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Title: Northern Nut Growers Association Report of the Proceedings at the Twenty-Fifth Annual Meeting - Battle Creek, Michigan, September 10 and 11, 1934
Author: Northern Nut Growers Association [Editor]
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Northern Nut Growers Association Report of the Proceedings at the Twenty-Fifth Annual Meeting - Battle Creek, Michigan, September 10 and 11, 1934" ***

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|DISCLAIMER                                                              |
|                                                                        |
|The articles published in the Annual Reports of the Northern Nut Growers|
|Association are the findings and thoughts solely of the authors and are |
|not to be construed as an endorsement by the Northern Nut Growers       |
|Association, its board of directors, or its members. No endorsement is  |
|intended for products mentioned, nor is criticism meant for products not|
|mentioned. The laws and recommendations for pesticide application may   |
|have changed since the articles were written. It is always the pesticide|
|applicator's responsibility, by law, to read and follow all current     |
|label directions for the specific pesticide being used. The discussion  |
|of specific nut tree cultivars and of specific techniques to grow nut   |
|trees that might have been successful in one area and at a particular   |
|time is not a guarantee that similar results will occur elsewhere.      |
|                                                                        |

  _Northern Nut Growers


  _Affiliated with


  _of the proceedings of the_

  Twenty-fifth Annual Meeting


  _SEPTEMBER 10 and 11, 1934_


  Officers, Directors and Committees                                   3

  State Vice-Presidents                                                4

  List of Members                                                      5

  Constitution                                                         8

  By-Laws                                                              9

  The President                                                       10

  Proceedings of the Twenty-fifth Annual Convention                   11

  Address of Welcome by W. K. Kellogg                                 11

  Report of Secretary                                                 13

  Report of Treasurer                                                 15

  Reports of Standing Committees                                      16

  Business Session                                                    18

  The Dietetic Importance of Nuts--Dr. John Harvey Kellogg            20

  Nut Culture Work of the Living Tree Guild--Miss Dorothy Sawyer      28

  Progress report on Nut Growing in the Ithaca, N. Y.
    region--Dr. L. H. MacDaniels                                      31

  Some Random Notes on Nut Culture--D. C. Snyder                      34

  Winter Injury of Filberts at Geneva, 1933-34--Prof. G. L. Slate     36

  Notes on Hickories--A. B. Anthony                                   41

  Letter from Rev. Paul C. Crath--Poland                              45

  The Chestnut Situation in Illinois--Dr. A. S. Colby                 47

  Report on Commercial Cracking and Merchandising of Black
    Walnuts--H. F. Stokes                                             50

  Nut Culture in Ontario--George Corsan                               53

  Nut Growing on a Commercial Basis--Miss Amelia Riehl                54

  Some Notes on the Hardiness of the English Walnut in
    Michigan and Ontario--Prof. J. A. Neilson                         55

  Nut Tree Prospects in the Tennessee Valley--John W. Hershey         61

  Some New Hicans and Pecans--J. G. Duis                              62

  Some Old Friends--Dr. W. C. Deming                                  64

  Nut Growing in Vermont--Zenas H. Ellis                              66

  A Roll Call of the Nuts--Dr. W. C. Deming                           69

  Nut Culture in the North--J. F. Wilkinson                           84

  Varieties of Nut Trees for the Northernmost Zone--C. A. Reed        87

  Notes on the TOUR, Tuesday September 11, 1934                      104

  Address of Prof. V. R. Gardner, Director, Experiment Station at
   Michigan State College, East Lansing                              104

  The 1934 Ohio Black Walnut Contest--Carl F. Walker                 107

  Mr. Ellis' Report as Delegate to Paris Horticultural Exposition    109

  Report of Resolutions Committee                                    110

  Communications from:
    J. U. Gellatley                                                  111
    B. D. Wallace                                                    113
    Vera Nekiassena                                                  114
    Divisional Forest Officer--Kashmir                               115
    John W. Hershey                                                  116
    Mrs. E. W. Freel                                                 117
    Geo. W. Gibbens                                                  117
    Fred Kettler                                                     118

  Telegram to Dr. Morris                                             119

  Catalogue of Nut trees in Kellogg Plantings                        120

  Exhibits at Convention                                             122

  Attendance                                                         124

  Books and Bulletins on Northern Nut Growing                        126

  Advertisement--"Hobbies Magazine"                                  127



  _Vice-President._ DR. G. A. ZIMMERMAN, 32 SOUTH 13TH ST., HARRISBURG, PA.









  _Auditing._ ZENAS H. ELLIS, H. BURGART.

  _Finance._ T. P. LITTLEPAGE, DR. W. C. DEMING, H. R. WEBER.

  _Press and Publication_. DR. W. C. DEMING, KARL W. GREENE, DR. J. RUSSELL


  _Program._ J. F. WILKINSON, DR. W. C. DEMING, C. A. REED, KARL W.

  _Hybrids and Promising Seedlings._ DR. G. A. ZIMMERMAN,
  C. A. REED.

  _Survey._ C. A. REED, CARL F. WALKER, DR. A. S. COLBY,









  Argentina, S. A.  Francisco M. Croce

  Arkansas  Prof. N. F. Drake

  California  Will J. Thorpe

  Canada  J. U. Gellatly

  Canal Zone  L. C. Leighton

  Connecticut  Dr. W. C. Deming

  Dist. of Columbia  L. H. Mitchell

  Illinois  Dr. A. S. Colby

  Indiana  J. F. Wilkinson

  Iowa  D. C. Snyder

  Kansas  W. P. Orth

  Kentucky  E. C. Rice

  Maryland  T. P. Littlepage

  Massachusetts  James H. Bowditch

  Michigan  Harry Burgart

  Minnesota  Carl Weschcke

  Missouri  J. W. Schmid

  Nebraska  William Caha

  New Jersey  Lee W. Jaques

  New York  Prof. L. H. MacDaniels

  Ohio  Harry R. Weber

  Oregon  C. E. Schuster

  Pennsylvania  John Rick

  Rhode Island  Philip Allen

  Vermont  Zenas H. Ellis

  Virginia  Dr. J. Russel Smith

  Washington  Major H. B. Ferris

  West Virginia  Andrew Cross

  Wisconsin  Lt. G. H. Turner


List of Members as of January 1, 1935

    Croce, Francisco M., Mendoza

    * Drake, Prof. N. F., Fayetteville

    Thorpe, William J., 1545 Divisadero St., San Francisco

    Chipman, G. F., "The Country Guide," Winnipeg, Manitoba
    Gage, J. H., 107 Flatt Ave., Hamilton, Ont.
    Gellatly, J. U., West Bank, B. C.
    Middleton, M. S., Esq., District Horticulturist, Vernon, B. C.

    Leighton, L. C., Box 1452, Cristobal

    Bartlett, F. A., F. A. Bartlett Tree Expert Co., Stamford
    Beeman, Henry W., New Preston
    Deming, Dr. W. C., 31 Owen St., Hartford
    Little, Norman B., Rocky Hill
    * Morris, Dr. Robert T., Merribrooke, R. F. D., Stamford
    Pratt, George D., Jr., Bridgewater
    Rowley, Dr. John C., 1046 Asylum St., Hartford
    Southworth, Geo. F., Milford

    Gravatt, Dr. G. F., Forest Pathology, Plant Industry, U. S. D. A.,
      Wash. Greene, Karl W., 2203 Foxhall Rd., N. W., Washington
    * Littlepage, Thomas P., Union Trust Bldg., Washington
    Mitchell, Col. Lennard H., 2219 California St., N. W., Washington
    Reed, C. A., Dep't of Agriculture, Washington

    Anthony, A. B., R. F. D. No. 3, Sterling
    Bontz, Mrs. Lillian, General Delivery, Peoria
    Colby, Dr. Arthur S., University of Illinois, Urbana
    Frey, Frank H., Room 930, LaSalle St. Station, Chicago
    Oakes Royal, Bluffs
    Ramsdell, T. A., Hotel Galt, Sterling
    Riehl, Miss Amelia, Evergreen Heights, Godfrey
    Spencer, Mrs. May R., 275 W. Decatur St., Decatur

    Galbreath, Dr. R. S., 16 W. Washington St., Huntington
    Minton, Charles F., 825 South Jefferson St., Huntington
    Wilkinson, J. F., Indiana Nut Nursery, Rockport

    Helmick, J. K., Columbus Junction
    Iowa State Horticultural Society, State House, Des Moines
    Johnson, Mrs. R. T., Knoxville
    Rohrbacher, Wm., 811 East College St., Iowa City
    Schlagenbusch Bros., Route No. 3, Ft. Madison
    Snyder, D. C., Center Point
    Van Meter, W. L., Adel

    Orth, W. P., Mt. Hope

    Horine, Dr. Emmet F., 523 Breslin Medical Bldg., Louisville
    Rice, E. C., Absher

    Close, Dr. C. P., College Park
    Hahn, Albert G., Route No. 6, Bethesda
    Porter, John J., 1199 The Terrace, Hagerstown
    Mehring, Upton F., Keymar
    Purnell, J. Edgar, Box 24, Salisbury

    Allen, Edward E., Hotel Ambassador, Cambridge
    * Bowditch, James H., 903 Tremont St., Boston
    Brown, Daniel L., 60 State St., Boston
    Hale, Richard W., 60 State St., Boston
    Kaan, Dr. Helen W., Wellesley College, Wellesley
    Putnam, Mrs. Ellen M., 129 Babson St., Mattapan
    Russell, Mrs. Newton H., 12 Burnett Ave., South Hadley
    Ryan, Henry E., Sunderland
    Smith, Leon C., 60 Day Ave., Westfield
    Wellman, Sargeant H., Windridge, Topsfield

    Bradley, Homer L., 56 Manchester St., Battle Creek
    Burgart, Harry, Michigan Nut Nursery, Route No. 2, Union City
    Healey, Scott, Route No. 2, Otsego
    Healy, Oliver T., Michigan Nut Nursery, Route No. 2, Union City
    ** Kellogg, Dr. John Harvey, 202 Manchester St., Battle Creek
    ** Kellogg, W. K., Battle Creek
    Morrison, J. Robert, Paw Paw
    Neilson, Prof. J. A., Michigan State College, E. Lansing
    Otto, Arnold G., 4150 Three Mile Drive, Detroit
    Stocking, Frederick N., 3456 Cadillac St., Detroit
    Wieber, Frank A., Fowler

    Andrews, Miss Frances E., 245 Clifton Ave., Minneapolis
    Weschcke, Carl, 98 Wabasha St., St. Paul

    Schmid, J. W., 615 S. Holland, Springfield

    Caha, Wm., Wahoo

    Buckwalter, Alan R., Flemington
    * Jaques, Lee W., 74 Waverly Place, Jersey City
    Orner, George D., 751 Ridgewood Rd., Maplewood

    Bennett, F. H., 19 East 92nd St., New York
    Bixby, Mrs. Willard G., 32 Grand Ave., Baldwin
    Collins, Joseph N., 335 W. 87th St., New York
    Cooke, Frank S., 341 Bowery, New York
    Crysdale, Stanley A., Route No. 5, Auburn
    Curtis, Elroy, 58 Worth St., New York
    Ellwanger, Mrs. Wm. D., 510 East Ave., Rochester
    Graham, S. H., Route No. 5, Ithaca
    * Huntington, A. M., 3 East 89th St., New York
    Kelly, Mortimer B., 17 Battery Place, New York
    * Lewis, Clarence, 1000 Park Ave., New York
    MacDaniels, Dr. L. H., c/o Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y.
    * Montgomery, Robert H., 385 Madison Ave., New York
    Pickhardt, Dr. Otto C., 117 East 80th St., New York
    Sawyer, Miss Dorothy C., Living Tree Guild, 468 Fourth Ave., N. Y.
    Sefton, Pennington, 94 Lake Ave., Auburn
    Slate, Geo. L., State Agricultural Exp. Station, Geneva
    Smith, Gilbert L., State School, Wassaic
    Tice, David, Lockport
    Tukey, Dr. Harold B., State Agricultural Exp. Station, Geneva
    * Wissman, Mrs. F. de R., 9 W. 54th St., New York

    Canaday, Ward M., Home Bank Bldg., Toledo
    Cranz, Eugene F., Mount Tom Farm, Ira
    Fickes, W. R., Route No. 7, Wooster
    Gerber, E. P., Route No. 1, Apple Creek
    Park, Dr. J. B., Ohio State University, Columbus
    Tabor, Rollin H., Mount Vernon
    Thorton, Willis, Fenway Hall Hotel, Cleveland
    Walker, Carl F., 2851 E. Overlook Rd., Cleveland Heights
    * Weber, Harry R., 123 East 6th St., Cincinnati

    Schuster, C. E., Horticulturist, Corvallis

    Baum, Dr. F. L., Yellow House
    Gebhardt, F. C., 140 East 29th St., Erie
    Hershey, John W., Downingtown
    Hostetter, C. F., Bird-In-Hand
    Hostetter, L. K., Route No. 5, Lancaster
    Jones Nurseries, J. F., Lancaster, Box 356
    Kaufman, M. M., Clarion
    Leach, Will, Cornell Bldg., Scranton
    McIntyre, A. C., Dep't of Forestry, State College
    Miller, Herbert, Pinecrest Poultry Farms, Richfield
    * Rick, John, 438 Pennsylvania Square, Reading
    Ruhl, A. W., Langhorne Terrace, Langhorne
    Smith, Dr. J. Russell, Swarthmore, Pa., 550 Elm Ave.
    Theiss, Dr. Lewis E., Muncy
    * Wister, John C., Clarkson Ave. & Wister Sts., Germantown
    Wright, Ross Pier, 235 West 6th St., Erie
    Zimmerman, Dr. G. A., 32 So. 13th St., Harrisburg

    ** Allen, Phillip, 178 Dorance St., Providence

    Aldrich, A. W., Route No. 3, Springfield
    Elfgren, Ivar P., 11 Sheldon Place, Rutland
    * Ellis, Zenas H., Fair Haven

    Ricketts, E. T., Box 168-D, Route No. 5, Alexandria
    Stoke, H. F., 1421 Watts Ave., Roanoke

    Ferris, Major Hiram B., P. O. Box 74, Spokane

    Cross, Andrew, Ripley

    Turner, Lieut. G. H., 932 Prospect Ave., Portage

     * Life Member

    ** Contributing Member



_Name._ This Society shall be known as the NORTHERN NUT GROWERS


_Object._ Its object shall be the promotion of interest in nut-bearing
plants, their products and their culture.


_Membership._ Membership in this society shall be open to all persons
who desire to further nut culture, without reference to place of
residence or nationality, subject to the rules and regulations of the
committee on membership.


_Officers._ There shall be a president, a vice-president, a secretary
and a treasurer, who shall be elected by ballot at the annual meeting;
and an executive committee of six persons, of which the president, the
two last retiring presidents, the vice-president, the secretary and the
treasurer shall be members. There shall be a state vice-president from
each state, dependency, or country represented in the membership of the
association, who shall be appointed by the president.


_Election of Officers._ A committee of five members shall be elected at
the annual meeting for the purpose of nominating officers for the
following year.


_Meetings._ The place and time of the annual meeting shall be selected
by the membership in session or, in the event of no selection being made
at this time, the executive committee shall choose the place and time
for the holding of the annual convention. Such other meetings as may
seem desirable may be called by the president and executive committee.


_Quorum._ Ten members of the association shall constitute a quorum, but
must include two of the four elected officers.


_Amendments._ This constitution may be amended by a two-thirds vote of
the members present at any annual meeting, notice of such amendment
having been read at the previous annual meeting, or a copy of the
proposed amendment having been mailed by any member to each member
thirty days before the date of the annual meeting.



_Committees._ The Association shall appoint standing committees as
follows: On membership, on finance, on programme, on press and
publication, on exhibits, on hybrids, on survey, and an auditing
committee. The committee on membership may make recommendations to the
Association as to the discipline or expulsion of any member.


_Fees._ Annual members shall pay two dollars annually. Contributing
members shall pay ten dollars annually. Life members shall make one
payment of fifty dollars, and shall be exempt from further dues and will
be entitled to same benefits as annual members. Honorary members shall
be exempt from dues. "Perpetual" membership is eligible to any one who
leaves at least five hundred dollars to the Association and such
membership on payment of said sum to the Association will entitle the
name of the deceased to be forever enrolled in the list of members as
"Perpetual" with the words "In Memoriam" added thereto. Funds received
therefor shall be invested by the Treasurer in interest bearing
securities legal for trust funds in the District of Columbia. Only the
interest shall be expended by the Association. When such funds are in
the treasury the Treasurer shall be bonded. Provided; that in the event
the Association becomes defunct or dissolves then, in that event, the
Treasurer shall turn over any funds held in his hands for this purpose
for such uses, individuals or companies that the donor may designate at
the time he makes the bequest or the donation.


_Membership._ All annual memberships shall begin either with the first
day of the calendar quarter following the date of joining the
Association, or with the first day of the calendar quarter preceding
that date as may be arranged between the new member and the Treasurer.


_Amendments._ By-laws may be amended by a two-third vote of members
present at any annual meeting.


Members shall be sent a notification of annual dues at the time they are
due, and if not paid within two months, they shall be sent a second
notice, telling them that they are not in good standing on account of
non-payment of dues, and are not entitled to receive the annual report.

At the end of thirty days from the sending of the second notice, a third
notice shall be sent notifying such members that unless dues are paid
within ten days from the receipt of this notice, their names will be
dropped from the rolls for non-payment of dues.

[Illustration: THE PRESIDENT--Frank H. Frey]

Report of the Proceedings at the Twenty-fifth Annual Convention

_of the_

Northern Nut Growers Association (INCORPORATED)

_September 10, 11, 1934_


The first session convened at 9:30 A. M., September 10, at the Kellogg
Hotel with President Frey in the chair.

_The President:_

This is the twenty-fifth annual convention of the Northern Nut Growers'
Association, our silver anniversary. Fifteen years ago the convention
was held in this city. We are glad to be back again and happy to have
with us Mr. W. K. Kellogg who has consented to extend a welcome.


I am glad to welcome this association, and you as individuals, to Battle
Creek. A year ago when an invitation was sent you thru Professor Neilson
to make this your meeting place for 1934, we were very much pleased to
have the invitation accepted. Now that we have the pleasure of your
presence we hope you may have an enjoyable and profitable time.

Battle Creek was undoubtedly put on the map many years ago by the Battle
Creek Sanitarium and has since been kept prominently before the public
by the extensive advertising that has been done by the companies located
here which manufacture ready-to-eat foods. The records indicate that
more than 15,000 carloads of these foods are shipped every year to
almost every country on the globe. More than 4,500 people are given
employment. So much for the magic words, "Battle Creek."

My interest in nuts dates from my earliest recollection when my father
took the children nutting. In the evening we often gathered around the
kerosene lamp, the kitchen stove and father with an inverted flat iron
in his lap and a pan of Ohio hickory nuts near by. These, accompanied by
some red-cheeked apples, entertained us royally. No movies in those
days. About ten or twelve years ago Mrs. Kellogg and I had the
opportunity of listening to a talk by Mr. George Hebden Corsan, Sr. He
devoted considerable time to the subject of nut culture, mentioning his
own experiences in Canada and also the work of Mr. John F. Jones of
Lancaster, Pennsylvania. A few years later Mr. Corsan became associated
with the Bird Sanctuary enterprise, a few miles west of Battle Creek,
and very shortly thereafter was talking nut culture. The result was we
began to order nut trees by the carloads.

With this beginning it was only a year or two when Mr. Corsan told me of
the wonderful experience, as well as the ability, of Professor Neilson
of Toronto in nut culture. As you are doubtless aware Professor Neilson
decided to locate in Michigan and he made a connection with the Michigan
Agricultural College at Lansing. Professor Neilson is present and better
prepared to tell you of the work that has been accomplished thru his
efforts during the last five years. He may also have an opportunity of
showing you the results of some of his work in nut grafting.

Now just a word furthermore with reference to this wonderful town of
Battle Creek which in 1932 celebrated its centennial. With the exception
of Detroit, Chicago and New York, there is probably no city so well
known the world over as Battle Creek, this having been accomplished thru
the advertising of the sanitarium since its establishment in 1865, and
the advertising of ready-to-eat cereal foods for more than forty years,
during which time the magic words "Battle Creek" have appeared on
packages of cereals, in newspapers, magazines and other advertising more
than six billion times. One of the food factories located in Battle
Creek frequently prints, fills and ships more than 1,500,000 packages
per day, or the equivalent of 40 carloads. This same factory gives
employment to more than 2,200 people, none of whom work more than six
hours per day. This six hour plan has been established more than 3-1/2
years and the minimum wage paid per hour to the men is 67 cents.

In conclusion, I must admit that most of my interest in nut culture has
been by proxy. Professor Neilson and Mr. Corsan are both with us today
and no doubt will have an opportunity of showing you some of the
progress that has been made in the vicinity of Wintergreen and Gull
Lakes, the State Agricultural Farm and the Kellogg Ranch.

We assure you it has been a pleasure to have you with us on this
occasion and we should be glad to have your convention meet with us
annually. You have my best wishes for the continued success and
prosperity of the Northern Nut Growers' Association.

       *       *       *       *       *

_The Vice-President_,


It will be rather a difficult task to respond to an address of welcome
of such a notable character as Mr. Kellogg's. However, I want to express
my sincere appreciation for being commissioned to respond to such a
hearty welcome.

I'm glad to be here for several other reasons. First, because this
association represents a number of people who in themselves represent
different lines of action. We have first the men and women who are in
this association from an experimental standpoint. We have also a number
who are here with a commercial planting standpoint. Then we have another
group that represents the growing and selling of nut trees. But, in
addition to that and most important of all, we have another set that
represents the consuming public, notably Mr. Kellogg and his brother.
About their work there need not be a great deal said.

I remember, when I first began to become interested in nut culture, I
wrote to Dr. J. H. Kellogg. I don't remember at the present time where
he said his plantings were, but I wrote to him in connection with
pecans, and he said he had a grove of them planted. He said they were
quite large but they hadn't borne and he believed that they would not
bear in this section because it was so far north. He advised me to get
in communication with Mr. J. H. Jones. That was practically the
information I got from everybody I wrote to, so I went to see Mr. Jones.

Dr. Kellogg has advanced the idea of nuts as food. Not only that but he
has continuously stood for the belief that they are more suitable for
human food than many of the proteins of animal nature. In addition to
that he publishes one of the best health magazines in the country. Dr.
Kellogg is putting out a health magazine that is further advanced than
any other magazine that I know of. It gives me great pleasure to respond
to the address of welcome and I wish to thank Mr. Kellogg on the part of
the association and myself.

Report of the Secretary for 1934

The present secretary assumed office in September 1933 without the
benefit of previous membership in the association and knowledge of its
affairs. Considerable time has been spent in getting acquainted with
these affairs. President Frey, Mr. Reed, and Dr. Deming have been
especially helpful in orienting the secretary and assisting in answering
correspondence. The late Mr. Russell, and his successor, Mr. Walker,
have handled all matters referred to them in a prompt and efficient
manner. Much credit is due to Mrs. Russell for the efficient manner in
which she attended to the treasurer's duties during Mr. Russell's

One of the chief duties of the secretary is the answering of
correspondence pertaining to association affairs and inquiries regarding
nut culture. A total of 175 letters were written for the association.
Fifty-three were to the officers and Mr. Reed regarding association
affairs, while 122 concerned nut cultural problems and memberships. A
number of letters were referred to Mr. Reed and a few to Prof.
MacDaniels for reply. In addition to the correspondence addressed to the
association regarding nuts, an equal or larger number of inquiries
concerning nuts addressed to the station were also answered. A list of
names of people interested in nuts, but not members of the association,
is being accumulated from this correspondence.

The circular describing the association and its work was reprinted and a
list of nut nurseries and tree seedsmen prepared by Mr. Reed was
mimeographed. These were enclosed in all association and station letters
sent to non-members in answer to nut inquiries. Their effect in bringing
in new members and their influence on the sale of nut trees is of course
unknown. Dr. MacDaniels and Dr. Colby also used these circulars in

A list of available publications on nut culture has also been prepared
and will be mimeographed shortly.

A campaign to sell many of the surplus reports of the association was
planned, but owing to unforeseen obstacles the reports were not
available and the plans for selling them were shelved until after this
meeting. If the reports are soon assembled at Geneva it is planned to
circularize agricultural and horticultural libraries and attempt to
place complete or nearly complete sets in as many as possible.
Attractive prices will be made on sets of those reports of which we have
an oversupply.

A mimeographed list of cions available from the Bixby collection was
prepared at Mr. Reed's suggestion and sent to all members and other
interested persons. Mrs. Bixby received as many copies as she needed.

Mr. J. T. Bregger, editor of the American Fruit Grower, has cooperated
with the secretary in publishing notes pertaining to association
activities. He is desirous of publishing articles on nut culture. It is
to be hoped that contributions may be received from members interested
in various phases of nut growing. Other publications are eager for
articles on all phases of horticulture. If nut culture is to receive its
due publicity more than a few must take their pens in hand.

It is with great regret and sadness that the death on April 27, 1934, of
our treasurer, Newton H. Russell, is recorded. His enthusiasm, interest
and kindly personality will be greatly missed. He was very active in
promoting nut culture in Massachusetts. We have lost a valuable member.

The discontinuance of the National Nut News leaves us without an
official organ. This is a serious handicap to our work. The stimulation
of interest provided by the regular arrival of a publication containing
the latest news and newest developments in our field, is a valuable aid
in nut culture and association activities. The provision of such a
medium is one of our most pressing problems.

Our membership is at a low point and should be doubled. The secretary is
desirous of cooperating with the membership committee in a campaign to
increase the membership. With our dues at their present low figure it
should not be difficult to interest many in the association. Such a
campaign should follow several lines.

First: Every member should attempt to secure additional members.

Second: Many who dropped out when dues were high should be invited to

Third: Attempts should be made to contact certain groups. All of the
northern experiment stations and agricultural colleges should have a
member of their horticultural department in the association. Groups such
as doctors, lawyers, nurserymen, farmers and others should be informed
of the association and what it offers to each.

Fourth: The agricultural college and experiment station libraries should
be induced to take out memberships and bring their sets of reports up to

Such a campaign is more than one person can handle, and several should
participate in it.

  Treasurer's Report

  Year Ending August 31, 1934


  Annual Memberships                                        $266.75
  Contributing Memberships                                    10.00
  Sale of Reports                                             29.00
  Sale of Bulletins                                            2.25
  For Subscriptions to National Nut News                       8.00

  Total                                                     $316.00 $316.00


  Reprints, K. W. Greene (for Mr. Bixby)                    $ 21.10
  Printing 1931 Report, Balance, American Fruits Pub. Co.     50.00
  Subscriptions, National Nut News                            18.00
  Printing 1932 Report, Lightner Pub. Corp.                  200.00
  Expenses Downingtown Convention, J. W. Hershey              13.82
  Membership Dues, American Horticultural Society              2.00
  Expense Handling Surplus Reports, C. A. Reed                 9.69
  Advertising, Lightner Pub. Corp.                             4.00
  Printing 1933 Report, Lightner Pub. Corp.                  125.32
  Release Expense of Account with Litchfield Savings Society   1.68
  Loss on Check                                                2.00
  Postage, F. H. Frey                                         12.10
  Postage and Miscl. Expense for 1933 Report, F. H. Frey      19.92
  Mimeographing, G. L. Slate                                   2.25
  Printing, Postage and Supplies, C. F. Walker                12.45
  Check Charges & Taxes                                         .68

  Total                                                     $495.01 $495.01
  Excess of Disbursements over Receipts                             $179.01


  Cash on hand or in bank as reported as of Aug. 31, 1933   $306.01
  Account in Litchfield Savings Society as of Aug. 31, 1933   15.94

    Total cash on hand or in bank as of Aug. 31, 1933       $321.95 $321.95
    Excess of Disbursements over Receipts                            179.01

  Balance, Cash in bank, August 31, 1934                            $142.94
  Accounts, Due or Payable                                            None

_Press and Publication Committee_


We have had one or two articles in each issue of the National
Horticultural Magazine, published by the American Horticultural Society
in Washington. The editor has promised to have in each issue of his
magazine something relating to nuts. He is particularly anxious to get
short articles with a single illustration, articles about a page long
which will attract attention, be easy to read and stimulate interest in
nuts. I would be glad to receive articles of that nature for submission
to the editor.

It is unfortunate that we no longer have an official journal, the
National Nut News having gone out of existence. We have an opportunity
to make the American Fruit Grower, with which we have been acquainted a
good many years, our official journal, and that will come up in the
course of this meeting.

_Membership Committee_


From our increase in membership--forty new members--and from their
addresses, one is able to judge of the work of Prof. Neilson, he being
very active in obtaining new members. There are others of our members
who also have been active and to whom credit is due for the increase in

An analysis of the membership of the past six years indicates that we
are on the increase again. We have retained over 90% of those who were
members last year. I feel as though we need not try to get everybody in
the world to plant nut trees. But there is no reason why we should not
greatly increase our membership.

_Program Committee_


At nine o'clock tomorrow morning busses will be at the hotel to take us
to the Kellogg plant. About 10:30 we will proceed to the sanitarium. We
will try and meet at the Kellogg Hotel at 12:00 P.M. where we are to be
the guest of Mr. W. K. Kellogg for luncheon. After lunch, at one
o'clock, we will board the busses and proceed to the Kellogg farm. At
the farm we will look over the buildings for a few minutes, call at the
Kellogg School, and then stop for a few moments and look over our
bittersweet plantation. Then we will go on to the Kellogg Bird Sanctuary
and see what is being done there in conserving wild fowl.

After we leave the sanctuary we will visit a block of about fifteen
acres of hickory trees, where I have been doing top working experiments
for the last three or four years. Then we will inspect our variety
plantation of nut trees and proceed to Mr. Kellogg's estate. At 5:30 the
Kellogg Company will provide motor boats to take us for a cruise on Gull
Lake. At 6:30 we will have our dinner at Bunbury Inn on Gull Lake and
then have a few addresses and a business session.

_Report of Committee on Hybrids and Promising Seedlings_


One or two interesting seedlings have come to our attention during the
past year. One a hickory nut that was drawn to the attention of the
Pennsylvania Nut Growers' Association January last. It is a rather good
nut and bears very well. I think Mr. Hershey has some of the trees for

The other, a very interesting shellbark, came to my attention. The nut
is large, the best cracker for a shellbark that I have seen, the tree
itself is beautiful and, although the party who owns it says it bears
every other year, it seems to me to produce a good many nuts every year
that I have seen it.

Another, probably worthless, but interesting, seems to me to be an
English walnut x butternut hybrid. The party insists she planted walnuts
from a typical English walnut tree, but the trees from these nuts, of
which there are a number bearing small nuts, certainly have the earmarks
of the butternut. These plants will be kept under observation and a
later report given concerning them.

We have a number of first generation hybrids, but so far as I am aware
we have no second or following generation hybrids in the nut line. It
seems to me that if we plant a lot of the nuts from these first
generation hybrids and, when the plants are large enough, distribute
them to parties who will give them space and care for them until they
come into bearing, somebody sooner or later will get hold of some
valuable material. Work along this line I expect to advance through our
committee as rapidly as practical. It seems to me that the seedlings of
our first generation hybrids should not be destroyed as has frequently
been done in the past.


I have seen quite a few hybrids between the heartnut and the butternut.
I believe the Mitchel is about the best.


We found that the tree had stood the winter very well and that it was
bearing a good crop. We brought along a few samples labeled the Mitchel
hybrid heartnut. It looked to me to be a promising nut.


Mr. Mitchel thought it was a worthless butternut. I told Mr. Mitchel
that I thought it was well worth saving and I hope that one of these
days we shall succeed in propagating it.


Mr. Stokes, in Virginia, has located some black walnuts that will be
excellent. Mr. Hershey's name and work have been mentioned. He writes me
that the territory of the Tennessee Valley is a wonderful lay-out and he
is putting on a contest for different kinds of nuts. He may have some
desirable nuts to present later on.


If Mr. Reed is not planning to discuss those Jones hybrids in his paper
I wish he, or someone else who is acquainted with them, would make some
remarks to be placed on record.


We think that the two most promising of the Jones hybrids are numbers 92
and 200. Those were Mr. Jones' own numbers. About three years ago we
began making an intensive study of them. Ninety-two seemed to bear
better and be a little more promising than 200, and so it was named
first. It was named Buchanan in honor of the only president of the
United States who came from Pennsylvania. Last year number 200 showed up
so favorably that it seemed well to name that one also, so just about a
year ago the name of Bixby was suggested and it met with universal
approval. That, I think, is all that I have to say about the hybrids. We
are watching them very closely.

From here east we had a very severe winter last year. Apple orchards
very, very old were killed all through the east and with them thousands
and thousands of English walnut trees. In Washington we have practically
no crop of filberts and our English walnuts were affected generally.

We have yet to find a single hybrid between black walnut and English
walnut which appears to be promising. There is a record, but I think we
should have brought to our attention from time to time what was known as
the James River hybrid. It was an enormous black walnut tree that grew
on the James River near Jamestown. It was visited in 1928 by Mr. Karl
Greene and Mr. Hershey. Mr. Greene said that the tree measured thirteen
feet in circumference. You don't often see trees as large as that in any
part of the country. That is in a part of the country where the English
walnut has not done well. The tree must have been somewhere around 200
years old when it died. It was probably grown from a hybrid between an
English walnut and a black walnut. Our American colonists brought the
English walnut with them about the same time they brought our first
apples and peaches and plums and everything else. This tree throws some
light on the question as to when the first English walnut first came to
this country.

A week ago yesterday I was riding along a country road down in Maryland.
I saw a row of trees. One tree in the middle of that row was as big as
any other three there. I slowed up and looked at them more closely. The
large tree was a hybrid and the others were not.

_Committee on Exhibits_:

On the tables Prof. Neilson has a number of plates of the northern pecan
at its best. Besides that he has two remarkable specimens of hybrid
hickories. One is a McCallister, and the other is of unknown origin.
There are also on the tables other remarkable nuts grown in this part of
the United States, in Ontario and in British Columbia. There are
chestnuts, English walnuts, Japanese heartnuts and others.


You will recall that one year ago I was made custodian of the back
records of the association. Within two weeks of the time of last year's
meeting I personally procured the reports which were stacked away in Mr.
Bixby's barn, and took them to Washington. A little later Dr. Deming and
the late Mr. Russell made a trip to Redding, Connecticut, and sent me
500 pounds of back reports. Still later Mr. Karl Greene brought to me
about another 500 pounds of reports. I had then about 1900 pounds. We
put them in the basement of the building where our office was and then
we began to move around. It began to cost something to move them.

I communicated with Mr. Slate and found that there was abundant space at
Geneva, and the authorities were willing that they should be housed
there. So I had the reports tied up and arranged with a truck man to
move them to Geneva. I made the arrangements with a man who agreed to
move them for $25. Then he backed out. I didn't feel like incurring a
greater expense by sending them by railroad, so I waited until last week
and took a bundle from each year in my own car. They are in the
secretary's care at Geneva at the present time. The rest of the reports
will presently be stored in Mr. Littlepage's packing shed out in his
apple orchard. There are still a few reports in the Bixby's barn and Dr.
Deming can tell how many more he has.


Each current report will be sold at $1.00 per copy and old reports at
50c a copy. If someone wanted an entire set we would sell all eighteen
or nineteen numbers now for $6.00.

The American Fruit Grower, published in Cleveland, Ohio, has agreed to
have the magazine appear as the official journal of the Northern Nut
Growers' Association.


We will deem it a privilege, and I'm sure an obligation, to take on this
responsibility of acting as official journal of your society and give to
you at least a column each month. We are already acting as official
organ of other horticultural societies and it seems to work out very
well. In addition to the column that your secretary would have each
month you could run further articles on nut growing, which would be of
additional interest to your members. You would have some 150,000 of our
readers who are interested in fruit growing, and who would be interested
in nut growing, as possible new members for your organization. They
would receive your announcements and articles each month and you could
get in touch with them, through that column, for additional membership.


I move that the American Fruit Grower be made the official organ of the
Northern Nut Growers' Association, that the secretary be the official
correspondent with the American Fruit Grower, that the subscription
price be paid by the treasurer direct to the American Fruit Grower, that
the present membership fee remain the same, two dollars, to all members,
with the privilege of receiving the American Fruit Grower. The motion
was seconded by Prof. Neilson.


Mr. Ellis has offered to donate $10.00 this year, if it is necessary, to
apply on subscriptions for the membership. I don't know that we will
have to call on him for this but it is certainly a display of fine


I want to express my great satisfaction that the American Fruit Grower
has offered to act as our official organ on such advantageous terms.
Fourteen years ago, before Mr. Bregger's career as an editor began, I
edited a nut column in the Fruit Grower. The motion was carried.

The following named were elected as committee to nominate officers for
next year: Dr. Deming, Colonel Mitchell, Professor Neilson, Mr. Weber,
and Dr. Colby.

Resolutions Committee: Professor Slate, Mr. C. A. Reed, and Dr. Colby.

Motion was duly made, seconded and carried that; honorary membership in
this association may be conferred upon any person by a majority vote of
members present at any business session or by letter ballot of members
in good standing and honorary membership should be conferred only on
individuals who have rendered outstanding or meritorious service in
connection with the promotion of interest in nut bearing plants, their
products and their culture.

Mr. W. K. Kellogg and Dr. John H. Kellogg were nominated for honorary
members of the Association and unanimously elected.

The Dietetic Importance of Nuts


Nuts, which supply the finest edible fats and proteins which science has
discovered, occupy the smallest place in the nation's food budget of any
of our substantial native foods. This is a remarkable situation well
worthy of consideration in view of the fact that, according to Prof.
Elliot of Oxford University and the eminent Prof. Ami of Montreal, and
many other paleontologists, nuts were the chief diet of the earliest
representatives of the race who appeared in the Eocene period of
geologic time. At that time, according to Prof. Elliot, the regions
inhabited by man bore great forests of walnut, hickory, and other nut
trees, the fossil relics of which are found in great abundance in
association with the remains of prehistoric man. It is significant,
also, that man's nearest relatives, the gorilla, orangutan, and
chimpanzee still stick to the original bill of fare. I once made an ape
so angry by offering him a bit of meat that he threatened to attack me
and finally, as I persisted in offering him the meat, seized it and
flung it as far away as possible, then scrubbed his soiled hand with
dust and wiped it on the grass to get rid of the taint of the meat. He
gave every evidence of feeling deeply insulted. Biology classifies man
as a primate along with the great apes and, according to the great
Cuvier, assigns to him along with other primates, a diet consisting of
nuts, fruits, soft grains, tender shoots and succulent roots.

