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Title: A Briefe Introduction to Geography
Author: Pemble, William, 1591-1623
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "A Briefe Introduction to Geography" ***

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Transcriber's Notes: This work was originally produced in 1630,
only 26 years after Cawdrey's first English dictionary and more
than a century before Johnson's. The spelling is, in many cases,
strange to modern standards and highly variable. I have noted a
small number of cases which would, I think, have been considered
absurd by the original author. These have been amended to a more
consonant form; all other spelling has been retained as the
original. Some apparently incorrect or missing punctuation has
been corrected. The reader should note that [~o] and [~e] have
been used to represent the vowel superscribed by a tilde mark.
This implies nasalization and should be read as indicating an
omitted 'm' or 'n' following the vowel. The letters 'u' and 'v'
are used largely interchangeably as also, though to a lesser
extent, 'i' and 'j'.--ATB.



                                A
                       BRIEFE INTRODVCTION
                          TO GEOGRAPHY

                          CONTAINING A
                       DESCRIPTION OF THE
                      GROVNDS, AND GENERALL
                  PART THEREOF, VERY NECESSARY
              _for young students in that science._

                     WRITTEN BY THAT LEARNED
                _man, _Mr WILLIAM PEMBLE_, Master_
              _of Arts, of Magdalen Hall in Oxford._


                            _OXFORD_

         Printed by IOHN LICHFIELD Printer to the Famous
                  Vniversity for EDWARD FORREST
                        _Ann. Dom._ 1630.



                          To the Reader


Gentle Reader; I here present vnto thy view these few sheets,
written by that learned man _Mr William Pemble_, I doubt not to
call him the father, the childe fauours him so much. It hath long
lay hid from thy sight, but now at length emboldned vpon thy
curteous acceptance of his former labours, it lookes abroad into
the world; Its but little; let not that detract any thing from
it, there may lie much, though pent vp in a narrow roome; when
thou reades, then iudge of it; Thus much may bee sayd: Though
many haue writ of this subiect, yet this inferiour to none; thou
may'st obserue in it an admirable mixture of Art and delight, so
that for younger Students it may bee their introduction, for
others a Remembrancer, for any not vnworthy the perusall: only,
let it finde kinde entertaynment, at thy hands. _Farewell._



              A BRIEFE INTRODVCTION TO GEOGRAPHIE.



                             CHAP. 1.

       _A generall description and division of Geography._


Topographie is a particular description of some small quantity of
Land, such as Land measurers sett out in their plots.

Chorographie is a particular description of some Country, as of
England, France, or any shire or prouince in them: as in the
vsuall and ordinary mappe.

Geography is an art or science teaching vs the generall
description of the whole earth, of this especially wee are now to
speake of, and also Chorography as a part vnder it conteyned:
both, excellent parts of knowledge in them selues, and affoording
much profit and helpe in the vnderstanding of history & other
things. The parts of Geography are two.

    Generall, which treateth of the nature, qualities,
    measure, with other generall properties of the earth.

    Speciall, wherein the seuerall countrys and coasts of the
    earth are deuided and described.

Of the generall in the first place, and more at large then of the
other, because it is more difficult, and hard to bee vnderstood,
and yet of necessary vse, for the vnderstanding of the other.
This generall tract may bee parted into fiue particular heads.

    1 of the properties and affections of the earth.

    2 of the parts of it in generall.

    3 of the Circles of it.

    4 of the distinction and diuision of it accordinge to
      some generall conditions and qualities of it.

    5 of the measuringe of it.

These in theire order.



                             CAP. 2.

         _Of certaine generall properties of the earth._


In Geography when wee name the earth wee meane not the earth
taken seuerally by itselfe, without the seas and waters. But
vnder one name both are comprised, as they are now mingled one
with another and doe both together make vp one entire and round
body. Neither doe wee diue into the bowels of the earth, and
enter into consideration of the naturall qualities, which are in
the substance of Earth and water, as coldnes, drinesse moisture,
heauines, and the like, but wee looke only vpon the out side,
contemplating the greatnesse, scituation, distances, measuringe,
and other such affections which appeare in the superficies of it,
to the eyes of our bodies and mindes: These then of the earth and
water together, rules are to bee knowne,

1 _The earth and the water doe make one globe, i.e., one round or
sphericall body._

The naturall place of the water is to bee aboue the earth, and
soe it was in the first creation of it, compassing, the earth
round aboute as appeares Genes. 1. 9. But for the vse of man and
all other liuing creatures, God made a separation of them
caussing the waters to sinke downe into huge hollow channells,
prepared to receaue it, that so the drie land might appeare aboue
it. Notwithstanding which separation, they doe both still remaine
together, not couering one another as at first, but intermingled
one with another, and that soe exactly as they now make but one
round body, whereas at first they made two. Here therfore are two
poynts to be proued, 1. That they are one globe. 2. that this one
is round.

1 They are one globe hauing the same Center or middle pointe, and
the same surface or conuexe superficies, which will appeare by
these reasons.

1 Common experience. Take a lumpe of earth and any quantity of
water, and let them both fall downe together vpon the earth from
some high place, wee see that in the desc[~e]t they doe not
seuer, but keepe still together in on streight line, which could
not bee, if the earth and water were two seuerall round bodies
hauing seuerall centers. As for example suppose them to bee two
globes and let (_a_) bee the Center of the earth and (_b_) the
center of the water; fr[~o] (_c_) some high place aboue the earth
hurle downe earth and water, I say the earth will part from the
water in going downe and the earth will fall downe vpon (_d_) &
the water vpon (_e_) but this is contrary to experience & _ergo_
the supposition is false.

[Illustration]

2 The shadow which in Eclipses is cast vpon the Moone by the
earth and the water, is but one and not two, & therefore the body
is so likewise. This will appeare in the proofe of the next
point, v. 2.

2 _That both earth and water are one round body, not square,
long, hollow, of any other figure. This is proued by diuerse
reasons._

1 By Eclipses; when the earth, stands iust betweene the Sunne and
the Moone, then doth the shadow of the earth falling vpon the
Moone darken it wholy or in part. Now as is the fashion of the
shadow, such is the figure of the body, whence it falls, but the
shadow of the earth and water cast vpon the Moone is round, and
also one, therefore they are round and also one body.

[Illustration]

2 By the orderly and successiue appearing of the starres, as men
trauile from North to South, or from South to North, by sea or
land. For as they goe by degrees, they discouer new starres,
which they saw not before, and loose the sight of them they did,
which could not bee if the earth were not round. As for example,
let (_X.O.R._) the inward Circle bee the earth, (_Q.S.P._) the
outward, the Heauen: they cannot see the starre (_S_) which dwell
vpon the earth in (_X_) but if they goe Northward vnto (_O_) they
may see it. If they goe farther to (_R_) they may see the starre
(_P_) but then they loose the sight of the starre (_Q_) which
being at (_X_) and (_O_) they might haue seene. Because, as it
appeares in the figure, the earth riseth vp round betweene (_R_)
and (_X_).

[Illustration]

3 By the orderly and successiue rising of the Sunne and starres,
and settinge of the same. Which appeare not at the same time to
all countryes, but vnto one after another. As for example, let
(_F.C.B._) be the Circle of the earth, (_D.E.A._) the Circle of
the heauen from East to west, let (_A_) bee the Sunne or a
starre. When the Sunne (_A_) is vp, and shines vpon them that
dwell in (_B_) hee is not risen to them that dwell in (_C_)
againe when hee is risen higher and is come to (_E_) and so
shines vpon those that dwell in (_C_) hee is not yet vp to them
that dwell in (_F_). Againe when hee setts in the West, in (_D_)
and so is out of sight to the inhabitants in (_B_) hee is yet vp
to them that dwell in (_C_) and (_F_). Which shews plainely the
earth is round.

[Illustration]

4 By the different obseruations of Eclipses. One and the same
Eclipse appearing sooner to the Easterly Nations then those that
lye farther west, which is caused by the bulke of the earth
swelling vp betweene. As for example.

Let (_X.O._) bee the Circle of the earth, and the greater the
Circle of the heauen from East to West. Let (_P.Q._) bee the body
of the Sunne, (_W.S._) of the Moone in the eclipse by reason of
the earth betweene it and the Sunne. It is manifest that the
inhabitants in (_O_) shall see the eclipse before the inhabitants
in (_X_) by certaine houres, according as the distance betweene
(_X_) and (_O_) is more or lesse. They that dwell in (_O_) shall
see it in (_S_) they that dwell in (_X_) see it not till it come
to (_W_) a great deale higher.

