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Title: Ontario Teachers' Manuals: Literature
Author: Ontario. Ministry of Education
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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        COPYRIGHT, CANADA, 1916, BY


        REPRINTED, 1916, 1917.


  COURSE OF STUDY--DETAILS                                             1


    What is Literature?                                                5
    The Qualities that Appeal to Children at Different Ages            7
      In Junior Forms                                                  7
      In Senior Forms (Books III and IV)                              10
      Complete Wholes versus Extracts                                 11
      Correlation of Literature with Nature Study, Geography,
          History, and Art                                            12
      Aims in Teaching Literature                                     14
    General Principles Applicable in the Teaching of Literature       16


      In Junior Forms                                                 19
        Memorization                                                  20
      In Senior Forms                                                 22
        Teacher's Preparation                                         22
        Preparation of Pupils                                         23
        Presentation                                                  26
        Value of Oral Reading in the Interpretation and
            Appreciation of Literature                                27
        Development of the Main Thought                               29
        Minute Analysis                                               31
        Allusions                                                     32
        Imagery                                                       33
        Literature of Noble Thought                                   35
        Recapitulation                                                36
        Mistakes in Teaching Literature                               37
        Extensive Reading                                             39


    Illustrative Lessons
        Little Miss Muffet                                            42
        Little Boy Blue                                               43
        The Story of Henny Penny                                      44
        Wishes                                                        46
        Indian Lullaby                                                47


    Illustrative Lessons
      The Wind and the Leaves                                         50
      Piping Down the Valleys Wild                                    52
      The Baby Swallow                                                54
      The Brook                                                       56


    Illustrative Lessons
      My Shadow                                                       59
      One, Two, Three                                                 62
      Dandelions                                                      64
      The Blind Men and the Elephant                                  67
      The Lord is my Shepherd                                         71


    Illustrative Lessons
      Hide and Seek                                                   74
      An Apple Orchard in the Spring                                  76
      Little Daffydowndilly                                           78
      Moonlight Sonata                                                83
      Lead, Kindly Light                                              87
      Lead, Kindly Light                                              89


    Illustrative Lessons
      Judah's Supplication to Joseph                                  93
      Mercy                                                           98
      Morning on the Lièvre                                          101
      Dickens in the Camp                                            105
      Dost Thou Look Back on What Hath Been                          112
      Waterloo                                                       117
      Three Scenes in the Tyrol                                      122


    Supplementary Reading
      South-West Wind, Esq.                                          131
      A Christmas Carol                                              135
      The Lady of the Lake                                           139


    Selections for Memorization                                      145






        Selection may be made from the following:

        I. _To be Read to Pupils_:

        1. NURSERY RHYMES: Sing a Song of Sixpence; I
        Saw a Ship a-Sailing; Who Killed Cock Robin;
        Simple Simon; Mary's Lamb, etc.

        Consult _Verse and Prose for Beginners in
        Reading_; Riverside Literature Series, No. 59,
        15 cents.

        2. FAIRY STORIES: Briar Rose, Snow-white and
        Rose-red--Grimm; The Ugly Duckling--Andersen;
        Cinderella, The Sleeping Beauty in the
        Wood--Perrault; Beauty and the Beast--Madame de
        Villeneuve; The Wonderful Lamp--Arabian Nights'

        Consult _Fairy Tales Every Child Should Know_,
        by H. W. Mabie. Grosset & Dunlap, 50c.

       3. FOLK STORIES: Whittington and His Cat; The
       Three Bears.

       4. FABLES: Selections from Æsop and La Fontaine.

         Consult _Fables and Folk Stories_, by Scudder,
         Parts I and II; Riverside Literature Series,
         Nos. 47, 48, 15 cents each.

II. _To be Read by Pupils_:

        Fables and Folk Stories--Scudder; A Child's
        Garden of Verses (First Part)--Stevenson;
        Readers of a similar grade.

III. _To be Memorized by Pupils_:

        1. MEMORY GEMS: Specimens of these may be found
        in the Public School Manuals on Primary Reading
        and Literature.

        2. FROM THE READERS: Morning Hymn; Evening
        Prayer; The Swing; What I Should Do; Alice.



the following:

I. _To be Read to Pupils_:

        1. NARRATIVE POEMS: John Gilpin--Cowper; Lucy
        Gray--Wordsworth; Wreck of the
        Hesperus--Longfellow; Pied Piper of
        Hamelin--Browning; May Queen--Tennyson; etc.

        Consult _The Children's Garland_, Patmore. The
        Macmillan Co., 35 cents.

        2. NATURE STORIES: Wild Animals I Have Known,
        Lives of the Hunted--Thompson-Seton; The
        Watchers of the Trails--Roberts.

        3. FAIRY STORIES: Fairy Tales Every Child
        Should Know--H. W. Mabie.

        4. OTHER STORIES: Selections from the Wonder
        Book--Hawthorne; Jungle Book--Kipling;
        Gulliver's Travels--Swift; Alice in
        Wonderland--Carroll; Robinson Crusoe--Defoe;
        The Hall of Heroes--Royal Treasury of Story and
        Song, Part III, Nelson & Sons.

II. _To be Read by Pupils:_

        A Child's Garden of Verses--Stevenson; The
        Seven Little Sisters--Jane Andrews; Fifty
        Famous Stories Retold--Baldwin.

III. _To be memorized by Pupils_: (A minimum of six lines a week)


        A Wake-up Song; Love; The Land of Nod; One,
        Two, Three; March; Abide with Me; The New Moon;
        The Song for Little May; The Lord is my
        Shepherd; Lullaby--Tennyson; Indian Summer;
        proverbs, maxims, and short extracts found at
        the bottom of the page in the Readers.



the following:

        The King of the Golden River--Ruskin;
        Tanglewood Tales--Hawthorne; The
        Heroes--Kingsley; Adventures of Ulysses--Lamb;
        Squirrels and Other Fur-bearers--Burroughs; Ten
        Little Boys who Lived on the Road from Long Ago
        till Now--Jane Andrews; Hiawatha--Longfellow;
        Rip Van Winkle--Irving; Water Babies--Kingsley.

_To be Memorized by Pupils:_ (A minimum of ten lines a week)


        To-day--Carlyle; The Quest--Bumstead; Hearts of
        Oak--Garrick; A Farewell--Kingsley; An Apple
        Orchard in the Spring--Martin; The Charge of
        the Light Brigade--Tennyson; Lead, Kindly
        Light--Newman; The Bugle Song--Tennyson;
        Crossing the Bar--Tennyson; The Fighting
        Téméraire--Newbolt; Afterglow--Wilfred
        Campbell; proverbs, maxims, and short extracts.



the list prepared annually by the Department of Education.




It is the purpose of this Manual to present the general principles on
which the teaching of literature is based. It will distinguish between
the intensive and the extensive study of literature; it will consider
what material is suitable for children at different ages; it will
discuss the reasons for various steps in lesson procedure; and it will
illustrate methods by giving, for use in different Forms, lesson plans
in literature that is diverse in its qualities. This Manual is not
intended to provide a short and easy way of teaching literature nor to
save the teacher from expending thought and labour on his work. The
authors do not propose to cover all possible cases and leave nothing for
the teacher's ingenuity and originality.


Good literature portrays and interprets human life, its activities, its
ideas and emotions, and those things about which human interest and
emotion cluster. It gives breadth of view, supplies high ideals of
conduct, cultivates the imagination, trains the taste, and develops an
appreciation of beauty of form, fitness of phrase, and music of
language. The term _Literature_ as used in this Manual is applied
especially to those selections in the _Ontario Readers_ which possess in
some degree these characteristics. Such selections are unlike the
lessons in the text-books in grammar, geography, arithmetic, etc. In
these the aim is to determine the facts and the conclusions to which
they lead. Even in the Readers, there are some lessons of which this is
partly true. For instance, the lesson on _Clouds, Rains, and Rivers_, by
Tyndall, is such as might be found in a text-book in geography or
science. Here the information alone is viewed as valuable, and the pupil
will probably supplement what he has learned from the book by the study
of material objects and natural phenomena. When this lesson is to be
studied, the pupil should be taught not only to understand thoroughly
what the author is expressing by his language, but also to appreciate
the clearness and force with which he has given his message to the
world. The pupil should be called upon to examine the author's
illustrations, his choice of words, and his paragraph and sentence

Each literature lesson in the Reader has some particular force, or charm
of thought and expression. There is found in these lessons, not only
beauty of thought and feeling, but artistic form as well. In the highest
forms of literature, the emotional element predominates, and it should
be one to which all mankind, to a greater or less degree, are subject.
It is the predominance of these emotional and artistic elements which
makes literature a difficult subject to teach. The element of feeling is
elusive and can best be taught by the influence of contagion. There is
usually less difficulty about the intellectual element, that is, about
the meaning of words and phrases, the general thought of the lesson, and
the relation of the thoughts to one another and to the whole.


This is a psychological problem which can be solved only by a study of
the interests and capacities of the children. These interests vary so
greatly and make their appearance at such diverse periods in different
individuals and in the two sexes, that it is a difficult matter to say
with any definiteness just what qualities of literature appeal to
children at any particular age. Moreover, the children's environment and
previous experiences have a great deal to do in determining these
interests and capacities. There are, however, certain characteristics of
different periods of childhood which are fairly universal, and which
may, therefore, be taken as guiding, determining factors in the
selection of suitable literature.


1. One of the most striking characteristics of young children is the
activity of their imagination. They endow their toys with life and
personality; they construct the most fantastic and impossible tales;
they accept without question the existence of supernatural beings. The
problem for the teacher is to direct this activity of imagination into
proper fields, and to present material which will give the child a large
store of beautiful images--images that are not only delightful to dwell
upon, but are also elevating and refining in their influence upon
character. The fairy tale, the folk tale, and the fable, owe their
popularity with young children to the predominance of the imaginative
element. The traditionary fairy tales and folk stories are usually more
suitable than those that appear in teachers' magazines and modern
holiday books for children. The hardest thing for the educated mind to
do is to write down to the level of children without coddling or
becoming cynical. The old tales are sincere, simple, and full of faith.
They are not written for children, but are the romance of the people
with whom they came into existence, and they have stood the test of

The myth is usually not suitable for young children, as it is a
religious story having a symbolic meaning which is beyond their
interpretation. If it is used at all, only the story in it should be

2. Stories of adventure, courage, and the defence of the helpless appeal
very strongly to young children. Even the cruelties and crudities of
_Bluebeard_, _Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves_, and _Aladdin and his
Wonderful Lamp_ do not alarm or repel children very much, owing to their
lack of experience in these matters. Stories based on the love of the
sexes are unsuitable for children of this age, although it constitutes
the chief element in stories for older people.

3. The child is also interested in stories of simple games, of animals
and birds, and of the material world on which so much of his happiness
depends. These stories are corrective of the desire which characterizes
some children for too many fairy stories. The fairy story and the nature
story should be alternated, so that the child's interests may be
imaginative without becoming visionary, and practical without becoming

4. Most children have a keen sense of the musical qualities of verse.
The child of two years of age will give his attention to the rhythm of
the nursery rhyme when the prose story will not interest him. The
consideration and analysis of these musical qualities should be
deferred for years; but it is probable that the foundation for a future
appreciation of poetry is often laid by an acquaintance with the rhymes
of childhood.

5. The element of repetition appeals strongly to children. In this lies
the attractiveness of the "cumulative story", in which the same
incident, or feature, or form of expression is repeated again and again
with some slight modification; for example, the story of _Henny Penny_,
_The Gingerbread Boy_, and _The Little Red Hen_. The choruses and the
refrains of songs are pleasant for this reason.

_Silverlocks and the Three Bears_ is an example of a story that has many
attractive features. Silverlocks is an interesting girl, because she is
mischievous and adventurous. The pupils know a good deal about bears and
wild animals from picture books, stories, and perhaps the travelling
menageries. The bears have all proper names--Rough Bruin, Mammy Muff,
and Tiny; this gives an air of reality to the story. The bears speak in
short, characteristic sentences.

Silverlocks runs away from home, goes into the woods, and finds a lonely
house which is the home of the bears. They are not at home, so she
enters. These actions suggest mystery and adventure.

The construction of the story shows two chief divisions, with three
subdivisions. The second division begins with the return of the bears.
They find the soup has been tasted, the chairs disturbed, and the beds
rumpled; their conversation is interesting, and their tones
characteristic. Tiny, the little bear, suffers most; he enlists the
sympathy of the children, as he has lost his dinner and his chair is
broken. He discovers Silverlocks, but she escapes and "never runs away
from home any more".


1. In these Forms, the pupil's imagination is still strong, though less
fantastic and under better control, and hence stories involving a large
element of imagination retain their charm at this stage. The myth, and
longer and more involved fairy tales, such as Ruskin's _King of the
Golden River_, Hawthorne's _Wonder Book_, and Kingsley's _Greek Heroes_,
are read with avidity.

2. Stories involving _a number of incidents_ are wonderfully attractive.
This is due to the pupil's instinctive interest in action and
personality. Children are more deeply interested in persons who _do_
things than in those who _become_ something else than they were. A
description of some evolution of character very soon palls, but a
stirring tale of heroic deeds exerts a powerful fascination. This
explains the attractiveness of the hero tale, the story of adventure,
and the stirring historical narrative. The action should have the merit
of artistic moderation. Stories in which there is a carnival of action,
for example, the "dime thriller", under whose spell so many boys fall,
must be avoided. Literature that leaves the mind so feverish that the
pupil loses interest in other subjects is worse than no literature. The
easiest way to prevent a taste for this injurious kind, is to give the
pupil an acquaintance with works descriptive of noble deeds and virile
character. An interest in epic poetry or the historical novel may be
developed from the child's instinctive interest in action. Tennyson's
_Passing of Arthur_, Arnold's _Sohrab and Rustum_, Longfellow's
_Evangeline_ and _King Robert of Sicily_, and Scott's _Ivanhoe_ will be
read with keen enjoyment. The force and beauty of the language, the
faithfulness of the descriptions to life, the historical setting, the
lofty imagery, and the logical development will arouse a healthy mental
appetite that will find no pleasure in the worthless story of sensation
and vulgar incident, or even in some badly constructed compositions of
historical adventure.

3. The pupils of the Senior Forms show even more striking interest in
animals, pets, and wild creatures than do the pupils of the Junior
Forms. To this natural interest is due the engrossing character of
nature study. To it is also due the satisfaction arising from the
reading of some of the many nature stories that have appeared in recent

Thompson-Seton's _Wild Animals I have Known_ and _Lives of the Hunted_,
and Roberts' _The Watchers of the Trails_ are excellent examples of this


Scattered throughout the _Ontario Readers_ are to be found extracts from
larger works. These extracts are placed there primarily because they
have some special literary value. They have fairly complete unity in
themselves and can be treated in detail in a way that would be
impossible with a whole story. The extract has an advantage over the
whole, in that it repays intensive study, while, in many cases, such
study of the whole work would not be worth while. It is considered
better to give the pupil many of these passages where the author has
shown his greatest art, rather than to allow one long work to absorb the
very limited time which the pupil can devote to this subject. The study
of the extract will have accomplished its mission if it induces the
pupil to read the larger work for himself in later years. If the
treatment by the teacher is made as interesting as it should be, it is
hoped that the pupil will obtain such delight from, and be inspired to
such enthusiasm by, these glimpses of literary treasures, that he will
not be satisfied until he has enjoyed in their entirety such works as
_The Lady of the Lake_, _Pickwick Papers_, _Lorna Doone_, _The Mill on
the Floss_, _Julius Cæsar_, and _It is Never Too Late to Mend_. An
extract may serve as an introduction to the choicest work of an author,
may arouse an interest in his writings, and give the pupils a taste of
his quality, but, unless it whets their appetites for the work as a
whole, its chief purpose will not have been accomplished. These extracts
cannot give a panoramic view of a great historical epoch. They do not
require that sustained attention that relates to-day's readings with
that of yesterday, and that takes a wider survey of many parts in their
relation to a central theme. The larger work gives a culture and a
liberal education, when it is treated in the proper manner, that is very
different from the fragmentary knowledge of an author that would be
gained by even the intensive study of many short extracts. The treatment
of the extract, as we have said, must be minute; while the whole work
should be subsequently read in a method that will be outlined later on
under the head of Supplementary Reading.


Many of the lessons in the _Ontario Readers_ should be preceded by
preparatory work in geography, history, or nature study. Poems such as
_Jacques Cartier_, _The Charge of the Light Brigade_, _The Burial of Sir
John Moore_, and _The Armada_ cannot be fully appreciated unless the
historical setting is known. There are famous pictures that will
increase the pupil's interest in these poems. In the lessons on art,
there are studies of pictures that suggest feelings and thoughts
characterized by universality, permanency, and nobility--pictures that
stir men to nobler thought and higher aspiration. Often, such pictures
are the painter's method of expressing in colours, thoughts that the
poet has expressed in words. Lessons such as _Dandelions_, _Bob White_,
and _The Sandpiper_ require a preliminary acquaintance with certain
facts of nature, and therefore should be taken, if possible, when these
can be obtained through personal observation by the pupils. _Wolfe and
Montcalm_ and Drake's _Voyage Around the World_ demand, in addition to
historical facts, certain geographical data. These facts and data should
be communicated at some time before the lessons in literature are taken,
in order that the latter may not descend into lessons in history,
geography, or natural science. The extracts mentioned above are not
placed in the Readers to teach certain historical, geographical, or
scientific facts. They are placed there, as has been said, primarily
because they have some value as literature. Hence the literature lesson
should require few digressions, the necessary preparatory work having
been done in previous periods.

But while history, geography, nature study, and art frequently assist in
the interpretation of a poem or prose selection, these subjects, on the
other hand, may be reinforced and strengthened by selections drawn from
the fields of literature. The facts of the history lesson will be given
an additional attractiveness if the pupil is directed to some
well-written biography or drama embodying the same facts, or if the
teacher reads or recites to the class some spirited ballad, such as
_Bonnie Dundee_, bearing upon the lesson. The interest in the
observations made in nature study will be intensified by reading some
nature story written in good literary form.

While these studies may go hand in hand with literature, it is not
necessary that they should be always taken on the same day or even in
the same week. The literature lesson may be an effective agent in the
recall of ideas that have had time to be assimilated from previous
nature study, history, or geography lessons. In our enthusiasm for
literature we must not make these subjects the mere soil and fertilizers
out of which the flowers of poetry will spring. Each of these subjects
has its proper sphere, but that teacher misses many golden opportunities
who does not frequently take a comprehensive survey of his material in
all these studies in order to find the element that will give a unity to
all our knowledge and experience. The lessons in the Reader may be taken
according to the conditions existing in the class or the inclination of
the teacher. By no means is it necessary to follow the order in the


The teacher should always have a clear and definite aim in view in
teaching a selection in literature, but different teachers may have
different aims in teaching the same selection. There should, of course,
always be the general aim to create a taste for good literature by
leading the pupils to appreciate the beauty and power of clear and
artistic expression of thought and feeling; but this aim must be
specific according to the nature of the selection to be taught. Some
specific aims may be given as suggestive:

1. To appeal suitably to such instinctive tastes and interests of
childhood as are already awake and active; for example, Second Reader,
p. 3, _My Shadow_; p. 185, _A Visit from St. Nicholas_; p. 125, _Little
Gustava_; p. 215, _The Children's Hour_.

2. To awaken and develop interests and tastes that are as yet dormant;
for example, Second Reader, p. 42, _A Song for Little May_; p. 88, _The
Brown Thrush_.

3. To develop and direct the imagination; for example, Second Reader, p.
72, _The New Moon_; p. 117, _Little Sorrow_; p. 45, _The Little Land_;
p. 172, _The Wind_.

4. To arouse and quicken the sense of beauty; for example, Second
Reader, p. 92, _Mother's World_; p. 155, _Lullaby_.

5. To exercise and cultivate the emotions; for example, Second Reader,
p. 94, _Androclus and the Lion_; p. 135, _Ulysses_; p. 107, _A Night
with a Wolf_.

6. To develop manners and morals through examples of character and
conduct in action; for example, Second Reader, p. 114, _Joseph II and
the Grenadier_.

7. To develop appreciation for the well-told story; for example, Second
Reader, p. 5, _The Pail of Gold_; p. 12, _How I Turned the Grindstone_;
p. 56, _The Blind Men and the Elephant_; p. 211, _How the Greeks Took

8. To develop a true sense of humour; for example, Second Reader, p. 50,
_Change About_.

9. To develop a sense of reverence; for example, Second Reader, p. 203,
_The Lord is my Shepherd_; p. 218, _Abide With Me_.


There are four outstanding principles of general method that apply
particularly in the teaching of Literature.

I. The pupil must, at the outset, be placed in a receptive attitude
toward the lesson if the best results are to be secured. He must have
some _purpose_ in view if he is to be induced to concentrate his
attention upon it. His purposes determine his interests, and hence the
lesson must, in some way, be related to interests that already exist in
his mind. Frequently his instinctive interest in action, in personality,
or in excitement is sufficient incentive to secure his attention. A
suspicion that a lesson contains a good story is often sufficient to
ensure a careful reading of it, and a curiosity as to the writer's
devices to make the story interesting will lead to a closer examination
of it. But more frequently some special interest resulting from the time
of year, the surroundings, or the work taken in some other subject, may
be effectively utilized by the teacher. These interests of children are
so numerous and so varied that there are few lessons in the Readers for
which a receptive attitude of mind cannot be secured. It will be
observed that the principle here enunciated corresponds to the
"statement of the aim" in the Herbartian "Formal Steps".

II. The pupil's mind must be suitably prepared for the assimilation of
the ideas contained in the lesson, by recalling old ideas and feelings
that are related to those to be presented in the selection to be
studied. He must be placed in a proper intellectual attitude to
interpret the ideas and in a proper emotional attitude to appreciate
the feelings. Neglect of the former may make the selection wholly
meaningless to the pupil; neglect of the latter may result in entire
indifference toward it. A proper intellectual attitude is necessary in
any lesson, but in a lesson in grammar or arithmetic the emotional
attitude may be almost completely absent. In literature, however, this
emotional attitude is often of the greatest importance, and the neglect
of it may mean an utter lack of appreciation of some literary
masterpiece. This preparatory work may take the form of a recall of some
of the common experiences of the pupil's life or a review of some facts
taken, for instance, in a previous geography, history, or nature study
lesson. The apperceptive power of the pupil's mind takes the new
material of thought and feeling contained in the selection and weaves it
into the web of his previous ideas and emotions.

III. The mind always proceeds from a vague and indistinct idea of a new
presentation to a clear and defined idea of it. The process is always
analytic-synthetic. In a literature lesson the order of procedure must
be: (1) Let the pupil get that somewhat indistinct grasp of the thought
and feeling which comes from a preliminary reading of it; (2) make this
more definite by a process of analysis, by concentrating attention on
the details; (3) make the idea completely definite by a clear grasp of
the relations existing among the various details, that is, by a process
of synthesis.

IV. No impression is complete without some form of expression. An idea
or emotion is a very incomplete and useless thing until it is worked out
in practice and conduct. The thoughts and feelings gained from the
literature lesson must be given some kind of expression if they are to
be fully realized. This expression may take many different forms. The
pupils may merely read the selection, showing to the listeners their
understanding and appreciation of it. If it is a story, they may
reproduce it in their own words orally or in writing. They may sketch a
scene or a situation with pencil, or with brush and colours. They may
dramatize it, or act it in pantomime. They may create a story with a
similar theme, or imitate a poem by a creation of their own. The
expression may not be immediate but may be delayed for days or even
years, and come in some modification of future conduct.




To introduce children to the world of literature, it is not necessary to
wait until they have mastered the art of reading. The introduction
should come long before they have learned to read, through listening to
good stories told or read to them by others, through hearing suitable
poems read or recited with spirit and feeling, and by memorizing nursery
rhymes and gems of poetry.

The material to be used in primary grades has already been described.
Early work in literature should be correlated with oral composition.

As to the comparative merits of reading and telling, much may be said on
each side. In the early stages, telling must, of course, be the
predominant if not the exclusive means of communicating the story. The
matter and language can thus be better adjusted to the capacity of the
individual pupil. The teacher who is familiar with the pupil's home life
and surroundings has within his power a means of adapting the story to
the attainments of the pupil that even the best writer of children's
stories can hardly command. A situation in a story can frequently be
made intelligible by reference to the pupil's own experience. Moreover,
in telling the story, the teacher's gestures, facial expression, and
tone of voice are likely to be more spontaneous and natural than would
be the case in reading, and this gives immense assistance in
interpreting aright the meaning and spirit of the selection.

Some teachers say that the incident, as in the case of Hawthorne's
Tales, is so meagre and the language so exquisite, that the telling
seems to be quite inadequate and inferior to the reading of the story.
In such cases, variety may be afforded by reading, but generally
speaking, it is more effective to tell the story.

The teacher should strive to become a good story-teller. This requires a
good voice, animated gesture and facial expression, a good command of
English words, power of graphic description and narration, restraint
from digression and superfluous detail, and concentration of aim upon
some definite point.

In teaching poetry to primary classes, the main object is to lead the
pupils to feel the music and realize the imagery. To attain this end,
the best beginning is made by a sympathetic and expressive rendering of
the passage by the teacher. It can be recited many times incidentally,
while he is asking the pupils to look at the pretty pictures suggested
by the text. It is not necessary to enter at any length into an analysis
of the poem, unless the pictures are arranged in an easy order, such as
spring, summer, autumn, winter.


One of the most valuable means of securing an appreciation of literature
is the memorization of fine passages of prose and poetry. Pupils from
the primary grades upward should be required to memorize systematically
several lines of prose and poetry every week of the school year. During
childhood the mind is at its most impressionable stage, and what is
committed to memory is then retained longer and more accurately than
what is memorized at any later period. The passages should be carefully
selected and should be suited to the capacity and interests of the
pupils. Nothing should be memorized that has not _some_ meaning for
them, but it would be impossible to require that every selection should
be _fully_ understood. The selections which children commit to memory in
the most plastic period of their lives will often reveal a new and
unexpected meaning and beauty in later years and will be a source of
keen delight and satisfaction. The passages memorized will form a
standard, unconscious it may be, by which to test the excellence of
other selections.

It is of the greatest importance that the passages chosen should have
artistic excellence in thought, feeling, music, imagery, and language.
Moreover, these qualities must be present in such a form that they will,
when properly presented by the teacher's reading or reciting, appeal, in
some considerable measure, to the pupils' capacities and interests.
Since there are so many noble passages in English literature, nothing of
doubtful value should be memorized.

It is also very important that the teacher himself should have committed
to memory and be able to recite freely and expressively every selection
he requires his pupils to memorize. It is clear that, if he has
memorized it himself, the pupils will be more likely to feel it worth
while to do the same.

In conducting a lesson in memorization, it is well for the teacher to
arouse the interest of the pupils in the selection as a whole by
reciting it himself with expression. Next, he should see that the pupils
understand as clearly as possible the meaning, and realize and
appreciate, as far as they are able, the feeling of the passage. It
should be treated first as an ordinary literature lesson, after the
manner already described. It should then be read aloud several times by
individual pupils, all trying meanwhile to commit it to memory by
concentration of attention on the ideas and their relations, the words
and their meanings. The principles of all habit formation apply
here--attention to the thing to be learned, so as to get a clear
understanding of it, and then repetition with attention. When it has
been read several times, individual pupils should be asked to recite it
without any aid. It will be found more satisfactory to memorize a
complete stanza at a time, or at least a part that expresses a complete
thought, rather than to commit to memory a line at a time. With young
pupils, however, it is well to take small units and let the children
repeat one or two lines at a time till they can give the whole stanza
with ease and accuracy.

