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Title: Handwork in Wood
Author: Noyes, William
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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Assistant Professor, Department of Industrial Arts.
Teachers College, Columbia University
New York City


The Manual Arts Press
Peoria, Illinois

William Noyes

  To my students
  past present and future
  a token of gratitude
  for help and inspiration


This book is intended primarily for teachers of woodwork, but
the author hopes that there will also be other workers in wood,
professional and amateur, who will find in it matter of interest and

The successful completion of the book is due chiefly to the untiring
assistance of my wife, Anna Gausmann Noyes, who has made almost all
of the drawings, corrected the text, read the proof, and attended to
numberless details.

Acknowledgments are hereby thankfully given for corrections and
suggestions in the text made by the following persons:

Mr. Chas. W. Weick of Teachers College, and Mr. W. F. Vroom of Public
School No. 5, of New York City, for revision of Chapters IV and V on
tools and fastenings.

Mr. Clinton S. VanDeusen of Bradley Polytechnic Institute, for
revision of Chapter X on wood finishing.

The Forest Service, Washington, D. C. for the originals of Figs. 1, 2,
3, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 17, 18, 21, 22, 23, 24, 26, 27, 28, 29, 31,
33, and 54.

The New York State Forest Fish and Game Commission for the originals
of Figs. 12, 14, 15, and 47.

T. H. McAllister of New York for the originals of Figs. 16 and 20.

The Detroit Publishing Company for the original of Fig. 6.

The B. F. Sturtevant Company, Hyde Park, Mass., for the original of
Fig. 57.

Doubleday, Page & Co. for the original of Fig. 30.

Mr. Louis A. Bacon, Indianapolis. Ind., for the clamping device shown
in Fig. 255.

Sargent & Company, New Haven, Conn., W. C. Toles & Company, Chicago,
Ill., The Berlin Machine Works, Beloit, Wis., A. A. Loetscher,
Dubuque, Iowa, and the Stanley Rule and Level Co., New Britain, Conn.,
for electrotypes.

Allis Chalmers Company, Milwaukee, Wis., Clark Brothers, Belmont, N.
Y., The M. Garland Company, Bay City, Mich., The Prescott Company,
Menominee, Mich., for illustrations of sawmilling machinery.

And most of all, I wish to acknowledge my obligation to the numerous
writers of whose books and articles I have made free use, to which
references are made in the appropriate places.


    CHAPTER                                      PAGE

      General Bibliography                          4

   I  Logging                                       7

  II  Sawmilling                                   30

 III  The Seasoning and Measuring of Wood          45

  IV  Wood Hand Tools                              51

   V  Wood Fastenings                             123

  VI  Equipment and Care of the Shop              136

 VII  The Common Joints                           151

VIII  Types of Wooden Structures                  183

  IX  Principles of Joinery                       203

   X  Wood Finishing                              209

      Index                                       224


Adams, Henry, _Joints in Wood-Work._ London: 60 Queen Victoria St.

Alexander, Jerome, _The Grading and Use of Glue._ _Wood Craft_, 5: 168,
Sep. '06.

Bailey, Charles H., _A Study of Manual Training Equipments._ _Manual
Training Magazine_, 6: 82. Jan. '05.

Barnard, Charles, _Tools and Machines._ N. Y.: Silver, Burdett and Co.

Barter, S. M., _Woodwork._ London: Whittaker and Co. 1892.

Benson, W. A. S., _Elements of Handicraft and Design._ London:
Macmillan and Co. 1893.

Brannt, W. T., _Painter, Gilder and Varnisher._ Philadelphia: H. C.
Baird & Co. 1893.

Bruncken, Ernest, _North American Forests and Forestry._ N. Y.: G. P.
Putnam's Sons. 1899.

Clark, R. I., _Varnish and Fossil Remains._ London: Chas. Letts & Co.
No date.

Compton, A. G., _First Lessons in Woodworking._ N. Y.: Ivison,
Blakeman, Taylor and Co. 1888.

Crawshaw, Fred D., _Problems in Furniture Making._ Peoria. Ill.: The
Manual Arts Press. 1906.

Disston, Henry, and Sons, _Handbook for Lumbermen._ Philadelphia, Pa.

Dunlap, Frederick. _Kiln-drying Hardwood Lumber._ _Wood Craft_, 6: 133,
Feb. '07.

Ellis, George, _Modern Practical Joinery._ London: B. T. Batsford, 486
pp., 1902, '03, '04 and '07.

Encyclopedia Britannica, _Lac, Varnish._ N. Y.: Scribner's. 1878.

Foster, Edwin W., _Elementary Woodworking._ Boston: Ginn and Co.

Goss, W. F. M., _Bench Work in Wood._ Boston: Ginn and Co. 1887 and

Griffith, Ira S., _Essentials of Woodworking._ Peoria Ill.: Manual
Arts Press. 1908.

Hammacher, Schlemmer & Co., _Tools._ Catalog No. 355. N. Y. 1908.

Hammacher, Schlemmer & Co., _Cabinet Hardware._ Catalog No. 151. N. Y.

Hodgson, Fred T., _The Up-to-date Hardwood Finisher._ Chicago: Fred J.
Drake and Co. 1904.

Hodgson, Fred T., _The Carpenter's Steel Square and Its Uses._ N. Y.:
Industrial Publishing Co. 1880.

Hovey-King, Alvin, _The Lumber Industry of the Pacific Coast._ _Review
of Reviews_, 27: 317, Mr., '03.

Hulbert, W. H., _The Lumber Jack and His Job. Outlook_, 76: 801, Ap.
2, '04.

International Correspondence School, _The Building Trades Pocketbook._
Scranton, Pa. International Textbook Co. 2nd edition. 1905.

International Encyclopedia, _Lac-Insect Varnish._ N. Y.: Dodd, Mead
and Co. 1902-1904.

Jones, J. E., _Lumbering in the Northwest._ _Cosmopolitan_, 15: 63, May

Larsson, Gustaf, _Elementary Sloyd and Whittling._ N. Y.: Silver,
Burdett & Co. 1906.

Maire, F., _The Modern Wood Finisher._ Chicago: Press of the Western

Munn, M. J., _Great Industries of the U. S.--Lumber._ _Cosmopolitan_,
37: 441, Aug. '04.

Murray, M. W., _Problems in Wood-working._ Peoria, Ill.: Manual Arts
Press. 1905.

Murray, M. W., _The Manual Training Room and Its Equipment._ _Year Book
of the Council of Supervisors for-_ 1906, pp. 69-86.

Park, Joseph C. _Educational Woodworking for School and Home._ The
Macmillan Co., 1908.

Pichot, Gifford, _A Primer of Forestry._ Parts I and II, U. S. Dept.
of Agric. For. Serv. Bull. No. 24. 1899 and 1905.

Purfield, H. T., _The Length of Nails._ _Wood Craft_, 5: 181, Sp. '06.

Rivingston, see South Kensington Council on Education.

Rouillion, Louis, _Economies of Manual Training._ N. Y.: The Derry
Collard Company. 1905.

Roth, Filibert, _A First Book of Forestry._ Boston: Ginn & Co. 1902.

Sargent & Co., _Standard Steel Squares._ New Haven, Conn.

Seaton, Geo. A., _A Clamp for Use at the Grindstone._ _Woodcraft_, 6:
96. Jan., '07.

Selden, F. H., _Elementary Woodwork._ N. Y.: Rand, McNally & Co. 1906.

Sickels, Ivin, _Exercises in Woodworking._ N. Y.: D. Appleton & Co.

Smith, K., _Lumbering by Machinery._ _World's Work_, 7: 4435. Feb. '04.

Smith, R. H., _Cutting Tools._ London: Cassell & Co. 1884.

South Kensington Council on Education, _Notes on Building
Construction._ 3 vols. London: Rivington. 1883-1889.

Standage, H. C., _Glues and Cements for the Use of Woodworkers._ _Wood
Craft_, 7: 48, May, '07.

Tate, James M., _Training in Wood Work._ Minneapolis: North Western
School Supply Co. About 1905.

Trout, W. H., _The Modern Saw Mill._ _Cassier's Magazine_, 11: 83-95.
184-195, Dec. '96 and Jan. '97.

U. S. Department of Agriculture _Forest Service Classified List of
Publications. Forest Service Bulletins:_

    No. 10. Filibert, Roth. _Timber._ 1895.

    No. 34. Wm. F. Fox, _A History of the Lumber Industry in the
    State of New York, 1902._

    No. 41. Hermann von Schrenk, _Seasoning of Timber._ 1903.

Van Deusen, Clinton S., _Methods of Wood Finishing._ _Manual Training
Magazine_, 6: 93. Jan. '05.

Van Deusen, Clinton S., _Logging in the South._ _Manual Training
Magazine_, 1: 93. Jan. '00.

Wheeler, C. G., _Woodworking for Beginners._ N. Y.: G. P. Putnam's
Sons. 1899.

White, Stewart Edward, _The Blazed Trail._ N. Y.: McClure, Phillips &
Co. 1904.

White, Stewart Edward, _From Forest to Saw Mill._ _Junior Munsey_, 10:
362, Je. '01.


_Nails. Wood Craft._ 5: 103, Jl. '06.

_A Dry-Kiln of Progressive Style._ _Wood Craft_, 6: 31. Nov. '06.

_Lumbering in Louisiana._ _Wood Craft_, 4: 55, Nov. '05.

_The Lac Industry of Assam. Journal of the Society of Arts._ 49: 192.
Feb 8 '01.



The rough and ready methods common in American logging operations are
the result partly of a tradition of inexhaustible supply, partly of
the fear of fire and the avoidance of taxes, partly of an eagerness to
get rich quick. Most of the logging has been done on privately owned
land or on shamelessly stolen public land, and the lumberman had no
further interest in the forest than to lumber it expeditiously.

[Illustration: Fig. 1. Making a Valuation Survey.]

[Illustration: Fig. 2. "Blazes" on Trees.]

Preliminary to the actual logging are certain necessary steps. First
of all is _landlooking_. This includes the survey of the forest land
for the purpose of locating good timber. Fig. 1. Most of the woodland
has previously been roughly surveyed by the government and maps made
indicating which parts are private land and which are still held
by the government. The boundaries of townships, sections, quarter
sections, eighties, forties, etc., are indicated by "blazes" on trees,
Fig. 2, so that the "cruiser" or "looker" as he goes thru the woods
can identify them with those on his oil paper map. The cruiser also
studies the kinds and character of the trees, the contour of the
ground, the proximity to streams,--all with the view to marketing the
product. Acting on the information thus gained by the cruiser, the
lumberman purchases his sections at the proper land office, or if
he is less scrupulous, buys only enough to serve as a basis for
operations. Enormous fortunes have been made by timber thieves, now
respectable members of the community. As a further preliminary step to
lumbering itself, the _tote road_ and _camp_ are built. The tote road
is a rough road on which supplies for crew and cattle can be taken to
camp from civilization.

    It is barely passable for a team and a wagon, but it serves
    its purpose, and over it come more men and horses. Lumber for
    the floors and roofs of the shanties and for the rude pieces
    of furniture that will be needed, tarred paper to make the
    roofs tight, a few glazed window sashes, a huge range and a
    number of box stoves, dishes and kitchen utensils, a little
    stock of goods for the van, blankets by the dozen and score,
    and countless boxes and barrels and bags of provisions.[1]

    [Footnote 1: Hulbert: The Lumber Jack; Outlook, 76: 801, April
    2, '04.]

The _camp_ itself, Fig. 3, is built of logs, roofed with plank,
covered with heavy tar paper, and dimly lighted. There are usually
five buildings,--the men's camp, the cook camp, the office, the barn,
and the blacksmith's shop. Many camps accommodate from eighty to one
hundred men. The men's camp is filled with bunks and is heated by a
stove and in general roughly furnished. Cooking and eating are done in
the cook camp, where the cook and his assistant, the "cookee," sleep.
The office is occupied by the foreman, log-sealers and clerks. Here
the books and accounts are kept, and here is the "van," stocked with
such goods as will supply the immediate needs of the lumber jacks.

[Illustration: Fig. 3. Winter Logging Camp. Itasco County, Minnesota.]

Before winter sets in the _main road_ is built, Fig. 15, p. 17, very
carefully graded from the camp down to the nearest mill or railway
siding, or oftener to the stream down which the logs are to be
floated. This road has to be as wide as a city street, 25 feet. The
route is carefully chosen, and the grade is made as easy as possible.
Much labor is spent upon it, clearing away stumps and rocks, leveling
up with corduroy, building bridges strong enough to carry enormous
loads, and otherwise making it as passable as can be; for when needed
later, its good condition is of first importance. This main road is
quite distinct from and much superior to the tote road.

At intervals alongside the main road, small squares called _skidways_
are cleared of brush and in each of them two tree trunks, "skids," are
laid at right angles to the road. On these the logs, when cut later,
are to be piled. Back from the skidways, into the woods the swampers
cut rough, narrow roads called _dray roads_ or travoy roads,--mere
trails sufficiently cleared of brush to allow a team of horses to pull
a log thru.

[Illustration: Fig. 4. Tools used in Logging.]

All these are operations preliminary to the felling of trees. The
tools commonly used in logging are shown in Fig. 4. When everything is
ready for felling, the "fitter" goes ahead _marking_ each tree to be
felled and the direction in which it is to fall by cutting a notch on
that side. Then come the sawyers in pairs, Fig. 5. First they chop a
deep gash on the side of the tree toward which it is to fall, and
then from the opposite side begin cutting with a long, Tuttle-tooth,
crosscut-saw. The saw is a long, flexible ribbon of steel, with
handles so affixed to each end that they can be removed easily. The
cut is made on the pulling stroke, and hence the kerf can be very
narrow. As soon as the saw is well within the trunk, the sawyers drive
iron wedges into the kerf behind it, partly to keep the weight of the
trunk from binding the saw, and partly to direct its fall. Then the
saw is pulled back and forth, and the wedges driven in farther and
farther, until every stroke of the maul that drives them sends a
shiver thru the whole tree. Just as the tree is ready to go over, the
saw handle at one end is unhooked and the saw pulled out at the other
side. "Timber!," the men cry out as a warning to any working near by,
for the tree has begun to lean slightly. Then with a hastening rush
the top whistles thru the air, and tears thru the branches of other
trees, and the trunk with a tremendous crash strikes the ground. Even
hardened loggers can hardly keep from shouting, so impressive is the
sight of a falling giant tree.

[Illustration: Fig. 5. Felling Red Spruce with a Saw. Adirondack
Mountains, New York.]

[Illustration: Fig. 6. Sawing Logs into Lengths.]

All this seems simple enough in outline, but the actual execution
requires considerable skill. Trees seldom stand quite vertical, there
is danger of lodging in some other tree in thick woods, and it is
therefore necessary to throw trees quite exactly. Some men become
so expert at this that they can plant a stake and drive it into the
ground by the falling trunk as truly as if they hit it with a maul. On
the other hand, serious accidents often happen in falling trees. Most
of them come from "side winders," i. e., the falling of smaller trees
struck by the felled trees.

After "falling" a tree, the sawyers mark off and saw the trunk into
log lengths, Fig. 6, paying due attention to the necessity of avoiding
knots, forks, and rotten places, so that some of the logs are eighteen
feet, some sixteen feet, some fourteen feet, and some only twelve feet
in length. Meanwhile the swampers trim off the branches, Fig. 7, a job
requiring no little skill, in order that the trunk may be shaved close
but not gashed.

[Illustration: Fig. 7. Trimming off Branches of Spruce. Adirondack
Mountains, New York.]

[Illustration: Fig. 8. Hauling Spruce Logs to the Skidway. Adirondack
Mountains, New York.]

This finishes the second group of operations, the felling. Next the
logs are _dragged_ out to the dray roads, Fig. 8. A heavy pair of
tongs, like ice-tongs, is attached to one end, and the log is snaked
out by horses to the skidway. If the log is very heavy, one end is put
on a dray. By one way or another the log is dragged out and across the
two parallel skids, on which it is rolled by cant-hooks to the end
of skids toward the road way. If other logs already occupy the skids,
each new log as it arrives is piled on the first tier. As the pile
grows higher, each log is "decked," that is, rolled up parallel poles
laid slanting up the face of the pile, by means of a chain passed
under and over the log and back over the pile, Fig. 11. A horse
hitched to the end of the chain hauls up the log, which is guided by
the "send-up men" with their cant-hooks.

Once piled the logs are "_scaled_," that is measured in order to
compute the number of board feet in them, Fig. 9. The scaler generally
has an assistant, for logs in large piles must be measured at both
ends in order to determine which is the top, the body of the log being
out of sight. When measured each end of the log is stamped with a
hammer with the owner's mark, by which it can afterward be identified.
Here the logs rest and the felling and skidding continue until deep
snow falls and then the sleigh haul begins.

[Illustration: Fig. 9. "Scaling" Logs on the Skids.]

[Illustration: Fig. 10. Making an Ice Road by Flooding.]

[Illustration: Fig. 11. Decking Logs on Skidway.]

For this the main road is especially prepared. First the road is
carefully _plowed_ with an immense V plow, weighted down by logs. To
the plow are attached fans. Only an inch or two of snow is left on
the ground by this plow, which is followed by another special plow
to gouge the ruts, and by a gang of "road monkeys" who clear the
road thoroly. Then follows an immense tank set on runners and holding
perhaps seventy-five barrels of water, and so arranged as to flood
the road from holes in the bottom of the tank, a sort of rough road
sprinkler, Fig. 10. The sprinkler goes over the road again and again
until the road is covered by a clear, solid sheet of ice often two
feet thick, extending from the skidways to the banking grounds. This
ice road is one of the modern improvements in logging. Once finished,
these roads are beautiful pieces of construction with deep, clear
ruts. They have to be constantly watched and repaired, and this is
the work of the "road monkeys." If possible the road has been made
entirely with down grades but some of these are so steep that a man
must be prepared with sand or hay to check too headlong a descent.

[Illustration: Fig. 12. Loading a Sled from a Skidway.]

[Illustration: Fig. 13. A Load of Logs. Flathead County, Montana.]

When all is ready the sleigh haul begins. Piling on the sleighs
or bobs, Fig. 12, is similar to piling on the skidways, but more
difficult, for the load has to be carefully balanced, Fig. 13. Chains
bind the loads but the piling is only too apt to be defective, and
the whole load "squash out" with a rush. It is a time of feverish
activity. The sprinklers are at work till after midnight, the loaders
are out long before daylight. The blacksmith is busy with repairs,
the road monkeys work overtime, and the cook works all the time.
"Everybody works." The haul itself is full of excitement. The
ponderous load of logs, weighing anywhere from eight to thirty-five
tons has to be conducted largely by its own momentum down this glassy
road. If a horse fall nothing can save its life. If the runners get
out of the ruts, the whole load, driver and all, is likely to be
upset. It is an extremely hazardous job, Fig. 15.

As each load comes down to the _banking grounds_, Fig. 14, or log
dump, it is stopped opposite long parallel skids. The wrapping chains
are unhooked and the lower log on the skid side is worked out with
cant-hooks till the whole load flattens out. The logs are then
"decked" on immense piles, sometimes a mile long and filling the whole
river from bank to bank. A decking chain 300 feet long is sometimes
required to roll the logs to their proper places. Here the logs rest
till the spring freshets come. This completes the transportation by

[Illustration: Fig. 14. Banking Grounds.]

With the coming of the spring thaw, the river bed is filled with a
freshet of water which seizes and carries the logs down stream. Many
on the banks, however, have to be started on their way, and this is
called "breaking out the roll ways." They often start on their water
journey with a great crash.

[Illustration: Fig. 15. The Sleigh Haul.]

[Illustration: Fig. 16. Sacking the Rear.]

Now comes _the drive_, an arduous and often perilous task. Some of the
men are stationed along the shores to prevent the logs from lodging
or floating into bays or setbacks. Some stand at the heads of bars or
islands, where with pike poles they shove off the logs that might stop
there and form a jam; others follow "sacking the rear" to clean out
such logs as may have become stranded. This "sacking the rear"
takes most of the time, Fig. 16. While "on the drive" men often work
fourteen hours a day, a good part of the time up to their waists in
ice water. Their boots are shod with "caulks," or spikes, to keep
them from slipping on the logs, and they carry either pike poles or
peaveys, Fig. 17. The latter are similar to cant-hooks, except that
they have sharp pikes at their ends. So armed, they have to "ride
any kind of a log in any water, to propel a log by jumping on it, by
rolling it squirrel fashion with the feet, by punting it as one would
a canoe; to be skilful in pushing, prying, and poling other logs from
the quarter deck of the same cranky craft." Altho the logs are carried
by the river, they have to be "driven" with amazing skill and bravery.

[Illustration: Fig. 17. Log Driving on the Ausable River.]

The climax of hardship and courage is reached when a "_jam_" is
formed, Fig. 18. Sometimes one or two logs are caught in such a way
as to be locked or jammed and then soon other logs begin to accumulate
behind them, till the whole river is full of a seemingly inextricable
mass. Sometimes these jams can be loosened by being pulled apart, one
log at a time. A hundred men can pull out an amazing number of logs
in a day. The problem always is to set free or cut out certain "key"
logs, which lock the whole mass. Following is a description by Stewart
Edward White of the breaking of such a jam:

    The crew were working desperately. Down on the heap somewhere,
    two logs were crossed in such a manner as to lock the whole.
    They sought those logs.

    Thirty feet above the bed of the river six men clamped their
    peaveys into the soft pine; jerking, pulling, lifting, sliding
    the great logs from their places. Thirty feet below, under
    the threatening face, six other men coolly picked out and set
    adrift one by one, the timbers not inextricably imbedded. From
    time to time the mass creaked, settled, perhaps even moved
    a foot or two; but always the practised rivermen, after a
    glance, bent more eagerly to their work. * * * Suddenly the
    six men below the jam scattered. * * * holding their peaveys
    across their bodies, they jumped lightly from one floating log
    to another in the zig-zag to shore. * * *

[Illustration: Fig. 18. Log Jam. Adirondack Mountains, New York.]

    In the meantime a barely perceptible motion was communicating
    itself from one particle to another thru the center of the
    jam. * * * The crew redoubled its exertion, clamping its
    peaveys here and there, apparently at random, but in reality
    with the most definite of purposes. A sharp crack exploded
    immediately underneath. There could no longer exist any doubt
    as to the motion, altho it was as yet sluggish, glacial. Then
    in silence a log shifted--in silence and slowly--but with
    irresistible force * * * other logs in all directions
    up-ended. * * *

    Then all at once down by the face something crashed, the
    entire stream became alive. It hissed and roared, it shrieked,
    groaned, and grumbled. At first slowly, then more rapidly, the
    very fore-front of the center melted inward and forward and
    downward, until it caught the fierce rush of the freshet and
    shot out from under the jam. Far up-stream, bristling and
    formidable, the tons of logs, grinding savagely together,
    swept forward. * * *

    Then in a manner wonderful to behold, thru the smother of foam
    and spray, thru the crash and yell of timbers, protesting the
    flood's hurrying, thru the leap of destruction, the drivers
    zigzagged calmly and surely to the shore.

Sometimes cables have to be stretched across the chasm, and special
rigging devised to let the men down to their dangerous task and more
especially to save them from danger when the crash comes.

[Illustration: Fig. 20. Splash-Dam.]

[Illustration: Fig. 21. Logs in Boom. Glens Falls, New York.]

In case such efforts are unavailing, it is necessary to "shoot" the
jam with dynamite. Another device resorted to where the supply of
water is insufficient is the _splash-dam_, Fig. 20. The object is to
make the operator independent of freshets, by accumulating a head of
water and then, by lifting the gates, creating an artificial freshet,
sufficient to float the timber down stream.

[Illustration: Fig. 22. A Sorting Jack.]

Thus by one means and another, the logs are driven along until caught
by a boom, Fig. 21, which consists of a chain of logs stretched across
the river, usually at a mill. Since the river is a common carrier, the
drives of a number of logging companies may float into the mill pond
together. But each log is stamped on both ends, so that it can be
sorted out, Fig. 22, and sent into the boom of its owner.


The operations described above are those common in the lumber regions
of the northeast and the Lake States. But special conditions produce
special methods. A very effective device where streams are small is
the flume, Fig. 23. This is a long wooden trough thru which water is
led, and the logs floated end on. It is sometimes many miles long; in
one case in California twenty-five miles.

In the South where there is no snow, logs are largely brought out to
the railway or river by being hung under immense two-wheeled trucks,
called slip-tongue carts, drawn by mules, Fig. 24. The wheels are
nearly eight feet in diameter.

[Illustration: Fig. 23. Six Mile Flume. Adirondack Mountains, New

Some kinds of wood are so heavy that they will not float at all, and
some sink so readily that it does not pay to transport them by river.
In such cases temporary railways are usually resorted to.

[Illustration: Fig. 24. Hauling Logs by Mules. Oscilla, Georgia.]

On the Pacific coast, where the forests are dense, the trees of
enormous size, and no ice road is possible, still other special
methods have been devised. On so great a scale are the operations
conducted that they may properly be called engineering feats. Consider
for a moment the size of the trees: red fir ranges from five to
fifteen feet in diameter, is commonly two hundred fifty feet high, and
sometimes three hundred twenty-five feet high. The logs are commonly
cut twenty-five feet long, and such logs often weigh thirty to forty
tons each, and the logs of a single tree may weigh together one
hundred fifty tons. The logging of such trees requires special
appliances. Until recently all the improved methods were in forms of
transportation, the felling still being done by hand with very long
saws, Fig. 25, but now even the felling and sawing of logs in the
forest is partly done by machinery.

[Illustration: Fig. 25. A Twenty-Five Foot Saw used for Crosscutting
Big Logs.]

[Illustration: Fig. 26. Hauling Big Logs by Donkey Engine.]

To work the saw, power is supplied by a steam or gasoline engine
mounted upon a truck which can be taken readily from place to place.
As the maximum power required is not over ten-horse-power, the
apparatus is so light that it can be moved about easily. The saw can
be adjusted to cut horizontally, vertically, or obliquely, and hence
is used for sawing into lengths as well as for felling.

_Falling beds._ Since the weight of a two hundred fifty foot fir is
such that if the impact of its fall be not gradually checked the force
with which it strikes the ground may split the trunk, a bed for its
fall is prepared by the swampers. Usually piles of brush are placed as
buffers along the "falling line" so that the trunk will strike these.
If the tree stands on the hill side, it is thrown up hill, in order to
shorten the fall.

After the felling comes the trimming of branches and knots and
"rossing" of bark, to lessen the friction in sliding along the

_The skidway._ By the skidway in the Puget Sound region is meant a
corduroy road. This is constructed of trunks of trees ranging from a
foot to two feet in diameter. These are "rossed," that is, stripped of
their bark and laid across the road, where they are held in place by
pegs driven into the ground, and by strips spiked upon the tops of the
logs. If possible they are laid in swampy places to keep the surface
damp and slippery. At turns in the road, pulleys are hung, thru which
the hauling cables pass. The skidway runs to the railway siding or
water's edge. Over these skidways the logs are hauled out by various
means. Formerly "strings" of oxen or Percheron horses were used, but
they are now largely superseded by some form of donkey engine, Fig.
26. These are placed at the center of a "yard."

Yarding is the skidding of logs to the railway or water way by means
of these donkey engines. Attached to the donkey engine are two drums,
one for the direct cable, three-fourths to one inch in diameter and
often half a mile long, to haul in the logs, the other for the smaller
return cable, twice as long as the direct cable and used to haul back
the direct cable. At the upper end of the skidway, when the logs are
ready to be taken to the railway or boomed, they are fastened together,
end to end, in "turns" of four or more. The direct cable is attached
to the front of the "turn", and the return cable to the rear end. By
winding the direct cable on its drum, the "turn" is hauled in. The
return cable is used to haul back the end of the direct cable, and
also, in case of a jam, to pull back and straighten out the turn.
Instead of a return cable a horse is often used to haul out the direct
cable. Signaling from the upper end of the skidway to the engineer is
done by a wire connected to the donkey's whistle, by an electric bell,
or by telephone.

Sometimes these donkey engines are in relays, one engine hauling a
turn of logs to within reach of the next one, which passes it on to
the next until the siding is reached.

[Illustration: Fig. 27. Steam Skidder at Work. Grant County,

Where there are steep canons to be crossed, a wire trolley may be
stretched and the great logs carried over suspended from it.

In the South a complicated machine called a steam skidder, Fig. 27,
equipped with drums, booms, etc., is much used both for skidding in
the logs and then for loading them on the cars. It is itself mounted
on a flat car.

An improvement on this is the locomotive boom derrick which is widely
used both on the Pacific coast and of late in the Lake Superior
region. It is a combined locomotive, skidder and loader. Its most
unique feature is that it can be lifted off the track so as to allow
flat cars to run underneath it. This feat is accomplished thus: A
device, which is something like that used in elevating the bodies of
coal wagons, lifts the engine several feet above the rails. Then steel
legs, which are curved outwardly, are lowered until the shoes which
are attached to them rest on the outward end of the railroad ties. The
truck of the locomotive is then folded up under it out of the way and
cars can run under it, the curved legs giving plenty of clearance.
The derrick attached is of the breast type, the two legs being firmly
fastened. When anchored the engine can be used either for skidding or
loading. For skidding, there are two cables, one being run out while
the other is being wound on its drum.

[Illustration: Fig. 28. Log Train, Humboldt County, California.]

In loading, the machine is located so that the empty car will be
directly in front of it, and then the logs are lifted up and placed on
the car by the derrick. When the car is loaded the machine can either
move on to the next car, or pull it under itself into place. With the
help of four men it can load from 125,000 to 150,000 feet of timber
in a day. By means of the cable it can make up a train, and then
by lowering the truck and raising the legs out of the way, it is
converted into a locomotive and hauls the train away to the mill or
railway station at the rate of three or four miles at hour.

As forests are cut away along the water courses, railways have to be
resorted to more and more, Fig. 28. This has had a stimulative effect
on the logging business, for now the logger is independent of the
snow. On account of the steep grades and sharp curves often necessary
in logging railways, a geared locomotive is sometimes used, Fig. 29.
It can haul a train of twenty loaded cars up a twelve per cent grade.
The geared engine has also been used as a substitute for cable power,
in "yarding" operations. The "turns" of logs are drawn over the ground
between the rails, being fastened to the rear of the engine by hook
and cable. This has proved to be a very economical use of power and

[Illustration: Fig. 29. Donkey Engine Yarding.]

[Illustration: Fig. 30. Giant Raft. In the background is a completed
raft; in the foreground a cradle in which a raft is being built.]

Another method of traction where the woodland is open enough is with
a traction engine. The ones employed have sixty to one hundred horse
power. The great logs may be placed on wood rollers, as a house is
when moved, or the logs may be hauled in on a low truck with broad
wheels. The "tractor" hauls the log direct to the railway if the
distance is not too great.

[Illustration: Fig. 31. Snow Locomotive. Takes the place of 12
teamsters and 12 horses. Minnesota.]

In Northern Michigan a "snow locomotive," Fig. 31, is coming into
use, which has tremendous tractive power, hauling one hundred to one
hundred fifty tons of lumber over snow or ice. It moves on runners,
but there is between them a large cylinder armed with teeth. This
cylinder can be raised or lowered by the operator as it moves over the
surface of the ground. The teeth catch in the snow or ice, and since
the cylinder is heated by the exhaust steam, it melts and packs the
snow for the trucks following it. The drum is six feet in diameter,
with walls an inch and a half thick, and it weighs seven tons. It is
used in all sorts of places where horses cannot go, as in swamps, and
by substituting wheels for runners it has even been used on sand.

In the Canadian lakes there has been devised a queer creature called
an "alligator," a small and heavily equipped vessel for hauling the
logs thru the lakes. When its operations in one lake are finished, a
wire cable is taken ashore and made fast to some tree or other safe
anchorage, the capstan on its forward deck is revolved by steam and
the "alligator" hauls itself out of the water across lots to the next
lake and begins work there.

The greatest improvement in water transportation is the giant raft,
Fig. 30. When such a raft is made up, logs of uniform length are
placed together, the width of the raft being from sixty to one hundred
feet and its length, one thousand feet or more. It may contain a
million board feet of timber. The different sections are placed end to
end, and long boom sticks, i. e., logs sixty to seventy feet long,
are placed around them to bind the different sections together, and
finally the whole mass is heavily chained. Such a raft has been towed
across the Pacific.



  River Lumbering.
    Pinchot, _Primer_, II, pp. 40-53.
    White, _Blazed Trail_, pp. 5-15, 25, 38-39, 52-53, 63-65, 72-85, 91-99,
        113-125, 134, 181-196, 216-229, 257, 268, 320-343, 355, 365 ff.
    _For. Bull._, No. 34, pp. 33-41, Fox.
    White, _Jun. Mun._, 10: 362.
    Hulbert, _Outl._, 76; 801.
    _Wood Craft_, 4: 55.
    Smith, K., _World's Work_, 7: 4435.

  Mechanical Methods.
    _World's Work_, 7: 4435.
    _Outl._, 76: 812.
    Bruncken, p. 86.
    Bruncken, pp. 76-87.
    Munn, _Cosmop._, 37: 441.
    Roth, _First Book_, pp. 133-174.
    Hovey-King, _Rev. of Rev._, 27: 317.
    Jones, _Cosmop._, 15: 63.
    Price, _World's Work_, 5: 3207.
    _For. Bull._, No. 61.
    _Cassier_, 29: 443, April, '06.
    _Cosmop._, 37: 445.
    _Rev. of Rev._, 28: 319.

    [Footnote *: For general bibliography see page 4.]



The principal saws in a mill are of three kinds, the circular, Fig.
32, the gang, Fig. 33, and the band, Fig. 34. The circular-saw, tho
very rapid, is the most wasteful because of the wide kerf, and of
course the larger the saw the thicker it is and the wider the kerf.
The waste in sawdust is about one-fifth of the log. In order to lessen
this amount two smaller saws, one hung directly above the other, have
been used. One saws the lower half of the log and the other the upper
half. In this way, it is possible to cut very large logs with the
circular-saw and with less waste. The circular-saw is not a perfectly
flat disc, but when at rest is slightly convex on one side and concave
on the other. This fullness can be pushed back and forth as can the
bottom of an oil-can. When moving at a high rate of speed, however,
the saw flattens itself by centrifugal force. This enables it to cut
straight with great accuracy.

[Illustration: Fig. 32. Double Circular-Saw and Carriage.]

A gang-saw is simply a series of straight saw-blades set in a vertical
frame. This has a reciprocating motion, enabling it to cut a log into
a number of boards at one time. It has this drawback, that it must
cut the size of lumber for which it is set; that is, the sawyer has
no choice in cutting the thickness, but it is very economical, wasting
only one-eighth of the log in sawdust. A special form is the flooring
gang. It consists of a number of saws placed one inch apart. Thick
planks are run thru it to saw up flooring.

[Illustration: Fig. 33. Gang-Saw.]

[Illustration: Fig. 34. Band-Saw.]

The band-saw is fast displacing the other two, wherever it can be
used. It cuts with great rapidity and the kerf is narrow. When first
used it could not be depended upon to cut straight, but by utilizing
the same principle that is used in the circular-saw, of putting the
cutting edge under great tension by making it slightly shorter than
the middle of the saw, it now cuts with great accuracy. Band-saws are
now made up to 12 inches wide, 50 feet long, and run at the rate of
10,000 feet a minute. They are even made with the cutting teeth on
both edges, so that the log can be sawed both going and coming. This
idea was unsuccessful until the invention of the telescopic band-mill,
Fig. 35. In this the entire mechanism carrying the wheels on which the
band-saw revolves can be moved up and down, so as to bring the point
where the saw leaves the upper wheel as close to the top of the
different sized logs as possible.

[Illustration: Fig. 35. Double-Carrying Telescopic Band-Mill. Mill in
raised position for large log.]

[Illustration: Fig. 36. Jack-Ladder, with Endless Chain.]

The usual modern mill is a two story building, Fig. 37, built at a
convenient locality both for receiving the logs and for shipping the
lumber. Whether the logs arrive by water or by rail, they are,
if possible, stored in a mill-pond until used in order to prevent
checking, discoloration, decay, and worm attack. From the pond they
are hauled up out of the water on to a "jack-ladder," by means of an
endless chain, provided with saddles or spurs which engage the logs
and draw them up into the second story on to the log slip, Fig. 36.

[Illustration: Fig. 37. Two-Story Mill at Virginia, Minnesota, Showing
Jack-Ladders and Consumer.]

[Illustration: Fig. 38. Log-Flipper.]

[Illustration: Fig. 39. Log-Stop and Loader. By letting steam into the
cylinder, the projecting arm revolves, rolling one log over onto the
carriage and holding the next one till wanted.]

After the logs have entered the mill, they are inspected for stones
lodged in the bark, and for spikes left by the river men, and then
measured. Under the log-slip is the steam "flipper" or "kicker," Fig.
38, by means of which the scaler or his assistant, throwing a lever,
causes the log to be kicked over to one side or the other, on to the
log-deck, an inclined floor sloping toward the saw-carriage. Down this
the log rolls until stopped by a log-stop, or log-loader, Fig. 39,
a double-aimed projection, which prevents it from rolling on the
carriage till wanted. This stop is also worked by steam. By letting
the steam into the cylinder which controls it, one log is rolled over
on the carriage and the next one held. The log on the carriage is at
once "dogged," that is, clamped tight by iron dogs, the carriage is
set for the proper cut, and moves forward to the saw which cuts
off the first slab. The carriage is then "gigged" or reversed. This
operation offsets the carriage one-eighth of an inch so that the log
returns entirely clear of the saw. In the same way two or three 1"
boards are taken off, the dogs are then knocked out, and the log
canted over half a revolution. This is done by means of the "steam
nigger," Fig. 40, a long, perpendicular toothed bar which comes up
thru the floor, engages the log, and turns it over till the sawn side
comes up against the knees of the carriage. The log is dogged again
and a second slab and several boards are taken off. The log or "stock"
as it is now called, is 10", 12", 14", or 16" thick; the "nigger" then
gives it a quarter-turn, leaving it lying on a sawn side. It is dogged
again, and all sawn up except enough to make a few boards. This last
piece is given a half-turn, bringing the sawn side against the knees,
and it is sawn up. Each board as it is sawn off is thrown by the
board-flipper or cant-flipper,[2] Fig. 41, on to the "live rollers,"
which take it to the next process. Another log comes on the carriage
and the process is repeated.

    [Footnote 2: A "cant" is a squared or partly squared log.]

[Illustration: Fig. 40. The Steam Nigger. The toothed bar turns the
log over into the desired position.]

[Illustration: Fig. 41. Steam Cant-Flipper. This machine is used to
move cants, timber, or lumber from live rollers to gangs, band resaw
mills, or elsewhere. The timber is discharged upon skid rollers, as
shown, or upon transfer chains.]

[Illustration: Fig. 42. Log-Carriage, holding quartered log in
position to saw.]

The saw-carriage, Fig. 42, is propelled forward and back by a piston
running in a long cylinder, into either end of which steam can be
turned by the operator.

[Illustration: Fig. 43. Double Gang Edger. This machine trims off the
rough edges of the "waney" boards by means of the four saws in the
main frame of the machine.]

[Illustration: Fig. 44. Automatic Steam Transfer for Timber, Lumber
and Slabs. The boards are carried along by the cylinders, CCC, until
they hit the bumper, B. This movement admits steam to the cylinder,
CY, which raises the revolving chains or skids, which transfers the
stock sidewise to other live rollers as required.]

As the sawn boards fall off the log, they land on "live," that is,
revolving rollers, which carry them along at the rate of 200 to 250
feet a minute. Stops are provided farther along to stop the boards
wherever wanted, as at the edger, Fig. 43, or the slasher. From the
live rollers the boards are transferred automatically, Fig. 44, by
chains running at right angles to the rollers and brought within reach
of the edger man. About one-third of the boards of a log have rough
edges, and are called "waney." These must go thru the edger to make
their edges parallel. The edger man works with great speed. He sees at
once what can be made out of a board, places it in position and runs
it thru. From the edger the boards are carried to the trimmer, which
cuts the length. The lumberman's rule is to "cut so that you can cut
again." The so-called 16' logs are really 16' 6". The trimmer, Fig.
45, now trims these boards to 16' 1", so that if desired they can
still be cut again. The trimmer may be set to cut at any desired
length according to the specifications.

[Illustration: Fig. 45. Automatic Gang Lumber-Trimmer. It may be set
to cut automatically to any desired length.]

[Illustration: Fig. 46. Lumber Sorting Shed. Virginia, Minnesota.]

[Illustration: Fig. 47.]

The boards are now graded as to quality into No. 1, No. 2, etc., Fig.
46, and run out of the mill, to be stacked up in piles, Fig. 47. Big
timbers go directly from the saw on the rolls to the back end of the
mill, where the first end is trimmed by a butting-saw or cut-off-saw
which swings, Fig. 48. The timber is then shoved along on dead rolls
and the last end trimmed by the butting-saw to a definite length as
specified, and shoved out.

One of the most remarkable features of the modern mill is its speed.
From the time the log appears till the last piece of it goes racing
out of the mill, hardly more than a minute may have elapsed.

[Illustration: Fig. 48. Cut-off-Saw. This saw trims the ends of

A large part of the problem of sawmilling is the disposal of the
waste. The first of these is the sawdust. In all first class mills,
this together with shavings (if a planing-mill is combined) is burned
for fuel. It is sucked up from the machines and carried in large tubes
to the boiler-room and there is mechanically supplied to the fires.
The slabs, once considered as waste, contain much material that is now
utilized. From the live rolls, on which all the material falls from
the main band-saw, the slabs are carried off by transfer chains,
and by another set of five rollers to the "slasher," Fig. 50, which
consists of a line of circular-saws placed 4' 1" apart. This slasher
cuts up the slabs into lengths suitable for lath or fence-pickets.
Fig. 49. Or they can be resawn into 16" lengths for shingles or

[Illustration: Fig. 49. Ten Saw Gang Lath Bolter. This machine cuts up
material lengthwise into laths.]

[Illustration: Fig. 50. Slab-Slasher. This machine cuts up the slabs
into lengths suitable for lath or fence-pickets.]

From the "slasher" the 4' 1" lengths are carried on by traveling
platforms, chains, etc., to the lath-machines, Fig. 51, where they are
sawn up, counted as sawn, bound in bundles of 100, trimmed to exactly
4' in length and sent off to be stored. The shingle bolts are
picked off the moving platforms by men or boys, and sent to the
shingle-machine, Fig. 52, where they are sawn into shingles and
dropped down-stairs to be packed. Shingle-bolts are also made from
crooked or otherwise imperfect logs.

Of what is left, a good part goes into the grinder or "hog," Fig. 53,
which chews up all sorts of refuse into small chips suitable for fuel
to supplement the sawdust if necessary. Band-saws make so little dust
and such fine dust that this is often necessary.