[Illustration]

5 That the water is round besides the naturall weight and
moisture of it, which being apt to yeeld and runne abroad, will
not suffer some places to ly high, and some low, like hills, &
dales, but though it be made rough and vneuen by tempest, doth
pres[~e]tly returne to their naturall smoothnesse and euennesse:
I say besides this: it is cleare by common experience; for if wee
stand on the land, and see a ship goe forth to sea, by degrees
wee loose the sight of it, first of the bulke then of the
mast, and all. So also one the other side they that are at sea by
degrees doe loose or gaine the sight of the Land: As for example.

Let (_A_) bee some steeple vpon the land (_B_) a shipp at sea: He
that stands at (_A_) shall by little and little loose the sight
of the ship, as shee goes out, & gett sight of her as shee comes
in. Both first and last hee shall haue the sight of the top mast
(_B_) when hee sees nothing else. Because the sea riseth vp
betweene his sight and the ship.

[Illustration]

These reasons and experiments may suffice to proue the roundnesse
of the earth and water; which might bee farther demonstrated by
shewing the falshood of all other figures regular or irregular
that can be giuen vnto it; that it is neither square, nor
three-cornerd, nor Piramidall, nor conicall on Taperwise,
nor Cylindricall like a barley rowle, nor hollow like a dish,
nor of any other fashion, as some haue imagined it to bee of.
Wee come to this second rule.

2 _The tops of the highest hills, and the bottoms of the lowest
vallies although in seuerall places they make the earth vneven,
yet being compared to the vast greatnesse of the whole, doe not
at all hinder the roundnesse of it._

Among all Geometricall figures the sphæriall or the round is the
most perfect, and amongst all naturall bodies the heauen is the
most excellent. It was therefore good reason the most beautifull
body should haue the most perfect and exquisite shape. Exact
roundnesse then is not found in any body, but the Heauens; the
earth is round as was showed before, but not precisely, with out
all roughnes and inæquality of its surface. There are hills like
warts and vallies like wrinkels in a mans body; and that both for
ornament and vse. Yet is there such vnformity in this varietie,
as that there is no notable and sensible inæquality made in the
earth by Hills and vallies. No more then if you should lay a fly
vpon a smooth Cartwheele, or a pinnes head vpon a greate globe.
Now that this is soe appeares by Sense and Reason. By Sense thus,
If wee stand on a hill or in a plaine, when wee may discrie the
country round about 15. or 20. miles; wee may behold the brim or
edge of the earth round about vs to bee in a manner euen and
streight, euen there, where the country is very hilly, and full
of mountaines. So that a farre of their height makes but a little
alteration and difference from the plaine Countreys, when wee
behold all togeather a farre of: though when wee come neere, the
alteration seemes more sensible.

By reason thus, the thicknesse of halfe the earth is (as shall be
shewed) about 4000 miles, now the plumb height of the highest
mountaines is not accounted aboue a mile and a halfe, or two
miles at the most. Now betweene two miles and foure thousand,
there is no sensible proportion, and a line that is foure
thousand and two miles long, will not seeme sensibly longer then
that which is foure thousand; as for example. Let (_O_) be the
center of the earth, (_XW_) a part of the circle of the earth
which runneth by the bottomes of the hils and superficies of
champion and even plaines (_WO_) or (_XO_) is the semidiamiter or
halfe the depth of the earth. (_S_) is a hill rising vp aboue
that plaine of the earth, (_WS_) is the plumb height of the hill.
I say that (_WS_) doth not sensibly alter the length of the line
(_OW_); for (_WS_) is but two miles. (_WO_) 4000 miles, and two
to 4000 alters not much more, then the breadth of a pinne to the
length of a pearch. So a line drawne from (_O_) the center to
(_S_) the top of the hill, is in a manner all one with a line
drawen to (_W_) the bottome of the hill.

[Illustration]

The third rule.

3 _The earth resteth immovable in the very midst of the whole
earth._

Two points are here to be demonstrated. _First that the earth
standeth exactly in the midst of the World. Secondly that it is
immoveable._ The former is proved by these reasons.

1 The naturall heavinesse of the earth and water is such, as they
will never cease mooving downewards till they come to the lowest
place; Now the center or middle point of the world is the lowest
place, and _ergo_ they must needs moue thither, as for example.

Let (_O_) be the center of the world, (_CDE_) the heauens: it is
manifest that the lowest place from the heauens on all sides is
(_O_). Ssuppose the earth to be in (_A_) or in (_B_) some where
out of the center, I say it is not possible (vnlesse it be
violently held vp) that it should abide there, but it will
descend till it come to (_O_) the middle point.

[Illustration]

2 If the earth stood any where but in the midest we should not
see halfe the heauens aboue vs, as now we alway doe, neither
could there be any Æquinox, neither would the daies and nights
lengthen and shorten in that due order and proportion in all
places of the World as now they doe; againe Eclipses would never
fall out but in one part of the heavens, yea the Sunne and Moone
might be directly opposite one to another and yet no Eclipse
follow, all which are absurd. As for example, let the center of
the World be (_O_) let the earth stand in (_A_), a good way
distant from the center, it is manifest that the greater halfe of
the Heauens (_CIB_) will alwaies be aboue, and the lesser halfe
(_CDB_) below, which is contrary to experience. Thence also it
followes that the daies and nights will never be equall, for the
Sunne (_B_) will be alwaies longer aboue the earth whil'st he
moues from (_B_) to (_C_) then below, mouing from (_C_) to (_B_).
Againe the Sunne (_B_) may stand iust opposite to the Moone (_X_)
and yet noe Eclipse follow, the earth which makes the Eclipse,
standing out of the midst.

[Illustration]

3 The shadowes of all bodies on the earth would not fall in that
orderly vniformity as they now doe: for if the earth stood
towards the East, the shadowes would be shortest before noone, if
toward the west afternoone, if towards the North, the shadowes
would still fall Northward, if towards the South, Southwards, all
which experience shewes to be false. As for example, let the
earth stand Eastwards in (_A_) the shadow of any body vpon the
earth, as of the body vnder (_E_) will be shorter in the morning
when the sunne is in (_C_), then at noone when the sunne is in
(_X_). If the earth stand Southward in (_W_) the shaddow of any
body will alwaies fall south, as it doth in the figure (_Y_) and
(_Z_.)

[Illustration]

_The second thing to be proued was that the earth is immouable._
where wee must vnderstand a double motion, Streight, or Circular.
For the first it is cleare that with out supernaturall violence
it cannot bee moued in any streight motion, that is, vpward
downewarde, or toward any side; it cannot bee shoued out of his
place.

For the Second, whether abiding still in his place it may not
moue rounde, the question is disputed, and maintained one both
sides. Some affirme it may, and doth: who thinke there is greater
probabilitie the earth should mooue round once a day, then that
the Heauens should by reason of the incredible swiftnesse of the
heauens motion, scarcs conpetible to any naturall body; and the
more likely Slownesse of the earths mouing. Others deny it
grounding theire opinion vpon Scripture, which affirmes the earth
to stand fast, so as it cannot bee moued; and vpon Sence, because
wee perceaue it not to moue, and lastly vpon reasons drawne from
things hurled vp, and let fall vpon the earth. The arguments on
both sides wil bee more easie to bee vnderstood by the figure
that followes.

[Illustration]

In this figure it is manifest, that the earth in the midest,
cannot moue by any streight motion, vpward towarde (_N_) or
sideward toward (_M_) or any other way out of its proper place,
and therefore that opinion of _Copernicus_ and others, that the
earth should moue round once a yeere in such a Circle as (_MPR_)
is most improbable & vnreasonable. And reiected by the most.

But although it cannot moue streight, it may moue round. For
though it be a marueilous great body of vnconceaueable weight,
yet being equally poised on euery side, there is nothing can
hinder its Circular motion. As in a Globe of Lead, or any other
heauy substance, though it were 40. Fadome in compasse, yet being
set vpon his two Poles, it would easily bee turned round euen
with a touch of ones little finger. And therefore it is concluded
that this circular motion is not impossible. The probabilitie of
it is thus made plaine. The whole circuit of the Heauens, wherein
are the fixed Starrs is reckoned by Astronomers to bee
1017562500. that is a Thousand and seauenteene Millions of miles,
fiue hundred sixty two thousand, and fiue hundred miles. Let this
bee the compasse of the Circle (_NMOZ_.) So many miles doth the
Heauens moue in one day, till the same point come to the place
from whence it went; as till (_N_) moue round, and come to (_N_)
againe. This being the motion of the whole day 24. houres, how
many miles will (_N_) moue in one houre? it will moue 42398437
and a halfe. i.e. Forty two Millions three hundred ninty eight
thousand, foure hundred thirty seuen miles and an halfe. So many
miles will (_N_) moue in one houre, from (_N_) to (_M_.) A motion
so swift that it is vtterly incredible. Farre more likely it is,
the circuit of the earth (_ASXV_) being about 24000. i.e. twenty
foure thousand miles more or lesse, it should moue round once a
day. For then one point as (_X_) should moue in one houre from
(_X_) to (_V_) but a thousand miles, which motion although it bee
swifter then any arrow or bullet from a Cannons mouth, yet is it
incomparably slower then that of the Heauens, where so many
Millions are posted ouer in an houre.

