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Title: Diet and Health - With Key to the Calories
Author: Peters, Lulu Hunt
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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Diet and Health


Key to the Calories

Lulu Hunt Peters, A.B., M.D.
Ex-Chairman, Public Health Committee
California Federation of Women's Clubs
Los Angeles District

The Reilly and Lee Co.


by permission to

Herbert Hoover

Illustrated by
The Author's Small Nephew

Dawson Hunt Perkins
The little rascal

Read This First

I am sorry I cannot devise a key by which to read this book, as well as
a Key to the Calories, for sometimes you are to read the title headings
and side explanations before the text. Other times you are supposed to
read the text and then the headings. It really does not matter much as
long as you read them both. Be sure to do that. They are clever. _I
wrote them myself_.

I have been accused of trying to catch you coming and going, because I
have included in my book the right methods of gaining weight, as well as
those for losing weight. But this is not the reason--though I don't
object to doing that little thing--the reason is that the lack of
knowledge of foods is the foundation for both overweight and

I did want my publishers to get this out in a cheaper edition, thinking
that more people could have it, and thus it would be doing more good;
but they have convinced me that that idea was a false claim of my mortal
mind, and that the more you paid for it, the more you would appreciate
it. I have received many times, and without grumbling on my part, ten
dollars for the same advice given in my office. Perhaps on this line of
reasoning we should have ten dollars for the book. Those of you who
think so may send the balance on through my publishers.


Los Angeles, California
June, 1918


 1 Preliminary Bout                   11
 2 Key to the Calories                23
 3 Review and More Definitions        30
 4 More Keys and More Calories        37
 5 Vegetarianism vs. Meat Eating      54
 6 The Deluded Ones--My Thin Friends  59
 7 Exercise                           69
 8 At Last! How to Reduce             77
 9 Autobiographical                   88
10 Testimonials                       96
11 An Apology and Some Amendments     98
12 Maintenance Diet and Conclusions  102
13 Three Years Later                 106

Diet and Health


Preliminary Bout

_Rule to Find Ideal Adult Net Weight_

Multiply number of inches over 5 ft. in height by 5-1/2; add 110. For
example: Height 5 ft. 7 in. without shoes.

     7 x 5-1/2  =    38-1/2
                  + 110
     Ideal weight   148-1/2

If under 5 ft. multiply number of inches under 5 ft. by 5-1/2 and
subtract from 110.

_Are You Thin and Do You Want to Gain?_

[Sidenote: _Don't Read This_]

Skip this chapter. It will not interest you in the least. I will come to
you later. I am not particularly interested in you anyway, for I cannot
get your point of view. How any one can want to be anything but thin is
beyond my intelligence. However, knowing that there are such deluded
individuals, I have been constrained to give you advice. You won't find
it spontaneous nor from the heart, but if you follow my directions I
will guarantee that you will gain; providing, of course, you have no
organic trouble; and the chances are that by giving proper attention to
your diet you will gain anyway, and maybe in passing lose your trouble.
Who knows?

[Sidenote: _Bad Business_]

In war time it is a crime to hoard food, and fines and imprisonment have
followed the exposé of such practices. Yet there are hundreds of
thousands of individuals all over America who are hoarding food, and
that one of the most precious of all foods! _They have vast amounts of
this valuable commodity stored away in their own anatomy_.

[Illustration: contents noted]

Now fat individuals have always been considered a joke, but you are a
joke no longer. Instead of being looked upon with friendly tolerance and
amusement, you are now viewed with distrust, suspicion, and even
aversion! How dare you hoard fat when our nation needs it? You don't
dare to any longer. You never wanted to be fat anyway, but you did not
know how to reduce, and it is proverbial how little you eat. Why, there
is Mrs. Natty B. Slymm, who is beautifully thin, and she eats twice as
much as you do, and does not gain an ounce. You know positively that
eating has nothing to do with it, for one time you dieted, didn't eat a
thing but what the doctor ordered, besides your regular meals, and you
actually gained.

You are in despair about being anything but fat, and--! how you hate it.
But cheer up. I will save you; yea, even as I have saved myself and
many, many others, so will I save you.

[Sidenote: _Spirituality vs. Materiality_]

[Sidenote: _A Long, Long Battle_]

It is not in vain that all my life I have had to fight the too, too
solid. Why, I can remember when I was a child I was always being
consoled by being told that I would outgrow it, and that when I matured
I would have some shape. Never can I tell pathetically "when I was
married I weighed only one hundred eighteen, and look at me now." No, I
was a delicate slip of one hundred and sixty-five when I was taken.

I never will tell you how much I have weighed, I am so thoroughly
ashamed of it, but my normal weight is one hundred and fifty pounds, and
at one time there was seventy pounds more of me than there is now, or
has been since I knew how to control it. I was not so shameless as that
very long, and as I look back upon that short period I feel like
refunding the comfortable salary received as superintendent of an
hospital; for I know I was only sixty-five per cent efficient, for
efficiency decreases in direct proportion as excess weight increases.
Everybody knows it.

_The Meeting Is Now Open for Discussion_

Jolly Mrs. Sheesasite has the floor and wants some questions answered.
You know Mrs. Sheesasite; her husband recently bought her a pair of
freight scales.

[Sidenote: _Mrs. Sheesasite_]

"Why is it, Doctor, that thin people can eat so much more than fat
people and still not gain?"

[Sidenote: _Me Answering_]

"First: Thin people are usually more active than fat people and use up
their food.

"Second: Thin people have been proved to radiate fifty per cent more
heat per pound than fat people; in other words, fat people are regular
fireless cookers! They hold the heat in, it cannot get out through the
packing, and the food which is also contained therein goes merrily on
with fiendish regularity, depositing itself as fat.

[Illustration: Fireless Cookers.]

"And there are baby fireless cookers and children fireless cookers. The
same dietetic rules apply to them as to the adult."

"I recognize Mrs. Tiny Weyaton; then you, Mrs. Knott Little."

[Sidenote: _Mrs. Weyaton_]

"We have heard you say that fat people eat too much, and still we eat so

[Sidenote: _Me Again_]

"Yes, you eat too much, _no matter how little it is_, even if it be only
one bird-seed daily, _if you store it away as fat_. For, hearken; food,
and food only (sometimes plus alcohol) maketh fat. Not water--not
air--verily, nothing but food maketh fat. (And between you and me, Mrs.
Weyaton, just confidential like--don't tell it--we know that the small
appetite story is a myth.)"

[Sidenote: _Mrs. Knott Little_]

"But, Doctor, is it not true that some individuals inherit the tendency
to be fat, and can not help it, no matter what they do?"

[Sidenote: _Doctor_]

"Answer to first part--Yes.

"Answer to second part--No! It is not true that they cannot help it;
they have to work a little harder, that is all. It is true that being
fat is a disease with some, due to imperfect working of the internal
secretory glands, such as the thyroid, generative glands, etc.; but that
is not true fat such as you have. Yours, and that of the other members
who are interested, is due to overeating and underexercising.

[Sidenote: _Not_?]

"Those diseased individuals should be under the care of a physician.
Probably the secretory glands are somewhat inactive or sluggish in the
healthy fat individual. I use the word _healthy_ here in
contradistinction to the other type. In reality, individuals very much
overweight are not really healthy, and they should also visit their

"Yes, Mrs. Ima Gobbler?"

[Sidenote: _Mrs. Ima Gobbler_]

[Sidenote: _Doctor Dear_]

"But, Doctor dear, what's the use of dieting? I only get fatter after I

(Answering delicate like, for I'm fond of her and she is sensitive):

"You fat--! You make me fatigued! _You never diet long enough_ to get
out of the fireless cooker class. _If you did, you wouldn't."_

"Is there anyone else who would like to be recognized? No?"

[Sidenote: _Nothing That I Don't Know_]

It is well. I will probably answer more as I go along, for there is
nothing that I don't know or haven't studied or tried in the reducing
line. I know everything you have to contend with--how you no sooner
congratulate yourself on your will power, after you have dragged
yourself by the window with an exposure of luscious fat chocolates with
curlicues on their tummies, than another comes into view, and you have
it all to go through with again, and how you finally succumb.

I hope sometime it will be a misdemeanor, punishable by imprisonment, to
display candy as shamelessly as it is done.

Many fond parents think that candy causes worms. It doesn't, of course,
unless it is contaminated with worm eggs, but, personally, I wish every
time I ate a chocolate I would get a worm, then I would escape them. The
chocolates, I mean. I will tell you more about worms when I discuss

[Sidenote: _Vampires_]

[Sidenote: _Malicious Animal Magnetism?_]

I know how you go down to destruction for peanuts, with their awful fat
content. It is terrible, the lure a peanut has for me. Do you suppose
Mr. Darwin could explain that?

Perhaps I was a little too delicate like in my answer to Mrs. Gobbler's
question,--What's the use of dieting, she only gets fatter after she

So many ask me that question, with the further pathetic addition,--Will
they always have to keep it up? And it ever irritates me.

The answer is,--Yes! You will always have to keep up dieting, just as
you always have to keep up other things in life that make it worth
living--being neat, being kind, being tender; reading, studying, loving.

You will not have to be nearly so strenuous after you get to normal;
_but you might as well recognize now, and accept it as a fact, that
neither you nor anybody else will be able to eat beyond your needs
without accumulating fat or disease, or both._

I love Billy Sunday's classical answer to the objection that his
conversions were not permanent. He responded: "Neither is a bath!"

WHEN YOU START TO REDUCE you will have the following to combat:

[Sidenote: _A Combat_]

First: Your husband, who tells you that he does not like thin women. I
almost hate my husband when I think how long he kept me under that
delusion. Now, of course, I know all about his jealous disposition, and
how he did not want me to be attractive.

[Illustration: _Green!_]

Second: Your sister, who says, "Goodness, Lou, but you look old today;
you looked lots better as you were."

[Illustration: _Sweet Peace_]

Third: Your friends, who tell you that you are just right now; don't
lose another pound! And other friends who tell you cheerful tales of
people they have known who reduced, and who went into a decline, and
finally died.

[Sidenote: _To Avoid Slack in Your Neck, Double and Triple Chins,
Massage Vigorously Up and Down, Not Crossways_]

[Sidenote: _I Am Interesting_]

But you must not mind them. Smile, and tell them that you know all about
it, and don't worry. Go serenely on your way, confident in your heart
that you will look fully ten years younger when you get down to normal,
no matter how you look in the interim. I don't see why women, and men,
too, (secretly) worry so much about wrinkles. If the increased wrinkles
on the face are accompanied by increased wrinkles in the gray matter,
'tis a consummation devoutly to be wished. I'm sure I am much more
interesting with wrinkles than I was without. I am to myself, anyway.

However, you will not be any more wrinkled if you reduce gradually, as I
advise, and keep up your exercises at least fifteen minutes daily.

[Sidenote: _I Have a Beautiful Complexion_]

[Sidenote: _I Attended an Art School Six Months Once_]

Take care of your face, alternate hot and cold water, glycerine
one-quarter, rose water three-quarters, cold cream packs, massage
gently, a little ice--you know what to do--you need not fear. You will
not only look ten years younger and live twenty years longer--I assert
it boldly--but your complexion and efficiency will be one hundred per
cent better.

[Sidenote: _Joy_!]

If there is anything comparable to the joy of taking in your clothes, I
have not experienced it. And when you find your corset coming closer and
closer together (I advise a front lace, so this can be watched), and
then the day you realize that you will have to stitch in a tuck or get a
new one!

But don't be in a hurry to make your clothes smaller now. If they are
loose they will show to the world that you are reducing. A fat person in
a tight suit, unless it is perfectly new, should be interned.

[Sidenote: _Food Only_]

[Sidenote: _Impossible_]

I have said that food, and food only, causes fat. That gives you the cue
to what you must do to get rid of it. No anti-fat medicines unless under
the supervision of your scientific, educated physician. They are
dangerous; most of them contain thyroid extract, arsenic, or mercury.
Even the vendors of these harmful compounds in their advertisements are
now saying to "stop harmful drugging," but urge you to adopt their
particular delightful product, and, "without dieting or exercises, you
will positively reduce," and so forth.

No drastic purges, no violent exercises, especially at first, and not
too frequent nor prolonged Turkish baths. Epsom salts baths have little
effect. If salts are used habitually internally, they are harmful. All
of these are unscientific and unsuccessful, and the things they bring on
are worse than the fat.

Now, if food is the only source of body substance, you see that you must
study that question, and that is what I will give you--some lessons on
foods and their values.

[Sidenote: _Candy Cake, Pie, Rich Meats, Thick Gravy, Bread, Butter,
Nuts, Ice Cream_]

[Sidenote: _Whipped Cream, Candied Sweet Potatoes_]

Heretofore you have known only in a dumb, despairing sort of way that
all the foods you like are fattening, and all the advice you read and
hear is that you must avoid them as a pestilence. And you settle down to
your joyless fatness, realizing that it is beyond human strength to do
that forever, and that you would rather die young and fat, anyway, than
to have nothing to eat all your life but a little meat, fish, and sloshy
vegetables. Study on, and you will find the reason your favorite foods
are fattening.

But cast off your dejection. _You don't have to avoid them_!

Eat what you like and grow thin? Yes; follow me. I know it will be an
exertion, but you must persist and go through with it. Nothing in life
worth while is attained without some effort. So begin now; it is the
price of liberty.