The great ice sheet which crept down over the greater part of the
northern hemisphere during the glacial period destroyed the nut forests.
The greater part of the primate family, including man, moved South and
survive today in Central Africa, where, along with their furry cousins,
the gorilla and the chimpanzee, they still adhere to a dietary almost
wholly of plant foods. Those who remained behind were compelled to
resort to a flesh diet to avoid starvation. Flesh eating naturally led
to cannibalism, and the historians tell us that only a few thousand
years ago, the survivors of the glacial terrors who roamed the British
Isles, from which the ancestors of most Americans emigrated, roamed the
forests clad in the skins of animals and feasted upon their enemies.

When the grain-eating Romans conquered and civilized our barbarian
ancestors and taught them agriculture, plant foods again became the
chief sources of nutriment, but a meat appetite had been developed and
is still characteristic of the Anglo-Saxon race, while most of the rest
of the world are almost exclusively plant feeders. Four hundred millions
of Chinese eat so little meat that it is, in the case of south China,
not even mentioned in the national food budget. Sixty millions of
Japanese eat an average of 4 pounds per capita. Two hundred millions of
East Indians never taste meat. As a matter of fact, only Americans,
English, Germans and Scandinavians are large meat eaters.

Evidently, the American meat appetite as well as the American sugar
tooth is enormously exaggerated. It is somewhat encouraging, however, to
note that the eating habits of the American people are changing. Within
a generation, and especially since the World War, there has been a
notable change in the national bill of fare.

More cereals are consumed than formerly, but the greatest per capita
increase is shown in the consumption of fruits and vegetables, and
especially greenstuffs, such as lettuce, spinach, kale, and other
greens. This increase in the use of certain foods is not due to the fact
that the American appetite is increasing or the American stomach
enlarging, but to the spread among the people of scientific information
concerning nutrition.

Through experiments upon rats and various other animals, including man
himself, fundamental principles have been discovered and a real science
of nutrition has been developed, the axioms, formulae, and basic ideas
of which are as clearly established as are those of geometry and
chemistry. We are no longer left to be led astray by guess-work or fancy
in supplying our nutritive needs, and have verified the truth so aptly
expressed by that shrewd old Roman philosopher, Seneca, who said, "There
is nothing against which we ought to be more on our guard than, like a
flock of sheep, following the crowd of those who preceded us."

This change in the eating habits of the American people has been brought
about by disillusionment respecting the importance of meats. Fifty years
ago, every physiologist taught that the liberal consumption of meat was
essential. This idea was based, first, upon the supposition that
protein, the chief constituent of lean meat, is the most important
source of energy; and, second, the belief that food of animal origin is
better adapted to human sustenance than plant foods, through having
undergone a process of refinement and concentration in the
transformation from plant to animal. Modern studies of nutrition have
shown that both these ideas are without scientific basis.

Unfortunately for the nut-growing industry, and still more unfortunately
for the American people, the claims of nuts to consideration in this
re-adjustment of the bill of fare have been generally overlooked, and it
seems evident that the only hope for the nut industry lies in the
creation of a larger demand for these nutrients from the plant world by
acquainting the public with their superlative merits. Of course, room
must be made for the increased intake of nuts by lessened consumption of
something which nuts may advantageously replace in the bill of fare.
Most nuts consist almost exclusively of proteins and fat. Proteins and
fats likewise are almost the sole constituents of meat. Nuts are thus
the vegetable analogues of meat and are competitors for a place on the
bill of fare.

Physiologists are agreed that the American people are eating too much
meat, and it is the general spread of this conviction that has lessened
the consumption of flesh foods in this country and has crippled the
packing industry.

A few years ago, the meat packers, finding that the consumption of meat
had fallen off nearly one-fourth since the beginning of the century,
began a vigorous campaign of publicity to increase the demand for their
products. A special board was established for the purpose and through
the activities of this board an enormous amount of misinformation has
been broadcasted which has influenced a number of people to "eat more
meat to save the live stock industry," to use the packers' appealing
slogan and incidentally to help the packing industry, and there has
been some increase in the use of pork, although the falling off in the
consumption of beef has continued in spite of unscrupulous efforts to
deceive and mislead the people, to their injury.

The two greatest obstacles in the way of the nut growing industry are
the ignorance of the people with respect to the value of nuts as staple
foods and the frantic efforts being made by those interested in the meat
industry to increase the demand for their products.

A counter campaign of education is needed to set before the people the
true facts as revealed by modern chemical and bacteriological research,
by the discoveries of nutrition laboratories and by the clinical
observations of thousands of eminent clinicians.

The false claims for meat must be met, for it is only by lessening the
consumption of meat that room can be made for the dietetic use of nuts.
Here are some of the errors that should be corrected.

Claim 1

That meat is an essential food staple, and that without it there would
result loss of vitality and of individual and racial stamina.

No respectable physiologist will support this claim today, although half
a century ago all physiologists held these now obsolete views.

Claim 2

That flesh foods are necessary for blood building, especially red meats,
because of their iron content.

This claim is wholly without scientific support. Modern experiments have
shown that anemic animals recover most quickly on a diet rich in plant
iron. Green foods have been proven to be sources of the best iron, which
is associated with chlorophyl.

The iron of meat has been once used and is of the same sort as that
which the body throws away. It is inferior to the iron of green plants,
from which the ox makes his red blood.

Nuts contain a rich store of this precious plant iron, as do also beans.

Claim 3

That beef and other flesh meats are muscle and strength builders par

This claim no longer has scientific support. Sugar is fuel of the body
engine. When the butcher's daughter, Gertrude Ederle, failed in her
first attempt to swim the English Channel, she very justly charged her
collapse before reaching the English shore to the mutton stew her
trainer gave her before starting. When in a second attempt, she adopted
my suggestion through a mutual acquaintance, to eat sugar instead of
meat, she made a world record. This practice is, I believe, now adopted
by all successful channel swimmers.

Non-flesh eaters are far superior to meat-eaters in endurance under
special strains.

When Dempsey defeated the Argentinean giant, he had trained on modest
allowances of meat and his last meal had consisted of vitamin-rich fresh
vegetables, while Firpo loaded himself up with steaks and chops.

When Battling Nelson lost his championship, he explained to a newspaper
reporter, "'Twas the beefsteak that done it. I swiped an extra beefsteak
when my trainer was not looking, and it made me tired."

De Lesseps, the famous French engineer, became a confirmed and
enthusiastic flesh abstainer when he found his sturdy beef-fed
Englishmen could not compete in work on the Suez Canal with the Arab
laborers, who subsisted on wheat bread and onions, as did the builders
of the pyramids, according to Herodotus, 5,000 years before. He
declared, in fact, that without the hardy Arabs, he could not have done
the work.

Theodore Roosevelt, in his story of his East Africa hunting expedition,
said in Scribners Magazine that a horse with a heavy man on his back
could always run down a lion fleeing for his life in a mile and a half.

Claim 4

That a man can live on a flesh or muscle meat diet such as chops and

The famous pedestrian, Weston, informed me that on his long walks, he
never ate meat and on his walk across the continent lived on corn flakes
and milk.

Carl Mann, a grocer's clerk not professionally trained, competing in a
government supervised walking race from Dresden to Berlin, 123 miles,
against the picked pedestrians of the German army and several
professionals, won easily on a fleshless diet consisting of nuts and
fresh vegetables which he pulled out of the vegetable gardens as he
hurried by. The only protein he ate was derived from nuts.

The Tarahumari Indians of Mexico are the most tireless runners in the
world. Their ancestors were the dispatch runners of Montezuma in
pre-Colombian days, and they still adhere to the simple plant regimen of
their forbears.

At the time of the Boxer uprising in China some years ago, the rice-fed
Japanese were the first to arrive of the military representatives of
numerous nations who raced to the rescue of the foreign embassies
besieged by the fanatical and bloodthirsty Boxers.

Claim 5

That a man can live and enjoy good health for a year or many years on a
purely flesh or muscle-meat diet.

The packers' much heralded Stefansson stunt of living a year on an
exclusive meat diet was a discreditable fake. Stefansson did not live on
a meat diet, but on a diet consisting of one-fifth protein and
four-fifths fat (caloric intake). When compelled against his protest to
eat steaks and chops, he was made very ill with acidosis within two
days, vomiting and purging so violently that he was compelled to make a
complete and immediate change. Prof. Newburgh of our State University
stated that Stefansson ate no more real muscle meat than the average man
usually eats. The Stefansson experiment proved but one thing, namely,
that a man even when accustomed to a meat diet, cannot live on lean meat
alone for more than two days without becoming ill.

Dr. Newburgh produced nephritis, or acute inflammation of the kidneys,
in rats by feeding them exclusively on meat for a few weeks.

Claim 6

That Eskimos thrive on a meat diet.

Captain McMillan who accompanied Peary on his discovery of the North
Pole, a year or two ago informed me that the Eskimo is short lived. That
he becomes at 50 years very old and useless and at 55 infirm and
helpless, and rarely lives to the age of 60 years.

The Arctic traveler Stefansson said to me, "I do not claim to have
proven that a man can live better or longer on a flesh diet, but only
that he can live. Of course the scientific argument is against such a

Prof. Irving Fisher of Yale University some years ago made a series of
endurance tests in which the endurance of the athletes of the Yale
gymnasium was compared with that of physicians and men nurses of the
Battle Creek Sanitarium. As Prof. Fisher said in his report, which was
published in the Yale Scientific Review, the endurance of the Battle
Creek flesh-abstainers was found to be not only "greater" in all the
tests, but far greater. In the arm holding (arms extended sidewise)
tests, the Battle Creek men held their arms out longer than any Yale man
and nine times as long as the same number of Yale men.

Vegetarian bicyclists have for many years held all the championships in
endurance riding tests from Land's End to John O'Groats.

Through Finland's minister to the United States I have learned that
Nurmi, the Finnish runner whose record stands unequalled, was trained on
a non-flesh dietary.

The Great War taught the world among many other important lessons, the
fact that meat may be dispensed with not only without injury, but with
great and very definite benefits.

During the World War, Denmark sold her cattle to Germany and reduced her
meat ration to a very low minimum, with the result that her death rate
was reduced one-third.

In Germany, where at the beginning of the war the cattle were killed to
save food and a practically meatless ration was maintained for more than
three years, diabetes, Bright's disease, and many other chronic maladies
were reduced in frequency to an extraordinary degree. After the war, as
I was informed by the medical director of one of the largest life
insurance companies in this country, it was discovered that the death
losses among the company's German policy holders, not excepting war
casualties, were far below the prewar average.

The Chittenden standard now universally accepted, fixes the protein
intake at 10 per cent of the total ration. This leaves little room for
meat, and not a few authorities reduce the protein to a still lower

For some years, McCollum of Johns Hopkins has been calling attention to
the evils of the "meat and bread" diet, which he declares to be about
the worst diet one can adopt, and adds, "We could entirely dispense with
meats without suffering any ill effects whatever."

Chalmers Watson of Edinburgh found that rats on a lean meat diet
deteriorated so rapidly that after two or three generations they became
deformed and dwarfed and ceased to reproduce.

The International Scientific Food Commission appointed by the Allies at
the time of the Great War and charged with the duty of fixing the
minimum ration of different food essentials, declared it to be
unnecessary to fix a minimum meat ration, "in view of the fact that no
absolute physiological need exists for meat, since the proteins of meat
can be replaced by other proteins of animal origin, such as those
contained in milk, cheese and eggs, as well as by proteins of vegetable

It is evident from the above facts that an effort to induce the American
people to eat less meat and more nuts would do no harm and should prove
substantially beneficial.

A leading textbook on "Nutrition and Clinical Dietetics" by Carter, Howe
and Mason of Columbia University, calls attention to the encouraging
fact that "Of late there has been a distinct reaction in the meat-eating
of the wealthier classes, and one sees less meat and more vegetable
habits as they progress upward in the scale of civilization. Also, on
account of their sedentary habits, people find that the ingestion of
considerable quantities of animal protein, with the consequent increase
in intestinal putrefaction, gives rise to symptoms of toxemia, which
have assumed a very definite place in the pathology of disease."

That meat enormously increases intestinal putrefaction cannot be
questioned. It is this fact which makes the difference between the
excreta of a dog or lion and that of a cow or horse. All carnivorous
animals suffer from autointoxication.

The eminent pathologist of the Philadelphia Zoo states that all dogs
over three years of age have hardened arteries, while horses practically
never show arterial changes even when very old.

Dr. Charles Mayo states that three out of four dogs over 12 years have

I quote the following paragraphs from a poster prepared some years ago
as a reply to "Meat Is Wholesome" poster distributed by the packers
through the post office department which presents ample evidence that
meat is by no means always wholesome:

A bacteriological examination made in the laboratory of the Battle Creek
Sanitarium of fresh meats purchased at seven different markets, all in
apparently fresh condition, showed the following number of bacteria per

                 Bacteria Per Ounce
  Beefsteak       37,500,000-   45,000,000
  Pork Chops       5,100,000-   87,000,000
  Beef Liver       3,000,000-  945,000,000
  Corned Beef        300,000-  910,000,000
  Hamburger Steak  5,100,000-2,250,000,000
  Pork Liver       3,000,000-2,862,000,000

The above figures agree with the findings of Tissier, Distaso, Weinzirl,
Farger, Walpole, and other bacteriological authorities.

The Fresh Droppings of Animals

            Bacteria Per Ounce
  Calf             450,000,000
  Horse            750,000,000
  Goat           2,070,000,000
  Cow            2,400,000,000
  Oyster Juice     102,000,000

The bacteria in meats are identical in character with those of manure,
and are more numerous in some meats than in fresh manure. All meats
become infected with manure germs in the process of slaughtering, and
the number increases the longer the meat is kept in storage.

Ordinary cooking does not destroy all of the germs of meat.

The importance of suppressing this intestinal putrefaction is becoming
more and more evident as medical investigation and discoveries are
continually bringing out new facts which show an intimate relation
between intestinal poisons and many chronic maladies, including gall
bladder disease, high blood pressure, heart disease which kills 300,000
Americans annually, Bright's disease, insanity and premature senility.
Many physicians are on this account saying daily to patients, "Eat less
meat." "Cut out beefsteak and chops," and "Change your intestinal flora
so as to clear your coated tongue and eliminate the poison that taints
your breath."

Nuts have the great advantage that although richer in protein than is
meat, they are much less putrescible. Fresh meats are practically always
in a state of putrefaction when eaten while nuts are delivered to us by
the generous hand of Nature in aseptic packages, ready to eat, and
presenting pure nutriment in the most condensed and refined form known
to science. Fresh meats are always contaminated with colon and
putrefactive germs with which they become contaminated in the
slaughtering process. If flesh is to be used as food, animals should be
killed with the same antiseptic precautions which are employed in modern
surgery. This is never done, and within a few days after killing, the
flesh of a slaughtered animal is swarming with colon germs, and when
long kept for use of hotels and many restaurants, is covered with a
beard of green mold. Such food is fit only for scavengers. Hamburger
steak and pork liver often contain more manure germs than the fresh
droppings of animals.

The liberal substitution of nuts for meats would save billions annually.

According to Prof. Baker, of the Department of Agriculture, fully 80 per
cent of the total feed and food products in the United States is
consumed by live stock. Most of these animals are consumed as food.

The enormous loss involved is shown by the fact that 100 pounds of
digestible foodstuffs are required to produce 3 pounds of beef.

According to an announcement by the United States Bureau of Statistics,
the per capita annual cost of meat in the United States is more than
$80.00, which totals for the whole population nearly $10,000,000,000 per

Prof. Baker suggests that the annual per capita consumption of meat
might without injury be reduced from the present 170 pounds to fifty
pounds, which would make a saving of $6,000,000,000 at least, for
$1,000,000,000 would easily supply from nuts and other plant sources
more than enough food to replace the discarded meats.

The general belief that nuts are an expensive food is an error. When a
man pays a dollar for three pounds of steak, he is probably not aware of
the fact that three-fourths of what he buys is simply water, so that the
actual solid nutriment purchased amounts to not more than three-quarters
of a pound, making the actual cost of the water-free food $1.33 per

Two pounds of almonds or other nut meats which might be purchased at the
same cost, would yield twice as much and better food.

If the whole beef industry were wiped out, the country would be the

What the nut industry needs most is a campaign of education to tell the
American public about the superior values of nuts and to correct the
errors broadcasted by the Meat Board. The public must not only be taught
the value of nuts as set forth in Mr. Russell's admirable book, but
should be encouraged by government aid to plant nut trees on barren
mountain sides and areas devastated by lumbering operations. If every
lumberman had been required by law to plant a nut tree for every ten
timber trees cut down during the last 50 years, a food source would have
been provided which would insure more than an ample supply of precious
protein and satisfying fat to feed 120,000,000 of Americans if the
cereal food crops were destroyed by a drouth or predatory insects.

If nut trees were planted along all our highways and railway
thoroughfares, a food crop would be produced of greater nutrient value
than that yielded at the present time by the entire live stock industry.

That an educational campaign may be made to succeed was shown by the
experience of the raisin producers of California.

Some years ago, when the raisin industry was prostrate, I received a
letter from the secretary of an association organized for the purpose of
trying to revive the industry, asking for information concerning the
food value of raisins. I called attention to the fact that the raisin is
rich in food iron and a good source for this food mineral and suggested
that if the people were made acquainted with this fact through a broad
advertising campaign, the demand for this delectable fruit might be
greatly increased. "Have you eaten your iron?" soon appeared in the
newspapers throughout the land, and the raisin farmers of California
found it necessary to enlarge their vineyards.

A discouraging feature of the nut industry to beginners is the long time
required to bring trees to bearing. On this account, it seems to me that
state and federal governments should lend the industry a helping hand. I
would suggest that this association should instruct its president and
secretary to make an earnest effort to persuade state and federal
governments to give more attention to the planting of nut trees in their
reforesting operations.

A broad belt of nut trees running the length of the great timberline
which is to be created for the protection of the western states from a
recurrence of drouth, might prove a more dependable protection to our
food supply than the possible effect of a narrow strip of woodland upon
the country's climate.

I append a table which shows the high food value of nuts as compared
with other common foods. One pound of walnut meats equals in food value
each of the following:

  Beef loin, lean     4.00
  Beef ribs, lean     6.50
  Beef neck, lean     9.50
  Veal                5.50
  Mutton leg, lean    4.20
  Ham, lean           3.00
  Fowls               4.00
  Chicken, broilers  10.00
  Red Bass           25.00
  Trout               4.80
  Frog's legs        15.00
  Oysters            13.50
  Lobsters           22.00
  Eggs                5.00
  Milk                9.50
  Evaporated cream    4.00


I am sure everyone feels that the trip here would be worth while if we
didn't receive another bit of information but your paper, and they would
really like to develop some kind of an ailment so that they could place
themselves under your care.


About five years ago I spent a few hours here in Battle Creek, largely
as a guest of Dr. Kellogg over at his home. While I was there he
introduced me to quite a variety of soy bean products and he rather
disturbed me by telling me that beans had much the same food values as
nuts. He reminded me that you could grow a crop of beans every year. You
can't be sure of doing that with nut trees. He gave me an economic idea
to think about. I wonder if he has anything to say about beans now. Are
beans going to supplant nuts?


I confess that it seems to me, from a practical and economic standpoint,
that the soy bean is a very strong rival of the nut industry. I would
like to inquire how many acres are at the present time planted in nuts.
How many acres have been added in the last twenty years? There are, at
the present time, more than 3,000,000 acres of soy beans being planted
every year. It has only been a short time since they were first
introduced and there are more being planted every year.

I believe that the government ought to take an interest in this matter
of nut tree planting, for I believe that is the best way in which it can
be promoted. I have for several years been trying to find someone who
has made a fortune out of raising nuts but I have not yet found such a
man. I believe, however, that it is a veritable gold mine of value but
will have to have governmental aid. I think the government should
require all of these slaughtering lumbermen to plant nut trees in the
place of the trees they are cutting down.


The nut tree is one of the things that will make the boys and girls of
the farm love their homes. In a few years boys and girls will be going
back to a beautiful farm, not to pig pens, but where there are beautiful

Nut Culture Work of the Living Tree Guild


The Living Tree Guild appreciates the privilege of presenting a paper at
the silver anniversary convention of the Northern Nut Growers'
Association. We feel in a humble mood when talking to you. We are new
comers in the field and the work we have done in furthering interest in
the subject of northern nut culture is only taking what you have created
and endeavoring to make it intelligible and useful to the public. It is
something which arouses our enthusiasm. We have great faith in the value
of planting grafted nut trees in the North. This new resource for
beautifying and making idle land productive is no longer restricted to
this small group of nut culturists, but it is now practical, for anyone
with a little land and the urge to grow things, to enjoy the planting of
nut trees.

Our function is in educating more people to an appreciation of what
improved nut trees are and what they can do as they are at present
developed. Nut growing is just beginning to come into its own and the
nut tree should take its place as a valuable shade tree, should be
included in the home orchard and used as a paying crop by the farmer in
the North. The Guild is especially interested in introducing and
popularizing new horticultural developments. It publishes a new type of
tree as a publisher does a book. We serve as a connecting link between
the horticulturist and the layman, aiming to coordinate the work of
horticulturists and to interpret the meaning of this work to prospective
planters of trees. We act as a sort of educational sieve, our aim being
to extend the number of tree planters. This is a sales job and the
Living Tree Guild is a sales organization. We work through the press by
means of conservative advertising and publicity articles, through
personal contact by means of exhibits and individual interviews and
through the mails by means of carefully prepared bulletins of
information and well selected photographs. We work to gather all the
authentic information and offer this to our customers as a unique
service. Frankly we believe that there is no other organization in the
country that is as closely associated as we are with the authorities on
tree planting. Dr. Morris, whom we all know as the dean of northern nut
culture, is a member of our Board of Advisors.

In order to symbolize the grafted nut tree the Guild has adopted a brand
name, Guild Pedigree, based on the fact that the mother trees have been
carefully selected and are well known for their quality. Experiments
have shown that they represent a selected family line and develop true
to its characteristics.

We have been in touch with northern nut tree planting for a good many
years, but our sales work has been limited to the past three years
which, of course, means that we have never tried to sell nut trees in
so-called normal times. Yet Guild Pedigrees have bucked these economic
obstacles and they are becoming recognized as offering a remarkable
opportunity to the business man who has property and to the busy farmer
to make their idle land productive with a minimum amount of care and
attention. They realize that the difficult operation of grafting has
been successfully accomplished and that they need only prepare the
ground for planting according to the character of the soil and with a
little pruning and cultivation within a few years may be assured of a
new type of crop for which there is a growing demand. They recognize the
value of these trees over ordinary fruit trees which require numerous
sprayings a year and whose extremely perishable crop must be carefully
picked from the trees. Everyone knows that a certain amount of effort is
required to get good returns from farming, but comparatively speaking
improved nut trees have a decided advantage in their facility of growth,
which means that they can be planted by a much wider range of growers
than almost any other kind of crop.

In all of this we speak primarily of the black walnut which we recognize
as the best nut tree for extensive planting in the North. We believe the
hazel hybrids and filberts are of value as a secondary nut crop, as
fillers-in between the black walnuts or used as ornamental bushes for
screening around the grounds. Where local conditions justify it we
recommend that the home orchard include a variety of nut trees, the
English walnut, the northern pecan, certain hybrid hickories and a
highly blight-resistant chestnut. The Guild has realized from the start
that most laymen know little or nothing about the planting of nut trees.
We, therefore, work with them individually, advising them in detail on
their particular plantings. We keep a record of all Guild Pedigree nut
trees, particularly of the black walnut, each one of which bears a tag
with a serial number. We keep a record of this number and are gradually
building up a case history of each tree, in so far as possible, in some
instances complete with photographs. We include the conditions under
which the tree was planted, whether as an orchard or as an ornamental
tree, the amount of care and attention given it and its gradual
development and increase in bearing. This is also being done with every
tree that is included in the experimental orchard the Guild is operating
in the Connecticut River valley.

The data that we are obtaining in this way is aiding us in publishing
the latest authentic information on what happens when nut trees are
planted by laymen under varying conditions. We believe these records
will be a unique contribution of the Guild to northern nut culture. By
this means we can already point to certain Guild Pedigrees as having
made unusual growth or only average development, together with the
probable explanation, and of course to some that have died from natural
causes or from attacks by woodchucks or the like. We can offer records
of plantings of Pedigrees that have been made in practically all the
leading states, Canada and even abroad. Perhaps one of the most
interesting case histories is that of Pedigree No. 1527 which was
planted in the spring of 1932 as a Washington Bicentennial tree. This
tree, set as a single specimen, came into full leaf immediately after
planting and a year later was all of seven feet tall and had three
mature black walnuts for its first crop. It is the proud possession of
two small boys.

Young as we are in the field we have given authentic information on the
planting of northern nut trees to several thousands of tree lovers. We
have found a definite demand for detailed knowledge, and recognition of
our work has been shown by the great interests in exhibits we have
staged and from several awards which we have received from such
organizations as the Horticultural Society of New York. An analysis
shows that Guild nut tree plantings range from the true farmer to the
gentleman farmer, from the small lot owner to the owner of hundreds of
acres of non-dividend paying land, from the keen horticulturist to the
youth who is taking his first step in following a fascinating new hobby.

The selling of nut trees is a very special problem. It is not like
selling other kinds of trees. We recognize the fact that those who plant
Pedigree nut trees are in a class by themselves and we, therefore, set
up a separate department for them, making a special study of the
subject. We feel certain that there is a great future ahead for nut
growing in the North with our associations cooperating in the
distribution of information and stock developed from actual
experimentation over a period of years. Above all it is important to
understand what others are doing, and appreciate that the commercial
side should go hand in hand with the purely horticultural.

Progress Report on Nut Growing in the Ithaca, N. Y. Region


_New York_

The status of nut growing in the Ithaca region was reported at the
Washington, D. C. meeting of this association in 1932. Since that time
there has been little change in the situation except that a few more of
the varieties have come into bearing, and the severe winter of 1933-34
has injured the trees of many varieties.

The plantings in the vicinity of Ithaca are confined chiefly to those of
the Department of Pomology at Cornell University, and those of Mr. S. H.
Graham who is a member of this association and has been planting nut
trees for many years. Other than these there are only scattered trees
either native or planted around the dooryards by amateurs without any
very keen interest in northern nut growing. The purpose of the plantings
at Cornell University is primarily to test out varieties for their
suitability for growing in the rather rigorous climate of the region.
Farmers and others throughout New York state look to the experiment
stations for information regarding the possibilities of nut culture and
the varieties which might be planted to advantage.

As has been pointed out previously, the number of varieties adapted to
the region is distinctly limited because of unfavorable climatic
conditions. These climatic conditions are more fully described in
Bulletin 573 of the New York State Agricultural Experiment Station at
Cornell entitled "Nut Growing in New York State." The breeding of new
varieties and other investigational work is being carried on at the
Geneva Experiment Station where, as you know, Prof. G. L. Slate has been
growing many varieties of filberts for some years.

The university plantings at Ithaca consist of about an acre set about 20
years ago, including a number of varieties of different nuts recommended
for planting at that time. There is also about an acre of "butterjaps"
which are growing vigorously but have shown little promise of value
because of a lack of hardiness and generally poor cracking quality. The
most important planting is about 5 acres of cleared woodland in which
many hickories have come up naturally. These have been top worked to
many of the leading hickory varieties. A considerable number of walnut
stocks have also been planted in this area and top-worked to walnut
varieties. Plans are under way to acquire 10 or 15 additional acres to
be used for further variety tests as new varieties are brought to light
in the various nut variety contests which are being carried on.

Up to and including 1934 the black walnuts that have fruited are the
Thomas, the Ohio, and the Stabler. Of these the Thomas is the only one
which is at all satisfactory. This variety has fruited 3 years in
succession and has matured well-filled nuts every year. The Ohio and
Stabler have been shy bearers and in addition the nuts have been small
and not well filled. Both are evidently adapted to a longer growing
season than that at Ithaca. In 1934 one Stambaugh graft matured about 40
nuts. This variety appears promising but needs further testing. In
another year or two at least a dozen more of the promising varieties of
black walnuts should come into bearing.

Among the hickories the Barnes, of which there are 3 trees, has fruited
several times but in no case have the nuts been filled. The Brooks, the
Stanley, and the Weiker have also fruited sparingly but the nuts have
not been filled. During the past season, 1934, a few nuts were borne on
the Taylor, Kentucky, and Vest hickory trees, which were well filled. It
may be that these varieties will prove suitable for the region. The
Kentucky looks particularly promising. The Beaver and the Fairbanks have
borne a few nuts but the quality is not sufficiently good to make them
worth growing. The Burlington hybrid pecan makes a very beautiful tree
and has set nuts in several seasons, but they are not well filled. About
half a dozen varieties of northern pecans have been fairly hardy but the
seasons are too short to mature the nuts. They have always been frozen
on the trees while still very green.

During the past winter the temperature went down to -35° F. at the
University orchard. This killed most of the Persian walnuts outright.
Even the hardy varieties, Rush and Hall, were killed back to a few buds
on the trunks and larger branches. This experience has been quite
general throughout New York where the temperature went down below -25° F.
It is to be hoped that some of the new sorts being introduced from the
Ukraine will be better able to stand the low temperatures experienced in
New York. The low temperature very seriously damaged the 60 Chinese
chestnuts growing in the University orchard, killing the terminals back
for several feet and the sapwood all the way out to the combium and down
to the snow line. The trees so injured made only fair recovery and it is
doubtful if they are worth saving. Some Chinese chestnut trees nearer
Cayuga Lake where the temperature only reached -27° F. were only slightly
injured. It would seem, therefore, that around -30° F. was the critical
temperature for the Chinese chestnut. The Japanese walnuts were not
injured seriously by the cold weather of the winter. Many of the more
tender seedlings had already been eliminated by the cold winters of the
past. The Japanese walnuts were, however, badly damaged by the late
spring frost which froze off the catkins and new shoots. This has
occurred several times in the last ten years and is a serious drawback
to the bearing of this species. Hickories and black walnuts for the most
part showed no injury except in the case of rapidly growing grafts. All
of the McCallister hican grafts were killed outright as were a number of
grafts of the shellbark hickory (Carya laciniosa). At Enfield Park where
the probable temperature was about -27° F. one McCallister pecan graft
survived. The filberts were quite generally damaged both in wood and
catkins, except the Rush, which fruited heavily. Northern pecans had
their terminals killed back about 6 inches but were otherwise uninjured.

In my judgment the greatest need of northern nut growing is the
discovery and testing of new varieties adapted to the different northern
regions. To find and test these varieties is probably the greatest
service that the Northern Nut Growers' Association can perform. We
cannot expect that nurserymen will propagate commercially the new nuts
which are discovered until they are sufficiently tested to establish
the value of the variety for different regions. As has been pointed out,
the Northern Nut Growers' Association is in much the same position as
was the American Pomological Society 100 or more years ago when
information regarding new varieties was the main interest of the fruit
industry. In this connection it would seem to me well worth while to
carry out the idea proposed by Dr. Deming last year which he called the
Roll Call of Nut Varieties. The older sorts have now been planted
sufficiently widely by members of the association to make it possible to
get some adequate idea of their suitability for growing in various
localities. Those who have the interest of the association at heart
should do all they can to obtain and grow any new varieties that offer
any promise of being adapted to their locality. It is only by carrying
out such a program that we shall have any real basis for making
recommendations as to varieties adapted to different regions.

I must confess that I am still skeptical about a commercial nut industry
in New York on the basis of our present varieties. After more than 20
years of variety testing in Ithaca only the Thomas black walnut has
shown any real merit. All the other sorts that were propagated and
recommended have shown themselves to be quite unsuitable to the climate.
A grower setting out a commercial orchard 20 years ago on the basis of
our knowledge of varieties at that time would now have practically
nothing to show, except as he happened to have the Thomas black walnut,
or possibly some of the hickories of northern origin. At the present
time the number of promising varieties known has been greatly increased.
They are, however, not available in the trade, nor will they be until
they have been adequately tested to establish their merit. Fortunately
some of the nurserymen growing nut trees are willing to run test
orchards as well. They are few in number and of course their work must
be augmented by the work of others in the association. What we need more
than anything else are test orchards in different localities in which
the relative yield of the different varieties over a period of years
will be kept. On the basis of such data recommendations as to varieties
to plant can be made with some degree of assurance that the information
given is sound.


Prof. MacDaniels may have told you of a number of promising varieties
which he personally has been responsible for bringing to light during
the last year. If he didn't I hope that he will tell as a matter of
record how he came to get them and just what they are.


Prof. O. F. Curtis of Cornell University and I made a pilgrimage of
about a thousand miles back to the stamping ground of our youth with the
avowed purpose of hunting down some of the best black walnuts of the
region. The trip, though a hurried one, was packed with interest. In
all, four walnuts were located which seemed well worth testing. Probably
the best of these is the Albert Todd. The nut is thin hulled, a little
smaller than the Thomas but with a thicker kernel. The tree was about
dead when found but scions were procured and are now growing at Ithaca
and Geneva. Another variety is the Emerson, located at Madison, Ohio.
This is a large round nut with a rather tough shell and high proportion
of kernel. Mr. Emerson has a good stand of native walnut growing on
bottom land. A few years ago he sold 25 trees to a furniture company for

The third nut Dr. Curtis found on a previous journey to Ohio. It is a
large nut of rather unusual shape being higher than it is long. It has
good cracking quality and deserves further testing. The fourth walnut,
the Chase, is growing in a dooryard at Oberlin, Ohio. It is larger than
any of the others, with good shell conformation. It has the reputation
of not always filling out the kernels, a condition which may be seasonal
or possibly an inherent defect. Grafts of all four of these walnuts are
growing at Ithaca and at Geneva and will be available after a year or

We had one disappointment in that a tree that we particularly wanted was
found to have died only two years before. It was the old story of being
too late. Certainly such experiences ought to spur this association to
new efforts in trying to locate the best nut trees before they are

Some Random Notes on Nut Culture

_By_ D. C. SNYDER, _Iowa_

Any notes concerning the behavior of nut trees in Iowa this year
necessarily recall the trying weather conditions and these must be
referred to again and again. Although winter temperatures were quite
mild, catkins on the filberts and hazels were so badly injured that none
bloomed on the filberts and very few on the Jones hybrids which had
previously been hardy. The native hazels bloomed but set very few nuts,
apparently because of their repeatedly freezing during the blooming
period. The Winkler hazel seems to be a phenomenal individual and a poor
parent, not reproducing anywhere nearly true. Thus far all its seedlings
have produced nuts inferior to the parent variety even when they were
from seed which was cross-pollinated by other choice hazels or filberts.
They do, however, show much variation in foliage, bushes and fruit and
what the second generation may bring forth is yet to be determined.
Established hazel plants endured the extreme heat and drought
splendidly, but newly planted bushes did not. Well-rooted layers and
divisions planted out early made a splendid start, then backed up and
were a total failure before the July rains came.

That you may know how dry it was in Iowa the first six months of 1934,
let me tell you that only about two-thirds of the oats sown in April in
well prepared soil got moisture enough to germinate then, and about the
same part of the corn planted in May germinated. Well, along in June a
shower furnished enough moisture to germinate the remaining part, so we
had corn 2 to 3 feet high and in adjacent hills only 2 or 3 inches high,
and oats which were headed out mixed with others of the same sowing
which were just up.

The walnuts endured these extremely dry conditions better than any fruit
or nut bearing trees. Young seedlings made quite a satisfactory growth
and year old seedlings lined out for future grafting made almost a
perfect stand, as did the grafted trees which were unsold and lined out
at the end of the selling season. The heavy loss in walnuts was in the
grafts set in May. This will be mentioned later.

The shortage of moisture in 1933 apparently was responsible for
considerable winter killing of young hickories which were in sod. There
was no loss in cultivated ground. The hickories were like the apples
this year in that they did not bloom much, and unlike them in that the
apples ripened ahead of their normal season, while the hickories ripened
later. Stratford nuts are usually ready to gather September 1 but this
year are still clinging to the trees. Fairbanks is our most prolific
kind. Nuts closely resembling Fairbanks, yet somewhat different from it,
keep bobbing up on different sides of us when there is a good crop of
hickory nuts. None of them have yet been superior to Fairbanks. Perhaps
one should give each a good testing and keep up a search for one with
better quality than Fairbanks. Certainly there is no reason for calling
Stratford a hybrid. It is one of a group of shagbarks with smaller
leaves and buds, and thinner husks than are found in what we would call
a typical shagbark. The shagbarks might be divided into several species
and be as distinct as some of the species of other trees, such as the
ash for example. Vest and Hand represent another group with thin, wavy
shells and thereby are quite distinct from the typical shagbarks.

On account of extremely hot weather coming so early the nut trees were
grafted earlier than usual and in this order: chestnuts, bitternuts,
hickory stocks, shagbark stocks and, after a few days, the walnuts and
pecans. The grafting was successful in the order worked. Immediately
after the walnuts and pecans were worked the temperature began mounting,
reaching 114° F. in the shade at one time, and of course much more in
the sun and just above the bare dry ground. The chestnuts and bitternuts
had time to knit together before the extreme heat and gave a splendid
stand. The shagbarks also made a good stand. But the walnuts and pecan
stocks were near a total failure. Apparently what occurred was that the
grafting wax and paraffin which was coated over the scion melted and
penetrated the union, like that much kerosene or penetrating oil, and
prevented callusing. The cions remained plump and green for a long time
except for a thin layer at the cut surfaces. The usual resin, beeswax,
linseed oil and lamp black grafting wax was used. Can anyone suggest a
wax which will remain absolutely dry under the conditions described
above? What happened, as near as I can tell, is that the extremely hot
weather and the continuation of it melted the grafting wax and the
paraffin. They fused and made a new combination which looked like grease
and absolutely prevented any growth. The shagbark hickories gave a good
stand, about as perfect a stand as you could expect in hickories. Last
of all the pecan stocks were worked. They should have been the easiest
to work but they were a total failure. That is because the hot weather
set in less than a week after they were set, while the others had more
time. The problem I would like to see solved is one of a wax which will
remain absolutely dry during such times, and I think then we will have
solved one of the big problems of propagation.


