digging, shipping, and planting in the permanent location. The
vicissitudes which befall the production of the northern hickories are
often so great as to discourage nurserymen who otherwise would grow
them. This is an unfortunate fact but a real one, as the would-be
purchaser often learns when he attempts to buy named varieties of
hickories. The situation with the pecan is much better, due perhaps to
the greater demand for such trees but also to the greater ease of
propagation in general nursery practice.


Conclusions

Good varieties of hickories bear good nuts and more people should plant
good trees which should be produced by nurseries with well-branched
fibrous root systems so that they will transplant easily. Research is
needed to determine practical methods of propagation which will permit
of inexpensive quantity production of superior named varieties of
shagbark and shagbark hybrid hickories.


Literature Cited

    1. Barton, Lela V. Seedling production in _Carya ovata_, _Juglans
    cinerea_, and _Juglans nigra_. Cont. Boyce Thompson Institute 8:1-5.
    1936.

    2. Becker, Gilbert. Notes from Southwestern Michigan. Rpt. North.
    Nut Grow. Assoc. 28:135-136. 1937.

    3. Benton, Wm. A. Report on propagation of nut trees. Rpt. North.
    Nut Grow. Assoc. 29:90-92. 1938.

    4. Brison, Fred R. The storage and seasoning of pecan budwood. Texas
    Agric. Expt. Sta. Bul. 478. 1933.

    5. ----. Personal correspondence. 1952.

    6. Burkett, J. H. The pecan in Texas. Texas Dept. of Agric. Bul.
    111. 1932.

    7. Corsa, W. P. Nut culture in the United States. U. S. Dept. Agric.
    Div. of Pomology. 1896.

    8. Dunstan, R. T. Personal correspondence. 1952.

    9. Gossard, A. C. Rooting pecan stem tissue by layering. Proc. Amer.
    Soc. Hort. Sci. 38:213-214. 1941.

    10. Last, Herman. Personal correspondence. 1952.

    11. MacDaniels, L. H. Some experiences in nut tree grafting at
    Ithaca, N. Y. Rpt. North. Nut Grow. Assoc. 28:52-55. 1937.

    12. Morris, R. T. Top working hickories. Rpt. North. Nut Grow.
    Assoc. 11:105. 1920.

    13. ---- Nut growing. 1931. Macmillan, New York.

    14. O'Rourke, F. L. Unpublished data. 1945.

    15. Reed, C. A. Nut-tree propagation. U. S. Dept. Agric. For. Bul.
    1501. 1926.

    16. ----. Hickory species and stock studies at the Plant Industry
    Station, Beltsville, Md. Rpt. North. Nut Grow. Assoc. 35:88-121.
    1944.

    17. Romberg, L. D. Use of nurse seedlings in propagating the pecan
    from stem cuttings. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 40:298-300. 1942.

    18. Rosborough, J. F., F. R. Brison, C. L. Smith, and L. D. Romberg.
    Propagation of pecans by budding and grafting. Texas Ext. Ser. Bul.
    B-166. 1949.

    19. Sitton, B. G. Pecan grafting methods and waxes. U. S. Dept.
    Agric. Circ. 545. 1940.

    20. Shelton, E. M. Glauber's salt for humidity control in scion
    storage. Rpt. North. Nut Grow. Assoc. 28:70. 1937.

    21. Smith, Gilbert L. Our experience with root stocks. Rpt. North.
    Nut Grow. Assoc. 40:62-64. 1949.

    22. Stoke, H. F. Grafting methods adapted to nut trees. Rpt. North.
    Nut Grow. Assoc. 37:99-102. 1946.

    23. Stoutemyer, V. T. and F. L. O'Rourke. Unpublished data.
    1938-1940.

    24. Weschcke, Carl. The importance of stock and
    scion relationship in hickory and walnut. Rpt. North. Nut Grow.
    Assoc. 39:190-195. 1948.

    25. Wilkinson, J. Ford. Preparation of stocks for propagation. Rpt.
    North. Nut Grow. Assoc. 28:65-66. 1937.



A Root Disease of Persian Walnut

G. FLIPPO GRAVATT, _U. S. Plant Industry Station, Beltsville, Md._


On three recent trips to southern Europe I noted large numbers of dying
Persian (English) walnuts, _Juglans regia_, in France and Switzerland
and scattered trees in other countries. Dying of Persian walnuts from a
root disease of undetermined cause has been reported from various
European countries for many years. The extensive dying of mature Persian
walnut in a number of areas in southern France is very serious. Farmers
and orchardists are discouraged from planting the Persian walnut even
though it is a very profitable tree when not attacked by the root
disease. In area after area I noted that the farmers had scattered their
Persian walnut trees, separating them as much as possible or planting
them along the boundary of fields instead of in orchard plantings. They
had found too frequently that solid plantings of walnut die from the
root disease. The total number of Persian walnuts in southern France has
decreased alarmingly in the last sixty years. In Tessin Province in
Switzerland many unhealthy Persian walnuts were noted this past summer
showing the same symptoms as in southern France.

Studies By French and Italian pathologists have indicated that the
fungus _Phytophthora cinnamomi_ is the most likely cause of this dying
of walnuts. I was informed that it is worse on soils inclined to be wet
or poorly drained at certain times of the year, conditions favorable for
attack of many hosts of this Phytophthora. The work reported by B. S.
Crandall and me in Phytopathology, March 1945, showed there was a rather
direct relation between soil conditions and _Phytophthora cinnamomi_
damage to black and Persian walnut seedlings. Long periods of heavy
rainfall were very favorable for an epidemic outbreak of this fungus on
walnut and other nursery stock. Another species of _Phytophthora_, _P.
cactorum_, has also attacked black walnuts in nurseries in eastern
United States; this fungus has also been reported on Persian walnuts.

We are interested in receiving reports of the dying of Persian or black
walnuts in orchards or rows of trees in the Eastern half of the United
States. Persian walnuts suffer from winter injury in many areas and
sometimes this injury is confused with the root disease. However, where
there are indications of continuing dying of walnuts year after year
with a progression from one part to another of the planting, we would
like to receive a report.

Some root diseases are difficult to diagnose, especially when the small
roots are the parts affected.

The symptoms of the root disease of the Persian walnut in Europe are in
many ways very similar to those of the Phytophthora root disease of
chestnut and chinkapin in this country as described in the report by
Gravatt and Crandall in the Northern Nut Growers Association Proceedings
for 1944. In some cases Persian walnuts die slowly and in others death
is rapid, with the entire tree browning in summer. Some trees will show
less green color than normal during the summer and gradually die over a
year or two. Trees in different stages of dying can be seen in the same
planting.

Persian walnuts in the Western States in recent years have been dying
from a disease of undetermined cause. Dr. Paul W. Miller and others have
reported on the black line graft union failure, _Armillaria mellea_ and
dying of roots from undetermined causes. As _Phytophthora cinnamomi_, an
imported fungus, is a comparative recent invader of many parts of the
west, Dr. Miller is giving the fungus some attention as a possible
parasite. On some hosts, this fungus attacks primarily the very smallest
roots at certain favorable times of the year, which makes determination
of its role as a parasite rather difficult.



Factors That Influence Nut Production

W. B. WARD, _Extension Horticulturist, Purdue University, Lafayette,
Ind._


The profitable production of fruit on nut trees under cultivation has no
doubt been influenced by several factors. Assuming that the present-day
seedlings and propagated varieties are winter hardy and the tree of
bearing age, 10 to 15 years old, one may expect a reasonable harvest. It
is somewhat disappointing to the owner of a single nut tree or for the
grower on a semi or commercial basis to find that the tree or several
trees have failed to set fruit.

The commercial fruit grower of apples learned, many years ago, that
certain varieties when planted in solid blocks failed to set
satisfactory crops. Rather than lose several years of growth and
expense, the better growers top-worked the trees with a good pollinizer.
The result was a profitable harvest of red and yellow apples, or
varieties of different maturity. The peach grower liked the looks of a
very fine peach and after a short trial found that the variety was not
hardy enough to withstand the winter and early spring temperatures. The
experiences of the commercial fruit growers could be well used by the
nut grower. Only trees adapted to local conditions should be planted
regardless of the recommendations of the nurseryman. Hardiness of wood
and bud, ample production of pollen, reasonable climate during the
growing season, and the control of insects or diseases determine, for
the most part, the success of the harvest.


Soils and Fertility

The nut trees require good drainage and a good supply of moisture. A
reasonably fertile soil should be selected for a planting site but
through mulches, manures, and commercial mineral fertilizers any soil
may be built up to a high state of fertility. A weak tree has little
chance and may come into bearing too late to be of value for the present
owner. The annual growth should be checked each year and, unless 10 to
12 inches of growth has been made the previous year, some means of
stimulating more growth should be employed. The hickory, pecan and black
walnut, as a rule, make little new annual growth while the Persian or
Carpathian walnut, heartnut and chestnut ordinarily produce good annual
growth and an abundance of good foliage grown where it counts the most,
on the new wood.

Those who have observed the growth habits of nut trees know that the
catkins are found on last year's growth, or two year old wood, and the
fruiting flowers at the end of the present season's growth. There are
times when the new growth developed in a matter of a few days to
sometimes as long as two weeks. During the period of prolongation of the
new growth and the formation and receptiveness of the pistillate flower
much can happen. The catkins shed pollen when the temperature and
atmospheric conditions are normal. Many times the pollen is dispersed
before the pistillate flowers are formed.


Cross vs Self-Pollination

There is no assurance that a nut tree which fruits on the average of
eight out of ten years will continue to do so in the future.
Occasionally trees take on an alternate year bearing habit that could be
caused from injury, insect or disease damage, or the relocation of plant
food. The nut trees on their own roots should do better than when
grafted or budded. The compatability of stock and scion is yet to be
worked out and any constriction at the union may alter the fruiting
habits.

The possible sources of pollen for hickory and pecan are from
self-fertile trees, seedlings, and various natural crosses that may or
may not produce edible fruit. The walnut family, which includes the
black and Persian or Carpathian walnut; butternut and Asiatic nut
(heartnut) have been used as pollinizers on the Persian walnut with some
success. The butternut is the first to shed pollen in Indiana with the
catkins dropping, in some years, by late April and the first week in
May. Some years the black walnut has produced the peak pollen from May
5th to 12th but during the spring of 1953 the Thomas, Stabler, Rowher,
Ohio and Stambaugh dropped the pollen from May 18th to 22nd. The Asiatic
walnuts were in full bloom on May 14th and 15th. The above dates do not
correspond to observations of other years, except for the butternut. The
pistillate flowers on the Persian walnuts were fully opened by May 16th.
The catkins of the Persian trees had dried by May 12th. Catkins from the
Asiatic walnuts were kept fresh and distributed throughout two Persian
walnut trees and by mid-afternoon a heavy rain came. On May 18th a few
catkins were again removed from the Asiatic walnut and only enough for
one Persian walnut tree were found and hung in the tree. The first tree
has no fruit while the second tree has a fair crop in the making.

A letter from H. F. Stoke, Chairman of the Survey Committee on the
blossoming dates of the Persian walnut said: "Payne, Lancaster and
Broadview staminate flowers were out on April 9, 10 and 11. The
pistillate flowers of McKinster, Caesar and Crath #1 were receptive on
April 11, 10 and 10." The above dates were over a month before spring
came to Indiana. Whether or not the Stoke varieties in Virginia would do
the same in Indiana or elsewhere is still the problem.

The black walnut varieties mentioned previously set very few fruits at
Lafayette this year while a promising new variety, Sol, from Ferd
Bolten, Linton, Indiana, has a full crop, and has been a consistent
producer for the past several years.


How Many Pounds per Tree

Throughout the Middle West the elm, native chestnut and some of the oaks
are dying from disease troubles. The homemaker wants to plant a tree
that will provide shade, fit well in the landscaping of the home, be a
clean tree and yet be fruitful and bear early.

The age of the tree and the growth has much to do with production. Some
pecan varieties have produced several hundred pounds per tree and the
same for black walnuts with hickory, butternut and chestnut in smaller
quantities. There are four Persian walnut trees growing in Franklin,
Indiana, that are 20 years old and have fruited continuously for the
past 10 years. The trees were seedlings, two of which are very promising
for distribution. Tree #1 produces an average of 10 pounds; tree #2, 15
pounds; #3, about 40 pounds and #4, 100 pounds. Good pollination under
common growing conditions of the Midwest and a good variety acclimated
for general planting will no doubt make a host of good friends and a
wonderful contribution from the members of the N.N.G.A.



Rootstocks for the Walnut in France[2]

J. C. MCDANIEL

[2]This is a translation, by Dr. R. T. Dunstan, of the section on
"Rootstocks" in Chapter XI of _Les Noyers_, by two Doctors of Pharmacy,
P. Peyre and E. Lancosme. This 447 page book with 140 figures was
published in 1942 by Jouve et Cie, 15, rue Racine, Paris, and is a very
complete treatise on the subject of walnuts.

The French experience with the eastern black walnut and the related
Arizona walnut as rootstocks is interesting, as is the discussion of one
method of propagation, where dormant whole-root grafts are started in
pots under glass. This differs somewhat from the indoor grafting
procedures described in our recent Reports by Mr. Stephen Bernath and
Dr. Philip Brierley. (Incidentally, Dr. Brierley tells me that he got
uniformly good grafts--96 to 100% growing--in his 1953 experiment. The
use of growth substance powder did not significantly increase the
"take". The controlling factors seem to be the use of healthy scions and
rootstocks, followed by high enough temperature and humidity to promote
rapid callusing of the grafts.)

The "old Royal Walnut" of the French is, of course, what we call Persian
(or English) walnut, and not Luther Burbank's "Royal Hybrid", the
unfortunately named cross of two black walnuts, _J. nigra_ x _J.
hindsii_. _J. torreyi_ is a synonym for _J. major_, the Arizona walnut.

Rootstocks fulfilling two essential conditions should be chosen, those
capable of adapting themselves to soil and climate where they are to be
planted and of resisting diseases that may attack them under unsanitary
conditions or under too intense cultivation. Among the numerous
varieties tested, two deserve attention as choice rootstocks, one
native, the other American = _J. regia_ and _J. nigra_.

_J. regia_, our old Royal Walnut, so common in France, is excellent when
planted in new, light and fertile soils, preferably clay-lime or
clay-silicon.

But as the roots are very spreading it is important to stir the soil
well but slightly and avoid deep plowing, for it is well known that
through accidental injury to the roots the various "armillaria" enter
the trees to develop the "pourridié" or "pus disease", or "circle
disease". It is better, then, to use a rootstock immune to this malady
so wide-spread among our native walnuts.

_J. nigra_ enjoys this happy advantage of offering no foothold to this
parasite, so harmful to its sister species. It accommodates itself well
in many soils in which _J. regia_ will grow, even dry and gravelly, but
prefers soils which are fresh, open, rich, and especially, deep. Its
roots are long and vertical and their development stops in contact with
an impermeable layer of soil.

It produces specimens magnificent in height and rapidity of growth.
Color of bark differs, though diameter of tree is more or less the same.
This slight objection may be easily avoided by grafting regia on nigra
at ground-level when wood is well matured and in mild weather.

Proof that this species of walnut is resistant to "pourridié" was given
in a report to members of the Congress of Grenoble in 1936 by Mr. Bourne
of Saint Marcelin. "At Blache de Vinay, we are told, some black walnuts,
planted more than thirty years ago in an infested field, have shown full
resistance. One tree, grafted at ground-level and planted too deep, was
infected many years ago by the "pus" above the graft on the _J. regia_
part. The diseased part was treated as was the custom then, with
sulphuric acid, etc. The wound healed and the rootstock remained
absolutely clean. A photo by Mr. Roy, Director of Agricultural Services
at Isère, establishes this absolute proof.

Other varieties of walnut have been tested as rootstocks--_cinerea_,
_cordiformis_, and _Siebòdiana_, but only the first seems to have given
any satisfactory results.

Reporter Bourne concludes, "The primary purpose of our research on
rootstocks will be to obtain a hybrid of _regia_ x _nigra_ that will
combine the resistance of nigra to the "pourridié" and regia's habit of
vegetating late in spring.

By virtue of the ability of the female element to transmit its rusticity
and vegetative form it seems, _à priori_, that we shall get a good
rootstock by crossing _nigra_ as mother by Franquette (sic) and then if
need be, by backcrossing to Franquette in the second generation.

There exists a 4th type of walnut graft, dating from 1880, which if done
intelligently, permits the rapid multiplication of the walnut--the root
graft.

In a short but very interesting report to the Nut Congress of Grenoble
in October, 1936 by Mr. Léon Treyves, and very kindly sent on to us, the
author says, "This procedure, devised by my family around 1880, consists
of grafting on one year old roots, branches from selected, vigorous
trees, either by cleft or English grafts, whichever gives best fit of
scion (which is generally smaller than root) and stock. Graft is then
tied with raffia and waxed to avoid all contact with air and placed in a
moderately heated frame. After a month of this treatment the graft has
taken. Then it is gradually accustomed to open air and the frame is
removed. In the fall or the following spring the graft may be planted in
its permanent location or in nursery row.

This system presents numerous advantages:

     1. Rapidity, since the plants can be grafted after one year,
    instead of three or four.

    2. Economy of time and expense, since considerable numbers of grafts
    can be made rapidly and in limited space.

    3. More rapid development of growth and fruiting. Saplings of 1 to 2
    meters planted in winter of '28-'29 measured in October '36 25-27
    cm. in circumference at one meter from ground. Trees two and three
    years old, still in nursery, are bearing one to two normally
    developed fruits.

The author indicates that he uses _nigra_ for stocks, "since that is the
only one that has proved its adaptation to grafting and its resistance
to the "pus disease"."

At the time he gave his paper in '36 Mr. Treyves announced that he was
continuing his grafting experiments on _J. Sieboldiana, cordiformis_ and
_torreyi. [J. torreyi_ = _J. major_--J. C. McDaniel.]

Mr. Treyves, whom we cannot thank too much for his favor, was kind
enough to set forth the preliminary techniques of his method of
root-grafting. We give a resume of them here.

1. Preparation. Plant nuts well-spaced in rows in good soil, convenient
to irrigation, if needed. Clean nuts of good quality, previously
stratified, should be planted in winter. Plants are lifted before the
following spring and heeled in. For scions wood of 7-8 cm. is cut from
young, healthy and vigorous trees and passed to the grafter at the same
time as the roots, which have been previously lifted, washed and cut off
at the crown or a little below. Scion, bevelled, is set either in
English or cleft graft, tied with raffia or with a numbered wool strip,
waxed and potted in rich but light soil, moderately firmed around roots.
Pots are then set in some homogeneous material (waste tan-bark or
sawdust) and left in a moderately heated bed.

2. Care. Watering. Temperature of beds should be kept constant around
grafts and they should be watered every other day. Of course, grass and
mold should be prevented.