1. Give rule for normal weight.

2. How much excess food have you stored away?

3. Why more important than ever to reduce?

4. Why are fat individuals fireless cookers?

5. Give causes of excess fat.

_NOTE: The Reviews which follow the chapters are important and the
questions should be answered. To get the full benefit, Little Book must
be studied, for it is the only authorized textbook of the "Watch Your


Key to the Calories

Some one page the thin? They come back here.

[Sidenote: _Don't Skip This_]

Definition to learn:

CALORIE; symbol C.; a heat unit and food value unit; is that amount of
heat necessary to raise one pound of water 4 degrees Fahrenheit.

[Sidenote: _Pronounced Kal'-o-ri_]

There is a good deal of effort expended by many semi-educated
individuals to discredit the knowledge of calories, saying that it is a
foolish food science, a fallacy, a fetish, and so forth.

They reason, or rather say, that because there are no calories in some
of the very vital elements of foods--the vitamines and the mineral
salts--therefore it is not necessary to know about them. They further
argue that their grandfathers never heard of calories and they got along
all right. That grandfather argument always enrages my mortal mind.

[Sidenote: _A Unit of Measure_]

Now you know that a calorie is a unit of measuring heat and food. It is
not heat, not food; simply a unit of measure. And as food is of supreme
importance, certainly a knowledge of how it should be measured is also
of supreme importance.

[Sidenote: _Yes, They Are Kosher_]

You should know and also use the word calorie as frequently, or more
frequently, than you use the words foot, yard, quart, gallon, and so
forth, as measures of length and of liquids. Hereafter you are going to
eat calories of food. Instead of saying one slice of bread, or a piece
of pie, you will say 100 Calories of bread, 350 Calories of pie.

The following is the way the calorie is determined:

An apparatus known as the bomb calorimeter has two chambers, the inner,
which contains the dry food to be burned, say a definite amount of
sugar, and an outer, which is filled with water. The food is ignited
with an electric connection and burned. This heat is transferred to the
water. When one pound of water is raised 4 degrees Fahrenheit, the
amount of heat used is arbitrarily chosen as the unit of heat, and is
called the Calorie.

Food burned (oxydized) in the body has been proved to give off
approximately the same amount of heat or energy as when burned in the

[Sidenote: _Approximate Measures_]

     1 oz. Fat                 = 275 C.
                               --about 255 in the body.

     1 oz. Protein (dry)       = 120 C.
                               --about 113 in the body.

     1 oz. Carbohydrates (dry) = 120 C.
                               --about 113 in the body.


Can you see now why fats are valuable? Why they make fat more than any
other food? They give off more than two and one-fourth times as much
heat, or energy, as the other foods.

[Sidenote: _See Next Chapter for Definitions_]

Notice that protein and carbohydrates have the same food value as to
heat or energy, each 113 Calories to the dry ounce. However, they are
not interchangeable; that is, carbohydrates will not take the place of
protein for protein is absolutely necessary to build and repair tissue,
and carbohydrates cannot do that. But fats and carbohydrates are
interchangeable as fuel or energy foods.

_Calories Needed per Day for Normal Individuals_

[Sidenote: _Business of Growing_]

This depends upon age, weight, and physical activities; the baby and the
growing child needing many more calories per pound per day than the
adult, who has to supply only his energy and repair needs. The aged
require still less than the young adult. As to weight; I have told you
why overweight individuals need so little. As to physical activities;
the more active, obviously the more calories needed, for every movement
consumes calories.

[Sidenote: _Many Know Nothing of This_]

The Maine lumbermen, for instance, while working during the winter
months, consume from 5000 to 8000 Calories per day. But they do a
tremendous amount of physical work.

_Mental work does not require added nourishment._ This has been proved,
and if an excess be taken over what is needed at rest (if considerable
exercise is not taken while doing the mental work) the work is not so
well done.

[Sidenote: _Calories Required for Normal_]

                                          Per pound
                                           per day

     Infants require                       40-50 C.
     Growing Children                      30-40 C.
     Adults (depending upon activity)      15-20 C.
     Old age requires                 15 or less C.

_In Round Numbers for the Day_

     Child 2-6      1000 to 1600 C. per day
     Child 6-12     1600 to 2500 C. per day
     Youth 12-18    2500 to 3000 C. per day

[Sidenote: _Growth Demands_]

(Remember that in general the boy needs as much as his father, and the
girl as much as her mother.)

MAN (per day):

     At rest                   1800 to 2000 C.
     Sedentary                 2200 to 2800 C.
     Working                   3500 to 4000 C.

     WOMAN (per day):

     At rest                   1600 to 1800 C.
     Sedentary occupations
       (bookkeeper, etc.)      2000 to 2200 C.
     Occupations involving
       standing, walking, or
       manual labor (general
       housekeeping, etc.)     2200 to 2500 C.
     Occupations requiring
       strength (laundress,
       etc.)                   2500 to 3000 C.

_Example of Finding Number of Calories Needed_

1. Determine normal weight by rule.

2. Multiply normal weight by number of calories needed per pound per

For example, say you weigh 220 or 125 lbs., but by the rule for your
height your weight should be 150 lbs.; then 150 would be the number you
would use.

[Sidenote: _Work Out Your Requirements_]

By the rule I have given, adults require 15-20 Calories per pound per
day, depending upon activity. For example, if you have no physical
activities, then take the lowest figure, 15. 150x15--2250. Therefore
your requirement, if your weight should be 150, is 2250 Calories per

Now, if you want to lose, cut down 500-1000 Calories per day from that.

Five hundred Calories equal approximately 2 ounces of fat. Two ounces
per day would be about 4 pounds per month, or 48 pounds per year.
Cutting out 1000 Calories per day would equal a reduction of
approximately 8 pounds per month, or 96 pounds per year. These pounds
you can absolutely lose by having a knowledge of food values (calories)
and regulating your intake accordingly. You can now see the importance
of a knowledge of calories.

 _1 lb. fat 4000 C_
 _1/2 lb. fat 2000 C_
 _1/4 lb. fat 1000 C_
 _1/8 lb. fat 500 C_ ]

If you want to gain, add gradually 500-1000 Calories per day.


1. Define Calorie, and tell how determined.

2. How many C. in 1 oz. fat? of carbohydrates? of protein?

3. Why are fats so fattening?

4. How many C. per day do you require? do mental workers?

5. Upon what do C. needed per day for normal individuals depend?


Review and More Definitions

[Sidenote: _This Is Dry but Important_]

FOOD: That which taken into the body builds and repairs tissue and
yields energy in heat and muscular power.

[Sidenote: _Approx. %'s if Normal_]


     1. Protein, 18% of body weight.
     2. Fats, 16% of body weight.
     3. Carbohydrates, 1% of body weight.
     4. Mineral matter, 5% of body weight.
     5. Vitamines.
     6. Water, 60% of body weight.

[Sidenote: _Nitrogenous Food Compounds_]

PROTEIN: Builds tissue, repairs waste, yields energy, and may help store
fat. One-half, at least, of your protein should be from the vegetable

A large percentage of protein is contained in

     Eggs      Meat      Fowl   Fish   Nuts
     Milk      Cheese     Gluten of Wheat
     Legumes (beans, peas, lentils, peanuts, etc.)

[Sidenote: _Protein 113 C. Per Oz._]

There is about one-fourth ounce protein in

     1 egg
     1 glass milk (skim, butter, or whole)
     1-1/2 oz. lean meat, or fish or fowl
     1 oz. (1-1/5 cu. in.) whole milk cheese
     2 slices of bread, 3-1/2 x 3-1/2 x 1/2
       (white, whole wheat, corn, etc.)
     3 heaping tablespoonfuls canned baked beans or lima beans
     17 peanuts

[Sidenote: _255 C. Per Oz._]

FATS: Yield energy and are stored as fat.

Animal Fat: Cream, Butter, Lard

Oils: Cottonseed, Olive Almonds, Peanuts, Walnuts Chocolate, etc.

[Sidenote: _113 C. Per Oz._]

CARBOHYDRATES: Yield energy and are stored as fat.

Sugars (candy, honey, syrup, sweet fruits)

Starches (breads, cereals, potatoes, corn, legumes, nuts)

Vegetable fibre, or cellulose

MINERAL MATTER: Shares in forming bones and teeth, and is necessary for
proper functioning.

     Carbon   Lime  Sodium      Potassium,
     Sulphur  Iron  Phosphorus  Etc.

[Sidenote: _Whole Grain Products Not Devitalized_]

These elements are contained largely in the outer coatings of grains,
fruits, and vegetables, and in animal foods and their products. Do not
pare potatoes before cooking. Cook vegetables in a small amount of
water, saving the water for soups and sauces.

WATER: The universal solvent, absolutely necessary for life.

Contained in purest form in all vegetables and fruits. The average
person needs, in addition, from three to five pints taken as a drink. If
not sure of the purity, boil. Do not drink while food is in the mouth.

[Sidenote: _Absolutely Necessary for Growth_]

VITAMINES: Health preservers. Vital substances necessary for growth. The
chemistry of these products is at present not thoroughly understood, but
their importance has been demonstrated by experiments (not torture) on
animals. By this work we know that diseases like beri-beri, scurvy,
rickets, and probably pellagra, are due to a lack of these vital
elements in the food, and from that fact these are called "deficiency"

[Sidenote: _Guinea Pigs vs. Babies_]

Of course I realize that nations can be saved from horrible diseases,
and hundreds and thousands of babies saved from death, through this
experimentation on a few guinea pigs and other animals; but what is the
life of a baby compared with the happiness of a guinea pig? Down with
animal experimentation! Let us do everything in our power to hamper
scientific work of this kind. We are giving up our husbands, fathers,
sons, perhaps to die, for the cause of humanity, but a guinea pig!

It has been found that the vitamines, like the minerals, are most
abundant in the outer coverings and the germ of grains, and in fruits
and vegetables. They are also present in fresh milk, butter, meat and
eggs. Babies fed pasteurized or boiled milk should have fruit juices and
vegetable purees early. Begin with one-half teaspoonful, well diluted,
and gradually increase the feeding to an ounce or more between meals
once or twice daily.

Most animal fats have the vitamines, but vegetable fats are deficient in
them. That is the reason cod liver oil is better for some therapeutic
uses than olive oil.

[Sidenote: _Balanced Diet_]

BALANCED DIET: Should contain

     10-15% Protein
             (children may need more)
     25-30% Fat
     60-65% Carbohydrates

[Sidenote: _To Get the Elements Necessary for Health_]

For example, suppose you are a fairly active woman and need 2500
calories per day. Then for a balanced diet you would need:

     10% Protein, or               250 C.
     25% Fat, or                   625 C.
     65% Carbohydrates            1625 C.
                                  2500 C.

       250 C. of P. = 2-1/5 oz. dry protein
         (250 ÷ 113 = 2-1/5, approximately)
       625 C. of F. = 2-1/2 oz. of fat
         (625 ÷ 255 = 2-1/2, approximately)
     1625 C. of CH. = 14-1/2 oz. dry carbohydrates
        (1625 ÷ 113 = 14-1/2, approximately)

Two and one-fifth ounces dry protein equals the approximate amount of
protein in 10 ounces lean meat, fish, or fowl, or 9 ounces cheese, or 9
eggs. (You should not take all of your proteins in any of these single
forms.) Two and one-half ounces fat equals approximately 5 pats of

[Sidenote: _If Appetite Not Perverted_]

But listen! You don't have to bother with all this fussy stuff. _Be
careful not to over-or under-eat of the proteins_, and your tastes will
be a fair standard for the rest. You should remember that a balanced
diet contains some of all these foods, in about the proportions given,
and that, while _watery vegetables and fruits contain very few calories,
they contain very important mineral salts, vitamines, and cellulose._
The latter is good for the daily scrub of the intestinal tract.

[Sidenote: _A Pretty Nearly Universal Error_]

CONSTIPATION is many times caused by a too concentrated diet, or one
containing too little roughage. It has also been discovered that some
individuals who are troubled with faulty elimination digest this
cellulose, and only the more resistant, like bran, is not absorbed. For
those, the Japanese seaweed called agaragar in the laboratory, but more
familiarly known as agar by the layman, is excellent. The most
industrious digestive tract apparently can not digest that. It has the
further property of absorbing a large amount of water, thus increasing
its bulk.

[Sidenote: _C.S._]

[Sidenote: _Have Enough Water, Else You'll Choke to Death. I Did Once_]

Mineral oils (refined paraffine) also are not absorbable, and they act
with benefit in some cases. About the worst thing to do, in general, is
to take physics constantly. These are not physics, however; they act
mechanically. Even the C.S. (common-sense?) individual can take these.
The agar may be taken two or three heaping teaspoonfuls in a large glass
of water before retiring, or in the morning before breakfast, or in lieu
of 4 o'clock tea. Drink it down rapidly--for goodness' sake, don't try
to chew it.

Mineral oil will make fine mayonnaise dressing. It has little or no food
value, so the constipated overweight individual may indulge freely. For
faulty elimination, then--

1. Correct diet.

2. Exercise--especially brisk walking.

3. Regularity of habit.

4. Possibly the addition of bran, agar, or mineral oils.

5. Sweet disposition. Mean people are always constipated.


1. Give classes of food, with examples of each.

2. What are vitamines? How importance discovered?

3. Where most abundant?

4. What is a balanced diet?

5. What should be done for faulty elimination?


More Keys and More Calories

[Sidenote: _List of Foods to Follow_]

The following list probably does not contain all of the foods you might
like and want to know about, but from those named you can judge of the
food value of others. In general, the caloric value, and therefore the
fattening value, depends upon the amount of fat and the degree of

[Sidenote: _Important_]

But remember this point: _Any food eaten beyond what your system
requires for its energy, growth, and repair, is fattening, or is an
irritant, or both_.