Now for the saluing of all the cælestiall Phænomena, or
appearances, the truth is the same, if wee suppose the earth to
moue, as if wee beleeue it to stand still. The riseing of the
Sunne and Starres, the motions of all the Planets, will keepe
Correspondence that now. Nor neede wee feare logging, or that
steples and towers would totter downe, for the motion is regular,
and steady without rubbes, and knocks. As if you turne a globe
about, it will goe steadyly, and a fly will set fast vpon it,
though you moue it apace. Besides the whole body the ayre is
carryed about with the whirlinge of the earth, so that the earth
will make noe winde, as it turnes swiftly about; as a wheele
will, if it bee turned apace.

Notwithstanding all this, most are of another opinion, that the
earth standeth still without all motion, rest rather befittinge
so heauy and dull a body then motion. The maine reason brought to
establish it is this. Let a stone bee throwne downe out of the
ayre from (_W_:) if the earth stand still, it is manifest it will
fall vpon (_X_) iust vnder it; as wee see it doth by common
experience, a stone will fall downe from any height vpon the
place wee aymed at, but let the earth moue, the stone will not
light vpon (_X_) but some where else as one (_S_:) for (_X_) will
bee moued away, and gone to (_V_.)

So againe let two peices of ordinance that will shoote at equall
distance bee discharged one iust towards the East, the other
towards the West; if the earth moue (as they say it doth) towards
the West, the bullet that is discharged Eastward will fly farther
then that Westward. For by the contrary motion of the earth hee
will gaine ground. But experience hath proued this to bee false,
shewing that the bullets, will both fly at equall distance.

To salue this, answere is made that the earth by its swift motion
carries with it and that steadily not only all bodies resting or
moueing vpon it, but also the whole Sphære of Aire (_WEQ_) with
all things whatsoeuer that are moued in it naturally or
violently, as clouds, birds, stones hurled vp or downe, arrowes,
bullets, and such like things violently shott forth: as may
appeare in the figure.

The fourth rule.

4 The earth, though it bee of exceeding greate quantity being
considered in itselfe, yet being compared to the Heauens,
especially the higher sphæres, is of noe notable bignes, but may
be accounted as a point or pricke in the middest of the world.

That the earth is noe bigger then a point or pinns head in
comparison of the highest heauens will easily appeare vnto vs, by
these reasons.

1 The starres which are many times bigger then the earth, seeme
yet to vs to bee noe bigger then a greate pinns head, or such
like quantity; therefore much lesse shall the earth appeare to
bee of any sensible magnitude.

2 Wee alwaies beholde halfe the heauens aboue vs, which could not
bee if the earth had any sensible proportion to the heauen.

3 All obseruations of hights and distances of the coelestiall
bodies, which are made on the superficies of the earth, are as
exact, and true, as if they were made in the very center of the
earth. Which were impossible, vnlesse the thicknes of the earth
were insensible in regard of the Heauens.

4 All Sunn Dialls which stand on the superficies of the earth,
doe as truely cast the shadowes of the houres, as if they stood
in the Center. As for example.

The starre (_S_) appeares like a point or pricke to them that
dwell in (_A_) wherefore the earth (_OX_) will appeare much lesse
to the sight of him that should behold it from (_S_), nay it
would not bee seene at all. Againe halfe the Heauens (_BFE_) are
alwayes seene to th[~e] that dwell in (_A_) wanting some two
minutes, betweene (_ED_) and (_BC_) which difference is
alltogether insensible. Againe if wee obserue the height of the
starre (_S_) aboue the Horizon (_BE_) it will bee all one namely
(_BS_) whether wee obserue it in the topp of the earth, in (_A_)
or in the middle in (_O_.) For, (_A_) and (_O_,) are so little
distant one from another, that (_AS_,) and (_OS_) will bee
paralell lines, and bee esteemed but as one line. The fourth
reason concerning Dialls, is cleare by the framing and
construction of them: wherein either the lower end of the Cocke
(or Gnomon) whereat all the houre lines meet, or the vpper end
and knobb (as in many Dialls) is supposed to bee the Center of
the earth.

[Illustration]



                             CAP. 3.

            _Of the parts of the terrestriall Globe._


The properties of the earthly Globe haue beene handled in the
former chapter wee come now to the parts which are two in
generall.

    {Earth} Both containe vnder them more particular
    {Water} parts to be knowne.

The more notable parts of the Earth are these.

1 A Continent or maine Land, or as some call it firme Land, which
is not parted by the Sea running betweene.

2 An Iland, a land compassed about with waters.

3 A Peninsula, a land almost surrounded by waters saue at one
place, where ioynes by a narrow necke of land to the Continent;
this is also called Chersonesus.

4 An Isthmus, a streight necke of land which ioynes two countreys
together, and keepes the Sea from compassing the one.

5 A Promontorie or head land running farre out into the Sea like
a wedge.

6 A Mountaine      }
                   }
7 A Valley         } All easie to bee knowne
                   }
8 A Champion plain } without any definition.
                   }
9 A Wood           }

The more notable parts of the Water are these

1 _Mare_ the Sea, or Ocean, which is the gathering together of
all waters.

2 _Fretum_ a streight or narrow sea running betweene two lands.

3 _Sinus_ a Creeke, Gulfe, or Bay, when the sea runnes vp into
the bosome of the land by a narrow enterance but openeth it
broader when it is within; if it bee very litell it is called a
Hauen, _Portus_.

4 _Lacus_ a Lake, a little sea with in the land hauing riuers
running into it, or out of it, or both. If it hath neither it is
called _Stagnum_ a standing Poole, also _Palus_; a fenne.

5 _Fluvius_ a Riuer, which from the pleasantnesse is also called
_Amnis_; from the smalnesse of it _Rivus_.

Now concerning these parts diuers questions are moued; whether
there bee more Sea or Land? whether the sea would naturally
ouerflow the land, as it did in the first creation, were it not
withheld within his bankes by diuine power? whether the deepenes
of the Sea, doth exceede the height of the mountaines? whether
mountaines were before the flood? what is the hight of the
highest hilles? whether Iland, came since the flood? what is the
cause of the Ebbing and flowing of the Sea? what is the original
of springs and riuers? what manner of motion the running of the
riuers is? with such like, whereof some belong not so properly to
this science of Geography as to others. Wee speake onely a word
or two of the last, & so proceed. The question is whether the
motion of the riuers bee streight, or Circular. The doubts on
both sides will best appeare by a figure first drawne: wherein,
Let (_HMO_) be the Meridian of _Alexandria_ in _Ægipt_, or of the
Mouth of _Nilus_ and answerable to the meridian of the Heauens.
Another in the Earth (_XBY_.) Let (_B_) bee the mouth of _Nilus_,
and (_C_) the fountaine and head of it. Now the mouth of _Nilus_,
where it runnes into the mediterranian Sea, is placed by
geographers in the 31. degree of the North latitud; & the head of
_Nilus_ where it riseth is placed by _Polomeus_ in 11. degree of
the South latitud, but by latter & more exact geographers in the
14. degree of the Southern latitud, so that the distance betweene
the founts & _Ostia_ i.e. betweene (_C_) and (_B_) is 45. degrees
of a great Circle, which after the vsuall account makes 2700. one
eight part of the earths compasse. The quæstion now is, whether
the runninge from (_C_) to (_B_) runne continually downward in a
streight line; or circularly in a crooked line. If it runne in a
streight line, as is most agreeable to the nature of the water it
must moue either by the line (_CEB_) or by the line (_DB_.) By
the line (_CEB_) it cannot moue: for when it is come to (_E_,) it
will stand still. Because from (_E_) to (_B_) it must moue
vpward, if it moue at all, which is contrary to the nature of
water. If therefore it moue by a streight line it can bee noe
other, but (_BD_,) and so from (_D_) to (_B_) it shall
continually descend; for of all places betweene (_D_,) & (_B_)
(_B_) is the nearest to (_A_.) But then the fountaine must not
bee in (_B_) but higher in (_D_) which semees altogether
improbable or impossible. For first the line (_AD_) would bee
notably and sent by longer then the line (_AB_) For the compasse
of the earth being about 24000. Miles, and the semidiameter
(_AB_,) or (_AC_) 3828. miles the line (_CD_,) would bee 1581.
miles, which cannot bee true, if as wee haue proued before, the
earth bee round, and that the highest hills make noe sensible
inæquality. Againe they that dwell in (_D_) should see the North
Pole starre (_N_) as well as they that dwell in (_B_,) which also
is false. So then the riuer cannot runne either by (_EB_) or
(_DB_) Runnes it then circularly by the line (_CWB_?) This seemes
probable, and the rather because heereby a reason of the
originall of Riuers might more easily bee giuen. For the
fountaines (_C_) lying euen with the superficies of the Sea, the
water may easily passe through the hollowes of the earth, and
breake out at (_C_) without ascendinge. But here also are some
difficulties: for first wee find by experience that the
fountaines of most riuers, and those greate ons too, lye sensibly
higher then the plaine surface of the Sea. Againe, if the riuer
moue directly round, what should bee the cause that begins and
continues this motion? It is a motion besides the nature of the
water, and therefore violent, what should driue it forward from
the Sea to (_C_,) and from (_C_) to (_B_,) when the water is at
(_C_) or (_W_,) it is as neere to the Center (_A_) as when it is
at (_B_,) and therefore it should seeme with more liklyhood it
would stand still; for why should it striue to goe further,
seeing where it is, it is as neare to the Center as whither it
runnes. Or if some violence doe driue it from (_C_,) towards
(_W_,) yet (as it is the nature of violent motions) the further
it goes the slower it will runne, till in the end it stand still,
if there bee noe aduantadge of ground to helpe it forward.