It is important that all repetition should be individual, not
simultaneous. Where the latter method is in use, it is noticeable that
pupils adopt a uniform tone and measured rhythm, both of which are
undesirable. Moreover, especially with young pupils, there is a danger
that absurd blunders made by individuals may pass unnoticed, because the
teacher has not the opportunity of detecting them. When the passage has
been memorized, it should be repeated daily for a time and then repeated
at longer intervals, until there is little probability of its being



The teacher must make himself thoroughly acquainted with the lesson that
he has to teach. When it is an extract, he should be familiar with the
longer work from which it is taken. He cannot teach the lesson "Maggie
Tulliver" with the highest appreciation if he has not read _The Mill on
the Floss_. But there is more than mere information required for
successful teaching. In poetry the teacher should feel delight in the
music, the expression, the emotion, till he is eager to communicate his
feelings to the pupils. This enthusiasm, however, should not have in it
any insincerity, or extravagant commendation of the poem or the author.
The teacher who has wide information and genuine interest in his work
will seldom fail to arouse a real pleasure in the literature lesson.

The relationship between the teacher and the pupils must be cordial if
the lesson is to be successful. This is true in any subject, but the
sympathetic bond must be especially strong in the literature lesson.


It has already been pointed out that it is frequently necessary to give
preliminary lessons in nature study, science, history, or geography
before the lesson in literature is presented. The pupil must have the
right information before the literature lesson can arouse the emotion
that the author wishes him to feel.

Not only is the possession of the right information necessary, but the
pupil should be in the right mood for the lesson. A class that has just
returned to the room after the games at recess is not in the proper
state of mind to appreciate, at once, the recitation by the teacher of,

        Break, break, break,
        On thy cold gray stones, O sea!

Even the enthusiasm and scholarship of the teacher will fail to be
effective under these circumstances. He should arouse in the pupils the
proper mental and emotional state by a very short talk on friendship. He
can refer to the well-known stories of David and Jonathan, or Damon and
Pythias, and tell them of the friendship existing between Arthur Hallam
and Alfred Tennyson.

Before studying _Lead, Kindly Light_ (p. 315, Third Reader) the teacher
might ask the pupils to picture a solitary traveller in the desert far
from home. Night is approaching; the darkness gathers, and the air grows
chill. What would be the nature of his feelings? Away in the distance he
discovers a faint light glimmering as from a lantern. Now, how would he
feel? Continue till the pupils can see each part of the picture, the
spiritual significance of which they are to learn through the poem.

To give an extended account of the author's life is a poor introduction,
unless there is something of unusual interest about his personality or
achievements. The pupils usually do not know anything about him, and the
teacher's aim, in this preparatory work, is to relate the thought and
feeling of the poem to the properly assimilated knowledge and experience
of the pupils. In some cases, they may have made a favourable
acquaintance with the author in another poem, and this may give the
necessary stimulus to their interest in his life. The best time,
however, to give a biography of an author, when that is helpful, is
after the lesson has been studied, for then the pupils will appreciate
what the teacher has to say about him personally.

In some poems, the circumstances under which they are written will be
the only introduction necessary, as in the case of _Break, break, break_
or _The Recessional_.

There is often an appropriate time for the teaching of a literature
lesson. Sometimes it is the season of the year. The lesson on _An Apple
Orchard in the Spring_ should come when the blossoms are stimulating
every bird and child with their loveliness, fragrance, and promise. _The
First Ploughing_ and the various poems on birds and flowers should come
at this season. They can be followed, in turn, by _A Midsummer Song_ and
_The Maple_. There are poems in the Readers for September, November,
Indian Summer, and Winter; and a wealth of material for the Christmas
season. Yet the season may not always determine the time for such
lessons. The pupil who has observed again and again an apple orchard in
the spring, and who knows birds and trees, has a store of memories that
will enable him to picture vividly what he reads about these at any

It may be objected that these methods of introduction make the pupil
depend too much on the teacher, and do not throw him sufficiently on his
own resources. It is to be remembered, however, that the great object of
teaching literature is to cultivate a taste for it. When the pupil
approaches a selection with ideas and feelings which are already, in his
consciousness, related to those presented in the poem, he is in the best
possible mental attitude to appreciate it, and the probability of his
liking it is much greater than if it were presented without any such
introduction. The pupil's first impressions of a poem are all-important,
and it is essential that his first introduction to it should be made
under the most favourable circumstances. If his first acquaintance with
poetry is made under pleasant conditions, he will inevitably develop a
taste for poetical literature, and that is the object which the teacher
has in view. When this taste has been formed, it will not be necessary
that the teacher should be at hand in order to recall the proper
experiences for the interpretation of a passage. The pupil will read
appreciatively on his own account, without any such assistance.

In all cases, the preparation of the pupils for the lesson must be
short. Nothing more should be given than will suffice to bring them into
a suitable mood; usually some simple experience of their lives is ample.
The time for the lesson is always limited, and the proportion between
the introduction and the main theme must always be maintained.


The next step in the development of the lesson is the presentation. How
shall this be done? There are three ways: The teacher may ask the pupils
to read the lesson silently at their seats or at home and come prepared
to participate in the discussion; or he may ask some of them to read the
lesson aloud; or he, himself, may read it to the pupils. The merits of
each of these methods will be considered.

In prose, it is advisable to let the pupils read the selection before
the lesson is taken up by the teacher. The pupils must have practice in
getting the thought from the symbols on the printed page and in grasping
the general trend of the story, the description, or the argument. The
work will be mainly intellectual, but the pupils may also, at this
stage, have practice in discovering the emotional elements in some of
the prose extracts.

In the higher Forms, the teacher may occasionally allow some of his best
readers to read a poem aloud, where the emotion is evident or the
narrative plain. _The Barefoot Boy_, p. 118, Fourth Reader; _The Homes
of England_, p. 375; and _Bernardo del Carpio_, p. 131, are examples of
this kind.

It is usually a better plan for the teacher to read the poem to the
pupils. With many poems of exquisite music and imagery, such as _The
Bugle Song_, p. 337, Third Reader, the reading by a pupil who has not
yet caught the meaning and spirit will be a failure, and the teacher
will see that the mood that he has prepared with care at the opening is
so certain to be dissipated that he must intervene in order to prevent
the spoiling of the lesson. But the teacher who has studied the poem and
whose feelings have been deeply stirred by its music and pictures can,
through his reading, communicate to his pupils his own appreciation; and
it will be a dull pupil who does not feel the contagion. It is, however,
not well to insist on too great uniformity in method; the spirit rather
than the form is vital.


1. To the reader himself. Poetical literature is akin to music. Poetry
was originally sung by the minstrel, and the thought and feeling were
communicated to the audience solely by the ear. The study of poetry by
the eye is artificial, modern, and contrary to our hereditary instincts.
We should not argue that the best way to appreciate music is found in
following the symbols on the music sheet. It is only the highly educated
musician who can imagine the delights of music by an examination of the
written text. To some degree, it is the same with poetry. The music of
the words and the appropriateness of the rhythm cannot be fully
perceived by merely silent reading. The eye alone would never detect the
exquisite music of such a poem as _Hide and Seek_, Third Reader, p. 50,
or _Break, break, break_, p. 201. Nor could it perceive the suitability
of the rhythm to the theme, as exhibited in _How They Brought the Good
News from Ghent to Aix_, Fourth Reader, p. 351. In this poem, we can
hear in the rhythm the hoof beats of the horses as they gallop along.
How often have we felt a new meaning and appropriateness that our voice
alone has suggested!

2. To the listeners. The contagious nature of emotion has already been
pointed out. The good reader, by his sympathetic and expressive
rendering of the poem, may reveal to his listeners depths of feeling,
the existence of which they had not before suspected. We have often been
thrilled by a new emotion, upon hearing a familiar passage read by

Every teacher should be a good reader. His tone of voice, his movement,
his gestures are the signs by which the pupils interpret his emotional
attitude. If he is not already a good reader, he should bend all his
energies to become one. Persevering practice, attention to mechanical
features, such as distinct articulation, pausing, flexibility of voice,
and, above all, a sympathetic appreciation of the author's thought and
feeling, will soon convert a poor reader into a good one. He will soon
find that his voice will accommodate itself insensibly in pitch, tone,
and movement to the changing emotions of the poem. The delight of the
lesson will be greatly enhanced where the reader lends to the rhyme of
the poet the music of his voice.

The reading reveals the general thought of the poem. In simpler poems,
the pupils will recognize in the reading the relationship and the intent
of many of the subordinate parts. But the intellectual side is only
secondary. Literature, in its finer forms, is not primarily an
intellectual subject, such as grammar or mathematics. The emotional
tone, the spiritual meaning, and the artistic form--these are the main
elements, and these can be best developed by good reading. The teacher
should acquire the habit of reading poetry aloud in his home, and should
induce his pupils to follow his example. Further, as two senses will
give a more vivid realization of thought than one, the pupil, in the
class, should follow with his eye the reading of the teacher; and it is
helpful for a church congregation to follow with the eye the reading of
the scripture lesson by the minister.


The teacher should next assist the pupils to discover the main thought
of the lesson. In many cases the meaning will be very vague, and the
pupils will have difficulty in formulating a terse and comprehensive
statement of the subject of the poem. If the question is asked in a
stereotyped form, such as "What is the main thought of the poem?" the
enthusiasm of the pupils is often chilled. The teacher may, if it is a
narrative poem, ask for the main points in the story, and may assist the
pupils by calling attention to some pertinent passage, or by removing
difficulties by means of questions or explanations. In all cases, it is
well to accept a partially correct answer by the pupils, and to try to
improve its imperfection by questioning, until a fairly complete and
substantial statement has been given. Every answer which contains even a
fragment of sound thought should receive due recognition. In some cases
it is sufficient, at the outset, to take an imperfect statement of the
main thought, since the study of the poem will reveal its defects. The
teacher must keep before his pupils this statement, so that at the
conclusion of the lesson they will be quite ready to replace it by a
more accurate one. The teacher should be careful that the emotions
aroused by the poem are not unduly weakened or dissipated by the
analysis of its intellectual content. Many lessons by young teachers
fail just at this point, by reason of questioning unskilfully or by
rejecting answers that do not correspond to their own cut-and-dried

The teacher should follow a similar method in discovering the leading
thought of the subdivisions of the poem. These often correspond to the
stanza forms, but the lesson may become very wearisome by insisting on
too great detail. The poem often falls into two or three main divisions,
into which the various stanzas may be grouped. With Senior Forms it is a
good exercise to ask the pupils to make this grouping, but, with those
not so advanced, the teacher himself may make it and ask the pupils for
the central thought in each group. In the teacher's anxiety to have
these subjects clearly stated, he runs the risk of wasting time and,
worse than that, of killing whatever interest the pupils may have had up
to this point. If the pupils could give these subjects with perfect
clearness now, there would be little else to do. The greatest care must
be exercised to prevent the work becoming mechanical, thus destroying
the interest and making the selection distasteful.

With some pupils, the logical sense is quite strong, and they find their
greatest delight in seeing the purpose of each part in a complex
mechanism. With others, this work does not afford much pleasure. These
are children who, later, can take delight in the flimsy plot of a
musical comedy. Such pupils should be encouraged to do their best to
discover some points of beauty or skill in the arrangement of the
selection. In different lessons there is a difference in construction.
In some, the logical connection and development is so important that
this quality must be stressed, but the works of some authors have merits
which throw the arrangement into a very subordinate position; for
example, "Ring out, Wild Bells", from _In Memoriam_.


The next stage in the analysis is the examination of the passage
minutely. There is always a place in the lesson for the study of words
and phrases. The teacher should ask questions on these, in order to
ascertain if the pupils have felt their force and vitality. They are to
be taken up only to illuminate and impress the main thoughts and
emotions of the poem.

In some cases, as in prose lessons, the pupils may acquire the
dictionary habit. This develops and cultivates a studious disposition
and accuracy of statement. But in poetry there are many subtle meanings
that the dictionary will not give, but which the pupil has learned
through contact with educated people and acquaintance with books. Most
of the words that people use have not been learned from the dictionary,
but from their context in reading or conversation.

On the other hand, many lessons are spoiled by too constant inquiry into
meanings. There is much mere learning of meanings without reference to
the thought or emotion that they are intended to explain. Many words are
explained that are already understood. The fault may be due to the
teacher's experience with annotated text-books of literature. The
teacher, who has been prepared for his examination by this method, is
disposed to carry it into Elementary School work, till even _The
Recessional_ becomes merely a theme for learning verbal meanings.


There are many references in the text-books to geographical, scientific,
and historical matters. If these allusions. In poems such as _The
Armada_ there must be a preliminary lesson such as has been indicated.
Very often the enthusiast in these subjects will make literature a mere
peg on which to hang much information. Teachers often make long
digressions in connection with these allusions, till the mood of the
poem is completely lost in the mist of the disquisitions. The same
method should be adopted in teaching allusions as in teaching the
meanings of words. Only such explanation is necessary as will show the
purpose of the author in introducing the allusions. In poems such as
_The Armada_ there must be considerable explanation given, before the
pupils will feel the emotion that the author hopes to kindle by the
mention of the names that are used in it. With Canadian children, the
effect in the case of this poem cannot be so great as with English
children, who are more familiar with the special geographical and
historical associations.

The teacher of young people cannot hope, by explanation of the
allusions, to arouse all the pleasure and the vitality of emotion that
will be induced in the reader who has the culture that comes of wide
reading; nor can the teacher communicate this emotion when the
information is new. The pleasure comes, later on, from the recall of
information that was assimilated in earlier years.


The language of poetry is generally concrete. The artist may wish to
give expression to a general truth, or philosophical principle, or
ethereal fancy. These appear very abstract, but the artist embodies in
material forms the idea he wishes to convey. The poet expresses his
thought by the suggestion of material imagery, and emotion is most
readily aroused by these images.

Antony, in his funeral oration after Cæsar's death, knew how to arouse
his audience to fury by showing them Cæsar's wounds and holding before
them Cæsar's mantle with its rents. Not always can the real object be
produced for these emotional effects, but the teacher can sometimes
bring into the class-room, for the benefit of young pupils, concrete
material such as pictures and work in manual training. He can also call
attention, at times, to the falling snow or the colour of the leaves or
the sky, by asking the pupils to look out of the class-room windows. But
in most cases, he has to be content with trying to recall the memory of
these natural things. This shows how valuable has been the excursion of
the boy into the country, and his experience on holidays by the river
and in the harvest field. The nature study lesson furnishes the material
for future enjoyment of poetry.

The pupils in our schools are very capable in realizing visual imagery.
They can see the visual image very readily with its colour, form, and
movement. They can arrange the objects in the picture with foreground,
background, light, and shade.

But it is quite a different matter when they try to realize auditory
imagery. In the poem _Waterloo_, Fourth Reader, p. 311, they can see the
picture in "bright the lamps shone o'er fair women and brave men". They
see the large ball-room with its glass chandeliers, the costumes of
handsome ladies, the scarlet uniforms and the decorations of the
officers and the nobility. But can they realize the next imagery, that
of sound, "and when music arose with its voluptuous swell"? Do they hear
the squeaking of one or two fiddles or do they hear the voluminous sound
of regimental bands? Do they notice the varying metre from the stately
iambic to the sudden "voluptuous swell" of the foot of three syllables
in waltz time?

These images of sight and sound picture the gaiety and magnificence of
this festive scene, in order to make more marked the contrast with the
fear and pathos of the farewells. This contrast is enforced by the two
auditory images:

        And all went merry as a marriage bell;
        But hush! hark! a deep sound strikes like a rising knell!

Can your pupils image the wedding-bells chiming from the cathedral some
afternoon in June, when suddenly the ear catches the sound of a
death-bell tolling from another church? Any reader who cannot realize
the sounds of those two bells with their discordant effects will miss
the intention of Byron.

The pupils, through the stimulation of their senses, must have
experienced the luxurious effects of orchards, flower gardens, and
clover fields; the odours of apple blossoms and the smell and taste of
the "full-juiced apple waxing over-mellow"; the perfumes and
temperatures of spring, midsummer, and winter if they are to read nature
literature intelligently and feel its charm. The words must have meaning
if they are to awaken the feeling that was part of the original


In literature, as in other arts, there is a great deal that is merely
decorative. It is not the purpose here to disparage this form of art. "A
thing of beauty is a joy for ever. Its loveliness increases." Some of
the most famous portraits and landscapes in the picture galleries afford
infinite pleasure to the student of art by the technique in colour,
drawing, and arrangement. They are greater than photography. "The light
that never was on sea or land, the consecration and the poet's dream"
have given them a beauty that is greater than the realism of the actual
person or natural scene. It is the same in literature. The author's
feelings, his language, the rhythm of his words, and his delicate fancy
afford the reader greater delight than he has ever known when he has met
similar persons, scenes, or actions in real life. This is genuine
æsthetic pleasure, similar to the pleasure that people derive from
china, music, or landscape gardening.

There is, however, a higher form of art in both pictures and literature.
There are pictures that suggest some noble aspiration, some great
universal truth, some great conflict between duty and interest. We feel
instinctively that these are greater than pictures possessing mere
masterly technique. It is the same in literature. There are poems in
which we feel that the thoughts and feelings are sublime. Perhaps the
technique of these is not equal to that of the poetry described in the
preceding paragraph, but the experienced teacher has felt his pupils
lifted above mundane affairs, when they begin to grasp the true
significance of such poems. The youngest pupils show their appreciation
by wide open eyes, when these are read. They instinctively feel that
this work is better than the merely pretty and dainty things in poetry.

In the _Ontario Readers_ we have numerous poems of this nature. In the
First Reader, the pupils instinctively feel that _Piping Down the
Valleys Wild_ is of different calibre from _Three Little Kittens_. _The
Lord is my Shepherd_, _Lead, Kindly Light_, and _To a Waterfowl_, are
examples of this class.

In teaching these lessons, the spiritual meaning should be constantly

The mere statement of the thought is not impressive. It is the
presentation of it in poetical form that makes its effect impressive and
lasting. The pupils may be led to discover how the author has
accomplished this by means of the concrete embodiment of imagery,
language, metaphor, and music.


The lesson is often dropped just at this time, leaving an impression
somewhat like that of a science room, with the petals and leaves on the
desks and the floor, after the class in botany has been dismissed. No
act of analysis is complete without a final synthesis. The examination
of the various phases of the whole must be followed by a reconstruction
in which are perceived the relations of the various phases to each other
and to the unity of the whole. These various parts must be closely
related to one another if the final conception of the poem is to be
definite. When the analysis is in progress, the teacher should not, of
course, take each part by itself and examine it as if it were an
isolated thing, but its relation to what has gone before should be more
or less clearly perceived. When the analysis is complete, there should
be a final synthesis in which the relations of the various parts stand
out definitely. This can be done by means of a statement of the main
thought in concise but comprehensive terms. If the teacher has accepted
an imperfect statement at the beginning, the pupils will now be in a
position to discover its inadequacy and supply the part that is lacking.
Then the subjects of the various subdivisions or stanzas can be restated
in suitable terms that will show the proper relationships. This
reconstruction may also take the form of oral or written reproduction of
the selection. This is especially valuable after the prose lessons.
There should follow an oral reading of the passage by the pupils, which
will serve to show the teacher how much of the feeling of the poem has
been absorbed, how clearly the pupils have understood the meaning, and
what misconceptions have arisen in their minds.


There are some mistakes in teaching literature that are noted here, in
order that they may be avoided:

1. Teaching pupils about literature, instead of teaching literature
itself; for example, teaching biography, etymology, history, geography,
or science in the literature lesson, because some feature of one or more
of these may be suggested by the language of the lesson. A knowledge of
such subjects is merely preparatory to the study of literature itself.

2. Teaching merely the meanings of words and phrases, and omitting the
greater things of imagery, thought, beauty of language, and the spirit
of the writer.

3. Trying to force appreciation by telling the pupils they must learn to
like such and such works because educated people like them. It is
useless, at this time, to try to develop the critical spirit, as the
pupil has not a sufficiently wide acquaintance with literary works on
which to form a judgment.

4. Doing for the pupil what he should be led to do for himself. A
literature lesson, in which the teacher has been doing all the talking,
or both asking and answering questions, will be barren of good results.

5. Paraphrasing. Short passages may be paraphrased, in order to show
whether the pupil has understood the force and vitality of the metaphor
or the condensed expression. But paraphrasing must be used with great
discretion. The teacher will not make the pupils appreciate the beauty
of a fine literary selection by converting refined gold into low grade

6. Attempting to draw some moral from every lesson. Not all lessons are
didactic. If the pupils have sympathized with what is noble and just in
the story, the statement of a moral at the conclusion is unnecessary.
Yet in poems that are plainly didactic, for example, _To a Waterfowl_,
Fourth Reader, p. 377, the moral lesson must occupy the first place.
There the teacher should show how the author has enforced the lesson of
_confidence in God's guidance_ by the incident of the migrating
waterfowl, the imagery, the music, the arrangement of parts, and the
similarity of his own position to that of the bird.

7. Dwelling unnecessarily on the intellectual side of a poem that is
mainly emotional and musical; for example, _The Bugle Song_, Third
Reader, p. 337, and _The Solitary Reaper_, Fourth Reader, p. 261. In the
former case, the pupils should be led to realize the visual imagery,
should hear, in imagination, the bugle calls and fading echoes, and
enjoy the rare and appropriate music. In the second case, the teacher
should call attention to the artistic suggestions of loneliness,
distance, antiquity, sadness, and vagueness that are suggested by "old,
unhappy, far-off things, and battles long ago", and by such possible
situations of English travellers in remote parts of the world, and
should show that these elements are suitable for the circumstances under
which the poet sees the girl. He who questions merely to find out the
meaning of the poem, the relation to that of its subordinate parts, and
the meaning of the words and phrases, is using a very heavy tool on a
very delicate mechanism. Such works must be treated deftly and lightly.


The class of literature that we have described in the preceding methods
is condensed literature, where thought is large in proportion to the
number of the words. It must be read by a process of close thinking, in
an analytic, exhaustive manner. There must be a clear comprehension of
the central ideas, and a strong grasp of minor thoughts or details, and
the relation of these to the central ideas. While this power to grasp
thought intensively is very valuable, we should also have the power to
grasp the thought rapidly and comprehensively.

In some works, the thought is not so condensed and confined. Here, the
main effort of the reader is to grasp the thoughts successively in a
rapid, clear, and comprehensive manner. He must be able to read a book
chapter by chapter and grasp the central ideas, to hold paragraph after
paragraph, chapter after chapter, in his consciousness, so that each
gives added illumination to the main thought and, at the end, the whole
of the work stands out in its entirety. He must learn to grasp the
central thought in each section as he proceeds--to sift the wheat from
the chaff. The minor details have been of value in giving him the main
thought, but the real ability of the good reader consists in dropping
these minor details from the mind and holding steadily on to the more
important facts.

This method gives a greater power of sustained attention and a wider
acquaintance with good literature. Most of our reading is done in this
way. It would be impossible otherwise to get a wide range, as time does
not permit of minute analysis, and many of our longer works are so
diffuse that they would not repay such careful study.

The supplementary, or extensive, reading may be given as seat work or
home work. As seat work, it can come as a grateful relief from the
arduous tasks in the ungraded school and will keep many an active mind
from getting into mischief. By questioning about the main facts the
teacher can assure himself that the work has actually been done. This
questioning should not be used only to catch the negligent; it should
give pleasure to the pupils as a conversation with them about their
pleasant occupation. It should be done very informally, often as two
intelligent people would discuss a book. The questions should be broad
in their scope and should not dwell on matters of detail. If it is a
story that is to be considered, it should be examined as follows:
Discover what are the difficulties set up; how they are brought about;
how they are overcome; how many threads of interest there are; why
certain characters are introduced; what would be the effect if certain
parts were omitted; to what extent the final solution is logical.

When the examination is finished, a series of compositions might be
written on topics connected with the story. For instance, if _Rip Van
Winkle_ has been studied, a series of three compositions might be
assigned: (1) Rip's domestic life; (2) his adventure in the mountain;
(3) his return to the village. Three compositions would be better than a
single one on the whole story, because too great condensation usually
detracts from the value, and because the excellence of a school
composition is usually in inverse proportion to its length.

It is exceedingly important that the teacher should see that these
written exercises are not made distasteful to the pupil. They are very
valuable if they are not considered irksome. The object is not so much
to give skill in composition as to create a taste for wide and excellent
reading. It would be better to allow this written reproduction to drop
rather than to associate the pleasures of literature with something



In the lessons that follow, the answers given to questions are those
which pupils may be expected to give after corrections and additions
have been made by themselves and the teacher.

Professor Alexander has said:

        It is impossible to exemplify on paper actual
        teaching. Actual teaching, as all other
        practical matters, is in large measure
        determined by circumstances and conditions
        which are never twice the same. A large part of
        a teacher's skill lies in the sympathetic
        perception of these conditions and in the power
        of adapting himself to them on the spur of the
        moment. The teacher should have a definite aim
        in view, and a general conception of the proper
        method to be followed; but these will be
        modified by the character of the pupils before
        him, of the answers given, of the manifestation
        of interest, and the comprehension of the
        various points brought forward. A question
        quite proper in one case will be quite out of
        place in another. What knowledge should be
        imparted by the instructor, what elicited from
        the pupils themselves, what matters dwelt upon,
        what lightly passed over--these things can only
        be determined by the actual circumstances.



(Primer, page 75)

Little Miss Muffet sits on a low chair eating from an imaginary dish.
The spider comes creeping softly behind her. When he reaches her side,
he sits quietly down. Then she sees him and, in a great fright, jumps up
and runs away.



(Primer, page 68)

The senior division of the primary class had read the story of Little
Boy Blue. Norman asked: "May we play it? May I be Little Boy Blue?"

Allan said: "I'd like to be the farmer".

Dorothy wished to be the farmer's wife.

Clara asked if the pupils of the highest class might be the cows and the

As Norman was enthusiastic and eager to express himself, he was
permitted to direct the movements of the different characters.

The farmer selected a horse and prepared to take him to market, while
Little Boy Blue could be seen tramping along the road (the front part of
the room). The cows and sheep were grazing quietly near by.

As Little Boy Blue approached the farmer, he removed his cap and said:
"Good morning, sir, do you want a boy?"

_Farmer_: "Yes, I want one to watch the cows and the sheep."

_Little Boy Blue_: "I can do that, sir."

_Farmer_ (handing Little Boy Blue a toy horn that had been brought to
school for use during a drawing lesson): "Here is a horn, then. If they
try to go away, blow this, and they will come back."

_Little Boy Blue_: "I will, sir."

The farmer drove away, and Little Boy Blue watched the cows and the
sheep. Once they were about to wander away (among the aisles), but
Little Boy Blue blew the horn, and they immediately returned. He soon
grew tired of watching them; they seemed to be content to graze quietly
where they were. He leaned against a haystack (a chair) and fell asleep.
The cows were soon in the corn and the sheep in the meadow, where the
farmer saw them as he was driving home. But he could not see Little Boy
Blue. He called:

        Little Boy Blue,
          Come blow your horn,
        The sheep are in the meadow,
          The cows are in the corn.

_Farmer_: "Wife, where is Little Boy Blue?"

_Wife_: "He is under the haystack, fast asleep."

_Farmer_ (going to haystack):

        Little Boy Blue,
        Come blow your horn.

The boy jumped up, blew a blast on the horn, and the sheep and cows
immediately came back.

_Little Boy Blue_: "It was my fault and I'm sorry."

_Farmer_: "All right, you'll take better care of them next time."


(Primer, page 48)

When the teacher suggests that a game be played, many pupils fairly
project themselves backward in an effort to look so well that they may
be chosen to take part in it.

The teacher wrote "Dorothy" on the black-board. Dorothy whispered that
she would like to play the story of Henny Penny. (The adventures of
Henny Penny had been recounted the day before.) The teacher wrote the
story of Henny Penny. As Dorothy had sufficient self-confidence and a
good memory, she was allowed to choose her part, which was certain to be
that of the principal character. Had she not possessed these qualities,
she would have been assigned a minor part during the first attempt at
dramatizing this story. The teacher wrote "Rooster Pooster" on the
black-board. "I should like to be Rooster Pooster", said Albert. "Turkey
Lurkey", wrote the teacher. "I'd like to be Turkey Lurkey", said
another. In this or some similar way, the parts were assigned.