[Sidenote: _A Moderate Sized Chocolate Cream_]

If a food contains much fat, you will know that it is high in food
value, for fat has two and one-quarter times the caloric value that
proteins and carbohydrates have. Dry foods are high in value, for they
are concentrated and contain little water. Compare the quantity of two
heaping teaspoonfuls of sugar, a concentrated food, and one and one-half
pounds of lettuce, a watery vegetable, each having the same caloric
value. A moderate sized chocolate cream is not only concentrated but
has considerable fat in the chocolate.

[Sidenote: _Enuf Sed_]

It is not necessary to know accurately the caloric values. In fact,
authorities differ in some of their computations. The list is not
mathematically correct, but it will give you a good idea of the relative
values, and is accurate enough for our purposes. I have purposely given
round numbers, where possible, in order to make them more easily

In reckoning made dishes, such as puddings and sauces, you must compute
the different ingredients approximately. About how much sugar it has,
how much fat to the dish, and so on. In reckoning any food, if you are
reducing, give it the benefit of the doubt on the high count; and if
trying to gain, count it low.

It is well, if you are much overweight or underweight, to have some of
these foods that are given weighed, so that you can judge approximately
what your servings will total.

[Sidenote: _A Mixture_]

A mixture of foods should be used, in order to get the different
elements which are necessary for the human machine. It is not wholesome
to have many foods at a meal; but the menu should be varied from day to

Any regimen which does not allow some carbohydrates and fats for the
fuel foods is injurious if persisted in for a length of time.

[Sidenote: _Thoroughly Masticate Everything_]

As to harmful combinations; there are not many, and if your food is
thoroughly masticated you need not concern yourself very much about
them. However, if you find a food disagrees with you, or that certain
combinations disagree, do not try to use them. Underweight individuals
sometimes have to train their digestive tracts for some of the foods
they need.

Coffee, tea and other mild stimulants are not harmful to the majority;
but, like everything else, in excess they will cause ill health.
Alcoholic drinks make the fat fatter and the thin thinner, and both more
feeble mentally.

[Sidenote: _I Love Her_]

I hope I have stimulated you to an interest in dietetics. There are many
books which go into the subject much more deeply. I recommend,
especially, "The Home Dietitian," written by my beloved colleague and
classmate, Dr. Belle Wood-Comstock.

Others I have read that are especially suitable for the home are
"Feeding the Family," by Mary Schwartz Rose, and "Dietary Computer," by
Pope. There are doubtless many other good ones. The Department of
Agriculture publishes free bulletins on the subject. Farmers' Bulletin
No. 142, by Atwater, is very comprehensive.

Other authorities I have consulted are Lusk, Friedenwald and Ruhräh,
Gautier, Sherman, Buttner, Locke and Von Noorden.

Measuring Table

     1 teaspoon (tsp.) fluid           1/6 oz.
     1 dessertspoon (tsp.)             1/3 oz.
     1 tablespoon (tbsp.)              1/2 oz.
     1 ordinary cup                      8 oz.
     1 ordinary glass                    8 oz.
     Average helping                     a.h.

_One Hundred Calorie Portions and Average Helpings_

(Approximate Measures)



     Beefsteak, lean round..............2 oz. 100 C.
       A.h....... 3-1/2 oz., 185 C.
     Beefsteak, tenderloin..............1 oz. 100 C.
       A.h.................. 285 C.
     Beef, roast, very lean.............3 oz. 100 C.
       A.h.................. 150 C.

     Chicken, roast..................1-2/3oz. 100 C.
       1 slice.............. 180 C.
     Frankfurters, 1 sausage............1 oz. 100 C.
     Chops, lamb or mutton..........1-1/2 oz. 100 C.
       Average chops.... 150-300 C.

       Bacon, crisp...................1/2 oz. 100 C.
         1 small slice, crisp 25 C.
       Chop.........................1-1/2 oz. 100 C.
         Medium..........160-300 C.
       Ham, boiled..................1-1/3 oz. 100 C.
         A.h..........3 oz., 250 C.
       Ham, fried.....................3/4 oz. 100 C.
         A.h..........3 oz., 400 C.
       Sausage..........................1 oz. 100 C.
         1 small, crisp.......60 C.
     Turkey.........................1-1/3 oz. 100 C.
       A.h........3-1/3 oz., 260 C.

[Sidenote: _Fish Boiled or Broiled_]


     Fish, Lean, Cod, Halibut...........3 oz. 100 C.
       A.h........... 4 oz., 135 C.
     Fish, fat, salmon, sardines ...1 1/2 oz. 100 C.
       A.h........... 4 oz., 260 C.
     Lobster............................4 oz. 100 C.
       A.h.................. 100 C.
     Oysters.......................... 12     100 C.
       1 oyster............... 8 C.
     Clams, long....................... 8     100 C.
       1 clam................ 12 C.


     Cream soups, average...............3 oz. 100 C.
       A.h........... 4 oz., 125 C.
     Consommés, no fat.................30 oz. 100 C.
       A.h........... 4 oz.,  15 C.


     Butter, 1 level tbsp. scant .... 1/2 oz. 100 C.
       1 ball............... 120 C.
     Cheese (American, Roquefort,
       Swiss, etc.)..... 1-1/8 cu. in 3/4 oz. 100 C.
     Cottage Cheese.................... 3 oz. 100 C.
       A.h.................. 100 C.
     Whole Milk........................ 5 oz. 100 C.
       1 glass.............. 160 C.
     Skim Milk........................ 10 oz. 100 C.
       1 glass............... 80 C.
     Malted Milk (dry).............1 h. tbsp. 100 C.
     Buttermilk, natural.............. 10 oz. 100 C.
       1 glass............... 80 C.
     Koumiss........................... 6 oz. 100 C.
       1 glass.............. 130 C.
     Condensed, unsweetened............ 2 oz. 100 C.
       1 tbsp................ 35 C.
     Condensed, sweetened,  1-1/4 tbsp....... 100 C.
     Cream, average.................1-1/3 oz. 100 C.
       1 tbsp................ 50 C.
     Cream, whipped................ 1-1/3 oz. 100 C.
       1 h. tbsp............ 100 C.
     Eggs, 1 large..................... 1     100 C.
       Average egg........... 80 C.
       Boiled or poached; if fried, C. depend upon
         fat adhering.


When not otherwise indicated, the method of cooking is by boiling. The
caloric value of sauces served with them not included.

     Asparagus, large stalks........... 20    100 C.
       1 stalk................ 5 C.
     Beets........................... 1 lb.   100 C.
       2 h. tbsp............. 30 C.
     Beans, Baked, home.............1-1/2 oz. 100 C.
       3 h. tbsp............ 300 C.
     Beans, Baked, canned...........2-1/2 oz. 100 C.
       3 h. tbsp............ 150 C.
     Beans, Lima....................... 3 oz. 100 C.
       3 h. tbsp............ 130 C.
     Beans, String..................... 1 lb. 100 C.
       2 h. tbsp............. 15 C.
     Cabbage....................... 1-1/2 lb. 100 C.
       3 h. tbsp............. 10 C.
     Carrots........................... 1 lb. 100 C.
       3 h. tbsp............. 20 C.
     Cauliflower....................... 1 lb. 100 C.
       3 h. tbsp............. 20 C.
     Celery, uncooked.................. 1 lb. 100 C.
       6 stalks.............. 15 C.
     Corn, canned.................. 3-1/3 oz. 100 C.
       2 h. tbsp............ 100 C.
     Corn, green, 1 ear............ 3-1/3 oz. 100 C.
      Medium size.
     Cucumber...................... 1-1/2 lb. 100 C.
       10 to 12 thin slices.. 10 C.
     Lettuce....................... 1-1/2 lb. 100 C.
       A.h................. 5-10 C.
     Mushrooms......................... 8 oz. 100 C.
     Onions, 2 large................... 8 oz. 100 C.
     Parsnips.......................... 8 oz. 100 C.
       A.h............ 2 oz., 25 C.
     Peas, green....................... 3 oz. 100 C.
       A.h., 3 h. tbsp...... 100 C.
     Potatoes, sweet............... 1-1/2 oz. 100 C.
       1 medium............. 200 C.
     Potatoes, white................... 3 oz. 100 C.
       1 medium............. 100 C.
     Potato Chips......scant........... 1 oz. 100 C.
       A.h., 8-10 pieces.... 100 C.
     Radishes.......................... 1 lb. 100 C.
       A.h., 6 red button.... 15 C.
     Spinach....................... 1-1/2 lb. 100 C.
       A.h., 1/2 cup......... 25 C.
     Squash............................ 1 lb. 100 C.
       A.h., 2h. tbsp........ 25 C.
     Tomatoes.......................... 1 lb. 100 C.
       A.h., 1 large......... 50 C.
     Turnips........................... 1 lb. 100 C.
       A.h., 2 h. tbsp....... 25 C.


     Apple............................. 7 oz. 100 C.
       1 average size......... 50 C.
     Banana............................ 5 oz. 100 C.
       1 small............... 100 C.
     Berries.............average....... 5 oz. 100 C.
       1 small cup........... 100 C.
     Cantaloupe........................ 1 lb. 100 C.
       A.h., 1/2 melon....... 100 C.
     Cherries.......................... 5 oz. 100 C.
       A.h., 1 small cup..... 100 C.
     Grapes............................ 5 oz. 100 C.
       A.h., 1 small bunch... 100 C.
     Lemons (5 oz. each)............... 2     100 C.
       They won't make you thin.
       Average size........... 30 C.
     Oranges (9 oz. each).............. 1     100 C.
     Peaches (5 oz. each).............. 2     100 C.
       Average size........... 50 C.
     Pears (6 oz. each)................ 1     100 C.
       Average size........... 90 C.
     Pineapple, fresh.................. 7 oz. 100 C.
       2 slices, 1 in. thick. 100 C.
     Plums, large..................... 3 or 4 100 C.
       1 plum................. 30 C.
     Watermelon.................... 1-1/2 lb. 100 C.
       Large slice............ 15 C.
     Dates (dry), large................   3-4 100 C.
       1 large................ 25 C.
     Figs (dry), large................. 1-1/2 100 C.
       1 large................ 65 C.
     Prunes (dry), large............... 3     100 C.
       1 large................ 35 C.
       Stewed, 4 medium, with
         4 tbsp. juice....... 200 C.


     Brown Bread, 1 slice, 3 in. in diam., 3/4 in. thick   100 C.
     Corn Bread, 3 x 2 x 3/4        1-1/2 oz.              100 C.
     Victory Bread, 1 slice, 3 x 4 x 1/2 in.               100 C.

White, gluten, rye, whole wheat, etc., practically same caloric value
per same weight. There is so little difference between the caloric value
of gluten bread and other breads that it is not necessary for reducing
to try to get it. (Toasted bread has the same caloric value that it had
before toasting. It is more easily digested, but just as fattening.
Advised, however, because it makes you chew.)

     1 French or Vienna roll                             100 C.
     Zweiback                                   3/4 oz.  100 C.
       1 slice, 3-1/4 x 1-1/4 x 1/2 in., 35 C.
     Graham Crackers                             3       100 C.
       1 c., 3 in. sq.                   35 C.
     Oyster Crackers                            24       100 C.
     Soda Crackers                               4       100 C.
       1 c.                              25 C.
     Pretzels                                    5       100 C.
       1 p.                              20 C.


     Farina or Cream of Wheat         6 oz.    100 C.
       2 h. tbsp               60 C.
     Force                            1 oz.    100 C.
       5 h. tbsp               65 C.
     Grapenuts          scant         1 oz.    100 C.
       2 tbsp                 100 C.
     Griddle Cakes, 4-1/2 in. in diam.         100 C.
       A.h., 3 cakes          300 C.
       (This does not include butter and syrup, remember.)
     Hominy                           4 oz.    100 C.
       2 h. tbsp               85 C.
     Macaroni, plain                  4 oz.    100 C.
       2 h. tbsp               90 C.
     Macaroni and cheese (depends on amt. cheese)
       2 h. tbsp          200-300 C.
     Muffin, average                 3/4 m.    100 C.
       1 muffin               125 C.
     Oatmeal                          5 oz.    100 C.
       1 small cup            100 C.
     Puffed Rice                      1 oz.    100 C.
       5 h. tbsp               50 C.
     Popcorn                   (cups) 1-1/2    100 C.
       A.h. depends on butter added.
     Rice, boiled                     4 oz.    100 C.
       1/2 cup                100 C.
     Shredded Wheat Biscuit           1        100 C.
     Triscuits (_2_)                      100 C.
     Waffles                   scant 1/2 w.    100 C.
       1 waffle               225 C.