I've had more or less trouble with grafting waxes since I began to graft
nut trees, and I have therefore been looking for a wax that would stand
up under extremely hot weather and which could be applied cold and was
not too costly. I think I have found one that comes nearest to the
ideal. It is an asphalt tree emulsion made by the Flintkote Co. of New
York City. This emulsion can be purchased in five gallon drums at 60c a
gallon in Detroit. It can be diluted with water and applied in a thin or
heavy coating. I used this wax last summer and I am better pleased with
it than any other wax I have ever tried.


I thought a few years ago that I had eliminated wax trouble, but finally
I came to the conclusion that when you have a temperature that runs
beyond the place that will melt ordinary paraffin the heat will kill the


This question is an old one. Last winter and the winter before I did a
little work on the old reports. You will find some mighty good winter
reading there. I find things hashed and rehashed over and over again.
The subject of grafting wax, of course, was discussed years ago. I might
caution you on the asphalt. It will have to be the highest, purest


You can easily prevent wax from getting in between the scion and the
stock by using a paper or cellophane.


These grafts were tied with tape. I'm sure that this oil would penetrate
anything which was not absolutely air tight.

Winter Injury of Filberts at Geneva 1933-34[A]

_By_ G. L. SLATE

_New York Experiment Station, Geneva, N. Y._

Last year I reported to you the winter injury to the Geneva filbert
collection resulting from a very mild winter. This year I am reporting
the damage resulting from the coldest winter on record in western New
York. Varieties that have withstood both winters may be considered
sufficiently hardy for anything western New York and regions with a
similar climate have to offer in climate.

A brief summary of the winter and its effects on other fruit plants in
the vicinity of Geneva will serve as a background for the data on
filberts. The first severe cold occurred on December 29 when the
temperature dropped to -21° F. This equalled the previous low record
established in February, 1896. On February 9 the minimum temperature
recorded was -31° F. or ten degrees lower than anything previously
recorded in the history of the Station. The minimum on February 8
was -16° F. and on February 10, -18° F.

Fruit trees suffered severe injury from these extreme temperatures.
Nearly all the older Baldwin apple trees in the vicinity were killed or
so severely injured as to be of no further value for fruit production.
Peach fruit buds were all killed and many of the trees succumbed, even
in well cared for orchards. Very few sweet cherry buds survived, and
many trees were injured or killed. Delaware, Catawba and Niagara grapes
were also killed to the ground or lost most of their buds. Japanese
plums failed to bloom, and the trees were severely injured. Nearly all
climbing roses were killed to the ground. Even the native elderberry,
Sambucus canadensis, was killed back in many cases. Such was the winter
experienced by the filberts.

Before classifying the filbert varieties as to their hardiness, some
general statements regarding the effect of the cold on the filberts may
be of interest.

The injury to the wood seemed to be due to a gradual drying out and the
clear cut distinction between winter killed wood and live wood so
evident in peaches, apples, and pears did not show in the filberts. The
wood of the filberts had a dried out appearance with a few brown streaks
so that one could not predict definitely in February the amount of
injury. It was not until midsummer that a true picture of the injury to
the wood could be obtained. This gradual drying out of the wood without
the clear cut distinctions between dead and live wood also characterized
the winter killing of the wood of grapes and raspberries. In the spring
new growth on the injured filbert wood started late. If the injury was
slight the foliage soon reached normal size. In some cases the early
leaves were very small, but later attained normal size. With trees that
were severely injured the leaves remained small until midsummer and then
gradually turned yellow and died. Many branches were killed outright and
failed to start or only a bud here and there would start. On the trees
of a few varieties that were injured the least, a few small leaves were
the chief evidence of winter injury.

The recuperative power of the filbert seems to be nearly as great as
that of the peach and pear insofar as this may be determined by
observation in the orchard. In spite of the past winter the station
filbert orchards present a fairly good appearance except for a few
varieties. It is probably safe to consider filberts as hardy as peaches
and sweet cherries.

The flowers of the filbert show a greater range in hardiness than those
of peaches and sweet cherries. The staminate flowers or catkins of a few
varieties are definitely hardier than peach flowers. Not a single peach
blossom survived but three filberts bloomed with only slightly more than
the usual amount of catkin killing. The pistillate or female flowers are
much hardier than peach flowers. The pistillate flowers are also hardier
than the wood as flowers were observed on trees the wood of which was
nearly dead by midsummer. In the older orchard about 16 varieties bore a
number of pistillate flowers that were recorded as medium or greater.
These did not all set nuts, however, owing to the scarcity of pollen,
but the crop on seven varieties was about medium. It should be
emphasized at this point that there were no peaches, practically no
Japanese plums, very few sweet cherries, and very few grapes in the
Station orchards and vineyards this year. Trees in the partially
protected orchard fared somewhat better in regard to catkin injury than
those in the more exposed orchard. That full exposure to the wind has
much to do with winter killing of catkins is shown by the following.
After the severe freeze of December 29 and 30 when -21° F. was
experienced, catkins of several varieties were forced in the office.
These all opened and shed pollen normally. January 29 and 30 near zero
temperatures were experienced with very strong winds. Catkins forced in
the office immediately after this were nearly all killed. Since zero
temperatures are not uncommon at Geneva in winter, but are rare with
strong winds, much of the injury may be attributed to the combination of
wind and cold.

Young trees were injured less in wood than old trees. This is well shown
by a comparison of two lots of Kentish Cob of different ages. Nine
9-year-old trees were killed back from 50 to 80 percent in addition to
considerable weakening of the remaining wood. Eleven two-year-old trees
in the same orchard were uninjured.

The importance of exposure to winds as a factor in causing catkin
killing is further shown by a comparison of catkin killing in the two
filbert orchards at Geneva. In the younger orchard which is exposed to
the full sweep of the west wind not a catkin survived on any of the 66
varieties in that orchard. In the other older orchard which is protected
on the west and north by buildings and spruce trees, sufficient catkins
survived on three varieties to provide for proper pollination. In
discussing the effects of winter injury on the different varieties it
will be necessary to make a distinction between the two orchards.
Orchard 6 is the partially protected planting while Orchard 16 is fully
exposed. Most of the trees in Orchard 6 were nine years old, while those
in Orchard 16 are six years old or less. Wood injury, catkin injury, and
pistil injury will be treated separately.

In the first group are those varieties which suffered very severe wood
injury. They are Clackamas, Early Globe, English Cluster, and Oregon.
The latter two are very similar and may be identical. These were all
nine year old trees located in Orchard 6. The trees were so severely
injured that their recovery is doubtful and the development of new trees
from suckers will be necessary. Clackamas evidently suffered root
killing as only one of the six trees is producing suckers. In this group
the trees leaved out, but the foliage was small, usually less than
one-fifth the size of normal foliage, and growth weak. By August the
leaves were yellow and many were shrivelling.

Varieties moderately to severely injured in Orchard 6 were Barcelona,
Kentish Cob (Du Chilly), Fertile de Coutard, Minna, Purple Aveline, Red
Aveline, White Aveline, White Lambert, D'Alger, and Montebello. In
Orchard 16 the severely injured varieties were Garibaldi, Kentish
Filbert, Marquis of Lorne, Princess Royal, Red Skinned, The Shah, Webbs
Prize Cob, Bandnuss, Einzeltragende Kegelformige, Liegels Zellernuss,
Multiflora, Schlesierin, Sicklers Zellernuss, Truchsess Zellernuss,
Vollkugel, Volle Zellernuss, Romische Nuss, Kruse and Rush. The trees of
varieties in this group were severely injured, but have a fair chance of
recovering. In many cases from 50 to 90 percent of the top was killed
outright, and new growth was weak. Most of the trees have a few fairly
strong shoots from the trunk or larger branches from which a new top may
be developed. Four out of 22 trees of Barcelona were killed entirely,
indicating root as well as top killing.

The last group includes those varieties of which less than 20 percent of
the wood was killed. The new growth was weakened slightly or not at all.
In many cases the tree is apparently uninjured and occasionally a single
tree of a variety may be severely injured while the others are unhurt.
Varieties in Orchard 6 belonging in this group are Alpha, Buttner
Zeller, Cosford, Daviana, Gubener Zeller, Gunzlebener Zeller, Gustav
Zeller, Lange Landsberger, Fichtwerdersche Zeller, Noce Lunghe, Italian
Red, Large Globe, Medium Long, Bollwiller, Nottingham, Halle, Red
Lambert, Gasaway, Guebener Barcelloner, Blumberger Zeller, Bixby, Jones
Nos. 83, 207, 269, 310, and Corylus colurna.

In Orchard 16 varieties in this group include Cannon Ball, Duke of
Edinburgh, Pearson's Prolific, Barr's Zellernuss, Berger's Zellernuss,
Beethe's Zellernuss, Eckige Barcelloner, Grosse Kugelnuss, Heynicks
Zellernuss, Jeeves Samling, Kadetten Zellernuss, Kaiserin Eugenie,
Kurzhullige Zellernuss, Longe von Downton, Ludolph's Zellernuss,
Luisen's Zellernuss, Mogulnuss, Neue Riesennuss, Northamptonshire,
Prolifique a coque serree, Imperial de Trebizond, and Russ. Native sorts
in this group are Winkler, Littlepage, Wilder, a Corylus americana
variety from the east end of Lake Ontario, and a Corylus rostrata from
Rhode Island. Seventeen 3-year old French varieties were also uninjured,
but in view of the general lack of wood killing, on young filberts, they
are not included in this list. It is evident then that we have a number
of varieties of which the wood is fairly hardy.

Catkin killing was very severe in both orchards and only those varieties
which had a few live catkins are listed. In Orchard 6 the catkin killing
on five trees of Italian Red ranged from 20 to 50 percent and on six
trees of Red Lambert from 10 to 20 percent. A few catkins on Alpha also
survived. The remaining 35 filbert varieties in this orchard lost all
their catkins. Several Jones hybrids in this orchard fared somewhat
better. A few catkins survived on Bixby. Jones 269 lost 10 percent,
Jones 310 lost 30 percent, and Jones 207 lost none of its catkins. All
the catkins were killed on Jones 83.

In Orchard 16, the story is soon told. Not a single live catkin was
found in the spring on the 66 filbert varieties in this orchard. Of the
native hazels Bush lost all its catkins, and Winkler none. All catkins
were dead on the Corylus rostrata from Rhode Island.

As stated earlier, the pistillate flowers were hardier than the catkins
and nearly all varieties in both orchards had at least an occasional
female flower. However, only those in which the number of pistillate
flowers was described as medium or numerous will be recorded here. In
Orchard 6 these varieties were Alpha, Cosford, Fichtwerdersche, Gubener
Zeller, Gunzlebener Zeller, Gustav's Zeller, Longe Landsberger, Noce
Lunghe, Italian Red, Medium Long, Bollwiller, White Lambert, Gasaway,
Gubener Barcelloner, Blumberger Zeller, and Unknown. Five Jones hybrids
including Bixby had a full pistillate bloom. Due to wood injury and
possibly to a scarcity of pollen only a few of these varieties bore more
than a few nuts. Varieties bearing a medium crop are Cosford, Italian
Red, Medium Long, Gubener Zeller, Gunzlebener Zeller, Bollwiller, and
Unknown. Four of Jones hybrids including Bixby, are bearing fair crops.
The other varieties in this orchard are bearing only an occasional nut
or none.

In Orchard 16 the pistillate flowers were described as medium or
numerous on the following varieties: Barr's Zellernuss and the Winkler
hazel. The other 65 varieties bore only an occasional flower. No filbert
pollen was available in this orchard, consequently Winkler is the only
variety fruiting.

In Orchard 16 were 534 two-year-old trees from crosses between Rush and
various filbert varieties. The cross was made by Mr. Reed and the
seedlings were sent to Geneva by the late Mr. Bixby. Of these 534
seedlings, 62 bore catkins. The catkins on 14 of these were uninjured,
19 had varying amounts of injury, and 29 suffered 100 percent killing.
Three hundred and ninety-two bore pistillate flowers and 74 of these
would probably have had full crops had they been pollinated. In view of
the complete loss of catkins on the filbert varieties in this orchard,
the survival of catkins on about half of the blooming seedlings is of
considerable interest to the filbert breeder. In addition, none of these
hybrids experienced any wood killing.

If the list of varieties which passed through the very severe winter of
1933-34 is compared with the list of varieties which were not seriously
injured by the very mild winter of 1932-33, only two sorts, Italian Red
and Red Lambert are found to be satisfactorily hardy in wood and catkin.
Red Lambert is too unproductive to be used except as a pollenizer.
Italian Red may therefore be considered the most promising variety now
available for western New York conditions. The nut is satisfactory and
the tree is one of the most productive. Cosford and Medium Long may also
be considered among the hardiest in spite of the complete loss of
catkins last winter. In all previous winters they have been among the
hardiest in wood and catkins. No variety should be eliminated because of
a lack of hardiness during the coldest winter on record in the region
where it is being grown, if it possesses other desirable characters.

I think considerable encouragement may be derived from the previous
winter's experience. We are at last down to rock bottom and know what is
hardy and what is not. It is evident from the behavior of the Jones
hybrids and Mr. Reed's hybrids involving a similar parentage that
sufficiently hardy varieties will result from this line of breeding work
to make filbert culture possible in those sections of the country that
are not too cold for peaches.

[Footnote A: Approved by the Director of the New York State Agricultural
Experiment Station for publication as Journal Paper No. 49.]

Notes on Hickories


_Sterling, Illinois_

I am satisfied only when I am trying for the best, and the best to me in
nuts is the hickory. For the past nine years in the nut season, and
sometimes out of it, for nut shucks tell their story, I have been
combing my own territory with hopes of finding some hickories more worth
while. About twenty miles westward from my home brings one to the
Mississippi River. One hundred years ago most of this twenty mile land
tract was covered with timber, more or less interspersed with hickories,
most of which have been cut down. Along the Mississippi there were then
shellbarks and shagbarks, together with pecans, the latter of which I
understand are all gone now. My own location was originally prairie land
out of which one could not go in any direction without passing through a
woodland tract. These nearer woods held in nut trees more shagbarks than
of any other nut variety, with the bitter hickory nut coming in second
place. As I thought about it, given a good enough tree, it seemed to me
the hickory was the greatest one we could grow. Grandfather had let pass
his opportunity to save any choice ones. So had my father. And if the
neighborhood zest was overfreighted with purpose to find such trees I
had not found it out. It looked to me like a worthwhile endeavor not to
let this neglect go further, even though chance finds were much lessened
from what they probably once were.

Having three or four kinds of hickories is no doubt a fine thing for us.
Nature cannot manage nearly so well with them as can man, but she makes
something of a hit once in a while. More than we think for, perhaps, in
the hickories we are using to graft from, there is quite likely, in the
sizeable shagbarks, something besides shagbark. Their distinctiveness,
for which we selected them, is due to a fortunate, unlike cross bringing
out their exceptional characteristics. What most hinders progress is
quite conceivably a sort of swamped unchangeableness. That is very
possibly the likely ailment we've got in our hazelnuts. There were no
three or four kinds of them scattered more or less everywhere about the
country with which nature could make chance crosses as with hickories.
Seemingly my locality ought to yield as many, perhaps more, exceptional
hickory specimens than many could. Here, or near here, the pecan of the
south had reached its northernmost trek. Here also was the shagbark,
shellbark, bitternut. And uniformity here should have more chance of a
knockout. A riddance of sameness. Hazelnuts conceded no such diversity
to help nature make freaks. In the hickory field was alteration, hope,
and chance.

In the assemblage of varieties there is given opportunity for crosses
that nature occasionally delves into, and in the additional eccentric
types getting mixed, tending to offer in rare instances special merit.
We have then through mixture, not that fixedness that usually stands in
the way, but a getting away from set types where once in thousands of
offerings a more useful specimen is made, one nature herself cannot
handle to our advantage, but for which we should have our eyes open, and
make use of when chance comes our way.

Just two years ago tomorrow I came upon what to me was an eye feast. A
half grown hickory tree whose top-most limbs bent as in rare instances
do limbs when heavily laden with sleet. And the nuts were of good size
for shagbarks. With the shucks off there were forty-two pounds of them.
They proved to be quite good crackers. I sent a sample to Dr. Deming and
he very considerately gave them the name Anthony. From the shape of the
nut, I believe it has a trace of the bitternut hickory in its make-up.
Mr. Reed has likewise expressed such an opinion in writing me regarding
it. This foreign blood tinge gives it, I believe, its jump in size and
its rather attractive form, also I think, a bit lessening in quality.
While we would like the very highest quality in our nuts, it is
conceivable that it may be advisable to do with them as is done with
peaches. Take the Elberta, with its many good traits, even though it
does fail somewhat in quality.

Having found this nut tree just two years ago hardly gives time enough
for adequate judgement of its merits. With something like three-fourths
of an inch of rain this year, from sometime in March to the seventeenth
of June, none of our crops can be judged by their performance. Skipping
last year, except for a very few nuts, this hickory came out this season
heavy with bloom. I was watching it at blooming time. On May 23 I
brought home from it a bit of bloom, laid it on a paper and the next
morning it had shed its pollen. The next morning after that we had a
frost on low ground. This tree is near such ground. With frost, and two
dry seasons, this year's crop has amounted to but one and one-half
quarts. Most hickories have done little since 1932.

Another hickory tree found last year that I call No. 2 did have four and
one-half pounds on it last season. It is hardly half grown, is a
shagbark, my best find toward cracking out in halves, and the earliest
in maturing nuts of any hickory I have found. It has no crop this year
but is worth keeping an eye on the coming seasons.

No. 3 is my best find in quality, quite good of cracking, good in size
for a shagbark and has possibly a trace of shellbark in its make-up.
While bearing light crops, it has been very consistent in doing so every
year for at least three years. It is an old tree, medium early in
maturing its nuts and doubtless could do better if freed from the under
and surrounding smaller trees. Its crop, shucks on this year, is
sixty-five pounds, or above eighteen pounds shucks off but not dried.

To the best of my present knowledge, and with such conveniences as I
had, and to aid in grafting, I should have been told to make a long
narrow box, put a wire screen bottom on it, make a cover for it, fasten
a wire at each end, put my scion wood in and let it down deep in a
cistern, and let it hang two or three inches over the water for scion
keeping. When grafting I should have been told to carry my Merribrooke
melter around in an empty pail to keep the wind from blowing it out and
to be able to better hold the blaze down and keep the wax at the right
temperature. And when and if the blaze does go out, do not try taking
the thing apart for relighting. Instead, split a small stick, put a
match in the split, take out the wax cup, strike the match and reach
down from the top for relighting.

Talk to people about better hickories and you discern first that the
subject has never been brought to their attention. On further
discussion, when they are made to understand that worthwhile hickories
can be grown, you come to the balking point. It's the crop! It's too far
off! People do not let the time question bother them when they set out
the usual dooryard trees because expectancy goes no further than trees.
In our latitude grafted hickories, first of all trees, rightly should be
in everyone's dooryard. It takes about as much time to grow the best
ornamental and shade trees as to make a hickory tree. And the latter
furnishes quite as much ornament, just as much shade as were it some
other kind of tree. Even if one cannot live long enough to eat nuts from
his own planting, plant grafted hickories anyway. Left to their own, and
most people's council, their lesser tree selections would approach the
eventual worth of a good hickory. Why not make the choice a good one?

No one knows, so far as I have ascertained, the age of a hickory. It is
much beyond that of an apple tree, at least in my locality. Of its close
relation, the pecan of the south, it has been said there are pecan trees
there now bearing nuts that were here when Christopher Columbus
discovered America.

Not long ago I read that there are something like five thousand
telescope nuts in the country. (You know we here are all interested in
nuts.) I can understand that it is interesting to search off in vast
spaces to ascertain facts, but it is hard to understand why more people
cannot find interest in rare and useful nut sports that can be strived
for and, in addition to that enthusiasm, help give to future mankind
that first of all essentials, food.

Whether we can get a helpful clue with experiences of the past I do not
know. But I often cannot help but recall a bit of the blindness of man
when I think of the potato. It was once said that they were fit only for
hogs to eat. Many years back when they were having war in Ireland,
soldiers would go through people's home and take all they had to eat. It
was found, however, where there was a potato patch soldiers would run
right over them, giving no thought of there finding food. There then was
a chance for home dwellers to better hold their own and it gave the
impetus, the beginning of potato growing, to the Caucasian race and the
name we have to this day, Irish potato. Years later, when they still had
kings in France, their ruler realized his poor subjects could help
themselves so much if they would only grow potatoes. There seemed no way
of getting them to do so. One day, however, the king went and had a plat
of ground planted to potatoes, set guards around it day and night, and
let it be known they were the king's potatoes and no one was going to be
allowed to steal them. That awoke the people. If potatoes were that good
the king would have them, they would have them also.

Franklin Roosevelt likes trees. Do you suppose we could get him to be a
king to lead for the finest in tree planting, grafted hickory-nut trees?

Another thing. Every bit we can add to the feeling and knowledge of our
securing is a help to us. We have many people whose make-up is not one
that enables them to provide for their later years, not even if they
earned ten dollars a day over a long period of time. Planting grafted
hickories would be something of a standby, extend away into the years,
and helping too when physical strength is no more ours. So too, we can
count too much sometimes on what we have in a bank. We may do likewise
with an insurance company. And there have been people whose governments
went back on them. Ours has, on gold promises! All one's hickory trees,
had he such, are not likely to treat him like that, at least won't all
die in a bunch! They won't even refuse a crop because of a depression!
And if one couldn't eat all of his nuts or even any of them, they are
something to offer in trade for that which can be used.

Again, if I am not mistaken, there is nothing that we of this latitude
do grow or can grow in field or garden that so equally takes the place
of meat as do nuts. Speaking of gardens, it has been said "gardening is
an occupation for which no man is too high or too low." Likewise could
the truth be so said for so clean a pursuit as nut growing.

History has spoken of "the age of acorns." We hope we can look into a
not too distant future and rightly see additional help, food, leisure,
income for everybody made so partially, in a little way at least, in an
age with nuts.


Mr. Anthony sent me quite a generous sample of his hickory and I got to
be quite familiar with it. I consider the Anthony one of our best
hickories. It is quite evident from his paper that he is a thinking man,
and I noticed that he has found out in two or three years things which I
have found out only after twenty-five or thirty years of study and which
I thought were exclusively possessions of my own.


The shellbarks and shagbarks are among the finest looking trees in
Washington. They are symmetrical, erect and have dark green or light
green foliage. At this time of year they are taking on a superb golden
yellow. The landscape gardeners use the hickories for the golden effect
of the foliage. Before we get through with this meeting I would like to
get some reports from the people from the North as to which species grow
the farthest north. Is it the black walnut or the shagbark? Does the
bitternut grow farther north than either one of them?


Yes. The bitternut grows 150 miles north of Ottawa. The hickory is much
farther north than the black walnut.


It has always been my impression that the butternut reached farther
north than the black walnut.


The hickories go as far north as Lake Champlain. The butternuts go up as
far as the line of Canada.


Butternuts go way above the Canadian line.


In New England the shagbark grows considerably farther north than the
black walnut and west of the Great Lakes the black walnut grows farther
north than the hickory.


I believe the bitternut grows farther north than the butternut. I think
the rivers have an influence on them. Getting away from the rivers you
don't have to go so far before they run out.


With the exhibits is a picture of a Wisconsin black walnut I grafted
myself. Dr. Zimmerman also has one growing. The meat of this black
walnut is as white and sweet as an English walnut. I think it is quite
promising for northern territory. Mr. Reed, did you have an opportunity
to test them.


They impressed me as being very promising. I tried to get cions but was
not able to at that time.


I don't think I have ever seen a hickory nut tree so loaded with nuts as
a Manahan which I have grafted on bitternut. The Taylor every year sets
a bunch of young nutlets, but I have never yet seen a catkin on it. I
don't know anything that will pollinate it. Until we select buds for
hickory nuts and walnuts as they do for citrus and other fruit, I don't
believe we can get very far.


I have some hickories growing and fruiting well on bitternut. I've also
seen enough of them not growing well so that I prefer shagbark to
bitternut. I prefer shagbark on shagbark.

Motion was made and carried that the next annual meeting of the Northern
Nut Growers' Association be held at Rockport, Indiana, Monday and
Tuesday, September 9 and 10, 1935.

Letter from Rev. Paul C. Crath

Kosseev, Poland

(_Read by Title_)

Being eager to get on time to the walnut harvest in the Carpathian
region and personally select walnuts for planting in Canada and the
U.S.A. I borrowed $400 and--now I am here. On October 11 I sent to
Toronto eight boxes of selected walnuts, about 50,000 in all, and I hope
they will arrive in Toronto in time for the Royal Winter Fair. There are
43 varieties and amongst them some of very high quality are on the way
to our Acadia. But it was no easy task to find out here good walnuts. I
bought 1400 kilograms of different nuts before I picked out of them 600
kg. for Canada. Besides me three men were busy searching for the best
walnuts in the orchards of Kosseev and Kooty. Inclosed please find a
description of 45 walnut trees and their nuts. A collection of these
nuts I am sending you separately.

I found here that:

1. Every walnut tree bears nuts of different variety. The nuts differ
from nuts of other trees in shape, hardness of shell, size, texture and
flavor of kernels.

2. On every tree walnuts are of three sizes, large, medium and small. It
depends how much sunshine they receive. Those nearer to the trunk and on
the northern side of the tree are the smallest.

3. According to flavor the walnut trees may be divided into three
different groups. Those which bear nuts of sweet kernel are the best.
Those nuts which have some bitter flavor are not bad, but those which
are languid or tasteless are no good at all.

4. Giants have kernels smaller than the cavity of their shell. But I was
told that in this country somewhere are Giants with sweet, hard kernels
which fill up their paper-thin shell fully. Some gentleman pointed to
the city of Tchernievtjee as a source of good Giants. It is not far from
Kosseev, but on the other side of Rumanian frontier. It means that I
should go to the province of Bookovina if we wish to find those perfect
Giants. I sent to Canada some good Giants, but not perfect ones yet.

A physician who resides in Kooty told me that in the mountaineers
villages of Rozhen (500 meters above sea level) there is a tree bearing
awfully sweet walnuts. He ate those nuts but he does not know the name
of the owner. Now it is my task to find those nuts. In the village of
Twedeev (400 meters above sea level) is a tree bearing one year large
nuts and next year small nuts. But those small nuts are awfully oily. I
failed to secure nuts from that tree but I know its whereabouts. There
in the mountains about 600 meters above the sea level comes the line
beyond which no walnut tree grows. That line is stretched from the east
to the west along the northern slope of the Carpathian region. I have
seen some nuts from that colder belt. In shape they are rough, but one
variety has papershell and sweet flavor. It seems to me that among these
(as natives call them Hutzoolian walnuts) we could find some good
variety for northern Ontario and maybe Manitoba. My nearest task will be
to go along the cold line and select some walnut trees there.

Kooty and Kooseev district are really walnut country. This district
produces papershell walnuts for other parts of Poland. But walnut trees
could be found five degrees to the north. Too, I wish to investigate
walnuts north of the Dniester River and then proceed farther north to
find the northern limit beyond which no walnut grows. I am going to
publish 3000 questionnaires, one for each walnut tree. I or my friends
would examine these questionnaires when filled out. Maybe we'll come
across some extra good walnut through this inquiry. But the easiest way
to locate the best walnut is to organize a walnut contest as you did in
Michigan, with the help of Mr. Kellogg. With the help of the local
agricultural papers we could have such a contest and I am sure we'll
have an amazing success. Do your best to get some funds for the prizes.
Then please go to the Royal Winter Fair which starts this fall November
21 and inspect my walnuts I shipped there recently. Create a judging
committee of Prof. Neilson, Mr. Corsan, Dr. Currelly and others. Open a
couple nuts of each variety and judge which walnuts are the best. Then
write me from what trees I should cut scions. You see, I am waiting now
for winter to cut scions from trees bearing the best walnuts I found.
Then after Xmas I'll ship to Canada a large box containing about 10,000
walnut scions. I expect to cut every scion personally and that way
secure the best stuff for the spring grafting.

I am told that there are in Latvia filberts of very good type. Latvian
filberts have grown eight inches thick in diameter. In that country the
ground is frozen in October, like in Manitolia. It seems to me that the
Latvian filbert will be ideal for the northern part of the North
America. I wish to go there too while I am in Europe. I would bring the
Latvian filbert to Canada and the U.S.A. if a small financial support
could be given to me to accomplish this task.

To assure bringing of the best walnut into Canada and the U.S.A. I made
an agreement with a local gardener to graft for us 500 walnut seedlings
with the scions I would secure for him. Thus grafted seedlings could be
brought to Canada the next fall. Furthermore, I have an idea to create
the largest and the best walnut which ever grew on the globe. For this
purpose I selected several walnut trees bearing Giant nuts and I wish to
pollenize them next spring with pollen of a tree which yields the
hardest and the sweetest kernel. Such a tree is in the city of
Stanislav. And here in Kosseev is a tree bearing Giants which before
they are dried weigh ten nuts to one kilogram (2.204 pounds). I hope
that combination could give us a desirable type.

It is also desirable for me to stay in this country until the fall of
1935. Then I am sure that we'd have some desirable walnuts and filberts.
I hope that my friends in Canada and the U.S.A. would come with
financial help to give me a chance to accomplish my task. To assure the
shipment of scions I need one hundred dollars. For my existence in this
country I need $240 for next twelve months, and for traveling expenses
about $100. All together I need $500. I hope that some Canadian or
American would understand the importance of my expedition and will come
with the help. Please put my case before some people who would back me
in my enterprise.


Mr. Crath is a Presbyterian minister, he is out of a job and he is a man
of extraordinary practical skill in agriculture. Now he informs me that,
up in the Carpathian mountain region, in the valleys they don't have the
English walnut, but the estates up in the mountains for hundreds of
years have cultivated and selected it. The estates are being divided up
and the trees cut down. He has gone up there to select these trees to
have the nuts sent to him before the dealers get them and kill-dry to
insure them against spoiling.

The Chestnut Situation in Illinois

_By_ DR. A. S. COLBY, _Illinois_

Illinois claims prominence as a state where the commercial chestnut crop
has been a profitable one for many years, beginning nearly three decades
ago. Before chestnut blight, Endothia parasitica (Murrill), killed the
trees in the East, tons of nuts were gathered there and a considerable
quantity marketed; these, however, were chiefly of the smaller native
species and little attention was paid to the trees, most of which were
wild. During the past few years some consideration has been given
chestnut culture in the far West; this development, however, is quite

Two men stand out as pioneers in Illinois nut growing: the late George
W. Endicott of Villa Ridge, who crossed the native American with the
Giant Japanese chestnut in 1895, his work resulting in the origination
of the Boone, Blair, and Riehl varieties, the fruit of which combines
the size of the Japanese with the quality of the American parent; and
the late E. A. Riehl of Godfrey, who for over 30 years, until his death
in 1925, carried on experimental work in nut culture, originating, among
others, the Fuller and Gibbens chestnuts, superior late and early
varieties. Both Mr. Endicott and Mr. Riehl planted the better varieties
in orchard form and found the undertaking a very profitable one.

The third large orchard planting in Illinois is located at Farina and
owned by the Whitford family. Here the soil type is less favorable for
chestnuts and the water drainage is not of the best, but in spite of
these disadvantages, the trees are productive.

These orchards, with other smaller plantings in the state, came into
full bearing at about the time of the gradual failure of the eastern
crops and have made money for their owners, especially where attention
was paid to sizing the nuts and to other advanced marketing practices.

During the past twenty years, interest in chestnut culture in Illinois
has been increasing gradually. Many plantings of the improved varieties
have been made in widely scattered localities. Through the co-operation
of Mr. P. A. Glenn, of the State Nursery Inspection Service, a survey of
Illinois has been begun to locate all the chestnut trees in the state.
By the fall of 1934, with about one-third of the counties surveyed, a
total of 7,601 chestnut trees has been found, approximately one-half of
which are of bearing and one-half non-bearing age. This latter group
includes nursery stock and newly planted young trees mostly of named

In a preliminary study of the approximately 3,700 trees of bearing age,
a number of facts of interest were noted. Nearly all these chestnuts
were of the named varieties, the plantings ranging in size from 1 to 800
individuals and in age from 5 to 40 years. Most of them were planted in
orchard form and given some attention as to cultural needs. However,
there were over 400 older trees averaging from 50 to 60 years with five,
80 years of age and three reported to be 130 years old.

These older trees are in poor condition as a rule, with many dead tops
and branches and hollow trunks, but still struggling for life and
producing some nuts. Very little care had been given them. They were
found along the roadside, in pastures, in the yard about the home, in
rows bordering an orchard. Some of these older trees were known to be
seedlings from seeds brought in from the East; others had been planted,
the trees coming from eastern sections. Very few of these trees are
infected with blight. They indicate ages at which chestnut trees may be
productive in Illinois if blight is controlled.

Satisfactory soil and climatic conditions for chestnut culture are found
in most sections of Illinois, since plantings are reported from Pulaski
County in the extreme south to Lee in the north, and in the central
sections from Champaign west to Hancock County. As the survey
progresses, it is probable that these limits will be extended.

One of the reasons for the state survey was to make a careful inspection
of the trees found for evidence of chestnut blight and to have the
necessary steps taken for its prompt eradication. Blight was found in
Illinois in 1926, and efforts have been made since that time to
eradicate it. Only a few infected trees were located prior to 1934. Most
of them have been destroyed. In this year's (1934) survey, 123 diseased
trees were found, and these are being handled in the most effective way
to check further spread of the blight. These trees were found in nine
counties, mostly scattered over the southern third of the state, with
one infection center in central Illinois in Logan County.

Such is the present status of the chestnut in Illinois. What of the
future? We believe that chestnut blight will continue to spread. The
disease has been reported in several of the near-by states, including
Michigan, Indiana and Iowa. With the scattered centers of infection in
Illinois, it is probable that other diseased trees will continue to
appear. Only the most determined efforts to check it, based upon a
thorough understanding of the life cycle of its causal fungus, can be of
any possible value in keeping it in control for any considerable time.
Continuous inspection of the trees, with prompt removal of diseased
material, such as cankers and infected branches, following methods
recognized as sanitary, and immediate burning will be very helpful in
checking the trouble. When the entire tree is infected, necessitating
its removal, the stump should be treated by peeling back the bark and
building a hot fire around the trunk in order that all bark tissues
shall be destroyed. It is advisable, also, that all chestnut trees be
given good care, especially as regards their needs for plant nutrients.
Beginning with the young trees, newly planted, bark injuries of any kind
should be guarded against. Extreme care is necessary in the training of
the scaffold branches, as the tree grows, in order that the mature tree
shall be well formed with as few large wounds as possible through the
removal of large branches.

The application of fungicidal sprays, such as Bordeaux, at intervals
throughout the growing season, may be helpful. The trunk and the main
branches, especially, of young trees should be protected from sun scald.
Borers and other insects must be kept out. Injury from tools used about
the trees must be guarded against. Any break in the bark offers easy
entrance to the fungus spores. Wrapping the trunk with burlap or paper
may be very helpful in preventing such injuries. Probably the best time
of year to make necessary pruning cuts is in early spring. Pruning
should be followed by the painting of the wounds with shellac, later
covering this with a good grade of paint. The tree should be well fed to
aid in the growth of callus formation to cover the wound quickly.

Other methods of attack in solving the problem include the immunization
of the chestnut against the blight and the breeding of resistant
varieties. Experimental work along these lines is being carried on by
individuals and Federal and State agencies, but the work has not as yet
progressed sufficiently to give results of commercial value.

If careful cultural methods are followed in every locality, with special
emphasis on the prompt and thorough disposal of diseased material, by
removal and burning, we can look forward to a number of years of
profitable chestnut production in Illinois.


Is the Riehl orchard free from blight?


One of the same gentlemen who visited Ithaca the other day, by
authority, is making a very careful survey for disease of the nut trees
in the eastern and northern United States. The Riehl orchard that we
visited last year about this time had considerably over 100 trees badly
diseased. We'll have to do the best we can with the old trees but watch
the young ones carefully.


Don't you think that one of the commonest causes of the blight of
chestnut trees is through the wounds and the inoculations made by the
claws of squirrels?


Yes, and also woodpeckers. The old trees can be preserved for a longer
or shorter time, depending on the care that is given to them. We found
the disease down in the Endicott orchard, even in plantings of mature
standing. There have been several trees located at Lincoln where the
disease has been found. Any of those old trees where there are any
injuries to the bark will be subject to the trouble.

Report on Commercial Cracking and Merchandising of Black Walnuts

_By_ H. F. STOKE, _Virginia_

(_Read by Title_)

The 1933 black walnut crop of southwestern Virginia was light and
exceedingly spotted. Some districts reported a complete failure, a most
unusual condition.

The volume of shelled nuts offered on the local market was smaller than
usual, due partly to scarcity of the nuts and partly because the
mountain folk who produce most of the kernels were not so keen at
cracking walnuts for a pittance when once they had tasted the sweets of
40 cents per hour on road work offered as part of the Federal recovery
program. This, apparently, will become a factor in the development of
commercial cracking plants.

The price was better than for several years past. Home-cracked nuts sold
at an average price of 25 cents per pound to local consumers, who took
most of the season's production. Sales to northern concerns were mostly
at from 30 to 35 cents for hand-picked goods, ranging up to 38 cents per
pound by midsummer. I do not know present prices.

The writer knows of no new development in mechanical cracking and
separating processes. At the present time he is completing the
construction of a power driven cracker of new design, but any report
must await successful operation.

In the marketing of kernels five channels may be considered:

1. The local consumer market, which should be cultivated as far as

2. Mail order consumer, usually reached by advertising. A two-pound
carton lined with wax paper makes a most satisfactory unit for sales of
this kind. This package has been selling generally at $1.25, postpaid.

3. Commercial consumers, who are usually manufacturers of food products,
such as bakeries, ice cream manufacturers, confectioners, etc. Usually
these people buy from wholesale supply houses.