As the play began, Henny Penny was discovered pecking at imaginary worms
in the garden; suddenly she jumped up in a great fright. "Oh, the sky is
falling!" she said, "I must run and tell the king". She ran down the
road (an aisle) till she met Rooster Pooster.

When he saw her coming, he stopped crowing and asked, "Where are you
going, Henny Penny?" "Oh", she said, "the sky is falling, and I am going
to tell the king". "I will go too", said Rooster Pooster. They ran down
the road till they met Turkey Lurkey gobbling contentedly. The usual
formula was repeated, and Turkey Lurkey ran on with them.

But the fox (villain) was waiting around the corner. "Where are you
going, Henny Penny, Rooster Pooster, and Turkey Lurkey?" said he. "Oh,
Fox Lox", they said, "the sky is falling and we are going to tell the
king". "I will show you the way." "Oh, no, Fox Lox, we know you. We will
not go with you."

So they ran and ran, but had to return home because they did not find
the king's house.


(Primer, page 52)

The pupils knew by the pictures on page 52 that the lesson would be a
delightful one, but when they attempted to read it, they found
difficulties that lessened their pleasure somewhat.

They enjoyed reading "I wish I could find a little fat fly", but "sad
little sigh" and "an odd little shrug" were very difficult to say and
were meaningless until the children imitated the teacher's "sad little
sighs" and "odd little shrugs".

The pupils were then asked which little chicken they would like to be.
The first pupil to respond was chosen. He went to the front of the room,
which was then a garden, and with a much bigger sigh than was necessary,
complained: "I wish I could find a little fat fly".

The other pupils then eagerly studied the page, that they might learn
what the next little chicken said and did. The teacher was always ready
to tell them any words they could not discover for themselves. One pupil
could make a shrug but could not remember the second little chicken's
words, so another was found who could say what the second little chicken
said in just the way he would say it if he could talk. The other little
chickens and the mother hen were chosen in a similar manner.

The mother hen could be seen busily scratching at one end of the garden,
while her little chickens were walking aimlessly about.

_First Chicken_ (after sighing):

"I wish I could find a little fat fly."

_Second Chicken_ (with a shrug):

"I wish I could find a fat little bug."

_Third Chicken_ (with a squeaky voice):

"I wish I could feel some corn in my beak."

_Fourth Chicken_ (sighing):

"I wish I could find a fat worm on a leaf."

_Mother Hen_ (impatiently):

"See here, if you want things to eat, just come here and scratch."


        Rock-a-bye, my little owlet,
        In the mossy, swaying nest,
        With thy little woodland brothers,
        Close thine eyes and take thy rest.

        Hush-a-bye, my little owlet,
        Many voices sing to thee;
        "Hush-a-bye," the water whispers,
        "Hush!" replies the tall pine tree.

There had been language lessons on the habits of the Indians; their way
of living had been worked out, as far as possible, on the sand-table,
and pictures representing Indian life had been shown. The pupils had
eagerly constructed an Indian home--"Dark behind it rose the forest"
(twigs from the pine and other evergreen trees), "Bright before it beat
the water".

The lessons in drawing, painting, end modelling had been connected with
this work. From their boxes of coloured crayons, the pupils had selected
the colours used in making the pine trees, the grass, the bark of the
trees, the owl in the tree, the wigwams, etc.

From the many beautiful Indian lullabies that would have been suitable,
the teacher selected the _Indian Lullaby_ by Longfellow. During the
periods set apart for music, the pupils had been taught the desired
melody with the syllable "loo".

        _Teacher._ "How does your mother put baby to

        _Pupils._ "My mother rocks the baby in her
        arms." "Mine puts him on the bed and he falls
        asleep." "We rock our baby in a cradle," etc.

        _Teacher._ "The picture I give you will show
        you what the Indian mother does with her baby."

Each pupil was given a small picture showing an Indian baby in his
cradle suspended from a tree. These pictures had been cut from a
supplement to _Primary Education_.

        _Teacher._ "What has the mother done?"

        _Pupils._ "She has put her baby in a basket and
        hung it on a tree."

        _Teacher._ "Is the baby in the picture awake or

        _Pupils._ "He is asleep."

        _Teacher._ "What could the baby see before he
        went to sleep?"

Here a picture--fourteen by twenty inches--was shown. It was a good
representation of an Indian home and its surroundings. The pupils had
made use of this picture when working at the sand-table.

        _Pupils._ "He could see the pine trees, the
        water, the wigwams, the canoes, the Indians,"

        _Teacher._ "What could the baby hear while
        swinging in his cradle?"

        _Pupils._ "He could hear the Indians talking.
        He could hear the wind among the trees; the
        water; the birds singing in the woods; the cry
        of an owl; perhaps wolves, bears," etc.

        _Teacher._ "What other babies lived in the

        _Pupils._ "Birds, squirrels, owls, wolves,"

        _Teacher._ "A man once wrote what he thought an
        Indian mother might have sung to her baby. This
        is what he thought she would sing." (The
        teacher recited the _Indian Lullaby_.)

Individual pupils then repeated one stanza at a time with the assistance
of the teacher.

The pupils sang softly the melody they had learned to "loo"; then all
tried to sing the words with the teacher. The purpose was to emphasize
the rhythm and interpret the spirit of the poem. The lesson occupied
twelve to fifteen minutes. At another time, hectographed copies of the
poem were given to the pupils, and as they had already partly memorized
it, they soon learned to read it.




(First Reader, page 49)

It is the aim of this lesson to help the pupils to appreciate
imaginative descriptions of some natural phenomena. This lesson will be
best appreciated if taken some day in autumn when the leaves are
falling. If the pupils have recently noticed the wind rushing through
the trees, scattering the many-coloured leaves and driving them before
it along the ground, they will be in the best mood to enter into the
spirit of the poem.

        What is the time of the year that the poem
        speaks about? The autumn.

        Select all the things that tell you this. The
        leaves have "dresses of red and gold"; "summer
        is gone"; "the days grow cold"; the leaves come
        "fluttering" down; the "fields" are "brown".

        What did the wind mean by "Come o'er the
        meadows with me, and play"? It meant that they
        should come down from the trees and be blown
        away by the wind across the fields.

        What does it mean by "Put on your dresses of
        red and gold"? Before they fall, the leaves
        have many beautiful colours.

        What was the colour of their dresses in summer?
        When do they begin to change colour very

        What leaves show the most beautiful colours?
        What different colours have you noticed that
        leaves have?

        When does the wind call? When it blows loudly
        or whistles.

        Do you know what the wind says when it calls?
        Why not? We do not understand the language that
        it speaks.

        How did the leaves show that they understood?
        They obeyed at once and came down from the

        What is meant by "fluttering" down? They came
        down slowly, moving from side to side, and
        turning over and over as they fell. (This could
        be shown in the class-room quite easily.)

        Which line in the first stanza corresponds in
        meaning with the third line of the second? The
        second line.

        What makes the fields "brown"? It is the end of
        the summer, and the grass and the plants have
        dried up.

        What colours have the fields at other seasons
        of the year? Green in the spring, golden in the
        summer, white in the winter.

        What are "the soft little songs" of the leaves?
        The rustling sounds they make as they are blown
        about by the wind.

        Why do we not understand their songs? For the
        same reason that we do not understand the call
        of the wind--their language is not ours.

        "Winter had called them." What is the voice of
        winter? The cold winds that roar and whistle.

        What is meant by "content"? The leaves were
        quite glad to answer the call.

        Why were they content? The work that they had
        been doing all summer long was done; they were
        tired and sleepy and glad to go to bed.

        When may it be said that the leaves are "fast
        asleep"? When they lie quietly on the ground,
        no longer blown about by the wind.

        How were they kept warm during their long
        sleep? The snow came and covered them up
        warmly, like a "blanket".

        What does the whole lesson describe? The
        falling of the leaves.

        What does the first stanza speak of? The call
        of the wind.

        The second? The answer of the leaves.

        The third? The leaves asleep.

        Tell the story of the poem in your own words.


(First Reader, page 52)


To enable the pupils to appreciate the pretty pictures and the music,
and to learn how their pretty songs were written.


        In far-away countries there are many sheep, and
        they require shepherds. These shepherds, as
        they can rest while their sheep feed, sometimes
        amuse themselves by cutting oat straws and
        making them into little flutes. They cut holes
        in the straws, just as you see holes in flutes
        or in tin whistles. They learn to play very
        pretty tunes. David, king of Israel, was, in
        his youth, a shepherd boy, and he learned to
        play beautiful music while he watched his
        sheep. The Psalms that you find in the Bible
        were composed by him.


        Now let us read about a shepherd who was
        playing music. (The teacher reads the poem.)
        While he was playing, what did he see? He saw a
        little child sitting on a cloud.

        What was the child doing? He was laughing.

        Why? He liked the music.

        What kind of music was it? It was pleasant,
        full of joy.

        Where was the shepherd? In a valley.

        Tell what the valley was like. It was wild. It
        had big rocks and hills on each side, and a
        cloud was over the valley.

        What did the child ask him to do? To play "a
        song about a Lamb".

        Why did he do that? Because the sheep were
        pretty and he thought he should like to hear
        pretty music about them.

        How did the child like it? He asked the
        shepherd to play the tune again, and it was
        such beautiful music that the keen enjoyment of
        it made the tears come to his eyes.

        What did the child next ask? He wished to have
        the music put into words, so he asked the
        shepherd to "sing" it.

        How did the child enjoy it? It was so lovely
        that he "wept with joy".

        What did he ask the shepherd to do? To "write"
        it down.

        Why? The child thought it was so lovely that he
        wanted other children to hear it, too.

        Yes, that is the way that we come to have all
        these pretty poems in our books. If they were
        only played or sung, not so many children could
        have the opportunity of enjoying them.

        What do you need when you write? We need pens,
        and paper, and ink.

        The shepherd had not steel pens, and white
        paper, and black ink. He may have used the bark
        of trees to write on.

        How did he get a pen? He "plucked a hollow
        reed", and he "made a rural pen".

        What does that mean? He took a hollow stalk,
        such as an oat straw or a weed, and cut it in
        the form of a pen.

        What is a "rural pen"? "Rural" means belonging
        to the country. The pen was not made as ours
        are. The shepherd wrote about sheep and other
        things belonging to country life.

        How did he get any ink? He took "water" from
        the stream and "stained" it so that it would
        leave a mark something like our ink.

        Yes, the paper, the pen, and the ink would not
        be so good as at present, but they would serve
        as a beginning.


        1. Where was the musician?

        2. What kind of instrument was he playing?

        3. Where was the child?

        4. What was the child's second request?

        5. What was his third request?

        6. How was the shepherd able to write?

        7. Why did the child wish him to write?

        (The pupils may not understand "rural",
        "valley", "pipes", so the teacher should give
        such further explanation as the different cases


(First Reader, page 103)

The aim of this lesson is to teach, by means of a story, the moral of
trusting in God and trying to do one's best.

The teacher should introduce the lesson by inquiring of the pupils if
they have ever watched a young bird learning to fly. Its timidity and
the anxiety of the mother-bird should be especially emphasized. A brief
reference to the swallow might also be in place, though this is not
essential, as the poet has selected it merely as a type of birds in
general, and almost any other bird would answer his purpose as well. The
rapidity and grace of the swallow's flight, and its habit of
constructing its nest of mud under the eaves and in other sheltered
places about buildings, are the main points to be noted.

        What is the lesson about? About a baby swallow
        learning to fly.

        What do the first four stanzas tell us? His

        And the last three? The success of his effort.

        What do you see in the picture? A tower with a
        bell in it.

        What name is given here for tower? Turret
        ("Turret" means a little tower.)

        From its sound, what do you think "belfry"
        means? The place where the bell is.

        What, then, is a "belfry turret"? A tower where
        a bell is hung.

        On what part of the tower had the bird its
        nest? The front.

        What word does the poet use to express that?

        What has been beating against the tower for
        years? The wind, sun, rain, snow.

        What one word would stand for all these?

        Explain "weather-beaten".

        In perching on its nest, what does the baby
        swallow seem ready to do? To fly.

        What other words might the Mother-Bird use
        instead of "courage"? "Don't be afraid."

        How many wings are meant by "either wing"?

        In this stanza, what is the "Mother-Bird"
        doing? Giving the little bird instructions in
        the way to begin flying.

        Describe how he is to begin.

        How does the baby feel about it? He feels

        What word tells you this? "Pauses."

        What does he think is deep? The distance
        between the tower and the ground.

        Why is the bird afraid to attempt to fly? It is
        so far to the ground and his "wings" seem very

        Why is the "Mother" not afraid to let her baby
        try? She knows that God will carry him safely.

        How does she know this? Because "He" had
        "carried" her.

        When? When she was as small as the baby swallow
        is now.

        Why does the "Mother" tell him this? To
        encourage him to make the attempt.

        How does the baby swallow make his start? He
        "spreads out his wings" as far as he can and
        "springs" out.

        Which stanza has almost the same form as this?
        The second.

        What is he surprised to find? That he is able
        to fly.

        How does he feel after that about flying? He is
        no longer afraid.


        What is he able to do well? To steer.

        What does this mean? To fly in any direction he

        How does the "Mother" feel over her baby's
        success? She feels glad.

        To whom does she give thanks? To God.

        How does she do so? By singing a song of

        What can we learn from this story? That, if we
        really try to do a difficult thing, we can
        usually succeed; that sometimes a thing that
        looks hard is really very easy when we try to
        do it.

        Tell this story in your own words. Tell any
        similar story you know.


(First Reader, page 110)


        You stood on the bridge and looked at the
        stream. What did you see? I saw some little
        fishes. I saw my image. I saw some bright

        It is no wonder you looked at the stream when
        it shows you so many things. What were the
        fishes doing? They were swimming. They would
        dart after some crumbs that we dropped into the

        Why were the fishes there? That is their home.

        Yes, they like to live in the clear water. Mary
        says she saw her image. What have you at home
        that shows you your image? The mirror.

        Yes, the brook is somewhat like the mirror. Did
        you see images of any other things? Yes, I saw
        images of the trees, and some stones, and I saw
        the images of the ducks that were swimming.

        Willie says that he saw some pretty pebbles.
        Does the brook make any noise? Yes, it seems to
        sing when it runs over the pebbles, but in the
        deep places it does not make a noise.


        Now I shall read you a little poem about a
        brook. (Read with emphasis, even with slight
        exaggeration.) Now, where did this brook begin?
        In "a fountain".

        What is that? A spring of water.

        Where was the fountain? "In a mountain".

        What is that? A high hill.

        Was it very large where it started? No, the
        lesson says it was only "Drops of water" and it
        trickled "through the grasses".

        What does it mean by "Trickling through the
        grasses"? It means that there was so little of
        it that the blades of grass seemed almost to
        check its source.

        Did it run very fast at first? No, the lesson
        says that it "started" "Slow".

        Did it run any faster after that? Yes, "Soon it
        darted", and it was "Hurrying".

        What caused it to dart and hurry? The ground
        was steeper, and it had to run more quickly.

        Where was it running? Down "to the sea", where
        it would be lost in the other water.

        Did it grow any larger before it came to the
        sea? Yes, it grew "Swift and strong", and it
        widened "very fast".

        What caused it to widen? Other little brooks
        ran into it and made it wider.

        Now, the brook is said to be like a person. Can
        you point out any words that make you think it
        was like a person? Yes, it hurries just as
        children hurry.

        In the next stanza, the lesson says it was
        "Glad". Why was it glad? It was glad that the
        "Children" came to play on its banks.

        Yes, it felt just as you feel when your friends
        come over to your house to play. Do you see any
        other words that make you think it is like a
        person? Yes, it is "Swift and strong and
        happy". It rushes and it sings.

        What is it like now? It is like a big, strong,
        happy boy.

        Why did the children come to play on its banks?
        They came to pick the flowers.

        What line shows you that? "Blossoms floating."
        The children picked the flowers and threw some
        on the stream to watch the current carry them

        What else were the children doing? They were
        sailing toy boats in the water.

        What words show you that? "Mimic boating."

        What else did the children enjoy? They liked to
        see the "Fishes darting past" them. The fishes
        were timid.

        The brook makes some very pleasant sounds. What
        words show you that? "Rippling", "Bubbling",
        "singing", "ringing".

        When does the water make these sounds? When it
        is running "over pebbles" or down the steep

        You must fancy you hear the brook make its
        gentle music when it is running over the
        pebbles. What does the water look like when it
        ripples? It is not smooth; it has tiny waves
        upon it.

        You have heard the water bubble and gurgle, and
        then, when the stream grows large and runs
        faster, you can hear it "singing" and "ringing"
        in the distance. The poet tells us some pretty
        things about the brook. Tell me some of them.
        It was "Cool and clear and free".

        Why was it "Cool"? It had flowed among the
        grasses and had come from a spring in a

        Why was it "clear"? It was such pure water that
        you could see the stones at the bottom of the

        Why does the poet say it was "free"? There were
        no logs nor big stones to stop its course. It
        ran freely on its way.

        Do you see any other words that describe its
        appearance? It is "Flecked with shade and sun".

        Now "Flecked" is a hard word. It means
        _spotted_ or _striped_. Can you tell me what
        that means? Sometimes the brook is bright and
        shining and, in some places, it is shaded by
        the trees or by the clouds. You can see bright
        patches on the water.

        Now you have told me many wonderful things
        about this brook; where it began and where it
        ended, how it grew, how it sang, how glad it
        was to see the children, and how the children
        played with it, and how it looked. What does it
        tell us at first? It tells us where it began.

        In the next stanza? It runs a little faster.

        In the next? It was glad to see the children.

        In the next? The children were playing with it.

        In the next? It ran bubbling and singing into
        the sea.


        Now we shall learn the words of this pretty
        lesson, taking the first stanza to-day. Let us
        take the first three lines. Now all the lines.
        Let each one be ready to repeat it. See whether
        you can say the first stanza to-morrow, and
        then we shall learn some more.




(Second Reader, page 3)


The aim of the lesson is to make the poem so lifelike that it will seem
to each pupil as though the shadow and the words were his own.


After the poem has been read to give a general idea of the story, the
teacher should proceed with it in detail, much in the same spirit as he
would carry on a bright conversation with the pupils about something in
which they were all equally interested.

Stanza I

        How do I know my shadow is very fond of me? He
        "goes in and out with me".

        What does that mean? It means he goes wherever
        I go.

        What is "the use of him"? That "is more than I
        can see".

        What is he like? He is just "like me from the
        heels up to the head".

        What does he do when I go to bed? He jumps into
        bed "before me".


        Now, children, four of you may each recite one
        line. What have you, Susie? "I have a little
        shadow that goes in and out with me."

        What is the use of your shadow, John? "And what
        can be the use of him is more than I can see."

        What is he like, Mary? "He is very, very like
        me from the heels up to the head."

        When do you see him jump ahead of you? "And I
        see him jump before me, when I jump into my

NOTE.--Each pupil's expression should reveal an active imagination and
hearty response to the spirit of the selection. The whole should be very
lifelike and real. Some pupil should be asked to recite or read the
whole stanza.

Stanza II

        What is there funny about the shadow? "The
        funniest thing about him is the way he likes to

        How is that? "He sometimes shoots up" very tall
        all at once, and then he dwindles down to

        How would you expect him "to grow"? I would
        expect him "to grow" as I do.

        How is that? Oh, that is "very slow".

        The author says "like proper children". What
        does that mean? That means like real children.

        What shows that he sometimes grows up very,
        very quickly? The poet says he "shoots up".

        What other words tell the same thing? "Like an
        india-rubber ball."

        How is that? The ball goes up quickly with a
        bounce, and the shadow seems to spring up in
        the same way.


Let two or three children read the stanza. In the first line, the voice
should show how funny it all is; in the second, the demureness of the
"proper" child and the slowness of the growth should be revealed in the
reading; in the third and fourth lines, there should be an imitative
response to the sudden up-growth of the shadow and to the childish
surprise at his dwindling into nothing.

Memorization should be conducted as shown in Stanza I, above. There
should be no evidence of task or effort in the recitation; it is very
necessary that it be spontaneous and full of enjoyment for the pupils.

Stanza III

        The shadow knows very little about one thing.
        What is that? He has no "notion of how children
        ought to play".

        How does he "make a fool of me"? "In every sort
        of way."

        Well, give one way. He mimics me.

        Where does he stay? He stays right "close
        beside me".

        Why does he do that? He does that because "he's
        a coward".

        How would you feel about doing the same thing?
        I would feel ashamed of myself.

Reading and recitation of this stanza should now be conducted as
indicated in Stanzas I and II, above.

Stanza IV

        Did you ever manage to get away from your
        shadow? Yes, I did.

        Tell us about how you did it. Well, "One
        morning, very early", I got up "before the sun"
        did, and went out in the flower garden. I
        looked around for my shadow, and I found he
        "had stayed at home behind me" in bed.

        What is he called for doing that? He is called
        "an arrant sleepy-head".

        Give another word in place of "arrant" that
        will mean the same thing. He was a thorough and
        shameless "sleepy-head".

        What was the real cause of his staying behind?
        There was "none of him at all", because the sun
        was not up.

        What will happen when the sun does come up?
        Then my shadow will suddenly show himself

        Now, if you would like to have another stanza,
        telling about what happened when the sun came
        up, just try your best to write one.

Here is another that was written once at the end of the lesson:

        But when the dear old sun came up above the trees,
        My frisky little shadow came out into the breeze;
        I didn't see him coming, but, when I turned around,
        His head was at the window, and he lay along the ground.


(Second Reader, page 21)


To enable the pupils to understand the beauty and pathos of the

To arouse in them a sympathy for those who are weak.


        How many of you like to play games? Everybody.

        Name some of the games you play. Ball, tag,
        hide-and-seek, etc.

        With whom do you like to play? With boys and
        girls of our own age.


        Here is a story that tells about two people
        playing a game. (The selection is read aloud by
        the teacher.)

        What is the story about? An "old lady" and a
        little boy playing "Hide-and-Go-Seek".

        What relation were they? The old lady was the
        boy's "Grandma".

        Let us look at the story again, and see if they
        enjoyed their game as much as you do yours. Is
        there anything in the first stanza that tells
        us they were having a good time? "The way that
        they played together was beautiful to see."

        What was beautiful about it? They were so kind
        to each other. It was pleasant to see an old
        lady and a little boy having such a happy time
        playing together, and understanding each other
        so well.

        How do you feel, as you read the second stanza?
        I feel sorry for the boy because he is lame.

        Any other reason for feeling sorry for him? He
        is "thin", as though he had been sick a long

        In what way are he and his Grandma alike?
        Neither of them can run or jump.

        Do you feel more sorry for the Grandma or for
        the little boy? I feel more sorry for the boy,
        because he may never be able to run around, and
        his Grandma could when she was young.

        Describe the picture you see in the third
        stanza. I see an old lady and a little boy
        sitting "under the maple tree". The little boy
        has a pair of crutches beside him. The
        "sunlight" is shining through the leaves, and
        it is a warm summer's day, or they would not be
        sitting out. There is a house near them.

        What game were they playing?

        Would you know it from looking at them? No,
        because they are sitting still, and when we
        play the game, we run around and hide.

        How did they play it? They thought in turn of
        some place to hide and imagined they were
        hiding in it; they had three guesses to find
        out the place.

        Whose turn was it to hide? The old lady's,
        because the boy is guessing where she is.

        Where did he find her at last? In "Papa's big
        bed-room", in "the clothes-press".

        Is there anything else spoken about that was in
        the bed-room? There was a "little cupboard".

        Why does he mention the cupboard? He often
        thinks of it. He likes it.

        Why? His mother's "things used to be" in it.

        Why does he say "used to be"? That tells us
        that they are not there any longer.

        Why? I think his mother is dead.

        Who takes care of him now? His grandmother
        lives with him and looks after him.

        Why does the boy say "It can't be the little
        cupboard"? They both think too much of it to
        want to use it in connection with their play.

        How did the boy enjoy the game? Very much,
        because it says he laughed "with glee".

        How did the Grandma enjoy it? She was glad to
        see the boy happy.

        Do old ladies usually like to play games? No,
        they generally prefer to read or sew.

        Why was she playing with the boy? She loved him
        and was sorry he was lame.

        Could he do anything for his Grandma? He could
        talk to her, and keep her from being lonely.
        When he grows older, he can read to her.

        Describe the picture you see in the ninth
        stanza. I see the old lady, with her hands
        covering her face, while she guesses where the
        boy is hidden.

        In the last stanza, why does the author use so
        many "olds", in speaking of the Grandmother? He
        wants to make us feel she is quite old.

        Why does he say "dear" so often? He wants to
        show how very kind she was to the lame boy.

        Why does he say the boy was "half-past three",
        instead of three and a half years old? It
        sounds better the way he says it. It suggests
        the clock's time.

        Give me some other titles for this poem. "The
        Chums", "A Queer Game", "The Two Playmates".


(Second Reader, page 30)


To lead the pupils to perceive and appreciate how the poet uses
personification and comparison.


This poem should be studied in the spring, when the dandelions are in
bloom. A nature study lesson should precede the literature lesson. The
pupils should be required to observe when the dandelions begin to make
their appearance; at what time of the day they are most conspicuous;
after what kind of night they are to be found in greatest profusion;
what change occurs in the structure of the flowers as they grow older;
how long a time usually elapses between the first appearance of the
flowers and this change; what the white, downy part of the flower
constitutes; what eventually becomes of this part.

Introduce the lesson by a brief conversation about military operations.
Describe how one army tries to seize a strategic position, sometimes a
hill, where the men can fix their guns and command the surrounding
country. If this lesson could be presented without the pupils knowing
the title (by writing the poem on the black-board, for instance), there
would be the added interest of solving a riddle, namely, what the poet
is describing.

        What is a real "trooper band"? A band of
        soldiers on horseback.

        And what are real "veterans"? Old soldiers who
        have seen much service in war.

        What is actually meant by the "trooper band"?
        The dandelions when they first come out.

        What is the phrase that suggests that they are
        dandelions? "Yellow coats."

        What does the author actually mean by the
        "veterans"? The dandelions, when they have gone
        to seed.

        What phrase suggests this? "Their trembling
        heads and gray."

        Where did the "trooper band" make their
        appearance? On the hillside.

        When? On a "showery night and still".

        Why is such a night selected? Because it makes
        the dandelions bloom in great numbers.

        To what is the coming of the dandelions
        compared? To an army taking possession of a

        What words tell how they came? "Without a sound
        of warning", "surprised", "We were not waked by
        bugle notes", "No cheer our dreams invaded".

        Explain "surprised the hill". Marched upon it
        when they were least expected, and seized it.

        Give the meaning of "held it in the morning".
        Had undisputed possession of it.

        Tell, in your own words, how the dandelions
        came. Suddenly and unexpectedly.

        How did this attack differ from a real military
        attack? There were no notes of the bugle or
        shouts of the soldiers to announce the capture
        of the hill.

        Change "No cheer our dreams invaded" into prose
        order, and explain the meaning. No cheer
        invaded our dreams. Our sleep was not disturbed
        by the victorious shouts of soldiers.

        How did the coats of the soldiers you have seen
        differ in colour from those of the dandelions?

        What is the meaning of "at dawn"? The first
        appearance of light in the morning.

        "Green slopes"? Grassy hillsides.

        "Paraded"? Marched up and down.

        About what time has elapsed between the
        incident of the first stanza and that of the
        second? Probably a week or thereabouts.

        What deed is referred to in the first stanza?
        The seizure of the hill.

        What is meant by "idly walking"? Without any
        definite purpose in view.

        "Marked"? Noticed.

        About what were the veterans probably
        "talking"? About their military exploits in
        years gone by.

        What words are suitably used in describing
        these veterans? "Trembling" and "gray" suggest
        old age.

        Arrange "their trembling heads and gray" in
        ordinary prose order. Their gray and trembling

        Why should the veterans be filled with "pride"?
        Because of the brave deeds they had done.

        Why did they laugh? Perhaps, because of some
        amusing occurrences they had seen.