     Chocolate creams, medium.        1        100 C.
     Chocolate, 1 lb                          2880 C.
     Cherries, candied               10        100 C.
     Cup Custard, 1/3 cup                      100 C.
     Chocolate Nut Caramels
       1 x 1 x 4/5 in.                         100 C.
         Other candies, reckon sugar, nuts, etc.
     Cookies, plain, diam. 3 in.      2        100 C.
       1 cookie                50 C.
         If raisins or nuts in them, count extra.
     Doughnut                  scant 2/3       100 C.
       1 average size         160 C.
     Ginger-snap                      5        100 C.
       1 gingersnap            20 C.
     Honey                  h. tbsp.  1        100 C.
       Thick syrups approximately the same.
     Ladyfingers               scant  1 oz.    100 C.
       1 ladyfinger         35-50 C.
     Macaroons                              2     100 C.
       1 macaroon                  50 C.
     Pie with top crust, about 1/4
       ordinary slice, or 1-1/4 in.               100 C.
       A.h., 1/6 pie              350 C.
     Pie without top crust, 2 in.                 100 C.
       Custard, lemon, squash, etc.
       A.h., 1/6 pie.         250-300 C.
     Puddings, average               cup   1/4    100 C.
       A.h.                   200-350 C.
               Depends upon richness.
     Ice Cream                  h. tbsp.    1     100 C.
       A.h.                   200-350 C.
               Depends upon richness.
     Cakes                                1 oz.   100 C.
       A.h.                   200-350 C.
       Depends upon size, icing, fruit, nuts, etc.;
         compute approximately.
     Sugar                         cubes    3     100 C.
     Granulated                  h. tsp.    2     100 C.

Saccharine, a coal tar product 300 to 500 times sweeter than sugar, but
of no food value. Not advisable to use habitually. Better learn to like
things unsweetened--it can be done.


     Mayonnaise            m. tbsp.         1         100 C.
       A.h.                    200 C.
     Olive oil and other oils. dsp.         1         100 C.
     Olives, green or ripe                 6-8        100 C.
       1 olive               10-15 C.
     Tomato Catsup                         6 oz.      100 C.
       1 tbsp.                  10 C.
     Thick Gravies            tbsp.         3         100 C.


     Almonds, large                        10         100 C.
       1 almond                 10 C.
     Brazil, large                        2-1/2       100 C.
       1 Brazil nut             45 C.
     Chestnuts, small                      20         100 C.
       1 chestnut                5 C.
     Peanuts, large double                 10         100 C.
       1 bag               250-300 C.
     Pecans, large                          5         100 C.
       1 pecan                  20 C.
     Walnuts, large                       3-1/3       100 C.
       1 walnut                 30 C.
     Cocoanut, prepared                   1/2 oz.     100 C.
     Peanut Butter                       2-1/2 tsp.   100 C.

_Key to Key_

[Sidenote: _Remember This_]

If you will remember the following portions of food, you will have a
standard by which to compute your servings:

     Lean Meat: a piece 3 x 2 x 1/2 (2 oz.)     100 C.
       Now if your serving of meat or fish is fat,
       mentally cut in two for same value. If very
       lean, you should add a little.
     White Bread: slice 3 x 4x 1/2              100 C.
       Compute other breads by this.
     Butter: 1 scant tablespoonful              100 C.
     Sugar: 1 heaping teaspoonful                50 C.
     Potatoes: 1 medium, boiled or baked.       100 C.
     Watery Vegetables: 1 helping             15-35 C.

If food is fried, or butter, oil, or cream sauces are added, the C.
value increases markedly.


1. Why is a mixture of foods necessary?

2. Give the caloric value of the following: 1 glass of milk, skim;
buttermilk; 10 chocolate creams; 1 bag peanuts; 1 pat butter; 1 piece

3. Name foods low in caloric value. Why are they valuable?

4. How many calories of bread and butter do you daily consume?

5. Reckon your usual caloric intake. How much of it is in excess of your

6. Memorize caloric value of foods you are fond of.

_This Table of Foods, With the C Given Per Oz. Will Help You_

The caloric value of pure fat is 255 C per oz., dry starches and sugars
(carbohydrates), and protein (the meat element), is 113. This means fats
are 2-1/4 times more fattening than other foods. Most foods contain
considerable water, so the following is an approximate table of foods
'as is.' I have given round numbers in the table so you can more easily
remember them. _Memorize it_.

                            Calories per oz.

     Fats                         255
     Nuts, edible part            200
     Sugar                        115
     Cream cheese                 110
     Cottage cheese (no fat)       30
     Breads                        75
     Lean meats                    50
     Lean fish                     35
     Eggs (per oz.)                40
     Milk, whole                   20
     Milk, skim and buttermilk
           (no fat)                10
     Milk, condensed, sweet       100
     Milk, condensed, unsweet.     50
     Cream, thin                   60
     Cream, thick                 110
     Fruits: Dried                100
       Sweet                       25
       Acid                        15
     Vegetables: Potatoes,
           plain (oz.)             30
       Cooked Legumes, (peas,
           beans, etc.)         20-35
       Watery and leafy          5-15


Vegetarianism vs. Meat Eating

[Sidenote: _Protein_]

As protein is the only food which builds and repairs tissue, it is the
food which has caused the most controversy.

First: As to the amount needed.

Second: As to whether animal flesh protein is necessary.

[Sidenote: _Chittenden_]

AMOUNT NEEDED: It was thought for many years that 150 grams or 5 ounces
of dry protein (equivalent to about 1-1/2 pounds lean meat) per day was
necessary. But experiments of Chittenden and others have proved that
considerably less is sufficient, and that the health is improved if less
is taken.

Chittenden's standard is 50 grams, or 1-2/3 ounces, dry protein
(equivalent to 1/2 pound meat per day). This is considered by many as
insufficient. A variation from 1-2/3 to 3 ounces dry protein per day
will give a safe range. (ROSE.)

[Sidenote: _Approx. 240 to 360 C Per Day_]

_The amount of protein needed is comparatively independent of the amount
of physical exertion_, thus differing from the purely fuel foods,
carbohydrates and fats, which should vary in direct proportion to the
amount of physical exertion. In general, 10 to 15 per cent of the total
calories per day should be taken as protein. An excess is undoubtedly
irritant to the kidneys, blood vessels, and other organs, and if too
little is taken the body tissues will suffer.

Not all of the protein should be taken in the form of animal protein; at
least one-half should be taken from the vegetable kingdom.

_Animal Flesh Protein_

[Sidenote: _Necessary?_]

The following are a few of the chief reasons given by those who object
to its use:

[Sidenote: _The Negative Side_]

First: The animal has just as much right to life, liberty, and pursuit
of happiness as we have.

Second: They may be diseased, and there is the possibility of their
containing animal parasites, such as tapeworms and trichinæ. I would
like to tell you more about worms, they are so interesting, but He says
not to try to tell all I know in this little book; that maybe he will
let me write another sometime, although it is a terrible strain on him,
and that I have given enough of the family history, anyway.

[Sidenote: _Some Word_]

Third: The tissues of animals contain excrementitious material, which
may cause excess acidity, raise the blood pressure, and so forth.

Fourth: More apt to putrefy and thus give ptomaine poisoning.

Fifth: Makes the disposition more vicious.

(Honest,--animals eating meat exclusively are more vicious.)

[Sidenote: _The Affirmative Side_]

Those who believe that animal protein should be eaten answer these
points as follows:

First: Survival of the fittest.

Second: If you give decent support to your health departments they can
furnish enough inspectors to prevent the marketing of diseased meat; and
if some should slip through, if you thoroughly bake, boil, or fry your
animal parasites they will lose their pep.

Third: Most of the harmful products are destroyed by the intestines and

Fourth: True, but see that you get good meat, and don't eat it in

Fifth: Unanswerable--to be proved later by personal experiments.

In addition, they say that animal protein is more easily digested, that
97 per cent is assimilated because it is animal, and so it is much more
to be desired, especially by children and convalescents; that vegetable
protein is enclosed in cellulose, and only 65 to 75 per cent is used by
the system; thus the diet is apt to be too bulky if the proper amount is

[Sidenote: _Strong Vegetarians_]

It has been proved, however, by several endurance tests, that the
vegetarian contestants had more strength and greater endurance than
their meat-eating competitors, so there is no reason why we should be
worried by one or two, or even more, meatless days, especially when
animal product protein, such as milk, eggs, cheese, and the vegetable
proteins, as in the legumes and the nuts, are available.

[Sidenote: _A Confession_]

I confess that for quite a while after studying vegetarian books I took
a dislike to meat, but now I am in the comfortable state described by
Benjamin Franklin in his autobiography. It seems that he had been
converted to vegetarianism and had decided that he never again would eat
the flesh of animals that had been ruthlessly slaughtered, when they so
little deserved that fate.

But he was exceedingly fond of fish, and while on a fishing party, as
some fish were being fried, he found they did smell most admirably
well, and he was greatly torn between his desire and his principle.
Finally he remembered that when the fish were opened he saw some smaller
fish in their stomachs, and he decided that if they could eat each other
he could eat them.

[Sidenote: _Most Noted Picture of B. Franklin Extant_]

_Protein Calories in 100 C Portions of Food_

     In 100 C's Bread, 1 slice, (W.W. the highest)       12 to 16 C's P
     In 100 C's Cooked Cereals, 1 sm. cup, (oatmeal
                  highest)                               10 to 18 C's P
     In 100 C's Rice, 1 small cup                              10 C's P
     In 100 C's Macaroni, 1 small cup                          15 C's P
     In 100 C's Whole milk, 5 oz.                              20 C's P
     In 100 C's Skim and buttermilk, 10 oz.                    35 C's P
     In 100 C's Cheese, 3 heaping tbsp. Cottage cheese         75 C's P
     In 100 C's Eggs 1-1/3                                     36 C's P
     In 100 C's Meat or fish, Very lean 2-3 oz.          50 to 75 C's P
     In 100 C's Nuts, peanuts, almonds, walnuts. Peanuts
                  the highest                            10 to 20 C's P
     In 100 C's Beans 1/3 cup average                          20 C's P
     In 100 C's Green peas 3/4 cup average                     28 C's P
     In 100 C's Corn 1/3 cup average                           12 C's P
     In 100 C's Onions 3 to 4 medium                           12 C's P
     In 100 C's Potato 1 medium                                12 C's P
     In 100 C's Tomatoes 1 lb                                  15 C's P
     In 100 C's Fresh fruits: berries, currants, rhubarb       10 C's P
                  Others                                  2 to  5 C's P


The Deluded Ones--My Thin Friends

[Sidenote: _What!_]

I am going to sandwich you in between the food calories and my fat
friends, and maybe you can absorb some of them. In the first chapter,
you remember, I said I was not particularly interested in you, but I
have changed my mind, and I will treat you tenderly and carefully. I
will have to preach a little bit first, but I don't mind that; I love to
reform people--Yes, you need reforming!

The first thing many of you have to do is to learn to accept the trivial
annoyances and small misfits of life as a matter of course, for to give
them attention _beyond their deserts_ is to wear the web of your life to
the warp.

Elbert Hubbard never said anything better than that. Have that
reproduced in motto form and put it on your bureau, and repeat it fifty
times daily.

[Sidenote: _Good Philosophy_]

Adopt my philosophy. If I have a trivial annoyance I analyze it
carefully. Was I to blame? Yes? All right, I am glad, because then I can
see that it will not happen again, so I stop worrying. If I am not to
blame, if I could not help it in the least, well, then I don't worry
about it, for that will not help it any, and I wasn't to blame! If it
bobs up in my mind again, I say: "Now, look here, you annoyance, I have
given you all the attention you deserve; avaunt, depart, get out!"

[Sidenote: _Simple_]

Now, how is this philosophy going to help you gain?

[Sidenote: _Lost Calories_]

When you worry needlessly, notice how tense your muscles are. You are
exercising them all of the time and using hundreds of calories of
energy. You raise your blood pressure, the internal secretory glands may
overact (re-read what I have said about these glands in the fat
people), and thus many more calories are used. The intestinal secretions
do not flow so freely, you have indigestion and do not assimilate your
food, and thus hundreds more calories are lost.

It certainly is impossible to gain unless your food is assimilated.

[Sidenote: _Develop Poise_]

So the first thing you have to learn is this mental control and to
relax. Remember that word, relax. After you are better nourished your
nervous system will not be on hair-trigger tension, and it will be
easier for you.

[Sidenote: _No Pain In Matter; No Matter In Pain Why Worry?_]

If you are ill in mind or body, remember that it is natural to be well,
and that within your body nature has stored the most wonderful forces
which are always tending towards the normal, or health, if not
obstructed or hindered.

Nature sometimes needs help to stimulate those forces, or to reinforce
them, or to remove obstructions. This is where the physician comes in.
But you yourself can aid nature the most by realizing that _nature is
health and it is normal to be well_. By so doing, all of your organs
function better and you are restored to normal more rapidly.

[Sidenote: _Sleep_]

[Sidenote: _Fresh Air_]

Second: It is very important to have enough sleep. Dr. Richard Cabot
says that probably resistance is lowered as much by lack of sufficient
sleep as by any other factor, and that all you can soak into your system
in twenty-four hours is not too much. Don't forget the fresh air.

You generally suffer from sleeplessness, I believe. The overweights are
always advised not to sleep too much. They will find while reducing that
they won't want to sleep so much, anyway. They will like to stay
awake--they feel so much happier.

[Sidenote: _Sometimes_]

Now, when you retire and try to sleep but cannot, try this--it works
with me. You know when you are passing over your mental images become
distorted and grotesque. I artificially induce that state. If I find
myself rehearsing about two hundred times, with appropriate gestures,
the keen, witty, logical remarks which I could have made in favor of my
pet legislation in the club discussion, but didn't, then I begin after
this fashion:

Pink elephants with green ribbons on their tails--red rhinoceri (is that
right, or should it be rhinoceroses?)--smiling peanuts--Woman's City
Club--Social Health Insurance--why didn't I say--I wish I had
said--(here get out, you annoyance!)--pink elephants--and so forth and
so forth.