In order to hold this trade the producer should be in a position to fill
orders throughout the year. An "In-and-outer" cannot hope to hold this
excellent class of customers.

4. Wholesale supply houses, who specialize on supplying commercial
consumers and nut stores.

These people depend on buying their season's supply as cheaply as
possible during the flush period and distributing later at a profit.

It is to their interest to demoralize the market early, so they can buy
cheaply, and later proclaim a scarcity so the market will advance to
profitable levels. They seem fully alive to their interests. At the
opening of the past season one very prominent New York buyer was
offering from 16 to 18 cents per pound for hand-picked kernels, though I
knew of none selling at anywhere near that figure.

This class of customer is rather unsatisfactory, though they will pay
fair prices late in the season if a real shortage exists, and they are
out of supplies.

5. A good, honest broker or commission merchant is probably the most
satisfactory channel for handling large quantities of kernels. He is
acquainted with actual prices and market conditions, as well as a large
list of possible customers. His customers are usually commercial
consumers, though he also sells wholesale supply houses. His commission
is usually 3 per cent.

As a note of warning, be sure your broker is honest, then stick to him.
Some concerns masquerading as brokers or commission merchants are really
wholesale buyers on their own account. They will charge the shipper a
commission on sales to themselves at a low figure. The Baltimore market
seems especially cursed with this sort of thing, though it is now, I
believe, forbidden by a code. As a whole, Baltimore is not a very
satisfactory market for black walnut kernels, though the largest in the
East. I find Philadelphia and New York more satisfactory.

The outlook for the 1934 black walnut crop in this section is most
promising. A dry spring was favorable to a good set of nuts, while
plenty of rain during the summer guarantees good size. Prices will
probably be satisfactory, due to the extreme drought in the West and the
labor situation already referred to.

At this point I shall digress from the subject assigned me. The
following matter may be left off the record, at your discretion.

a. In my 1932 report I made mention of several promising black walnut
seedlings found in this locality. Samples of the nuts of the parent
trees of the 1931 crop have been kept to the present time. All have
deteriorated to a greater or lesser degree except the Stanley, which is
as sweet and good as when gathered. The Stanley and Caldwell are
precocious as grafted trees.

The Bowman seedling tree, which was reported as most precocious, is
continuing its record of not having missed a crop since its third season
from seed. It must be reported, however, that a two-year-old graft of
this tree has not borne, as yet.

b. One thing of interest concerning the black walnut that has been
observed is the scarcity of the walnut web worm this season, none having
been observed by the writer up to September 1st. Is this a general or a
local condition?

The year of the Geneva convention, 1931, was the worst ever observed by
the writer in this respect. Do web worms occur in cycles, or do other
conditions govern their appearance?

c. The injury caused by the melting of grafting and coating waxes by the
hot sun is well known. Last spring an attempt was made to overcome the
difficulty by painting the waxed surface with aluminum bronze paint. The
experiment was a complete success, as even straight paraffine failed to
melt beneath the aluminum coating during the hottest summer here on
record. English walnut grafts so protected were more than usually
successful. Reflection of the sun's rays by the bright surface
undoubtedly lowered the temperature to below the melting point of the
paraffine. This lowered temperature was also doubtless beneficial to the
life processes of the graft union.

Direct coating of the trunks of newly set trees with the aluminum paint,
without the use of wax, was also tried with satisfactory results.
Applied direct to the dormant buds of the sweet cherry, however, it
proved toxic, as the buds never developed. This was no doubt due to the
bronzing liquid rather than to the aluminum.

The material is very easily applied, either with a brush or spray, and
makes a silvery, impervious and very durable coating. It should be
completely effective as a preventative of sun-burn of the bark of tender
species, especially to cover the creosote applications sometimes used by
tree surgeons. Such black coverings often defeat their purpose in the
hot sun by killing the living tissues by the absorption of the sun's

At the present time manufacturers are being corresponded with looking to
the development of a bronzing liquid that shall be non-toxic to buds.

Now if some investigator will come forward with a non-toxic, water
soluble coating material for the roots of nursery stock, Professor
Neilson's dream will be fully realized.

Last year Mr. Homer Jacobs of the Davey Tree Expert Company gave us a
very excellent report of his company's experiments with various coatings
used in connection with the moving of large trees. It is to be hoped
that they will add aluminum bronze paint to the list of materials
tested, and give us the benefit of their findings at our next

In the meantime, the private experiments mentioned will be continued.

d. A publicity stunt for the furtherance of nut culture is being tried
in the way of vases filled with sprays of Oriental chestnut, with
opening burrs, displayed in the windows of our leading department store,
with a showing of fall goods. A card gives credit for the display.

Judging from the enthusiasm with which the store manager and the window
dresser received the suggestion, it would appear that the idea could be
used almost anywhere. If living sprays were not available, a display of
nuts hardy to the locality could doubtless be used in the same manner.
Cards identifying the nuts and stating they were grown (or could be
grown) locally would add to the interest.

It is a matter of deepest personal regret that, due to a combination of
New Deal, raw deal and general lack of a great deal, I am unable to be
with you other than in spirit.

I salute you.

Nut Culture in Ontario


_Islington, Ontario_

As most of you know, I was away from my place for six years, but in the
meantime my nut trees grew and yielded. The past season has been most
severe on nut trees and plants. Last winter the winds came straight
across the land without any apparent obstruction, and it blew all winter
long and we had no snow. Then a dry summer with a little moisture in the
fall has created a situation that was never known before. Last year I
gathered nine large baskets of filberts but this year I secured only
about three baskets of filberts and these from bushes that were in a
protected place. Most of the male catkins had frozen. The filberts in
the unprotected places died. A Burlington Hican (purchased as a
Marquardt) lived under circumstances that hardly any other tree could
withstand. One Stanley shellbark lived and one died. It is strange how
hardy the pecans are. Not a bud was killed last winter. It is seldom
that the pecans mature a crop as the summer season is too short in
Ontario, but they grow well and make a beautiful tree. We find that
hickories grafted on pecan stocks do well, putting on two and one-half
to three feet of new growth in a year. The butternut is so common around
certain parts of Ontario and Quebec that the people do not even bring it
to market, but they do appreciate it.

I am carrying on a program over the air as I am the "Nut" man of station
CFRB and follow the farm report on prices at 1:45 o'clock each
afternoon. We are trying to influence the farmers to plant nut trees
along the lanes, around the barns and in the pastures and thus beautify
the farms and bring the boys and girls back from the cities. None of the
work that has been done in the research line of agriculture has
approached the value of the work that Prof. Neilson has done here in
Michigan in the last few years. The surface of the farms can be planted
to grains and vegetables and yield practically nothing, but you can
plant a nut tree and it will reach down into the sub-soil with its long
roots and bring up the finest food in the form of nut meats.

Nut Growing on a Commercial Basis

_By_ AMELIA RIEHL, _Illinois_

(_Read by Title_)

I have several times given figures stating the size of our chestnut crop
and the income from year to year. To this I might add that the crop last
year amounted to 6,423 pounds and was sold at wholesale for $1,082.76.
Because we do a good part of the work ourselves, it is hard to figure
the cost of harvesting. But the amount we paid out in cash comes away
below $100.00. We still think it pays to grow chestnuts, though things
look pretty bad around here now.

This was the third very dry season we have had in succession, and the
very worst of all. We had no rain at all for over seventy days, and the
heat was terrible. Everything suffered from drought. Even forest trees
on the island below us died from lack of moisture. You can imagine what
happened to the nut trees on the steep hillsides. All were more or less
scorched, and many of them actually died. These are the old trees that
father planted years ago. The young trees, which were planted after he
was gone, on fairly level ground, are heavy with burrs, and I know will
produce a fair crop of nuts as usual. For the first time in several
years we will have no hazels. They bloomed very early this year and were
caught by late frost. There are a few walnuts on some of the trees, but
I doubt if they will be well filled.

For forty years father tried to grow English walnuts, but never
succeeded in getting any of them to bear nuts. Finally gave it up in
disgust. After he was gone we started out all over again, planting
several varieties that were thought to be hardy. Now for the first time
one of them has set eight nuts. It is the Alpine variety, scions of
which were given me by Mr. J. F. Jones. Of course, it is yet to be seen
whether or not there is anything in these nuts. But it is encouraging

We all send greetings to our many friends at the convention. Will be
with you in thought and wish you all a happy time.

Some Notes on the Hardiness of the English Walnut in Michigan and

_By_ J. A. NEILSON, _Michigan_

In a study of the desirable characters of nut trees for planting in the
northern part of the United States and in southern Canada, one is forced
to place hardiness first. Rapid growth, high yield and excellent quality
of nuts are of little value if hardiness is lacking. Hardiness, of
course, is a relative term and may be applied to disease and insect
resistance, adaptability to diverse soils and capacity to withstand
extremes of winter and summer temperatures. In the present paper
emphasis will be placed on resistance to winter cold and to unusual
weather conditions, such as occurred during the autumn of 1933 and the
winter of 1933 and 1934.

In order to properly understand the effect of the past winter on the
English walnut, it will be necessary to devote some attention to the
weather conditions that prevailed in the southern half of Michigan in
the autumn of 1933. A perusal of the meteorological records shows that
the average maximum and minimum temperatures in September and October
were unusually high and that there was a heavy rainfall in these two
months. The following table shows the precipitation and temperatures
recorded at the Kellogg Farm where most of our nut cultural experiments
are conducted.

September--The average maximum temperature, 79.1; average minimum
temperature, 55.7; precipitation, 4.55 inches. October--The average
maximum temperature, 60.1; average minimum temperature, 38.4;
precipitation, 6.81 inches.

The unusually high temperatures and heavy rainfall caused growth to
continue much later than normally and thus prevented the wood from
ripening properly before winter set in.

English walnuts are found at several places throughout the lower
peninsula and more particularly in the southern half of the state. In no
place, however, are the trees numerous with the exception of a small
area around Lexington, where there are approximately 100 trees. Inasmuch
as this paper deals with the effect of low temperatures on the English
walnut, the minimum temperatures of the weather station nearest to the
places mentioned in the following text are given hereunder.

  Place                    Mo.--Date   Temp.
  Allegan                   Feb.  9      -19
  Bay City                  Feb.  9      -20
  Caro                      Feb.  9      -30
  Croswell                  Feb.  9      -26
  Fennville                 Feb.  9      -20
  Flint                     Feb.  9      -15
  Grand Rapids              Feb.  9      -16
  Gull Lake--Kellogg Farm   Feb.  9      -18
  Hart                      Feb.  9      -22
  Lansing                   Feb.  9      -18
  Mount Pleasant            Feb.  9      -21
  Muskegon                  Feb.  9      -16
  Owosso                    Feb.  9      -20
  Saranac                   Feb. 20      -25
  Sparta                    Feb.  9      -22[A]
  Leamington, Ont.          Feb.  9      -18
  Guelph                    Feb.  9      -30
  Simcoe                    Feb.  9      -30

[Footnote A: Unofficial.]

The extreme cold of the past winter following a warm, wet autumn caused
a great deal of injury to English walnut trees in this state and
elsewhere. The data presented herein were obtained by a careful
examination of several plantations or individual trees scattered over
the southern half of the lower peninsula in Michigan and in southwestern
Ontario. To properly present this information it seems desirable to
group the varieties or strains according to their place of origin.

Group 1. _Cultivated Varieties from the Pacific Coast._

In this group we have Mayette, Franquette and Seeando. The Mayette has
been considered one of the hardiest of the cultivated varieties and was
therefore included in the plantings at the Kellogg Farm. More than
twenty trees were planted and every one died last winter or in the
preceding winter. Seeando, a new and supposedly hardy variety from
Washington state, was planted in limited numbers in the spring of 1933,
but every tree perished last winter. Franquette was not planted as a
nursery tree, but was top-grafted on several large black walnuts at the
Kellogg Farm and at East Lansing, Michigan. The grafts made a vigorous
growth but only two out of eleven lived through the winter. In Simcoe,
Ontario, where the minimum temperature was -30F, a six-year-old tree was
so badly injured that it will likely die this winter, but should it not
perish, the degree of injury is so severe that it will be of very little
value. In the Niagara district the Franquette top-grafted in 1926 on
black walnut came through in moderately good condition, but in this part
of Ontario the minimum temperature was only 10 below zero F.

Group 2. _New Varieties of Canadian Origin._

This group contains Broadview and McDermid. Broadview scions were
secured from Mr. J. J. Gellatly of Westbank, B. C., who discovered the
variety near Broadview, B. C. These scions were grafted on a
medium-sized black walnut in 1931 and have since made a remarkable
growth, but notwithstanding the vigorous growth there was no killing
back during the past winter or in preceding winters. This variety was
also grown as a top-graft by Mr. Carl Walker of Cleveland Heights, Ohio,
where the minimum temperature last winter was -26 degrees F. Some killing
back was reported on this tree, but the injury was not severe enough to
be serious. The Broadview is reported to have endured without injury -25
degrees F. in British Columbia and in Russia, where the parent tree
originated, equally low temperatures are said to prevail. The McDermid
was obtained from Mr. Peter McDermid of St. Catherines, Ontario. This
tree is a third generation tree in Ontario and is descended from a tree
brought out from Germany more than 100 years ago. The nuts are large
with a moderately thick shell and contain a kernel of excellent quality.
McDermid has been grown as a top graft at Simcoe, Ontario, East Lansing,
the Kellogg Farm and Estate near Augusta and at South Haven, Michigan.
All of the trees of this Variety grown in Michigan came through without
injury, but the tree at Simcoe, Ontario, suffered somewhat by killing
back of the past season's growth. The larger branches and trunk,
however, were uninjured and have since made a rank growth. The McDermid
top-grafted on a black walnut on Mr. G. Tolles' farm at South Haven
proved hardy and was one of the few English walnut trees in Michigan to
bear nuts this year.

At the Michigan State College where the temperature went to -18 degrees
F. vigorous McDermid grafts on a thrifty black walnut were uninjured
whereas all the Franquette grafts on the same tree were killed outright.
Similar results were noted on several trees at the Kellogg Farm near
Augusta, Michigan.

Group 3. _Carpathian Walnuts._

This strain of Juglans regia was introduced into Canada by Rev. P. C.
Crath of 48 Peterboro Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, from the Carpathian
mountains in southeastern Poland. In this part of Europe the winter
temperatures are reported to go to -20 degrees F., and occasionally
lower. In the winter of 1928-29 a vast amount of injury was done to
fruit trees and the less hardy English walnut trees in Poland, but a
number of English walnuts came through without serious injury. Scion
wood of some hardy selections was sent in 1932 to the writer by Mr.
Crath, who was then in Poland. This material was grafted on vigorous
growing black walnuts in the spring of 1932 and good results were
secured with two varieties. These varieties made a vigorous growth, but
notwithstanding this they showed not the slightest injury in the spring
of 1934. The growth made during the summer of 1934 has been remarkable
and if this unusually vigorous growth survives the coming winter it
would seem as though we have an exceptionally hardy strain. The nut
characters and productiveness of these varieties have not yet been
determined in Michigan, but if they are equal to some of the trees of
the same origin, then we will have very valuable trees. These strains
have been named Crath and are distinguished by Nos. 2 and 5.

About 100 small seedlings of Polish origin were purchased from Mr.
Landega of Toronto, Ontario, an associate of Mr. Crath, and planted at
the Kellogg Farm in 1932. These trees have been subjected to trying
conditions through drouth, competition with alfalfa, late growth and
severe winter temperatures. As a result some have died, but a number are
growing nicely, and it is expected that some of these will eventually
become established. Seedlings of this lot suffered only slight injury
near Sparta, Michigan, but grafts from these same seedling trees set on
a vigorous young black walnut were very severely injured. Another tree
from this group endured the severe cold at Madison, Wisconsin, during
the past winter and made a rapid growth this season.

Scions from another fine tree of Polish origin growing at Mr. Crath's
place in Toronto were set on several trees in this state in the spring
of 1933 and in every case endured the lowest temperature without much
injury to the new growth. A very unusual condition was noted, though on
three young black walnut trees top-grafted to scions of this tree. On
these trees the vigorous grafts appeared to be uninjured in the wood,
but the bark at the point of union on both stock and scion was so
severely injured that the grafts died. An examination showed evidences
of bark splitting and this was undoubtedly caused by a severe and sudden
cold spell following a very late and extremely vigorous growth. Scions
of this strain were grafted on a medium sized black walnut at Caro,
Michigan, and these endured -30 degrees F. without serious injury. A
small black walnut tree at the Kellogg Farm top-grafted to scions of
another Crath seedling showed bark injury on the lower half of the
stock, but fortunately the extent of the injury was not great and the
graft was saved. It also made a vigorous growth this season
notwithstanding the hot dry weather and injury to the bark on the stock.
Scions of this strain were grafted on a vigorous black walnut on the
farm of F. Wilde at Wayland in 1933. These scions made an extraordinary
growth that season and were subjected to a temperature of -20 degrees F.
last winter. Some killing back occurred but no permanent injury was done
as the grafts have made a good growth this season.

_Pomeroy Seedlings_

This strain of walnuts originated on the farm of Mr. Norman Pomeroy of
Lockport, New York. Trees from this plantation, or seedlings of these
trees, are grown at various places throughout Michigan with the heaviest
concentration near Lexington. There are also a number of Pomeroy
seedlings on the farm of Mr. Grant Fox at Leamington, Ontario. All of
the trees in the Lexington district were more or less severely injured
by killing back of the branches and occasionally by bark splitting or
bark killing. At St. Louis one very fine tree was nearly girdled by bark
injury and will undoubtedly die. Near Ithaca another tree showed
moderate killing back and in the city two trees were killed to the
ground and one other so severely injured as to be useless. The trees at
Leamington, Ontario, were also severely injured, especially those that
bore thin-shelled nuts. Some of the larger trees in this plantation
which bore nuts with moderate thick shells were not as severely injured,
and this would seem to indicate that there may be a relationship between
thickness of shell and resistance to winter cold.

In this plantation it was also found on another occasion that the trees
which bore thin-shelled nuts produced long vigorous succulent shoots
with a large pith and loose, spongy buds. On the other trees that bore
thick-shelled nuts the shoot growth was shorter and firmer than on the
trees with thin-shelled nuts. In contrast to these trees the buds on the
Crath trees Nos. 2 and 5 were short, rather broad and very solid. The
wood also was very hard and well matured with a small pith even on
vigorous shoots. This seems to indicate that there may be a relationship
between density and maturity of wood and buds and winter hardiness.

_Other Seedlings_

At various places in Michigan there are English walnut trees that
originated in England or which are seedlings of trees that came from
England. An exceptionally good tree of English origin grows near Ionia
and is called Larson after the owner of the farm on which it grew. The
Larson tree is at least 50 years old and bears nuts of large size and
excellent quality in favorable seasons. This variety was propagated for
the college by the Michigan Nut Nursery and some of these trees were
planted at the Kellogg Farm in 1933. Unfortunately the past winter
killed all the young trees and so severely injured the parent tree that
its recovery is doubtful. Beck is another good variety of English origin
that grows near Allegan on the Monterey road. The original tree of this
variety was very severely injured and much greater injury was noted on
seven-year-old grafts of this variety which had been set on a black
walnut. At Vassar there is a tree of English origin that yields very
fine nuts, but this one was also severely injured. Near Conklin there is
an old tree of German origin and this was likewise severely injured, but
not so much as the trees from England.

_Chinese Walnuts_

The Chinese walnut is a geographic form of the so-called English walnut.
It occurs over a large area of central and northern China, and it is
believed that trees from the northernmost range of this species in China
are somewhat hardier than the average English walnut from western
Europe. The number of trees of this species under observation is very
limited, but those that have been seen appear to be promising. The
largest and best tree observed grows on the property of Mr. Geo. Corsan
at Islington, Ontario. This tree was subjected to -26 degrees F. last
winter and was somewhat injured. The growth this spring was delayed
longer than normally and some killing back was noted. Eventually the
tree started to grow and made a normal amount of growth. Scions from
this tree were grafted on two black walnut trees at the Kellogg Farm in
1933 and a vigorous growth was made in that season. These grafts were
carefully examined in the spring of 1934 and were found uninjured.
Subsequently a very large graft on one medium sized black walnut tree
died, but this was due to injury at the point of union rather than to
the graft above. The remaining scions made a good growth this season.
Seedling trees of another strain of Chinese walnut showed some variation
in their hardiness. Some came through in good condition and made a
vigorous growth but others were more or less injured. The limited number
of trees under observation scarcely justifies definite conclusion, but
it would seem as though this form of Juglans regia is worthy of a wider
trial in southern Michigan.

_Types of Winter Injury_

The following forms of winter injury which have been referred to in the
preceding notes are given special attention hereunder.

(1) Killing back of branches.

This type was found on every tree except the hardy varieties of Polish
and Russian origin. In some cases the large branches were killed
outright, but usually the injury was confined to small branches, and the
degree of injury varied from slight to very severe killing. Branches so
injured were attacked by fungus diseases and some were beginning to
decay and fall off when examined in October. Killing back of the
branches was also noted on one excellent heartnut at Scotland, Ontario.
This tree was subjected to -30 degrees F. but was less severely injured
than many of the English walnuts noted above, and when examined in
September showed a vigorous new growth throughout most of the top. There
were also several vigorous seedlings from this tree growing near by
which were only slightly injured in the bark or which were uninjured. It
was interesting to observe that the seedlings of the old heartnut tree
that were apparently of hybrid origin were not injured in the least and
bore good crops of nuts this year, but the seedlings that were pure
heartnuts were injured slightly. This point suggests the desirability of
crossing the finest heartnuts with the best butternuts to get a
combination of the hardiness of the butternut with the good qualities of
the heartnut.

_Bark Killing_

Bark injury is often found on fruit trees following a severe winter and
is occasionally found on nut trees. It may be due to bark splitting or
to desiccation or both. In severe cases of bark splitting the bark
splits vertically and laterally from the ground up for several feet, but
in milder cases the bark is only split away for a short distance. Where
the bark is loosened for some distance around the tree or vertically it
dies shortly thereafter, but where only a small amount of splitting
occurs, the tree may recover if given attention. In such cases the bark
should be cut back to the living tissue and all particles of dead or
injured bark scraped off. The exposed area should then be coated with a
good tree paint or asphaltic emulsion.

The severest case of bark splitting observed was on a vigorous young
heartnut seedling at Guelph, Ontario. On this tree the bark was
completely split away entirely around the trunk from the ground up for
several feet and the injury was so great that the tree died early in the
summer. Within a short distance of this tree was another tree of the
same origin that was quite uninjured, but this tree, however, was a
hybrid between the butternut and the heartnut. On this hardy tree there
was a heavy crop of nuts that were intermediate in form between the
heartnut and the butternut, this indicating its hybrid origin.
Practically all of these hybrids escaped injury even though the
temperature was -30 degrees F.

Bark injury was also noticed at the Kellogg Farm on several black walnut
trees that had been grafted in the nursery and which were planted in
1932 and 1933. On these trees the scion variety was uninjured but the
bark on the stock was more or less affected from the ground up to the
point of union. All trees thus affected came out into leaf, but shortly
afterward the leaves withered and the top died.

Bark injury from splitting or desiccation was more prevalent on young
vigorous growing trees, and on older trees that had been stimulated into
a strong growth by fertilizers or late cultivation.

_Suggested Means of Control_

Since it is impossible to control temperatures and precipitation, it is
perhaps a vain hope to expect complete immunity from winter injury to
the English walnut. It is possible, however, to lessen the degree of
injury by certain measures of precaution. These are as follows:

(1) Plant only the hardiest varieties.

The past winter showed very clearly that the commercial varieties of
English walnut or seedlings as grown in this state are not hardy enough
to endure the severe cold that periodically occurs in Michigan. This
limits the choice of varieties to those from central Europe or north
China where rigorous climatic conditions prevail. As already pointed
out, the varieties that endured the past winter were from the Carpathian
region in Poland or western Russia and north China. These varieties have
not been widely distributed in this state and it may be found that even
these will have a limited range in Michigan. Their behavior, however,
shows that they are somewhat hardier than varieties from western Europe
or England. Unfortunately the supply of trees of these apparently hardy
kinds is limited and it will take some time to work up a stock of the
best strains. In the meantime, those who desire to plant the English
walnut had better wait until a supply of the hardier kind is available
or plant some other hardy species such as the black walnut.

(2) Thoroughly drain all soils intended for nut trees. Well drained
soils favor good root development and seem to lessen late growth, thus
reducing to a slight extent at least the severe killing back that is
noticeable on such growth.

(3) Use nitrogenous fertilizers in moderation.

Fertilizers rich in nitrogen may stimulate the late growth and
predispose the tree to killing back.

(4) Do not cultivate the soil around nut trees late in the summer.

Late cultivation stimulates late growth and prevents the trees from
properly ripening their buds and wood. This late growth invariably
suffers more severely from winter cold than growth that is well matured.

Nut Tree Prospects in the Tennessee Valley


_Tree Crop Specialist, Division of Forestry._

_Tennessee Valley Authority._

This is a vital question to discuss in the economic welfare of any
community, but the sooner the value of tree crops is recognized, the
sooner will the agriculturists be on a more simple economic basis and I
feel that the members of this association agree with me when I say that
the Tennessee Valley Authority Board of Directors should be complimented
by this body for their foresight in making tree crops a part of their
economic scheme. In my five months of work the points that I believe are
of most interest to this body are that I have actually made a cursory
tree crop survey of the whole Valley--fifteen hundred miles long and
seventy-five miles wide. This is the first time this kind of work has
ever been attempted in the world on an extensive scale. The results of
this survey have been approximately the following:

(1) A keen interest by all the County Agents in the tree crops question.

(2) I was astonished at the surprising number of County Agents that had
been advocating nut trees as a farm asset. It gave me considerable
pleasure to note the number who had nuts sticking around their offices
they had gathered up because of their interest in trying to find a good
cracker of either hickory or walnut. As we all know it would be
impossible for me to attempt to fine-tooth-comb an area as large as the
Tennessee Valley basin for thin shelled nuts, but with the enthusiasm
shown by the County Agents we will have excellent co-operation with them
in getting publicity in local papers for the contests that we have run
to date on all the tree crops. The announcement of this association's
prize contest is going to have an outstanding influence in getting a lot
of samples of nuts and you can easily see the stimulant to get two
prizes in the place of one is going to make a lot of men and women and
children scour the country for the nut that will possibly take the prize
in both contests. I want to say that I feel that these nuts, from the
few samples and reports I have at hand, are going to give the balance of
the United States a run for their money in the contest.

My work, when developed along the lines as recommended, will not only
comprise the development of nuts but of all tree crops in general. Not
only in introducing selected tree crops to the farmers but in the
breeding of superior crops. The tree crops idea like the Authority's
power idea will have, in the words of Dr. Kellogg, in a recent letter to
me, "It will not only influence the welfare of the farmers in the Valley
but over the whole United States." First in showing the farmers on a
worth while scale the value of tree crops and second in introducing this
health food into the diet of the American people.

Some New Hicans and Pecans in Illinois

_From_ J. G. DUIS, _Shattuc, Illinois_

(_Read by Title_)

I am writing a short account of the new nuts I have discovered in this
vicinity, all in the Kaskaskia River Valley and not one fifty miles
away. The Duis, Swagler, Joffrey and Carlyle pecans. The Duis black
walnut. The Gerardi and Nussbaumer hicans. And the Dintleman hybrid.

The Duis pecan grows about four miles up the river from Carlyle. I claim
it as the largest northern pecan in existence, with the Swagler not far
second in size. Both have been bearing the two years I have known them,
the Duis rather prolifically. However, it was so severely whipped last
fall, and the season so dry this year, that I do not expect a crop off
either tree, though I have not visited them as they are rather
inaccessible. Both graft fairly well, especially the Swagler.

The Joffrey pecan grows alone in a corn field south of Pelican Pouch, a
glacial moraine south of Carlyle about six miles. It is the plumpest,
thinnest shelled nut of northern variety, and above average size. Fair
bearer to the best of my knowledge, but a severe hail storm and a season
of severe walnut caterpillars ruined two years' prospects. The Carlyle
pecan grows in the State Fish Hatchery and Park at Carlyle, and I have
only the word of the "game warden" and caretaker for size and quality.
The same hail and caterpillar pest hit that tree. The Duis black walnut
is from a scrub tree on Shoal Creek, about five miles northwest of
Carlyle and is about crowded out by other trees. My oldest grafted tree
from it is about seven years old and has been bearing consistently since
two years old. Even this year, after two severe dry seasons, and a late
frost that nipped the early shoots, it has a fine crop even though other
trees, grafted and seedlings, are mostly barren. The nuts are medium to
rather large and readily crack out in halves comparable to the Stabler
when properly prepared for cracking. There are so many new walnuts I
know nothing about that I presume there are better ones.

I claim only secondary credit for "resurrecting" the Nussbaumer hican
and the Dintleman hybrid, presumably king hickory and bitternut. The
Nussbaumer is the hybrid mentioned in Fuller's Nut Culturist some fifty
years ago. I thought of this for several months and corresponded
regarding this nut and finally made a couple of trips down the river to
Mascoutah and vicinity. I could hardly find a man old enough to know Mr.
Nussbaumer, who was a druggist there. Later he removed to Okawville and
from there to Texas, where he died a number of years ago. I was advised
to see an old nurseryman by the name of Jacob Leibrock, now deceased. I
was told he had two of the trees from seed. He had, but both bore
bitternuts and he had cut them down. I did not think till later that
they probably were not from the Nussbaumer tree and when I wrote for
more information he had passed away. He advised me to see two men toward
Fayetteville down the river. The first one did not know where the tree
was. The second one did but was too busy to go to it, so I hired him to
go as soon as possible and advise me and if possible send me some
samples and I would return later. From what he told me I was sure I was
off the track of the Nussbaumer, but on the trail of a new and better
nut. He said the tree bore "sacks full" and the nuts were so thin
shelled you could crack them in your hand. I went farther down the river
to Fayetteville, not far from which place east the tree was located, but
was there informed the tree was dead. However, the informer told me he
had a seedling from it, but upon investigation found he had a fullblood
pecan, probably planted by a jaybird from a number of bearing trees in
close proximity, for I was satisfied by this time the nut was not even
part pecan. The two original nuts probably never grew. The innkeeper
advised me that Mr. Dintleman, a nurseryman of Belleville, Ill., had
been much interested in the nuts and might have a tree. So I wrote him
asking about it and also wrote Mr. C. A. Reed, U. S. Dept. of
Agriculture, Washington, D. C. Mr. Dintleman wrote me that our well
known Mr. J. F. Wilkinson, had a seven-year-old budded tree from buds he
sent. And Mr. Reed advised me to write a farm advisor in Missouri.
Through him I was informed a Mr. George Miller, near Bluffton, son of
Judge Miller, mentioned in Fuller's book, had a tree thirty years old.
In short, I found not only the one tree I was after but a second king
hickory and bitternut cross with a shell so thin you could "crack it
with your hands." Shall we call it a Hickbit? Mr. Wilkinson sent me
graftwood and stated he expected we call it the Dintleman. The
Nussbaumer, Mr. Miller informed me, is not a good bearer, but it may be
due to location or lack of pollinization. I now have several trees of
each from spring grafts.

All the above trees grow in overflow ground, sometimes in water for
weeks, called slashes. The Stabler walnut also seems to like that, but
the Thomas does not and is outgrown by the three-year-old Stablers. I
will know more about that in a year or two. However, nearly all grow
very well on the prairie land around here and some seem to bear better.

May I add another observation. Cultivation will produce bigger, better
and more nuts, same as for corn.

       *       *       *       *       *

Evening session.


I'd like to speak for a moment about some old friends, one of whom we
shall never see any more, Mr. Bixby. If you will take the trouble to go
back through our annual reports and see the number of articles he has
written and the diversity of subjects he has written on, and see what an
important part he has taken in our discussions, you will get a good idea
of the ability and broad-mindedness, the scientific knowledge and the
honesty of Mr. Bixby. There is one thing that perhaps you don't all
know, and that is that his collection of nuts has been sold to the
United States Government. There is something fewer of you know and that
is that this sale was brought about by the persistent energy, mental and
physical, of Mr. Reed.

The other old friend, whom we shall perhaps never see again at a
meeting, is Dr. Morris. I've seen him twice this summer, had several
letters from him, and lunched with him once. He has with him his devoted
wife and his little daughter and he appears to be fairly well. He
doesn't look very different from what he has when he attended our
meetings. He is up and around and he walked about the place for fifteen
or twenty minutes with Mrs. Morris and me looking at his trees.

Some other old friends that I would like to call to your attention are
our past reports. I suppose that I have read those reports more times
than anybody else, since I have edited nearly all of them. I go back
over them occasionally even now and I have been astonished to find the
value of the papers and discussions that are contained there. I
recommend to all of you who have these reports to make a review of them
and see how many things were known during the early years of our
association, as Mr. Walker has said, that we are now rehashing. When you
go over the names of the men who made up the membership of the
association in its early days, men whom many of you perhaps have never
seen, or have seen very seldom, you can understand how these pioneers in
nut growing would have had something interesting to say.

I've made a little list of names of these men, some of whom are gone,
and the rest of whom we seldom see. Dr. Morris, Prof. Craig, Henry
Hales, Prof. Close, Prof. Hutt, W. N. Roper, W. C. Reed, Prof. Collins,
E. A. Riehl, Dr. Van Fleet, Prof. Van Deman, J. G. Rush, Mr. Jones, Mr.
Littlepage, Mr. Bixby, Dr. Smith, Prof. E. R. Lake, S. W. Snyder, Mrs.
Erlanger, Col. Sober, Prof. Drake and many others. I think it will pay
you all to look back through those annual reports and see what the
pioneer nut growers of this country have recorded.

Mr. Reed, I was saying that Mr. Bixby's collection of nut trees had been
sold to the Government and that it was through your help that this sale
was made. Now I'd like to ask you if there is any information that you
could properly release to the meeting about the sale of those trees. I
am sure everyone of us would be interested to know where they are going.


The trees have been bought by the Interior Department with funds placed
at their disposal for the purpose of planting trees for the national
forests. Their attitude has been rather liberal in this case. They have
felt that if they could get trees planted, regardless of whether they
were planted on Interior Department land or not, it would be justified
expense. When the matter was laid before them, they at once thought of
the arboretum which is now being developed within the District of
Columbia. The final purchase was made largely in order that the
arboretum might be able to start off with the Bixby collection as a
nucleus. A complete list of all varieties that are in the collection
will go there. Another part of the purchase comes to the branch of the
Agricultural Department which I represent, and practically all of the
varieties in the Bixby collection which are not now in the plant at
Beltsville will be sent there.

It was the original plan of the Interior Department that all of the
trees which neither the arboretum nor the branch of the department which
I represent needed, should go to the Shenandoah National Park in
Virginia, and it was with that understanding that the deal was closed.
After the deal was closed and a notice was sent to the authorities in
charge at the park that a certain number of seedlings of different
species and a certain number of grafted trees would be delivered there
sometime this fall, the Shenandoah authorities took the strange attitude
that they couldn't use grafted trees. In other words, they preferred
mongrels to thoroughbreds. We chuckled in our sleeves. But nevertheless
they threw back upon us several grafted trees to find some place for. We
immediately took it up with the Forest Service. They have land in North
Carolina where all of the trees can be planted fifty feet apart, not
cultivated, but nursed and cared for, and available for study by our own
department and the state of North Carolina and any individuals.

I have omitted mentioning that there are certain limitations on the
ability of the Interior officials to buy trees for Interior Department
planting. It is a definite policy of the Interior Department that in all
national parks they plant only American species. That automatically
eliminated many trees of the Bixby collection. But the arboretum wanted
a good many of those trees and so did we.

There are still in the Bixby collection several fine Persian walnut
trees. We haven't been able to trace their source, but it is my
impression that they are of Chinese origin.


He had a row of Pomeroy trees.


He also had some trees from Chinese seed, because he sent some of them
to Geneva.


We have the Bixby correspondence. By the terms of the purchase Mrs.
Bixby was to deliver to the Interior Department all of Mr. Bixby's
records pertaining to those trees, and as far as she has been able to
get things together they have been turned over to me.


In addition to our annual reports I want to say a word about the reports
of the National Pecan Growers' Association. Twenty-five years ago I took
out a life membership in that association for $10.00, and I have been
getting annual reports ever since. While they relate almost exclusively
to the southern pecan they have also many scientific articles on the
development of twigs, blossoms and fruit, on pruning and grafting and on
fertilizing and cultivating, which are of importance to all nut

I think perhaps I won't go into the subject which has been talked of so
much today, the severe winter and summer we have had. But J. G. Rush in
our third annual report has a paper which is entitled, "The Persian
Walnut, Its Disaster, Etc.," which describes events twenty-two years ago
very similar to those that have taken place in the last winter.

Nut Growing in Vermont

_By_ ZENAS H. ELLIS, _Fair Haven_

In all my life of over seventy years I have never seen a time like the
present. We have passed through the coldest winter and the dryest summer
ever known.

I raise on my place in old Vermont every kind of tree that will grow
there, and try many that will not, or only with more or less protection.
I have apples, pears, plums, cherries, peaches and figs, with berries of
all kinds. I have nut trees of many different varieties, hickories,
black and English walnuts, filberts, hazel-filberts, pecans, almonds and

Which have stood the cold and drought the best? Strange as it may seem,
my nut trees have stood the extreme temperatures the best. My hardiest
apples like the Wealthy, Yellow Transparent, Wolf River, and Pewaukee
have gone down to their death, or so near thereto that I never expect to
see any fruit from them again. Whereas, on the other hand, my hickories,
black walnuts, butternuts and hazel-filberts have not even lost a leaf.
Wonderful to relate and almost unbelievable my large pecan tree, over
forty feet in height, and a foot in diameter, is as hale and hearty as

August 15th last I picked and cracked some of my improved butternuts and
hazel-filberts, and found the kernels large, full grown and normal in
every way. Whereas I have not an apple or pear fit to eat, no, not even
a berry either.

I set out my butternut years ago in the position of honor in front of my
house, and it has merited it ever since. The kernels came out in halves
and often times whole. I have given away many of the nuts for planting,
even as far away as Kew Gardens, England. Money could not buy the parent
tree. I would not exchange it for the best cattle ranch in Colorado, the
best wheat farm in Kansas, or the best cotton plantation in both the
Carolinas. It is self-sustaining, does not require any subsidy from
Uncle Sam, or any twenty-five thousand dollars a year official to
regulate it. It is better than any dollar nowadays, always worth 100 per
cent in gold instead of 61 cents, as is our government kind. The reason
is, God rules it, instead of a mere man with any combination of the
alphabet you can make.