[Illustration]

As a bowle throwne downe a hill runnes easily and farre, if it
once bee sett a going; but throwne vpon the ice (an euen place)
it will without any lett at last stand still. Answere may bee
made hereunto, that although there bee noe aduantage of the
ground, yet the water will still moue forwarde from (_C_) to
(_B_) because the water that followes, pusheth forwarde that,
that runnes afore. Which answere will stand, when a good cause
may bee shewed, which forcibly driueth the water from the Sea
vnto (_C_) and out of the fountaine (_C_;) considering that
(after this supposition) they lie both in the same circular
superficies. Wherefore seeing, wee cannot without any
inconueniency suppose it to moue by any of these lines either
streight as (_BC_) or (_BD_,) or circular as (_BWC_) let vs
enquire farther.

The most likely opinion is, that the motion of the water is mixt
neither directly streight, or circular, but partly one, partly
the other. Or if it be circular, it is in a circle whose center
is a little distant from the Center of the whole globe. Let vs
place fountaines then neither in (_C_) nor (_D_) but in (_F_) I
say the water runnes either partly streight by the (_FS_) and
partly circular, from (_S_) to (_B_) which motion will not be
inconuenient, for the water descending continually from (_F_) to
(_S_) will cause it still to runne forward; or else wholy
circular in the circle (_FXB_.) And this is most agreeable to
truth. For so it shall both runne round as it must doe if wee
will escape the otherwise vnauoidable inconueniences of the first
opinion and yet in running still descend, and come neerer to the
Center, as is most befitting the nature of water, so that wee
need not seeke for any violent cause that moues it. Let vs then
see what is the hight of (_F_) the fountaines of _Nilus_, aboue
(_C_) that is (_B_) the mouth or outlet of it into the Sea. The
vsuall allowance in watercourses is one foot in descent for 200.
foot in running, but if this bee thought to much because water
will runne awaie vpon any inequality of ground, for euery 500.
foote allow one for descent, & so much we may with reason, in
regard of the swiftnes of many riuers, yea the most, which in
many places runnes headlong, in all places very swiftly
(especially _Nilus_ whose cateracts or downfalls are notable)
which cannot bee without some notable decliuity of the ground.
Thus then the whole course of _Nilus_ being 2700. miles from
(_F_) to (_B_) the perpendicular or plumb descent of it (_CF_)
will be 5. miles. And so high shall the fountaine stand aboue the
mouth, and the surface of the plaine Land (for riuers commonly
arise at foot of hills) which is (_BXF_) swell vp aboue the
surface of the Sea (_BWC_) or (_BY_) which hight of the Land
aboue the Sea although it bee greater then is the height of the
highest mo[~u]taines aboue the plaine Land, yet it is nothing in
comparison of the whole Earth. And this being granted (as with
most probabilitie of reason it may) it will appeare that God in
the beginning of the world imposed noe perpetuall violence vpon
nature, in gathering togeather, the waters into one place, and
being so gathered in keeping them from runing backe to cover the
earth. At the first so soone as those hollow channells were
prepared, the water did naturally slide downe into them, and out
of them without miraculous power they cannot returne. For if the
sea (_BY_) should overflow the land towards (_F_) the water must
ascend in running from (_B_) to (_F_) which is contrary to its
nature. Certainly the midland countries, whence springs of great
rivers vsually arise, doe ly so high, that the sea cannot
naturally overflow them. For as for that opinion that the water
of the sea in the middle lies on a heape higher then the water
that is by the shore; and so that it is a harder matter to saile
out of a Haven to seaward, then to come in (because they goe
vpward): this is an empty speculation contray to experience, and
the grounds of nature it selfe, as might easily be shewed. All
the difficulty that is in this opinion, is to giue a reason how
the waters mount vp to (_F_,) and whence the water comes that
should flow out of so high a place of the earth, wherein I thinke
as in many other secrets of nature we must content our selues
with ignorance, seeing so many vaine conjectures haue taken no
better successe.

[Illustration]



                             CAP. 4.

                 _Of the circles of the earth._


In a round body as the earth is, there can be no distinction of
parts, & places, without the helpe of some lines drawen or
imagined to be drawen vpon it. Now though there are not, nor can
be any circles truly drawen vpon the earth, yet because there is
a good ground in nature and reason of things for them, we must
imagine them to be drawen vpon the earth, as truly as we see them
described vpon a Globe or in a plaine paper. Further this must be
noted, that all circles on the earth haue the like opposite vnto
them conceaved to be the Heavenes, vnder which they are directly
scituated. Thus knowen, the circles that wee are to take the
speciall notice of are of two sorts, Greater and Lesser.

_The greater circles are those which devide this earthly globe
into equall halfes or Hæmispheres._

_The lesser are those which devide it into two vnequall parts,
one bigger, another lesse._

                         { 1 Æquator.
Of the former sort there { 2 Meridian.
are foure, the           { 3 Horizon.
                         { 4 Zodiack, or Eclipticke.

1 _The Æquitor or Æquonoctiall line, is a line drawen iust in the
midst of the earth, from East to West, which compasseth it as a
girdle doth a mans body, and devidith it into two equall parts,
one on the North side, the other on the South_ The two points in
the earth that are every way farthest distant from it North, &
South are called the Poles of the earth which doe directly stand
vnder the two like points in the Heaven, so called because the
Heaven turnes about vpon them, as the Earth doth in a Globe
that's set in a frame. This circle is of the first & principall
note and vse in Geography, because all measurings for distances
of places and quarters of the Earth are reckoned in it, or from
it. It is called the Æquinoctiall, because when the Sunne in the
Heavens comes to be directly over that circle in the earth, the
daies & nights are of equall length in all parts of the world.
Marriners call it by a kind of excellency, _The line_. Vpon the
Globe it is easily discerned being drawen bigger then any other
circles from East to West, and with small divisions.

2 _The Meridian, if a line that is drawen quite crosse the
Æquinoctiall, and passeth through the Poles of the Earth, going
directly North and South._ It is called the Meridian, because
when the Sunne stands just over that circle it is _Meridies i.d._
noone day. It may be conceaued thus, at noone day, when it is
just twelue a clocke, turne your face towards the South, and then
imagine with your selfe two circles drawen, one in the Heavens,
passing from the North iust over your head through the body of
the Sunne downe to the South, and so round vnder the earth vp
againe to the North Pole. Another vpon the surface of the earth
passing through your feete just vnder the Sunne, and so
compassing the earth round till it meete at your feete againe,
and these are Meridians answering one to another. Now the
Meridian is not one only, as was the Æquinoctiall, but many still
varying according to the place wherein you are, as for example.
At _London_ there is one Meridian, at _Oxford_ another, at
_Bristow_ another, & so along Eastward or Westward. For it is
noone at _London_ sooner then at _Oxford_, and at _Oxford_ sooner
then at _Bristow_. Vpon the globe there are many drawen, all
which passe through the poles, and goe North and South, but there
is one more remarkeable then the rest, drawen broad with small
divisions, which runneth through the Canary Ilands, or through
the Ilands of _Azores_ Westward of _Spaine_, which is counted the
first Meridian in regard of reckoning and measuring of distances
of places one from another; for otherwise there is neither first
nor last in the round earth. But some place must bee appointed
where to beginne the account and those Ilands haue beene thought
fittest, because no part of the World that lay westward was
knowne to the Ancients further then that: and as they began to
reckon there, we follow them. This circle is called in greeke
[Greek: Mesêmbrinos].