[Sidenote: _Picture of Pink Elephant Adorned_]

[Sidenote: _Woe Is Me_]

Now I realize I have ruined myself. I am my own worst enemy. I have
exposed my whole life before those modern vivisectionists, the army of
amateur psycho-analysts.

[Sidenote: _Exercise_]

Third: Exercise. Great muscular exertion should be avoided, but the
setting-up exercises that I advise, if begun with moderation and
increased gradually, will undoubtedly stimulate the appetite and help
the body functions to be better performed.

[Sidenote: _Food_]

Fourth: Since food is the only source of body substance, you must
gradually train your stomach so that it can care for enough food to not
only supply your bodily energy, but to leave a little excess to be
stored as fat.

[Sidenote: _Your Stomach_]

If you have a small appetite--and many of you have--your stomach is
undoubtedly contracted, and you must gradually add to the amount you
have been eating, even though it may cause some distress, until you have
disciplined it so that it can handle what you need without distress. The
stomach is a muscular organ and can be trained and exercised somewhat as
other organs can. You will not have much appetite at first, but it will
develop. Sometimes a short fast for a day or two, drinking nothing but
pure water, seems to be beneficial in the beginning.

Do not drink much with your meals, unless the drink has food value by
the addition of lots of cream or sugar, or both.

[Sidenote: _Eat More_]

Decide how many calories you need for your activities, gradually add to
your dietary until you have reached that number, and then some more, and
you will gain as surely as the overweight individual will lose by doing
the opposite. It may take a long time, or you may get results very
rapidly, depending somewhat upon the individual characteristics.
Gradually increase your butter, cream, sugar, chocolate, and so forth,
as they are very high in food value.

Study the Key to the Calories and reckon your calories every day for a
while. You have already noticed that the foods that you like are low in
food value.

Here are some of the things you can take to add to your fuel:

[Sidenote: _Try Some of These_]

A glass of milk, hot or cold, taken between meals and before retiring,
will add about 500 calories.

Cream sauce on your vegetables will add to their value.

Cod liver oil, or olive oil, or cream, begun in small doses and
gradually increased.

One malted milk, made with milk, syrup, egg, ice cream, whipped cream,
and the malted milk, will add about 500 calories.

[Sidenote: _Learned Phraseology_]

You remember the painful time that I spoke of when there was so much
more of me than there ought to be? Well, the aforesaid concoction, made
with milk, syrup, egg, ice cream, whipped cream, and the malted milk,
was accessory before the fact, and also particeps criminis before the

I absorbed this phraseology by being president of the Professional
Woman's Club, with its high-class women attorneys, ministers, dentists,
Ph.D.'s, and "Medical Trust" doctors.

[Sidenote: _Explanatory Note 1_]

"Medical Trust."--The American Medical Association (A.M.A.), a powerful
trust you can't get into unless you have a high preliminary education
and are a graduate of a high-class medical college. Eleven years'
training after the grammar school is their minimum standard now.

[Sidenote: _Explanatory Note 2_]

"League for Medical Ignorance."--The so-called "League for Medical
Freedom"; the opponent of the above mentioned trust. Their standard--any
old kind of a medical or religious training, two weeks or longer,
engrafted on anyone who has the money to pay for the course. No
education, no barrier; in fact, those of limited education make the
loudest boosters for the league. In justice, I must say that many
splendid, estimable persons belong to this league, not knowing these

[Sidenote: _Thorough Mastication_]

Fifth: See page 92 in my advice to the fat. It is as important for you
as for them. (It always makes me mildly furious when I look up a word
and am directed to seek some other locality. If it affects you that
way--seek page 60 in my advice to you.)

Also have your teeth X-rayed. Blind abscesses at the roots will cause
all sorts of aches and pains, as well as underweight.

[Sidenote: _Especially About Your Ailments_]

[Sidenote: _Organ Recitals Wednesday Evenings Only_]

Sixth: _Don't talk so much_. See if you can't leave out two-thirds of
the totally unimportant, uninteresting details. A tremendous amount of
energy is used in talking. This habit I would not say was confined to
you, by any means; it is another one of those pretty nearly universal

I will not give you a sample fattening menu, for it might be all out of
proportion to what you could handle, and it would upset you. Make out
your own menus, realizing that you must work gradually to the desired

I am taking it for granted that you are organically sound, that your
scientific, educated physician has said there is nothing the matter with
you, except perhaps your "nervous" disposition.

Have I not been nice to you? All right, relax and watch yourself get
into the class of the plumptically adequate.

And if you don't succeed after a faithful trial, take the milk-cure,
with its three to six weeks' absolute rest.


     1. Calm yourself.
     2. Sleep.
     3. Exercise.
     4. Food.
     5. Masticate
     6. Delete the details.
     7. Milk-cure.


     1. Repeat Elbert Hubbard's advice.
     2. Give three reasons why worry can make
     you thin.
     3. Define "Medical Trust" and "League
     for Medical Freedom."
     4. Memorize paragraph about nature
     5. Enumerate the things you can eat to
     increase your calories.



It is practically impossible to reduce weight through exercise alone,
unless one can do a tremendous amount of it. For the food that one eats
is usually enough to cover the energy lost by the exercise.

[Sidenote: _Light On Your Feet_]

However, exercise is a very important feature of any reducing program;
not because of the fat that is burned up in the exercise--and there is
some burned--but for the reason that it is necessary to keep one in a
healthy condition. The muscles, the internal organs, the bones, the
brain, are all benefited--in fact, the entire system.

[Sidenote: _Duty Dances_]

The exercises described hereinafter will help make you fat or thin, and
they will keep you supple, graceful, and light on your feet, so that
when I tell my husband that he must dance with you, Madam, he will not
say, "Nothing stirring," and when you, Professor, ask me to dance, I
will not curse the day I was born.

[Sidenote: _Warning_]

If you have not been accustomed to exercise, I warn you to take up only
one or two at a time and do each one a few times only. You will be
atrociously sore, and you will realize that you have muscles of which
you wotted not.

However, persist, if you are sure there are no organic reasons why you
shouldn't--such as a weak heart. (In case you are very much overweight,
I think it advisable to wait until you have reduced somewhat.)

[Sidenote: _Or Classic Dancing_]

It is splendid if you can belong to a gymnasium or to a physical culture
class, but ten to fifteen minutes' systematic daily exercise practiced
with vim, and each set followed by deep breathing, will do more good
than a gymnasium spasmodically attended. Brisk walking with a long
stride isn't so bad; in fact, if taken with a very long stride it will
twist 'most every organ you have in your body.

There are hundreds of exercises you can take. If you will notice little
rascal's illustrations you will find many good ones. Those illustrating
the beginning of this chapter are excellent.

If possible, it is best to take the exercises on arising in the morning,
but if you have a household to care for you may not be able to do so.
For those who have to do their own work, it may be well to do the work
first. You can do it in half the time if you plan it carefully and speed
up. (This advice is not for my thin friends; their speedometers register
too high already.) It does not matter so much when the exercises are
done as that they are done, and done every day for the rest of your
life, with the possible exception of two or three days a month.

Gallstones, permanent stiff joints, and other little things like that
will have a hard time forming.

_My Exercises_

[Sidenote: _They Reach Most of My Muscles_]

(The services of my noted artist I was able to obtain with great
difficulty, as he was engaged in the more important work of making a
swagger stick. I finally secured him by the promise of an ice cream cone
and twenty-three cents to go with his two cents so that he could buy a
Thrift Stamp. He is given due credit on the title page.)

[Sidenote: _Turn On Your Music_]

These exercises executed with vim, vigor, and vip--deep breathing
between each set--will take ten to fifteen minutes. Re-read my warning.

[Sidenote: _Little Movements with Meanings All Their Own_]

1. Feet together, arms outstretched, palms up, describe as large a
circle as possible. Fine for round shoulders and fat backs. Do slowly
and stretch fifteen times. Smile.

2. Arms outstretched, swing to right and to left as far as possible at
least 15 times each.

[Sidenote: _Important! Keep Facial Expression Throughout as per
Artist's Idea_]

3. Bend sideways, to right and left, alternately, as far as possible at
least 15 times each.

4. Revolve the body upon the hips from right to left at least 10 times,
and left to right the same.

5. Bend and touch the floor with your fingers, without bending your
knees, at least 15 times.

6. Knee-bending exercise, at least 15 times. This is hard at first.

7. Hand on door or wall, swing each leg back and forth at least 15
times. To the side 15 times. Turn head, raise arm, and tense both.

[Sidenote: _You Will Soon Be as Graceful as Annette_]

8. Step on chair with each foot at least 10 times. This is good for calf
and thigh muscles. After a while you won't look as though you needed a
derrick to get onto a street car.

9. Arms on sides of chair. Come down and touch abdomen. Fine for back
and abdomen. Fifteen times.

[Sidenote: _It Has Been Called to My Attention that Bone Back Brushes
Should Not Be Used by Some; i.e., There Is Danger in Affinities_]

10. Brush hair vigorously at least 200 double strokes all over the head,
N.S.E.W., using a brush in each hand.

[Sidenote: _Good Exercise_]

(Military brushes are best. If you can't purloin a set of your
husband's, two ordinary brushes will do.) Now shake out the loose
dandruff. This is one of the best exercises and must not be omitted, for
it accomplishes two purposes. It is a good arm and chest exercise, and
it gives a healthy scalp absolutely free from the dammdruff.


This for a few minutes, followed by this, the hot preferably at night.


At Last! How to Reduce

The title of this chapter indicates to whom it is addressed. All others
please refrain from reading, for it is strictly private and
confidential, and is intended only for those who need it.

You thin and you normal had better save it, though, for you may qualify
later. You are keeping right on reading now! I'm surprised. I wanted to
tell my fat friends that the first thing they have to do is to get
control of their will power, and now I can't do it.

Somehow, will power with a layer of fat on it gets feeble. Don't laugh,
you too thin! It gets worse than feeble, if there is no fat at all and
the nervous system is starved, it--well, I won't say what it does, for I
don't want to worry you.

[Sidenote: _Now That Order Is Restored I Will Resume_]

Will power, being feeble to a greater or less degree, must be bolstered
and aided a bit, to begin with, so--

_First Order_

[Sidenote: _Watch Your Weight!_]

[Sidenote: _Nature Always Counts_]

Tell loudly and frequently to all your friends that you realize that it
is unpatriotic to be fat while many thousands are starving, that you are
going to reduce to normal, and will be there in the allotted time. If
you belong to a club, round up the overweights and form a section. Call
it the "Watch Your Weight--Anti-Kaiser Class." Tax the members
sufficiently to buy a good, accurate pair of scales. Meet once a week to
weigh. Wear approximately the same weight clothes, and weigh at the same
time in relation to eating. Do this whether or not you belong to a club.
Once or twice a week is often enough to weigh. Scales vary, so try to
use the same ones.

Don't be discouraged if some day after you have dieted well you seem to
have gained. Nature sometimes seems fiendish that way. The excess weight
is probably due to a retention of water, and will not be permanent.
However, don't depend upon this too often! Usually, if you have gained
when you think you ought not to, it is because Nature has been counting
calories and you haven't.

Have the members listed on a weight chart conspicuously placed near the
scales, and record accurately the weight weekly.

     |            WATCH YOUR WEIGHT ANTI-KAISER CLASS        |
     |                  |Normal|          Weight on          |
     |  Members' Names  |Weight|Date|Date|Date|Date|Date|Date|
     |                  |      |    |    |    |    |    |    |
     |                  |      |    |    |    |    |    |    |
     |                  |      |    |    |    |    |    |    |
     |                  |      |    |    |    |    |    |    |
     |                  |      |    |    |    |    |    |    |

[Sidenote: _No Funds for the Red Cross_]

Those not reducing at least one pound per week to be fined soundly and
the proceeds given to the Red Cross. That won't be a good way to raise
funds for the chapter, though, for there will be no fines after the
first week or so, when the members find what their maintenance diet
should be and are consuming less than that.

I will explain this maintenance diet business. You shameless thin ones,
call back your more polite comrades--this is important for all of you.
(I shall also tell you more fully about this in the last chapter.)

[Sidenote: _Maintenance Diet_]

The maintenance diet is one which maintains you at your present weight,
_i.e.,_ you are not gaining or losing. You may be over or under normal,
but are staying there. The intake equals the outgo.

When you eat less than your maintenance diet, you are going to supply
the deficiency with your own fat.

So commit yourself on your honor that you are going to reduce or
perish--no joke; you can't tell how near you are to it if you are much
overweight. There are two general stages of fatty heart. In the first
stage the heart is surrounded by a blanket of fat, and it also
penetrates between the muscles. Later, if it goes on too long, the heart
muscle itself degenerates to fat, then--

[Sidenote: _Good-night!_]

Shakespeare warns you to make thy body less, hence thy grace more; leave
gormandizing, and know that the grave doth gape for thee thrice wider
than for other men.

_Second Order_

[Sidenote: _Shrink Your Stomach_]

Your stomach, long used to an excess of food for your needs--it may not
be a large amount--but still, I repeat, being used to an excess of food
for your needs, your stomach must be disciplined. It is undoubtedly
distended, as it should not be.

