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´╗┐Title: A Woman's Journey Round the World
Author: Pfeiffer, Ida, 1797-1858
Language: English
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A WOMAN'S JOURNEY ROUND THE WORLD, from Vienna to Brazil, Chili,
Tahiti, China, Hindostan, Persia, and Asia Minor.


An unabridged translation from the German.


I have been called, in many of the public journals, a "professed
tourist;" but I am sorry to say that I have no title to the
appellation in its usual sense.  On the one hand I possess too
little wit and humour to render my writings amusing; and, on the
other, too little knowledge to judge rightly of what I have gone
through.  The only gift to which I can lay claim is that of
narrating in a simple manner the different scenes in which I have
played a part, and the different objects I have beheld; if I ever
pronounce an opinion, I do so merely on my own personal experience.

Many will perhaps believe that I undertook so long a journey from
vanity.  I can only say in answer to this--whoever thinks so should
make such a trip himself, in order to gain the conviction, that
nothing but a natural wish for travel, a boundless desire of
acquiring knowledge, could ever enable a person to overcome the
hardships, privations, and dangers to which I have been exposed.

In exactly the same manner as the artist feels an invincible desire
to paint, and the poet to give free course to his thoughts, so was I
hurried away with an unconquerable wish to see the world.  In my
youth I dreamed of travelling--in my old age I find amusement in
reflecting on what I have beheld.

The public received very favourably my plain unvarnished account of
"A Voyage to the Holy Land, and to Iceland and Scandinavia."
Emboldened by their kindness, I once more step forward with the
journal of my last and most considerable voyage, and I shall feel
content if the narration of my adventures procures for my readers
only a portion of the immense fund of pleasure derived from the
voyage by

                                         THE AUTHORESS.

Vienna, March 16, 1850.

With the hope that we may forward the views of the authoress, and be
the means of exciting the public attention to her position and
wants, we append the following statement by Mr. A. Petermann, which
appeared in the Athenaeum of the 6th of December, 1851:

"Madame Pfeiffer came to London last April, with the intention of
undertaking a fresh journey; her love of travelling appearing not
only unabated, but even augmented by the success of her journey
round the world.  She had planned, as her fourth undertaking, a
journey to some of those portions of the globe which she had not yet
visited--namely, Australia and the islands of the Asiatic
Archipelago; intending to proceed thither by the usual route round
the Cape.  Her purpose was, however, changed while in London.  The
recently discovered Lake Ngami, in Southern Africa, and the
interesting region to the north, towards the equator--the reflection
how successfully she had travelled among savage tribes, where armed
men hesitated to penetrate, how well she had borne alike the cold of
Iceland and the heat of Babylonia--and lastly, the suggestion that
she might be destined to raise the veil from some of the totally
unknown portions of the interior of Africa--made her determine on
stopping at the Cape, and trying to proceed thence, if possible,
northwards into the equatorial regions of the African Continent.

"Madame Pfeiffer left for the Cape, on the 22nd of May last, in a
sailing vessel--her usual mode of travelling by sea, steamboats
being too expensive.  She arrived safely at Cape Town on the 11th of
August, as I learned from a letter which I received from her last
week, dated the 20th of August.  From that letter the following are

"'The impression which this place (Cape Town) made on me, was not an
agreeable one.  The mountains surrounding the town are bare, the
town itself (London being still fresh in my recollection) resembles
a village.  The houses are of only one story, with terraces instead
of roofs.  From the deck of the vessel a single tree was visible,
standing on a hill.  In short, on my arrival I was at once much
disappointed, and this disappointment rather increases than
otherwise.  In the town the European mode of living is entirely
prevalent--more so than in any other place abroad that I have seen.
I have made a good many inquiries as to travelling into the
interior; and have been, throughout, assured that the natives are
everywhere kindly disposed to travellers, and that as a woman I
should be able to penetrate much farther than a man,--and I have
been strongly advised to undertake a journey as far as the unknown
lakes, and even beyond.  Still, with all these splendid prospects
and hopes, I fear I shall travel less in this country than in any
other.  Here, the first thing you are told is, that you must
purchase waggons, oxen, horses, asses,--hire expensive guides, etc.,
etc.  How far should I reach in this way with my 100 pounds
sterling?  I will give you an example of the charges in this
country:--for the carriage of my little luggage to my lodgings I had
to pay 10s. 6d.!  I had previously landed in what I thought the most
expensive places in the world--London, Calcutta, Canton, etc.--had
everywhere a much greater distance to go from the vessel to my
lodgings, and nowhere had I paid half of what they charged me here.
Board and lodging I have also found very dear.  Fortunately, I have
been very kindly received into the house of Mr. Thaewitzer, the
Hamburgh consul, where I live, very agreeably, but do not much
advance the object which brought me here.  I shall, in the course of
the month, undertake a short journey with some Dutch boers to Klein
Williams; and I fear that this will form the beginning and the end
of my travels in this country.'

"From these extracts it will be seen that the resolute lady has at
her command but very slender means for the performance of her
journeys.  The sum of 100 pounds, which was granted to her by the
Austrian government, forms the whole of her funds.  Private
resources she has none.  It took her twenty years to save enough
money to perform her first journey!--namely, that to the Holy Land.
While in London, she received scarcely any encouragement; and her
works were not appreciated by the public, or indeed known, till she
had left this country.  It is to be regretted that the want of a
little pecuniary assistance should deter the enterprising lady from
carrying out her projected journey in Southern Africa.  Though not a
scientific traveller, she is a faithful recorder of what she sees
and hears; and she is prepared to note the bearings and distances of
the journey, make meteorological observations, and keep a careful
diary--so that the results of her projected journey would perhaps be
of as much interest as those of other travellers of greater




























On the first of May, 1846, I left Vienna, and, with the exception of
slight stoppages at Prague, Dresden, and Leipsic, proceeded directly
to Hamburgh, there to embark for the Brazils.  In Prague I had the
pleasure of meeting Count Berchthold, who had accompanied me during
a portion of my journey in the East.  He informed me that he should
like to be my companion in the voyage to the Brazils, and I promised
to wait for him in Hamburgh.

I had a second most interesting meeting on the steamer from Prague
to Dresden, namely, with the widow of Professor Mikan.  In the year
1817, this lady had, on the occasion of the marriage of the Austrian
Princess Leopaldine with Don Pedro I., followed her husband to the
Brazils, and afterwards made with him a scientific journey into the
interior of the country.

I had often heard this lady's name mentioned, and my joy at making
her personal acquaintance was very great.  In the kindest and most
amiable manner she communicated to me the results of her long
experience, and added advice and rules of conduct, which proved
afterwards highly useful.

I arrived in Hamburgh on the 12th of May; and, as early as the 13th,
might have embarked on board a fine fast-sailing brig, which,
besides, was christened the "Ida," like myself.  With a heavy heart
I saw this fine vessel set sail.  I was obliged to remain behind, as
I had promised my travelling companion to await his arrival.  Week
after week elapsed, with nothing but the fact of my staying with my
relatives to lighten the dreariness of suspense; at last, about the
middle of June, the Count came, and shortly afterwards we found a
vessel--a Danish brig, the "Caroline," Captain Bock, bound for Rio

I had now before me a long voyage, which could not be made under two
months at the least, and which, possibly, might last three or four.
Luckily I had already lived for a considerable period on board
sailing vessels during my former travels, and was therefore
acquainted with their arrangements, which are very different from
those of steamers.  On board a steamer everything is agreeable and
luxurious; the vessel pursues her rapid course independent of the
wind, and the passengers enjoy good and fresh provisions, spacious
cabins, and excellent society.

In sailing vessels all this is very different, as, with the
exception of the large East Indiamen, they are not fitted up for
passengers.  In them the cargo is looked upon as the principal
thing, and in the eyes of the crew passengers are a troublesome
addition, whose comfort is generally very little studied.  The
captain is the only person who takes any interest in them, since a
third or even the half of the passage-money falls to his share.

The space, too, is so confined, that you can hardly turn yourself
round in the sleeping cabins, while it is quite impossible to stand
upright in the berths.  Besides this, the motion of a sailing vessel
is much stronger than that of a steamer; on the latter, however,
many affirm that the eternal vibration, and the disagreeable odour
of the oil and coals, are totally insupportable.  For my own part, I
never found this to be the case; it certainly is unpleasant, but
much easier to bear than the many inconveniences always existing on
board a sailing vessel.  The passenger is there a complete slave to
every whim or caprice of the captain, who is an absolute sovereign
and holds uncontrolled sway over everything.  Even the food depends
upon his generosity, and although it is generally not absolutely
bad, in the best instances, it is not equal to that on board a

The following form the ordinary diet:  tea and coffee without milk,
bacon and junk, soup made with pease or cabbage, potatoes, hard
dumplings, salted cod, and ship-biscuit.  On rare occasions, ham,
eggs, fish, pancakes, or even skinny fowls, are served out.  It is
very seldom, in small ships, that bread can be procured.

To render the living more palatable, especially on a long voyage,
passengers would do well to take with them a few additions to the
ship's fare.  The most suitable are:  portable soup and captain's
biscuit--both of which should be kept in tin canisters to preserve
them from mouldiness and insects--a good quantity of eggs, which,
when the vessel is bound for a southern climate, should first be
dipped in strong lime-water or packed in coal-dust; rice, potatoes,
sugar, butter, and all the ingredients for making sangaree and
potato-salad, the former being very strengthening and the latter
very cooling.  I would strongly recommend those who have children
with them to take a goat as well.

As regards wine, passengers should take especial care to ask the
captain whether this is included in the passage-money, otherwise it
will have to be purchased from him at a very high rate.

There are also other objects which must not be forgotten, and above
all a mattress, bolster, and counterpane, as the berths are
generally unfurnished.  These can be purchased very cheaply in any
seaport town.

Besides this, it is likewise advisable to take a stock of coloured
linen.  The office of washerwoman is filled by a sailor, so that it
may easily be imagined that the linen does not return from the wash
in the best possible condition.

When the sailors are employed in shifting the sails, great care must
be taken to avoid injury by the falling of any of the ropes.  But
all these inconveniences are comparatively trifling; the greatest
amount of annoyance begins towards the end of the voyage.  The
captain's mistress is his ship.  At sea he allows her to wear an
easy neglige, but in port she must appear in full dress.  Not a sign
of the long voyage, of the storms, of the glowing heat she has
suffered, must be visible.  Then begins an incessant hammering,
planing, and sawing; every flaw, every crack or injury is made good,
and, to wind up, the whole vessel is painted afresh.  The worst of
all, however, is the hammering when the cracks in the deck are being
repaired and filled up with pitch.  This is almost unbearable.

But enough of annoyances.  I have described them merely to prepare,
in some degree, those who have never been to sea.  Persons residing
in sea-port towns do not, perhaps, stand in need of this, for they
hear these matters mentioned every day; but such is not the case
with us poor souls, who have lived all our lives in inland cities.
Very often we hardly know how a steamer or a sailing vessel looks,
much less the mode of life on board them.  I speak from experience,
and know too well what I myself suffered on my first voyage, simply
because, not having been warned beforehand, I took nothing with me
save a small stock of linen and clothes.

At present I will proceed with the progress of my voyage.  We
embarked on the evening of the 28th of June, and weighed anchor
before daybreak of the 29th.  The voyage did not commence in any
very encouraging manner; we had very little, in fact almost no wind
at all, and compared to us every pedestrian appeared to be running a
race:  we made the nine miles to Blankenese in seven hours.

Luckily the slow rate at which we proceeded was not so disagreeable,
as, at first, for a considerable period we beheld the magnificent
port, and afterwards could admire, on the Holstein side, the
beautiful country houses of the rich Hamburghers, situated upon
charming eminences and surrounded by lovely gardens.  The opposite
side, belonging to Hanover, is as flat and monotonous as the other
is beautiful.  About here the Elbe, in many places, is from three to
four miles broad.

Before reaching Blankenese the ships take in their stock of water
from the Elbe.  This water, although of a dirty and thick
appearance, is said to possess the valuable quality of resisting
putridity for years.

We did not reach Gluckstadt (37 miles from Hamburgh) before the
morning of the 30th.  As there was not now a breath of wind, we were
entirely at the mercy of the stream, and began drifting back.  The
captain, therefore, ordered the men to cast anchor, and profited by
the leisure thus forced upon him to have the chests and boxes made
fast on the deck and in the hold.  We idlers had permission granted
us to land and visit the town, in which, however, we found but
little to admire.

There were eight passengers on board.  The four cabin places were
taken by Count B--, myself, and two young people who hoped to make
their fortune sooner in the Brazils than in Europe.  The price of a
passage in the first cabin was 100 dollars (20 pounds 16s. 8d.), and
in the steerage 50 dollars (10 pounds 8s. 4d.).

In the steerage, besides two worthy tradesmen, was a poor old woman
who was going, in compliance with the wish of her only son, who had
settled in the Brazils, to join him there, and a married woman whose
husband had been working as a tailor for the last six years in Rio
Janeiro.  People soon become acquainted on board ship, and generally
endeavour to agree as well as possible, in order to render the
monotony of a long voyage at all supportable.

On the 1st of July we again set sail in rather stormy weather.  We
made a few miles, but were soon obliged to cast anchor once more.
The Elbe is here so wide, that we could hardly see its banks, and
the swell so strong, that sea-sickness began to manifest itself
among our company.  On the 2nd of July, we again attempted to weigh
anchor, but with no better success than the day before.  Towards
evening we saw some dolphins, called also _tummler_, or tumblers, as
well as several gulls, which announced to us that we were fast
nearing the sea.

A great many vessels passed quickly by us.  Ah! they could turn to
account the storm and wind which swelled out their sails, and drove
them rapidly towards the neighbouring port.  We grudged them their
good fortune; and perhaps we had to thank this specimen of Christian
love on our part, that on the 3rd of July, we had not got further
than Cuxhaven, seventy-four miles from Hamburgh.

The 4th of July was a beautifully fine day, for those who could
remain quietly on shore; but for those on board ship it was bad
enough, as there was not the slightest breath of wind stirring.  To
get rid of our lamentations, the captain launched out in praises of
the charming little town, and had us conveyed to land.  We visited
the town, as well as the bathing establishment and the lighthouse,
and afterwards actually proceeded as far as a place called the
"Bush," where, as we were told, we should find a great abundance of
strawberries.  After wandering about, over fields and meadows, for a
good hour in the glowing heat, we found the Bush, it is true, but
instead of strawberries, discovered only frogs and adders there.

We now proceeded into the scanty wood, where we saw about twenty
tents erected.  A bustling landlord came up, and offering us some
glasses of bad milk, said that every year a fair is held in the Bush
for three weeks, or rather, on three successive Sundays, for during
the week days the booths are closed.  The landlady also came
tripping towards us, and invited us, in a very friendly manner, to
spend the next Sunday with them.  She assured us that we should
"amuse ourselves charmingly;" that we elder members of the company
should find entertainment in the wonderful performances of the
tumblers and jugglers, and the younger gentlemen find spruce young
girls for partners in the dance.

We expressed ourselves much pleased at this invitation, promised to
be sure to come, and then extended our walk to Ritzebuttel, where we
admired a small castle and a miniature park.

5th July.  Nothing is so changeable as the weather:  yesterday we
were revelling in sunshine, and today we were surrounded by a thick,
dark fog; and yet this, bad as it was, we found more agreeable than
the fine weather of the day before, for a slight breeze sprang up,
and at nine o'clock in the morning, we heard the rattling of the
capstan, as the anchor was being weighed.  In consequence of this,
the young people were obliged to give up the idea of an excursion to
the Bush, and defer all dancing with pretty girls until their
arrival in another hemisphere, for it was fated that they should not
set foot in Europe again.

The transition from the Elbe to the North Sea is scarcely
perceptible, as the Elbe is not divided into different channels, but
is eight or ten miles broad at its mouth.  It almost forms a small
sea of itself, and has even the green hue of one.  We were,
consequently, very much surprised, on hearing the captain exclaim,
in a joyful tone, "We are out of the river at last."  We imagined
that we had long since been sailing upon the wide ocean.

In the afternoon, we bore in sight of the island of Heligoland,
which belongs to the English, and presented really a magical
appearance, as it rose out from the sea.  It is a barren, colossal
rock; and had I not learned, from one of the newest works on
geography, that it was peopled by about 2,500 souls, I should have
supposed the whole island to have been uninhabited.  On three sides,
the cliffs rise so precipitously from the waves, that all access is

We sailed by the place at a considerable distance, and saw only the
towers of the church and lighthouse, in addition to the so-called
"Monk," a solitary, perpendicular rock, that is separated from the
main body, between which and it there sparkles a small strip of sea.

The inhabitants are very poor.  The only sources of their livelihood
are fishing and bathing visitors.  A great number of the latter come
every year, as the bathing, on account of the extraordinary swell,
is reckoned extremely efficacious.  Unfortunately, great fears are
entertained that this watering-place cannot exist much longer, as
every year the island decreases in size, from the continual falling
away of large masses of rock, so that some day the whole place may
disappear into the sea.

From the 5th to the 10th of July, we had continued stormy and cold
weather, with a heavy sea, and great rolling of the ship.  All we
poor "land-lubbers" were suffering from sea sickness.  We first
entered the British Channel, also called "La Manche" (420 miles from
Cuxhaven) in the night of the 10-11th.

We awaited with impatience the rising of the sun, which would
display to our gaze two of the mightiest powers in Europe.  Luckily,
the day was fine and clear, and the two kingdoms lay before us, in
such magnificence and proximity, that the beholder was almost
inclined to believe that a sister people inhabited both countries.

On the coast of England, we saw the North Foreland, the Castle of
Sandown, and the town of Deal, stretching out at the foot of the
cliffs, which extend for many miles, and are about 150 feet high.
Further on, we came in sight of the South Foreland; and lastly, the
ancient castle of Dover, that sits right bravely enthroned upon an
eminence, and overlooks the surrounding country, far and wide.  The
town itself lies upon the sea-shore.

Opposite Dover, at the narrowest part of the channel, we
distinguished, on the French coast, Cape Grisnez, where Napoleon
erected a small building, in order, it is said, to be at least able
to see England; and, further on, the obelisk raised in memory of the
camp at Boulogne, by Napoleon, but completed under Louis Philippe.

The wind being unfavourable, we were obliged, during the night, to
tack in the neighbourhood of Dover.  The great darkness which
covered both land and sea rendered this maneuvre a very dangerous
one; firstly, on account of the proximity of the coast; and,
secondly, on account of the number of vessels passing up and down
the channel.  To avoid a collision, we hung out a lantern on the
foremast, while, from time to time, a torch was lighted, and held
over the side, and the bell frequently kept sounding:  all very
alarming occurrences to a person unused to the sea.

For fourteen days were we prisoners in the 360 miles of the Channel,
remaining very often two or three days, as if spell-bound, in the
same place, while we were frequently obliged to cruise for whole
days to make merely a few miles; and near Start we were overtaken by
a tolerably violent storm.  During the night I was suddenly called
upon deck.  I imagined that some misfortune had happened, and
hastily throwing a few clothes on, hurried up--to enjoy the
astonishing spectacle of a "sea-fire."  In the wake of the vessel I
behold a streak of fire so strong that it would have been easy to
read by its light; the water round the ship looked like a glowing
stream of lava, and every wave, as it rose up, threw out sparks of
fire.  The track of the fish was surrounded by dazzling inimitable
brilliancy, and far and wide everything was one dazzling

This extraordinary illumination of the sea is of very unfrequent
occurrence, and rarely happens after long-continued, violent storms.
The captain told me that he had never yet beheld the sea so lighted
up.  For my part, I shall never forget the sight.

A second, and hardly less beautiful, spectacle came under our
observation at another time, when, after a storm, the clouds, gilt
by the rays of the sun, were reflected as in a mirror on the bosom
of the sea.  They glittered and shone with an intensity of colour
which surpassed even those of the rainbow.

We had full leisure to contemplate Eddystone Lighthouse, which is
the most celebrated building of the kind in Europe, as we were
cruising about for two days in sight of it.  Its height, and the
boldness and strength with which it is built, are truly wonderful;
but still more wonderful is its position upon a dangerous reef,
situated ten miles from the coast; at a distance, it seems to be
founded in the sea itself.

We often sailed so near the coast of Cornwall, that not only could
we plainly perceive every village, but even the people in the
streets and in the open country.  The land is hilly and luxuriant,
and appears carefully cultivated.

During the whole time of our cruising in the Channel, the
temperature was cold and raw, the thermometer seldom being higher
than 65 to 75 degrees Fah.

At last, on the 24th of July, we came to the end of the Channel, and
attained the open sea; the wind was tolerably favourable, and on the
2nd of August we were off Gibraltar, where we were becalmed for
twenty-four hours.  The captain threw several pieces of white
crockeryware, as well as a number of large bones overboard, to show
how beautifully green such objects appeared as they slowly sank down
beneath the sea; of course this can only be seen in a perfect calm.

In the evening we were greatly delighted by numbers of moluscae
shining through the water; they looked exactly like so many floating
stars, about the size of a man's hand; even by day we could perceive
them beneath the waves.  They are of a brownish red, and in form
resemble a toadstool; many had a thick pedicle, somewhat fimbriated
on the under part; others, instead of the pedicle, had a number of
threads hanging down from them.

4th August.  This was the first day that it was announced by the
heat that we were in a southern latitude; but, as was also the case
the following day, the clear dark blue sky that generally overarches
the Mediterranean in such exceeding loveliness, was still wanting.
We found, however, some slight compensation for this in the rising
and setting of the sun, as these were often accompanied by unusual
forms and colours of the clouds.

We were now off Morocco, and were fortunate enough today to perceive
a great number of bonitos.  Every one on board bestirred himself,
and on every side fish hooks were cast overboard; unluckily only one
bonito allowed himself to be entrapped by our friendly invitations;
he made a dart at the bait, and his good-natured confidence procured
us a fresh meal, of which we had long been deprived.

On the 5th of August we saw land for the first time for twelve days.
The sun was rising as the little island of Porto Santo greeted our
sight.  It is formed of peaked mountains, which, by their shape,
betray their volcanic origin.  A few miles in advance of the island
stands the beautiful Falcon Rock, like a sentinel upon the look-out.
We sailed past Madeira (23 miles from Porto Santo) the same day, but
unluckily at such a distance that we could only perceive the long
mountain chains by which the island is intersected.  Near Madeira
lie the rocky Deserta Islands, which are reckoned as forming part of

Near these islands we passed a vessel running under reefed sails
before the wind, whence the captain concluded that she was a cruiser
looking after slavers.

On the 6th of August we beheld, for the first time, flying fish, but
at such a distance that we could scarcely distinguish them.

On the 7th of August we neared the Canary Isles, but unfortunately,
on account of the thick fog, we could not see them.  We now caught
the trade wind, that blows from the east, and is anxiously desired
by all sailors.

In the night of the 9-10th we entered the tropics.  We were now in
daily expectation of greater heat and a clearer sky, but met with
neither.  The atmosphere was dull and hazy, and even in our own raw
fatherland the sky could not have been so overcast, except upon some
days in November.  Every evening the clouds were piled upon one
another in such a way that we were continually expecting to see a
water-spout; it was generally not before midnight that the heavens
would gradually clear up, and allow us to admire the beautiful and
dazzling constellations of the South.

The captain told us that this was the fourteenth voyage he had made
to the Brazils, during which time he had always found the heat very
easily borne, and had never seen the sky otherwise than dull and
lowering.  He said that this was occasioned by the damp, unhealthy
coast of Guinea, the ill effects of which were perceptible much
further than where we then were, although the distance between us
was 350 miles.

In the tropics the quick transition from day to night is already
very perceptible; 35 or 40 minutes after the setting of the sun the
deepest darkness reigns around.  The difference in the length of day
and night decreases more and more the nearer you approach the
Equator.  At the Equator itself the day and night are of equal

All the 14th and 15th of August we sailed parallel with the Cape de
Verde Islands, from which we were not more than 23 miles distant,
but which, on account of the hazy state of the weather, we could not

During this period we used to be much amused by small flocks of
flying-fish, which very often rose from the water so near the ship's
side that we were enabled to examine them minutely.  They are
generally of the size and colour of a herring; their side fins,
however, are longer and broader, and they have the power of
spreading and closing them like little wings.  They raise themselves
about twelve or fifteen feet above the water, and then, after flying
more than a distance of a hundred feet, dive down again for a moment
beneath the waves, to recommence directly afterwards:  this occurs
most frequently when they are pursued by bonitos or other foes.
When they were flying at some distance from the ship they really
looked like elegant birds.  We very frequently saw the bonitos also,
who were pursuing them, endeavour to raise themselves above the
water, but they seldom succeeded in raising more than their head.

It is very difficult to catch one of these little denizens of the
air, as they are to be secured neither by nets or hooks; but
sometimes the wind will drive them, during the night, upon the deck,
where they are discovered, in the morning, dead, not having
sufficient strength to raise themselves from dry places; in this way
I obtained a few specimens.

Today, August 15th, we enjoyed a most interesting sight.  We
happened, exactly at 12 o'clock, to be in the sun's zenith, and the
sunbeams fell so perpendicularly that every object was perfectly
shadowless.  We put books, chairs, ourselves in the sun, and were
highly delighted with this unusual kind of amusement.  Luckily we
had chanced to be at the right spot at the right time; had we, at
the same hour, been only one degree nearer or one degree further, we
should have lost the entire sight; when we saw it we were 14 degrees
6' (a minute is equal to a nautical mile).

All observations with the sextant {9} were out of the question until
we were once more some degrees from the zenith.

17th August.  Shoals of tunny-fish, (fish four and five feet long,
and belonging to the dolphin tribe,) were seen tumbling about the
ship.  A harpoon was quickly procured, and one of the sailors sent
out with it on the bowsprit; but whether he had bad luck, or was
unskilled in the art of harpooning, he missed his mark.  The most
wonderful part of the story, though, was that all the fish
disappeared as if by magic, and did not appear again for some days;
it seemed as if they had whispered and warned each other of the
threatened danger.

All the oftener, however, did we see another inhabitant of the sea,
namely, that beautiful mollusca, the physolida, called by the
sailors Portugiesisches Segel-schiff; (Portuguese sailing-ship.)
When floating upon the surface of the sea, with its long crest,
which it can elevate or depress at pleasure, it really resembles a
delicate tiny little sailing vessel.  I was very desirous of
catching one of these little creatures, but this could only be
effected by means of a net, which I had not got, nor had I either
needle or twine to make one.  Necessity, however, is the mother of
invention; so I manufactured a knitting needle of wood, unravelled
some thick string, and in a few hours possessed a net.  Very soon
afterwards a mollusca had been captured, and placed in a tub filled
with sea water.  The little creature's body is about six inches long
and two inches high; the crest extends over the whole of the back,
and in the middle, where it is highest, measures about an inch and a
half.  Both the crest and body are transparent, and appear as if
tinged with rose colour; from the belly, which is violet, are
suspended a number of threads or arms of the same colour.

I hung the little thing up to dry at the stern, outside the ship;
some of the threads reached down into the water (a depth of at least
twelve feet), but most of them fell off.  After the animal was dead,
the crest remained erect, and the body perfectly filled out, but the
beautiful rose colour gradually changed to white.

18th August.  Today we had a heavy thunder-storm, for which we were
very grateful, as it cooled the air considerably.  Between 1 and 2
degrees, or 3 degrees North latitude, frequent changes in the
weather are very common.  For instance, on the morning of the 20th
we were overtaken by a strong wind, which lashed up the sea to a
great height, and continued until evening, when it gave way to a
tropical shower, which we at home should call a perfect water-spout.
The deck was instantaneously transformed into a lake, while at the
same time the wind had so completely fallen that even the rudder
enjoyed a holiday.

This rain cost me a night's rest, for when I went to take possession
of my berth, I found the bed-clothes drenched through and through,
and was fain to content myself with a wooden bench for a couch.

On the 27th of August we got beyond these hostile latitudes, and
were received by the anxiously desired south-east trade wind, which
hurried us quickly on our voyage.

We were now very near the Equator, and, like all other travellers,
wished very much to see the celebrated constellations of the south.
I myself was most interested in the Southern Cross; and, as I could
not find it among the stars, I begged the captain to point it out to
me.  Both he and the first mate, however, said that they had never
heard of it, and the second mate was the only one to whom it did not
appear entirely unknown.  With his help, we really did discover in
the spangled firmament four stars, which had something of the form
of a somewhat crooked cross, but were certainly not remarkable in
themselves, nor did they excite the least enthusiasm amongst us.  A
most magnificent spectacle was, on the contrary, formed by Orion,
Jupiter, and Venus; the latter, indeed, shone so brilliantly that
her gleams formed a silver furrow across the waves.

The great frequency of falling stars is another fact that I cannot
corroborate.  They are, perhaps, more frequent than in cold
climates, but are far from being as common as is said:  and as for
their size, I saw only one which surpassed ours; and this appeared
about three times as large as an ordinary star.

For some days also we had now seen the Cape, or Magellan's Clouds,
and also the so-called Black Cloud.  The first are bright, and, like
the Milky Way, are formed of numberless small stars, invisible to
the naked eye; the latter presents a black appearance, and is said
to be produced by the absence of all stars whatever from this part
of the heavens.

All these different signs prepared us for the most interesting
moment of our voyage--namely, passing the line.

On the 29th of August, at 10 o'clock P.M., we saluted the southern
hemisphere for the first time.  A feeling nearly allied to pride
excited every one, but more especially those who crossed the line
for the first time.  We shook each other by the hand, and
congratulated one another mutually, as if we had done some great and
heroic deed.  One of the passengers had brought with him a bottle or
two of champagne to celebrate the event:  the corks sprang gaily in
the air, and with a joyful "huzza," the health of the new hemisphere
was drunk.

No festivities took place among the crew.  This is at present the
case in most vessels, as such amusements seldom end without
drunkenness and disorder.  The sailors, however, could not let the
cabin-boy, who passed the line for the first time, go quite scot-
free; so he was well christened in a few buckets of salt water.

Long before passing the line, we passengers had frequently spoken of
all the sufferings and tortures we should be subjected to at the
Equator.  Every one had read or heard something exceedingly
horrible, which he duly communicated to all the rest.  One expected
headache or colic; a second had pictured to himself the sailors
falling down from exhaustion; a third dreaded such a fearful degree
of heat, that it would not only melt the pitch, {11} but would so
dry up the ship, that nothing but continual throwing water over it
could prevent its catching fire; while a fourth feared that all the
provisions would be spoilt, and ourselves nearly starved to death.

For my own part, I had already congratulated myself on the tragical
stories I should be able to present to my readers; I beheld them
shedding tears at the narration of the sufferings we had
experienced, and I already appeared to myself half a martyr.  Alas!
I was sadly deceived.  We all remained in perfectly good health; not
a sailor sank exhausted; the ship did not catch fire; and the
provisions were not spoilt--they were just as bad as before.