[Illustration: Fig. 51. Combination Lath-Binder and Trimmer. With this
machine the operator can trim the bundles of lath simply by tilting
the packing frame over from him causing the bundles to pass between
the saws, thereby trimming both ends at one movement.]

[Illustration: Fig. 52. Hand Shingle-Machine. This machine is used in
Sawmills in which it is desired to utilize slabs and trimmings by
sawing shingles therefrom, or to saw shingles from prepared bolts.]

If there is any refuse that cannot be used at all it goes to the
scrap-pile, Fig. 54, or to the "consumer," the tall stack shown in
Fig. 37, see p. 33.

Boards ordinarily sawn from logs are "slash-sawn," i. e., they are
tangential or bastard, each cut parallel to the previous one. By this
process, only the central boards would be radial or "rift" boards.

[Illustration: Fig. 53. Edging grinder or Hog. It cuts any kind
of wood into coarse or fine chips suitable to be handled by chain
conveyor or blower.]

[Illustration: Fig. 54. Scrap-Pile. Oscilla. Georgia.]

But, for a number of reasons, radial boards are better. They warp
less because the annual rings cross the board more evenly. Yellow pine
flooring that is rift-sawn is more valuable than slash-sawn, because
the edge of the annual rings makes a more even grain, Fig. 55. Where
slash-grained flooring is used, the boards should be laid so that the
outside of each board will be up in order that the inner rings may not
"shell out."

[Illustration: Fig. 55. Slash-Grain and Comb-Grain Flooring.]

In sawing oak for valuable furniture or trim, the log is first
"quartered" and then the quarters sawn up as nearly radially as is
desired. There are various methods of cutting quartered logs, as
illustrated in Fig. 56.

[Illustration: Fig. 56. Methods of Sawing Quartered Logs.]

In making staves for water-tight barrels, it is essential that they be
cut radially in the log, in order that the staves be as non-permeable
to water as possible.

[Illustration: Fig. 57. Lumber-Kiln.]



    Trout, Cassier 11: 83, 184.
    Woodcraft 5: 56, May '06.

    [Footnote *: For general bibliography see p. 4.]



The seasoning of wood is important for several reasons. It reduces
weight, it increases strength, it prevents changes in volume after it
is worked into shape, and it prevents checking and decay. Decay can
also be prevented by submergence and burying, if by so doing logs are
kept from fungal attacks. The piles of the Swiss Lake dwellings, which
are in a state of good preservation, are of prehistoric age. Wood
under water lasts longer than steel or iron under water. But for
almost all purposes wood has to be dried in order to be preserved. The
wood is cut up, when green, to as thin pieces as will be convenient
for its use later, for the rate of drying depends largely upon the
shape and size of the piece, an inch board drying more than four times
as fast as a four inch plank, and more than twenty times as fast as a
ten inch timber.

There are various methods of seasoning:

(1) Natural or air-seasoning is the most common, and in some respects
the best. In this method, the wood is carefully and regularly piled in
the seasoning-yard, so as to be protected as far as possible from sun
and rain, but with air circulating freely on all sides of the boards,
Fig. 47, see p. 38. To accomplish this, "sticking" is employed, i. e.,
strips of wood are placed crosswise close to the ends and at intervals
between the boards. In this way the weight of the superposed boards
tends to keep those under them from warping. The pile is skidded a
foot or two off the ground and is protected above by a roof made of
boards so laid that the rain will drain off.

Fire-wood is best dried rapidly so that it will check, making air
spaces which facilitate ignition, but lumber needs to be slowly dried
in cool air so that the fibers may accommodate themselves to the
change of form and the wood check as little as possible. Good
air-drying consumes from two to six years, the longer the better.

(2) Kiln-drying or hot-air-seasoning is a much more rapid process than
air-seasoning and is now in common use, Fig. 57. The drying is also
more complete, for while air-dried wood retains from 10% to 20% of
moisture, kiln-dried wood may have no more than 5% as it comes from
the kiln. It will, however, reabsorb some moisture from the air, when
exposed to it.

The wood of conifers, with its very regular structure, dries
and shrinks more evenly and much more rapidly than the wood of
broad-leaved trees, and hence is often put into the kiln without
previous air-drying, and dried in a week or even less time.

Oak is the most difficult wood to dry properly. When it and other
hardwoods are rapidly dried without sufficient surrounding moisture,
the wood "case-hardens," that is, the outer part dries and shrinks
before the interior has had a chance to do the same, and this forms a
shell or case of shrunken, and often checked wood around the
interior which also checks later. This interior checking is called
honeycombing. Hardwood lumber is commonly air-dried from two to six
months, before being kiln-dried. For the sake of economy in time,
the tendency is to eliminate yard-drying, and substitute kiln-drying.
Kiln-drying of one inch oak, takes one or two weeks, quarter-sawn
boards taking one and a half times as long as plain-sawn.

The best method of drying is that which gradually raises the
temperature of both the wood and of the water which it contains to the
point at which the drying is to take place. Care is therefore taken
not to let the surface become entirely dry before the internal
moisture is heated. This is done by retaining the moisture first
vaporized about the wood, by means of wet steam. When the surface is
made permeable to moisture, drying may take place rapidly. Curtains
of canvas are hung all around the lumber on the same principle
that windows in newly plastered buildings are hung with muslin.
The moisture is absorbed on the inner surface of the curtain and
evaporates from the outer surface. Improvements in kiln-drying are
along the line of moist air operation. In common practice, however,
the moist air principle is often neglected.

There are two methods in operation, the progressive method and the
charge method. In the progressive, the process is continuous, the
loads going in at one end of the kiln, and out at the other, the
temperature and the moisture being so distributed in the kiln, that
in passing from the green to the dry end, a load of lumber is first
moistened, then heated, and finally dried out. In the charge system,
the process is intermittent, one charge being removed before a new one
is admitted. This gives the best results with high grade lumber for
special uses.

A modification of hot-air-seasoning is that which subjects the wood to
a moderate heat in a moist atmosphere charged with the products of the
combustion of fuel.

(3) Small pieces of wood may be effectively seasoned by being boiled
in water and then dried. The process seems to consist of dissolving
out albuminous substances and thus allowing freer evaporation. Its
effect is probably weakening.

(4) Soaking in water is sometimes used as a good preparation for
air-seasoning. Previous soaking hastens seasoning. River men insist
that timber is improved by rafting. It is a common practice to let
cypress logs soak in the swamps where they grow for several months
before they are "mined out." They are eagerly sought after by joiners
and carpenters, because their tendency to warp is lessened. Ebony is
water-soaked in the island of Mauritius as soon as cut. Salt water
renders wood harder, heavier, and more durable and is sometimes
applied to ship timbers, but cannot be used with timbers intended for
ordinary purposes, as the presence of salt tends to absorb atmospheric

(5) Boiling in oil is resorted to for special purposes, both for
preservation and to give strength. For example, the best handscrews
are so treated. The oil also prevents glue from sticking, the most
frequent cause of injury to handscrews.

(6) There are a number of "impregnation" methods of preserving timber,
and their practice is spreading rapidly. Of the various preservative
processes, those using coal tar creosote and zinc chloride have proved
most efficient. The purpose is to force the preservative into the
pores of the wood, either by painting, soaking, or putting under
pressure. Such impregnation methods double or treble the life of
railway ties. It is now being used with great success to preserve
electric wire poles, mine-props, piling, fence-posts, etc.

Wood preservation has three great advantages, it prolongs the life
of timbers in use, reduces their cost, and makes possible the use of
species that once were considered worthless. For example, the cheap
and abundant loblolly pine can be made, by preservative methods, to
take the place of high priced long-leaf pine for many purposes.


Under the hasty methods prevalent in the mill, very little wood comes
to the shop well seasoned, and it should therefore be carefully stored
before using, so as to have the fullest possible air circulation
around it. Where the boards are large enough, "sticking" is the best
method of storage, i. e., narrow strips of wood are placed at short
intervals between the pieces which are piled flat. The weight of the
boards themselves helps to prevent warping. Boards set upright or
on edge are likely to be distorted soon. It is often wise to press
together with weights or to clamp together with handscrews boards that
show a tendency to warp, putting the two concave sides together. Then
the convex side is exposed and the board may straighten thus: Fig. 58.
By wrapping up small boards in paper or cloth in the intervals between
work on them, they may be kept straight until they are assembled.

[Illustration: Fig. 58. Clamping up Boards to Prevent Warping.]

Another precaution to take is to be sure to plane both sides of a
board if either is planed, especially if the board has been exposed to
air-drying for some time.


Lumber is a general term for all kinds of sawn wood. Logs may be sawn
into timber, that is, beams and joists, into planks, which are 2" to
4" thick, or into boards which are from 1/4" to 1-3/4" thick. These
may be resawn into special sizes.

Lumber is measured by the superficial foot, which is a board 1" thick,
12" wide, and 12" long, so that a board 1" thick, (or 7/8" dressed) 6"
wide and 12' 0" long, measures 6' B. M. (board measure). Boards 1"
or more thick are sold by the "board foot" which is equivalent to 12"
square and 1" thick. Boards less than 1" thick are sold by the square
foot, face measure. Dressed lumber comes in sizes 1/8" less than sawn
lumber. Regular sizes are:

      5/8" dressed to   1/2"

      3/4" dressed to   5/8"

    1"     dressed to   7/8"

    1-1/4" dressed to 1-1/8"

    1-1/2" dressed to 1-3/8"

    2"     dressed to 1-7/8"

Any of these may be dressed down to thinner boards, or resawn on a
special band-saw.

In ordering it is common to give the dimensions wanted, in the order
of thickness, width, and length, because that is the order in which
dimensions are gotten out. E. g.:

  6 pcs. quar. oak, 7/8" × 6" × 3'0"
  2 pcs. quar. oak, 3/4" × 7-1/2" × 15"

If a piece wanted is short the way  the grain goes, the order would
be the same, thus: 3/4" × 11" (wide) × 6" (long). That is, "long"
means the way the grain runs. It is always safe to specify in such a
case. It is common when small pieces are ordered to add one-quarter
to the cost for waste.

In large lots lumber is ordered thus: 800' (B. M.) whitewood, dressed
2 sides to 7/8", 10" and up. This means that the width of any piece
must not be less than 10". Prices are usually given per "M," i. e.,
per 1000 ft.: e. g.: basswood may be quoted at $40.00 per M.

When thin boards are desired it is often economical to buy inch stuff
and have it resawn.

Some lumber is also ordered by the "running" or lineal foot,
especially moldings, etc., or by the piece, if there is a standard
size as in fence-posts, studs, etc. Laths and shingles are ordered
by the bundle to cover a certain area. 1000 4" shingles (=4 bundles)
cover 110 sq. ft. with 4" weather exposure. 100 laths (1 bundle) each
1/4" × 1-1/2" × 4'0" cover about 150 sq. ft.

There are several methods of measuring lumber. The general rule is to
multiply the length in feet by the width and thickness in inches and
divide by 12, thus: 1" × 6" × 15' ÷ 12 = 7-1/2 feet. The use of the
Essex board-measure and the Lumberman's board-measure are described in
Chapter 4, pp. 109 and 111.




    _For. Bull._, No, 41, pp. 5-12, von Schrenk.
    Dunlap, _Wood Craft_, 6: 133, Feb. '07.
    _For. Circ._ No. 40, pp. 10-16, Herty.
    Barter, pp. 39-53.
    Boulger, pp. 66-70, 80-88.
    _Wood Craft_, 6: 31, Nov. '06.
    _For. Circ._ No. 139.
    _Agric. Yr. Bk._, 1905, pp. 455-464.

    Sickels, pp. 22, 29.
    Goss, p. 12.
    _Building Trades Pocketbook_,  pp. 335, 349, 357.
    Tate, p. 21.

    [Footnote *: For general bibliography see p. 4.]



The hand tools in common use in woodworking shops may, for
convenience, be divided into the following classes: 1, Cutting;
2, Boring; 3, Chopping; 4, Scraping; 5, Pounding; 6, Holding; 7,
Measuring and Marking; 8, Sharpening; 9, Cleaning.


The most primitive as well as the simplest of all tools for the
dividing of wood into parts, is the wedge. The wedge does not even
cut the wood, but only crushes enough of it with its edge to allow its
main body to split the wood apart. As soon as the split has begun,
the edge of the wedge serves no further purpose, but the sides bear
against the split surfaces of the wood. The split runs ahead of the
wedge as it is driven along until the piece is divided.

It was by means of the wedge that primitive people obtained slabs
of wood, and the great change from primitive to civilized methods
in manipulating wood consists in the substitution of cutting for
splitting, of edge tools for the wedge. The wedge follows the grain
of the wood, but the edge tool can follow a line determined by the
worker. The edge is a refinement and improvement upon the wedge and
enables the worker to be somewhat independent of the natural grain of
the wood.

In general, it may be said that the function of all cutting tools
is to separate one portion of material from another along a definite
path. All such tools act, first, by the keen edge dividing the
material into two parts; second, by the wedge or the blade forcing
these two portions apart. If a true continuous cut is to be made, both
of these actions must occur together. The edge must be sharp enough
to enter between the small particles of material, cutting without
bruising them, and the blade of the tool must constantly force apart
the two portions in order that the cutting action of the edge may

The action of an ax in splitting wood is not a true cut, for only
the second process is taking place, Fig. 59. The split which opens in
front of the cutting edge anticipates its cutting and therefore the
surfaces of the opening are rough and torn.

[Illustration: Fig. 59. Wedge Action.]

[Illustration: Fig. 60. Edge Action.]

When a knife or chisel is pressed into a piece of wood at right angles
to the grain, and at some distance from the end of the wood, as in
Fig. 60, a continuous cutting action is prevented, because soon the
blade cannot force apart the sides of the cut made by the advancing
edge, and the knife is brought to rest. In this case, it is
practically only the first action which has taken place.

Both the actions, the cutting and the splitting, must take place
together to produce a true continuous cut. The edge must always be in
contact with the solid material, and the blade must always be pushing
aside the portions which have been cut. This can happen only when the
material on one side of the blade is thin enough and weak enough to
be readily bent out of the way without opening a split in front of
the cutting edge. This cutting action may take place either along the
grain, Fig. 61, or across it, Fig. 62.

The bending aside of the shaving will require less force the smaller
the taper of the wedge. On the other hand, the wedge must be strong
enough to sustain the bending resistance and also to support the
cutting edge. In other words, the more acute the cutting edge, the
easier the work, and hence the wedge is made as thin as is consistent
with strength. This varies all the way from hollow ground razors to
cold-chisels. For soft wood, the cutting angle (or bevel, or bezel)
of chisels, gouges and plane-irons, is small, even as low as 20°;
for hard wood, it must be greater. For metals, it varies from 54° for
wrought iron to 66° for gun metal.

[Illustration: Fig. 61. Edge and Wedge Action With the Grain.]

[Illustration: Fig. 62. Edge and Wedge Action Across the Grain.]

Ordinarily a cutting tool should be so applied that the face nearest
the material lies as nearly as possible in the direction of the cut
desired, sufficient clearance being necessary to insure contact of the
actual edge.

There are two methods of using edge tools: one, the chisel or straight
cut, by direct pressure; the other, the knife or sliding cut.

The straight cut, Fig. 63, takes place when the tool is moved into the
material at right angles to the cutting edge. Examples are: the action
of metalworking tools and planing machines, rip-sawing, turning,
planing (when the plane is held parallel to the edge of the board
being planed), and chiseling, when the chisel is pushed directly in
line with its length.

[Illustration: Fig. 63. Straight Cut.]

[Illustration: Fig. 64. Sliding Cut.]

The knife or sliding cut, Fig. 64, takes place when the tool is moved
forward obliquely to its cutting edge, either along or across the
grain. It is well illustrated in cutting soft materials, such as
bread, meat, rubber, cork, etc. It is an advantage in delicate
chiseling and gouging. That this sliding action is easier than the
straight pressure can easily be proved with a penknife on thin wood,
or by planing with the plane held at an angle to, rather than in line
with, the direction of the planing motion. The edge of the cutter then
slides into the material. The reason why the sliding cut is easier,
is partly because the angle of the bevel with the wood is reduced
by holding the tool obliquely, and partly because even the sharpest
cutting edge is notched with very fine teeth all along its edge so
that in the sliding cut it acts like a saw. In an auger-bit, both
methods of cutting take place at once. The scoring nib cuts with a
sliding cut, while the cutting lip is thrust directly into the wood.

The chisel and the knife, one with the edge on the end, and the
other with the edge on the side, are the original forms of all modern
cutting tools.

The _chisel_ was at first only a chipped stone, then it came to be a
ground stone, later it was made of bronze, and still later of
iron, and now it is made of steel. In its early form it is known
by paleontologists as a celt, and at first had no handle, but later
developed into the ax and adze for chopping and hewing, and the chisel
for cuts made by driving and paring. It is quite likely that the celt
itself was simply a development of the wedge.

In the modern chisel, all the grinding is done on one side. This
constitutes the essential feature of the chisel, namely, that the back
of the blade is kept perfectly flat and the face is ground to a bevel.
Blades vary in width from 1/16 inch to 2 inches. Next to the blade on
the end of which is the cutting edge, is the shank, Fig. 65. Next, as
in socketed chisels, there is the socket to receive the handle, or,
in tanged chisels, a shoulder and four-sided tang which is driven into
the handle, which is bound at its lower end by a ferrule. The handle
is usually made of apple wood.

[Illustration: Fig. 65. Firmer-Chisel.]

The most familiar form is the _firmer-chisel_, Fig. 65, which is said
to get its name from the fact that it is firmer or stiffer than the
paring-chisel. (See below.) The firmer-chisel is a general utility
tool, being suited for hand pressure or mallet pounding, for paring or
for light mortising.

Different varieties of chisels are named; (1) according to their uses;
as paring-chisels, framing-chisels, mortise-chisels, carving-chisels,
turning-chisels, etc.

[Illustration: Fig. 66. Paring-Chisel.]

[Illustration: Fig. 67. Framing-Chisel.]

[Illustration: Fig. 68. Mortise-Chisel.]

The _paring-chisel_, Fig. 66, has a handle specially shaped to give
control over its movements, and a long thin blade, which in the
best form is beveled on the two edges to facilitate grooving. It is
intended only for steady pressure with the hand and not for use with a

The _framing-chisel_, Fig. 67, is thick and heavy and was formerly
much used in house framing. It is usually made with the handle fitting
into a socket on the shank, in order to withstand the shock of heavy
blows from the mallet.

The _mortise-chisel_, Fig. 68, is made abnormally thick to give the
stiffness necessary for levering the waste out of mortises.

(2) Chisels are also named according to their shapes: as,
skew-chisels, corner-chisels, round-nosed chisels, etc.

[Illustration: Fig. 69. Paring with a Chisel.]

The angle of the bevel of a chisel is determined by the kind of wood
for which it is most used, hard wood requiring a wider angle than soft
wood, in order to support the edge. For ordinary work, the bevel is
correctly ground to an angle of about 20°. The chisel is a necessary
tool in making almost every kind of joint. It may almost be said that
one mark of a good workman is his preference for the chisel. Indeed an
excellent motto for the woodworker is: "When in doubt, use a chisel".

In general, there are two uses for the chisel (1), when it is driven
by a push with the hand, as in paring, and (2), when it is driven by
blows of a mallet, as in digging mortises.

In relation to the grain of the wood, it is used in three directions:
(1) longitudinally, that is with the grain, called paring; (2)
laterally, across the surface, called cutting sidewise; (3)
transversely, that is across the end, called cutting end-wood.

1. _Paring._ To remove shavings rapidly, the chisel is held flat side
up, the handle grasped by the right hand, with the thumb pointing
toward the shank, and the blade held in the left hand, as in Fig. 69.
Held in this way great control can be exerted and much force applied.
For paring the surface as flat and smooth as possible, the chisel
should be reversed, that is, held so that the flat side will act as a
guide. Held in this way the chisel has no equal for paring except
the plane. Paring with the chisel is the method used in cutting stop
chamfers. (See p. 185, Chapter VIII.) By holding the cutting edge
obliquely to the direction of the grain and of the cut, the effective
"sliding cut" is obtained, Fig. 64.

[Illustration: Fig. 70. Chiseling Out a Dado. (First Step).]

[Illustration: Fig. 71. Chiseling Out a Dado. (Second Step).]

2. In _sidewise chiseling_ the chisel is held in the same manner as in
paring. A typical form of sidewise chiseling is the cutting out of a
dado, Fig. 70. The work may be placed on the bench-hook or held in the
vise with the side up from which the groove is to be cut. The chisel
is pushed directly across the grain, the blade being somewhat inclined
to the upper surface so as to cut off a corner next the saw kerf.
After a few cuts thus made with the chisel inclined alternately both
ways, the ridge thus formed is taken off, Fig. 71. In this way the
surface is lowered to the required depth. If more force be required,
the palm of the hand may be used as a mallet.

[Illustration: Fig. 72. Perpendicular Chiseling.]

3. In _chiseling end-wood_, it is well, if possible, to rest the piece
to be trimmed flat on the cutting board or on a piece of waste wood.
Work done in this way is often called perpendicular chiseling, Fig. 72.
The handle is grasped in the right hand, thumb up, while the blade of
the chisel passes between the thumb and first finger of the left hand,
the back of which rests on the work and holds it in place. As the
right hand pushes the chisel downwards the thumb and first finger of
the left hand control its motion. When chiseling it is well to stand
so as to look along the line being cut. Incline the chisel toward you,
and use the near part of the cutting edge for a guide and the farther
corner for cutting, pushing the handle both down and forward at the
same time, Fig. 73. Or, by pushing the chisel sidewise with the
thumb of the left hand at the same time that the right hand pushes it
downward, the effective sliding cut is obtained.

[Illustration: Fig. 73. Chiseling End Wood.]

[Illustration: Fig. 74. Paring a Corner Round.]

[Illustration: Fig. 75. Right and Wrong Ways of Perpendicular

End chiseling requires considerable force and therefore only thin
shavings should be cut off at a time. Or the mallet may be used with
caution. In order to leave a smooth surface the chisel must be very
sharp. Even then the lower arris (corner) is likely to be splintered
off. This can be prevented by clamping the work down tight with a
handscrew to a perfectly smooth cutting board. It is often advisable
however, to set the piece upright in the vise and pare off thin
shavings horizontally, Fig. 74. In rounding a corner, both this and
perpendicular chiseling are common methods. In both cases care should
be taken to cut from the side toward the end and not into the grain,
lest the piece split, Fig. 75. In horizontal end paring, Fig. 74,
in order to prevent splintering, it is well to trim down the arrises
diagonally to the line and then to reduce the rest of the end surface.

In all hand chiseling, it is a wise precaution not to try to cut out
much material at each stroke but to work back gradually to the line.

[Illustration: Fig. 76. Mallet Chiseling. The Piece is Clamped Down on
the Bench With the Bench Hook.]

A typical form of mallet chiseling is the digging of a mortise, Fig.
76. (See also p. 56.) The chisel is held perpendicular in the left
hand, while the right hand drives blows with the mallet. The hammer
should never be used. (See mallet, p. 96.) By rocking the chisel and
at the same time giving it a twisting motion while the edge is kept
on the wood, the edge can be stepped to the exact place desired. Care
should be taken to work back to the lines gradually, to cut only part
way thru from each side (in the case of a thru mortise-and-tenon), and
to keep the cut faces perpendicular to the surfaces.

In sharpening a chisel it is of first importance that the back be
kept perfectly flat. The bevel is first ground on the grindstone to
an angle of about 20° and great care should be taken to keep the edge
straight and at right angles to the sides of the blade.

[Illustration: Fig. 77. Whetting a Plane-Bit.]

After grinding it is necessary to whet the chisel and other edged
tools. (See also under oilstones, p. 121.) First see that there is
plenty of oil on the stone. If an iron box be used, Fig. 77, the oil
is obtained simply by turning the stone over, for it rests on a pad of
felt which is kept wet with kerosene.

Place the beveled edge flat on the stone, feeling to see if it does
lie flat, then tip up the chisel and rub it at an angle slightly more
obtuse than that which it was ground, Fig. 78. The more nearly the
chisel can be whetted at the angle at which it was ground the better.
In rubbing, use as much of the stone as possible, so as to wear it
down evenly. The motion may be back and forth or spiral, but in either
case it should be steady and not rocking. This whetting turns a light
wire edge over on the flat side. In order to remove this wire edge,
the back of the chisel, that is, the straight, unbeveled side, is held
perfectly flat on the whetstone and rubbed, then it is turned over and
the bevel rubbed again on the stone. It is necessary to reverse the
chisel in this way a number of times, in order to remove the wire
edge, but the chisel should never be tipped so as to put any bevel at
all on its flat side. Finally, the edge is touched up (stropped) by
being drawn over a piece of leather a few times, first on one side,
then on the other, still continuing to hold the chisel so as to keep
the bevel perfect.

[Illustration: Fig. 78. Grinding Angle, 20°. Whetting Angle, 25°.]

To test the sharpness of a whetted edge, draw the tip of the finger
or thumb lightly along it, Fig. 79. If the edge be dull, it will feel
smooth: if it be sharp, and if care be taken, it will score the skin a
little, not enough to cut thru, but just enough to be felt.

[Illustration: Fig. 79. Testing the Sharpness of a Chisel.]

The _gouge_ is a form of chisel, the blade of which is concave, and
hence the edge curved. When the bevel is on the outside, the common
form, it is called an outside bevel gouge or simply a "gouge," Fig.
80; if the bevel is on the inside, it is called an inside bevel, or
inside ground, or scribing-gouge, or paring-gouge, Fig. 81.[3]

    [Footnote 3: Another confusing nomenclature (Goss) gives the name
    "inside gouges" to those with the cutting edge on the inside, and
    "outside gouges" to those with the cutting edge on the outside.]

Carving tools are, properly speaking, all chisels, and are of
different shapes for facility in carving.

For ordinary gouging, Fig. 82, the blade is gripped firmly by the left
hand with the knuckles up, so that a strong control can be exerted
over it. The gouge is manipulated in much the same way as the
chisel, and like the chisel it is used longitudinally, laterally, and

In working with the grain, by twisting the blade on its axis as it
moves forward, delicate paring cuts may be made. This is particularly
necessary in working cross-grained wood, and is a good illustration of
the advantage of the sliding cut.

[Illustration: Fig. 80. Firmer-Gouge Outside Bevel.]

[Illustration: Fig. 81. Inside Bevel Gouge.]

In gouging out broad surfaces like trays or saddle seats it will
be found of great advantage to work laterally, that is across the
surface, especially in even grained woods as sweet gum. The tool is
not so likely to slip off and run in as when working with the grain.

The gouge that is commonly used for cutting concave outlines on end
grain, is the inside bevel gouge. Like the chisel in cutting convex
outlines, it is pushed or driven perpendicularly thru the wood laid
flat on a cutting board on the bench, as in perpendicular chiseling.
Fig. 72, p. 56.

[Illustration: Fig. 82. Gouging.]

In sharpening an outside bevel gouge, the main bevel is obtained on
the grindstone, care being taken to keep the gouge rocking on its
axis, so as to get an even curve. It is then whetted on the flat side
of a slipstone, Fig. 83, the bevel already obtained on the grindstone
being made slightly more obtuse at the edge. A good method is to rock
the gouge on its axis with the left hand, while the slipstone held in
the right hand is rubbed back and forth on the edge. Then the concave
side is rubbed on the round edge of the slipstone, care being taken to
avoid putting a bevel on it. Inside bevel gouges need to be ground on
a carborundum or other revolving stone having a round edge. The outfit
of the agacite grinder, (Fig. 224, p. 120), contains one of these
stones. The whetting, of course, is the reverse of that on the outside
bevel gouge.

[Illustration: Fig. 83. Whetting a Gouge.]

The _knife_ differs from the chisel in two respects, (1) the edge is
along the side instead of the end, and (2) it has a two-beveled edge.
Knives are sometimes made with one side flat for certain kinds of
paring work, but these are uncommon. The two-beveled edge is an
advantage to the worker in enabling him to cut into the wood at any
angle, but it is a disadvantage in that it is incapable of making flat
surfaces. The knife is particularly valuable in woodwork for scoring
and for certain emergencies. The sloyd knife, Fig. 84, is a tool
likely to be misused in the hands of small children, but when sharp
and in strong hands, has many valuable uses. A convenient size has a
2-1/2 inch blade. When grinding and whetting a knife, the fact that
both sides are beveled alike should be kept in mind.

[Illustration: Fig. 84. Sloyd Knife.]

[Illustration: Fig. 85. Draw-Knife.]

The _draw-knife_, Fig. 85, is ground like a chisel, with the bevel
only on one side, but the edge is along the side like a knife. Instead
of being pushed into the wood, like a chisel, it is drawn into it by
the handles which project in advance of the cutting edge. The handles
are sometimes made to fold over the edge, and thus protect it when not
in use. The size is indicated by the length of the cutting edge. It
is particularly useful in reducing narrow surfaces and in slicing off
large pieces, but it is liable to split rather than cut the wood.


[Illustration: Fig. 86. Hand Saw.]

The object of the saw is to cut thru a piece of material along a
determined line. Its efficiency depends upon (1) the narrowness of the
saw cut or "kerf," and (2) upon the force required to drive it thru
the material. The thinner the blade, the less material will be cut out
and wasted, and the less force will have to be applied. In order to
have the saw as thin as possible, almost all the people of the world,
except the Anglo Saxons, have saws that cut when they are pulled
toward the worker. The blade is in tension while cutting and in
compression only when being returned for a new cut. German carpenters
use a saw like our turning-saw. English and Americans have developed
the saw on the opposite principle, namely, that it should cut on the
pushing stroke. As a matter of fact, the crosscut-saw cuts somewhat on
the back stroke. The pushing stroke necessitates a thickening of the
blade sufficient to prevent buckling,--a not uncommon occurrence
in the bands of a novice, in spite of this thickening. But tho
this requires more force, and involves more waste, there are the
compensations that the arm can exert more pressure in pushing than in
pulling, especially when the worker stands upright or stoops over his
work, and the stiffer wide blade acts as a guide to the sawyer. Each
method has its advantages. Whatever may be true of hand-saws, in
machine-saws the tension method, as illustrated by the gang-saw and
the band-saw, is steadily displacing the compression method utilized
in the circular-saw. Many kinds of work, however, can be done only on
the circular-saw.

In order to diminish the disadvantages of the thrusting stroke, the
modern hand-saw, Fig. 86, has been gradually improved as the result
of much experience and thought. The outline of the blade is tapered in
width from handle to point; it is thicker also at the heel (the handle
end) than at the point; its thickness also tapers from the teeth to
the back. All these tapers gives stiffness where it is most needed.
It is made wide for the sake of giving steadiness in sawing. The fact
that it is thinner at the back than along the teeth gives it clearance
in passing back and forth in the kerf, but the friction is still
great, especially in sawing soft or damp wood. To avoid this binding
still further, the teeth are "set" alternately one to one side and the
next to the other, and so on.

[Illustration: Fig. 87. Rip Saw Teeth: A-edge view, B-side view,
C cross-section. Crosscut-Saw Teeth: A'-edge view, B'-side view,

The size of saws is indicated by the length of the blade in inches.
The coarseness of the tooth is indicated by the number of "points"
to the inch. "Points" should not be confused with teeth as there is
always one more point per inch than there are teeth. For example,
a five point rip-saw has five points to the inch but only four
full teeth, Fig. 87. Rip-saws run from 4 to 7 points per inch;
crosscut-saws from 6 to 12 points per inch.

In general, saws are of two kinds, rip-saws and crosscut-saws.

The _rip-saw_, Fig. 87, may be thought of as a series of chisels set
in two parallel rows which overlap each other, for each tooth is filed
to a sharp edge which, at each stroke, chisels off a small particle
from the end of the wood fibers.

The shape of the teeth is the result of experience in uniting a number
of factors: as, strength of the individual tooth, the acuteness of
the cutting angle, and the ease of sharpening. The steel of a saw is
softer than that of a chisel, in order that it may be filed and set.
Hence it is weaker and the edge cannot be so acute. A typical form
of tooth is shown in Fig. 87, in which A is an edge view, B the side
view, and C a cross section. The angle of each tooth covers 60°, one
side, the "face", being at right angles to the line of the teeth. The
cutting edge runs at right angles to the sides of the blade.

This arrangement works with entire success along the grain, but if a
rip-saw is used to cut across the grain, since there is no provision
for cutting thru the fibers, each tooth catches in them and tears them
out, thus leaving a rough and jagged surface.

In the _crosscut-saw_, therefore, the teeth are filed to points, and
the cutting edge is on the forward side of each alternate tooth.
In Fig. 87. A' is the edge view, B' is the side view and C' is a
cross-section. In a properly filed crosscut-saw a needle will slide
between these two rows of teeth from one end of the saw to the other.

[Illustration: Fig. 88. Rip-Sawing on a Horse.]

In action the points, especially their forward edges, cut or score the
fibres of wood, and then the triangular elevation of wood left between
the two rows of points is crumbled off by friction as the saw
passes through. Thus it drops farther and farther into the cut. A
crosscut-saw may be thought of as a series of knife points, arranged
in two parallel rows. Ordinarily the angle of the "face" of each tooth
with the line of the teeth is about 65°, and slightly steeper than the
back of the tooth. The angle of the cutting edge of each tooth may be
filed more acute when the saw is to be used for soft wood only.

A crosscut-saw when used to rip a board, works slowly, for there is no
chisel action to cut out the fibres between the points, but the cut,
tho slow, is smooth. In cutting diagonally across a piece of wood,
especially soft wood, a rip-saw cuts faster, but a crosscut, smoother.
In ripping a board, allowance should always be made for planing to the
line afterward. In starting a cut with the rip-saw, the weight of the
saw should be borne by the right hand so that the teeth may pass over
the edge of the wood as lightly as possible. The left thumb acts as
a guide. If the saw be handled thus, and the angle with the board be
quite acute, it is not necessary to start with a back stroke. When the
kerf is well started, the whole weight of the saw may be applied. An
easy light stroke is better than a furious one. The line should
be followed carefully, but if the saw runs from the line it may be
brought back by taking short strokes near the point of the saw and
twisting the blade slightly in the desired direction. If the saw binds
and buckles because of the springing together of the wood, the kerf
may be wedged open with a screwdriver or a bit of waste wood. A drop
of oil rubbed across each side of the saw will make it work more

Care should be taken in finishing a cut to hold up firmly the part
of the wood which is being sawn off so that it will not split off or

[Illustration: Fig. 89. Rip-sawing with Wood Held in Bench-Vise.]

Sawing may be done either on a saw-horse, Fig. 88, or at a bench. For
big, rough work, the former is the common way, the worker holding the
material in place with one knee, because this method enables him to
exert his greatest strength. A convenient way for rip-sawing a small
piece of wood is to insert it in the vise, Fig. 89, with the broad
side of the board parallel to the vise screw, and the board inclined
away from the worker who stands upright. The start is easy, the
sawdust does not cover the line, and the board is not in danger of
splitting. The board, however, has to be reversed after it is sawn
part way thru, in order to finish the saw cut.

The _back-saw_ or _tenon-saw_, Fig. 90, is a fine crosscut-saw, with
a rib of steel along the back, which gives to it its name. Since it is
intended for small accurate work, the teeth have little or no set.

In sawing, the wood may be held either in the vise or on the
bench-hook. To help start the saw and at the same time to keep the
edges of the cut sharp, it is well to make a little groove with the
knife, on the waste side of the line to be followed, cutting the side
of the groove next to the line at right angles to the surface. The saw
drops directly into this groove, Fig. 91. In starting the saw cut, the
saw should be guided by holding the thumb of the left hand against the
side of the saw just above the teeth. Until the kerf is well started,
the saw should be held so that the teeth just touch the wood. It is
better not to attempt to start the saw level, i.e., with the teeth
resting clear across the wood, but the handle should be raised so that
the start is made only at the farther edge of the wood. Then as the
saw is gradually lowered, the kerf will extend quite across the wood.
Fig. 92. When the back-saw is used for ripping, the wood is held in
the vise, end up. Begin sawing as in crosscutting, that is, at the
farther corner with the handle end of the saw up, and gradually drop
the handle. Watch the lines on both the front and back sides, and if
necessary, reverse the piece to follow them.

[Illustration: Fig. 90. Using the Back-Saw with Bench-Hook.]

[Illustration: Fig. 91. Starting a Saw Cut in a Trough Cut With Knife.]

[Illustration: Fig. 92. Direction of the Back-Saw.]

[Illustration: Fig. 93. Dovetail-saw.]

[Illustration: Fig. 94. Compass-Saw.]

The _dovetail-saw_, Fig. 93, is a small back-saw for delicate work.

The _compass-saw_, Fig. 94, is narrow, pointed, thick, to prevent
buckling, and with a wide set to the teeth, to help in following the
curves. The teeth are a cross between the rip and crosscut teeth. It
is used in sawing curves.

The _turning-saw_, Fig. 95, is a narrow saw, set in a frame, which
stretches the saw tight, so that it works as a tension saw (cf. p. 62).
The best frames are made so that the handles which hold the blade
can revolve in the frame. The turning-saw is used chiefly for cutting
curves. A 14 inch blade, 3/16 of an inch wide is a good size for
ordinary use. The teeth are like those of a rip-saw, so that they are
quite likely to tear the wood in cutting across the grain. Allowance
should be made for this and the surplus removed with a spokeshave. The
turning-saw may be used to cut on either the pulling or the pushing
stroke, with the teeth pointed either toward or away from the worker.
The pulling cut is generally better, as it puts less strain on the
frame than the pushing cut. Both hands should grasp the frame as near
the end of the blade as possible, Fig. 95. Turns are made by revolving
the frame on the blade as an axis, which should always be kept at
right angles to the surface of the board. Care should be taken not to
twist the blade.

[Illustration: Fig. 95. Using a Turning Saw.]

[Illustration: Fig. 96. Saw-Vise.]

_To file and set a saw_, the saw is first fastened in the saw-vise,
Fig. 96, with the teeth up. It is then top-jointed by running a flat
file or a saw-jointer, Fig. 97, back and forth lengthwise along the
tops of the teeth to bring them to a level. After jointing the saw
should be set. For this purpose a saw-set, Fig. 98, is necessary.
Every alternate tooth is bent in the direction of its set by the
plunger in the instrument pushing against the anvil, which is an
adjustable eccentric disc. After the saw is set, it is filed. This
is done with a triangular file, Fig. 144, p. 90, which is held in
the right hand and its point in the thumb and fingers of the left.
Pressure is applied only on the forward stroke, which should be long
and even, the file being raised above the tooth on the return stroke.
The file should cut in the direction of the set, that is, the teeth
having the set away from the worker are filed first. Every alternate
tooth, 1st. 3d, 5th, etc., is filed, and then the saw is reversed and
the other set, the 2nd, 4th, 6th, etc., is filed.

[Illustration: Fig. 97. A Saw-Jointer.]

[Illustration: Fig. 98. Saw-Set.]

In filing a rip-saw the file should move exactly perpendicularly to
the plane of the saw blade, that is, directly across the teeth. The
filing is done on the back of the teeth, the file just touching the
face of the next one. The filing is continued, with one, two, or three
strokes, for each tooth, as the case may require, or just until each
tooth is sharp.

In filing a crosscut-saw, the file is held pointing upward and toward
the point of the saw. The file should cut in the direction of the
set. The angle of the cutting edge is determined by the horizontal
inclination of the file to the blade; the angle of the point is
determined by the perpendicular inclination of the file to the blade.
Finally the sides of the teeth are rubbed lightly with a slipstone to
remove the wire edge. It should always be remembered that a saw is an
edge tool, and its edges are as liable to injury as any edges.


The _plane_ is a modified chisel. The chief difference in action
between a chisel and a plane in paring is this: the back of the chisel
lies close down on the surface of the wood that is cut, and acts as a
guide; whereas, in the plane, the cutter is elevated at an angle away
from the surface of the wood, and only its cutting edge touches the
wood, and it is held and guided mechanically by the plane mechanism.
In other words, a plane is a chisel firmly held in a device which
raises the cutter at an angle from the work, regulates the depth of
the cut, and favors the cutting rather than the splitting action.
An illustration of a chisel converted into a plane is the adjustable
_chisel-gage_, Fig. 99.

[Illustration: Fig. 99. Adjustable Chisel-Gage.]

[Illustration: Fig. 100. Wooden Bench-Plane.]

[Illustration: Fig. 101. Section of Jack Plane.]

The plane has developed as follows: it was first a chisel held in
a block of wood. This is all that oriental planes are now, simply a
sharpened wedge driven into a block of wood. When the hole works too
loose, the Japanese carpenter inserts a piece of paper to tighten it,
or he makes a new block. The first improvement was the addition of
a wooden wedge to hold in place the "plane-iron", as the cutter was
formerly called. In this form, the cutter or plane-iron, tho still
wedge-shaped, was reversed, being made heavier at the cutting edge in
order to facilitate fastening it in the wooden plane-stock by means of
the wooden wedge. Then a handle was added for convenience. Then came
the cap, the object of which is to break back the shaving and thus
weaken it as soon as possible after it is cut. Until a few years ago,
this was all that there was in a plane, and such planes are still
common, Fig. 100. Finally there appeared the iron plane, Fig. 101,
with it various mechanical adjustments. The following are the parts of
the Bailey iron plane:[4]

  1. Cutter, or bit, or blade, or _plane-iron_.
  2. Cap, or _plane-iron cap_, or curling iron.
  3. Cutter screw, or _plane-iron Screw_.
  4. Clamp, or _lever cap_, or wedge.
  5. Clamp screw, or _cap screw_.
  6. _Frog_.
  7. _Y Adjustment_.
  8. Brass set screw, or _brass adjusting nut_.
  9. Lever (for _lateral adjustment_).
  10. _Frog screw_.
  11. _Handle_.
  12. _Knob_.
  13. _Handle bolt and nut_.
  14. Knob screw, or _Knob bolt and nut_.
  15. _Handle screw_.
  16. _Bottom_, or sole.
  17. Toe.
  18. Heel.
  19. Throat.
  20. Thumb piece, or clamp lever, or cam.

    [Footnote 4: The numbers and names in italics are those given in
    Stanley's Catalog, No. 34. Some of these names, as "plane-iron,"
    are survivals from the days of the wooden plane and are obviously
    unsuitable now.]

There are various principles involved in the action of the plane. The
effect of the flat sole is to regulate the cut of the cutter. If the
surface be uneven, the cutter will not cut at all, or but little, in
passing over low places, since the toe and heel of the sole will then
be resting on higher places; but when the cutter reaches a high place
a shaving will be taken off. Hence it follows that the longer the
plane, the straighter will be the surface produced. The length of the
plane used is determined by the length of the wood to be planed, and
the degree of straightness desired.