As soon as grafts begin to grow (usually around 15 days) the pots are
gradually removed from sawdust, and when plants have made 15-20 cm. of
growth (after 30-40 days) they are slowly hardened to air and sun,
replanted in well-shaded beds, properly watered and cared for until they
are set in nursery row.

3. Planting in nursery. The following spring they are set 60 cm. apart
in nursery rows 1 m. apart in well-manured and well-prepared plots.
Usual care during growth. With the 2nd year plants attain 1-1/4-1-1/2 m.
and it is not uncommon to discover a nut. The 3rd year they make 2-1/2
m. at least with 8-12 cm. of girth and are ready for transplanting to
permanent site.

4. Soils and situations. Mr. Treyves tells us that the walnut plantings
in "lower Grésivuaudan" are on old alluvium of the Isère Valley and in
limy marl soils of the upper slopes. A little farther away in Savoy, the walnut is
vigorous in Jurassic or clay limestone soils. The same is true in
Dordogne, in Corrèze, and in the Lot, where soils are of similar origin.

Walnuts are found at an average altitude of 600 m. but grow up to 1200
m. in Savoy, and particularly in Switzerland.

The best exposures are SW, W, and SE, sunny slopes, well protected from
the north wind and late frosts.

Mr. Treyves has personally some plantings of walnut in Sologne, (where
calcareous soils are lacking) and in Champagne, where the soils lack
lime. He has noted that these trees grow and fruit normally.

Cultivation. It is important to keep soil around isolated trees well
stirred and to increase the area of cultivation as the rootspread
increases.

5. Rootstocks. For the present the plants chosen for stocks have come
from nigra, the only one that has proved itself in the matter of "take".
It does well in moist soils.

Mr. Treyves has personally tried to graft Mayette and Franquette on
_Torreyi_. He has found the "take" and the union perfect. But even
though vegetation is promising we must wait 22 years for a full test.

He proposes to lest all the "rootstocks placed at his disposal in order
to acclimatize the good French varieties to all the soils which suit
these stocks. Grafting on _J. Torreyi_ will be useful to a [_sera utile
a un_] stock that grows in dry soil, like _nigra_.

"But that is a matter we shall have to examine again in ten years, first
as regards vegetation and then in 20 years as concerns fruit
production."

Since these experiments date from '36 at the time of the Grenoble
Congress we have only 13 years to wait to learn what sort of fruit these
trees will bear and only 5 to see how they behave vegetatively.

It remains, then, only to wish "good luck" to our kind and devoted
correspondent and to thank him for his valuable documentation.



Pictorial Record of Grafting at Climax, Michigan

W. M. BECKERT, _Jackson, Mich._


Top-working black walnuts to Persian Walnuts has long been practiced by
various members of this organization. It is hoped by this series of
Kodachrome slides that a record of such top-working by one of our
members would be of interest and also show the details of just how the
work is done under actual field conditions.

Mr. Gilbert Becker, of Climax, Michigan, has been quite successful in
top-working black walnuts. Needless to say, these pictures were taken to
show how an expert goes about grafting black walnuts. Mr. Becker was
contacted as to when he would do his grafting and he mentioned that on
May 80, 1953, he would be top-working his stock. Plans were made to be
present on that date and we were fortunate in having bright weather for
taking the pictures.

The first two slides show Mr. Becker removing the scionwood from his
storage pit, selecting the scions and preparing to go out to do the
grafting. On the way to the trees that were to be grafted, the pictures
for the next two slides were taken to show the stage of leaf development
and the length of the catkins of the Thomas Black Walnut, so members in
other sections of the country can see how far out in leaf the Thomas
variety was when the grafting was done.

The following series of slides show how Mr. Becker top-works the black
walnuts.

First, removing that portion of the stock, note he used a pruning saw,
makes a cut at the point where he wants to graft. He uses the bark slit
method. The scion is shaped by one stroke of the grafting knife; a long
slanting cut is made and the scion inserted in the stock. Just prior to
placing the scion, the bark of the stock is slit, two cuts with the
point of the knife, approximate width of the scion and down along the
bark to the length the scion is to be inserted, then the scion is
placed. The next step is to cut off the little sliver of bark which is
pushed out, at the point where it does not contact the scion. In this
tree, two scions were placed, the scions being wrapped tightly with
waxed muslin which was prepared beforehand, using strips about one-half
inch wide. Enough was used to firmly bind the scions to the stock.
Please note that a small piece of wax muslin was placed on the inside of
the scion to prevent the wax from going down between the scion and
stock. The final step is waxing the scion and brushing with hot wax, in
order to prevent the scion from drying out; to provide shade, Mr.
Becker, in this case, used grass and made a hood over the scion, tying
it with string.

The following slides show the same procedure of grafting other trees.
You will note in one case he has climbed up into the branches of the
tree. To shade the scions, he used aluminum foil, folded around the
scion and tied with a rubber grafting strip. In all these pictures the
scions used were Colby.

Mr. Becker is very adept, quick, and does the grafting so that it
actually seems effortless. His technique is so fast, there is very
little chance of the scion drying out before it is placed.

On July 26th, I returned to Climax and the grafts were successful, as
you can see by the following series. The one failure was the first tree
that was grafted, and which had the grass for shading of the scion.



Rock Phosphate for Nut Trees

HARRY P. BURGART, _Union City, Mich._


My soil is of the sandy type and I have to watch the mineral content
rather closely for nitrogen and phosphate deficiencies. Winter-killing
of one year black walnut and pecan seedlings is serious during seasons
when our winters are less severe than usual and during winters when we
had had plenty of snow cover for protection. This worried me a great
deal and I decided there must be a deficiency. Soil tests repeatedly
showed a lack of phosphate.

I applied ground rock phosphate to my larger bearing English walnut
trees and there has not been the least sign of winter injury since.

Many of my smaller nut trees have been bearing earlier for me since I
have been using the phosphate. Customers who come here often remark at
the way some of my little grafted trees are bearing crops and I tell
them that I believe in keeping plenty of phosphate in the soil for root
growth and nut production.

I am writing this brief article thinking that it might help solve the
problems of other nut growers who have repeatedly been having trouble
with winter-killing of their Carpathian, or English walnut trees.
Phosphate seems to prevent a late sappy-condition from causing winter
injury.

I prefer to apply the phosphate and nitrogen early in April or early
May. Fall applications of any kind of fertilizer are apt to cause winter
injury. I usually scatter the rock phosphate around the trees using
about four handfuls around a first year tree. Then I turn over the sod
bottom with a shovel, which puts the phosphate down where the roots can
get it. I use the phosphate around all the young trees we set out and
seldom lose a tree as the phosphate encourages the starting of new
feeder roots on the nut trees.



A Report From Southern Minnesota

R. E. HODGSON, _University of Minnesota, Southern School and Experiment
Station, Waseca, Minn._


We have 20 odd Carpathian walnut trees growing from nuts planted about
1931. So far, I have never seen a flower on any of them. They grow up 6
or 8 feet in a year and that seems to be their difficulty. They do not
stop growing in time to harden off before cold weather comes. I think a
lot of the winter killing is also due to sun scald which would indicate
an inability to retain dormancy during a January thaw. Some of the trees
have lived through two winters with only minor damage and then when the
right conditions come along, they are killed to the ground. Wrapping the
trunks with aluminum foil has not solved the problem. I have purchased
one or two grafted trees which were recommended as more hardy but so far
they have had the same experience as the one I grew from nuts.

Black walnut and hickory do well here and I have a hiccan perhaps 20
feet tall but it has never borne any nuts. Chinese chestnuts are not
entirely hardy and grow very slowly. This year I set out about 20
American chestnuts from Minnesota grown seed and I hope that we are far
enough from other trees of this variety to escape the blight. Tree
growing is just a hobby and lately there has been very little time for
hobbies.



Chestnut Breeding

Report for 1953

ARTHUR HARMOUNT GRAVES and HANS NIENSTAEDT, _The Connecticut
Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, Connecticut_


The chief aim of this breeding work, which has been carried on now
without interruption since 1930, is to develop a tall timber type of
chestnut by breeding the American species with the blight resistant but
comparatively low-growing Japanese and Chinese chestnuts, _Castanea
crenata_ and _C. mollissima_, respectively. Practically all trees of our
valuable American chestnut of any appreciable size have now been killed
to the ground by the blight fungus, _Endothia parasitica_. Shoots
arising from the base of the old stumps often live long enough to bear
pollen, and this we have lately been forced to use in our breeding work
with the disadvantage that we can not know definitely the nature of the
genotype of the pollen parent. American pollen from a good phenotype
near Washington, D. C., was kindly furnished us in the early 30's by the
then Office of Forest Pathology of the U.S.D.A., and this stock is now
incorporated with our older Japanese-American and Chinese-American
hybrids.

As indicated in the following pages, we are not neglecting the
nut-bearing potentialities of the chestnut tree.


Weather Conditions in 1953

The disastrous ice storm of the 9th and 10th of January caused slight
damage to some of the Chinese trees. Their numerous, more or less
horizontal branches and characteristically brittle wood make them prone
to damage of this sort; nevertheless, only a few branches were lost.
After a comparatively warm February, the warmest since 1925, March
brought us more rain than for any March in the 81 years records have
been kept[3]--a total of 10.78 inches. This was all to the good, as
later events proved. Because of the preceding warm February the ground
was for the most part unfrozen, so that, instead of running off, the
water was largely absorbed in the soil, and thus added to the water
table. The precipitation of April was again heavy--5.6 inches--the
normal per month for this area being about 3-1/2 inches. After an
unusually good growing season in May, June and July, about the middle of
August a long drought of nearly 10 weeks duration commenced. The
conditions were similar to those in 1952, except that in that year the
drought began later, in October. However, the large amount of water in
the soil from the spring rains prevented serious consequences, just as
in 1952 the heavy rainfall in August and the normal one in September
mitigated any serious results from the later drought of that year.


[3] Weather records are taken from the monthly reports of the municipal
airport at New Haven, Conn., and are compared with the New York City
records for the same period, kept by the U. S. Weather Bureau at 17
Battery Place, New York City.


Hybrids of 1953

As in former years we continued the formation of hybrids of the
combination C×J×A[4] which has to date given the most resistant
individuals and the best timber form. 277 hybrid nuts of this
combination were obtained by crossing JA with C, and C with JA. JA×J
crossed with C yielded 25 nuts. CJA crossed with pollen from the Roxbury
Americans gave 20 nuts. The Chinese-American hybrids are also promising
both in form and in blight resistance. By crossing these with American
pollen from Thomaston, Conn., and from Clinton Corners, N. Y., we
secured 48 nuts. CA crossed with a good native American in Thomaston,
Conn., resulted in 30 nuts, and the same combination using an American
in Newfoundland, N. J., produced 9 nuts. The total number of nuts
derived from all crosses was 504, a much smaller figure than that for
the two preceding years. The reason for this is that considerable time
was consumed in experiments designed to determine the length of the
receptive period in the pistils.

[4] C = Chinese, J = Japanese, A = American chestnut.

The 1953 nut production (Table I) compared well with last year's. The
total yields were as good as, or better than, the 1952 crop and the
average weight per nut was not significantly lower than in 1952.
Apparently the late summer and fall drought had no effect on nut yields
and average weights. Obviously we have the warm winter and abundant
early rains to thank for this situation.

 Table I. Natural Yield of Nuts (open pollinations) From Sample Trees.

 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                   Total yield     Av. weight per Approximate
 Age in  Species         Location  in lbs.         nut in grams   no. of nuts
 years                               1952    1953   1952    1953   per lb.[A]
 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  23     _C.crenta_       13-2      27.5    43.3    14.5   14.0          32
  27     _C.mollissima_    1-3      22.2    20.8    10.6   10.5          43
  27     _C.mollissima_    1-9      28.2    26.2     9.9    9.7          46
  27     _C.mollissima_    1-15      6.8[B] 20.6    12.9   11.7          39
 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 A. based on the 1953 weights
 B. a considerable part of crop lost before it was collected

Fig 1. gives a fair idea of the extremes in size of the Japanese
chestnut. Since the smaller size is probably close to that of the wild
chestnut in Japan, the figure illustrates what has been done by the
centuries of selection and cultivation that the chestnut has undergone
in Japan.

[Illustration: Fig 1. Nuts of _C. crenata_, Japanese chestnut, showing
approximately the limits of size in the species. Left: from a tree on
Long Island, N. Y, owned by Mr. John Vertichio. Right: from one of our
forest type Japanese trees given to us by the Office of Forest Pathology
in 1930 and now growing at the Sleeping Giant Plantation, Hamden, Conn.
The tree is probably representative of the wild type of nuts in Japan--a
little larger than the native American chestnut. However, it is probable
that smaller nuts of the Japanese species exist. About 1/2 natural size.
Photo by B. W. McFarland, Conn. Agric. Expt. Sta., Nov. 27, 1953.]

Anent the large nuts in the photograph, which weigh about an ounce
apiece or about 28 g. (compare figures in table I), Mr. Ferguson,
Instructor at the Long Island Agricultural and Technical Institute,
through whom we received the nuts, states that "the nuts of the
seedlings from the tree do not average better than half the size of
those of the parent tree." This illustrates the fact, now well known,
that the chestnut tree is self sterile. Nuts are always (with
exceptions) a result of fertilization of the flowers with the pollen
from _another_ tree.

We should like to reproduce this tree in our plantations, but the only
way it can be done is by grafting scions of it on to some other,
preferably Japanese, stock, or by rooting cuttings from it--a method
which we still have not been able to accomplish readily.


Moll-Seg, or Chinese Prolific

In the report of the senior writer for 1934 (_Brooklyn Botanic Garden
Record 24:62_) it was stated: "In our form of the Chinese chestnut only
one, if any, bur appears at the base of the flowering branch. The dwarf
species, _C. seguini_, from eastern and central China, on the other
hand, is most prolific; and in addition, blooms from June to October. It
will be seen that crosses of these two species may produce valuable
breeding stock." As a result of this cross, made in 1934, we obtained
seven nuts, and from these nuts we have today, nineteen years later,
four trees, three of which have shown marked blight resistance. One of
these three is much larger, partaking more in its stature and form of
the character of its Chinese parent, and in contrast to the latter,
bears burs and nuts in profusion, usually clustered at the ends of the
branches. (Fig. 2). The nuts are small but of good flavor. It is a good
nut tree, not suitable for timber. However, as we stated in our 1951-2
report, it is subject to considerable twig blight, caused by the attacks
of the weak parasite, _Cryptodiaporthe castanea_ (Tul.) Wehmeyer, and
this is due apparently to the influence of its tender parent, the Seguin
chestnut, which habitually dies back in the winter. The parasite easily
enters the dying ends of the twigs. We should like to see this tree
tried out in a warmer climate--Georgia, Florida, Alabama, etc. Possibly
it might prove adaptable to a southern European environment.[5]

[5] Systematic descriptions of this and other valuable chestnut hybrids
are being prepared for publication.


Pollen Receptivity of Female Flowers

Chestnut is monecious. The flowers are borne on the present year's
growth in long catkins. These are of two distinct types; near the base
of the flowering branch they consist of male flowers only. The catkins
near the apex, on the other hand, are bisexual; pistillate flowers are
found, solitary or in clusters of two or three, near the base of this
type of catkin. The remainder of the catkin bears male flowers similar
to those on the all-male catkins.

The unisexual male catkins are the first to start flowering and not
until two to three weeks later will the male flowers of the bisexual
catkins be in full bloom. Normally, the pistillate flowers will reach
full development sometime between these two periods of pollen shedding.

_The Length of the Receptivity Period._--During the summer of 1953 an
experiment was conducted to determine more definitely when the pistils
became receptive and how long they remain in this condition. Two
Chinese, two Japanese and two hybrid chestnuts of the combination (Jap.
x C. pumila) x Jap., the so-called S8xJ, were used as the females in the
study. Emasculation and bagging was done at the beginning of anthesis,
that is, when the first unisexual male catkins began to shed pollen.
Three different pollen sources were used on each female parent; they
were of the same species or hybrid combination as the female. The
following diagram shows the pollination schedule used.

   Pollen source    Time of pollination in days
   No.              after beginning of anthesis
                    5     9     13      17    22
   -----------------------------------------------
   1                X     X      X
   2                      X      X      X
   3                             X      X      X

For example, the Chinese female trees were pollinated with pollen from
three other Chinese trees (in the diagram "Pollen source No. 1, 2 and
3), which open their anthers on successively later dates. This
pollination schedule was used to avoid prolonged storing of the pollen.

[Illustration: Fig. 2. Showing, above, _C. mollissima_, Chinese
chestnut, left, and _C. seguini_, seguin chestnut, right, parents of
_mollissima_ × _seguini_ hybrid below. Note clustered burs in
hybrid--more than twice the number appearing in the _mollissima_ parent.
Leaves and habit of tree resemble more the _mollissima_ parent. About
1/6 natural size. Photo by B. W. McFarland, Conn. Agric. Expt. Sta.,
Sept. 25, 1953.]

To carry on pollination the bags are removed and the pollen-bearing
catkins are brushed lightly over the stigmas several times, one or more
fresh catkins being used in each bag. These catkins are left in the bag.
The bags are then replaced and permanently removed when danger of
outcrossing is eliminated, in this case 10-14 days after the last
pollination.

The number of nuts collected at the time of harvesting compared with the
number of female flowers pollinated was taken as a measure of how
successful the pollinations were.

The results showed that five days after the commencement of anthesis a
high proportion of the female flowers is receptive. The Japanese and
hybrid trees have a definite peak of the period of receptivity between 9
and 17 days after anthesis begins; thereafter, receptivity drops off
sharply. The data from the Chinese trees indicated that the period of
maximum receptivity is longer than in the Japanese and hybrid chestnuts
tested. They maintained full receptivity on the 22nd day after the
beginning of anthesis.

It is commonly believed that bagging as well as emasculation may
seriously affect the yield from controlled pollination. This is not
always the case. One of the Japanese trees and one hybrid tree (S8 × J)
yielded fully as many nuts from controlled (under best conditions) as
from open pollination. On all other trees the effect of bagging was more
or less adverse.


The Effect of Emasculation on Nut Yield

Emasculation involves the removal of the unisexual male catkins and the
male part of the bisexual catkins. In the course of the controlled
pollination work it has often been found that the female flowers drop
off in the bag before the burs start to develop. This has especially
been encountered in Japanese × American hybrids and back-crosses. It was
thought that this perhaps was due to injuries resulting from
emasculation. The following small experiment was carried out in order to
determine if this was actually true.

A Japanese × American and a Japanese × (Japanese × American) hybrid were
used as the female parents. On these trees some flowering branches were
bagged which had been emasculated normally, on other branches only the
unisexual catkins were removed, while the bisexual catkins were left
intact. Some branches were bagged without any emasculation, and some
flowering branches were just tagged. The number of female flowers was
counted in all cases. Pollinations were performed 3 times, that is, were
repeated on the third and fifth day after the first pollination. This is
the procedure ordinarily used for our controlled pollinations. Chinese
pollen was used on both trees. Nut set expressed as per cent of the
number of pollinated flowers, times three, (because ordinarily there are
3 nuts in every bur) was taken as a measure of how successful the
pollinations had been. The results are shown in Table 2.