        What characteristics of the dandelions suggest
        these fancies regarding the veterans? The heads
        of the dandelions are white. As they sway in
        the breeze on their slender stalks, they
        incline their heads toward one another in much
        the same way as people do in conversation.

        Why is the "laughter" said to be "noiseless"?
        Because human beings could not be expected to
        hear the laughter of the dandelions.

        What expression would you be likely to use,
        instead of "welladay"? Alas!

        What is meant by "they blew away"? The seeds of
        the flowers were scattered far and wide.

        What do you like about this poem? (1) Its
        charming poetic fancies. (2) The fitness of the

Point out clearly how the appearance of the dandelions resembled a
military attack, and how, in the later stage of their life history, they
resembled veteran soldiers.


(Second Reader, page 56)


The aim of the lesson should be, not only to lead the pupils to enjoy
the humour of the poem, but also to appreciate the lesson it teaches. It
affords a fine opportunity for the development of conversational powers
in the pupils.

The pupils should be encouraged to talk freely, and the questions should
often call for quite lengthy answers.


        Who has seen an elephant? You have, Henry?
        Well, tell us something about him. He was very
        large. One of our barn doors is twelve feet
        high and six feet wide, and father said the
        elephant would just be able to go through that
        door. If he was in the school-room, his back
        would reach almost to the ceiling. His ears
        were bigger than the top of my desk. His trunk
        was twice as long as father's cane, and was
        nearly as big around at the upper end as a bag
        of wheat, and the lower end was as small as my
        leg is below the knee. His tusks were hard and
        white, one on each side of his trunk, and were
        longer than father's arm. His tail was small.
        It did not seem to be as long as one of his
        tusks. His legs were larger around than the
        trunk of the biggest apple tree in our orchard.
        His skin was something like a hog's skin, only
        thicker, and he had no hair. His whole body was
        a dirty, dark colour.

        That is a fairly good description, Henry. You
        have helped us to picture a very large


        As you have read this poem to yourselves, tell
        me what it is about. It is about six blind men
        "Who went to see the elephant".

        As they were blind, how could they see him?
        They couldn't see him as we do, but they could
        feel him, and that was to them what seeing is
        to us.

        In what way was feeling the same to them as
        seeing is to us? It was their way of knowing
        the animal, and that is just what seeing is to

        Where did this happen? It happened in Indostan.

        I told you to look for Indostan in Asia. Point
        it out on the map. (A pupil points to it.)

        What are we told about these men? They gave
        much of their time to study.

        What do you suppose was their favourite way of
        finding out things? This lesson makes me think
        that they liked to find out things by their own

        Why do you think that? Because it says that
        they wanted to "satisfy" their minds by their
        own "observations".

        In what other ways do boys and girls satisfy
        their minds about new things? By asking
        questions about them until the answers satisfy

        What other way do you use sometimes? We read
        books to learn about many new things.

        What did the first man learn? He thought he had
        learned that the elephant was "like a wall".

        Why do you say thought? He hadn't really
        learned it. He stopped making observations just
        as soon as he had one idea.

        Why do you think he did that? I think he was in
        a hurry to be the first to state what he knew.

        What words in the poem suggest that idea to
        you? The words "At once began to bawl".

        How did this man come to think the elephant was
        "like a wall"? He fell against the animal's
        huge side, and it made him think of a wall.

        What was the second man's opinion about the
        elephant? He thought the animal was "like a

        Account for that idea. He felt one of the
        elephant's tusks, and formed his opinion
        without going any further.

        And what about the third man? The third man put
        his hands on the elephant's trunk and felt it
        all over, but as he did not go any further, he
        declared that the elephant was "like a snake",
        because it was the only thing, as far as he
        knew, that squirmed about as the trunk did.

        What did the fourth man do? The fourth man felt
        the big front legs and declared the elephant
        was "like a tree".

        Tell us about the fifth man. The fifth man
        happened to touch the ear. He felt all over it
        but nowhere else, so he said the elephant was
        "like a fan".

        And what had the sixth man to say? The sixth
        man had caught hold of the elephant's tail, and
        when he had felt all over it, he declared the
        elephant was "like a rope".

        What conclusion did they come to in the end?
        They didn't come to any conclusion. They argued
        and argued for a long time, and each man was
        stubborn and stuck to "his own opinion".


        In what respects were they all alike?

        1. Each one felt just one part of the animal
        and took the part for the whole.

        2. Each was in a hurry to give his opinion and
        did not take time to form a good one.

        3. Each man was stubborn and probably refused
        to feel where the others had felt.

        If they could be in your place, how would they
        see themselves? They would see how foolish they
        had been, and each would see that the others
        were as nearly right as he himself was.

        What lesson for ourselves can we learn from
        this? It teaches us not to be in a hurry in
        giving our opinions.

        What do we learn from the dispute mentioned in
        the last verse? We learn from it that, when our
        own opinions about anything are firmly fixed,
        it does no good to argue about the matter.

        In what way could they have arrived at the same
        conclusions? If each had done all that each of
        the others did, they would have agreed about
        the elephant.

        In what way were these men really blind? They
        could not, or would not, see the viewpoint of
        others. There may be a mental blindness, as
        well as a physical blindness.

        Here are two lines that you may memorize, as
        they fit the lesson very well:

        Convince a man against his will,
        He's of the same opinion still.


(Second Reader, page 203)


To lead the pupils to appreciate the beauty and power of the language of
this Biblical lesson, and to feel a confidence in God's protection and


The teacher should talk with the pupils about the great flocks of sheep
in Eastern lands. They require a shepherd to lead them to pastures where
the grass is long and sweet, and to protect them from the wild animals.

This Psalm is called the "Shepherd Psalm" because it was written by
David, after he became a king. He remembered the time when he was a
shepherd boy and used to spend his days and nights in the fields with
the sheep, and how he once killed a lion and a bear that came to attack
his flock; and he thought to himself that God had cared for him all his
life just as he himself used to care for his little lambs, so at last he
put his thoughts into the words of this Twenty-third Psalm.

There are two metaphors in this Psalm. In the first is developed,
through the figure of a shepherd and his flock, God's care of His

        What are the feelings of the sheep toward the
        shepherd? They feel confident that he will
        supply them with food; he will lead them to the
        "green pastures" and to the "still waters" by
        the wells and fountains, where they will
        neither hunger nor thirst.

        What does the expression "lie down" infer? A
        sense of rest and security. The sheep can lie
        down in the "green pastures" and feel
        confident that the shepherd is able and willing
        to protect them from danger.

        In what way do we resemble the sheep? We are
        dependent upon the Lord for our supply of
        spiritual and material needs, and for guidance
        and protection along the path of everyday life.

        What does the Psalmist mean when he says: "He
        restoreth my soul"? "Soul" means, in Hebrew,
        the "life," or "one's self". The Lord restores
        and brings back His people, when wandering into
        forbidden places.

        Explain the next line. As the shepherd goes
        before and leads his sheep by the right paths,
        avoiding all dangers, so the Lord leads His
        people into "the paths of righteousness".

        What does "for His name's sake" mean? He has
        undertaken to guide His people safely and will
        do it for the honour of His name.

        In the next section, whom is the Psalmist
        addressing? He is speaking to the Lord.

        What words show that he is still using the
        figure of the shepherd and the sheep? "Through
        the valley"; "Thy rod and thy staff".

        What does the first line mean? Some paths that
        are right paths for us to walk in still lead
        through perilous places; and this is the way
        the Psalmist refers to this fact in shepherd

        How should we feel? The Lord accompanies us,
        and we should "fear no evil". The sheep follow
        the shepherd with absolute confidence, and our
        attitude toward "the Good Shepherd" should be
        the same.

        What words show that danger is sometimes close?
        Death sometimes comes so close that it almost
        seems to cast a shadow.

        What does the "rod" represent? The rod is the
        sign of authority, and represents the defence
        and protection afforded by the shepherd to the
        sheep, when in danger from robbers or wild

        What does the "staff" represent? The staff
        denotes support and guidance, and is used for
        aiding the sheep in places of need, even along
        peaceful ways. The expression "Thy rod and thy
        staff" covers the whole round of protecting

Here the figure is changed. In the second metaphor God is represented as
a host with the Psalmist as a guest at a banquet.

        "Thou preparest a table before me." The Lord
        makes provision for man's needs. He does so
        openly, publicly ("in the presence of mine

        In what other way does the Lord show His care
        for His people? The Psalmist says: "Thou hast
        anointed my head with oil."

        To what does this refer? In the East, it was
        the custom to pour an ointment of great
        fragrance on the heads of the guests of honour
        at a feast.

        How does the Psalmist further picture the
        goodness of God? He fills our "cup" till it is

        What is the thought in the last two lines? The
        confidence of the Psalmist in the Lord, that as
        He has led and guided him in the past, so His
        "goodness and mercy" "shall follow" him "all
        the days of his life," and he will live forever
        in intimate communion with Him.

        What do you like about the selection? The
        spirit of gratitude and confidence in those who
        enjoy God's benefits. The nature of some of
        these benefits is made plain to us by the
        pictures of the "green pastures", the "still
        waters", "the rod and staff", and the prepared




(Third Reader, page 50)


To lead the pupils to appreciate the exquisite music of the language and
the pathos of the story.


        What does the poem describe? It describes a
        father's love for his son.

        There are two distinct parts. What does each
        part describe? The first two stanzas describe a
        game of "Hide and Seek" between the father and
        the boy, and the last two, the father's intense
        longing for the boy whom he has lost.

        What kind of day is described in the first
        stanza? A bright and calm June day.

        What things suggest this? Sleeping trees, still
        winds, wandering clouds, "noonday silence".

        What does the writer represent the trees and
        the winds to be? Persons--the trees having the
        ability to sleep, and the winds to move or keep
        still. This is called personification.

        What are "fleecy clouds"? Clouds that are white
        and downy.

        The poet speaks of them as "flocks". What is
        the comparison intended? The comparison of the
        clouds to flocks of white sheep that, instead
        of wandering across a meadow, are wandering
        across the sky.

        What does the word "wandered" suggest? That the
        clouds are moving along slowly and leisurely
        without any purpose in view. They are doing
        this because the "winds are still".

        What is meant by saying that they "Have
        wandered past the hill"? They have gone below
        the horizon at the hilltop and cannot be seen.
        The sky is thus clear of clouds.

        What causes "the noonday silence"? The heat of
        the mid-day has silenced even the songs of the
        birds. Compare Keats:

        When all the birds are faint with the hot sun
        And hide in cooling trees.

        How is the silence broken? By the voice of the
        little boy hunting for his father.

        What do the words of the tune he is singing
        constitute? The rules of the game. The one
        hiding must respond "Coo-ee" each time the one
        searching calls.

        Where is his father? In a "leafy nook" in the

        What does the question "Shall I let him pass?"
        seem to indicate? That his father hesitates for
        a moment to reveal himself.

        What does he do, however? He gives the boy the
        signal--a "low, soft whistle". He cannot "let
        him pass".

        What is shown in the last long line of the
        stanza? That the man enters into the spirit of
        the game with the same zest as the boy.

        What feeling exists between the two? A feeling
        of perfect good-fellowship and affection.

        Explain, "you're it". Your turn to hunt, mine
        to hide.

        What further rules of the game are given here?
        (Every boy and girl will know these.)

        What change in feeling is there between the
        first two stanzas and the last two? A sudden
        transition from gaiety and light-heartedness to

        What has happened? The boy is dead.

        Why is "Long ago" repeated? It emphasizes the
        idea and adds to the pathos of the line. The
        time has seemed long because of the intensity
        of the father's grief. Happiness makes time
        pass quickly, not so grief.

        How does the poet suggest the idea that the
        game is still being continued though it is now
        an inexpressibly sad one? He speaks of the boy
        as having left his father as if to hide, of
        his father as seeking him "high and low", of
        his being safely "hidden" "in some pleasant
        place", of the father as being unable to hear
        his "Coo-ee".

        What is really meant by seeking him "high and
        low"? The thought of his boy is ever with him.
        He unconsciously looks for his face wherever he

        What is the "pleasant place"? Paradise.

        How could you describe the short lines, "Far
        away", etc., down to the end of the stanza? As
        the call of a broken heart to the boy.

        Where is the idea contained in "Far away"
        expressed before? In "Hidden safe and happy in
        some pleasant place".

        And where is the thought, "Many a day",
        repeated? "Long ago he left me, long and long

        How is the father continually reminded of his
        boy? By the "Birds" and "Flowers"--everything
        that he loved is charged with memories of him.

        What light is thrown upon the little fellow's
        interests? He loved the out-of-doors, the
        things of nature.

        What ray of sunshine breaks through the clouds
        of the father's grief? The conviction that his
        boy "is waiting" for him till he comes.

        What is the meaning of the line, "Love may hide
        itself", etc.? The little boy's love may for
        the moment be hidden, but it is everlasting.
        The father's love is likewise everlasting. This
        is sufficient ground for believing that they
        will some day be united.

The reading of this poem by the pupils will show whether they feel its
joy, its sadness, and its hope.


(Third Reader, page 60)


To lead the pupils to appreciate the beauty of an apple orchard in the
spring and the music of the language used in describing it.


This lesson should be taken when the apple orchards are in bloom. The
teacher should prepare the pupils for it, by asking them to observe the
blossoms, their colours and odours, the songs of the birds, and the
sounds of the streams.


        Read the poem describing these. What is the
        main theme of the lesson? The poet tells us how
        much we have missed if we have not "seen an
        apple orchard in the spring".

        What is his theme in the first three stanzas?
        The beauty of an apple orchard.

        What, in the last stanza? His memory of it.

        In what order does he describe the blossoms? In
        the first stanza, the buds are turning white;
        in the second, they are unfolding; and in the
        third, the petals are dropping.

        Where does the author suppose the reader to be
        standing, in the first stanza? Outside the
        orchard, where it is possible to see "the
        spreading trees" and all the orchard at once.

        Where, in the next two stanzas, is he supposed
        to be? He is plucking the blossoms and walking
        under the trees.

        What senses are appealed to in the first
        stanza? Sight--"seen an apple orchard".
        Hearing--"mavis sings its story".

        What senses are appealed to in the second
        stanza? Touch--"plucked the apple blossoms",
        "touch them a delight". Smell--"caught their
        subtle odours". Sight--"Pink buds pouting at
        the light", "Crumpled petals baby white".

        What senses are appealed to in the third?
        Sight--"pink cascades". Hearing--"silver
        brooklets brawling", "cuckoo bird soft

        Show the appropriateness of "hoary", "wealth of
        promised glory", "pouting", "pink cascades",
        "silver brooklets brawling", "wonder of the
        spring", "precious", "tender".

        What Canadian birds could be substituted for
        the mavis and the cuckoo? The robins, warblers,
        and goldfinches.

Lead the pupils to examine the arrangement of the rhythm and the
refrain, so that they will appreciate the music of the verse. Let each
pupil show his appreciation by reading the stanza he likes best.


(Third Reader, page 223)

The teacher should require the pupils to read the lesson through and
then to reproduce its main incidents without any regard to their
allegorical significance. Such headings as the following might be
suggested by the pupils, and these would serve to guide in this

1. Daffydowndilly's dislike of the schoolmaster

2. His decision to run away from school

3. His meeting with the stranger who accompanies him on his journey

4. The haymakers

5. The carpenters

6. The soldiers

7. The merry-makers

8. His discovery of his companion's identity

9. The lesson that he learned.

Having thus obtained the literal meaning of the story--a matter of
little difficulty--it remains to get its deeper significance. It is
hardly probable that many pupils will be disposed to regard the story as
literally true, yet few will be likely, upon a first reading, to see the
principle that underlies it. In order to arrive at this, the teacher may
proceed as follows:

        Are there any parts of the story that strike
        you as improbable? (1) The reference to Mr.
        Toil's long residence upon the earth. (2) The
        frequent meetings with Mr. Toil's brothers. (3)
        Daffydowndilly's slowness in discovering
        another brother in the person of his companion.
        (4) Their travelling all day in a circle.

        If the story is literally untrue or improbable,
        what object might Hawthorne have had in view in
        writing it? Perhaps he wished to teach some
        lesson; perhaps there is a meaning hidden
        beneath the story.

        Let us discover what that hidden meaning is?
        What does the name "Toil" suggest to you? Work.

        What, then, may Mr. Toil represent? Work.

        And what may his brothers represent? Different
        kinds of work.

        With this idea in mind, we shall now try to
        understand what each adventure really means.
        How are we prepared for Daffydowndilly's
        troubles with the schoolmaster and for his
        later unpleasant experience? The author tells
        us that he "took no delight in labour of any

        What flower did he resemble? The daffodil. The
        boy's name is another form of the name of the

        In what respect is he said to resemble a
        flower? He "loved to do only what was beautiful
        and agreeable, and took no delight in labour of
        any kind".

        Why is Mr. Toil first represented as a
        schoolmaster? Because it is at school that a
        boy is first introduced to real work. (This
        might be given a still more extended meaning.
        The school represents the preparation for our
        future vocation, whether it be in the
        school-room, or in an apprenticeship, or
        elsewhere. This involves hard work, and hence
        is, to some extent, at least, unpleasant.)

        What is meant by saying that Mr. Toil "had done
        more good ... than anybody else in the world"?
        Work does everybody good: (1) It keeps us out
        of mischief. Criminals often become so because
        of the lack of profitable employment. (2) It
        improves character. The people of the best and
        strongest character are those who have had to
        work hard. (3) It makes the world happier. The
        most miserable people are those who have
        nothing to do.

        "A very worthy character." Is "character" used
        in its usual sense here? It usually means what
        a person really _is_.

        (Distinguish "character" and "reputation".)

        Explain what is meant by saying that "he had
        dwelt upon earth ever since Adam was driven
        from the garden of Eden". Ever since that time
        man has had to work. God said to Adam (Genesis
        iii, 19), "In the sweat of thy face shalt thou
        eat bread".

        Why is Mr. Toil represented as being such a
        disagreeable person? Because, to some people,
        work has many unpleasant features.

        Any activity that has no compulsory elements in
        it is no longer work, but play. What is the
        real meaning of the paragraph describing the
        schoolmaster's method of discipline? The work
        of the school-room, being compulsory, and
        therefore disagreeable to idle boys, becomes
        exceedingly painful when long continued.

        Contrast Daffydowndilly's previous life with
        his experience at school. Brought up under the
        indulgence of his mother, his life had been
        very pleasant. Now, introduced to real work, he
        finds life very unpleasant.

        What gives us a suggestion as to the identity
        of the stranger whom Daffydowndilly met on the
        road? We are told that he was "trudging" "along
        the road", and that his voice "seemed hard and

        Why is "trudging" a better word than "walking"?
        It suggests effort, and hence work.

        How does the form of the question, "Whence do
        you come so early, and whither are you going?"
        harmonize with the description of the stranger?

        We are told that he had a "grave and sedate
        appearance", and the somewhat stilted form of
        the question is quite in harmony with this

        Why had his voice "a sort of kindness in it"?
        Because moderate work, such as this walking
        early in the day, is not altogether

        Explain "ingenuous disposition". How does
        Daffydowndilly show this?

        What made his discovery of Mr. Toil among the
        labourers in the hayfield so unexpected? The
        circumstances and surroundings--"the sunshine",
        "the blue sky", the singing birds, the fragrant
        hay--were so pleasant that it was hard to see
        how anything so unpleasant as work could
        intrude there.

        Why is Mr. Toil recognized in the owner of the
        field rather than among the labourers? In
        directing the activities of the men, as well as
        working himself, he is performing the most
        arduous labour of all.

        Why does the stranger say the farmer is a "more
        disagreeable man" than his brother, the
        schoolmaster? Because the activities of farm
        life are more laborious than those of the

        What expression that takes the form of a
        proverb is used in describing this incident?
        "To make hay while the sun shone."

        Distinguish its meaning, as the author uses it,
        from its meaning as a proverb. The author uses
        it in its literal meaning. The farmer must make
        the most of fine weather and sunshine in curing
        ("making") his hay, for, if rain comes after it
        is cut, it will be more or less injured. Used
        as a proverb, the expression means that one
        should seize the opportunities presented and
        make the most of them.

        What does Hawthorne mean by placing a Mr. Toil
        at the head of the company of soldiers?
        Military movements, though very attractive to
        the eye, really involve work. Soldiers find
        their activities very toilsome, especially
        after the novelty has worn off.

        Why is Mr. Toil placed even among the dancers?
        The pursuit of pleasure soon becomes wearisome,
        and hence toilsome.

        Why is the fiddler represented as a Frenchman?
        France, as a whole, is reputed to be the gayest
        and sprightliest of nations.

        What is meant by saying that "those who have
        known him best think him still more
        disagreeable than his brothers"? Those who
        devote themselves entirely to the pursuit of
        pleasure find it more toilsome and disagreeable
        than ordinary work. People frequently say,
        after a day given up to pleasure, that they are
        more tired than if they had worked hard all

        In which of the incidents of the story does it
        seem least likely that Mr. Toil would be met
        with? In the incident of the merry-makers.

        In which, most likely? The incident of the

        How has Hawthorne apparently arranged
        Daffydowndilly's experiences? He has so
        arranged them that in each successive incident
        we are more surprised at meeting with Mr. Toil.
        Each one seems to promise less probability of
        his presence than the preceding.

        Why had Daffydowndilly not recognized his
        companion before? His voice had been kind and
        his manner agreeable in the early stages of the

        Interpret this as has been done in the case of
        the other incidents. The early part of
        Daffydowndilly's journey had been pleasant,
        owing to the freedom from school and the
        interesting experiences by the way. But, as the
        day drew on, he gradually grew tired, and then
        it was that he recognized that walking is work.

        What lesson did he learn? That he could not get
        away from work. It is to be found everywhere,
        in the most unexpected places, and one cannot
        escape from it by changing his occupation.

        What is meant by Daffydowndilly's finding Mr.
        Toil's ways more agreeable upon better
        acquaintance? When he grew accustomed to his
        work, he found that it was not so very
        unpleasant after all; "that diligence is not a
        whit more toilsome than sport or idleness".

        What is Mr. Toil's "smile of approbation"? The
        consciousness of work well done.

Tell the pupils that this story is an Allegory. They have probably read
other stories of a similar nature, and may be asked to frame a simple
definition. An Allegory is a story, not literally true, containing
incidents that have a deeper meaning than is apparent on the surface.
Its purpose is to teach some moral truth or universal principle. It
differs from the Parable in being longer and more complex.

When the pupils reproduce the story, it will be well to adhere to the
allegorical form, and not attempt to give its significance.


(Third Reader, page 285)


To lead the pupils to appreciate the importance of details in the
construction of a story.


The teacher will have told the pupils a few facts about Beethoven and,
if possible, will have shown them his picture. He will also have asked
them to read the lesson at home and become familiar with the story.


        What is the main point in the story? The
        circumstances under which the musician wrote
        the "Moonlight Sonata".

        What is a sonata? It is a musical composition
        which consists of movements fast or slow, sad
        or playful, according to the varying mood of
        the composer.

        Where was the scene? In Bonn in Prussia.

        When? On a moonlight winter's evening.

        Who were the two persons? Beethoven and the

        Notice that these three important facts are all
        told briefly at the beginning.

        Why had the writer called on the musician? He
        wished to take him for a walk and afterwards
        take him home with him to supper.

        Had he any reason except the desire for
        Beethoven's company? Yes, Beethoven's health
        was not good, his hearing was becoming
        impaired, and the writer evidently thought he
        needed rest and recreation. These circumstances
        led to an important result.

        What happened next? In passing through a narrow
        street, Beethoven heard some one playing his
        "Sonata in F".

        What were his feelings? Surprise to hear it in
        such a place and delight at the excellence of
        the playing.

        How did he show his feelings? By exclamations,
        questions, and short sentences.

        What is told in the next three paragraphs? They
        describe a conversation.

        Who are speaking? A brother and sister.

        What are they saying? The sister is lamenting
        that she cannot "go to the concert at Cologne"
        and her brother reminds her of their poverty.
        Then she wishes that "for once in her life" she
        "could hear some really good music".

        What happens next? Beethoven decides to enter
        the house.

        How does the writer impress this fact on the
        reader? By giving the argument between himself
        and Beethoven.

        What were the latter's reasons? The player had
        "feeling, genius, understanding", and these
        qualities are so rarely found that Beethoven
        could not neglect them.

        Explain these terms. The player showed refined
        feeling in her interpretation of the music,
        genius in her skill on the piano, and thorough
        understanding of the composer's purposes in the

        Was it only for his own pleasure that the
        composer entered? No, he wished to give
        pleasure to one who could so well appreciate
        his work.

        Describe the scene. A young shoemaker is seated
        at his work. He is pale from the effects of
        confinement and toil. A young girl with an
        abundance of light hair is leaning on an
        "old-fashioned piano".

        What does this piano show? That their parents
        had very probably been lovers of music, and the
        piano may have been an heirloom.

        What comes next? The musician explains the
        reasons for his intrusion.

        How did the brother look upon it? The young man
        seemed annoyed at first.

        How was this annoyance overcome? The manner of
        Beethoven was so comical and pleasant that the
        young man's annoyance passed away.

        How had Beethoven addressed the brother and
        sister? His manner was very confused. He wished
        to conceal his name, and yet wished to give
        pleasure to the young girl.

        How does he show his confusion? The sentences
        "I, I also ... play for you", are such halting
        ones. He does not make his sentences complete.

        What was the next part of the conversation? The
        young man tells Beethoven that the "piano is so
        wretched" and they "have no music".

        What is the purpose of this statement in the
        story? It shows Beethoven that the young girl
        is blind and plays these difficult compositions
        by ear.

        How had she learned to play this Sonata? She
        had heard a lady "practising" it, and "walked
        to and fro" in front of the house in order "to
        listen to it".

        What does this show? What a love of music and
        wonderful natural ability the young girl

        What is the next action in the story? Beethoven

        Why did he play better than he had often done
        before large audiences? He realized how greatly
        his work was appreciated; and he was deeply
        touched by the thought of the young girl's
        blindness, her poverty, her skill, and her
        passion for good music.

        What trifling occurrence now affects the story?
        The last candle in the house burned out, so the
        writer opened the shutters and admitted "a
        flood of brilliant moonlight".

        What effect had this upon the composer? It
        changed the current of his thoughts and

        How did he appear? "His head dropped upon his
        breast", and "his hands rested upon his knees".

        What is the next action? The young shoemaker
        asks Beethoven who he is.

        What did the composer answer? "He played the
        opening bars of the Sonata in F." This revealed
        his name. The writer says that the young people
        "covered his hands with tears and kisses".

        What were their feelings? Their actions were
        expressions of their affection and admiration.

        What takes place next? The brother and sister
        beseech him to play "once more".

        What description is given here? Beethoven's
        appearance in the moonlight.

        Describe him. He was very "massive" in size,
        his head was large and his features strong, and
        the light from the moon encircled his head.
        (Produce a picture, if possible, of Beethoven.)

        Did he agree to play again? Yes, he said he
        would "improvise a Sonata to the Moonlight".

        What does "improvise" mean? He would compose
        the music as he played.

        Had this any relation to what goes before? Yes,
        the writer has told us how thoughtful he had
        been when the moonlight first streamed into the
        room. Now he is going to express his thoughts
        and feelings through the tones of the piano.

        We said at the beginning that a Sonata was a
        musical composition consisting of various
        movements. What are the movements? In this case
        there is first, "a sad and infinitely lovely
        movement", then, "a wild, elfin passage in
        triple time", and lastly, "a breathless,
        hurrying, trembling" close.

        Let us examine this description of the
        "Moonlight Sonata" more closely. What did the
        moonlight suggest to Beethoven? "Spirits"
        dancing in the moonlight.

        What does the first movement suggest? The
        "moonlight" flowing "over the dark earth".

        What does the second movement suggest? The wild
        dance of the "spirits on the lawn".

        What does the last suggest? "Flight",
        "uncertainty", "impulsive terror".