The part of the sole directly in front of the cutter presses firmly
down on the wood and so prevents the shaving from splitting far in
advance of the edge. It follows that the narrowness of the mouth in
a plane is an important factor in the production of smooth surfaces.
This can be regulated by adjusting the toe in the block-plane, and by
moving the frog in the jack- and smooth-planes.

A recent improvement in jack-, smooth-, and fore-planes consists of
an adjustable frog, by means of which the throat can be narrowed
or widened at will by means of a set-screw in the rear of the frog
without removing the clamp and cutter. It is made by Sargent
and Company. The Stanley "Bed Rock" plane has a similar but less
convenient device.

[Illustration: Fig. 102. Sighting Along the Sole of Jack-Plane.]

The splitting of the wood in advance of the edge is also prevented by
the breaking of the shaving as it hits against the cutter or its cap.
Hence the advantage of bending up and breaking or partly breaking the
shaving as soon as possible after it is cut. This shows why the cap is
set close to the edge of the cutter. Another reason is that it thereby
stiffens the cutter and prevents "chattering." If a thick shaving be
desired the cap has to be set farther back. In a smooth-plane 1/32
inch is enough, in a jack-plane 1/8 inch is often desirable. The
following are the planes in common use:

The _jack-plane_, Fig. 102, 14" to 15" long, is the one used where a
considerable amount of material is to be taken off to bring a piece of
wood to size, and therefore the outline of the cutting edge instead of
being straight is slightly curved or "crowned" so that in planing the
surface of a board it makes a series of shallow grooves, the ridges
of which must afterward be smoothed off by another plane. Also for
beginners whose hands are not strong it is sometimes wise to grind the
cutter with some "crown", in order to take off narrow shavings, which
require less strength. For school use, where the jack-plane is used
for all purposes, the cutter is usually ground almost straight and
only the corners rounded as in the smooth-plane and the fore-plane.[5]

    [Footnote 5: In whetting a plane-bit, a slight crown may be given
    it by rubbing a bit harder at the ends of the edge than in the
    middle. Strop in the same way as a chisel (p. 59).]

The _fore-plane_, 22" to 26" long, and the _jointer_, 28" to 30" long,
are large planes, similar to the jack-plane, except that the cutting
edge is straight. They are used for straightening and smoothing long

The _smooth-plane_, 5-1/2" to 10" long, is a short plane, similar to
the jack-plane, except that the cutting edge is straight. It is used
for smoothing.

These four planes, the jack-plane, the fore-plane, the jointer, and
the smooth-plane, are essentially alike, and directions for the use of
one apply to all.

There are two chief adjustments in the Bailey iron plane: the brass
set-screw, see 8 in Fig. 101, which regulates the depth of the cut,
and the lever, 9, which moves the cutter sidewise so that it may be
made to cut evenly. The skilful worker keeps constant watch of these
adjustments. It is well to form the habit of always sighting along
the sole before beginning to plane, in order to see that the cutter
projects properly, Fig. 102. It is a common mistake among beginners to
let the cutter project too far.

It is important to know what is the best order of procedure in planing
up a board. There are often reasons for omitting the planing up of
one or more surfaces, but it is wise to form the habit of following a
regular order, and the following is suggested as a good one:

1. Working face. Plane one broad side flat and smooth. Finish with the
plane set to cut line shavings. Test with try-square. Mark this face
with a distinct pencil mark, A, Fig. 103.

2. Working edge. Plane one narrow side straight and square with
the working face. Test with try-square, pressing the block of the
try-square against the working face. Mark the working edge with two
distinct pencil marks, B, Fig. 103.

3. End. First mark the width on the working face with the
marking-gage, C, 1-2, Fig. 103. Chisel off the corner, _a_, of the
piece outside this gaged line. True and smooth this end with the
plane, making it square with both working face and working edge, D, 2,
3, 4, Fig. 103.

4. Length. Measure the length from the finished end, D, 2-3-4, score
across the working face, D, 5-6, and working edge, D, 6-7, using a
sharp knife point and the try-square. Saw just outside this line, D,
5-6-7, with the back-saw, cut off the narrow corner, D, _b_, beyond
the gaged line and plane true, E, Fig. 103.

5. Width. Plane to the center of the gaged line, E, 1-2. Test this
edge from the working face, F, Fig. 103.

6. Thickness. Mark the thickness with the marking-gage all around the
piece, F, 8-9-10. Plane to the center of the gaged line, G, Fig. 103.
Test this face for flatness.

[Illustration: Fig. 103. The Order of Planing a Board.]

In a word, the order to be followed is graphically represented in
H, Fig. 103. The surfaces are numbered consecutively in the order in
which they are to be planed.

The advantages of this order are these: by planing the working face
first, a broad surface is secured to which the others may be made
true. By planing the ends before the width is planed, the danger of
splitting off fragments can be avoided by chiseling the corner of the
unfinished edges, C, _a_, and D, _b_, Fig. 103, into a buttress.
By planing the ends and the width before the thickness is planed,
a dressed face is secured all around for gaging the thickness. In
following this order all measurements and markings are made on a
dressed face.

[Illustration: Fig. 104. Sighting for Wind.]

If there be any "wind" or twist in the board, this should be
discovered first of all. This may be done roughly by sighting across
the broad side of the board, Fig. 104, and more accurately by the
use of "winding sticks," see Fig. 205, p. 113. Or the surface may be
tested with the plane itself by tilting the plane on its long corner
edge, and resting it on the board, while the worker looks between the
board and the plane toward the light. It is evident that the plane
must be turned in various directions to test for wind, and that a
board only as long or as wide as the plane is long can be tested in
this way. The try-square or any straight edge may be used for the same
purpose, Fig. 105. If there be any wind in the board, this should at
once be taken out of one face by planing down the high corners.

[Illustration: Fig. 105. Testing from Edge to Edge.]

In starting to plane, the worker should bear down on the knob at the
front end of the plane. When the plane is well on the board, he should
bear down equally on both knob and handle, and as the plane begins to
pass off the board he should put all the pressure on the handle end,
Fig. 106. By taking pains thus, a convex surface will be avoided, the
making of which is a common error of beginners. On the return stroke,
the plane should be lifted or tilted so that the cutting edge will
not be dulled by rubbing on the wood. This is especially important
on rough and dirty boards, as it saves the cutting edge, and in fine
work, as it saves the work. If the plane tear the wood instead of
cutting it smooth, as it should, it is because the planing is "against
the grain". This can often be avoided by noticing the direction of
the grain before beginning to plane. But even if it be not noted
beforehand, a stroke or two will show the roughness. In such a case,
it is necessary simply to turn the wood around.

[Illustration: Fig. 106. Planing an Edge.]

The accuracy of the work as it progresses should frequently be tested,
and the eye should constantly be trained so that it can more and more
be depended upon to detect inaccuracy, Fig. 107. As each surface is
trued, it should be carefully smoothed with the cutter set to cut fine

[Illustration: Fig. 107. Sighting an Edge.]

In planing a very cross-grained piece of wood, there are several
methods to use for securing a smooth surface. The frog of the plane
should be moved forward so that the throat in the front of the cutter
is a mere slit. In the ordinary plane it is necessary to remove the
cutter in order to reset the frog, but in the Sargent plane and the
Stanley "bed rock" plane, it can be set by a set-screw at the rear of
the frog. Next, the cap should be set so that the cutter projects but
very little beyond it, or, in technical language, the cutter should be
set "fine." A sliding cut, see p. 53, should be taken with the plane,
and sometimes it may be necessary to move the plane nearly at right
angles to the general direction of the grain. By these means even
refractory pieces of wood can be well smoothed. See also scrapers, p.

The choking of a plane is the stoppage of the throat by shavings.
It may be due simply to the fact that the cutter is dull or that
it projects too far below the sole of the plane. In a wooden plane
choking is sometimes due to the crowding of shavings under some part
of the wedge. When the adjustable frog in a modern plane is improperly
placed choking may result. The frog should be far enough forward so
that the cutter rests squarely upon it.

Choking may, and most commonly does, take place because the cap does
not fit down tight on the cutter. This happens if the cap be nicked or
uneven. In consequence, minute shavings are driven between these two
irons and choking soon results. The remedy is to sharpen the cap, so
that its edge makes a close fit with the cutter. The fit may be made
still tighter by rubbing with a screwdriver the edge of the cap down
on the cutter after it is screwed in place.

In no tool is it more important to keep the cutter sharp than in the
plane. To remove the cutter, in order to sharpen it, first loosen the
clamp lever and remove the clamp. Carefully remove the cap and cutter
taking pains not to let the edge hit any part of the plane, then using
the clamp as a screwdriver, loosen the cap-screw and slide the cap
back along the slot in the cutter, where it can be held fast by a turn
of the cap-screw. The edge is now free and can readily be whetted.
When the cap needs to be entirely removed, for instance, for grinding,
after it has been slid along the cutter slot, as before, it is turned
at right angles to the cutter, and then slid down the slot until the
cap-screw unbuttons from the cutter. The object in sliding the cap up
the slot before turning it, is to prevent the danger of injuring the
edge. Some caps are now made with the buttonhole at the upper end of
the slot.

After sharpening, (see under sharpening, p. 117.) the order is
reversed for replacing the cutter. The cap is set at right angles to
the cutter, the cap-screw dropped into the slot, the cap is slid up
the slot, and turned into line with the cutter, and then slid down the
slot till the edge of the cap comes quite near the edge of the cutter.
Then the two are held firmly together with the left hand until the cap
screw is turned tight.

In replacing the cutter and cap in the plane, care should be taken not
to injure the edge and to see that the Y adjustment lever fits into
the little slot in the cap; then finally the lever is thrown down
tight. Then, by turning the plane sole upward and glancing down it,
the proper adjustments with the brass set-screw and lateral adjustment
lever are made. When the plane is not being used, it should rest
either on a pillow (a little strip of wood in the bench trough), or on
its side. In no case should it be dropped sole down flat on the bench.

The _block-plane_, Fig. 108, gets its name from the fact that it was
first made for planing off the ends of clap-boards, a process called
"blocking in".

[Illustration: Fig. 108. Section of Block-Plane.]

The names of the parts of the Bailey block-plane are[6]:

  1. Cutter or bit or _plane-iron_.
  2. Clamp or _lever cup_.
  3. _Cap-screw_.
  4. _Adjusting lever_.
  5. _Adjusting nut_.
  6. _Lateral adjustment_.
  7. _Bottom_.
  8. _Mouth piece_.
  9. _Eccentric plate_.
  10. _Knob_.

    [Footnote 6: See footnote p. 70]

The block-plane was devised for use with one hand, as when it is used
by carpenters in planing pieces not readily taken to a vise or in
planing with a bench-hook. Hence it is made small, 3-1/2" to 8" long,
the clamp is rounded so as to act as a handle, and the cutter is
lowered to an angle of about 20° to make the plane easy to grasp. The
lower angle of the cutter makes it necessary that the bevel be on the
upper side. Otherwise, to give clearance, the bevel would have to be
made so long and so thin as to be weak. By putting the bevel up, the
angle between the wood and the cutter is maintained practically as in
the smooth-plane. Since the block-plane is intended chiefly for use
on end grain, no cap is needed to break the shavings. The adjustable
throat makes it possible to cut a very fine shaving. To facilitate the
cutting action, several forms of block-planes with a very low angle
are now made.

Where both hands are free to hold the plane, the block-plane has no
advantage over a smooth-plane, even on end grain. Moreover, the cutter
cannot be held so firmly in place as that of a smooth-plane, so that
it requires constant adjustment. Hence it is not an easy tool for
amateurs to handle. There is considerable lost motion in the adjusting
nut, and the set-screw, which acts as a knob, is likely to work loose
and be lost. It is hardly to be recommended as a part of the equipment
of the individual bench in school shops.

The piece to be planed with the block-plane may be held either in
the vise, end up, or on a bench-hook, Fig. 109. In end planing in the
vise, in order to avoid splintering the precaution should be taken to
trim off a corner on the undressed edge, as directed on page 73, or
else the planing must be done from both edges toward the center. The
sliding cut is much easier than the straight cut, and hence there is
a constant temptation to turn the plane at an angle perhaps at an
expense of the flat surface desired.

[Illustration: Fig. 109. Using the Block-Plane and Bench-Hook.]

In using the bench-hook the piece to be block-planed is placed with
the working edge against the block, with the end to be planed to the
right and flush with the edge of the bench-hook, in which position it
is held with the left hand. The block-plane, held in the right hand,
is placed on its side on the bench facing toward the work. In
planing, the left hand holds the work firmly against the block of the
bench-hook, pressing it somewhat to the right against the plane. The
right hand holds the side of the plane flat on the bench and presses
it to the left against the bench-hook and work. Held in this position
the plane is pushed forward and back until the end is smoothed.
Considerable practice is necessary to handle the block-plane well.

The _scrub-plane_ is a short plane in which the crown of the cutter,
Fig. 110, is quite curved. It is used to reduce surfaces rapidly.

The _scratch-plane_, Fig. 111, has a toothed cutter which scratches
fine lines along its course. It is used to roughen surfaces of hard
wood which are to be glued together, for otherwise the glue would not
adhere well. Some tropical woods are so hard that their surfaces can
be reduced only by a scratch-plane. It is also useful in preparing the
surface of a very cross-grained piece of wood which cannot be planed
without chipping. By first scratching it carefully in all directions,
it can then be scraped smooth. It is also called a _scraper-plane_,
because accompanying the plane is a scraper which can be inserted in
the same stock and inclined at any required angle. This plane-stock
prevents the scraper from unduly lowering some portions of the
surface. See also veneer-scraper, p. 91.

[Illustration: Fig. 110. Cutter of Scrub-Plane.]

[Illustration: Fig. 111. Scratch-Plane and Scraper-Plane.]

[Illustration: Fig. 112. Rabbet-Plane.]

[Illustration: Fig. 113. Molding-Plane.]

The _rabbeting-_ or _rebating-plane_, Fig. 112, is designed for use
in cutting out a rectangular recess, such as the rabbet on the back of
the picture-frames. In line with the right hand corner of the cutter
is a removable spur to score the wood so that the shaving which
follows may be cut out clean and not torn out. With the addition of a
guiding fence it is called a _filletster_. This may be used on either
the right or left side. In the form shown in Fig. 112, there is also a
depth gage.

In using this plane see that the corner of the cutter is in line with
the sole, and that both it and the spur are sharp. Set the fence and
the stop at the desired width and depth of the rabbet. At the first
stroke the spur will score the width. This and every stroke should
be taken as evenly and carefully as if it were the only one. In the
effort to keep the fence pressed close to the side of the wood, the
tendency is to tilt the plane over. This causes the very opposite
effect from that desired, for the spur runs off diagonally, as in Fig.

[Illustration: Fig. 114. Result of Careless use of Rabbet-Plane.]

If this happens stop planing at once, clean out the recess properly
with a chisel and then proceed.

The _dado-plane_ is much like the rabbeting-plane, except that it
is provided with two spurs, one at each side of the cutting edge, to
score the wood before cutting.

The _molding-plane_, Fig. 113, as it name indicates, is for making
moldings of various forms; as, quarter-round, half-round, ogee, etc.

[Illustration: Fig. 115. Tonguing-and-Grooving Plane.]

The _tonguing-and-grooving-plane_, Fig. 115, is for matching boards,
i.e. making a tongue in one to fit into a groove in another. See Fig.
269, No. 72, p. 182.

The _circular-plane_, Fig. 116, has a flexible steel face which can
be adjusted to any required arc, convex or concave, so that curved
surfaces may be planed.

[Illustration: Fig. 116. Circular-Plane.]

The _universal plane_, Fig. 117, is a combination of various molding-,
rabbeting-, matching- and other planes. It is capable of many
adjustments and applications. The principal parts of this plane are:
a _main stock_, _A_, with two sets of transverse sliding arms, a
_depth-gage_, _F_, adjusted by a screw, and a _slitting cutter_ with
stop, a _sliding section_, _B_, with a vertically adjustable bottom,
the _auxiliary center bottom_, _C_, to be placed when needed in front
of the cutter as an extra support or stop. This bottom is adjustable
both vertically and laterally. _Fences_, _D and E_. For fine work,
fence _D_ has a lateral adjustment by means of a thumb-screw. The
fences can be used on either side of the plane, and the rosewood
guides can be tilted to any desired angle up to 45°, by loosening the
screws on the face. Fence _E_ can be reversed for center-beading wide
boards. For work thinner than the depth of the fence, the work
may overhang the edge of the bench and fence _E_ be removed. An
_adjustable stop_, to be used in beading the edges of matched boards,
is inserted on the left side of the sliding section _B_. A great
variety of cutters are supplied, such as: molding, matching,
sash, beading, reeding, fluting, hollow, round, plow, rabbet, and
filletster. Special shapes can be obtained by order.

[Illustration: Fig. 117. Universal Plane.]

_The Use of the Universal Plane._ Insert the proper cutter, adjusting
it so that the portion of it in line with the main stock, _A_, will
project below the sole the proper distance for cutting.

Adjust the bottom of the sliding section, _B_, so that the lowest
portion of the cutter will project the proper distance below it for
cutting. Tighten the check nuts on the transverse arms and _then_
tighten the thumb-screws which secure the sliding section to the arms.
The sliding section is not always necessary, as in a narrow rabbet or

When an additional support is needed for the cutter, the auxiliary
center bottom, _C_, may be adjusted in front of it. This may also be
used as a stop.

[Illustration: Fig. 118. Iron Spokeshave.]

[Illustration: Fig. 119. Pattern-maker's Spokeshave.]

Adjust one or both of the fences, _D_ and _E_, and fasten with the
thumb-screws. Adjust the depth-gage, _F_, at the proper depth.

For a _dado_ remove the fences and set the spurs parallel with the
edges of the cutter. Insert the long adjustable stop on the left hand
of the sliding section. For slitting, insert the cutter and stop on
the right side of the main stock and use either fence for a guide.

For a _chamfer_, insert the desired cutter, and tilt the rosewood
guides on the fences to the required angle. For _chamfer beading_ use
in the same manner, and gradually feed the cutter down by means of the
adjusting thumb-nut.

There are also a number of planelike tools such as the following:

The _spoke-shave_, Fig. 118, works on the same principle as a plane,
except that the guiding surface is very short. This adapts it to work
with curved outlines. It is a sort of regulated draw-shave. It is
sometimes made of iron with an adjustable mouth, which is a convenient
form for beginners to use, and is easy to sharpen. The _pattern-makers
spokeshave_, Fig. 119, which has a wooden frame, is better suited to
more careful work. The method of using the spokeshave is shown in Fig.
120. (See p. 100.)

[Illustration: Fig. 120. Using a Spokeshave.]

The _router-plane_, Figs. 121 and 122, is used to lower a certain part
of a surface and yet keep it parallel with the surrounding part, and
it is particularly useful in cutting panels, dadoes, and grooves. The
cutter has to be adjusted for each successive cut. Where there are a
number of dadoes to be cut of the same depth, it is wise not to finish
them one at a time, but to carry on the cutting of all together,
lowering the cutter after each round. In this way all the dadoes will
be finished at exactly the same depth.

[Illustration: Fig. 121. Router-Plane.]

The _dowel-pointer_, Fig. 123, is a convenient tool for removing the
sharp edges from the ends of dowel pins. It is held in a brace. The
cutter is adjustable and is removable for sharpening.

The _cornering tool_, Fig. 124, is a simple device for rounding sharp
corners. A cutter at each end cuts both ways so that it can be used
with the grain without changing the position of the work. The depth of
the cut is fixed.

[Illustration: Fig. 122. Using a Router-Plane.]


Some boring tools, like awls, force the material apart, and some, like
augers, remove material.

The _brad-awl_, Fig. 125, is wedge-shaped, and hence care needs to
be taken in using it to keep the edge across the grain so as to avoid
splitting the wood, especially thin wood. The size is indicated by the
length of the blade when new,--a stupid method. The awl is useful for
making small holes in soft wood, and it can readily be sharpened by

[Illustration: Fig. 123. Dowel-Pointer.]

[Illustration: Fig. 124. Cornering Tool.]

[Illustration: Fig. 125. Brad-Awl.]

[Illustration: Fig. 126. Twist-Drill.]

[Illustration: Fig. 127. Twist-Bit.]

[Illustration: Fig. 128. German Gimlet-Bit.]

[Illustration: Fig. 129. Bit-Point Drill.]

[Illustration: Fig. 130. Auger-Bit.]

[Illustration: Fig. 131. Plug-Cutter.]

[Illustration: Fig. 132. Center-Bit.]

[Illustration: Fig. 133. Foerstner Auger-Bit.]

[Illustration: Fig. 134. Expansive-Bit.]

[Illustration: Fig. 135. Reamer.]

[Illustration: Fig. 136. Rose Countersink.]

_Gimlets_ and _drills_ are alike in that they cut away material, but
unlike in that the cutting edge of the gimlet is on the side, while
the cutting edge of the drill is on the end.

_Twist-drills_, Fig. 126, are very hard and may be used in drilling
metal. They are therefore useful where there is danger of meeting
nails, as in repair work. Their sizes are indicated by a special drill
gage, Fig. 220, p. 117.

_Twist-bits_, Fig. 127, are like twist-drills except that they are not
hard enough to use for metal. Their sizes are indicated on the tang
in 32nds of an inch. Both twist-bits and drill-bits have the advantage
over gimlet-bits in that they are less likely to split the wood.

Twist-bits and twist-drills are sharpened on a grindstone, care being
taken to preserve the original angle of the cutting edge so that the
edge will meet the wood and there will be clearance.

_German gimlet-bits_, Fig. 128, have the advantage of centering well.
The size is indicated on the tang in 32nds of an inch. They are useful
in boring holes for short blunt screws as well as deep holes. They
cannot be sharpened readily but are cheap and easily replaced.

_Bit-point drills_, Fig. 129, are useful for accurate work, but are

_Auger-bits_, Fig. 130, have several important features. The spur
centers the bit in its motion, and since it is in the form of a
pointed screw draws the auger into the wood. Two sharp nibs on either
side score the circle, out of which the lips cut the shavings, which
are then carried out of the hole by the main screw of the tool. The
size of auger-bits is indicated by a figure on the tang in 16ths of an
inch. Thus 9 means a diameter of 9/16".

There are three chief precautions to be taken in using auger-bits. (1)
One is to bore perpendicularly to the surface. A good way to do this
is to lay the work flat, either on the bench or in the vise, and sight
first from the front and then from the side of the work, to see that
the bit is perpendicular both ways. The test may also be made with the
try-square, Fig. 137, or with a plumb-line, either by the worker,
or in difficult pieces, by a fellow worker. The sense of
perpendicularity, however, should constantly be cultivated. (2)
Another precaution is that, in thru boring, the holes should not be
bored quite thru from one side, lest the wood be splintered off on the
back. When the spur pricks thru, the bit should be removed, the piece
turned over, and the boring finished, putting the spur in the hole
which is pricked thru in boring from the first side. It is seldom
necessary to press against the knob of the brace in boring, as the
thread on the spur will pull the bit thru, especially in soft wood.
Indeed, as the bit reaches nearly thru the board, if the knob is
gently pulled back, then when the spur pricks thru the bit will
be pulled out of its hole. This avoids the necessity of constantly
watching the back of the board to see if the spur is thru. (3) In stop
boring, as in boring for dowels or in making a blind mortise, care
should be taken not to bore thru the piece. For this purpose an
auger-bit-gage, Fig. 219, p. 116, may be used, or a block of wood of
the proper length thru which a hole has been bored, may be slipped
over the bit, or the length of bit may be noted before boring, and
then the length of the projecting portion deducted, or the number of
turns needed to reach the required depth may be counted on a trial
piece. Tying a string around a bit, or making a chalk mark on it is

[Illustration: Fig. 137. Using a Try-Square as a Guide in Boring.]

Auger-bits are sharpened with an auger-bit file, Fig. 142, p. 90, a
small flat file with two narrow safe edges at one end and two wide
safe edges at the other. The "nibs" should be filed on the inside so
that the diameter of the cut may remain as large as that of the body
of the bit. The cutting lip should be sharpened from the side toward
the spur, care being taken to preserve the original angle so as to
give clearance. If sharpened from the upper side, that is, the side
toward the shank, the nibs will tend to become shorter.

The _plug-cutter_, Fig. 131, is useful for cutting plugs with which to
cover the heads of screws that are deeply countersunk.

_Center-bits_, Fig. 132, work on the same principle as auger-bits,
except that the spurs have no screw, and hence have to be pushed
forcibly into the wood. Sizes are given in 16ths of an inch. They are
useful for soft wood, and in boring large holes in thin material which
is likely to split. They are sharpened in the same way as auger-bits.

_Foerstner bits_, Fig. 133, are peculiar in having no spur, but
are centered by a sharp edge around the circumference. The size is
indicated on the tang, in 16ths of an inch. They are useful in boring
into end grain, and in boring part way into wood so thin that a spur
would pierce thru. They can be sharpened only with special appliances.

_Expansive-bits_, Fig. 134, are so made as to bore holes of different
sizes by adjusting the movable nib and cutter. There are two sizes,
the small one with two cutters, boring from 1/2" to 1-1/2" and the
large one with three cutters boring from 7/8" to 4". They are very
useful on particular occasions, but have to be used with care.

_Reamers_, Fig. 135, are used for enlarging holes already made. They
are made square, half-round and six cornered in shape.

_Countersinks_, Fig. 136, are reamers in the shape of a flat cone, and
are used to make holes for the heads of screws. The rose countersink
is the most satisfactory form.

[Illustration: Fig. 138. Washer-Cutter.]

The _washer-cutter_, Fig. 138, is useful not only for cutting
out washers but also for cutting holes in thin wood. The size is


The primitive celt, which was hardly more than a wedge, has been
differentiated into three modern hand tools, the _chisel_, see above,
p. 53, the _ax_, Fig. 139, and the _adze_, Fig. 141.

The _ax_ has also been differentiated into the _hatchet_, with a short
handle, for use with one hand, while the ax-handle is long, for use
with two hands. Its shape is an adaption to its manner of use. It is
oval in order to be strongest in the direction of the blow and also
in order that the axman may feel and guide the direction of the blade.
The curve at the end is to avoid the awkward raising of the left
hand at the moment of striking the blow, and the knob keeps it from
slipping thru the hand. In both ax and hatchet there is a two-beveled
edge. This is for the sake of facility in cutting into the wood at any

There are two principal forms, the common ax and the two bitted ax,
the latter used chiefly in lumbering. There is also a wedge-shaped ax
for splitting wood. As among all tools, there is among axes a great
variety for special uses.

[Illustration: Fig. 139. Ax.]

[Illustration: Fig. 140. Shingling Hatchet.]

[Illustration: Fig. 141. Carpenter's Adze.]

The _hatchet_ has, beside the cutting edge, a head for driving nails,
and a notch for drawing them, thus combining three tools in one. The
shingling hatchet, Fig. 140, is a type of this.

The _adze_, the carpenter's house adze, Fig. 141, is flat on the lower
side, since its use is for straightening surfaces.



(1) Cutting.
      Goss, p. 22.
      Smith, R. H., pp. 1-8.

      Barnard, pp. 59-73.
      Selden, pp. 44-50, 145-147.
      Barter, pp. 93-96.
      Griffith, pp. 53-64.
      Goss, pp. 20-26.
      Sickels, pp. 64-67.
      Wheeler, 357, 421, 442.

      Barnard, pp. 48-58.
      Selden, pp. 26-28, 158.

      Griffith, pp. 20-27.
      Barnard, pp. 114-124.
      Selden, pp. 41-43, 179-182.
      Wheeler, pp. 466-473.
      Hammacher, pp. 309-366.
      Goss, pp. 26-41.
      Sickels, pp. 76-79, 84.
      Smith, R. H., 43-55.
      Diston, pp. 129-138.

      Barnard, pp. 74-80.
      Selden, pp. 11-26, 165-175.
      Sickels pp. 72-75, 116.
      Wheeler, pp. 445-458.
      Hammacher, pp. 377-400.
      Smith, R. H., 16-31.
      Larsson, p. 19.
      Goss, pp. 41-52.
      Barter, pp. 96-109.
      Griffith, pp. 28-45.

(2) Boring Tools.
      Barnard, pp. 125-135.
      Goss, pp. 53-59.
      Griffith, pp. 47-52.
      Seldon, pp. 38-40, 141-144.
      Wheeler, pp. 353-356.

(3) Chopping Tools.
      Barnard, pp. 80-88.

    [Footnote *: For general bibliography see p. 4.]




Scraping tools are of such nature that they can only abrade or smooth

[Illustration: Fig. 142. Auger-Bit-File.]

[Illustration: Fig. 143. Single-Cut Blunt, Flat, Bastard File.]

[Illustration: Fig. 144. Three-Square Single-Cut File.]

[Illustration: Fig. 145. Open Cut, Taper, Half-Round File.]

[Illustration: Fig. 146. Double-Cut File.]

[Illustration: Fig. 147. Cabinet Wood-Rasp.]

[Illustration: Fig. 148. File-Card.]

_Files._ Figs. 142-146, are formed with a series of cutting edges or
teeth. These teeth are cut when the metal is soft and cold and
then the tool is hardened. There are in use at least three thousand
varieties of files, each of which is adapted to its particular
purpose. Lengths are measured from point to heel exclusive of the
tang. They are classified: (1) according to their outlines into
blunt, (i. e., having a uniform cross section thruout), and taper;
(2) according to the shape of their cross-section, into flat, square,
three-square or triangular, knife, round or rat-tail, half-round,
etc.; (3) according to the manner of their serrations, into single cut
or "float" (having single, unbroken, parallel, chisel cuts across the
surface), double-cut, (having two sets of chisel cuts crossing each
other obliquely,) open cut, (having series of parallel cuts, slightly
staggered,) and safe edge, (or side,) having one or more uncut
surfaces; and (4) according to the fineness of the cut, as rough,
bastard, second cut, smooth, and dead smooth. The "mill file," a very
common form, is a flat, tapered, single-cut file.

[Illustration: Fig. 149. a. Diagram of a Rasp Tooth. b. Cross-Section
of a Single-Cut File.]

_Rasps_, Fig. 147, differ from files in that instead of having
cutting teeth made by lines, coarse projections are made by making
indentations with a triangular point when the iron is soft. The
difference between files and rasps is clearly shown in Fig. 149.

It is a good rule that files and rasps are to be used on wood only
as a last resort, when no cutting tool will serve. Great care must be
taken to file flat, not letting the tool rock. It is better to file
only on the forward stroke, for that is the way the teeth are made to
cut, and a flatter surface is more likely to be obtained.

Both files and rasps can be cleaned with a _file-card_, Fig. 148. They
are sometimes sharpened with a sandblast, but ordinarily when dull are

[Illustration: Fig. 150. Molding-Scrapers.]

_Scrapers_ are thin, flat pieces of steel. They may be rectangular, or
some of the edges may be curved. For scraping hollow surfaces curved
scrapers of various shapes are necessary. Convenient shapes are shown
in Fig. 150. The cutting power of scrapers depends upon the delicate
burr or feather along their edges. When properly sharpened they take
off not dust but fine shavings. Scrapers are particularly useful in
smoothing cross-grained pieces of wood, and in cleaning off glue, old
varnish, etc.

There are various devices for holding scrapers in frames or handles,
such as the scraper-plane, Fig. 111, p. 79, the veneer-scraper, and
box-scrapers. The _veneer-scraper_, Fig. 151, has the advantage that
the blade may be sprung to a slight curve by a thumb-screw in the
middle of the back, just as an ordinary scraper is when held in the

In use, Fig. 152, the scraper may be either pushed or pulled. When
pushed, the scraper is held firmly in both hands, the fingers on the
forward and the thumbs on the back side. It is tilted forward, away
from the operator, far enough so that it will not chatter and is bowed
back slightly, by pressure of the thumbs, so that there is no risk of
the corners digging in. When pulled the position is reversed.

[Illustration: Fig. 151. Using a Veneer-Scraper.]

One method of sharpening the scraper is as follows: the scraper is
first brought to the desired shape, straight or curved. This may be
done either by grinding on the grindstone or by filing with a smooth,
flat file, the scraper, while held in a vise. The edge is then
carefully draw-filed, i. e., the file, a smooth one, is held (one hand
at each end) directly at right angles to the edge of the scraper, Fig.
153, and moved sidewise from end to end of the scraper, until the edge
is quite square with the sides. Then the scraper is laid flat on the
oilstone and rubbed, first on one side and then on the other till the
sides are bright and smooth along the edge, Fig. 154. Then it is
set on edge on the stone and rubbed till there are two sharp square
corners all along the edge, Fig. 155. Then it is put in the vise again
and by means of a burnisher, or scraper steel, both of these corners
are carefully turned or bent over so as to form a fine burr. This is
done by tipping the scraper steel at a slight angle with the edge and
rubbing it firmly along the sharp corner, Fig. 156.

[Illustration: Fig. 152. Using a Cabinet-Scraper.]

To resharpen the scraper it is not necessary to file it afresh every
time, but only to flatten out the edges and turn them again with
slightly more bevel. Instead of using the oilstone an easier, tho
less perfect, way to flatten out the burr on the edges is to lay the
scraper flat on the bench near the edge. The scraper steel is then
passed rapidly to and fro on the flat side of the scraper, Fig. 157.
After that the edge should be turned as before.

[Illustration: Fig. 153. Sharpening a Cabinet-Scraper: 1st Step,

_Sandpaper._ The "sand" is crushed quartz and is very hard and sharp.
Other materials on paper or cloth are also used, as carborundum,
emery, and so on. Sandpaper comes in various grades of coarseness from
No. 00 (the finest) to No. 3, indicated on the back of each sheet. For
ordinary purposes No. 00 and No. 1 are sufficient. Sandpaper sheets
may readily be torn by placing the sanded side down, one-half of
the sheet projecting over the square edge of the bench. With a quick
downward motion the projecting portion easily parts. Or it may be torn
straight by laying the sandpaper on a bench, sand side down, holding
the teeth of a back-saw along the line to be torn. In this case, the
smooth surface of the sandpaper would be against the saw.

[Illustration: Fig. 154. Sharpening a Cabinet-Scraper: 2nd Step,

[Illustration: Fig. 155. Sharpening a Cabinet-Scraper: 3rd Step,
Removing the Wire-Edge.]

Sandpaper should never be used to scrape and scrub work into shape,
but only to obtain an extra smoothness. Nor ordinarily should it be
used on a piece of wood until all the work with cutting tools is done,
for the fine particles of sand remaining in the wood dull the edge of
the tool. Sometimes in a piece of cross-grained wood rough places will
be discovered by sandpapering. The surface should then be wiped free
of sand and scraped before using a cutting tool again. In order to
avoid cross scratches, work should be "sanded" with the grain, even if
this takes much trouble. For flat surfaces, and to touch off edges,
it is best to wrap the sandpaper over a rectangular block of wood,
of which the corners are slightly rounded, or it may be fitted over
special shapes of wood for specially shaped surfaces. The objection
to using the thumb or fingers instead of a block, is that the soft
portions of the wood are cut down faster than the hard portions,
whereas the use of a block tends to keep the surface even.

[Illustration: Fig. 156. Sharpening a Cabinet-Scraper: 4th Step,
Turning the Edge.]

_Steel wool_ is made by turning off fine shavings from the edges of
a number of thin discs of steel, held together in a lathe. There
are various grades of coarseness, from No. 00 to No. 3. Its uses
are manifold: as a substitute for sandpaper, especially on curved
surfaces, to clean up paint, and to rub down shellac to an "egg-shell"
finish. Like sandpaper it should not be used till all the work with
cutting tools is done. It can be manipulated until utterly worn out.


The _hammer_ consists of two distinct parts, the head and the handle.
The head is made of steel, so hard that it will not be indented by
hitting against nails or the butt of nailsets, punches, etc., which
are comparatively soft. It can easily be injured tho, by being driven
against steel harder than itself. The handle is of hickory and of an
oval shape to prevent its twisting in the hand.

[Illustration: Fig. 157. Resharpening a Cabinet-Scraper: Flattening
the Edge.]

Hammers may be classified as follows: (1) hammers for striking blows
only; as, the blacksmith's hammer and the stone-mason's hammer, and
(2) compound hammers, which consist of two tools combined, the face
for striking, and the "peen" which may be a claw, pick, wedge, shovel,
chisel, awl or round head for other uses. There are altogether about
fifty styles of hammers varying in size from a jeweler's hammer to
a blacksmith's great straight-handled sledge-hammer, weighing twenty
pounds or more. They are named mostly according to their uses; as,
the riveting-hammer, Fig. 159, the upholsterer's hammer, Fig. 160,
the veneering-hammer, Fig. 162, etc. Magnetized hammers, Fig. 161, are
used in many trades for driving brads and tacks, where it is hard to
hold them in place with the fingers.

[Illustration: Fig. 158. Claw-Hammer.]

[Illustration: Fig. 159. Riveting-Hammer.]

[Illustration: Fig. 160. Upholster's Hammer.]

[Illustration: Fig. 161. Magnetized Hammer.]

[Illustration: Fig. 162. Veneering-Hammer.]

In the "bell-faced" hammer, the face is slightly convex, in order
that the last blow in driving nails may set the nail-head below
the surface. It is more difficult to strike a square blow with it than
with a plain-faced hammer. For ordinary woodwork the plain-faced, that
is, flat-faced claw-hammer, Fig. 158, is best. It is commonly used in
carpenter work.

It is essential that the face of the hammer be kept free from glue in
order to avoid its sticking on the nail-head and so bending the nail.
Hammers should be used to hit iron only; for hitting wood, mallets
are used. In striking with the hammer, the wrist, the elbow and the
shoulder are one or all brought into play, according to the hardness
of the blow. The essential precautions are that the handle be grasped
at the end, that the blow be square and quick, and that the wood be
not injured. At the last blow the hammer should not follow the nail,
but should be brought back with a quick rebound. To send the nail
below the surface, a nailset is used. (See below.)

[Illustration: Fig. 163. Drawing a Nail with Claw-Hammer.]

The claw is used for extracting nails. To protect the wood in
withdrawing a nail a block may be put under the hammer-head. When
a nail is partly drawn, the leverage can be greatly increased by
continuing to block up in this way, Fig. 163.

[Illustration: Fig. 164. Mallets.]

The _mallet_, Fig. 164, differs from the hammer in having a wooden
instead of a steel head. A maul or beetle is a heavy wooden mallet.
The effect of the blow of a mallet is quite different from that of
a hammer, in that the force is exerted more gradually; whereas the
effect of the hammer blow is direct, immediate, and local, and is
taken up at once. But a mallet continues to act after the first
impulse, pushing, as it were. This is because of the elasticity of the
head. A chisel, therefore, should always be driven with a mallet, for
the chisel handle would soon go to pieces under the blows of a hammer,
because of their suddenness; whereas the mallet blow which is slower
will not only drive the blade deeper with the same force, but will
not injure the handle so rapidly. Mallet-heads are made square,
cylindrical, and barrel-shaped. Carver's mallets are often turned from
one piece, hammer and head on one axis.

_Nailsets_, Fig. 165, are made with hardened points, but softer butts,
so that the hammer will not be injured. They were formerly made square
when nail heads were square, but now round ones are common. To obviate
slipping, some have "cup points," that is, with a concave tip, and
some spur points.

[Illustration: Fig. 165. Using a Nailset.]

To keep the nailset in its place on the nail-head it may be held
closely against the third finger of the left hand, which rests on the
wood close to the nail. When a nailset is lacking, the head of a brad,
held nearly flat, may be used. But care is necessary to avoid bruising
the wood.


A. _Tools for Holding Work._

The advance in ease of handworking may largely be measured by the
facilities for holding materials or other tools. The primitive man
used no devices for holding except his hands and feet. The Japanese,
who perhaps are the most skilful of joiners, still largely use their
fingers and toes. On the other hand, Anglo-Saxons have developed an
enormous variety of methods for holding work and tools.

[Illustration: Fig. 166. Bench made with Pinned Mortise-and-Tenon
Joints, Low Back.]

[Illustration: Fig. 167. Woodworking Bench used at Pratt Institute,
Showing Self-Adjusting Upright Vise.]

_Benches._ The essential features of a work-bench are a firm, steady
table with a vise and places for tools. The joints are either pinned
or wedged mortise-and-tenon, or draw-bolt joints. The best benches
are made of maple, the tops being strips joined or tongued-and-grooved
together. It is common also to have a trough at the back of the top
of the bench, i. e., a space 6" or 8" wide, set lower than the upper
surface, in which tools may be placed so as not to roll off. A low
pillow, fastened at the left hand end of the trough, on which to set
planes in order that the edge of the cutter may not be injured, is an
advantage. The tool-rack is of capital importance. It has been common
in school benches to affix it to a board, which rises considerably
above the top of the bench, Fig. 169, but a better plan is to have the
top of it no higher than the bench-top, Fig. 166. Then the light on
the bench is not obscured, and when a flat top is needed for large
work it can readily be had by removing the tools. Elaborate benches
with lock drawers are also much used in the shops of large city

[Illustration: Fig. 168. A Rapid-Acting Vise.]

_Vises_ for holding wood are of three general styles, (1) those with
an upright wooden jaw, Fig. 167, which holds wide pieces of work well.
They are now made with an automatic adjusting device by which the jaw
and the face of the bench are kept parallel; (2) wooden vises with a
horizontal jaw, guided by parallel runners, Fig. 166, and, (3) metal
rapid-acting vises, Fig. 168. The latter are the most durable and
in most respects more convenient. Special vises are also made for
wood-carvers, for saw-filing, etc.

[Illustration: Fig. 169. Holding a Large Board in Vise for Planing.]

The best woodworking benches are equipped with both side- and
tail-vises. The tail-vise is supplemented by movable bench-stops for
holding pieces of different lengths. In planing the side of a board it
is held in place between the tail-vise and one of the bench-stops. A
board should not be squeezed sidewise between the jaws of a vise when
it is to be planed, lest it be bent out of shape. In planing the edge
of a board it is ordinarily held in the side-vise. A long board, one
end of which is in the vise, may also need to be supported at the
other end. This may be done by clamping to it a handscrew, the jaw of
which rests on the top of the bench, Fig. 169. When the vise is likely
to be twisted out of square by the insertion of a piece of wood at one
end of it, it is well to insert another piece of equal thickness at
the other end of the vise to keep it square, as in Fig. 120, p. 82. In
this case, (Fig. 120,) the extra piece also supports the piece being
worked upon.

[Illustration: Fig. 170. Saw-Horse.]

The vise is also of great use in carrying on many other processes, but
a good workman does not use it to the exclusion of the saw-horse and

Horses are of great use both for the rough sawing of material and in
supporting large pieces during the process of construction. The common
form is shown in Fig. 170, but a more convenient form for sawing has
an open top, as in Fig. 171.