 Table II. The Effect of Emasculation on Nut Yield

 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Type of Treatment                 No. of [Symbol: female]'s at     Nut set as
                                   time of first                    expressed in %
                                   pollination                      of [Symbol: female]'s
                                                                    at time of
                                                                    1st pollination ×3
                                   [Symbol: female] parent          [Symbol: female] parent
                                   4-4     7-4                      4-4     7-4
                                   (J×A)  (J×JA)                    (J×A)   (J×JA)
 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Normal emasculation                39     17                       29.1    13.7
 Only unisexual catkins removed     23     19                       14.5     0.0
 Not emasculated, but pollinated    28     18                       25.0     3.7
 Not emasculated, }
 not pollinated   } Control         28     25                        1.2     0.0
 Not bagged, branches tagged,
    open pollinated                 26     23                       44.9    17.4
 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Bagging apparently was partly injurious on these two trees and caused
some decrease in nut yield. There is, however, no evidence that
emasculation in itself causes a decreased nut yield, rather it appears
to be somewhat beneficial if we are to judge from the results of this
experiment. At least, one would be justified in concluding that any
harmful effect is negligible. Completely emasculated flowers yielded
29.1 and 13.7 per cent as compared to 14.5 and 0.0 per cent where only
unisexual male catkins were removed, and 25.0 and 3.7 per cent where no
emasculation was done. The controls which were not emasculated and not
hand pollinated, show that the trees are practically completely self
sterile; only an occasional nut is set from self-fertilization.


Vegetative Propagation

In vegetative propagation the tree breeder has a very important tool.
For instance, if a number of desirable phenotypes have been selected in
the forest, they can be propagated vegetatively and planted under
uniform conditions where it will be possible to "estimate" their
genotype, without the time-consuming progeny testing. Trees propagated
vegetatively from old mature trees usually will start flowering very
soon after they become established; thus the necessity of doing
pollination work in very large trees can be eliminated. Furthermore, it
enables the tree breeders to maintain trees of a desirable genotype
unaltered for an indefinite length of time without first establishing
pure lines through inbreeding. Finally, it may be possible to make
valuable individuals available to the forest owners for field planting
if they can be propagated vegetatively in large enough numbers at low
cost.

Compared to propagation by grafting, the rooting of cuttings is both
simpler and cheaper, if it can be done. Chestnut cuttings are,
unfortunately, very difficult to root. In the past six years numerous
experiments have been conducted in order to find a way to root the
various chestnut species. We have tried to root dormant, as well as
greenwood, cuttings, the conventional twig cuttings as well as leaf-bud
cuttings; numerous hormone treatments using several different hormones
in solution and as powders, over a wide range of concentrations, have
been tried; a special chamber in which an automatic atomizer nozzle
sprays the cuttings intermittently has been used. Results have always
been poor. Dormant cuttings have broken dormancy, sent out new leaves,
formed an abundance of callus on the basal end, but failed to develop
any roots, and finally after several months have died. Greenwood
cuttings also have failed to develop roots in almost all cases. The best
results have been obtained with leaf-bud cuttings. In some cases 10 to
20 per cent have rooted; here, however, the difficulty has been the
failure of the bud to break dormancy and start growth, and all the
rooted cuttings have eventually died.

The rooting by airlayering has been tried in a few cases. Airlayering is
the rooting of twigs while they are still attached to the tree. Some
distance from the terminal end of the twig an oblique cut is made, or
the bark is removed around the twig for about 3/4". The cut or ringed
area is treated with a hormone powder, wrapped in sphagnum moss and
covered with a wrapping of polyethelene. Attempts to root twigs on older
trees by this method have so far failed. Recently successful rooting of
twigs on young seedlings by airlayering has been reported from Spain,
and from France comes the report that stooling of young seedlings is
highly successful. In the stooling method the young plants are cut off a
short distance above the ground level. As new shoots grow out, their
basal ends are gradually covered with soil until a 5-6" mound has been
formed. Left in this manner they may develop their own root system and
can eventually be detached from the mother root. That the rooting of
young seedling material should be possible, while that from older trees
will not root, is not unusual. It is generally accepted that the younger
the tree from which the cuttings are taken, the easier the cuttings are
to root. Experiments along these lines are planned for 1954.


Cooperative Hybrid Chestnut Plantations

In last year's report we described our hybrid test plots established in
cooperation with the U.S.D.A., Bureau of Plant Industry, Division of
Forest Pathology.

On March 18, 1953 a new plantation was started at Grafton, West
Virginia. As usual, we furnished 50 plants for this test plot.

From the reports from Dr. J. D. Diller, of the then Division of Forest
Pathology, our hybrids so far have shown a promising performance,
although their average growth rate so far is slightly slower than that
of the U.S.D.A. hybrids and straight Chinese chestnut. From the
standpoint of blight resistance and growth habit they are at least equal
to the two other sources and may be slightly better; however, it is
still too early to make any definite evaluation of the results.


Insect Injuries

The most damaging insect pests in the Sleeping Giant Plantation are the
spring canker worms, the mites (_Paratetranychus bicolor_), Japanese
beetles and the chestnut weevils.

A spraying schedule has now been worked out which keeps these pests
under control:

1. Dormant spray with "Scalecide" in middle April against the canker
worms and mites.

2. Two applications of "Aramite" (6-7 lbs. per acre) in the middle and
toward the end of June. These sprayings have given good control against
mites. Where the outbreak is very severe it may be necessary to spray
with "Aramite" also in July and again in August.

3. Spraying with DDT in middle August and the first week in September
has controlled the weevils successfully.

In concluding this report we desire to express our thanks to the many
interested persons who have contributed pollen, nuts and/or scions to
further this project.


Dr. W. C. Deming

On November 17th, 1910, twelve dreamers met in the Botanical Museum,
Bronx Park, New York City, to form an organization of nut growers in the
north. It was largely an organizational meeting. No papers were read,
but some solid foundations were laid. Dr. W. C. Deming served as
temporary chairman of the meeting and, fortunately for the cause, was
then elected as the new body's Secretary-Treasurer, an office which has
always called for executive ability and untiring industry.

This election paid off. At the second meeting, held at the New York
State College of Agriculture, in Ithaca, it appeared that the new
Secretary had communicated with a large number of leading nurserymen,
with national and State horticulturists and with others. It was reported
at this meeting that only two nurserymen had accepted the invitation to
attend. "So", reported Secretary Deming, "evidently the others do not
think the northern nut grower is one whose acquaintance is worth
cultivating. We hope to convince them to the contrary."

This was done. At the second meeting, the Association could count sixty
members. Professor John Craig, of Cornell, in noting this growth, said,
"Dr. Deming has not merely performed the routine duties of the
secretary, but he has studied the case and has presented a good many
facts not apparent on the surface. It seems to me that this augurs
well."

The augury proved prophetic. The Association continued to grow. But
without this first intelligent, persistent effort upon the part of. Dr.
Deming, it could hardly have survived.

This small bit of history is illustrative of the whole life of Dr.
Deming. His deep interest in the purposes and hopes of our Association
has never ceased. Upon his own ground he planted, and budded and
grafted many nut trees, and has given away the fruits of his labors with
a prodigal good will. Deming's Burnham pecan and the Deming Purple black
walnut are the only introductions, so far as this writer knows, which
bear his name.

Again, some thirty years after the first meeting mentioned above, Dr.
Deming thought up and carried through another project which makes the
Association repeatedly his debtor, an Index of the first thirty volumes
of the Association's Annual Reports. It is a work which saves the
conscientious worker in northern nut culture hours and hours of labor.

And now our Dean, the last of the founding fathers, has left us for the
Elysian Fields. His gentle, kindly face will be sadly missed by those
who knew him, but he lives on in every tree whose planting his labors
inspired and in every mind which has been, even unconsciously, his heir.

A letter from Miss Charlotte Deming, a sister, assures us, somewhat
touchingly, but happily, of this fact:

"My brother's heart was with and in the work of the Association. He was
happy to know of its expansion into such a wide-spread organization, and
very proud of having been made its Dean."

Dr. Deming lived a full life. He was a physician of distinction, a
graduate of Columbia University's College of Physicians and Surgeons and
was retired from the army after World War I with the rank of Major.
After graduation from Columbia, he served his internship in a New York
hospital, then on the medical staff of the State Immigrant Hospital,
Ward's Island. He began private practice in Westchester County, New York
and, later, for many years, served as examining physician with the
Veterans' Administration in Hartford, Connecticut.

It is interesting to know, as told by his son, Hawthorne, that Mrs.
Deming, formerly Imogene Hawthorne, was the youngest granddaughter of
the immortal Nathaniel. It is evident that Dr. Deming, both in private
life and in his public interests, was a strong believer in the value of
good blood-lines.

   _John Davidson_



The Nomenclature of Nut Varieties

GEORGE H. M. LAWRENCE, _Bailey Hortorium, Ithaca, N. Y._


This article is intended to introduce to you the International Code of
Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants[6] and to point out the ways in which
that Code serves the interests and needs of members of the Northern Nut
Growers Association.

[6] The International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants,
formulated and adopted by the International Botanical Congress Committee
for the Nomenclature of Cultivated Plants and the International
Committee on Horticultural Nomenclature and Registration at the
Thirteenth International Horticultural Congress, London, September 1952.

Copies of the full text of the Code are available from the Secretary,
American Horticultural Council, Inc., Bailey Hortorium, Cornell
University, Ithaca, N. Y., (25¢ postpaid).

The Code as published by the Royal Horticultural Society is a booklet of
about 30 pages, containing an excellent historical introduction by W. T.
Stearn, a summary or abridged version of the Code, and the full text. It
is of necessity somewhat technical in its phraseology, and in places its
jargon is overwhelming. Recently, Dr. John S. L. Gilmour, Director of
the Cambridge Botanic Gardens, and formerly Director of the R. H. S.
Trial Gardens at Wisley, published a very lucid and down-to-earth
interpretation of the principle provisions of the Code. It is reproduced
with permission at the conclusion of this introduction.

The questions asked about the Code include,

   "What's it got that earlier codes did not have?"
   "What's new about it?"
   "How does it affect me?"

There are several answers to the first query, but the most significant
is that here for the first time we have a Code that represents the
thinking of horticulturists from all leading horticultural centers of
the world. I was a member of a committee of thirteen (representing 6
countries), that met for nine days in Stockholm in 1950 to prepare and
edit the first international draft of this Code. Those of each
nationality had met in their country previously, with their own leaders,
and had come to this round-table session with fixed ideas of what they
wanted. By mid-evening of the first session it became apparent that the
Swedes, the Dutch, the British, and the Americans had sent some of their
most persuasive, vocative, and determined countrymen to represent them.
The Swiss representative restrained himself admirably until after the
initial lines had been drawn. It looked then as if there might be
several codes, but before recessing several hours later some concessions
had been made, and discussion on the more volatile points had been
deferred. The differences of opinion were well founded and held with
good reason. Some reflected an unawareness of situations in an unrelated
horticultural field, e.g., a nurseryman did not know the problems
encountered by the Danes in developing so-called varieties of
vegetables, or by the American in producing hybrid-corn--each calling
for different provisions in the Code, nor could the rose specialist be
expected to comprehend the genetic situations encountered in many types
of hybridity. One botanist in the group had no appreciation of the
intricacies of problems and situations found when trying to name some
complex groups of cultigens. Add to these reasons the fact that most of
these men were representatives or spokesmen for larger groups or
national organizations "back home" and were not authorized to act
independently from earlier decisions by those groups, and one can only
marvel that at the end of the 9-day period we came up with a detailed
and workable draft accepted unanimously, and which was modified in no
major respect at the more recently International Horticultural Congress
in London.

The period between the Stockholm meeting and the London Congress was
utilized to distribute mimeographed copies of the Stockholm draft to
horticultural leaders in all countries, to provide opportunity for
suggesting changes and new provisions for the Code, and to hold one
committee meeting of international level, at London in November 1951.
As a result, the present Code is the first truly international
regulating guide that has been produced as an aid to persons concerned
with the nomenclature of cultivated plants. The individual who may
object to some provision of the Code must remember that its presence in
the Code has had the support of scores of specialists, representing no
less than 16 nations and that there is no part of the Code that was not
acceptable to a majority of the delegates of each nation and to the
groups representing them. The significance of this international
character of the Code is not to be discounted.

It is only proper at this point to tell you how the U. S. A. was
represented at the International Horticultural Congress in London.
Practically every country except the United States has a national
horticultural organization, comparable in some respects to the Royal
Horticultural Society, with which you are surely familiar. This country
had none. When the "call" went out for representatives and delegates to
the International Horticultural Congress, that for this country was
delivered to the agricultural attaché at our Embassy in London. It is
reported that he referred it to his home office and attended some
preliminary meetings in London. The matter was referred to the U. S.
Department of Agriculture in Washington and there sat, apparently, for
months. In the interim, private communications were flying across the
Atlantic in both directions between interested horticulturists and
finally the matter was referred by the Honorable Secretary of the
Congress direct to American societies of horticulture to ensure that
American views and interests would be adequately represented. It boiled
down to the United States being represented by those persons who were
going to be at the Congress anyway and by men who were not specialists
in nomenclatural matters. Appraised of their lot, these persons made
every effort to be briefed and informed on as many aspects of the
provisions of the proposed Code as possible. As stated later by Dr. S.
L. Emsweller (a member of the committee, representing U. S. D. A. and
the American Society for Horticultural Science), this situation brought
into sharp focus the need in this country for a single horticultural
organization of organizations that could serve as authorized in matters
at the international level. The American Horticultural Council, to which
the Northern Nut Growers Association belongs may become that
organization, but only when authorized by its membership.

Many readers may be familiar with earlier codes, as that adopted by the
American Pomological Society (which dates from 1847), that by the
American Society of Agronomists (formulated in 1917-18), and with a
third code adopted at the sessions of the Botanical Congress meeting in
Cambridge, England, in 1935. Knowing of the provisions of these codes,
you may ask, "What has the new one got that is different?" There are
many new features of which the more significant are given below.

Perhaps foremost is the recognition that, for the most part, the
so-called varieties of garden plants are not uniform in their behavior.
Some are nothing more than transplants of variations found in the wild,
such as the Japanese _Juglans Sieboldiana_ var. _cordiformis_, a
population having its own geographic range and distinguished from the
typical element of the species by several morphological characters. It
is a botanical variety that is cultivated. It is not a product of
domestication.

The code distinguishes from this botanical variety those so-called
varieties that are the result of domestication, variants that have been
produced in cultivation but are not known to occur and perpetuate
themselves in the wild, such as Schwedler's maple known as _Acer
Platanoides_ var. _Schwedleri_. Plants of this group, that may be grown
from seed and which do show a limited variability, are distinguished
from botanical varieties by placing them in a new category called
cultivar (a name coined long ago by L. H. Bailey and meaning, a variety
from cultivation). The abbreviation for the category is cv. Furthermore,
in an effort to differentiate cultivar names from botanical names, it is
provided that they be treated as are vernacular or fancy (common) names.
That is, that the name be placed in single quotes and not italicized
e.g., _Acer Platanoides_ cv. 'Schwedleri'.

A third category is that of clone. A clone is an individual propagated
not from seeds but by asexual means, as by grafting, budding, cuttings,
etc. Most so-called varieties of nuts are clones. A clone may be
selected from a species population, from a botanical variety, from a
cultivar, or from anyone of several types of hybrid complexes. It may
appear as a mutant of another clone. The name for it may, where there is
need for precision, be attached to the name of the species (or hybrid)
from which it was selected, as _Corylus Avellana_ cl. 'DuChilly' or
reduced to _Corylus_ cl. 'DuChilly.'

For the hybridizer naming and introducing new hybrids to cultivation,
the Code is more helpful than any previous set of rules and the needs of
hybridizers of various groups have been considered. Many examples
illustrating application of each provision are given in the unabridged
version.

The person naming plants will find much helpful guidance with regard to
the selection of names which should be considered if international usage
is to prevail. The Code is just that, a set of dicta provided for
guidance by horticulturists throughout the world that there may
prevail

   a greater uniformity, accuracy, and fixity of names,
   a lessening of procedures that would lead to confusion and error if
       adequately supported or widely adopted, and
   a provision for change and revision.

One section of the code ("C") dealing with Registration might well come
within the framework of interest and activity of the Northern Nut
Growers Association. This section, which suffers materially by
condensation in the abbreviated text that follows, occupies nearly a
page in the unabridged edition. It envisages the establishment of an
international registering body, with headquarters for different groups
located in different countries, e.g., that for tulips in the
Netherlands, for rhododendrons in Britain, for roses in the United
States, etc. The task of compiling, maintaining, and publishing such a
registrar (and rejecting names not in conformance with the Code) will
fall in many cases on the special plant societies concerned. When
societies for a given group of plants exist in 2 or more countries, they
will be expected to collaborate. Insofar as I know the Northern Nut
Growers Association has not set up any mechanism for the registration of
names given to cultivars, hybrids, and clones of nuts. To do so would be
to perform a very real service for your membership, for the industry in
this country, and would place the Association in a key spot when the
proposal for an international registry is activated. The agitation for
this phase of international application of the Code is considerable and
is more evident in Europe than here. If the Association takes an active
stand in the matter and develops a center of registry of nut names for
this continent, it may very well display a quality of initiative and
service that will make it pre-eminent on the international level and
will cause others to look to it for guidance, information, and
leadership.

A careful consideration of this Code is commended to all and those
interested in the topic are urged to procure a copy of the booklet
giving the unabridged edition and Stearn's excellent historical account
of the subject.



The New Code For the Naming of Cultivated Plants[7]

[7] Reproduced with permission from Journal of the Royal Horticultural
Society, vol. 69, pp. 12-21, 1954.


J. S. L. GILMOUR, _Chairman of the International Committee on
Horticultural Nomenclature and Registration_


Anyone who deals in any way with cultivated plants uses plant names.
This glimpse of the obvious ought to mean that the appearance of a new
Code for the naming of cultivated plants should be a memorable event for
all gardeners. I say "ought to mean" advisedly, because there is no
doubt that, in the past, Codes of Nomenclature have made little appeal
to gardeners, the great majority of whom have been blissfully unaware of
their existence. As a consequence, many horticulturists--on hearing of
"a new Code"--will, no doubt, raise a respectful (or contemptuous)
eyebrow and get on with reading their latest catalogue. The aim of this
article is to persuade readers of the Society's JOURNAL, not only that
this attitude is against their own interests, but that a good deal of
quiet entertainment can be extracted from trying to use plant names
correctly--if only the entertainment of putting their neighbour right!