        What was the effect upon the listeners? They
        were left in a state of "wonder" and

        What musical terms are used to describe this
        music? _Interlude_, _triple time_, _agitato

        Explain them. _Interlude_ is a piece of music
        played between the main parts. _Triple time_ is
        time, or rhythm, of three beats, or of three
        times three beats in a bar.

        Give an example of triple time. It denotes
        sprightliness, as in the waltz. The _agitato
        finale_ means the close of the passage with a
        hurrying movement.

        What takes place next? Beethoven rose quickly,
        promised to come again, and hurried away.

        Why did he hurry? He wished to write out the
        "Sonata" while it was still fresh in his mind.

        What does the last short paragraph state? It
        tells that this was the origin of the
        "Moonlight Sonata".

        Where is the theme of the whole lesson found?
        In the last sentence.

        What has the writer told us? He has given us
        all the circumstances which combined to inspire
        Beethoven to compose this great work.


        Now let us review the story and collect these
        details. What are they? The time, place, the
        persons going for a walk, the narrow street,
        the wonderful playing, the conversation, the
        appearance of the young people, the blindness
        of the girl, her eagerness to hear "good
        music", the moonlight admitted, the recognition
        of Beethoven.

        Yes, all these things had a combined effect
        upon the musician. If he had gone straight to
        supper, there would probably not have been a
        "Moonlight Sonata". This lesson illustrates how
        time, place, persons, and action are arranged
        to produce a well-told story.


(Third Reader, page 315)


To aid in the culture of a sensitive response to the spirit and language
of the prayer.


The teacher should talk with the pupils about a journey through the
darkness, over dangerous bogs, swollen streams, and beside precipices.


        Read the poem. In what form is this lesson? A

        What is the prayer? The traveller asks for the
        guidance of the Holy Spirit. See notes on this
        lesson in the Manual on _The Ontario Readers_,
        pp. 166-7.

        Describe his journey. "The night is dark", he
        is "far from home", he trusts to the light
        shining through the darkness to keep his feet
        from stumbling; he does not trouble himself
        about what lies far before him, he attends only
        to his footsteps one by one. He feels he can
        pass safely over the "moor", the "fen", the
        "crag", and the "torrent", by trusting to the
        guidance of the light. With the dawning of the
        day will come the reunion with his loved ones
        from whom he has been separated.

        Explain the symbolism employed here. The poet
        speaks of himself as going through life like a
        traveller on a long journey, wherein he is
        constantly met by trials and temptations and
        cannot always know what is the right course to
        take. He acknowledges that he needs some
        stronger power than his own to direct his life
        and asks for the guidance of the Holy Spirit,
        content to trust himself to His leading in any
        dangers and difficulties that may arise in this
        life, and secure in the knowledge that "with
        the morn" he shall see once more those whom he
        has "loved" and "lost awhile".

        What is the main thought of the first stanza?
        The traveller prays for guidance.

        Of the second stanza? He states that he has not
        always been willing to ask for guidance, but
        had relied on his own reason.

        Of the third stanza? He expresses his belief in
        the power and willingness of God to guide him

        What is the relation of the second stanza to
        the first one? It contrasts the poet's earlier
        attitude of mind toward God with that of later
        years, thus emphasizing the change that has
        taken place in his life.

        Is the poet stronger in the second case than in
        the first? No; in the first, his ideal is
        higher and his humility greater, as he relies
        absolutely on the guidance of the Holy Spirit.
        In the second, relying only on his own
        reasoning powers to guide him, he made many
        humiliating failures.

        Image the "moor", the "fen", the "crag", the
        "torrent", and "with the morn".


Summarize the main thoughts and lead the pupils to bring out clearly the
comparison between the traveller and the poet.

Give a brief account of the author's life.


(Third Reader, page 315)


To aid in the culture of a sensitive response to the spirit and language
of the prayer.


The teacher should read the poem aloud, to awaken respect for the deep
humility, complete open-mindedness, and growing faith of the poet.

        What may this poem be called? A prayer for

Stanza I

        What are the poet's feelings? He feels very
        much depressed in spirit, as a traveller would
        who was far from home and alone in the
        gathering darkness.

        Whom does he address as "Kindly Light"? Why
        does he use the term "Light"? He may remember
        that our Saviour called Himself "the Light of
        the world", and it is as his "Light" or Guide
        that the traveller feels his need of Him. He
        may be thinking of the Pillar of Fire and the
        Pillar of Cloud.

        What image is suggested by the words "Lead,
        kindly Light"? It suggests something that has
        life (moves on before), and sheds a beneficent
        light on the travellers' path.

        What is meant by the "gloom"? It means the
        condition of his mind. He is seeking Truth and
        feels that he cannot rely on reason alone to
        guide him.

        What do the last two lines show about him? They
        show that he is humble and is content to be
        guided through the darkness "one step" at a

Stanza II

        What more do we learn about his life in the
        second stanza? In what language is his former
        "pride" contrasted with his present humility?
        What is the meaning of "garish"? What part of
        his life is called "the garish day"? Why is it
        so called?

NOTE.--"Garish" means dazzling, and by "garish day" is meant the earlier
care-free years when life seemed all brightness and the author felt
perfectly certain of his ability to take care of himself.

        What at times disturbed his life, even in those
        "past years"? What made him hide these fears?
        What is meant by saying "Pride ruled my will"?
        What now is his prayer concerning these years?
        Why does he want them put out of remembrance?

        What is the relation of the second stanza to
        the first one? It contrasts the author's
        earlier attitude of mind toward God with what
        it is in later years, thus emphasizing the
        great change that has taken place in his life.

        Compare the dependence depicted in the first
        stanza with the strength described in the
        second. In which case is the man really the
        stronger? Account for the fact that when he was
        strong, but not in his own strength, he really
        felt his weakness more than when he was weak.

NOTE.--The higher his ideal, the smaller he sees himself; and the lower
his ideal, the larger he sees himself. Observe also how the prayer to be
led "on" reveals the man's progressive spirit. The unprogressive man
would pray simply for safety and protection.

Stanza III

        What lesson does the poet learn from the "past
        years"? What confidence does this lesson give
        him for the future? What phases of experiences
        of life are suggested by "moor", "fen", "crag",
        and "torrent"?

NOTE.--To answer this, there should be an effort to image a moor, a fen,
a crag, or a torrent clearly. Then when the pupil sees the desolate,
lonesome moor; the miry, almost impassable fen; the sharp, out-jutting
crag which makes the ascent more forbidding and difficult; and the
rushing, unbridged torrent which must be forded or breasted, even though
it threatens destruction; it should be easy to relate these to the
experiences in life which they typify, or represent.

        How long does the poet believe this guidance
        will last? In what words does he say that it
        will last as long as it will be needed? What
        does he mean by "the night"? Beyond "the
        night", what vision does he see? Whose are
        "those angel faces"?

        What is the relation of the third stanza to the
        second? It shows how the author's confidence in
        the Divine guidance to be granted him during
        future years is strengthened by the lessons
        learned in former years.

The teacher should again read the poem aloud. This will impress upon the
pupils, not only the truth and beauty of the poem, but also furnish an
ideal to stimulate them in their preparation for the reading lesson
which is to follow.




(Fourth Reader, page 51)


Review briefly the Scriptural account of Joseph's life, and particularly
the story of the visits of his brethren to Egypt to buy corn. Note
especially the following points:

1. The famine in the land of Canaan; the first visit of Joseph's
brothers to Egypt; their interview with Joseph; the detention of Simeon;
Joseph's demand that Benjamin be brought down.

2. The return to Canaan; Jacob's refusal to let Benjamin go down into
Egypt; Judah's becoming surety for his safe return.

3. The second visit of Joseph's brethren to Egypt, this time with
Benjamin; their entertainment by Joseph; their homeward journey; the
discovery of the silver cup in Benjamin's sack; their return to Joseph.


After the selection has been read, the teacher should proceed by some
such method as the following:

        With what does the passage deal? Judah's
        entreaty to Joseph for Benjamin's safe return
        to his father, and the effect it produced.

        Into how many parts is the selection naturally
        divided? Into three parts, corresponding to the
        paragraphs as given in the Reader.

        What is the principal idea in each part?

        1. Joseph's decision to keep the offender as a
        bondman. (Paragraph I)

        2. Judah's supplication to Joseph that Benjamin
        be permitted to return for his father's sake.
        (Paragraph II)

        3. Joseph's revelation of his identity, and the
        provision he makes for the maintenance of his
        kindred. (Paragraph III)


Paragraph I

        Why did Joseph's brethren fall "before him on
        the ground"? Prostration is the Eastern mode of
        signifying profound respect, complete

        What is the meaning of "divine"? In this sense,
        to look into the future; to see what is hidden
        from ordinary people.

        Does Joseph claim explicitly to have this
        ability? No, he merely suggests it, probably to
        impress them with the idea of his power.

        What does Judah mean by "the iniquity of thy
        servants"? Doubtless he has in mind the wrong
        that they committed years before, in selling
        Joseph to the Ishmaelites and deceiving their
        father. Verses 21 and 22 of the 42nd chapter of
        Genesis go to show that the consciousness of
        this sin was ever before them.

        What was Judah's attitude toward the accusation
        brought against them? He frankly confesses the
        guilt of all--not of Benjamin only.

        Why do you think he adopts this attitude, when
        he must have been sure that all were guiltless?
        He perhaps believes that they are victims of a
        conspiracy, the object of which is to place
        them in the power of this Egyptian governor,
        and he thinks that this submissive attitude is
        best calculated to secure mercy at his hands.

        How do you account for Joseph's apparent desire
        to keep Benjamin in Egypt, with himself?
        Probably he thinks this the best means of
        inducing his father, Jacob, to come to Egypt.
        However, he may not really intend to keep
        Benjamin at all. He may be making the threat
        only to test Judah. It may be remembered that
        it was Judah who had counselled the selling of
        Joseph years before. Joseph may now be trying
        to see if Judah is the same kind of man he was
        when the selling into Egypt took place--whether
        he will sacrifice Benjamin in this extremity as
        he sacrificed Joseph himself.

        If the latter is Joseph's object, how does the
        experiment succeed? It proves that Judah is a
        different man, that the years that have elapsed
        have produced a remarkable change in his

Paragraph II

        Of what does Judah's entreaty largely consist?
        Of a recital of the governor's orders and of
        Jacob's attachment to Benjamin, the son in whom
        all the thoughts, hopes, and desires of his old
        age are centred.

        Upon what does Judah lay the greatest emphasis?
        Upon the effect that Benjamin's detention will
        have upon his father. Evidently the brothers
        are very anxious to spare their father any
        unnecessary grief and pain.

        For what purpose is the whole speech specially
        adapted? To stir the emotions. It is suited to
        appeal to the feelings of anybody, but,
        particularly, to the feelings of Egypt's
        governor, though his identity is still unknown.

        Which are the most pathetic sentences? The two
        beginning with, "And we said unto my lord, We
        have a father, an old man", and "Now,
        therefore, when I come to thy servant, my
        father, and the lad be not with us".

        What features of the speech would make the
        strongest appeal to Joseph? The reference to
        his father's old age and his attachment to
        Benjamin; his belief in Joseph's untimely end;
        the blow that separation from Benjamin would
        involve; Judah's willingness to sacrifice

        What light does the speech throw upon Judah's
        character? It shows a capacity for intense
        feeling, a deep devotion to his father, and a
        spirit of self-sacrifice. It might indicate
        also a shrewd knowledge of human nature, for he
        apparently knows how to present the case in the
        most effective manner.

        What is the meaning of "thou art even as
        Pharaoh"? Thou art as mighty as the king of

        Explain "thy servant became surety for the lad
        unto my father". Judah had given Jacob a
        guarantee that Benjamin should return safely.

        Select any figurative expression and give its
        meaning. "Thy servants shall bring down the
        gray hairs of thy servant our father with
        sorrow to the grave." The blow which separation
        from Benjamin would involve will cause the aged
        father to die of a broken heart.

        What are the main characteristics of the
        supplication? The language is simple and
        direct, the feeling is of the loftiest
        character, and the whole speech is highly
        eloquent. If the test of true eloquence is the
        intensity of the appeal it makes to worthy
        emotions, this passage may well be regarded as
        one of the most eloquent in all literature.

Paragraph III

        Did Joseph purposely select this as the most
        fitting moment to reveal himself? No. He
        revealed himself because he could not help it
        and because Judah's appeal had so worked upon
        his feelings. The first sentence of the
        paragraph indicates this.

        Why did he send every man away except his
        brothers? He did not wish others to see his own
        lack of self-control or his brothers' shame and
        embarrassment. Moreover, it was a solemn
        situation, too sacred for vulgar eyes to gaze

        We are told that he "wept aloud", that "he fell
        upon his brother Benjamin's neck, and wept",
        that "he kissed all his brethren", etc. Is he
        unduly demonstrative? Eastern people are much
        more emotional and demonstrative than Western

        Why did he have to repeat his assurance that he
        was Joseph? The first announcement was so
        amazing that it seemed incredible to them.
        Moreover, all his previous communications had
        been through an interpreter and, no doubt,
        their amazement was increased by hearing him
        address them in their own tongue.

        Upon what ground did Joseph tell his brothers
        that they should not blame themselves for
        selling him into Egypt? Upon the ground that
        God had brought good out of the evil they had

        Is he quite right in telling them that they
        should not be grieved for the wrong they did
        him? They were free agents; God did not will
        that they should sin, though He brought good
        out of it. From this point of view Joseph is
        wrong. But he doubtless sees that his brothers
        have long ago repented their action and does
        not wish them to continue to blame themselves.
        His assurance is no doubt prompted by a noble
        generosity induced, to some extent, by Judah's

        What seems to be Joseph's dominating motive?
        His love for his father. His repeated
        references to him show this.

        We can understand his desire to provide for his
        father and Benjamin, but why for his brothers
        who had wronged him? Partly for his father's
        sake, perhaps. It was natural, in those
        patriarchal days, that Jacob, if he migrated to
        Egypt, should wish his family to do the same.
        Besides, Joseph sees that his brothers are
        changed men.

        What inducements does he hold out to them? He
        shows them that his own power in Egypt is
        sufficient to protect them; he promises them
        the fertile land of Goshen, with sufficient
        food for themselves and their flocks and herds;
        and he points out that five years of famine are
        yet to be in the land, and that they must
        inevitably suffer if the invitation is

        Joseph frequently draws attention to his power
        in Egypt. Is he at all vain-glorious? No, he
        does this to assure his brothers that the wrong
        done him years before has had, through the
        goodness of God, a beneficent result; to show
        them that it has not been all suffering in his
        long exile; and to induce his father to come
        down to Egypt.

        "After that his brethren talked with him."
        About what would they probably talk? No doubt
        Joseph would ask many things about what had
        occurred in Canaan since he left, and would
        give his brothers an account of his own
        experiences in Egypt.

        Does it not seem strange that Joseph, during
        all these years, should never have taken
        measures to find out how his kindred fared, or
        to assure them that he was still alive? He was
        probably ever looking forward to such a
        situation as this, confident that the dreams of
        his boyhood would still be realized. It was,
        perhaps, this belief in the ultimate fulfilment
        of his dreams that had kept him silent during
        these years.

        What qualities of character does Joseph show in
        his speech? A spirit of noble generosity and
        forgiveness, filial devotion, and a desire to
        find good in the midst of seeming evil.

        Point out passages that indicate these
        qualities. What admirable characteristics does
        the whole selection exhibit? Simplicity,
        directness, and eloquence of language, noble
        emotion, loftiness of character, and high

As a final synthesis of the lesson, let the pupils tell the story in
their own words, preserving, as far as possible, the same order of ideas
as is followed in the extract. This will reveal to the teacher whether
they have grasped the ideas in their proper relationship.


(Fourth Reader, page 89)


This selection is taken from Shakespeare's play _The Merchant of
Venice_, iv. i. In this play, Shylock, a Jew of Venice, had loaned
Antonio three thousand ducats, repayable on a certain date without
interest, but if not so paid, Antonio was to forfeit a pound of flesh
from such part of his body as pleased the Jew. Antonio, not being able
to pay the money as agreed, Shylock sued for the fulfilment of the bond,
and in court refused to accept even three times the amount borrowed,
insisting on a pound of the merchant's flesh. According to the law,
there appeared to be no help for Antonio, but the judge, Portia, asked
Shylock to show mercy. To this he answered, "On what compulsion must I?
Tell me that." This selection is part of Portia's reply to Shylock's
question. The teacher should relate to the pupils the outline given


        1. The qualities of mercy:

        (1) It is not forced.
        (2) It is gentle.
        (3) It carries a twofold blessing.
        (4) It is the most powerful attribute in men of might.
        (5) It is divine in its nature.

        2. Where mercy is found:

        (1) It is found "enthroned in the hearts of kings".
        (2) It is found as a Divine attribute.

        3. The results of showing mercy:

        (1) It adds strength to strength.
        (2) It makes man God-like.

        Question, in order to develop the analysis of
        the thought, and write on the board the topics,
        as given by the pupils.


        Quality of mercy. The nature of mercy is not
        strained, is not forced. When the Jew asks
        "Upon what compulsion must I?", Portia answers
        that compulsion has nothing to do with mercy.
        It is not in the nature of mercy to be a result
        of compulsion.

        Mightiest in the mightiest. This is capable of
        a double interpretation--(1) the quality of
        mercy in a man of great power must be strong in
        proportion as his power is great. (2) Mercy is
        at its greatest when exhibited by the greatest.
        Portia would wish to convey the first meaning,
        as that would have the more weight with

        Becomes the thronèd monarch. The possession of
        this quality makes a man more truly kingly than
        the mere wearing of a crown.

        Sceptre. The symbol of the monarch's authority.

        Temporal power. Power which belongs to this
        world only.

        Mercy--is enthronèd in the hearts of kings. The
        "hearts of kings" are for mercy what the throne
        itself is for a king--the most exalted position
        he can occupy.

        Mercy seasons justice. Mercy tempers justice,
        rendering it less severe and making it more
        acceptable and pleasing.

        Develop the meaning through Illustration, when
        possible. For example, to teach the meaning of
        "seasons" in "mercy seasons justice", lead the
        pupils to use the word seasons in such
        sentences as: We season our food with spices.
        Lead, from the meaning in common or familiar
        use, to its use in the lesson. Avoid mere
        dictionary meanings of words. Teach the use of
        the word where it is found, never one of its
        meanings apart from its use.


        There is no compulsion in mercy. Its course is
        always from the higher to the lower. It is a
        blessing to both giver and receiver. The
        greater the mercy shown, the greater will be
        the giver. To show mercy does more to make a
        monarch kingly than does his crown. The one
        stands for the exercise of authority and power
        commanding obedience and awe; the other comes
        from the heart and reveals the character. It is
        more than kingly, it is God-like; for in
        exercising it, man's power becomes more like
        God's than in any other way.

        Develop the above argument by questioning. Sum
        up the result by requiring the whole argument
        to be given by a pupil orally in his own
        language. Finally, require the pupils to write,
        as forcibly as they can, the whole of Portia's

        The remainder of Portia's speech as given in
        the play may also be given to the pupils. In
        that case, the remainder of the argument should
        be given as follows:

        You demand justice, Jew. Even so, require it as
        you hope Heaven may require it of you. Consider
        that mercy is necessary to salvation, and
        remember that, as we all pray for mercy, that
        fact itself requires us all to show the deeds
        of mercy.

        The speech containing this part of the argument
        is as follows:

                                      Therefore, Jew,
        Though justice be thy plea, consider this,
        That, in the course of justice, none of us
        Should see salvation: We do pray for mercy;
        And that same prayer doth teach us all to render
        The deeds of mercy.

        "We do pray for mercy", refers to the general
        prayer of humanity for mercy. To have limited
        its reference to the petition for mercy in the
        Lord's Prayer would have weakened its force to
        the Jew.


(Fourth Reader, page 228)


1. The teacher should explain to the pupils that the Lièvre River
(pronounced Lee-eh-vr) runs through a deep gorge in the height of land
on the Quebec side of the Ottawa River, into which it flows not far from
the Capital. In some places, the banks of the Lièvre rise abruptly to a
great height; at others more gradually, the slope being covered with a
thick forest growth. As the river nears the Ottawa, the banks become
much lower. The scenery, whether viewed from the height above or from
the river below, is very beautiful.

2. The teacher should ask a few questions which can be answered easily
from the pupil's own reading of the poem, for example:

From what position does the author first view the scene? What things in
the scene appeal to each of the pupils as the most beautiful? Describe
the incident mentioned in the last stanza. State in a single sentence
the subject-matter of the whole poem.


The pupils' answers to the questions given when the lesson was assigned
should be dealt with first.

Stanza I

        What first attracts the author's attention as
        he looks upward? What makes us feel how high up
        the banks the mist extends? What part of the
        mist appears most beautiful? Why? To what is it
        compared? How does this comparison affect our
        impression of (1) the colour of the mist; (2)
        the height of the mist? Does the comparison
        make the meaning clearer? Is the comparison
        apt? Is it beautiful?

NOTE.--When a blacksmith cools the red-hot iron in a tub of water,
vapour rises to the roof of his shop. The blaze from his forge shining
on this mist produces the colours mentioned. The amethyst is a precious
stone, clear and translucent, with a colour inclining to purple. The
presence of coal dust or smoke in the vapour would help to produce the
colour of amethyst. The same effect would result, if some smoke or dust
were mingled with the mist where the sun's rays reach it at the top of
the gorge.

        "Screams his matins to the day." What is meant?
        What idea does the author wish to convey by
        this mention of the bird? Out of hearing "of
        the clang of his hammer" gives a strong
        impression of the great height of the gorge. Of
        what "giant" are we made to think? What is
        meant by "skirts of mist"?

The teacher's reading of this stanza, a part at a time, if it is taken
up in that way, or all at once, should aid much in impressing upon the
minds of the pupils the wonderful beauty of the scene described, and
this is the main purpose of the lesson.

Stanza II

        The author is paddling down the river. Describe
        the movement. What shows that the mist has
        risen from the surface of the water? What
        indicates the calmness of the river? What
        things connected with himself does the author
        show to be in harmony with the scene? How does
        he indicate the harmony in each of the
        following: The motion of his canoe, the surface
        of the water, his own activity, the force of
        gravity, the character of the morning, and the
        forest life? We should expect him to dip his
        paddle very quietly, if he felt the calmness of
        the morning, but to show that the "silence"
        pervades all nature, the very drops of water
        from the paddle blades seem to fall gently, in
        sympathy with the spirit of silence reigning
        all around. What are the "river reaches"? The
        reach is the stretch of the river between two
        bends. How are they "borne in a mirror"? The
        high cliff-like banks are mirrored in the
        surface of the water. Explain the colour
        "purple gray". It is the colour of the image of
        the banks in the water. What is meant by "sheer
        away"? It means that the "river reaches" curve
        away like a winding road. Try to see the
        picture of the winding river, apparently
        growing smaller as it passes curve after curve.
        As it seems to recede into the distance, the
        surface of the river forms a "misty line of
        light", just before it melts into the shadows
        of the forest. Where do the forest and the
        stream seem to meet? What does the word
        "plight" suggest about their meeting? What
        suggests a meeting-place out of sight? Why is
        the meeting represented as taking place in the
        shadow? Now what is described in the second

        "As a cloud", "like a dream". Do these make the
        meaning clearer? Explain. Are these comparisons
        apt? Show the fitness of "silvery", "crystal
        deep", "asleep".

Stanza III

        As the author goes farther and farther down the
        stream, the river runs more slowly. How is this
        shown? What shows that the little creek runs
        very slowly into the river? How does the author
        say the creek is winding? Why would not the
        same word "curling" do to show that the river
        was winding through the gorge? What are we told
        about the mouth of the creek? See those sunken
        wrecks down in the water. What are they like?
        What shows you that they are very large tree
        trunks? What starts the ducks? See them as they
        rise out of the water. Make a drawing to show
        their position. The drawing should show them
        flying in the shape of a horizontal letter V,
        as wild ducks fly. What words show you that
        they keep this position unbroken? Hear them as
        they fly off at their utmost speed. Why such
        haste? What makes the "swivelling whistle"?
        This is the noise they make as they fly.
        Imagine a whistle to be set whirling around as
        it whistles. The change in the sound due to the
        whirling motion of the whistle might be called
        a swivelling whistle. See them go, led through
        the shadow. Hear them, as they disappear behind
        a rocky point ahead. What is meant by their
        "whirr"? What has made us forget all about the
        beauty of the silent morning? What effect did
        this silence probably have on the poet's
        judgment of the noise made by the ducks? Now
        what is described in the third stanza?

        Consider the fitness of the words "lazy",
        "sucks", "bleeds", "sneak", "swept", "splashy".


        1. Make a sketch of the scene in the first
        stanza, showing the rocky, high, forest-covered
        banks, with mist rising along the slopes, and
        the man in a canoe on a small stream below.

        2. Make a sketch of the scene described in the
        second stanza, showing the winding river, with
        its high banks appearing to meet in the
        distance, the man in his canoe in the
        foreground, and over all the dim light of early

        3. Make a sketch of the ducks rising from the
        water. Show the reeds at the mouth of the creek
        and the rocky spur toward which the birds are


        As it is not necessary to know anything about
        the author to fully understand this poem,
        nothing should be said about his life until the
        pupils become interested in him through their
        interest in what he has written. Then teach the
        main points in his life. See sketch of his
        life, at the back of the Manual on _The Ontario


(Fourth Reader, page 287)


By way of introduction, it might be well to tell the pupils something of
Bret Harte--his residence in California, his experience as a prospector
in the goldfields, his stories of the mining camps, and his admiration
of Dickens. (See Manual on _The Ontario Readers_, p. 315.) These facts
throw considerable light upon the poem, and will be useful in aiding the
pupils to interpret it properly. This poem was written shortly after the
death of Dickens. It might well follow the study of _David Copperfield's
First Journey Alone_ and _The Indignation of Nicholas Nickleby_.


When the poem has been read, the teacher should, before beginning the
analysis, ask a few general questions, such as:

        What has Dickens to do with the story related
        in the poem? He was the author of the book read
        in the camp, _Old Curiosity Shop_, of which
        "Nell" is the heroine. (A brief outline of the
        story, with special reference to the feelings
        it arouses in the reader, might be given here.)

        What kind of camp is referred to in the poem? A
        mining camp. The last line of the second stanza
        suggests this.

        Where is the scene laid? Apparently in
        California, among the Sierra Nevada Mountains.
        This is indicated in the first stanza.

        What is the leading idea of the poem? The
        effect which the reading of a story by Dickens
        produced in a Western mining camp.

        What are the main sub-topics?

        1. The scene of the incident. Stanzas I-III.
        2. The reading of the story. Stanzas IV-VII.
        3. A lament for the death of Dickens. Stanzas VIII-X.


Stanza I

        How does the description of the scene, as given
        in stanza I, differ from that given in stanza
        II? Stanza I gives the background and the
        remote surroundings, while stanza II places us
        in the midst of the camp.

        What features give the story a romantic
        setting? The stately "pines", the singing
        "river", the "slowly drifting moon", the
        snow-capped mountains.

        From the description in the first stanza, give
        as clear a picture of the location of the camp
        as possible. It was situated on the edge of a
        cañon in the Sierras, towering pines rising
        round about, the river flowing noisily beneath,
        and the mountains uplifting their snow-covered
        peaks in the distance.

        Explain the comparison suggested in the last
        two lines. The mountain summits, with their
        everlasting snows, resemble in the distance the
        minarets, or lofty tapering towers, attached to
        Mohammedan mosques.

        Which is preferable, "minarets of snow", or
        "snow-covered peaks"? The former, because it is
        a more unusual expression and because of what
        it suggests.

Stanza II

        Why is the camp-fire represented as a rude
        humorist? It causes faces and forms that are
        haggard and care-worn to appear fresh and
        healthy, thus playing a grim jest upon those
        gathered round it.

        Explain the significance of "fierce" in the
        last line. In the mad rush for gold, all the
        worst elements of man's nature are brought to
        the surface--disregard for the rights of
        others, contempt for law and order, and even
        carelessness with regard to human life.