3rd September.  From 2 to 3 degrees South latitude the wind is very
irregular, and frequently excessively violent.  Today we passed the
8 degrees South latitude, without seeing land, which put the captain
in the best of humours.  He explained to us, that if we had seen
land, we should have been obliged to retrace our course almost to
the line, because the current sets in with such violence towards the
land, that the voyage could only be made at a proper distance.

7th September.  Between 10 and 20 degrees South latitude we again
met with very peculiar prevalent winds.  They are called vamperos;
and oblige the sailor to be always on his guard, as they spring up
very suddenly, and are often extremely violent.  We were overtaken
by one during the night, but, luckily, it was not of the worst kind.
In a few hours it had entirely passed over, but the sea did not
become calm again for a considerable time.

On the 9th and 11th of September, we encountered some short gusts of
the vamperos, the most violent being the last.

12th and 13th of September.  The first was termed by the captain
merely "a stiffish breeze;" but the second was entered in the log
{12} as "a storm."  The stiffish breeze cost us one sail; the storm,
two.  During the time it lasted, the sea ran so high, that it was
with the greatest difficulty we could eat.  With one hand we were
obliged to grasp the plate, and at the same time to hold fast on to
the table, while, with the other, we managed, with considerable
difficulty, to convey the food to our mouth.  At night, I was
obliged to "stow" myself firmly in my berth with my cloaks and
dresses, to protect my body from being bruised black and blue.

On the morning of the 13th, I was on deck at break of day.  The
helmsman led me to the side of the vessel, and told me to hold my
head overboard, and inhale the air.  I breathed a most beautiful
perfume of flowers.  I looked round in astonishment, and imagined
that I must already be able to see the land:  it was, however, still
far distant, the soft perfume being merely drifted to us by the
wind.  It was very remarkable that inside the ship this perfume was
not at all perceptible.

The sea itself was covered with innumerable dead butterflies and
moths, which had been carried out to sea by the storm.  Two pretty
little birds, quite exhausted by their long flight, were resting
upon one of the yards.

For us, who, during two months and a half, had seen nothing but sky
and water, all these things were most satisfactory; and we looked
out anxiously for Cape Frio, which we were very near.  The horizon,
however, was lowering and hazy, and the sun had not force enough to
tear the murky veil asunder.  We looked forward with joy to the next
morning, but during the night were overtaken by another storm, which
lasted until 2 o'clock.  The ship's course was changed, and she was
driven as far as possible into the open sea; so that, in the end, we
were glad enough to reach, the next day, the same position we had
occupied the morning before.

Today we caught no glimpse of land; but a few gulls and albatrosses
from Cape Frio warned us that we were near it, and afforded us some
little amusement.  They swam close up to the ship's side, and
eagerly swallowed every morsel of bread or meat that was thrown to
them.  The sailors tried to catch some with a hook and line, and
were fortunate enough to succeed.  They were placed upon the deck,
and, to my great surprise, I perceived that they were unable to
raise themselves from it.  If we touched them, they merely dragged
themselves, with great difficulty, a few paces further, although
they could rise very easily from the surface of the water, and fly
extremely high.

One of the gentlemen was exceedingly anxious to kill and stuff one
of them, but the superstition of the sailors was opposed to this.
They said that if birds were killed on board ship, their death would
be followed by long calms.  We yielded to their wishes and restored
the little creatures to the air and waves, their native elements.

This was another proof that superstition is still deep-rooted in the
minds of sailors.  Of this we had afterwards many other instances.
The captain, for example, was always very averse to the passengers
amusing themselves with cards or any other game of chance; in
another vessel, as I was informed, no one was allowed to write on
Sunday, etc.  Empty casks or logs of wood were also very frequently
thrown overboard during a calm--probably as sacrifices to the
deities of the winds.

On the morning of the 16th of September we at last had the good
fortune to perceive the mountains before Rio Janeiro, and soon
singled out the Sugarloaf.  At 2 o'clock, P.M., we entered the bay
and port of Rio Janeiro.

Immediately at the entrance of the bay are several conical rocks,
some of which, like the Sugarloaf, rise singly from the sea, while
others are joined at the base, and are almost inaccessible. {13}
Between these "ocean mountains," if I may be allowed the expression,
are seen the most remarkably beautiful views; now extraordinary
ravines, then some charmingly situated quarter of the town,
presently the open sea, and the moment after some delightful bay.
From the bay itself, at the end of which the capital is built, rise
masses of rock, serving as foundations to different fortifications.
On some of these eminences are chapels and fortresses.  Ships are
obliged to pass as near as possible to one of the largest of the
latter, namely, Santa Cruz, in order that their papers may be

From this fortress, to the right, stretches the beautiful mountain
range of the Serados-Orgoas, which, in conjunction with other
mountains and hills, fringes a lovely bay, on the shores of which
lie the little town of Praya-grande, some few villages and detached

At the extremity of the principal bay, stands Rio Janeiro,
surrounded by a tolerably high chain of mountains (among which is
the Corcovado, 2,100 feet high), behind which, more inland, is the
Organ Mountain, which owes its name to its many gigantic peaks
placed upright one against the other like the pipes of an organ.
The highest peak is 5,000 feet high.

One portion of the town is concealed by the Telegraph Mountain, and
several hills, on which, besides the Telegraph, there is a monastery
of Capuchin monks and other smaller buildings.  Of the town itself
are seen several rows of houses and open squares, the Great
Hospital, the Monasteries of St. Luzia and Moro do Castello, the
Convent of St. Bento, the fine Church of St. Candelaria, and some
portions of the really magnificent aqueduct.  Close to the sea is
the Public Garden (passeo publico) of the town, which, from its fine
palm trees, and elegant stone gallery, with two summer-houses, forms
a striking object.  To the left, upon eminences, stand some isolated
churches and monasteries, such as St. Gloria, St. Theresa, etc.
Near these are the Praya Flamingo and Botafogo, large villages with
beautiful villas, pretty buildings, and gardens, which stretch far
away until lost in the neighbourhood of the Sugarloaf, and thus
close this most wonderful panorama.  In addition to all this, the
many vessels, partly in the harbour before the town, partly anchored
in the different bays, the rich and luxuriant vegetation, and the
foreign and novel appearance of the whole, help to form a picture,
of whose beauties my pen, unfortunately, can never convey an
adequate idea.

It rarely happens that a person is so lucky as to enjoy, immediately
on his arrival, so beautiful and extensive a view as fell to my lot;
fogs, clouds, or a hazy state of the atmosphere, very often conceal
certain portions, and thus disturb the wonderful impression of the
whole.  Whenever this is the case, I would advise every one, who
intends stopping any time in Rio Janeiro, to take a boat, on a
perfectly clear day, as far as Santa Cruz, in order to behold this
peculiarly beautiful prospect.

It was almost dark before we reached the place of anchorage.  We
were first obliged to stop at Santa Cruz to have the ship's papers
examined, and then appear before an officer, who took from us our
passports and sealed letters; then before a surgeon, who inspected
us to see that we had not brought the plague or yellow fever; and
lastly, before another officer, who took possession of different
packets and boxes, and assigned us the spot to anchor in.

It was now too late for us to land, and the captain alone proceeded
on shore.  We, however, remained for a long time on deck,
contemplating the magnificent picture before us, until both land and
sea lay shrouded in night.

With a light heart did we all retire to rest; the goal of our long
voyage had been attained without any misfortune worthy of being
mentioned.  A cruel piece of intelligence was in store for the poor
tailor's wife alone; but the good captain did not break it to her
today, in order to let her enjoy an undisturbed night's rest.  As
soon as the tailor heard that his wife was really on her passage
out, he ran off with a negress, and left nought behind but--debts.

The poor woman had given up a sure means of subsistence in her
native land (she supported herself by cleaning lace and ladies'
apparel), and had devoted her little savings to pay the expenses of
her voyage, and all to find herself deserted and helpless in a
strange hemisphere. {14}

From Hamburgh to Rio Janeiro is about 8,750 miles.



I remained in Rio Janeiro above two months, exclusive of the time
devoted to my different excursions into the interior of the country;
it is very far from my intention, however, to tire the reader with a
regular catalogue of every trifling and ordinary occurrence.  I
shall content myself with describing the most striking features in
the town, and likewise in the manners and customs of the
inhabitants, according to the opportunities I possessed during my
stay to form an opinion of them.  I shall then give an account of my
various excursions in an Appendix, and afterwards resume the thread
of my journal.

It was on the morning of the 17th of September that, after the lapse
of nearly two months and a half, I first set foot upon dry land.
The captain himself accompanied the passengers on shore, after
having earnestly advised each one separately to be sure and smuggle
nothing, more especially sealed letters.  "In no part of the world,"
he assured us, "were the Custom-house officers so strict, and the
penalties so heavy."

On coming in sight of the guard ship, we began to feel quite
frightened from this description, and made up our minds that we
should be examined from top to toe.  The captain begged permission
to accompany us on shore; this was immediately granted, and the
whole ceremony was completed.  During the entire period that we
lived on board the ship, and were continually going and coming to
and from the town, we never were subjected to any search; it was
only when we took chests and boxes with us that we were obliged to
proceed to the Custom-house, where all effects are strictly
examined, and a heavy duty levied upon merchandise, books, etc.,

We landed at the Praya dos Mineiros, a disgusting and dirty sort of
square, inhabited by a few dozen blacks, equally disgusting and
dirty, who were squatted on the ground, and praising at the top of
their voices the fruits and sweetmeats which they were offering for
sale.  Thence we proceeded directly into the principal street (Rua
Direita), whose only beauty consists in its breadth.  It contains
several public buildings, such as the Post-office, the Custom-house,
the Exchange, the Guard-house, etc.; all of which, however, are so
insignificant in appearance, that any one would pass them by
unnoticed, if there were not always a number of people loitering
before them.

At the end of this street stands the Imperial Palace, a commonplace,
large building, exactly resembling a private house, without the
least pretensions to taste or architectural beauty.  The square
before it (Largo do Paco), whose only ornament, a plain fountain, is
extremely dirty, and serves at night as a sleeping place for a
number of poor free negroes, who, on getting up in the morning,
perform the various duties of their toilet in public with the most
supreme indifference.  A part of the square is walled off and
employed as a market for fish, fruit, vegetables, and poultry.

Of the remaining streets the Rua Misericorda and the Rua Ouvidor are
the most interesting.  The latter contains the finest and largest
shops; but we must not expect the magnificent establishments we
behold in the cities of Europe--in fact, we meet with little that is
beautiful or costly.  The flower-shops were the only objects of
particular attraction for me.  In these shops are exposed for sale
the most lovely artificial flowers, made of birds' feathers, fishes'
scales, and beetles' wings.

Of the squares, the finest is the Largo do Rocio; the largest, the
Largo St. Anna.  In the first, which is always kept tolerably clean,
stand the Opera-house, the Government-house, the Police-office, etc.
This, too, is the starting-place for most of the omnibuses, which
traverse the town in all directions.

The last-named square is the dirtiest in the whole town.  On
crossing it for the first time, I perceived lying about me half
putrid cats and dogs--and even a mule in the same state.  The only
ornament of this square is a fountain, and I almost think I should
prefer it if the fountain were, in this case, taken away; for, as
soft water is not very abundant in Rio Janeiro, the washerwoman's
noble art pitches its tent wherever it finds any, and most willingly
of all when, at the same time, it meets with a good drying ground.
The consequence is, that in the Largo St. Anna there is always such
an amount of washing and drying, of squalling and screaming, that
you are glad to get away as quickly as possible.

There is nothing remarkable in the appearance of the churches,
either inside or out.  The Church and Cloister of St. Bento and the
Church of St. Candelaria are the most deceptive; from a distance
they have a very imposing look.

The houses are built in the European fashion, but are small and
insignificant; most of them have only a ground-floor or single
story,--two stories are rarely met with.  Neither are there any
terraces and verandahs adorned with elegant trellis-work and
flowers, as there are in other warm countries.  Ugly little
balconies hang from the walls, while clumsy wooden shutters close up
the windows, and prevent the smallest sunbeam from penetrating into
the rooms, where everything is enveloped in almost perfect darkness.
This, however, is a matter of the greatest indifference to the
Brazilian ladies, who certainly never over-fatigue themselves with
reading or working.

The town offers, therefore, very little in the way of squares,
streets, and buildings, which, for a stranger, can prove in the
least attractive; while the people that he meets are truly shocking--
nearly all being negroes and negresses, with flat, ugly noses,
thick lips, and short woolly hair.  They are, too, generally half
naked, with only a few miserable rags on their backs, or else they
are thrust into the worn-out European-cut clothes of their masters.
To every four or five blacks may be reckoned a mulatto, and it is
only here and there that a white man is to be seen.

This horrible picture is rendered still more revolting by the
frequent bodily infirmities which everywhere meet the eye:  among
these elephantiasis, causing horrible club-feet, is especially
conspicuous; there is, too, no scarcity of persons afflicted with
blindness and other ills.  Even the cats and dogs, that run about
the gutters in great numbers, partake of the universal ugliness:
most of them are covered with the mange, or are full of wounds and
sores.  I should like to be endowed with the magic power of
transporting hither every traveller who starts back with affright
from the lanes of Constantinople, and asserts that the sight of the
interior of this city destroys the effect produced by it when viewed
at a distance.

It is true that the interior of Constantinople is exceedingly dirty,
and that the number of small houses, the narrow streets, the
unevenness of the pavement, the filthy dogs, etc., do not strike the
beholder as excessively picturesque; but then he soon comes upon
some magnificent edifice of the time of the Moors or Romans, some
wondrous mosque or majestic palace, and can continue his walk
through endless cemeteries and forests of dreamy cypresses.  He
steps aside before a pasha or priest of high rank, who rides by on
his noble steed, surrounded by a brilliant retinue; he encounters
Turks in splendid costumes, and Turkish women with eyes that flash
through their veils like fire; he beholds Persians with their high
caps, Arabs with their nobly-formed features, dervises in fools'-
caps and plaited petticoats like women, and, now and then, some
carriage, beautifully painted and gilt, drawn by superbly
caparisoned oxen.  All these different objects fully make up for
whatever amount of dirtiness may occasionally be met with.  In Rio
Janeiro, however, there is nothing that can in any way amuse, or
atone for the horrible and disgusting sights which everywhere meet
the eye.

It was not until I had been here several weeks that I became
somewhat accustomed to the appearance of the negroes and mulattoes.
I then discovered many very pretty figures among the young
negresses, and handsome, expressive countenances among the somewhat
dark-complexioned Brazilian and Portuguese women; the men seem, as
regards beauty, to be less favoured.

The bustle in the streets is far less than what I had been led to
expect from the many descriptions I had heard, and is certainly not
to be compared to that at Naples or Messina.  The greatest amount of
noise is made by those negroes who carry burdens, and especially by
such as convey the sacks full of coffee on board the different
vessels; they strike up a monotonous sort of song, to the tune of
which they keep step, but which sounds very disagreeable.  It
possesses, however, one advantage; it warns the foot passenger, and
affords him time to get out of the way.

In the Brazils, every kind of dirty or hard work, whether in doors
or out, is performed by the blacks, who here, in fact, replace the
lower classes.  Many, however, learn trades, and frequently are to
be compared to the most skilful Europeans.  I have seen blacks in
the most elegant workshops, making wearing apparel, shoes, tapestry,
gold or silver articles, and met many a nattily dressed negro maiden
working at the finest ladies' dresses, or the most delicate
embroidery.  I often thought I must be dreaming when I beheld these
poor creatures, whom I had pictured to myself as roaming free
through their native forests, exercising such occupations in shops
and rooms!  Yet they do not appear to feel it as much as might be
supposed--they were always merry, and joking over their work.

Among the so-called educated class of the place, there are many who,
in spite of all the proofs of mechanical skill, as well as general
intelligence which the blacks often display, persist in asserting
that they are so far inferior to the whites in mental power, that
they can only be looked upon as a link between the monkey tribe and
the human race.  I allow that they are somewhat behind the whites in
intellectual culture; but I believe that this is not because they
are deficient in understanding, but because their education is
totally neglected.  No schools are erected for them, no instruction
given them--in a word, not the least thing is done to develop the
capabilities of their minds.  As was the case in old despotic
countries, their minds are purposely kept enchained; for, were they
once to awake from their present condition, the consequences to the
whites might be fearful.  They are four times as numerous as the
latter, and if they ever become conscious of this superiority, the
whites might probably be placed in the position that the unhappy
blacks have hitherto occupied.

But I am losing myself in conjectures and reasonings which may,
perhaps, become the pen of a learned man, but certainly not mine,
since I assuredly do not possess the necessary amount of education
to decide upon such questions; my object is merely to give a plain
description of what I have seen.

Although the number of slaves in the Brazils is very great, there is
nowhere such a thing as a slave-market.  The importation of them is
publicly prohibited, yet thousands are smuggled in every year, and
disposed of in some underhand manner, which every one knows, and
every one employs.  It is true, that English ships are constantly
cruising off the coasts of Brazil and Africa, but even if a slaver
happen to fall into their hands, the poor blacks, I was told, were
no more free than if they had come to the Brazils.  They are all
transported to the English colonies, where, at the expiration of ten
years, they are supposed to be set at liberty.  But during this
period, their owners allow the greater number to die--of course, in
the returns only--and the poor slaves remain slaves still; but I
repeat that I only know this from hearsay.

After all, slaves are far from being as badly off as many Europeans
imagine.  In the Brazils they are generally pretty well treated;
they are not overworked, their food is good and nutritious, and the
punishments are neither particularly frequent nor heavy.  The crime
of running away is the only one which is visited with great rigour.
Besides a severe beating, they have fetters placed round their neck
and feet; these they have to wear for a considerable period.
Another manner of punishment consists in making them wear a tin
mask, which is fastened with a lock behind.  This is the mode of
punishment adopted for those who drink, or are in the habit of
eating earth or lime.  During my long stay in the Brazils, I only
saw one negro who had got on a mask of this description.  I very
much doubt whether, on the whole, the lot of these slaves is not
less wretched than that of the peasants of Russia, Poland, or Egypt,
who are _not_ called slaves.

I was one day very much amused at being asked to stand godmother to
a negro, which I did, although I was not present at either baptism
or confirmation.  There is a certain custom here, that when a slave
has done anything for which he expects to be punished, he endeavours
to fly to some friend of his owner, and obtain a note, asking for
the remission of his punishment.  The writer of such a letter has
the title of godfather bestowed on him, and it would be accounted an
act of the greatest impoliteness not to grant the godfather's
request.  In this way, I myself was fortunate enough to save a slave
from punishment.

The town is tolerably well lighted, and the lighting is continued to
a considerable distance, on all sides, beyond the town itself; this
measure was introduced on account of the great number of blacks.  No
slave dare be seen in the streets later than 9 o'clock in the
evening, without having a pass from his master, certifying that he
is going on business for him.  If a slave is ever caught without a
pass, he is immediately conveyed to the House of Correction, where
his head is shaved, and he himself obliged to remain until his
master buys his freedom for four or five milreis.  (8s. 8d., or 10s.
10d.)  In consequence of this regulation, the streets may be
traversed with safety at any hour of the night.

One of the most disagreeable things in Rio Janeiro is the total
absence of sewers.  In a heavy shower, every street becomes a
regular stream, which it is impossible to pass on foot; in order to
traverse them, it is requisite to be carried over by negroes.  At
such times, all intercourse generally ceases, the streets are
deserted, parties are put off, and even the payment of bills of
exchange deferred.  It is very seldom that people will hire a
carriage, for it is an absurd custom here, to pay as much for a
short drive, as if the carriage were required for the whole day; in
both cases the charge is six milreis (13s.)  The carriages are half-
covered ones, with seats for two, and are drawn by a pair of mules,
on one of which the driver rides.  Carriages and horses like the
English are very seldom to be met with.

As regards the arts and sciences, I may mention the Academy of Fine
Arts, the Museum, Theatre, etc.  In the Academy of Fine Arts is
something of everything, and not much of anything--a few figures and
busts, most in plaster, a few architectural plans and pencil
drawings, and a collection of very old oil paintings.  It really
seemed to me as if some private picture gallery had been carefully
weeded of all the rubbish in it, which had then been put here out of
the way.  Most of the oil paintings are so injured, that it is
scarcely possible to make out what they are intended to represent,
which, after all, is no great loss.  The only thing respectable
about them is their venerable antiquity.  A startling contrast is
produced by the copies of them made by the students.  If the colours
in the old pictures are faded, in the modern ones they blaze with a
superfluity of vividness; red, yellow, green, etc., are there in all
their force; such a thing as mixing, softening, or blending them,
has evidently never been thought of.  Even at the present moment, I
really am at a loss to determine whether the worthy students
intended to found a new school for colouring, or whether they merely
desired to make up in the copies for the damage time had done the

There were as many blacks and mulattoes among the students as
whites, but the number of them altogether was inconsiderable.

Music, especially singing and the pianoforte, is almost in a more
degraded position than painting.  In every family the young ladies
play and sing; but of tact, style, arrangement, time, etc., the
innocent creatures have not the remotest idea, so that the easiest
and most taking melodies are often not recognisable.  The sacred
music is a shade better, although even the arrangements of the
Imperial Chapel itself are susceptible of many improvements.  The
military bands are certainly the best, and these are generally
composed of negroes and mulattoes.

The exterior of the Opera-house does not promise anything very
beautiful or astonishing, and the stranger is, consequently, much
surprised to find, on entering, a large and magnificent house with a
deep stage.  I should say it could contain more than 2,000 persons.
There are four tiers of spacious boxes rising one above the other,
the balustrades of which, formed of delicately-wrought iron trellis-
work, give the theatre a very tasty appearance.  The pit is only for
men.  I was present at a tolerably good representation, by an
Italian company, of the opera of Lucrezia Borgia; the scenery and
costumes are not amiss.

If, however, I was agreeably surprised by my visit to the theatre, I
experienced quite a contrary feeling on going to the Museum.  In a
land so richly and luxuriously endowed by Nature, I expected an
equally rich and magnificent museum, and found a number of very fine
rooms, it is true, which one day or other may be filled, but which
at present are empty.  The collection of birds, which is the most
complete of all, is really fine; that of the minerals is very
defective; and those of the quadrupeds and insects poor in the
extreme.  The objects which most excited my curiosity, were the
heads of four savages, in excellent preservation; two of them
belonged to the Malay, and two to the New Zealand tribes.  The
latter especially I could not sufficiently contemplate, completely
covered as they were with tattooing of the most beautiful and
elegant design, and so well preserved that they seemed only to have
just ceased to live.

During the period of my stay in Rio Janeiro, the rooms of the Museum
were undergoing repairs, and a new classification of the different
objects was also talked of.  In consequence of this, the building
was not open to the public, and I have to thank the kindness of Herr
Riedl, the director, for allowing me to view it.  He acted himself
as my guide; and, like me, regretted that in a country where the
formation of a rich museum would be so easy a task, so little had
been done.

I likewise visited the studio of the sculptor Petrich, a native of
Dresden, who came over at the unsolicited command of the court, to
execute a statue of the emperor in Carrara marble.  The emperor is
represented the size of life, in a standing position, and arrayed in
his imperial robes, with the ermine cloak thrown over his shoulder.
The head is strikingly like, and the whole figure worked out of the
stone with great artistic skill.  I believe this statue was destined
for some public building.

I was fortunate enough during my stay in Rio Janeiro to witness
several different public festivals.

The first was on the 21st of September, in the Church of St. Cruz,
on the occasion of celebrating the anniversary of the patron saint
of the country.  Early in the morning several hundred soldiers were
drawn up before the church, with an excellent band, which played a
number of lively airs.  Between ten and eleven, the military and
civil officers began gradually to arrive, the subordinate ones, as I
was told, coming first.  On their entrance into the church, a
brownish-red silk cloak, which concealed the whole of the uniform,
was presented to each.  Every time that another of a higher rank
appeared, all those already in the church rose from their seats, and
advancing towards the new comer as far as the church door,
accompanied him respectfully to his place.  The emperor and his wife
arrived the last of all.  The emperor is extremely young--not quite
one and twenty--but six feet tall, and very corpulent; his features
are those of the Hapsburg-Lothering family.  The empress, a
Neapolitan princess, is small and slim, and forms a strange contrast
when standing beside the athletic figure of her husband.

High mass, which was listened to with great reverence by every one,
began immediately after the entrance of the court, and after this
was concluded the imperial pair proceeded to their carriage,
presenting the crowd, who were waiting in the church, their hands to
kiss as they went along.  This mark of distinction was bestowed not
only on the officers and officials of superior rank, but on every
one who pressed forward to obtain it.

A second, and more brilliant festival occurred on the 19th of
October; it was the emperor's birth-day, and was celebrated by high
mass in the Imperial Chapel.  This chapel is situated near the
Imperial Palace, to which it is connected by means of a covered
gallery.  Besides the imperial family, all the general officers, as
well as the first officials of the state, were present at the mass,
but in full uniform, without the ugly silk cloaks.  Surrounding all
was a row of Lancers (the body-guard).  It is impossible for any but
an eye-witness to form an idea of the richness and profusion of the
gold embroidery, the splendid epaulets, and beautifully set orders,
etc., displayed on the occasion, and I hardly believe that anything
approaching it could be seen at any European court.

During high mass, the foreign ambassadors, and the ladies and
gentlemen admitted to court, assembled in the palace, where, on the
emperor's return, every one was admitted to kiss his hand.

The ambassadors, however, took no part in this proceeding, but
merely made a simple bow.

This edifying ceremony could easily be seen from the square, as the
windows are very near the ground, and were also open.  On such
occasions continual salutes are fired from the imperial ships, and
sometimes from others in the harbour.

On the 2nd of November I saw a festival of another description--
namely, a religious one.  During this and the following days, old
and young proceed from one church to another, to pray for the souls
of the departed.

They have a singular custom here of not burying all their dead in
the church-yard, many bodies being placed, at an additional expense,
in the church itself.  For this purpose, there are, in every church,
particular chambers, with catacombs formed in the walls.  The corpse
is strewed with lime, and laid in a catacomb of this description,
where, after a lapse of eight or ten months, the flesh is completely
eaten away.  The bones are then taken out, cleaned by boiling, and
collected in an urn, on which is engraved the name, birth-day, etc.,
of the deceased.  These urns are afterwards set up in the passages
of the church, or sometimes even taken home by the relations.

On All-souls' day, the walls of the chambers are hung with black
cloth, gold lace, and other ornaments, and the urns are richly
decorated with flowers and ribbons, and are lighted up by a great
number of tapers in silver candelabra and chandeliers, placed upon
high stands.  From an early hour in the morning until noon, the
women and young girls begin praying very fervently for the souls of
their deceased relations, and the young gentlemen, who are quite as
curious as those in Europe, go to see the young girls pray.

Females on this day are dressed in mourning, and often wear, to the
great disgust of the curious young gentlemen before mentioned, a
black veil over their head and face.  No one, by the way, is allowed
to wear a bonnet at any festival of the church.

But the most brilliant of the public festivals I saw here, was the
christening of the imperial princess, which took place on the 15th
of November, in the Imperial Chapel, which is connected with the

Towards 3 o'clock in the afternoon a number of troops were drawn up
in the court-yard of the palace, the guards were distributed in the
corridors and the church, while the bands played a series of
pleasing melodies, frequently repeating the National Anthem, which
the late emperor, Peter I., is said to have composed.  Equipage
after equipage began to roll up to the palace, and set down the most
brilliantly attired company of both sexes.

At 4 o'clock the procession began to leave the palace.  First, came
the court band, clothed in red velvet, and followed by three
heralds, in old Spanish costume, magnificently decorated hats and
feathers, and black velvet suits.  Next walked the officers of the
law, and the authorities of every rank, chamberlains, court
physicians, senators, deputies, generals, and ecclesiastics, privy
councillors and secretaries; and, lastly, after this long line of
different personages, came the lord steward of the young princess,
whom he bore upon a magnificent white velvet cushion, edged with
gold lace.  Immediately behind him followed the emperor, and the
little princess's nurse, surrounded by the principal nobles and
ladies of the court.  On passing through the triumphal arch of the
gallery, and coming before the pallium of the church, the emperor
took his little daughter {23a} into his own arms, and presented her
to the people; an act which pleased me exceedingly, and which I
considered extremely appropriate.

The empress, with her ladies, had likewise already arrived in the
church through the inner corridors, and the ceremony commenced
forthwith.  The instant the princess was baptized, the event was
announced to the whole town by salvos of artillery, volleys of
musketry, and the discharge of rockets. {23b}  At the conclusion of
the ceremony, which lasted above an hour, the procession returned in
the same order in which it had arrived, and the chapel was then
opened to the people.  I was curious enough to enter with the rest,
and, I must own, I was quite surprised at the magnificence and taste
with which the building was decorated.  The walls were covered with
silk and velvet hangings, ornamented with gold fringe, while rich
carpets were spread underfoot.  On large tables, in the middle of
the nave, were displayed the most valuable specimens of the church
plate, gold and silver vases, immense dishes, plates, and goblets,
artistically engraved, and ornamented with embossed or open work;
while magnificent vessels of crystal, containing the most beautiful
flowers, and massive candelabra, with innumerable lights, sparkled
in the midst.  On a separate table, near the high altar, were all
the costly vessels and furniture which had been employed at the
christening; and, in one of the side chapels, the princess's cradle,
covered with white satin, and ornamented with gold lace.  In the
evening, the town, or rather, the public buildings, were
illuminated.  The proprietors of private houses are not required to
light up; and they either avail themselves of their privilege, or at
most, hang out a few lanterns--a fact which will be readily
understood, when it is known that such illuminations last for six or
eight days.  The public buildings, on the contrary, are covered from
top to bottom with countless lamps, which look exactly like a sea of

The most original and really amusing fetes to celebrate the
christening of the princess, were those given on several evenings in
some of the barracks:  even the emperor himself made his appearance
there for a few moments on different occasions.  They were also the
only fetes I saw here which were not mixed up with religious
solemnities.  The sole actors in them were the soldiers themselves,
of whom the handsomest and most active had previously been selected,
and exercised in the various evolutions and dances.  The most
brilliant of these fetes took place in the barracks of the Rua
Barbone.  A semicircular and very tasty gallery was erected in the
spacious court-yard, and in the middle of the gallery were busts of
the imperial couple.  This gallery was set apart for the ladies
invited, who made their appearance as if dressed for the most
splendid ball:  at the entrance of the court-yard they were received
by the officers, and conducted to their places.  Before the gallery
stood the stage, and at each side of the latter were ranged rows of
seats for the less fashionable females; beyond these seats was
standing-room for the men.

At eight o'clock the band commenced playing, and shortly afterwards
the representation began.  The soldiers appeared, dressed in various
costumes, as Highlanders, Poles, Spaniards, etc.; nor was there any
scarcity of danseuses, who, of course, were likewise private
soldiers.  What pleased me most was, that both the dress and
behaviour of the military young ladies were highly becoming.  I had
expected at least some little exaggeration, or at best no very
elegant spectacle; and was therefore greatly astonished, not only
with the correctness of the dances and evolutions, but also with the
perfect propriety with which the whole affair was conducted.