It is true that, hitherto, there has been ample excuse for ignorance.
Although Codes for the naming of cultivated plants have existed, in some
shape or form, for nearly 100 years, they have been printed in obscure
publications, quite inaccessible to ordinary mortals. This excuse no
longer holds. The full text, plus a summary, of the new Code can be
purchased for one shilling and three pence (post free) from the Society,
and, in addition, reference to it has been made in many horticultural
and other periodicals. What, then, is the new Code about, how does it
affect gardeners, and what should they do about it?

In the first place it is _not_ about the Latin names of wild species or
varieties--names like _Rhododendron ponticum_ and _Aesculus octandra_
var. _vestita_. Whether wild plants are grown in gardens or not, their
Latin names are governed by quite a separate Code, devised by botanists
for the purpose. It is true, of course, that gardeners have to use Latin
names for many of the wild plants that they grow, and equally true,
unfortunately, that the frequent changes in these names are a source of
annoyance to everyone; but that is quite another story, with which we
are not concerned here. At the last International Horticultural Congress
steps were taken which we all hope will result, with the cooperation of
botanists, in the stabilization of widely used Latin names of cultivated
plants.

No, the new Code deals, not with wild species, varieties and hybrids,
but with what are commonly called "garden varieties"--namely, forms
which have been brought into existence by selection, hybridization, or
other similar processes devised by man, and are maintained in
cultivation as clones or pure lines by man's care and skill--such plants
as Rose 'Peace,' Apple 'Beauty of Bath,' and thousands of others. The
distinction between "wild" plants and "garden varieties" is not
absolutely clear cut, and in the Code a closer definition is
attempted--but for our present purpose the difference is obvious enough.

In the Code, it is recommended that "garden varieties" should
technically be called "cultivars." This has been their official name for
many years and it is clearly desirable, if the two categories of "wild"
and "cultivated" varieties are to be recognized, to have a short and
internationally current word for each of them. "Variety" and "cultivar"
serve this purpose admirably, but it is not to be expected that all
gardeners will make the distinction and adopt the word "cultivar" in
ordinary parlance, at any rate immediately. Personally, however, I hope
and believe that eventually "cultivar" will find favour. It is a clear
and easily understood word and will, I think, prove useful to those
gardeners who care for accuracy and precision in their craft, and
especially to those who have dealings with fellow-gardeners in other
countries.

The Code, then, deals with the _names of cultivars_. It may be helpful,
I think, to consider its rules and regulations under three headings:
firstly, those of interest to all gardeners who have occasion to write
the names of cultivars; secondly, those which are concerned with the
coining of new names; and thirdly, those more technical provisions which
are of interest primarily to horticulturists studying a particular group
and trying to establish what are the correct names for its cultivars.


1. The Writing of Cultivar-Names

The most important point, perhaps, concerning the names of cultivars is
that they should not be in Latin, but in any modern language using the
so-called Roman alphabet (_i.e._ the alphabet in which English, French,
German, etc., are written). The reason for this is, of course, to
distinguish, at a glance, names of cultivars from names of wild
varieties, which are in Latin. In the future, Latin names for cultivars
will definitely not be allowed by the Code, but we are faced with the
_fait accompli_ of hundreds of existing Latin names which have been
widely used for many years. For example: the dwarf conifers abound with
cultivars called 'nana,' 'prostrata,' 'compacta' and the like, and such
names as 'albus,' 'variegatus,' and 'plenus' occur in almost every
cultivated genus. It would clearly be foolish to try to alter all these,
and the Code accepts such legacies from the past as permanently with us.
(As we shall see, however, a distinction is made between the writing of
Latin cultivar-names and Latin varietal-names.)

The vast majority, then, of cultivar-names are vernacular or "fancy"
names like 'Winston Churchill.' How should the full name of a cultivar
be written? The complete and technically correct form, including the
Latin name of the species from which the cultivar has been derived, is
illustrated in the following example: _Sedum spectabile_ Boreau, cv.
'Brilliant,' but I hasten to add that this lengthy designation is for
use only on full-dress occasions! In the example, _Sedum_ is the name of
the genus, _spectabile_ the name of the species (technically called the
"specific epithet"), Boreau the name of the man who first described the
species under that name (technically called "the authority" for the
name), cv. the abbreviation of cultivar, and 'Brilliant' the
cultivar-name for the particular cultivar concerned. It should be noted
(1) that the generic name and specific epithet are printed in italics,
(2) that the cultivar-name begins with a capital letter, is printed in
ordinary Roman type, and is enclosed in _single_ quotation marks, and
(3) that there is no "authority" after the cultivar-name. These three
points are important, and apply to the writing of all names of
cultivars. If we wish to cut down this rather formidable string of words
for every-day use, the authority can be omitted in all except very
technical writing. Secondly, the abbreviation cv. can normally be left
out, as the vernacular form, single quotes, and Roman type of
'Brilliant' indicate quite clearly that it is a cultivar-name, and not
the name of a wild variety. In this shortened form, therefore, the name
would read simply:

   _Sedum spectabile_ 'Brilliant'

and this is the normal method of writing the names of cultivars.

There are, however, two additional refinements that should be
mentioned--apart from the special case of cultivars derived from
hybrids, which I will deal with later. The first concerns those Latin
cultivar-names which are left over from the past. These should be
printed in Roman type and enclosed in single quotes to distinguish them
from Latin varietal names; thus one would write _Thuja orientalis_
'elegantissima,' where 'elegantissima' is a cultivar-name, but _Aesculus
octandra_ var. _vestita_, where _vestita_ is the name of a wild variety.

The second point refers to the omission of any authority after a
cultivar-name. Many cultivars are first described in reports of trials,
in catalogues, and other anonymous publications; this makes the quoting
of an authority impractical, but there is provision in the Code for
writing the raiser's or introducer's name in brackets after the
cultivar-name if so desired, thus: _Weigela_ 'Avalanche' (Lemoine).


2. Naming New Cultivars

_General_

Let us suppose that a nurseryman, park superintendent, or amateur
gardener has just flowered a batch of seedlings of, say, _Helenium_,
and that he spots one as being of a new type and worthy of propagation.
In due course he shows the plant at a fortnightly show, under a number,
and an Award of Merit is given to it. He must now find a cultivar-name
for his new plant. His first problem, of course, is to choose a name
that has not been used before in the genus _Helenium_. If he picks on a
very unusual personal name he can be fairly certain that he is the first
to use it. If, however, he prefers a more general name, like 'Innocence'
or 'Venus,' there is a danger that it has been used before. If there
existed a registration authority for _Helenium_ names, as there does,
for example, for names of Daffodils, he could, of course, consult this
authority, but in its absence he must do his best to comb the likely
literature--for example the Index to this JOURNAL, nurserymen's
catalogues, etc.--and to assure himself that his chosen name has not
already been used. His next step is to make certain that the name is in
accordance with the best practice for coining such names. Here is where
the Code will help him. In it he will find (under Section F) a series of
rules for his guidance, based on the accumulated experience of
horticulturists of many nations. I will not repeat these rules
here--they can be read in the Code--but perhaps the most important,
apart from the rule already quoted that the name must not be in Latin,
is that it should be short (not more than two words), should avoid forms
of address liable to be confused (_e.g._ Mr., Mrs. and Miss) and, as far
as possible, should be easily pronounceable by all nationalities. As the
Code says, 'Centenaire de Rozain-Bourcharlat,'
'Diplomagartenbauinspektor,' and 'Eldwyth Cholmondeley' are not looked
upon with favour as cultivar-names! Having chosen a name, it is
essential to ensure that it is published, together with an adequate
description, since the Code does not recognize names that are not
published, or are published with no description. The Code lays down what
is meant by publication, and by adequate description. The names of
plants which receive an Award at Vincent Square are automatically
published, with a description, in this JOURNAL, but for other methods of
publication the Code should be consulted.


_Hybrids_

The naming of cultivars derived from crosses between two or more
different species, belonging to the same or different genera, involves
rather special problems. By "derived from" I mean not only the _first_
generation from a species cross, but all subsequent generations and
back-crosses with the original parents or with members of the first or
later generations. Any cultivar which is the progeny of a species cross,
however remote, comes, for the purpose of the Code, under the heading of
a hybrid and its naming is subject to definite rules. The full name of a
"hybrid cultivar" must be regarded as consisting of three distinct
parts: (1) the name of the genus (or "hybrid genus" if a hybrid between
two or more genera is concerned); (2) a "collective" name or phrase
covering _all_ the progeny resulting from the particular species-cross
concerned; and (3) a cultivar-name for the particular form (cultivar)
under consideration. In the name _Viburnum_ × _bodnantense_ 'Dawn,'
_Viburnum_ is the generic name, × _bodnantense_ is the collective name
for all progeny of the cross _V. fragans_ × _V. grandiflorum_, and
'Dawn' is the cultivar-name for a particular seedling of this
parentage. It is essential always to bear in mind these three distinct
parts of the name of a garden hybrid, even if, as it often done, one or
other of the parts is omitted in actual usage; the three parts broadly
correspond, of course, to the generic name, specific epithet, and
cultivar-name of a non-hybrid cultivar (see above).

Let us consider these three parts in turn and see what types of name can
be used in each part in actual practice--and how this affects the naming
of new "hybrid cultivars."

The _first part_, the generic name, presents no difficulties, except in
the case of new hybrids between two or more genera. Names of such
"hybrid genera" are usually "manufactured" from a combination of the
names of the parent genera (_e.g._ × _Heucherella_, from _Heuchera_ and
_Tiarella_); in the case of hybrids between more than two genera,
however, where a "combination" name would be unwieldy, it is permissible
to make a new name by adding the termination _ara_ to the name of a
person connected with the plant concerned (_e.g._ × _Sanderara_ for a
tri-generic orchid hybrid). Before making a new "hybrid generic" name, a
botanist should be consulted, as a Latin description in proper,
botanical form must be provided. It will have been noticed that a
multiplication sign is placed _in front of_ the names of "hybrid
genera," but _after_ the generic name in the case of hybrids within a
single genus; further details on this point are given later.

The _second part_ of the full name of a hybrid is a more tricky
business. It is, as I have said, a collective designation for all the
progeny of the particular cross concerned, and it may take one or all of
three possible forms:--

(1) If the parentage is known, a bare _formula_ consisting of the names
of the parents, in alphabetical order, connected with a multiplication
sign, _e.g._ _Lewisia cotyledon_ × _rediviva_.

(2) A name in Latin form (corresponding to a non-hybrid specific
epithet), preceded by a multiplication sign, _e.g._ _Viburnum_ ×
_bodnantense_.

(3) A vernacular phrase containing the word "hybrid," "cross," "grex"
(Latin for flock or group), or other similar word, making evident the
collective nature of the phrase, _e.g._ _Lilium_ 'Bellingham Hybrids.'

Why do we have to have these three different forms for the second part
of the full name, and when, to put it briefly, should we use which?

I must admit that practice on this particular point is as yet by no
means fixed, and no doubt it will be modified considerably during the
next few years, as more horticulturists try to apply the Code to the
groups in which they are interested.

In order to understand the alternatives available, it will be helpful, I
think, to consider first the _third part_ of the full name, as the use
of this, and of the second part, are very closely connected. The third
part, as I have said, is a cultivar-name of a particular form of the
hybrid concerned, and, in the first place, it is extremely important to
realize that _every cultivated hybrid that is considered worth naming at
all should receive a cultivar-name from the outset of its "career,"
even_ _if, at the time, only one form is known, or is considered worth
naming._ To take an actual example, at the time when the new hybrid
_Viburnum_ × _bodnantense_ was described in the _Botanical Magazine_,
only one form, or clone, of it had been "put into circulation," and yet
that single clone was given a cultivar-name, 'Dawn.' The object of doing
this was to be able, in the future, to refer by name to this particular
clone and so avoid confusion with any later, and possibly inferior,
forms of the same cross that might be produced. In the absence of the
name 'Dawn,' less desirable clones could legitimately be passed off
under the collective name _V_. × _bodnantense_ without the acquirer
realising that he was not getting the original and superior form.

Bearing in mind, then, the principle that _all_ cultivated hybrids
should have a third part, cultivar-name, we can turn again to the use of
the various possible designations for the second part listed above. The
choice of designations depends, broadly speaking, on _convenience_, that
is to say, on what, in practice, will be found the most useful method of
referring to the plants concerned. In principle, of course, every hybrid
whose parentage is known has an appropriate formula-designation, and in
certain cases such a formula would be sufficient as a second part
designation without inventing either a Latin name or a vernacular
collective name. For instance, when there are only a very few forms of a
particular cross, it might not be considered necessary to be able to
refer to the forms collectively, and a second part name would not then
be given. For example, _Rubus_ 'Merton Thornless,' when raised, was the
only form of the hybrid _R. rusticanus inermis_ × _thyrsiger_ to be put
into circulation, and it was not given a second part designation other
than the appropriate formula. On the whole, however, it is usually
desirable to have a second part, collective designation, rather than a
formula only. Whether such designation should be a Latin name or a
vernacular phrase, or both, depends on a number of factors which, as I
have said, are not yet fully worked out or appreciated. Broadly
speaking, if there are a large number of cultivars of a particular cross
and these cultivars form a well-marked group, distinct from other hybrid
groups in the genus, it is useful to have a vernacular designation for
general use, _e.g._ 'Bellingham Hybrids' for all cultivars of the cross
_Lilium Humboldtii_ × _pardalinum_. This purpose can, however, be
equally well served by a Latin name, _e.g. Camellia_ × _Williamsii_ for
all cultivars of the cross _C. japonica_ × _saluenensis_. Whichever
method is chosen, two points are of great importance. Firstly, if a
Latin name is given, it _must_ be accompanied by a Latin description.
Secondly a vernacular designation _must_ contain some such word as
Hybrids, Crosses, or the like, to distinguish it from a cultivar-name.
The practice, in some groups, of giving "straight" cultivar-names as
second part collective designations, followed by "var. so-and-so," is
condemned by the Code. Existing names of this kind, however, can easily
be brought into line by adding a word such as Hybrids or Grex to the
old, second part, cultivar-name, and omitting the "var." thus,
_Cattleya_ 'Fabia' var. 'Prince of Wales,' would become _C._ ('Fabia
Grex') 'Prince of Wales' (Grex can he abbreviated to G. if desired).
This alteration may seem over-pedantic, but if, in the naming of
cultivated hybrids, a clear distinction is not kept between second and
third part names, confusion, as I have pointed out, is likely to result.

I will finish this section on the naming of hybrids with one or two
additional points on the correct method of writing their names. Here are
the full names of three cultivated hybrids:--

   _Rubus_ (_rusticanus inermis_ X _thyrsiger_) 'Merton Thornless.'
   _Camellia_ X _Williamsii_ 'Donation.'
   Rose (Hybrid Tea) 'Richmond.'

The following points should be noted:--

(_a_) If a formula or a vernacular designation is used as a second part
name, it should be placed in brackets between the generic name and the
cultivar-name.

(_b_) If a Latin name is used as a second part name, and the hybrid is
between plants belonging to the same genus, a multiplication sign should
be placed between it and the generic name.

(_c_) The third part cultivar-name follows directly on the second part
name and is placed in single quotes, as for cultivar-names of
non-hybrids.

In many contexts it would not be necessary to write the second part name
at all, but if it is omitted, the cultivar-name, strictly speaking,
should be preceded by a multiplication sign, thus: _Camellia_ X
'Donation,' but it would be no great crime to omit it, except perhaps in
technical publications.


3. What Is the "Correct" Name for a Cultivar?

It is a painfully familiar fact that many cultivars are known by more
than one name, and that many cultivar-names have been applied to more
than one cultivar--although the position is not so bad as it is in the
case of botanical names! This multiplication of names is the inevitable
result of many people naming many plants over a period of many years. It
is a situation which we must accept and do our best to mitigate. The
Code has a number of necessarily rather complicated provisions aiming at
selecting the correct name for any cultivar. These provisions are
important mainly to the comparatively few horticulturists and botanists
who take on the unenviable job of sorting out the nomenclature of
cultivated plants, though the results of their labours affect us all.
The rules are set out fully in the Code, and here I will attempt only to
pick out one or two of the more important.

The Code lays down two basic principles; though, as we shall see, these
may be modified if undesirable name-changing can be avoided thereby.

(_a_) No name can be used if it does not conform to the various rules
laid down in the Code (including proper publication of the name, with a
description).

(_b_) If there are two or more names that conform with the Code, then
the _earliest_ name is the correct one; this is known technically as the
principle of priority.

Now, obviously, as happens with botanical names, the strict application
of priority might mean that a universally used name--say, Plum
'Victoria'--would have to be given up and replaced by a completely
unknown one. This is unthinkable, and, as in the Botanical Code, there
are clauses to prevent it happening. With cultivar-names, however, there
is a particular complication, which does not apply to botanical names.
The latter are all in Latin, whereas cultivar-names may be in many
languages. This means that a cultivar, raised in one country under a
name acceptable in that country, may be introduced into another country
where the original name is quite unpronounceable or otherwise
unsuitable. A new name is, of course, immediately invented by the
introducer, and clearly, in many cases, it is useless to try to make the
second country adopt the earlier, strictly correct, but unsuitable name.
The Code, therefore, allows the retention of the second name as what it
calls a "commercial synonym." Thus, Rose 'Permanent Wave' is a
commercial synonym in the United States for the Rose raised in Holland
as 'Mevrouw van Straaten van Nes.' In any formal list of Roses, both
names should be given, together with any other commercial synonyms that
may exist. The coining of commercial synonyms is not, of course, to be
encouraged, and should only be done if the original name is clearly
unsuitable for the new country. Frequently names are translated or
transliterated when a cultivar is introduced into another country, and
such a translation or transliteration is not regarded in the Code as a
_new_ name, but as the original name in another form; no difficulty,
therefore, arises as to priority in these particular cases.

Perhaps the most important section of the whole Code deals with the
_Registration_ of cultivar-names. In certain groups (_e.g._ Daffodils)
international registration schemes already exist, and it is urged that
further schemes, covering all important groups of cultivated plants,
should be established as soon as possible. The function of such
authorities would consist, primarily, of (1) registering new names and
ensuring that they are in accordance with the Code, and (2) preparing,
and keeping up to date, lists of cultivars in their groups. In addition,
the authorities would choose a particular publication as the
"starting-point" of the nomenclature in the group (so as to avoid
dipping too deeply into the past in search of ever earlier
cultivar-names), and would act as arbiters when a decision has to be
made between two or more widely used names for the same cultivar. There
is no doubt in the minds of those responsible for the Code that the
existence of internationally trusted and respected registration
authorities would do more than anything else to stabilize and simplify
the naming of cultivated plants. It will obviously take some time before
authorities can be set up for all--or even the majority--of important
groups, but the International Committee is doing its best to push ahead
quickly with this very important side of their work.