        Consider the fitness of the words "rude",
        "painted", "race", as used here.

Stanza III

        What indicates the value that the owner places
        upon this book? The words "treasure" and
        "hoarded" suggest that it is one of his most
        highly prized possessions.

        What suggests that this is not the first time
        the story has been read in camp? The word

        How does the poet indicate the absorbing
        interest that the story has for these men? He
        says the fascination is so great as to draw the
        attention of these rough miners even from their
        card-playing. Explain "listless leisure".

Stanza IV

        Explain "the firelight fell". The fire
        gradually died down, because, absorbed in their
        interest in the story, the miners forgot to put
        on fresh fuel.

        Why is Dickens called the "Master"? A master is
        one who attains the highest degree of skill in
        some art. Dickens was master of the art of
        story-telling, a master of vivid narration, a
        master of pathos and humour.

Stanzas V and VI

        Is there anything in these stanzas which might
        throw light upon the identity of the reader? He
        is probably the poet himself. His familiarity
        with the fancies of the reader seem to indicate
        this. Besides, the reader is kept very much in
        the background--we are told only that he was
        young--and this seems to be in keeping with the
        modesty of the poet as shown elsewhere in the
        poem. At any rate, we must admit that the
        reader was a poet, for he indulges in fancies
        of a highly poetical nature.

        What are those fancies? Such is the absorbing
        interest of the story that even the pines and
        cedars seem to stand silent to listen, and the
        fir trees gather closer in order that nothing
        may escape their hearing.

        What is the poetic element in these fancies?
        Ascribing to inanimate objects the power of
        human interest and sympathy.

        What effect does the poet secure by picturing
        the trees as listeners? It enhances our idea of
        the absorbing interest of the story.

        Mention any other illustrations of a poet's use
        of this device of attributing human sympathies
        to inanimate objects. Many might be given, for

        Byron's _Waterloo_:

        And Ardennes waves above them her green leaves,
          Dewy with Nature's tear-drops, as they pass,
        Grieving, if aught inanimate e'er grieves,
          Over the unreturning brave.

        Longfellow's _Evangeline_ describing the song
        of the mocking-bird:

        Shook from his little throat such floods of delirious music,
        That the whole air and the woods and waves seemed silent to listen.

        Mrs. Hemans' _The Landing of the Pilgrim

        Amidst the storm they sang, and the stars heard, and the sea.

        What experience of "Nell" is alluded to in the
        last two lines of stanza V? She and her
        grandfather had been lost on their journey from

        Why does the poet say that the whole camp "lost
        their way" with "Nell" on English meadows? The
        narrative was so vivid that the miners, in
        spirit, accompanied her in her wanderings.

Stanza VII

        What is meant by "Their cares dropped from
        them"? They forgot themselves, their cares and
        privations, and realized the hopes and fears,
        the joys and sorrows of "Little Nell".

        How was this result brought about? It was due
        to the fascination of the story.

        To what does the poet compare this? To some
        "spell divine", some supernatural influence,
        which causes their own troubles to disappear
        for the time being.

        Give, then, the meaning of "o'ertaken as by
        some spell divine". They are brought, as it
        were, under the influence of some magician,
        who, by the exercise of his power, transports
        them from their own world to that in which
        "Nell" lives and moves.

        Show the beauty of the comparison in the last
        two lines of this stanza. As the needles of the
        pine, through the action of the wind, fall
        silently and almost unperceived, so the cares
        of the miners were forgotten in the
        all-compelling interest of the story.

        Compare Longfellow:

        The cares that infest the day
          Shall fold their tents like the Arabs,
        And as silently steal away.

        Why is this comparison more appropriate than,
        for example, like the leaves from the trees in
        autumn, or, like snow-flakes from the clouds in
        winter? Because it is drawn from the objects at
        hand, not from more remote things--an example
        of local colour.

        Explain "gusty pine". A pine exposed to the
        mountain blasts.

Stanza VIII

        Who is referred to by "he" in the second line?
        Dickens--not the reader of the story.

        What is meant by "wrought that spell"? Produced
        that magic influence.

        State the question in full. Is "he who wrought
        that spell" lost, too?

        What tale has the "towering pine" to tell? That
        the mining camp has disappeared.

        And what the "stately Kentish spire"? That
        Dickens has gone. (Dickens' home was at
        Gadshill, in Kent.)

        What is the one tale that both have to tell? A
        tale of disappearance and death.

        Is the question asked in the second line
        answered? Not directly, though the answer is

        State the substantial meaning of the stanza.
        The "towering pine" of the Sierras tells of the
        disappearance of the mining camp; the "stately
        spire" of Kent tells of the death of Dickens;
        both bear witness to the potent influence of

Stanza IX

        What is the "fragrant story" of the Western
        mining camp? The tribute that the incident
        related in the poem pays to the magical power
        of Dickens as a story writer.

        Why is it called a "fragrant story"? The author
        poetically conceives of it as being laden with
        the fragrance of the fir, the pine, and the
        cedar--a sort of "incense" to the memory of the

        What is incense? The odours of spices and gums
        burned in religious rites.

        What poetic idea does the author express in the
        last two lines? The hopvines of Kent are
        represented as uniting with the pine, fir, and
        cedar in sending forth their fragrance as

        What is the meaning, then, of the whole stanza?
        Let the fragrance of the pine, the cedar, and
        the fir, mingled with the odours of the Kentish
        hopvines, be as incense to the memory of the

Stanza X

        Does the poet mean that the grave of Dickens is
        literally adorned with oak, holly, and laurel
        wreaths? No; he is speaking figuratively.

        What do these typify? The tributes of
        admiration, reverence, and love that are paid
        to the memory of Dickens in his own country.

        Of what is each emblematic? The oak is
        emblematic of England, the life of whose people
        he so vividly depicted; the holly suggests his
        charming Christmas stories; the laurel
        signifies his mastery of the art of writing.

        What does the poet mean by "This spray of
        Western pine"? This poem was written in the
        Western World, as a tribute to the memory of
        the great novelist.

        What personal characteristic does the poet show
        in the third line? A sense of humility, which
        leads him to suggest that this poem is unworthy
        of a place among the tributes paid to the name
        and fame of the great artist.

        Stripped of its figurative significance, what
        is the meaning of the whole stanza? To the many
        tokens of love and admiration that are offered
        to the memory of Dickens, may I be permitted to
        add this poem--a Western tribute to the
        worldwide influence of the famous author.


        Tell the story of the poem in your own words.

        In a cañon of the Sierras, a group of rough
        miners were gathered about a camp-fire. Around
        them stood the stately pines, above which the
        moon was slowly rising; below, at the bottom of
        the cañon, a river sang, as it threaded its way
        among the boulders; and, far in the distance,
        the mountains reared their snow-covered summits
        to the evening sky. The flickering camp-fire
        played strange tricks upon those gathered round
        it, for it gave to the care-worn faces and bent
        forms of the miners the appearance of freshness
        and health.

        One of the miners, a mere youth, opened his
        pack, drew therefrom a copy of Dickens' _Old
        Curiosity Shop_, and began to read aloud. At
        once, all other occupations were suspended, and
        everybody drew near to listen to the story. The
        whole camp yielded itself to the fascination of
        the tale, and in its absorbing interest they
        forgot themselves and their surroundings, their
        ills, their hardships, and their cares. One
        might almost fancy that the very pines and
        cedars became silent, and that the fir trees
        drew closer to hear the story of "Little Nell".

        Dickens, the "Master", has gone, but, among the
        many tributes that are paid to his power as a
        writer, let this little tale of the Western
        camp be added, to illustrate the universal
        nature of his influence.


(Fourth Reader, page 289)


This lesson should be preceded by a suitable preparatory lesson on the
life of some man, for example, Peel, Disraeli, or Lincoln, who, in spite
of all obstacles, rose to eminence in the nation and lived "To mould a
mighty state's decrees".


Tennyson and Arthur Hallam, as young men at college, were great friends.
The bond of affection between them was probably as strong as it was
possible for friendship between two men to be. When Hallam died in 1833,
at twenty-two years of age, Tennyson said of him: "He was as near
perfection as a mortal man could be". From time to time during the next
seventeen years, Tennyson wrote short poems on themes which occurred to
him in connection with his thoughts of Hallam. These he finally
collected and published in one volume, called _In Memoriam_.


The purpose of this lesson should be in harmony with the purpose of _In
Memoriam_. It should, therefore, be a study of life within the
comprehension of the pupils. The lesson should aid in securing the
development of character and an appreciation of worthy ambition and
enduring friendship.


The lesson should be assigned in such a way as to encourage the pupils'
natural desire to learn something through their own efforts. A few
questions should be given to be answered from their own study, for

        1. What does the first line show regarding
        Tennyson's present thought of Hallam?

        2. What stanzas describe the progress of the
        man who reminds him of Hallam?

        3. What is described in the remaining stanzas?

        4. What lines suggest something about this
        man's feelings toward the scenes and friends of
        his youth?

        5. In what respect, according to the last
        stanza, does Tennyson show that one of these
        old-time friends is like himself?


        What does Tennyson describe in the first four

Stanza I

        Why does he call the man "divinely gifted"?
        Because he has had great natural gifts.

        When should we call a man of only ordinary
        ability "divinely gifted"? What have you read
        that illustrates this? (If the pupils cannot
        answer this question, the teacher should tell
        briefly the parable of the talents.)

        What is meant by "Whose life in low estate
        began"? Why are the details about his early
        life mentioned? State briefly the thought
        contained in this stanza.

Stanza II

        What was the effect of his humble birth on his
        progress in early life? In what ways did it act
        as a bar: (1) upon his own mind; (2) upon the
        good-will of others toward himself? Which of
        these two do the following lines from
        _[OE]none_ indicate that the poet would say
        must be overcome first?

        Self-reverence, self-knowledge, self-control,
        These three alone lead life to sovereign power.

        State in your own words, the full meaning of
        "breaks his birth's invidious bar".
        NOTE.--"Invidious" means likely to incur, or
        bring on envy, ill-will, or hatred.

        What idea is suggested in the second line as to
        the opportunities which come to such a man?
        Imagine him grasping these fleeting chances.
        What were his probable feelings toward those
        things which eluded his grasp? (Be careful in
        answering this. Remember that the man has
        gained the mastery of himself.)

        What is meant by "blows of circumstance"? What
        were some of these difficulties?

        What does the action-word "breasts" suggest:
        (1) about the character of these difficulties,
        (2) about the character of the man? Explain
        "grapples with his evil star". What is the
        allusion? Tell, in the poet's own words, what
        this "evil star" was. Imagine this man
        grappling with it. What term do boys often use
        for a similar action? Which is going to win
        this wrestling match? Give reasons, from what
        the man has already done, for thinking that he
        will win. What does this action show about his
        belief in luck?

        What do the action-words in this stanza suggest
        about the man's character? What sounds in each
        of the words help to emphasize this grim

        State briefly the relation of the thought of
        this stanza to that of the first.

Stanza III

        What effect did the man's early struggles have
        on his mental power and character? What does
        Tennyson call this increased energy and
        strength of character? He calls it "force".
        Now, explain "makes by force his merit known".

        What position in the gift of the nation do the
        next three lines show that he gained at last?
        What words indicate the emblem of the Premier's

        "Clutch the golden keys." What does this action
        suggest as to his character? What word is
        generally used to denote such determination to
        gain power and influence? What makes such
        ambition lawful? What use does Tennyson show
        this man made of his ambition? What is meant by
        "mould a mighty state's decrees"? As Premier,
        to whom would it be his duty to give advice?

        The people know that the sovereign must act on
        the advice of his ministers, of whom the
        Premier is the most influential; but they
        believe that the judgment of the sovereign
        often modifies and improves this advice. To the
        nation, this influence of the sovereign is a
        silent force, but, like the silent forces in
        nature, they believe it to be powerful.

        In what words does Tennyson express this mutual
        influence of the King and the Premier? What
        features of this influence are expressed
        respectively by the words "shape" and
        "whisper"? What action-words in this stanza
        suggest the relation (1) of effort, (2) of
        time, to the magnitude of the work?

        State in a single sentence the thought of this

Stanza IV

        What is the final test of the value of a law?
        Its effects on the people. In what words does
        Tennyson show the effect on the people of the
        laws made through this man's influence?

        Explain how this man became "The pillar of a
        people's hope". What words show the
        far-reaching extent of his influence? Which
        shows the more force in the man, his influence
        with the King or his later influence in the
        whole nation? In what words does Tennyson show
        which he thinks the greater? To which do "high"
        and "higher" respectively refer? What does
        "Fortune's crowning slope" suggest about (1)
        the honour which the man has now gained, (2)
        the nature of the road he has travelled?

Stanza V

        Picture the man as he looks back after having
        reached the height of his ambition. Describe
        his mood. At what times does he indulge in
        these dreamy memories? What does he seem to see
        in these quiet hours? What hill and stream does
        the poet mean? What feeling does each awaken?
        Why is the "sweetness" called "secret"? Why is
        the "dearness" called "distant"?

Stanza VI

        What part of his life is meant by "his narrower
        fate"? With what is he comparing that early
        life, when he calls it "his narrower fate"?
        Using similar language, what might his present
        position of great influence be called?

        Some think that the first line of this stanza
        refers to the limitations or restrictions of
        his early life, while others say the poet was
        thinking simply of the stream, as the limit or
        boundary of the things that influenced his
        childhood. Which view is to be preferred? Which
        meaning agrees with the use of the word "its"
        in the next line? Would this man now look back
        on those difficulties of his early life as
        limitations and hindrances, or as things which
        helped to make him what he is?

        Now explain "The limit of his narrower fate".
        Compare the direction in which he looks in his
        day dreams now, with the direction in which he
        looked in those of his boyhood. What is meant
        by "vocal springs"?

        In what way were the games of his youth
        prophetic of his future work as a man? What do
        people mean by saying, "The boy is father of
        the man"?

Stanza VII

        Describe the present occupation of the friend
        of his boyhood. What information about his
        friend does the word "native" give us? What
        phrases show how he does his work?

        Compare the farmer's query in the last line
        with that in the first line of the poem.


        Under the following heads, point out the
        resemblance of Hallam to the statesman and of
        Tennyson to the farmer:

        1. Early friendship
        2. Their separation
        3. Progress since parting
        4. Memories of each other.

        It is hoped that no teacher will use these
        questions as a substitute for his own
        questioning. If they are accepted as suggestive
        in regard to both interpretation and method,
        they may be of real service, otherwise they
        will be almost valueless.


(Fourth Reader, page 311)


To lead the pupils to appreciate the music and imagery of the poem.


        Where is Waterloo situated? In Belgium. What
        two armies were engaged in this battle? The
        French and the English; with the latter were
        some Prussian allies. Who were the French and
        the English commanders? Napoleon and
        Wellington. What was the result of the battle?
        The overthrow of Napoleon and his banishment to
        St. Helena. What would have been the
        consequence if Wellington had been defeated?
        Napoleon would possibly have had complete
        mastery of Europe. Picture this struggle of
        great commanders and disciplined armies, while
        Europe waited breathlessly for the outcome.
        (The pupils should read some good history of
        this battle.)


Read the poem to the pupils in such a way as to make vivid the scenes


What has the poet described in this poem? Some of the events preceding
the battle.

What are the main pictures found in each stanza? (Write on the

1. The ball

2. The sound of the enemy's cannon

3. The Duke of Brunswick

4. The farewells

5. The muster

6. The gathering of the Highlanders

7. The march to battle

8. Summary of pictures and the result.

Do you see any stanza that interferes with the progress of the action?
The third stanza anticipates the battle and destroys the continuity
between the sounds of the approaching enemy and the hurried farewells.

Why does the poet devote a special stanza to the Highlanders? Were they
more worthy of mention than the English and Irish regiments? The author,
George Gordon, Lord Byron, belonged to a Scotch family. The muster of
the Highlanders at midnight, combined with their stirring music, made a
very picturesque incident.

Consider the elements which contribute to the various scenes:

Stanza I

        What is described? The ball given by the
        Duchess of Richmond. What is the emotion of
        this stanza? Pleasure, gaiety. What is the
        picture in the first line? The arrival of the
        guests, the welcomes, and the "revelry" of the
        assembly. Why does the author say "Belgium's
        capital" rather than "Brussels"? It suggests
        the capital of a nation with a noble people.
        Who were the "Beauty" and the "Chivalry"? The
        ladies, the officers of the army, and the
        nobility. Describe the picture you see in
        "bright the lamps shone o'er fair women and
        brave men". The large ball-room, the
        brilliantly lighted chandeliers, the beautiful
        costumes of the ladies, the uniforms and
        decorations of officers and nobles. Describe
        the images that are suggested by "and when
        music arose with its voluptuous swell". The
        bands of the regiments are playing the music of
        the dance. Notice how the poet changes the
        rhythm to the foot of three syllables, to
        indicate the music of the waltz. What contrast
        do you find in the last two lines? "Marriage
        bell" and "rising knell". What was the purpose
        of this? To show the contrast between pleasure
        and fear.

Stanza II

        What is the theme? The sound of the enemy's
        cannon. Why does the author use the dramatic
        form? A conversation between two people of
        opposite temperaments gives greater reality to
        the picture. The first seems to expect danger,
        but is, for a moment, silenced by the other's
        upbraiding him for attempting to spoil the
        pleasure of the evening. A repetition of the
        "heavy sound" proves that he is right. The
        second is a lover of pleasure, who would not
        have the first speaker alarm the guests by his
        gloomy anticipations. Show how the second
        speaker indicates his impatience. His answers
        are short, he speaks in ellipses. "On with the
        dance", and "No sleep till morn". Notice the
        positive tone of the first speaker in the
        repetition, "It is--it is".

Stanza III

        What is described here? The fate of Brunswick?
        Why does the author single out Brunswick from
        all the others who died? One specific case
        appeals to the reader more effectually than the
        report of the death of unknown thousands.
        Brunswick's father had been a noted general in
        the war with Napoleon. Explain, "Death's
        prophetic ear". This refers to a common
        superstition that "the veil of the future is
        lifted to those near to death". Show how the
        poet has broken the order of succession of the
        pictures. Brunswick's death is recorded before
        the breaking up of the ball is described.

Stanza IV

        What is the theme? The farewells. What is the
        emotion? Fear and anguish. What words show
        this? "Gathering tears", "tremblings of
        distress", "cheeks all pale", "sudden
        partings", etc. Give a line in a preceding
        stanza that expresses the same thought as
        "mutual eyes". "Soft eyes looked love to eyes
        which spake again."

Stanza V

        What is described? The muster of the troops.
        What is the prevailing feeling? The haste of
        the soldiers and the terror of the citizens.
        How does the poet show this haste? By the use
        of such phrases as "hot haste", "mustering
        squadron", "clattering car", "impetuous speed",
        "swiftly forming", as well as by the rapid
        movement of the verse. Why did the citizens of
        Brussels fear, since they had not to fight?
        They dreaded the pillage and ruin which would
        follow a French victory. Describe the scene in
        your own words--the cavalry forming in line,
        the movements of the artillery, the noise of
        distant cannon, the "alarming drum", and the
        panic of the citizens.

Stanza VI

        The gathering of the Highlanders. Does the poet
        address the ear or the eye in this description?
        Only the sound of the bagpipes is described,
        though it may suggest a picture of the Highland
        regiments. What words describe the music? "Wild
        and high", "war-note", "thrills savage and
        shrill". Why does the poet mention proper
        names--"Lochiel", "Evan", "Donald"? The
        bagpipes recall stirring memories of these men,
        which inspire the clansmen to prove worthy of
        their ancestors. What is the "Cameron's
        gathering"? The war-song of the Cameron clan.
        Were there only Camerons in the Highland
        regiments? No, the Camerons were only one
        famous clan, but are taken here as
        representative of the heroism of all the
        Highlanders. Again, the use of individual
        specific cases produces a greater impression
        than a more general term. What was the
        "pibroch"? A wild, irregular species of music
        played on the bagpipes, adapted particularly to
        rouse a martial spirit among troops going to

Stanza VII

        What is described in this stanza? The march to
        the battle-field. What words show that? "As
        they pass". They were going through the forest
        of "Ardennes". What is the mood of this stanza?
        Sadness. The trees are represented as shedding
        tears when "Nature" thinks of the sad fate
        awaiting so many brave men. What were those
        tears? The expression refers to the dew of the
        early morning on the leaves of the trees, but
        the poet has called it "Nature's tear-drops".
        It is only a fanciful presentation of a natural
        phenomenon. Explain, "if aught inanimate e'er
        grieves". If inanimate nature, such as trees or
        grass, can express sorrow. Nature cannot
        grieve, but we appreciate the beauty of the
        imagery. Point out a contrast in this stanza.
        "This fiery mass of living valour", and "shall
        moulder cold and low".

Stanza VIII

        What is the purpose of this stanza? It gives a
        summary of the preceding ones. Which stanza
        corresponds to line 2? Stanza I. Which
        corresponds to line 3? Stanzas II, III, and IV.
        Which stanzas picture the "marshalling in
        arms"? Stanzas V and VI. What stanzas picture
        "Battle's magnificently stern array"? Stanzas
        V and VII. Now contrast all these pictures with
        the last. The story is epitomized, and the end
        described--"friend, foe,--in one red burial

The pupils should now read the poem, in order that the teacher may judge
by the varying tones and movements whether it has been properly


(Fourth Reader, page 336)


To lead the pupils to appreciate the thrilling pictures and to
understand the means by which the author has produced this vividness.


The pupils have been required to read this lesson at their seats or at

        Where is the Tyrol situated? It is a province
        in the Austrian Alps directly east of
        Switzerland. (Show its position on the map.)

        The mountains are majestic, high, precipitous;
        the people daring and independent. The Tyrol is
        noted for the many accidents which happen to
        mountain-climbers. Who are the chief persons
        concerned in these three scenes? Maximilian I,
        Charles V, and Napoleon.

        The author wishes to give, amid the most
        impressive surroundings, three stirring events
        in the lives of three great Emperors. State
        briefly the first story. The Emperor Maximilian
        was hunting a chamois, when he slipped on the
        edge of the precipice, rolled helplessly over,
        and caught a jutting ledge of rock, which
        interrupted his descent. An outlaw hastened to
        his assistance and guided him to safety.



        Yes, this story is often called "The Rescue".
        Let us note how the author helps us to see the
        picture. Where does he place the spectator? On
        a "thread-like road" running between the rocky
        bank of the Inn River and the foot of the
        precipice of the Solstein.

        What does the author ask you, as the imaginary
        spectator, to do? To throw your head back and
        look upward.

        Why? The precipice towers perpendicularly many
        hundred feet above you. He wishes you to
        imagine you are standing on this road and the
        scene is taking place before your eyes.

        What do you see? A hunter in pursuit of a

        Describe this hunter. He is lofty and
        chivalrous in his bearing.

        What happens? He is bounding on after a chamois
        toward the edge of a precipice, when he loses
        his footing and falls.

        How does the author make you see this plainly?
        He uses the present tense, as if the scene were
        happening now--"is bounding", "loses his
        footing", "rolls helplessly".

        Any other way? Yes, he utters exclamations,
        "Mark!" "Ah!" Every act is told in the form of
        an exclamation.

        "What is it that arrests him?" This is a
        question. Does the author expect an answer? No,
        he asks the question as I would ask it of
        myself if I saw the hunter stopped in his

        Why does he not tell you who this hunter is? I
        see now for the first time that it is the great
        Emperor Maximilian who is in such peril.

        Does any one else see him? Yes, the Abbot, or
        head of a neighbouring monastery.

        Why does the author mention him? To indicate
        that, apparently, human aid could not save the

        What has been told us in this first paragraph?
        The peril of the Emperor.

        What is told us in the next? His rescue.

        Who else sees the danger? Zyps of Zirl.

        Who is he? A famous hunter and outlaw.

        Do you see him at first? No, I hear his cry.
        The author says "Hark! there is a wild cry!"
        Then I recognize the outlaw.

        Why does he utter the cry? To encourage the
        Emperor and let him know there is some one
        coming to his rescue.

        Again how does the author make the picture
        vivid? By the use of the present tense, by
        commands, questions, and exclamations, and by
        making the spectator, in his excitement,
        address the mountaineer directly; for example,
        "thou hunted and hunting outlaw, art thou out
        upon the heights?" etc.

        By what means does the author show how the
        outlaw comes to the Emperor's aid? By comparing
        him with the chamois, the insect, and the
        squirrel. This man combines in himself all
        their powers of movement.

        What does the spectator now do? He fears that
        all may yet be lost, so he shouts to the
        Emperor to have courage, that the hunter is

        How does the author show his relief from the
        strain of the last few moments? His sentences
        are now longer and smoother.

        How was this event afterwards regarded? The
        peasants maintained that an angel came down to
        their master's rescue.

        What does the author seem to think? That his
        rescue was due to the interposition of

        What is told in the next paragraph? Zyps'

        What did he receive? He was created a Count and
        received a pension from the Emperor.

        What was his title? "Count Hallooer von

        To what does this refer? To his "wild cry" from
        the high peaks, when he saw the Emperor in

        How can you prove that this story is true? By
        inspecting the pension list of the Royal House
        of Hapsburg and by looking at a cross in the
        mountains that has been erected on the very
        spot where Maximilian was rescued.


        Whom do you see in the second vision? The
        Emperor Charles V. pursued by his enemies.

        Who was he? One of the greatest monarchs in
        Europe, greater even than his grandfather,
        Maximilian I. In this scene he is ill; his army
        has met with reverses; he has made his escape
        from Innsbruck, the capital of the Tyrol, and
        is being conveyed through the mountains to a
        place of safety, closely pursued by Maurice of

        Describe the scene. It is at night, the wind is
        high, and is driving the rain against the
        Emperor's litter, which is borne by
        mountaineers and surrounded by his faithful

        What is given in the first paragraph? A
        description of the storm.

        How does the author prepare you for the scene?
        The night suggests danger and mystery, and the
        moon looks out from a cloud, as though at
        something taking place in the gorge. The
        spectator hears something besides the roar of
        the wind.

        Select all the words that show what a fearful
        night it is. "Night", "dark", "wild", "gusty
        winds", "howling", "sheets of blinding rain",
        "whirling", "hissing eddies", "rent asunder",
        "ravings of the tempest".

        Notice all the details the author has made use
        of to convey the idea of terror and danger.

        What is described in the next paragraph? The
        passage of the litter through the dark gorge.

        Is the spectator forgotten in this scene? No,
        he first hears the "tramp of feet", then he
        sees the torches, and, lastly, the Emperor's
        litter surrounded by his attendants.

        What words show you the difficulty of their
        situation? "Hurried", "crowding", "crushing",
        "steep and narrow gorge", "suppressed voices",
        "fitful glancing of torches", "anxiously
        shielded", "melée", "struggle onward".

        Why are their voices suppressed? As a natural
        result of their perilous position.

        Why do they keep their torches burning? To find
        their way through the enemy's country amid the
        dangers by which they are surrounded.

        What do the lamps look like? A "constellation"
        of stars moving on in the same relative

        Does the author still refer to the storm? Yes,
        in "derisive laughter", "rude wrath of the
        tempest", and "plumes streaming on the wind".
        The author wishes to picture continuously the
        fitting surroundings for this adventure, and so
        emphasizes these details.

        Why does he speak of the "derisive laughter of
        the storm"? He compares it to a fiend who mocks
        the attempts of man to battle against his

        Who is described in the third paragraph of this
        vision? The Emperor himself.

        Why is he not described before, as he is more
        important than either the storm or his
        comrades? The story runs in a natural order.
        First are seen the figures surrounding the
        litter, and, as it approaches, the Emperor's
        face is distinguishable.

        What is first mentioned in connection with him?
        His firmly set teeth.

        What does this indicate? His great physical
        pain, and his determination of character.

        What is mentioned next? His age; he is but
        fifty-three, but his wrinkles are deep and his
        hair turning gray.

        What are next described? His forehead, his
        nose, his eye, his underlip.