The last fete that I saw took place on the 2nd of December, in
celebration of the emperor's birth-day.  After high mass, the
different dignitaries again waited on the emperor, to offer their
congratulations, and were admitted to the honour of kissing his
hand, etc.  The imperial couple then placed themselves at a window
of the palace, while the troops defiled before them, with their
bands playing the most lively airs.  It would be difficult to find
better dressed soldiers than those here:  every private might easily
be mistaken for a lieutenant, or at least a non-commissioned
officer; but unluckily, their bearing, size, and colour, are greatly
out of keeping with the splendour of their uniform--a mere boy of
fourteen standing next to a full-grown, well-made man, a white
coming after a black, and so on.

The men are pressed into the service; the time of serving is from
four to six years.

I had heard and read a great deal in Europe of the natural
magnificence and luxury of the Brazils--of the ever clear and
smiling sky, and the extraordinary charm of the continual spring;
but though it is true that the vegetation is perhaps richer, and the
fruitfulness of the soil more luxuriant and vigorous than in any
other part of the world, and that every one who desires to see the
working of nature in its greatest force and incessant activity, must
come to Brazil; still it must not be thought that all is good and
beautiful, and that there is nothing which will not weaken the
magical effect of the first impression.

Although every one begins by praising the continual verdure and the
uninterrupted splendour of spring met with in this country, he is,
in the end, but too willing to allow, that even this, in time, loses
its charm.  A little winter would be preferable, as the reawakening
of nature, the resuscitation of the slumbering plants, the return of
the sweet perfume of spring, enchants us all the more, simply
because during a short period we have been deprived of it.

I found the climate and the air exceedingly oppressive; and the
heat, although at that period hardly above 86 degrees in the shade,
very weakening.  During the warm months, which last from the end of
December to May, the heat rises in the shade to 99 degrees, and in
the sun to above 122 degrees.  In Egypt, I bore a greater amount of
heat with far greater ease; a circumstance which may perhaps be
accounted for by the fact, that the climate is there drier, while
here there is always an immense degree of moisture.  Fogs and mists
are very common; the hills and eminences, nay, even whole tracts of
country, are often enveloped in impenetrable gloom, and the whole
atmosphere loaded with damp vapours.

In the month of November I was seriously indisposed for a
considerable period.  I suffered, especially in the town, from an
oppressive feeling of fatigue and weakness; and to the kindness and
friendship of Herr Geiger, the Secretary to the Austrian Consulate,
and his wife, who took me with them into the country, and showed me
the greatest attention, do I alone owe my recovery.  I ascribed my
illness altogether to the unusual dampness of the atmosphere.

The most agreeable season is said to be the winter (from June to
October); that, with a temperature of from 63 to 72 degrees, is
mostly dry and clear.  This period is generally selected by the
inhabitants for travelling.  During the summer, violent thunder-
storms are of frequent occurrence:  I myself only saw three during
my stay in the Brazils, all of which were over in an hour and a
half.  The lightning was almost incessant, and spread like a sheet
of fire over the greater portion of the horizon; the thunder, on the
other hand, was inconsiderable.

Clear, cloudless days (from 16th September to 9th December) were so
rare, that I really could have counted them; and I am at a loss to
understand how so many travellers have spoken of the ever beautiful,
smiling, and blue sky of the Brazils.  This must be true of some
other portion of the year.

A fine evening and long twilight is another source of enjoyment
which may be said to be unknown:  at sunset every one hastens home,
as it is immediately followed by darkness and damp.

In the height of summer the sun sets at about a quarter past 6, and
all the rest of the year at 6 o'clock; twenty or thirty minutes
afterwards, night sets in.

The mosquitoes, ants, baraten, and sand-fleas are another source of
annoyance; many a night have I been obliged to sit up, tormented and
tortured by the bite of these insects.  It is hardly possible to
protect provisions from the attacks of the baraten and ants.  The
latter, in fact, often appear in long trains of immeasureable
length, pursuing their course over every obstacle which stands in
the way.  During my stay in the country at Herr Geiger's, I beheld a
swarm of this description traverse a portion of the house.  It was
really most interesting to see what a regular line they formed;
nothing could make them deviate from the direction they had first
determined on.  Madame Geiger told me that she was one night awoke
by a horrible itching; she sprang immediately out of bed, and beheld
a swarm of ants of the above description pass over her bed.  There
is no remedy for this; the end of the procession, which often lasts
four or six hours, must be waited for with patience.  Provisions are
to some extent protected from them, by placing the legs of the
tables and presses in plates filled with water.  Clothes and linen
are laid in tightly-fitting tin canisters, to protect them, not only
from the ants, but also from the baraten and the damp.

The worst plague of all, however, are the sand-fleas, which attach
themselves to one's toes, underneath the nails, or sometimes to the
soles of the feet.  The moment a person feels an itching in these
parts he must immediately look at the place; if he sees a small
black point surrounded by a small white ring, the former is the
flea, and the latter the eggs which it has laid in the flesh.  The
first thing done is to loosen the skin all round as far as the white
ring is visible; the whole deposit is then extracted, and a little
snuff strewed in the empty space.  The best plan is to call in the
first black you may happen to see, as they all perform this
operation very skilfully.

As regards the natural products of the Brazils, a great many of the
most necessary articles are wanting in the list.  It is true that
there are sugar and coffee, but no corn, no potatoes, and none of
our delicious varieties of fruit.  The flour of manioc, which is
mixed up with the other materials of which the dishes are composed,
supplies the place of bread, but is far from being so nutritious and
strengthening, while the different kinds of sweet-tasting roots are
certainly not to be compared to our potatoes.  The only fruit, which
are really excellent, are the oranges, bananas and mangoes.  Their
celebrated pine-apples are neither very fragrant nor remarkably
sweet; I certainly have eaten much finer flavoured ones that had
been grown in a European hot-house.  The other kinds of fruit are
not worth mentioning.  Lastly, with the two very necessary articles
of consumption, milk and meat, the former is very watery, and the
latter very dry.

On instituting a comparison between the Brazils and Europe, both
with respect to the impression produced by the whole, as also to the
separate advantages and disadvantages of each, we shall, perhaps, at
first find the scale incline towards the former country, but only to
turn ultimately with greater certainty in favour of the latter.

The Brazils is, perhaps, the most interesting country in the world
for travellers; but for a place of permanent residence I should most
decidedly prefer Europe.

I saw too little of the manners and customs of the country to be
qualified to pronounce judgment upon them, and I shall therefore, on
this head, confine myself to a few remarks.  The manners seem, on
the whole, to differ but little from those of Europe.  The present
possessors of the country, as is well known, derive their descent
from Portugal, and the Brazilians might very aptly be termed
"Europeans translated into Americans;" and it is very natural, that
in this "translation" many peculiarities have been lost, while
others have stood forth in greater relief.  The strongest feature in
the character of the European-American is the greed for gold; this
often becomes a passion, and transforms the most faint-hearted white
into a hero, for it certainly requires the courage of one to live
alone, as planter, on a plantation with perhaps some hundred slaves,
far removed from all assistance, and with the prospect of being
irrevocably lost in the event of any revolt.

This grasping feeling is not confined to the men alone; it is found
among the women as well, and is greatly encouraged by a common
custom here, agreeably to which, a husband never assigns his wife so
much for pin-money, but, according to his means, makes her a present
of one or more male or female slaves, whom she can dispose of as she
chooses.  She generally has them taught how to cook, sew, embroider,
or even instructed in some trade, and then lets them out, by the
day, week, or month, {27} to people who possess no slaves of their
own; or she lets them take in washing at home, or employs them in
the manufacture of various ornamental objects, fine pastry, etc,
which she sends them out to sell.  The money for these things
belongs to her, and is generally spent in dress and amusement.

In the case of tradesmen, and professional men, the wife is always
paid for whatever assistance she may lend her husband in his

Morality, unfortunately, is not very general in the Brazils; one
cause of this may be traced to the manner in which the children are
first brought up.  They are confided entirely to the care of blacks.
Negresses suckle them when they are infants, their nurses are
negresses, their attendants are negresses--and I have often seen
girls of eight or ten years of age taken to school, or any other
place, by young negroes.  The sensuality of the blacks is too well
known for us to be surprised, with such a state of things, at the
general and early demoralization.  In no other place did I ever
behold so many children with such pale and worn faces as in the
streets of Rio Janeiro.  The second cause of immorality here is,
without doubt, the want of religion.  The Brazils are thoroughly
Catholic--perhaps there are no countries save Spain and Italy, that
can be compared to them.  Almost every day there is some procession,
service, or church-festival; but these are attended merely for the
sake of amusement, while the true religious feeling is entirely

We may also ascribe to this deep demoralization and want of religion
the frequent occurrence of murders, committed not for the sake of
robbery or theft, but from motives of revenge and hatred.  The
murderer either commits the deed himself, or has it perpetrated by
one of his slaves, who is ready to lend himself for the purpose, in
consideration of a mere trifle.  The discovery of the crime need
cause the assassin no anxiety, provided he is rich; for in this
country everything, I was assured, can be arranged or achieved with
money.  I saw several men in Rio Janeiro who had, according to
report, committed either themselves, or by the means of others, not
one, but several murders, and yet they not only enjoyed perfect
liberty, but were received in every society.

In conclusion, I beg leave to address a few words to those of my
countrymen who think of leaving their native land, to seek their
fortune on the distant coast of Brazil--a few words which I could
desire to see as far spread and as well known as possible.

There are people in Europe not a whit better than the African slave-
dealers, and such people are those who delude poor wretches with
exaggerated accounts of the richness of America and her beautiful
territories, of the over-abundance of the products of the soil, and
the lack of hands to take advantage of them.  These people, however,
care little about the poor dupes; their object is to freight the
vessels belonging to them, and to effect this they take from their
deluded victim the last penny he possesses.

During my stay here, several vessels arrived with unfortunate
emigrants of this description; the government had not sent for them,
and therefore would afford them no relief; money they had none, and,
consequently, could not purchase land, neither could they find
employment in working on the plantations, as no one will engage
Europeans for this purpose, because, being unused to the warm
climate, they would soon succumb beneath the work.  The unhappy
wretches had thus no resource left; they were obliged to beg about
the town, and, in the end, were fain to content themselves with the
most miserable occupations.  A different fate awaits those who are
sent for by the Brazilian government to cultivate the land or
colonize the country:  these persons receive a piece of uncleared
ground, with provisions and other help; but if they come over
without any money at all, even their lot is no enviable one.  Want,
hunger, and sickness destroy most of them, and but a very small
number succeed, by unceasing activity and an iron constitution, in
gaining a better means of livelihood than what they left behind them
in their native land.  Those only who exercise some trade find
speedy employment and an easy competency; but even this will, in all
probability, soon be otherwise, for great numbers are pouring in
ever year, and latterly the negroes themselves have been, and are
still being, more frequently taught every kind of trade.

Let every one, therefore, obtain trustworthy information before
leaving his native land; let him weigh calmly and deliberately the
step he is about to take, and not allow himself to be carried away
by deceptive hopes.  The poor creature's misery on being undeceived
is so much the more dreadful, because he does not learn the truth
until it is too late--until he has already fallen a victim to
poverty and want.



An excursion to the waterfalls near Teschuka, to Boa Vista, and the
Botanical Gardens, is one of the most interesting near the city; but
it requires two days, as it takes a long time to see the Botanical
Gardens alone.

Count Berchthold and myself proceeded as far as Andaracky (four
miles) in an omnibus, and then continued our journey on foot,
between patches of wood and low hills.  Elegant country houses are
situated upon the eminences and along the high road, at short
distances from each other.

When we had walked four miles, a path to the right conducted us to a
small waterfall, neither very high nor well supplied, but still the
most considerable one in the vicinity of Rio Janeiro.  We then
returned to the high road, and in half an hour reached a little
elevated plain, whence the eye ranged over a valley of the most
remarkable description, one portion of it being in a state of wild
chaotic confusion, and the other resembling a blooming garden.  In
the former were strewed masses of broken granite, from which, in
some places, larger blocks reared their heads, like so many
Collossi; while in others large fragments of rocks lay towering one
above the other; in the second portion stood the finest fruit trees
in the midst of luxuriant pastures.  This romantic valley is
enclosed on three sides by noble mountains, the fourth being open,
and disclosing a full view of the sea.

In this valley we found a small venda, where we recruited ourselves
with bread and wine, and then continued our excursion to the so-
called "Great Waterfall," with which we were less astonished than we
had been with the smaller one.  A very shallow sheet of water flowed
down over a broad but nowise precipitous ledge of rock into the
valley beneath.

After making our way through the valley, we came to the Porto
Massalu, where a number of trunks of trees, hollowed out and lying
before the few huts situated in the bay, apprized us that the
inhabitants were fishermen.  We hired one of these beautiful
conveyances to carry us across the little bay.  The passage did not
take more than a quarter of an hour at the most, and for this, as
strangers, we were compelled to pay two thousand reis (4s.).

We had now at one moment to wade through plains of sand, and the
next to clamber over the rocks by wretched paths.  In this laborious
fashion we proceeded for at least twelve miles, until we reached the
summit of a mountain, which rises like the party-wall of two mighty
valleys.  This peak is justly called the Boa Vista.  The view
extends over both valleys, with the mountain ranges and rows of
hills which intersect them, and embraces, among other high
mountains, the Corcovado and the "Two Brothers;" and, in the
distance, the capital, with the surrounding country-houses and
villages, the various bays and the open sea.

Unwillingly did we leave this beautiful position; but being
unacquainted with the distance we should have to go before reaching
some hospitable roof, we were obliged to hasten on; besides which
negroes are the only persons met with on these lonely roads, and a
rencontre with any of them by night is a thing not at all to be
desired.  We descended, therefore, into the valley, and resolved to
sleep at the first inn we came to.

More fortunate than most people in such cases, we not only found an
excellent hotel with clean rooms and good furniture, but fell in
with company which amused us in the highest degree.  It consisted of
a mulatto family, and attracted all my attention.  The wife, a
tolerably stout beauty of about thirty, was dressed out in a fashion
which, in my own country, no one, save a lady of an exceedingly
vulgar taste would ever think of adopting--all the valuables she
possessed in the world, she had got about her.  Wherever it was
possible to stick anything of gold or silver, there it was sure to
be.  A gown of heavy silk and a real cashmere enveloped her dark
brown body, and a charming little white silk bonnet looked very
comical placed upon her great heavy head.  The husband and five
children were worthy of their respective wife and mother; and, in
fact, this excess of dress extended even to the nurse, a real
unadulterated negress, who was also overloaded with ornaments.  On
one arm she had five and on the other six bracelets of stones,
pearls, and coral, but which, as far as I could judge, did not
strike me as being particularly genuine.

When the family rose to depart, two landaus, each with four horses,
drove up to the door, and man and wife, children and nurse, all
stepped in with the same majestic gravity.

As I was still looking after the carriages, which were rolling
rapidly towards the town, I saw some one on horseback nodding to me:
it was my friend, Herr Geiger.  On hearing that we intended to
remain for the night where we were, he persuaded us to accompany him
to the estate of his father-in-law, which was situated close at
hand.  In the latter gentleman, we made the acquaintance of a most
worthy and cheerful old man of seventy years of age, who, at that
period, was Directing Architect and Superintendant of the Fine Arts
under Government.  We admired his beautiful garden and charming
residence, built, with great good taste, in the Italian style.

Early on the following morning, I accompanied Count Berchthold to
the botanical gardens.  Our curiosity to visit these gardens was
very great:  we hoped to see there magnificent specimens of trees
and flowers from all parts of the world--but we were rather
disappointed.  The gardens have been founded too recently, and none
of the large trees have yet attained their full growth; there is no
very great selection of flowers or plants; and to the few that are
there, not even tickets are affixed, to acquaint the visitor with
their names.  The most interesting objects for us, were the monkey's
bread-tree, with its gourds weighing ten or twenty-five pounds, and
containing a number of kernels, which are eaten, not only by
monkeys, but also by men--the clove, camphor, and cocoa-tree, the
cinnamon and tea bush, etc.  We also saw a very peculiar kind of
palm-tree:  the lower portion of the trunk, to the height of two or
three feet, was brown and smooth, and shaped like a large tub or
vat; the stems that sprang from this were light green, and like the
lower part, very smooth, and at the same time shining, as if
varnished; they were not very high, and the crest of leaves, as is
the case with other palms, only unfolded itself at the top of the
tree.  Unfortunately, we were unable to learn the names of this kind
of palm; and in the whole course of my voyage, I never met with
another specimen.

We did not leave the gardens before noon:  we then proceeded on foot
four miles as far as Batafogo, and thence reached the city by

Herr Geiger had invited Count Berchtholdt, Herr Rister, (a native of
Vienna), and myself to an excursion to the Corcovado mountains; and
accordingly, on the 1st November, at a time when we are often
visited by storms and snow, but when the sun is here in his full
force, and the sky without a cloud, at an early hour in the morning
did we commence our pilgrimage.

The splendid aqueduct was our guide as far as the springs from which
it derives the water, which point we reached in an hour and a half,
having been so effectually protected by the deep shade of lovely
woods, that even the intense heat of the sun, which reached during
the day more than 117 degrees, (in the sun), scarcely annoyed us.

We stopped at the springs; and, on a sign from Herr Geiger, an
athletic negro made his appearance, loaded with a large hamper of
provisions--everything was soon prepared--a white cloth was spread
out, and the eatables and drinkables placed upon it.  Our meal was
seasoned with jokes and good humour; and when we started afresh on
our journey, we felt revived both in body and mind.

The last cone of the mountain gave us some trouble:  the route was
very precipitous, and lay over bare, hot masses of rock.  But when
we did reach the top, we were more than repaid by seeing spread
before us such a panorama, as most assuredly is very seldom to be
met with in the world.  All that I had remarked on my entrance into
the port, lay there before me, only more clearly defined and more
extended, with innumerable additional objects.  We could see the
whole town, all the lower hills, which half hid it from my view on
my arrival, the large bay, reaching as far as the Organ mountain;
and, on the other side, the romantic valley, containing the
botanical gardens, and a number of beautiful country-houses.

I recommend every one who comes to Rio Janeiro, although it be only
for a few days, to make this excursion, since from this spot he can,
with one glance, perceive all the treasures which nature, with so
truly liberal a hand, has lavished upon the environs of this city.
He will here see virgin forests, which, if not quite as thick and
beautiful as those farther inland, are still remarkable for their
luxuriant vegetation.  Mimosae and Aarren baume of a gigantic size,
palms, wild coffee-trees, orchidaen, parasites and creepers,
blossoms and flowers, without end; birds of the most brilliant
plumage, immense butterflies, and sparkling insects, flying in
swarms from blossom to blossom, from branch to branch.  A most
wonderful effect also is produced by the millions of fire-flies,
which find their way into the very tops of the trees, and sparkle
between the foliage like so many brightly twinkling stars.

I had been informed that the ascent of this mountain was attended
with great difficulty.  I did not, however, find this to be the
case, since the summit may be reached with the greatest ease in
three hours and three quarters, while three parts of the way can
also be performed on horseback.

The regular residence of the imperial family may be said to be the
Palace of Christovao, about half an hour's walk from the town.  It
is there that the emperor spends most of the year, and where also
all political councils are held, and state business transacted.

The palace is small, and is distinguished neither for taste nor
architectural beauty:  its sole charm is its situation.  It is
placed upon a hill, and commands a view of the Organ mountain, and
one of the bays.  The palace garden itself is small, and is laid out
in terraces right down into the valley below:  a larger garden, that
serves as a nursery for plants and trees, joins it.  Both these
gardens are highly interesting for Europeans, since they contain a
great number of plants, which either do not exist at all in Europe,
or are only known from dwarf specimens in hot-houses.  Herr Riedl,
who has the management of both gardens, was kind enough to conduct
us over them himself, and to draw my attention more especially to
the tea and bamboo plantations.

Ponte de Cascher(four miles from the town) is another imperial
garden.  There are three mango trees here, which are very
remarkable, from their age and size.  Their branches describe a
circle of more than eighty feet in circumference, but they no longer
bear fruit.  Among the most agreeable walks in the immediate
vicinity of the town, I may mention the Telegraph mountain, the
public garden (Jardin publico), the Praya do Flamingo, and the
Cloisters of St. Gloria and St. Theresia, etc.

I had heard so much in Rio Janeiro of the rapid rise of Petropolis,
a colony founded by Germans in the neighbourhood of Rio Janeiro, of
the beauty of the country where it was situated, and of the virgin
forests through which a part of the road ran--that I could not
resist the temptation of making an excursion thither.  My travelling
companion, Count Berchthold, accompanied me; and, on the 26th
September, we took two places on board one of the numerous barks
which sail regularly every day for the Porto d'Estrella, (a distance
of twenty or twenty-two nautical miles), from which place the
journey is continued by land.  We sailed through a bay remarkable
for its extremely picturesque views, and which often reminded me
vividly of the peculiar character of the lakes in Sweden.  It is
surrounded by ranges of lovely hills, and is dotted over with small
islands, both separate and in groups, some of which are so
completely overgrown with palms, as well as other trees and shrubs,
that it seems impossible to land upon them, while others either rear
their solitary heads like huge rocks from the waves, or are loosely
piled one upon the other.  The round form of many of the latter is
especially remarkable:  they almost seem to have been cut out with a

Our bark was manned by four negroes and a white skipper.  At first
we ran before the wind with full sails, and the crew took advantage
of this favourable opportunity to make a meal, consisting of a
considerable quantity of flour of manioc, boiled fish, roasted mil,
(Turkish corn), oranges, cocoa-nuts, and other nuts of a smaller
description; indeed, there was even white bread, which for blacks is
a luxury; and I was greatly delighted to see them so well taken care
of.  In two hours the wind left us, and the crew were obliged to
take to the oars, the manner of using which struck me as very
fatiguing.  At each dip of the oar into the water, the rower mounts
upon a bench before him, and then, during the stroke, throws himself
off again with his full force.  In two hours more, we left the sea,
and taking a left-hand direction, entered the river Geromerim, at
the mouth of which is an inn, where we stopped half an hour, and
where I saw a remarkable kind of lighthouse, consisting of a lantern
affixed to a rock.  The beauty of the country is now at an end--that
is, in the eyes of the vulgar:  a botanist would, at this point,
find it more than usually wonderful and magnificent; for the most
beautiful aquatic plants, especially the Nymphia, the Pontedera, and
the Cyprian grass are spread out, both in the water and all round
it.  The two former twine themselves to the very top of the nearest
sapling, and the Cyprian grass attains a height of from six to eight
feet.  The banks of the river are flat, and fringed with underwood
and young trees; the background is formed by ranges of hills.  The
little houses, which are visible now and then, are built of stone,
and covered with tiles, yet, nevertheless, they present a tolerably
poverty-stricken appearance.

After sailing up the river for seven hours, we reached, without
accident, Porto d'Estrella, a place of some importance, since it is
the emporium for all the merchandise which is sent from the
interior, and then conveyed by water to the capital.  There are two
good inns; and, besides these, a large building (similar to a
Turkish Khan) and an immense tiled roof, supported on strong stone
pillars.  The first was appropriated to the merchandise, and the
second to the donkey drivers, who had arranged themselves very
comfortably underneath it, and were preparing their evening meal
over various fires that were blazing away very cheerfully.  Although
fully admitting the charms of such quarters for the night, we
preferred retiring to the Star Inn, where clean rooms and beds, and
skilfully spiced dishes, possessed more attraction for us.

27th September.  From Porto d'Estrella to Petropolis, the distance
is seven leagues.  This portion of the journey is generally
performed upon mules, the charge for which is four milreis (8s. 8d.)
each, but as we had been told in Rio Janeiro that the road afforded
a beautiful walk, parts of it traversing splendid woods, and that it
was besides much frequented, and perfectly safe, being the great
means of communication with Minas Gueras, we determined to go on
foot, and that the more willingly, as the Count wished to botanize,
and I to collect insects.  The first eight miles lay through a broad
valley, covered with thick brambles and young trees, and surrounded
with lofty mountains.  The wild pine-apples at the side of the road
presented a most beautiful appearance; they were not quite ripe, and
were tinged with the most delicate red.  Unfortunately, they are far
from being as agreeable to the taste as they are to the sight, and
consequently are very seldom gathered.  I was greatly amused with
the humming-birds, of which I saw a considerable number of the
smallest species.  Nothing can be more graceful and delicate than
these little creatures.  They obtain their food from the calyx of
the flowers, round which they flutter like butterflies, and indeed
are very often mistaken for them in their rapid flight.  It is very
seldom that they are seen on a branch or twig in a state of repose.
After passing through the valley, we reached the Serra, as the
Brazilians term the summit of each mountain that they cross; the
present one was 3,000 feet high.  A broad paved road, traversing
virgin forests, runs up the side of the mountain.

I had always imagined that in virgin forests the trees had
uncommonly thick and lofty trunks; I found that this was not here
the case.  The vegetation is probably too luxuriant, and the larger
trunks are suffocated and rot beneath the masses of smaller trees,
bushes, creepers, and parasites.  The two latter description of
plants are so abundant, and cover so completely the trees, that it
is often impossible to see even the leaves, much less the stems and
branches.  Herr Schleierer, a botanist, assured us that he once
found upon one tree six and thirty different kinds of creepers and

We gathered a rich harvest of flowers, plants, and insects, and
loitered along, enchanted with the magnificent woods and not less
beautiful views, which stretched over hill and dale, towards the sea
and its bays, and even as far as the capital itself.

Frequent truppas, {34a} driven by negroes, as well as the number of
pedestrians we met, eased our minds of every fear, and prevented us
from regarding it as at all remarkable that we were being
continually followed by a negro.  As, however, we arrived at a
somewhat lonely spot, he sprang suddenly forward, holding in one
hand a long knife and in the other a lasso, {34b} rushed upon us,
and gave us to understand, more by gestures than words, that he
intended to murder, and then drag us into the forest.

We had no arms, as we had been told that the road was perfectly
safe, and the only weapons of defence we possessed were our
parasols, if I except a clasp knife, which I instantly drew out of
my pocket and opened, fully determined to sell my life as dearly as
possible.  We parried our adversary's blows as long as we could with
our parasols, but these lasted but a short time; besides, he caught
hold of mine, which, as we were struggling for it, broke short off,
leaving only a piece of the handle in my hand.  In the struggle,
however, he dropped his knife, which rolled a few steps from him; I
instantly made a dash, and thought I had got it, when he, more quick
than I, thrust me away with his feet and hands, and once more
obtained possession of it.  He waved it furiously over my head, and
dealt me two wounds, a thrust and a deep gash, both in the upper
part of the left arm; I thought I was lost, and despair alone gave
me the courage to use my own knife.  I made a thrust at his breast;
this he warded off, and I only succeeded in wounding him severely in
the hand.  The Count sprang forward, and seized the fellow from
behind, and thus afforded me an opportunity of raising myself from
the ground.  The whole affair had not taken more than a few seconds.
The negro's fury was now roused to its highest pitch by the wounds
he had received:  he gnashed his teeth at us like a wild beast, and
flourished his knife with frightful rapidity.  The Count, in his
turn, had received a cut right across the hand, and we had been
irrevocably lost, had not Providence sent us assistance.  We heard
the tramp of horses' hoofs upon the road, upon which the negro
instantly left us and sprang into the wood.  Immediately afterwards
two horsemen turned a corner of the road, and we hurried towards
them; our wounds, which were bleeding freely, and the way in which
our parasols were hacked, soon made them understand the state of
affairs.  They asked us which direction the fugitive had taken, and,
springing from their horses, hurried after him; their efforts,
however, would have been fruitless, if two negroes, who were coming
from the opposite side, had not helped them.  As it was, the fellow
was soon captured.  He was pinioned, and, as he would not walk,
severely beaten, most of the blows being dealt upon the head, so
that I feared the poor wretch's skull would be broken.  In spite of
this he never moved a muscle, and lay, as if insensible to feeling,
upon the ground.  The two other negroes were obliged to seize hold
of him, when he endeavoured to bite every one within his reach, like
a wild beast, and carry him to the nearest house.  Our preservers,
as well as the Count and myself, accompanied them.  We then had our
wounds dressed, and afterwards continued our journey; not, it is
true, entirely devoid of fear, especially when we met one or more
negroes but without any further mishap, and with a continually
increasing admiration of the beautiful scenery.

The colony of Petropolis is situated in the midst of a virgin
forest, at an elevation of 2,500 feet above the level of the sea,
and, at the time of our visit, it had been founded about fourteen
months, with the especial purpose of furnishing the capital with
certain kinds of fruit and vegetables, which, in tropical climates,
will thrive only in very high situations.  A small row of houses
already formed a street, and on a large space that had been cleared
away stood the wooden carcase of a larger building--the Imperial
Villa, which, however, would have some difficulty in presenting
anything like an imperial appearance, on account of the low doors
that contrasted strangely with the broad, lofty windows.  The town
is to be built around the villa, though several detached houses are
situated at some distance away in the woods.  One portion of the
colonists, such as mechanics, shop-keepers, etc., had been presented
with small plots of ground for building upon, near the villa; the
cultivators of the soil had received larger patches, although not
more than two or three yokes.  What misery must not these poor
people have suffered in their native country to have sought another
hemisphere for the sake of a few yokes of land!

We here found the good old woman who had been our fellow passenger
from Germany to Rio Janeiro, in company with her son.  Her joy at
being once more able to share in the toils and labours of her
favourite had, in this short space of time, made her several years
younger.  Her son acted as our guide, and conducted us over the
infant colony, which is situated in broad ravines; the surrounding
hills are so steep, that when they are cleared of timber and
converted into gardens, the soft earth is easily washed away by
heavy showers.

At a distance of four miles from the colony, a waterfall foams down
a chasm which it has worn away for itself.  It is more remarkable
for its valley-like enclosure of noble mountains, and the solemn
gloom of the surrounding woods, than for its height or body of

29th September.  In spite of the danger we had incurred in coming,
we returned to Porto d'Estrella on foot, went on board a bark,
sailed all night, and arrived safely in Rio Janeiro the next
morning.  Every one, both in Petropolis and the capital, was so
astonished at the manner in which our lives had been attempted, that
if we had not been able to show our wounds we should never have been
believed.  The fellow was at first thought to have been drunk or
insane, and it was not till later that we learned the real motives
of his conduct.  He had some time previously been punished by his
master for an offence, and on meeting us in the wood, he no doubt
thought that it was a good opportunity of satisfying, with impunity,
his hatred against the whites.