At the end of the Code there are sections dealing with certain special
categories such as re-selected and improved cultivars, con-varieties,
clones, apomicts and line-hybrids, which are of interest mainly to
specialists in breeding and taxonomic work on cultivated plants.

I hope I have said enough, in this short article, to convince readers of
the JOURNAL that the Code is of some interest to them if they want to
use the names of plants so that other gardeners, both here and abroad
can understand what they mean. The next step is to read the Code
itself--first the Summary and then the full text that follows it. No
doubt many who do so will be put off at first by the somewhat legal
language used. One can only repeat the time-honoured defence by lawyers
when similarly attacked--that to avoid ambiguity experience has shown
that a certain amount of jargon is necessary! We have tried hard, in the
Code, to keep it to a minimum.

The International Committee is anxious to receive suggestions for
improving the Code, so that they can be discussed at the next
Horticultural Congress. All such suggestions should be sent to the
Secretary of the Committee (DR. H. R. FLETCHER), c/o The Royal
Horticultural Society, Vincent Square, London, S.W.1.

In the Historical Introduction to the Code (written by MR. W. T. STEARN,
Secretary of the International Committee, during the production of the
Code), Fellows of The Royal Horticultural Society will note, I trust
with pride, the important part played by their Society, in cooperation
with many other bodies and individuals in many parts of the world, in
the preparation, drafting and publication of the Code. I hope that they
will feel it their not unpleasant duty to make themselves and others
familiar with the provisions of the Code, to follow its rules and
recommendations when they use the names of cultivated plants, and to let
the Secretary of the Committee know how they think it might be improved.
Article I of the Code states that its aim is "to promote uniformity,
accuracy and fixity ... with the minimum disturbance of existing
nomenclature"--an aim surely close to the heart of every Fellow of The
Royal Horticultural Society.

I am grateful to MR. A. SIMMONDS, MR. W. T. STEARN AND MR. P. M. SYNGE
for help in the preparation of this article.

[Illustration: Exhibit at the Harvest Show of the Massachusetts
Horticultural Society--Boston, Mass. October, 1953.]



Attendance Register, Rochester, N. Y., 1953


   Ontario, Canada
     L. K. Devitt, Toronto

   Connecticut
     Paul C. Daniels, Lakeville
     Arthur H. Graves, Wallingford

   District of Columbia
     Beth Ford, Washington
     Mr. & Mrs. E. L. Ford, Washington
     Miss Gretta Wilson, Washington

   Georgia
     Lou Kahn, Albany
     Mr. & Mrs. Wm. J. Wilson, Fort Valley

   Illinois
     Mr. & Ms. R. B. Best, Eldred
     C. R. Blyth, Urbana
     J. C. McDaniel, Urbana
     Mr. & Mrs. Royal Oakes, Bluffs

   Indiana
     John Andrews, Marion
     Mr. & Mrs. Ralph Andrews, Marion
     Mr. & Mrs. K. Dooley, Marion
     Ray Kaufman, Peru
     E. W. Pape, Marion
     Carl Prell, South Bend
     Ford Wallick, Peru
     J. F. Wilkinson, Rockport

   Iowa
     Roy E. Ferguson, Center Point
     E. F. Huen, Eldora
     Ira M. Kyhl, Sabula
     Wm. Rohrbacher, Iowa City
     D. C. Snyder, Center Point

   Maryland
     Dr. & Mrs. H. L. Crane, Hyattsville
     C. T. David, College Park
     Dr. G. F. Gravatt, Beltsville
     Dr. & Mrs. J. W. McKay & family, College Park
     Mr. & Mrs. Herbert Negus, Hyattsville
     Mrs. C. A. Reed, Takoma Park

   Massachusetts
     Mr. & Mrs. Andrew Kerr, Plymouth

   Michigan
     Mrs. Alpha Allen, Jackson
     Howard Allen, Jackson
     Gilbert Becker, Climax
     W. M. Beckert, Jackson
     R. M. Burr, Ann Arbor
     F. J. Keplinger, Farwell
     G. J. Korn, Kalamazoo

   New Jersey
     P. H. Cox, Bloomfield

   New York
     Mr. & Mrs. Victor Brook, Rochester
     Ernest Brooks, Monroe
     Wm. G. Brooks, Monroe
     David Caldwell, Syracuse
     Mrs. L. M. Caldwell, Canastota
     Mrs. S. H. Graham, Ithaca
     Prof. L. H. MacDaniels, Ithaca
     Mr. & Mrs. George Salzer, Rochester
     Rodman Salzer, Rochester
     George Slate, Geneva
     Jay L. Smith, Chester
     Dr. Mary B. Spahr, Ithaca

   North Carolina
     W. J. Ellis, Advance

   Ohio
     George E. Craig, Dundas
     Mr. & Mrs. John Davidson, Xenia
     Barbara and Doris Dowell, Massillon
     Dr. & Mrs. L. L. Dowell, Massillon
     John A. Gerstenmaier, Massillon
     Dr. & Mrs. Edward A. Grad, Cincinnati
     Frank M. Kintzel, Cincinnati
     Shumzo Kodera, Columbus & Tokyo, Japan
     Mr. & Mrs. P. E. Machovina & Family, Columbus
     Christ Pataky, Mansfield
     Mr. & Mrs. Raymond Silvis, Massillon
     Wm, C. Silvis, Massillon
     Mr. & Mrs. A. W. Weaver, Toledo
     Emmet Yoder, Smithville

   Pennsylvania
     R. P. Allaman, Harrisburg
     Wm. S. Clarke, Jr., State College
     Mrs. Helen Davis, Allentown
     Mr. & Mrs. E. B. Miller, Hazelton
     John Rick, Reading
     Mr. & Mrs. Wm. S. Weaver, Macungie

   Tennessee
     Roy Chase, Knoxville
     Spencer B. Chase, Knoxville

   Virginia
     Jesse O. Diller, Arlington
     Mr. & Mrs. H. R. Gibbs & Family, Linden
     Mr. & Mrs. H. F. Stoke, Roanoke

   West Virginia
     R. W. Pease, Morgantown

   Wisconsin
     L. W. Coulson, Slinger



Northern Nut Growers Association

Membership List

October 1, 1952, to September 30, 1953

    *Life member
   **Honorary member
    §Contributing member
    +Sustaining member


 ALABAMA
+Hiles, Edward L., Hiles Repair Shop, Loxley
 Long, Pope M., Box 33, Cordova

 ARKANSAS
 Croley, Victor A., Route 4, Box 45, Green Forest
 Crozier, O. N., Route 2, Searcy
 Schlan, Mrs. Agnes, Route 2, Mountainburg
 Sibley, Mrs. J. W., Sulphur Springs
 Vaile, Joseph E., Dept. of Horticulture, University of Arkansas,
   Fayetteville
 Wade, Clifton, Forest Ave., Fayetteville
 Wylie, W. D., Dept. of Entomology, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

 BELGIUM
 Vanderwaeren, R., Horticultural Adviser, Bierbeekstraat 217, Korbeek-Lo

 CALIFORNIA
 Andrew, Col. James W., Box 12, Hamilton, A. F. B.
 Bridges, Mrs. H. G., R. F. D. No. 4, Box 60, Tulore
+Buck, E. H., 16 N. Portola, Three Arch Bay, South Laguna
 Darling, Mrs. Leah, Wilsona Route, Box 313, Lancaster
 Fowler, Floyd L., Route 2, Box 5636B, Redding
 Fulcher, E. C., 5707 Fulcher Ave., North Hollywood
 Gililland, Guy S., L. V. S. R. Box 342, Lucerne Valley
+Haig, Dr. Thomas R., 3021 Highland Drive, Route 2, Box 2357, Carlsbad
 Jeffers, Chaplain Harold W., U. S. N. A. S., Los Alamitos, Long Beach
+Kemple, W. H., 216 W. Ralston St., Ontario
 Pentler, Dr. C. F., 1322 Martin Ave., Palo Alto
 Pozzi, P. H., 2875 S. Dutton Ave., Santa Rosa
+Serr, Dr. E. F., Agricultural Experiment Station, Davis
 Stewart, Douglas N., 633 F Street, Davis
 Welby, Harry S., 500 Buchanan St., Taft

 CANADA
 Blyth, Donald, Blythwood Farm, Guelph, Ontario
 Clarkson, A. G., R. R. 1, Islington, Ontario
 Collens, Adam H., 42 Seaton St., Toronto 2, Ontario
 Devitt, L. K., 409 Armadale Ave., Toronto, Ontario
 English, H. A., Box 153, Duncan, British Columbia
 Gellatly, J. U., Box 19, Westbank, British Columbia
 Harrhy, Ivor H., Route 7, St. Thomas, Ontario
 Henderson, George, R. R. No. 7, Guelph, Ontario
 Holmes, B. T., 320 Deloraine Ave., Toronto, Ontario
 Housser, Levi, Route 1, Beamsville, Ontario
 Kimmerly, Fred A., R. R. No. 3, Cottam, Ontario
 Kimmerly, Haven E., R. R. No. 2, Harrow, Ontario
+Lefevre, H. E., 354 St. Catharine St., East; Montreal 18, Quebec
 Lossing, Elgin, Norwich, Ontario
*Neilson, Mrs. Ellen, 5 Macdonald Ave, Guelph, Ontario
 Papple, Elton E., Route 1, Cainsville, Ontario
 Porter, Gordon, R. R. No. 2, Harrow, Ontario
 Sheppard, H. H., Box 46, Queenston, Ontario
 Smith, Edward A., Box 6, Sparta, Ontario
+Snazelle, Robert, Forest Nursery, Route 5, Charlottetown, Prince Edward
   Island
 Trayling, E. J., 509 Richard St., Vancouver, British Columbia
 Wagner, A. S., Delhi, Ontario
+Walker, J. W., McCarthy & McCarthy, 330 University Ave., Toronto 1,
  Ontario
 Wharton, H. W., Route 2, Guelph, Ontario
 White, Peter, 30 Pear Ave., Toronto 5, Ontario
 Willis, A. R., Route 1, Royal Oak, Vancouver Island, British Columbia
 Young, A. L., Brooks, Alberta

 COLORADO
 Boyd, A., 1232 Clayton, Denver
+Forbes, J. E., Julesburg
 Lieb, Mrs. Henry H., 3195 Gray St., Denver
 McKinstry, Blair G., Julesburg
 Morrison, Mrs. Doris E., Carr
 Stoll, Harland, 3070 Pierce, Denver 14

 CONNECTICUT
 Ayling, Mrs. Charles L., Foothills, Washington
 Bennett, George S., Southbury
 Corcoran, H. F., The International Silver Co., 169 Colony St., Meriden
 David, Alexander M., 480 S. Main St., West Hartford
 Deming, Miss Charlotte, P. O. Box 403, Litchfield
 Deming, Hawthorne, Hamilton Lane, Darien
**Deming, Dr. W. C, Litchfield
 Frueh, Alfred J., Route 1, Sharon
+Graves, Dr. Arthur H., P. O. Box 129, Wallingford
 Grebosky, Joseph L.'s Nursery, 50 Taylor Ave., South Norwalk 17
 Hapgood, Miss Dorothy A., 745 Farmington Ave., West Hartford
 Henry, David S., Blue Hills Farm, Route 2, Wallingford
 Howe, Mrs. Paul, Umpawang Hill, R. F. D. No. 1, West Redding
*Huntington, A. M., Stanerigg Farms, Bethel
 King, Mrs. Una, 57 Meadowbrook Road, West Hartford
 Newcomer, Dr. Earl, Storrs
*Newmarker, Adolph, R. R. No. 1, Rockville
 Nienstaedt, Dr. Hans, Conn. Agr., Expt. Station, P. O. Box 1106,
  New Haven 4
 Pratt, George D., Jr., Bridgewater
 Schukoske, John A., Route 2, Box 257, Saybrook Road, Middletown
 White, George E., R. R. No. 2, Andover

 DELAWARE
 Brugmann, Elmer W., 108C Thomas Drive, Monroe Park, Wilmington
 Keller, Walt C., Rice Farms, Felton
+Logue, R. F., General Manager, Andelot, Inc., 2098 du Pont Building,
  Wilmington

 DENMARK
 Butzow, O., 49 Bredgade, Copenhagen
 Grandjean, Julio, Hillerod
 Knuth, Count F. M., Knuthenborg, Bandholm
 Reventlow, Johan Otto, Damgaard, Fredericia
 Sørenson, Director K. Kaae, Dyrehavevej 22, Klampenborg

 DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
 American Potash Institute, Inc., 1102 16th St., N. W., Washington
 Curtis, Miss Diane, 1903 Kalorama Road, N. W., Washington
 Ford, Edwin L., 3634 Austin St., S. E., Washington 20
+Hale, A. C., FOA-STEM to Thailand, c/o Dept. of State Mail Room,
  Washington, D. C.
 Reed, Mrs. Clarence A., 7309 Piney Branch Road, Washington 12
 Woycik, Dr. Peter W., 1835 Eye St., N. W., Washington

 ECUADOR
 Daniels, The Honorable Paul C., American Ambassador, Quito
 O'Rourke, Prof. F. L., Tropical Agr. Expt. Station, Pichilinque,
  c/o U. S. Consul, Guaycil


 ENGLAND
 Wood, J. F., Moor Orchard, North Honiton, Devon

 FLORIDA
+Avant, C. A., 960 N. W. Tenth Ave., Miami
+Estill, Miss Gertrude, 153 Navarre Drive, Miami Springs
+Holmes, Harry A., P. O. Box 323, Boca Raton

 GEORGIA
 Bixler, Dr. H. H., 134 Superior Ave., Decatur
 Cannon, J. W., Jr., Box 388, Cordele
 R. E. Funsten Co., Arthur O. Sandison, P. O. Box 1046, Albany
 Gibbs, Robert I., 1007 Clifton Road, N. E., Atlanta 6
+Hardy, Max B., Leeland Farms, P. O. Box 128, Leesburg
 Hunter, Dr. H. Reid, 561 Lakeshore Drive N. E., Atlanta
 Kahn, Lou, P. O. Box 1046, Albany
 Noland, S. C., Skyland Farms, Box 1747, Atlanta 1
 Sasseville, Ezra, M., 605 Rhodes Building, Atlanta
 Wallace, Clifford L., Route 1, Riverdale
 Wilson, William J., North Anderson Ave., Fort Valley

 HAWAII
 Keaau Orchard, John F. Cross, Manager, Hilo

 HONG KONG
 Wang, P. W., China Prod. Trading Corp., 6 Des Voeux Road

 IDAHO
+Bailey, Robert G., 332 Main St., Lewiston
 Clarkson, Ernest V., R. F. D. No. 2, Jerome
 Dryden, Lynn, Peck
 Hazelbaker, Calvin, Rt. 2, Box 382, Lewiston
 Horn, Anton S., 920 N. 20th St., Boise
 Ingle, Jack, Mountain Home
 Kindall, Mrs. Leslie L., Route 3, Boise

 ILLINOIS
 Allbright, R. D., Allbright Nurseries, 4287 Western Ave., Western Springs
 Allen, Theodore R., R. R. No. 1, Delevan
 Anderson, Ralph W., R. F. D. No. 3, Morris
+Anthony, A. B., Route No. 3, Sterling
 Armel, Eli, R. F. D. No. 3, Mount Sterling
 Baber, Adin, Kansas
 Ballard, Thomas E., Rural Route, Carrollton
 Barrow, J. M., P. O. Box 209, Urbana
§Best, R. B., Columbiana Seed Co., Eldred
 Best, Mrs. R. B., Columbiana Seed Co., Eldred
 Best, Richard C., Eldred
 Best, Robert L., Eldred
 Best, Virgil, R. R. No. 4, Mattoon
 Blaine, Homer H., 901 White Oak Road, Bloomington
+Blyth, Colin R., Mathematics Dept., University of Illinois, Urbana
*Boll, Herschel L., 2 Horticultural Field Laboratory, University of
  Illinois, Urbana
 Booth, Earl, R. F. D. No. 2, Carrollton
 Borchsenius, Wayne L., R. F. D. No. 2, Sheridan
 Brock, Arthur S., 1733 N. McVicker Ave., Chicago 39
 Canterbury, C. E., Cantrall
 Carlson, Dr. R. J., 320 Sherman Ave., Macomb
 Carvel, Mayo, R. F. D. No. 1, Golconda
 Chandler, S. C., 607 W. College St., Carbondale
 Churchill, Woodford M., 4323 Oakenwald Ave., Chicago 15
 Clark, Thomas F., Northern Regional Research Laboratory, Peoria
 Colby, Dr. Arthur S., Department of Horticulture, University of Illinois,
  Urbana
 Corzine, Troy F., Dongola
 Crabb, Richard, Box 306, Wheaton
+Dahlberg, Albert A., D. D. S., 5756 Harper Aw., Chicago 37.
+Daum, Philip A., 203 N. Sixth St., Carrollton
 Deaner, Willard G., R. F. D. No. I, Mendota
 Decker, Honas H., R. F. D., Rutland
 Diener, Menno A., Route 2, Lovington
 Dietrich, Ernest, Route No. 2, Dundas
 Dintleman, L. F., State Street Road, Belleville
 Dopheide, Henry A., 1331 Jackson St., Quincy
 Eigsti, Dr. O. J., Funk Brothers Seed Co., Bloomington
 Floreth, W. H., Carrollton
 Fordtran, E. H., Route No. 3, Box 92, Palatine
 Frey, Frank H., 2315 West 108th Place, Chicago 43
 Frey, Mrs. Frank H., 2315 West 108th Place, Chicago 43
+Fuller, Owen H., 1005 Oneida St., Joliet
 Gerardi, Louis, Route No. 1, Caseyville
 Gettings, William A., R. R. No. 1, Eldred
 Glidden, Nansen, West Lincoln Highway, De Kalb
 Govaia, R. M., O. D. Room 19, Greer Block, Vandalia
 Graham, George W., Rural Route, Carrollton
 Grefe, Ben, Route No. 4, Box 22, Nashville
 Griffith, Chris, West Filmore St., R. F. D., Vandalia
 Hall, E. L., R. F. D. No. 1, Drew Ave., Hinsdale
 Hall, William A., M. D., 217 Pacific Road, Forrestal Village, North
  Chicago
 Hazelwood, Everett, Hillview
§Heberlein, Edwin W., Route No. 1, Box 72A, Roscoe
 Helmle, Mrs. Herman C., 526 S. Grand Ave., W., Springfield
+Hockenyos, G. L., 213 E. Jefferson St., Springfield
 Howard, Frank S., Rollins Road at Melrose, Route No. 1, Round Lake
 Hoyle, Mrs. B. G., McNabb
 Illyes, Dr. R. O., 1302 Lexington Ave., Lawrenceville
+Junck, Adolph E., Route No. 1, Jerseyville
 Kammarmeyer, Glenn, 1711 E. 67th St., Chicago 49
+Kreider, Ralph, Jr., Route No. 1, Hammond
 Krug, Carl B., Route No. 2, El Paso
 Kruse, William, c/o Honey Lee Apiaries, Godfrey
 Laatz, Mrs. Lenore, R. F. D. No. 3, Morris
 Langdoc, Mrs. Mildred Jones, P. O. Box 136, Erie
 Leighton, L. C., Arthur
+Marsh, Victor W., Aledo
 Marsh, Mrs. W. V., Route No. 2, Aledo
 Massey, Paul E., Box 202, Caseyville
 McDaniel, J. C., 104 Horticultural Field Laboratory, University of
  Illinois, Urbana
 McDaniel, J. C., Jr., 1203 W. California Ave., Urbana
 McKee, Mrs. Myrtice, Mount Morris
 Mohr, Victor C., Route No. 1, Box 21, Dallas City
+Musgrave, Carl, 5200 S. Laflin St., Chicago 9
 Newman, Roy, P. O. Box 51, Martinsviile
§Oakes, Royal, Bluffs
+Opat, Joseph C., Opat Chinchilla Fur Ranch, R. R. No. 3, Hinsdale
 Peers, Frank B., Box 321, Highland Park
 Pierson, Stuart E., Carrollton
 Pond, Merton, Bluffs
 Raab, Irvin M., R. R. No. 4, Belleville
 Reid, Robert J., 1137 Winona St., Chicago 40
+Reisch, Louis C., Route No. 4, Carrollton
 Richie, Robert E., Carrollton
 Robbins, W. J., 885 N. LaSalle St., Chicago 10
 Schmisseur, L. R., Caseyville
 Schubert, Kenneth, Route No. 1, Millstadt
 Seng, Charles W. & Son, 920 Lafayette Ave., Box 247, Mattoon
 Sokolowski, F. W., M. D. 2503 Donald Ave., Alton
+Sonnemann, W. F., Experimental Gardens, Vandalia
 Sparks, Maurice E., 1508 Ash, Lawrenceville
 Spencer, H. Dwight, 275 W. Decatur St., Decatur
 Tucker, Lowell R., 607 W. Mill St., Carbondale
 Twenhafel, Paul, Gorham
 Ullrich, W. D., 108 W. McClure, Peoria 5
 Vogt, William G., Greene County National Bank Bldg., Carrollton
 Voiles, William, Eldred
 Vortman, Elmer, Route No. 1, Bluffs
 Wahle, Fred, Route No. 1, Fieldon
 Whitford, A. M., Farina
 Wright, William W., 101 Taylor St., Vandalia
 Young, Mrs. Hugh E., Maple Springs Farm, R. F. D., Ashton
 Zethmayr, Gordon, Route No. 1, Box 130, West Chicago