3. The Horizon is two fold: { Sensible or appearing.
                            { Intelligible or true.

_The Sensible or appearing Horizon is the space of the earth so
farre as in an open plaine, or vpon some Hill a man may see round
about him._ The brim or edge of the earth further then which you
cannot see, that is the Horizon, or as some call it the
_Finitor_. Because _finet_ or terminat _visum_ it setts the
limits or bounds to your sight, beyond which nothing can bee
seene vpon the earth. This is greater or lesser, according as the
height of the eye aboue the plaine superficies of the earth, is
more or lesse. The most exact triall hereof is at Sea, where
there are no mountaines nor any vnequall risings of the water to
hinder the sight, as there are at land. For example let (_CBAF_)
be the superficies of the Sea and let a mans eye bee placed in
(_X_) aboue the Sea; as the eye stands higher or lower so will
the distance seene be more or lesse, as if the hight of (_XA_) be
6 foot which is ordinary the height of a man, the eye looking
from (_X_) to (_B_) shall see 2 miles and 3 quarters, if (_X_) be
20 foote high (_BA_) will bee fiue miles, if 40 foote 7 miles, if
50 foote 8 miles.[1] So that from the mast of a ship 50 foote
high, a man may see round about at sea 8 miles every way, toward
(_BG_) and (_F_). So farre may the water it selfe be seene, but
any high thing on the Water may be seene farther, 16, or 20 miles
according as the height is, as the ship at (_C_) may be seene
from (_X_) as far more as it is from (_A_) to (_B_). There can be
therefore no certaine quantity and space set downe for this
sensible Horizon, which continually varies according to the
height of the eye aboue the plaine ground or sea. This Horrizon
is not at all painted on the globe nor can be.

[Footnote 1: See _Wright_ of Navigation p. 229.]

[Illustration]

_The intelligible or true Horizon is a line which girts the earth
round in the midst, and divides it into two equall parts or
Hæmispheares the vppermost vpon the top & middle point
whereof wee dwell, and that which is vnder vs._ Opposite to this
in the Heavens is another Horizon, which likewise cuts the Heaven
into two Hemispheres, the vpper and the lower. Aboue which circle
when any starre or the Sunne is moued, it then riseth vnto vs,
and setteth vnto those that dwell opposite vnto vs, and so on the
contrary, you may conceiue it best thus, if standing vpon a hill,
or some open place, where you may perfectly see the setting of
the Sunne, you marke when the Sun is halfe gone out of your
sight, you may perceiue the body of the Sunne cut in two, as it
were by a line, going along through it, the halfe aboue is yet
seene, that vnderneath is gone out of your sight. This line is
but a peece of the Horrizon, which if you conceiue to be drawen
vpward about the World from the West to the North, and so by East
and South, to West againe you haue the whole Horrizon described.

This circle is not drawen vpon the body of the globe, because it
is variable; but stands one the outside of it, beeing a broad
circle of wood couered with paper on which are sett the moneths
and days of the yeare, both in the old and new Calender, and also
the 12 signes, and the points of the compasse. All which are
easily discerned by the beholdinge. The vse of this Horizon is
not so much in Geographie as in Astronomie.

_The Zodiake is a circle which compasseth the earth like a belt,
crossing the æquator slopewise, not streight as the Meridians
doe._ Opposite to it in the Heauens is another circle of the same
name, wherein are the 12. signes, and in which the Sunne keepes
his owne proper course all the yeare long, neuer declining from
it on the one side or other. The vse hereof in Geography is but
litle only to shew what people they are ouer whose heads the
Sunne comes to bee once or twice a yeare; who are all those that
dwell with in 23. degrees of the Aequator; for so much is the
declination, or sloping of the _Zodiacke_. This circle is also
called the Eclipticke line, because when the Sunne and Moone
stand both in this circle opposite each to other, then there
happens an Eclipse of the Sunne or Mone, vpon a globe it is
easily discerned, by the sloping of it from the Aequator, and the
diuisions of it into 12. parts, and euery of those 12. into 30.
degrees.

_These are the greater circles: the lesser follow; which are all
of one nature, and are called by one generall name: sc.
Parallels, because they are so drawen on each side of the
Aequator, as they are equidistant vnto it euery way._ Many of
this kinde are drawne vpon the globe (as is easie to bee seene)
and may bee conceaued to bee drawne vpon the earth: but there are
only two sorts cheifely to bee marked: namely the

    { Tropickes and the }
    { Polar circles.    }

_The tropickes are two, parallel circles distant on each side of
the Aequator 23. degrees shewing the farthest bounds of the Sunns
declination North or South from the Aequator, or the midest of
heauen._ And therefore they are called tropickes a [Greek:
trepôthai] _vertendo_, because when the Sunne comes ouer these
lines, hee either turnes away from vs, as in the Summer, or
turnes toward vs againe as in the winter: There are then two of
them _vid._

    { 1 The Tropicke of Cancer which lies on the North side
    {   of the Aequator, to which when the Sunne comes, it
    {   makes the longest day in Summer.
    {
    { 2 The Tropicke of Capricorne, lying Southward of the
    {   Aequator, to which when the Sunne comes, it makes the
    {   shortest day in winter.

_The Polar circles are two parallels drawne by the poles of the
Zodiacke compassinge about the poles of the world, being distant
from them euery way 23 degrees. These are two._

1 _The Articke Circle that compasseth about the North Pole: it is
so called because that in the Heavens (where vnto this in the
earth lies opposite) runs through the constellation of the great
Beare, which in greeke is called [Greek: arktos]_

2 _The Antarticke circle that compasseth about the South Pole, &
is placed opposite vnto the former._ All these with the former
are easily known vp[~o] the Globe by these descripti[~o]s, &
names vsually added vnto th[~e]. But because maps are of an esier
price, & more c[~o]mon vse then Globes, it will be needfull to
shew how all these circles, which are drawne most naturally vpon
a round Globe, may also as truly, and profitably for knowledge
and vse be described vpon a plaine paper. Whereby we shall
vnderstand the reason of those lines which We see in the vsuall
Mapps of the world, both how they are drawne, and wherefore they
serue. Vnderstand therefore, that in laying downe the globe vpon
a plaine paper, you must imagine the globe to be cut in two
halfes through the midst, and so to be pressed downe flat to the
paper; as if you should take a hollow dish, and with your hand
squieze the bottom down, till it lie flat vpon a bord, or any
other plaine thing for then will those circles that before were
of equall distance, runne closer together towards the midst.
After this conceit, vniversall Maps are made of two fashions,
according as the globe may be devided two waies, either cutting
quite through by the meridian from North to South, as if you
should cut an apple by the eye and the stalke, or cutting it
through the Æquinoctiall, East and West, as one would divide an
apple through the midst, betweene the eye & the stalke. The
former makes two faces, or hemispheares, the East and the West
hemispheare. The latter makes likewise two Hemispheares, the
North and the South. Both suppositions are good, and befitting
the nature of the globe: for as touching such vniversall maps,
wherein the world is represented not in two round faces, but all
in one square plot, the ground wherevpon such descriptions are
founded, is lesse naturall and agreeable to the globe, for it
supposeth the earth to be like a Cylinder (or role of bowling
allies) which imagination, vnlesse it be well qualified, is
vtterly false,[2] and makes all such mappes faulty in the
scituation of places. Wherefore omitting this, we will shew the
description of the two former only, both which are easie to be
done.

[Footnote 2: Of this Hypothesis see _Wrights_ errors of
navigation.]

1 To describe an Æquinoctiall planispheare, draw a circle
(_ACBD_) and inscribe in it two diameters (_AB_) & (_CD_) cutting
each other at right angles, and the whole circle into foure
quadrants: each whereof devide into 90. parts, or degrees. The
line (_AB_) doth fitly represent halfe of the Æquator, as the
line (_CD_) in which the points (_C_) & (_D_) are the two poles,
halfe of the Meridian: for these circles the eye being in a
perpendicular line from the point of concurrence (as in this
projection it is supposed) must needs appeare streight. To draw
the other, which will appeare crooked, doe thus. Lie a rule from
the Pole (_C_) to every tenth or fift degree of the halfe circle
(_ADB_) noting in the Æquator (_AB_) every intersection of it and
the rule. The like doe from the point (_B_) to the semicircle
(_CAD_) noting also the intersections in the Meridian (_CD_) Then
the diameters (_CB_) and (_AB_) being drawne out at both ends, as
farre as may suffice, finding in the line (_DC_) the center of
the tenth division from (_A_) to (_C_) and from (_B_) to (_C_), &
of the first point of intersection noted in the meridian fr[~o]
the Æquator towards (_C_) by a way familiar to Geometricians
connect the three points, and you haue the paralell of 10.
degrees from the Æquator: the like must bee done in drawing the
other paralells on either side, the Æquator; as also in drawing
the Meridians from centers found in the line (_AB_) in like maner
continued. All which is illustrated by the following diagram.