This second journey I also made in company of Count Berchthold,
after having resolved on penetrating into the interior of the
country, and paying a visit to the primitive inhabitants of the

2nd October.  We left Rio Janeiro in the morning, and proceeded in a
steamer as far as the port of Sampajo, a distance of twenty-eight
miles.  This port lies at the mouth of the river Maccacu, but
consists of only one inn and two or three small houses.  We here
hired mules to take us to the town of Morroqueimado, eighty miles

I may take this opportunity of remarking that it is the custom in
the Brazils to hire the mules without muleteers--a great mark of
confidence on the part of the owners towards travellers.  Arrived at
their destination the animals are delivered up at a certain place
fixed on by the proprietor.  We preferred, however, to take a
muleteer with us, as we were not acquainted with the road, a piece
of precaution we regretted the less, on finding the way frequently
obstructed with wooden gates, which had always to be opened and shut

The price for hiring a mule was twelve milreis (1 pounds 6s.).

As we arrived at Porto Sampajo by 2 o'clock, we resolved on going on
as far as Ponte do Pinheiro, a distance of sixteen miles.  The road
lay mostly through valleys covered with large bushes and surrounded
by low rocks.  The country wore a general aspect of wildness, and
only here and there were a few scanty pasture-grounds and poverty-
stricken huts to be seen.

The little town of Ponte de Cairas, which we passed, consists of a
few shops and vendas, a number of smaller houses, an inconsiderable
church, and an apothecary's; the principal square looked like a
meadow.  Ponte do Pinheiro is rather larger.  We experienced here a
very good reception, and had an excellent supper, consisting of
fowls stewed in rice, flour of manioc, and Portuguese wine; we had
also good beds and breakfasts; the whole cost us, however, four
milreis (8s. 8d.).

3rd October.  We did not set off till 7 o'clock:  here, as
everywhere else in the country, there is no getting away early in
the morning.

The scenery was of the same character as that passed the day before,
except that we were approaching the more lofty mountains.  The road
was tolerably good, but the bridges across the streams and sloughs
execrable; we esteemed ourselves fortunate whenever we passed one
without being compelled to stop.  After a ride of three hours (nine
miles), we reached the great Sugar-Fazenda {38} de Collegio, which
in its arrangements is exactly like a large country seat.  To the
spacious residence is attached a chapel, with the offices lying all
around; the whole is enclosed by a high wall.

Far and wide stretched the fields and low eminences, covered with
sugar canes:  unfortunately, we could not see the mode of preparing
the sugar, as the canes were not yet ripe.

A planter's fortune in the Brazils is calculated by the number of
his slaves.  There were eight hundred of them on the plantation we
were viewing--a large property, since each male slave costs from six
to seven hundred milreis (60 to 70 pounds).

Not far from this fazenda, to the right of the high road, lies
another very considerable one, called Papagais; besides these we saw
several smaller plantations, which lent a little animation to the
uniformity of the scene.

St. Anna (sixteen miles distance) is a small place, consisting of
only a few poor houses, a little church, and an apothecary's; the
last is a necessary appendage to every Brazilian village, even
though it only contains twelve or fifteen huts.  We here made a
repast of eggs with a bottle of wine, and gave our mules a feed of
mil, for which a cheating landlord, Herr Gebhart, charged us three
milreis (6s. 6d.)

Today we did not proceed further than Mendoza (twelve miles), a
still more insignificant place than St. Anna.  A small shop and a
venda were the only houses at the road-side, though in the
background we perceived a manioc-fazenda, to which we paid a visit.
The proprietor was kind enough first to offer us some strong coffee,
without milk (a customary mark of attention in the Brazils), and
then to conduct us over his plantation.

The manioc plant shoots out stalks from four to six feet in height,
with a number of large leaves at their upper extremities.  The
valuable portion of the plant is its bulbous root, which often
weighs two or three pounds, and supplies the place of corn all
through the Brazils.  It is washed, peeled, and held against the
rough edge of a millstone, turned by a negro, until it is completely
ground away.  The whole mass is then gathered into a basket,
plentifully steeped in water, and is afterwards pressed quite dry by
means of a press.  Lastly it is scattered upon large iron plates,
and slowly dried by a gentle fire kept up beneath.  It now resembles
a very coarse kind of flour; and is eaten in two ways--wet and dry.
In the first case, it is mixed with hot water until it forms a kind
of porridge; in the second, it is handed round, under the form of
coarse flour, in little baskets, and every one at table takes as
much as he chooses, and sprinkles it over his plate.

4th October.  The mountain ranges continue drawing nearer and nearer
to each other, and the woods become thicker and more luxuriant.  The
various creeping plants are indescribably beautiful:  not only do
they entirely cover the ground, but they are so intertwined with the
trees that their lovely flowers hang on the highest branches, and
look like the blossoms of the trees themselves.  But there are
likewise trees whose own yellow and red blossoms resemble the most
beautiful flowers; while there are others whose great white leaves
stand out like silver from the surrounding mass of flowery green.
Woods like these might well be called "the giant gardens of the
world."  The palm-trees have here almost disappeared.

We soon reached the mountain range we had to cross, and on our way
often ascended such elevated spots that we had a free view extending
as far back as the capital.  On the top of the mountain (Alta da
Serra, sixteen miles from Mendoza) we found a venda.  From this spot
the distance to Morroqueimado is sixteen miles, which took us a long
time, as the road is either up or down hill the whole way.  We were
continually surrounded by the most magnificent woodlands, and were
only rarely reminded by a small plantation of kabi, {39} or mil,
that we were in the neighbourhood of men.  We did not perceive the
little town until we had surmounted the last eminence and were in
its immediate vicinity.  It lies in a large and picturesque hollow,
surrounded by mountains at an elevation of 3,200 feet above the
level of the sea.  As night was near at hand, we were glad enough to
reach our lodgings, which were situated on one side of the town, in
the house of a German named Linderoth; they were very comfortable,
and, as we afterwards found, exceedingly reasonable, seeing that for
our rooms and three good meals a-day we only paid one milreis (2s.

5th October.  The small town of Novo Friburgo, or Morroqueimado, was
founded about fifteen years since by French, Swiss, and Germans.  It
contains not quite a hundred substantial houses, the greater part of
which form an extremely broad street, while the others lie scattered
about, here and there.

We had already heard, in Rio Janeiro, a great deal of the Messrs.
Beske and Freese, and been particularly recommended not to forget to
pay a visit to each.  Herr Beske is a naturalist, and resides here
with his wife, who is almost as scientific as himself.  We enjoyed
many an hour in their entertaining society, and were shown many
interesting collections of quadrupeds, birds, serpents, insects,
etc.; the collection of these last, indeed, was more rich and
remarkable than that in the Museum of Rio Janeiro.  Herr Beske has
always a great many orders from Europe to send over various objects
of natural history.  Herr Freese is the director and proprietor of
an establishment for boys, and preferred establishing his school in
this cool climate than in the hot town beneath.  He was kind enough
to show us all his arrangements.  As it was near evening when we
paid our visit, school was already over; but he presented all his
scholars to us, made them perform a few gymnastic exercises, and
proposed several questions on geography, history, arithmetic, etc.,
which, without exception, they answered very carefully and
correctly.  His establishment receives sixty boys, and was quite
full, although the annual charge for each boy is one thousand
milreis (108 pounds 6s. 8d.).

6th October.  We had at first intended to stop only one day in Novo
Friburgo, and then continue our journey.  Unfortunately, however,
the wound which the Count had received on our excursion to
Petropolis became, through the frequent use of the hand and the
excessive heat, much worse; inflammation set in, and he was
consequently obliged to give up all ideas of going any further.
With my wounds I was more fortunate, for, as they were on the upper
part of the arm, I had been enabled to pay them a proper degree of
care and attention; they were now proceeding very favourably, and
neither dangerous nor troublesome.  I had, therefore, no resource
left but either to pursue my journey alone, or to give up the most
interesting portion of it, namely, my visit to the Indians.  To this
last idea I could by no means reconcile myself; I inquired,
therefore, whether the journey could be made with any degree of
safety, and as I received a sort of half-satisfactory answer, and
Herr Lindenroth found me also a trusty guide, I procured a good
double-barrelled pistol and set out undaunted upon my trip.

We at first remained for some time in the midst of mountain ranges,
and then again descended into the warmer region beneath.  The
valleys were generally narrow, and the uniform appearance of the
woods was often broken by plantations.  The latter, however, did not
always look very promising, most of them being so choked up with
weeds that it was frequently impossible to perceive the plant
itself, especially when it was young and small.  It is only upon the
sugar and coffee plantations that any great care is bestowed.

The coffee-trees stand in rows upon tolerably steep hillocks.  They
attain a height of from six to twelve feet, and begin to bear
sometimes as soon as the second, but in no case later than the third
year, and are productive for ten years.  The leaf is long and
slightly serrated, the blossom white, while the fruit hangs down in
the same manner as a bunch of grapes, and resembles a longish
cherry, which is first green, then red, brown, and nearly black.
During the time it is red, the outer shell is soft, but ultimately
becomes perfectly hard, and resembles a wooden capsule.  Blossoms
and fruit in full maturity are found upon the trees at the same
time, and hence the harvest lasts nearly the whole year.  The latter
is conducted in two ways.  The berries are either gathered by hand,
or large straw mats are spread underneath, and the trees well
shaken.  The first method is the more troublesome, but, without
comparison, the better one.

Another novelty, which I saw here for the first time, were the
frequent burning forests, which had been set on fire to clear the
ground for cultivation.  In most cases I merely saw immense clouds
of smoke curling upwards in the distance, and desired nothing more
earnestly than to enjoy a nearer view of such a conflagration.  My
wish was destined to be fulfilled today, as my road lay between a
burning forest and a burning rost. {40}  The intervening space was
not, at the most, more than fifty paces broad, and was completely
enveloped in smoke.  I could hear the cracking of the fire, and
through the dense vapour perceive thick, forked columns of flame
shoot upwards towards the sky, while now and then loud reports, like
those of a cannon, announced the fall of the large trees.  On seeing
my guide enter this fiery gulf, I was, I must confess, rather
frightened; but I felt assured, on reflecting, that he would
certainly not foolishly risk his own life, and that he must know
from experience that such places were passable.

At the entrance sat two negroes, to point out the direction that
wayfarers had to follow, and to recommend them to make as much haste
as possible.  My guide translated for me what they said, and spurred
on his mule; I followed his example, and we both galloped at full
speed into the smoking pass.  The burning ashes now flew around us
in all directions, while the suffocating smoke was even more
oppressive than the heat; our beasts, too, seemed to have great
difficulty in drawing breath, and it was as much as we could do to
keep them in a gallop.  Fortunately we had not above 500 or 600
paces to ride, and consequently succeeded in making our way safely

In the Brazils a conflagration of this kind never extends very far,
as the vegetation is too green and offers too much opposition.  The
wood has to be ignited in several places, and even then the fire
frequently goes out, and when most of the wood is burnt, many
patches are found unconsumed.  Soon after passing this dangerous
spot, we came to a magnificent rock, the sides of which must have
risen almost perpendicularly to a height of 600 or 800 feet.  A
number of detached fragments lay scattered about the road, forming
picturesque groups.

To my great astonishment, I learned from my guide that our lodging
for the night was near at hand; we had scarcely ridden twenty miles,
but he affirmed that the next venda where we could stop, was too far
distant.  I afterwards discovered that his sole object was to spin
out the journey, which was a very profitable one for him, since,
besides good living for himself, and fodder for his two mules, he
received four milreis (8s. 8d.) a-day.  We put up, therefore, at a
solitary venda, erected in the middle of the forest, and kept by
Herr Molasz.

During the day we had suffered greatly from the heat; the
thermometer standing, in the sun, at 119 degrees 75' Fah.

The circumstance which must strike a traveller most forcibly in the
habits of the colonists and inhabitants of the Brazils, is the
contrast between fear and courage.   On the one hand, every one you
meet upon the road is armed with pistols and long knives, as if the
whole country was overrun with robbers and murderers; while, on the
other, the proprietors live quite alone on their plantations, and
without the least apprehension, in the midst of their numerous
slaves.  The traveller, too, fearlessly passes the night in some
venda, situated in impenetrable woods, with neither shutters to the
windows nor good locks to the doors, besides which the owner's room
is a considerable distance from the chambers of the guests, and it
would be utterly impossible to obtain any assistance from the
servants, who are all slaves, as they live either in some corner of
the stable, or in the loft.  At first I felt very frightened at thus
passing the night alone, surrounded by the wild gloom of the forest,
and in a room that was only very insecurely fastened; but, as I was
everywhere assured that such a thing as a forcible entry into a
house had never been heard of, I soon dismissed my superfluous
anxiety, and enjoyed the most tranquil repose.

I know very few countries in Europe where I should like to traverse
vast forests, and pass the night in such awfully lonely houses,
accompanied by only a hired guide.

On the 7th of October, also, we made only a short day's journey of
twenty miles, to the small town of Canto Gallo.  The scenery was of
the usual description, consisting of narrow, circumscribed valleys
and mountains covered with endless forests.  If little fazendas, and
the remains of woods which had been set on fire, had not, every now
and then, reminded us of the hand of man, I should have thought that
I was wandering through some yet undiscovered part of Brazil.

The monotony of our journey was rather romantically interrupted by
our straying for a short distance from the right road.  In order to
reach it again, we were obliged to penetrate, by untrodden paths,
through the woods; a task presenting difficulties of which a
European can scarcely form an idea.  We dismounted from our mules,
and my guide threw back, on either side, the low-hanging branches,
and cut through the thick web of creepers; while, one moment, we
were obliged to climb over broken trunks, or squeeze ourselves
between others, at the next we sank knee-deep among endless
parasitical plants.  I began almost to despair of ever effecting a
passage, and, even up to the present day, am at a loss to understand
how we succeeded in escaping from this inextricable mass.

The little town of Canto Gallo is situated in a narrow valley, and
contains about eighty houses.  The venda stands apart, the town not
being visible from it.  The temperature here is warm as in Rio

On my return to the venda, after a short walk to the town, I applied
to my landlady, in order to obtain a near and really correct idea of
a Brazilian household.  The good woman, however, gave herself very
little trouble, either in looking after the house or the kitchen; as
is the case in Italy, this was her husband's business.  A negress
and two young negroes cooked, the arrangements of the kitchen being
of the most primitive simplicity.  The salt was pressed fine with a
bottle; the potatoes, when boiled, underwent the same process--the
latter were also subsequently squeezed in the frying-pan with a
plate, to give them the form of a pancake; a pointed piece of wood
served for a fork, etc.  There was a large fire burning for every

Every one whose complexion was white, sat down with us at table.
All the dishes, consisting of cold roast beef, black beans with
boiled carna secca, {42} potatoes, rice, manioc flour, and boiled
manioc roots, were placed upon the table at the same time, and every
one helped himself as he pleased.  At the conclusion of our meal, we
had strong coffee without milk.  The slaves had beans, carna secca,
and manioc flour.

8th October.  Our goal today was the Fazenda Boa Esperanza, twenty-
four miles off.  Four miles beyond Canto Gallo, we crossed a small
waterfall, and then entered one of the most magnificent virgin
forests I had yet beheld.  A small path, on the bank of a little
brook conducted us through it.  Palms, with their majestic tops,
raised themselves proudly above the other trees, which, lovingly
interlaced together, formed the most beautiful bowers; orchids grew
in wanton luxuriance upon the branches and twigs; creepers and ferns
climbed up the trees, mingling with the boughs, and forming thick
walls of blossoms and flowers, which displayed the most brilliant
colours, and exhaled the sweetest perfume; delicate humming-birds
twittered around our heads; the pepper-pecker, with his brilliant
plumage, soared shyly upwards; parrots and parroquets were swinging
themselves in the branches, and numberless beautifully marked birds,
which I only knew from having seen specimens in the Museum,
inhabited this fairy grove.  It seemed as if I was riding in some
fairy park, and I expected, every moment, to see sylphs and nymphs
appear before me.

I was so happy, that I felt richly recompensed for all the fatigue
of my journey.  One thought only obscured this beautiful picture;
and that was, that weak man should dare to enter the lists with the
giant nature of the place, and make it bend before his will.  How
soon, perhaps, may this profound and holy tranquillity be disturbed
by the blows of some daring settler's axe, to make room for the
wants of men!

I saw no dangerous animals save a few dark green snakes, from five
to seven feet long; a dead ounce, that had been stripped of its
skin; and a lizard, three feet in length, which ran timidly across
our path.  I met with no apes; they appear to conceal themselves
deeper in the woods, where no human footstep is likely to disturb
them in their sports and gambols.

During the whole distance from Canto Gallo to the small village of
St. Ritta (sixteen miles), if it had not again been for a few coffee
plantations, I should have thought the place completely forgotten by

Near St. Ritta are some gold-washings in the river of the same name,
and not far from them, diamonds also are found.  Since seeking or
digging for diamonds is no longer an imperial monopoly, every one is
at liberty to employ himself in this occupation, and yet it is
exercised as much as possible in secret.  No one will acknowledge
looking for them, in order to avoid paying the State its share as
fixed by law.  The precious stones are sought for and dug out at
certain spots, from heaps of sand, stones, and soil, which have been
washed down by the heavy rains.

I had found lodgings in a venda for the last time, the preceding
evening, at Canto Gallo.  I had now to rely upon the hospitality of
the proprietors of the fazendas.  Custom requires that, on reaching
a fazenda, any person who desires to stop the middle of the day or
the night there, should wait outside and ask, through the servant,
permission to do so.  It is not until his application is granted,
which is almost always the case, that the traveller dismounts from
his mule, and enters the building.

They received me at the Fazenda of Boa Esperanza in the most
friendly manner, and, as I happened to arrive exactly at dinner-time
(it was between 3 and 4 o'clock), covers were immediately laid for
me and my attendant.  The dishes were numerous, and prepared very
nearly in the European fashion.

Great astonishment was manifested in every venda and fazenda at
seeing a lady arrive accompanied only by a single servant.  The
first question was, whether I was not afraid thus to traverse the
woods alone; and my guide was invariably taken on one side, and
questioned as to way I travelled.  As he was in the habit of seeing
me collect flowers and insects, he supposed me to be a naturalist,
and replied that my journey had a scientific object.

After dinner, the amiable lady of the house proposed that I should
go and see the coffee-plantations, warehouses, etc.; and I willingly
accepted her offer, as affording me an opportunity of viewing the
manner in which the coffee was prepared, from beginning to end.

The mode of gathering it I have already described.  When this is
done, the coffee is spread out upon large plots of ground, trodden
down in a peculiar manner, and enclosed by low stone walls, scarcely
a foot high, with little drain-holes in them, to allow of the water
running off in case of rain.  On these places the coffee is dried by
the glowing heat of the sun, and then shaken in large stone mortars,
ten or twenty of which are placed beneath a wooden scaffolding, from
which wooden hammers, set in motion by water power, descend into the
mortars, and easily crush the husks.  The mass, thus crushed, is
then placed in wooden boxes, fastened in the middle of a long table,
and having small openings at each side, through which both the berry
itself and the husk fall slowly out.  At the table are seated
negroes, who separate the berry from the husk, and then cast it into
shallow copper cauldrons, which are easily heated.  In these it is
carefully turned, and remains until it is quite dried.  This last
process requires some degree of care, as the colour of the coffee
depends upon the degree of heat to which it is exposed; if dried too
quickly, instead of the usual greenish colour, it contracts a
yellowish tinge.

On the whole, the preparation of coffee is not fatiguing, and even
the gathering of it is far from being as laborious as reaping is
with us.  The negro stands in an upright posture when gathering the
berry, and is protected by the tree itself against the great heat of
the sun.  The only danger he incurs is of being bitten by some
venomous snake or other--an accident, however, which, fortunately,
rarely happens.

The work on a sugar-plantation, on the contrary, is said to be
exceedingly laborious, particularly that portion of it which relates
to weeding the ground and cutting the cane.  I have never yet
witnessed a sugar-harvest, but, perhaps, may do so in the course of
my travels.

All work ceases at sunset, when the negroes are drawn up in front of
their master's house for the purpose of being counted, and then,
after a short prayer, have their supper, consisting of boiled beans,
bacon, carna secca, and manioc flour, handed out to them.

At sunrise, they again assemble, are once more counted, and, after
prayers and breakfast, go to work.

I had an opportunity of convincing myself in this, as well as in
many other fazendas, vendas, and private houses, that the slaves are
by far not so harshly treated as we Europeans imagine.  They are not
overworked, perform all their duties very leisurely, and are well
kept.  Their children are frequently the playmates of their master's
children, and knock each other about as if they were all equal.
There may be cases in which certain slaves are cruelly and
undeservedly punished; but do not the like instances of injustice
occur in Europe also?

I am certainly very much opposed to slavery, and should greet its
abolition with the greatest delight, but, despite this, I again
affirm that the negro slave enjoys, under the protection of the law,
a better lot than the free fellah of Egypt, or many peasants in
Europe, who still groan under the right of soccage.  The principal
reason of the better lot of the slave, compared to that of the
miserable peasant, in the case in point, may perhaps partly be, that
the purchase and keep of the one is expensive, while the other costs

The arrangements in the houses belonging to the proprietors of the
fazendas are extremely simple.  The windows are unglazed, and are
closed at night with wooden shutters.  In many instances, the outer
roof is the common covering of all the rooms, which are merely
separated from one another by low partitions, so that you can hear
every word your neighbour says, and almost the breathing of the
person sleeping next to you.  The furniture is equally simple:  a
large table, a few straw sofas, and a few chairs.  The wearing
apparel is generally hung up against the walls; the linen alone
being kept in tin cases, to protect it from the attacks of the ants.

In the country, the children of even the most opulent persons run
about frequently without shoes or stockings.  Before they go to bed
they have their feet examined to see whether any sand-fleas have
nestled in them; and if such be the case, they are extracted by the
elder negro children.

9th October.  Early in the morning I took leave of my kind hostess,
who, like a truly careful housewife, had wrapped up a roasted fowl,
manioc flour, and a cheese for me, so that I was well provisioned on
setting off.

The next station, Aldea do Pedro, on the banks of the Parahyby, was
situated at a distance of sixteen miles.  Our way lay through
magnificent woods, and before we had traversed half of it, we
arrived at the river Parahyby, one of the largest in the Brazils,
and celebrated, moreover, for the peculiar character of its bed,
which is strewed with innumerable cliffs and rocks; these, owing to
the low state of the stream, were more than usually conspicuous.  On
every side rose little islands, covered with small trees or
underwood, lending a most magic appearance to the river.  During the
rainy season, most of these cliffs and rocks are covered with water,
and the river then appears more majestic.  On account of the rocks
it can only be navigated by small boats and rafts.

As you proceed along the banks, the scenery gradually changes.  The
fore-part of the mountain ranges subside into low hills, the
mountains themselves retreat, and the nearer you approach Aldea do
Pedro, the wider and more open becomes the valley.  In the
background alone are still visible splendid mountain ranges, from
which rises a mountain higher than the rest, somewhat more naked,
and almost isolated.  To this my guide pointed, and gave me to
understand that our way lay over it, in order to reach the Puris,
who lived beyond.

About noon I arrived at Aldea do Pedro, which I found to be a small
village with a stone church; the latter might, perhaps, contain 200
persons.  I had intended continuing my journey to the Puris the same
day, but my guide was attacked with pains in his knee, and could not
ride further.  I had, therefore, no resource but to alight at the
priest's, who gave me a hearty welcome; he had a pretty good house,
immediately adjoining the church.

10th October.  As my guide was worse, the priest offered me his
negro to replace him.  I thankfully accepted his offer, but could
not set off before 1 o'clock, for which I was, in some respects, not
sorry, as it was Sunday, and I hoped to see a great number of the
country people flock to mass.  This, however, was not the case;
although it was a very fine day there were hardly thirty people at
church.  The men were dressed exactly in the European fashion; the
women wore long cloaks with collars, and had white handkerchiefs
upon their heads, partly falling over their faces as well; the
latter they uncovered in church.  Both men and women were

As chance would have it, I witnessed a burial and a christening.
Before mass commenced, a boat crossed over from the opposite bank of
the Parahyby, and on reaching the side, a hammock, in which was the
deceased, was lifted out.  He was then laid in a coffin which had
been prepared for the purpose in a house near the churchyard.  The
corpse was enveloped in a white cloth, with the feet and half the
head protruding beyond it; the latter was covered with a peaked cap
of shining black cloth.

The christening took place before the burial.  The person who was to
be christened was a young negro of fifteen, who stood with his
mother at the church door.  As the priest entered the church to
perform mass, he christened him, in passing by, without much
ceremony or solemnity, and even without sponsors; the boy, too,
seemed to be as little touched by the whole affair as a new born
infant.  I do not believe that either he or his mother had the least
idea of the importance of the rite.

The priest then hurriedly performed mass, and read the burial
service over the deceased, who had belonged to rather a wealthy
family, and therefore was respectably interred.  Unfortunately, when
they wanted to lower the corpse into its cold resting-place, the
latter was found to be too short and too narrow, and the poor wretch
was so tossed about, coffin and all, that I expected every moment to
see him roll out.  But all was of no avail, and after a great deal
of useless exertion no other course was left but to place the coffin
on one side and enlarge the grave, which was done with much
unwillingness and amid an unceasing volley of oaths.

This fatiguing work being at last finished, I returned to the house,
where I took a good dejeuner a la fourchette in company with the
priest, and then set out with my black guide.

We rode for some time through a broad valley between splendid woods,
and had to cross two rivers, the Parahyby and the Pomba, in trunks
of trees hollowed out.  For each of these wretched conveyances I was
obliged to pay one milreis (2s. 2d.), and to incur great danger into
the bargain; not so much on account of the stream and the small size
of the craft, as of our mules, which, fastened by their halter, swam
alongside, and frequently came so near that I was afraid that we
should be every moment capsized.

After riding twelve miles further, we reached the last settlement of
the whites. {47}  On an open space, which had with difficulty been
conquered from the virgin forest, stood a largish wooden house,
surrounded by a few miserable huts, the house serving as the
residence of the whites, and the huts as that of the slaves.  A
letter which I had brought from the priest procured me a welcome.

The manner of living in this settlement was of such a description
that I was almost tempted to believe that I was already among

The large house contained an entrance hall leading into four rooms,
each of which was inhabited by a white family.  The whole furniture
of these rooms consisted of a few hammocks and straw mats.  The
inhabitants were cowering upon the floor, playing with the children,
or assisting one another to get rid of their vermin.  The kitchen
was immediately adjoining the house, and resembled a very large barn
with openings in it; upon a hearth that took up nearly the entire
length of the barn, several fires were burning, over which hung
small kettles, and at each side were fastened wooden spits.  On
these were fixed several pieces of meat, some of which were being
roasted by the fire and some cured by the smoke.  The kitchen was
full of people:  whites, Puris, and negroes, children whose parents
were whites and Puris, or Puris and negroes--in a word, the place
was like a book of specimens containing the most varied
ramifications of the three principal races of the country.

In the court-yard was an immense number of fowls, beautifully marked
ducks and geese; I also saw some extraordinarily fat pigs, and some
horribly ugly dogs.  Under some cocoa-palms and tamarind-trees, were
seated white and coloured people, separate and in groups, mostly
occupied in satisfying their hunger.  Some had got broken basins or
pumpkin-gourds before them, in which they kneaded up with their
hands boiled beans and manioc flour; this thick and disgusting-
looking mess they devoured with avidity.  Others were eating pieces
of meat, which they likewise tore with their hands, and threw into
their mouths alternately with handfuls of manioc flour.  The
children, who also had their gourds before them, were obliged to
defend the contents valiantly; for at one moment a hen would peck
something out, and, at the next, a dog would run off with a bit, or
sometimes even a little pig would waggle up, and invariably give a
most contented grunt when it had not performed the journey for

While I was making these observations, I suddenly heard a merry cry
outside the court-yard; I proceeded to the place from which it
issued, and saw two boys dragging towards me a large dark brown
serpent; certainly more than seven feet long, at the end of a bast-
rope.  It was already dead, and, as far as I could learn from the
explanations of those about me, it was of so venomous a kind, that
if a person is bitten by it, he immediately swells up and dies.

I was rather startled at what I heard, and determined at least not
to set out through the wood just as evening was closing in, as I
might have to take up my quarters for the night under some tree; I
therefore deferred my visit to the savages until the next morning.
The good people imagined that I was afraid of the savages, and
earnestly assured me that they were a most harmless race, from whom
I had not the least to fear.  As my knowledge of Portuguese was
limited to a few words, I found it rather difficult to make myself
understood, and it was only by the help of gesticulations, with now
and then a small sketch, that I succeeded in enlightening them as to
the real cause of my fear.

I passed the night, therefore, with these half savages, who
constantly showed me the greatest respect, and overwhelmed me with
attention.  A straw mat, which, at my request, was spread out under
shelter in the court-yard, was my bed.  They brought me for supper a
roast fowl, rice, and hard eggs, and for dessert, oranges and
tamarind-pods; the latter contain a brown, half sweet, half sour
pulp, very agreeable to the taste.  The women lay all round me, and
by degrees we managed to get on wonderfully together.

I showed them the different flowers and insects I had gathered
during the day.  This, doubtless, induced them to look upon me as a
learned person, and, as such, to impute to me a knowledge of
medicine.  They begged me to prescribe for different cases of
illness:  bad ears, eruptions of the skin, and in the children, a
considerable tendency to scrofula, etc.  I ordered lukewarm baths,
frequent fomentations, and the use of oil and soap, applied
externally and rubbed into the body.  May Heaven grant that these
remedies have really worked some good!

On the 11th of October, I proceeded into the forest, in company with
a negress and a Puri, to find out the Indians.  At times, we had to
work our way laboriously through the thicket, and then again we
would find narrow paths, by which we pursued our journey with
greater ease.  After eight hours' walking, we came upon a number of
Puris, who led us into their huts, situated in the immediate
vicinity, where I beheld a picture of the greatest misery and want:
I had often met with a great deal of wretchedness in my travels, but
never so much as I saw here!

On a small space, under lofty trees, five huts, or rather sheds,
formed of leaves, were erected, eighteen feet long, by twelve feet
broad.  The frames were formed of four poles stuck in the ground,
with another reaching across; and the roof, of palm-leaves, through
which the rain could penetrate with the utmost facility.  On three
sides, these bowers were entirely open.  In the interior hung a
hammock or two; and on the ground glimmered a little fire, under a
heap of ashes, in which a few roots, Indian corn, and bananas, were
roasting.  In one corner, under the roof, a small supply of
provisions was hoarded up, and a few gourds were scattered around:
these are used by the savages instead of plates, pots, water-jugs,
etc.  The long bows and arrows, which constitute their only weapons,
were leaning in the background against the wall.