 INDIANA
 Andrew, John, Matter Park Road, Marion
+Andrew, Ralph, Matter Park Road, Marion
 Aster Nut Products Co., Inc., George Oberman, Manager, 1004 Main St.,
  Evansville 8
 Babcock, Dan, R. R. No. 14, Box 342, Indianapolis 44
 Barnhart, M. A., Delphi
 Bauer, Paul J., 123 S. 29th St., Lafayette
 Bird, E. C., 160 Federal Building, South Bend
 Boller, G. Evert, Route No. 6, Box 101, Marion
 Bolten, Fred, Route No. 3, Linton
 Boyer, Clyde C., Nabb
 Buchner, Dr. Doster, 533 W. Washington Boulevard, Fort Wayne 2
+Clark, C. M., C. M. Clark & Sons Nurseries, Route No. 2, Middletown
 Cole, Charles W., Jr., Madison Road, Route No. 6, Box 112A, Marion
 Cunningham, Earl E., 612 E. 4th St., Anderson
 Deeg, E. E., R. R. No. 9, Koring Road, Evansville
 Doeden, Johan, R. F. D. No. 4, Attica
+Dooley, Kenneth A., Route No. 2, Marion
 Dougherty, Paul B., 4319 S. Harmon St., Marion
 Eagles, A. E., The Eagles Orchards, Wolcottville
+Fateley, Nolan W., 26 Central Ave., Franklin
 Glaser, Peter, Route No. 9, Box 328, Koering Road, Evansville
+Grater, A. E., Route No. 2, Shipshewana
 Gross, Mrs. Margaret E., 808 Fenton Road, Marion
 Harrell, Franklin M., Route No. 1, Griffith
§Hirschman, J. Clifton, 4141 E. 62nd St., Indianapolis 20
 Jasperson, Marion E., R. R. No. 5, Box 55, Indianapolis 3
 Johnson, Raymond M., 8605 Manderiey Drive, Indianapolis
 Kaufman, Ray, Route No. 4, Peru
 Kem, Dr. Charles E., R. R. No. 3, Box 52, Richmond
 Kenworthy, Owen, R. F. D. No. 3, Crown Point
 Kestle, Margaret K., John Deere Store, Winamac
 Kyburz, Benjamin E., Route No. 1, Idaville
 La Rue, A. R., Box 147, Bloomington
 Layman, J. C., R. F. D. No. 1, Peru
 Lennon, Robert E., R. R. No. 1, Warren
 Letsinger, J. E., 1202 Lower Huntington Road, Fort Wayne 6
 Lukemeyer, Edwin J., 825 Line St., Evansville
 Moldenhauer, Carl J., R. R. No. 7, Huntington
 Neimeyer, Harry D., West Lebanon
 Newman, Jesse D., Jr., R. R. No. 2, Culver
 Oare, William T., 650 Associate Building, South Bend 1.
 Palmer, Frank, Jr., 1011 Donmoyer, South Bend
+Pape, Edward W., Route No. 2, Marion
§Prell, Carl F., 1414 E. Colfax Ave., South Bend 17
 Randolph, Frederick F., Route No. 1, Edinburg
 Reed, Frank, Route No. 1, Box 227, Daleville
 Rehm, Walter T., R. R. No. 4, Logansport
 Richards, E. E., 2912 York Road, South Bend
 Risko, A., Tioga Orchards, Monticello
 Rodenbeck, Miss Ruby, R. R. No. 2, Losantville
+Russell, A. M., Jr., 2721 Marine St., South Bend 14
 Schram, Emil, Route No. 1, Peru
 Schreiber, Ralph, 245 Cherry St., New Albany
 Shafer, John, Jr., 3031 N. Roselawn Drive, Logansport
 Shannon, Charles, R. F. D. No. 2, Box 324, Greenwood
 Skinner, Dr. Charles H., Route No. 1, Thorntown
 Sly, Miss Barbara, Route No. 3, Rockport
 Sly, Donald R., Route No. 3, Rockport
 Sly, Miss Lucinda Beth, Route No. 3, Rockport
 Summers, Floyd, R. F. D., No. 2, Box 68, Winchester
 Talbott, John E., R. F. D. No. 3, Linton
§Wallick, Ford, Route No. 4, Peru
 Ward, W. B., Horticulture Building, Purdue University, Lafayette
 Welton, Forrest O., R. F. D. No. 1, Burns City
+Westerhouse, George F., East Ohio St., Monticello
 Wichman, Robert P., Route No. 3, Washington
 Wilkinson, J. F., Indiana Nut Nursery, Route No. 3, Rockport
 Wittick, Eugene C., Route No. 4, Box 68A, Valparaiso
 Wood, Darl F., 201 Miami Club Drive, Mishawaka
 Woodward, Howard, Route No. 3, Syracuse

 IOWA
 Berhow, Seward, Berhow Nurseries, Huxley
 Bird, C. A., Box 66, Odebolt
 Boice, R. H., Route No. 1, Nashua
 Cole, Edward P., 419 Chestnut St., Atlantic
 Eads, Carroll, R. F. D., Miles
 Eller, W. E., Eldora
 Ferguson, Albert B., Center Point
+Ferris, Wayne, Hampton
 Goettler, Fred, R. F. D. No. 1, Bellevue
 Goodwin, William T., 1121 S. Riverside Drive, Iowa City
 Gray, Kenny, Sabula
 Greig, John E., Box 157, Estherville
 Hoke, Russell O., Route No. 2, Anamosa
 Huen, E. F., Eldora
+Inter-State Nurseries, Hamburg
+Kaser, Mrs. J. D., Winterset
 Kern, Dr. W. R., 741 Rundell St., Iowa City
 Kosek, Frank J., 87 Sixteenth Ave., S. W., Cedar Rapids
 Kyhl, Ira M., Box 236, Sabula
 Lysinger, Addison, Lamoni
+Martzahn, Frank A., Route No. 1, Davenport
 McLeran, Harold F., Mount Pleasant
 Meyer, Clemens, Route No. 1, West Union
 Neprash, Bob, Nursery, Route No. 3, Cedar Rapids 5
 Orr, J. Allen, 4000 West Fourth St., Sioux City 3
 Rohrbacher, Dr. William, 811 E. College St., Iowa City
 Schlagenbusch Brothers, Route No. 2, Fort Madison
 Snyder, D. C., Center Point
 Steffen, R. F., P. O. Box 1302, Sioux City 2
+Wade, Miss Ida May, Route No. 3, La Porte City
 Welch, G. L., Mount Arbor Nurseries, Shenandoah
+White, Herbert L., Box 264, Woodbine
+White, Rev. L. P., Greeley
 Williams, R. Alan, 1990 Eighth Ave., Marion
 Williams, Wendell V., Route No. 1, Dansville


 JAPAN
 Deming, Olcott, U. S. Embassy, Tokyo
 Yamato Seed & Implement Co., Tokyo
 Yoshizaki, Chiaki, 17 Ichi Bancho Chiyodaku, Tokyo
  (International Collaboration of Farmers Association)

 KANSAS
 Baker, Fred C., Troy
 Borst, Frank E., 1704 Shawnee St., Leavenworth
§Breidenthal, Willard J., Riverview State Bank, Box 296; 7th
  and Central, Kansas City
 Funk, M. D., 600 W. Paramore St., Topeka
 Gray, Dr. Clyde, 1015 Central Ave., Horton
 Harris, Ernest, Box 20, Wellsville
 Jackson, Walter, Osage City
 Leavenworth Nurseries, Carl Holman, Proprietor, Route No. 3, Leavenworth
 Mondero, John, Lansing
+Pittser, L. R., Oswego
 Stanley, G. E., 235 Ward Parkway, Kansas City
 Starke, M. F., Hawthorne Place, Hiawatha
 Thielenhaus, W. F., Route No. 1, Buffalo
 Underwood, Jay, Riverside Nursery, Uniontown
+Wales, Max, 1534 Macvicar St., Topeka

 KENTUCKY
 Alves, Robert H., 302 Clay St., Henderson
 Armstrong, W. D., Western Kentucky Experiment Station, Princeton
 Collier, Leroy, 1514 Smallhouse Road, Bowling Green
 R. E. Funsten Co., Robert Walker, P. O. Box 142, Henderson
 Hopson, J. R., Route No. 2, Cadiz
 Magill, W. W., Horticulture Department, University of Kentucky, Lexington
+Miller, Julien C., 220 Sycamore Drive, Paducah
 Moss, Dr. C. A., Box 237, Williamsburg
+Rouse, Sterling, Route No. 1, Box 70, Florence
 Siler, Robert W., Box 241, Williamsburg
 Stone, Dr. Thomas, Mayfield
 Taliaferro, Philip, Box 85, Erlanger
 Tatum, W. G., Route No. 4, Lebanon
 Usrey, Robert, Star Route, Mayfield
 Widmer, Dr. Nelson D., Lebanon
 Yost, John M., Pikeville

 LOUISIANA
 Crow, John, R. F. D., Coushatta
 Hammar, Dr. Harald E., U. S. D. A. Chemical Laboratory, 606 Court House,
  Shreveport 47
 Lowrey, Brunner E., P. O. Box 168, Mansfield
 Perrault, Mrs. Henry D., Route No. 1, Box 13, Natchitoches
 Smith, Dr. C. L., U. S. D. A. Pecan Laboratory, 607 Court House,
  Shreveport 47

 MAINE
 Hamilton, Mrs. Benjamin P., Waterboro, York County

 MARYLAND
 Barrett, Harvey E., P. E. 17 Maple Ave., Catonsville 28
 Berry, Frederick H., Div. of Forest Pathology, Plant Industry Station,
  Beltsville
 Crane, Dr. H. L., U. S. D. A., Plant Industry Station, Beltsville
 Dengler, Harry William, Extension Forester, University of Maryland,
  College Park
 Diller, Dr. Jesse D., U. S. D. A., Plant Industry Station, Beltsville
+Eastern Shore Nurseries, Inc., P. O. Box 743, Easton
§Gravatt, Dr. G. F., Div. of Forest Pathology, U. S. D. A., Plant Industry
  Station, Beltsville
 Hughes, Clinton K., Potomac Ave., Braddock Heights
 Jones, George R., R. F. D. No. 2, Aberdeen
 Kaan, Dr. Helen W., 8335 Grubb Road, Silver Spring
 Kemp, Homer S., Bountiful Ridge Nurseries, Princess Anne
 McKay, Dr. J. W., Plant Industry Station, Beltsville
+Negus, Mrs. Herbert, 5031 55th Ave., Roger Heights
+Porter, John J., 1199 The Terrace, Hagerstown
 Rayner Brothers, Salisbury
+Shamer, Dr. Maurice E., 3300 West North Ave., Baltimore 16
 Swipp, Stanley W., 4218 71st Ave., Landover Hills

 MASSACHUSETTS
 Babbitt, Howard S. 221 Dawes Ave., Pittsfield
 Barthelmes, George A., Route No. 1, Leicester
+Bradbury, Rear Admiral H. G., Hospital Point, Beverly
 Brooks, Henry H., Boxboro
 Brown, Daniel L., Esq., 60 State Street, Boston
+Bump, Albert H., P. O. Box 275, Brewster
+Davenport, S. Lothrop, 24 Creeper Hill Road, North Grafton
 Desfarges, Osias J., Granby
+Faulkner, Luther W., R. F. D., Westford
 Fitts, Walter H., 39 Baker St., Foxboro
+Ganz, Robert Norton, M. D., 262 Beacon St., Boston
 Gardner, E. E., Box C, Station A, Boston 18
 Kendall, Henry P., Moose Hill Farm, Sharon
+Kerr, Andrew, Lock Box 242, Barnstable
 La Beau, Henry A., North Hoosac Road, Williamstown
 Lincoln, Roger N., 8 Stagecoach Road, Ware
 Rice, Horace J., 515 Main St., Wilbraham
*Russell, Mrs. Newton H., 12 Burnett Ave., South Hadley
 Stewart, O. W., 75 Milton. Ave., Hyde Park 36
 Vance, Robert G., M. D., 262 Beacon St., Boston 16
 Viera, Manuel, Main Street, Vineyard Haven
+Wellman, Sargent H., Esq., Windridge, Topfield
 Wood, Miss Louise B., Pocasset, Cape Cod
 York, Stanley E., 480 Branch St., Mansfield

 MICHIGAN
 Allen, Howard H., 2925 Francis Street, Jackson
 Andersen, Charles, Route 2, Box 236, Scottville
 Armstrong, Robert J., M. D., Oak Shadows Farm, Route 8, Box 83, Kalamazoo
 Auringer, Mrs. Gjertine T., 4441 Steward Road, Metamora
 Barlow, Alfred L., 13079 Flanders Ave., Detroit 5
+Becker, Gilbert, Climax
 Becker, John Andrew, Climax
+Beckert, W. M., Michigan Dept. of Conservation, 408 Kalamazoo Plaza,
  Lansing 33.
 Biackwell, Norman A., 17 Oakdale Boulevard, Pleasant Ridge
 Boylan, P. B., Route No. 1, Cloverdale
 Breitmeyer, Howard T., 12955 Dale Ave., Detroit 23
 Bruce, Stanford P., 4016 Kendall, Detroit 38
 Bumler, Malcolm, 2500 Dickerson, Detroit 15
 Burgart, Harry, Michigan Nut Nursery, Box 33, Union City
 Burgess, E. H., Burgess Seed & Plant Co., 67 E. Battle Creek St.,
  Galesburg
 Burr, Redmond M., 320 S. Fifth Ave., Ann Arbor
 Chester, Dr. William P., 742 Maccabees Building, Detroit 2
 Corsan, H. H., Route No. 1, Hillsdale
+Dennison, Clare, 4224 Avery, Detroit 8
+Desmet, Mrs. Agnes, 14450 Houston Ave., Detroit 5
 Dillow, Harold R., P. O. Box 479, Franklin
 Driver, Louis, 9151 Silverside Drive, Silver Lake, South Lyon
 Dronka, Joseph, 19256 Gable St., Detroit 34
 Emerson, Ralph W., 161 Cortland Ave., Highland Park 3
 Goodfellow, James, Secord Lake Road, Leonard
+Grindstaff, Mary I. Haynes, 1309 Jones Drive, Ann Arbor
 Groos, Alfred P., Route No. 1, Gladstone
 Hagelshaw, W. J., Route No. 1, Box 394, Galesburg
+Hay, Francis H., Ivanhoe Place, Lawrence
 Hubbard, William G., Box 146, Hudsonville
 Johnson, Leonard A., 620 E. Buno Road, Route 3, Milford
 Keplinger, Frank J., Farwell
 Klarr, Mrs. B. L., R. R. No. 2, West Nine Mile Road, Northville
 Klever, Edward F., Route No. 2, Grant
 Korn, G. J., R. D. No. 2, Dorr
 Krueger, Henry R., South River Road, St. Clair
 Law, Joseph W., North Branch
 Lee, Michael, P. O. Box 16, Milford
 Lemke, Edwin W., 62277 Campground Road, Washington
 Long, Louis C., 6117 State Road, Goodrich
 Maycock, Harry J., 580 Fairground St., Plymouth
 Michigan Nut Growers Association, A. J. Barlow, Secretary, 13079
  Flanders Ave., Detroit 5
+Miller, Louis, 417 N. Broadway, Cassopolis
 Nitschke, Robert A., Tilbury Place, Birmingham
 Prushek, E., Route No. 3, Niles
 Ricky, Lowell L., 1009-A Birch St., East Lansing
 Riopel, Mrs. Irene M., 8700 Second Boulevard, Detroit 2
 Robbins, Walton T., 6495 Waldon Road, Clarkston
 Simons, Rev. R. E., Flat Rock
+Somers, Lee, Route No. 1, Perrinton
 Strong, Forrest C., 1213 N. Walnut St., Lansing 6.
 Sweet, Dale V., 530 S. Capitol, Lansing
+Tate, D. L., 959 Westchester Way, Birmingham
 Tolles, G. S., Route No. 5, South Haven
 Ullrey, L. E., Route No. 1, Vicksburg
 Wieber, Giles E., Fowler
 Windon, Maurice, Route No. 9, Kalamazoo
+Wyman, Miles L., 40 North St., Highland Park 3