[Illustration]

2 To describe a Polar Planisphære, draw a circle (_ACBD_) on the
center (_E_) & as before, inscribe in it two diameters (_AB_) and
(_BC_) cutting each other at right angles, and the circle into
foure quadrants. Each quadrant being deuided into 90. parts, draw
from euery 5^{th} or 10^{th} of those parts a diameter to the
opposite point: these lines all concurring in the center (_E_)
being the pole, are as so many Meridians. Next, hauing cutt the
halfe of any one of the former diameters into 9 parts, as (_ED_)
in the points (_FGHIKLMN_) draw on the center (_E_) so many
circles and these represent the paralells of the Globe, being
also here true paralells.

[Illustration]



                             CAP. 5.

      _Of divers Distinctions, and Divisions of the earth._


Next after the Circles of the Earth, wee may not vnfitly handle
the seuerall Divisions and distinctions which geographers make of
the parts, and inhabitants of the earth. These are many, but wee
will briefely runne them ouer.

1 The first and most plaine is by the Coasts of the Heauens, and
rising, and Setting of the Sunne, so it is distinguished into the
    { East where the Sunne ariseth. _Oreins_, _Ortus_
    { [Greek: anatolê].
    { West where the Sunne goeth downe. _occidens_.
    { North: betweene both fromwards the Sunne at Noone.
    { _Septentrio_.
    { South: betweene both towards the Sun at Noone.
    { _Meridies_.
These foure are called the cheife or Cardinall quarters of the
world. They with the others betweene them are easily knowne but
are of more vse to Mariners then to vs. Wee may rather take
notice of those other names which by Astronomers Geographers
Divines and Poets are giuen vnto them. Who sometime call the East
the right hand part of the world, sometime the West, sometime the
North, & sometime South, the diuersity is noted in these verses,
    _Ad Boream terræ, Sed Coeli mensor ad Austrum,_
    _Præco Dei exortum videt, occasumque Poeta._
That is
    Geographers looke to the North, Astronomers to the South.
    Priests turne them to the East, & Poets to the West.
This serues for vnderstanding of Authors, wherein any mention is
made of the right or left part of the World, if for example he be
a poet, he means the South by the right hand, the North by the
left: because a poet turnes his face to the West, and so reckons
the quarters of Heauen and Earth.

2 The second distinction is by the notable differences of heat
and cold, that are observed on the earth, this is the division of
the Earth by Zones or Girdles, which are parts of the Earth,
wherin heat and cold doe remarkably increase or decrease. Those
Zones are 5.

1 The hot or burning Zone (_Zona torrida_) which containes all
that space of earth, that lieth betwtene the two Tropicks,
supposed heretofore (but falsly as after experience hath shewed)
to be inhabitable by reason of heat, the Sunne continually lying
ouer some part of it.

2.3 The temperate Zones wherein neither heat nor cold is extreame
but moderate: these are two, one on the North side of the
Aequator, betweene the Articke circle, and the Tropicke of
Cancer, another on the South side betweene the Tropicke of
Capricorne, and the Antarcticke circle.

4.5 The cold, or Frozen Zones, wherein cold for the most part is
greater then the heat, these likewise are two, one in the North,
betweene the Articke circle, and the North Pole, another on the
South betweene the Antarctick circle and the South Pole. These of
all parts of the earth are worst inhabited, according as
extremity of cold is alwaies a greater enemy to mans body, then
extremity of heat.

3 The third distinction is by the shadowes, which bodies doe cast
vpon the earth, iust at nooneday; for these doe not alwaies fall
one way but diuersly according to their divers scituation vpon
the Earth. Now in respect of the shadowes of mens bodies, the
inhabitants of the earth are divided into the

1 _Amphiscy_ ([Greek: amphischioi]) whose shadow at noone day
fall both waie, so to the North when the Sunne is Southward of
them, & to the South when the Sunne is Northward, and such are
those people that doe dwell in the hot Zone. For the Sunne goes
ouer their heads twice a yeare, once Northward, another time
Southward, when the Sunne is just ouer their heads they are
called _Asoy_, [Greek: aschioi], without shadow.

2 _Heteroscy_ ([Greek: heteroschioi]) whose shadowes doe alwaies
fall one way, namely alwaies towards the North, as those that
dwell in the Northerne temperate Zone, or alwaies to the South,
as those that dwell in the Southerne temperate Zone.

3 _Periscy_ ([Greek: perischioi]) whose shadowes goe round about
them, as those people who dwell in the two cold Zones, for as the
Sunne never goes downe to them after he is once vp, but alwaies
round about, so doe their shadowes.

4 The fourth distinction is by the scituation of the Inhabitants
of the Earth, compared on with another: who are called either.

    1 Perioeci ([Greek: perioichoi]) such as dwell round
      about the Earth in one and the same paralell, as for
      example vnder the Tropicke of Cancer.

    2 Antoeci ([Greek: antoichoi]) such as dwell opposite to
      the former in another Paralell of the same distance
      from the Æquator. As those vnder the Tropicke of
      Capricorne.

    3 Antipodes ([Greek: antipodes]) who dwell iust vnder vs
      theire feete opposite to ours.

5 The fifth distinction is of the Length and Breadth of the Earth
and places vpon it: these may bee considered two wayes

    1 Absolutely, and so the
      { Longitude or Length of the Earth is its Circuit, and
      { Extension from East to west,
      {
      { Latitude or breadth of it, is the whole Circuit and
      { Compasse of it from North to South.

    2 Comparatiuely: comparinge one places scituation with
      another, and so the
      { Longitud of a place, is the distance of it from the
      { first Meridian going through the Canary Ilands,
      { Eastward. Whereby wee know how farre one place lies
      { East or West from another.
      {
      { Latitude of a place, is the distance of it from the
      { Æquator towards the North or South. Whereby wee know
      { how farre one Place lies Northward, or Southward of
      { another.

The Longitude must bee reckoned by the degrees of the Æquator,
the Latitude by the degrees of the Meridian.

For example, in these two Hæmisphæres, the longitude of the whole
earth is from (_C_) to (_A_) and (_B_) in the Æquator. The
latitud is from (_N_) to (_S_), and from (_Q_) to (_P_) the North
and South poles, and this reckoned in any meridian. The first
meridian is (_ANBS_) which goes by the Canary Ilands, the
Æquinoctiall is (_ABCA_). Now I haue a Citty giuen so. (_D_) I
would know in what longitude and latitude it is. For the
longitude I consider what meridian passeth through it, which is
the meridian (_NDS_) which crosseth the Æquinoctiall in (_I_) at
15 degrees, wherefore I say that (_D_) stands Eastward from the
first Meridian 15 degrees. So I finde that the Citty (_E_) is 150
degrees Eastward, (_G_) 195, and (_F_) 345.

For the Latitude I consider what paralell runnes through (_DEG_)
or (_F_) and I finde the 30 to passe by (_D_) 45 by (_E_) the 15
by (_F_) the 45 Southward by (_G_) and those numbers are the
latitude of the place that are distant from the Æquator, (_CAB_).

[Illustration]

Concerning the means whereby the longitude of places is found
out, there is scarce any thing that hath troubled Mathematicians
so much as the observation of it. For because no standing marke
can be taken (the Heavens alwaies running about) it must needs
bee difficult. To measure vpon the earth, going alwaies vnder the
same paralell, is a way certain in regard of some few places, but
so troublesome in it selfe, and vnprofitable in regard of other
places that ly out of that paralell, that it may be accounted a
fruitlesse labour. The voyages & accounts of Marriners at Sea,
are so full of casualty & vncertainty by reason of the doubtfull
variation of the compasse, the vnequall violence of windes and
tides, the false making of their sea cards, by which they saile,
and the ignorance of the Masters for the greatest part, as there
can hardly be any assured reckoning made by them. The best means
of observation is by Eclipses of the Sunne & Moone, which in
severall Countries are sooner or later seene, according as one
place lies farther East or farther West from another. But this
also falls out so seldome, and when it happens, is so seldome
obserued, and when it is observed, hath so many difficulties in
the precise and exact observation of it; that wee may Well
account this inquiry after the longitude of places, to be one of
those things whereof wee must be content to be ignorant, & rather
to gesse at it in Grosse, then in vaine to striue for exactnesse,
which is the cause why the tables of the longitude and latitude
of Citties, though they many times agree in the latitude, doe yet
for the most part very much differ in the Longitude.