I found the Indians still more ugly than the negroes.  Their
complexion is a light bronze, stunted in stature, well-knit, and
about the middle size.  They have broad and somewhat compressed
features, and thick, coal-black hair, hanging straight down, which
the women sometimes wear in plaits fastened to the back of the head,
and sometimes falling down loose about them.  Their forehead is
broad and low, the nose somewhat flattened, the eyes long and
narrow, almost like those of the Chinese, and the mouth large, with
rather thick lips.  To give a still greater effect to all these
various charms, a peculiar look of stupidity is spread over the
whole face, and is more especially to be attributed to the way in
which their mouths are always kept opened.

Most of them, both men and women, were tattooed with a reddish or
blue colour, though only round the mouth, in the form of a
moustache.  Both sexes are passionately fond of smoking, and prefer
brandy to everything.  Their dress was composed of a few rags, which
they had fastened round their loins.

I had already heard, in Novo Friburgo, a few interesting particulars
concerning the Puris, which I will here relate.

The number of the Brazilian Indians at the present time is
calculated at about 500,000, who live scattered about the forests in
the heart of the country.  Not more than six or seven families ever
settle on the same spot, which they leave as soon as the game in the
neighbourhood has been killed, and all the fruit and roots consumed.
A large number of these Indians have been christened.  They are
always ready, for a little brandy or tobacco, to undergo the
ceremony at the shortest notice, and only regret that it cannot be
repeated more frequently, as it is soon over.  The priest believes
that he has only to perform the rite in order to gain another soul
for heaven, and afterwards gives himself very little concern, either
about the instruction or the manners and morals of his converts.
These, it is true, are called Christians, or _tamed savages_, but
live in the same heathen manner that they previously did.  Thus, for
instance, they contract marriages for indefinite periods; elect
their Caciques (chiefs) from the strongest and finest men; follow
all their old customs on the occasion of marriages and deaths, just
the same as before baptism.

Their language is very poor:  they are said, for example, only to be
able to count one and two, and are therefore obliged, when they
desire to express a larger number, to repeat these two figures
continually.  Furthermore, for _today, to-morrow_, and _yesterday_,
they possess only the word _day_, and express their more particular
meaning by signs; for _today_, they say _day_, and feel their head,
or point upwards; for _to-morrow_, they again use the word _day_,
and point their fingers in a straightforward direction; and for
_yesterday_, they use the same word, and point behind them.

The Puris are said to be peculiarly adapted for tracking runaway
negroes, as their organs of smell are very highly developed.  They
smell the trace of the fugitive on the leaves of the trees; and if
the negro does not succeed in reaching some stream, in which he can
either walk or swim for a considerable distance, it is asserted that
he can very seldom escape the Indian engaged in pursuit of him.
These savages are also readily employed in felling timber, and
cultivating Indian corn, manioc, etc., as they are very industrious,
and think themselves well paid with a little tobacco, brandy, or
coloured cloth.  But on no account must they be compelled to do
anything by force:  they are free men.  They seldom, however, come
to offer their assistance unless they are half-starved.

I visited the huts of all these savages; and as my guides had
trumpeted forth my praises as being a woman of great knowledge, I
was here asked my advice for the benefit of every one who was ill.

In one of the huts, I found an old woman groaning in her hammock.
On my drawing nearer, they uncovered the poor creature, and I
perceived that all her breast was eaten up by cancer.  She seemed to
have no idea of a bandage, or any means of soothing the pain.  I
advised her to wash the wound frequently with a decoction of
mallows, {50} and, in addition to this, to cover it over with the
leaves of the same plant.  I only trust that my advice procured her
some trifling relief.

This horrible disease unfortunately does not appear to be at all
rare among the Puris, for I saw many of their women, some of whom
had large hard swellings, and others even small tumours on the

After having sufficiently examined everything in the huts, I went
with some of the savages to shoot parrots and monkeys.  We had not
far to go in order to meet with both; and I had now an opportunity
of admiring the skill with which these people use their bows.  They
brought down the birds even when they were on the wing, and very
seldom missed their mark.  After shooting three parrots and an ape,
we returned to the huts.

The good creatures offered me the best hut they possessed, and
invited me to pass the night there.  Being rather fatigued by the
toilsome nature of my journey on foot, the heat, and the hunting
excursion, I very joyfully accepted their proposition:  the day,
too, was drawing to a close, and I should not have been able to
reach the settlement of the whites before night.  I therefore spread
out my cloak upon the ground, arranged a log of wood so as to serve
instead of a pillow, and for the present seated myself upon my
splendid couch.  In the meanwhile, my hosts were preparing the
monkey and the parrots, by sticking them on wooden spits, and
roasting them before the fire.  In order to render the meal a
peculiarly dainty one, they also buried some Indian corn and roots
in the cinders.  They then gathered a few large fresh leaves off the
trees, tore the roasted ape into several pieces with their hands,
and placing a large portion of it, as well as a parrot, Indian corn,
and some roots upon the leaves, put it before me.  My appetite was
tremendous, seeing that I had tasted nothing since the morning.  I
therefore immediately fell to on the roasted monkey, which I found
superlatively delicious:  the flesh of the parrot was far from being
so tender and palatable.

After our meal, I begged the Indians to perform one of their dances
for me--a request with which they readily complied.  As it was
already dark, they brought a quantity of wood, which they formed
into a sort of funeral pile, and set on fire:  the men then formed a
circle all round, and began the dance.  They threw their bodies from
side to side in a most remarkably awkward fashion, but always moving
the head forwards in a straight line.  The women then joined in,
remaining, however, at some little distance in the rear of the men,
and making the same awkward movements.  They now began a most
horrible noise, which was intended for a song, at the same time
distorting their features in a frightful manner.  One of them stood
near, playing upon a kind of stringed instrument, made out of the
stem of a cabbage-palm, and about two feet, or two feet and a half,
in length.  A hole was cut in it in a slanting direction, and six
fibres of the stem had been raised up, and kept in an elevated
position at each end, by means of a small bridge.  The fingers were
then used for playing upon these as upon a guitar:  the tone was
very low, disagreeable, and hoarse.

This first dance they named the Dance of Peace or Joy.  The men then
performed a much wilder one alone.  After providing themselves for
the purpose with bows, arrows, and stout clubs, they again formed a
circle, but their movements were much quicker and wilder than in the
first instance, and they likewise hit about them with their clubs in
a horrible fashion.  They then suddenly broke their rank, strung
their bows, placed their arrows ready, and went through the
pantomime of shooting after a flying foe, uttering at the same time
the most piercing cries, which echoed through the whole forest.  I
started up in affright, for I really believed that I was surrounded
by enemies, and that I was delivered up into their power, without
any chance of help or assistance.  I was heartily glad when this
horrible war-dance came to a conclusion.

After retiring to rest, and when all around had gradually become
hushed into silence, I was assailed by apprehensions of another
description:  I thought of the number of wild beasts, and the
horrible serpents that might perhaps be concealed quite close to me,
and then of the exposed situation I was in.  This kept me awake a
long time, and I often fancied I heard a rustling among the leaves,
as if one of the dreaded animals were breaking through.  At length,
however, my weary body asserted its rights.  I laid my head upon my
wooden pillow, and consoled myself with the idea that the danger
was, after all, not so great as many of we travellers wish to have
believed, otherwise how would it be possible for the savages to live
as they do, without any precautions, in their open huts!

On the 12th of October, early in the morning, I took leave of the
savages, and made them a present of various bronze ornaments, with
which they were so delighted that they offered me everything they
possessed.  I took a bow with a couple of arrows, as mementos of my
visit; returned to the wooden house, and having also distributed
similar presents there, mounted my mule, and arrived late in the
evening at Aldea do Pedro.

On the morning of the 13th of October, I bade the obliging priest
farewell, and with my attendant, who, by this time was quite
recovered, began my journey back to Novo Friburgo, and, in this
instance, although I pursued the same road, was only three days
instead of four on the way.

On arriving I found Count Berchthold, who was now quite well.  We
determined, therefore, before returning to Rio Janeiro, to make a
little excursion to a fine waterfall, about twelve miles from Novo
Friburgo.  By mere chance we learned that the christening of the
Princess Isabella would take place on the 19th, and, as we did not
wish to miss this interesting ceremony, we preferred returning
directly.  We followed the same road we had taken in coming, till
about four miles before reaching Ponte de Pinheiro, and then struck
off towards Porto de Praja.  This road was thirty-two miles longer
by land, but so much shorter by sea, that the passage is made by
steamer from Porto de Praja to Rio Janeiro in half an hour.  The
scenery around Pinheiro was mostly dull and tedious, almost like a
desert, the monotony of which was only broken here and there by a
few scanty woods or low hills.  We were not lucky enough to see the
mountains again until we were near the capital.

I must here mention a comical mistake of Herr Beske, of Novo
Friburgo, which we at first could not understand, but which
afterwards afforded a good deal of amusement.  Herr Beske had
recommended us a guide, whom he described as a walking encyclopaedia
of knowledge, and able to answer all our questions about trees,
plants, scenery, etc., in the most complete manner.  We esteemed
ourselves exceedingly fortunate to obtain such a phoenix of a guide,
and immediately took advantage of every opportunity to put his
powers to the test.  He could, however, tell us nothing at all; if
we asked him the name of a river, he replied that it was too small,
and had no name.  The trees, likewise, were too insignificant, the
plants too common.  This ignorance was rather too much; we made
inquiry, and found that Herr Beske had not intended to send us the
guide we had, but his brother, who, however, had died six months
previously--a circumstance which Herr Beske must have forgotten.

On the evening of the 18th of October, we arrived safely in Rio
Janeiro.  We immediately inquired about the christening, and heard
it had been put off till the 15th of November, and that on the 19th
of October only the Emperor's anniversary would be kept.  We had
thus hurried back to no purpose, without visiting the waterfall near
Novo Friburgo, which we might have admired very much at our leisure.

On our return we only came eight miles out of our way.


DECEMBER, 1846, TO 2ND MARCH, 1847.

When I paid 25 pounds for my place in the fine English barque, "John
Renwick," Captain Bell, the latter promised me that he would be
ready to sail on the 25th of November at the latest, and would stop
at no intermediate port, but shape his course direct to Valparaiso.
The first part of this promise I believed, because he assured me
that every day he stopped cost him 7 pounds; and the second,
because, as a general rule, I willingly believe every one, even ship
captains.  In both particulars, however, was I deceived; for it was
not until the 8th of December that I received a notice to go on
board that evening and then for the first time the captain informed
me that he must run into Santos, to lay in a stock of provisions,
which were there much cheaper than in Rio Janeiro; that he also
intended clearing out a cargo of coal and taking in another of
sugar.  He did not tell me till we arrived in Santos itself, where
he also assured me that all these different matters would not take
him more than three or four days.

I took leave of my friends and went on board in the evening; Count
Berchthold and Messrs. Geiger and Rister accompanying me to the

Early in the morning of the 9th of December we weighed anchor, but
the wind was so unfavourable that we were obliged to tack the whole
day in order to gain the open sea, and it was not until about 10
A.M. that we lost sight of land.

There were eight passengers besides myself; five Frenchmen, one
Belgian, and two citizens of Milan.  I looked upon the latter as
half countrymen of mine, and we were soon very good friends.

It was the second time this year that the two Italians were making
the voyage round Cape Horn.  Their first had not been fortunate;
they reached Cape Horn in winter, which in those cold southern
latitudes lasts from April till about November. {53}  They were
unable to circumnavigate the Cape, being driven back by violent
contrary winds and storms, against which they strove for fourteen
weary days without making the least progress.  The crew now lost
courage, and affirmed that it would be advisable to turn back and
wait for more favourable winds.  The captain, however, was not of
this opinion, and succeeded so well in working upon the pride of the
crew that they once more engaged in their conflict with the
elements.  It was, however, for the last time, for the very same
night a tremendous sea broke over the ship, tearing away all her
upper works, and sweeping the captain and six of the sailors
overboard.  The water poured in torrents into the cabins, and drove
every one from the berths.  The bulwarks, boats, and binnacle were
carried clean off, and the mainmast had to be cut away.  The sailors
then turned the ship about, and after a long and dangerous voyage,
succeeded in bringing her, dismasted as she was, into Rio Janeiro.

This story was not very encouraging, but the fine weather and our
good ship relieved us of all anxiety.  With regard to the vessel, we
could not have chosen a better.  It had large, comfortable cabins,
an exceedingly good-natured and obliging captain, and a bill of fare
which must have contented the most dainty palate.  Every day we had
roast or stewed fowls, ducks, or geese, fresh mutton or pork, eggs
variously prepared, plum-pudding and tarts; to all this were added
side dishes of ham, rice, potatoes, and other vegetables; and for
dessert, dried fruit, nuts, almonds, cheese, etc.  There was also
plenty of bread, fresh baked every day, and good wine.  We all
unanimously acknowledged that we had never been so well treated, or
had so good a table in any sailing vessel before; and we could,
therefore, in this respect, look forward to our voyage without any

On the 12th of December we hove in sight of the mountain ranges of
Santos, and at 9 o'clock the same evening we reached a bay which the
captain took for that of the same name.  Lighted torches were
repeatedly held over the vessel's side to summon a pilot; no pilot,
however, made his appearance, and we were therefore obliged to trust
to chance, and anchor at the mouth of the bay.

On the morning of the 13th a pilot came on board, and astonished us
with the intelligence that we had anchored before the wrong bay.  We
had some trouble in working our way out, and anchoring about noon in
the right one.  A pretty little chateau-like building immediately
attracted our attention.  We took it for some advanced building of
the town, and congratulated one another on having reached our
temporary destination so quickly.  On approaching nearer, however,
we could perceive no signs of the town, and learned that the
building was a small fort, and that Santos was situated in a second
bay, communicating with the first by a small arm of the sea.
Unluckily, the wind had by this time fallen, and we were obliged to
be at anchor all day, and it was not until the 14th that a slight
breeze sprang up and wafted us into port.

Santos is most charmingly situated at the entrance of a large
valley.  Picturesque hills, adorned with chapels and detached
houses, rise on each side, and immediately beyond are considerable
mountain ranges, spreading in a semi-circle round the valley, while
a lovely island forms a most beautiful foreground to the whole.

We had scarcely landed before the captain informed us that we must
stop for at least five days.  The Italians, one of the Frenchmen,
and myself determined that we would take advantage of this delay to
make an excursion to St. Paulo, the largest inland town of the
Brazils, and about forty miles from Santos.  The same evening we
hired mules, for which we paid five milreis (10s. 10d.) each, and
set out upon our trip.

15th December.  Early in the morning, we armed ourselves with well-
charged double-barrelled pistols, having been alarmed by accounts of
the Maroon negroes, {55} about a hundred of whom were said to be at
that time lurking in the mountains, and to be so daring that they
extended their inroads as far as the vicinity of Santos itself.

The first eight miles led through the valley to the lofty range of
mountains which we had to cross.  The road was good, and more
frequented than any I had yet seen in the Brazils.  Handsome wooden
bridges traverse the rivers Vicente and Cubatao; one of these
bridges is actually covered, but then every one is charged a pretty
high toll.

In one of the vendas at the foot of the mountain we fortified
ourselves with some excellent pan-cakes, laid in a stock of sugar-
canes, the juice of which is excessively refreshing in the great
heat, and then proceeded to scale the Serra, 3,400 feet high.  The
road was execrable; full of holes, pits, and puddles, in which our
poor beasts often sank above their knees.  We had to skirt chasms
and ravines, with torrents rolling loudly beneath, yet not visible
to us, on account of the thick underwood which grew over them.  Some
part of the way, too, lay through virgin forests, which, however,
were not nearly so beautiful or thick as some I had traversed on my
excursion to the Puris.  There were hardly any palm-trees, and the
few there were, reminded us, from their thin stems and scanty
foliage, of those of a colder climate.

The prospect from the Serra struck us all with astonishment.  The
entire valley with its woods and prairies was spread far and wide
before our sight as far as the bays, the little detached huts being
quite indistinguishable, while only a part of the town and a few
masts of ships were perceptible in the distance.

A turning in the road soon shut out this charming picture from our
gaze; we then left the Serra and entered upon a woody, uneven tract,
alternating with large level grass-plots, covered with low
brushwood, and innumerable mole-hills, two feet high.

Half way from Santos to St. Paulo is a place called Rio Grande, the
houses of which lie, after the Brazilian fashion, so far apart, that
no one would suppose they had any connection with each other.  The
owner of the mules used on this journey resides here, and here,
likewise, the money for their hire is paid.  If the traveller
desires to proceed immediately he has fresh mules given him, but,
should he prefer stopping the afternoon or night, he finds very good
victual and clean rooms, for which he has nothing to pay, as they
are included in the five milreis (10s. 10d.), charged for the mules.

We snatched a hasty morsel or two, and then hurried on, in order to
complete the second half of the road before sunset.  The plain
became broader and broader the nearer we approached the town; the
beauty of the scenery falls off very much, and for the first time
since I left Europe, did I see fields and hills of sand.  The town
itself, situated upon a hill, presents a tolerable appearance; it
contains about 22,000 inhabitants, and is a place of considerable
importance for the internal commerce of the country.  In spite of
this, however, it has neither an inn nor any other place where
strangers can alight.

After inquiring for a long time in vain for lodgings, we were
directed to a German and a Frenchman, with the remark that both
received lodgers out of pure politeness.  We first went to the
German, who very bluntly cut us short by saying that he had no room.
From him we proceeded to the Frenchman, who sent us to a Portuguese,
and on visiting the latter we received the same answer we had
obtained from the German.

We were now greatly embarrassed; the more so, because the wearisome
nature of our journey had so fatigued the Frenchman that he was
hardly able any longer to sit upright in his saddle.

In this critical position I thought of the letter of recommendation
that Herr Geiger had given me in Rio Janeiro, for a German gentleman
of the name of Loskiel, who had settled here.  I had intended not to
deliver this letter until the next day, but "necessity knows no
law," and so I paid my visit the same evening.

He was kind enough to interest himself for us in the warmest manner
imaginable.  He gave one of the gentlemen and myself lodgings in his
own house, and our two companions in that of a neighbour of his,
inviting all of us to dine at his table.  We now learned that in St.
Paulo no one, not even an hotel-keeper, will receive a stranger if
he be not provided with a letter of recommendation.  It is certainly
a lucky thing for travellers that this strange custom is not
prevalent everywhere.

16th December.  After having completely recovered ourselves from the
fatigues of our yesterday's ride, our first thought was to view the
curiosities of the town.  We asked our hospitable host for
information on this point, but he merely shrugged his shoulders, and
said, that he knew of no curiosities, unless, indeed, we chose to
look upon the Botanical Garden in the light of one.

We went out, therefore, after breakfast, and first of all viewed the
town:  where we found that the number of large and well-built houses
was, in comparison to the size of the two places, greater than in
Rio Janeiro, although even here, there was nothing like taste or
peculiar architectural style.  The streets are tolerably wide, but
present an extraordinarily deserted appearance, the universal
silence being broken only by the insupportable creaking of the
country people's carts.  These carts rest upon two wheels, or rather
two wooden disks, which are often not even hooped with iron to keep
them together.  The axle, which is likewise of wood, is never
greased, and thus causes the demoniacal kind of music to which I

A peculiarity of dress, very remarkable in this hot climate, is here
prevalent:  all the men, with the exception of the slaves, wear
large cloth cloaks, one half of which they throw over their
shoulder; I even saw a great many women enveloped in long, broad
cloth capes.

In St. Paulo there is a High School.  Those who study there, and
come from the country or the smaller towns, are exposed to the
inconvenience of being refused lodgings under any one's roof.  They
are obliged to hire and furnish houses for themselves, and be their
own housekeepers.

We visited several churches which possess very little worth looking
at, either inside or out, and then concluded by proceeding to the
Botanical Garden, which also contains no object of any interest,
with the exception of a plantation of Chinese teas.

All our sight-seeing did not occupy us more than a few hours, and we
could very conveniently have begun our journey back to Santos the
next morning; but the Frenchman, who, on account of the great
fatigue he had suffered, had not accompanied us in our walk, begged
us to put off our return for half a day longer, and to arrange it in
such a manner, that we should pass the night in Rio Grande.  We
willingly acceded to his wish, and set out upon the afternoon of the
17th, after thanking our kind host most cordially for his hospitable
entertainment.  In Rio Grande we found an excellent supper,
convenient sleeping apartments, and a good breakfast the next
morning.  About 12 o'clock on the 18th of December, we arrived
safely in Santos, and the Frenchman then confessed to us he had felt
so fatigued on arriving at St. Paulo, from his long ride, that he
was afraid of being seriously ill.  However, he recovered himself
completely in a few days, but assured us, that it would be some time
before he again accompanied us on one of our trips.

The first question we put to the captain was:  "When do you weigh
anchor?" to which he very politely replied, that as soon as he had
cleared out 200 tons of coal, and shipped 6,000 sacks of sugar, he
should be ready to set sail, and in consequence of this we had to
remain three whole weary weeks in Santos.

We were still in Santos when we celebrated New-Year's Day, 1847, and
at last, on the 2nd of January, were lucky enough to bid the town
adieu; but did not proceed far, for in the first bay the wind fell,
and did not spring up again till after midnight.  It was now Sunday,
and no true Englishman will set sail on a Sunday; we remained,
therefore, lying at anchor the whole of the 3rd of January, looking
with very melancholy feelings after two ships, whose captains, in
spite of the holiness of the day, had profited by the fresh breeze,
and sailed gaily past us.

On the same evening we saw a vessel, which our captain affirmed was
a slaver, run into the bay.  It kept as far as possible from the
fort, and cast anchor at the most outward extremity of the bay.  As
the night was clear and moonlight we walked late upon deck, when,
true enough, we saw little boats laden with negroes pulling in
shore.  An officer, indeed, came from the fort to inquire into the
doings of this suspicious craft; but the owner seemed to afford him
a satisfactory account, for he left the ship, and the slaves
continued during the whole night to be quietly and undisturbedly
smuggled in as before.

On the morning of the 4th of January, as we sailed past the vessel,
we beheld a great number of the poor creatures still standing upon
the deck.  Our captain inquired of the slave-dealer how many slaves
he had had on board, and we learned with astonishment that the
number amounted to 670.  Much has already been said and written upon
this horrible trade; it is everywhere execrated, and looked upon as
a blot on the human race, and yet it still continues to flourish.

This day promised to turn out a very melancholy one in many
respects.  We had hardly lost sight of the slaver before one of our
own crew had nearly committed suicide.  The steward, a young
mulatto, had contracted the bad habit of indulging too much in
liquor.  The captain had often threatened to punish him severely,
but all to no purpose; and this morning he was so intoxicated that
the sailors were obliged to lay him in a corner of the forecastle,
where he might sleep himself sober.  Suddenly, however, he leapt up,
clambered on to the forepart of the ship, and threw himself into the
sea.  Luckily, it was almost a calm, the water was quite still, and
we had hopes of saving him.  He soon reappeared at the side of the
vessel, and ropes were thrown him from every side.  The love of life
was awakened in his breast, and caused him to grasp involuntarily at
the ropes, but he had not strength enough to hold on.  He again
sank, and it was only after great exertion that the brave sailors
succeeded in rescuing him from a watery grave.  Hardly had he
recovered his senses ere he endeavoured to throw himself in again,
exclaiming that he had no wish to live.  The man was raving mad, and
the captain was obliged to have him bound hand and foot, and chained
to the mast.  On the following day he was deprived of his office,
and degraded to the rank of subordinate to a new steward.

5th January.  Mostly calms.  Our cook caught, today, a fish three
feet long, and remarkable for the manner in which it changed colour.
When it came out of the water it was a bright yellow, to which
colour it owes its name of Dorado.  At the expiration of one or two
minutes the brilliant yellow changed into a light sky-blue, and
after its death its belly again turned to a beautiful light yellow,
but the back was a brownish green.  It is reckoned a great delicacy,
but, for my own part, I found its flesh rather dry.

On the 9th of January we were off the Rio Grande.  In the evening
everything seemed to promise a violent storm; the captain consulted
his barometer every second almost, and issued his orders according
to its indications.  Black clouds now began to drive towards us, and
the wind increased to such a pitch that the captain had all the
hatchways carefully fastened down, and the crew ready to reef the
sails at a moment's notice.  At a little past 8, the hurricane broke
forth.  Flash after flash of lightning darted across the horizon
from every side, and lighted the sailors in their work; the agitated
waves being illuminated with the most dazzling brilliancy.  The
majestic rolling of the thunder drowned the captain's voice, and the
white foaming billows broke with such terrific force over the deck,
that it appeared as if they would carry everything with them into
the depths of the ocean.  Unless there had been ropes stretched on
each side of the ship for the sailors to catch hold of, the latter
would most certainly have been washed away.  Such a storm as this
affords much food for reflection.  You are alone upon the boundless
ocean, far from all human help, and feel more than ever that your
life depends upon the Almighty alone.  The man who, in such a
dreadful and solemn moment, can still believe there is no God, must
indeed be irretrievably struck with mental blindness.  A feeling of
tranquil joy always comes over me during such great convulsions of
Nature. I very often had myself bound near the binnacle, and let the
tremendous waves break over me, in order to absorb, as it were, as
much of the spectacle before me as possible; on no occasion did I
ever feel alarmed, but always confident and resigned.

At the expiration of four hours the storm had worn itself out, and
was succeeded by a perfect calm.

On the 10th of January we caught sight of several sea-turtles and a
whale.  The latter was only a young one, about forty feet long.

11th January.  We were now off the Rio Plata, {59} and found the
temperature very perceptibly cooler.

Up to the present time we had seen no signs of sea-tangle or
molluscae, but during the night we beheld some molluscae for the
first time, shining like stars at a great depth below the surface of
the water.

In these latitudes the constellation of the southern cross keeps
increasing in brilliancy and beauty, though it is far from being as
wonderful as it is said to be.  The stars in it, four in number, and
disposed somewhat in the following manner, **** are, it is true,
large and splendid; but they did not excite, either in myself or any
other person of our company, much more admiration than the other

As a general rule, many travellers exaggerate a great deal.  On the
one hand, they often describe things which they have never seen
themselves, and only know from hearsay; and, on the other, they
adorn what they really have seen with a little too much imagination.

16th January.  In 37 degrees South lat. we fell in with a strong
current, running from south to north, and having a yellow streak
down the middle of it.  The captain said that this streak was caused
by a shoal of small fishes.  I had some water drawn up in a bucket,
and really found a few dozen living creatures, which, in my opinion,
however, belonged rather to some species of molluscae than to any
kind of fish.  They were about three-quarters of an inch long, and
as transparent as the most delicate water-bubbles; they were marked
with white and light yellow spots on the forepart of their bodies,
and had a few feelers underneath.

In the night of the 20th to 21st of January we were overtaken by a
very violent storm, which so damaged our mainmast that the captain
determined on running into some haven on the first opportunity, and
putting in a new one.  For the present the old one was made fast
with cables, iron chains, and braces.

In 43 degrees North lat. we saw the first sea-tangle.  The
temperature had by this time very perceptibly decreased in warmth,
the glass often standing no higher than 59 or 63 degrees Fah.

23rd January.  We were so near Patagonia that we could distinctly
make out the outline of the coast.

26th January.  We still kept near the land.  In 50 degrees South
lat. we saw the chalky mountains of Patagonia.  Today we passed the
Falkland Islands, which stretched from 51 to 52 degrees South lat.
We did not see them, however, as we kept as near the land as
possible, in order not to miss the Straits of Magellan.  For some
days the captain had been studying an English book, which, in his
opinion, clearly proved that the passage through the Straits of
Magellan was far less dangerous and far shorter than that round Cape
Horn.  I asked him how it happened that other sailors knew nothing
of this valuable book, and why all vessels bound for the western
coast of America went round Cape Horn?  He could give me no other
answer than that the book was very dear, and that that was the
reason no one bought it. {60}

To me this bold idea of the captain's was extremely welcome.  I
already pictured in my mind the six-feet tall Patagonians putting
off to us in their boats; I saw myself taking their mussels, plants,
ornaments, and weapons in exchange for coloured ribbons and
handkerchiefs; while, to render my satisfaction complete, the
captain said that he should land at Port Famine (a Patagonian haven)
to supply the injured portion of our mainmast.  How thankful was I,
in secret, to the storm for having reduced our ship to her present

Too soon, however, were all my flattering hopes and dreams
dispelled.  On the 27th of January the latitude and longitude were
taken, and it was then found that the Straits of Magellan were
twenty-seven minutes (or nautical miles) behind us, but as we were
becalmed, the captain promised, in case a favourable wind should
spring up, to endeavour to return as far as the Straits.

I placed no more confidence in this promise, and I was right.  About
noon a scarcely perceptible breeze sprang up, which the captain, in
high spirits, pronounced a favourable one--for rounding Cape Horn.
If he had ever really intended to pass through the Straits, he would
only have had to cruise about for a few hours, for the wind soon
changed and blew directly in the desired direction.

28th January.  We were constantly so near Terra del Fuego that we
could make out every bush with the naked eye.  We could have reached
the land in an hour, without retarding our voyage in the least, for
we were frequently becalmed; but the captain would not consent, as
the wind might spring up every instant.

The coast appeared rather steep, but not high; the foreground was
composed of meagre pasture alternating with tracts of sand, and in
the background were ranges of woody hills, beyond which rose snow-
covered mountains.  On the whole, the country struck me as being
much more inhabitable than the Island of Iceland, which I had
visited a year and a half previously.  The temperature, too, must
here be higher, as even at sea we had 54 degrees 5' and 59 degrees

I saw three kinds of sea-tangle, but could only obtain a specimen of
one, resembling that which I had seen in 44 degrees South lat.  The
second kind was not very different, and it was only the third that
had pointed leaves, several of which together formed a sort of fan
several feet long and broad.

On the 30th of January we passed very near the Staten Islands, lying
between 56 and 57 degrees South lat.  They are composed of bare high
mountains, and separated from Terra del Fuego by an arm of the sea,
called Le Maire, only seven miles long and about the same distance

The captain told us, seaman-like, that on one occasion of his
sailing through these Straits, his ship had got into a strong
current, and regularly danced, turning round during the passage at
least a thousand times!  I had already lost a great deal of
confidence in the captain's tales, but I kept my eye steadily fixed
upon a Hamburgh brig, that happened to be sailing ahead, to see
whether she would dance; but neither she nor our own bark was so
obliging.  Neither vessels turned even once, and the only
circumstance worthy of remark was the heaving and foaming of the
waves in the Strait, while at both ends the sea lay majestically
calm before our eyes.  We had passed the Strait in an hour, and I
took the liberty of asking the captain why our ship had not danced,
to which he replied that it was because we had had both wind and
current with us.  It is, perhaps, possible that under other
circumstances the vessel might have turned round once or twice, but
I strongly doubt its doing so a thousand times.  This was, however,
a favourite number with our worthy captain.  One of the gentlemen
once asked him some question about the first London hotels, and was
told that it was impossible to remember their names, as there were
above a thousand of the first class.