        Why does the author picture these features in
        such detail? To show the character of the

        What are we led to infer are some of his
        characteristics? A strong intellect, imperious
        manner, cruelty, and stubborn pride.

        What strong contrast is drawn? The fugitive
        invalid is the great Emperor. The author first
        discusses his illness, his flight, his
        suffering in the storm, his adverse fortune,
        and then gives him his full titles--"Emperor of
        Germany, King of Spain, Lord of the
        Netherlands, of Naples, of Lombardy, and the
        proud chief of the golden Western World".

        Where does the author place the blame for his
        present sufferings? On Charles himself, whose
        sufferings, humiliation, and ultimate
        deliverance were perhaps intended as a
        discipline to lead him to repent for past

        What is described in the last paragraph of this
        scene? The escape.

        Who is first mentioned? The pursuer, Maurice of

        Describe him. He is first compared to an
        "avenger of blood" in pursuit of a man fleeing
        to the cities of refuge referred to in Joshua
        xx. 3. He is next compared to the hound
        relentlessly following his prey.

        Who wins in this race? Charles eludes his

        To whom should he show gratitude for his
        escape? To Providence.

        Does he acknowledge God's protection? No, he
        gives all the credit to his "lucky star".

        Explain this. Astrologers had said that the
        "Star of Austria" was always at the highest
        point in the heavens; and of this favoured
        House of Austria, Charles was Archduke.


        The first scene is called "The Rescue"; the
        second, "The Run"; and the last, "The Ruin".
        What is described in the last scene? The
        destruction of the French Army.

        Where is the scene laid? In the Tyrol, beside
        the River Inn.

        What is described in the first paragraph?
        Bonaparte's decree that the strongholds of his
        enemies--the Tyrolese warrior hunters--shall be

        Why should he wish to do this? The Tyrolese
        were an independent people, who would not
        submit to conscription and taxation at the
        hands of the Bavarians.

        By what names does the author call Napoleon?
        "Bonaparte." That was his surname. The French
        Emperor had no hereditary right to the throne,
        but he wished to be called Napoleon, instead of
        Bonaparte, just as we speak of our King as
        George V. and rarely refer to his surname of

        Who advised Napoleon? "His own will is his sole
        adviser." He ruled arbitrarily, consulting no

        What does he do in this case? He sends ten
        thousand French and Bavarian soldiers to crush
        the Tyrolese.

        Why were the Bavarians taking part in the
        struggle? They were at this time allies of
        France, and Napoleon had given to their Elector
        possession of this new but hostile province.

        What does the second paragraph describe? The
        army entering the narrow gorge in the

        How does the author give vividness to this
        picture? He endows inanimate things such as the
        "gorge" and the "river" with human attributes.
        The "gorge" looks gloomy, forbidding, and
        unfriendly, and the "river" seems to roar
        indignantly, as though at the attempt of "the
        mountain walls" to impede its progress.

        The next sentence is in the form of a question
        and its answer. Who is supposed to ask this
        question? This is the question the leader of
        the army would ask and the answer he would make
        when he discovered the narrow road. The
        construction of the sentence suggests the idea
        of danger.

        Why does the next sentence begin with "But"?
        "But the glittering array winds on." It
        suggests that some precautions for the safety
        of the army should have been observed; but it
        may have been impossible to take these
        precautions, and the orders of Bonaparte had to
        be obeyed at all hazards.

        What is described in the next sentence? The
        author gives full details of the progress of
        this imposing army. The River Inn seems to
        share the feelings of the Tyrolese themselves
        and protest angrily against this invasion by a
        foreign power.

        How is the next sentence related to the
        preceding? "But" marks a contrast. The noise of
        the army and the river is contrasted with the
        silence on the heights.

        Why are the "eagles" mentioned? The silence is
        rendered more impressive by the occasional
        "shrill cry" of the eagles, and the "wings" of
        the eagles hovering above are an omen of the
        coming disaster which is to overtake "the
        gilded eagles of France" below.

        What is described in the next paragraph? The
        "voice" from the "heights".

        How does the author make this paragraph
        impressive? As he wishes to indicate the
        critical moment, he still uses the present
        tense, direct narration, short sentences,
        exclamation, and interrogation; he suggests,
        through a mysterious voice far up the heights,
        that supernatural agents are at work. The army,
        in its helpless length, is compared to an
        "uncoiled serpent".

        What is the subject of the next paragraph? The
        destruction of the entire army.

        How is this ruin accomplished? Unseen in the
        heights above, the Tyrolese peasantry hurl down
        rocks, roots, and trunks of pine trees, as well
        as sending a "deadly hail" from their rifles
        along the "whole line" of the defenceless army

        Notice the richness of detail. What words help
        to make the description of their destruction
        more vivid? "Bounding", "thundering",
        "gathering speed", "headlong way", "launched
        down", "powerless foe", "deadly hail", "fearful
        storm", "crushed to death", "tumbled, horse and
        man, into the choked and swollen river".

        Notice the contrast of this paragraph with the
        picture in the second paragraph of this vision
        of the gallant invading army.

        What is the subject of the last paragraph? The
        reflections of the author.

        Of what does he speak? Of the wonders and
        beauties of creation and the sad power that man
        possesses of spoiling and staining these
        wonders by giving rein to his own "evil
        ambitions and fierce revenges".

        How has he emphasized this? By the use of
        exclamation, question, ellipses, and the
        mention of the "serpent" as the symbol of evil.

        How does the interrogative form of the sentence
        give it vividness? Contrast the effect of
        saying, "Who would willingly linger on the
        hideous details?" with "No one would willingly
        linger", etc. The author does not expect an
        answer, he throws the sentence into the
        question form for the rhetorical effect. The
        reader pays more attention to the thought by
        trying to find an answer to the question.

        What is the value of the ellipses in "Sorrowful
        that man ... should come"? It is stronger than
        saying, "It is sorrowful that man ... should
        come". The subject and verb are omitted, as
        they are not strong words, and "Sorrowful" is
        placed in the most prominent position on
        account of its importance.


        In these three pictures, what is the constant
        element? The scene used as the background. All
        three visions take place in the Tyrol, two of
        them on the banks of the Inn River. They are
        three companion pictures of this historic
        mountain province.

        How does this style compare with that which you
        find in other lessons? It is abrupt and abounds
        in many rhetorical forms--ellipses, use of the
        present tense, exclamation, direct address, and
        accumulation of details.

        Would it be suitable for all prose expression?
        No; it is impassioned prose, full of emotion
        and picturesque detail. The smoother, more
        regulated sentence-structure, such as is in
        place in ordinary narration, would be too cold
        for these descriptions. On the other hand, this
        style is not suitable for expressing a quiet
        mood or giving a clear explanation. It is too
        turbulent, and would pall upon the reader if
        continued at too great length, but it is often
        very suitable in an oratorical selection.

The pupils should finally read the lesson aloud, to show how they have
appreciated the story.



Before studying these lessons in supplementary reading, it is suggested
that the teacher read again what has been said on "Extensive Reading",
p. 39 of this Manual.


(Third Reader, page 86)

        You have read the story of South-West Wind,
        Esq., in the Third Reader.

        Who were the persons mentioned in this story?
        Three brothers, Schwartz, Hans, and Gluck.

        What were their characters? Schwartz and Hans
        were rich but very miserly; they were
        quarrelsome, drunken, and cruel. Gluck was
        kind, polite, and unselfish.

        How did Gluck show these qualities? He admitted
        the stranger into the house for shelter from
        the rain, when he knew his brothers would
        punish him for so doing; he asked politely to
        take the stranger's cloak, when the water
        dripping from it was putting the fire out; and
        he offered him his share of the mutton,
        although he knew it meant that he must go
        without his own supper.

        When the older brothers returned what did they
        do? They tried to punish Gluck and to force the
        stranger out of the house.

        What happened? They were hurled to the ground
        by the stranger, who was much stronger than
        they supposed.

        What other punishment did they receive? The
        roof was blown off the house while they slept,
        and their beautiful valley, together with their
        crops and cattle, was utterly destroyed by the
        heavy rains.

        Who was the stranger? He left his card with
        "South-West Wind, Esq." written on it.

        Now the story in the Reader is only the first
        chapter of a longer story, which relates what
        fortune came to the three brothers. What should
        you expect would happen to them? I should
        expect that Schwartz and Hans would have more
        troubles, and that Gluck would be rewarded for
        his kind-heartedness.


        Read the second chapter of this longer story
        called _The King of the Golden River_.

        Give me the main points in this chapter?

        1. The valley was turned into a desert.
        2. The brothers became goldsmiths.
        3. The mug
        4. Gluck's wish that the river would turn into gold
        5. The voice from the furnace
        6. The dwarf
        7. The King told Gluck how the river could be turned into gold.

        What are the characters of the two brothers in
        this chapter? They were very dishonest and even
        tried to mix copper with the gold. They were
        drunken and wasted their money, and they were
        lazy and cruel.

        Describe the mug that was being melted. It had
        been given to them by their uncle, and Gluck
        was very fond of it. It was made of gold almost
        in the form of a human face. The face was
        fierce and red, the eyes were bright, the beard
        and whiskers were of fine gold, and the hair
        was of fine spun gold, forming the handle of
        the mug.

        While the mug was being melted in the furnace,
        what did Gluck see as he looked out of the
        window? The range of mountains overhanging
        Treasure Valley, with the mountain tops shining
        in the sunset.

        This is a lovely description of a sunset in the
        mountains. Pick out the details of the picture.
        "Rocks ... all crimson and purple with the
        sunset", "bright tongues of fiery cloud", "the
        river ... a waving column of pure gold", "the
        double arch of a broad purple rainbow",
        "flushing and fading alternately in the wreaths
        of spray".

        What words suggest colours? "Crimson",
        "purple", "fiery", "pure gold", "purple
        rainbow", "flushing", "fading".

        What did this picture suggest to Gluck? It made
        him wish that the river were really gold.

        Describe the dwarf who came out of the furnace.
        He was a foot and a half high; his hair and
        beard were long, curled, and delicate, and his
        face was copper-coloured.

        Account for the dwarf being in such a place. It
        was owing to the malicious enchantment of a
        king stronger than himself that he had been
        turned into the golden mug, and, when the mug
        was melted, Gluck poured out the metal, and,
        thus freed the King of the Golden River from
        the power of his enemy.

        How did the King show his gratitude? He told
        Gluck how the river could be turned into gold.

        What must Gluck do in order to gain this end?
        He must climb to the top of the mountain and
        cast three drops of holy water into the stream
        at its source.


        What are the main facts in this chapter?

        1. The brothers returned and beat Gluck because the mug
           was a total loss.
        2. Schwartz and Hans fought.
        3. Schwartz was arrested.
        4. Hans stole a cupful of holy water.
        5. Hans taunted Schwartz.
        6. Hans attempted to change the river to gold.
          (1) The dog;
          (2) the fair child;
          (3) the old man.
        7. Hans was changed into the Black Stone.

        What characteristics of the older brothers are
        shown in this chapter? They were drunken,
        brutal, quarrelsome, dishonest, malicious, and

        Why are the dog, the child, and the old man
        introduced into the story? To show how
        indifferent Hans was to the suffering of
        animals, children, and aged people. The sight
        of these helpless creatures should have aroused
        his pity.

        Were there any indications in the story that
        Hans would be unsuccessful? Yes, there was "a
        strange shadow"; the air "seemed to throw his
        blood into a fever"; "a dark gray cloud came
        over the sun"; "long, snake-like shadows";
        "leaden weight of the dead air"; "flash of blue
        lightning"; "tongues of fire"; "flashes of
        bloody light".

        Why was Hans unsuccessful? He had led a bad
        life, had been dishonest, and had been selfish
        to the dog, the child, and the aged man.

        Show that it was an appropriate punishment that
        Hans should be turned into a Black Stone. His
        heart was as hard as stone, and his deeds were


        What is the main theme of this chapter?
        Schwartz's attempt to turn the river into gold.

        What are the chief incidents recorded?

        1. Gluck paid Schwartz's fine.
        2. Schwartz refused water to the child, the old man,
           and to the spirit of Hans.
        3. He was also changed to a Black Stone.

        What were the indications that Schwartz would
        be unsuccessful? There was a "black cloud
        rising out of the West"; "a mist of the colour
        of blood"; "waves of the angry sea"; "bursts of
        spiry lightning"; "the sky was like ... a lake
        of blood"; "its waves were black, like
        thunderclouds"; "their foam was like fire";
        "the lightning glared into his eyes".


        What is the theme in the last chapter? Gluck's
        attempt to turn the river into gold.

        Give the main incidents.

        1. The priest gave him holy water.
        2. He gave water to the aged man and the child.
        3. He gave his last drop of water to the dying dog.
        4. The dog was transformed into the King of the Golden River.
        5. He gave Gluck three drops of dew.
        6. Gluck cast the water into the river.
        7. Treasure Valley again became a fertile garden, and Gluck
           became very rich.

        What were the indications that Gluck would be
        successful? After giving the old man some
        water, the "path became easier"; "grasshoppers
        began singing"; there was "bright green moss";
        "pale pink starry flowers"; "soft belled
        gentians"; "pure white transparent lilies";
        "its waves were as clear as crystal".

        What strong contrast is brought out in this
        story? There is a contrast between this chapter
        and the two preceding ones. Gluck's conduct is
        so different from that of Schwartz and Hans;
        and the aspect of nature, as it appears to him,
        is very different from the scenes viewed by his

        Describe Treasure Valley after it was changed.
        The "fresh grass sprang beside the new
        streams"; "creeping plants grew"; "young
        flowers opened"; "thickets of myrtle and
        tendrils of vine cast lengthening shadows";
        "his barns became full of corn and his house of

        Why did Gluck deserve so much kindness? He had
        been hospitable to South-West Wind, Esq.; had
        suffered hunger and punishment on his account;
        had been industrious; had freed the King of the
        Golden River from his enchantment; had obeyed
        his instructions; had felt sorry for Hans; had
        paid Schwartz's fine; and had shown mercy to
        animals and helpless people.

        Was there anything said about the two older
        brothers? Yes, there are two black stones,
        which people still call "The Black Brothers",
        at the top of the cataract. This story tells
        how these stones came to be there.


(Fourth Reader, page 39)

The pupils have read _Scrooge's Christmas_, in the Fourth Reader. They
have also read the synopsis of _A Christmas Carol_ at the beginning of
the lesson. If they have read the first four _staves_ of the carol in a
general way, they will be in a better position to study intensively the
last stave, or chapter, which is the lesson in the Reader. They will
understand the causes that have changed this "covetous old sinner" to
the man "who knew how to keep Christmas Day well". This lesson should be
taken up near Christmas. The pupils will discuss Stave I, after having
read it at home.

Stave I

        What is the title of this work? A Christmas

        Why is it called a carol? In England, it is the
        custom for bands of singers, called "waits", to
        go from house to house on Christmas Eve. The
        author calls this ghost story of Christmas a
        carol in prose, for it pictures the joys and
        sorrows of this season.

        What does a stave mean? It keeps up the idea of
        a carol. Each chapter is called a stave, or
        stanza of the carol.

        What is the title of the first stave? "Marley's

        Who was Marley? He had been Scrooge's partner,
        but was now dead. He had been as miserly as
        Scrooge himself.

        Where is the scene laid? In London.

        When? On Christmas Eve.

        Describe Scrooge. "Oh but he was a tight-fisted
        hand ... one degree at Christmas". (See Stave I
        of _A Christmas Carol_.)

        Notice the wonderful accumulation of strong
        adjectives and phrases in this description. Why
        does the author use so many? He wishes to
        emphasize the cold miserliness of this man.

        What is the first incident? Scrooge's treatment
        of his nephew, who has invited him to dinner on
        Christmas Day.

        What does this incident show? His churlishness,
        and his contempt for those who spend money

        What is the next incident? His refusal to
        subscribe to any charities in the city.

        What comes next? The account of his treatment
        of Bob Cratchit.

        What does this show? His meanness and tyranny.

        When he returns from his supper, what does he
        encounter? Marley's Ghost.

        What does the ghost tell him? How it must
        wander through the world without rest, in
        atonement for Marley's cruelties and his
        neglect of other people. It laments his
        misspent life.

        What does it promise to do to Scrooge? It
        promises to send him "Three Spirits".

        What good description is found in Stave I?
        Besides the character sketch of Scrooge, there
        is a picture of Christmas Eve in the London
        streets, in the paragraph beginning "Meanwhile
        the fog and darkness thickened".

Stave II

        What is described in this chapter? The visit of
        the first spirit.

        What was it? The "Ghost of Christmas Past".

        Read me a description of it. "It was a strange
        figure ... like a child ... which it held under
        its arm".

        What does the spirit do? It forces Scrooge to
        accompany it and shows him former Christmas
        scenes in his life.

        What are these scenes? Scrooge as a solitary
        boy at school; his boyhood stories, _Ali Baba_
        and _Robinson Crusoe_; his sister; Fezziwig's
        ball; Scrooge's sweetheart; scenes in her
        married life.

        What is the mood of these different scenes?
        There is humour, and a great deal of fun, as
        well as some pathos. It is all told in a lively

        What are the best descriptions? Fezziwig's
        ball, and the remembrance of the scenes in _Ali

Stave III

        What is told in this chapter? The visit of the
        second spirit.

        Who was it? The "Spirit of Christmas Present".

        What does it show Scrooge? Scenes of Christmas
        shopping; Christmas out-of-doors; the Grocers;
        Bob Cratchit's family, the goose, their
        dinner, the puddings; the miner's home; the
        lighthouse keepers; the sailors; Scrooge's
        nephew at home--blindman's bluff, forfeits, Yes
        and No; vision of "Ignorance" and "Want".

        What do all these scenes go to show? How
        different kinds of people keep Christmas; how
        kind and merry most people are at this season
        of the year: and how some have to struggle in
        order to get this one day's pleasure.

        Select some examples of humour. Peter's
        conceit, some of the descriptions of the
        grocery stores, the anticipations lest harm
        befall the goose and the pudding.

        Select any examples of pathos. The references
        to Tiny Tim.

        Select and read the best descriptions. The
        grocery stores, the fruit stores, the goose,
        the pudding.

Stave IV

        What is told in this chapter? The visit of the
        third spirit.

        What was it? The "Ghost of Christmas Yet to

        What does it show Scrooge? A vision of his
        death--how he is plundered by laundress,
        charwoman, and undertaker; the phantom of
        Death; Scrooge's creditors; the grave.

        Had these scenes actually taken place? No, but
        they will be realized if Scrooge does not
        change his manner of thinking and living.

        What is the effect of these three visions?
        Scrooge promises the "Ghost of Christmas Yet to
        Come" "I will honour Christmas in my heart and
        try to keep it all the year".

        Why are the scenes in this chapter not so
        pleasant as those that the two former spirits
        had shown him? The scenes that the first spirit
        had brought before him were his joys at the
        Christmas season before he had hardened his
        heart; those that the second spirit had shown
        were scenes in the lives of people who do
        something for others and enjoy themselves in
        the true Christmas spirit; those that the last
        spirit had shown were the sordid scenes which
        would be sure to come if he did not change his
        attitude toward life. The last scenes shown him
        by the third spirit furnish a strong contrast
        to the others.

Stave V

        What does this chapter relate? How Scrooge
        actually kept Christmas Day.

        What were the other chapters about? The first
        and the last were the only chapters where he
        was awake. Chapters Two, Three, and Four are
        visions or dreams. Notice how the phantom
        changed into the bed-post.

        This chapter should be studied closely. Who
        wrote this story? Charles Dickens, an English

        Do you know any other good stories by the same
        author? _David Copperfield_, _The Pickwick
        Papers_, _Nicholas Nickleby_.

        Yes, we have had extracts in the Readers from
        these books.

        What lessons are they? _The Pickwick Club on
        the Ice_, in the _Third Book_; _David
        Copperfield's First Journey Alone_, and _The
        Indignation of Nicholas Nickleby_ in the
        _Fourth Book_.

        Some day you must read these stories. _David
        Copperfield_ tells us a great deal about
        Dickens' early days. _The Pickwick Papers_ is
        full of humour in scenes such as that depicted
        in _The Pickwick Club on the Ice_, and has some
        fine characters in it, and _Nicholas Nickleby_
        gives a vivid picture of the brutality existing
        in some schools in England at the time the book
        was written.


(Fourth Reader, page 270)

The pupils will have read the account of the stirring combat between
Fitz-James and Roderick Dhu. They will be curious to know the
circumstances that led up to this combat and also the conclusion of the

The aim of the teacher is to lead the pupils to appreciate the
construction of the story, the fine character sketches, and the
descriptions of natural scenery, as well as to give them an impression
of Highland life. The pupils will take delight in the rapid movement of
the verse and in the deeds of valour.

Some passages should be dwelt upon at greater length by the teacher, and
others more lightly touched upon, so that the connections of the various
parts will be understood. A close and tedious consideration of all the
lines would not show a good critical taste, as some passages are very
fine, while others have only ordinary merit.

The teacher should disclose the identity of Fitz-James as James V of
Scotland and should explain the cause of the exile of the Douglas
Family. He should also sketch the life of rebellion and consequent
outlawry led by some of the Highland clans before they were reduced to


        The teacher should study with the pupils the
        Invocation of the three opening stanzas and ask
        them to read the first canto. He should next
        discuss it briefly, as suggested in the
        following outline:

        What are the main divisions of the first canto?

        1. The chase
        2. Description of the Trossachs
        3. Description of Ellen Douglas
        4. Description of Fitz-James.

        Why is the story of the chase introduced? It
        brings Fitz-James alone into the enemy's
        country, where he meets Ellen Douglas, and
        prepares the way for the adventures that

        What is the story of the chase? The hundred
        huntsmen and the horses and the dogs become
        wearied in the long pursuit after the stag. One
        huntsman alone is left to enter the deep ravine
        where the stag escapes.

        This description of the Trossachs made the spot
        famous, and ever since it has been a favourite
        resort of tourists.


        The Island

        What are the divisions of this canto?

        1. The departure of the huntsmen
        2. Description of the minstrel
        3. The story of Roderick's love
        4. Return of the Clan-Alpine
        5. Malcolm Graeme
        6. The quarrel.

        What is the value of this canto? It explains
        many facts that we did not understand. Among
        others, it shows us the relation of the
        Douglases to the King and to Roderick Dhu. It
        tells of the love of Malcolm Graeme for Ellen
        and of Roderick's hopeless love for her. It
        shows us Roderick's noble traits of character
        and the fearful cruelties of which he is
        capable. He cannot possibly win Ellen's love.


        The Gathering

        What are the main divisions of this canto?

        1. Roderick's determination to renew hostilities
        2. Brian the Hermit
        3. The ceremony
        4. The message of the Fiery Cross
        5. Roderick's devotion to Ellen
        6. The gathering.

        What are the best passages in this canto?

        1. Description of Loch Katrine
        2. The coronach
        3. Hymn to the Virgin.

        Why are funeral and wedding scenes introduced?
        These serve to show how the message of the
        Fiery Cross was looked upon as more important
        than even death or marriage.

        What insight into the life of the clansmen is
        furnished in this canto?

        1. The superstition of the Highlanders. This is shown in
           Brian's faith and in the weird ceremonies in connection
           with the Fiery Cross.
        2. The method of mustering the clans by means of the message
           of the Fiery Cross.
        3. Their funerals and weddings.

        Notice also the vigour of the stanzas that
        describe the flight of Malise.


        The Prophecy

        Give the main themes in this canto.

        1. Return of Malise
        2. Norman's guard
        3. The augury and the prophecy
        4. Return of Fitz-James to Ellen Douglas
        5. The ring
        6. Blanche of Devan
        7. Death of Murdoch
        8. Fitz-James meets Roderick Dhu.

        What are the best stanzas? The ballad of "Alice

        Why is this ballad introduced? It shows the
        character of Scottish minstrelsy, the belief in
        the world of fairies, and the lesson of hope
        that at the darkest moment the hour of
        happiness may be near. It furnishes another
        example of Allanbane's prophetic insight.

        The introduction: "The rose is fairest when it
        is budding new." Why is this stanza
        appropriate? It shows the tenderness of
        Norman's love, as contrasted with the fierce
        warfare in which he is engaged.

        Why is Blanche of Devan introduced? To furnish
        an example of Roderick's cruelty, so that
        Fitz-James should feel justified in punishing
        him. Blanche of Devan also warns Fitz-James of
        Murdoch's treachery. This stanza explains the
        allusions in the lesson in the _Fourth Book_,
        for example: "a braid of your fair lady's
        hair", and "There lies red Murdoch stark and

        What characteristics of Roderick are shown in
        the canto?

        1. His care for the defenceless in his clan
        2. His cruelty to his enemies
        3. His hospitality
        4. His superstition.

        What was the prophecy?

        Who spills the foremost foeman's life
        That party conquers in the strife.

        What is the value of the prophecy in the poem?
        It furnishes a reason for the eagerness of the
        clansmen to take the life of the huntsman, as
        the former would then "conquer in the strife".


        The Combat

        Give the main events in this canto.

        1. Roderick guides Fitz-James to neutral ground
        2. The combat
        3. Douglas surrenders
        4. The games
        5. The popularity of Douglas.

        What is the most striking part of this canto?
        The story of the combat.

        Why? It is a fine example of Scottish bravery
        and chivalry.

        What Scottish characteristics are found in this

        1. The character of Scottish games in the city
        2. The fickleness of the mob
        3. The chivalrous conduct of the combatants.


        The Guard-room

        What are the main themes in this canto?

        1. The rough soldiers
        2. Ellen presents the ring
        3. The battle of Beal' an Duine
        4. Death of Roderick
        5. Ellen's request to James
        6. Happiness of the Douglases and of Malcolm Graeme
        7. Farewell to the Harp.

        Why are the rough soldiers introduced? This
        passage furnishes a good description of the
        character of the soldiers, and shows the power
        of Ellen's quiet dignity and modesty.

        What is the value of the battle of Beal' an
        Duine? It affords an opportunity to the valiant
        Roderick to imagine himself in battle, so that
        when death comes he does not realize that it
        finds him a prisoner and his clan vanquished.

        How does the poem end? Ellen, her father, and
        Malcolm Graeme are united and happy, and
        Fitz-James reveals his identity and shows his

        What should be read in connection with the last
        three stanzas? The first three stanzas of the
        poem. They are an Invocation to Scottish
        minstrelsy. We now have the Farewell.

        Which cantos do you consider are the best? The
        first and the fifth.

        Why? The first contains such wonderful
        word-pictures and the fifth seems to be the
        crisis of the story. The interest is not
        sustained in the sixth canto, as one knows
        matters are sure to be adjusted.



        Little deeds of kindness,
          Little words of love,
        Make our earth an Eden,
          Like the heaven above.

        God make my life a little light,
          Within the world to glow,--
        A little flame that burneth bright.
          Wherever I may go.

        The world is so full of a number of things,
        I'm sure we should all be as happy as kings.

        Be kind and be gentle
          To those who are old,
        For dearer is kindness
          And better than gold.

        Politeness is to _do_ and _say_
        The kindest thing in the kindest way.

        Two ears and only one mouth have you;
          The reason, I think, is clear:
        It teaches, my child, that it will not do
          To talk about all you hear.

        Whene'er a task is set for you,
          Don't idly sit and view it,
        Nor be content to wish it done;
          Begin at once and do it.

        Work while you work, play while you play;
          This is the way to be cheerful and gay.
        All that you do, do with your might;
          Things done by halves are never done right.

        Five things observe with care,--
        Of whom you speak, to whom you speak
        And how, and when, and where.

        See that little sunbeam
          Darting through the room,
        Scattering the darkness,
          Lighting up the gloom.
        Let me be a sunbeam
          Everywhere I go,
        Making glad and happy
          Every one I know.

        Sing a song of seasons!
          Something bright in all!
        Flowers in the summer,
          Fires in the fall!

        Do all the good you can,
        In all the ways you can,
        To all the people you can,
        Just as long as you can.

        When you come to think of it,
          The day is what you make it;
        And whether good, or whether bad,
          Depends on how you take it.