[Illustration: Fig. 171. Saw-Horse.]

The _picture-frame-vise_, Fig. 172, is a very convenient tool for
making mitered joints, as in picture-frames. The vise holds two sides
firmly so that after gluing they may be either nailed together or a
spline inserted in a saw cut previously made. See Fig. 268, No. 55, p.
181. If the last joint in a picture-frame does not quite match, a kerf
may be sawn at the junction of the two pieces, which can then be drawn
close together.

[Illustration: Fig. 172. Picture-Frame-Vise.]

_Handscrews_, Fig. 173, consist of four parts, the shoulder jaw and
the screw jaw, made of maple, and the end spindle and the middle
spindle, made of hickory. The parts when broken can be bought
separately. Handscrews vary in size from those with jaws four inches
long to those with jaws twenty-two inches long. The best kind are
oiled so that glue will not adhere to them. In adjusting the jaws, if
the handle of the middle spindle is held in one hand, and the handle
of the end spindle in the other hand, and both are revolved together,
the jaws may be closed or opened evenly, Fig. 174. In use care must
be taken to keep the jaws parallel, in order to obtain the greatest
pressure and to prevent the spindles from being broken. It is always
important to have the jaws press on the work evenly. To secure
this, the middle spindle should be tightened first, and then the end
spindle. Handscrews are convenient for a great variety of uses, as
clamping up glued pieces, holding pieces together temporarily for
boring, Fig. 247, p. 153, holding work at any desired angle in the
vise, as for chamfering or beveling, Fig. 175, etc.

[Illustration: Fig. 173. Handscrew.]

_Clamps_ are made of both wood and iron, the most satisfactory for
speed, strength, and durability are steel-bar carpenter clamps, Fig.
176. They vary in length from 1-1/2 ft. to 8 ft. The separate parts
are the steel bar A, the cast-iron frame B, the tip C into which fits
the screw D, on the other end of which is the crank E, and the slide F
with its dog G, which engages in the notches on the bar. Any part, if
broken, can be replaced separately.

[Illustration: Fig. 174. Adjusting Handscrew.]

_Iron Handscrews_, also called C clamps and carriage-makers' clamps.
Fig. 177, are useful in certain kinds of work, as in gluing in special
places and in wood-carving. All iron clamps need blocks of soft wood
to be placed between them and the finished work.

_Pinch-dogs_, Fig. 178, are a convenient device for drawing together
two pieces of wood, when injury to the surfaces in which they are
driven does not matter. They vary in size from 3/4" to 2-3/4". For
ordinary purposes the smallest size is sufficient. For especially fine
work, double-pointed tacks, properly filed, are convenient.

The _bench-hook_, Fig. 179, is a simple device for holding firmly
small pieces of work when they are being sawn, chisled, etc. It also
saves the bench from being marred. The angles should be kept exactly

[Illustration: Fig. 175. Using a Handscrew to hold a Board at an

The _miter-box_, Fig. 180, is a similar device with the addition of
a guide for the saw. The _iron miter-box_, Fig. 181, with the saw
adjustable to various angles, insures accurate work.

Such tools as _pliers_, Fig. 182, _pincers_, Fig. 183, and _nippers_,
Fig. 184, made for gripping iron, are often useful in the woodworking
shop. So are various sorts of _wrenches_; as fixed, socketed,
adjustable, monkey- and pipe-wrenches.

[Illustration: Fig. 176. Steel-Bar Carpenter's Clamp. a. Steel Bar. b.
Frame. c. Tip. d. Screw. e. Crank. f. Slide. g. Dog.]

[Illustration: Fig. 177. Iron Handscrew, (Carriage-Maker's Clamp).]

[Illustration: Fig. 178. Pinch-Dog.]

B. _Tools for holding other tools._

The _brace_ or _bit-stock_, Fig. 185, holds all sorts of boring tools
as well as screwdrivers, dowel-pointers, etc. The simple brace or
bit-stock consists of a chuck, a handle, and a knob, and is sufficient
for ordinary use; but the ratchet-brace enables the user to bore near
to surfaces or corners where a complete sweep cannot be made. It is
also useful where sufficient power can be applied only at one part of
the sweep. By means of pawls which engage in the ratchet-wheel, the
bit can be turned in either direction at the will of the user. The
size of the brace is indicated by the "sweep," that is, the diameter
of the circle thru which the swinging handle turns. To insert a bit
or other tool, Fig. 186, grasp firmly with one hand the sleeve of the
chuck pointing it upward, and revolve the handle with the other hand,
unscrewing the sleeve until the jaws open enough to admit the whole
tang of the bit. Then reverse the motion and the bit will be held
tightly in place. Various hand-, breast-, bench-, bow-drills and
automatic drills are of use in doing quick work and for boring small
holes, Fig. 187.

[Illustration: Fig. 179. Bench-Hook.]

[Illustration: Fig. 180. Miter-Box.]

[Illustration: Fig. 181. Iron Miter-Box.]

The _screwdriver_, Fig. 188, is a sort of holding tool for turning,
and so driving screws. Various devices have been tried to prevent the
twisting in the handle. This is now practically assured in various
makes. The other important matter in a screwdriver is that the point
be of the right temper, so as neither to bend nor to break. If the
corners break they can be reground, but care should be taken not to
make the angle too obtuse or the driver will slip out of the slot in
the screw-head. The bevel should have a long taper. A shop should be
equipped with different sizes of screwdrivers to fit the different
sizes of screws. Screwdrivers vary in size, the shank ranging in
length from 2-1/2" to 18". A long screwdriver is more powerful than a
short one, for the screwdriver is rarely exactly in line with the
axis of the screw, but the handle revolves in a circle. This means an
increased leverage, so that the longer the screwdriver, the greater
the leverage.

[Illustration: Fig. 182. Pliers.]

[Illustration: Fig. 183. Pincers.]

[Illustration: Fig. 184. Nippers.]

[Illustration: Fig. 185. Ratchet-Brace.]

For heavy work, screwdriver-bits, Fig. 189, in a bit-stock are useful,
and for quick work, the spiral screwdriver, Fig. 190, and for small
work, the ratchet-screwdriver.


It is a long step from the time when one inch meant the width of the
thumb, and one foot meant the length of the foot, to the measuring
of distances and of angles which vary almost infinitesimally. No such
accuracy is necessary in measuring wood as in measuring metal, but
still there is a considerable variety of tools for this purpose.

[Illustration: Fig. 186. Inserting a Bit in Stock.]

[Illustration: Fig. 187. Hand-Drill.]

[Illustration: Fig. 188. Screwdriver.]

[Illustration: Fig. 189. Screwdriver-Bit.]

[Illustration: Fig. 190. Spiral Screwdriver.]

For measuring distances, the _rule_, Fig. 191, is the one in most
common use. It is usually made of boxwood. For convenience it is
hinged so as to fold. A rule is called "two-fold" when it is made of
two pieces, "four-fold" when made of four pieces, etc. When measuring
or marking from it, it can be used more accurately by turning it on
edge, so that the lines of the graduations may come directly against
the work. The one in most common use in school shops, is a two-foot,
two-fold rule. Some instructors prefer to have pupils use a four-fold
rule, because that is the form commonly used in the woodworking
trades. Steel bench-rules, Fig. 192, are satisfactory in school work
because unbreakable and because they do not disappear so rapidly as
pocket rules. They need to be burnished occasionally.

[Illustration: Fig. 191. Two-Foot Rule. Two Fold.]

[Illustration: Fig. 192. Steel Bench-Rule.]

[Illustration: Fig. 193. Back of Steel Square, Brace Measure.]

The _steel square_, Figs. 193, 194, 196, 197, is useful, not only as a
straight-edge and try-square, but also for a number of graduations and
tables which are stamped on it. There are various forms, but the
one in most common use consists of a blade or "body" 24"×2" and a
"tongue," 16"×1-1/2", at right angles to each other. Sargent's trade
number for this form is 100. It includes graduations in hundredths,
thirty-seconds, sixteenths, twelfths, tenths, and eighths of an
inch, also a brace-measure, an eight-square measure, and the Essex
board-measure. Another style, instead of an Essex board-measure, and
the hundredths graduation has a rafter-table. The side upon which the
name of the maker is stamped, is called the "face," and the reverse
side the "back."

The brace-measure is to be found along the center of the back of the
tongue, Fig. 193. It is used thus: the two equal numbers set one above
the other represent the sides of a square, and the single number to
their right, represents in inches and decimals, the diagonal of that
square. E. g., 54/54 76.37 means that a square the sides of which are
54" would have a diagonal of 76.37".

For determining the length of the long side (hypothenuse) of a right
angle triangle, when the other two given sides are not equal, the foot
rule, or another steel square may be laid diagonally across the blade
and arm, and applied directly to the proper graduations thereon, and
the distance between them measured on the rule. If the distance to
be measured is in feet, use the 1/12" graduations on the back of the

[Illustration: Fig. 194. Face of Steel Square, Octagon,
"Eight-Square," Scale.]

To use the octagonal (or 8-square) scale, Fig. 194, which is along the
center of the face of the tongue, with the dividers, take the number
of spaces in the scale to correspond with the number of inches the
piece of wood is square, and lay this distance off from the center
point, on each edge of the board. Connect the points thus obtained,
diagonally across the corners, and a nearly exact octagon will be had.
E.g., on a board 12" square, Fig. 195, find A.B.C.D., the centers
of each edge. Now with the dividers take 12 spaces from the 8-square
scale. Lay off this distance on each side as A' A" from A, B' B" from
B, etc. Now connect A" with B', B" with C', C" with D', D" with A',
and the octagon is obtained.

[Illustration: Fig. 195. Method of Using the Eight-Square Scale on the

In making a square piece of timber octagonal, the same method is used
on the butt, sawed true. When the distance from one center is laid
off, the marking-gage may be set to the distance from the point thus
obtained to the corner of the timber, and the piece gaged from all
four corners both ways. Cutting off the outside arrises to the gaged
lines leaves an octagonal stick.

[Illustration: Fig. 196. Back of Steel Square, Essex Board Measure.]

The board-measure is stamped on the back of the blade of the square,
Fig. 196. The figure 12 on the outer edge of the blade is the starting
point for all calculations. It represents a 1" board, 12" wide, and
the smaller figures under it indicate the length of boards in feet.
Thus a board 12" wide, and 8' long measures 8 square feet and so on
down the column. To use it, for boards other than 12" wide:--find the
length of the board in feet, under the 12" marked on the outer edge of
the blade, then run right or left along that line to the width of
the board in inches. The number under the width in inches on the line
showing the length in feet, gives the board feet for lumber 1" thick.

For example, to measure a board 14' long, and 11" wide,--under the
figure 12, find 14 (length of the board); to the left of this, under
11 is the number 12.10; 12' 10" is the board-measure of the board in
question. Since a board 12' long would have as many board feet in it
as it is inches wide, the B. M. is omitted for 12' boards. Likewise
a board 6' long would have 1/2 the number of board feet that it is
inches wide. If the board is shorter than the lowest figure given
(8) it can be found by dividing its double by 2.; e. g., to measure
a board 5' long and 9" wide, take 10 under the 12, run to the left of
the number under 9, which is 7' 6": 1/2 of this would be 3' 9", the
number of board feet in the board.

If the board to be measured is longer than any figure given, divide
the length into two parts and add the result of the two parts obtained
separately. For example, for a board 23' long and 13" wide,--take
12'×13" = 13'; add to it, 11'×13" = 11' 11"; total, 24'11".

[Illustration: Fig. 197. Steel Square with Rafter Table.]

A good general rule is to think first whether or not the problem can
be done in one's head without the assistance of the square.

The table is made, as its name, Board-Measure (B. M.) implies, for
measuring boards, which are commonly 1" thick. For materials more than
1" thick, multiply the B. M. of one surface by the number of inches
thick the piece measures.

The rafter-table is found on the back of the body of the square, Fig.
197. Auxiliary to it are the twelfth inch graduations, on the outside
edges, which may represent either feet or inches.

[Illustration: Fig. 198. The "Run" and "Rise" of a Rafter.]

By the "run" of the rafter is meant the horizontal distance when it is
set in place from the end of its foot to a plumb line from the ridge
end, i. e., one half the length of the building, Fig. 198. By the
"rise" of the rafter is meant the perpendicular distance from the
ridge end to the level of the foot of the rafter. By the pitch is
meant the ratio of the rise to twice the run, i. e., to the total
width of the building. In a 1/2 pitch, the rise equals the run, or 1/2
the width of the building; in a 1/3 pitch the rise is 1/3 the width
of the building; in a 3/4 pitch the rise is 3/4 the width of the

[Illustration: Fig. 199. Lumberman's Board Rule.]

To find the length of a rafter by the use of the table, first find the
required pitch, at the left end of the table. Opposite this and under
the graduation on the edge representing the run in feet, will be found
the length of the rafter; e.g., a rafter having a run of 12' with a
1/4 pitch, is 13' 5" long, one with a run of 11' and a 1/3 pitch,
is 13' 2-8/12", one with a run of 7' and a 5/8 pitch, is 11' 2-6/12"
long, etc.

When the run is in inches, the readings are for 1/12 of the run in
feet: e.g., a rafter with a run of 12" and a 1/4 pitch is 13-5/12",
one with a run of 11" and a 1/3 pitch, is 13-3/12". Where the run is
in both feet and inches, find the feet and the inches separately; and
add together; e.g., a rafter with a run of 11' 6", and a 1/2 pitch, is
15' 6-8/12" + 8-6/12" = 16' 3-2/12".

[Illustration: Fig. 200. Try-Square. Fig. 201. Miter-Square. Fig. 202.
Sliding-T Bevel.]

The _lumberman's board-rule_, Fig. 199. To measure wood by it, note
the length of the board in feet at the end of the measure. The dot
nearest the width (measured in inches) gives the B. M. for lumber 1"

The _try-square_, Fig. 200, which is most commonly used for measuring
the accuracy of right angles, is also convenient for testing the
width of a board at various places along its length, for making short
measurements, and as a guide in laying out lines with a pencil or
knife at right angles to a surface or edge. The sizes are various and
are indicated by the length of the blade. A convenient size for the
individual bench and for ordinary use has a blade 6" long. It is also
well to have in the shop one large one with a 12" blade.

[Illustration: Fig. 203. Using the Try-Square.]

[Illustration: Fig. 204. Scribing with Knife by Try-Square.]

In testing the squareness of work with the try-square, care must be
taken to see that the head rests firmly against the surface from which
the test is made, and then slipped down till the blade touches the
edge being tested, Fig. 203. The edge should be tested at a number
of places in the same way: that is, it should not be slid along the
piece. The try-square is also of great use in scribing lines across
boards, Fig. 204. A good method is to put the point of the knife at
the beginning of the desired line, slide the square, along until it
touches the knife-edge; then, resting the head of the square firmly
against the edge, draw the knife along, pressing it lightly against
the blade, holding it perpendicularly. To prevent the knife from
running away from the blade of the try-square, turn its edge slightly
towards the blade.

The _miter-square_, Fig. 201, is a try-square fixed at an angle of

The _sliding T bevel_, Fig. 202, has a blade adjustable to any angle.
It may be set either from a sample line, drawn on the wood, from
a given line on a protractor, from drawing triangles, from the
graduations on a framing square, or in other ways. It is used
similarly to the T-square.

[Illustration: Fig. 205. Winding-Sticks, 12 inches Long.]

_Winding-sticks_, Fig. 205, consist of a pair of straight strips of
exactly the same width thruout. They are used to find out whether
there is any twist or "wind" in a board. This is done by placing them
parallel to each other, one at one end of the board, and the other at
the other end. By sighting across them, one can readily see
whether the board be twisted or not, Fig. 206. The blades of two
framing-squares may be used in the same manner.

[Illustration: Fig. 206. Method of Using the Winding-Sticks.]

_Compasses_ or _dividers_, Fig. 207, consist of two legs turning on
a joint, and having sharpened points. A convenient form is the wing
divider which can be accurately adjusted by set-screws. A pencil can
be substituted for the removable point. They are used for describing
circles and arcs, for spacing, for measuring, for subdividing
distances, and for scribing. In scribing a line parallel with a given
outline, one leg follows the given edge, or outline, and the point
of the other, marks the desired line. Used in this way they are very
convenient for marking out chamfers, especially on curved edges, a
sharp pencil being substituted for the steel point.

The _beam-compass_, Fig. 208, consists of two _trammel-points_ running
on a beam which may be made of any convenient length. It is used for
describing large circles. A pencil may be attached to one point.

_Calipers_, outside and inside, Figs. 209, 210, are necessary for the
accurate gaging of diameters, as in wood-turning.

[Illustration: Fig. 207. Winged Dividers.]

[Illustration: Fig. 208. Beam-Compass or Trammel Points.]

[Illustration: Fig. 209. Outside Calipers.]

[Illustration: Fig. 210. Inside Calipers.]

The _marking-gage_, Fig. 211, consists of a head or block sliding on a
beam or bar, to which it is fixed by means of a set-screw. On the face
of the head is a brass shoe to keep the face from wearing. Projecting
thru the beam is a steel spur or point, which should be filed to a
flat, sharp edge, a little rounded and sharpened on the edge toward
which the gage is to be moved, Fig. 212. It should project about 1/8"
from the beam. If the spur be at all out of place, as it is likely to
be, the graduations on a beam will be unreliable. Hence it is best to
neglect them entirely when setting the gage and always to measure with
the rule from the head to the spur, Fig. 213.

[Illustration: Fig. 211. Marking-Gage.]

[Illustration: Fig. 212. Spur of Marking-Gage.]

In use the beam should be tilted forward, so as to slide on its
corner, Fig. 214. In this way the depth of the gage line can be
regulated. Ordinarily, the finer the line the better. The head must
always be kept firmly pressed against the edge of the wood so that the
spur will not run or jump away from its desired course. Care should
also be taken, except in rough pieces, to run gage lines no farther
than is necessary for the sake of the appearance of the finished work.
To secure accuracy, all gaging on the surface of wood, should be done
from the "working face" or "working edge."

[Illustration: Fig. 213. Setting a Marking-Gage.]

[Illustration: Fig. 214. Using the Marking-Gage.]

It is sometimes advisable, as in laying out chamfers, not to mark
their edges with a marking-gage, because the marks will show after the
chamfer is planed off. A pencil mark should be made instead. For
this purpose a pencil-gage may be made by removing the spur of a
marking-gage, and boring in its place a hole to receive a pencil stub
with a blunt point, or a small notch may be cut in the back end of
the beam, in which a pencil point is held while the gage is worked as
usual except that its position is reversed. For work requiring less
care, the pencil may be held in the manner usual in writing, the
middle finger serving as a guide, or a pair of pencil compasses may
be used, one leg serving as a guide. A special gage is made for gaging
curved lines, Fig. 215.

[Illustration: Fig. 215. Marking-Gage for Curves.]

The _cutting-gage_, Fig. 216, is similar to a marking-gage, except
that it has a knife-point inserted instead of a spur. It is very
useful in cutting up soft, thin wood even as thick as 1/4".

[Illustration: Fig. 216. Cutting-Gage.]

The _slitting-gage_ is used in a similar way, but is larger and has a

The _mortise-gage_, Fig. 217, is a marking-gage with two spurs,
with which two parallel lines can be drawn at once, as in laying out
mortises. One form is made entirely of steel having, instead of spurs,
discs with sharpened edges.

The _scratch-awl_, Fig. 218, has a long, slender point which is useful
not only for marking lines, but for centering.

[Illustration: Fig. 217. Roller Mortise-Gage.]

The _auger-bit-gage_, Fig. 219, is a convenient tool for measuring the
depth of holes bored, but for ordinary purposes a block of wood sawn
to the proper length thru which a hole is bored, is a satisfactory

_Screw- and wire-gages_, Fig. 220, are useful in measuring the lengths
and sizes of screws and wire when fitting or ordering.

The _spirit-level_, and the _plumb-line_ which it has largely
replaced, are in constant use in carpentering, but are rarely needed
in shopwork.

[Illustration: Fig. 218. Scratch-Awl.]

[Illustration: Fig. 219. Auger-Bit-Gage.] _Blackboard compasses_,
_triangles_, etc., are convenient accessories in a woodworking

[Illustration: Fig. 220. Screw- and Wire-Gages. a. Screw-Gage. b.
Wire-Gage. c. Twist-Drill-Gage.]


The _grindstone_ for woodworking tools is best when rather fine and
soft. The grinding surface should be straight and never concave. The
stone should run as true as possible. It can be made true by using a
piece of 1" gas pipe as a truing tool held against the stone when run
dry. Power grindstones usually have truing devices attached to them,
Fig. 221. A common form is a hardened steel screw, the thread of
which, in working across the face of the grindstone, as they both
revolve, shears off the face of the stone. The surface should always
be wet when in use both to carry off the particles of stone and steel,
and thus preserve the cutting quality of the stone, and to keep the
tool cool, as otherwise, its temper would be drawn, which would show
by its turning blue. But a grindstone should never stand in water or
it would rot.

It is well to have the waste from the grindstone empty into a
cisternlike box under it, Fig. 221. In this box the sediment will
settle while the water overflows from it into the drain. Without such
a box, the sediment will be carried into and may clog the drain. The
box is to be emptied occasionally, before the sediment overflows.

[Illustration: Fig. 221. Power Grindstone.]

In order that the tool may be ground accurately, there are various
devices for holding it firmly and steadily against the stone. A good
one is shown in Figs. 221 and 222. This device is constructed as
follows: A board A is made 2" thick, 6" wide, and long enough when in
position to reach from the floor to a point above the level of the
top of the stone. It is beveled at the lower end so as to rest snugly
against a cleat nailed down at the proper place on the floor. The
board is held in place by a loop of iron, B, which hooks into the
holes in the trough of the grindstone. In the board a series of holes
(say 1" in diameter) are bored. These run parallel to the floor when
the board is in place, and receive the end of the tool-holder. The
tool-holder consists of four parts: (1) a strip C, 1-1/2" thick,
and as wide as the widest plane-bit to be ground. The forward end is
beveled on one side; the back end is rounded to fit the holes in the
main board A. Its length is determined by the distance from the edge
of the tool being ground to the most convenient hole in A, into which
the rear end is to be inserted. It is better to use as high a hole as
convenient, so that as the grindstone wears down, the stick will still
be serviceable; (2) a strip, D, of the same width as A and 7/8" thick,
and 15" to 18" long; (3) a cleat, E, 5/8"×3/4", nailed across D; (4) a
rectangular loop of wrought iron or brass, F, which passes around the
farther end of the two strips, C and D, and is fastened loosely to D
by staples or screws.

[Illustration: Fig. 222. Grinding Device.]

[Illustration: Fig. 223. Holder for Grinding Chisels or Plane-Bits.]

The tool to be ground slips between this loop and the strip C, and
is held firmly in place by the pressure applied to the back end of D,
which thus acts as a lever on the fulcrum E.

Any desired bevel may be obtained on the tool to be sharpened, by
choosing the proper hole in A for the back end of C or by adjusting
the tool forward or backward in the clamp. As much pressure may be put
on the tool as the driving belt will stand without slipping off.

A still simpler holder for the plane-bit only, is a strip of wood
1-1/2" thick and 2" wide, cut in the shape G shown in Fig. 223. The
plane-bit fits into the saw-kerf K, and in grinding is easily held
firmly in place by the hand. By inserting the rear end of the stick G
into a higher or lower hole in the board A, any desired angle may be
obtained. G is shown in position in Fig. 221.

[Illustration: Fig. 224. Agacite Grinder.]

All such devices necessitate a perfectly true stone. The essential
features are, to have a rigid support against which the tool may be
pushed by the revolving stone, to hold the tool at a fixed angle
which may be adjusted, and to press the tool against the stone with
considerable pressure. The wheel should revolve toward the edge
which is being ground, for two reasons. It is easier to hold the tool
steadily thus, and the danger of producing a wire edge is lessened.
The edge as it becomes thin, tends to spring away from the stone and
this tendency is aggravated if the stone revolves away from the edge.
If the stone does not run true and there is a consequent danger of
digging into the stone with the tool which is being sharpened, the
stone would better revolve away from the edge. The grinding should
continue until the ground surface reaches the cutting edge and there
is no bright line left along the edge. If the grinding is continued
beyond this point, nothing is gained, and a heavy wire edge will be

A very convenient and inexpensive grinding tool, Fig. 224, sold as
the "_Agacite grinder_,"[7] has a number of different shaped grinding
stones made chiefly of carborundum.

The _oilstone_. After grinding, edge tools need whetting. This is done
on the whetstone, or oilstone. The best natural stones are found near
Hot Springs, Arkansas. The fine white ones are called Arkansas
stones, and the coarser ones Washita stones. The latter are better for
ordinary woodworking tools. The _India oilstone_, an artificial stone,
Fig. 77, p. 58, cuts even more quickly than the natural stones. It is
made in several grades of coarseness. The medium grade is recommended
for ordinary shop use. Oil is used on oilstones for the same purpose
as water on a grindstone. When an oilstone becomes hollow or uneven by
use, it may be trued by rubbing it on a flat board covered with sharp
sand, or on sandpaper tacked over a block of wood.

[Illustration: Fig. 225. Slipstone.]

_Slipstones_, Fig. 225, are small oilstones, made into various
shapes in order to fit different tools, as gouges, the bits of
molding-planes, etc.

_Files_ are used for sharpening saws, augers, scrapers, etc. See
above, p. 90.


The _bench duster_. One may be noted hanging on the bench shown
in Fig. 166, p. 98. Bristle brushes for cleaning the benches are
essential if the shop is to be kept tidy.

_Buffer._ Wherever a lathe or other convenient revolving shaft is
available, a buffer made of many thicknesses of cotton cloth is very
valuable for polishing tools. The addition of a little tripoli greatly
facilitates the cleaning.

    [Footnote 7: Made by the Empire Implement Co., Albany, N. Y.]

WOOD HAND TOOLS.--_Continued._


(4) Scraping Tools.
      Barnard, pp. 136-142.
      Wheeler, pp. 465, 473.
      Griffith, pp. 71-75.
      Selden, pp. 149, 177, 182.
      Hodgson, I, pp. 61-74.

(5) Pounding Tools.
      Barnard, pp. 24-47.
      Sickels, p. 70.
      Wheeler, pp. 414, 428-432.
      Selden, pp. 31, 111, 156.
      Goss, p. 60.
      Barter, p. 128.

(6) Punching Tools.
      Barnard, p. 29.
      Wheeler, p. 433.
      Selden, p. 161.

(7) Gripping Tools.
    For holding work:
      Goss, p. 63.
      Wheeler, pp. 65-75, 475.
      Selden, pp. 140, 147, 186, 194.
      Hammacher, pp. 286-291.

    For holding other tools:
      Goss, pp. 56-59.
      Selden, p. 143.

(8) Measuring and Marking Tools.
      Goss, pp. 9-20.
      Griffith, pp. 9-19.
      Hodgson, _The Steel Square_.
      Wheeler, p. 465.
      Tate, pp. 21-25.
      _Building Trades Pocketbook_, pp. 234-237.
      Selden, pp. 149, 150-152, 175.
      Sargent's _Steel Squares_.

(9) Sharpening Tools.
      Barnard, pp. 136-142.
      Sickels, pp. 80-85.
      Wheeler, pp. 480-488.
      Selden, pp. 153, 162, 172, 180.
      Goss, pp. 39, 64-69.

    [Footnote *: For general bibliography see p. 4.]



The following are the chief means by which pieces of wood are fastened
together: nails, screws, bolts, plates, dowels, glue, hinges, and


_Nails_, Fig. 226, may be classified according to the material of
which they are made; as, steel, iron, copper, and brass. Iron nails
may be galvanized to protect them from rust. Copper and brass nails
are used where they are subject to much danger of corrosion, as in

Nails may also be classified according to the process of manufacture;
as, cut nails, wrought nails, and wire nails. Cut nails are cut from
a plate of metal in such a way that the width of the nail is equal to
the thickness of the plate, and the length of the nail to the width of
the plate. In the third dimension, the nail is wedge-shaped, thin at
the point and thick at the head. Unless properly driven, such nails
are likely to split the wood, but if properly driven they are very
firm. In driving, the wedge should spread with and not across the

[Illustration: Fig. 226. a. Cut nail, common. b. Flat-head wire nail,
No. 1, common. c. Finishing nail, or brad.]

Wrought nails are worked into shape from hot steel, and have little
or no temper, so that they can be bent over without breaking, as when
clinched. Horseshoe- and trunk-nails are of this sort. They are of the
same shape as cut nails.

Wire nails are made from drawn steel wire, and are pointed, headed,
and roughened by machinery. They are comparatively cheap, hold nearly
if not quite as well as cut nails, which they have largely displaced,
can be bent without breaking, and can be clinched.

Nails are also classified according to the shape of their heads; as,
common or flat-heads, and brads or finishing nails. Flat-heads are
used in ordinary work, where the heads are not to be sunk in the wood
or "set."

Some nails get their names from their special uses; as, shingle-nails,
trunk-nails, boat-nails, lath-nails, picture-nails, barrel-nails, etc.

The size of nails is indicated by the length in inches, and by the
size of the wire for wire nails. The old nomenclature for cut nails
also survives, in which certain numbers are prefixed to "penny." For
example, a threepenny nail is 1-1/4" long, a fourpenny nail is 1-1/2"
long, a fivepenny nail is 1-3/4" long, a sixpenny nail is 2" long. In
other words, from threepenny to tenpenny 1/4" is added for each penny,
but a twelvepenny nail is 3-1/4" long, a sixteenpenny nail is 3-1/2"
long, a twentypenny nail is 4" long. This is explained as meaning
that "tenpenny" nails, for example, cost tenpence a hundred. Another
explanation is that originally 1000 of such nails weighed a pound. The
size of cut nails is usually still so indicated. Nails are sold by the

The advantages of nails are that they are quickly and easily applied,
they are strong and cheap, and the work can be separated, tho with
difficulty. The disadvantages are the appearance and, in some cases,
the insecurity.

The holding power of nails may be increased by driving them into the
wood at other than a right angle, especially where several nails unite
two pieces of wood. By driving some at one inclination and some at
another, they bind the pieces of wood together with much greater force
than when driven in straight.

The term brads was once confined to small finishing nails, but is
now used for all finishing nails, in distinction from common or
flat-headed nails. The heads are made round instead of flat so that
they may be set easily with a nailset and the hole filled with a plug,
or, where the wood is to be painted, with putty. They are used for
interior finishing and other nice work.

[Illustration: Fig. 227. Tack.]

_Tacks_, Fig. 227, vary in size and shape according to their use; as,
flat-headed, gimp, round-headed, and double-pointed or matting tacks,
a sort of small staple. Their size is indicated by the word "ounce."
For example, a two-ounce tack is 1/4" long, a three-ounce tack is 3/8"
long, a four-ounce tack is 7/16" long, a six-ounce tack is 1/2" long,
etc. This term once meant the number of ounces of iron required to
make 1000 tacks.

Tacks are useful only in fastening to wood thin material, such as
veneers, textiles, leather, matting, tin, etc. Tinner's tacks, which
are used for clinching, are commonly called clinch-nails. Wire tacks,
altho made, are not so successful as cut tacks because they lack a
sharp point, which is essential.

[Illustration: Fig. 228. Corrugated Fastener.]

_Corrugated fasteners_, Fig. 228, or fluted nails, are used to fasten
together two pieces of wood by driving the fastener so that one-half
of it will be on each side of the joint. Their size is indicated by
the length and the number of corrugations, as 1/2", four. They are
often useful where nails are impracticable.

_Glaziers' points_ are small, triangular pieces of zinc, used to
fasten glass into sashes.


(a) _Wood-screws_, Fig. 229, may be classified by the material of
which they are made; as, steel or brass. Steel screws may be either
bright,--the common finish,--blued by heat or acid to hinder rusting,
tinned, or bronzed. Brass screws are essential wherever rust would be
detrimental, as in boats.

(b) Screws are also classified by shape; as, flat-headed,
round-headed, fillister-headed, oval-countersunk-headed, and
square-headed screws. Flat-heads are most commonly used. There are
also special shapes for particular purposes. Round-heads may be used
either for decoration or where great drawing power is desirable. In
the latter case, washers are commonly inserted under the heads
to prevent them from sinking into the wood. Oval-heads are used
decoratively, the head filling the countersunk hole, as with
flat-heads, and projecting a trifle besides. They are much used in
the interior finish of railway cars. They are suitable for the strap
hinges of a chest.

The thread of the screw begins in a fine point so that it may
penetrate the wood easily where no hole has been bored as is often the
case in soft wood. The thread extends about two-thirds the length of
the screw. Any longer thread would only weaken the screw where it most
needs strength, near the head, and it does not need friction with the
piece thru which it passes.

The size of screws is indicated by their length in inches, and by
the diameter of the wire from which they are made, using the standard
screw-gage, Fig. 220, p. 117. They vary in size from No. 0 (less than
1/16") to No. 30 (more than 7/16") in diameter, and in length from
1/4" to 6".

[Illustration: Fig. 229. a. Flat-head Wood-screw. b. Round-head
Wood-screw. c. Fillister-head Wood-screw. d. Oval-countersunk-head
Wood-screw. e. Drive-screw. f. Square-head (lag- or coach-) Screw.]

The following is a good general rule for the use of screws: make the
hole in the piece thru which the screw passes, large enough for the
screw to slip thru easily. Countersink this hole enough to allow the
head to sink flush with the surface. Make the hole in the piece into
which the screw goes small enough for the thread of the screw to catch
tight. Then all the strength exerted in driving, goes toward drawing
the pieces together, not in overcoming friction. The hole must be deep
enough, especially in hard wood and for brass screws, to prevent the
possibility of twisting off and breaking the screw. Soap is often
useful as a lubricant to facilitate the driving of screws. Where it is
desirable that the heads do not show, a hole may first be bored with
an auger-bit large enough to receive the head and deep enough to
insert a plug of wood, which is cut out with a plug-cutter, Fig. 131,
p. 84, and glued in place. If pains are taken to match the grain, the
scar thus formed is inconspicuous.

In rough work, the screw may be driven into place with a hammer
thru most of its length, and then a few final turns be given with a
screwdriver, but this breaks the fibers of the wood and weakens their
hold. In "drive-screws," Fig. 229, e, the slot is not cut all the way
across the head, in order that the blows of the hammer may not close
the slot.

The advantages of screws are, that they are very strong and that
the work can easily be taken apart. If they loosen they can be
retightened. The disadvantages are, that they are expensive, that they
take time to insert, that they show very plainly, and that they do not
hold well in end grain.


Bolts with nuts are useful where great strength is desired. There are
three chief varieties, Fig. 230.

[Illustration: Fig. 230. a. Stove-bolt. b. Carriage-bolt. c.

_Stove-bolts_ are cheaply made (cast) bolts having either flat or
round heads with a slot for the screwdriver, like ordinary screws.

_Carriage-bolts_ are distinguished by having the part of the shank
which is near the head, square.

_Machine-bolts_ have square, hexagonal, or button heads.

_Machine-screws_, Fig. 231, are similar to stove-bolts, but are
accurately cut and are measured with a screw-gage. The varieties
are, _a_, flat-head, _b_, round-head, _c_, fillister-head, _d_,
oval-countersunk-head, all with slots for screwdriver.

_Plates_, Fig. 232, include corner-irons, straight plates and
panel-irons. These are made of either iron or brass and are used in
fastening legs to the floor, in stiffening joints, affixing tops, etc.

_Dowel-rods._ Dowel-rods are cylindrical rods, from 3/16" to 1" in
diameter, and 36", 42", and 48" long. They are commonly made of birch
or maple, but maple is more satisfactory as it shrinks less and is
stronger than birch.

Dowels are used as pins for joining boards edge to edge, and as a
substitute for mortise-and-tenon joints.

[Illustration: Fig. 231. Machine-screws. a. Flat-head. b. Round-head.
c. Fillister-head. d. Oval-countersunk-head.]

There is, to be sure, a prejudice against dowels on the part of
cabinet-makers due, possibly, to the willingness to have it appear
that doweling is a device of inferior mechanics. But doweling is
cheaper and quicker than tenoning, and there are many places in wood
construction where it is just as satisfactory and, if properly done,
just as strong. Certain parts of even the best furniture are so put

Shoe pegs serve well as small dowels. They are dipped in glue and
driven into brad-awl holes.

[Illustration: Fig. 232. a. Corner-iron. b. Straight plate. c.

_Wedges_ are commonly used in door construction between the edges of
tenons and the insides of mortises which are slightly beveled, No. 34,
Fig. 266, p. 179. Or the end of a tenon may be split to receive the
wedges, No. 35, Fig. 266. The blind wedge is used in the fox-tail
joint, No. 36, Fig. 266.


Glue is an inferior kind of gelatin, and is of two kinds,--animal glue
and fish glue. Animal glue is made of bones and trimmings, cuttings
and fleshings from hides and skins of animals. Sinews, feet, tails,
snouts, ears, and horn pith are also largely used. Cattle, calves,
goats, pigs, horses, and rabbits, all yield characteristic glues.

The best glue is made from hides of oxen, which are soaked in lime
water until fatty or partly decayed matter is eaten out and only the
glue is left. The product is cleaned, boiled down and dried.

The best and clearest bone glues are obtained by leaching the bones
with dilute acid which dissolves out the lime salts and leaves the
gelatinous matters. Such leached bone is sold as a glue stock, under
the name of "osseine." This material together with hides, sinews,
etc., has the gelatin or glue extracted by boiling again and again,
just as soup stock might be boiled several times. Each extraction is
called a "run." Sometimes as many as ten or fifteen runs are taken
from the same kettle of stock, and each may be finished alone or mixed
with other runs from other stock, resulting in a great variety of
commercial glues.

Manufacturers use many tests for glue, such as the viscosity or
running test, the odor, the presence of grease or of foam, rate of
set, the melting-point, keeping properties, jelly strength (tested
between the finger tips), water absorption (some glues absorb only
once their weight, others ten or twelve times), and binding or
adhesive tests. This latter varies so much with different materials
that what may be good glue for one material is poor for another.

Putting all these things together, glues are classified from grade 10
to 160, 10 being the poorest. The higher standards from 60 and upwards
are neutral hide glues, clear, clean, free from odor, foam, and
grease. The lower standards are chiefly bone glues, used for sizing
straw hats, etc. They are rigid as compared with the flexibility
of hide glues. For wood joints the grade should be 70 or over. For
leather, nothing less than 100 should be used, and special cements are
better still.

The best glue is transparent, hard in the cake, free from spots, of
an amber color, and has little or no smell. A good practical test for
glue is to soak it in water till it swells and becomes jelly-like. The
more it swells without dissolving the better the quality. Poor glue
dissolves. Glue is sometimes bleached, becoming brownish white in
color, but it is somewhat weakened thereby.

Fish glue is made from the scales and muscular tissue of fish.
Isinglass is a sort of glue made from the viscera and air bladder of
certain fish, as cod and sturgeon.

Liquid glue may be made either from animal or fish glue. The LePage
liquid glue is made in Gloucester, Mass., one of the greatest fish
markets in the country. Liquid glue is very convenient because always
ready, but is not so strong as hot glue, and has an offensive
odor. Liquid glues are also made by rendering ordinary glue
non-gelatinizing, which can be done by several means; as, for
instance, by the addition of oxalic, nitric, or hydrochloric acid to
the glue solution.

To prepare hot glue, break it into small pieces, soak it in enough
cold water to cover it well, until it is soft, say twelve hours, and
heat in a glue-pot or double boiler, Fig. 243, p. 148. The fresher
the glue is, the better, as too many heatings weaken it. When used it
should be thin enough to drip from the brush in a thin stream, so that
it will fill the pores of the wood and so get a grip. Two surfaces to
be glued together should be as close as possible, not separated by a
mass of glue. It is essential that the glue be hot and the wood warm,
so that the glue may remain as liquid as possible until the surfaces
are forced together. Glue holds best on side grain. End grain can be
made to stick only by sizing with thin glue to stop the pores. Pieces
thus sized and dried can be glued in the ordinary way, but such joints
are seldom good. Surfaces of hard wood that are to be glued should
first be scratched with a scratch-plane, Fig. 111, P. 79.

To make waterproof glue, add one part of potassium bichromate to fifty
parts of glue. It will harden when exposed to the air and light and be
an insoluble liquid.[8]

    [Footnote 8: For recipes for this and other glues, see Woodcraft,
    May '07, p. 49.]

_General directions for gluing._[9] Before applying glue to the
parts to be fastened together, it is a good plan to assemble them
temporarily without glue, to see that all the parts fit. When it is
desirable that a certain part, as the panel, in panel construction,
should not be glued in place, it is a wise precaution to apply wax,
soap, or oil to its edges before insertion. Since hot glue sets
quickly, it is necessary after the glue is applied to get the parts
together as soon as possible. One must learn to work fast but to keep
cool. To expedite matters, everything should be quite ready before the
process is begun, clamps, protecting blocks of wood, paper to protect
the blocks from sticking to the wood, braces to straighten angles,
mallet, try-square, and all other appliances likely to be required.

    [Footnote 9: For special directions, for particular joints,
    see under the various joints, (Chap. VII.)]

Whenever it is possible to break up the process into steps, each step
can be taken with more deliberation. For example, in assembling framed
pieces that are doweled, it is well to glue the dowels into one set
of holes beforehand, making tenons of them, as it were. Time is
thus saved for the final assembling when haste is imperative. The
superfluous glue around the dowels should be carefully wiped off.

Likewise in gluing up framed pieces, sections may be put together
separately: as, the ends of a table, and when they are dry then the
whole may be assembled. When the pieces are together the joints should
be tested to see that they are true, and that there are no twists.

A good way to insure squareness, is to insert a diagonal brace on the
inside, corner to corner, as in Fig. 294, p. 195. Such a brace should
be provided when the trial assembly is made. Another good way to
insure squareness is to pass a rope around two diagonally opposite
posts, and then by twisting the rope, to draw these corners toward
each other until the frame is square.

The superfluous glue may be wiped off at once with a warm damp cloth,
but not with enough water to wet the wood. Or by waiting a few minutes
until the glue thickens, much of it can readily be peeled off with an
edge tool. Either of these ways makes the cleaning easier than to let
the superfluous glue harden.

The work when glued should remain at least six hours in the clamps to


Hinges, Fig. 233, are made in several forms. The most common are the
butt-hinge or butt, the two leaves of which are rectangular, as in
a door-hinge; the strap-hinge, the leaves of which are long and
strap-shaped; the Tee-hinge, one leaf of which is a butt, and the
other strap-shaped; the chest-hinge, one leaf of which is bent at a
right angle, used for chest covers; the table-hinge used for folding
table tops with a rule joint; the piano-hinge, as long as the joint;
the blank hinge or screen-hinge which opens both ways; the stop-hinge,
which opens only 90°; and the "hook-and-eye" or "gate" hinge.