[Sidenote: _Shrink Your Stomach_]

A good way to show it that you are master is to fast for at least one
day--drink nothing but pure water, hot or cold, as you prefer. It will
protest vociferously and will tell all its friends, the different organs
of your body, how you are persecuting it, and they will join the league
against you and decide they will oust you from your position, and you
will feel like--but don't mind it; it will soon know that you mean
business, and, much chastened and considerably contracted, will take the
next day a very small amount of food very gratefully.

[Sidenote: _Shrink Your Stomach_]

If you do not want to be so severe with it you can allow it five glasses
of hot or cold skim milk or buttermilk, one every three hours, say, at
10,1,4,7, and 10 o'clock. One glass is 80 calories, five equal 400
calories, which is not so much.

[Sidenote: _Or Mashed_]

The baked potato and glass of skim milk diet, three times a day one day
a week, which has its devotees, depends upon its low caloric content for
its results. There is no magic in it, no yeast business which reduces.
This is most wholesome, however, for potatoes contain a large amount of
the potassium salts, which tend to counteract the effects of uric acid,
and thus are good for the gouty type.

[Sidenote: _Mono-Diets_]

The beefsteak, the milk, and the fruit diets are also good. One can gain
as well as lose on the milk diet, all depending on number of calories
consumed, and it is an excellent method for both. The beefsteak diet is
beneficial for a short time, but too much protein over a long period has
been shown to be harmful. An exclusive fruit diet is excellent for

Low calorie days can be repeated once a week if necessary in order to
keep the stomach in good order. Fruit juice, one-quarter glass, or fresh
fruit, can be substituted for the skim milk, and you may prefer it.

[Sidenote: _But You Do Not Have To_]

You could keep on this for some time, or fast for some time, and
probably be much benefited. I fasted five days once, or rather
fruit-juiced five days. I lost about ten pounds, I think, and my heart,
which had begun to carry on, was relieved.

[Sidenote: _Sob Stuff_]

It was during that period of which I have spoken, and of which I am
ashamed; for I had my M.D. degree then and should have known better. But
you know we have good authority that it is easier to teach twenty what
were good to be done than to be one of twenty to follow our own

_Third Order_

[Sidenote: _You Are Down to Business_]

[Sidenote: _And Maybe Diabetes_]

Now you will have to reckon on the amount of food or number of calories
you need per day. Review the rule I have given. You find for your age
and _normal weight_ that you will need, let us say for example, 2200
calories. You have probably been consuming twice that amount and either
storing it away as fat or as disease. (It is surprising how small an
excess will gradually add up pounds of fat. For instance, three pats of
butter or three medium chocolate creams a day, if over the maintenance
limit, would add approximately _27 pounds a year_ to your weight!)

Now you are to reduce your maintenance diet--the 2200 calories we are
taking for example--to 1200 calories--quite a comfortable lot, you will

You will be surprised how much 1200 calories will be if the food is
judiciously selected.

[Sidenote: _After All, Hunger Is Much More Agreeable Than Apoplexy_]

You may be hungry at first, but you will soon become accustomed to the
change. I find that dry lemon or orange peel, or those little aromatic
breath sweeteners, just a tiny bit, seem to stop the hunger pangs; or
you may have a cup of fat-free bouillon or half an apple, or other low
calorie food. (Count the calories here.)

One thousand calories less food per day equals four ounces of fat lost
daily--approximately 8 pounds per month. If you do not want to lose so
fast, do not cut down so much.

_Fourth Order_

[Sidenote: _You Register Joy_]

You may eat just what you like--candy, pie, cake, fat meat, butter,
cream--but--_count your calories!_ You can't have many nor large
helpings, you see; but isn't it comforting to know that you can eat
these things? Maybe some meal you would rather have a 350-calorie piece
of luscious pie, with a delicious 150-calorie tablespoonful of whipped
cream on it, than all the succulent vegetables Luther Burbank could
grow in California.

My idea of heaven is a place with me and mine on a cloud of whipped

[Sidenote: _You Registered Too High_]

Now that you know you can have the things you like, proceed to make your
menus containing very little of them.

_Fifth Order_

This is going to be your chief business and pursuit in life for the next
few months, this reducing of your weight. However, keep up your Red
Cross and all other activities, fast and furiously, so that you won't be
thinking about yourself.

[Sidenote: _More Warnings_]

Don't reduce more than two or three pounds a week; two or less is
better. If you are too cannibalistic, your heart, kidneys and nervous
system are liable to suffer--you yourself are supplying too much fat in
your dietary, and there are other scientific reasons against reducing
too rapidly.

However, you may find that the first week or so you may reduce five or
seven pounds; but don't worry about this, for that is a slushy, watery
fat that goes easily.

If a claim like a cold should attack you, and after spraying nose and
throat frequently with an antiseptic, and then denying the claim
vigorously, it persists in running a severe course, better go back to
maintenance diet for a few days.

[Sidenote: _Not Even While Cooking_]

_Don't "taste"!_ You will find the second taste much harder to resist
than the first. If you have allowed in your daily program something
between meals (a good plan), take it, but not otherwise.

Try not to overeat at any time, and thus undo the work that perhaps has
taken you two or three days to accomplish. It will be all right
occasionally, possibly one day a week, to eat up to your maintenance
diet, but don't, I beg of you, go over it so that you will gain.

You will be tempted quite frequently, and you will have to choose
whether you will enjoy yourself hugely in the twenty minutes or so that
you will be consuming the excess calories, or whether you will dislike
yourself cordially for the two or three days you lose by your lack of
will power.

[Sidenote: _I Ought Not to Do This_]

I am afraid I am going to tell a story. I feel as though I were, and I
don't want to. It is one I heard years ago at a teachers' convention at
Riverside, when I was a tender, unsuspecting young school teacher, so
it is perfectly good, albeit senile--and it illustrates my point so
well--so well--well, you have to put yourself in the place of the little
chaps, Billie and Johnnie, of the kindergarten.

[Sidenote: _A Little Anatomical Story_]

It seems it was customary to bring a lunch, and Little-new-boy had come
without one. Teacher asked Billie would he share? No, sturdily; not he.
But little Johnnie, he would. Some time later, Johnnie, with a frantic
waving of his hand, and with just pride in his generosity, informed the
class that he had shared his lunch with Little-new-boy and he felt good
is his little heart.

Billie stood his ground and stoutly declared that he ate his and he felt
good in his little belly.



I did not give our thin friends a sample menu for fear it would upset
them; but nothing can upset your digestion, I know. However, I will not
give you a sample menu, either, but will tell you what I eat when I go
on a reduction regime, which for me is 1200 Calories.

You will notice, most of my calories I have at dinner in the evening.
You may not like this, but would rather have yours spread over the
entire day; and you can suit your fancy, for it makes no difference as
long as your total number per day stays within your reduction limit.

[Sidenote: _Make Out Several Menus if You Like_]

Don't think you have to follow my menu. You might gain on it! Study the
Key and select your own.

Many will lose by going on the no-breakfast plan, or the no-lunch plan.
If they do reduce, it is because they have lowered their daily
consumption of food, and not because of the no-breakfast or no-lunch
plan _per se._

Fat seems to melt faster when the chief meal is in the middle of the
day, and with only 200 or 300 calories of fruit for the evening meal. In
this way you slim while you sleep.


     1 slice very dry coarse bread toast
       1/4 in. thick                            50 C.
     Butter, 1/4 cu. in                         25 C.
     Hot water flavored with coffee             00 C.
         Total                                  75 C.

[Sidenote: _Slim While You Sleep! Clever?_]

You may prefer many more calories for breakfast, or none at all. This
may not look good to you, but it means an awful lot in my young life,
after my exercise and bath, to sit down to my little breakfast and read
the papers.

Recently I have found that two cups of moderately hot water with the
juice of a lemon answers just as well as the toast and watery coffee,
and is probably better. You might like some fruit.


     1 corn muffin--I am patriotic             125 C.
     1 pat butter                              100 C.
     1 cup coffee with 1 tbsp. cream            50 C.
         Total                                 275 C.

If you are patriotic and constipated, substitute one bran muffin. You
can see that this is in reality a further extension of my sumptuous
breakfast. If I get tired of this, I add a salad of

     Lettuce, large amount, practically         00 C.
     Roquefort cheese dressing                 100 C.

I am very fond of this Roquefort cheese dressing; 1-1/8in. cube of
cheese in a little vinegar, no oil, keeps it within the hundred

You might prefer a baked apple or two tomatoes, or a dish of prunes, or
3 oz. of cottage cheese. The chief thing is to take what you like, not
what I like. Count your calories.


[Sidenote: _I Don't Mean Your Husband's Dessert, I Mean My Husband's. My
Word! I Got Out of That Quick!_]

     Vegetable soup, or bouillon, no fat;
       or small oyster cocktail                 25 C.
     Lean meat, or "unthinking" lobster
       or fish, 5 or 6 oz                      300 C.
     Large serving of uncooked lettuce or
       cabbage, practically                     00 C.
     Mayonnaise or oil, 1/2 dsp                 50 C.
     1 large dish tomatoes, or cauliflower,
       or string beans, or carrots, or turnips
       (I hate turnips--just put them
       down so you can see you can have
       them if you like)                        25 C.
     1 medium slice bread, or 1 medium
       potato                                  100 C.
     1 pat butter                              100 C.
     100 calories of your husband's dessert    100 C.
     Water                                      00 C.
     1 cup cereal coffee, clear, practically    00 C.
     Total                                     700 C.


     Breakfast 75 C.
     Luncheon including salad 375 C.
     Dinner 700 C.
                                              1150 C.

That leaves me 50 more calories to total 1200, to take before retiring
if I am hungry. You should leave this 50 calories to take before
retiring, because if you are hungry you will find it very difficult to
go to sleep.

A small cup of hot skimmed milk tends to be a sedative. Hunger, like
cold feet, is hard to go to sleep on.

[Sidenote: _For Both Sexes_]

_If there is one thing more important than another, it is thorough

[Sidenote: _Sometimes I Take More Than 100 Calories of My Husband's
Dessert. I Love Fat Men, But I Don't Want to Be Married to 'Em_]

This applies to the thin as well as to the fat, and to the child as well
as to the adult. Take a moderate mouthful and rassel with it until it is
automatically swallowed. Chew until it is all gone before you put any
more in your mouth. There is no better way of jollying yourself into
thinking that you have had all you want than this Fletcherizing habit,
and it takes the same time to consume one-half the amount of food you
have been in the habit of eating.

I will allow you all the water you want, in reason; in fact, I advise it
while you are reducing, both at the meals and between meals. The only
precaution is that at the meals it should not be drunk while food is in
the mouth, for this would tend to lessen thorough mastication.

Now, Madam and Madam's husband, when are you going to begin this
important business of reducing? After the holidays? Tomorrow? _No!
Right now._ The sooner you get started, the better. The chief thing to
do, and the hardest, is to get started and to get the habit. After the
first three days you will not dread it; in fact; you will feel so much
better that you will not be willing to go back to your old habits of

Now let's review a bit what you are to do.

[Sidenote: _Plan the Day Before_]

First: Pledge yourself to yourself, and to someone else, so you will be
ashamed to fail. There is a great deal of psychology to reducing. Use
strong auto-suggestion. Decide just how much you are going to eat in
advance of the meal--so many calories, _no more!_ This sounds foolish,
but it helps wonderfully.

Second: Begin with a fast or a low caloric diet for the first day; keep
it, if necessary, one day weekly.

[Sidenote: _Low Bridge on Fats and Pastries_]

Third: Study food list and make out menus the caloric totals of which
_are less_ than your maintenance diet. Have a fairly balanced diet, some
fat, some carbohydrates, some protein, and a good amount of green
vegetables and fruit. _Have 200-300 C's of protein._

Fourth: Masticate every morsel with such thoroughness that it is
automatically swallowed.

Fifth: Keep up your activities--Red Cross and other relief work.

Sixth: Remember that you will feel good in your little heart when you
resist temptation to overeat, and when you don't, you won't feel good

Seventh: Some vigorous exercise every day.

[Sidenote: _There Is Life Substance and Intelligence in Chocolate

NOTE: If there comes a time when you think you will die unless you have
some chocolate creams, go on a c.c. debauch. I do, occasionally, and
will eat as many as ten or so; but I take them before dinner, then me
for the balance of my dinner--

     1 bowl of clear soup                       25 C.
     1 cracker                                  25 C.
     Total                                      50 C.

And thus, you see, every supposed pleasure in sin (eating) will furnish
more than its equivalent of pain (dieting) until belief in material life
(chocolate creams) is destroyed.


1. Describe your stomach.

2. If there is one thing more important than another, what is it?

3. Repeat the five orders in chapter 8.

4. Repeat the warnings.

5. Work the following example:

     X gains 25 pounds during the year.
     How many calories has he averaged
     daily over his maintenance diet?


       25 lbs. fat = 400 oz. fat.
       1 oz. fat represents 275 C. food consumed.
       400 oz. = 400 x 275, or 110,000 C.
       110,000 ÷ 365 = 301 C.
     _Answer_. X has eaten 301 C. per day more
         than necessary.

6. How many calories have you averaged daily over your maintenance diet?
And what could you have left off your menu and kept from gaining all
that weight?



[Sidenote: _From the Field_]

After you have reduced or gained, let me share your joys. Write me a
little note. You need not sign your name if you don't want to. I
anticipate the following:


I am so grateful to you, Dr. Lulu Hunt Peters, for what you have done
for me. After reading your book, "Diet and Health, with Key to the
Calories" my chronic case of meanness--I mean leanness--was absolutely
cured. My weight, which was ... now is ... and I am on my way to normal.
I am fond of you.