        Slumber, slumber, little one, now
        The bird is asleep in his nest on the bough;
        The bird is asleep, he has folded his wings,
        And over him softly the dream fairy sings:

        Lullaby, lullaby--lullaby!
          Pearls in the deep--
        Stars in the sky,
          Dreams in our sleep;
            So lullaby!
                                         --F. D. SHERMAN

        Dare to be true; nothing can need a lie.

        The face you wear, the thoughts you bring,
          A heart may heal or break.

        He who is good at making excuses is seldom good
        for anything else.--FRANKLIN

        To _be_ good is the mother of to _do_ good.

        I'll not willingly offend,
          Nor be easily offended;
        What's amiss I'll try to mend,
          And endure what can't be mended.

        A man of words and not of deeds,
        Is like a garden full of weeds;
        For when the weeds begin to grow,
        Then doth the garden overflow.

        Little children, you must seek
          Rather to be good than wise,
        For the thoughts you do not speak
          Shine out in your cheeks and eyes.
                                         --ALICE CARY

        To tell a falsehood is like the cut of a sabre;
        for though the wound may heal, the scar of it
        will remain.--SADI

        All that's great and good is done
          Just by patient trying.

        'Tis a lesson you should heed,
          Try, try again;
        If at first you don't succeed,
          Try, try again.

        If a task is once begun,
        Never leave it till it's done;
        Be the labour great or small,
        Do it well, or not at all.

        For every evil under the sun,
        There is a remedy, or there is none.
        If there be one, try to find it;
        If there be none, never mind it.

        There are many flags in many lands,
          There are flags of every hue,
        But there is no flag in any land
          Like our own Red, White, and Blue.

        The inner side of every cloud
          Is always bright and shining;
        And so I turn my clouds about,
        And always wear them inside out,
          To show the silver lining.

        I would not hurt a living thing,
          However weak or small;
        The beasts that graze, the birds that sing,
          Our Father made them all.

        Little drop of dew,
          Like a gem you are;
        I believe that you
          Must have been a star.
        When the day is bright,
          On the grass you lie;
        Tell me then, at night
          Are you in the sky?
                                         --F. D. SHERMAN

        How beautiful is the rain!
          After the dust and the heat,
          In the broad and fiery street,
        In the narrow lane,
        How beautiful is the rain!

        In spring, when stirs the wind, I know
        That soon the crocus buds will show;
        For 'tis the wind who bids them wake
        And into pretty blossoms break.
                                         --F. D. SHERMAN

        O, pause and think for a moment
          What a desolate land it would be,
        If, east or west, the eye should rest
          On not a single tree!

        It was only a sunny smile,
        And little it cost in the giving,
          But it scattered the night,
          Like the morning light,
        And made the day worth living.

        Keep pushing--'tis wiser
          Than sitting aside,
        And dreaming and sighing,
          And waiting the tide.
        In life's earnest battle,
          They only prevail
        Who daily march onward,
          And never say "fail".

        One step and then another,
          And the longest walk is ended.
        One stitch and then another,
          And the largest rent is mended.
        One brick and then another,
          And the highest wall is made.
        One flake and then another,
          And the deepest snow is laid.

        Speak the truth and speak it ever,
          Cost it what it will.
        He who hides the wrong he did,
          Does the wrong thing still.

        Whichever way the wind doth blow,
        Some heart is glad to have it so;
        Then blow it east or blow it west,
        The wind that blows, that wind is best.

        We should make the same use of books that the
        bee does of a flower: he gathers sweets from
        it, but does not injure it.

        I smile, and then the Sun comes out;
        He hides away whene'er I pout;
        He seems a very funny sun,
        To do whatever he sees done.
        And when it rains he disappears;
        Like me, he can't see through the tears.
        Now isn't that the reason why
        I ought to smile and never cry?
                                         --F. D. SHERMAN

        If fortune, with a smiling face,
          Strew roses in our way,
        When shall we stoop to pick them up?
          To-day, my friend, to-day.
        If those who've wronged us own their faults,
          And kindly pity pray,
        When shall we listen and forgive?
          To-day, my friend, to-day.

        Are you almost disgusted with life, little man?
          I will tell you a wonderful trick
        That will bring you contentment if anything can--
          Do something for somebody, quick.
        Are you very much tired with play, little girl?
          Weary, discouraged, and sick?
        I'll tell you the loveliest game in the world--
          Do something for somebody, quick.

          "Were it not for me",
          Said a chickadee,
        "Not a single flower on earth would be;
        For under the ground they soundly sleep,
        And never venture an upward peep,
          Till they hear from me,
                                         --SIDNEY DAYRE

        The world at noon belongs to the sun,
          At eve to the home-coming herds;
        But while the dew is early--very, very early--
          The world belongs to the birds.
        As still as in a dream lie the meadows and the stream,
          'Neath the soaring and outpouring of the birds.

        I know, blue modest violets,
          Gleaming with dew at morn--
        I know the place you come from,
          And the way that you are born!
        When God cuts holes in Heaven,
          The holes the stars look through,
        He lets the scraps fall down to earth,--
          The little scraps are you.

        The blossoms, down in the meadow,
          In the gardens, and woods, and the hills,
        Are singing, too, with their playmates,
          The birds, and the breezes, and rills.
        And I think, if you listen closely,
          In the sweet glad days of spring,
        With the song of the brook, the breeze, and the birds,
          You can hear the flowers sing.

        Good-night, little shivering grasses!
          'Tis idle to struggle and fight
        With tempest and cruel frost-fingers;
          Lie down, little grasses, to-night!
        Good-night, little shivering grasses!
          Lie down 'neath the coverlet white,
        And rest till the cuckoo is singing;
          Good-night, little grasses, good-night!
                                         --_A November Good-night._--BEERS

        Daffydowndilly came up in the cold,
        Through the brown mould,
        Although the March breezes blew keen on her face,
        Although the white snow lay on many a place.
        I can't do much yet, but I'll do what I can.
        It's well I began!
        For unless I can manage to lift up my head,
        The people will think that the Spring herself's dead.
        O Daffydowndilly, so brave and so true,
        I wish all were like you!
        So ready for duty in all sorts of weather,
        And holding forth courage and beauty together.

        One to-day is worth two to-morrow's.--POOR

        The future is purchased by the present.--SAMUEL

        The sober second thought is always essential,
        and seldom wrong.--MARTIN VAN BUREN

        Recollect that trifles make perfection, and
        that perfection is no trifle.--MICHAEL ANGELO

        Have more than thou showest,
        Speak less than thou knowest.

        Sin has many tools, but a lie is the handle
        that fits them all.--O. W. HOLMES

        Let all the end thou aim'st at be thy country's,
        Thy God's and truth's.

        Our greatest glory is not in never falling, but
        in rising every time we fall.

        Learn to obey and you will know how to

        One who is contented with what he has done will
        never become famous for what he will do.

        Be not simply good, be good for

        The better part of valour is

        They that touch pitch will be

        Ill blows the wind that profits

        Honour and shame from no condition rise;
        Act well your part, there all the honour lies.

        True happiness consists not in the multitude of
        friends, but in their worth and choice.--BEN

        One "do" is worth a thousand "don'ts" in the
        destruction of evil or the production of

        I look upon the simple and childish virtues of
        veracity and honesty as the root of all that is
        sublime in character.--EMERSON

        Remember that though it is a good thing to be a
        great man, it is a great thing to be a good

        Striving not to be rich or great,
        Never questioning fortune or fate,
        Contented slowly to earn, and wait.

        In the workshop, on the farm,
          Or wherever you may be,
        From your future efforts, boys,
          Comes a nation's destiny.

        It is a low benefit to give me something; it is
        a high benefit to enable me to do something of

        Greatly begin! though thou hast time
        But for a line, be that sublime,--
        Not failure, but low aim, is crime.

        Never give up! 'Tis the secret of glory;
          Nothing so wise can philosophy preach;
        Look at the lives that are famous in story;
          "Never give up" is the lesson they teach.

        It is a good thing to be rich, and a good thing
        to be strong, but it is a better thing to be
        beloved of many friends.--EURIPIDES

        Do what conscience says is right;
          Do what reason says is best;
        Do with all your mind and might;
          Do your duty, and be blest.

        What men want is not talent, it is purpose; in
        other words, not the power to achieve, but the
        will to labour.--BULWER-LYTTON

        So nigh is grandeur to our dust,
          So near is God to man,
        When Duty whispers low, _Thou must_,
          The soul replies _I can_.

        Habit is a cable; we weave a thread of it each
        day, and it becomes so strong we cannot break
        it.--HORACE MANN

        Ponder well, and know the right,
        Onward then, with all thy might!
        Haste not! years can ne'er atone
        For one reckless action done.

        Our grand business is not to see what lies
        dimly at a distance, but to do what lies
        clearly at hand.--CARLYLE

 Slight is the sting of his trouble whose winnings are less than his worth:
 For he who is honest is noble, whatever his fortune or birth.
                                         --ALICE CARY

        Press on! There's no such word as fail!
        Push nobly on! The goal is near!
        Ascend the mountain! Breast the gale!
        Look upward, onward--never fear!

        He who has a thousand friends
          Has not a friend to spare;
        And he who has one enemy
          Will meet him everywhere.
                                         --OMAR KHAYYAM

        Work for some good, be it ever so slowly;
        Cherish some flower, be it ever so lowly;
        Labour!--all labour is noble and holy.
                                         --FRANCES S. OSGOOD

        A man should never be ashamed to own he has
        been in the wrong; which is but saying in other
        words that he is wiser to-day than he was

        Tender-handed stroke a nettle,
          And it stings you for your pains;
        Grasp it like a man of mettle,
          And it soft as silk remains.

        Fill up each hour with what will last;
          Buy up the moments as they go;
        The life above, when this is past,
          Is the ripe fruit of life below.

        New occasions teach new duties; time makes ancient good uncouth;
        They must upward still and onward, who would keep abreast of Truth.

        The heights by great men reached and kept,
          Were not attained by sudden flight;
        But they, while their companions slept,
          Were toiling upward in the night.

        Nothing useless is, or low,
          Each thing in its place is best,
        And what seems but idle show
          Strengthens and supports the rest.

        And not by eastern windows only,
          When daylight comes, comes in the light,
        In front, the sun climbs slow, how slowly,
          But westward, look, the land is bright.

        Full many a gem of purest ray serene
          The dark unfathom'd caves of ocean bear;
        Full many a flower is born to blush unseen,
          And waste its sweetness on the desert air.

        If a man empties his purse into his head, no
        man can take it away from him. An investment in
        knowledge always pays the best
        interest.--BENJAMIN FRANKLIN

                I do not know
        Where falls the seed that I have tried to sow
                With greatest care;
                But I shall know
        The meaning of each waiting hour below
                Sometime, somewhere!

        Lives of great men all remind us
          We can make our lives sublime,
        And, departing, leave behind us
          Footprints on the sands of time;
        Let us, then, be up and doing,
          With a heart for any fate;
        Still achieving, still pursuing,
          Learn to labour and to wait.

        Begin while life is bright and young,
          Work out each noble plan;
        True knowledge lends a charm to youth,
          And dignifies the man.
        Then upward, onward, step by step,
          With perseverance rise,
        And emulate, with hearts of hope,
          The good, the great, the wise.

        The night has a thousand eyes,
          And the day but one;
        Yet the light of the bright world dies,
          With the dying sun.
        The mind has a thousand eyes,
          And the heart but one;
        Yet the light of a whole life dies
          When love is done.
                                         --FRANCIS BOURDILLON

        In the darkness as in daylight,
          On the water as on land,
        God's eye is looking on us,
          And beneath us is His hand!
        Death will find us soon or later,
          On the deck or in the cot;
        And we cannot meet him better
          Than in working out our lot.

        The Royal Navy of England hath ever been its
        greatest defence and ornament; it is its
        ancient and natural strength--the floating
        bulwark of our Island.--BLACKSTONE'S

        It is the land that freemen till,
          That sober-suited Freedom chose.
          The land, where girt with friends or foes
        A man may speak the thing he will;
        A land of settled government,
          A land of just and old renown,
          Where Freedom slowly broadens down
        From precedent to precedent.

        O triune kingdom of the brave,
          O sea-girt island of the free,
        O empire of the land and wave
          Our hearts, our hands, are all for thee.
            Stand, Canadians, firmly stand,
            Round the flag of our Fatherland.

        Sharers of our glorious past,
        Brothers, must we part at last?
        Shall we not thro' good and ill
        Cleave to one another still?
        Britain's myriad voices call,
        "Sons, be welded each and all
        Into one Imperial whole,
        One with Britain, heart and soul!
        One life, one flag, one fleet, one Throne!"
          Britons, hold your own!

        "England! What thou wert, thou art!"
        Gird thee with thine ancient might.
        Forth! and God defend the Right.

        Believe not each accusing tongue,
          As most weak people do;
        But still believe that story wrong
          Which ought not to be true.

        He prayeth best who loveth best
          All things, both great and small,
        For the dear God who loveth us,
          He made and loveth all.

        For whatever men say in blindness,
          And spite of the fancies of youth,
        There's nothing so kingly as Kindness,
          And nothing so royal as Truth.
                                         --ALICE CARY

        To do something, however small, to make others
        happier and better, is the highest ambition,
        the most elevating hope, which can inspire a
        human being.--LUBBOCK

        Small service is true service while it lasts.
          Of humblest friends, bright creature! scorn not one:
        The daisy, by the shadow that it casts,
          Protects the lingering dew-drops from the sun.

        Look up and not down;
        Look forward and not back;
        Look out and not in;
          And lend a hand.

        Have you had a kindness shown?
            Pass it on.
        'Twas not given for you alone,
            Pass it on.
        Let it travel down the years,
        Let it wipe another's tears;
        Till in heaven the deed appears.
            Pass it on.

        A little spring had lost its way
          Amid the grass and fern;
        A passing stranger scooped a well
          Where weary men might turn.
        He walled it in, and hung with care,
          A ladle on the brink;
        He thought not of the deed he did,
          But judged that Toil might drink.
        He passed again; and lo! the well,
          By summer never dried,
        Had cooled ten thousand parchèd tongues,
          And saved a life beside.

        Evil is wrought by want of thought
        As well as want of heart.

        Nature has given to men one tongue, but two
        ears, that we may hear from others twice as
        much as we speak.--EPICTETUS

        Count that day lost whose low-descending sun
        Views from thy hand no worthy action done.

        If happiness have not her seat
          And centre in the breast,
        We may be wise or rich or great,
          But never can be blest.

        A kindly act is a kernel sown,
          That will grow to a goodly tree,
        Shedding its fruit when time has flown,
          Down the gulf of eternity.

        If I can stop one heart from breaking,
          I shall not live in vain;
        If I can ease one life the aching,
          Or cool one pain,
        Or help one fainting robin
          Into his nest again,
          I shall not live in vain.

        It is pleasant to think, just under the snow,
          That stretches so bleak and blank and cold,
        Are beauty and warmth that we cannot know,
          Green fields and leaves and blossoms of gold.

        Under the green hedges after the snow,
        There do the dear little violets grow,
        Hiding their modest and beautiful heads
        Under the hawthorn in soft, mossy beds.
        Sweet as the roses, and blue as the sky,
        Down there do the dear little violets lie;
        Hiding their heads where they scarce may be seen,
        By the leaves you may know where the violets have been.

        The linnet is singing the wild wood through;
        The fawn's bounding footsteps skim over the dew.
        The butterfly flits round the blossoming tree,
        And the cowslip and bluebell are bent by the bee;
        All the creatures that dwell in the forest are gay,
        And why should not I be as merry as they?

        Do the duty which lies nearest thee!
        Thy second duty will already have become clearer.

        Live truly, and thy life shall be
        A great and noble creed.

        I slept, and dreamed that life was Beauty;
        I woke, and found that life was Duty.

        Great is the art of beginning, but greater the
        art is of ending.--LONGFELLOW

        Opinions shape ideals, and it is ideals that
        inspire conduct.--JOHN MORLEY

        You cannot dream yourself into a character; you
        must hammer and forge yourself into

        Not once or twice in our fair island story
        The path of duty was the way to glory.

        Know thy work and do it, and work at it like a
        Hercules. One monster there is in the world--an
        idle man.--CARLYLE

        Every evil to which we do not succumb is a
        benefactor. We gain the strength of the
        temptation we resist.--EMERSON

        In every common hour of life,
          In every flame that glows,
        In every breath of being rife
        With aspiration or of strife
          Man feels more than he knows.
                                         --W. W. CAMPBELL

        Never to the bow that bends
        Comes the arrow that it sends;
        Never comes the chance that passed:
        That one moment was its last.

        Oh, fear not in a world like this,
          And thou shalt know ere long,
        Know how sublime a thing it is
          To suffer and be strong.
                                         --H. W. LONGFELLOW

        Sow an act, and reap a tendency; sow a
        tendency, and reap a habit; sow a habit, and
        reap a character; sow a character, and reap a

        The gifts that we have, heaven lends for right
        using, and not for ignoring, and not for

        It is not what he has, nor even what he does,
        which directly expresses the worth of a man,
        but what he is.--_Journal_--AMIEL

        My good blade carves the casques of men,
          My tough lance thrusteth sure,
        My strength is as the strength of ten,
          Because my heart is pure.

        True worth is in _being_, not _seeming_,--
          In doing each day that goes by
        Some little good--not in the dreaming
          Of great things to do by and by.

        No work which God sets a man to do--no work to
        which God has specially adapted a man's
        powers--can properly be called either menial or

        Truth, crushed to earth, shall rise again;
          Th' eternal years of God are hers;
        But Error, wounded, writhes in pain,
          And dies among his worshippers.

              To thine own self be true;
        And it must follow, as the night the day,
        Thou can'st not then be false to any man.

                    No life
        Can be pure in its purpose or strong in its strife
        And all life not be purer and stronger thereby.

        Knowledge and wisdom far from being one, have
        ofttimes no connection. Knowledge is proud that
        he has learned so much; wisdom is humble that
        he knows no more.--COWPER

          Wish not to taste what doth not to thee fall;
        Do well thyself, before thou striv'st to lead,
        And truth shall thee deliver without dread.
                                         --GEOFFREY CHAUCER

        Oh, many a shaft, at random sent,
        Finds mark the archer little meant!
        And many a word at random spoken,
        May soothe, or wound, a heart that's broken.
                                         --SIR W. SCOTT

        Govern the lips as they were palace doors, the
        king within. Tranquil and fair and courteous be
        all words which from that presence win.
                                         --EDWIN ARNOLD

        Whene'er a noble deed is wrought,
        Whene'er is spoken a noble thought,
          Our hearts, in glad surprise,
          To higher levels rise.

        Love thyself last; cherish those hearts that hate thee;
        Corruption wins not more than honesty.
        Still in thy right hand carry gentle peace,
        To silence envious tongues; be just, and fear not.

        Not by the power of commerce, art, or pen,
          Shall our great Empire stand, nor has it stood,
        But by the noble deeds of noble men--
          Heroic lives and heroes' outpoured blood.
                                         --F. G. SCOTT

        Take up the white man's burden--
          In patience to abide,
        To veil the threat of terror
          And check the show of pride;
        By open speech and simple,
          An hundred times made plain,
        To seek another's profit
          And work another's gain.

        Love thou thy land, with love far-brought
          From out the storied Past, and used
          Within the Present, but transfused
        Thro' future time by power of thought.

        For as long as conquest holds the earth,
          Or commerce sweeps the sea,
        By orient jungle or western plain
          Will the Saxon spirit be;
        And whatever the people that dwell beneath,
          Or whatever the alien tongue,
        Over the freedom and peace of the world
          Is the flag of England flung.
                                         --W. W. CAMPBELL

        Of old sat Freedom on the heights,
          The thunders breaking at her feet;
        Above her shook the starry lights;
          She heard the torrents meet.
        Her open eyes desire the truth.
          The wisdom of a thousand years
        Is in them. May perpetual youth
          Keep dry their light from tears.

        If I have faltered more or less
        In my great task of happiness;
        If I have moved among my race
        And shown no glorious morning face;
        If beams from happy, human eyes
        Have moved me not; if morning skies,
        Books, and my food, and summer rain
        Knocked on my sullen heart in vain--
        Lord, Thy most pointed pleasure take,
        And stab my spirit broad awake.
                                         --R. L. STEVENSON

        A good book is the precious life-blood of a
        master-spirit, embalmed and treasured up on
        purpose to a life beyond life.--MILTON

        The book which makes a man think the most is
        the book which strikes the deepest root in his
        memory and understanding.

        Men at some time are masters of their fates:
        The fault, dear Brutus, is not in our stars,
        But in ourselves, that we are underlings.

        No book is worth anything which is not worth
        _much_; nor is it serviceable until it has been
        read and re-read, and loved, and loved again;
        and marked, so that you can refer to the
        passages you want in it, as a soldier can seize
        the weapon he needs in an armoury, or a
        housewife bring the spice she needs from her
        store. Bread of flour is good; but there is
        bread, sweet as honey, if we would eat it, in a
        good book.--RUSKIN

        Goodness moves in a larger sphere than justice.
        The obligations of law and equity reach only to
        mankind, but kindness and beneficence should be
        extended to creatures of every

        My heart leaps up when I behold
          A rainbow in the sky;
        So was it when my life began,
        So is it now I am a man,
        So be it when I shall grow old,
          Or let me die.
        The child is father of the man;
        And I could wish my days to be
        Bound each to each by natural piety.

        Be but yourself, be pure, be true,
        And prompt in duty; heed the deep
        Low voice of conscience; through the ill
        And discord round about you, keep
        Your faith in human nature still.
                                         --ELIZABETH WHITTIER

        Four things a man must learn to do
        If he would make his record true;
        To think, without confusion, clearly;
        To love his fellow-men sincerely:
        To act from honest motives purely;
        To trust in God and Heaven securely.
                                         --HENRY VAN DYKE

                  Give thy thoughts no tongue,
        Nor any unproportioned thought his act.
        Be thou familiar, but by no means vulgar;
        The friends thou hast, and their adoption tried,
        Grapple them to thy soul with hooks of steel.

        Never do anything of which you will have cause
        to be ashamed. There is one good opinion which
        is of the greatest importance to you, namely,
        your own. "An easy conscience", says Seneca,
        "is a continual feast".--LUBBOCK

        There is a tide in the affairs of men,
        Which, taken at the flood, leads on to fortune;
        Omitted, all the voyage of their life
        Is bound in shallows and in miseries.
        On such a full sea are we now afloat;
        And we must take the current when it serves,
          Or lose our ventures.

        Man is his own star, and the soul that can
        Render an honest and a perfect man,
        Commands all light, all influence, all fate,
        Nothing for him falls early or too late;
        Our acts our angels are, for good or ill;
        Our fatal shadows that walk by us still.
                                         --BEAUMONT AND FLETCHER

        Our birth is but a sleep and a forgetting;
          The soul that rises with us, our life's star,
        Hath had elsewhere its setting,
          And cometh from afar,
            Not in entire forgetfulness,
            And not in utter nakedness,
        But trailing clouds of glory do we come
            From God who is our home.

        Be wise to-day; 'tis madness to defer;
        Next day the fatal precedent will plead;
        Thus on, till-wisdom is pushed out of life.
        Procrastination is the thief of time;
        Year after year it steals, till all are fled,
        And to the mercies of a moment leaves
        The vast concerns of an eternal scene.
                                         --EDWARD YOUNG

        Build thee more stately mansions, O my soul,
          As the swift seasons roll!
          Leave thy low-vaulted past!
        Let each new temple, nobler than the last,

        Shut thee from heaven with a dome more vast,
          Till thou at length art free,
        Leaving thine outgrown shell by life's unresting sea.
                                         --O. W. HOLMES

          Grow old along with me!
          The best is yet to be,
        The last of life for which the first was made:
          Our times are in His hand
          Who saith, "A whole I planned,
        Youth shows but half; trust God: see all nor be afraid!"

        Were a star quenched on high,
          For ages would its light,
        Still travelling downward from the sky,
          Shine on our mortal sight.
        So when a great man dies,
          For years beyond our ken,
        The light he leaves behind him lies
         Upon the paths of men.--LONGFELLOW

        It is not growing like a tree
        In bulk doth make man better be;
        Or standing long, an oak, three hundred year,
        To fall a log at last, dry, bald, and sear.
            A lily of a day
            Is fairer far in May,
          Although it fall and die that night--
          It was the plant and flower of light.
        In small proportions we just beauties see;
        And in short measures life may perfect be.
                                         --BEN JONSON

        We shape ourselves the joy or fear
          Of which the coming life is made,
        And fill our Future's atmosphere
          With sunshine or with shade.
        The tissue of the Life to be,
          We weave with colours all our own;
        And in the field of Destiny
          We reap as we have sown.

        Heaven is not reached at a single bound,
          But we build the ladder by which we rise
          From the lowly earth to the vaulted skies,
        And we mount to its summit round by round.
        I count this thing to be grandly true:
          That a noble deed is a step toward God,--
          Lifting the soul from the common clod
        To a purer air and a broader view.
                                         --J. G. HOLLAND

        Let me but do my work from day to day
          In field or forest, at the desk or loom,
          In roaring market-place or tranquil room;
        Let me but find it in my heart to say,
        When vagrant wishes beckon me astray,
          "This is my work; my blessing, not my doom;
          Of all who live, I am the only one by whom
        The work can best be done in the right way."
                                         --HENRY VAN DYKE

        Good name, in man or woman, dear, my lord,
        Is the immediate jewel of their soul.
        Who steals my purse, steals trash; 'tis something, nothing;
        'Twas mine, 'tis his, and has been slave to thousands;
        But he that filches from me my good name,
        Robs me of that which not enriches him,
        And makes me poor indeed.

        God give us men! A time like this demands
        Strong minds, great hearts, true faith, and ready hands;
        Men whom the lust of office does not kill;
          Men whom the spoils of office cannot buy;
        Men who possess opinions and a will;
          Men who have honour,--men who will not lie.
                                         --J. G. HOLLAND

        To live content with small means; to seek
        elegance rather than luxury, and refinement
        rather than fashion; to be worthy, not
        respectable; and wealthy, not rich; to study
        hard, think quietly, talk gently, act frankly;
        to listen to stars and birds, babes and sages
        with open heart; await occasions, hurry never;
        in a word, to let the spiritual, unbidden and
        unconscious, grow up through the common,--this
        is my symphony.--CHANNING

        O, may I join the choir invisible
        Of those immortal dead who live again
        In minds made better by their presence; live
        In pulses stirred to generosity,
        In deeds of daring rectitude, in scorn
        Of miserable aims that end with self,
        In thoughts sublime that pierce the night like stars,
        And with their mild persistence urge men's minds
        To vaster issues.
                                         --GEORGE ELIOT

        A thing of beauty is a joy forever:
        Its loveliness increases; it will never
        Pass into nothingness; but still will keep
        A bower quiet for us, and a sleep
        Full of sweet dreams, and health, and quiet breathing.

        Sunset with its rosy feet
        Stains the grasses low and sweet;
        And the shadow-beeches softly fall
        Across the meadows, dark and tall;
            O fold away
            The dusty day,
        Sweet nightfall, in thy curtains gray.

        Now fades the last long streak of snow,
          Now bourgeons every maze of quick
          About the flowering squares, and thick
        By ashen roots the violets blow.
        Now rings the woodland loud and long,
          The distance takes a lovelier hue,
          And drowned in yonder living blue
        The lark becomes a sightless song.

        A cloud lay cradled near the setting sun;
          A gleam of crimson tinged its braided snow;
        Long had I watched the glory moving on
          O'er the still radiance of the lake below.
        Tranquil its spirit seemed, and floated slow!
          Even in its very motion there was rest;
        While every breath of eve that chanced to blow
          Wafted the traveller to the beauteous west.

       *       *       *       *       *

Transcriber's Notes:

Obvious punctuation errors repaired.

Page 32, the first paragraph under ALLUSIONS contains a sentence
fragment: "If these allusions." As no meaning could be ascertained, it
was retained intact.

The OE-ligature is denoted in this work by brackets [OE].

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