 MINNESOTA
+Dubbels, Charley, Elgin
 Frame, William G., R. R. No. 4, Northfield
 Hodgson, R. E., Dept, of Agriculture, S. E. Experiment Station, Waseca
 Hormel, Jay C., Austin
 Lamberson, G. E., Route No. 4, Warren
 Law, Ken, Jewell Nurseries, Inc., Lake City
 Luedtke, H. F., Box 287, St. Cloud
 Sanders, Parker D., Fifth & Jefferson Sts., Redwood Falls
 Wedge, Don, R. F. D. No. 2, Albert Lea
 Weir, T. H., Fruit Breeding Farm, Excelsior
+Weschke, Carl, 96 S. Wabasha St., St. Paul


 MISSISSIPPI
+Golding, W. T., Stewart
+Gossard, Atherton C., U. S. Horticultural Field Station, Route No. 6,
  Meridian
+King, Mrs. John Andrew, Tolten Road, Lodi
 Meyer, James R., Delta Branch Experiment Station, Stoneville


 MISSOURI
 Bauman, Ivan T., Bauman Brokerage Co., 4350 Tait Ave., St. Louis
 Biggs, Dutton, R. R. No. 1, Hickman Mills
 Block, Elmer L., Route No. 1, Sarcoxie
 Buck, Charles L., La Crosse
 Choisser, Elden, P. O. Box 442, Poplar Bluff
 Conaway, Claude N., Poyner
 Davis, Ben, P. O. Box 176, Van Buren
 Degler, Roy H., 1305 Moreland Ave., Jefferson City
 Ellston, John, Box 72, Exeter
 R. E. Funsten Co., Don McDonald, 1515 Delmar Boulevard, St. Louis 3
 Hay, Leander, Gilliam
 Heuser, Wesley E., Rich Hill
+Howe, John, Route No. 1, Box 4, Pacific
 Huber, Frank J., Route No. 1, Weingarten
+James, George, James Pecan Farms, Brunswick
 John, W. H., Pacific
 Jones, Vernon W., 5111 Walrond, Kansas City 4
 Lambert, J. O., Laclede
+Logan, George F., Oregon
 Marquardt, Fred, Rich Hill
 Neosho Nurseries Co., A. E. Weston, Neosho
§Nicholson, John W., Ash Grove
 Ochs, C. Thurston, Box 291, Salem
 Oliver, L. P., 511 Monroe Ave., Campbell
 Owens, Le Roy J., Willow Springs
 Pies, Edward G., Route No. 2, Farmington
 Ralston, John H., 240 E. Whittier St., Kansas City 17
 Richterkessing, Ralph, Route No. 1, St. Charles
 Rose. Dr. D. K., 230 Linden, Clayton 5
 Salman, Kenneth A., Route 3, Box 178A, Mountain Grove
 Shideler, Harry, Finance Building, Kansas City
 Sims Fruit & Nursery Farms, Hannibal
 Stark Brothers Nursery & Orchards Co., Mr. H. W. Guengerich, Louisiana
 Tainter, Nat A., 420 Jackson St., St. Charles
 Wuertz, H. J., Route No. 1, Pevely
 Wylie, Wilber J., 902 Grand Ave., Doniphan

 MONTANA
 Ford, Russell H., Dixon
 Kirchner, Harold J., Rapelje

 NEBRASKA
+Brand, George, Route No. 5, Lincoln
 Brandenburgh, A. R., R. F. D. No. 2, Bellwood 3
 Caha, William, 350 W. 12th St., Wahoo
 Hess, Harvey W., The Arrowhead Gardens, Box 209, Hebron
 Manning, Arch J., 4202 Emmet St., Omaha 3
 Schick, Robert A., 233 N. Fifth, Seward
 Sherwood, Jack, Nebraska City
 Tolstead, Dr. W. L., Dept, of Botany, University of Nebraska, Lincoln
 Ziegenbein, Mrs. Helen M., Box 671, Wasau

 NEW HAMPSHIRE
 Demarest, Charles S., Lyme Center
+Lahti, Matthew, Locust Lane Farm, Wolfeboro

 NEW JERSEY
 Anderegg, R. D. No. 3, Sommerville
 Audi, Eugene J., M. D., 466 S. Maple Ave., Glen Rock
 Bakst, Myron, 18 N. Spring Garden Ave., Nutley
 Bottoni, Robert J., 41 Robertson Road, West Orange
 Buckwalter, Alan R., Jr., Route No. 1, Box 47, Flemington
 Buckwalter, Mrs. Alan R., Route No. 1, Box 45, Flemington
 Cherry, George D., "Paulsdale", Hooten Road, Moorestown
 Cox, Philip H., Jr., 30 Hyde Road, Bloomfield
 Cumberland Nurseries, William Wells, Prop., Route No 1, Millville
+Donnelly, John H., Mountain Ice Co., 51 Newark St., Hoboken
 Dougherty, William M., Broadacres-on-Bedens, Box 425, Princeton
+Ellis, Mrs. Edward P., Strawberry Hill, Route No. 1, Box 137, Keyport
 Grosshans, George, 1309 Summit Terrace, Linden
 Huslig, Frank E., R. F. D., Stewartsville
 Lamatonk Nurseries, A. S. Yorks, Prop., Neshanic Station
 Lehman, Edwin L., 811 North Fourth St., Camden 2
 Lippencott, J. C, 15 Mundy Ave., Spotswood
 McCarty Gardens, Box 89A, English Creek, Mays Landing
 McDowell, Fred, 905 Ocean Ave., Belmar
 Rinker, Ralph S., 572 Bellevue Ave., Trenton 8
+Rocker, Louis P., The Rocker Farm, Box 196, Andover
 Schroeder, Harold W., R. F. D. No. 2, Boonton
+Sheffield, O. A., 283 Hamilton Place, Hackensack
 Siegel, Mrs. Ralph, 121 Market St., Perth Amboy
 Sorg, Henry, Chicago Ave., Egg Harbor City
 Van Doren. Durand H., 310 Redmond Road, South Orange

 NEW MEXICO
 Gehring, Rev. Titus, Box 117, Lumberton

 NEW YORK
 Barton, Irving Titus, Box 13, Montour Falls
 Bassett, Charles K., 2917 Main St., Buffalo 14
 Beck, Paul E., Beck's Guernsey Dairy, Transit Road, East Amherst
+Benton, William A., Wassaic
 Bernath, Stephen, Bernath's Nursery, Route No. 3, Poughkeepsie
 Bernath, Mrs. Stephen, Route No. 3, Poughkeepsie
 Brook, Victor, 171 Rockingham St., Rochester 7
 Brooks, William G., Brooks Nut Nurseries, Monroe
 Caldwell, David H., New York State College of Forestry, Syracuse
 Caldwell, Mrs. Lynn M., 217 W. Hickory St., Canastota
+Cassina, Augustus, Valatie
 Center, Bernard M., 51 Van Buren St., Massapequa Park
 Connor, Mrs. Charles J., 460 Flint St., Rochester 11
 Dunckel, Lewis A., 2023 S. Salina St., Syracuse 5
+Feil, Harry, 1270 Hilton Spencerport Road, Hilton
 Ferguson, Donald V., Long Island Agriculture and Technical Institute,
  Farmingdale
 Flanigen, Charles F., 16 Greenfield St., Buffalo 14
 Freer, H. J., 20 Midvale Road, Fairport
+Gibson, Stanford J., 56 Fair St., Norwich
+Glazier, Henry S., Jr., I. S. William St., Room 1001, New York 4
 Goyne, W. E., 741 Sound View Drive, Mamaroneck
 Graham, S. H., Route No. 5, Bostwick Road, Ithaca
+Hasbrouck, Walter, 19 Grove St., New Paltz
 Hewitt, Prof. Oliver, 135 Hudson St., Ithaca
 Hill, Francis I., Sterling
 Hirshfeld, Dr. J. W., 109 W. Upland Road, Ithaca
 Ingalls, Chester W., 82 Chestnut St., Cooperstown
+Irish, G. Whitney, Fruitlands, Route No. 1, Valatie
+Kettaneh, F. A., 745 Fifth Ave., New York 22
 Knipper, George M., 333 Chestnut Ridge Road, Churchville
 Knorr, Mrs. Arthur, 15 Central Park West, New York 23
 Kortright, W. E., R. D. No. 1, Liberty
§Kraai, Dr. John, 84 S. Main St., Fairport
 Lambert, Raymond H., 199 Van Rensselaer St., Buffalo 10
*Lewis, Clarence, 1000 Park Ave., New York
 Lowerre, James D., Route No. 3, Middletown
*MacDaniels, Dr. L. H., Cornell University, Ithaca
 MacLennan, Walter, 1091 E. 19th St., Brooklyn 30
 Metcalfe, Ward H., 710 Five Mile Line Road, Webster
+Metcalfe, Mrs. Ward H., 710 Five Mile Line Road, Webster
 Miller, J. E., J. E. Miller Nurseries, Canandaigua
 Mossman, Dr. James K., Black Oaks, Ramapo
 Norman, Norinan B., 64 Rocklidge Road, Hartsdale
 O'Brien, Esmonde M., 25 South St., P. O. Box 2169, New York 4
 Owen, Charles H., Supt. of Schools, Sennett
 Pickard, Mrs. Frederick, Freehold, Greene County
 Pura, John J., Route No. 82, Hopewell Junction
 Purdy, Lawson, 76 Murray Ave., Port Washington
 Renshaw, Alfred, Fiddler's Lane, Loudonville
 Reynolds, C. L., Route No. 2, Binghamton
 Rickard, William, c/o Chief William Rickard, Tuscarora Indian Reservation,
  Sanborn
 Roat, Gordon J., Route No. 1, Canandaigua
 Salzer, George, 169 Garford Rd., Rochester 9
 Salzer, Rodman G., 169 Garford Road, Rochester 9
+Schlegel, Charles P., 990 South Ave., Rochester 7
+Schlick, Frank, Munnsville
 Schlick, John, Mill Road, Vernon Center
 Schmidt, Carl W., 180 Linwood Ave., Buffalo
 Schwab, Fred L., P. O. Box 31, KB Station, Bronx 63
 Shannon, J. W., Box 90, Ithaca
+Sheffield, Lewis J., 61 N. Magnolia St., Pearl River
§Slate, Prof. George L., State Agricultural Experiment Station, Geneva
 Smith, Gilbert L., R. D. No. 2, Millerton
 Smith, James B., 34 Cedar Place, Yonkers 5
 Smith, Jay L., Nut Tree Nursery, Chester
+Spahr, Dr. Mary B., 116 N. Geneva St., Ithaca
 Steiger, Harwood, Red Hook
 Swanson, Prof. Gustav, R. D. No. 4, Compton Road, Ithaca
+Szego, Alfred, 3550 78th St., Jackson Heights
 Volcko, Andrew, 607 W. Colvin St., Syracuse 5
 Wadsworth, Millard E., Route No. 5, Oswego
+Wheeler, Robert C., 36 State St., Albany 7
+Wilson, Frank C., 27 Liberty St., Arcade
 Windisch, Richard P., c/o W. E. Burnet Co., 11 Wall St., New York 5
*Wissman, Mrs. F. de R.

 NORTH CAROLINA
 Andrus, E. Rex., Route No. 1, Franklin
 Bass, Claude D., Route No. 1, Kenley
 Brooks, J. R., Box 116, Euka
+Dunstan, Dr. R. T., Greensboro College, Greensboro
+Ellis, W. J., R. F. D. No. 2, Advance
 Finch, Jack R., Route No. 1, Bailey
 Henry, W. V., R. F. D. No. 2, Candler
 McCain, H. C., Box 794, Tryon
 Moorman, L. L., 801 N. Washington St., Rutherfordton
 Poe, D. W., P. O. Box 807, Hickory
 Stadler, L. E., Route No. 1, Reidsville

 NORTH DAKOTA
 Bradley, Homer L., Long Lake Refuge, Moffit
 Row, W. W., Cando Seed Company, Cando

 OHIO
 Ackerman, Lester, Route No. 3, Ada
 Alden, R. W., Golf Drive, Painesville
 Antioch College, Glen Helen Dept., Yellow Springs
 Beede, D. V., Route No. 3, Lisbon
 Bitler, W. A., R. F. D. No. 1, Shawnee Road, Lima
 Borchers, Perry E., 412 W. Hillcrest Ave., Dayton 6
 Boyce, Dr. E. L., 26 Wildfern Drive, Youngstown
 Brewster, Lewis, Route No. 1, Swanton
 Bridgwater, Boyd E., 68 Cherry St., Akron 8
 Bungart, A. A., Avon
 Bussey, Roy K., Jr., 1056 Florida Ave., Akron 14
 Button, Fred, Route No. 2, McArthur
 Cinadr, Mrs. Katherine, 13514 Coath Ave., Cleveland 20
 Clark, Richard L., 1517 Westdale Road, South Euclid 21
 Collins, Laurence E., 1316 44th St., N. E., Canton 4
 Cook, H. C., Route No. 1, Box 149, Leetonia
 Cornett, Charles L., Railroad Perishable Inspection, 27 W. Front St.,
  Cincinnati
 Craig, George E., Dundas
 Cunningham, Harvey E., 420 Front St., Marietta
 Daley, James R., Route No. 3, Foster Park Road, Amherst
 Davidson, John, 234 E. Second St., Xenia
 Davidson, Mrs. John, 234 E. Second St., Xenia
 Diller, Dr. Oliver D., Dept, of Forestry, Ohio Agricultural Experiment
  Station, Wooster
 Donaldson, Robert G., R. D. No. 3, Wooster
 Dowell, Glenn C., Jr., M. D., 116 26th St., N. E., Canton 4
+Dowell, Dr. Lloyd L., 529 North Ave., N. E., Massillon
 Farr, Mrs. Walter, Route No. 1, Kingsville
 Fickes, Mrs. W. R., Route No. 1, Wooster
 Garden Center of Greater Cleveland, East Boulevard at Euclid Ave.,
  Cleveland 6
§Gerber, E. P., Kidron
 Gerstenmaier, John A., 13 Pond St., S. W., Massillon
 Grad, Dr. Edward A., 1506 Chase St., Cincinnati 23
 Gwynn, Frank, % P. H. Harriman, West Mansfield
 Hake, Henry, Route No. 3, Edon
 Hammock, Edwin H., 345 E. State St., Columbus 15
+Hansley, C. F., Box 614, Sugar Grove
 Harmon, C. J., R. F. D., Graytown
 Hayes, Okey, Route No. 1, Lockbourne
 Heinzelman, Edward G., 267 Southern Ave., Chillicothe
+Hill, Dr. Albert A., 4187 Pearl Road, Cleveland 9
 Hinde, John G., Route No. 1, Sandusky
 Hlywiak, Andy, 2214 S. Tod Ave., Warren
+Hornyak, Louis, Route No. 1, Wakeman
 Houlette, William R., Route No. 2, Columbiana
 Howard, James R., 2908 Fleming Road, Middletown
 Humphries, Dr. John K., 5101 Hilliard Cemetery Road, Hilliard
+Irish, Charles F., 418 E. 105th St., Cleveland
 Jacobs, Homer L., Davey Tree Expert Co., Kent
 Jagodnik, Anthony, 5360 Richmond Road, Cleveland 24
 Jay, Don, Route No. 1, Box 230, Ludlow Fall
 Kappel, Owen, Bolivar
+Kerr, Dr. S. E., Route No. 1, North Lawrence
+Kintzel, Frank M., 2506 Briarcliffe Ave., Cincinnati 13
 Kistner, Albert M., 1525 Herald Ave., Cincinnati 7
 Kodera, Shunzo, 47 E., Twelfth Ave., Columbus 1
 Kovar, Emil, 2505 Oakes Road, Brecksville
 Laditka, Nicholas G., 5322 Stickney Ave., Cleveland 9
+Leaman, Paul V., Route No. 1, Creston
 Lechleitner, Rev. R. D., D. D., 270 Westview Ave., Worthington
 Lemmon, R. M., 577 Vinita Ave., Akron 20
 Levandosky, Chester, 2299 E. Sprague Road, Seven Hills Village,
  Cleveland 9
+Lippa, Julius, 4464 Lee Heights Road, Warrensville Heights
 Lorenz, R. C., 121 N. Arch St., Fremont
 Lucas, R. J., 907 E. Main St., Newark
 Lynn, Edith, Route No. 2, Canfield
§Machovina, Paul E., 1228 Northwest Boulevard, Columbus 12
 Manbeck, Willard O., 1359 Croyden Road, Cleveland 24
 McKinster, Ray, 1632 S. Fourth St., Columbus 7
 McQueen, Dr. A. F., 163 Church St., Amherst
 Meier, Walter L., R. F. D. No. 2, Port Clinton
 Meister, Richard T., Editor, American Fruit Grower, Willoughby
 Meister, Robert T., SRE. DEF., APO. 58, % PM., New York
  (Home address, Barnesville).
+Metzger, A. J., 724 Euclid Ave., Toledo 5
 Miller, Clifford, Route No. 1, Elmore
 Miller, H. J., R. R. No. 1, Elmore
 Oches, Norman M., Route No. 3, Brunswick
 Page, John H. Box 34, Dundas
+Pataky, Christ, Jr., 592 Hickory Lane, M. R. S., Mansfield
 Pattison, Miss Aletheia E., 5 Dexter Place, E. W. H., Cincinnati 6
 Pomerene, Walter H., Route No. 3, Coshocton
 Pomeroy, Howard A., 4803 Rambo Lane, Toledo 13
 Pribonic, Joseph C., Box 107, Warwick
 Purdy, Clyde W., 19 Public Square, Mt. Vernon
+Ranke, William, Route No. 1, Box 248, Amelia
§Riegel, Joseph S., Box 184, Sylvania
 Robb, Harry C., 216 S. Lisbon St., Carrollton
 Rogers, T. B., Box 296, Lakemore
 Rohrbaugh, Lynn, R. F. D. No. 1, Delaware
+Rummel, E. T., 16613 Laverne Ave., Cleveland 11
 Sasak, Edward A., 9094 Columbia Road, Olmstead Falls
 W. N. Scarff's Sons. R. F. D. No. 1, New Carlisle
 Schmidt, Wilhelm G., 321 West Broadway, Maumee
+Schoenberger, L. Roy, Green Pines Farm, Route No. 2, Nevada
 Seas, D. Edward, 721 S. Main St., Orrville
 Shelton, Dr. Elbert M., 1468 W. Clifton Boulevard, Lakewood 7
 Sherman, L. Walter, 220 Fairview Ave., Canfield
+Shessler, Sylvester M., Genoa
 Short, Robert M., 122 E. Park St., Westerville
+Silvis, Raymond E., 1725 Lindbergh Ave., N. E., Massillon
 Smith, Sterling A., 630 W. South St., Vermillion
 Sonnanstine, Earl C., R. F. D. No. 1, Tipp City
 Spencer, Carl A., Sr., Route No. 3, Salem
 Springer, Lemar M., 3510 Kathleen Ave., Dayton
 Spring Hill Nurseries Co., Tipp City
 Steinbeck, A. P., Route No. 2, Ravenna
+Stocker, C. P., Lorain Products Corp., 1122 F St., Lorain
 Swope, Wilmer D., Route No. 3, Box 183, Leetonia
 Thomas, Fred, 773 Bedford Road, Masury
 Toberg, John R., 1708 Leona Drive, Cincinnati 388
 Toney, Hewitt S., R. R. No. 2, Cedarville
 Toops, Herbert A., 1430 Cambridge Boulevard, Columbus 12
 Tyirin, William C., 5050 Burley Hills Drive, Cincinnati 27
 Underwood, John, Route No. 4, Urbana
+Urban, George, 4518 Ardendale Road, South Euclid 21
 Van Voorhis, J. F., 215 Hudson Ave., Apt. B-1, Newark
 Von Gundy, Clifford R., 851 Nordyke Road, Cincinnati 8
+Walker, Carl F., 2851 Overlook Road, Cleveland 18
 Warren, Herbert L., 518 W. Central Ave., Delaware
 Weaver, Arthur W., R. F. D., Box 196-B, Cass Road, Maumee
+Willett, Dr. Gaillard P., Elmore
+Williams, Harry M., 221 Grandon Road, Dayton 9
 Williams, L. F., Box 386, Mt. Vernon
 Yates, Edward W., 3108 Parkview Ave., Cincinnati 13
 Yoder, Emmet, Smithville
 Zimmerman, Erie C., 594 Fairwood Road, R. D. No. 1, Clinton
 Zuercher, Jacob, R. D. No. 2, Orrville