It is the same with my improved hazel-filberts which grow tall and rank
and bend down to the ground with their branches heavily laden with
large, well-filled nuts.

My Thomas black walnuts are doing well, as also my Sier's hybrid
hickories; both are perfectly hardy but not bearing this year as it is
the off year for them. The butternut and hazel-filberts have never an
off year but, like the "brook," go on forever. My English walnuts with
some protection passed the winter in perfect safety. But the almonds,
though protected as well, fared very poorly, showing that they are not
near so hardy as the former.

The other kinds of nut trees that I have mentioned, even to the pecan,
withstood the rigors of the winter with no protection whatever.

My true filberts fared rather poorly but are coming up lustily from
below the snow line and will, I think, be as good as ever if the past
winter does not repeat itself.

What does this all mean? It means that we should plant more nut trees
instead of so many fruit trees, especially the apple, which has proven
more liable to cold injury than even the pear, if we would have any of
the delectable valuable products of the tree kind. Why, just think of
it, a few nut trees planted around every home in the country would do
more to relieve the present depression than all the other agencies and
remedies put together. Frost does not impair their fruit. Nuts will keep
through the year or longer. Insects do not injure them as they do the
soft, unprotected fruits. Squirrels may take their toll but they are far
easier to destroy than a bug. To hunt them is grand sport for young
people, whereas to chase a bug is no fun at all.

The workman, the professional man, the merchant, should especially raise
them as they would take no time from their business. Their children
would think it no work at all to gather them, that is if they were like
the children of my youth who looked forward to gathering nuts as one of
the pleasantest pastimes of the year.

If all our city parks, public squares, playgrounds, roadsides, waste
places and other like areas were planted with them, all children even to
the poorest could have a sufficiency of the healthiest food that would
build up their bodies into strong healthy adults who could go out into
the country and build it up again as it was years ago, instead of the
vast, desolate region it is now.

What makes children so puny and so unwilling to do any real work today?
It is because emigration from nut-eating countries being shut off, and
our native nut trees cut down or uncared for, there is nothing to keep
up the supply of the best food for the body today. The remedy is to
raise more nuts so the children and adults as well can again be fed on
the most valuable, healthy and strength-giving food God ever made.

Then, too, crime would be greatly reduced, especially of the juvenile
kind. The spare time of our youth would be taken up for about three
months in a year with a clean, pure, pleasant, agreeable occupation
instead of searching for mischief and quasi-vicious adventures. Have no
juvenile crime and the adult crime is reduced to a minimum, or
obliterated entirely.

God started man on a nut eating diet and kept him thereon for centuries.
As long as he stuck to it he was all right. We do not hear much about
that era, for happy is the nation that has no history. Then he had no
diseases to speak of except extreme old age, no wars and hardly any
troubles. But when, in the Garden of Eden, the Devil tempted him to
switch off onto some other diet, he has been wrong ever since. So then,
let us return to our old diet as far as possible and have something of
an Eden again about us today.

Perhaps you people of Michigan would like to know what my town of Fair
Haven is. It gave you James Witherell who, while congressman from
Vermont, resigned to accept the supreme judgeship of the great territory
of Michigan. In the war of 1812 he had command of the troops thereof
and, when ordered by the cowardly General Hull to surrender them to the
British, absolutely refused. After that war he laid out anew the war
stricken city of Detroit.

His grandson, Thomas Witherell Palmer, the son of a native born Fair
Haven girl, became your United States Senator, Minister to Spain and, in
1893, President of the World Fair commission at Chicago. He gave to
Detroit that large and beautiful park named after him.

So you see Henry Ford is not the whole architect of that great city, as
good Vermont blood had to relay its foundations and get it well under
way for that great auto magnate to make it the fourth city in the

A Roll Call of the Nuts



In the report of the proceedings at the eighth annual meeting of this
association, held at Stamford, Conn., September 5 and 6, 1917, is an
address by the Vice President, Prof. W. N. Hutt of North Carolina,
entitled "Reasons for Our Limited Knowledge as to What Varieties of Nut
Trees to Plant." I quote from that address:

     "In 1847 the American Pomological Society was formed as a national
     clearing house of horticultural ideas. The first work the society
     undertook was to determine the varieties of the different classes
     of fruits suitable for planting in different sections of the
     country. Patrick Barry of Rochester, one of the pioneers of
     American horticulture, was for years the chairman of the committee
     on varietal adaptation and did an immense amount of work on that
     line. At the meetings of the society he went alphabetically over
     the variety lists of fruits and called for reports on each one from
     growers all over the country. This practice was kept up for years
     and the resulting data were collected and compiled in the society's
     reports. A similar systematic roll call of classes and varieties of
     nuts grown by the members of this association would be of immense
     value to intending planters of nut trees. In northern nut growing,
     however, it may be questioned if we have yet arrived at the Patrick
     Barry stage."

These were the words of Prof. Hutt in 1917, seventeen years ago. I
believe that nut growing has now arrived at the Patrick Barry stage. It
seems right, therefore, that we should begin to have an annual roll call
of the nuts. To this end I have prepared a list of nuts of the different
genera, species and varieties grown in the northeastern United States.
This list is long but by no means complete and this, by the nature of
things, it can never be. It is evident that there will not be time
enough to go over more than a small part of this list. It is, therefore,
proposed to have the list mimeographed and sent to all members for their
reports. Members are asked particularly to add to the list the names and
performances of any varieties not listed of which they may have
knowledge. In this way we shall soon be able to make our lists as nearly
complete as possible.

In order to reduce bulk and expense it will be necessary to print the
names in compact form. It is suggested that the lists be kept for
reference and that any report be made on a separate sheet under the
proper heading. I will go as far in it now as you want me to. As I call
the names of the nuts on this list I will ask the members present to
report, as briefly as possible, any knowledge they may have as to the
performance of each nut, such as the earliness of its fruiting, size and
regularity of crops, growth and vigor of tree and character of nuts.



See Mr. Reed's paper in this report.

THE BARNES (Shag. x Mock.):

Dr. MacDaniels: There are some at Itaca which bear.

Dr. Deming: This is undoubtedly a Shagbark--mockernut hybrid. It is
entirely at home when grafted on the mockernut. This makes it of value
for there are few of our named hickories that will do well when grafted
on the mockernut. In 1933 I top-worked a mockernut with ten grafts of
the Barnes. In 1934 it bore 30 fine nuts. It appears to be an excellent
nut. There are three other nuts that I know do well on the mockernut.
One is the Wampler from Indiana introduced by W. C. Reed. Another is the
Minnie raised by Mr. S. W. Snyder. The fourth nut is the Gobble. The
Barnes is mentioned in Dr. Zimmerman's report, page 23, 1932
proceedings. Carl Weschcke has it growing at River Falls, Wis.

THE BATES (pecan x Mock.):

Mentioned in Dr. Zimmerman's report, page 23, 1932.


See Mr. Bixby's paper in 1926 report.

THE BEAVER (Shag. x Bitter.):

Dr. Deming: It grows rapidly. The nuts are not of very good quality,
like most bitternut hybrids.

The Beaver is growing in the Kellogg plantings at Battle Creek and is
mentioned in Dr. Zimmerman's report, page 19, 1932. Carl Weschcke has it
growing at River Falls, Wis. E. C. Rice, Absher, Ky., has one one-year
graft on bitternut, height 5 feet. J. H. Gage, Hamilton, Ont., has one
Beaver tree planted in 1924 and moved in 1925 growing in light sandy
soil on north shore at west end Lake Ontario. Diameter of the trunk is
about three inches, tree fifteen feet high, bore first time in 1934. It
is growing at the Riehl Farm, Godfrey, Ill., and in the Jones Nursery,
Lancaster, Pa.


Is mentioned in Mr. Bixby's paper in 1926 report.


Is mentioned in Mr. Bixby's paper in 1926 report.


Won third prize in 1929 contest, page 53, 1931. Tree owned by John D.
Bontrager, Middlebury, Ind.


Is mentioned in Mr. Bixby's paper in 1926 report. It won ninth prize in
1929 contest, page 53, 1931, to Mrs. John Brooks, Ottumwa, Iowa. Carl
Weschcke has it growing at River Falls, Wis.

THE BURLINGTON (Pecan x shell.):

Dr. Deming: The true name of the nut we call Marquardt. The Michigan Nut
Nursery have trees bearing.

Miss Jones: A characteristic of all shellbark x pecan hybrids is that
they don't fill well.

Mr. Corsan: Are they in exceedingly rich soil or just ordinary? I find
that nuts respond to rich soil.

Miss Jones: They are in ordinary soil.

Dr. MacDaniels: We have two trees at Ithaca about ten years old which
have borne but the nuts have not filled very well.

Dr. Deming: Is the Burlington worth growing? Does it fill so badly that
it is not a success?

Miss Jones: The kernel fills out about three-fourths of the way. It
fills better than the McCallister.

Mr. Corsan: I have never seen such a fine nut in my life.

Mr. Wilkinson: It is a good hybrid and a wonderful bearer.

Dr. Deming: Every year?

Mr. Wilkinson: Yes, and matures unusually early.

The Burlington is in the Riehl plantings at Godfrey, Ill. It is
mentioned in Mr. Bixby's paper in 1926 report. Carl Weschcke has young
trees growing at River Falls, Wis. Sargeant H. Wellman has some young
trees at Topsfield, Mass. F. H. Frey has young tree in yard at Chicago,
but it has not borne nuts as yet. Foliage is beautiful, leaves being
rather broad but some kind of blight seems to turn them dark and they
curl up about middle of the summer.

J. W. Hershey: Of the hybrid hickories the Burlington should be
eliminated from the list and a great many others of the hickories should
be thrown out as rapidly as possible.

THE BURTON (pecan x shell.):

Mentioned in Dr. Zimmerman's report, page 20, 1932. It is growing in
Riehl plantings at Godfrey, Ill., and on Kellogg farm, Michigan.


It is growing in the Riehl plantings at Godfrey, Ill.


Mentioned in Mr. Bixby's paper in 1926 report. Parent tree in Illinois.


See Mr. Reed's paper in this report, also Mr. Bixby's paper in 1926
report. It is growing on the Riehl farm at Godfrey, Ill., the Kellogg
farm at Battle Creek, Mich., and in the Carl Weschcke plantings at River
Falls, Wis.

THE CLARK (shag.):

See Mr. Bixby's paper in 1926 report and Mr. Reed's in 1931 report.

This hickory is growing on the Carl Weschcke place at River Falls, Wis.,
and in Sargeant H. Wellman's nut orchard at Topsfield, Mass.


See Mr. Reed's paper in this report.

THE COOK (shag.):

See Mr. Reed's paper in 1931 report.


See Mr. Reed's paper in this report. This hickory is growing in the
Kellogg farm plantings at Battle Creek, Mich.

THE DENNIS (shag.):

See Mr. Reed's paper in this report and Mr. Bixby's paper in 1926
report. This hickory is growing in the Kellogg plantings at Battle
Creek, Mich., and in Carl Weschcke nut orchard at River Falls, Wis. W.
R. Fickes, Wooster, Ohio, reports the Dennis promises to be a heavy,
early bearer of fairly good quality.

THE DES MOINES (pecan x shell.):

Mentioned in Mr. Bixby's paper in 1926 report and by Dr. Zimmerman, page
20, 1932. Is growing in the Riehl and Kellogg farms plantings.

THE DREW (shag.):

See Mr. Reed's paper in this report and his paper in 1931 report.


Mentioned by Mr. Bixby in his paper in 1926 report. Carl Weschcke has it
growing in his orchard at River Falls, Wis.


See Mr. Reed's paper in this report.

THE EUREKA (shell.):

See Mr. Bixby's paper in 1926 report.

THE EVERSMAN (shell.):

See Mr. Bixby's paper in 1926 report.

THE FAIRBANKS (shag. x bitter.):

Mr. Corsan: I had eleven nuts on my tree last year. They are very small

Dr. Neilson: A Fairbanks grafted on a pignut in the spring of 1931 at
the Kellogg estate has quite a few nuts on it this season.

Miss Jones: They bear well and regularly.

Dr. Deming: Yes, they do at my place, too.

Mr. Corsan: What kind of a flavor has it?

Dr. Deming: It is bitter when you keep it but not when fresh.

Mr. Snyder: Don't judge them by one nut. They get better as you eat
them. The more you eat the better you like them.

Miss Jones: People that try them at our place don't notice much
difference between those hybrids and the shellbarks. I give them to
people any time during the winter, and they don't notice the difference.

Mr. Reed: Mr. Bixby said at one of the conventions that the Fairbanks
was a good grower, easy to propagate, bore well, not so good as to size,
thin shelled and had all the desirable characteristics of a good nut
except that it wasn't good to eat.

See Mr. Reed's paper in this report and Mr. Bixby's paper in 1926
report. The Fairbanks is mentioned in Dr. Zimmerman's report, page 19,
1932. It is growing in the Riehl orchard at Godfrey, Ill., the Kellogg
plantings at Battle Creek, Mich., in the Carl Weschcke orchard at River
Falls, Wis., and in the E. C. Rice plantings at Absher, Ky. Sargeant H.
Wellman has some young Fairbanks trees at Topsfield, Mass. Mr. W. R.
Fickes reports it is a very poor quality hickory at Wooster, Ohio, but
may be valuable for double working.

THE FLUHR (shag. x shell.):

Awarded seventh prize in 1929 contest, page 53, 1931 report, to Edgar
Fluhr, Kiel, Wis.

THE FREEL (shag.):

Entered in 1929 contest by Mrs. E. W. Freel, Pleasantville, Iowa.

THE FROMAN (shag.):

Awarded ninth prize in 1929 contest to Arlie W. Froman, Bacon, Ind.


H. R. Weber: I notice the Galloway is not listed among the hickory
hybrids. The parent tree is growing in Hamilton County, Ohio, and, is
supposed to be a pecan x bitternut hybrid.

THE GERARDI (pecan x shell.):

A Member: It is like the Nussbaumer.

This hybrid is mentioned in Dr. Zimmerman's report, page 20, 1932. Also
see description by Joseph Gerardi, page 45, 1932 report. It is growing
in the Riehl plantings at Godfrey, Ill., and the Kellogg plantings at
Battle Creek, Mich.


It is growing in the Riehl plantings at Godfrey, Ill., and in orchard of
Carl Weschcke at River Falls, Wis.

THE GLOVER (shag.):

It is mentioned in Mr. Bixby's paper in 1926 report and Mr. Reed's paper
in 1931 report. It is growing in the Kellogg plantings at Battle Creek,
Mich., the Carl Weschcke orchard at River Falls, Wis., and the Sargeant
H. Wellman orchard at Topsfield, Mass. E. C. Rice, Absher, Ky., has
two-year grafts on shellbark and bitternut stocks. It seems to do better
on the shellbark stocks.

THE GOBBLE (shag.):

Mentioned on page 54, 1931 report. Tree owned by William Gobble,
Holsten, Va.

THE GOHEEN (shag.):

Awarded sixth prize in 1929 contest to Mrs. Hamill Goheen, Pennsylvania
Furnace, Penna. Sargeant H. Wellman has young trees growing at
Topsfield, Mass.


See Mr. Reed's paper in this report.

THE GREENBAY (pecan x shell.):

Mentioned in Mr. Bixby's paper in 1926 report and in Dr. Zimmerman's
report, page 20, 1932.


Mr. Bixby, page 15, 1928, report, states it is an early bearer. Dr. J.
Russell Smith, Swarthmore, Pa., reports the Griffin is precocious when
grafted on pecan but cracking test by Mr. C. A. Reed shows it to have a
very low cracking value.


Is mentioned in Mr. Bixby's paper in 1926 report. It is growing in the
Jones Nursery at Lancaster, Pa.

THE HAGEN (shag. x shell.):

Mentioned in Mr. Bixby's paper in 1926 report. It was awarded ninth
prize in 1929 contest. Parent tree owned by Mrs. C. E. Hagen,
Guttenberg, Iowa. It is growing in the Snyder Bros.' plantings at Center
Point, Iowa, the Kellogg plantings at Battle Creek, Mich., and in the
Carl Weschcke orchard at River Falls, Wis.

THE HALES (shag.):

Mentioned in Mr. Bixby's paper in 1926 report.


Mentioned in Mr. Bixby's paper in 1926 report. It is growing in the
Kellogg plantings at Battle Creek, Mich., and in the orchard of Carl
Weschcke at River Falls., Wis.

THE HILL (shell.):

Introduced by S. W. Snyder, Center Point, Iowa, and mentioned by Mr.
Bixby in his paper in 1926 report.


See Mr. Reed's paper in this report.


See Mr. Reed's paper in this report.

THE IOWA (shell.):

Mentioned in Mr. Bixby's paper in 1926 report.


Mentioned in Mr. Bixby's paper in 1926 report. Carl Weschcke has it
growing in his orchard at River Falls, Wis.

THE KENTUCKY (shag. x mock.):

Dr. Deming: This is said to be a shagbark x mockernut hybrid but I see
no reason for the belief. It is a vigorous grower. One year my trees
were liberally sprinkled with nuts. I know that they bear from year to
year, but the squirrels get the nuts. I think it is a shy bearer.

Dr. Zimmerman: It bears regularly at my place but at Mr. Littlepage's it
isn't bearing.

This hickory is mentioned in Mr. Bixby's paper in 1926 report and in Dr.
Zimmerman's report, page 23, 1932.


Mentioned in Mr. Bixby's paper in 1926 report and in Mr. Reed's paper in
1931 report. It is growing in the Jones Nursery at Lancaster, Pa., and
in the orchards of Carl Weschcke, River Falls, Wis., and of Sargeant H.
Wellman at Topsfield, Mass.

THE LAKE (shag.):

Awarded first prize in 1929 contest to Mrs. C. Lake, New Haven, Ind., R.
R. 1.

THE LEONARD (shell.):

Mentioned in Mr. Bixby's paper in 1926 report.

THE LANEY (shag. x bitter.):

See Mr. Reed's paper in this report and Mr. Bixby's paper in 1926

Dr. Deming: I have never known them to bear anything yet at my place in

Dr. Zimmerman: They haven't borne at my place, either.

See Dr. Zimmerman's report, page 19, 1932. The Laney hickory is growing
in the Jones Nursery at Lancaster, Pa., the Kellogg plantings at Battle
Creek, Mich., and the Carl Weschcke orchard at River Falls, Wis.


Mentioned in Mr. Reed's paper in 1931 report. It is growing in the
Kellogg plantings at Battle Creek, Mich.

THE MANAHAN (shag.):

Mentioned in Mr. Bixby's paper in 1926 report and in Mr. Reed's paper in
1931 report. It is growing in the Riehl orchard at Godfrey, Ill., and
the Carl Weschcke orchard at River Falls, Wis.

THE MANN (of Michigan shag.):

See Mr. Reed's paper in this report.

THE MANN (of Ohio, shag. x shell.): Awarded ninth prize in 1929
contest to Howard Mann, Delta, Ohio.

THE McCALLISTER (pecan x shell.):

Dr. Deming: Has anyone any new information about the filling or bearing
of the McCallister?

Mr. Wilkinson: It fills well but not heavily.

Mr. Reed: I have watched the McCallister for years and years and the
nuts have failed to fill. But there is a tree that has the reputation of
bearing a very considerable quantity of nuts. We went over to see the
tree and we found that it stood where the soil was very rich. I have
wanted ever since then to try some McCallisters and give them all of the
plant food that they could possibly consume. I believe that that has a
good deal to do with filling.

Dr. Deming: Heavy fertilization influences the filling of nuts.

The McCallister is mentioned in Dr. Zimmerman's report, page 20, 1932.
It is growing in the Kellogg plantings at Battle Creek, Mich., the
orchards of Carl Weschcke at River Falls, Wis., E. C. Rice at Absher,
Ky., of Sargeant H. Wellman at Topsfield, Mass., and in the Government
plantings at Beltsville, Md. It is also growing and doing well in the
Waite Orchard at Normandy, Tenn., see page 34, 1932 report.

THE MILFORD (shag.):

It is mentioned in Mr. Bixby's paper in 1926 report. It is growing in
the Jones Nursery at Lancaster.

THE MINNIE (shag.):

See Mr. Bixby's paper in 1926 report and Mr. Reed's paper in 1931
report. Parent tree is growing in the yard of the Snyder farm at Center
Point, Iowa. This hickory is growing in the Riehl orchard at Godfrey,

THE MORTON (pecan x shell.):

Mentioned in Dr. Zimmerman's report, page 20, 1932. Is growing in the
Kellogg plantings at Battle Creek, Mich.

THE PESCHKE (shag.):

Awarded tenth prize in 1929 contest to Grace Peschke, Ripon, Wis.

THE PLEAS (pecan x bitter.):

Miss Jones: It has a very thin shell. You can crack it with your hand.

Mr. Reed: Miss Riehl has said that it is worth growing for ornamental
effect. It has great long catkins that make it really a beautiful thing,
and yet it is like all of the others as far as I know, it has that
bitter principle. It is very much the same as the other bitternut

The Pleas is mentioned in Mr. Bixby's paper in the 1926 report and is
listed in Dr. Zimmerman's report, page 19, 1932. It is being grown on
the Riehl farm at Godfrey, Ill., in the Kellogg plantings at Battle
Creek, Mich., in the Carl Weschcke orchard at River Falls, Wis., and
Sargeant H. Wellman has young trees doing well at Topsfield, Mass.


Awarded eighth prize in 1929 contest to Edward Renggenberg, Madison,
Wis., R. 1, Box 142.

THE ROCKVILLE (pecan x shell.):

See Mr. Bixby's paper in 1926 report. Also mentioned in Dr. Zimmerman's
report, page 20, 1932. Is growing at the Riehl farm, Godfrey, Ill., the
Kellogg plantings at Battle Creek, Mich., and in orchard of Carl
Weschcke at River Falls, Wis., and in the Jones Nursery at Lancaster,

THE RODDY (shag. x shell.):

Awarded fourth prize in 1929 contest to John Roddy, Napoleon, Ohio.


Is in the Kellogg plantings at Battle Creek, Mich., and Sargeant H.
Wellman has some young trees in his orchard at Topsfield, Mass.

THE SANDE (shag. x shell.):

See Mr. Reed's paper in this report.

THE SAYER (shell.):

See Mr. Bixby's paper in 1926 report.


Awarded tenth prize in 1929 contest to Roy Schoenberger, Nevada, Ohio.

THE SEAVER (shag.):

Awarded ninth prize in 1929 contest to J. K. Seaver, Harvard, Ill.


See Mr. Bixby's paper in 1926 report. Is growing in Kellogg plantings at
Battle Creek, Mich., and in orchard of Carl Weschcke at River Falls,


See Mr. Bixby's paper in 1926 report. Is growing in the Kellogg
plantings at Battle Creek, Mich.

THE SIERS (mock. x bitter.):

See Mr. Bixby's paper in 1926 report. Mentioned in Dr. Zimmerman's
report, page 19, 1932. Is growing on the Riehl farm at Godfrey, Ill., in
orchard of Carl Weschcke at River Falls, Wis., and in the Jones Nursery
at Lancaster, Pa.


Awarded ninth prize in 1929 contest to Jos. Sobolewski, Norwich, Conn.,
R. 5, Box 56A.


Awarded ninth prize in 1929 contest to Caleb Sprunger, Berne, Ind.

THE STANLEY (shell.):

See Mr. Bixby's paper in 1926 report. Is growing in plantings on Kellogg
farm at Battle Creek, Mich.

THE STRATFORD (shag. x bitter.):

See Mr. Bixby's paper in 1926 report and Dr. Zimmerman's report, page
19, 1932. It is growing in the Kellogg plantings at Battle Creek, Mich.,
and the orchard of Carl Weschcke at River Falls, Wis. Dr. J. Russell
Smith, Swarthmore, Pa., reports it is one of the most precocious and
productive nuts he has when grafted on pignut. It has not missed bearing
some nuts in the last four seasons.

THE SWAIN (shag.):

See Mr. Reed's paper in this report; Mr. Bixby's paper in 1926 report
and Mr. Reed's paper in 1931 report.

THE SWARTZ (shag.):

See Mr. Reed's paper in 1931 report.

THE TAMA QUEEN (shell.):

See Mr. Bixby's paper in 1926 report.

THE TAYLOR (shag.):

See Mr. Bixby's paper in 1926 report; Mr. Reed's paper in 1931 report,
and Dr. Zimmerman's report, page 20, 1932. This hickory is growing in
orchard of Carl Weschcke at River Falls, Wis., and Sargeant H. Wellman
at Topsfield, Mass. W. R. Fickes, Wooster, Ohio, reports the Taylor is a
light bearer but good in quality.

The Tiedke (pecan x shell.):

See Dr. Zimmerman's report, page 20, 1932.

THE VEST (shag.):

See Mr. Bixby's paper in 1926 report and Mr. Reed's paper in 1931


See Mr. Bixby's paper in 1926 report.

THE WEED (shag. x bitter.):

See Dr. Zimmerman's report, page 23, 1932.

THE WEIKER (shag. x shell.):

See Mr. Bixby's paper in 1926 report; Mr. Reed's paper in 1931 report
and Dr. Zimmerman's report, page 19, 1932. Is growing in the Jones
Nursery at Lancaster, Pa., and the orchards of Carl Weschcke at River
Falls, Wis., and Sargeant H. Wellman at Topsfield, Mass.


A hybrid hickory at Fayette, Iowa, owned by Carl Weschcke of St. Paul,
Minn., who has grafted many bitternut seedlings at River Falls, Wis.,
with cions from this tree.


See Mr. Reed's paper in this report.

THE WRIGHT (pecan x shell):

Awarded eighth prize in 1929 contest to C. D. Wright, Sumner, Mo. See
Dr. Zimmerman's report, page 20, 1932. This hickory is growing in the
Kellogg plantings at Battle Creek, Mich.

THE WOODS (shag. x shell.):

See Dr. Zimmerman's report, page 19, 1932.

THE ZIMMERMAN (shag. x shell.):

See Dr. Zimmerman's report, page 19, 1932.


Awarded sixth prize in 1929 contest to Menno Zurcher, Apple Creek, Ohio.



See Mr. Bixby's paper in 1926 report. This pecan has been generally
propagated by nurserymen and is widely distributed. E. C. Rice, Absher,
Ky., reports it does better on shellbark stock than on pignut stock. Dr.
J. Russell Smith, Swarthmore, Pa., reports the Busseron pecan has proved
to be much the most precocious bearer, that ripened well filled nuts on
top of the Blue Ridge mountains, elevation 1,300 feet, fifty miles from
Washington, D. C., in a climate distinctly colder than Philadelphia.


See Mr. Bixby's paper in 1926 report. This pecan has been generally
propagated and distributed by nurserymen.


See Mr. Bixby's paper in 1926 report. This pecan is also well
distributed. E. C. Rice, Absher, Ky., reports Greenriver graft on
shagbark stock grew eight feet tall in two years.


See Mr. Bixby's paper in 1926 report. This pecan also generally


See Mr. Bixby's paper in 1926 report.


See Mr. Bixby's paper in 1926 report. Dr. J. Russell Smith, Swarthmore,
Pa., reports the major has ripened nuts on top of Blue Ridge Mountain,
elevation 1,300 feet, fifty miles from Washington, D. C., in a climate
distinctly colder than Philadelphia. The nuts are small.


See Mr. Bixby's paper in 1926 report. Mr. Hershey reports it should be
put on the obsolete list.


See Mr. Bixby's paper in 1926 report. Sargeant H. Wellman, Topsfield,
Mass., has some fine young trees but they are not yet bearing.


Is growing in the Jones and Riehl nurseries and in the Kellogg plantings
at Battle Creek, Mich.


See Mr. Bixby's paper in 1926 report.

THE WARRICK (Warwick):

See Mr. Bixby's paper in 1926 report. Dr. J. Russell Smith, Swarthmore,
Pa., reports that on the Piedmont plateau, elevation 500 feet, forty
miles from Washington, D. C., in a climate approximating that of
Philadelphia, the Warrick has often not ripened its nuts although some
seasons it does. John W. Hershey states the Warrick should be put on the
obsolete list.


See Mr. Bixby's paper in 1926 report. The nut is very small but of good
quality. Mr. John W. Hershey states the pecan should be put on the
obsolete list.



See Mr. Reed's paper in this report, also Mr. Bixby's paper in 1926
report, and Mr. Reed's paper in 1931 report. The Adams is growing in the
Kellogg planting at Battle Creek, Mich.


See Mr. Reed's paper in this report, also his paper in 1931 report. The
Allen is growing on the Kellogg farm at Battle Creek, Mich. J. H. Gage
of Hamilton, Ontario, has some young trees which have not yet borne


See Mr. Reed's paper in this report, also Mr. Bixby's paper in 1926
report and Mr. Reed's paper in 1931 report.


See Mr. Reed's paper in 1931 report. Is growing on the Riehl farm at
Godfrey, Ill.


Was in the 1926 contest. See Mr. Reed's paper in the 1931 report. It is
growing in the Riehl plantings at Godfrey, Ill.


See Mr. Reed's paper in the 1931 report.


See Mr. Reed's paper in 1931 report.


Is in the Kellogg plantings at Battle Creek, Mich.


See Mr. Reed's paper in this report, also his paper in the 1931 report.
This walnut is growing in the plantings on the Riehl farm at Godfrey,
Ill., and the Kellogg farm at Battle Creek, Mich. W. R. Fickes, Wooster,
Ohio, states the Beck walnut is not promising there.


Is growing in the Riehl planting at Godfrey, Ill.


See Mr. Reed's paper in 1931 report.


See Mr. Reed's paper in this report.


See Mr. Reed's paper in 1931 report. This walnut is growing in the
Kellogg plantings at Battle Creek, Mich.


See Mr. Reed's paper in 1931 report.


See Dr. Zimmerman's report, page 22, 1932. This walnut is growing at the
Riehl farm.


See Dr. Zimmerman's report, page 22, 1932.


See Mr. Reed's paper in 1931 report.


See Dr. Zimmerman's report, page 22, 1932.


See Mr. Reed's paper in this report.


This walnut is growing on the Riehl farm at Godfrey, Ill.


See Mr. Reed's paper in 1931 report. This walnut is growing on the Riehl
farm. It was entered in 1926 contest by Herbert Burton, Hartford,


See Dr. Zimmerman's report, page 22, 1932.


This walnut is growing on the Riehl farm at Godfrey, Ill.


See Mr. Reed's paper in 1931 report. This walnut is growing on the Riehl
and Kellogg farms.


See Mr. Reed's paper in this report and his paper in 1931 report.

THE DEMING (Ornamental):

See Mr. Bixby's paper in 1926 report and Mr. Reed's paper in 1931


See Mr. Reed's paper in 1931 report.


Parent tree owned by Gerald W. Adams, Morehead, Iowa, see page 51 of
1931 report. See Mr. Reed's paper in 1931 report. Is growing in the
Riehl plantings at Godfrey, Ill., and the Kellogg plantings at Battle
Creek, Mich.


Is growing on the Riehl farm at Godfrey, Ill.


Awarded first prize in 1929 contest to Mrs. E. W. Freel, Pleasantville,
Iowa. See Mr. Reed's paper in 1931 report.


See Mr. Reed's paper in 1931 report.


See Mr. Reed's paper in 1931 report. Is growing in the Jones Nursery at
Lancaster, Pa.


See Mr. Reed's paper in this report and his paper in 1931 report.

THE GLORY (curly wood):

See Mr. Bixby's paper in 1926 report.


See Mr. Reed's paper in 1931 report. Is growing in the Riehl and Kellogg


See Mr. Stokes' paper with test record, page 108 of 1932 report, and Dr.
Zimmerman's report, page 22, 1932 report. Is growing in the Kellogg
plantings at Battle Creek, Mich.


See Dr. Zimmerman's report, page 22, 1932 report.


Awarded fifth prize in 1929 contest to Mr. Rohwer, Grundy Center, Iowa.
See Mr. Reed's paper in this report and his paper in 1931 report. Is
growing in the Riehl and Kellogg orchards.


See Mr. Reed's paper in this report.


See Mr. Reed's paper in 1931 report.


See Mr. Reed's paper in 1931 report. Is growing on Riehl farm. Was
entered in 1926 contest by Frank H. Hare, Rushville, Schuyler County,
Ill., and is mentioned on page 51, 1931 report.


See Dr. Zimmerman's report, page 22, 1932. Is growing on the Riehl and
Kellogg farms.


See Mr. Bixby's paper in 1926 report and Mr. Reed's paper in 1931


See Mr. Reed's paper in this report.


See Mr. Bixby's paper in 1926 report.


Was entered in 1926 contest by C. T. S. Hobbs, Fort Blackmore, Va., R.
1. See Mr. Reed's paper in 1931 report.


Parent tree owned by Clinton Thomas, Troutville, Va. See Mr. Stokes'
paper with tests, pages 108 and 109, 1932 report.


See Mr. Reed's paper in 1931 report.


See Mr. Reed's paper in 1931 report. Is growing in the Kellogg plantings
at Battle Creek, Mich.


See Mr. Reed's paper in this report.


Given eleventh place in 1929 contest. Submitted by J. U. Gellatly, West
Bank, B. C.


See Mr. Bixby's paper in 1926 report and Mr. Reed's paper in 1931

THE KETTLER (Wisconsin No. 1):

Parent tree owned by Fred Kettler, Platteville, Wis. Has taken first
prize in state fair contests. Dr. Zimmerman and Mr. Frey have young
trees which have not yet borne nuts. See Mr. Kettler's letter in this


See Mr. Bixby's paper in 1926 report and Mr. Reed's paper in 1931


Submitted in 1926 contest by J. J. Knapbe, New Weston, Ohio. See Mr.
Reed's paper in 1931 report.


See Mr. Reed's paper in 1931 report.

THE LAMB (curly wood):

See Mr. Reed's paper in this report and Mr. Bixby's paper in 1926
report. Grafts from this tree are growing in several eastern orchards,
including the Kellogg plantings at Battle Creek, Mich. It is not as yet
definitely known if the propagated trees will reproduce the curly
texture of the wood of the parent tree.


See Dr. Zimmerman's report, page 22, 1932, and Mr. Reed's paper, page
151, 1932 report; also tests recorded in Mr. Stokes' paper, page 109,
1932 report.


See Mr. Bixby's paper in 1926 report. Is growing in the Kellogg
plantings at Battle Creek, Mich.


See Mr. Reed's paper in 1931 report.


See Mr. Reed's paper in 1931 report.


Awarded second prize in 1929 contest to Mrs. E. W. Freel, Pleasantville,


Entered in 1929 contest by C. E. Mark, Washington Court House, Ohio. See
Mr. Reed's paper in 1931 report.


See Mr. Bixby's paper in 1926 report and Mr. Reed's paper in 1931


See Mr. Bixby's paper in 1926 report and Mr. Reed's paper in 1931


See Dr. Zimmerman's report, page 22, 1932. Is growing in the Riehl and
Kellogg plantings.


Awarded eighth prize in the 1929 contest to Mrs. E. W. Freel,
Pleasantville, Iowa. In fair seasons has borne heavy crops each year. Is
supposed to be the mother tree of the Freel and Marion.


See Mr. Bixby's paper in 1926 report and Mr. Reed's paper in 1931
report. Is growing in the Kellogg plantings.


See Mr. Reed's paper in 1931 report. Is growing in the Riehl and Kellogg


See Mr. Reed's paper in 1931 report and Dr. Zimmerman's report, page 22,
1932 report. Is growing in the Riehl plantings at Godfrey, Ill. W. R.
Fickes, Wooster, Ohio, reports it is not promising there.


See Mr. Bixby's paper in 1926 report.


Entered in 1926 contest by Elmer R. Myers, Bellefontaine, Ohio, R. 2.
See Mr. Reed's paper in 1931 report.


See Mr. Reed's paper in 1931 report.


Entered in 1926 contest by Mrs. Joe Ogden, Bedford, Ky. See Mr. Reed's
paper in 1931 report. Is growing at Riehl farm.


See Mr. Bixby's paper in 1926 report and Mr. Reed's paper in 1931
report. Has been generally planted in all nut tree orchards. E. C. Rice,
Absher, Ky., has few young trees doing fine and bore a few nuts in 1934;
largest in hull he had ever seen. J. H. Gage, Hamilton, Ontario, planted
one Ohio walnut in 1924, moved it in 1925. It started to bear in 1928
and has borne every year since except one. Tree now 25 feet in height,
trunk six inches in diameter, is growing in light, sandy soil near west
end of north shore of Lake Ontario. W. R. Fickes, Wooster, Ohio, reports
the Ohio as not promising there.

THE PARADOX (hybrid):

See Mr. Bixby's paper in 1926 report. See Dr. Zimmerman's report, page
20, 1932 report. Is supposed to be a rapid grower but has not proved
satisfactory in the east.


Submitted in 1926 contest by Mrs. William Patterson, Wever, Iowa.


See Mr. Reed's paper in 1931 report. Is growing in the Riehl and Kellogg


See Mr. Bixby's paper in 1926 report and Mr. Reed's paper in 1931


See Mr. Bixby's paper in 1926 report and Mr. Reed's paper in 1931


See Dr. Zimmerman's report, page 22, 1932, and Mr. Reed's paper, page
151, 1932 report; also Mr. Stokes' paper and tests, page 110, 1932


See Mr. Reed's paper in 1931 report.


Took second prize in 1926 contest. See Mr. Reed's paper in 1931 report.
J. H. Gage, Hamilton, Ontario, has young grafts of this walnut growing
but not old enough to bear. W. R. Fickes, Wooster, Ohio, reports that
the Rohwer there is probably next to the Thomas in quality.

THE ROYAL (hybrid):

See Mr. Bixby's paper in 1926 report. Is reported to be a rapid grower
but has not proved satisfactory in the east.


See Mr. Reed's paper in 1931 report.


Entered in 1926 contest by Will T. Schimmoller, Fort Jennings, Ohio. See
Mr. Reed's paper in 1931 report.