[Illustration: Fig. 233. a. Butt-hinge. b. Tee-hinge. c. Chest-hinge.
d. Table-hinge. e. Blank or Screen-hinge.]

The knuckle of the hinge is the cylindrical part that connects the two
leaves, Fig. 234. The "acorn" is the head of the "pintle" or pin that
passes thru the knuckle. Sizes of butts are indicated in inches for
length, and as "narrow," "middle," "broad" and "desk" for width.
The pin may be either riveted into the knuckle as in box-hinges or
removable as in door-butts. Sometimes, as in blind-hinges, the pintle
is fastened into one knuckle, but turns freely in the other.

A butt-hinge may be set in one of three positions, Fig. 235: (1) Where
it is desired to have the hinge open as wide as possible, as in a
door. Here the knuckle is set well out from the wood. (2) Where it
is desired to have the hinged portion open flat and no more. Here the
center of the pin is in line with the outside surface of the wood.
This is less likely to rack the hinge than the other two positions.
(3) Where it is desired to have the knuckle project as little as

[Illustration: Fig. 234. Parts of a butt-hinge. 1.1. Leaves. 2.2.2.
Knuckle. 3. Pintle. 4. Acorn.]


In setting the hinges of a box cover, first see that the cover fits
the box exactly all the way around.

In the case of a door, see that it fits its frame, evenly all the
way around, but with a little play. To insure a tighter fit at the
swinging edge this edge should be slightly beveled inwards.

In attaching a butt-hinge, the essential thing is to sink the hinge
into the wood, exactly the thickness of the knuckle. The gains may be
cut in one or both of the pieces to be hinged together.

With these matters determined proceed as follows: In the case of a box
cover, the hinges should be set about as far from the ends of the box
as the hinge is long.

In the case of an upright door, locate the hinges respectively above
and below the lower and upper rails of the door. Mark with the knife
on the edge of the door the length of the hinge, and square across
approximately the width of the gain to receive it. Do this for both
hinges. Between these lines gage the proper width of the gains. Set
another gage to one half the thickness of the knuckle and gage on the
door face the depth of the gains. Chisel out the gains, set the hinges
in place, bore the holes, and drive the screws. Place the door in
position again to test the fit. If all is well, mark the position of
the hinges on the frame, gage and cut the gains, and fasten in the
hinges. Where the hinge is gained its full thickness into the door,
no gain, of course, is cut in the frame. If the hinges are set too
shallow, it is an easy matter to unscrew one leaf of each and cut a
little deeper. If they are set too deep the screws may be loosened
and a piece of paper or a shaving inserted underneath along the outer
arris of the gain.


The chief parts of a lock are: the _bolt_, its essential feature, the
_selvage_, the plate which appears at the edge of the door or drawer,
the _box_, which contains the mechanism including the _tumbler_,
_ward_, _spring_, etc., the key-pin, into or around which the key
is inserted, the _strike_, the plate attached opposite the selvage,
(often left out as in drawer-locks, but essential in hook-bolt locks,
and self-locking locks,) and the _escutcheon_, the plate around the

[Illustration: Fig. 235. Three Positions of Hinges.]

Locks may be classified: (1) According to their _uses_, of which
there are two types. (a), Fig. 236, For drawers, cupboards, tills,
wardrobes, and doors. In these the bolt simply projects at right
angles to the selvage into the strike, and resists pressure sidewise
of the lock. (b), Fig. 237, For desks, roll-top desks, chests, boxes
and sliding doors. In these, the bolt includes a hook device of some
kind to resist pressure perpendicular to the selvage. In some locks,
the hook or hooks project sidewise from the bolt, in others the bolt
engages in hooks or eyes attached to the strike.

[Illustration: Fig. 236. Rim-lock, for Drawer. 1. Bolt. 2. Selvage. 3.
Box. 4. Key-pin.]

(2) According to the _method of application_, as rim locks, which are
fastened on the surface, and mortise locks which are mortised into the
edge of a door or drawer or box.


To insert a _rim-lock_, measure the distance from the selvage to the
key-pin, locate this as the center of the keyhole, and bore the hole.
If the lock has a selvage, gain out the edge of the door or drawer to
receive it. If the lock box has to be gained in, do that next, taking
care that the bolt has room to slide. Cut the keyhole to the proper
shape with a keyhole-saw or small chisel. Fasten the lock in place,
and if there is a strike or face-plate, mark its place and mortise it

[Illustration: Fig. 237. Mortise-lock, for Box.]

To insert a _mortise-lock_, locate and bore the keyhole, mortise in
the box and the selvage, finish the keyhole, fasten in the lock, add
the escutcheon, locate and mortise in the strike, and screw it in



  Hammacher & Schlemmer.
    Catalog No. 151.

    Goss, p. 153.
    Purfield, _Wood Craft_, 5: 181.
    Park, pp. 129-135.
    Griffith, pp. 75-78.
    _Wood Craft_, 5: 103.
    Wheeler, pp. 428-433.

    Wheeler, pp. 429-433.
    Sickels, p. 70.
    Goss, p. 155.
    Barter, pp. 84-86.

    Goss, p. 155.
    Wheeler, p. 476.
    Barter, p. 86.
    Griffith, pp. 78-80.
    Park, pp. 136-140.

    Goss, p. 153.
    Wheeler, p. 374.
    Sickels, p. 104.
    Griffith, p. 92.

    Goss, p. 151.

    Goss, p. 156.
    Rivington, III, p. 432.
    Barter, p. 82.
    Standage, _Wood Craft_, 7: 48.
    Park, pp. 141-146.
    Sickels, p. 106.
    Wheeler, pp. 391-396.
    Alexander, _Wood Craft_, 5: 168.
    Griffith, pp. 80-83.

    Sickels, p. 118.
    Wheeler, p. 402.

  [Footnote *: For general bibliography see p. 4.]



_Tool equipment._ The choice of tools in any particular shop best
comes out of long experience. Some teachers prefer to emphasize
certain processes or methods, others lay stress on different ones.
The following tentative list is suggested for a full equipment for
twenty-four students. One bench and its tools may be added for the

The prices given are quoted from Discount Sheet No. 1 for Catalogue of
Tools, No. 355 issued by Hammacher, Schlemmer & Co., Fourth Avenue and
13th Street, New York City, dated 1908, and are correct at the present
date (1910). Aggregate orders, however, are always subject to special
concessions, and it is suggested that before ordering the purchaser
submit a list of specifications for which special figures will be

There are good benches, vises, and tools of other makes on the market,
but those specified below are typical good ones.

Following are two equipments for classes of twenty-four pupils, one
severely economical to cost approximately $400, and the other more
elaborate to cost approximately $750.



24 Manual Training School Benches, H. & S. "L," @ $8.50.           $204.00
24 Stanley Jack-Planes, No. 5, 14", @ $1.74 each.                    41.76
24 Disston's Back-Saws, No. 4, 10", @ 93c each.                      22.32
12 Buck Brothers' Firmer-Chisels, No. 2, 1/4", handled and sharpened. 2.21
12 Buck Brothers' Firmer-Chisels, No. 2, 1/2", handled and sharpened. 2.68
24 Buck Brothers' Firmer-Chisels, No. 2, 1", handled and sharpened.   7.31
24 Sloyd Knives, No. 7, 2-1/2".                                       6.50
12 Hammond's Adze-eye Claw-Hammer, No. 3, 7 oz.                       4.90
24 Try-squares, No. 5-1/2, 6".                                        5.32
24 Beech Marking-Gages, No. 64-1/2.                                   4.86
24 Boxwood Rules, No. 3, 12" long.                                    1.80
12 Faber's Measuring Compass, No. 1752.                               1.50
12 Bench-Hooks.                                                       2.00
12 Bench-Dusters, No. 10.                                             2.70
Total for individual tools.                                        $309.86


6 Disston's Crosscut-Saws, No. 7, 22", 10 points.                    $6.75
6 Disston's Rip-Saws, No. 7, 22", 8 points.                           6.75
2 Turning-Saws in frames, 14", M. F. & Co.                            1.74
1 Dozen Turning-Saw Blades, 14", H. S. & Co.                          1.06
1 Hack-Saw Frame, No. 50.                                              .45
1 Disston's Dovetail-Saw, 6", iron back.                               .48
1 Stanley Miter-Box, No. 240.                                         8.20
2 Stanley Block-Planes, No. 65-1/2.                                   1.56
1 Stanley Fore-Plane, No. 6.                                          2.22
1 Stanley Rabbet-Plane and Filletster, No. 78.                        1.10
1 Stanley "Bed Rock" Plane, No. 603.                                  1.58
6 Iron Spokeshaves, No. 54.                                           1.42
1 Veneer-Scraper, No. 80.                                              .70
6 Each Molding-Scrapers, No. 2 and No. 7.                              .90
1 Scraper Steel, Richardson's.                                         .10
3 Flat Bastard Files, K. & F., 8", handled.                            .45
3 Half-Round Files, K. & F., 8", handled.                              .55
3 Rat-tail Files, K. & F., 8", handled.                                .33
4 Files, K. & F., 6", slim taper.                                      .36
1 Auger-Bit-File.                                                      .13
1 File-Card, No. 1.                                                    .14
1 Empire Tool-Grinder.                                                2.80
1 Grindstone, No. 11, with stone.                                    15.00
1 India Oilstone, No. 0, in box.                                       .95
1 Soft Arkansas Oil Slipstone, No. 6.                                  .18
1 Copperized Steel Oiler, No. 14A, 1/2 pint.                           .23
2 Disston's Sliding T Bevel, No. 3, 6".                                .46
1 Stanley Miter-Square, No. 16, 10".                                   .60
1 Sargent Steel Square, No. 2.                                         .69
1 Pair Starrett's Winged Dividers, No. 92, 8".                         .75
1 Chisel, No. 2, 1/8", handled.                                        .20
3 Buck Brothers' Firmer-Gouges, No. 8, 1".                            1.29
1 Buck Brothers' Gouge, No. 10, inside bevel, regular sweep, 3/4".     .43
4 Barber's Braces, No. 14, 6" sweep.                                  3.52
1 Barber's Ratchet-Brace, No. 31, 12" sweep.                          1.62
5 Gimlet-Bits, 1 each of 2/32", 3/32", 4/32", 5/32", 6/32".            .40
1 Set Auger-Bits, R. Jennings'.                                       4.46
1 Clark's Expansive-Bit, small.                                        .57
2 Screwdriver-Bits, 1/2", round blade, No. 10, 4".                     .32
3 Rose Countersinks, No. 10, 5/8".                                     .68
6 Brad-Awls, assorted 1"-1-1/2".                                       .30
1 Hand-Drill, No. 5-1/2.                                              2.45
Extra Drills, 2 each of No. 107, size, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40,
                              45, 50, 55, 60.                         1.42
6 New Century Screwdrivers, 4".                                        .96
1 New Century Screwdriver, 12".                                        .54
6 O. K. Nailsets, assorted.                                            .42
6 Carpenter's Steel Bar Clamps, 3 ft.                                 9.60
12 Aldrich's Oiled Handscrews, No. 16, 10".                           4.79
12 Aldrich's Oiled Handscrews, No. 17-1/2, 6".                        3.42
4 Carriage-Maker's Clamps, 6".                                        1.32
1 Automatic Miter-Clamp.                                              1.80
1 Pair Pliers, No. 200, 5".                                            .21
1 Coe's Monkey-Wrench, 10".                                            .60
1 Glue-Pot, No. 3.                                                     .82
1 Parker's Wood-working Vise, No. 276.                                8.07
1 Gas Stove, 99A.                                                      .55
1 Pair End-Cutting Nippers, No. 154, 5".                               .88
1 Glass-Cutter, No. 10.                                                .27
3 Flat Varnish Brushes, No. 54, 1-1/2", hard-rubber-bound
                                              (for shellac).           .96
6 Cheap Brushes, 1", tin-bound (for stains), "EE".                     .90
6 Extra Jack-Plane Cutters (No. 5).                                   1.80
6 Enamel Cups, 1/2 pint.                                               .60
1 Maple Yard-Stick, No. 41.                                            .17
Total for general tools.                                           $114.97
Total for individual tools.                                         309.86
Discount for schools, 10 per cent.                                   42.48
Lockers for individual work.                                       $150.00



25 Manual Training School Benches, Hammacher, Schlemmer & Co.'s
       "J" with Toles' quick-acting Vise on side, @ $20.           $500.00
25 Stanley Jack-Planes, No. 5, 14", @ $1.74 each.                    43.50
25 Disston's Back-Saws, No. 4, 10", @ 93c each.                      23.25
25 Buck Brothers' Firmer-Chisels, 1/4", handled and sharpened,
                                            @ $2.21 doz.              4.61
25 Buck Brothers' Firmer-Chisels, 1/2", handled and sharpened,
                                            @ $2.68 doz.              5.58
25 Buck Brothers' Firmer-Chisels, 1", handled and sharpened, @ $3.65  7.61
30 Sloyd Knives, No. 7, 2-1/2" blade (6 extra) @ $3.25 doz.           8.12
25 Hammond's Adze-eye Hammers, No. 3, 7 oz., @ $4.90 doz.            10.21
25 Round Hickory Mallets, No. 4, @ $1.40 doz.                         2.91
25 Hardened Blade Try-Squares, No. 5-1/2, 6", @ $2.66 doz.            5.57
25 Beech Marking-Gages, No. 64-1/2, 8", @ $2.43 doz.                  5.07
25 Steel Bench-Rules, No. 300D, @ $4.80 doz.                         10.00
36 Faber's Measuring Compass, No. 1752 (12 extra).                    4.50
25 Maple Bench-Hooks, @ $2.00 doz.                                    4.18
25 Bench-Dusters, No. 10, @ $2.70 doz.                                5.63
Total for individual tools.                                        $640.74


6 Disston's Crosscut-Saws, No. 7, 22", 10 points.                   $ 6.75
6 Disston's Rip-Saws, No. 7, 22", 8 points.                           6.75
4 Turning-Saws in frames, 14".                                        3.48
1 Doz. Turning-Saw Blades, 14".                                       1.06
1 Compass-Saw, Disston's No. 2, 10".                                   .27
1 Stanley Miter-Box, No. 240.                                         8.20
1 Disston's Dovetail-Saw, 6", iron back.                               .48
2 Coping-Saws, No. 110.                                                .40
1 Gross Coping-Saw Blades, 6".                                        1.00
6 Stanley Block-Planes, No. 65-1/2.                                   4.68
1 Stanley Fore-Plane, No. 6.                                          2.22
1 Stanley Rabbet-Plane and Filletster, No. 78.                        1.10
2 Stanley's "Bed Rock" Smooth-Planes, No. 603 or                      3.16
   Sargent's Adjustable-Frog Smooth-Plane.
12 Extra Jack-Plane Cutters (No. 5), 2".                              3.60
1 Stanley Beading Rabbet, and Matching Plane, No. 45.                 5.85
1 Stanley Router-Plane, No. 71.                                       1.37
6 Iron Spokeshaves, No. 54.                                           1.42
6 Pattern-Makers' Spokeshaves, applewood, small,  1-1/2".             1.52
2 Drawing-Knives, White's No. 31, 6".                                 1.60
1 Stanley Adjustable Scraper-Plane, No. 112, with toothing cutter.    1.43
1 Veneer-Scraper, No. 80.                                              .70
3 Each Molding-Scrapers, No. 2, No. 7.                                 .45
2 Dowel-Pointers, No. 1.                                               .60
1 Dowel-Plate.                                                         .30
1 Scraper Steel, Richardson's.                                         .10
1 Iron Screw-Box, French, 3/8".                                       1.80
4 Flat Bastard Files, K. & F., 8", handled.                            .60
4 Half-Round Files, K. & F., 8", handled.                              .72
4 Rat-tail Files, K. & F., 8", handled.                                .44
4 Files, 6", slim taper.                                               .36
2 Auger-Bit-Files.                                                     .25
1 File-Card, No. 1.                                                    .14
1 Empire Tool-Grinder.                                                2.80
1 Grindstone, No. 11, (iron frame and stone).                        15.00
2 India Oilstones, No. 29 (medium), in iron box.                      1.34
1 Soft Arkansas Oil Slipstone, No. 6.                                  .18
2 Copperized Steel Oilers, 14A, 1/2 pint.                              .46
6 Disston's Sliding T Bevels, No. 3, 6".                              1.38
1 Stanley Miter-Square, No. 16, 10".                                   .60
1 Sargent Steel Square, No. 2.                                         .60
2 Pairs Dividers, Starrett's winged, No. 92, 8".                      1.50
3 Scratch-Awls, Collier's, 4".                                         .33
1 Pair Trammel-Points, No. 1.                                          .74
1 Try-Square, No. 5-1/2, 12", hardened blade.                          .52
1 Mortise-Gage, No. 77.                                                .55
1 Cutting-Gage, No. 70.                                                .17
3 Each Firmer-Chisels, Buck Bros.' No. 2, handled and sharpened;
               1/16", 1/8", 3/16", 3/8", 3/4", 1-1/2".                4.42
3 Each outside-Bevel Gouges, Buck Bros.' Firmer, No. 8 handled
         and sharpened: 1/4", 1/2", 3/4", 1".                         3.55
3 Addis' Carving-Tools, round maple handles, No. 11, 5/32".            .96
3 Addis' Veining-Tools, round maple handles, No. 11, 1/16".            .96
3 Inside-Bevel Gouges, regular sweep, No. 10, 3/4".                   1.29
6 Barber's Nickel-Plated Braces, No. 14, 6" sweep.                    5.25
1 Barber's Ratchet-Brace, No. 31, 12" sweep.                          1.62
3 Each German Gimlet-Bits, 2/32", 3/32", 4/32", 5/32", 6/32".         1.00
3 Each Russell Jennings' Auger-Bits, 3/16", 4/16", 5/16", 6/16",
                                     7/16", 8/16".                     4.18
2 Each Russell Jennings' Auger-Bits, genuine,  10/16", 11/16",
                   12/16", 13/16", 14/16", 15/16", 16/16".            6.19
1 Each Foerstner's Auger-Bits, 1/4", 3/8", 1/2".                      1.79
1 Clark's Expansive-Bit, 1/2" to 1-1/2".                               .57
3 Buck Bros.' Rose Countersinks, No. 10, 5/8".                         .78
1 Washer-Cutter, No. 350.                                              .65
1 Plug-Cutter, 3/8".                                                   .32
2 Screwdriver-Bits, 1/2", round blade, 4" long.                        .32
4 Each Brad-Awls, handled, 1", 1-1/4", 1-1/2".                         .60
6 New Century Screwdrivers, 4".                                        .96
1 New Century Screwdriver, 12".                                        .54
1 New Century Screwdriver, 8".                                         .36
1 New Century Screwdriver, 3-1/2", slim.                               .16
1 Dowel-Plate, cast steel.                                             .30
6 O.K. Nailsets, assorted 1/16", 3/32", 1/8".                          .42
6 Carpenter Steel Bar Clamps, 3 ft.                                   9.60
2 Carpenter Steel Bar Clamps, 5 ft.                                   3.60
12 Aldrich's Oiled Handscrews, No. 16, 10".                           4.79
12 Aldrich's Oiled Handscrews, No. 17-1/2, 6".                        3.42
4 Carriage-Makers' Clamps, 6".                                        1.32
1 Automatic Miter-Clamp.                                              1.80
2 Doz. Acme Pinch-Dogs, 3/4".                                          .30
1 Glue-Pot, No. 3.                                                     .82
1 Gas Stove, No. 99A.                                                  .55
1 Coe's Monkey-Wrench, 10".                                            .60
1 Glass-Cutter, No. 10.                                                .27
6 Flat Varnish Brushes No. 54. 1-1/2", hard-rubber-bound
                                              (for shellac).          1.58
12 Cheap Brushes, tin-bound, (for stains), EE, 1".                    1.80
6 Enameled Cups, 1/2 pint.                                             .60
1 Maple Yard-Stick, No. 41.                                            .17
1 Pair Blackboard Compasses or Dividers.                              1.50
1 Blackboard Triangle, 45°.                                            .50
1 Blackboard Triangle, 30°×60°.                                        .50
Total for general tools.                                           $189.83


1 Bench, No. 1, without vises.                                      $ 8.00
1 Parker's Wood-working Vise, No. 276.                                8.07
1 Hand-Vise, No. 1230-1/2, 4".                                         .54
1 Hay-Budden Anvil, 10 lb.                                            3.07
1 Riveting-Hammer, Atha, 4 oz.                                         .32
1 Rivet-Set, No. 4.                                                    .27
1 Cold-Chisel, 3/8" cutting edge.                                      .11
1 Cold-Chisel, 5/8" cutting edge.                                      .15
1 Cape-Chisel, 3/8" cutting edge.                                      .13
1 Round-nosed Chisel, 3/8".                                            .13
1 Pair End-Cutting Nippers, No. 154, 5".                               .88
1 Pair Compton's Metal Snips, No. 12, 2".                              .63
2 Pair Flat-nose Pliers, No. 1806-1/2, 5".                             .58
1 Die-Holder, No. 11.                                                  .32
1 Die, 5/8"×1/4", 6/32".                                               .27
1 Hand-Drill, No. 5-1/2.                                              2.45
Extra Drills, Morse's No. 107, 2 each, Nos. 10, 15, 20, 25, 30,
                                        35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60.       1.42
1 Metal Countersink, No. 15, 5/8".                                     .18
1 Hack-Saw Frame, No. 50.                                              .45
6 Hack-Saw Blades, 8", H. S. & Co.                                     .25
1 Melting Ladle, 3".                                                   .19
1 Soldering Copper, 1 lb.                                              .31
1 Mill Bastard File, 8", 1 safe edge, handled.}
1 Mill Smooth File, 6", handled.              }
1 Square Bastard File, 8", handled.           }
1 Half-round Bastard File, 8", handled.       }
1 Slim Taper Saw-File, 6", handled.           }
1 Round Bastard File, 4", handled.            }                        .85
1 Atha Machinist's Hammer, Ball-peen, 6 oz.                            .38
Total for metal working tools.                                      $29.95

Glue and Stain Bench.                                              $ 15.00

Lockers for individual work for 360 pupils.                         360.00

Nail and Screw Cabinet.                                              35.00

Individual Tools.                                                  $640.74

General Tools.                                                      189.83

Discount for schools, 10 per cent.                                   83.06
Cabinets, lockers, etc.                                             410.00


_The general arrangement of the room._ The important factors are
the source or sources of light, and the lines of travel. The common
arrangement of benches where two sides of the room are lighted, is
shown in _a_, Fig. 238. By this arrangement, as each worker faces his
bench, he also faces one set of windows and has another set of windows
at his left. The advantage of this arrangement is that it is easy to
test one's work with the try-square by lifting it up to the light.
Another arrangement, shown in _b_, Fig. 238, has this advantage, that
there are no shadows on the work when it is lying on the bench and
the worker is holding his rule or try-square on it with his left hand.
When all the windows are on one side of the room the latter is the
more advantageous arrangement.

In determining the position of the benches, especially with reference
to their distance from each other, thought should be given to the
general lines of travel, from the individual benches to the general
tool-rack, to the finishing-table, to the lockers, etc. Even if all
the aisles cannot be wide enough both for passage and for work, one
wider one thru the center of the room may solve the difficulty. Where
rooms are crowded, space may be economized by placing the benches in
pairs, back to back, _c_ and _d_, Fig. 238. In any case, room should
always be reserved for a tier of demonstration seats, facing the
teacher's bench, for the sake of making it easy for the pupils to
listen and to think.

[Illustration: Fig. 238. Four Different Arrangements of Benches in a

_The Tools._ Every shop soon has its own traditions as to the
arrangement of tools, but there are two principles always worth
observing. (1) It is an old saying that there should be "a place for
everything and everything in its place." This is eminently true of a
well-ordered woodworking shop, and there is another principle just as
important. (2) Things of the same sort should be arranged together,
and arranged by sizes, whether they be general tools or individual
tools. In arranging the rack for general tools, a few suggestions are
offered. In the first place, arrange them so that there will be no
danger of cutting one's fingers on one tool when attempting to take
down another. Where the rack must needs be high, all the tools can be
brought within reach, by placing long tools, like files, screwdrivers,
etc., at the top. Such an arrangement is shown in Fig. 239.

As to the individual benches, those without high backs are to be
preferred, not only because of their convenience when it is desired
to work on large pieces, like table tops, and because the backs do not
interfere with the light, but because it is easier for the teacher
to look over the room to see that everything is in order. If the
equipment is kept complete, it is an easy matter to glance over all
the benches and the general rack to see that everything is in place.

[Illustration: Fig. 239. General Tool rack in a School Shop.]

In general, there are two methods of keeping guard over tools, the
open and the closed. In the open method, everything is kept in sight
so that empty places can be discovered readily. This method is a
convenient one, and, besides, the tools are always easily accessible.
In the closed method, the tools are kept in drawers and cases where
they can be locked up. This method is suitable where pupils are
equipped with individual sets of cutting tools. In such a case, the
common tools for each bench are kept in a common drawer and individual
pupils' tools in separate drawers. This method has the disadvantage
that things are out of sight, and if they disappear their loss may not
be discovered immediately. On the other hand, where the drawers and
cases are kept carefully locked, the danger of loss is reduced almost
to a minimum. Sometimes a combination of both methods is tried,
the tools being kept in unlocked drawers. This method furnishes the
greatest difficulty in keeping tools from disappearing.

[Illustration: Fig. 240. Nail and Screw Cabinet.]

Even when tools are well arranged, one of the most serious
difficulties in the way of shop order, is to keep tools in their
places. Pupils who are in a hurry, slip in the tools wherever they
will fit, not where they belong. Labels at the places of the different
sets may help somewhat; a more efficient method is to paste or paint
the form of each tool on the wall or board against which it hangs.
Pupils will see that, when they will not stop to read a label.

In spite of all precautions, some tools will disappear. A plan to
cover the cost of these, which works well in some schools, is to
require a deposit at the beginning of the year to cover these losses.
Then at the end of the year, after deducting the cost of losses, the
balance is returned pro rata.

[Illustration: Fig. 241. An Inexpensive Locker for Unfinished Work.]

There is diversity of practice in the distribution of tools on the
general case and on the individual benches. Some tools, like the plane
and chisel, and try-square, are so frequently in use that each worker
must have one at hand. As to others, the demand must determine the
supply. One other consideration may be expressed by the principle that
those tools, the use of which is to be encouraged, should be kept
as accessible as possible, and those whose use is to be discouraged,
should be kept remote. Some tools, like files, it may be well to keep
in a separate locker to be had only when asked for.

[Illustration: Fig. 242. A More Expensive Locker for Unfinished Work.]

A cabinet of drawers, such as that shown in Fig. 240, for holding
nails, screws, and other fastenings, is both a convenience and a
material aid in preserving the order of the shop.

As for the care of tools during vacation, they should be smeared with
vaseline, which is cheap, and put away out of the dampness. The planes
should be taken apart and each part smeared. To clean them again for
use, then becomes an easy matter. The best method of removing rust and
tarnish is to polish the tools on a power buffing wheel on which has
been rubbed some tripoli. They may then be polished on a clean buffer
without tripoli.

_The Lockers._ In order to maintain good order in the shop, an almost
indispensable part of the equipment is a set of lockers for holding
the unfinished work of pupils. An inexpensive outfit may consist
simply of sets of shelves, say 5" apart, 12" deep, and 18" long, Fig.
241. Ordinary spring-roller curtains may be hung in front of each set
of shelves to conceal and protect the contents. Such a case
should cost at the rate of about 40c. for each compartment. A more
substantial and more convenient case, shown in Fig. 242, consists
of compartments each 9-1/2" high, 6" wide, and 18" deep. These
proportions may be changed to suit varying conditions. In front of
each tier of 12 compartments is a flap door opening downward. Such a
case built of yellow pine (paneled) may cost at the rate of $1.00 per

[Illustration: Fig. 243. Gluing and Staining Bench Covered with Zinc.]

There should, of course, be a separate compartment for each pupil
using the shop. Where possible, there should be a special table for
staining and gluing. Where strict economy must be practiced, a good
sized kitchen table covered with oilcloth answers every purpose. A
better equipment would include a well-built bench, such as that shown
in Fig. 243, the top and back of which are covered with zinc.

Where no staining-table is possible, temporary coverings of oilcloth
may be provided to lay over any bench which is convenient for the

[Illustration: Fig. 244. Shellac Utensils.]

_Care of brushes and materials used in finishing wood._ Shellac should
be kept in glass or pottery or aluminum receptacles but not in any
metal like tin, which darkens it. A good plan is to have a bottle for
fresh, untouched shellac, a wide-mouthed jar for that which has been
diluted and used, and an enameled cup for use. There should also be
a special brush, Fig. 244. At the time of using, first see that the
brush is soft and pliable. If it is stiff, it can be soaked quickly
and softened in a little alcohol in the cup. This alcohol may then be
poured into the jar and mixed in by shaking. Then pour out a little
from the jar into the cup, and if it is too thin, thicken with some
fresh shellac. After using, pour back the residue into the jar,
carefully wiping the brush on the edge of the jar; and if it is not to
be used again for some time, rinse it in a little alcohol, which may
also be poured into the jar, which should then be covered. What little
shellac remains in the brush and cup will do no harm and the brush may
be left standing in the cup until required. The important things are
to keep the shellac cup and brush for _shellac only_, (indeed, it is
a good plan to label them "SHELLAC ONLY,") and to keep the
shellac covered so that the alcohol in it will not evaporate. In a
pattern-making shop, where the shellac cup is to be frequently used,
it is well to have cups with covers thru which the brushes hang, like
the brush in a mucilage jar.

Varnish brushes need to be cleaned thoroly after each using. If they
get dry they become too hard to be cleaned without great difficulty.

Brushes for water stains are easily taken care of by washing with
water and then laying them flat in a box. Cups in which the water
stains have been used can also be easily rinsed with water.

Brushes for oil stains are most easily kept in good condition, by
being hung in a brush-keeper, Fig. 245, (sold by Devoe & Reynolds, 101
Fulton St., N. Y. C.) partly filled with turpentine. The same brushes
may also be used for fillers.

Oil stains should be poured back into their respective bottles, and
the cups wiped out with cotton waste. When they get in bad condition,
they can be cleaned readily after a preliminary soaking in a strong
solution of potash. The same treatment may be given to brushes, but if
they are left soaking too long in the solution, the bristles will be
eaten off.

[Illustration: Fig. 245. Brush-keeper.]



    Murray, _Year Book_ 1906, p. 69.
    Bailey, _M. T. Mag._, 9: 138.  Dec. '07.
    Robillion, pp. 48-90.
    Hammacher and Schlemmer, passim.

    [Footnote *: For general bibliography, see p. 4.]



Wherever two or more pieces of wood are fastened together we have what
is properly called joinery. In common usage the term indicates the
framing of the interior wood finish of buildings and ships, but it is
also used to include cabinet-making, which is the art of constructing
furniture, and even the trades of the wheelwright, carriage-maker, and
cooper. Since joinery involves the constant use of joints, a reference
list of them, with illustrations, definitions, uses, and directions
for making typical ones may be of convenience to workers in wood.


_No. 1. A lapped and strapped joint_, Fig. 264, p. 177, is made by
laying the end of one timber over another and fastening them both
together with bent straps on the ends of which are screws by which
they may be tightened. It is a very strong joint and is used where the
beams need lengthening as in false work or in long ladders and flag

_No. 2. A fished joint_, Fig. 264, is made by butting the squared
ends of two timbers together and placing short pieces of wood or
iron, called fish-plates, over the faces of the timbers and bolting or
spiking the whole firmly together. It is used for joining timbers in
the direction of their length, as in boat construction.

_No. 3._ In a _fished joint_, Fig. 264, keys are often inserted between
the fish-plate and beam at right angles to the bolts in order
to lessen the strain that comes upon the bolts when the joint is
subjected to tension. In wide pieces and for extra strength, as in
bridge work, the bolts may be staggered.

_Nos. 4, 5, 6 and 7._ _A scarf or spliced joint_, Fig. 264, is made by
joining together with flush surfaces the ends of two timbers in such a
way as to enable them to resist compression, as in No. 4; tension,
as in No. 5; both, as in No. 6, where the scarf is tabled; or cross
strain as in No. 7. No. 4 is used in house sills and in splicing out
short posts, Nos. 5 and 6 in open frame work. _No. 7_ with or without
the fish-plate, is used in boats and canoes, and is sometimes called
a boat-builder's joint, to distinguish it from No. 4, a carpenter's
joint. A joint to resist cross strain is stronger when scarfed in
the direction of the strain than across it. No. 7 is the plan, not
elevation, of a joint to receive vertical cross strain.


_No. 8. A doweled butt-joint_, Fig. 264, is made by inserting, with
glue, dowel-pins into holes bored into the two members. The end of one
member is butted against the face or edge of the other. It is used in
cabinet-making where the presence of nails would be unseemly.

[Illustration: Fig. 246. Lay-out by Thru Dowling.]

In a doweled butt-joint the dowels may go clear thru the outside
member, and be finished as buttons on the outside, where they show.
To lay out this joint mark near the ends of the edges of the abutting
member, X, Fig. 246, center-lines A B. Draw on the other member Y, a
sharp pencil-line to which when the lines AB on X are fitted, X will
be in its proper place. Carry the line around to the other side of Y
and locate on it the proper centers for the dowel-holes E and F. Then
fasten on the end of X a handscrew in such a way that the jaws will
be flush with the end. With another handscrew, clamp this handscrew to
Y in such a way that the marks on the two pieces match, A to C and B
to D, Fig. 247. Bore at the proper places, E and F, holes directly thru
Y into X.

[Illustration: Fig. 247. Thru Boring for a Butt Joint.]

Fig. 248 illustrates the gluing together of a four-legged stand in
which the joints are made in this way. The cross-lap joints of
the stretchers are first glued together, then the other joints are
assembled without glue, to see that all the parts fit and finally two
opposite sides are glued at a time. Pieces of paper are laid inside
the gluing blocks to prevent them from sticking to the legs.

[Illustration: Fig. 248. Gluing-Up a Four-Legged Stand.]

In case the dowels are to be hidden the chief difficulty is to locate
the holes properly. One method of procedure is as follows: To dowel
the end of one member against the face of the other as a stringer into
a rail or a rail into a table leg, first lay out the position of the
dowels in the end of the first member, X, Fig. 249. Gage a
center-line, A B, across this end lengthwise, locate the centers of the
dowel-holes, and square across with a knife point, as CD and EF. Gage
a line on the other member to correspond with the line AB. On the
face so gaged, lay the first member on its side so that one arris lies
along this gaged line and prick off the points D and F, to get the
centers of the dowel-holes.

[Illustration: Fig. 249. Laying out a Dowel Joint.]

If, as is usual, there are a number of similar joints to be made, a
device like that shown in Fig. 249 will expedite matters. 1 and 2
are points of brads driven thru a piece of soft wood, which has been
notched out, and are as far apart as the dowels. A-1 is the distance
from the working edge of the rail to the first dowel. The same measure
can be used from the end of the leg.

When the centers are all marked, bore the holes. Insert the dowels
into the holes and make a trial assembly. If any rail is twisted from
its proper plane, note carefully where the error is, take apart,
glue a dowel into the hole, that is wrong, pare it off flush with the
surface, and re-bore in such a place that the parts, when assembled
will come up true. When everything fits, glue and clamp together.

_No. 9. A toe-nailed joint_, Fig. 264, is made by driving nails
diagonally thru the corners of one member into the other. It is used
in fastening the studding to the sill in balloon framing.

_No. 10. A draw-bolt joint_, Fig. 264, is made by inserting an iron
bolt thru a hole in one member and into the other to meet a nut
inserted from the side of the second member. It is very strong and is
used in bench construction, wooden machinery, etc.

_No. 11. A plain butt-joint_, Fig. 264, is one in which the members
join endwise or edgewise without overlapping. It is used on returns as
in ordinary boxes and cases.

_No. 12. A glued and blocked joint_, Fig. 264, is made by gluing and
rubbing a block in the inside corner of two pieces which are butted
and glued together. It is used in stair-work and cabinet-work, as in
the corners of bureaus.

_No. 13. A hopper-joint_, Fig. 264, is a butt-joint, but is peculiar
in that the edges of the boards are not square with their faces
on account of the pitch of the sides. It is used in hoppers, bins,
chutes, etc. The difficulty in laying out this joint is to obtain the
proper angle for the edges of the pieces. This may be done as follows:
After the pieces are planed to the correct thickness, plane the upper
and lower edges of the end pieces to the correct bevel as shown by the
pitch of the sides. Lay out the pitch of the sides of the hopper on
the outside of the end pieces. From the ends of these lines, on the
upper and lower beveled edges score lines at right angles with the
knife and try-square. Connect these lines on what will be the inside
of the hopper. Saw off the surplus wood and plane to the lines thus
scored. The side pieces may be finished in the same way, and the parts
are then ready to be assembled.


A halved joint is one in which half the thickness of each member is
notched out and the remaining portion of one just fits into the notch
in the other, so that the upper and under surfaces of the members are

_No. 14. A cross-lap joint_, Fig. 264, is a halved joint in which both
members project both ways from the joint. This is a very common joint
used in both carpentry and joinery, as where stringers cross each
other in the same plane.

The two pieces are first dressed exactly to the required size, either
separately or by the method of making duplicate parts, see Chap. IX,
p. 204. Lay one member, called X, across the other in the position
which they are to occupy when finished and mark plainly their upper
faces, which will be flush when the piece is finished. Locate the
middle of the length of the lower piece, called Y, on one arris, and
from this point lay off on this arris half the width of the upper
piece, X. From this point square across Y with the knife and
try-square. Lay X again in its place, exactly along the line just
scored. Then mark with the knife on Y the width of X, which may then
be removed and the second line squared across Y. From these two lines
square across both edges of Y to approximately one-half the thickness.
Now turn X face down, lay Y on it, and mark it in the same way as Y.
Set the gage at one-half the thickness of the pieces, and gage between
the lines on the edges, taking care to hold the head of the gage
against the marked faces. Then even if one piece is gaged so as to
be cut a little too deep, the other will be gaged so as to be cut
proportionately less, and the joint will fit.

Cut a slight triangular groove on the waste side of the knife-marks,
Fig. 91, p. 66, saw accurately to the gaged lines, and chisel out the
waste as in a dado, see Figs. 70 and 71, p. 56.

The bottom of the dado thus cut should be flat so as to afford surface
for gluing. When well made, a cross-lap joint does not need to be
pounded together but will fit tight under pressure of the hands.

_No. 15. A middle-lap joint or halved tee_, Fig. 265, is made in the
same way as a cross-lap joint, but one member projects from the joint
in only one direction, it is used to join stretchers to rails as in
floor timbers.

_No. 16. An end-lap joint_, Fig. 265, is made in the same way as a
cross-lap joint except that the joint is at the end of both members.
It is used at the corners of sills and plates, also sometimes in

To make an end-lap joint, place the members in their relative
positions, faces up, and mark plainly. Mark carefully on each member
the inside corner, allowing the end of each member slightly (1/16")
to overlap the other. Square across at these points with a sharp knife
point, on the under side of the upper member, and on the upper side of
the lower member. Now proceed as in the cross-lap joint, except
that the gaged line runs around the end and the cutting must be done
exactly to this line.

_No. 17._ In an _end-lap joint on rabbeted pieces_, Fig. 265, the
joint must be adapted to the rabbet. The rabbet should therefore be
plowed before the joint is made. The rabbet at the end of the piece X
is cut not the entire width of the piece Y, but only the width of the
lap,--c-f=a-e. This joint is used occasionally in picture-frames.

_No. 18. A dovetail halving or lap-dovetail_, Fig. 265, is a
middle-lap joint with the pin made dovetail in shape, and is thus
better able to resist tension. It is used for strong tee joints.

_No. 19. A beveled halving_, Fig. 265, is made like a middle-lap joint
except that the inner end of the upper member is thinner so that the
adjoining cheeks are beveled. It is very strong when loaded above. It
was formerly used in house framing.


_No. 20. A notched joint_, Fig. 265, is made by cutting out a portion
of one timber. It is used where it is desired to reduce the height
occupied by the upper timber. Joists are notched on to wall plates.

_No. 21. A checked joint or double notch_, Fig. 265, is made by
cutting out notches from both the timbers so as to engage each other.
It is used where a single notch would weaken one member too much.

_No. 22. A cogged or corked or caulked joint_, Fig. 265, is made by
cutting out only parts of the notch on the lower piece, leaving a
"cog" uncut. From the upper piece a notch is cut only wide enough to
receive the cog. A cogged joint is stronger than a notched because
the upper beam is not weakened at its point of support. It is used in
heavy framing.

_No. 23. A forked tenon joint_, Fig. 265, is made by cutting a fork in
the end of one member, and notching the other member to fit into
the fork, so that neither piece can slip. It is used in knock-down
furniture and in connecting a muntin to a rail, where it is desired
that the muntin should run thru and also that the rail be continuous.

_No. 24. A rabbet or rebate or ledge joint_, Fig. 266, is made by
cutting out a portion of the side or end of a board or timber X to
receive the end or side of another, Y. It may then be nailed from
either the side or end or from both. The neatest way in small boxes is
from the end, or better still it may be only glued.

_No. 25. A dado or grooved joint_, Fig. 266, is made by cutting in one
member a groove into which the end or edge of the other member fits.
Properly speaking a groove runs with the grain, a dado across it, so
that the bottom of a drawer is inserted in a groove while the back of
the drawer is inserted in a dado. Where the whole of the end of one
member is let into the other, such a dado is also called a housed
dado. Treads of stairs are housed into string boards.

To lay out a dado joint: After carefully dressing up both pieces to
be joined, locate accurately with a knife point, on the member to be
dadoed, called X, one side of the dado, and square across the piece
with a try-square and knife. Then locate the other side of the dado by
placing, if possible, the proper part of the other member, called
Y, close to the line drawn. If this method of superposition is not
possible, locate by measurement. Mark, with a knife point, on X, the
thickness thus obtained. Square both these lines as far across the
edges of X as Y is to be inserted. Gage to the required depth on both
edges with the marking-gage.

To cut the joint: First make with the knife a triangular groove on the
waste side of each line, as indicated in Fig. 91, p. 66, and starting
in the grooves thus made, saw with the back-saw to the gaged lines
on both edges. The waste may now be taken out either with a chisel or
with a router, Fig. 122, p. 83. The second member, Y, should just fit
into a dado thus made, but if the joint is too tight, the cheeks of
the dado may be pared with a chisel. In delicate work it is often wise
not to saw at all, but to use only the knife and chisel.