       *       *       *       *       *


I cannot be too grateful to you, dear Doctor Lulu Hunt Peters, for your
book "Diet and Health, with Key to the Calories," for I have lost ...
pounds! My weight was ... and now is ... and I am on my way to normal.

I should be ungrateful indeed if I did not mention that while reading
the book a chronic case of dammdruff which I had had for years, and
which had been given up by six specialists, was absolutely cured. I
adore you!

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: _A Wonderful Demonstration_]


For your book, "Diet and Health, with Key to the Calories," words are
inadequate to express my thanks. For I have been delivered from a
chronic affliction of many years' duration, for which I had tried all
known methods of cure. I refer to the smoking of cheap cigars by my
husband. He suddenly found he had no desire for the noxious weed! Your
arm and leg exercises are wonderful.

       *       *       *       *       *


An Apology and Some Amendments

On re-reading this literary gem, humorous classic, and scientific
treatise on weight reduction and gaining, I see that I have a very
intimate mixture of the thins and the fats. But that is as it should be
for balance. I had intended to keep you strictly separate, but the
preaching, the exercises, the dry definitions, the Key to the Calories,
and so forth, was matter that was applicable to both, so it could not be

[Sidenote: _Watch Your Weight_]

I have just got to bring this to a close now, if I have it ready as I
promised, for the lecture, "Watch Your Weight!" I am glad of it, too. I
am getting so ... funny it is painful. I will close with the next
chapter. It will be beautifully scientific, but not funny, I promise.

_Some Amendments_

[Sidenote: _No. 1_]

You perhaps have noticed that my first chapter is called "Preliminary
Bout," and then I have gone on to describe a club meeting. I am aware
that P.B. is a prize fighting term, and I meant it for the picture of me
fighting myself, not for the club meeting. I have attended many club
meetings, and in none of them have I ever seen any fighting that would
have taken any prize anywhere, although I will say I have seen and have
myself personally conducted some very classy stuff.

[Sidenote: _No. 2_]

I do not use slang. I use only the purest, most refined, and cultured
English. I leave slang to those who can get by with it and put it over.
So where I have used dashes you may use your favorite slang words. Mine
were deleted by the censors.

[Sidenote: _No. 3 (a)_]

Mrs. Ima Gobbler is not really fat enough to be called a fat--! She is
only 40 or 50 pounds overweight, but she is fond of me and I took
liberties with her. She is a darling.

[Sidenote: _No. 3 (b)_]

She is a purist, too. I called her up after I put her in my book, and I
said, "You are fond of me, aren't you, Mrs. Gobbler?" And she said,
"Youbetcha." "And you are a good sport, aren't you?" "Surest thing you
know!" "That's good, for I have said a horrid thing to you. I had to,
in order to stop the club discussion." And she responded soulfully, "Go
to it, Kid!"

[Sidenote: _No. 4_]

Mrs. Sheesasite's husband did not really have to buy her a pair of
freight scales; that is just a gentle josh. The ordinary scales will
weigh 300 pounds, I believe. She is also a dear.

[Sidenote: _No. 5_]

My husband's eyes are not really green, nor is he cross-eyed. They are
the loveliest, softest brown. The green eyes belong on the maternal side
of this house.

[Sidenote: _No. 6_]

My artist is not really noted. He is just an ordinary adorable
ten-year-old boy kiddie. Aren't his little figures the dearest ever?

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: _Doing My Bit_]

All the characters in my book are friends of mine. Perhaps you had
better substitute _were_ for _are_. There was one woman mentioned in my
original manuscript and my husband said what have you put her in for
Pattie? (a corruption of Pettie, a H.moon hangover) she is no friend of
yours: she knocks you. And I said loftily like, I want you to know Ijit
(corruption of Idiot, also a H.moon hangover) I am above personalities
she is prominent and besides she is fat especially in the feet and head
and she doesn't know it and he said that doesn't make any difference you
do not have to immortalize her and I said I would look up the
authorities on the subject and he said he was authority enough and I
said I would see what the other authorities said anyway and I did and I
found one most eminent that said you should love your enemies but none
that said you should immortalize them so I said I'd drop her and he said
he should say so and so I did.

[Illustration: Dear Enemy Unimmortalised]

--All the characters in my book are friends of mine. Perhaps you had
better substitute _were_ for _are_.


Maintenance Diet and Conclusions

[Illustration: Maintenance Diet 1000 C. over 1000 C. under]

[Sidenote: _1st Circle_]

THE HEAVY circle represents the amount of daily food (number of
calories) which will maintain you at present weight. It may be your
weight is too much or too little, but this is your maintenance diet for
that weight.

[Sidenote: _2nd Circle_]

THE SECOND circle represents a daily diet containing more than necessary
for maintenance; for example, let us say 1000 calories more. This 1000
calories of food is equivalent to approximately 4 ounces of fat
[1000÷255 (1 oz. fat = 255 C.)]; 4 ounces of fat daily equals 8 pounds a
month which will be added to your weight, and, if not needed by the
system, will deposit itself as excess fat.

Or the toxins arising from the unnecessary food will irritate the blood
vessels, causing arterio-sclerosis (hardening of the arteries), which in
turn may cause kidney disease, heart disease, or apoplexy (rupture of
artery in the brain), and maybe death before your time.

On the other hand, if you are underweight and the added nourishment is
gradually worked up to, it will improve the health and cause a gain of
so much (theoretically, and in reality if kept up long enough).

[Sidenote: _3d Circle_]

THE THIRD circle represents a diet containing less than the maintenance;
again, for example, say 1000 calories less. Here the 1000 calories must
be taken from the body tissue, and fat is the first to go, for fat is
virtually dead tissue.

This 4 ounces of fat daily which will be supplied by your body equals in
six months 48 pounds.

There are in America hundreds of thousands of overweight individuals;
not all so much overweight as this, but some considerably more so. If
these individuals will save 1000 calories of food daily by using their
stored fat, think what it would mean at this time.

[Sidenote: _Savings_]

Not only an immense saving of food to be sent to our soldiers and allies
and the starving civilians, and of money which could be used for Liberty
Bonds, the Red Cross, and other war relief work, but a great saving and
a great increase in power; for there is no doubt that by reducing as
slowly and scientifically as I have directed, efficiency and health will
be increased one hundred fold.

If, as illustrated in the third circle, the 1000 calories or less is
eaten and the individual already is underweight, with no excess fat,
then this amount will be taken from the muscles and the more vital
tissues, and the organism will finally succumb. Before this time is
reached there will be a great lowering of resistance, and the individual
will be a prey to the infectious diseases.

It must be remembered that in children the growth of the whole body is
tremendously active, and especially that of the heart and nervous

If the nervous system is undernourished, it becomes disorganized and
undeveloped. This is apt to be expressed in uncertain emotional states,
quick tempers, and a predisposition to convulsions. The heart, if
undernourished, lays its foundation for future heart disease, and the
whole system will be injured for life.

Anything that impairs the vigor and vitality of children strikes at the
basis of national welfare.

[Sidenote: _The Food Administration Emphasizes This_]

You can see from this how extremely important it is that, in our need
for the conservation of food, only those who can deny themselves and at
the same time improve their health and efficiently should do it. It will
be no help in our crisis if the health and resistance of our people be
lowered and the growth and development of our children be stunted.

We, the hundreds of thousands of overweight citizens, combined with the
hundreds of thousands of the normal who are overeating to their ill, can
save all the food that is necessary. We are anxious, willing, eager to
do this. Now we know how, and we will.

_Food Will Win the War_



Three Years Later

_February, 1, 1921_

An Added Chapter in Which Are Offered Twenty-one Suggestive Menus

After nearly two years with the American Red Cross in the Balkans I
return to find the little book has been carrying on in my absence--I
write this for the fifth edition--and my publishers insisting that I
must furnish some more menus. They affirm that there are many who do not
care to or cannot figure out their own.

After being so long under military discipline I obey now instinctively,
although I do not want to do this. But you know publishers. They say
that if there are menus for those who do not have the desire to compute
them, the usefulness of the book will be increased. Publishers are so

Now far be it from me to scorn the possibility of increased sales
myself. So I comply, and after you are reduced you will have the energy
and the increased keenness to scout around in the calories and make out
your own.

       *       *       *       *       *

A little of my Balkan experience in the reducing line may not be amiss.
In Albania, where I was stationed most of the time, life is very
strenuous. We all had to work hard and expend a great deal of nervous
energy. Medical calls on foot in the scorching sun over unkind
cobblestones, long distance calls on unkinder mules, long hours in
nerve-racking clinics, ferocious man-eating mosquitos, scorpions,
centipedes, sandflies, and fleas, and other unspeakable animals kept us
hopping and slapping and scratching.

But there was one consolation to me. With this work, more intensive and
more strenuous than I had ever done before, I would not have to diet--I
would not have to watch my weight--I would not have to count my
calories! Oh, joy!

We lived a community life, we Red Crossers. We had plain blunt food,
American canned mostly, supplemented with the fare that could be eked
out of Albania, and cooked by an Albanese who could not be taught that
we Americans were not Esquimos and did not like food swimming in fat.
However, it tasted good to famished Red Crossers, and I ate three meals
a day, confident that I would retain my girlish middle-aged slenderness
and not have to diet. We had no scales and no mirrors larger than our
hand mirrors. Our uniforms were big and comfortable.

       *       *       *       *       *

The French who are in charge of Scutari depart, the officers leaving to
us some of their furniture, including a full length French plate mirror.
Ordinarily when I look in a full-length mirror I don't hate myself so
much--so it is with some degree of anticipated pleasure that I
complacently approach, to get a life-size reflection of myself after
many months of deprivation of that pleasure.

"_Mon Dieu!_" I exclaim. "_Bogomi_!" (Serbian--'For the love of Allah!')
"This is no mirror," I mutter. "This is one of those musee things that
make you look like a Tony Sarg picture of Irvin Cobb."

"What's irritating you, Dockie?" asks one of the girls, coming up and
standing back of me. I look at her reflection. She does not look like
Irvin Cobb!

"Peggy," I say tragically, "Peggy, do I look like my reflection?"

"Yes, dear, we have all noticed how stout you have been getting. Aren't
you supposed to be some shark on the subject of ideal weight?"

And the bitter truth is borne in upon me--no matter how hard I work--no
matter how much I exercise, no matter what I suffer, I will always have
to watch my weight, I will always have to count my calories.

This is what I did then:

I stopped going to the breakfast table. I kept some canned milk and
coffee in my room, and made me two cups of coffee. For lunch I ate
practically what I wanted, limiting myself to one slice of bread or one
potato (we had no butter), with fruit for dessert. For dinner I came
down only when the dessert was being served, and had a share of that
with some coffee. I was jeered and derided. You know how in community
life we all are as disagreeable as we like, and still love each other.
Did not I know the desserts were the most fattening part of the meal? I
was some authority on how to reduce, I was!

In vain I told them that it did not matter so long as my total caloric
intake did not equal the number that I needed. It was not until some
months after, when they saw that I was normal weight again, that they
began to realize I knew whereof I spoke.

Then came our withdrawal from Albania and release from duty. After
months of canned goods came Paris with its famous dishes; Crème d'Isigny
avec crème! Artichauts an beurre! Patisseries francaises! Oo lala! Again
I said calories be _dashed_! I can reduce when I get home. I had no
delusions now, you see.

       *       *       *       *       *

And now I am home trying to help raise the funds for the starving
children of Central Europe, and explaining to my friends that while
there is a food shortage in Europe it is not because I was there; and
that I am reducing and the money that I can save will help keep a child
from starving, and that they can do the same; that for every pang of
hunger we feel we can have a double joy, that of knowing we are saving
worse pangs in some little children, and that of knowing that for every
pang we feel we lose a pound. A pang's a pound the world around we'll

Every once in a while you hear that the caloric theory has been
exploded. There is no caloric "theory." Therefore none to explode.
Calories are simply units for measuring heat and energy and never will
be exploded any more than the yard or meter "theory" will be exploded.
Foods must contain essential salts and the growth and health maintaining
elements. These cannot be measured by calories. The quantity of heat or
energy production but not the quality of the foods is measured in
calories, and one must have a knowledge of the qualities also. No
scientifically educated individual has ever thought otherwise.

The chief objection to following the advice of the numerous laymen who
write eat-and-grow-thin menus is that they advise the elimination of all
fats, sugars and starches. They lose sight of the fact, or they do not
know, that the obese individual--I dislike that term--will have to have
a balanced diet even while reducing if he is to maintain his health. One
will lose weight on these menus, but as very many can testify they lose
their health also. One cannot live on an unbalanced diet for any length
of time without becoming unbalanced also. And furthermore the
over-weighter will always have to diet more or less, and will have to
have menus which he can continue to use. After normal weight is reached
he will not have to be nearly so abstemious, _but_ the same dietetic
errors which produced overweight in the first place will produce it
again. So he must know something of dietetics and he must have a
balanced diet.

Now I shall make out some balanced menus, 1200 C's a day, being careful
to include a large amount of the leafy vegetables and some milk or its
products, the foods that McCollom calls PROTECTIVE FOODS because they
contain in a large measure the essential mineral salts, and those vital
elements he has called "Fat soluble A" and "Water soluble B"--others
call vitamines--which he has proved to be so vital and necessary for
growth in the young and the maintenance of health in the adult. I shall
also include 200-300 C's of protein.