Near the Strait Le Maire begins, in the opinion of seamen, the
dangerous part of the passage round Cape Horn, and ends off the
Straits of Magellan.  Immediately we entered it we were greeted with
two most violent bursts of wind, each of which lasted about half an
hour; they came from the neighbouring icy chasms in the mountains of
Terra del Fuego, and split two sails, and broke the great studding
sail-yard, although the sailors were numerous and quick.  The
distance from the end of the Strait Le Maire to the extreme point of
the Cape is calculated to be not more than seventy miles, and yet
this trifling passage cost us three days.

At last, on the 3rd of February, we were fortunate enough to reach
the southernmost point of America, so dreaded by all mariners.
Bare, pointed mountains, one of which looks like a crater that has
fallen in, form the extremity of the mighty mountain-chain, and a
magnificent group of colossal black rocks (basalt?), of all shapes
and sizes, are scattered at some distance in advance, and are
separated only by a small arm of the sea.  The extreme point of Cape
Horn is 600 feet high.  At this spot, according to our works on
geography, the Atlantic Ocean changes its name and assumes that of
the Pacific.  Sailors, however, do not give it the latter
designation before reaching the Straits of Magellan, as up to this
point the sea is continually stormy and agitated, as we learned to
our cost, being driven by violent storms as far back as 60 degrees
South lat.  Besides this, we lost our top-mast, which was broken
off, and which, in spite of the heavy sea, had to be replaced; the
vessel, meanwhile, being so tossed about, that we were often unable
to take our meals at the table, but were obliged to squat down upon
the ground, and hold our plates in our hands.  On one of these fine
days the steward stumbled with the coffee-pot, and deluged me with
its burning contents.  Luckily, only a small portion fell upon my
hands, so that the accident was not a very serious one.

After battling for fourteen days with winds and waves, with rain and
cold, {62} we at last arrived off the western entrance to the
Straits of Magellan, having accomplished the most dangerous portion
of our voyage.  During these fourteen days we saw very few whales or
albatrosses, and not one iceberg.

We thought that we should now quietly pursue our way upon the placid
sea, trusting confidently in its peaceful name.  For three whole
days we had nothing to complain of; but in the night of the 19th to
the 20th of February, we were overtaken by a storm worthy of the
Atlantic itself, which lasted for nearly twenty-four hours, and cost
us four sails.  We suffered most damage from the tremendous waves,
which broke with such fury over the ship, that they tore up one of
the planks of the deck, and let the water into the cargo of sugar.
The deck itself was like a lake, and the portholes had to be opened
in order to get rid of the water more quickly.  The water leaked in
the hold at the rate of two inches an hour.  We could not light any
fire, and were obliged to content ourselves with bread and cheese
and raw ham, which we with great difficulty conveyed to our mouth as
we sat upon the ground.

The last cask of lamp oil, too, fell a sacrifice to this storm,
having been torn from its fastenings, and broken into pieces.  The
captain was very apprehensive of not having enough oil to light the
compass till we arrived at Valparaiso; and all the lamps on the ship
were, in consequence, replaced by candles, and the small quantity of
oil remaining kept for the compass.  In spite of all these
annoyances, we kept up our spirits, and even, during the storm, we
could scarcely refrain from laughing at the comical positions we all
fell into whenever we attempted to stand up.

The remainder of the voyage to Valparaiso was calm, but excessively
disagreeable.  The captain wished to present a magnificent
appearance on arriving, so that the good people might believe that
wind and waves could not injure his fine vessel.  He had the whole
ship painted from top to bottom with oil colours; even the little
doors in the cabins were not spared this infliction.  Not content
with creating a most horrible disturbance over our heads, the
carpenter invaded even our cabins, filling all our things with
sawdust and dirt, so that we poor passengers had not a dry or quiet
place of refuge in the whole ship.  Just as much as we had been
pleased with Captain Bell's politeness during all the previous part
of the voyage, were we indignant at his behaviour during the last
five or six days.  But we could offer no resistance, for the captain
is an autocrat on board his own ship, knowing neither a constitution
nor any other limit to his despotic power.

At 6 o'clock in the morning of the 2nd of March, we ran into the
port of Valparaiso.



The appearance of Valparaiso is dull and monotonous.  The town is
laid out in two long streets at the foot of dreary hills, which look
like gigantic masses of sand, but which really consist of large
rocks covered with thin layers of earth and sand.  On some of these
hills are houses, and on one of them is the churchyard, which,
combined with the wooden church towers, built in the Spanish style,
relieves, in a slight degree, the wearisome uniformity of the
prospect.  Not less astounding than the deserted look of the port,
was the miserably wretched landing-place, which is composed of a
high wooden quay, about 100 feet long, stretching out into the sea,
with narrow steps, like ladders, against the side.  It was a most
pitiable sight to see a lady attempting to go up or down:  all
persons who were in the least weak or awkward, had to be let down
with ropes.

The two principal streets are tolerably broad, and very much
frequented, especially by horsemen.  Every Chilian is born a
horseman; and some of their horses are such fine animals, that you
involuntarily stop to admire their proud action, their noble
bearing, and the nice symmetry of their limbs.

The stirrups are curiously formed, consisting of long, heavy pieces
of wood, hollowed out, and into which the rider places the tips of
his feet.  The spurs are remarkably large, and are often about four
inches in diameter.

The houses are constructed completely in the European style, with
flat Italian roofs.  The more ancient buildings have only a ground
floor, and are small and ugly, while most of the modern ones have a
spacious and handsome first floor.  The interior, too, of the latter
is generally very tasty.  Large steps conduct into a lofty well-
ventilated entrance-hall on the first floor, from which the visitor
passes, through large glass doors, into the drawing-room and other
apartments.  The drawing-room is the pride, not only of every
European who has settled in the country, but also of the Chilians,
who often spend very large sums in the decorations.  Heavy carpets
cover all the floor; rich tapestry hangs against the walls;
furniture and mirrors of the most costly description are procured
from Europe; and on the tables are strewed magnificent albums,
adorned with the most artistic engravings.  The elegant fire-places,
however, convinced me that the winters here are not as mild as the
inhabitants would fain have had me believe.

Of all the public buildings, the Theatre and the Exchange are the
finest.  The interior of the former is very neat, and contains a
roomy pit and two galleries, portioned off as boxes.  The
inhabitants of the town patronise the theatre a great deal, but not
so much on account of the Italian operas played there, as for the
sake of possessing a common place of meeting.  The ladies always
come in full dress, and mutual visits are made in the boxes, all of
which are very spacious, and beautifully furnished with mirrors,
carpets, sofas, and chairs.

The second fine building, the Exchange, comprises a good-sized,
cheerful hall, with convenient rooms adjoining.  From the hall there
is a pleasant view over the town and sea.  The building belonging to
the "German Club" contains some fine apartments, with reading and
card rooms.

The only thing that pleased me about the churches were the towers,
which consist of two or three octagons, placed one above the other,
and each one supported by eight columns.  They are composed of wood,
the altars and pillars of the nave being of the same material.  The
nave itself presents rather a poor and naked appearance, occasioned
in a great degree by the absence of sittings.  The men stand, and
the women bring with them little carpets, which they spread before
them, and on which they either kneel or sit.  Ladies in easy
circumstances have their carpets brought by their maids.  The
cathedral is called La Matriza.

The public promenades of Valparaiso are not very pleasant, as most
of the side-walks and roads are covered almost a foot deep with sand
and dust, which the slightest breath of wind is sufficient to raise
in thick clouds.  After 10 o'clock in the morning, when the sea-
breeze begins blowing, the whole town is very often enveloped by it.
A great many persons are said to die here from diseases of the chest
and lungs.  The most frequented places of resort are Polanka and the
lighthouse.  Near the latter, especially, the prospect is very
beautiful, extending, as it does, on a clear day, as far as some of
the majestic snow-covered spurs of the Andes.

The streets, as I have already mentioned, are tolerably lively:
peculiar omnibuses and cabriolets traverse them frequently.  The
fare from one end of the town to the other is one real (2.5d.)
There are also a great number of asses, mostly employed in carrying
water and provisions.

The lower classes are remarkably ugly.  The Chilians have a
yellowish brown complexion, thick black hair, most unpleasant
features, and such a peculiarly repulsive cast of countenance, that
any physiognomist would straightway pronounce them to be robbers or
pickpockets at the least.  Captain Bell had told me a great deal of
the extraordinary honesty of these people; and, in his usual
exaggerated manner, assured us that a person might leave a purse of
gold lying in the street, with the certainty of finding it the next
day on the same spot; but, in spite of this, I must frankly confess,
that for my own part, I should be rather fearful of meeting these
honest creatures, even by day, in a lonely spot, with the money in
my pocket.

I had subsequently opportunities of convincing myself of the
fallaciousness of the captain's opinion, for I often met with
convicts, chained together, and employed in the public buildings and
cleaning the roads.  The windows and doors, too, are secured with
bolts and bars in a manner almost unknown in any town of Europe.  At
night, in all the streets, and on all the hills which are inhabited,
are parties of police, who call out to one another in exactly the
same manner that the advanced posts do during a campaign.  Mounted
patrols also traverse the town in every direction, and persons
returning alone from the theatre or from a party, often engage their
services to conduct them home.  Burglariously entering a house is
punished with death.  All these precautions do not, most decidedly,
argue much for the honesty of the people.

I will take this opportunity of mentioning a scene, of which I was
myself an eye-witness, as it happened before my window.  A little
boy was carrying a number of plates and dishes on a board, when the
latter unluckily slipped from his grasp, and all the crockery lay in
fragments at his feet.  At first, the poor fellow was so frightened
that he stood like a column, gazing with a fixed look at the pieces,
and then began to cry most bitterly.  The passers-by stopped, it is
true, to look at the unfortunate child, but did not evince the least
compassion; they laughed, and went on.  In any other place, they
would have raised a little subscription, or at least pitied and
consoled him, but certainly would not have seen anything to laugh
at.  The circumstance is of itself a mere trifle, but it is exactly
by such trifles that we are often enabled to form a true estimate of
people's real characters.

Another adventure, also, but of quite a different and most horrible
kind, happened during my stay in Valparaiso.

As I have already remarked, it is the custom here, as well as in
many countries of Europe, to sentence criminals to hard labour on
public works.  One of the convicts endeavoured to bribe his gaoler
to let him escape, and so far succeeded that the latter promised on
his paying an ounce (17 Spanish dollars--3 pounds 8s.) to give him
an opportunity for flight.  The prisoners are allowed every morning
and afternoon to receive the visits of their friends and relations,
and likewise to accept provisions from them.  The wife of the
convict in question profited by this regulation to bring her husband
the necessary money; and on receiving this, the gaoler arranged
matters so that on the next morning the convict was not fastened to
the same chain with a fellow-criminal, as is usually the case, but
could walk alone, and thus easily get clear off, more especially as
the spot in which they worked was a very lonely one.

The whole affair was very cunningly arranged, but either the gaoler
changed his mind, or, perhaps, from the beginning had intended to
act as he did--he fired at the fugitive, and shot him dead.

It is very seldom that any pure descendants of the original
inhabitants are to be seen; we met with only two.  They struck me as
very similar to the Puris of Brazil, except that they have not such
small ugly-shaped eyes.  In this country there are no slaves.

The dress of the Chilians is quite in the European taste, especially
as regards the women.  The only difference with the men is that,
instead of a coat, they frequently wear the Poncho, which is
composed of two pieces of cloth or merino, each about one ell broad
and two ells long.  The two pieces are sewn together, with the
exception of an opening in the middle for the head to pass through;
the whole garment reaches down to the hips, and resembles a square
cape.  The Poncho is worn of all colours, green, blue, bright red,
etc., and looks very handsome, especially when embroidered all round
with coloured silk, which is the case when the wearer is opulent.
In the streets, the women invariably wear large scarfs, which they
draw over their heads in church.

My intention, on coming to Chili, was to stop for a few weeks in
order to have time for an excursion to the capital, Santiago, and
after that to proceed to China, as I had been told in Rio Janeiro
that there was a ship from Valparaiso to China every month.
Unfortunately this was not the case.  I found that vessels bound to
that country were very seldom to be met with, but that there
happened to be one at that moment, which would sail in five or six
days.  I was generally advised not to lose the opportunity, but
rather to abandon my design of visiting Santiago.  I reflected for a
little, and agreed to do so, although with a heavy heart; and in
order to avoid all disappointment, immediately went to the captain,
who offered to take me for 200 Spanish dollars (40 pounds).  I
agreed, and had five days left, which I determined to spend in
carefully examining Valparaiso and its environs.  I should have had
plenty of time to pay Santiago a flying visit, since it is only 130
miles from Valparaiso, but the expenses would have been very heavy,
as there is no public conveyance, and consequently I should have
been obliged to hire a carriage for myself.  Besides this, I should
have derived but little satisfaction from the mere superficial
impressions which would have been all I could have obtained of
either town.

I contented myself, therefore, with Valparaiso alone.  I toiled
industriously up the surrounding hills and mountains, visited the
huts of the lower classes, witnessed their national dances, etc.,
determined that here at least I would become acquainted with

On some of the hills, especially on the Serra Allegri, there are the
most lovely country-houses, with elegant gardens, and a most
beautiful view over the sea.  The prospect inland is not so fine, as
chains of tall, naked, ugly mountains rise up behind the hills, and
completely shut in the scene.

The huts of the poor people are miserably bad, being mostly built of
clay and wood, and threatening to fall down every moment.  I hardly
ventured to enter them, thinking that the interior was of a piece
with the exterior, and was consequently astonished at seeing not
only good beds, chairs, and tables, but very often elegant little
altars adorned with flowers.  The inmates, too, were far from being
badly dressed, and the linen hung out before many of these hovels
struck me as superior to much that I had seen at the windows of some
of the most elegant houses situated in the principal streets of the
towns of Sicily.

A very good idea of the manners and customs of the people may be
easily obtained by strolling, on Sundays and fete days, near
Polanka, and visiting the eating-houses.

I will introduce my reader to one of these places.  In one corner,
on the ground, burns a fierce fire, surrounded by innumerable pots
and pans, between which are wooden spits with beef and pork,
simmering and roasting in the most enticing manner.  An ungainly
wooden framework, with a long broad plank on it, occupies the middle
of the room, and is covered with a cloth whose original colour it
would be an impossibility to determine.  This is the table at which
the guests sit.  During the dinner itself the old patriarchal
customs are observed, with this difference, that not only do all the
guests eat out of one dish, but that all the eatables are served up
in one, and one only.  Beans and rice, potatoes and roast beef,
Paradise apples and onions, etc., etc., lie quietly side by side,
and are devoured in the deepest silence.  At the end of the repast,
a goblet, filled with wine, or sometimes merely water, is passed
from hand to hand, and after this had gone round, the company begin
to talk.  In the evening dancing is vigorously pursued to the music
of a guitar; unfortunately, it was Lent during my visit, when all
public amusements are prohibited.  The people themselves, however,
were not so particular, and were only too ready, for a few reaux, to
go through the Sammaquecca and Refolosa--the national dances of the
country.  I had soon seen sufficient; the gestures and movements of
the dancers were beyond all description unbecoming, and I could but
pity the children, whose natural modesty cannot fail to be nipped in
the bud by witnessing the performance of these dances.

I was equally displeased with a remarkable custom prevalent here, in
accordance with which the death of a little child is celebrated by
its parents as a grand festival.  They name the deceased child an
angelito, (little angel), and adorn it in every possible way.  Its
eyes are not closed, but, on the contrary, opened as wide as
possible, and its cheeks are painted red; it is then dressed out in
the finest clothes, crowned with flowers, and placed in a little
chair in a kind of niche, which also is ornamented with flowers.
The relations and neighbours then come and wish the parents joy at
possessing such an angel; and, during the first night, the parents,
relations, and friends execute the wildest dances, and feast in the
most joyous fashion before the angelito.  I heard that in the
country it was not unusual for the parents to carry the little
coffin to the churchyard themselves, followed by the relations with
the brandy bottle in their hands, and giving vent to their joy in
the most outrageous manner.

A merchant told me that one of his friends, who holds a judicial
appointment, had, a short time previous, been called to decide a
curious case.  A grave-digger was carrying one of these deceased
angels to the churchyard, when he stept into a tavern to take a
dram.  The landlord inquired what he had got under his poncho, and
on learning that it was an angelito, offered him two reaux for it.
The gravedigger consented; the landlord quickly arranged a niche
with flowers in the drinking-room, and then hastened to inform the
whole neighbourhood what a treasure he had got.  They all came,
admired the little angel, and drank and feasted in its honour.  But
the parents also soon heard of it, hurried down to the tavern, took
away their child, and had the landlord brought before the
magistrate.  On hearing the case, the latter could scarcely restrain
from laughing, but arranged the matter amicably, as such a crime was
not mentioned in the statute book.

The manner in which patients are conveyed to the hospital here is
very remarkable.  They are placed upon a simple wooden armchair,
with one band fastened in front of them to prevent their falling
off, and another beneath for them to place their feet on--a most
horrible sight when the sick person is so weak that he can no longer
hold himself in an upright posture.

I was not a little astonished on hearing that, in this country,
where there is yet no post, or, indeed, any regular means of
conveyance from one place to another, that a railroad was about
being constructed from here to Santiago.  The work has been
undertaken by an English company, and the necessary measurements
already begun.  As the localities are very mountainous, the railroad
will have to make considerable windings, in order to profit by the
level tracts, and this will occasion an enormous outlay, quite out
of proportion to the present state of trade or the amount of
passenger traffic.  At present, there are not more than two or three
vehicles a day from one place to the other, and if by chance ten or
fifteen passengers come from Santiago to Valparaiso, the thing is
talked of over the whole town.  This has given rise to the belief
that the construction of a railroad has merely been seized on as an
excuse, in order to enable those concerned to search about the
country undisturbed for gold and silver.

Persons discovering mines are highly favoured, and have full right
of property to their discovery, being obliged merely to notify the
same to the government.  This licence is pushed to such an extent,
that if, for instance, a person can advance any plausible grounds
for asserting that he has found a mine in a particular spot, such as
under a church or house, etc., he is at liberty to have either
pulled down, provided he is rich enough to pay for the damage done.

About fifteen years ago, a donkey driver accidentally hit upon a
productive silver mine.  He was driving several asses over the
mountain, when one of them ran away.  He seized a stone, and was
about to throw it after the animal, but stumbled and fell to the
ground, while the stone escaped from his grasp, and rolled away.
Rising in a great passion, he snatched a second from the earth, and
had drawn his arm to throw the stone, when he was struck by its
uncommon weight.  He looked at it more closely, and perceived that
it was streaked with rich veins of pure silver.  He preserved the
stone as a treasure, marked the spot, drove his asses home, and then
communicated his important discovery to one of his friends, who was
a miner.  Both of them then returned to the place, which the miner
examined, and pronounced the soil full of precious ore.  Nothing was
now wanting save capital to carry on their operations.  This they
procured by taking the miner's employer into partnership, and in a
few years all three were rich men.

The six days had now elapsed, and the captain sent me a message to
be on board with my bag and baggage the next day, as he intended
putting out to sea in the evening; but on the morning of his
intended departure, my evil genius conducted a French man-of-war
into the harbour.  Little imagining that this was destined to
overturn all my plans, I proceeded very tranquilly to the landing-
place, where I met the captain hastening to meet me, with a long
story about his half-cargo, and the necessity he was under of
completing his freight with provisions for the use of the French
garrison at Tahiti, and so forth:  in a word, the end of the matter
was, that I was informed we should have to stop another five days.

In the first burst of my disappointment, I paid a visit to the
Sardinian Consul, Herr Bayerbach, and told him of the position in
which I was placed.  He consoled me, in a most kind and gentlemanly
manner, as well as he could; and on learning that I had already
taken up my quarters on board, insisted on my occupying a chamber in
his country-house in the Serra Allegri.  Besides this, he introduced
me to several families, where I passed many very pleasant hours, and
had the opportunity of inspecting some excellent collections of
mussel-shells and insects.

Our departure was again deferred from day to day; so that, although,
in this manner, I spent fifteen days in Chili, I saw nothing more of
it than Valparaiso and its immediate neighbourhood.

As Valparaiso is situated to the south of the Equator, and, as is
well known, the seasons of the southern hemisphere are exactly the
contrary of those of the northern, it was now autumn.  I saw (34
degrees South latitude) almost the same kinds of fruits and
vegetables as those we have in Germany, especially grapes and
melons.  The apples and pears were not so good nor so abundant as
with us.

In conclusion, I will here give a list of the prices which
travellers have to pay for certain things:--

A room that is at all decent in a private house costs four or five
reaux (2s.) a day; the table d'hote a piaster (4s.); but washing is
more expensive than anything else, on account of the great scarcity
of water, for every article, large or small, costs a real (6d.).  A
passport, too, is excessively dear, being charged eight Spanish
dollars (1 pounds 12s.).



On the 17th of March, Captain Van Wyk Jurianse sent me word that his
ship was ready for sea, and that he should set sail the next
morning.  The news was very unwelcome to me, as, for the last two
days, I had been suffering from English cholera, which on board
ship, where the patient cannot procure meat broth or any other light
nourishment, and where he is always more exposed to the sudden
changes of the weather than he is on shore, is very apt to be
attended with grave results.  I did not, however, wish to miss the
opportunity of visiting China, knowing how rarely it occurred, nor
was I desirous of losing the two hundred dollars (40 pounds) already
paid for my passage, and I therefore went on board, trusting in my
good luck, which had never forsaken me on my travels.

During the first few days, I endeavoured to master my illness by
observing a strict diet, and abstaining from almost everything, but
to no purpose.  I still continued to suffer, until I luckily thought
of using salt-water baths.  I took them in a large tub, in which I
remained a quarter of an hour.  After the second bath, I felt much
better, and after the sixth, I was completely recovered.  I merely
mention this malady, to which I was very subject in warm climates,
that I may have the opportunity of remarking, that sea-baths or
cooling drinks, such as buttermilk, sour milk, sherbet, orangeade,
etc., are very efficacious remedies.

The ship in which I made my present voyage, was the Dutch barque
Lootpuit, a fine, strong vessel, quite remarkable for its
cleanliness.  The table was pretty good, too, with the exception of
a few Dutch dishes, and a superfluity of onions.  To these, which
played a prominent part in everything that was served up, I really
could not accustom myself, and felt greatly delighted that a large
quantity of this noble production of the vegetable kingdom became
spoilt during the voyage.

The captain was a polite and kind man, and the mates and sailors
were also civil and obliging.  In fact, as a general rule, in every
ship that I embarked in, I was far from finding seamen so rough and
uncivil as travellers often represent them to be.  Their manners are
certainly not the most polished in the world, neither are they
extraordinarily attentive or delicate, but their hearts and
dispositions are mostly good.

After three days' sailing, we saw, on the 21st March, the island of
St. Felix, and on the morning following, St. Ambrosio.  They both
consist of naked, inhospitable masses of rock, and serve at most as
resting places for a few gulls.

We were now within the tropics, but found the heat greatly moderated
by the trade wind, and only unbearable in the cabin.

For nearly a month did we now sail on, without the slightest
interruption, free from storms, with the same monotonous prospect of
sky and water before us, until, on the 19th of April, we reached the
Archipelago of the Society Islands.  This Archipelago, stretching
from 130 to 140 degrees longitude, is very dangerous, as most of the
islands composing it scarcely rise above the surface of the water;
in fact, to make out David Clark's Island, which was only twelve
miles distant, the captain was obliged to mount to the shrouds.

During the night of the 21st to the 22nd of April we were overtaken
by a sudden and violent storm, accompanied by heavy thunder; this
storm our captain termed a thunder-gust.  While it lasted flashes of
lightning frequently played around the mast-top, occasioned by
electricity.  They generally flutter for two or three minutes about
the most elevated point of any object, and then disappear.

The night of the 22nd to the 23rd of April was a very dangerous one;
even the captain said so.  We had to pass several of the low islands
in dark rainy weather, which completely concealed the moon from us.
About midnight our position was rendered worse by the springing up
of a strong wind, which, together with incessant flashes of
lightning, caused us to expect another squall; luckily, however,
morning broke, and we escaped both the storm and the islands.

In the course of the day we passed the Bice Islands, and two days
later, on the 25th of April, we beheld one of the Society Islands,

On the following morning, being the thirty-ninth of our voyage, we
came in sight of Tahiti, and the island opposite to it, Emao, also
called Moreo.  The entrance into Papeiti, the port of Tahiti, is
exceedingly dangerous; it is surrounded by reefs of coral as by a
fortress, while wild and foaming breakers, rolling on every side,
leave but a small place open through which a vessel can steer.

A pilot came out to meet us, and, although the wind was so
unfavourable that the sails had to be trimmed every instant, steered
us safely into port.  Afterwards, when we had landed, we were
congratulated heartily on our good fortune; every one had watched
our course with the greatest anxiety, and, at the last turn the ship
took, expected to see her strike upon a coral reef.  This misfortune
had happened to a French man-of-war, that at the period of our
arrival had been lying at anchor for some months, engaged in
repairing the damage done.

Before we could come to an anchor we were surrounded by half-a-dozen
pirogues, or boats, manned by Indians, who climbed up from all sides
upon the deck to offer us fruit and shell-fish, but not as formerly
for red rags or glass beads--such golden times for travellers are
over.  They demanded money, and were as grasping and cunning in
their dealings as the most civilized Europeans.  I offered one of
them a small bronze ring; he took it, smelt it, shook his head, and
gave me to understand that it was not gold.  He remarked another
ring on my finger, and seizing hold of my hand, smelt this second
ring as well, then twisted his face into a friendly smile, and made
signs for me to give him the ornament in question.  I afterwards had
frequent opportunities of remarking that the natives of these
islands have the power of distinguishing between pure and
counterfeit gold by the smell.

Some years ago the island of Tahiti was under the protection of the
English, but at present it is under that of the French.  It had long
been a subject of dispute between the two nations, until a friendly
understanding was at last come to in November, 1846.  Queen Pomare,
who had fled to another island, had returned to Papeiti five weeks
before my arrival.  She resides in a four-roomed house, and dines
daily, with her family, at the governor's table.  The French
government is having a handsome house built for her use, and allows
her a pension of 25,000 francs per annum (1 pounds,041 13s. 4d.).
No stranger is allowed to visit her without the governor's
permission, but this is easily obtained.

Papeiti was full of French troops, and several men-of-war were lying
at anchor.

The place contains three or four thousand inhabitants, and consists
of a row of small wooden houses, skirting the harbour, and separated
by small gardens.  In the immediate background is a fine wood, with
a number of huts scattered about in different parts of it.

The principal buildings are--the governor's house, the French
magazines, the military bakehouse, the barracks, and the queen's
house, which however is not quite completed.  Besides these, a
number of small wooden houses were in the course of erection, the
want of them being greatly felt; at the time of my visit even
officers of high rank were obliged to be contented with the most
wretched huts.

I went from hut to hut in the hopes of being able to obtain some
small room or other; but in vain, all were already occupied.  I was
at last obliged to be satisfied with a small piece of ground, which
I found at a carpenter's, whose room was already inhabited by four
different individuals.  I was shown a place behind the door, exactly
six feet long and four broad.  There was no flooring but the earth
itself; the walls were composed of wicker work; a bed was quite out
of the question, and yet for this accommodation I was obliged to pay
one florin and thirty kreutzers a-week (about 7s.)

The residence or hut of an Indian consists simply of a roof of palm-
trees, supported on a number of poles, with sometimes the addition
of walls formed of wicker-work.  Each hut contains only one room,
from twenty to fifty feet long, and from ten to thirty feet broad,
and is frequently occupied by several families at the same time.
The furniture is composed of finely woven straw mats, a few
coverlids, and two or three wooden chests and stools; the last,
however, are reckoned articles of luxury.  Cooking utensils are not
wanted, as the cookery of the Indians does not include soups or
sauces, their provisions being simply roasted between hot stones.
All they require is a knife, and a cocoa shell for water.

Before their huts, or on the shore, lie their piroques, formed of
the trunks of trees hollowed out, and so narrow, small, and shallow,
that they would constantly be overturning, if there were not on one
side five or six sticks, each about a foot long, fastened by a
cross-bar to preserve the equilibrium.  In spite of this, however,
one of these boats is very easily upset, unless a person steps in
very cautiously.  When, on one occasion, I proceeded in a piroque to
the ship, the good-hearted captain was horror-struck, and, in his
concern for my safety, even reprimanded me severely, and besought me
not to repeat the experiment a second time.

The costume of the Indians has been, since the first settlement of
the missionaries (about fifty years ago), tolerably becoming,
especially in the neighbourhood of Papeiti.  Both men and women wear
round their loins a kind of apron, made of coloured stuff, and
called a pareo; the women let it fall as low down as their ancles;
the men not farther than the calf of the leg.  The latter have a
short coloured shirt underneath it, and again beneath that, large
flowing trousers.  The women wear a long full blouse.  Both sexes
wear flowers in their ears, which have such large holes bored in
them that the stalk can very easily be drawn through.  The women,
both old and young, adorn themselves with garlands of leaves and
flowers, which they make in the most artistic and elegant manner.  I
have often seen men, too, weaving the same kind of ornament.

On grand occasions, they cast over their ordinary dress an upper
garment, called a tiputa, the cloth of which they manufacture
themselves from the bark of the bread and cocoa trees.  The bark,
while still tender, is beaten between two stones, until it is as
thin as paper; it is then coloured yellow and brown.

One Sunday I went into the meeting-house to see the people assembled
there. {73}  Before entering they all laid aside their flowers, with
which they again ornamented themselves at their departure.  Some of
the women had black satin blouses on, and European bonnets of an
exceedingly ancient date.  It would not be easy to find a more ugly
sight than that of their plump, heavy heads and faces in these old-
fashioned bonnets.

During the singing of the psalms there was some degree of attention,
and many of the congregation joined in very becomingly; but while
the clergyman was performing the service, I could not remark the
slightest degree of devotion in any of them; the children played,
joked, and ate, while the adults gossiped or slept; and although I
was assured that many could read and even write, I saw only two old
men who made any use of their Bibles.

The men are a remarkably strong and vigorous race, six feet being by
no means an uncommon height amongst them.  The women, likewise, are
very tall, but too muscular--they might even be termed unwieldy.
The features of the men are handsomer than those of the women.  They
have beautiful teeth and fine dark eyes, but generally a large
mouth, thick lips, and an ugly nose, the cartilage being slightly
crushed when the child is born, so that the nose becomes flat and
broad.  This fashion appears to be most popular with the females,
for their noses are the ugliest.  Their hair is jet black and thick,
but coarse; the women and girls generally wear it plaited in two
knots.  The colour of their skin is a copper-brown.  All the natives
are tattooed, generally from the hips half down the legs, and
frequently this mode of ornamenting themselves is extended to the
hands, feet, or other parts of the body.  The designs resemble
arabesques; they are regular and artistic in their composition, and
executed with much taste.