_No. 26. A dado and rabbet_, Fig. 266, is made by cutting a dado in
one member, X, and a rabbet on the other, Y, in such a way that the
projecting parts of both members will fit tight in the returns of
the other member. It is used in boxes and gives plenty of surface for

_No. 27. A dado, tongue and rabbet_, Fig. 266, is a compound joint,
made by cutting a rabbet on one member, Y, and then a dado in this
rabbet, into which fits a tongue of the other member, X. It is used in
machine-made drawers.

_No. 28. A dovetail dado or gain_, Fig. 266, is made by cutting one or
both of the sides of the infitting member, Y, on an angle so that it
has to be slid into place and cannot be pulled out sidewise. It is
used in book-cases and similar work, in which the shelves are fixed.

To make this joint, first lay out the dovetail on the member to be
inserted, called Y, thus: Across one end square a line (A B, No.
28), at the depth to which this member is to be dadoed in. Set the
bevel-square at the proper angle for a dovetail, Fig. 250. Score this
angle on the edges of the member, as at C D. Cut a groove with a knife
on the waste side of A B. Saw to the depth A C, and chisel out the
interior angle A C D.

Then lay out the other member, X, thus: mark with the knife the proper
place for the flat side of Y, square this line across the face and on
the edges as for a simple dado. Lay out the thickness of Y on the face
of X by superposition or otherwise and square the face and edges, not
with a knife but with a sharp pencil point. Gage the required depth on
the edges. Now with the bevel-square as already set, lay out the angle
A C D on the edges of X, and across the face at C score a line with
knife and try-square. Cut out grooves in the waste for the saw as in
a simple dado, and saw to the proper depth and at the proper angle.
Chisel or rout out the waste and when complete, fit the pieces

[Illustration: Fig. 250. Laying Out a Dovetail Joint.]

_No. 29. A gain joint_, Fig. 266, is a dado which runs only partly
across one member, X. In order to make the edges of both members flush
and to conceal the blind end of the gain, the corner of the other
member, Y, is correspondingly notched out. In book shelves a gain
gives a better appearance than a dado.

A gain joint is laid out in the same way as the dado, except that the
lines are not carried clear across the face of X, and only one edge is
squared and gaged to the required depth. Knife grooves are made in the
waste for starting the saw as in the dado. Before sawing, the blind
end of the gain is to be chiseled out for a little space so as to give
play for the back-saw in cutting down to the required depth. To avoid
sawing too deep at the blind end, the sawing and chiseling out of
waste may be carried on alternately, a little at a time, till the
required depth is reached. It is easy to measure the depth of the cut
by means of a small nail projecting the proper amount from a trial
stick, Fig. 251. The use of the router, Fig. 122, p. 83, facilitates
the cutting, and insures an even depth.

[Illustration: Fig. 251. Depth-gage for Dado.]


The tenon in its simplest form is made by dividing the end of a piece
of wood into three parts and cutting out rectangular pieces on both
sides of the part left in the middle. The mortise is the rectangular
hole cut to receive the tenon and is made slightly deeper than the
tenon is long. The sides of the tenon and of the mortise are called
"cheeks" and the "shoulders" of the tenon are the parts abutting
against the mortised piece.

_No. 30. A stub mortise-and-tenon_, Fig. 266, is made by cutting only
two sides of the tenon beam. It was formerly used for lower ends of
studding or other upright pieces to prevent lateral motion.

_No. 31. A thru mortise-and-tenon_, Fig. 266, is made by cutting the
mortise clear thru one member and by cutting the depth of the tenon
equal to or more than the thickness of the mortised member. The cheeks
of the tenon may be cut on two or four sides. It is used in window

A thru mortise-and-tenon joint is made in the same way as a blind
mortise-and-tenon (see below), except that the mortise is laid out on
the two opposite surfaces, and the boring and cutting are done from
both, cutting first from one side and then from the other.

_No. 32. A blind mortise-and-tenon_, Fig. 266, is similar to the simple
mortise-and-tenon described in 30. The tenon does not extend thru the
mortised member and the cheeks of the tenon may be cut on two or four

To make a blind mortise-and-tenon, first make the tenon thus: Locate
accurately with a knife point the shoulders of the tenon and square
entirely around the piece. On the working edge near the end mark the
thickness of the tenon. Set the marking-gage at the proper distance
from the working face to one cheek of the tenon and gage the end and
the two edges between the end and the knife-lines. Reset the gage to
mark the thickness of the tenon and gage that in the same way from the
working face. Then mark and gage the width of the tenon in the same
way. Whenever there are several tenons of the same size to be cut,
they should all be laid out together, that is the marking-gage set
once to mark all face cheeks and once to mark all back cheeks. If a
mortise-gage is available, use that. Always mark from the working face
or working edge. Cut out a triangular groove on the waste side of the
knife lines (at the shoulders) as in cutting a dado, Fig. 91, p. 66.

In cutting the tenon, first rip-saw just outside the gaged lines,
then crosscut at the shoulder lines. Do all the rip-sawing before the
crosscutting. If the pieces are small the back-saw may be used for
all cuts. It is well to chamfer the arrises at the end of the tenon to
insure its starting easily into the mortise.

Locate the ends of the mortise and square lines across with a sharp
pencil in order to avoid leaving knife marks on the finished piece.
Then locate the sides of the mortise from the thickness of the tenon,
already determined, and gage between the cross lines. As in the case
of like tenons, if there are a number of mortises all alike, set the
gage only twice for them all.

In _cutting the mortice_, first fasten the piece so that it will rest
solid on the bench. This may be done either in a tail vise or by a
handscrew, or by clamping the bench-hook firmly in the vise in such a
way that the cleat of the bench-hook overhangs the piece. Then tap
the bench-hook with a mallet and the piece will be found to be held
tightly down on the bench. See Fig. 76, p. 58.

It is common to loosen up the wood by first boring a series of
adjoining holes whose centers follow the center-line of the mortise
and whose diameter is slightly less than the width of the mortise.
Take care to bore perpendicularly to the surface, see Fig. 137, p. 86,
and no deeper than necessary. Dig out the portions of wood between the
auger holes and chisel off thin slices, back to the gage-lines and
to the knife-lines, taking care all the time to keep the sides of the
mortise perpendicular to the face. This may be tested by placing the
chisel against the side of the mortise and standing alongside it a
try-square with its head resting on the surface.

Finally test the tenon in the mortise noting carefully where it
pinches, if anywhere, and trim carefully. The tighter it fits without
danger of splitting the mortised member, the stronger will be the

Many prefer to dig mortises without first boring holes. For this
purpose a mortise-chisel, Fig. 68, p. 54, is desirable. The method
is to begin at the middle of the mortise, placing the chisel--which
should be as wide as the mortise--at right angles to the grain of the
wood. Chisel out a V shaped opening about as deep as the mortise, and
then from this hole work back to each end, occasionally prying out the
chips. Work with the flat side of the chisel toward the middle except
the last cut or two at the ends of the mortise.

_No. 33._ In a _mortise-and-tenon joint on rabbeted pieces_, Fig. 266,
the tenon is as much shorter on one side than the other as the rabbet
is wide. In Fig. 33, ab=cd.

_No. 34. A wedged mortise-and-tenon joint_, Fig. 266, is a thru joint
in which after the tenon is driven home, wedges are driven in between
the tenon and the sides of the mortise. The wedges are dipped in glue
or white lead before being inserted. The sides of the mortise may be
slightly dovetailed. It is used to keep a tenon tightly fixed as in
wheel spokes.

_No. 35. A wedged mortise-and-tenon joint_, Fig. 266, may also be made
by driving the wedges into saw kerfs in the tenon instead of along
its sides as in No. 34. It is used in ornamental joints as well as in

_No. 36. A fox-tail tenon_, Fig. 266, is a blind mortise-and-tenon in
which the mortise is made slightly wider at the bottom than the width
of the tenon. Wedges are driven into saw kerfs in the tenon before
inserting into the mortise; then when it is driven home the wedges
spread out the tenon and make it fill out the mortise. It is used in
strong doors and also where the mortised member is already in place so
that a wedged mortise-and-tenon is impossible.

_No. 37. A dovetail mortise-and-tenon_, Fig. 266, is a thru
mortise-and-tenon beveled on one side so as to form half a dovetail.
The corresponding side of the mortise is also beveled and made wide
enough so that when the tenon is pressed well up against its beveled
side a wedge may be driven into the space left on the straight side.
It is used to tenon a beam into a post especially where the post is
fixed against a wall. It is also used in machinery frames which are
made of wood.

_No. 38. A pinned mortise-and-tenon_, Fig. 267, is one in which a pin
is driven thru holes bored thru the mortised beam and thru the tenon
to keep them from drawing apart. It is used in heavy framing as in
bridges, in wagon-making, in window-sash, etc.

_No. 39. A keyed mortise-and-tenon_, Fig. 267, is one in which the
tenon protrudes thru the mortise far enough to receive a removable
key and thus be drawn up tight to the mortised member. It is used in
work-benches and in ornamental joints like knock-down bookcases and in
other mission furniture.

The keyed mortise-and-tenon is made as in a thru mortise-and-tenon,
except that before cutting the tenons the holes for wedges should be
laid out thus: measuring from the shoulder of the tenon, locate by
superposition or measurement the outside of the mortised member.
Deduct from this 1/16" and square a fine pencil-line across the face
and opposite side. This line will be the inside of the hole for the
wedge, and the 1/16" is deducted to make sure that the key wedges
against the mortised member. On the upper surface of the tenon, lay
off toward the end the width of the wedge at this point, A B, Fig.
252, and square across. On the under surface, lay off the width of the
wedge at this point, C D, and square across.

[Illustration: Fig. 252. Keyed Mortise-and-Tenon Joint.]

Gage the sides of the wedge hole on both upper and lower surfaces of
the tenon. After cutting the mortise and tenon, bore and chisel out
the hole for the wedge, taking care to cut the side toward the end on
a bevel to fit the wedge.

_No. 40. A tusk tenon or shoulder tenon_, Fig. 267, is one in which
the tenon proper is quite thin but is reinforced by a thicker shoulder
called a "tusk." The upper shoulder is beveled. The object of this
form is to weaken the mortised member as little as possible but at the
same time to increase the strength of the tenon. It is used in joining
tail beams to headers in floor framing.

_No. 41. A double mortise-and-tenon_, Fig. 267, consists of two tenons
side by side in one piece fitting into two corresponding mortises. It
is used in joinery, as in door-frames, but not in carpentry.

_No. 42. A haunched mortise-and-tenon_, Fig. 267, is made by cutting
away part of the tenon so that that part of it will be much shorter
than the rest. The haunch gives the tenon great lateral strength
and saves cutting so large a mortise hole. It is used in panel
construction, as where the rails are joined to the stiles of doors.

First plow the groove in all the members. This should be of the same
width as the thickness of the tenons, which is ordinarily one-third of
the thickness of the frame. The groove is approximately as deep as
it is wide. Lay out and cut the tenon the width of the entire piece,
minus, of course, the depth of the groove. The mortise should not come
too near the end, or the portion of wood outside it will shear out.
Hence the tenon is narrowed on the outside enough to insure strength
in the mortised piece. The rule is that the tenon should be one-half
the width of the rail, minus the groove. But enough of the tenon is
left full width to fill up the groove at the outer end of the mortised
piece. This is called the _haunch_. The width of the mortise is equal
to the width of the groove, its length to the width of the tenon.
Before assembling the panel frame, put soap or tallow on the corners
of the panel to prevent its being glued to the frame.

_No. 43. Table or taper haunching_, Fig. 267. Sometimes, as in table
construction, for the sake of stiffening the rail, or in places where
it is desirable that the haunch does not show, the haunch is beveled
from the tenon to the edge of the rail.

_No. 44. A bare-faced tenon_, Fig. 267, is one in which a cheek is
cut from only one side. It is used where the rail is thinner than the
stile and it is desirable to keep the mortise near the middle of the

_No. 45. A housed mortise-and-tenon_, Fig. 267, is one in which the
whole of the end of one member is let in for a short distance or
"housed" into the other. It is common in grill work and in railings.

_No. 46. A slip-joint or end or open mortise-and-tenon_, Fig. 267, is
what would remain if a mortised member were sawn off along one side
of the tenoned member. Window screens and other light frames such as
those for slates and for printing photographs have this joint. This
joint multiplied is used for small machine-made boxes, and is then
called _corner locking_.


"Dovetail" refers to the shape of the projections of one member, when
looked at broadside. These projections are called dovetails, or merely

The projections on the other member are called tenons or pins, and the
spaces between both tails and tenons are called mortises or sockets.

_No. 47. A thru single dovetail_, Fig. 267, is similar to a slip-joint
except that instead of a tenon there is a dovetail. It is used in

_No. 48. A thru-multiple dovetail_, Fig. 267, consists of a series of
alternate tails and tenons which fit one another closely. It is used
in tool-chests and in other strong as well as fine boxes.

To make a thru multiple dovetail joint, first square lines with a
sharp pencil around the ends of both members to locate the inner ends
of the dovetails and the pins, d e on X, Fig. 250, and l m on Y. The
distance of this line from the ends of each member may, if desired,
be slightly (1/32") greater than the thickness of the other member.
Divide this line, d e, on the member to be dovetailed, X, into as many
equal spaces as there are to be tails (dovetails). From the division
points of these spaces, a b c, to the right and left lay off one-half
of the greatest width of the mortises to be cut out, and also the same
distance from d and from e, as at f f f f and g g g g.

The strongest arrangement of dovetails is to make them equal in width
to the spaces between them, as in No. 48, p. 267. For the sake of
appearance they may be as much as four times as wide as the spaces,
but ordinarily should not be wider than 1-3/4".

Set the bevel-square so that it will fit the angle A B C, Fig. 250, p.
159, in a right angle triangle, the long side of which is 3" and the
short side 5/8". This is approximately an angle of 80° or a little
more than one to five. From the points f f f f and g g g g lay off
this angle to the end of the piece. Carry these lines across the end
at right angles to the surface, h i, Fig. 250, and repeat the dovetail
angles on the other surface. Mark plainly the parts to be cut out (the
mortises), as on X in Fig. 250. Score with a knife point the inner
ends of the mortises, d to f, g to f, etc., and across the edge at d
and at e. With a dovetail-saw, Fig. 93, p. 66, cut on the mortise side
of each line down to the cross line, d-e, and also along the cross
line from d to f and e to g. Chisel out the mortises taking care to
keep the line d-e straight and square. The ends (not the sides) of the
mortises may be slightly undercut to insure a tight fit.

Fasten the other member, Y, upright in the vise so that the end to be
tenoned will be flush with the top of the bench, and with the working
face toward the bench. Place on it the working face of X, (the member
already dovetailed,) taking care that the inner ends of the mortises
are in line with the working face of Y, and that the edges of the two
members are in the same plane, as X on Y in Fig. 250. Scribe with a
knife point along the sides of the tails on the end of Y (f'-j' and
g'-h'). Remove Y from the vise and square down these lines to the
cross line l-m (j'-n and h'-o). Score with the knife point the inner
ends of the mortises of Y (n-o). Saw with a dovetail-saw on the
mortise sides of these lines, chisel out the mortises and fit the
parts together. When glued together, the joints should be dressed off.

Where there are several parts to be made alike, it is necessary to lay
out the dovetails on only one X member. This may be used as a templet
for laying out the others and they can then be sawn separately. Or all
the X members may be clamped carefully together, with one X already
laid out, rights and lefts in pairs, and edges and ends flush, the
depth mark gaged all around, and then all sawn at once.

The dovetail joint is also made by first laying out and cutting the
members having the pins, and then superposing this on the piece to be
dovetailed, and scribing around the pins.

_No. 49. A lap or half blind dovetail_, Fig. 267, is a dovetail joint
in which the tails on one member do not extend entirely thru the
thickness of the other member. It is used in joining the sides to the
fronts of drawers and other fittings where only one side is seen.

If the joint is to be used for a drawer front, the groove for the
drawer bottom should be cut or at least laid out before laying out the
joint. See also drawers, p. 190, and Fig. 287, p. 191. On the end of
the drawer front, gage the depth of the joint. Gage the same distance
on both broad surfaces of the drawer sides, marking from the front
ends. Lay out and cut the dovetails as in a thru dovetail joint,
taking especial care to have the groove for the bottom completely
within the lower tail. Take care also to make the sides, one right and
one left, not both alike, so that the groove will come inside. Lay out
the drawer front by superposing the dovetailed side, X, on the end of
the front, Y, as in a thru dovetail. Saw and chisel out the mortises
and fit together.

_No. 50. A stopped lap dovetail_, Fig. 267, is one in which neither
the tails nor the pins extend thru the other members. Hence the joint
is concealed. The lap may be rounded. It is used in fine boxes, trays,

_No. 51. The blind miter or secret dovetail_, Fig. 267, is a joint in
which only part, say one-half, of both boards is dovetailed, the outer
portion being mitered. The edges of the boards are also mitered right
thru for a short distance so that when finished the dovetails are
invisible. It is used in highly finished boxes.


A beveled joint is made by beveling the members so that the plane of
the joint bisects the angle at which the members meet. This is called
the "miter" and may be 45 degrees or any other angle. It is a neat but
weak joint unless reinforced by a spline, nails, or in some other way.

[Illustration: Fig. 253. Gluing Together a Picture-Frame (See also
Fig. 254.)]

_No. 52. A plain miter_, Fig. 268, is a joint where the beveled edges
or ends abut and are simply glued or nailed together. It is commonly
used in picture-frames, inside trim, columns, boxes, and taborets,
four or more sided.

[Illustration: Fig. 254. Picture-Frame-Clamp.]

For gluing mitered frames, the most convenient way is with the aid of
the picture-frame-vise, Fig. 172, p. 101. Nails are driven or splines
inserted as soon as each joint is glued. Where this vise is not
available, an ordinary metalworking vise may be used, as follows:
Fasten one member, X, face side up, firmly in the vise. Bore holes in
the other member, Y, at the proper places for the nails. Insert nails
in the holes, apply the glue to both mitered surfaces, place the glued
surfaces together, letting Y project about 1/8" beyond X. A convenient
way to hold Y in place is in the left hand, palm up, while the left
forearm rests upon X. Drive one of the nails home, and continue
driving until the parts exactly fit. Then drive home the other nail.
Now fasten together in the same way the other two members of the
picture-frame, and then, one at a time, the third and fourth joint.
This is the method used in picture-frame factories, and when once
learned is very simple.

[Illustration: Fig. 255. Picture-Frame-Clamp. (See also Fig. 254.)]

For gluing together at once all the members of a mitered frame, the
device shown in Fig. 253 is convenient and is easily made. Out of two
pieces of wood somewhat longer than the two end pieces of the frame,
gains are cut of the exact length of the ends, as shown in the
illustration. By applying two clamps lengthwise on the frame, all four
joints may be glued together at once. If the frame does not come up
square, it may be squared by means of a temporary brace, A, in Fig.

The device shown in Figs. 254 and 255, is also an easily made and
efficient tool. At least the small pieces, which receive the corners
of the frame, should be made of hard wood such as maple. It is
self-adjusting but care must be taken not to buckle the parts of a
narrow frame by over pressure. It is well to soap or oil the corner
pieces to prevent their being glued to the frame.

[Illustration: Fig. 256. Gluing up a Column Joint. (Pinch-Dogs at Top
of Joints.)]

In gluing together long mitered joints, in six or eight sided taborets
or columns, in which the members meet edgewise, one method is to wrap
a few turns of bale wire around the parts and drive in wedges under
the wire to obtain pressure, Fig. 256. Another method is to wrap a
stout rope, such as is used for window weights, around all the pieces,
properly set up, then to tighten it by twisting it with a stick thru
a loop, Fig. 257. A still more effective way is by means of the Noxall
Column Clamp, a powerful device, used chiefly for gluing up such
pieces as the pillar of a centrally supported table, Fig. 259. Care
must be taken with all these devices to protect the corners, unless
they are to be rounded off afterward. A good way to protect them is
with pieces fastened together in the shape shown in Fig. 258, b, and
Fig. 257, the interior angle being equal to the exterior angle of the
piece to be glued. In the case of a taboret with slender legs, care
must be taken to insert blocks between the separate legs as well, to
brace them apart and to keep them from bending under the pressure.
These methods have the advantage that they are speedy, since all the
pieces go together at once; but unless the pieces fit exactly the
joints will not close.

Another method is to glue and clamp the pieces of the taboret together
two by two, using blocks as shown in Fig. 258, _a_. Care should be
taken to put the pressure of the handscrews as far out as possible so
as to be sure that the outside of the joint closes. This method has
the advantage that, as only one joint is glued at a time, the work
can be done more deliberately. Moreover, if when three pairs of a
six-sided taboret are together, the other three joints do not fit
exactly, they can then be refitted.

Another method is to glue pieces of soft wood on the exterior of each
pieces as shown in Fig. 258, _c_. These blocks should be of such shape
that the opposite sides of each pair are parallel. When the glue is
dry, they are used as corners on which to clamp the handscrews. This
method has the disadvantage that the blocks may break loose at a
critical moment.

[Illustration: Fig. 257. One Method of Gluing up a Six-Sided Taboret.]

In addition to any of these methods of tightening the joints, to make
sure that the ends of the joints close tight, pinch-dogs, Fig. 178, p.
103, may be driven into the end grain, and corrugated fasteners, Fig.
228, p. 125, also driven into the ends, make the joint quite secure.

_No. 53. A doweled miter_, Fig. 268, is one in which one or more
dowels are inserted and glued into holes bored into the beveled edges.
It may be used instead of nails, as in large picture frames.

_No. 54. A spline or tongue miter_, Fig. 268, is one which has a
spline or tongue inserted at right angles to the joint. Since it
furnishes more gluing surface, it is stronger than a plain miter.

_No. 55. A slip-feather or slip-key miter_, Fig. 268, is one which is
strengthened by a slip of hardwood glued into a saw kerf cut across
the mitered angle. It is used in picture-frames and in boxes.

_No. 56. A slip-dovetail miter_, Fig. 268, is one in which a
trapezoidal shaped key is inserted in a dovetail socket cut straight
across the miter. When dressed off, it gives the appearance of a
dovetail on each face. It is used for the same purpose as a spline

_No. 57. A double dovetail keyed miter_, Fig. 268, is one in which a
double dovetail key made of hard wood is inlaid across the joint. This
is a favorite joint with Oriental joiners.

[Illustration: Fig. 258. Devices for Gluing Beveled Edges.]

_No. 58. A ledge and miter or lipped miter joint_, Fig. 268, is made
by rabbeting and mitering the boards to be joined so that the outer
portion of the two boards meet in a miter. It is strong and good
looking and may be glued or nailed. It is used for fine boxes.

_No. 59. A stopped miter_, Fig. 268, is useful for joining pieces of
different widths, when both sides can be seen.

[Illustration: Fig. 259. Column-Clamp.]

_No. 60. A double-tongue miter_, Fig. 268, is made by cutting on the
adjoining edges tongues which engage in each other. It is used in high
class joinery, on members that join lengthwise of the grain.

_No. 61. A stretcher joint_, Fig. 268, is a slip joint in which one or
both sides is mitered. It is used in frames for stretching canvass for
paintings by driving wedges from the inside. Two forms are shown in
61a and 61b.

_No. 62. A strut joint_, Fig. 268, is a form of miter joint used in
making trusses.

_No. 63 and 64. A thrust joint or tie joint or toe joint_, Fig. 268,
is one in which two beams meet at an oblique angle, one receiving the
thrust of the other. The toe may be either square as in 63, or oblique
as in 64. The pieces are bolted or strapped together with iron. It is
used for the batter braces of bridges.

_No. 65. A plain brace joint_, Fig. 269, is one in which the brace is
simply mitered and nailed into place. It is used for bracket supports.

No. _66. A housed brace joint_, Fig. 269, is a joint in which the
brace is housed into the rectangular members except that the outer end
of the mortise is cut at right angles and the inner end diagonally to
receive the brace which is cut to correspond. It is much stronger than

_No. 67. An oblique mortise-and-tenon or bevel-shoulder joint_,
Fig. 269, is one in which the shoulders of the tenoned beam are cut
obliquely and its end is cut off at right angles. The cheeks of the
mortise are correspondingly sunk. By these means the tenon prevents
lateral motion while the whole width of the beam presses against the
abutment. Thus a much larger bearing surface is obtained. The whole is
bolted or strapped together. It is used in heavy truss work.

_No. 68. A bridle joint_, Fig. 269, is an oblique joint in which a
bridle or "tongue" is left in an oblique notch cut out of one beam.
Over this tongue is fitted a grooved socket cut obliquely in the other
beam. It is used in truss construction.

_No. 69. A bird's mouth joint_, Fig. 269, is an angular notch cut in a
timber to allow it to fit snugly over the member on which it rests. It
is used in rafters where they fit over the plate.

_No. 70. A plain or rubbed or squeezed or glue joint_, Fig. 269, is
one in which the edges of two boards are glued and rubbed together
tight. It is used in table-tops, drawing-boards, etc.

To make this joint, first the boards are all laid down flat, side by
side, and arranged in the proper order. Three considerations determine
what this order is to be: (1), if the grain is of prime importance, as
in quartered oak, then the boards are arranged so as to give the best
appearance of the grain. (2), if possible, the boards should be so
arranged that the warping of each board shall counteract that of the
adjacent ones. For this purpose the boards are so laid that the annual
rings of one shall alternate in direction with the annual rings of the
next, Fig. 280, a, p. 188. (3), if possible, the boards should be so
arranged that after being glued together they can all be planed smooth
in the same direction. When the above requirements have been met so
far as possible, this order should be marked on adjoining edges for
later identification. The edges of the boards to be joined should be
finished with a jointer.

There are two principal methods of gluing edge-to-edge joints, rubbing
and squeezing. In a rubbed joint, the surfaces to be joined should be
planed so as to meet thruout exactly. After properly planing one edge
of each board, keep one board in the vise, jointed edge up, and place
its to-be neighbor in position upon it. Then use these four tests for
an exact fit. (1) Sight down the end to see that the faces lie in the
same plane. (2) Examine the crack from both sides. Be sure that both
ends touch. Test this by pulling down hard on one end of the upper
board and noticing if the other end is still in contact. If the other
end opens, swing the upper board horizontally on the lower board to
see where the high place is and then correct it. (3) See if the upper
board stands firmly on the lower board by feeling gently to see if it
rocks, or by rapping lightly the lower board. (4) Slide the top board
slowly on the lower one to see if it adheres or "sucks."

[Illustration: Fig. 260. Applying Glue for an Edge-to-Edge Joint.]

After the pieces have been warmed, which should be done if possible,
the glue is spread on them, Fig. 260, and they are then rubbed slowly
back and forth in the direction of the grain, pressure being applied
by the hand and care being taken not to open the joint in the least.
As the glue sets, the rubbing becomes more difficult. It should be
stopped when the boards are in their proper relative positions. In
rubbing together the edges of two boards, handscrews may be fastened
to one in such a way that their jaws serve as guides for the other
board to slide between, Fig. 261. Care must be taken to make the jaws
of the handscrew diverge enough not to pinch the upper board.

[Illustration: Fig. 261. Rubbing a Glued Joint.]

Another method is to clamp a spare board alongside and projecting
above the lower board. This spare board acts as a guide against which
the upper board can be pushed as it is rubbed back and forth. The
rubbed joint is especially suitable for short boards.

In joining long boards, a squeezed joint is common. In this case, the
edges are planed so as to be very slightly concave from end to end.
The object of this is to counteract the subsequent shrinkage which is
likely to take place at the ends of the boards before it does at the
middle. The pressure of the clamps may be depended upon to close up
the middle, and, especially if dowels are inserted, as in No. 75, the
joint will be strong enough to resist the elasticity of the boards.

When the fit is good, warm the wood if possible, prepare the clamps,
put a thin film of glue over both edges which are to be together,
apply the clamps rapidly, keeping the faces flush, and set away to dry
for at least six hours. Then another piece may be added in the same
manner. If the boards are thin and wide, and therefore likely to
buckle, they may first be handscrewed to cross-strips to prevent their
buckling. The cross-strips are, of course, slightly shorter than the
combined width of the boards so that the full pressure of the clamps
may come on the glued joint.

_No. 71. A rebated, rabbeted or fillistered joint_, Fig. 269. Rebating
is the cutting of a rectangular slip out of the side of a piece of
wood. The re-entering angle left upon the wood is called the rebate or
rabbet. A rebated joint, then, is one in which corresponding rebates
are taken off edges so that the joined boards may overlap. It is used
in flooring and siding.

A board is rebated and filleted when two adjoining rebates are filled
with a fillet.

[Illustration: Fig. 262. Edge-to-Edge Joint, Doweled.]

_No. 72. A matched or tongue-and-groove joint_, Fig. 269, is made
by making a projection or "tongue" in the center of the edge of one
board, and a corresponding groove in the center of the other so that
they will match together. When used for flooring, the lower side of
the grooved board is slightly rebated so that the upper edges will
surely touch. This sort of flooring can be blind-nailed.

_No. 73. A beaded joint_, Fig. 269, is similar to a matched joint
except that a bead is worked on one edge to disguise the joint for
decorative purposes.

_No. 74. A spline-joint_, Fig. 269, is made by plowing corresponding
grooves in the edges to be joined and inserting a spline or
slip-feather. It is used in plank flooring.

_No. 75. A doweled joint_, Fig. 269, is made by jointing the two edges
carefully, boring holes opposite each other and inserting dowel pins
when the two edges are glued together. It is used in table tops, etc.

Where the boards are thick enough to allow it, a squeezed joint is
greatly strengthened by the insertion of dowels.

The essential point in inserting dowels is to have the holes for them
directly opposite one another and at right angles to the surface. The
following is a convenient method where boards are to be joined edge to
edge, Fig. 262. Place the two boards back to back in the vise with the
edges and ends flush. Determine approximately where the dowels are
to be inserted. With the gage, mark short lines at the points of
insertion in the center of each edge, gaging from the outside faces.
Across these lines score accurately with a try-square and knife. Then
bore the holes with a dowel-bit at the intersection of the lines, Fig.
263. If this is carefully done, the holes will be directly opposite
one another, and equidistant from the faces of both boards. All the
holes should be of equal depth, say 1", in order that the dowel-pins,
which should also be cut of equal lengths, may be interchangeable.
After boring, the holes may be slightly countersunk in order to insure
a tight joint and the easy slipping of the pins into place. The latter
result may also be obtained by slightly pointing the pins with a
dowel-pointer, Fig. 123, p. 83. It is also a wise precaution to cut a
small groove along the length of the pin to allow superfluous glue to
escape from the hole. The dowel should be dipped in glue and inserted
when the glue is applied to the joint.

[Illustration: Fig. 263. Boring for Dowels in an Edge-to-Edge Joint.]



    Rivington, Vol. I, pp. 57-77, 135-137, 238-242; Vol. II, pp. 291-295.
    Adams, pp. 1-30.
    Sickels, pp. 86-124.
    Goss, pp. 128-152.
    Ellis, pp. 135-151.
    Barter, pp. 211-275.
    Selden, pp. 56-130.
    _Building Trades Pocketbook_, pp. 217-221, 237.
    Griffith, pp. 86-104, 164-170.

    [Footnote *: For general bibliography, see p. 4]

[Illustration: Fig. 264.

   1 Lapped and Strapped
   2 Fished
   3 Fished and keyed
   4 Spliced for compression
   5 Spliced for tension
   6 Spliced and Tabled
   7 Spliced for cross strain
   8 Dowelled butt
   9 Toe-nailed
  10 Draw-bolt
  11 Plain butt
  12 Glued and blocked
  13 Hopper
  14 Cross lap]

[Illustration: Fig. 265.

  15 Middle lap
  16 End lap
  17 End lap with rabbet
  18 Dovetail halving
  19 Beveled halving
  20 Notched
  21 Checked
  22 Cogged
  23 Forked]

[Illustration: Fig. 266.

  24 Rabbet
  25 Dado
  26 Dado and rabbet
  27 Dado tongue and rabbet
  28 Dovetail dado
  29 Gain
  30 Stub mortise and tenon
  31 Thru mortise and tenon
  32 Blind mortise and tenon
  33 Mortise and tenon with rabbet
  34 Wedged mortise and tenon
  35 Wedged mortise and tenon
  36 Fox tail tenon
  37 Dovetail mortise and tenon]

[Illustration: Fig. 267.

  38 Pinned mortise and tenon
  39 Keyed mortise and tenon
  40 Tusk tenon
  41 Double mortise and tenon
  42 Haunched mortise and tenon
  43 Table haunching
  44 Bare faced tenon
  45 Housed mortise and tenon
  46 Slip
  47 Thru single dovetail
  48 Thru multiple dovetail
  49 Lap dovetail
  50 Stopped lap dovetail
  51 Blind dovetail]

[Illustration: Fig. 268.

  52 Miter
  53 Doweled miter
  54 Spline miter
  55 Slip feather miter
  56 Slip dovetail miter
  57 Double dovetail keyed
  58 Ledge and miter
  59 Stopped miter
  60 Double tongue miter
  61 Stretcher
  62 Strut
  63 Square thrust
  64 Oblique thrust]

[Illustration: Fig. 269.

  65 Brace
  66 Housed brace
  67 Oblique mortise and tenon
  68 Bridle
  69 Bird's mouth
  70 Glue
  71 Rabbeted
  72 Matched
  73 Beaded
  74 Spline
  75 Doweled]



The articles suitable to be made in wood with hand tools may for
convenience be divided into four general classes: (1) Unjoined pieces;
(2) board structures; (3) panel structures; (4) framed structures. A
few illustrations of each class are given below.


Of these there are a number that are advantageous for the learning of
tool processes; at the same time they give opportunity for expression
in design, and when finished are of use.

Examples are: key-boards, chiseling-boards, bread-boards,
sleeve-boards, ironing-boards, coat- and skirt-hangers, and gouged
trays. Some of these are so simple as to include hardly any process
but planing, directions for which are given above, p. 72.

[Illustration: Fig. 270. Pen-Tray.]

Where there is more than one process involved, the order of procedure
is of importance. In general, a safe rule to follow in each case is
to plane up the piece true and square, or, in technical language, to
"true" it up. At least as many of its surfaces should be trued as are
necessary for the "lay out." Where the piece is to be rectangular
all the surfaces should be true; where some of the surfaces are to be
curved it is unnecessary and a waste of time to square them first. For
example, in making a gouged tray with curved outline, Fig. 270, the
working face, the working edge, and the thickness should all be true
before the plan is laid out. Then, after the outline is drawn, the
trough may be gouged, the outline cut with turning-saw, chisel, and
spokeshave, and the edges molded with the gouge or chisel. If there is
incised decoration it should be cut before the molding is cut, so that
while being incised, the piece will lie flat without tipping.

These simple pieces, as well as others, are often embellished by
_chamfering_. A chamfer is a surface produced by cutting away an
arris. It differs from a bevel in that a bevel inclines all the way
to the next arris, while a chamfer makes a new arris, Fig. 271. A thru
chamfer extends the whole length or width of a piece, while a stop
chamfer extends only part way. For the laying out of a chamfer see p.

[Illustration: Fig. 271. Difference Between Chamfer and Bevel.]

Thru chamfering is best done with a plane, Fig. 272. For this purpose
the piece may be held in the bench-vise and the plane tipped to the
proper angle, or the piece may be held in a handscrew which in turn is
held in the vise as in Fig. 175, p. 102. The chamfers with the grain
should be planed before those across the grain.

[Illustration: Fig. 272. Thru Chamfering.]

In chamfering a four-square stick into an eight-square, the piece may
be gripped in the vise diagonally, Fig. 273, or it may be held in a
trough made of two strips of wood from each of which an arris has been
chamfered and then the two nailed together, Fig. 274. A dowel or nail
may be inserted in the trough for a stop. Stop chamfers are pared best
with a chisel, Fig. 275, held according to convenience either flat
side or bevel side up. See under chisel, p. 53.

[Illustration: Fig. 273. Piece Held in Vise to Chamfer.]

[Illustration: Fig. 274. Trough for Planing Chamfers.]

[Illustration: Fig. 275. Stop Chamfering.]


These include such pieces as wall brackets, sets of shelves,
book-racks, plate-racks, drawing-boards, foot-stools, taborets, and

The advantage of this form of construction is that it is comparatively
easy to make; the disadvantage is that if the boards are wide, they
are sure to shrink and swell. It is wise in all such work to true
and smooth up all the pieces at once, and if the wood is not thoroly
seasoned, to keep the boards under pressure till they are assembled.
In the case of several boards to be jointed into one piece, they
should be glued together before the surfaces are smoothed. Suggestions
regarding a few typical pieces follow:

_Wall Brackets._ (1) There are three essential parts, the shelf, the
support or supports, and the back: the shelf to hold the articles, the
support to hold up the shelf, and the back to hold all together,
Fig. 276, _a_. The grain of the wood in the shelf should run left and
right, not forward and back, because thus it rests on the support in
such a way as not to break easily, and it also acts as a stiffener for
the back. In case the back extends above the shelf, as in Fig. 276,
_a_, the shelf can be secured firmly to the back, since there is side
grain in which to drive nails or screws. As to the direction of the
grain of the support and the back, this should run in the direction
of the largest dimension of each. Where the back is long horizontally,
for security in hanging, it is better to have two supports.[10]

    [Footnote 10: See the School Arts Book for Nov., 1906, "Design in
    the Woodworking Class," by Anna and William Noyes.]

[Illustration: Fig. 276. Wall Brackets, Double-Hung: _a_. Single
Support. _b_. Double Support.]

_Wall book-shelves_, Fig. 277, _plate-racks_, etc., are simply
compound brackets. The shelf is the essential piece, the sides take
the place of the supports, and the back is often reduced to strips
merely wide enough to give rigidity.

The shelves may be either gained into the supports, Fig. 266, No. 28
or No. 29, p. 179, or a keyed mortise-and-tenon may be used, Fig. 277.
In the latter case the back strip may have a short barefaced blind
tenon which is mortised into the upright, Fig. 278. It also fits into
a rabbet on the upper back side of the shelf. Made in this way the
shelves can be knocked down easily.

[Illustration: Fig. 277. Wall Book-Case.]

[Illustration: Fig. 278. Construction of a Knock-Down Book-Shelf Seen
From the Back.]

_Foot Stool or Cricket_, Fig. 279. The grain of the supports should
run up and down, because pieces with the grain horizontal would be
likely to break under pressure. Braces or a rail give additional
support. The top should not be larger than the base of the legs;
otherwise a person standing carelessly on the stool is in danger of
being upset.

[Illustration: Fig. 279. Cricket.]

_A Drawing-Board_ is made up of narrow boards, with glued joints, with
the boards so laid that the annual rings will alternate in direction,
Fig. 280, _a_. It must be made so that it can shrink and swell and yet
remain flat. For the purpose of giving lateral stiffness cleats are
added. They may simply be screwed on the underside, the screw holes
being large enough to allow for shrinkage, or they may be dadoed in
with a dovetail dado, Fig. 280, _b_, or they may be grooved to admit
a tongue on the end of a board, Fig. 280, _c_. In this case screws
passing thru large holes in the cleats hold them in place.

[Illustration: Fig. 280. Drawing-Board Construction: _a._ With Cleats
Screwed on Beneath; _b._ With Cleats Dovetail-Dadoed in; _c._ With
Cleats Matched on Ends.]

_Taborets._ The term taboret originally meant a little tabor or drum,
and was therefore used to designate a small stool, the seat of which
consisted of a piece of stretched leather. The term now includes
small, tablelike structures for holding flowerpots, vases, etc. It
might more properly be called a "table-ette."

When made up with boards having their long edges mitered, it has from
four to eight sides. A six-sided one is shown in Fig. 281. In making,
it is best to fit the joints exactly first, while the board is stiff,
and then to cut out the pattern of the legs. Directions for gluing are
given on p. 169.

[Illustration: Fig. 281. Taboret.]

_Scrap-boxes_, Fig. 282, _and flower-pot boxes_ may be made with the
same construction.

[Illustration: Fig. 282. Scrap-Box.]

_Rectangular Boxes._ There are various methods of joining their sides.
The butt joint, Fig. 264, No. 11, p. 177, is plain, simple, and good
for coarse work. This joint may be reinforced as in packing boxes,
Fig. 283.

[Illustration: Fig. 283. Reinforced Butt Joint in Box.]

Mitered joints, Fig. 268, No. 52, p. 181, are neat but weak, unless
reinforced by a spline, Fig. 268, No. 54.

The rabbet or ledge joint, Fig. 266, No. 24, p. 179, is both strong
and neat. It can be glued and also nailed if desired.

The rabbet and dado joint, Fig. 266, No. 26, can be glued without
nails and is good for small boxes.

The housed dado, Fig. 266, No. 25, is good for water-tight boxes.

The mitered ledge, Fig. 268, No. 58, makes a very neat, strong joint
which can be nailed or glued, but is more difficult to fit than a
simpler joint.

The dovetail joint, Fig. 267, No. 48, is very strong and honest, but
the joint is prominent from the outside and it takes much time and
labor to make. It is glued.

The blind dovetail, Fig. 267, No. 51, is very neat and strong, and the
joint is entirely concealed when done, but is very difficult to make.

_The Bottoms of Boxes._ The plain or full bottom, Fig. 284, A, is
likely to shrink (see dotted line), and it is held in place only by
the friction of the nails. The extended bottom, Fig. 284, B, overcomes
the objection to shrinkage and adds a decorative feature. The bottom
may be set in, Fig. 284, C. This is stronger than the plain bottom,
but the nail holes show. The bottom may be rabbeted in, Fig. 284, D.
This is better than the set-in bottom so far as the showing of the
nail holes goes, for the nails may be driven in from below, and a
little shrinkage is not conspicuous. It is practicable, if a rabbet or
mitered joint is used in the sides, but if the side pieces are butted
or dadoed, the rabbet for the bottom shows. This may be cleverly
concealed by an insert, but that is patchwork, and not first-rate

Reinforced bottom, Fig. 284, E. A plain or full bottom is sometimes
covered by a base or cover strip to hide the joint and secure the
bottom, as in tool chests. This strip may be mitered at the corners.

[Illustration: Fig. 284. Methods of Attaching Box Bottoms.]

_The Lids of Boxes._ The simplest form is a full flat cover, Fig. 285,
A, which may be nailed or screwed to the box, as in packing cases. The
cover may slide into a groove, Fig. 285, B, along the sides and into
one end, the other end being lowered to admit it. The cover may have
cleats on its underside, Fig. 285, C, which fit just inside the
box and keep the top in place. The cleats also prevent the top from
warping. This is a common Japanese construction, even in fine boxes.
The Japanese tie the top on with a tape or ribbon.

The lid may be boxed, Fig. 285, D, that is, portions of the sides may
be affixed to the top. These extra pieces are a help to stiffen the
top and to keep it from warping. A boxed top may have the top board
flush with the sides, Fig. 285, E. The disadvantage of this is that
the top may shrink and part from the sides and give a bad appearance.
The overlapping top, Fig. 285, F, obviates this trouble of shrinkage
and adds a decorative element. In this case the top may be glued on or
screwed from below thru the side strips.