6 The sixth Distinction is by the Length or shortnesse of the Day
in Summer time in seuerall Quarters of the earth. And this
diuision is by Climates ([Greek: chlimata]) which are seuerall
spaces of the earth contained betweene two Paralells, in the
which the longest day in Summer excedes that in another Paralell
by halfe an Houre. There is a greate deale of Confusion and
difference betweene the late and ancient Geographers about the
distinction and diuers reckonings of the Climats. It is not
worth the labour to recount theire opinions and Calculations:
thus much is plaine, and easie to bee knowne. There are 24.
Climats in which the Day encreaseth by halfe houres from 12.
houres to 24. There are likewise 6. Climats in which the day
encreaseth by moneths, from one moneth to sixe that is halfe a
yeare. Vnder the Aequator the day is alwayes twelue houres longe,
but as you goe from it towards the Pole, the Day lengthens still
till it comes to a day halfe a yeare long.[3] Now in what degrees
of latitude euery on of these Climats beginne and end, shall
appeare by this table following.

[Footnote 3: Those that dwell vnder the Pole haue not past 3, or
4 moneths profound as tenebras darke night, for when the Sun is
in Libra & Pisces being then nigh, the Horizon it sends forth to
them a glimmering light not vnlike to the twilight or dawning of
the day in a morning a little before the Suns rising _Munster_
lib. I. cap.]

7 The seaventh and last distinction of the earth is taken from
the scituation of it in respect of the Heavens, and especially
the Sunnes motion. In regard whereof Some parts or inhabitants of
the Earth are said to be or dwell in a Right Spheare, some in a
paralell Spheare, and others in an oblique or crooked Spheare.

They dwell (in _Sphæra recta_) in a right or streight Spheare who
dwell iust vnder the Æquinoctiall, whose Horizon is paralell to
the Meridians, but cutts the Æquator at right Angles, they dwell
in paralell Spheares, who dwell iust vnder either of the Poles,
whose Horizon is parallell to the Æquator, but cuts all the
Meridians at right Angles: and the latter is sometime called a
Paralell Spheare.

They dwell (in _Sphæra obliqua_) in a crooked Spheare, who
inhabite any place betweene the Æquinoctiall and the Pole, whose
Horizon cuts the Æquator, the Paralells, and the Meridians at
oblique or vnequall angles.

A table of the climats.

+------+----------+---------+-----------+---------+-------------------+
|Climes|Paralells |The      |Latitude   |The      |The places by which|
|      |          |longest  |& elevation|breadth  |the climates passe.|
|      |          |summer   |of Pole.   |of the   |                   |
|      |          |day.     |Scr. Degr. |Climats. |                   |
|      |          |Hou. Scr.|           |Deg. Scr.|                   |
+------+----------+---------+-----------+---------+-------------------+
|   0  |     0    |  12  0  |   0    0  |  4  18  | The beginning     |
|      |     1    |  12 15  |   4   18  |         | from the Aequator.|
+------+----------+---------+-----------+---------+-------------------+
|   1  |     2    |  12 30  |   8   34  |  8  25  | Sinus Arabicus or |
|      |     3    |  1  45  |  12   43  |         | the Red Sea.      |
+------+----------+---------+-----------+---------+-------------------+
|   2  |     4    |  13  0  |  16   43  |  7  50  | Meroe an Iland of |
|      |     5    |  13 15  |  20   33  |         | Nilus in Aegypt.  |
+------+----------+---------+-----------+---------+-------------------+
|   3  |     6    |  13 40  |  23   10  |  7   3  | Siene a Citty in  |
|      |     7    |  13 45  |  27   36  |         | Africa.           |
+------+----------+---------+-----------+---------+-------------------+
|   4  |     8    |  14  0  |  30   47  |  6   9  | Alexandria in     |
|      |     9    |  14 15  |  33   45  |         | Aegypt.           |
+------+----------+---------+-----------+---------+-------------------+
|   5  |    10    |  14 30  |  36   30  |  5  17  | Rhodes and        |
|      |    11    |  14 45  |  39    2  |         | Babylon.          |
+------+----------+---------+-----------+---------+-------------------+
|   6  |    12    |  15  0  |  41   22  |  4  30  | Rome and          |
|      |    13    |  15 15  |  43   32  |         | Hellespont.       |
+------+----------+---------+-----------+---------+-------------------+
|   7  |    14    |  15 30  |  45   29  |  3  48  | Venice and        |
|      |    15    |  15 45  |  47   20  |         | Millaine.         |
+------+----------+---------+-----------+---------+-------------------+
|   8  |    16    |  16  0  |  49   21  |  3  13  | Podalia and the   |
|      |    17    |  16 15  |  50   33  |         | lesser Tartary.   |
+------+----------+---------+-----------+---------+-------------------+
|   9  |    18    |  16 30  |  51   58  |  2  44  | Batavia and       |
|      |    19    |  16 45  |  53   17  |         | Wittenberge.      |
+------+----------+---------+-----------+---------+-------------------+
|  10  |    20    |  17  0  |  54   29  |  2  17  | Rostoch.          |
|      |    21    |  17 15  |  55   34  |         |                   |
+------+----------+---------+-----------+---------+-------------------+
|  11  |    22    |  17 30  |  56   37  |  2   0  | Ireland and       |
|      |    23    |  17 45  |  57   34  |         | Moscovy.          |
+------+----------+---------+-----------+---------+-------------------+
|  12  |    24    |  18  0  |  58   26  |  1  40  | Bohus a Castle    |
|      |    25    |  18 15  |  59    1  |         | in Norwey.        |
+------+----------+---------+-----------+---------+-------------------+
|  13  |    26    |  18 30  |  59   59  |  1  26  | Gothland.         |
|      |    27    |  18 45  |  60   40  |         |                   |
+------+----------+---------+-----------+---------+-------------------+
|  14  |    28    |  19  0  |  61   18  |  1  13  | Bergia in         |
|      |    29    |  19 15  |  61   53  |         | Norwey.           |
+------+----------+---------+-----------+---------+-------------------+
|  15  |    30    |  19 30  |  62   25  |  1   0  | Wiburge in        |
|      |    31    |  19 45  |  62   54  |         | Finland.          |
+------+----------+---------+-----------+---------+-------------------+
|  16  |    32    |  20  0  |  63   22  |  0  52  | Arotia in         |
|      |    33    |  20 15  |  63   46  |         | Sweden.           |
+------+----------+---------+-----------+---------+-------------------+
|  17  |    34    |  20 30  |  64    6  |  0  44  | The mouth of      |
|      |    35    |  20 45  |  64   30  |         | Darecally a riv.  |
|      |          |         |           |         | of Swed[~e].      |
+------+----------+---------+-----------+---------+-------------------+
|  18  |    36    |  21  0  |  64   49  |  0  36  | Diverse places    |
|      |    37    |  21 15  |  65    6  |         | in Norwey.        |
+------+----------+---------+-----------+---------+-------------------+
|  19  |    38    |  21 30  |  65   21  |  0  29  | Suetia, Alba      |
|      |    39    |  21 45  |  65   35  |         | Russia.           |
+------+----------+---------+-----------+---------+-------------------+
|  20  |    40    |  22  0  |  65   47  |  0  22  | With many Ilands. |
|      |    41    |  22 15  |  65   57  |         |                   |
+------+----------+---------+-----------+---------+-------------------+
|  21  |    42    |  22 30  |  66    6  |  0  17  | Thereunto         |
|      |    43    |  22 45  |  66   14  |         | adioyning.        |
+------+----------+---------+-----------+---------+-------------------+
|  22  |    44    |  23  0  |  66   20  |  0  11  | Wanting speciall  |
|      |    45    |  23 15  |  66   25  |         | names.            |
+------+----------+---------+-----------+---------+-------------------+
|  23  |    46    |  23 30  |  66   28  |  0   5  | And Landmarkes.   |
|      |    47    |  23 45  |  66   20  |         |                   |
+------+----------+---------+-----------+---------+-------------------+
|  24  |    48    |  24  0  |  66   31  |  0   0  | Island vnder the  |
|      |          |         |           |         | Articke circle.   |
+------+----------+---------+-----------+---------+-------------------+
|Here the Climats |  Menses |           | These Climats are supposed  |
|are accounted by +---------+-----------+ to passe by diverse Ilands  |
|the months from  |    1    |  67   15  | within the Articke circle   |
|66 Degr. 31 min. +---------+-----------+ as Groenland, Island,       |
|where the day is |    2    |  69   30  | Greenland: wherein as yet   |
|24 houres vnto   +---------+-----------+ for the narrownesse of      |
|the Pole it selfe|    3    |  73   20  | these climats comming       |
|set at 90 Degrees+---------+-----------+ neere together, and the     |
|where the        |    4    |  78   20  | vncertainty of              |
|artificiall day  +---------+-----------+ observation no              |
|is sixe Months.  |    5    |  84    0  | speciall places haue beene  |
|                 +---------+-----------+ assigned as to the other.   |
|                 |    6    |  90    0  |                             |
+-----------------+---------+-----------+-----------------------------+

1 The vse of this table is easie. In the first Culumne are
contained the names and number of the Climats. In the second the
Paralells which enclose it on each side, and deuide it in the
middest. For the paralells here are drawne by euery halfe houres
encrease.