The leafy vegetables, cabbage, cauliflower, celery tops, lettuce, onion,
Swiss chard, turnip tops, and other leaves employed as greens, water
cress, etc., not only contain these vital elements, but they also exert
a favourable influence on sluggish bowels and kidneys. They are low in
caloric value, hence are low in fat-producing properties, and can be
consumed with indiscretion, properly masticated.

It is better while you are reducing to stay away from the dining table
when you do not expect to eat. If you are rooming, get a tiny sterno
outfit, some substitute or coffee, some canned or dry milk, some sugar
if you use it, and you can make a hot drink in your room and be
independent for your breakfast and your evening meal, when you decide
some day to go without that. Do not take more than 100 calories for your
breakfast. That leaves you 1100 calories to be divided during the day if
you go on a 1200 calorie schedule. I suggest the following distribution
of the calories:

     Breakfast                      100 C's.
     Lunch                          350   "
     Tea                            100   "
     Dinner                         650   "

You can reverse the dinner and lunch if you desire. If you do so then
have your 100 calories I have allowed for tea time to take just before
you retire. On a 1200 calorie schedule arranged as I have it you will
not be hungry, I assure you. It will not be more than three or four days
before your stomach will be shrunk and this amount I have allowed you
will almost seem like overeating! That is the big idea. Shrink your
stomach. Go on a fast or low calorie day for a day if necessary to get
started. See page 81.

I can safely say that any up and around adult will reduce on 1200
calories, for that will not supply the basal metabolism, i.e., the
body's internal activities, such as the beating of the heart,
respiration, digestion, excretion, etc., and some of the body's stored
fat will be called upon to supply the deficiency. How much one will
reduce depends on how many calories are actually needed for the internal
and the external activities. See pages 26 and 27. It is not advisable to
reduce too rapidly. See page 85.

Now you have 1200 calories a day to eat. Let us think of this in terms
of money. You have a limited amount of money every day to spend for
food. You must spend it judiciously and get the food you need and want.
If you spend the most of it on one article you have that much less for
other things. It is possible that some days you will want to spend more
than your allowance and you draw on your next day's supply. That will be
all right if you remember that you have done so and will spend that much
less the next day to equalize your account. You must study to spend
wisely and carefully so as to supply your needs, but you cannot spend
more than you have without restitution and retribution. Here are the


100 C. Each

     1. Fruit
         2 med. apples or 1 baked apple with 2
           tsps. sugar
         1 large orange
         1/2 large grapefruit
         1 small cup berries
         1/2 good sized cantaloupe
         2 med. figs
         5 prunes

     2. 1 cup coffee or cereal coffee.. O
        1 tbsp. cream..................50 C
        2 small tsp. sugar.............50 C
        2 cups with cream alone or
          sugar alone
              Total...........................100 C

     3. 10 ozs. skim milk hot or cold
        5 ozs. whole milk.....................100 C

     4. 1 cup coffee clear............. 0
        1 thin slice toast.............75 C
        1/4 pat butter.................25 C
            Total.............................100 C

Note--The skim milk breakfasts and teas are most desirable because of
the protein content.


100 C. Each See lists for breakfasts. Also could have:

     1. 1 cup tea with 1 tsp. sugar
          1 slice lemon................25 C
          3 soda crackers..............75 C
     Total....................................100 C

     2. 2 small plain cookies
          tea no cream or sugar...............100 C

     3. 1 chocolate cream
        1 cup tea or hot water
          no cream or sugar...................100 C

       *       *       *       *       *

The following combinations need not be followed arbitrarily. You may
change them around if you desire. Look in the calorie lists for
substitutes of the same classes of foods, if you do not like my
combinations. If you don't care for the 100 C's at tea time you may have
that much more for dinner.

     1200 C DAY


     2 cups hot water with a little lemon juice.
     10-minute exercise at least


     Coffee or postum with cream or sugar
     10 ozs. skim milk (see list of breakfasts). 100 C


     1 medium sized head lettuce
     1/3 lb........................... 25 C
     1 tbsp. mayonnaise...............100 C
     1 med. sweet pickle chopped for
     mayonnaise....................... 25 C
     1-1/8 inch cube cream cheese
     3 ozs. cottage cheese............100 C
     1 Toasted French roll (no butter)
     .................................100 C

        Total.................................350 C


     3 crackers with tea and 1 tsp. sugar
     and 1 slice lemon
     10 ozs. skim or buttermilk
     100 C. fruit (see list)................100 C


     Creamed dried beef on toast
      Dried beef 4 thin slices 4 x 5.100 C
      Cut fine and crisped in frying
      pan with 1/2 tbsp. butter.........50 C
      1 tbsp. flour browned with
      above...........................25 C
      Add 1 cup skim milk (7 ozs.)
      cook gently.....................70 C
                                     245 C

     2 slices crisp toast (pour above
      over)..........................200 C
     1 large serving raw celery or
      raw cabbage.....................15 C
     1 large baked apple with 1 tbsp.
      syrup..........................120 C
     1 glass skim milk (7 oz.)........70 C

                Total.......................650 C
                Grand Total................1200 C

     1200 C DAY


     2 cups hot water, with a little lemon juice.
     10-minute exercise at least

      Coffee or postum with cream or sugar _or_ 10 ozs. skim milk
        (see list of breakfasts)...........................100 C


     Celery--eat tender leaves also
       10-14 stalks...................30 C
     Olives--5 good sized ripe.......100 C
     1 small slice corn bread........100 C
     12 ozs. skim milk or buttermilk.120 C
                    Total...................350 C


     3 crackers with tea with 1 tsp. sugar
       and 1 slice lemon
     10 ozs. skim milk or buttermilk
     100 C fruit (see list).................100 C


     Broiled halibut (or lean beef)
       steak 4-5 ozs. with lemon.......150 C
     Lettuce (no oil) average serving....0
     1 slice whole wheat bread or roll.100 C
     1/2 pat butter.....................50 C
     Dessert 1-6 pie...................350 C
     1 cup clear postum or coffee........0
                    Total...................650 C
                    Grand Total............1200 C

     1200 C DAY


     2 cups hot water with a little lemon juice.
     10-minute exercise at least


     Coffee or postum with cream or sugar
     10 ozs. skim milk (see list of
       breakfasts) .........................100 C


     Combination salad
      Shredded lettuce 10 leaves......0
      1 large tomato.................50 C
      6 stalks chopped celery........15 C
       tender leaves included
      1/2 med. cucumber..............15 C
      1 med. grated carrot...........20 C
                                     100 C

     1/2 tbsp. mayonnaise or oil......50 C
      with vinegar or lemon
     1 slice whole wheat bread.......100 C
     10 ozs. skim milk or buttermilk.100 C

     Total..................................350 C


     3 crackers with tea with 1 tsp.
      sugar and 1 slice lemon
     10 ozs. skim milk or buttermilk
     100 C fruit (see list).................100 C


     Croquettes of split peas or beans
       1/2 cup mashed beans or peas
       1/4 cup toast crumbs
       1 tsp. cream or canned milk
       made into croquettes and baked
          or broiled.................225 C
     Stewed tomatoes 8 ozs.
     1 large fresh tomato.............50 C
     1 slice bread or 5 small
       pretzels......................100 C
     1 double serving lettuce or
       chopped cabbage or cauliflower.15 C
     1 slice lemon, custard or squash
       pie, no top crust.............260 C
     1 cup clear coffee or postum......0

               Total..........................650 C
               Grand Total...................1200 C

     1200 C DAY


     2 cups hot water with a little lemon juice.
     10-minute exercise at least


     Coffee or postum with cream or sugar
     10 ozs. skim milk (see list of
     breakfasts)...........................100 C


     Fruit salad
      1 large orange.................100 C
      1 average apple.................50 C
      1 small banana.................100 C
      2 tbsps. lemon juice............10 C
      2 small teasps. sugar...........40 C
                                     300 C
     Sprinkle with 1 tbsp. grapenuts..50 C

              Total.........................350 C


     3 crackers with tea with 1 tsp.
       sugar and 1 slice lemon
     10 ozs. skim milk or buttermilk
     100 C. fruit (see list)................100 C


     12 moderate sized oysters..............100 C
      Dipped in 1 beaten egg and
        crumbs of 3 crackers.........150 C
      Fried gently in 1 tbsp. of
        bacon or other fat...........125 C
                                     375 C
     2 small slices crisped bacon.....50 C
     1 small dish chow chow with
      lettuce.........................25 C
     1 slice bread or its equivalent.100 C
     1/2 pat butter...................50 C
     Dessert 1 medium baked apple
       with no sugar..................50 C
              Total.........................650 C
              Grand Total..................1200 C

     1200 C DAY


     2 cups hot water with a little lemon juice.
     10-minute exercise at least


     Coffee or postum with cream or sugar


     10 ozs. skim milk (see list of
       breakfasts) .........................100 C


     2 eggs 160 C fried gently in 1 tsp.
       bacon fat or butter............40 C


       soft boiled or poached eggs
       with 1 slice crisped bacon....200 C
     1 roll or 1 slice whole wheat
       bread.........................100 C
     Butter 1/2 pat...................50 C
     Coffee, postum or tea clear.......0
     Total..................................350 C


     3 crackers with tea with 1 tsp. sugar
       and 1 slice lemon


     10 ozs. skim milk or buttermilk


     100 C fruit (see list).................100 C


     2 toasted shredded wheat biscuits.200 C
     2 glasses skim milk...............150 C
     1 dish stewed prunes
       8 with 1 tbsp. syrup............200 C
     10-12 peanuts.....................100 C
     Coffee, postum or tea clear.........0 C
     Total..................................650 C
     Grand Total...........................1200 C

     1200 C DAY


     2 cups hot water with a little lemon juice.
     10-minute exercise at least


     Coffee or postum with cream or sugar


     10 ozs. skim milk (see list of
       breakfasts) .........................100 C


     6 oz. cream soup,
       Potato, tomato, clam chowder,
       etc. (use skim milk)..........200 C
     Shredded cabbage, lettuce, celery


     any greens--average helping
       practically.....................0 C
     1/2 tbsp. mayonnaise or oil


     1 tbsp. cream dressing...........50 C
     2 soda crackers..................50 C
     1 average apple..................50 C
     Total..................................350 C


     3 crackers with tea with 1 tsp. sugar
       and 1 slice lemon


     10 ozs. skim milk or buttermilk


     100 C fruit (see list).................100 C


     Carrot and cottage cheese salad
       (The Home Dietitian--Comstock)
       1/2 cup ground carrots
       1-6 cup chopped nuts
       3 oz. cottage cheese
       3 oz. large lemon (juice of)......250 C
     8 ozs. consomme, no fat..............30 C
     4 crackers or 1 roll or slice bread 100 C
     1/2 pat butter.......................50 C
     Average helping lettuce or other
       greens--no oil......................0
     Dessert--gelatine pudding,
       average serving...................120 C
     Whipped cream 1 heaping tbsp........100 C
     Coffee or postum or tea clear.......  0
     Total....................................650 C
     Grand Total.............................1200 C

     1200 C DAY


     2 cups hot water with a little lemon juice.
     10-minute exercise at least


     Coffee or postum with cream or sugar
     10 ozs. skim milk (see list
       of breakfasts).........................100 C


     Baked beans
       if canned 3 h. tbsp., if home
       baked 1-1/2.......................150 C
     Pickled beets 5 med. slices......... 25 C
     Large amount celery or lettuce
       or other green leaves............. 25 C
     1 slice toasted Swedish health
       bread (made of oatmeal) or
       1 roll............................100 C
     1 cup coffee or postum clear........  0 C
     Medium apple........................ 50 C
             Total............................350 C


     3 crackers with tea with 1 tsp. sugar
       and 1 slice lemon
     10 ozs. skim milk or buttermilk
     100 C fruit (see list)...................100 C


     Cottage cheese omelet
       2 med. eggs.......................160 C
       3 ozs. cottage cheese.............100 C
       1 tbsp. cream
       condensed milk.................... 50 C
                                         310 C

       Salt to taste
     Bake or fry gently in 1/2 tbsp. fat. 40 C
     (Can substitute 100 C chopped
       lean meat for cottage
     1 small head celery tender leaves
       and all........................... 25 C
     1 slice bread or equivalent.........100 C
     Butter 1/2, pat..................... 50 C
     1 dish plain stewed tomatoes,
       squash, carrots, spinach or
       onions, etc....................... 25 C
     5 almonds or 5 peanuts or 2
       large walnuts..................... 50 C
     10 raisins.......................... 50 C
             Total............................650 C
             Grand Total.....................1200 C

_Finished But Not Famished_

     |                       WEEKLY WEIGHT CHART                       |
     |   Month  | 1st Week | 2nd Week | 3rd Week | 4th Week | 5th Week |
     |          |          |          |          |          |          |
     |          |          |          |          |          |          |
     |          |          |          |          |          |          |
     |          |          |          |          |          |          |
     |          |          |          |          |          |          |
     |          |          |          |          |          |          |
     |          |          |          |          |          |          |
     |          |          |          |          |          |          |
     |          |          |          |          |          |          |
     |          |          |          |          |          |          |
     |          |          |          |          |          |          |
     |          |          |          |          |          |          |

     |                      TOTAL C. PER DAY                     |
     |   Month  | Sun. | Mon. | Tues.| Wed. | Thur.| Fri. | Sat. |
     |          |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     |          |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     |          |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     |          |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     |          |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     |          |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     |          |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     |          |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     |          |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     |          |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     |          |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     |          |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |

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