The top may be mitered into the sides, Fig. 285, G. The shrinkage
trouble still obtains here. Otherwise the appearance is excellent.
The top may be paneled into the sides, Fig. 285, H. This has a good
appearance if the sides are mitered and ledged but not if the sides
are butted or dadoed, because then the groove for the top shows.

[Illustration: Fig. 285. Forms of Box Construction.]

Any of these lids may be made removable or hinged, except the sliding
top. For methods of hinging see p. 132.

In gluing boxes together, it is a good plan to glue the ends and sides
together first and to let these joints dry before gluing on the bottom
and, in the case of a boxed top, Fig. 285, D, the top. Care must be
taken to see that the sides do not bow under the pressure. To prevent
this, one or more false, temporary partitions as A, B, in Fig. 286,
of exactly the length to keep the sides straight, may be inserted.
In gluing together boxes with rabbeted joints, Fig. 285, H, pressure
should be applied in both directions. In gluing on the bottom of a box
that is also to be nailed, the nails should be driven into the bottom
first, so that the points just come thru. These points sticking into
the sides will prevent the bottom from slipping when pressure is
applied. It is often undesirable to have nail heads show, as in a
top. In such a case, and also to prevent the top from slipping under
pressure, a couple of small brads may be driven part way into the
upper edges of the sides, the heads bitten off with the nippers, and
points filed on the projecting portion.

[Illustration: Fig. 286. Glueing Together a Box.]

_Drawers._ In the best form, the sides are dovetailed to the front for
strength, Fig. 287, for whenever the drawer is opened the front tends
to pull away from the sides. This dovetail is half blind, so that
the joint will not appear when the drawer is shut. In order that the
drawer may always run freely and yet the front fit the opening as
close as possible, it is common practice to cut a shallow rabbet on
the ends of the front, so that the body of the drawer is a little
narrower than the front is long, Fig. 287. Or the front may be
attached to the sides with a dado tongue and rabbet joint, Fig. 266,
No. 27, p. 179.

[Illustration: Fig. 287. Dovetailed Drawer Construction.]

The bottom is grooved into the sides with its grain parallel to the
front and fastened only to the front so that it has plenty of play for
shrinkage. The back is dadoed into the sides, with either a straight
dado, Fig. 266, No. 25, p. 179, or dovetail dado, Fig. 266, No. 28,
and rests on the bottom. The extension of the bottom beyond the back
allows ample room for shrinkage.

The best machine-made drawers are now made with the bottom paneled or
dadoed in all around so that papers cannot slip out. The back, as well
as the front, is dovetailed.

_Directions for Making a Table Drawer._ Dress the front and sides
to size. Fit the front of the drawer to its place in the table or
cabinet, leaving a little play all around it. Plow the groove in the
front and sides for the drawer bottom. For ordinary drawers, a groove
1/4" wide is proper. If the ends of the front are to be rabbeted (see
above), do this next. The sides are best joined to the front with the
half-blind dovetail joint. (For directions see p. 166). After fitting
these, lay out and cut the dadoes for the back of the drawer. Prepare
the bottom of the drawer thus: the grain should run right and left,
never front and back. If the drawer is so long as to require it,
glue-joint the bottom, and fit it snugly to place. There need be no
play right and left, and the bottom should extend as far back as the
sides. If necessary, bevel the under side to fit the grooves. Assemble
all the parts to see that they fit, take them apart, glue the sides to
the front and back, slip the bottom into place, apply the clamps,
and see to it that all joints are square, using a diagonal brace if
necessary, Fig. 294. Fasten the bottom to the front by means of a
thin block glued into the interior angle between the under side of the
bottom and the back side of the front. When dry, clean up the drawer
and fit it to its place.


These include doors and cabinets of all sorts. The principle of panel
or cabinet construction is that there shall be a frame composed of
narrow members whose grain follows the principal dimensions. In the
best construction this frame is mortised and tenoned together and
within this frame there is set a thin board or panel which is free to
shrink or swell but is prevented from warping by the stiffer frame.
The object is to cover an extended surface in such a way that the
general dimensions and good appearance will not be affected by
whatever shrinkage there is. Since the frame itself is made up of
narrow pieces, there is but little shrinkage in them. That shrinkage
is all that affects the size of the whole structure, because wood does
not shrink longitudinally to any appreciable extent. The shrinking
or swelling of the panel does not affect the general size. The cross
construction of the frame also prevents warping, since, in the best
construction every joint is mortised and tenoned. The panel may simply
be fastened on the back of the frame, but a better construction is
to insert it in a groove made in the inside of the frame in which the
panel is to lie and have free play. The panel may be made of one board
or of matched boards, may be plain or have raised or carved surfaces,
or be of glass; and the joints between frame and panel may be
embellished with moldings mitered in, but the principle is the same in
all cases.

The frame of a door, Fig. 288, illustrates the panel construction. The
upright, outside pieces are called the "stiles," the horizontal pieces
the "rails." There are also the "top-rail," the "bottom-rail," the
"lock-rail" (where the door-knob and lock are inserted), and sometimes
the "frieze-rail" between the lock rail and the top rail. The "muntin"
is the upright between the two stiles.

[Illustration: Fig. 288. Door, Illustrating Panel Construction: S.
Stile; T. R. Top Rail; L. R. Lock Rail; B. R. Bottom Rail; M. Muntin;
P. Panel; A. Double Mortise-and-Tenon; F. Fillet; A. B. C. Forms of

The joint commonly used is the haunched or relished mortise-and-tenon,
Fig. 267, No. 42, p. 180; (See p. 163 for directions for making). The
tenon is sometimes doubled, Fig. 288, and a fillet (f) may be
inserted to cover the ends of the tenons, or the joint may be a blind
mortise-and-tenon, Fig. 266, No. 32, or in cheap construction, dowels
may be used. The best doors are now made with cores of pine covered
on the visible sides with heavy veneer. Large surfaces are covered
by increasing the number of parts rather than their size, as in

Picture-frames also belong in this class of structures, the glass
taking the place of the panel. They are made with mortise-and-tenon
joints, Fig. 266, No. 33, slip joints, Fig. 267, No. 46, dowelled butt
joints, Fig. 264, No. 8, end lap joints, Fig. 265, No. 17, and, far
more commonly, mitered joints, Fig. 268, No. 52. Mitered joints are
the easiest to make, for the joints can be cut in a miter-box, Fig.
181, p. 104, and glued in a picture-frame-vise, Fig. 172, p. 101. This
joint needs reinforcement by nails, Fig. 268, No. 52, by dowels, No.
53, or by splines, No. 55. If the sides are of different widths, the
fitting of the joint is more difficult. Mitered joints are the only
kind suitable for molded frames. The rabbets are cut out with a
rabbeting-plane before mitering and assembling.

The principle disadvantage of a mitered joint is that, if the wood
shrinks at all, it opens at the inside corners, as in Fig. 289,
because wood shrinks sidewise but not lengthwise.

[Illustration: Fig. 289. The Way a Mitered Joint Opens on Account of

In window sashes, the dovetail joint, Fig. 267, No. 47, is the common
one at the upper end of the lower sash and the lower end of the upper
sash, and the mortise-and-tenon joint modified is used at the lower
end of the lower and upper end of the upper sash. The glass takes
the place of the panel. In blind sashes, the pinned mortise-and-tenon
joint, Fig. 267, No. 38, is commonly used.

When panels are joined together to enclose a space, then we have what
is properly called cabinet construction. Illustrations are cabinets,
bureaus, desks, lockers, chests, etc.

In all these cases, the constructed panels may be treated as separate
boards and joined together with dowel pins or splines or dadoed
together without any other framework, tho the corners are often
reinforced by cleats or blocks glued into them. Sometimes, however, as
in chests, Fig. 290, posts are used instead of stiles, and rails are
mortised or doweled into them and the panels set into grooves in both
posts and rails. In this case the bottom is raised from the floor,
and may be dadoed into the bottom rails, or dowelled into them or even
supported by strips attached along their lower inside edges. The chest
really is a union of both paneled and framed structures.

[Illustration: Fig. 290. Chest Construction.]


The principle of the framed structure is similar to that of the panel
construction in that the object is to allow for shrinkage without harm
to construction and also to economize materials. Common examples are
tables, chairs, work-benches, and frame houses.

_The Making of a Table._ The standard height of a table is 30". There
should be 25" clearance under the rails. This leaves approximately
4" for the width of the rails. Assuming that the table is to be of
a simple straight line type with one drawer, the following method of
procedure is suggested:

Cut the boards for the top to the approximate length and stick, (see
p. 47) and clamp them, so as to season them as well as possible before

Dress to size the legs and rails. Stand the legs in their proper
positions relative to each other, and mark them F R (front right), F
L (front left), B R (back right), and B L (back left). Plow out the
grooves on the inside of the rails for the fastenings of the top,
Fig. 297, D, if they are to be used. Lay out and cut the tenons and
mortises for the end rails and back rail.

The proper form of the tenon is one with a wide shoulder above it
so that the top of the leg above the mortise will not shear out. The
rails should be set near the outside of the leg so that the tenon may
be as long as possible and the portion of the leg inside it as strong
as possible. A haunched mortise-and-tenon joint, Fig. 267, No. 43 is
sometimes used, giving additional lateral stiffness to the rail. The
proper proportions are shown in Fig. 291. When cut, these parts should
be temporarily assembled to see if they fit.

[Illustration: Fig. 291. A. Cross-Section Thru Back Left Leg and
Adjoining Rails of Table. (Plan). B. Elevation, Showing Wide Shoulder
on Tenon of Rail.]

Inasmuch as a drawer takes the place of a front rail, the front
legs must be tied together in some other way. For this purpose two
stringers or drawer rails may be used, their front edges being as far
from the face of the legs as are the rails from the side and back. The
upper drawer rail may be dovetailed at both ends into the tops of the
legs, as shown in Fig. 292. If this takes more room than can well be
spared from the depth of the drawer, it may be omitted, but it adds
greatly to the stiffness of the table and is an excellent means of
fastening on the top by the use of screws passing thru it.

[Illustration: Fig. 292. Table Construction: Upper Drawer Rail of
Table Dovetailed into Left Front Leg.]

The drawer rail, also called the fore edge, is long enough to partly
overlap the side rails, into the lower edges of which it is gained
so as to be flush with them, and may be fastened to them with screws,
Fig. 293. The construction may be further strengthened by also
doweling the end of this stretcher into the legs. If there are two
drawers, the partition between them may be doweled or gained into
these upper and lower stretchers.

[Illustration: Fig. 293. The Fixing of a Drawer Rail, Seen From

If the legs are to be tapered or otherwise shaped, that should be done
next. Then glue and assemble the end rails with their proper legs,
taking care to see not only that the joints come up square, but that
the legs are in the same plane. Finally assemble the whole, inserting,
if necessary, a temporary diagonal brace to insure squareness, Fig.
294. When dry, clean up the joints. For the making of a table drawer,
see above, p. 191.

[Illustration: Fig. 294. Brace to Insure Right Angles in Assembling a
Framed structure.]

To fit the drawer to its place, runners and guides, Fig. 295, must
first be fastened in. The runners are in line with the drawer rail,
and are glued and nailed or screwed to the side rails between the back
of the lower stringer and the back posts. On top of them and in line
with the inner face of the legs are the guides running between the
front and back posts. Or the runner and guide may be made of one piece
properly rabbeted out.

[Illustration: Fig. 295. Drawer Mechanism.]

If there are two drawers, a double runner lies between, and is gained
into the middles of the back rail and the stringer, and on it is a
guide for both drawers, equal in width to the partition between the
drawers. The drawers should run easily in their proper places. In
order to insure this, the drawer should be slightly narrower than the
opening which receives it. A little French chalk, rubbed on the sides
and runners, makes the running smoother. Sometimes the opening for a
drawer is cut out of the front rail, as in Fig. 296. In this case the
drawer runners are supported between the front and back rails, into
which they may be gained.

[Illustration: Fig. 296. Opening for Drawer Cut Out of Front Rail of

For the making of the table top see edge-to-edge joint, p. 172. Dress
up the top to size, taking special pains with the upper surface. If
the grain is crossed, use the veneer-scraper, Fig. 151, p. 92, then
sand, first with No. 1, then with No. 00 sandpaper, finish the edges
carefully, and attach to the frame.

For fastening the top to the table rails, several methods are used.
The top may be screwed to the rails by the screws passing thru the
rails themselves either straight up, Fig. 297, A, or diagonally from
the inside, B, or thru blocks or angle irons, C, which are screwed to
the inside of the rails, or thru buttons, or panel irons, D, which are
free to move in a groove cut near the top of the rail. The last
method is the best because it allows for the inevitable shrinkage and
swelling of the top.

[Illustration: Fig. 297. Methods of attaching Table Top to Rails.]

_Chairs_ may be so simplified in form as to be possible for the
amateur to construct. The two front legs and the rail and stretcher
between them offer little difficulty because the angles are square.

The two back legs, may, for the purpose of simplification, be kept
parallel to each other and at right angles to the seat rails between
them, as in Fig. 298, A, and not at an angle as in B. The joining of
the back will then offer little difficulty. The principal difficulties
lie in the facts that for comfort and appearance the back of the chair
should incline backward both above and below the seat, and that the
back of the seat should be narrower than the front. By keeping at
right angles to the floor the part of the back legs which receives
the seat rail, the side seat rails will meet the back legs at a right
angle in a side view, Fig. 298. The back legs should be slightly
shorter than the front legs, as shown in D.

[Illustration: Fig. 298. Chair Construction.]

The second difficulty involves the making of inclined
mortise-and-tenon joints, A, where the side rails fit into the legs.
The making of these can be facilitated by laying out a plan of the
full size and taking the desired angles directly from that. It is
common to reinforce these joints with corner blocks glued and screwed
in place as shown in A. If there are additional rails below the seat
rails, the easiest way to fit them in place is first to fit and clamp
together the chair with the seat rails only, taking pains to have all
angles perfectly true, and then to take the exact measurements for the
lower rails directly from the chair. The same method may be used for
laying out a stringer between the lower rails.

If it is desired to bow the rails of the back, which are above the
seat rail, this can be done by boiling them in water for 30 minutes
and then clamping them over a form of the proper shape, with a piece
of stiff sheet iron on the outside, as in Fig. 299. They should be
thoroly dried in a warm place. Then the tenons may be laid out on
the ends parallel to a straight-edge laid along the concave side. The
chair bottom may be made of solid wood, either flat or modeled into
a "saddle seat;" it may be covered with cane or rush, or it may be

[Illustration: Fig. 299. Bending Boards into Shape after Boiling

To upholster a chair seat, a frame should first be made of the shape
shown in Fig. 298, C. The strips are about 2" wide and 1/2" thick with
their ends half-lapped. The seat rails are rabbeted 1/2" deep and 1/2"
wide to receive this frame, which should be 1/8" smaller all around
than the place to receive it. The returns at the corners fit around
the legs at 1/8" distance from them. This 1/8" provides space for the
coverings. After the frame is fitted, it is covered with 3" webbing
tacked firmly to the upper side. The webbing which goes back and forth
is interwoven with that which goes from right to left. Over this is
stretched and tacked (also to the upper side) a piece of unbleached
muslin. A second piece of muslin is tacked to the back edge and part
way along the side edges, leaving for the time the corners unfinished.
In the pocket thus formed horsehair or other stuffing is pushed, care
being taken to distribute it evenly and not too thick. When the pocket
is filled, the muslin is tacked farther along the sides and more hair
put in, until the front is reached, when the muslin is tacked to the
front edge. The corners are now drawn in tight, a careful snip
with the scissors parting them diagonally so as to lie in well. The
partings may be turned down and tacked on the under side of the frame.

Finally the leather or other covering is stretched over the whole
as evenly as possible. The corners should be left to the last, then
clipped diagonally to the exact inside corner and the partings drawn
down and tacked, as was the muslin. The superfluous leather may then
be trimmed off, and the seat should fit in its place. Or the seat
frame may be omitted, and the coverings tacked directly to the chair

The balloon-frame house is a typical form of framed construction, Fig.
300. The essential parts of a balloon-frame are:

   1. SILL, 4"×8", which rests on the foundation.
   2. BEAMS, 4"×8", which rest on the cellar posts, 6"×6".
      (Not shown in illustration.)
   3. FLOOR JOISTS, 2"×8", which rest on the sill and beams.
   4. CORNER POSTS, 4"×6", with 2"×4" studs nailed to them.
   5. STUDDING, 2"×4", which stand 16" between centers.
   6. WALL RIBBON, or girt, 1"×8", which supports the upper story joists.
   7. PLATES, two 2"×4" nailed together, resting on studs.
   8. RAFTERS, 2"×6", which support the roof.
   9. TIE-BEAMS, 2"×6", which prevent the roof from spreading the walls.
      (Not shown in illustration.)
  10. RIDGE-POLE, 2"×8", against which the rafters butt.
  11. BRIDGING, 2"×2", which stiffens the floor joists.
  12. SHEATHING, (1" thick), put on diagonally to brace the building.
      The rest is covering.
  13. FLOORING, (See also Fig. 301.)

[Illustration: Fig. 300. House Construction.]

In flooring, Fig. 301, the boards are made narrow so as to reduce the
size of openings at the joints when they shrink, and also to reduce
the tendency to warp. They may be laid side by side as in the cheapest
floors, or matched to close the joint. For difference between
slash- and comb-grain flooring, see Fig. 55, p. 43.

[Illustration: Fig. 301. Siding, Ceiling, Flooring.]


15. SIDING OR CLAPBOARDS, (See Fig. 301.) may either overlap without a
joint or be rabbeted to fit. The best siding is rabbeted.






21. CEILING, Fig. 301, consists of matched boards having a "bead"
to disguise the joint and give a decorative effect.



  Simple Joined Structures.
    Benson, pp. 32-37.
    Goss, pp. 91-96.
    Noyes, _School Arts Book_, 6: 89, 179.
    Wheeler, pp. 86, 219-227, 376.
    Sickels, p. 120.
    Griffith, pp. 84-104.

  Panel and Cabinet Construction.
    Goss, pp. 117-118, 148-151.
    Compton, pp. 146-151.
    Sickels, p. 134.
    Wheeler, pp. 366-372.

  Framed Structures.
    Wheeler, pp. 203-206, 238-297.
    Sickels, p. 124.
    _Building Trades Pocketbook_, pp. 221, 230.

    Sickels, pp. 128-131.
    Goss, pp. 141-144.

    [Footnote *: For general bibliography see p. 4.]



    [Footnote 11: Professor Rankine's Five Principles:

    1. To cut the joints and arrange the fastenings so as to weaken the
    pieces of timber they connect as little as possible.

    2. To place each abutting surface in a joint as nearly as possible
    perpendicular to the pressure which it has to transmit.

    3. To proportion the area of each surface to the pressure which it
    has to bear so that the timber may be safe against injury under the
    heaviest load which occurs in practice, and to form and fit every
    pair of such surfaces accurately in order to distribute the stress

    4. To proportion the fastenings so that they may be of equal
    strength with the pieces which they connect.

    5. To place the fastenings in each piece of timber so that there
    shall be sufficient resistance to the giving way of the joint by
    the fastenings shearing or crushing their way thru the timber.]

1. _Avoid multiplication of errors by making all measurements (as far
as possible) from a common starting point, and laying off all angles
from the same line or surface._ Illustrations of this principle are
as follows: Before proceeding with other processes, a working face and
working edge and as many other surfaces as will finally appear in
the finished piece, should be trued up. At least the working face
and working edge are essential to the proper "lay-out" of the piece,
whenever measurements are made from an edge.

In laying out a series of measurements, it is important, when
possible, that the rule be laid down once for all, and the additions
be made on that, rather than that the rule should be moved along for
each new member of the series.

In scoring around a board with knife and try-square, the head of the
try-square should be held against the working face in scoring both
edges, and against the working edge in scoring both faces, and not
passed from one surface to another in succession.

In the laying out of a halved joint, Fig. 265, Nos. 15-19, p. 178, the
gaging is all done from what will be one of the flush surfaces of the
joined pieces. Then, if the gaged line should be slightly more or less
than half the thickness of the pieces the closeness of the joint would
not be affected.

2. _When possible, in laying out a joint, use the method of
superposition._ Fig. 302. By this is meant the method by which the
lay-out of one member is obtained directly from the other by laying
(superposing) the latter on the former and marking or scribing the
needed dimensions directly, instead of by measurement. It has the
advantages of simplicity, speed, and greater probability of fit.

[Illustration: Fig. 302. Marking by Superposition.]

Familiar illustrations are in the making of halved joints, Fig. 265,
Nos. 15-19, p. 178, dovetail joints, Fig. 267, Nos. 42-45, p. 180, and
scarfed or spliced joints, Fig. 264, Nos. 4-7, p. 177.

3. _Work systematically._ In case the same process is to be repeated
on a number of parts, complete this process in all before taking
up another process. This is the principle of the division of labor
applied to the individual workman.

In laying out duplicate or multiple parts, the proper cross
measurements should be carefully laid out on one piece and then
transferred with a try-square to the other parts laid accurately
beside it. So when a number of like pieces are to be gaged, all the
parts requiring the same setting should be gaged before the gage is
reset for another gaging. This is a great saving of time and insures

In making a number of like parts, if they are not too large much
of the work can often be done in one piece before it is cut up. For
example, to make a number of slats from a given piece of wood, the
piece may first be brought to such dimensions that the length will
be correct for the finished pieces and the thickness of the piece be
equal to the width of the slats, Fig. 303. The face may then be gaged
with a series of lines so that every other space will be equal to
the required thickness of each slat, and the alternate spaces be just
sufficient for the saw kerf and dressing. The slats may then be ripped
apart and dressed to size.

[Illustration: Fig. 303. Making a Number of Like Pieces from a Given

Or a long strip may be planed to thickness and width and then be
sawn up and finished to the proper lengths. For example, in a mitered
picture-frame it may be convenient to plane up two pieces, each one
long enough to make one long side and one short side.

In fitting up framed structures each part when fitted should be
distinctly marked, so that there may be no confusion in assembling.

4. _Where practicable secure the same conditions of grain in different
elements of joined structures._

Illustrations of this are as follows: The grain of the sides of a box
should run continuously around the box, or, in the case of a tall,
slim box, the grain of all the sides should run up and down. In either
case, the grain in the different sides is parallel. In a rubbed joint,
Fig. 269, No. 70, p. 182, to be planed down afterward, in case the
grain is not straight, much trouble in planing may be saved if the
different pieces are laid so that they can all be planed smooth in the
same direction. This may not be possible where the boards are joined
so as to match the grain, as in quartered oak, or where the annual
rings of slash boards are made to alternate in direction so as to
lessen warping, Fig. 280, p. 188.

5. _Where possible, allow for shrinkage without prejudice to

The most obvious illustration of this principle is panel construction.
In a panel, the frame, which is comparatively narrow, follows the
principal dimensions, and hence does not seriously shrink or swell
itself. But the panel, which is grooved into the frame can shrink or
swell without harm to the general structure.

In a gained joint, as in a case of shelves, Fig. 266, No. 29, p. 179,
the gain in the uprights does not extend quite to the front of the
shelves, and there is a corresponding slight shoulder at the front end
of the shelf, so that if the shelf and support shrink unevenly, no gap
will be apparent.

A drawing-board, Fig. 280, p. 188, is so made that it can shrink or
swell without losing its flatness. Shingles when properly laid, can
shrink or swell without the roof leaking.

6. _Where feasible, undercut joined surfaces so as to give clearance
on the inside and insure a tight appearance. But glued surfaces should
be made to meet flat._

Illustrations of this principle are as follows: The inner end of the
socket in a dovetail joint, Fig. 267, No. 48, p. 180, may be undercut
slightly so as to insure the pin's falling close into place.

The shoulder of any tenon may be undercut so as to allow the edges of
the tenoned piece to close up tight against the mortised piece.

In an end-lap halved joint, Fig. 265, No. 17, p. 178, the edges should
meet all around; if they are to be glued together, they should _not_
be undercut or they will not glue well.

In matched flooring, the underside of the boards is slightly narrower
than the upper side so that the joint may close on the upper side
without fail, Fig. 301, p. 199. The ends of flooring boards are also
slightly beveled so as to make a tight fit on the upper side.

7. _Select the simplest form of joint and use the smallest number of
abutments (bearing surfaces) possible, because the more complicated
the joint or the greater the number of bearing surfaces, the less
likelihood there is of a sound and inexpensive construction._

Illustrations of this principle are as follows: Usually a single
mortise-and-tenon joint is better than a double one because of
simplicity, strength and ease of making. Where much surface is
required for gluing, a double one may be better.

In a dovetail dado, Fig. 266, No. 28, p. 179, it is usually sufficient
to make the dovetail on one side only.

Many very elaborately spliced joints have been devised, which have no
practical advantage over the simple ones, Fig. 264, Nos. 4-7, p. 177.

A butt joint, Fig. 264, No. 11, is stronger than a mitered joint, Fig.
268, No. 52, in a box, for the latter is almost sure to shrink
apart. Where appearance is important, a ledge and miter joint has the
advantage of both, Fig. 268, No. 58.

8. _Keep a due proportion of strength between the fastenings (joints)
and the pieces fastened: i. e., the construction should neither be
frail on the one hand, because the pieces of wood are weakened by
too much cutting, nor clumsy, on the other hand, because then the
fastenings would be inordinately strong. In other words, the different
parts should be equally strong._

Illustrations of this principle are as follows: In a fished joint,
Fig. 264, No. 2, the plate should be attached so as to reinforce the
splice at the weakest point.

In a scarf joint, Fig. 264, Nos. 5 and 7, the angle should be oblique
enough to give the greatest leverage.

In a tusk tenon, Fig. 267, No. 40, the tenon is made but one-sixth the
thickness of the timber, whereas the tusk is made much larger.

Where a mortise is to be cut in a timber bearing weight, it should be
cut in the neutral axis, where the cutting of fibres will weaken it

In the mortise-and-tenon of a table-rail, Fig. 267, No. 43, there
should be a wide shoulder above the tenon of the rail so that the top
of the leg above the mortise will not shear out. The mortise should be
as near the outside of the leg as possible so that the inner corner of
the leg may remain strong. The tenon should be strong enough to share
the strain with the shoulders.

A dado joint, Fig. 266, No. 25, should not be so deep as to weaken the
supporting board.

A tenon should not be so large as to weaken the mortised piece.

Pins or other fastenings, Fig. 267, Nos. 38 and 39, may weaken rather
than strengthen a joint if they are so placed or are so large as to
shear or crush their way thru the timber.

9. _Place each abutting surface in a joint as nearly as possible
perpendicular to the pressure which it has to transmit._

Illustrations of this principle are as follows: the angle in a strut
joint, Fig. 266, No. 62, should be equally divided between the two

The thrust joint, Fig. 268, No. 63, in a bridge truss, is exactly at
right angles to the pressure.

It is on account of this principle that a spliced joint for
compression, Fig. 264, No. 4, is different from a spliced joint for
tension, No. 5; and that a housed braced joint, Fig. 269, No. 66, is
better than a plain braced joint, No. 65.

A joint to resist vertical cross strain is stronger when scarfed
vertically than horizontally.



    Goss, p. 132.
    Adams, p. 12.
    Rivington, Vol. I, p. 57.

    [Footnote *: For general bibliography see p. 4.]




The function of stains is to change the color, and to enchance the
grain and texture of the wood. Stains may be divided into four general
classes, which are not, however, entirely distinct. (1) Oil stains,
(2) Water stains, (a) made from anilines, (b) made from dyes other
than anilines, (3) Spirit stains, (4) Stains due to chemical changes.

(1) _Oil stains._ Advantages: they are easily prepared, are easy to
apply evenly, and they do not raise the grain. Disadvantages: they
cover the grain somewhat, are apt to give a muddy effect, they do not
penetrate very deeply into the wood, and it is impossible to stain
hard wood dark with them and at the same time keep the grain and
texture of the wood clear. A convenient form in which to handle
these pigments is Devoe's "coach colors," ground in japan. To prevent
evaporation from cans once opened, it is well to keep them partly
filled with water and the water covered with a little oil. For use,
the pigments are thinned with turpentine or benzine, in the proportion
of one pound of color to one-half gallon of turpentine or benzine.
Benzine is much cheaper than turpentine, but evaporates more quickly.
The addition of a little boiled oil gives a body to the stain, so that
when the wood is well rubbed down a soft lustre can be had without any
further finish. The stain should be applied with a brush to the wood,
which may then be rubbed clean with cotton waste. Oil stains penetrate
hard woods better when the wood has first been fumed in ammonia. (See
below, p. 211). Or, the addition of a little ammonia to the stain just
before applying aids it in penetrating the wood.

The pigments most used for oil stains are: burnt and raw umber, burnt
and raw sienna, Vandyke brown, drop black, and medium chrome yellow.
These colors may be varied by mixing. For example, for a green stain,
take two parts of drop black and one part of medium chrome yellow, and
dissolve in turpentine or benzine. The addition of a little vermilion
gives a grayer green. The green may be made bluer by the addition of
Prussian blue, but the blue already contained in the black gives a
soft, pleasant green.

For antique oak, add a trifle of burnt umber and black to raw sienna
thinned to the right consistency.

For a reddish brown, thin burnt umber to the right consistency. This
may be grayed by the addition of a little green.

A walnut stain may be had by adding a little Venetian red to
asphaltum, thinned with turpentine or benzine.

_Aniline oil stains._ Advantages: the colors are clear and easily
obtainable. Disadvantages: the colors are likely to be crude and too
bright, and unless great care is taken the tones are metallic and not
soft enough to suit wood. It is necessary to purchase colors soluble
in oil. These can be had of William Zinnser and Company, 197 William
Street, New York. Four colors are necessary to get the desired shades,
Bismarck brown, dark yellow, dark blue, and black. Bismarck brown
comes in powdered form at $2.40 per lb., dark yellow comes in powdered
form at $2.40 per lb., dark blue comes in lumps at $3.20 per lb.,
black comes in lumps at $2.40 per lb. These may be dissolved in three
ounces of turpentine to one ounce of boiled oil, to one teaspoonful
of color, a process that will take place much faster if the mixture
is heated. Great care must be taken, however, not to set fire to the
turpentine. When cool, thin with turpentine to the proper consistency,
apply to the wood with a brush and rub clean with cotton waste.

(2) _Water Stains._ Advantages: they are cheap and clear and do not
obscure the grain as oil stains are likely to do, and they penetrate
deeply into the wood, especially when applied hot. They may be made
of any coloring matter that is soluble in water, and are particularly
good for hard woods and for use in large quantities. It is possible to
stain wood much darker with them than with oil stains. Moreover, the
brushes used with them are easily taken care of. Disadvantages: they
are difficult to prepare and they raise the grain of the wood. The
former disadvantage may be overcome by buying them all prepared.

The difficulty of the raising of the grain is to be obviated either by
washing the wood in water and, when dry, rubbing down with sandpaper
before applying the stain, or rubbing down after staining and
re-staining when necessary.

a. Water stains made from anilines. Aniline stains are likely to fade,
but the addition of a little vinegar is said to hinder fading. For
Mahogany, dissolve 1 oz. Bismarck brown in 3 quarts of boiling water.
Use when cool.

b. Water stains made from dyes other than anilines. The number of
these is legion; some of the simpler are given.

Reddish Brown. Dissolve extract of logwood of the size of a walnut
in 1/2 cup (4 oz.) of hot water. Apply hot to wood repeatedly until
desired color is obtained.

Black. Dissolve extract of logwood of the size of a walnut in 1/2 cup
(4 oz.) of boiling water. Add a teaspoonful of alum. Apply repeatedly
until the wood is dark brown. Prepare acetate of iron according to
directions for making dark brown, on next page. Apply this to wood
already browned with logwood. If the grain is raised, sandpaper
lightly, or rub with steel wool and then with boiled oil.

(3) _Spirit Stains._ These are expensive and hence little used. A few
illustrations are given.[12]

    [Footnote 12: For detailed directions for treatment of different
    woods, see Hodgson, pp. 112-153.]

Black. Aniline black, cut in alcohol, gives a bluish effect but if the
wood thus stained is rubbed with raw linseed oil, it becomes black.

Another Black. Dissolve extract of logwood in wood alcohol. Develop
the color by going over the work with tincture of muriate of iron.

Golden Oak. Dissolve asphaltum in naphtha until it is as thin as water
and makes a yellowish stain; or to equal parts of asphaltum,
varnish, and gold size japan, add enough turpentine to thin to proper

Mahogany. Dissolve Bismarck Brown in alcohol.

Aniline stains may be cut in alcohol and mixed with equal parts of
white shellac and banana oil (amyl acetate) and all applied in one

(4) _Stains due to chemical changes_. Certain substances like ammonia,
potassium bichromate, and acetate of iron, give chemical reactions on
certain woods and make very effective and inexpensive stains. Moreover
the artistic effect of some of them is unexcelled. When applied in
solution they are likely to raise the grain.

The effect of ammonia, either the liquid or fumes, is much the same as
the effect produced by aging or weathering. Ammonia also cuts the pith
rays of oak and makes it possible for other stains to take hold.
For this reason it is much used as a preliminary treatment for oak
finishes. The color effect is to lessen the yellow and increase the

The method of application is simply to expose the wood for a day or
more to the fumes of strong ammonia (28%) in a tightly closed box. If
the surface of the wood is moistened with water just before exposure,
it turns darker than if exposed dry. The stain penetrates so deeply
that it may be sandpapered after the exposure without harm. After
fuming and sandpapering the surface should be oiled to prevent finger

Dark brown for chestnut, or oak, or mahogany. This is obtained with
a solution of acetate of iron, made as follows: digest one part by
measure of iron dust in 8 parts of glacial acetic acid. After the
chemical action is well started, add several times as much water to
keep the mixture liquid. When the chemical action has ceased, the
stain is ready for use. If a lighter shade is desired it may be still
further diluted.

To darken mahogany. Make a saturate solution of bichromate of potash.
Dilute a portion of it with water 1/2, or 1/3, or 1/4, or in any
proportion according to the darkness required. One part of the
solution to two or three parts of water gives a good color. Apply the
solution to mahogany with a brush. This solution alone is likely to
be too brown. The reddish tinge of the wood may be saved by mixing as

  100% solution of bichromate of potash          1 part
  Breinig's mahogany water stain                 1 part
  Water                                          2 parts
  Apply with a brush and wipe off the surplus.

Bichromate of potash on oak gives a rich brown.

Bichromate of potash on ash gives a rich red.

Bichromate of potash on black walnut gives a dark brown.

A decoction of logwood treated with tannin gives yellow red, with
sugar of lead gives gray brown, with ferric nitrate gives black. A
decoction of fustic extract treated with dilute nitric acid gives
brown, etc.[13]

    [Footnote 13: For other effects obtained by chemical changes,
    see table on pp. 185-189 in _Brannt's Painter, Gilder and
    Varnisher_, and also _Woodcraft_ 9: 71, June, '08.]

_Commercial Stains._ Some of the more noteworthy commercial stains,
suitable for school use, are those of:

The Bridgeport Wood Finishing Company, 55 Fulton St., New York. Among
their water stains some of the best are: Flemish oak, weathered oak,
walnut, silver gray, forest green, and mahogany, especially if the
latter is modified with bichromate of potash. Other effects may be
obtained by mixing these, as forest green, which is too bright alone,
mixed with walnut or some other reddish color gives a grayish green.
Of the penetrating oil stains the golden oak and mahogany are very

The Sherwin Williams Company, of Cleveland, Newark, Chicago, etc.,
produce a fine line of spirit stains.

The Adams and Elting Company, Chicago, have a stain called adelite,
in which banana oil appears to be the solvent. It is very easy of
application, only one coat being needed. It is applied with the brush.

Berry Brothers, of Detroit, Mich., the famous varnish makers, furnish
a great variety of colors in their water stains and also a combined
stain and finish under the trade name of Lacklustre.

Devoe and Reynolds, 101 Fulton Street, New York, make a variety of oil
stains which can be applied either in one coat with a brush or rubbed
in with cotton waste.

The Chicago Varnish Company, make a specialty of artistic, chemical
stains, but unfortunately they are not yet (1910) available in small

S. C. Johnson and Son, Racine, Wis., furnish a variety of spirit
stains called "wood dyes."

The Craftsman Workshops, Eastwood, N. Y., furnish oil stains to be
applied with a brush or waste. These are deservedly famous for they
give especially soft, agreeable effects on fumed oak.

In general, it should be remembered that oil stains are better for
soft woods, water stains for hard woods, and the spirit stains are
good for both. But without a sense of color, no number of recipes will


The object of filling is to give a perfectly level and non-absorbent
basis for varnish covering or other finish. This can be done with
shellac carefully rubbed down with fine oiled sandpaper, but this
method requires much toil and patience, and has therefore been given
up by furniture finishers. The best fillers, (such as "Wheeler's Wood
filler"),[14] are made of silex in needle-shaped particles mixed with
raw linseed oil, japan and turpentine. When applied to wood it should
be thinned with turpentine or benzine, and applied with a brush along
the grain. As it dries, the color becomes grayish and it should then
be rubbed off across the grain with fine shavings or cotton waste.
It is best to have fillers of several colors on hand, such as light,
black, mahogany, and "golden oak" to be used according to the stain
applied. The filler should be applied after staining the wood and
should be allowed to dry thoroly, say forty-eight hours, before it
is covered with shellac or varnish. Its use is more necessary on open
grained woods, like oak, chestnut, and mahogany, than on close grained
woods, like whitewood, maple, and pine, but it is best to use it on
all woods that are to be highly polished.

    [Footnote 14: Made by the Bridgeport Wood Finishing Co., 155
    Fulton St., N. Y.]

Cans should be kept tightly covered when not in use. Since oil darkens
wood, if wood is to be kept light, a filler without oil, as whiting
and turpentine, should be used.


There are three principal forms of wood polishes, each of which
has its virtues and defects. They are: (a) oil, (b) wax, (c) the

(a) _Oil._ The great advantage of oil polishing is its permanence. It
will stand both wetting and warmth and gives a dull, glossy finish. In
some woods, as sweet gum and mahogany, it brings up the figure.

Process. Apply either raw or boiled linseed oil diluted with five
parts of benzine or turpentine. The advantages of dilution are that
the mixture penetrates the wood better, leaves a thinner film on the
surface and is more economical. Then rub, rub, rub, day after day.
Little and often with unlimited friction, is the best rule. This makes
a nice finish for well-fumed chestnut, turning the color to a rich

(b) _Wax._ Wax is an old English polish, commonly used before French
polish and varnish were introduced, especially for hard woods like
oak. Its advantages are that it is cheap, easily prepared, easily
applied, and easily repaired. Its disadvantages are that it will not
stand wetting, is easily marred, requires constant care, is not so
hard and dry as varnish, turns slightly sticky with warmth, and is
likely to turn white in crevices.

To prepare it. To one part of melted beeswax add one part of
turpentine. Mix and cool. It can be bought prepared, as, Bridgeport
Wood Finishing Company's "Old Dutch Finish," Butcher's Wax, Johnson's
Wax, and others.

Process. Rub the wax evenly over the surface with a stiff brush or the
fingers. Let it dry for some hours, and then rub with a cloth: flannel
or a piece of felt is best. Put on several coats, leaving the work
over night between coats. Rub often with a warm cloth.

(c) _Varnishes._ The function of varnishes is to cover wood with
a hard, transparent coating that is non-porous and impervious to
moisture. There is a great range among them, from thin, easily worn,
dull finishes to durable, strong, and highly polished coatings called
"rubbing varnishes." The polished surface can be secured only by much
labor thru the application of successive thin coats of good varnish,
carefully rubbed down.

Varnish may be applied to wood, stained, painted, or in its natural
condition as well as to metal, leather, paper, and various other
substances. A good varnish should be adhesive, that is, it should
cling firmly to the surface to which it is applied; it should
be elastic, so as not to crack on account of the expansion and
contraction of the material to which it is applied; it should dry in
a reasonable time; it should be limpid so as to flow easily in
application; it should be transparent and brilliant when polished; and
it should be durable. The necessary conditions for all good
varnishing are a perfectly smooth, even, filled surface of dry wood, a
temperature of about 70° and no dust in the air.

In general, there are two classes of varnish, based on the character
of the solvent, (1) Spirit varnishes and (2) Oil varnishes.

(1) Spirit varnishes are sometimes made with copal resins dissolved in
some spirit, as one of the alcohols, benzine, acetone, etc. They dry
with great rapidity owing to the volatilization of the solvent spirit,
leaving a coat of pure resin of great hardness and brilliance, but
one which is likely to crack and scale when exposed. They are not much
used. Shellac is the most common and the most useful of the spirit
varnishes. Its basis is resin lac, a compound resinous substance
exuded from an East India scale insect (_Carteria lacca_) found mostly
in the province of Assam. The term "lac" is the same as "lakh" which
means 100,000 and is indicative of the countless hosts of insects
which are the source from which this gum is obtained. The larval
insects insert their proboscides into the bark of young shoots of
certain lac-bearing trees, varieties of Ficus, draw out the sap for
nutriment, and at once exude a resinous secretion which entirely
covers their bodies and the twigs, often to the thickness of one-half
inch. The females never escape and after impregnation their ovaries
become filled with a red fluid which forms a valuable dye known as lac
dye. The encrusted twigs are gathered by the natives in the spring
and again in the autumn, before the young are hatched, and in this
condition the product is known as "stick lac." After being crushed and
separated from the twigs and washed free from the coloring matter the
product is known as "seed lac." It is then melted and strained and
spread out in thin layers in a form called "shell lac." This is
what is known as orange shellac in the market. It may be bleached
by boiling in caustic potash, and passing chlorine thru it until the
resin is precipitated. It is further whitened by being pulled. This
is what is known in the market as "white shellac." It comes in lumps.
Orange shellac is the stronger and is less likely to deteriorate,
but white is easier to apply because it sets less rapidly. Another
advantage of the white is its colorlessness. Shellac is soluble in
both grain alcohol (ethyl alcohol) and wood alcohol (methyl alcohol),
but grain alcohol is preferable. Great care must be taken not to mix
even a drop of water in it or it will curdle. To make perfect the
process of ordinary filling, shellac may be used as a filler either
by itself or preparatory to other processes. Since it dries quickly it
can be rubbed down in six or eight hours either with No. 00 sandpaper
oiled, or better, with No. 00 steel wool. This process when repeated
several times gives a good "egg-shell" finish. It may be applied alone
over stained wood or the shellac itself may be colored with aniline
dyes cut in alcohol. This, for example, is an easy way to get a black

A good waterproof wood polish is made thus: 1 pint alcohol, 2 oz. gum
benzoin, 1/4 oz. gum sandarac, 1/4 oz. gum anime. Put in a bottle,
and put the bottle in a hot water bath until all solids are dissolved.
Strain and add 1/4 gill clear poppy oil. Shake well and apply with
cotton cloth.