Parent tree in Howard County, Maryland. Has been generally planted in
nut orchards but has not proved satisfactory. It is a fine cracker. E.
C. Rice, Absher, Ky., reports it does fine there, better than Ohio. W.
R. Fickes, Wooster, Ohio, reports it is not promising there. J. H. Gage,
Hamilton, Ontario, has one tree four years of age, which bore a few nuts
in 1934. Stood last winter's weather (-30 degrees F.) with no damage


Took first prize in 1926 contest. See Mr. Reed's paper in 1931 report.
It is being generally tested in nut orchards. J. H. Gage, Hamilton,
Ontario, has some young trees growing which are not old enough to bear.
W. R. Fickes, Wooster, Ohio, reports the Stambaugh there is heavily
veined, is oily, soon shrivels and is not very good quality.


See Dr. Zimmerman's report, page 22, 1932, and Mr. Stokes' paper with
tests, pages 108 and 110, 1932 report.


See Dr. Zimmerman's report, page 22, 1932, and Mr. Reed's paper, page
151, and Mr. Stokes' paper with tests, pages 109 and 110, in 1932


Awarded third prize in 1929 contest to Mrs. J. A. Stillman, Mackeys,
North Carolina.


Entered in 1926 contest by W. F. Stout, Hammersville, Ohio.


See Mr. Reed's paper in this report and his paper in 1931 report. W. R.
Fickes, Wooster, Ohio, reports the Tasterite is not promising there.


One of the standards in past years. See Mr. Bixby's paper in 1926 report
and Mr. Reed's paper in 1931 report.


Considered the leading walnut in past years and still preferred to all
others by many growers. See Mr. Bixby's paper in 1926 report and Mr.
Reed's paper in 1931 report. The Thomas walnut seems to produce the same
quality nuts from Oklahoma to New York. E. C. Rice, Absher, Ky., has
young trees doing fine but not old enough to bear. J. H. Gage, Hamilton,
Ontario, has two Thomas trees planted in 1924 and moved in 1925 which
started to bear in 1928 and have borne every year since except one.
Trunks of trees are 6 to 7 inches in diameter, trees are 25 feet high
and growing in light sandy soil near west end of north shore of Lake
Ontario. Temperature last winter reached -30 F. but no damage to the
Thomas trees. W. R. Fickes, Wooster, Ohio, reports at the present time
he considers the Thomas the best all-round walnut, good in quality,
self-pollinating and a heavy early bearer.


See Mr. Reed's paper in 1931 report.


Submitted in 1926 contest by B. J. Tilley, Murfreesboro, N. C. Is
growing in the Riehl orchard.


Submitted in 1926 contest by C. E. Vandersloot, Muddy Creek Forks, Pa.
See Mr. Reed's paper in 1931 report.


See Mr. Bixby's paper in 1926 report and Mr. Reed's paper in 1931


Awarded fourth prize in 1929 contest to Annie W. Wetzel, New Berlin, Pa.
See Mr. Reed's paper in 1931 report.


A new excellent walnut located by Mrs. E. W. Freel, Pleasantville, Iowa,
in 1932.


See Dr. Zimmerman's report, page 22, 1932.


See Mr. Reed's paper in this report.


See Mr. Bixby's paper in 1926 report and Mr. Reed's paper in 1931


An excellent walnut located by Mrs. E. W. Freel, Pleasantville, Iowa.
See Mr. Reed's paper, page 151, 1932 report.

Mr. H. R. Weber, Cincinnati, Ohio, calls attention to the fact that he
has a parent black walnut tree on his place, the nuts of which took
second prize in the 1932 Michigan nut contest. He will later give more
information concerning it.


The following Persian walnuts are listed in Mr. Bixby's paper in the
1926 report:


Prof. Neilson's paper in this report covers the following:


In addition the Jones Nursery has growing the following:


Mr. John W. Hershey reports the Alpine and Lancaster are the same and
that the Franquette, Hall, Nebo and Rush should be listed as obsolete
for northern planting, and that the use of the Eureka in the north is
questionable. W. R. Fickes, Wooster, Ohio, reports that the Franquette,
Lancaster, Mayette, Pomeroy and Rush winter kill at his place.


The following butternuts are listed in Mr. Reed's paper in the 1931
report, pages 98 and 99:


The Alverson, Deming, Irvine, Love, Luther and Sherman are covered in
Mr. Reed's paper in this report.


Mr. Bixby's paper in 1926 report covers the following Heart nuts:

Bates, Faust, Lancaster, Ritchie and Stranger. Mr. John W. Hershey
reports the Lancaster should be classed as obsolete as it is practically
a hopeless tree, and that the Stranger is a rather common-place nut and
should be classed as such.

Mr. Hershey reports a new Heart nut, the Hershey, a seedling grown on
his grounds at Downington, Pa. It is growing in a severe frost pocket
but has never winter-killed or frost-killed. The nut is excellent.
Bearing has been light due to crowding, which has been remedied by
cutting down the trees around it.


Most of the named Chestnuts are listed in Mr. Bixby's paper in the 1926
report and are growing on the Riehl farm at Godfrey, Ill. Experiments
are still being carried on with hope of producing a blight resistant
chestnut. Anyone desiring to plant chestnut trees should consult their
local nurseryman or farm advisor.


The filberts have not proved entirely hardy for northern territory, but
the native hazels and hybrids appear to be entirely satisfactory. The
lists are too long to publish. Full and reliable information is
contained in Prof. Slate's paper in this report.

Nut Culture in the North


_Rockport, Indiana_

There being other papers on the subject of nut culture I will confine
this to Indiana and surrounding territory where nut trees of several
kinds are native, and flourished before the coming of the white man.

Walnut and hickory trees are to be found growing on most kinds of soil,
chestnut and hazels mostly on hill land, the pecan as a rule in the
lowlands along the streams where vast groves of them are yet producing
splendid crops of nuts.

One mile from my nursery, around Enterprise (which was the boyhood home
of our worthy member Mr. T. P. Littlepage), are hundreds of these trees,
including one of the largest in Indiana. This tree measures 16 feet in
circumference at waist height and is estimated to be 125 feet high. It
has produced more than 500 pounds of nuts in a season and other trees
near here have produced as much as 600 pounds. One of these has a spread
of over 100 feet. It is not unusual for a large size tree to produce
from 300 to 400 pounds of a good season.

One of the largest groves near here is known as the Major grove near the
mouth of Green River, containing about 300 acres, most of the trees on
which are pecan trees. Some are of immense size and probably as large as
can be found north of the cotton belt. A few trees in this grove are
estimated to be more than 150 feet tall.

Along the Wabash River is probably the largest native northern pecan
grove consisting of several hundred acres in which it is estimated there
are more than 20,000 bearing-size pecan trees. At gathering time in the
fall this is a very busy place. It is a source of revenue to many
besides the owners.

I was at this grove two weeks ago and was told there that each year
school begins the first of August so they can dismiss during October and
November to allow the school children to gather pecans during those two
months. School teachers in that territory are required to sign a
contract to that effect. This grove lies between Shawneetown and New
Haven, which are eighteen miles apart.

The town of New Haven has a population of about 400. I was told last
fall by one of the three pecan buyers there that, in one day a few years
ago, the three of them paid more than $15,000 for pecans for one day's
delivery. This of course did not represent the total day's sales for
this territory as many of them were sold at Shawneetown. So one can
easily see why the people there are anxious for their children to help
in this harvest, it being the chief source of fall income to many poor
people, who are given one-half of all the pecans they gather. Often on
or after a windy day the amount gathered by each one makes a splendid
day's wages. Many make a practice of coming a distance each fall for
this harvest. One party from St. Louis told me last fall that was his
twenty-sixth year at that grove.

This grove is surrounded by smaller ones and many single trees growing
on cultivated land. None of the native nut trees in this section have
ever had any care whatever, except the ones growing in cultivated
fields, and those only farm crop cultivation. Many of the native
seedlings seldom bear and some others are shy or irregular bearers. But
it is noticeable how much better as a rule those produce that have farm
crop cultivation or stand in favorable locations.

This is plainly evident in many instances where trees in the last few
years have been cleared around and cultivated, or where an individual
tree is standing alone without cultivation, but has plenty of space,
food and moisture. An excellent example of this is the Littlepage tree
in Enterprise that is probably 35 years old, has never been cultivated
but stands in a well used stock lot and has been an annual bearer since
a small tree.

On the other hand, near here are a number of trees around which the land
had been cultivated in farm crops until about ten years ago, and these
trees produced well, but since that time the land has been abandoned and
has grown up in a thicket and the production of these trees has been
greatly reduced.

About twenty years ago propagation of the better varieties of northern
nut trees was begun in southern Indiana. At that time I believe that
most of us overlooked the needs of nut trees as we had been used to
their taking care of themselves. Our attention to them was mostly at nut
harvest time. We failed to take into consideration the conditions under
which the best bearing trees were growing and too strongly condemned
those not bearing so well, when it was often due to conditions instead
of to the trees themselves.

The walnut and hickory will succeed and bear with less moisture than the
pecan, though they will do better with plenty of moisture if on well
drained land and having good cultivation. We failed to take in
consideration that the best bearing pecan trees were growing on low land
that was usually overflowed one or more times each season, leaving
plenty of moisture and a deposit of plant food. Many articles have been
written by nut tree enthusiasts in which the planting of nut trees on
unproductive or waste land has been advised. In this the writers were
sincere in their statements. This advice has been taken by many, causing
more or less disappointment to the planter and no encouragement to his
neighbor. No successful fruit grower would plant an orchard of peach or
apple trees on poor or waste land, forget about them for a few years and
expect to go back and harvest a crop of fruit, and neither need the nut
grower expect to.

Since many trees of the named varieties have been in bearing for a
number of years it gives a broad field for studying them, and their
habits are very similar to the native trees, I do not know of a single
tree that is not a testimonial to the care and attention it has been

In my first nursery planting trees were left growing to supply bud and
graftwood for future use. These were left entirely too close together to
remain until large trees, but I have never yet had nerve enough to
remove all that should be taken out, with the result that they are now
crowding and robbing each other of food and moisture retarding both
growth and bearing. These are now from 15 to 19 years old and not
producing as many nuts as they did several years ago, or as many as
trees several years younger that have more space. My observations
convince me that plenty of space, food and moisture are most essential
for best results.

The past four years has been a splendid time to study this as our
weather conditions have been unusual in that we have in this section had
both wet and dry seasons. I am firmly convinced that weather conditions
have a great deal to do with the nut crop not only with the quantity of
nuts but quality as well. Moisture conditions in spring and early summer
determine the size of the nut, and later in the season the quality of
the kernel. Plenty of moisture in spring and early summer will make a
large size nut. After the shell once forms the growth of nut is done.
Then the plumpness of the kernel depends on the amount of moisture after
the shell is formed. Lack of moisture the entire season spells a small,
poorly filled nut. Trees growing in a crowded position, or on hard, dry
ground, seldom ever have all the moisture they need to produce a good
crop of well filled nuts. This has been plainly demonstrated with my own
and my neighbors' trees in the past few years.

The weather of the previous season also may have much to do with the
crop the following season, especially with trees growing under adverse
conditions. These conditions can often be largely overcome by the owner,
with fertilizers and cultivation.

In planting a tree be sure to give it plenty of space. If the soil is
lacking in plant food feed the tree, remembering it can draw food only
from a given space. No one would expect to grow the same farm crop on a
plot of ground for many years without fertilizer. Prepare to conserve
moisture for the hot, dry season either by cultivation or mulching. One
of the thriftiest best bearing nut tree plantings I know of is on very
sharp, hilly clay ground in Rockport, but the owner fertilizes these
trees annually and gives splendid cultivation.

A non-bearing nut tree is no better than any other kind of a tree, so it
is not a question of how many nut trees you have, but how many good
bearing nut trees you have. To get the best results provide your trees
with space, food and moisture.

Varieties of Nut Trees for the Northernmost Zone

_By_ C. A. REED, _Bureau of Plant Industry United States
Department of Agriculture_

The northernmost zone of the eastern part of the United States, within
which conditions appear at all encouraging for the planting of the
hardiest varieties of nut trees now available, may be outlined as
covering the milder portions of Massachusetts, Rhode Island,
Connecticut, New York, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota and South Dakota.
Beyond the Canadian border this zone should perhaps include the fruit
belt of Ontario known as the "Niagara Peninsula," which skirts Lake
Ontario from the City of Hamilton to the Niagara river. No doubt it
should also include considerable Canadian territory immediately adjacent
to Lakes Erie and St. Clair, and north to the lower end of Lake Huron.

In each American state within this general zone there are numerous
localities to which several species of edible nuts are indigenous,
others where the butternut alone is found, and still others to which
none of the common kinds appear to be adapted. Climate and soil are both
limiting factors within this general section. No nut trees are likely to
prove hardy to the extent of bearing heavily where winter temperatures
are extremely trying or where soils are not of high grade. A fundamental
principle involving plant ecology, which with reference to planted nut
trees is too often lost sight of, is that, regardless of species, plants
are unlikely to be altogether hardy in any locality where minimum
temperatures of winter are appreciably lower, or growing periods much
shorter, than at the place where the variety in question originated. For
example, it is often assumed that a pecan tree native to southern Texas,
the lowest point of the range of this species in the United States,
should do well in southeastern Iowa, the northernmost point within the
range. Likewise, it is also sometimes assumed that a black walnut
variety originating in Arkansas, Texas or Tennessee should be hardy in
the black walnut belts of New York, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota,
Pennsylvania, or wherever the species is indigenous or has been
successfully transplanted.

There are definite degrees of hardiness which must not be overlooked. A
species or variety may be hardy enough to grow thriftily for many years,
and to make a splendid tree, hundreds of miles north of the latitude at
which it will mature occasional crops; or it may be able to produce
crops that are frequent in occurrence yet indifferent as to character;
or there may be occasional crops of first-class nuts; but good crops of
good nuts are exceedingly rare when the minimum temperatures of winter
or the length of the growing period are appreciably more adverse than in
the locality where the variety originated.

A few illustrations may help to make these points clearer. On the
Experimental Farm of the U. S. Department of Agriculture at Arlington,
Va., directly opposite Washington, on the Potomac, there are five pecan
trees of the Schley variety which originated on the Gulf coast of
Mississippi. These trees have grown splendidly since being planted more
than 20 years ago. They blossomed and set nuts more or less regularly
after they were about eight or ten years of age, but it was only in the
eighteenth year that a season was late enough in fall for a single nut
to mature. Another case is afforded by a pecan seedling, probably from
Texas, called to the writer's attention by Dr. W. C. Deming, Hartford,
Conn., which stands near the outskirts of that city. This is a large,
beautiful tree. It rarely sets crops of nuts, and when it does the nuts
fail to become more than half or two-thirds normal size by the time of
autumn frosts. The kernels are then quite undeveloped and the nuts
therefore worthless each year.

In another case, near Ithaca, New York, the Stabler walnut from Maryland
and the Ohio from Toledo, of the state after which it was named, all
appear to be congenially situated insofar as environment is concerned
until the nuts are actually harvested and cured. The nuts of each
variety appear normal when they drop from the trees, but during the
process of curing, the kernels wither up too badly to be marketable. The
Thomas from southeastern Pennsylvania is somewhat better able to adjust
itself to Ithaca conditions, but it is far from being a commercial
success in that region.

Kinds of Nuts

The kinds of nuts suitable for this northern zone naturally divide
themselves into three main groups, viz., native, foreign and hybrid. The
last might well be divided into three sub-groups, as native hybrids,
foreign hybrids, and hybrids between native and foreign species. It is
perhaps true that there should also be a fourth subgroup to which chance
hybrids should be assigned when there is uncertainty as to which of
these three others a given variety may belong.

The Native Group

Of these three main groups that of the native species is at present by
far the most important. It includes the black walnut, _Juglans nigra_;
the butternut, _J. cinerea_; the shagbark hickory, _Hicoria ovata_; the
sweet hickory, _H. ovalis_; the pignut hickory, _H. glabra_; the
American sweet chestnut, _Castanea dentata_; the American beech, _Fagus
americana_; and two species of native hazelnut, _Corylus americana_; and
the beaked hazelnut, _C. rostrata_.

Black Walnut

The black walnut is placed at the head of the native group because of
its great all round usefulness. Wherever it grows well its timber is of
leading value among all American species. It is a splendid ornamental
and the nuts are highly edible. The black walnut range does not extend
as far north as does that of the butternut, yet wherever it grows well
it is much more useful as a tree, and is successful under a greater
variety of conditions. It is probably a more dependable bearer and, upon
the average, the nuts yield a higher percentage of kernel. Many more
varieties of black walnut than of butternut have been brought to light
and more trees have been propagated. Enough varieties of promise have
originated in Michigan alone (largely as a result of the work of Prof.
James A. Neilson of East Lansing) to preclude any obvious need, at
present at least, of bringing varieties from farther south into this
zone. In addition to these, a number of other varieties have been
recognized from equal latitudes, as in New York and, west of Lake
Michigan, in Wisconsin, southeastern Minnesota and northern Iowa.

ADAMS--The Adams black walnut is a rather small variety with an
approximate size range of from 34 to 48 nuts per pound, and an average
of 39. In a cracking test of the 1930 crop, conducted after the kernels
had become too dry for most satisfactory cracking, the yield of quarters
was 16.75 per cent; that of small pieces 7.81 per cent, and the total
24.56 per cent. The nuts are much elongated in form, being sharply
pointed at each end. Many are quite symmetrical, thin-shelled and, when
not too dry, of excellent cracking quality. The kernels examined have
been notably bright in color, firm in texture, very sweet and highly
pleasing to the palate. The quarters are long and slender.

The Adams was first called to public attention in 1920, when the late
Henry Adams of Scotts, Kalamazoo County, Michigan, was awarded first
prize for an entry of nuts from the original tree which he made in a
contest held that year by the Northern Nut Growers Association. In an
article published in the Michigan farmer of Detroit, on July 7, 1922, he
stated that this tree grew as a sprout in a corn row on land which he
cleared in the spring of 1869. When the tree was seen by the writer in
1929, and again in 1932, it gave the impression of having been a
moderate or slow grower. Such facts as have been obtainable from time to
time indicate that it is but a moderate bearer. However, the character
of the soil in which it stands is not of the best, although it is far
from being poor. In better soil it would doubtless produce heavier and
more uniform crops.

As nearly as it can be ascertained, the Adams was first propagated by
the late W. G. Bixby of Baldwin, Long Island, who procured scions in
1922. It was again grafted six years later by J. F. Wilkinson of
Rockport, Ind., with scions procured by the U. S. Department of
Agriculture. In April, 1930, one of the resulting trees was shipped by
the Department to the Kellogg Experimental and Demonstration Farm,
Augusta, Mich. Trees are now growing on the grounds of the United States
Department of Agriculture Horticultural Field Station at Beltsville,
Md., and records in the Bixby file show that a tree was shipped by him
to Mr. Harry R. Weber, Cleveland, Ohio, probably about 1930. No doubt
the variety is growing in other plantings.

An entry of Adams black walnut won third prize in the Michigan contest
conducted under the direction of Professor Neilson of East Lansing at
the end of the 1929 crop year. During the same year Dr. W. C. Deming,
Chairman of the Contest Committee for the Northern Nut Growers
Association, made the following comments regarding the Adams: "Shell
thin, cracking quality good to perfect, color of kernel light, condition
plump, texture tender, quality rich, flavor high." His summary was put
tersely, "An excellent nut."

In the event that this variety would do better in a richer soil than
that where the parent tree stands, it might prove to be one of the most
desirable of all kinds now known for use in the northernmost zone. The
parent tree is now owned by a son of the late Henry Adams, Mr. H. R.
Adams of Scotts, who now lives on the old homestead.

ALLEN--The Allen black walnut is another Michigan variety which appears
to be of considerable promise. It has been under observation by the U.
S. Department of Agriculture at Washington since the summer of 1923,
when it was called to the attention by the Honorable Charles W.
Garfield of Grand Rapids. The parent is a healthy double tree standing
some twenty rods from Thornapple Creek on the farm of Mr. Glenn W.
Allen, R. F. D. 1, Middleville, Barry County. The local conditions of
soil and moisture are highly favorable. The tree frequently bears heavy
crops, although, like most others of the species, it tends more to
alternate rather than to annual bearing.

Five pounds of the 1931 crop tested in Washington showed a range of from
31 to 37 nuts per pound and an average of 34. The percentage of quarter
kernels was 22.45, that of small parts 1.10, and that of bad, O.31 per
cent, making a total kernel yield of 23.86 per cent. The cracking
quality was good, the kernels were plump, the quality of the kernel rich
and the flavor medium sweet.

The Allen was awarded first prize by Professor Neilson in the Michigan
contest of 1929. It should be well worthy of test planting in the
northern zone. It has been disseminated to a very considerable extent
for use in small plantings.

ALLEY--The Alley is a New York variety from the farm of Miss Amy A.
Alley, Lagrangeville, Duchess County. This farm is within fifteen miles
of the Connecticut line and some 50 to 75 miles above New York City. The
Alley was first brought to attention by Miss Alley in 1918, when she was
awarded first prize in the contest for that year of the Northern Nut
Growers Association. The late W. G. Bixby, in reporting for the
committee in charge, said that the Alley had a shell thinner than that
of Stabler and that the cracking quality was "100 per cent."

In none of the tests conducted by the department has this variety ranked
with the best of the more recent kinds, yet because of its latitude of
origin and the fact that in general merit it is well above the average
seedling, it is believed that it should be included in northern trial

Three pounds of the 1931 crop tested by the department counted 39, 41
and 42 nuts each, respectively. The range was 36 to 45. The percentage
yield of quarter kernels was but 13.96, for out of 122 nuts cracked 15,
or 12.29 per cent, were bad. The total yield of kernel amounted to 25.57
per cent. The kernels that year were neither particularly plump nor
especially well filled.

BECK--The Beck is another Michigan variety of black walnut which in many
respects has compared favorably with the best varieties yet brought to
light from any source. The parent tree was called to the attention of
the U. S. Department of Agriculture in March, 1929, by Mr. Howard
Harris, R. F. D. 7, Allegan, Allegan County, Michigan. It was on a farm
then owned by Mr. Daniel Beck, R. F. D. 2, Hamilton, also of Allegan
County. It is a double tree standing in an open field some 20 rods back
of the barn. Like many other northern varieties of black walnut, the
nuts are rather small, ranging in 1930 from 28 to 49 per pound, and
having an average of 37. In that year it had the high percentage of
quarter kernels of 25.36, and a total percentage of kernel of 33.08. The
shell was thinner than that of the average black walnut, the cracking
quality very good, and the kernel bright-colored, plump, rich and sweet.

The Beck has been successfully grafted in the Bixby nursery at Baldwin,
Long Island, and at the E. A. Riehl Farm and Nursery at Godfrey,
Illinois; by J. W. Arata, Mishawka, Ind.; by Professor Neilson, and
probably by others. It is growing in the government test orchard at
Beltsville, Md.

BLOSS--The Bloss black walnut was called to the attention of this
department in January of 1934 by Mr. Joe Bloss, R. F. D. 2, Box 65,
Bristol, Indiana, who at that time forwarded 23 specimen nuts to
Washington. These averaged 33 per pound and had a range of from 29 to
36. In the test which followed they yielded 21.05 per cent of quarters
and 3.35 per cent of small pieces, making a total of 24.40 per cent of
kernel. The cracking quality was very good, the kernel bright, medium
sweet, and fairly rich. On the whole this appeared to be a very good

Because of the very creditable showing made by these nuts, it is
believed that the Bloss should be investigated further. It may prove
valuable in the general locality of its origin, and as Bristol is but a
few miles below the Michigan state line, it would seem that the variety
should be given careful consideration in plantings throughout the milder
portions of the northern zone.

BRUER--The Bruer black walnut first came to attention in 1926 when Mr.
Milo Bruer of East Main Street, Sleepy Eye, Minn., sent specimen nuts to
Dr. W. C. Deming, Hartford, Conn., for entry in the contest being
conducted that year by the Northern Nut Growers Association. Dr. Deming
reported that he found the shell thin, the cracking quality good, the
kernel white, plump, medium rich in quality, and of mild, nutty
"pecan-like" flavor. Later examination in Washington of 20 specimens of
the same crop showed that the nuts averaged 37 per pound. By that time
they were dried beyond the most satisfactory point for cracking, and,
consequently, in this respect, the quality was medium only. The kernels
were then but medium plump.

In other respects they appeared to be about as had been observed by Dr.

As this is the best variety yet brought to attention from Minnesota, it
is believed that it should be used in all northern plantings until
superseded by others of superior merit.

CRESCO--The parent tree of the Cresco black walnut stands in a creek
bottom, on what is known as the Patterson farm, two miles southwest of
Cresco, Howard County, Iowa. It is probably within ten miles of the
Minnesota state line. So far as known, with the exception of Bruer (of
Minnesota), the latitude of its place of origin is greater than that of
any other variety originating west of Chicago. It was discovered by Mr.
W. A. Bents, proprietor of Cresco Nurseries, Cresco, Iowa, by whom, in
1929, specimen nuts of the 1928 crop were sent to the late S. W. Snyder,
of Snyder Bros., Inc., of Center Point, Iowa. Scions of this variety
were also sent to Mr. Snyder, by whom it was first grafted in 1929. The
Cresco has since been disseminated to a considerable extent and is now
growing in a number of widely remote plantings, including those of the
E. A. Riehl Farm and Nursery, Godfrey, Ill., and the U. S. Department of
Agriculture at Beltsville, Md.

Seventy-three nuts of the 1930 crop examined in Washington averaged 35
per pound and yielded 24.55 per cent of quarter kernels, 4.09 per cent
small pieces and 0.73 per cent bad, making a total kernel percentage of

The latitude of origin, together with the apparent general merit of the
Cresco black walnut, makes this variety appear to be of special promise
in the northernmost zone.

EDRAS--This is a particularly promising variety, brought to light by
Mr. Gerald W. Adams, of Moorhead, Iowa, in connection with the 1926
Association contest; when it was No. 3 of three entries made by Mr.
Adams. (It was No. 1 that was designated by the Association as "Adams"
at that time and awarded twelfth prize. This variety received no prize.)
The variety was first called "Adams" in his honor, but as a Michigan
variety had previously been so designated, the name was changed to
Edras, after the first name of Mrs. Adams.

The Edras was rated as being "Outstanding" by the late S. W. Snyder of
Iowa (Iowa State Hort. Soc. Ann. Rep. 1924, p. 49). Prof. N. F. Drake,
of Fayetteville, Ark., in the Proceedings of the Northern Nut Growers
Association (p. 24) for 1930, stated: "I think this variety should be
kept in mind, especially for breeding purposes where it is desired to
develop a strain with a high percentage of kernel."

In a test of nuts from the 1930 crop, the Department of Agriculture
obtained a percentage yield of 20.98 for quarters and a total kernel
yield of 34.31. That year, 0.43 per cent of the kernels were found bad,
and 12.91 per cent were of small parts. It is not improbable that
another test would result in an even higher total yield and appreciable
improvement in the yield of quarters.

This variety has been quite widely disseminated. It is known to be
growing on the Riehl Farm and Nursery grounds at Godfrey, Ill.; at the
Morton Arboretum, Lisle, Ill.; on the Kellogg Experimental and
Demonstration Farm, Augusta, Michigan; on the farm of Mr. Harry W.
Weber, Cleves, Ohio; and on the governmental test orchard at Beltsville,

The latitude of Moorhead is somewhat below that of the southern boundary
of the northern zone, yet climatic conditions of extreme western Iowa
are probably no less severe than those of southern Michigan. For this
reason, and because of the excellent rating that this variety has
received, it is believed that the Edras should be included in further
test plantings of the northernmost zone.

GERMAINE--The Germaine black walnut, named in honor of Mr. John W.
Germaine, R. 6, Allegan, Mich., owner of the original tree, was called
to the attention of the U. S. Department of Agriculture in March of 1929
by Mr. Howard Harris, R. F. D. 7, also of Allegan, when he forwarded a
few specimen nuts of the 1928 crop to Washington. These were found to
have very good cracking quality and plump kernels of rich quality and
pleasing flavor.

Scions have been placed in the hands of various individuals and
agencies. Trees of this variety are now growing at Beltsville, Md., and
at Morton Arboretum, Lisle, Ill.

GRUNDY--The Grundy black walnut originated with a thrifty young seedling
owned by Mr. John Rohwer, Grundy Center, Iowa. It was brought to light
in 1927, when it received first prize in a private contest conducted by
Prof. N. F. Drake, Fayetteville, Ark., and by him given the temporary
designation of "Iowa."

According to President F. H. Frey of the Northern Nut Growers
Association, in a statement appearing in the Proceedings for 1932 (p.
158), Mr. Rohwer exhibited this variety during the Missouri State Fair
of 1928 and was given first prize. The same year, according to this
statement, the Grundy was awarded second prize during the meeting of the
Mid-West Horticultural Show held in Cedar Rapids. In the opinion of Mr.
Frey, the Grundy is superior to Rohwer in flavor of kernel and its equal
in cracking quality. An entry of Grundy made in the 1929 contest of the
Association was awarded fifth prize.

Little is known of the bearing habits of this variety, although Mr. D.
C. Snyder, the surviving member of Snyder Bros., Inc., of Center Point,
wrote to Washington on July 31, 1933, that he was "afraid" that both
this variety and Rohwer might not prove to be "reliable bearers."

An opinion of Ex-President of the Association, C. F. Walker, expressed
July 16, 1933, by letter to the writer, was to the effect that the
Grundy walnut was "fair" only.

Three pounds of the 1931 Grundy walnuts tested by the Department at
Washington yielded 27.74 per cent quarters, 1.57 per cent bad, and 2.35
per cent small pieces, making a total of 31.66 per cent kernel. The nuts
averaged 35 per pound and had a range of from 28 to 36. The cracking
quality was very good, the kernels bright, plump, rich in quality and of
agreeable flavor.

Considering the good points in favor of this variety, even though its
latitude of origin is somewhat below that of the south Michigan border,
it would seem that until worthier nuts are found, this should be
included in test plantings of the northernmost zone.

HARRIS--The Harris walnut first became known to the department in
December of 1924, when Mr. Howard Harris, R. F. D. 7, Allegan, Mich.,
owner of the original tree, submitted specimens for examination. The
feature which attracted immediate attention was the superior cracking
quality, due to the largeness and openness of its kernel chambers. The
kernels were not as plump as might have been desired, but this is
assumed to have been due to the light, sandy soil where the parent tree

In examining specimens of the 1927 crop, Dr. Deming noted that the nuts
were "small, clean," the shell "thick," the cracking quality "good to
perfect," and the kernel "not plump, light (in weight) and texture
hard." He placed the flavor at "fair to sweet," yet felt that the
variety should be given further consideration. Many of the kernels of
the nuts which he examined, like those from this tree during most years,
were "shrunken."

Two pounds of the 1930 crop tested in Washington yielded 10.91 per cent
of quarters, 3.30 per cent of bad kernels, and 4.41 per cent of small
pieces, making a total of but 18.63 per cent.

This is a much lower rating than that of any other variety included in
this list, and were it not for the superiority of its cracking quality
and the latitude of its origin, it would hardly now be included.
However, it should probably be included in all test plantings in the
northernmost zone, especially if breeding is contemplated. The soil
where this original tree stands is of a light, sandy nature. Allowance
for this should be made in evaluating the merits of the variety.

HILTON--The Hilton black walnut came to the attention of the U. S.
Department of Agriculture in early March of 1933, when specimens were
received through the courtesy of Prof. L. H. MacDaniels of Ithaca, New
York, by whom its propagation had already been successfully begun.
Professor MacDaniels wrote that he did not feel that it was
"outstanding," except that "apparently it does succeed rather far north
and is much above the average in general merit."

The nuts sent to Washington averaged 25 per pound, had a range of from
21 to 28 per pound, and were therefore quite large, especially for that
latitude. The yield of quarters was 20.46 per cent, that of small kernel
parts O.66 per cent, and the total 21.12 per cent. The cracking quality
was very good, the kernel quality rich and the flavor very good.

The original tree, according to Professor MacDaniels, is tall and
difficult to climb. It stands on the lot of a next-door neighbor of Mr.
D. C. Wright of Hilton, through whom it came to the attention of
Professor MacDaniels.

As the town of Hilton is within ten miles of the shore of Lake Ontario,
the origin of the variety was practically on the extreme northern edge
of western New York. In view of this, it is felt that the Hilton variety
should be carefully considered in connection with any planting in the
northernmost zone.

HUBER--The Huber black walnut was brought to light by Mr. Ferdinand
Huber, Cochrane, Wis., in 1929, when he made an entry in the Association
contest. Although the nuts were awarded no prize, the Bixby report made
special mention of these nuts as being "notable for the high percentage
of kernel (1930 Proc. N. N. G. A., p. 108), having yielded 32.8 per cent
of total kernel."

The variety has not been tested by the department, although several
attempts have been made to procure specimens for the purpose, but each
such effort has been coincident with a crop failure by this particular

LAMB--The Lamb black walnut is a variety propagated and grown for its
wood only. The parent tree stood on a farm one-quarter mile east of Ada,
Kent County, Michigan, perhaps ten miles due east of Grand Rapids. After
the log had been cut and shipped to a mill, discovery was made that the
wood of the original tree had a highly figured grain. Mr. George Lamb,
then Secretary of the American Walnut Manufacturers Association, 616
South Michigan Avenue, Chicago, traced the origin of the log back to its
source, where the top was found to be still green, although the tree had
been cut two months previous. Scions were cut and sent by Mr. Lamb to
the Department of Agriculture in Washington, and also to Dr. Robert T.
Morris, Merribrooke Farm, Stamford, Conn. At the suggestion of Dr.
Morris, Mr. Lamb also sent scions to Mr. Ford Wilkinson, Rockport, Ind.

Some of the scions received by the Department were placed in the hands
of others, including the late Messrs. Jones, Bixby and Snyder, also
Prof. V. R. Gardner, Director of the Michigan Agricultural Experiment
Station at East Lansing, and Dr. G. A. Zimmerman, Piketown, Pa. Drs.
Morris and Zimmerman, Professor Gardner, and Messrs. Wilkinson and
Bixby, were all successful in their efforts at grafting. Mr. Bixby made
new grafts as soon as the original could be cut for scions, and also
made some distributions of scions. At the time of his death in August,
1933, there were a dozen or more nursery trees of various sizes and
degrees of condition among his stock at Baldwin. From these, scions were
sold to a number of Association members during the spring of 1934.

While it has not yet been established that the character of figured
grain is transmissible with scions, the value of such wood is so great
that anyone interested in producing walnut trees of outstanding value
would do well to investigate this variety to the extent of growing a few
trees. In all likelihood the combined results from tests made by a large
number of persons would be of great value to science.

TASTERITE--The parent tree of the Tasterite walnut, owned by Everl
Church, R. F. D. 3, Ithaca, New York, was discovered and named by Mr. S.
H. Graham, a neighbor, living on Route 5, also out of Ithaca. The latter
submitted specimens to the department in Washington in 1929, where they
made a highly favorable showing. Tasterite nuts entered that year in the
contest of the Northern Nut Growers Association, although receiving no
award by the committee were given the rating of "excellent" by Dr.
Deming. In 1930, Prof. N. F. Drake of Fayetteville, Ark., gave Tasterite
nuts a rating of "100 per cent on cracking quality." He obtained a total
of 28.05 per cent of kernel. Nuts of the 1930 crop examined in
Washington averaged 36 per pound, ranged from 34 to 38, and yielded
20.92 per cent of quarters and 7.22 per cent of small pieces, making a
total of 28.14 per cent.

The shell of the nut is thinner than the average and the cracking
quality distinctly superior. The kernels of nuts promptly harvested,
hulled and cured have been bright, plump, rich in quality, and
especially pleasing in flavor. The one weak point of the Tasterite
appears to be in the matter of size, but this smallness is well offset
by superiority in the points just mentioned, and also in what is perhaps
more important, the latitude and altitude of the place of origin. Any
variety which will yield heavy crops of nuts distinctly superior to the
average black walnut in cracking quality and kernel merit at a 42-degree
latitude plus, and a 2,000-foot altitude, should be potentially very
valuable in the northernmost zone.

WIARD--This is another Michigan variety, apparently of much merit. Vague
bits of information regarding it have reached the department at
Washington from time to time since June, 1926, when Greening Bros., of
Monroe, stated to the writer that Mr. Everett Wiard, a fruit grower near
the eastern outskirts of Ypsilanti, was grafting a promising seedling of
his own origin. This clue was not successfully followed up until 1932,
when a few specimen nuts were obtained. These were found to be of medium
size and of excellent cracking quality. The kernels were plump, bright,
rich in quality, and of pleasing flavor.

On February 12, 1934, Professor Neilson wrote the department that this
seedling had come to his attention during Farmers' Week, held shortly
before, at East Lansing. He stated that to him this appeared to be one
of the best seedlings thus far discovered and that he was recommending
it for propagation. He added that the nut was "of medium size, somewhat
diamond-shaped, thin-shelled, easy to crack and of excellent extractive
quality." Very likely more will be learned of this variety in the

Butternut Varieties

The American butternut, Juglans cinerea, although commonly held to be a
slow grower, a tardy and light bearer, and a producer of thick-shelled
nuts hard or impossible to crack without extreme difficulty, is
frequently quite the opposite in one or more, or all, of these respects.
Under favorable environment the trees grow rapidly, bear early, and
oftentimes the nuts may be easily cracked and the kernels extracted in
perfect halves. Probably more than a dozen varieties from various
portions of the North have been named. A few of these appear to be of
considerable promise.

The northern range of the butternut extends from Nova Scotia over Maine,
across New Hampshire, Vermont, New York, the upper peninsula of
Michigan, and through Wisconsin and southeastern Minnesota to South
Dakota south to Georgia and Arkansas.

Butternut flavor is preferred by many people to that of any other nut.
Throughout New England the kernels are used to no inconsiderable extent
in the making of highly pleasing food products. Oftentimes the ground
kernels are used in the home manufacture of pastries and confections
which are either consumed at home or sold on roadside markets at good

The butternut is not without certain weak points which must not be
forgotten. The timber is less valuable than that of black walnut, the
trees grow to smaller size and seldom live more than 75 or 100 years;
outside of the best growing sections of the North, it is possible that
the majority succumb under 40 years.