That the population of this place should be so vigorous and well-
formed is the more surprising, if we reflect on their depraved and
immoral kind of life.  Little girls of seven or eight years old have
their lovers of twelve or fourteen, and their parents are quite
proud of the fact.  The more lovers a girl has the more she is
respected.  As long as she is not married she leads a most dissolute
life, and it is said that not all the married women make the most
faithful wives possible.

I had frequent opportunities of seeing the national dances, which
are the most unbecoming I ever beheld, although every painter would
envy me my good fortune.  Let the reader picture to himself a grove
of splendid palms, and other gigantic trees of the torrid zone, with
a number of open huts, and a crowd of good-humoured islanders
assembled beneath, to greet, in their fashion, the lovely evening,
which is fast approaching.  Before one of the huts a circle is
formed, and in the centre sit two herculean and half-naked natives,
beating time most vigorously on small drums.  Five similar colossi
are seated before them, moving the upper parts of their bodies in
the most horrible and violent manner, and more especially the arms,
hands, and fingers; the latter they have the power of moving in
every separate joint.  I imagine, that by these gestures they
desired to represent how they pursue their enemy, ridicule his
cowardice, rejoice at their victory, and so forth.  During all this
time they howl continually in a most discordant manner, and make the
most hideous faces.  At the commencement, the men appear alone upon
the scene of action, but after a short time two female forms dart
forward from among the spectators, and dance and rave like two
maniacs; the more unbecoming, bold, and indecent their gestures, the
greater the applause.  The whole affair does not, at most, last
longer than two minutes, and the pause before another dance is
commenced not much longer.  An evening's amusement of this
description often lasts for hours.  The younger members of society
very seldom take any part in the dances.

It is a great question whether the immorality of these islanders has
been lessened by French civilization.  From my own observations, as
well as from what I was told by persons well informed on the
subject, I should say that this has not yet been the case, and that,
for the present, there is but little hope of its being so:  while,
on the other side, the natives have acquired a number of useless
wants, in consequence of which, the greed for gold has been
fearfully awakened in their breasts.  As they are naturally very
lazy, and above all things disinclined to work, they have made the
female portion of the community the means of gaining money.
Parents, brothers, and even husbands, offer to their foreign masters
those belonging to them, while the women themselves offer no
opposition, as in this manner they can obtain the means for their
own display, and money for their relations without trouble.  Every
officer's house is the rendezvous of several native beauties, who go
out and in at every hour of the day.  Even abroad they are not
particular; they will accompany any man without the least
hesitation, and no gentleman ever refuses a conductress of this

As a female of an advanced age, I may be allowed to make a few
observations upon such a state of things, and I frankly own that,
although I have travelled much and seen a great deal, I never
witnessed such shameful scenes of public depravity.

As a proof of what I assert, I will mention a little affair which
happened one day before my hut.

Four fat graces were squatted on the ground smoking tobacco, when an
officer, who happened to be passing, caught a glimpse of the
charming picture, rushed up at double quick pace and caught hold of
one of the beauties by the shoulder.  He began by speaking softly to
her, but as his anger increased, he changed his tone to one of loud
abuse.  But neither entreaties nor threats produced the slightest
effect upon the delicate creature to whom they were addressed; she
remained coolly in the same position, continuing to smoke with the
greatest indifference, and without deigning even to cast upon her
excited swain a look, far less answer him a word.  He became enraged
to such a pitch, that he so far forgot himself as to loosen the
golden ear-rings from her ears, and threatened to take away all the
finery he had given her.  Even this was not sufficient to rouse the
girl from her stolid calmness, and the valiant officer was, at last,
obliged to retreat from the field of battle.

From his conversation, which was half in French and half in the
native dialect, I learned that in three months the girl had cost him
about four hundred francs in dress and jewellery.  Her wishes were
satisfied, and she quietly refused to have anything more to say to

I very often heard the feeling, attachment, and kindness of this
people spoken of in terms of high praise, with which, however, I
cannot unreservedly agree.  Their kindness I will not precisely
dispute; they readily invite a stranger to share their hospitality,
and even kill a pig in his honour, give him a part of their couch,
etc.; but all this costs them no trouble, and if they are offered
money in return, they take it eagerly enough, without so much as
thanking the donor.  As for feeling and attachment, I should almost
be inclined to deny that they possessed them in the slightest
degree; I saw only sensuality, and none of the nobler sentiments.  I
shall return to this subject when describing my journey through the

On the 1st of May I witnessed a highly interesting scene.  It was
the fete of Louis Philippe, the King of the French; and the
governor, Monsieur Bruat, exerted himself to the utmost to amuse the
population of Tahiti.  In the forenoon, there was a tournament on
the water, in which the French sailors were the performers.  Several
boats with lusty oarsmen put out to sea.  In the bows of each boat
was a kind of ladder or steps, on which stood one of the combatants
with a pole.  The boats were then pulled close to one another, and
each combatant endeavoured to push his antagonist into the water.
Besides this, there was a Mat de Cocagne, with coloured shirts,
ribbons, and other trifles fluttering at the top, for whoever chose
to climb up and get them.  At 12 o'clock the chiefs and principal
personages were entertained at dinner.  On the grass plot before the
governor's house were heaped up various sorts of provisions, such as
salt meat, bacon, bread, baked pork, fruits, etc.; but instead of
the guests taking their places all around, as we had supposed they
would have done, the chiefs divided everything into different
portions, and each carried his share home.  In the evening there
were fireworks, and a ball.

No part of the entertainment amused me more than the ball, where I
witnessed the most startling contrasts of art and nature.  Elegant
Frenchwomen side by side with their brown, awkward sisters, and the
staff officers in full uniform, in juxta-position with the half-
naked islanders.  Many of the natives wore, on this occasion, broad
white trousers, with a shirt over them; but there were others who
had no other garments than the ordinary short shirt and the pareo.
One of the chiefs who appeared in this costume, and was afflicted
with Elephantiasis, {76} offered a most repulsive spectacle.

This evening I saw Queen Pomare for the first time.  She is a woman
of 36 years of age, tall and stout, but tolerably well preserved--as
a general rule, I found that the women here fade much less quickly
than in other warm climates--her face is far from ugly, and there is
a most good-natured expression round her mouth, and the lower
portion of her face.  She was enveloped in a sky-blue satin gown, or
rather, sort of blouse, ornamented all round with two rows of rich
black blond.  She wore large jessamine blossoms in her ears, and a
wreath of flowers in her hair, while in her hand she carried a fine
pocket handkerchief beautifully embroidered, and ornamented with
broad lace.  In honour of the evening, she had forced her feet into
shoes and stockings, though on other occasions she went barefoot.
The entire costume was a present from the King of the French.

The queen's husband, who is younger than herself, is the handsomest
man in Tahiti.  The French jokingly call him the Prince Albert of
Tahiti, not only on account of his good looks, but because, like
Prince Albert in England, he is not named "the king," but simply,
"the queen's consort."  He had on the uniform of a French general,
which became him very well; the more so, that he was not in the
least embarrassed in it.  The only drawback were his feet, which
were very ugly and awkward.

Besides these two high personages, there was in the company another
crowned head, namely, King Otoume, the owner of one of the
neighbouring islands.  He presented a most comical appearance,
having put on, over a pair of full but short white trousers, a
bright yellow calico coat, that most certainly had not been made by
a Parisian artiste, for it was a perfect model of what a coat ought
not to be.  This monarch was barefoot.

The queen's ladies of honour, four in number, as well as most of the
wives and daughters of the chiefs, were dressed in white muslin.
They had also flowers in their ears, and garlands in their hair.
Their behaviour and deportment were surprising, and three of the
young ladies actually danced French quadrilles with the officers,
without making a fault in the figures.  I was only anxious for their
feet, as no one, save the royal couple, wore either shoes or
stockings.  Some of the old women had arrayed themselves in European
bonnets, while the young ones brought their children, even the
youngest, with them, and, to quiet the latter, suckled them without
ceremony before the company.

Before supper was announced, the queen disappeared in an adjoining
room to smoke a cigar or two, while her husband passed the time in
playing billiards.

At table I was seated between Prince Albert of Tahiti and the
canary-coloured King Otoume.  They were both sufficiently advanced
in the rules of good breeding to show me the usual civilities; that
is, to fill my glass with water or wine, to hand me the various
dishes, and so on; but it was evident that they were at great
trouble to catch the tone of European society.  Some of the guests,
however, forgot their parts now and then:  the queen, for instance,
asked, during the dessert, for a second plate, which she filled with
sweetmeats, and ordered to be put on one side for her to take home
with her.  Others had to be prevented from indulging too much in the
generous champagne; but, on the whole, the entertainment passed off
in a becoming and good-humoured manner.

I subsequently dined with the royal family several times at the
governor's.  The queen then appeared in the national costume, with
the coloured pareo and chemise, as did also her husband.  Both were
barefoot.  The heir apparent, a boy of nine years old, is affianced
to the daughter of a neighbouring king.  The bride, who is a few
years older than the prince, is being educated at the court of Queen
Pomare, and instructed in the Christian religion, and the English
and Tahitian languages.

The arrangements of the queen's residence are exceedingly simple.
For the present, until the stone house which is being built for her
by the French government is completed, she lives in a wooden one
containing four rooms, and partly furnished with European furniture.

As peace was now declared in Tahiti, there was no obstacle to my
making a journey through the whole island.  I had obtained a
fortnight's leave of absence from the captain, and was desirous of
devoting this time to a trip.  I imagined that I should have been
able to join one or other of the officers, who are often obliged to
journey through the island on affairs connected with the government.
To my great surprise I found, however, that they had all some
extraordinary reason why it was impossible for me to accompany them
at that particular time.  I was at a loss to account for this
incivility, until one of the officers themselves told me the answer
to the riddle, which was this:  every gentleman always travelled
with his mistress.

Monsieur ---, {78} who let me into the secret, offered to take me
with him to Papara, where he resided; but even he did not travel
alone, as, besides his mistress, Tati, the principal chief of the
island, and his family, accompanied him.  This chief had come to
Papeiti to be present at the fete of the 1st of May.

On the 4th of May we put off to sea in a boat, for the purpose of
coasting round to Papara, forty-two miles distant.  I found the
chief Tati to be a lively old man nearly ninety years of age, who
remembered perfectly the second landing of the celebrated
circumnavigator of the globe, Captain Cook.  His father was, at that
period, the principal chief, and had concluded a friendly alliance
with Cook, and, according to the custom then prevalent at Tahiti,
had changed names with him.

Tati enjoys from the French government a yearly pension of 6,000
francs (240 pounds), which, after his death, will fall to his eldest

He had with him his young wife and five of his sons; the former was
twenty-three years old, and the ages of the latter varied from
twelve to eighteen.  The children were all the offspring of other
marriages, this being his fifth wife.

As we had not left Papeiti till nearly noon, and as the sun sets
soon after six o'clock, and the passage between the numberless rocks
is highly dangerous, we landed at Paya (22 miles), where a sixth son
of Tati's ruled as chief.

The island is intersected in all directions by noble mountains, the
loftiest of which, the Oroena, is 6,200 feet high.  In the middle of
the island the mountains separate, and a most remarkable mass of
rock raises itself from the midst of them.  It has the form of a
diadem with a number of points, and it is to this circumstance that
it owes its name.  Around the mountain range winds a forest girdle,
from four to six hundred paces broad; it is inhabited, and contains
the most delicious fruit.  Nowhere did I ever eat such bread-fruit,
mangoes, oranges, and guavas, as I did here.  As for cocoa-nuts, the
natives are so extravagant with them, that they generally merely
drink the water they contain, and then throw away the shell and the
fruit.  In the mountains and ravines there are a great quantity of
plantains, a kind of banana, which are not commonly eaten, however,
without being roasted.  The huts of the natives lie scattered here
and there along the shore; it is very seldom that a dozen of these
huts are seen together.

The bread-fruit is somewhat similar in shape to a water-melon, and
weighs from four to six pounds.  The outside is green, and rather
rough and thin.  The natives scrape it with mussel-shells, and then
split the fruit up long ways into two portions, which they roast
between two heated stones.  The taste is delicious; it is finer than
that of potatoes, and so like bread that the latter may be dispensed
with without any inconvenience.  The South Sea Islands are the real
home of the fruit.  It is true that it grows in other parts of the
tropics, but it is very different from that produced here.  In
Brazil, for instance, where the people call it monkeys' bread, it
weighs from five to thirty pounds, and is full inside of kernels,
which are taken out and eaten when the fruit is roasted.  These
kernels taste like chestnuts.

The mango is a fruit resembling an apple, and of the size of a man's
fist; both the rind and the fruit itself are yellow.  It tastes a
little like turpentine, but loses this taste more and more the riper
it gets.  This fruit is of the best description; it is full and
juicy, and has a long, broad kernel in the middle.  The bread and
mango trees grow to a great height and circumference.  The leaves of
the former are about three feet long, a foot and a-half broad, and
deeply serrated; while those of the latter are not much larger than
the leaves of our own apple-trees.

Before reaching Paya, we passed several interesting places, among
which may be mentioned Foar, a small French fort, situated upon a
hill.  Near Taipari it is necessary to pass between two rows of
dangerous breakers, called the "Devil's Entrance."  The foaming
waves rose in such volume and to so great a height, that they might
almost be mistaken for walls.  In the plain near Punavia is a large
fort supported by several towers, built upon the neighbouring hills.
At this point the scenery is beautiful.  The mountain range breaks
here, so that the eye can follow for a long distance the windings of
a picturesque valley, with the black and lofty mountain Olofena in
the background.

Delighted as I was, however, with the beauty of the objects around
me, I was no less pleased with those beneath.  Our boat glided along
over countless shallows, where the water was as clear as crystal, so
that the smallest pebble at the bottom was distinctly visible.  I
could observe groups and clusters of coloured coral and madrepore-
stone, whose magnificence challenges all description.  It might be
said that there was a quantity of fairy flower and kitchen gardens
in the sea, full of gigantic flowers, blossoms, and leaves, varied
by fungi and pulse of every description, like open arabesque work,
the whole interspersed with pretty groups of rocks of every hue.
The most lovely shell-fish were clinging to these rocks, or lying
scattered on the ground, while endless shoals of variegated fish
darted in and out between them, like so many butterflies and
humming-birds.  These delicate creatures were scarcely four inches
long, and surpassed in richness of colour anything I had ever seen.
Many of them were of the purest sky-blue, others a light yellow,
while some, again, that were almost transparent, were brown, green,

On our arrival at Paya, about 6 in the evening, the young Tati had a
pig, weighing eighteen or twenty pounds, killed and cooked, after
the fashion of Tahiti, in honour of his father.  A large fire was
kindled in a shallow pit, in which were a number of stones.  A
quantity of bread-fruit (majore), that had been first peeled and
split into two portions with a very sharp wooden axe, was then
brought.  When the fire had gone out, and the stones heated to the
requisite degree, the pig and the fruit were laid upon them, a few
other heated stones placed on the top, and the whole covered up with
green branches, dry leaves, and earth.

During the time that the victuals were cooking, the table was laid.
A straw mat was placed upon the ground, and covered with large
leaves.  For each guest there was a cocoa-nut shell, half-filled
with miti, a sourish beverage extracted from the cocoa-palm.

In an hour and a half the victuals were dug up.  The pig was neither
very artistically cooked nor very enticing, but cut up as quick as
lightning, being divided by the hand and knife into as many portions
as there were guests, and each person had his share, together with
half a bread-fruit, handed to him upon a large leaf.  There was no
one at our rustic table besides the officer, his mistress, the old
Tati, his wife, and myself, as it is contrary to the custom of the
country for the host to eat with his guests, or the children with
their parents.  With the exception of this ceremony, I did not
observe any other proof of love or affection between the father and
son.  The old man, for instance, although ninety years of age, and
suffering besides from a violent cough, was obliged to pass the
night under nothing but a light roof, open to the weather, while his
son slept in his well-closed huts.

On the 5th of May, we left Taipari with empty stomachs, as old Tati
was desirous of entertaining us at one of his estates about two
hours' journey distant.

On our arrival, and as soon as the stones were heated for our meal,
several of the natives out of the neighbouring huts hastened to
profit by the opportunity to cook their provisions as well, bringing
with them fish, pieces of pork, bread-fruit, plantains, and so on.
The fish and meat were enveloped in large leaves.  For our use,
besides bread-fruit and fish, there was a turtle weighing perhaps
more than twenty pounds.  The repast was held in a hut, to which the
whole neighbourhood also came, and forming themselves into groups a
little on one side of us principal guests, eat the provisions they
had brought with them.  Each person had a cocoa-nut shell full of
miti before him; into this he first threw every morsel and took it
out again with his hand, and then what remained of the miti was
drunk at the end of the meal.  We had each of us a fresh cocoa-nut
with a hole bored in it, containing at least a pint of clear, sweet-
tasting water.  This is erroneously termed by us "Milk," but it only
becomes thick and milky when the cocoa-nut is very stale, in which
condition it is never eaten in these islands.

Tati, with his family, remained here, while we proceeded to Papara,
an hour's walk.  The road was delightful, leading mostly through
thick groves of fruit-trees; but it would not suit a person with a
tendency to hydrophobia, for we were obliged to wade through more
than half a dozen streams and brooks.

At Papara, Monsieur --- possessed some landed property, with a
little wooden four-roomed house, in which he was kind enough to give
me a lodging.

We here heard of the death of one of Tati's sons, of which he
numbered twenty-one.  He had been dead three days, and his friends
were awaiting Tati to pay the last honours to the deceased.  I had
intended to make an excursion to the Lake Vaihiria, but deferred
doing so, in order to be present at the burial.  On the following
morning, 6th May, I paid a visit to the hut of the deceased.
Monsieur --- gave me a new handkerchief to take with me as a
present--a relic of the old superstition which the people of this
island have introduced into Christianity.  These presents are
supposed to calm the soul of the deceased.  The corpse was lying in
a narrow coffin, upon a low bier, both of which were covered with a
white pall.  Before the bier were hung two straw mats, on which were
spread the deceased's clothes, drinking vessels, knives, and so
forth, while on the other, lay the presents, making quite a heap, of
shirts, pareos, pieces of cloth, etc., all so new and good that they
might have served to furnish a small shop.

Old Tati soon entered the hut, but quickly returned into the open
air, stopping only a few instants, as the corpse was already most
offensive.  He sat down under a tree, and began talking very quietly
and unconcernedly with the neighbours, as if nothing had happened.
The female relatives and neighbours remained in the hut; they, too,
chatted and gossiped very contentedly, and moreover ate and smoked.
I was obliged to have the wife, children, and relations of the
deceased pointed out to me, for I was unable to recognise them by
their demeanour.  In a little time, the stepmother and wife rose,
and throwing themselves on the coffin, howled for half an hour; but
it was easy to see that their grief did not come from the heart.
Their moaning was always pitched in the same monotonous key.  Both
then returned with smiling faces and dry eyes to their seats, and
appeared to resume the conversation at the point at which they had
broken it off.  The deceased's canoe was burnt upon the shore.

I had seen enough, and returned to my quarters to make some
preparations for my trip to the lake the next day.  The distance is
reckoned to be eighteen miles, so that the journey there and back
may be performed in two days with ease, and yet a guide had the
conscience to ask ten dollars (2 pounds) for his services.  With the
assistance of old Tati, however, I procured one for three dollars

Pedestrian trips are very fatiguing in Tahiti, since it is so richly
watered that the excursionist is constantly obliged to wade through
plains of sand and rivers.  I was very suitably clothed for the
purpose, having got strong men's shoes, without any stockings,
trousers, and a blouse, which I had fastened up as high as my hips.
Thus equipped I began, on the 7th of May, my short journey, in
company with my guide.  In the first third of my road, which lay
along the coast, I counted about thirty-two brooks which we were
obliged to walk through.  We then struck off, through ravines, into
the interior of the island, first calling, however, at a hut to
obtain some refreshment.  The inmates were very friendly, and gave
us some bread-fruit and fish, but very willingly accepted a small
present in exchange.

In the interior, the fine fruit-trees disappear, and their place is
supplied by plantains, tarros, and a kind of bush, growing to the
height of twelve feet, and called Oputu (Maranta); the last, in
fact, grew so luxuriantly, that we frequently experienced the
greatest difficulty in making our way through.  The tarro, which is
planted, is from two to three feet high, and has fine large leaves
and tubercles, similar to the potato, but which do not taste very
good when roasted.  The plantain, or banana, is a pretty little
tree, from fifteen to twenty feet high, with leaves like those of
the palm, and a stem which is often eight inches in diameter, but is
not of wood, but cane, and very easily broken.  It belongs properly
to the herbiferous species, and grows with uncommon rapidity.  It
reaches its full growth the first year:  in the second it bears
fruit, and then dies.  It is produced from shoots, which generally
spring up near the parent tree.

Through one mountain stream, which chafed along the ravine over a
stony bed, and in some places was exceedingly rapid, and, in
consequence of the rain that had lately fallen, was frequently more
than three feet deep, we had to wade sixty-two times.  My guide
caught hold of me by the hand whenever we passed a dangerous spot,
and dragged me, often half swimming, after him.  The water
constantly reached above my hips, and all idea of getting dry again
was totally out of the question.  The path also became at every step
more fatiguing and dangerous.  I had to clamber over rocks and
stones covered to such an extent with the foliage of the oputu that
I never knew with any degree of certainty where I was placing my
foot.  I received several severe wounds on my hands and feet, and
frequently fell down on the ground, when I trusted for support to
the treacherous stem of a banana, which would break beneath my
grasp.  It was really a breakneck sort of excursion, which is very
rarely made even by the officers, and certainly never by ladies.

In two places the ravine became so narrow, that the bed of the
stream occupied its whole extent.  It was here that the islanders,
during the war with the French, built stone walls five feet in
height to protect them against the enemy, in case they should have
attacked them from this side.

In eight hours' time we had completed the eighteen miles, and
attained an elevation of 1,800 feet.  The lake itself was not
visible until we stood upon its shores, as it lies in a slight
hollow; it is about 800 feet across.  The surrounding scenery is the
most remarkable.  The lake is so closely hemmed in by a ring of
lofty and precipitous green mountains, that there is no room even
for a footing between the water and the rocks, and its bed might be
taken for an extinguished volcano filled with water--a supposition
which gains additional force from the masses of basalt which occupy
the foreground.  It is plentifully supplied with fish, one kind of
which is said to be peculiar to the locality; it is supposed that
the lake has a subterranean outlet, which as yet remains

To cross the lake, it is either necessary to swim over or trust
oneself to a dangerous kind of boat, which is prepared by the
natives in a few minutes.  Being desirous of making the attempt, I
intimated this by signs to my guide.  In an instant he tore off some
plantain-branches, fastened them together with long, tough grass,
laid a few leaves upon them, launched them in the water, and then
told me to take possession of this apology for a boat.  I must own
that I felt rather frightened, although I did not like to say so.  I
stept on board, and my guide swam behind and pushed me forward.  I
made the passage to the opposite side and back without any accident,
but I was in truth rather alarmed the whole time.  The boat was
small, and floated under rather than upon the water--there was
nothing I could support myself with, and every minute I expected to
fall into the lake.  I would not advise any one who cannot swim ever
to follow my example.

After I had sufficiently admired the lake and the surrounding
scenery, we retraced our way for some hundred yards, until we
reached a little spot roofed over with leaves.  Here my guide
quickly made a good fire, after the Indian fashion.  He took a small
piece of wood, which he cut to a fine point, and then selecting a
second piece, he made in it a narrow furrow not very deep.  In this
he rubbed the pointed stick until the little particles which were
detached during the operation began to smoke.  These he threw into a
quantity of dry leaves and grass which he had got together for the
purpose, and swung the whole several times round in the air, until
it burst out into flames.  The entire process did not take more than
two minutes.

For our supper, he gathered a few plantains and laid them on the
fire.  I profited by the opportunity to dry my clothes, by sitting
down near the fire, and turning first one side towards it, and then
the other.  Half wet through, and tolerably fatigued, I retired to
my couch of dry leaves immediately after partaking of our scanty

It is a fortunate circumstance that in these wild and remote
districts neither men nor beasts afford the slightest grounds for
apprehension; the former are very quiet and peaceably inclined, and,
with the exception of a few wild boars, the latter are not
dangerous.  The island is especially favoured; it contains no
poisonous or hurtful insects or reptiles.  It is true there are a
few scorpions, but so small and harmless, that they may be handled
with impunity.  The mosquitoes alone were the source of very
considerable annoyance, as they are in all southern countries.

8th May.  It began to rain very violently during the night, and in
the morning I was sorry to see that there was not much hope of its
clearing up; on the contrary, the clouds became blacker and blacker,
and collecting from all sides, like so many evil spirits, poured
down in torrents upon the innocent earth.  Nevertheless, in spite of
this, there was no other course open to us but to bid defiance to
the angry water deity, and proceed upon our journey.  In half an
hour I was literally drenched; this being the case, I went on
uncomplainingly, as it was impossible for me to become wetter than I

On my return to Papara, I found that Tati's son was not buried, but
the ceremony took place the next day.  The clergyman pronounced a
short discourse at the side of the grave; and, as the coffin was
being lowered, the mats, straw hat, and clothes of the deceased, as
well as a few of the presents, were thrown in with it.  The
relations were present, but as unconcerned as I was myself.

The graveyard was in the immediate vicinity of several murais.  The
latter are small four-cornered plots of ground surrounded by stone
walls three or four feet high, where the natives used to deposit
their dead, which were left exposed upon wooden frames until the
flesh fell from the bones.  These were then collected and buried in
some lonely spot.

The same evening I witnessed a remarkable mode of catching fish.
Two boys waded out into the sea, one with a stick, and the other
with a quantity of burning chips.  The one with the stick drove the
fish between the rocks, and then hit them, the other lighting him in
the meanwhile.  They were not very fortunate, however.  The more
common and successful manner of fishing is with nets.

Almost every day Monsieur --- had visits from officers who were
passing, accompanied by their mistresses.  The reader may easily
imagine that the laws of propriety were not, however, always
strictly observed, and as I had no desire to disturb the gentlemen
in their intellectual conversation and amusement, I retired with my
book into the servants' room.  They, too, would laugh and joke, but,
at least, in such a manner that there was no occasion to blush for

It was highly amusing to hear Monsieur --- launch out in praise of
the attachment and gratitude of his Indian beauty; he would have
altered his tone had he seen her behaviour in his absence.  On one
occasion I could not help telling one of the gentlemen my opinion of
the matter, and expressing my astonishment that they could treat
these grasping and avaricious creatures with such attention and
kindness, to load them with presents, anticipate their every wish,
and forgive and put up with their most glaring faults.  The answer I
received was:  that these ladies, if not so treated and loaded with
presents, would quickly run off, and that, in fact, even by the
kindest attentions they never allowed themselves to be influenced
very long.

From all I saw, I must repeat my former assertion, that the Tahitian
people are endowed with none of the more noble sentiments of
humanity, but that their only pleasures are merely animal.  Nature
herself encourages them to this in an extraordinary manner.  They
have no need to gain their bread by the sweat of their brow; the
island is most plentifully supplied with beautiful fruit, tubercles
of all descriptions, and tame pigs, so that the people have really
only to gather the fruit and kill the pigs.  To this circumstance is
to be attributed the difficulty that exists of obtaining any one as
servant or in any other capacity.  The most wretched journeyman will
not work for less than a dollar a-day; the price for washing a dozen
handkerchiefs, or any other articles, is also a dollar (4s.), not
including soap.  A native, whom I desired to engage as guide,
demanded a dollar and a half a day.

I returned from Papara to Papeiti in the company of an officer and
his native beauty; we walked the thirty-six miles in a day.  On our
way, we passed the hut of the girl's mother, where we partook of a
most splendid dish.  It was composed of bread-fruit, mangoes, and
bananas, kneaded together into a paste, and cooked upon hot stones.
It was eaten, while warm, with a sauce of orange juice.

On taking leave, the officer gave the girl a present of a dollar to
give her mother; the girl took it as indifferently as if it were not
of the slightest value, and her mother did exactly the same, neither
of them pronouncing one word of thanks, or manifesting the least
sign of satisfaction.

We now and then came upon some portions of the road, the work of
public offenders, that were most excellently constructed.  Whenever
an Indian is convicted of a crime, he is not chained in a gang, like
convicts in Europe, but condemned to make or mend a certain extent
of road, and the natives fulfil the tasks thus imposed with such
punctuality, that no overseer is ever necessary.  This kind of
punishment was introduced under King Pomare, and originated with the
natives themselves--the Europeans have merely continued the

At Punavia we entered the fort, where we refreshed ourselves, in
military fashion, with bread, wine, and bacon, and reached our
journey's end at 7 o'clock in the morning.

Besides Papara, I visited also Venus Point, a small tongue of land
where Cook observed the transit of Venus.  The stone on which he
placed his instruments still remains.  On my way, I passed the
grave, or murai, of King Pomare I.  It consists of a small piece of
ground, surrounded by a stone wall, and covered with a roof of palm-
leaves.  Some half-decayed pieces of cloth and portions of wearing
apparel were still lying in it.

One of my most interesting excursions, however, was that to Fantaua
and the Diadem.  The former is a spot which the Indians considered
impregnable; but where, nevertheless, they were well beaten by the
French during the last war.  Monsieur Bruat, the governor, was kind
enough to lend me his horses, and to allow me the escort of a non-
commissioned officer, who could point out to me each position of the
Indians and French, as he had himself been in the engagement.

For more than two hours, we proceeded through horrible ravines,
thick woods, and rapid mountain torrents.  The ravines often became
so narrow as to form so many defiles, with such precipitous and
inaccessible sides, that here, as at Thermopylae, a handful of
valiant warriors might defy whole armies.  As a natural consequence,
the entrance of Fantaua is regarded as the real key to the whole
island.  There was no other means of taking it than by scaling one
of its most precipitous sides, and pressing forward upon the narrow
ledge of rock above, so as to take the enemy in the rear.  The
governor, Monsieur Bruat, announced that he would confide this
dangerous enterprise to volunteers, and he soon had more than he
could employ.  From those chosen, a second selection of only sixty-
two men was made:  these divested themselves of every article of
clothing save their shoes and drawers, and took no other arms save
their muskets.

After clambering up for twelve hours, and incurring great danger,
they succeeded, by the aid of ropes, and by sticking pointed iron-
rods and bayonets into the rock, in reaching the crest of the
mountain, where their appearance so astonished the Indians, that
they lost all courage, threw down their arms, and surrendered.  They
said that those who were capable of deeds like this, could not be
men but spirits, against whom all hopes of resistance were out of
the question altogether.