 OKLAHOMA
 Back, Ernest O., 1300 S. Keeler, Bartlesville
 Butler, Roy J., Route No. 2, Hydro
 Cross, Prof. Frank R., Dept. of Horticulture, Oklahoma A. & M. College,
  Stillwater
 Dean, Marion, Jr., Tuxedo Road, Bartlesville
 Gray, Geoffrey A., 1628 Elm Ave., Bartlesville
 Hartman, Peter E., Hartsdale Nursery Co., 3002 S. Boston Place, Tulsa 5
 Hirschi's Nursery, 1124 N. Hudson, Oklahoma City
 Hughes, C. V., Route No. 3, Box 614, Oklahoma City 7
 Keathly, Jack, Marland
 Meek, E. B., Route No. 3, Box 16, Wynnewood
 Price, Harold C., Star View Farm, P. O. Box 801, Bartlesville
 Pulliam, Gordon, 1005 Osage Ave., Bartlesville
 Riter, John R., 115 E. First St., Bartlesville
 Shroyer, James R., 1112 Dakota Ave., Chickasha
 Straight, H. R., 935 Cherokee, Bartlesville
 Warzel, F. Morgan, R. R. No. 2, Box 189-C, Bartlesville

 OREGON
 Bebeau, A. V., Box 136, McNary
 Countryman, Peter F., Route No. 1, Box 275, Ontario
 Graville, Ed, Route No. 3, Box 363, Junction City
 Miller, John, Treasuredale, 2200 S. W. Child's Road, Oswego
 Pearcy, Harry L., Route No. 2, Box 190, Salem
 Smith, Earl G., R. F. D. No. 1, Newberg
 Thomas, Miss Ella S., Sixth & Stanley Sts., Amity
 Trunk, John E., Northwest Nut Growers, 1601 N. Columbia Boulevard,
  Portland 11

 PENNSYLVANIA
 Allaman, H. C., 1812 S. Pine St., York
+Allaman, R. P., Route No. 86, Harrisburg
+Amsler, E. W., 707 Main St., Clarion
 Anthony, Roy D., 125 Hillcrest Ave., State College
+Arensberg, Charles F. C., First National Bank Bldg., Pittsburgh 22
 Banks, H. C., Route No. 1, Hellertown
 Beard, H. K., Route 1, Sheridan
 Beck, Dr. William M., 200 Race St., Sunbury
+Berst, Charles B., 11 W. Eighth St., Erie
 Bering, Joseph, Bering Bowling Center, Second Ave. and Weidman St.,
  Lebanon
 Berlich, Mrs. Sylvester, Box 81, Broughton
 Blittle, George, 107 Lincoln Highway, Penndel, Bucks County
 Bowen, John C., Route No. 1, Macungie
+Brewer, J. L., Yellow House
+Bricker, Calvin E., Route No. 1, Mercersburg
 Brown, Morrison, Ickesburg
 Burket, J. Emory, R. F. D. No. 1, Claysburg
§Clarke, William S., Jr., Box 167, State College
 Clewell, Gen. Edgar L., Dimde Farms, R. F. D. No. 2, Harrisburg
 Comp, Alton, 5 N. Second St., Newport
 Damask, Henry, 1632 Doyle St., Wilkinsburg 21
 Deagon, Arthur, 61 E. Main St., Mechanicsburg
 Ebling, Aaron L., Route No. 2, Reading
 Eshenbaugh, E. W., 1920 Elm, New Cumberland
 Etter, Fayette, P. O. Box 57, Lemasters
 Fry, Mrs. Reba F., R. F. D. No. 1, New Galilee
 Gardner, Ralph D., 4428 Plymouth St., Colonial Park, Harrisburg
 Glasgow, Joseph M., 406 S. Second St., Bellwood
 Good, Orrin S., 316 N. Fairview St., Lock Haven
 Gorton, F. B., Route No. 1, East Lake Road, Harborcreek
 Hales, Alfred R., Jr., 1901 Second Ave., Altoona
 Halsey, A. Louise, 63 Walnut St., Forty Fort
 Hamlin, Dallas W., 1012 Elizabeth St., Williamsport
 Hartman, Dr. G. W., Keystone Hospital, Third and Briggs Sts., Harrisburg
 Heyn, W. C., Hunsecker Mill & Butter Road, Route No. 5, Box 82, Lancaster
+Hostetter, L. K., Route No. 1, Bird in Hand.
 Hughes, Douglas, 1230 E. 21st St., Erie
 Johnson, Robert F., 1630 Greentree Road, Pittsburgh 20
 Jones, Curwin F., R. D. No. 3, Harrisburg
+Kaufman, Mrs. M. M., Box 69, Clarion
 Knouse, Charles W., Colonial Park, Harrisburg
 Krone, Herbert B., R. R. No. 2, Box 330, Lancaster
 Krone, Mrs. Herbert B., R. R. No. 2, Box 330, Lancaster
 Leach, Will, Route No. 1, Box 45, Scranton
 Leja, Paul, 5263 Keystone St., Pittsburgh 1.
 Mack, C. H., M. D., Main Road, Lake Ariel
+Mattoon, H. Gleason, Box 304, Narbeth
 McKenna, Philip M., P. O. Box 186, Latrobe
 Mecartney, J. Lupton, 918 W. Beaver Ave., State College
+Miller, Elwood B., Mill & Chapel Sts., Hazelton
 Miller, Henry N., R. R. No. 1, Mt. Joy
 Miller, Robert O., Third & Ridge Sts., Emmaus
 Moyer. Philip S., 8082 U. S. F. & G. Building, Harrisburg
 Murray, James H., Route No. 3, Cambridge Springs
 Niederriter, Leonard, 1726 State St., Erie
 Nonnemacher, H. M., 128 Front St., Alburtis
+Oesterling, H. M., Route No. 1, Marysville
+Reidler, Paul G., Front & Chestnut Sts., Ashland
 Reighard, E. Don, R. D. No. 2, Box 247, Halifax
 Rhoades, Frank S., Route No. 1, Sigel
*Rick, John, 438 Pennsylvania Square, Reading
 Ruhman, Frank A., 1225 Clymer Road, Hatfield
 Sandt, Floyd H., M. R. 35, Easton
 Schaible, Percy, Box 68, Upper Black Eddy
 Schieferstein, William B., Box 457, Temple
 Schrader, Fred L., 732 E. Fifth St., Berwick
 Shank, Paul E., Box 45, Marion
 Sims, Prof. Hugh. D., P. O. Box 310, Lewisburg
 Smith, Dr. J. Russell, 550 Elm Ave., Swarthmore
 Smyth, C. Wayne, 1 Prospect St., Troy
 Springer, Herbert W., 218 Penrose St., Quakertown
 Stewart, E. L., Pine Hill Farms Nursery, Route No. 2. Homer City
 Stroh, Major Oscar H., R. D. No. 1, Linglestown
 Theiss, Dr. Lewis E., 110 University Ave., Lewisburg
§Thompson, Howard A., 311 W. Swissvale Ave., Pittsburgh 18
 Tomm, Joseph G., R. D. No. 2, McDonald
§Twist, Frank S., Box 127, Northumberland
+Washick, Dr. Frank A., S. W. Cornet Welsh & Veree Roads, Philadelphia 11
 Weaver, William S., Weaver Orchards, Macungie
 Weber, George G., 748 S. Queen St., York
 Weinrich, Whitney, Engle Road, Route 20, Media
 Welliver, Mrs. Eugene C., 367 Light Street Road, Bloomsburg
 Wilcox, George S., Montrose
*Wister, John C., Scott Foundation, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore
+Wright, Ross Pier, 235 W. Sixth St., Erie
 Yohe, Russell, East Texas
 Zimmerman, Mrs. G. A., R. D., Linglestown

 RHODE ISLAND
*Allen, Philip, 178 Dorance St., Providence
 Loomis, Charles B., 61 Elisha St., East Greenwich

 SOUTH CAROLINA
 Bregger, John T., Clemson
 Gordon, G. Henry, Union Dry Cleaning Co., 13-1/2 Main St., Union

 SOUTH DAKOTA
 Krueger, George, Madison
+Restore America Association: Ivan Drift, Sponsor, P. O. Box 38,
  Hot Springs
+Richter, Herman, Madison

 TENNESSEE
 Alpine Forest Reserve, c/o J. Edwin Carothers, Alpine
 Byrd, Benjamin F., Jr., M. D., Granny White Pike, Nashville
 Caldwell, Sam, Route No. 4, Holt Road, Nashville 11
 Carter, Oscar W., M. D., 2610 Woodlawn Drive, Nashville
+Chase, Spencer B., 2338 Parkview Ave., Knoxville
 Collier, Robert H., Lutie Road, Route No. 2, Knoxville
 Cox, Dr. T. S., 103 Hotel Ave., Fountain City
+Dulin, Charles R., Brownsville
 Garrett, Dr. Sam Young, 1902 Hayes St., Nashville
 Hardy, J. H., 1315 Minnekahda Place, Chattanooga 5
+Holdeman, J. E., 855 N. McNeil St., Memphis 7
 Hoyt, Prof. Garner E., Bryan University, Dayton
 Jones, D. T., Route No. 2, Midway
 Mattern, Don H., 513 Union Building, T. V. A., Knoxville
 McSwain, Barton, M. D., 3514 Hampton Road, Nashville
+Meeks, Hamp, c/o Jackson Elec. Dept., Jackson
 Murphy, H. O., 12 Sweetbriar Ave., Chattanooga
 Neas, Ogle, Greenville
 Olson, Earl F., Norris
 Patterson, R. L., M. D., Suite 207, Interstate Building, Chattanooga
 Puryear, Dr. T. R., P. O. Box 339, Lebanon
 Richards, Dr. Aubrey, Whiteville
 Roark, W. F., Malesus
 Robinson, W. Jobe, Route No. 7, Jackson
 Roettger, Everett, R. F. D. No. 1, Lancing
 Saville, Chris, 118 Church St., Greenville
 Sells, Paul S., 700 Boylston St., Chattanooga
 Shadow, Arthur J., Shadow Nursery Co., P. O. Box 521, Winchester
 Shipley, Mrs. E. D., R. R. No. 17, Knoxville
 Southern Nursery & Landscape Co., Winchester
 Zarger, Thomas G., T. V. A., Norris

 TEXAS
 Allen, H. H., Plant Research Station, Route No. 2, Paris
 Arford, Charles A., Box 1230, Dalhart
 Florida, Kaufman, Box 154, Rotan
 Hamilton, J. Tom, P. O. Box 488, Matador
 Hander, Nelson H., Star Route, Belton
 Kelly, Paul, Box 428, Seymour
+Kidd, Clark, Arp Nursery Co., P. O. Box 867, Tyler
 Mason, G. L., Route No. 3, Hico
 Praytor, T. J., Box 667, Seymour
 Rubrecht, J. F., Plant Research Station, Route 2, Paris
 Shelton, David, Box 369, Gonzales
 Springer, Herbert W., 590 Reagan St., San Benito
 Thomas, Joe W., Overton
 Winkler, Andrew, Route No. 1, Moody
 Winkler, Charlie, Route No. 1, Moody

 UTAH
 Braegger, Henry W., Providence
 Burton, J. O., Meadow
 Dabb, Clifford H., Route No. 3, Box 448, Ogden
 Ericksen, Keith, 883 N. State St., Orem
 Kimberlin, R. E., 2020 Arbor Lane, Salt Lake City 7
 Nyland, J. S., 230 17th St., Ogden
 Petterson, Harlan D., 3910 Raymond Ave., South Ogden
 Price, Harold G., Sr., 1270 E. Crystal Ave., Salt Lake City 6
 Shurtleff, William H., D. D. S., R. F. D. No. 3, Box 384, Ogden

 VERMONT
 Aldrich, A. W., R. F. D. No. 2, Box 266, Springfield
 Ellis, Zenas H., Perpetual member "In Memoriam"
 Hill, Lewis, Hillcrest Nurseries, Greensboro
 Johnson, John R., Deer Valley Farm, Townshend
 Pennington, Rev. Leslie, Moretown
 Reynolds, T. Hedley, 79 Main St., Middlebury
 Woodford, Mrs. Edna Almeda, Brockway's Mills, R. F. D., Chester

 VIRGINIA
 Burton, George L., 722 College St., Bedford
+Curthoys, George A., P. O. Box 34, Bristol
 Davies, A. B., Jr., 741 Clifton St., Clifton Forge
 Dickerson, T. C., Jr., 316 56th St., Newport News
 Filman, O., Box 3551, Virginia Tech Station, Blacksburg
 Gibbs, H. R., Linden
 Jaycox. Warren C., 2869 S. Buchanon St., Fairlington
 Lee, Dr. Henry, 806 Medical Arts Building, Roanoke 11
 Miller, T. R., Swords Creek
 Moore, R. C., Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station, Blacksburg 13
 Marten, Perry F., 6110 N. Washington Boulevard, Arlington 5
 Pinner, Henry, P. O. Box 155, Suffolk
 Poole, A. V., R. F. D. No. 4, Box 113, Roanoke 15
 Showalter, Rev. Lewis P., R. F. D. No. 2, Box 56, Broadway
+Stoke, H. F., 1436 Watts Ave., N. W., Roanoke
 Stoke, Mrs. H. F., 1436 Watts Ave., N. W., Roanoke
 Stoke, Dr. John H., 21 Highland Ave., S. E., Roanoke 13
 Taylor, Merritt I., Honey Meadows, Atlee
 Thompson, B. H., Route No. 4, Box 212, Harrisonburg
 Trader, George T., Parksley
 Trump, V. A., Crewe
 Welchlin, Arthur C., Route No. 1, Box 312, Farmville

 WASHINGTON
 Bechtol, O. W., Coulee City
 Denman, George L., E. 1319 Nina Ave., Spokane 10
 Eliot, Craig P., P. O. Box 158, Shelton
 Erkman, John O., 2113 Symons, Richland
 Fulmer, W. L., 505 Boylston Ave., Seattle 2
 Ingram, Bud, Box 213, Clarkston
 Jacky, Mrs. Jacob P., Route No. 3, Walla Walla
 Kane, Mrs. A. E., R. F. D. No. 1, Wenatchee
 Latterell, Miss Ethel, 408 N. Flora Road, Greenacres
 Linkletter, Frank D., 2209 Ninth Ave., Seattle 1
 Naderman, G. W., Route No. 1, Box 353, Olympia
 Parker, Robert E., 412 Maple Court, Toppenish
 Ross, Verel C., 4025 Rucker Ave., Everett
 Shane Brothers Nut Growers, Vashon
 Taylor, Harry I., Route No. 2, Cheney
§Tuttle, H. Lynn, Lynn Tuttle Nursery, Box 186, Clarkston

 WEST VIRGINIA
 Bailey, Gilbert E., 316 Mercer St., Princeton
 Bartholomew, Miss Elizabeth Ann, West Virginia University, Morgantown
+Cook, Dr. Ernest A., 106 First St., Oak Hill
 Dolin, Clarence S., Box 8, Foster
 Eckerd, John K., 305 William St., Martinsburg
+Engle, Blaine W., Mutual Fire Insurance Co. of West Virginia, Goff
  Building, Clarksburg
*Frye, Wilbert M., Pleasant Dale
 Gardner, Sigel O., 709 Louise Ave., Morgantown
 The Gold Chestnut Nursery, Arthur A. Gold, Cowen
 Haines, Earl C., Shanks
 Haislip, Fred, P. O. Box 1620, Logan
§Hale, Daniel. M. D., Princeton
 Hartzell, Benjamin, Shepherdstown
 Howard. Mrs. Carl E., The Charleston Gazette, Charleston
+Long, J. C., Box 491, Princeton
 Looney, Rev. Carl, Matewah
 McClung, H. E., 2100 Midland Trail, Milton
 McDonald, Dr. Walter, Augusta
 McGraw, S. L., Athens
+Miller, Edward, Romney
+Mish, Arnold F., Inwood
 Newlon, Emmett, Rupert
 Pease, Roger W., Department of Horticulture, University of West Virginia,
  Morgantown
+Reed, Arthur M., Glenmont Nurseries, Moundsville
 Williams, Mrs. Dan, Romney

 WISCONSIN
 Conway, W. M., 2105 Jefferson St., Madison
+Coulson, L. W., R. R. No. 1, Slinger
 Dennis, W. J., 601 N. 97th St., Milwaukee 13
 Dohlin, Edward, 208 Hollister Ave., Tomah
 Eiler, William, Benton
 Jach, Peter, 8613 N. 60th St., Milwaukee 16
 Kral, Ray, 1121 Langlade St., Antigo
 Ladwig, C. F., Route No. 2, Beloit
 Martinson, John L., 408 N. Lake, Madison
 Mortensen, M. C., 1119 Emmertson Road, Racine
 Pederson, Harry A., 350 Jewett, Plattville
 Raether, Robert, Route No. 1, Augusta
 Running, M. H., 5220 North 29th St., Milwaukee 9
+Snowden, Dr. P. W., The Monroe Clinic, Monroe
 Traurig, Arthur F., 13315 W. Forest Drive, Milwaukee 14

 WYOMING
 Muecke, Karl, Powell


W. F. HUMPHREY PRESS INC.
GENEVA, N. Y.





*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Northern Nut Growers Association Report of the Proceedings at the 44th Annual Meeting - Rochester, N.Y. August 31 and September 1, 1953" ***

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