Being less symmetrical, butternut trees are not as suitable for
ornamental planting as are nut trees of many other kinds. Nevertheless,
a tree or two of each of the best varieties now available should be
included in all nut planting as far south as the species is indigenous,
and perhaps farther down.

ALVERSON--The parent tree of this variety is owned by Mr. M. E.
Alverson, Howard City, Montcalm County, Michigan. It was first called to
public attention when it was awarded third prize in the 1932 State
contest held at East Lansing under the direction of Prof. James A.
Neilson, of Michigan Agricultural College. A one-pound lot tested in
Washington during April of the same year counted 47 specimens. It
yielded 14.44 per cent of quarters and 1.11 per cent of small pieces,
making a total of 15.55 per cent kernel. The cracking quality was found
to be good. The kernels were large, long, plump, medium bright, and the
flavor distinctly pleasing.

DEMING--This variety was called to attention by Olcott Deming, a son of
Dr. W. C. Deming, Hartford, Conn., to whom it was awarded first prize in
the 1918 contest of the Northern Nut Growers Association. Dr. Deming
sought to have this variety called Olcott, but the name became fixed
when it appeared in the Jones catalogue of 1920, and later in various
reports of the Association.

The Deming butternut is probably an early bearer, as in notes prepared
by the late J. F. Jones for use during the 1926 convention held at
Lancaster, reference was made to two trees (Nos. 88 and 89), which were
in "bearing while still quite young," the latter of which "bore two nuts
the next year after being grafted," and which was then "bearing its
third consecutive crop." Mr. Jones began its propagation in 1920,
commenting to the writer at the time that it was "larger and had a
thinner shell than Aiken."

IRVINE--This variety was awarded first prize ($50.00) in the Northern
Nut Growers Association contest of 1929. The parent tree is owned by
Mrs. L. K. Irvine, Menominee, Dunn County, Wis. In a Washington test of
three pounds, conducted in 1931, the nuts averaged 53 per pound and had
a range of from 44 to 59. The kernel yield was 22.13 per cent quarters,
3.90 per cent small pieces, and 0.38 per cent bad. The cracking quality
was excellent, the kernels large and highly attractive, the quality
good, and the flavor mild. This is apparently one of the finest although
not the richest or sweetest, of any variety of butternut yet discovered.
It is known to have been successfully propagated but to a limited extent

LOVE--This butternut originated on the farm of Mr. Frank Love, R. F. D.
2, Howell, Livingston County, Mich. It was discovered by chance, when
the large size and generally sound condition of the parent tree caught
the attention of the writer in 1931. In a cracking test conducted later
that year the nuts averaged 53 per pound, had a range of from 44 to 71,
and yielded a total of 27.32 per cent kernel. The yield of quarters was
24.68 per cent, and that of small pieces 2.64 per cent.

The Love butternuts are considerably smaller than those of some other
varieties, and in comparison with Irvine of that year the kernels were
much less attractive in appearance, but richer in quality and of more
pleasing flavor. On the whole, these nuts now stand among the very best
yet called to attention, although during a test made a year later of
nuts also from the parent tree, the result was but 17.19 per cent of
kernel, composed of 16.86 per cent quarters and 0.33 per cent of small

These nuts have not appeared in any contest, and in all probability they
would have received no award during any but the most favorable years.
However, their record of 1931 placed the variety in a class at that time
quite by itself.

Scions from the original tree, purchased by the department in 1933, and
placed in the hands of several commercial propagators, have resulted in
at least one living grafted tree. This is being carefully guarded, and
as soon as possible others will be grafted from it. As Mr. Love is quite
averse to having the tree cut for scions, it may not be possible to
obtain new scions from the original source.

LUTHER--This butternut came to light as a result of the contest held by
Professor Neilson at the end of the 1932 crop year, when it received
second prize. The entry was made by Mr. F. Luther of Fairgrove, Tuscola
County, Mich.

In Washington, nuts of the 1932 crop averaged 52 per pound and yielded
15.45 per cent of quarters and 2.21 per cent of small pieces, making a
total of 17.66 per cent of kernel. This test was made in April, after
the nuts were rather too dry to crack to the best advantage. At that
time the cracking quality was fair only.

SHERMAN--The Sherman butternut first became known in 1929, when Mrs. E.
Sherman, Montague City, Mass., was awarded ninth prize in the Northern
Nut Growers Association contest of that year. Tested twice in
Washington, it has at neither time rated with the best in so far as
cracking quality is concerned. In 1931 it made the high kernel yield of
29.41 per cent. However, only 11.76 per cent was of quarters. Exactly
the same percentage was of small pieces, and 5.88 per cent of kernels
were bad. In 1932, the total per cent of kernel dropped to 15.31, that
of quarters to 4.78, and that of kernels to 0.96, while that of small
pieces rose to 9.57.

Further studies will be made to see if under optimum conditions of
handling after proper harvesting and curing the record of cracking
quality cannot be improved upon.


According to Alfred Rehder, of Harvard, in the Standard Cyclopedia of
Horticulture, six species of hickory are indigenous to that region east
of the Rocky Mountains here discussed under the term of the northernmost
nut zone. These are the shagbark, the shellbark, the sweet hickory, the
pignut, the mockernut and the bitternut. The shagbark hickory, Hicoria
ovata, and the sweet hickory, H. ovalis, are the principal ones among
this group offering promise as sources of varieties fit for cultivation
in this zone. The former is well known as a rich-land species, having
shaggy bark and a more or less sharply angled sweet nut; the latter,
often called pignut, has recently been listed as "sweet hickory" to
distinguish it from H. glabra, also called pignut, yet which is
sometimes better. The sweet hickory is less exacting in soil
requirements than the shagbark, although often nearly or quite as good a
nut, popular prejudice notwithstanding. When shelled the kernels can be
distinguished only with difficulty.

Of the other hickories indigenous to this zone, all are omitted from the
discussion for definite reasons, chief of which is the fact that few or
no seedlings of promise have been found. The shellbark, H. laciniosa,
which is much like the shagbark in many respects, occurs in this zone
sparingly and only in the southernmost part. Nuts of this species, while
very large, are thick-shelled and commonly more or less objectionable
because of the frequency with which the kernels are imperfectly
developed or entirely wanting. The pignut hickory, H. glabra, already
mentioned, is omitted from further discussion because of being no better
than the sweet hickory in any known respect, and because of the frequent
bitterness of its kernel. The mockernut, H. alba, while indigenous
practically everywhere that any other hickory grows, and producing a
sweet, agreeable kernel, has too thick a shell to justify particular
attention at this time. The bitternut hickory, H. cordiformis, is rarely
palatable. The tree makes an attractive ornamental, but is relatively
unimportant in so far as timber production is concerned.

Intermediate forms of hickory and hybrids originated from chance crosses
under purely natural conditions are fairly common. Quite a good many
belonging to one or the other of these groups have been brought to light
during the last two decades, largely as a result of discovery by the
Northern Nut Growers Association. Several of these will be discussed in
alphabetical order along with varieties of pure species.

ANTHONY--The Anthony shagbark originated with a seedling tree discovered
by Mr. A. B. Anthony, R. F. D. 6, Sterling, Whiteside County, Ill. It
appears to be a particularly choice variety, and as the latitude of
Sterling is practically the same as that of Chicago, it might do very
well in the lower portion of the northernmost zone. In a cracking test
of the 1932 crop the yield of quarters was 41.66, that of small pieces
0.60, making a total of 42.26 per cent. The nuts were large, averaging
74 per pound; attractive in appearance, clean, and of nearly white
color. The cracking quality was good, the kernel plump, bright, rich in
quality and medium sweet in flavor, but not being equal to some others
in this last respect. This is believed to be one of the choicest hickory
nuts yet brought to light.

CEDAR RAPIDS--This shagbark is from Cedar Rapids, Linn County, Iowa,
where the latitude is about 42 degrees north, or about the same as that
of Chicago, Ill., Tecumseh, Mich., and the boundary line between
Pennsylvania and New York. Like Anthony (of Sterling, Ill.) the merit of
this variety is believed such as to justify its trial planting in the
southern portion of the northernmost zone.

The Cedar Rapids shagbark was discovered and brought to light by the
late S. W. Snyder, senior member of Snyder Bros., Inc., nurserymen at
Center Point, Iowa. The exact or even approximate year of discovery and
first propagation is not known to the writer, but a remark made by Mr.
Snyder during the 1930 convention, and passed on to him by Dr. Deming,
would indicate that grafts were made as early as 1914. It was, "a Cedar
Rapids shagbark grafted on a hickory (probably meaning shagbark), bore
in its third year and has borne every year since, but the same variety
grafted 16 years ago on a bitternut has not borne." In various comments
made by Mr. Snyder from time to time, especially in connection with the
Iowa meetings of the State Horticultural Society and of the Mid-West
Horticultural Exposition, he continued to rate this as one of the best
varieties within his acquaintance. There are a number of grafted trees
of this variety in various parts of the country, but very few yet in
bearing. The department at Washington has had no opportunity to test the
nuts in detail.

(There is also a variety of bitternut from Iowa known as Cedar Rapids,
but the two are quite unlike and should not be confused.)

COMINS--The original tree of the Comins shagbark hickory, awarded eighth
prize in the 1929 contest, is owned by Mrs. Nancy E. Comins, Amherst,
Hampshire County, Mass. This variety is probably worthy of further
investigation, although specimens of the 1929 crop examined at
Washington did not appear to as good advantage as did many others.

CREAGER--The Creager hickory is a supposed shagbark and bitternut hybrid
known since about 1925, when it was given a high rating, named,
propagated and disseminated to a limited extent by Snyder Bros., Inc.,
of Center Point, Iowa. It was called to their attention by Mr. W. O.
Creager, Sumner, Bremer County, Iowa, discoverer of the original tree.
The nuts are quite small, averaging in a test made in Washington of the
1930 crop 149 per pound. The yield of kernel was 30.27 per cent
quarters, 8.76 per cent small pieces, and the total 39.04 per cent. As
this test was made in February, 1932, the nuts were more than a year
old, and allowance should be made for this fact. The parent tree had
been cut down in the meantime and nuts were not obtainable later.

The shells of the nut are quite thin, easy to crack, and the kernels
fairly sweet. Like most others when their parentage involves a cross
with the bitternut, a distinct bitterness of flavor hangs over in the
mouth as an after-taste.

The grafted tree is said to be a rapid grower and so highly ornamental
as to be well worth growing for its beauty alone. A few trees of such a
hybrid as this should be in any variety test planting wherever they will
succeed. As the latitude of Sumner is 43 degrees, this hybrid should be
of interest as far north as Milwaukee, Wis.; Grand Rapids, Mich.;
Buffalo, N. Y., and the northern boundary line of Massachusetts. Being
primarily an ornamental, the Creager might be grown with safety even
farther north.

DENNIS--The Dennis shagbark hickory is another variety brought to light
by Snyder Bros., Inc., of Center Point, Ia. The original tree was found
near the City of Cedar Rapids and called to their attention by the late
Dr. A. B. Dennis of that city. Information is lacking as to the exact
year, but according to Mr. Bixby's address before the 1920 convention of
the Association, Snyder Bros. used Dennis in 1916 in top-working.

No test of the nuts by the department has yet been possible. However,
Mr. S. W. Snyder wrote in 1926 that he then considered the Dennis "...
the best shagbark yet discovered in Iowa." He added further that "where
the nuts are gathered and hulled promptly after ripening, the color of
the shell is usually highly attractive." He also stated that the shell
was quite thin, and owing to its inner structure the kernels could be
extracted easily. He regarded the quality of the kernel as rich and the
flavor sweet and pleasing.

This variety is represented in several known plantings and abundant nuts
for testing should soon be procurable. Meanwhile, the variety should be
included in further test plantings of the northernmost zone.

DREW--The Drew hickory is a shagbark named in honor of Mr. Arthur Drew
of Howell, Livingston County, Mich., by whom it was called to attention
in 1916. The parent tree stands on the Lyman Beach farm, Marion
township, about six miles southwest from the post office. It was then
one of many young seedlings less than forty feet tall standing in a
cattle pasture. When first examined the nuts were unimpressive, but
later specimens received high rating. The tree is difficult to reach and
its exact identity probably known only to Mr. Drew.

The latitude of origin, the early age of bearing, and the superiority of
nut, both with reference to cracking quality and merit of kernel, seem
to call for further study.

EMERICK--This shagbark was discovered by Prof. L. H. MacDaniels of
Cornell University, Ithaca, New York. Specimens of the 1932 crop were
submitted to him by Miss Etta Emerick, West Camp, Ulster County, New
York. In Washington seven of these nuts averaged 67 per pound and
yielded 33.33 per cent quarters, 2.22 per cent small pieces, and a total
of 35.55 per cent kernel. The cracking quality was very good and the
nuts otherwise appeared to be of considerable promise.

FAIRBANKS--This is a hybrid hickory, apparently the result of a chance
cross between shagbark and bitternut. The parent tree was discovered by
the late S. W. Snyder, of Center Point, Iowa, probably about 1912. It
then stood near a line fence on the farm of Mr. C. A. Fairbanks, nine
miles northwest of Anamosa, Jones County, Iowa. With reference to the
merit of this variety, the late Mr. Bixby once commented, "A heavy
bearer, nuts attractive, large, smooth and thin-shelled. The variety has
about all the good points desirable except that its palatability is too
low. It is the Ben Davis of the hickories."

The latitude of Anamosa is such that the Fairbanks should be hardy in
the south three or four tiers of counties of Wisconsin, Michigan, New
York, and over much of Massachusetts. It has been widely disseminated,
and because of the popular feeling in its favor, will likely continue to
be planted in experimental orchards.

GREEN--The parent tree of the Green sweet hickory is owned by Mr. Steve
Green, R. F. D. 9, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, Mich. It was brought to
attention in 1929, when it was awarded fifth prize by the Association
among the hickory entries that year. This variety is the first of its
species (Hicoria ovalis) to have received a prize from the Association.

HUBER--The Huber shagbark hickory originated with a seedling tree owned
by Mr. Ferdinand Huber, Cochrane, Buffalo County, Wisconsin. It came to
light in 1929, when it was awarded second prize in the Association

HUFF--Like Green, this variety is a sweet hickory, Hicoria ovalis. The
parent tree is owned by L. S. Huff, White Pigeon, St. Joseph County,
Michigan. Aside from the fact that it was awarded ninth prize in the
Association contest of 1929, little is known as to its merits.

LANEY--This variety was brought to light by the late John Dunbar, First
Assistant Superintendent of Parks in Rochester, New York, who wrote the
department in Washington on March 13, 1916, that the original tree was
on a farm owned by Mr. R. J. Sheard, superintendent of a cemetery in
Webster County, New York. It appears to be the result of a natural cross
between the shagbark and the bitternut hickories. It was given the
species name Laneyi by Sargent in his Manual of the Trees of North
America, in honor of Mr. C. C. Laney, Superintendent of Parks, in
Rochester, by whom it had been called to his attention.

This variety is probably of chief value for ornamental and breeding
purposes. The nuts are large, like those of Fairbanks, attractive,
thin-shelled, easy to crack and of pleasing palatability to some people.
Upon becoming thoroughly cured, especially after a few months, the
disagreeable taste characteristic of bitternut usually becomes quite

MANN--This shagbark hickory came to light when awarded first prize in
the Michigan contest of 1932, held under the direction of Prof. James A.
Neilson, East Lansing. The parent tree is owned by Mrs. Rae D. Mann, R.
F. D. 3, Davison, Genesee County, Mich. In a cracking test of nuts from
the crop of 1932, conducted in Washington, the average was 75 per pound;
the yield of quarters was 43.52 per cent, that of small pieces 3.53 per
cent, making a total of 47.06 per cent. The cracking quality was
excellent, the kernels large, plump, of rich quality and particularly
sweet flavor. The kernels were a trifle dark, but otherwise this hickory
appears to be one of the most promising kinds yet discovered.

MILLER--This shagbark hickory is another apparently highly promising
variety, brought to light as a result of Professor Neilson's efforts. It
was awarded second prize in the 1932 state contest held under his
direction. The parent tree is owned by Mr. D. P. Miller, Route 3, North
Branch, Lapeer County, Mich. It and Mann are from adjoining counties,
and the parent trees are probably not over twenty miles apart. The two
are of about equal merit and much alike, although Miller nuts are
somewhat smaller. In the cracking test of the 1932 contest, fifty nuts
weighed one-half pound. Of these, two were spoiled, yet the percentage
of quarters was 48.02, that of small pieces 1.32, thus making a total of
49.34 per cent kernel.

The cracking quality was excellent, the kernel a trifle dark, yet very
plump, rich and sweet.

SANDE--The Sande shagbark hickory is from the farm of Elmer T. Sande,
Story City, Story County, Iowa, about sixteen miles north of Ames. It
was brought to light by the late S. W. Snyder as early as November,
1928, when he became responsible for having it mentioned (p. 24) in the
premium list of the Seventh Mid-West Horticultural Exposition held in
Cedar Rapids, Iowa, November 14 to 17. It received seventh prize in the
1929 contest of the Northern Nut Growers Association.

Mr. Snyder commented on this variety, as recorded in the 1930
proceedings of the Northern Nut Growers Association (p. 15), to the
effect that the cracking quality of the Sande excelled that of any other
variety of Iowa origin known to him at that time. The variety has twice
received awards during the State Fair of Iowa. Mr. Snyder stated that
the parent tree was then rather young but bearing well.

As the latitude of Story City is slightly greater than 42 degrees, this
variety should do well throughout much of the northernmost zone.

SWAIM--The parent tree of the Swaim shagbark hickory stands on Maplewood
farm, R. F. D. 1, South Bend, St. Joseph County, Ind., and is now owned
by Mr. I. H. Swaim. It is one of a number of seedlings growing from
local nuts planted during the early sixties by the late J. M. Swaim,
grandfather of the present Mr. Swaim. It was called to the attention of
the department in 1912 by Mr. H. H. Swaim, father of the present owner
of the tree, who is still living near by on the same mail route.

The Swaim was first propagated about 1914 by W. C. Reed of Vincennes,
Ind., who has found it a highly satisfactory variety, with reference to
regularity and size of crops and general merit of nuts.

The Swaim is one of three varieties to tie for fourth place in the
contest of the Association held in 1919. In a cracking test conducted in
Washington with one pound of the 1930 crop, the nuts averaged 84 per
pound and yielded 44.73 per cent of quarters, 4.62 per cent small
pieces, and 0.44 per cent of bad kernels, thus making a total of 49.78
per cent of kernel. The cracking quality that year was excellent, the
kernels large, plump, and bright. The quality was rich and the flavor
sweet and pleasing.

As the city of South Bend is but a few miles below the Michigan state
line, this variety should be well worth considering for use in test
plantings throughout the lower fringe of the northernmost zone.

WESTPHAL--The Westphal is a shagbark hickory from Mr. Otto Westphal, R.
F. D. 2, Kendall, Monroe County, Wis. It was awarded fourth place in the
1926 contest of the Philadelphia Society of Agriculture. So far as
known, no other examination has been made of the nuts. However, the
place they received in this contest, together with its latitude of
origin, which is nearly 44 degrees, should commend the Westphal to the
consideration of all who are interested in hickories for the
northernmost region.

The Filbert

The filbert situation in the north is difficult to characterize.
Repeated plantings have been established in this part of the country,
probably since colonial days, only to perish in due time. Filbert blight
was responsible for much of this loss, but so also were destructively
low temperatures. Western New York now seems to be particularly favored,
as trees there, notably at Geneva, bear regularly. Mr. Bixby's trees at
Baldwin, Long Island, failed significantly during practically the whole
of their life. Similarly, a comprehensive collection of varieties in the
orchard of Dr. F. L. Baum, Boyertown, Pa., fruits practically not at
all. Trees at Arlington, Va., on the government experimental farm,
suffer sufficient winter injury each late winter or early spring to be
quite regular in non-bearing. The varieties of all these plantings are
much the same, and failure is not due to winter killing of the trees, as
there is normally very little of this. It appears to be due to
destruction of the flowers wrought by low temperatures following weather
in January, February or March mild enough to start the flowers into
bloom. At the present moment it looks as though European varieties of
filbert might do much better where the trees bloom in April, as in
western New York, than where flowers come out in February, as at
Arlington, or in March, as on Long Island.

For the present not a great deal of encouragement can be offered
regarding the European varieties of filbert in the east, except in the
most suitable sections. Certain hybrid varieties are now being
developed, but they are not yet available for planting.

The Chestnut

No species of chestnut now available through the usual nursery channels
can be recommended at the present time for planting in the northernmost
zone except for experimentation along somewhat doubtful lines. The
American sweet chestnut appears likely soon to be wiped out by blight.
No chestnuts from the Old World, either European, Japanese or Chinese,
have yet been found which are entirely hardy and otherwise satisfactory
at this latitude. The European chestnut is quite as fatally subject to
blight as is the American. The Japanese is mostly of too low degree of
palatability to offer much promise, and horticultural varieties of
Chinese chestnut are not yet available. Varieties of the Chinese hairy
chestnut, Castanea mollissima, apparently of much promise, are now being
developed, but trees are unlikely to become available for foundation
stock to nurserymen for several years.

Other Species

The Persian (English) walnut, Juglans regia, and the Japanese walnut, J.
sieboldiana, are both planted to some extent throughout the entire east
and north, but neither promise to assume special prominence in this
zone. Fine appearing trees in small numbers or occasional orchards of
the former may be seen in many places. These are usually near large
bodies of water, as within a mile or so, or two or three at most, of the
shores of the lower Great Lakes, the Finger Lakes of New York, Long
Island Sound, and various rivers and other smaller bodies of water
within this general section. They are also to be found near buildings,
especially in villages and small towns, but as orchard trees, or even
single specimens out in the open, they are almost never met with except
possibly while very young.

The Japanese walnut is likewise little more than a novelty in this
region. It is probably somewhat more hardy than is the foregoing, but it
is not its equal in desirability. It grows rapidly under favorable
environment, often becomes a handsome ornamental, comes into fruit while
young, and bears freely but seldom heavily. The nuts are small, variable
in character, and not particularly popular on the market. In flavor the
kernels resemble butternut, but are much more mild. The nuts of this
species are of two distinct types, the larger being shaped like a guinea
egg, having a rather thick shell, and of doubtful merit. The other,
known as the heartnut, is small as a rule, distinctly heartshaped, and
easily opened with a knife by splitting the shell in half. A number of
varieties are available through nurserymen.

Between these two distinct types of Japanese walnut there are numerous
intermediate forms hard to classify but invariably less desirable than
heartnuts. There are also numerous offspring of marked vigor, producing
nuts distinctly butternut-like in form but having even thicker shells.
These last do not commend themselves for any purpose other than that of
genetic use.


The black walnut, the shagbark hickory, the sweet hickory, the butternut
and certain hybrid hickories are now believed to offer greater
inducement to prospective planters of nut trees in the northernmost
zone east of the Rocky Mountains than do other species. Varieties of
strictly northern origin are now available to those who are capable of
doing their own grafting. Many of these are of considerable promise,
apparently, at least, equal in merit to any of the older varieties now
being offered by nurserymen.

The Tour--September 11th

On Tuesday forenoon, September 11, the convention visited the Kellogg
Factory and the Battle Creek Sanitarium and at noon returned to the W.
K. Kellogg Hotel, where a delicious luncheon was served to the members
and guests. Miss Mary I. Barber, Director of Home Economics of the
Kellogg Company, in behalf of Mr. W. K. Kellogg, graciously acted as
hostess at the luncheon.

On Tuesday afternoon the convention went to the Kellogg Company farm by
motor bus and auto to visit the nut trees. They then proceeded to the
Bird Sanctuary and the Kellogg estate. This was followed by a motor boat
trip around beautiful Gull Lake and dinner at Bunbury Inn. A session
followed the dinner.


I wish to present Professor V. R. Gardner, the Director of the
Experiment Station at Michigan State College, East Lansing, who has
kindly consented to address us this evening.


In the field of horticulture we have many problems and these problems
may be classified in different ways. From one standpoint, at least,
there is a typical group or class of problems that arises in connection
with a crop like the peach or apple or pear. If you knew that tomorrow
or next week or next month you were to attend a meeting of peach or pear
growers, you would have a pretty good idea of the type of questions that
would be raised. They concern variety, insect and disease control,
fertilization, and many questions relating to harvesting, packing and
marketing the crop. On the other hand, suppose you were to attend a
meeting of peony, delphinium, or dahlia growers. You would find not only
an entirely different type of question under discussion, but an entirely
different atmosphere.

Now, are the problems of those who are interested in nuts more like
those of the peach or the delphinium grower? You probably have your own
answer to that question. At least, answers are coming to your mind. To
my way of thinking--though of course I may be wrong--the kind of problem
that presents itself to the person who is interested in growing nuts is
more like the type that presents itself to those who are interested in
dahlias or delphiniums or sweet peas than the problems that present
themselves to the pear or cherry grower. In other words, it seems to me
as though the problems of the nut grower are essentially the problems of
the amateur. That does not mean they are less important or less
interesting than they would be were the industry on more of a commercial
basis like peach growing.

About a year ago I was talking with Dr. Magness of the U. S. Bureau of
Plant Industry and the discussion happened to turn to nuts. I knew that
within the preceding six months Dr. Magness had covered most of the
southern states where the pecan is grown commercially and had occasion
to give considerable attention to the problems of the pecan industry. I
asked, "What percentage of the commercial pecan growers at the present
time are producing 1,000 pounds of cured nuts to the acre?" He replied,
"Don't ask me what percentage. We can't talk about it in those terms.
You can probably list on the fingers of one hand the growers who, year
in and year out, are producing pecans at the rate of a thousand pounds
to the acre, and certainly you can on the fingers of two hands." To me
that was a rather striking statement. Dr. Magness may not have been
entirely correct in his answer, but he was probably not far off. Anyway,
the percentage of commercial pecan growers obtaining really large yields
is extremely small. In the Pacific Coast States, a larger number and a
larger percentage of the walnut growers regularly produce a thousand
pounds of cured walnuts to the acre, though there are more who average
500 or 600 pounds. As yet, in any of our retail markets you may purchase
first class named varieties of pecans at from 25c to 40c a pound. The
same thing is true of English walnuts. If the cultivated varieties of
the black walnut, hickory and the chestnut are to be put on the market
in quantity, they will come into competition with the pecan, English
walnut, almond and Brazil nut. This means that they must sell at
comparable prices.

Therefore, one of the principal problems of the nut industry, as I see
it, just as with delphiniums or the peony or the dahlia or iris or in
others that I might mention, is the problem of plant materials, more
specifically, the breeding or discovery of varieties that are superior
and that consequently can really compete with the English walnut and
pecan and that likewise are productive and that can be produced at a low
cost. As a matter of fact, in all of your meetings up to the present
time the finding, testing, and the evaluating of chance seedlings that
appear to be of promise has constituted not only an essential but one of
the larger features to claim attention. Furthermore, I believe it will
continue to claim attention for many years to come.

Practically all of your present materials, from the Fairbanks hickory to
the Thomas or Stabler walnut, have just happened--that is, occurred as
chance seedlings. They have been found and recognized as something a
little better than the general run. Someone has brought them to the
attention of the public, your Association placed approval on them, and
they have been propagated and finally become more or less disseminated.

I presume that by a more thorough combing of the territory more good
material will be found and brought to the front. However, after you do a
certain amount of combing, you eventually exhaust the resources.
Nevertheless, when that time comes in a matter of this kind, a good deal
more can be done. If the plum or grape grower had stopped when he had
scouted all of the territory where vines are native and had introduced
into cultivation the best of the chance seedlings that nature had given
us, we wouldn't have the grapes or plums or other fruits that we have

At this point I wish to make a suggestion as to one thing that this
association, as an association, and perhaps some of its members as
individuals, can give some attention to as a part of your program in the
years to come. It is the job of breeding superior varieties of nuts,
because much improvement is called for in walnuts, hickories, and the
other kinds before they are all that you or the consuming public wants
of them. The situation is essentially the same with nuts as with other
fruit and ornamental plants. We have some pretty good peaches, but ten
years from now the producers in Michigan will be growing very few of the
varieties that they are growing today, and I dare say that twenty-five
years from now they will be growing hardly any of them. We have some
very attractive delphiniums and dahlias, but in 1950 few of today's
favorites will be in cultivation. They will be superseded by new and
superior varieties. In 1950, or 1975, we should be growing nut varieties
that are far superior to what is available at the present time.

To say that there is room for much improvement sounds all right, but who
is going to effect it? Nut trees are not the easiest things in the world
to grow. They require a long time to come into bearing, and it is almost
out of the question for a person of middle age to undertake a breeding
project with a crop like the black walnut or northern hickory and expect
to get anywhere. Even if an Experiment Station undertakes a problem of
this kind, there is the likelihood that it may be dropped before much
will have been accomplished, for the person who starts it may go
somewhere else or be compelled to divert his attention to something
else, while the person who succeeds him has no interest in the project.
That has happened time and time again with investigations of many kinds,
but it has been particularly true of breeding projects.

If we are ever to make any real progress in the breeding of nuts, one of
the first things we need to know is the value of the different materials
with which we have to work and the varieties that are used as parents.
The Stabler, Thomas and Ohio are relatively superior black walnuts, but
we do not know which is the best of these for breeding for size or vigor
of tree or productivity or quality of nut or any other quality. We
haven't the slightest idea. Yet before really scientific plant breeding
work can be initiated, there is need of information as to which of these
can be depended on for transmitting to its offspring certain specific
qualities. Through experiment and experience we have learned some of
these things with regard to some of the other fruit and ornamental
crops. For instance, we know that the J. H. Hale is not only a wonderful
variety in itself, but that it has the ability to produce superior
progeny. Certain other varieties lack this ability. So, doubtless, it is
with nuts. How are we to obtain this information? If your Association
could get two or three growers, say here in Michigan, to inbreed the
Stabler walnut and grow the resulting seedlings--perhaps a thousand in
number--to fruiting age and someone somewhere else to do the same with
the Thomas and with the Ohio and other varieties, it would not be long
before a body of information would be collected that would furnish a
definite basis for the scientific breeding of nuts. Incidentally, the
chances are that some of this first group of seedlings would be superior
and I believe that the chances are better than 50-50 that the resulting
nut orchard would be a fairly good one.

Where are you going to get these inbred seeds? That probably is what you
can put up to your experiment stations. For instance, I am inclined to
think that Mr. Neilson, if he found out that there is a member of this
organization that is willing to grow a hundred inbred seedlings of the
Stabler or Thomas to maturity, would undertake to hand-pollenize the
flowers for that number of seeds, you would have a start in the
direction of developing superior varieties of nuts. I don't mean to say
that by undertaking a thing like this you should pay less attention to
looking for native trees that are superior, but your problem now, and
for the next thirty years, with northern nuts, is one of materials and
the method of procedure that I have suggested would put it on a basis of
a fairly definite breeding project.


I think it is self-evident that this association came here to Battle
Creek for its convention this year principally because of the work that
has been started by the Michigan State College. We think that the states
and the national government ought to do just what you are doing here,
and the power of the association is going to be back of those projects
in the future. To our sorrow, and I'd say to the loss of the entire
nation, several very valuable plantings have been started and the
passing of the owner has made it necessary that they be abandoned, and
in some cases lost entirely; in others a few of the trees have been
transplanted. We feel that if these specimen trees can be maintained on
state and national property, it will serve to call attention to this
nation's potential resources, which are not appreciated at present.

The 1934 Ohio Black Walnut Contest

_By_ CARL F. WALKER, _Cleveland Heights, Ohio_

The first prize contest confined to the state of Ohio to discover
superior seedling black walnuts was conducted in the fall of 1933 by the
Ohio members of the Northern Nut Growers' Association in co-operation
with the farm paper, the Ohio Farmer. The original announcement was made
in mid-September and several follow-up articles were published,
including some illustrations. Further publicity was obtained by mailing
press copy to the rural newspapers throughout the state.

The response was generous with 303 persons mailing in 423 samples of
black walnuts. These came from all sections of the state, indicating a
universal interest over the entire area. The first package of nuts
arrived on September 25th and for the next six weeks few further sample
lots were received. During the latter part of November and up to the
date of close of the contest, December 15, the entries were mailed to
the judges in quantity. This period coincided with inclement weather
when outdoor farm work could not be carried on.

The growing season had been abnormal due to a lack of precipitation and
it is believed that the nuts were not as large nor as well filled as
could be expected in a normal season. Defoliation through caterpillar
attack had been severe, especially in the northern third of the state,
and this condition may also have affected the normal development. The
kernels of many lots were shrunken and since these included some nuts
which would otherwise be given a high score, the method of judging by
points, partly mathematically determined, was used as a guide only,
rather than an exact means of choosing prize winners. Shell structure,
together with the shape and relative size of kernel cavity, was the
determining factor in choosing the prize winners. No differential for
kernel color was made, for it was recognized that this was dependent in
part upon the method used in harvesting and in handling the nuts. The
varieties that were poorly sealed were discarded.

All of the prize winners, on the basis of the merits of the nuts, are
considered worthy of propagation for home or experimental orchard
planting. The locations of the parent trees give a sufficiently general
coverage for the entire state for the selection of a variety to
propagate for almost all climatic and soil conditions in any part of the
state. This, in itself, is considered the advantage and the
justification of a contest confined to a single state or a limited
region. Also, when residents of a state, through a contest, discover
promising seedlings within their own state, it is believed that there is
created in the sponsors more incentive to compile continuous data about
the new kinds than would exist when the prize winners are chosen from
regions quite removed. That so many examples were submitted was the
result of excellent publicity by the Ohio Farmer.

The first prize was ten dollars, the second five dollars, the third
three dollars and the remaining seven prizes were subscriptions to the
Ohio Farmer of from five years to one year in length.

The prize winners were as follows:

  First--Mrs. Willard Brown, Rock Bridge, O.

  Second--Sam Tritten, Lisbon, O.

  Third--B. A. Cowle, Defiance, O., Rt. 8.

  Fourth--W. W. Janson, Jefferson, Ohio.

  Fifth--Harmon Barnhart, Mt. Vernon, O., Rt. 6.

  Sixth--R. E. Havice, Bellevue, Ohio, Rt. 1.

  Seventh--C. H. Markey, Beallsville, Ohio.

  Eighth--Kermit C. Hoover, Glenford, O.

  Ninth--Ralph H. Miller, 300 Monroe St., Delta, O.

  Tenth--F. C. Murphey, Sunbury, Ohio.

The final judging was done at the Ohio State Experimental Station by Dr.
J. H. Gourley, Chief of Horticultural Department, Walter H. Lloyd,
Editor of the Ohio Farmer, and Carl F. Walker, assisted by Homer L.
Jacobs of the Davey Tree Expert Co., John T. Bregger, Editor of the
American Fruit Grower, and Ray T. Kelsey of the Ohio Farmer.


That concludes the program. There is just a little business to handle
now. Before we go on to that I would like to call attention to Dr.
Deming's remarks about some of the old timers, which I thought very
touching, interesting and instructive. There are two foreign members of
the association whom I have never met. One is Mr. Spence, an Englishman,
and the other Mr. Wang of China. Mr. Wang was a life member. The reports
that I sent to him came back. All letters came back. I took it upon
myself to write the Commissioner General of the United States at
Shanghai, China, and call his attention to the fact that some twelve
years ago Mr. Wang secured through this association some black walnuts,
wanting to plant them along a certain highway in China. The Commissioner
General answered, saying they could find nothing about him, and that the
trees had not been planted where Mr. Wang had planned. I think Mr. Wang
must have died or moved away.

There is one item of business I think we should have, and that is a
brief report from Mr. Ellis who was our delegate to the horticultural
exposition at Paris.


In 1930 I was appointed your delegate to represent you at the Paris
Horticultural Congress. I sent on the delegate's sheet. I received a
reply making me a member of that congress. It went along about a month
or two, then the terrible depression came on and before going I thought
it better to investigate. So I wrote to Washington and found out that no
one was going from there. I wrote to Canada and no one was going from
there. They could not afford it. I said, "It's going to cost me $800 if
I go." Then I found out that there was to be a similar congress in New
York, so I switched off and went to the congress at Ithaca, New York,
and I was very glad of it because I met a great many more men that I
liked to meet than if I had gone to Paris. I wrote over to the congress
at Paris and sent another fee of the same amount, because I knew they
needed it, saying that I'd decided not to go.

They had the congress. The President was shot at about that time, and
that kind of broke it up. I received accounts of all the proceedings.
They treated me very fairly, in as much as they put me down as a
delegate from the United States of America, and I was the only delegate
from the whole United States. I don't suppose anyone else could afford
to go, so if I had gone over, I should have been there all alone.

I said to myself, "It only cost me a hundred dollars to go out to
Ithaca, so I saved $700. I'm not going to make anything out of this." So
I took that $700 and I gave it away for charitable purposes. You know I
gave you some. I got a letter from one person privileged, and I never
had a more grateful and appreciative letter in my life. The balance of
that $800 and more I gave to this purpose. I gave some to the Catholic
Daughters of America, I gave some to the Parent-Teachers' Association, I
gave some to the schools, and lots to the poor in one way or another.
I've sent five girls to different summer schools of religious education,
and a girl scout to a summer camp. I helped them all out all around, not
only in my own district, but in other places in different parts of the
country. So you got everything. You got your delegate over there duly
enrolled, and you got some money when you most needed it, and so did all
those other people. Not only to the amount of $800, but to a good deal
more. I feel better satisfied and I think that you all ought to be
better satisfied. If there is anyone that isn't satisfied, let him get
up and I'll argue it out with him.


I might state at this time that there will be another contest this year,
at least for black walnuts and hickories. The prizes will be as follows:
first prize $10, second prize $5, third prize $3, fourth prize $2, fifth
prize $1, and honorary mention for others. Instructions will be issued
and anyone desiring to enter this contest should write the secretary for
instructions. It's understood, I might say, that the nuts will be sent
to Mr. C. A. Reed of the United States Department of Agriculture at
Washington, who has kindly consented to look after that work and report
to a contest committee which will be named later.


We will now have the report of the resolutions committee.