A soft, dull, glossy finish may be obtained by applying two coats of
a mixture of one part each of white shellac and banana oil (amyl
acetate). When dry, sandpaper lightly and wax.

_French polishing._ The finest of shellac finishes is French polish.
It is a thin, clear, permanent finish, but the process takes time and
patience. It is not much used in practical work, because of the time
expense, but is often employed in school shops, because only a few
materials are necessary, it dries quickly, and gives a beautiful
finish. The polished surface is obtained by adding successive thin
coats according to the following process:

(1) Preparation. The surface of the wood must be perfectly smooth and
even, sandpapered in the direction of the grain, stained, if desired,
filled, rubbed smooth and quite dry. (2) Apply two or three thin coats
of shellac. After each coat when dry, rub with No. 00 oiled sandpaper
or No. 00 steel wool. Wipe thoroly. (3) Make three pads, about the
size of a walnut, of clean, white, cotton waste, enclosed in some fine
old or washed cloth with no sizing or lint,--one pad for shellac,
one for oil, and one for alcohol. Fill one pad with shellac of the
consistency of milk, enough in the pad so that when squeezed hard it
will ooze out. The common mistake is to put too much shellac into the
pad. Rub with circular motion, as indicated in Fig. 304, never
letting the pad stop on the surface. (4) Sprinkle a very little finely
powdered pumicestone and put a little oil on the surface of the wood
here and there with the tip of a finger. Rub with second pad until
surface is dull. Wipe clean. Repeat (3) and (4) several times. Some
use raw linseed oil to prevent sticking. Others use three or four
cloth coverings on the shellac pad, removing the outer one as it
dries. A simpler way is to keep the shellac in pad, 1, thin by
moistening with a little alcohol. (5) Spiriting off (Follows process
4.) Dampen pad, 3, with very little alcohol and wipe quickly in the
direction of the grain. This should remove the circular marks. Too
much alcohol in this third pad will "burn" a dull spot. The rubbers
are said to improve with use, and may be preserved in closely
stoppered jars to prevent evaporation. The different kinds of pads
should be kept separate. Or the cotton waste may be thrown away,
and the cloths washed in strong borax water. In the process just
described, shellac alone, dissolved in alcohol, is used. The shellac
may be used with other ingredients: for example, 1 pint grain alcohol,
1/4 oz. gum copal, 1/4 oz. gum arabic, 1 oz. shellac. Strain through

[Illustration: Fig. 304. Direction of the Pad in French Polishing.]

Another recipe for finishing. Use 4 drams grain alcohol, 2 drams
orange shellac, 5 drams tincture of benzoin, 1 teaspoonful of olive
oil. Dissolve and strain. Apply with pad in direction of grain.

_Oil or Copal Varnishes._ The old Cremona varnish once used for
violins is supposed to have had amber (Greek, electron) as its base.
It was a fossilized coniferous resin found on the shore of the Baltic
Sea. The art of making it is said to be lost, probably because of the
difficulty and danger of melting it, for this can be done only in
oil on account of the danger of ignition. Hence its use has been

Perhaps the most beautiful of all varnishes is lacquer, much used in
China and Japan. It is made from the juice of the lacquer tree, (_Rhus
vernicifera_) which is tapped during the summer months. The juice is
strained and evaporated and then mixed with various substances, such
as oil, fine clay, body pigment, and metallic dust, according to the
ware for which it is intended. The manufacturing secrets are carefully
guarded. The application of it is very difficult, the sap of young
trees being used for first coats, and of old trees for the finishing
coats. It must be dried in a damp, close atmosphere. For the best work
ten or twelve coats are elaborately rubbed down and polished. Even the
presence of it is very poisonous to some people and all workers in it
are more or less affected.

The solvent or vehicle of the modern copal varnishes consists
principally of linseed oil with some turpentine. Their base is Copal,
a fossil, resinous substance of vegetable origin. The gums of which
they are made have been chemically altered by long exposure in the
earth. Other gums, as mastic, dammar, sandarac, and even resin are
sometimes mixed with copal to cheapen the product or to cause more
rapid drying. Copal is a generic name given originally to all fossil
resins. Copals, as they are called, come from New Zealand, Mozambique,
Zanzibar, West Africa, Brazil, and the Philippines. The best of the
Copals is said to be the Kauri gum, originally exuded from the Kauri
pine tree of New Zealand. The tree is still existent and produces a
soft, spongy sap, but the resin used in varnish is dug up from a
few feet under ground in regions where there are now no trees. A
commercially important copal and one noted for its hardness is the
Zanzibar or East African Copal. It is found imbedded in the earth at
a depth not greater than four feet over a wide belt of the mainland
coast of Zanzibar, on tracts where not a single tree now grows. It
occurs in lumps from the size of small pebbles to pieces weighing four
or five pounds. The supply is said to be practically inexhaustible.

As to the manufacture of the Copal varnishes: first of all, a high
grade oil is boiled at a high temperature, with different materials
to oxidize it; for instance, red lead or oxide of manganese. The heat
throws off the oxygen from the red lead or manganese. The oxygen is
absorbed by the linseed oil, which is then put away to settle and age.
When a batch of varnish is made, the gums are melted in a large kettle
and then the requisite amount of oil is added and these carefully
boiled together. This is removed from the fire and cooled down to a
point, where turpentine can be added without volatilizing. These are
thoroly mixed and then filtered under pressure and tanked and aged.
The different grades of varnish depend upon the treatment of the oil,
the proportion of oil and turpentine, the qualities of the gums, the
aging, etc. Some by rubbing give a very high polish, some give a
dull waxy finish, some are for out-of-door use, as Spar varnish and
carriage varnish, some are for floors, some for furniture, some are
high priced, some are cheap.

Process of Varnishing. The preliminary processes are the same as those
for applying shellac, i. e., the surface of the wood must be perfectly
even and smooth, and the staining, filling, and drying complete. Quick
drying varnishes, like shellac, are applied, with but little on
the brush. The heavy, high lustre varnishes, on the other hand, are
applied with the brush full so that the varnish may even drip off
the work. Then proceed as follows: Wipe off from the work the extra
varnish with the brush and clean the brush on the edge of the
cup. Repeat till the varnish is flowed over the work evenly. Be
particularly careful, in that respect, of edges and corners. Set to
dry in a dustless place. When dry and hard repeat the process from
three to six times. Each coat must dry thoroly before the next coat is

Varnish polishing consists in rubbing off the varnish, not in rubbing
it on, as in French polishing. To polish varnish, rub with a felt
pad, powdered pumice-stone and water. Rub till the surface is smooth,
unpitted and even, being careful not to rub thru the edges. Wipe clean
with a wet sponge and chamois skin. This gives a dull or "egg-shell"
finish. For polishing varnish, a simple method is to rub with a rotary
motion, using a mixture of 1/2 sweet oil or cottonseed oil, and 1/2

A more laborious process is as follows: After rubbing to a dull
finish, rub ground rotten stone and water with chamois skin in a
circular motion. Let the rotten stone dry on the surface. Then wipe
off with the naked hand, rubbing in a circular direction and wiping
the hand every time after passing over the work. This looks simple,
but is really a fine art. These processes have practically replaced
French polishing in the trade.


Paints are used for the same purpose as other finishes, with the
additional one of giving an opaque colored covering. The materials
used are:

1. A body whose function is to give covering power. This is usually
white lead, but it is often adulterated with zinc oxide; 2. Pigments;
3. Linseed oils, raw and boiled, which are used to give consistency,
adhesiveness and also elasticity to the coat when dry. For outdoor
work boiled oil is used and for indoor work, raw oil; 4. Turpentine,
which is used to thin out the paint and to make it dry more quickly.

The common method of painting is: 1. Set any nails with nailset; 2.
Sandpaper; 3. Shellac the knots; 4. Prime with a thin coat of paint,
mostly white lead, (that is, little color,) boiled oil, and turpentine
(the proportion of drying oil is greater than in ordinary paint); 5.
Putty up cracks, nail holes, etc.; 6. Sandpaper if a small nice job;
7. Then paint two or three coats with paint thick enough so it will
not run, with long, even strokes with the grain. The order of painting
a door is, panels, muntins, rails, and last, stiles.

For inside work use half as much turpentine as oil. This gives a
dull finish. For outside work, where lustre is wanted, little or no
turpentine is used.

This is the old way, and is still used for all common work. But for
fine painting, as carriage work, a filler is now used first, because a
priming to be durable should unite with the wood, grasping the fibers
and filling the pores, so that after coats cannot sink in. The object
is to cement the surface. Priming is often called "rough stuff." The
old way did not do this, with the result that the oil separated from
the lead and kept soaking into the wood. The principal makers of
paints now recommend a filler before any white lead is added.


Brushes. It is well to have several varieties to help keep them
distinct. For varnish and shellac, the best are those with the
bristles set in hard rubber. For ordinary purposes, brushes one inch
wide are satisfactory. For stains, cheap, tin-bound brushes are good
enough, and are easily replaced.

Cups. Half-pint enameled steel cups are cheap, satisfactory, and
easily kept clean. For the care of cups and brushes, see Chapter VI,
The Equipment and Care of the Shop.

Steel wool. This consists of shavings, turned from thin steel discs
set together in a lathe. It comes in various grades, No. 00 to No. 3.
The finest, No. 00, is coarse enough for ordinary purposes.

Sandpaper. Use No. 00 smeared with boiled oil. Pulverized pumice stone
and pulverized rotten stone, both very fine, are used to rub down
inequalities and to give a dull finish to shellac or varnish. Use with
oil on shellac and with oil or water on copal varnish. Horsehair and
soft wood shavings are often used to rub down varnish. French felt,
medium hard, is used for rubbing down copal varnish with pumice stone.

Cotton waste is the cheapest available material for wiping.

Cheese cloth is better for some purposes, but more expensive.

Soft cloth without lint is necessary for French polishing. "Berkeley
muslin," "Old Glory," and "Lilly White" are trade names. A fine
quality is necessary. The starch should be washed out and the cloth
dried before using, and then torn into little pieces, say 4" square.

Fillers consist of silex or of ground earths mixed with oil, japan,
and turpentine. Their object is to give a perfectly level and
non-absorbent basis for varnish covering.

Oils. Raw linseed oil is very fat and dries slowly. It is used for
interior work.

Boiled oil is linseed oil boiled with litharge (PbO) and white
vitriol, which removes much of the fatty ingredient and gives it
drying quality.

Turpentine is a volatile oil from the sap of long-leaf pine. It is
mixed with oil in painting to give further drying qualities.

Benzine is a cheap substitute for turpentine. It is a highly
inflammable product of coal tar and evaporates quickly.

Drier is an oil in which resin has been dissolved. It is mixed with
varnishes and paint to make them dry quickly. It is also sometimes
used as a varnish itself.

Japan is a varnish-like liquid made of shellac or other resin, linseed
oil, metallic oxides, and turpentine. It is used as a medium in which
to grind colors and as a drier.



(1) Stains.
      Hodgson, II, pp. 25-59, 155-164.
      Van Deusen, _Man. Tr. Mag._, 6: 93.
      Maire, pp. 46-64.

(2) Fillers.
      Hodgson, II, pp. 7-25.
      Maire, 65-72.

(3) Oil Finish.
      Hodgson, II, pp. 99-103.
      Maire, p. 117.

(4) Wax.
      Hodgson, II, pp. 93-99.
      Maire, pp. 112-116.

(5) Varnish.

      Maire, pp. 73-80, 101-111.
      _Journal, Soc. Arts_, 49: 192.
      _Ency. Brit._, Vol. XIV, "Lac."
      Hodgson, II, pp. 66-93.
      _Inter. Encyc._, Vol. X, "Lac."

    Oil Varnish.
      Hodgson, II, pp. 59-66.
      Clark, pp. 1-69.
      Maire, pp. 81-100.
      _Encyc. Brit._, Vol. XXIV, "Varnish."

(6) Paints.
     Brannt, p. 134-152.
     _Building Trades Pocketbook_, pp. 357-360.

     For detailed directions for the treatment of different woods, see
     Hodgson, II, pp. 112-153, Maire, pp. 124-141.

    [Footnote *: For general bibliography see p. 4.]


  Acorn of hinge, 131.
  Adjustment of plane, 70, 72.
  Adze, 88.
  Agacite grinder, 61, 120, 121, 137.
    Grain (Ethyl), 216.
    Wood (Methyl), 216.
  Alligator, 28.
  Ammonia, 209, 211.
  Angle of bevel, 58, 59.
  Aniline stains:
    Alcohol, 211.
    Oil, 210.
    Water, 211.
  Antique oak, 210.
  Anvil, 141.
  Arrangement of shop, 142-144.
  Arris, 57, 184.
  Asphaltum, 210.
  Auger-bit, 53, 84, 85, 137, 140.
  Auger-bit-gage, 116.
  Ax, 10, 51, 87.

  Back-saw, 65, 136, 138.
  Balloon frame, 201.
  Banana oil, 213, 216.
  Band-saw, 31.
  Banking grounds, 16.
  Beam-compass, 114.
  Beams, 201.
  Bench, 97-99, 136, 138, 141, 143.
    Glue and Stain, 142, 149.
  Bench-hook, 78, 102, 104, 137, 139.
  Bending wood, 199.
  Benzine, 209, 210, 214, 222.
  Bevel of cutting tools, 52, 55, 120.
  Bevel, Sliding T, 113, 137, 140.
  Bezel, See Bevel.
  Bill-hook, 10.
  Binding of saw, 63, 65.
  Bit, Plane, 70, 77.
  Bits, 84-87, 137, 140.
  Bit, Twist, 84, 85.
  Bit-point drill, 84, 85.
  Bit-stock, See Brace.
  Black, 209, 211.
  Blank-hinge, 131.
  Blazes on trees, 7, 8.
  Blinds, 194.
  Block, Corner, 155 No. 12, 177, 199.
  Block-plane, See Plane, Block.
  Blue, Prussian, 210.
  Board, 48.
  Board construction, 184-192.
  Board-dipper, 35, 36.
  Board foot, 48, 109.
  Board measure, 48, 109, 110.
  Board structures, 184-192.
  Bolt of lock, 133.
  Bolts, 127.
  Book shelves, 185.
  Boom, Log, 20, 21.
  Boring, Directions for, 85.
  Boring tools, 83-87.
  Box, 187-191.
    Bottoms, 188.
    Lids, 188, 189.
    Of lock, 133.
  Brace, 103, 105, 137, 140.
  Brace, Ratchet, 103, 105, 137.
  Brace-measure, 107.
  Bracket, 185.
  Brad-awl, 83, 84, 138, 140.
  Brads, 124.
  Breaking out the roll-ways, 16.
  Bridging, 201.
  Brown, Bismarck, 210, 211.
    Dark, 212.
    Reddish, 210, 211.
    Vandyke, 209.
  Brush, 138, 141, 149, 209, 210, 221.
  Brush, See also Duster.
  Brush-Keeper, 150.
  Buckling of saw, 62, 65, 67.
  Buffer, 121, 147.
  Burn of shellac, 217.
  Butt-hinge, 131.

  Cabinet construction, 192-195.
  Cabinet for nails and screws, 142, 145, 147.
  Calipers, 114.
  Camp, logging, 8, 9.
  Cant, 35, foot-note.
  Cant-flipper, 35, 36.
  Cant-hook, 10, 13.
  Cape-chisel, 141.
  Care of the shop, 142-150.
  Carriage-bolts, 127.
  _Carteria lacca_, 215.
  Carving tools, 60, 140.
  Case-hardening, 46.
    See carriage-makers' clamps.
  Ceiling, 201.
  Center-bit, 84, 86.
  Chain, 10, 13, 15, 16.
  Chair, 198-201.
  Chalk, French, 197.
  Chamfer, 82, 115, 161, 184.
  Chatter, 71, 92.
  Cheek of joint, 160.
  Cheese-cloth, 221.
  Chest, 193, 195.
  Chest-hinge, 131.
  Chisel, 52-59, 136, 137, 139, 140, 183.
    See  also  Chiseling end-wood, Paring, Sidewise chiseling.
  Chisel, Cape, 141.
    Carving, 54.
    Cold, 141.
    Corner, 55.
    Firmer, 54, 136, 139.
    Framing, 55.
    Mortise, 54, 55, 161.
    Paring, 54.
    Round-nosed 55, 141.
    Skew, 55.
    Turning, 54.
  Chisel-gage, 69.
  Chiseling, end-wood, 56, 57, 183.
    Sidewise, 56.
    Perpendicular, 56.
  Choking of Plane, 76.
  Chopping tools, 87, 88.
  Clamp, 101, 138, 141, 169.
    Carriage-makers, 102, 138, 141.
    Column, 169.
    Plane, 70, 77.
  Clapboards, 201.
  Claw hammer, 96.
  Cleaning tools, 121.
  Cleats, 186, 188.
  Comb-grain, 41, 42.
  Compass, 113, 114, 137, 139.
    Blackboard, 117, 141.
  Compass-saw, 66, 139.
  Consumer, 33, 41.
  Copal, 218.
  Coping-saw, 139.
  Copper, Soldering, 141.
  Corner-blocks, 155, No. 12, 177, 199.
  Corner-board, 201.
  Cornering tool, 83.
  Corner-iron, 127, 128.
  Corner locking, 164.
  Corrugated fasteners, 125, 170.
  Cost of Equipment, 136-142.
  Countersink, 84, 87, 126, 138, 140, 141.
  Cricket, 186.
  Crosscut-saw, 10, 64-66, 137, 139.
  Cross-grained wood, Planing, 75.
  Crowbar, 10.
  Crown of Plane-cutter, 71.
  Cruising, 8.
  Cup, 138, 141, 221.
  Curling-iron, 70.
  Cutter, Plane, 70, 76, 77, 138.
  Cutting-gage, 116, 140.
  Cutting tools, 51-83.

  Dado, 56, 80.
    See also Joint, Dado.
  Dado-plane, 80.
  Dam, Splash, 20, 21.
  Decay, 32, 45.
  Decking logs, 13.
  Demonstration seats, 143.
  Derrick, Locomotive boom, 25.
  Destructive lumbering, causes of, 7.
  Die, 141.
  Die-holder, 141.
  Dividers, 113, 114, 137, 140.
  Dogs, log, 34.
  Donkey engine, 24.
  Door, 192, 193.
  Dovetail-saw, 66, 137, 139.
  Doweling, 127, 130, 152, 154, 175.
  Dowel-plate, 139, 140.
  Dowel-pointer, 83, 139, 175.
  Dowel-rods, 127, 175.
  Draw-bolt, 154.
  Draw-knife, 61, 139.
  Drawer, 166, 190-192.
    Guide, 196.
    Rail, 196.
    Runner, 196.
  Drawing-board, 186, 188, 205.
  Dray-road, 9, 13.
  Drier, 222.
  Drill.  See Hand Drill.
    Twist, 84, 85, 138, 141.
  Drive, The log, 16-18.
  Duplicate parts, 155, 204.
  Duster, Bench, 121, 137, 139.
  Dynamite, 21.

  Edge action, 52.
  Edged Tools, 51 ff.
  Edger, 35, 36, 37.
  Eight-square scale, 108.
  Egg-shell finish, 94, 216.
  Equipment, Chap. VI, 136-150.
  Escutcheon of lock, 133.
  Expansive-bit, 84, 87, 137, 140.

  Falling beds, 24.
  Fastenings, Chap. V, 123-135.
  Felling trees, 10, 11, 23.
  Ferrule, 54.
  File, 90, 91, 137, 140, 142, 147.
  File-card, 91, 137, 140.
  Filing a saw, 67.
  Filletster, 80, 137, 139.
  Filler, 213, 221.
  Finishing, Wood, Chap. X, 209-223.
    See under Chisel.
    See under Gouge.
  Fish glue, 129.
  Fitter, 9.
  Flooring, 30, 42, 174, 201, 206.
  Flume, 21, 22.
  Foerstner Auger-bit, 84, 87.
  Foot-stool, 186.
  Fore-edge, 196.
    See under Plane.
  Framed structures, 195-201.
    See under Chisel.
  Frog, Plane, 70, 75.
  Fuming with ammonia, 212, 214.
  Furring, 201.

  Gages, 114-116.
    Chisel, 69.
    Cutting, 116, 140.
    Marking, 114-116, 136, 139, 203.
    Mortise, 116, 140, 161.
    Pencil, 115.
    Screw, 116, 117, 126.
    Slitting, 116.
    Twist-drill, 117.
    Wire, 116, 117.
  Gelatin, 128.
  Gimlet-bit, 84, 85, 137, 140.
  Glass-cutter, 138, 141.
  Glaziers points, 125.
  Glue, 128-131.
    Fish, 129.
    Liquid, 129.
    Preparation of, 129.
    Tests of, 129.
  Glue-pot, 129, 138, 141, 148.
  Gluing, Directions for, 130, 153, 167-170, 173, 189, 190.
  Golden Oak, 211.
  Gouge, 59, 60, 137, 140, 183.
  Grading of lumber, 36.
  Grain of wood, 60, 75, 172, 185, 186, 192, 205, 209, 210.
  Green, 209.
  Grinder or Hog, 41.
  Grinder, Empire Tool, 61, 120, 121, 137, 140.
  Grinding of tools. See sharpening.
  Grindstone, 117-120, 137, 140.
  Groove for drawer, 191.
  Groove for panel, 164.
  Groove, Triangular, 66, 156, 158, 159, 161.

  Hack-saw, 137, 141.
  Hammer, 58, 94, 95, 96, 136, 139.
    Ball-peen, 142.
    Bell-faced, 95.
    Riveting, 141.
  Hand-drill, 104, 106, 138, 141.
  Handscrew, 101, 102, 138, 141, 170, 173.
  Handscrew, Iron, 102.
    See also Clamp, carriage-makers.
  Hatchet, 88.
  Hauling logs, 13, 15, 22, 23.
  Hinges, 131-133.
  Hinges, sizes of, 131.
  Hinging, Directions for, 132.
  Hog, 41.
  Holding tools, 97-105.
  Honeycombing, 46.
  Horse, 64, 65, 100.
  Horsehair, 200.
  House construction, 200, 201.

  Ice-road, 13, 14.
  Impregnation of timber, 47.
  Iron acetate, 211, 212.
  Iron, Soldering. See copper.

  Jack-ladder, 32.
  Jack-plane. See Plane.
  Jam, log, 18, 19, 21.
  Japan, 209, 222.
  Japanese, 69, 97, 189.
  Joinery, 151.
  Joint, Beaded, 175, No. 73, 182.
    Bevel-shoulder, 172, No. 67, 182.
    Bird's mouth, 172, No. 69, 182.
    Boat-builders, 152, No. 7, 177.
    Brace, 171, No. 65, 182.
    Brace, Housed, 172, No. 66, 182, 207.
    Bridle, 172, No. 68, 182.
    Butt, 155, No. 11, 177, 187, 206.
    Butt, Doweled, 152, No. 8, 153, 177, 194.
    Caulked, 157, No. 22, 178.
    Checked, 157, No. 21, 178.
    Cogged, 157, No. 22, 178.
    Corked, 157, No. 22, 178.
    Column, 169, No. 52, 181.
    Cross-lap, 155, No. 14, 177.
    Dado, 157, No. 25, 179, 191.
    Dado and rabbet, 158, No. 26, 179, 187.
    Dado, Dovetail, 158, No. 28, 179, 191, 206.
    Dado, housed, 157, No. 25, 179, 187, 207.
    Dado, tongue, and rabbet, 158, No. 27, 179, 191.
    Dovetail, Blind miter, 167, No. 51, 180, 187.
      Half-blind, 166, No. 49, 180.
      Lap, 166, No. 49, 180.
      Secret, 167, No. 51, 180, 187.
      Stopped lap, 166, No. 50, 180.
      Thru multiple, 165, No. 48, 180, 187, 206.
      Thru single, 165, No. 47, 180, 194.
      Doweled, 175, No. 75, 182.
    Draw-bolt, 154, No. 10, 177.
    Edge-to-edge, 172-174.
    End-lap, 156, No. 16, 178, 194, 206.
    Fillistered, 174, No. 71, 182.
    Fished, 151, No. 2, 177, 207.
    Forked tenon, 157, No. 23, 178.
    Gain, 159, No. 29, 179, 205.
      Dovetail, 158, No. 28, 179.
    Glue, 172, No. 70, 182.
    Glued-and-blocked, 155, No. 12, 177.
    Grooved, 157, No. 25, 179.
    Halved Tee, 156, No. 15, 178.
    Halving, Dovetail, 157, No. 18, 178.
    Halving, Beveled, 157, No. 19, 178.
    Halving, 155-157.
      See also Joint, Cross-lap, End-lap, Middle lap.
    Haunching, Table, 164, No. 43, 180.
      Taper, 164, No. 43, 180.
    Hopper, 155, No. 13, 177.
    Lap-dovetail, 157, No. 18, 178.
    Lapped and strapped, 151, No. 1, 177.
    Ledge, 157, No. 24, 179, 187.
    Ledge and miter, 171, No. 58, 181, 187, 206.
    Matched, 174, No. 72, 182.
    Middle-lap, 156, No. 15, 178.
    Miter, 167, No. 52, 181, 187, 194, 206.
      Double dovetail keyed, 171, No. 57, 181.
      Double tongue, 171, No. 60, 181.
      Doweled, 170, No. 53, 181.
      Lipped, 171, No. 58, 181.
      Slip dovetail, 171, No. 56, 181.
      Slip-feather, 170, No. 55, 181.
      Slip-key, 170, No. 55, 181.
      Spline, 170, No. 54, 181, 187.
      Stopped, 171, No. 59, 181.
      Tongue, 170, No. 54, 181.
    Mortise-and-tenon, 58, 127, 160-164, 172, 194.
      Bare-faced, 164, No. 44, 180, 185.
      Blind, 160, No. 32, 179, 193.
      Double, 163, No. 41, 180.
      Dovetail, 162, No. 37, 179.
      End, 164, No. 46, 180.
      Foxtail, 162, No. 36, 179.
      Haunched, 163, No. 42, 180, 193, 196, 207.
      Housed, 164, No. 45, 180.
      Keyed, 163, No. 39, 180, 185.
      Oblique, 172, No. 67, 182.
      Open, 164, No. 46, 180.
      Pinned, 162, No. 38, 180, 194, 207.
      Shoulder, 163, No. 40, 180.
      Stub, 160, No. 30, 179.
      Thru, 160, No. 31, 179.
      Tusk, 163, No. 40, 180, 207.
      Wedged, 128, 162, Nos. 34 and 35, 179.
    Notched, 157, No. 20, 178.
    Notch, Double, 157, No. 21, 178.
    Rabbet, 157, No. 24, 179, 174; No. 71, 182, 187.
    Rebated,  See Joint, Rabbet.
    Rubbed, 172, No. 70, 173, 182, 205.
    Scarf, 151, Nos. 4, 5, 6 and 7, 177, 204, 207.
    Slip, 164, No. 46, 180, 194.
    Spliced, 151, Nos. 4, 5, 6, 7, 177, 204, 206, 207.
    Spline, 175, No. 74, 182.
    Squeezed, 172, No. 70, 174, 182.
    Stretcher, 171, No. 61, 181.
    Strut, 171, No. 62, 181, 207.
    Thrust, 171, Nos. 63 and 64, 181, 207.
    Tie, 171, Nos. 63 and 64, 181.
    Toe, 171, Nos. 63 and 64, 181.
    Toe-nailed, 154, No. 9, 177.
    Tongue-and-groove, 174, No. 72, 182.
  Jointer-plane, 72.
  Jointing a saw, 68.
  Joints, Chap. VII, 151-182.
    Beveled, 167-172.
    Butt, 152-155.
    Dovetail, 164-167, 204.
    Halving, 155-160, 203, 204.
    Heading, 151-152.
    Mortise-and-tenon, 58, 127, 160-164,  172.
  Joists, 201.

  Kerf, 10, 30, 62, 65.
  Key-pin of lock, 133.
  Kiln, lumber, 44, 46.
  Knife, 61, 136, 139.
  Knife, Sloyd, 61.
  Knob, Plane, 70.
  Knock-down furniture, 163.
  Knuckle of hinge, 131.

  Lac, insect, 215.
    Seed, 216.
    Shell, 216.
    Stick, 216.
  Lacquer, 218.
  Ladle, 141.
  Landlooking, 7.
  Lath-machines, 39, 41.
  Laths, 39, 49, 201.
  Lay-out, 152, 154, 155, 156, 158, 159, 160, 163, 165, 183, 191, 195,
  203, 204.
  Leather, 59, 200.
  Leaves of hinge, 132.
  Level, Spirit, 116.
  Lever-cap, 70, 77.
  Lid of box, 188.
  Lighting of shop, 142.
  Live rollers, 35.
  Loading logs, 15.
  Lock, mortise, 134.
    Rim, 133, 134.
  Lockers, 138, 142, 146, 147.
  Locks, 133, 134.
  Locomotive, Geared, 26.
    Snow, 28.
    Boom-derrick, 25.
  Log-boom, 20, 21.
  Log-carriage, 34, 35, 36.
  Log-flipper, 34.
  Logging, Chap. I, 7-29.
  Log-kicker, 34.
  Log-slip, 34.
  Log-stop, 34.
  Logwood, 211, 212.
  Loss of tools, 144-146.
  Lumber, 48.
  Lumber yard, 36, 38.
  Lumberman's board rule, 111.
  Lumber mill, 32, 33.

  M (1000 feet), 48, 49.
  Machine-screws, 127.
  Mahogany, 211.
  Mallet, 58, 96, 139.
  Marking-gage, 114-116, 136, 139, 203.
  Marking tools, 113-117.
  Matching-plane, 80, 139.
  Maul, 10.
  Measurements, 203.
  Measuring-tools, 105-117.
  Measuring wood, 13, 48, 49, 105-116.
  Mill-pond, 21, 32.
  Miter-box, 102, 137, 139, 194.
  Miter-clamp, 138, 141.
  Miter-square, 113, 137, 140.
  Molding-plane, 80.
  Monkey-wrench, 103, 138, 141.
  Mortise, 58, 160.
    See Joint, Mortise-and-tenon.
  Mortise-chisel, 54, 55, 161.
  Mortise-gage, 116, 140, 161.
  Multiple parts, 204.
  Muntin, 192, 193.
  Muslin, 200, 221.

  Nails, 123, 124.
    Flat-head, 124.
    Size of, 124.
    Wire, 123.
    Wrought, 123.
  Nailset, 97, 138, 141.
  Nigger, steam, 34, 35.
  Nippers, 103, 105, 138, 141.

  Octagonal scale, 108.
  Oil, 65, 130, 221.
    Banana, 213, 216.
    Boiled, 209, 210, 222.
  Oiler, 137, 140.
  Oilstone, 58, 121, 137, 140.
  Ordering of lumber, 49.

  Paint, 220-221.
  Panel construction, 164, 192-195, 205.
  Panel-iron, 127, 128.
  Paper, Building, 201.
  Paring, 55, 57.
  Paring-chisel, 54.
  Peavey, 18.
  Peen of hammer, 95.
  Picture-frame, 167-169, 194, 205.
    Clamp, 167, 168.
    Vise, 100, 101, 167, 194.
  Pigments, 209.
  Pillow, 77.
  Pincers, 103, 105.
  Pinch-dog, 102, 103, 141, 170.
  Pintle of hinge, 131.
  Plane, parts of, 70.
    Bed rock, 71, 75, 137, 139.
    Block, 77, 137, 139.
    Circular, 80.
    Fore, 72, 137, 139.
    Jack, 71, 136, 138.
    Jointer, 72.
    Matching, 80, 139.
    Molding, 80.
    Oriental, 69.
    Rabbet, 79, 137, 139, 194.
    Router, 83, 139, 160.
    Scraper, 79, 139.
    Scratch, 79, 130.
    Scrub, 78.
    Smooth, 72, 75, 137, 139.
    Tongue-and-groove, 80.
    Universal, 81, 82.
  Plane-iron, 70, 77.
  Planes, 69-82.
  Planing, Directions for, 74-76, 78.
    Order of, 72.
  Plate-rack, 185.
  Plates, metal, 127.
  Plate, wall, 201.
  Pliers, 103, 105, 138, 141.
  Plow, Snow, 13.
  Plug-cutter, 84, 86, 126, 140.
  Points in saw-teeth, 63.
  Polish, French, 217-218.
    Oil, 214.
    Varnish, 220.
    Wax, 214.
  Polishes, 214-220.
  Position of benches, 142.
  Posts, corner, 201.
  Potash, 150.
  Potassium bichromate, 130, 211, 212.
  Pounding tools, 94-97.
  Preservation of lumber, 47.
    See also seasoning.
  Principles of joinery, Chap. IX, 203-208.
  Pumice stone, 217.

  Quarter-sawing, 42, 43.

  Rabbet-plane, 79, 137, 139, 194.
  Raft, Giant, 27, 29.
  Rafter-table, 110.
  Rafters, 201.
  Rail, 186, 193.
  Rail, Drawer, 196.
  Railways, logging, 22, 26.
  Rasp, 91.
  Ratchet-brace, 103, 105, 137.
  Reamer, 84, 87.
  Rebate. See Rabbet.
  Red, Venetian, 210.
  Ribbon, Wall, 201.
  Ridge-pole, 201.
  Rift-sawing, 41.
  Rip-saw, 63, 137, 139.
  Rivet-set, 141.
  Road, Ice, 13, 14.
    Logging, 9, 13, 14.
    Monkeys, 13, 15.
    Tote, 8.
  Rollers, Dead, 36.
  Rollers, Live, 35.
  Roll-ways, 16.
  Rossing of bark, 24.
  Router-plane, 83, 139, 160.
  Rule, 105, 106, 137, 139, 203.
  Running foot, 49.
  Rust, 125.
    On tools, 147.

  Sacking the rear, 16.
  Saddle seat, 60, 199.
  Sandpaper, 93, 221.
  Saw, 62-68.
  Selvage of lock, 133.
  Saw, Back, 65, 136, 138.
    Band, 30, 31, 32.
    Butting, 36.
    Circular, 30.
    Compass, 66, 139.
    Compression, 62.
    Coping, 139.
    Crosscut, 10, 64, 137, 139.
    Cut-off, 36, 39.
    Dovetail, 66, 137, 139.
    Gang, 30.
    Hack, 137, 141.
    Logging, 10, 23.
    Pulling, 10, 62, 67.
    Pushing, 62.
    Rip, 63, 137, 139.
    Tension, 62, 67.
    Turning, 67, 137, 139.
  Saw-carriage, 34, 35, 36.
  Sawdust, 39.
  Saw-filing and setting, 67.
  Saw-horse, 64, 65, 100.
  Sawing, Directions for, 64, 65.
  Saw-jointer, 68.
  Sawmill, 32, 33.
  Sawmilling, Chap. II, 30-44.
  Saw-set, 68.
  Saw-vise, 67, 68.
  Sawing into lengths, 11, 12, 24.
  Scaling logs, 13.
  Scrap-box, 187.
  Scraper, 76, 91, 137, 139.
  Scraper, Veneer, 91, 92, 137, 139.
  Scraper-plane, 79, 139.
  Scraper steel, 92, 137, 139.
  Scraping tools, 90-94.
  Scrap pile, 41, 42.
  Scratch-awl, 116, 140.
  Scratch-plane, 79, 130.
  Screen-hinge, 131.
  Screw-box, 139.
  Screwdriver, 104, 106, 138, 140.
    Bit, 105, 106, 138, 140.
  Screw-gage, 116, 117, 126.
  Screws, 125-127.
    Rule for using, 126.
    Sizes of, 126.
  Scribing, 112.
  Scrub-plane, 78.
  Seasoning, Chap. III, 45-48.
    Air, 45.
    Hot-air, 46.
    Kiln, 46.
    Oil, 47.
    Water, 47.
  Set of saw, 63, 67.
  Shank, 54.
  Sharpening of tools, The, 54, 58, 59, 60, 67, 76, 85, 86, 92-93, 117-121.
  Sharpening-tools, 117-121.
  Sheathing, 201.
  Shellac, 149, 215-218.
    Orange, 216.
    White, 216.
  Shelves, 185, 205.
  Shingles, 49, 201, 205.
  Shingle-machine, 39, 41.
  Shoe-pegs, 128.
  Shoulder of joint, 160.
  Shrinkage, 186, 188, 189, 191, 192, 194, 205.
  Siding, 201.
  Sienna, 209.
  Sighting, 71, 75.
  Silex, 214.
  Sill, 201.
  Sizing, 130.
  Skidder, steam, 25.
  Skidway, 9, 13, 24.
  Slab, 34, 35, 39.
  Slab-slasher, 39, 40.
  Slash-grain, 41, 42.
  Slash-sawing, 41.
  Sleigh haul, 13, 15.
  Sliding cut, 53, 56, 75, 78.
  Sliding T bevel, 113.
  Slipstone, 60, 121, 137, 140.
  Slip-tongue carts, 22.
  Smooth-plane, 72, 137, 139.
  Snips, 141.
  Snow-locomotive, 28.
  Soap, as a lubricant, 126.
    To prevent gluing, 130.
  Sole of Plane, 70.
  Sorting-jack, 21.
  Sorting-shed, 38.
  Spiriting off, 217.
  Splash-dam, 20, 21.
  Splitting tools, 51.
  Spokeshave, 82, 137, 139, 183.
  Stains, 209-213.
    Chemical, 211-213.
    Oil, 150, 209, 210.
    Spirit, 211.
    Water, 210, 211.
  Steel square, 107-111, 137, 140.
  Steel wool, 94, 211, 217, 221.
  Sticking, 45, 48.
  Stile, 193.
  Storing of lumber, 48.
  Stove, Gas, 138, 141, 148.
  Stove-bolts, 127.
  Straight cut, 53.
  Strength of joints, 206.
  Strike of lock, 133.
  Stringer, 196.
  Stropping, 59.
  Studding, 201.
  Superposition, Method of, 156, 158, 159, 163, 166, 204.
  Survey of forest land, 7.
  Swamper, 12.
  Sweep of brace, 103.

  Table-hinge, 131.
  Table construction, 130, 164, 195.
    See also Table Top.
  Table top, 172, 175, 197.
  Taboret, 169, 170, 186.
  Tacks, 124.
  Tacks, double-pointed, 102, 124.
  Tang, 54.
  Tank, 14.
  Taper of cutting tools, 52.
  Tee-hinge, 131.
  Teeth of saw, 63.
  Tenon, 160, 206.
    See also Mortise and tenon. Joint, Mortise and tenon.
  Tenon-saw, 65.
  Toe of Plane, 70, 71.
  Throat of Plane, 70.
  Tie-beams, 201.
  Timber, 48.
  Tonguing-and-grooving-plane, 80.
  Tool-grinder, 61, 120, 121, 137, 140.
  Tool-holder for grinding, 118-120.
  Tool-rack, 143, 144.
  Tools, Chap. IV, pp. 51-122.
  Tools, logging, 10.
  Traction engine, 28.
  Tools, Loss of, 144-146.
  Tractor, 28.
  Trammel-points, 114, 140.
  Transfer, Lumber, 36, 37.
  Transportation of logs, 13, 15, 16 ff, 23.
  Travoy, 9.
  Tray, 60, 183.
  Triangle, Blackboard, 141.
  Trimmer, 36, 38.
  Trimming logs, 12.
  Tripoli, 121, 147.
  Trolley for logs, 25.
  Try-square, 112, 136, 139, 140, 203.
  Tumbler of lock, 133.
  Turning-saw, 67, 137, 139, 183.
  Turpentine, 209, 210, 214, 222.
    See Joint, mortise-and-tenon, tusk.
  Twist-bit, 84, 85.
  Twist-drill, 84, 85, 138.
  Twist-drill-gage, 117.

  Umber, 209.
  Undercut, 206.
  Universal plane, 81.
  Unjoined pieces, 183, 184.
  Upholstering, 199-201.

  Valuation survey, 7.
  Van, Logging camp, 9.
  Varnish, 149, 215-220.
    Copal, 218-220.
    Cremona, 218.
    Spirit, 215-218.
  Varnishing, Process of, 219.
  Vaseline, 147.
  Veining tools, 140.
  Veneer-scraper, 91, 92, 137, 139.
  Vermilion, 210.
  Vise, 99, 138.
    Iron, 138, 141.

  Walnut, 210.
  Waney boards, 36.
  Warping, 48.
  Washer-cutter, 87, 140.
  Waste, cotton, 209, 221.
  Waste, sawmill, 39.
  Waterproof glue, 130.
  Water-stains, 210.
  Water-table, 201.
  Wax, 214.
  Webbing, 200.
  Wedge, Plane, 69, 70.
  Wedge, 10, 51, 52, 128, 162.
    Action 51, 52.
  Whetting tools, 58.
  Wind in board, 74.
  Winding sticks, 74, 113.
  Window-sash, 194.
  Wire edge, 59.
  Wire-gage, 116, 117.
  Wooden structures, types of, Chap. VIII, 183-202.
  Working edge, 72, 115.
  Working face, 72, 115.
  Wrench, 103.
    See also Monkey-wrench.

  Yarding logs, 24, 26, 27.
  Yard-stick, 138, 141.
  Yellow, Chrome, 209.

       *       *       *       *       *

Transcriber's Note:

   There is no Fig. 19; and Fig. 47 has no caption.

   Some of the illustrations were on numbered pages which contained
   no text.

   Illustrations have been moved to more relevant places, and
   extraneous page numbers removed.

   (sundry commas added to Bibliograpy, as needed for consistency.)

   ERRATA, and [sic]

   Page 13: 'thoroly' [sic] period spelling for 'thououghly'.

   Page 16: 'If a horse fall ...' [sic] 'If a horse (should) fall ...'

   Page 47: 'eargerly' corrected to 'eagerly'.
            (They are eagerly sought after...).

   Page 47: 'chlorid' corrected to 'chloride'. (zinc chloride).

   Page 58: 'splinttering' corrected to 'splintering'.

   Page 63: 'especally' corrected to 'especially'.

   Page 90: 'varities' corrected to 'varieties'.

   Page 160: 'shouders' corrected to 'shoulders'.
             (Locate accurately with a knife point the shoulders...).

   Page 162: Replaced two gaps in text with 'wedges' and 'No. 34'.
             (_No. 35. A wedged_ ... by driving the wedges into saw
             kerfs in the tenon instead of along its sides as in
             No. 34.)

   Page 189: 'Fig. 285, E' corrected to 'Fig. 285, C'
             (The cover may have cleats on its underside, Fig. 285,
             C, which fit just inside the box and keep the top in

   Page 219: 'funiture' corrected to 'furniture'.
             (...some are for floors, some for furniture,...)

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