The third Columne is the length of the Day in Summer, in euery
Climate, which from 12. houres encreaseth by halfe houres to 24.
houres after by moneths, from one moneth to sixe.

The fourth containes the degrees of latitude, how farre euery
climate lies from the Æquinoctiall.

The fift contaynes the space or breadth of euery Climate, how
many degrees or minutes it takes vp vpon the Earth.

The sixt containes some notable places by which the Climats
passe.

2 Hereby it is easie to know what the longest Day is in any Place
of the worlde whose latitude is knowne. Or contrarily the longest
Day being knowne to know the latitude. For example Oxford hath
latitude 52.0. degrees longitude 24.0. In the table I finde that
52. degrees of Latitude lie in the 9th Climate wherein the day is
16. houres and a halfe longe. So much I say the Day is at Oxford
in Summer. The place of Oxford in the Hæmisphere is at (_V_.)

3 Vpon Globes the Climats are not vsually described, but are
noted out vpon the brazen Meridian. So also in vniversall mappes
they are seldome drawne, to avoide confusion of many lines
together, but they are many times marked out on the limbe or edge
of the mappe.



                             CAP. 6.

                _Of the measuring of the earth._


Wee are now come to the last point concerning the measuring of
the Earth, which is two fold. Either of the
    { 1 Whole earth.
    {
    { 2 Severall parts thereof, and their distance one from
    {   another.

Concerning the first it is but a needlesse labour to recount the
diversity of opinions that haue beene held from time to time by
learned Geographers. What is the compasse and depth of the earth.
This may be seene in _Hues de vsu Globi, part. 3. cap. 2._ and in
_Clavius_ on _Sacrobosco_ with others. They all differ so much
one from another, that there is no certainty in trusting any of
them. The most common and received opinion is that the circuit of
the earth is 21600 miles, reckoning 60 miles for every degree,
and then the depth or Diameter of the Earth shall be 6877 English
miles, containing 5000 foote in a mile.

The means wherby the circuit and Diameter of the earth are found
out are principally two.

1 By measuring North or South, vnder one Meridian some good
quantity of ground, threescore or an hundred miles (or two for
the more certainty) for in those petty observations of small
distances there can be no certaine working. This may be done,
though it be laborious, yet exactly without any sensible error by
a skilfull workeman, plotting it out vpon his paper, with due
heed taken, that hee often rectifie the variation of the needle
(by which he travells) vpon due observation, and that all notable
ascents and descents, with such winding and turning as the
necessity of the way causeth, be reduced to one streight line. By
this means wee shall know how many miles in the Earth answering
to a degree in the Heauens; if exact observation by large
instruments be made to finde the elevation of the pole, in the
first place where wee begin to measure, and the last where wee
make an end.

Besides this way of measuring the circumference of the Earth,
there is none other that hath any certainty of observati[~o] in
it. That by Eclipses is most vncertain, for a little error in a
few minuts of time (which the observers shall not possibly
avoide) breeds a sensible and fowle error in the distance of the
two places of observation. That of _Eratosthenes_ by the Sunne
beames, and a shadow of a stile or gnomon set vpon the Earth, is
as bad as the other. For both the vncertainty of the calculation
in so small quantity as the shadow and the gnomon must needs
haue, and the difficulty to obserue the true length of the
shadow, as also the false supposition wherevpon it proceeds,
taking those lines for Paralells which are not, doe manifestly
shew the reckoning hereby made to be doubt full and not sure.

2 The second is by measuring the semidiameter of the Earth: For
as the circumference makes knowne the diameter, so doth this the
circumference. This may be done by observation made vpon some
great hill, hard by the sea side. The invention is of _Maurolycus
Abbot_ of _Messava_ in _Sicilie_, but it hath beene perfitted,
and more exactly performed by a worthy Mathematician _Ed. W._ who
himselfe made proofe of it. By this art was the semidiameter of
the Earth found out to be 18312621 foote: which allowing 5000
foot to a mile is 3662 & a halfe miles, which doubled is the
whole Diameter 7325 miles. The circuit of the earth shall be
23030 miles, and one degree containes 63-35/36 miles which is
almost 64 miles. Which as it exceeds the ordinary account, so may
wee rest vpon it as more exact then any other.

2 The second point concerninge the measuringe of particular
distances of places one from another is thus performed.

First vpon the Globe it is most easie. With a payre of Compasses
take the distance betweene any two places howsoever scituated
vpon the Globe, and apply the distance so taken to the Æquator, &
see how many degrees it takes vp; those degrees turned into miles
shew the distance of the two citties on from another.

Vpon vniuersall mapps theire is a little more difficulty in
finding the distance of places which here must bee considered in
a threefold difference of scituation:

    1 Of Latitude only.

    2 Of Longitude only.

    3 Of Latitude and Longitude together.

1 If the two places differ only in Latitude, and lie vnder the
same Meridian if the places lie both on one side of the Æquator,
the differences of the latitudes: or the summe of both latitudes
added together, if one place lie North and another South, being
turned into Miles giues the true distance.

2 If the places differ only in Longitude, and lie both vnder one
paralell of latitude the difference of longitude turned into
miles proportionably accordinge to the latitude of the paralell,
giues the true distance.

3 The distance of places differing both in latitude and longitude
may thus bee found out, first let there bee drawne a semicircle
vpon a right diameter noted with (_ABCD_) whereof (_D_) shall bee
the Center. The greater this Semi-circle is made, so much the
more easie will bee the operation; because the degrees will bee
larger. Then this Semicircle being drawne, and accordingly
devided, imagine that by the helpe of it, you desire to find out
the distance betwixt London and Ierusalem, which Citties are
knowne to differ both in longitude & latitude. Now, that the true
distance betwixt these two places may be found out, you must
first substract the lesser longitude out of the greater, so shall
you find the differences of their longitudes, which is 47.
degrees. Then reckon that difference vp[~o] the Semi-circle,
beginning at (_A_) & so proceed to (_B_;) & at the end of that
difference, make a marke with the leter (_E_) vnto which point by
your ruler, let a right line be drawne from (_D_) the center of
the Semi circle. This being in this sort performed, let the
lesser latitude be sought out which in 32 degrees, in the fore
said semicircle, beginning your accompt from the point (_E_) and
so proceede towards (_B_), and at the end of the lesser latitude
let another point be marked out with the letter (_G_), from which
point, let there be drawen a perpendicular line which may fall
with right Angles vpon the former line drawen from (_D_) to
(_E_), and where it chanceth to fall, there marke out a point
with the letter (_H_): This being performed let the greater
latitude which is 51 degrees 32 minuts, be sought out in the
semicircle beginning to reckon from (_A_) towards (_B_) and at
the end of that latitude set another point signed out by the
letter (_I_) from whence let there be drawen another
perpendicular line that may fall with right angles vpon the
diameter (_AC_): & here marke out a point with the letter (_K_),
this done take with your compasse the distance betwixt (_K_) and
(_H_) which distance you must set downe vpon the diameter (_AC_)
placeing the one foot of your compasse vpon (_K_) and the other
towards the center (_D_) and there marke out a point with the
letter (_L_); then with your compasse take the shorter
perpendicular line (_GH_,) and apply that widenesse vpon the
longer perpendicular line (_IK_,) placing the one foote of your
compasse at (_I_,) which is the bounds of the greater latitude,
and extend the other towards (_K_), and there make a point at
(_M_), then with your compasse take the distance betwixt (_L_)
and (_M_), and apply the same to the semicircle. Placing the one
foot of your compasse in (_A_) and the other towards (_B_), &
there marke out a point with the letter (_N_), now the number of
degrees comprehended betwixt (_A_) and (_N_) will expresse the
true distance of the two places, which will bee found to be 39
degrees: which being multiplied by 60. and so converted into
miles according to the former rules, will produce 2340. which is
the distance of the said places.



FINIS.





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