The Northern Nut Growers Association assembled in convention at the W.
K. Kellogg Hotel, Battle Creek, Michigan, September 10 and 11, 1934,
expresses its sincere appreciation of the courteous hospitality of the
local committee on arrangements, headed by Prof. James A. Neilson. It
would mention in particular Mr. W. K. Kellogg, Dr. John Harvey Kellogg,
and the W. K. Kellogg Hotel management. It appreciates the use of the
splendid auditorium and is grateful for the attractive bouquets arranged
about the room.

The association heartily commends the nut work being done in the state
of Michigan with the aid of Mr. W. K. Kellogg and under the direction of
the Michigan Agricultural Experiment Station and actively under the lead
of Prof. Neilson. The association records its pride in the establishment
and maintenance of 115 acres of nut trees for purposes of
experimentation and variety testing. In so far as known to the
association there is no other tract of equal area in existence for this

Be it resolved, that a copy of this resolution be spread upon the
minutes of this meeting and that the secretary be instructed to send
copies to Mr. W. K. Kellogg, Dr. John Harvey Kellogg, the Kellogg Hotel
management, Director V. R. Gardner and Prof. James A. Neilson.

The Northern Nut Growers Association records its extreme sorrow at the
death of its active and able, although but recently elected, treasurer,
Newton H. Russell of South Hadley, Massachusetts, on April 27, 1934. For
many years Mr. Russell was a very active member of the association, a
regular attendant at its conventions, and a loyal supporter of its
various activities. The genial personalities of both Mr. and Mrs.
Russell are greatly missed at this convention. Our deep sympathy is
expressed to Mrs. Russell and her children in their bereavement.

Be it resolved, that a copy of this resolution be spread upon the
minutes of this meeting, and that the secretary be instructed to send a
copy to Mrs. Newton H. Russell.

Resolutions Committee,

  G. L. Slate, Chairman
  C. A. Reed
  A. S. Colby.


I think that the thanks of the association are especially due to our
president, Mr. Frey, for having so successfully stepped into the breach
for the completion of the arrangements for this meeting, and for the
very excellent program which he completed. I think he should also be
thanked for the separate notices which he sent out, directing the
attention of the persons coming to and going from this meeting to the
nut orchards and other things of interest that may be seen on the way.


I thank you. I might say that the suggestion for visiting interesting
trees and nut plantings came from Mr. Reed. I want to call to your
attention again that next year's meeting will be held at Rockport,
Indiana, on September 9 and 10, 1935.

The dues of this association are now only $2.00, and action taken at
this convention will result in your receiving without additional charge
the American Fruit Grower Magazine, which has been adopted as our
official journal and included with the dues. You also have the privilege
of joining the American Horticultural Society for the fee of $2 instead
of $3.00. We are affiliated with that society and they allow to their
affiliated associations the privileges of the members. Secure a
membership and get the quarterly journal for the price of $2.00. We
certainly recommend this association. We think that you get your money's
worth many times over and it does a great deal of good.

The only other item of business is a report from the nominating


Your nominating committee reports through the chairman the nomination of
the following members as officers for the ensuing year:

President--Mr. Frank H. Frey, Chicago, Illinois.

Vice President--Dr. G. A. Zimmerman, of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania.

Secretary--Mr. George L. Slate, of Geneva, New York.

Treasurer--Mr. Carl F. Walker, of Cleveland Heights, Ohio.

For Members of the Executive Committee--Mr. Frank H. Frey, Dr. G. A.
Zimmerman, Mr. George L. Slate, Mr. Carl F. Walker, Professor J. A.
Neilson and Mr. D. C. Snyder.

As Dean of the Association--Dr. Robert T. Morris, of Connecticut.

As Field Secretary--Mr. Zenas H. Ellis, of Vermont.

I move that the secretary be authorized to cast one ballot for the
election of the ticket nominated.

The motion was unanimously carried, and the officers nominated by the
committee were elected for the ensuing year.


I might say that I won't, at least, have to sing a "swan song," and I'm
not going to take the time to make any speech of acceptance. I
appreciate your confidence in re-electing me and I am sure the other
officers feel the same way. We'll all do what we can for your interest
and what we are all interested in. Sometimes we may be a little slow in
getting results but with your help I think we can make progress.

The twenty-fifth annual convention of the Northern Nut Growers'
Association adjourned at 9:30 P. M. Tuesday, September 11, 1934.

Letter from J. U. Gellatly

_British Columbia_

I have just returned from a six weeks' trip to the B. C. Coast scouting
for new nut trees and selling nut tree nursery stock. The outstanding
discovery of the trip is the Rapier walnut tree. This young giant was
planted 24 years ago by Mr. Rapier on Texada Isl. I estimate this tree
to be 60 to 70 feet in height, the measured spread is 60 feet one way
and 70 at widest point, and other measurements as follows: from ground
to first limbs there is 8 feet of straight trunk with a girth of 7 feet
one inch taken one foot above ground, and at 6 feet above ground girth
is 69 inches. The tree has cropped regularly since it was about 6 years
old. The largest crop to date was produced in 1931 totaling 500 pounds.
The shape of nut is long oval, size medium. The flavor of those I
tasted of the 1933 crop certainly was the sweetest I have tasted to date
for this class of nut.

I have no definite information as to source of this tree, but judge it
to be a Franquette seedling as that was the class of trees sold by the
nursery from which the tree was purchased. I have made arrangements for
sample nuts from this year's crop and will send you some later. This
tree is well worth testing for hardiness as it is evidently
self-fertile, there being no other nut trees of the same age near by.

Another discovery of interest from the nut breeding angle is the
McDonald walnut. This is a hybrid English X. J. Sieboldiana, growing at
West Vancouver, B. C. Nut large and heavy shell, but the best kernel
cavity I have seen in any of these crosses. The tree is a nice tree and
leaves show distinct crossing. This is the first year it has borne and
it had 2 nuts. One shell I am sending you with other samples of new

The Watt English walnut at Penticton, B. C., is proving a regular
cropper of uniform large round nuts of good flavor. This tree is a
seedling from my own nursery. I do not know from what tree it grew, but
it is worthy of testing for hardiness in districts north of present
location as there is some evidence of hardiness. I know this tree to be
a good cropper but have no definite record of any one year's crop as the
tree is located where many persons help themselves to the nuts.

The Lindy walnut from the beaches at Kelowna, B. C., continues to make
good tree growth and produce good crops of large round nuts with thin
shells and well developed kernels of good flavor. This tree is a
seedling grown from a nut brought from Kulu Hills, India, in 1912. This
tree is also worthy of trial for hardiness in districts north of present
locations. I do not know how this tree is as a self-pollenizer as there
are two other trees near by of the same stock and planting. I do know
that seedlings grown from this tree make a good growth and look alike in
the nursery row and are very uniform as to color and growth of leaf, in
striking contrast to seedlings from some other trees which vary a lot in
every feature.

In heartnuts the newest I have of outstanding promise are from my own
nursery. Two are now growing at Peachland, B. C. One, the MacKenzie, is
a vigorous, well grown tree and bears regularly heavy crops of large,
rough-shelled heartnuts that are easily cracked. The kernels are light
in color and of good flavor.

The other, the Rover heartnut, is a young tree just carrying a record
crop. Tree is in a poor location on the edge of wild timber competing
for soil space. The nut is a big step in the elimination of the central
division, so pronounced in most heartnuts. This is the outstanding
feature of this nut. Cracking and other features are still undetermined
but promising. I have a number of others that are promising. One is the
Flavo Heart, a heartnut and butternut cross. This is a seedling of
Callender heart and butternut. The outstanding features are the shape of
nut, flavor of kernel and ease of extraction. This is its first crop.

From B. D. Wallace

_Portage la Prairie, Manitoba_

I will endeavor to give you a short account of our progress in the
culture of butternuts and black walnuts.

Our success with butternuts has been due, very largely, to the method we
adopted some twenty years ago and might be summed up in the following
report. From one hundred pounds of butternut seed, which we secured in
the fall of 1914, and which we planted the same season in October, we
got in the following year a splendid stand of seedlings which gave great
promise the first summer. During the winter of 1915 a great number of
those seedlings were partially or altogether destroyed, through the
climatic conditions of the country. But quite a number of them stood up
in splendid condition. After about three years we eliminated everything
that did not stand up 100 per cent and show a splendid growth. We had in
the neighborhood of fifty trees and thus, through a survival of the
fittest, the foundation of this industry became established. We
distributed perhaps twenty or more trees to the Experimental Farm and
other places. These have all stood up, as far as I can learn, with
splendid success. This left about thirty of the original trees in our
nurseries. These thirty have never shown any sign of frost killing nor
are they in any other way affected.

Our trees commenced to bear in their sixth year, in 1920 and have
increased in size and fruiting year by year, until today they are about
thirty feet high with a spread of about thirty-six feet and are without
question the most beautiful row of trees west of the Great Lakes. We
have grown at least one hundred thousand trees from the nuts taken from
these trees, which have been distributed over a very wide territory,
reaching from the northern part of Ontario to the Rocky Mountains. Many
of our customers have now their own trees bearing. In addition to our
selling the trees, we offer to our customers one two-year-old butternut
or horse chestnut with each ten dollar order sent in. We took this
method to get our nut trees into the hands of a great number of the

We have followed practically the same line with black walnuts, but with
less success than with butternuts, as a very much greater percentage of
the black walnuts went down. Notwithstanding that we have a number of
trees which have survived in splendid condition. One of these is bearing
for its second year and one other is just bearing for the first time.
However, we have a good deal of hardy wood, as our trees are growing
bushy and we intend to use the butternut seedlings for stocks on which
to graft the black walnut. By this method we will not have to wait so
long to get a good supply of trees. There is no question whatever about
the future success of the butternut, as we have this year the third
generation of them bearing, which is ample proof that they have become
entirely acclimated. The butternuts grow fully as large as in eastern
Canada, as do also the black walnuts, and as far as I can see the
quality is equal if not better.

In addition to the butternut and black walnut, we have made a complete
success of the horse chestnut. Ours were planted in 1914, and commenced
bearing about the same time as the butternut, and we have grown great
crops of nuts continually from that date to the present. We are also
trying out the heartnut, both from young trees and from seed. Out of
three different plantings that is planted the same year but in different
sections, one planting of six trees has stood up completely for the last
three years, whereas the other two freeze back a little. In addition to
these we are growing from seed the filbert, which seems to be hardy, but
is not old enough to fruit yet. However, there is no question in my mind
whatever that we shall succeed with all those different trees, following
our own method of only using wood and seed from those trees which are
proof against the most severe climatic conditions. We used this same
method thirty-five years ago in laying the foundation for fruit growing.
Out of twelve thousand of the hardiest fruit trees that we could buy
from Dakota and Minnesota, after three years we eliminated all but
fourteen trees. These were divided between standard apples, crab-apples,
plums and plum hybrids. By using northern Russia plum seed and Siberian
crab seed for roots, we have been able to lay a foundation for fruit
growing in this western country that will live long after we are

From Vera Nekiassena


My opinion is there are two kin species growing in Turkestan--Juglans
regia L and J fallasc Dode; the first in the Kopet-Dag, the second in
the Fansha mountains, in guissar and Darwas. The J. regia is further
cultivated in Turkestan gardens and in the Lowawschan Valley. The J.
Kamaonia Dode is occasionally to be observed likewise in gardens. I did
not chance to see it personally and am in possession of only one of its
nuts. Both species (the J. regia and the J. fallasc) produce a great
variety of nuts as to shape, thickness of shell and size of kernel. Both
these species have been united by some authors (Mr. M. Popof in Bull. of
Applied Botany of Genetics and plant breeding XXII N3 (1929), p. 294)
into one--that of J. regia but always distinguishing the Kopet-dog nuts
in the jsp. turcomanica Popof; difference between them being certainly
esctant. The number of leaflets of the J. fallasc amounts to 2-4, they
are rounder and more obtuse, the shell of the nut is thicker and also
rounder and smaller. The number of J. regia leaflets is 3-5, they are
narrower and more pointed (lance shaped), the nuts more elongated,
larger and their shell thinner.

Having been for my part mainly occupied with the geographical
distribution of nuts without regard to the variation of the fruit shape,
I would recommend you to apply for a choice of nuts to Mr. Gursey,
(Caucasus, Pjabigorsx), who is making a special study of the problem.

For cultivation in the north you will be interested in J. Manshurica
originating in the Far East and very hardy. It is cultivated and
produces fruit in Leningrad, young specimens of it were planted on the
Solovetsky Islands in the White Sea and there outlived excellently.

Concerning the list of trees appended to your letter, I can give you the
following information.

_J. Regia_ grows well in the park of Botanic Institute in Leningrad,
attaining 8-10 M.; in the southern part of Smolensk district the tree
produces fruit as far as Minsk. There is a considerable number of fruit
producing specimens in the Masir district in the north of White Russia.

_J. Sieboldiana_ freezes up in cold winters in Leningrad.

_J. cinerea_ is very hardy and effects self-polinasation in White
Russia; near Kasan there is one specimen producing about 100 fruits

_J. rigra_ produces fruits in Koslon.

_Corylus Colurna_--a large old specimen esctant in Leningrad rather
frequently observed in many parks of European U. S. S. R.

_C. Acellana_ is widely spread in a wild state attaining Ladoga-laxe.

_C. Mascima_ frequently in the Crimea and the Caucasus.

_Castanea Sabiva_ grows in the Caucasus only, and cultivated in Urraina.
Castanea Henryii Corylus chinensis.

C. Lacquement and Cticstica I do not know in U. S. S. R.

_C. Seguinu, C. Crensta_ and _C. Mollissima, separate_ strains probably
to be had in Suchum.

From Divisional Forest Officer

_Utilization Division, Baramulla Kashmir_

There are two distinct species of of walnut growing here. One which
grows from 3,500 to 7,000 feet above sea level near about habitations
and on rich fertile soil has got good big sized nuts which are very easy
to break even with the pressure of hand, and about which you probably
seem interested. The other species grows higher in the forest up to
about 11,000 feet elevation. It has hard nuts which cannot be broken
easily and have moreover very little kernel as compared to former
species. Even the timber of both the species is distinctly different, in
as much as the former has dark gray color and the latter has reddish
gray. Regarding nomenclature the botanists differ. The former species is
named Juglans regia hin. The latter species which is wild may be called
Juglans fallax, Dode or Juglans Kamaonia, Dode, but actually it is a bit
different from either and is something midway between the two and so is
yet to be determined properly.

Corylus colurna is the only species of Corylus found here out of your

B. The altitudes of walnut zone has been stated above. Corylus Colurna
also grows between 8,000 and 11,000 feet. Both the walnut species are
confined to Kashmir and Chamba states, while Corylus Colurna grows all
over the Himalayas.

C. The maximum height and girth of a tree I have felled was 100 ft. and
15 ft. respectively. This tree grew in a forest at 9,000 foot altitude
amongst firs. Trees growing outside in the fields in the open are
sometimes bigger in girth but their bole is very short and the height
also is small compared with forest grown trees. The trees growing in the
fields in the open are of soft rind species.

D. The trees growing in the fields and of soft rind species are
generally fast grown and they have about 8 to 10 rings to an inch. The
trees growing in the forest have about 16 to 20 rings to an inch.

E. The length of frost-free season depends upon the situation and
locality, generally from May to September there is no frost, the rest of
the season has frost.

F. The maximum temperature is 92 degrees, while the minimum is many
points below zero when the country is snow-bound all over. There is snow
in the forests for about six months.

G. The average annual rainfall is between 54 and 34 inches in the year,
according to the locality.

H. All the walnut trees are grown for extraction of oil from their nuts.
This oil is used for cooking purposes, in place of fats and butter. When
the tree gets old or gets diseased, it is felled and timber is used for
making furniture and carving. Kashmir walnut carving is well known.

I. Hazel trees grow wild in the forest, the hazel nuts are collected and
are eaten. Sometimes these nuts are exported to British India, where
kernels are used chiefly to adulterate almond kernels.

Corylus has not been grown here as a garden tree and so I do not know
its requirements of germination. I will however be thankful to you if
you could kindly send me a little fresh seed, C. Colema, to grow it here
in Kashmir. Some years ago I had sent for the seeds of Rhamnus Purshiana
from U. S. A. This was sown here but it did not germinate. I shall feel
obliged if you could let me know the requirements of this species, that
is, the situation, soil, et cetera, which this species demands. Rhamnus
dahuricus grows wild here as a small shrub. Do you think I can get
American species by grafting my species with Rhamnus Purshiana scions?

Communication from John W. Hershey, 1934

I called at the experimental nut planting place of the late J. W. Waite,
at Normandy, Tennessee, on June 1st and found he had been dead about
eight months. I talked with a native who told me he was one of the most
plucky men he had ever seen, having had, because of some disease, both
legs amputated, was all crippled up otherwise, and traveled in a wheel
chair. He even use to milk cows and drive around in an old buggy.

This setting at the Waite place is going to be of immense value to the
T. V. A. tree crop program. I met the daughter who knew very little
about the trees, but the first thing she mentioned was the wonderful
nuts they got off the McCalister tree.

I could identify a few of the trees but will not make much progress at
it until this fall, when the nuts are ripe. They are heavily set with
bloom now. To assist me in this work, I am wondering if the Association
has anything in its files pertaining to the varieties that he has. As
you know, one can identify a tree quicker if he knows what he is looking

Letter From Mrs. E. W. Freel

_Pleasantville, Iowa, September 5, 1934_

Yesterday, when coming home, we drove around (which was not out of our
way) to see those walnut trees about which you made inquiry. The Freel
tree has been topped and it has made a wonderful growth this year and is
going to make a very pretty tree. The Marion has a few walnuts on this
year, but they are falling off due to the dry weather this year. Last
year it was loaded. The Metcalf tree has some on but, like the others,
most all of them have fallen off. It was also full last year. The
Worthington tree also had some on this year, but have all fallen off. It
also had walnuts on last year.

I have never known any of these trees to be a complete failure unless it
would be this year due to the drought which has been pretty severe with
us. We have had no garden to speak of and the crops in this section have
almost been a complete failure.

The Wheeling tree had walnuts on last year but I have been unable to get
out there this year. It is off the gravel road and it has been raining
here for the last two days.

I have not been able to get out to the hickory nut trees. They had some
nuts on last year but not very plentiful. I have noticed along the
highways, as we would be driving along, that some of the hickory nut
trees were full and others would not have any on, but do not know as yet
how the drought will affect them.

I wish we could attend the convention, but it will be impossible for us
this year.

Letter From Geo. W. Gibbens

_Godfrey, Illinois, September 6, 1934_

The Mid-West Nut Growers' Association is not functioning.

There will be a normal crop of black walnuts in this section of the
state. The hickory and pecan crop is very light. The chestnut crop will
be light. Many of our chestnut trees were killed by the drought this
summer. Some young trees on cultivated land will develop nuts, and a few
of the older trees may do so.

For many years here (E. A. Riehl Farm) we have been trying to grow the
English walnut to bearing size. This year we have a young tree that is
bearing. It is the Alpine.

I wish we could attend the convention.

Letter From Fred Kettler

_Platteville, Wisconsin_

In regard to the Kettler walnut tree here: It seems to be gradually
dying; has many dead branches, which is caused by the drought we have
had the last few years. We should get 25 to 30 inches rainfall a year
and we had only 8 or 10 last year and about that same amount this year.
The ground is wet down only about 15 inches on top. Below that it is

The old tree had quite a few nuts on this year. However, most of them
were blown off by a cyclone six weeks ago. There is about a peck of nuts
on the tree now.

All walnuts here are only half a crop on account of the June beetle and
the weather conditions, and they are quite small nuts, the weather being
so dry.

I grafted 150 of the Wisconsin No 1, or Kettler walnut. It was boiling
hot here in April and May and it again spoiled it for me. We watered
them every day and shaded them, but the heat and dry, hot dirt was too
much. All were grafted on young yearling trees close to the ground where
I covered them with dirt. Many started, but died later; anyway, I
succeeded in getting six more nice trees started (one to three feet tall
now). My tree from last year is about five feet tall and made some side
branches; so you see I am getting started. I doubt if I can get any
graft wood from the old tree next spring.

We are in the nursery business just in a small way. We have only the
best of varieties.

I have discovered also a thin-shell hickory nut with a wonderful meat. I
don't know if I will get any of the nuts this year as they have been
stealing them every year, I am told by the man who owns it. I succeeded
in getting one growing on a young pecan tree I had. I think it is even
better than my walnut. I enclose one with a this year walnut sample. The
hickory is a last year sample.

What our country needs is timber on every farm from one acre to ten
acres, according to size of farm, all over the United States. Then we
will get more rain. That would be a real crop control--instead of
destroying crops like the New Deal is doing. Planting a strip of timber
from Canada to the Gulf will not help anyone. We believe the
"brain-trusters" need a doctor.


Sept. 11, 1934.

Dear Dr. Morris:

The Northern Nut Growers' Association is in session in the W. K. Kellogg
Hotel, Battle Creek, Michigan. The members present are reminded that
this is the twenty-fifth anniversary of the Association. It recalls with
interest the first meeting held in New York City, which was called to
order by Dr. Deming, at which you became charter President, Mr. T. P.
Littlepage of Washington, charter Vice President, Dr. Deming, charter

It is the unanimous feeling of the present membership that the society
for which you and the others so ably laid the foundation at that time
has been abundantly justified by the accomplishments of the
organization. We are especially indebted to you for the able leadership
from you which the Association enjoyed, not only while you served in an
executive capacity, but during the many years which followed while you
were an active leading member, and now for approximately ten years
during which you have been Dean.

We regret that impaired health makes it impossible for you to attend
meetings at present, but we assure you that your name is not being
forgotten nor is the work which you inaugurated being allowed to lapse.

(Signed by the members present.)

Catalogue of Top-Grafted Nut Trees on the Kellogg Farm, Kellogg School
Grounds, and Kellogg Estate.

  Place and Variety  Species                Stock             Year Grafted

  Kellogg School--
   1. Fairbanks      Hybrid Hickory         Pignut                  1933
   2. Pleas, Des     Hicans                 Pignut                  1934
      Moines and

  Kellogg Farm (Farm Lane)
   1. Broadview      English Walnut         Black Walnut            1931
      Crath          English Walnut         Black Walnut            1932
   2. Allen          Black Walnut           Black Walnut            1932
      Wiard          Black Walnut           Black Walnut            1933
   3. Dennis         Shagbark               Pignut                  1934
   4. Creager        Hybrid Hickory         Pignut                  1934

  (Hickory Block)
   1. Fairbanks      Hybrid Hickory         Pignut                  1931
   2. Rohwer         Black Walnut           Black Walnut            1932
   3. Crath          English Walnut         Black Walnut            1933
   4. Haviland       Shellbark              Pignut                  1931
   5. McCallister    Hican                  Pignut                  1931
   6. Burlington     Hican                  Pignut                  1932
   7. Des Moines     Hican                  Pignut                  1932
   8. Creager        Hybrid Hickory         Pignut                  1932
   9. Dennis         Shagbark               Pignut                  1932
  10. Stanley        Shellbark              Pignut                  1931
  11. Wiard          Black Walnut           Black Walnut            1933
  12. Ohio           Black Walnut           Black Walnut            1931
  13. Des Moines     Hican                  Pignut                  1932
  14. Pleas          Hican                  Pignut                  1934
  15. Cedar Rapids   Shagbark               Pignut                  1931
  16. McDermid       English                Black Walnut            1933
  17. Shinnerling    Shagbark               Pignut                  1932
  18. Stratford      Shagbark               Pignut                  1932
  19. Hand           Shagbark               Pignut                  1932
  20. Rockville      Hican                  Pignut                  1931
  21. Rohwer         Black Walnut           Black Walnut            1933
  22. Des Moines     Hican                  Pignut                  1932
  23. Stratford      Shagbark               Pignut                  1932
  24. Beaver         Hybrid Hickory         Pignut                  1932
  25. Gerardi        Hican                  Pignut                  1934
  26. Creitz         Black Walnut           Black Walnut            1931
  27. Ohio           Black Walnut           Black Walnut            1930
  28. Ohio           Black Walnut           Black Walnut            1930
      Howell         Black Walnut

  Kellogg Farm (55 acre field)
   1. Creitz         Black Walnut           Black Walnut            1932
   2. Rohwer         Black Walnut           Black Walnut            1932
      Stambaugh      Black Walnut           Black Walnut            1932
      Wiard          Black Walnut           Black Walnut            1932
      McDermid       English Walnut         Black Walnut            1932
      Crath          English Walnut         Black Walnut            1932
   3. Crath          English Walnut         Black Walnut            1932
   4. Wilkinson      English Walnut         Black Walnut            1933
   5. Wiard          Black Walnut           Black Walnut            1933
   6. Adams          Black Walnut           Black Walnut            1934
   7. Beck           Black Walnut           Black Walnut            1934
   8. Wiard          Black Walnut           Black Walnut            1933
   9. Franquette     English Walnut         Black Walnut            1933
  10. Ohio           Black Walnut           Black Walnut            1931
      Rohwer         Black Walnut           Black Walnut            1932

  Pasture Field--
   1. Ohio           Black Walnut           Black Walnut            1930
   2. Ohio           Black Walnut           Black Walnut            1930
   3. Des Moines     Hican                  Bitternut               1933
      and Pleas      Hican                                          1934
   4. Ohio           Black Walnut           Black Walnut            1931
   5. Ohio           Black Walnut           Black Walnut            1931
   6. Wiard          Black Walnut           Black Walnut            1933
   7. Ohio           Black Walnut           Black Walnut            1930
   8. Crath          English Walnut         Black Walnut            1932
   9. Crath No. 2    English Walnut         Black Walnut            1932
  10. McDermid       English Walnut         Black Walnut            1932
  11. Corsan         Chinese Walnut         Black Walnut            1932
  12. Carpenter      Black Walnut           Black Walnut            1932
      Beck           Black Walnut           Black Walnut            1933
  13. Grundy         Black Walnut           Black Walnut            1932
      Franquette     English Walnut         Black Walnut            1933

  Kellogg Estate--
   1. Fairbanks      Hickory Hybrid         Pignut                  1931
   2. Crath No. 5    English Walnut         Black Walnut            1932
   3. Burlington     Hican                  Pignut                  1932
   4. Stratford      Shagbark               Nursery Tree            1932
   5. Faust          Heartnut               Japanese Walnut         1932
   6. Crath          English Walnut         Black Walnut            1932
   7. Crath          English Walnut         Black Walnut            1932
   8. Alpine         English Walnut         Black Walnut            1932
   9. Turkish Hazel  Tree Hazel (colurna)   Seedling                1932
  10. McDermid       English Walnut         Black Walnut            1932
  11. Burlington     Hicans                 Pignut                  1932
      Des Moines                                                    1933
  12. Fairbanks      Hickory Hybrid         Pignut                  1931
      Dennis         Shagbark                                       1931
      Des Moines     Hicans                                         1933
  13. Fairbanks      Hybrid Hickory         Pignut                  1931
      Burlington     Hican                                          1931
      Des Moines     Hican                                          1932
      Stratford      Shagbark                                       1931


  Mr. A. B. Anthony, Sterling, Ill.

  Bitternut No. 1
  Bitternut No. 2
  Shagbark--Shellbark cross No. 1
  Shagbark--Shellbark cross No. 2
  Shagbark--Shellbark cross No. 3
  Shagbark--Shellbark cross No. 4

  Mr. J. F. Wilkinson, Rockport, Ind

  Busseron pecan
  Indiana pecan
  Kentucky pecan
  Major pecan
  Greenriver pecan
  Butterick pecan
  Posey pecan
  McCallister Hican

  Hican variety Mr. Wilkinson suggests calling Bixby in honor of the late
    Willard G. Bixby.
  Ohio black walnut
  Stabler black walnut
  Thomas black walnut

  Mr. F. H. Frey, Chicago, Ill.

  Wheeling black walnut, new find by Mrs. E. W. Freel, 1932
  Worthington black walnut, from Mrs. E. W. Freel, 1932
  Marion black walnut, Mrs. E. W. Freel, 1932
  Freel black walnut, Mrs. E. W. Freel, Pleasantville, Iowa
  Metcalf black walnut, from Mrs. E. W. Freel
  Stabler walnut, "one lobe," O. H. Casper, Anna, Ill.
  Oklahoma seedling, black walnut, evidently J. rupestris
    (per Dr. Waite, pg. 61--1932)
  Rohwer black walnut, from John Rohwer, Grundy Center, Iowa
  Grundy black walnut, from John Rohwer, Grundy Center, Iowa
  Kettler or Wisconsin No. 1, from Fred Kettler, Platteville, Wisc.
  Shellbark hickory, seedling No. 1, Mrs. E. W. Freel, Pleasantville, Iowa
  Shellbark hickory, seedling No. 2, Mrs. E. W. Freel, Pleasantville, Iowa
  Cedar Rapids shagbark hickory, from S. W. Snyder, Center Point, Iowa
  Shinnerling shagbark hickory, from Chas. Shinnerling, Amana, Iowa
  Hagen shagbark hickory, from S. W. Snyder, Center Point, Iowa

  G. H. Corsan, Echo Valley, Islington, Ontario, Canada

  DuChilly and other European filberts grown on his place in Canada
  Jones hybrid filberts, corylus americana--corylus avellana
  Photograph of Corsan nut exhibit at Canadian National Exhibition
  Craxezy, butternut, from Union City, Mich. From Harry Burgart, Michigan
    Nut Tree Nursery
  Mitchel hybrid heartnut, from Scotland, Ontario
  Stratford hickory, exhibited by Mr. Snyder, Center Point, Iowa.
    Mr. Snyder says this is the best bearing hickory for his section
    in Iowa.

  Prof. J. A. Neilson, Michigan State College, E. Lansing, Mich.

  Harris black walnut, Allegan, Mich.
  Thomas black walnut
  Everett Wiard black walnut, Ypsilanti, Mich.
  Glen Allen black walnut, Middleville, Mich.
  Dan Beck black walnut, Hamilton, Mich.
  Ten Eyck black walnut
  Adams black walnut, Scotts, Mich.
  M. S. C. Campus heartnut, East Lansing, Mich.
  Crawford heartnut
  Mrs. Henry Hanel, heartnut, Williamsburg, Mich.
  Gellatly heartnut, Westbank, B. C.
  Lancaster heartnut, Graham Station
  McKenzie heartnut, B. C.
  Mitchell heartnut, Scotland, Ont.
  Fred Bourne, heartnut, Milford, Mich.
  W. S. Thompson heartnut, R. 2, St. Catherines, Ont.
  English, Chatham, Ont.
  Mitchell butternut, Scotland, Ont.
  Col. B. D. Wallace butternut, Portage La Prairie, Manitoba, Can.
  Korean pine nuts, Abbotsford, P. Q.
  W. S. Thompson filbert, R. 2, St. Catherines, Ont.
  Harry Weber hazel, R. 2, Cleves, Ohio
  Beck English walnut, Allegan, Mich.
  W. S. Thompson English walnut, R. 2, St. Catherines, Ont.
  Larsen English walnut, Ionia, Mich.
  English walnut, from Broadview, B. C.
  McDermid English walnut, St. Catherines, Ont.
  Clyde Westphal pecan, Marcellus, Mich.
  Fairbanks hickory, grown at Grand Rapids, Mich.
  Haviland hickory, Bath, Mich.
  Green hickory, Battle Creek, Mich.
  Mrs. Ray D. Mann hickory, Davison, Mich.
  Hill hickory, Davison, Mich.
  Lyle House hickory, Fowlerville, Mich.
  Miller hickory, North Branch, Mich.
  Pleas pecan and bitternut hybrid hickory
  Burlington hican
  Rowley chestnut, Orleans, Mich.
  John E. Dunham, chestnut, Oshtemo, Mich.
  Chinese chestnuts, Ridgetown, Ont.


  Frank H. Frey, Chicago, Illinois
  A. S. Colby, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois
  A. B. Anthony, Sterling, Illinois
  Mr. Harry Burgart, Union City, Michigan
  Mrs. Harry Burgart, Union City, Michigan
  Mrs. Charles Halder, Ceresco, Michigan
  Mrs. Anton Burgart, Union City, Michigan
  Mr. Gilbert Becker, Climax, Michigan
  Mrs. Gilbert Becker, Climax, Michigan
  Carl F. Walker, Cleveland Heights, Ohio
  Lennard H. Mitchell, Washington, D. C.
  Mrs. Lennard H. Mitchell, Washington, D. C.
  Homer L. Bradley, Kellogg Farm, Augusta, Michigan
  J. F. Wilkinson, Rockport, Indiana
  G. H. Corsan, Echo Valley, Islington, Ontario
  Dr. G. A. Zimmerman, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania
  Mrs. G. A. Zimmerman, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania
  Oliver T. Healy, Union City, Michigan
  Mrs. Anna H. Bregger, Bangor, Michigan
  John T. Bregger, Bangor, Michigan
  Mrs. John T. Bregger, Bangor, Michigan
  S. E. Monroe, Chicago, Illinois
  J. A. Neilson, East Lansing, Michigan
  Mrs. J. A. Neilson, East Lansing, Michigan
  Mrs. C. M. McCrary, Augusta, Michigan
  C. M. McCrary, Augusta, Michigan
  Mildred M. Jones, Jones Nurseries, Lancaster, Pennsylvania
  Mr. Harry R. Weber, Cincinnati, Ohio
  Mrs. Harry Weber, Cincinnati, Ohio
  D. C. Snyder, Center Point, Iowa
  W. K. Kellogg, Battle Creek, Michigan
  Dr. J. H. Kellogg, Battle Creek, Michigan
  Rollin H. Tabor, Mt. Vernon, Ohio
  George L. Slate, Geneva, N. Y.
  L. H. MacDaniels, Ithaca, New York.
  L. Housser, Cloverdale, Ontario
  Fae Noverr, Enquirer and News, Battle Creek, Michigan
  Zenas H. Ellis, Fair Haven, Vermont
  Joan Deming, Hartford, Connecticut
  Mrs. Oliver Healy, Union City, Michigan
  Mr. Howard W. Harris, Allegan, Michigan. R. D. No. 7
  Mr. Scott Healy, Otsego, Michigan. R. F. D. No. 2
  Mrs. Scott Healy, Otsego, Michigan. R. F. D. No. 2
  Glen Grunner, Coldwater, Michigan. R. D. No. 3
  Leon Ford, Battle Creek, Michigan
  Marshall Moon, Battle Creek, Michigan
  Dean Phillips, Battle Creek, Michigan
  Lawrence Poole, Battle Creek, Michigan
  Evelyn Alwood, Battle Creek, Michigan
  Martha Richmond, Battle Creek, Michigan
  Irene VaVn De Bogart, Vicksburg, Michigan
  Cleone Wells, Battle Creek, Michigan
  Herbert Bush, Battle Creek, Michigan
  Dorothy Jenney, Battle Creek, Michigan
  Cecelia Plushnik, Battle Creek, Michigan
  Vernice Fox, Battle Creek, Michigan
  Edward A. Malasky, Battle Creek, Michigan
  C. A. Reed, U. S. Dept, of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.
  T. V. Hicks, Battle Creek, Michigan. R. 3
  Norman Crittenden, Galesburg, Michigan
  Arnold G. Otto, Detroit, Michigan
  Miss Mary Barber, Kellogg Co., Battle Creek, Michigan
  Professor V. R. Gardner, M. S. C., East Lansing, Michigan
  H. A. Cardinell, M. S. C., East Lansing, Michigan
  E. P. Gerber, Apple Creek, Ohio
  Lila M. Gerber, Apple Creek, Ohio
  Dora E. Gerber, Apple Creek, Ohio
  H. W. Kaan, Wellesley, Massachusetts
  R. S. Galbreath, Huntington, Indiana
  Mrs. R. S. Galbreath, Huntington, Indiana
  Dr. W. C. Deming, Hartford, Connecticut
  Everett Wiard, Ypsilanti, Michigan
  Mrs. E. Wiard, Ypsilanti, Michigan


1. Nut Culture in the United States, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1896.
Out of print and out of date but of great interest.

2. The Nut Culturist, Fuller, pub. Orange Judd Co., N. Y., 1906. Out of
print and out of date, but a systematic and well written treatise. These
two books are the classics of American nut growing.

3. Nut Growing, Dr. Robert T. Morris, pub. MacMillan, N. Y. 2nd edition
1931, price $2.50. The modern authority, written in the author's
entertaining and stimulating style.

4. Farmers' Bulletin No. 1501, 1926, Nut Tree Propagation, C. A. Reed,
to be had free from U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. A very
full bulletin with many illustrations.

5. Tree Crops, Dr. J. Russell Smith, pub. Harcourt, Brace & Co., N. Y.,
1929, price $4.00. Includes the nut crop.

6. Annual reports of the Northern Nut Growers' Association from 1911 to
date. To be had from the secretary. Prices on request.

7. Bulletin No. 5, Northern Nut Growers' Association, by W. G. Bixby.
2nd edition, 1920. To be had from the secretary. Price 50 cents.

8. Farmers' Bulletin No. 1392, Black Walnut Culture for both Timber and
Nut Production. To be had from the Supt. of Documents, Gov. Printing
Office, Washington, D. C. Price 5 cents.

9. Year Book Separate No. 1004, 1927, a brief article on northern nut
growing, by C. A. Reed, to be had free from U. S. Dept. of Agriculture,
Washington, D. C.

10. Filberts--G. A. Slate--Bulletin No. 588, New York State Agricultural
Experiment Station, Geneva, N. Y., December, 1930.

11. Leaflet No. 84, 1932, Planting Black Walnut, W. R. Mattoon and C. A.
Reed, to be had free from U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.

12. Harvesting and Marketing the Native Nut Crops of the North, by C. A.
Reed, 1932, mimeographed bulletin, to be had free from U. S. Dept. of
Agriculture, Washington, D. C.

13. Dealers in Black Walnut Kernels, mimeographed bulletin by C. A.
Reed, 1931, to be had free from U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Washington,
D. C.

14. Eastern Nursery Catalogues Listing Nut Trees, mimeographed leaflet
to be had free from U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.

15. Twenty Years Progress in Northern Nut Culture. A 48-page booklet of
valuable information and instruction by John W. Hershey. Nuticulturist,
Downingtown, Penna. Price 25 cents.

16. Files of The American Nut Journal, to be had from the publishers,
American Nurseryman Publishing Co., 39 State St., Rochester, N. Y.

       *       *       *       *       *

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