At present, there is a small fort built at Fantaua, and on one of
its highest points stands a guard-house.  The path leading to it is
over a small ledge of rock, skirted on each side by a yawning abyss.
Persons affected with giddiness can only reach it with great
difficulty, if indeed they can do so at all.  In this last case,
they are great losers, for the prospect is magnificent in the
extreme, extending over valleys, ravines, and mountains without
number (among the latter may be mentioned the colossal rock called
the "Diadem"), thick forests of palms and other trees; and beyond
all these, the mighty ocean, broken into a thousand waves against
the rocks and reefs, and in the distance mingling with the azure

Near the fort, a waterfall precipitates itself perpendicularly down
a narrow ravine.  Unfortunately, the bottom of it is concealed by
jutting rocks and promontories, and the volume of water is rather
small; otherwise, this fall would, on account of its height, which
is certainly more than 400 feet, deserve to be classed among the
most celebrated ones with which I am acquainted.

The road from the fort to the Diadem is extremely fatiguing, and
fully three hours are required to accomplish the journey.  The
prospect here is even more magnificent than from the fort, as the
eye beholds the sea over two sides of the island at the same time.

This excursion was my last in this beautiful isle, as I was obliged
to embark on the next day, the 17th of May.  The cargo was cleared,
and the ballast taken on board.  All articles to which the French
troops are accustomed, such as flour, salted meat, potatoes, pulse,
wine, and a variety of others, have to be imported. {86}

I felt extremely reluctant to leave; and the only thing that tended
at all to cheer my spirits, was the thought of my speedy arrival in
China, that most wonderful of all known countries.

We left the port of Papeiti on the morning of the 17th of May, with
a most favourable wind, soon passed in safety all the dangerous
coral-reefs which surround the island, and in seven hours' time had
lost sight of it altogether.  Towards evening, we beheld the
mountain ranges of the island of Huaheme, which we passed during the

The commencement of our voyage was remarkably pleasant.  Besides the
favourable breeze, which still continued, we enjoyed the company of
a fine Belgian brig, the Rubens, which had put to sea at the same
time as ourselves.  It was seldom that we approached near enough for
the persons on board to converse with each other; but whoever is at
all acquainted with the endless uniformity of long voyages, will
easily understand our satisfaction at knowing we were even in the
neighbourhood of human beings.

We pursued the same track as far as the Philippine Islands, but on
the morning of the third day our companion had disappeared, leaving
us in ignorance whether she had out-sailed us or we her.  We were
once more alone on the endless waste of waters.

On the 23rd of May, we approached very near to the low island of
Penchyn.  A dozen or two of the natives were desirous of honouring
us with a visit, and pulled stoutly in six canoes towards our ship,
but we sailed so fast that they were soon left a long way behind.
Several of the sailors affirmed, that these were specimens of real
savages, and that we might reckon ourselves fortunate in having
escaped their visit.  The captain, too, appeared to share this
opinion, and I was the only person who regretted not having formed a
more intimate acquaintance with them.

28th May.  For some days we had been fortunate enough to be visited,
from time to time, with violent showers; a most remarkable thing for
the time of year in this climate, where the rainy season commences
in January and lasts for three months, the sky for the remaining
nine being generally cloudless.  This present exception was the more
welcome from our being just on the Line, where we should otherwise
have suffered much from the heat.  The thermometer stood at only 81
degrees in the shade, and 97 degrees in the sun.

Today at noon we crossed the Line, and were once more in the
northern hemisphere.  A Tahitian sucking-pig was killed and consumed
in honour of our successful passage, and our native hemisphere
toasted in real hock.

On the 4th of June, under 8 degrees North latitude, we beheld again,
for the first time, the lovely polar star.

On the 17th of June, we passed so near to Saypan, one of the largest
of the Ladrone Islands, that we could make out the mountains very
distinctly.  The Ladrone and Marianne Islands are situated between
the 13 and 21 degrees North latitude, and the 145 and 146 degrees
East longitude.

On the 1st of July we again saw land:  this time it was the coast of
Lucovia, or Luzon, the largest of the Philippines, and lying between
the 18 and 19 degrees North latitude, and the 125 and 119 degrees
East longitude.  The port of Manilla is situated on the southern
coast of the island.

In the course of the day we passed the island of Babuan, and several
detached rocks, rising, colossus like, from the sea.  Four of them
were pretty close together, and formed a picturesque group.  Some
time afterwards we saw two more.

In the night of the 1st-2nd of July, we reached the western point of
Luzon, and entered on the dangerous Chinese Sea.  I was heartily
glad at last to bid adieu to the Pacific Ocean, for a voyage on it
is one of the most monotonous things that can be imagined.  The
appearance of another ship is a rare occurrence; and the water is so
calm that it resembles a stream.  Very frequently I used to start up
from my desk, thinking that I was in some diminutive room ashore;
and my mistake was the more natural, as we had three horses, a dog,
several pigs, hens, geese, and a canary bird on board, all
respectively neighing, barking, grunting, cackling, and singing, as
if they were in a farm-yard.

6th July.  For the first few days after entering the Chinese sea, we
sailed pretty well in the same fashion we had done in the Pacific--
proceeding slowly and quietly on our way.  Today we beheld the coast
of China for the first time, and towards evening we were not more
than thirty-three miles from Macao.  I was rather impatient for the
following morning.  I longed to find my darling hope realized, of
putting my foot upon Chinese ground.  I pictured the mandarins with
their high caps, and the ladies with their tiny feet, when in the
middle of the night the wind shifted, and on the 7th of July we had
been carried back 115 miles.  In addition to this, the glass fell so
low, that we dreaded a Tai-foon, which is a very dangerous kind of
storm, or rather hurricane, that is very frequent in the Chinese sea
during the months of July, August, and September.  It is generally
first announced by a black cloud on the horizon, with one edge dark
red, and the other half-white; and this is accompanied by the most
awful torrents of rain, by thunder, lightning, and the violent
winds, which arise simultaneously on all sides, and lash the waters
up mountains high.  We took every precaution in anticipation of our
dangerous enemy, but for once they were not needed:  either the
hurricane did not break out at all, or else it broke out at a great
distance from us; for we were only visited by a trifling storm of no
long duration.

On the 8th of July we again reached the vicinity of Macao, and
entered the Straits of Lema.  Our course now lay between bays and
reefs, diversified by groups of the most beautiful islands, offering
a series of most magnificent and varied views.

On the 9th of July we anchored in Macao Roads.  The town, which
belongs to the Portuguese, and has a population of 20,000
inhabitants, is beautifully situated on the sea-side, and surrounded
by pleasing hills and mountains.  The most remarkable objects are
the palace of the Portuguese governor, the Catholic monastery of
Guia, the fortifications, and a few fine houses which lie scattered
about the hills in picturesque disorder.

Besides a few European ships, there were anchored in the roads
several large Chinese junks, while a great number of small boats,
manned by Chinese, were rocking to and fro around us.



A year before my arrival in China, it would have seemed hardly
credible to me that I should ever succeed in taking my place among
the small number of Europeans who are acquainted with that
remarkable country, not from books alone, but from actual
observation; I never believed that I should really behold the
Chinese, with their shaven heads, long tails, and small, ugly,
narrow eyes, the exact counterparts of the representations of them
which we have in Europe.

We had hardly anchored, before a number of Chinese clambered up on
deck, while others remained in their boats, offering for sale a
variety of beautifully made articles, with fruit and cakes, laid out
in great order, so as to form in a few seconds a regular market
round the vessel.  Some of them began praising their wares in broken
English; but on the whole, they did not drive a very flourishing
business, as the crew merely bought a few cigars, and a little

Captain Jurianse hired a boat, and we immediately went on shore,
where each person on landing had to pay half a Spanish dollar (2s.)
to the mandarin:  I subsequently heard that this imposition was
shortly afterwards abolished.  We proceeded to the house of one of
the Portuguese merchants established there, passing through a large
portion of the town on our way thither.  Europeans, both men and
women, can circulate freely, without being exposed to a shower of
stones, as is frequently the case in other Chinese towns.  The
streets, which are exclusively inhabited by Chinese, presented a
very bustling aspect.  The men were in many cases seated out of
doors in groups, playing at dominoes, while locksmiths, carpenters,
shoemakers, and many others were either working, talking, playing,
or dining in the numerous booths.  I observed but few women, and
these were of the lower classes.  Nothing surprised and amused me
more than the manner in which the Chinese eat; they have two little
sticks, with which they very skilfully convey their victuals into
their mouths.  This process, however, cannot be so successfully
practised with rice, because it does not hold together; they
therefore hold the plate containing it close to their mouths, and
push it in by the aid of the sticks, generally letting a portion of
it fall back again, in no very cleanly fashion, into the plate.  For
liquids they use round spoons of porcelain.

The style in which the houses are built, did not strike me as very
remarkable; the front generally looks out upon the courtyard or

Among other objects which I visited was the grotto, in which the
celebrated Portuguese poet, Camoens, is said to have composed the
Lusiade.  He had been banished, A.D. 1556, to Macao, on account of a
satirical poem he had written, Disperates no India, and remained in
banishment several years before receiving a pardon.  The grotto is
charmingly situated upon an eminence not far from the town.

As there was no business to be done, the captain resolved to put to
sea again the next morning, and offered in the most friendly manner
to take me as his guest to Hong-Kong, as I had only agreed for a
passage as far as Macao.  I accepted his invitation with the greater
pleasure, as I had not a single letter to any one in Macao; besides
which, it is very seldom that there is an opportunity of proceeding
to Hong-Kong.

On account of the shallowness of the water, our ship was hove to at
rather a long distance from the shore, where it was exposed to an
attack from the pirates, who are here very daring and numerous.  In
consequence of this, every precaution was taken, and the watch
doubled for the night.

As late as the year 1842 these pirates attacked a brig that was
lying at anchor in the Macao Roads, murdering the crew and
plundering the vessel.  The captain had remained on shore, and the
sailors had carelessly given themselves up to sleep, leaving only
one man to keep watch.  In the middle of the night a schampan--which
is the name given to a vessel smaller than a junk--came alongside
the brig.  One of the rowers then came on board, pretending he had a
letter from the captain; and as the sailor went near the lantern to
read the letter, he received from the pirate a blow upon his head
which laid him senseless on the deck; the rest of those in the boat,
who had hitherto remained concealed, now scaled the side of the
brig, and quickly overpowered the slumbering crew.

In our case, however, the night passed without any incident worth
noting; and on the morning of the 10th of July, having first taken
on board a pilot, we proceeded to Hong-Kong, a distance of sixty
nautical miles.  The voyage proved highly interesting, on account of
the varied succession of bays, creeks, and groups of islands which
we had to pass.

The English obtained Hong-Kong from the Chinese at the conclusion of
the war in 1842, and founded the port of Victoria, which contains at
present a large number of palace-like houses built of stone.

The Europeans who have settled here, and who are not more than two
or three hundred in number, are far from being contented, however,
as trade is not half as good as they at first expected it would be.
Every merchant is presented by the English government with a plot of
ground, on condition of his building on it.  Many of them erected,
as I before mentioned, splendid edifices, which they would now be
glad to sell for half the cost price, or even very frequently to
give the ground and foundations, without asking the smallest sum in

I resolved to stop only a few days in Victoria, as it was my wish to
arrive at Canton as soon as possible.

In addition to the great politeness he had previously shown me,
Captain Jurianse conferred another favour, by allowing me, during my
stay here, to live and lodge on board his ship, thereby saving me an
expense of 16s. or 24s. {91a} a day; and, besides this, the boat
which he had hired for his own use was always at my disposal.  I
must also take this opportunity of mentioning that I never drank, on
board any other vessel, such clear and excellent water--a proof that
it is not so easily spoilt by the heat of the tropics, or a
protracted period, as is generally imagined.  It all depends upon
care and cleanliness, for which the Dutch are especially celebrated;
and I only wish that every captain would, in this respect at least,
imitate their example.  It is rather too bad for passengers to be
obliged to quench their thirst with thick and most offensive water--
a disagreeable necessity I was subjected to on board every other
sailing vessel in which I made a voyage of any length.

Victoria is not very pleasantly situated, being surrounded by barren
rocks.  The town itself has a European stamp upon it, so that were
it not for the Chinese porters, labourers, and pedlars, a person
would hardly believe he was in China.  I was much struck at seeing
no native women in the streets, from which it might be concluded
that it was dangerous for a European female to walk about as freely
as I did; but I never experienced the least insult, or heard the
slightest word of abuse from the Chinese; even their curiosity was
here by no means annoying.

In Victoria I had the pleasure of becoming acquainted with the well-
known Herr Gutzlaff, {91b} and four other German missionaries.  They
were studying the Chinese language; and wore the Chinese costume,
with their heads shaved like the natives, and with large cues
hanging down behind.  No language is so difficult to read and write
as the Chinese; it contains more than four thousand characters, and
is wholly composed of monosyllables.  Little brushes dipped in
Indian ink are used for writing, the writing itself extending down
the paper from right to left.

I had not been above a few days in Victoria before I had an
opportunity of proceeding to Canton on board a small Chinese junk.
A gentleman of the name of Pustan, who is settled as a merchant
here, and whom I found excessively kind, endeavoured very earnestly
to dissuade me from trusting myself among the Chinese without any
protector, and advised me either to take a boat for myself or a
place in the steamer; but both these means were too dear for my
small finances, since either would have cost twelve dollars, whereas
a passage in the junk was only three.  I must also add, that the
appearance and behaviour of the Chinese did not inspire me with the
slightest apprehension.  I looked to the priming of my pistols, and
embarked very tranquilly on the evening of the 12th of July.

A heavy fall of rain, and the approach of night, soon obliged me to
seek the interior of the vessel, where I passed my time in observing
my Chinese fellow-travellers.

The company were, it is true, not very select, but behaved with
great propriety, so that there was nothing which could prevent my
remaining among them.  Some were playing at dominoes, while others
were extracting most horrible sounds from a sort of mandolin with
three strings; all, however, were smoking, chatting, and drinking
tea, without sugar, from little saucers.  I, too, had this celestial
drink offered to me on all sides.  Every Chinese, rich or poor,
drinks neither pure water nor spirituous liquors, but invariably
indulges in weak tea with no sugar.

At a late hour in the evening I retired to my cabin, the roof of
which, not being completely waterproof, let in certain very
unwelcome proofs that it was raining outside.  The captain no sooner
remarked this than he assigned me another place, where I found
myself in the company of two Chinese women, busily engaged in
smoking out of pipes with bowls no bigger than thimbles, and in
consequence they could not take more than four or five puffs without
being obliged to fill their pipes afresh.

They soon remarked that I had no stool for my head.  They offered me
one of theirs, and would not be satisfied until I accepted it.  It
is a Chinese custom to use, instead of pillows, little stools of
bamboo or strong pasteboard.  They are not stuffed, but are rounded
at the top, and are about eight inches high, and from one to three
feet long.  They are far more comfortable than would at first be

13th July.  On hurrying upon deck early in the morning to view the
mouth of the Si-Kiang, or Tigris, I found that we had already passed
it, and were a long way up the river.  I saw it, however,
subsequently, on my return from Canton to Hong-Kong.  The Si-Kiang,
which is one of the principal rivers of China, and which, at a short
distance before entering the sea, is eight nautical miles broad, is
so contracted by hills and rocks at its mouth, that it loses one
half of its breadth.  The surrounding country is fine, and a few
fortifications on the summits of some of the hills, give it rather a
romantic appearance.

Near Hoo-man, or Whampoa, the stream divides into several branches;
that which flows to Canton being called the Pearl stream.  Although
Whampoa of itself is an insignificant place, it is worthy of note,
as being the spot where, from the shallowness of the water, all
deeply laden ships are obliged to anchor.

Immense plantations of rice, skirted by bananas and other fruit-
trees, extend along the banks of the Pearl stream.  The trees are
sometimes prettily arranged in alleys, but are planted far less for
ornament than for use.  Rice always requires a great deal of
moisture, and the trees are planted in order to impart a greater
degree of solidity to the soil, and also to prevent the possibility
of its being washed away by the force of the stream.  Pretty little
country houses of the genuine Chinese pattern, with their sloping,
pointed, indented roofs, and their coloured tiles inlaid with
different hues, were scattered here and there, under groups of shady
trees, while pagodas (called Tas) of various styles, and from three
to nine stories high, raised their heads on little eminences in the
neighbourhood of the villages, and attracted attention at a great
distance.  A number of fortifications, which, however, look more
like roofless houses than anything else, protect the stream.

For miles below Canton, the villages follow one another in quick
succession.  They are mostly composed of miserable huts, built for
the most part on piles driven into the river, and before them lie
innumerable boats, which also serve as dwellings.

The nearer we approached Canton, the busier became the scene on the
river, and the greater the number of ships and inhabited boats.  I
saw some junks of most extraordinary shape, having poops that hung
far over the water, and provided with large windows and galleries,
and covered in with a roof, like a house.  These vessels are often
of immense size, and of a thousand tons' burden.  I also saw some
Chinese men-of-war, flat, broad, and long, and mounting twenty or
thirty cannons. {93}  Another object of interest was the mandarins'
boats, with their painted sides, doors, and windows, their carved
galleries, and pretty little silk flags, giving them the appearance
of the most charming houses; but what delighted me most was the
flower-boats, with their upper galleries ornamented with flowers,
garlands, and arabesques.  A large apartment and a few cabinets,
into which the interior is divided, are reached through doors and
windows which have almost a Gothic appearance.  Mirrors and silk
hangings adorn the walls, while glass chandeliers and coloured paper
lanterns, between which swing lovely little baskets with fresh
flowers, complete the magic scene.

These flower-boats are always stationary, and are frequented by the
Chinese as places of amusement, both by day and night.  Plays are
acted here, and ballets and conjuring performed.  Women, with the
exception of a certain class, do not frequent these places;
Europeans are not exactly prevented from entering them, but are
exposed, especially in the present unfavourable state of public
opinion, to insult and even injury.

In addition to these extraordinary vessels, let the reader picture
to himself thousands of small boats (schampans), some at anchor,
some crossing and passing in all directions, with fishermen casting
their nets, and men and children amusing themselves by swimming, and
he will have some idea of the scene I witnessed.  I often could not
avoid turning away with terror at seeing the little children playing
and rolling about upon the narrow boats, I expected every instant
that one or other of them would certainly fall overboard.  Some
parents are cautious enough to fasten hollow gourds, or bladders
filled with air, on their children's backs, until they are six years
old, so as to prevent them sinking so quickly, if they should happen
to tumble into the water.

All these multifarious occupations--this ceaseless activity, this
never-ending bustle, form so peculiar a feature, that it is hardly
possible for a person who has not been an eye-witness to obtain a
correct idea of it.

It is only during the last few years that we European women have
been allowed to visit or remain in the factories at Canton.  I left
the vessel without any apprehension; but first, I had to consider
how I should find my way to the house of a gentleman named Agassiz,
for whom I had brought letters of recommendation.  I explained to
the captain, by signs, that I had no money with me, and that he must
act as my guide to the factory, where I would pay him.  He soon
understood me, and conducted me to the place, and the Europeans
there showed me the particular house I wanted.

On seeing me arrive, and hearing the manner in which I had
travelled, and the way that I had walked from the vessel to his
house, Mr. Agassiz was extremely surprised, and would hardly credit
that I had met with no difficulties or injury.  From him I learned
what risks I, as a woman, had run in traversing the streets of
Canton with no escort but a Chinese guide.  Such a thing had never
occurred before, and Mr. Agassiz assured me that I might esteem
myself as exceedingly fortunate in not having been insulted by the
people in the grossest manner, or even stoned.  Had this been the
case, he told me that my guide would have immediately taken to
flight, and abandoned me to my fate.

I had certainly remarked, on my way from the vessel to the factory,
that both old and young turned back to look after me, and that they
hooted and pointed at me with their fingers; the people ran out of
the booths, and gradually formed a crowd at my heels.  I had,
however, no alternative but to preserve my countenance; I walked,
therefore, calmly on, and perhaps it is to the very fact of my
manifesting no fear that I escaped unmolested.

I had not intended to stop long in Canton, as, since the last war
between the English and Chinese, Europeans are obliged to be more
careful than ever how they show themselves in public.  This hatred
is more especially directed against women, as it is declared in one
of the Chinese prophecies that a woman will some day or other
conquer the Celestial Empire.  On account of this, I entertained but
slight hopes of seeing anything here, and thought of proceeding
directly to the port of Shanghai, in the north of China, where, as I
was informed, it was far easier to obtain access both among the
nobility and lower classes.  Fortunately, however, I made the
acquaintance of a German gentleman, Herr von Carlowitz, who had been
settled for some time in Canton.  He offered, in the kindest manner,
to act as my Mentor, on condition that I should arm myself with
patience until the mail from Europe, which was expected in a few
days, had come in. {95}  At such times the merchants are so busy and
excited, that they have no leisure to think of anything but their
correspondence.  I was, therefore, obliged to wait, not only until
the steamer had arrived, but until it had left again, which it did
not do until a week had elapsed.  I have to thank Mr. Agassiz that
the time did not hang heavily upon my hands; I was most kindly and
hospitably entertained, and enjoyed the opportunity of noting the
mode of life of those Europeans who have settled in the country.

Very few take their families with them to China, and least of all to
Canton, where both women and children are closely imprisoned in
their houses, which they can only leave in a well-closed litter.
Besides this, everything is so dear, that living in London is cheap
in comparison.  Lodgings of six rooms, with a kitchen, cost about
700 or 800 dollars a-year (140 or 160 pounds).  A man-servant
receives from four to eight dollars a-month, and female servants
nine or ten dollars, as Chinese women will not wait upon a European
unless greatly overpaid.  In addition to all this, there is a custom
prevalent here, of having a separate person for each branch of
household duty, which renders a large number of servants

A family of only four persons requires at least eleven or twelve
domestics, if not more.  In the first place, every member of the
family must have an attendant especially for his or her use; then
there is a man-cook, a number of nursery-maids, and several coolies
for the more menial duties, such as cleaning the rooms, carrying the
wood and water, and so forth.  In spite of this number of servants,
the attendance is frequently very bad; for, if one or other of them
happens to be out, and his services are required, his master must
wait until he returns, as no servant could ever be prevailed upon to
do another's duty.

At the head of the whole household is the comprador, who is a kind
of major-domo.  To his care are confided all the plate, furniture,
linen, and other effects; he engages all the servants, provides for
their board, and anything else they may require, and answers for
their good conduct, deducting, however, two dollars a-month from the
wages of each, in return for his services.  He makes all the
purchases, and settles all the bills, giving in the sum total at the
end of the month, without descending into the items.

Besides these domestic duties, the comprador is also entrusted with
the money belonging to his master's firm; hundreds of thousands of
dollars pass through his hands, and he is responsible for the
genuineness of every one.  He has persons in his own employment who
pay and receive all monies, and who examine and test every separate
coin with the most marvellous rapidity.  They take a whole handful
of dollars at a time, and toss them up separately with the finger
and thumb:  this enables them to determine whether each "rings"
properly, and on the coin falling into their hand again, reversed,
they examine the second side with a glance.  A few hours are
sufficient to pass several thousand dollars in review; and this
minute inspection is very necessary, on account of the number of
false dollars made by the Chinese.  Each piece of money is then
stamped with the peculiar mark of the firm, as a guarantee of its
genuineness, so that it at last becomes exceedingly thin and broad,
and frequently falls to bits; no loss is, however, occasioned by
this, as the amount is always reckoned by weight.  Besides dollars,
little bars of pure unstamped silver are used as a circulating
medium; small portions, varying in size, being cut off them,
according to the sum required.  The counting-house is situated on
the ground floor, in the comprador's room.  The Europeans have
nothing to do with the money, and, in fact, never even carry any for
their private use.

The comprador has no fixed salary, but receives a stated per-centage
upon all business transactions:  his per-centage upon the household
expenses is not fixed, but is not on that account less certain.  On
the whole, these compradors are very trustworthy.  They pay down a
certain sum, as caution-money, to some mandarin, and the latter
answers for them.

The following is a tolerably correct account of the mode of life
pursued by the Europeans settled here.  As soon as they are up, and
have drunk a cup of tea in their bed-room, they take a cold bath.  A
little after 9 o'clock, they breakfast upon fried fish or cutlets,
cold roast meat, boiled eggs, tea, and bread and butter.  Every one
then proceeds to his business until dinner-time, which is generally
4 o'clock.  The dinner is composed of turtle-soup, curry, roast
meat, hashes, and pastry.  All the dishes, with the exception of the
curry, are prepared after the English fashion, although the cooks
are Chinese.  For dessert there is cheese, with fruit; such as pine-
apples, long-yen, mangoes, and lytchi.  The Chinese affirm that the
latter is the finest fruit in the whole world.  It is about the size
of a nut, with a brown verrucous outside; the edible part is white
and tender, and the kernel black.  Long-yen is somewhat smaller, but
is also white and tender, though the taste is rather watery.
Neither of these fruits struck me as very good.  I do not think the
pine-apples are so sweet, or possessed of that aromatic fragrance
which distinguishes those raised in our European greenhouses,
although they are much larger.

Portuguese wines and English beer are the usual drinks--ice, broken
into small pieces, and covered up with a cloth, is offered with
each.  The ice is rather a costly article, as it has to be brought
from North America.  In the evening, tea is served up.

During meal-times, a large punkah is employed to diffuse an
agreeable degree of coolness through the apartment.  The punkah is a
large frame, from eight to ten feet long, and three feet high,
covered with white Indian cloth, and fastened to the ceiling.  A
rope communicates, through the wall, like a bell-pull, with the next
room, or the ground floor, where a servant is stationed to keep it
constantly in motion, and thus maintain a pleasing draught.

As may be seen from what I have said, the living here is very dear
for Europeans.  The expense of keeping a house may be reckoned at
30,000 francs (6,000 dollars--1,200 pounds) at the lowest; a very
considerable sum, when we reflect how little it procures, neither
including a carriage nor horses.  There is nothing in the way of
amusement, or places of public recreation; the only pleasure many
gentlemen indulge in, is keeping a boat, for which they pay 28s. a-
month, or they walk in the evenings in a small garden, which the
European inhabitants have laid out at their own cost.  This garden
faces the factory, surrounded on three sides by a wall, and, on the
fourth, washed by the Pearl stream.

The living of the Chinese population, on the contrary, costs very
little; 60 cash, 1,200 of which make a dollar (4s.), may be reckoned
a very liberal daily allowance for each man.  As a natural
consequence, wages are extremely low; a boat, for instance, may be
hired for half a dollar (2s.) a-day, and on this income, a whole
family of from six to eight persons will often exist.  It is true,
the Chinese are not too particular in their food; they eat dogs,
cats, mice, and rats, the intestines of birds, and the blood of
every animal, and I was even assured that caterpillars and worms
formed part of their diet.  Their principal dish, however, is rice,
which is not only employed by them in the composition of their
various dishes, but supplies the place of bread.  It is exceedingly
cheap; the pekul, which is equal to 124 lbs. English avoirdupois,
costing from one dollar and three-quarters to two dollars and a

The costume of both sexes, among the lower orders, consists of broad
trousers and long upper garments, and is remarkable for its
excessive filth.  The Chinaman is an enemy of baths and washing; he
wears no shirt, and does not discard his trousers until they
actually fall off his body.  The men's upper garments reach a little
below the knee, and the women's somewhat lower.  They are made of
nankeen, or dark blue, brown, or black silk.  During the cold
season, both men and women wear one summer-garment over the other,
and keep the whole together with a girdle; during the great heat,
however, they allow their garments to flutter unconstrained about
their body.

All the men have their heads shaved, with the exception of a small
patch at the back, the hair on which is carefully cultivated and
plaited into a cue.  The thicker and longer this cue is, the prouder
is its owner; false hair and black ribbon are consequently worked up
in it, so that it often reaches down to the ankles.  During work, it
is twisted round the neck, but, on the owner's entering a room, it
is let down again, as it would be against all the laws of etiquette
and politeness for a person to make his appearance with his cue
twisted up.  The women wear all their hair, which they comb entirely
back off their forehead, and fasten it in most artistic plaits to
the head; they spend a great deal of time in the process, but when
their hair is once dressed, it does not require to be touched for a
whole week.  Both men and women sometimes go about with no covering
at all on their head; sometimes they wear hats made of thin bamboo,
and very frequently three feet in diameter; these keep off both sun
and rain, and are exceedingly durable.

On their feet they wear sewed stockings and shoes, formed of black
silk, or some material like worsted; the soles, which are more than
an inch thick, are made up of layers of strong pasteboard or felt
pasted together.  The poor people go barefooted.

The houses of the lower classes are miserable hovels, built of wood
or brick.  The internal arrangements are very wretched:  the whole
furniture consists of a worthless table, a few chairs, and two or
three bamboo-mats, stools for the head, and old counterpanes; yet,
with this poverty, there are always sure to be some pots of flowers.

The cheapest mode of living is on board a boat.  The husband goes on
shore to his work, and leaves his wife to make a trifle by ferrying
persons over, or letting out the boat to pleasure parties.  One half
the boat belongs to the family themselves, and the other half to the
persons to whom they let it; and although there is not much room,
the whole boat measuring scarcely twenty-five feet in length, the
greatest order and cleanliness is everywhere apparent, as each
single plank on board is thoroughly scrubbed and washed every
morning.  Great ingenuity is displayed in turning every inch of
space on board these small craft to advantage, and the dexterity is
actually pushed so far as to find room for a tiny domestic altar.
During the day all the cookery and washing is done, and though at
the latter process there is no want of little children, the
temporary tenant of the boat does not suffer the least annoyance;
nothing offensive meets his eye; and, at the most, he merely hears
at rare intervals the whining voice of some poor little wretch.  The
youngest child is generally tied on its mother's back while she
steers; the elder children, too, have sometimes similar burdens, but
jump and climb about without the least consideration for them.  It
has often grieved me to the heart to see the head of an infant
scarcely born, thrown from one side to the other with each movement
of the child that was carrying it, or the sun darting so fiercely on
the poor little creature, who was completely exposed to its rays,
that it could hardly open its eyes.  For those who have not been
themselves witnesses of the fact, it is almost impossible to form an
idea of the indigence and poverty of a Chinese boat-family.

The Chinese are accused of killing numbers of their new-born or
weakly children.  They are said to suffocate them immediately after
their birth, and then throw them into the river, or expose them in
the streets--by far the most horrible proceeding of the two, on
account of the number of swine and houseless dogs, who fall upon,
and voraciously devour, their prey.  The most frequent victims are
the female infants, as parents esteem themselves fortunate in
possessing a large number of male children, the latter being bound
to support them in their old age; the eldest son, in fact, should
the father die, is obliged to take his place, and provide for his
brothers and sisters, who, on their part, are bound to yield
implicit obedience, and show him the greatest respect.  These laws
are very strictly observed, and any one infringing them is punished
with death.

The Chinese consider it a great honour to be a grandfather, and
every man who is fortunate enough to be one wears a moustache, as
the distinctive sign of his good luck.  These thin grey moustaches
are the more conspicuous, as the young men not only wear none, but,
as a general rule, grow no beard at all.

With regard to the social manners and customs of the Chinese, I am
only able to mention a few, as it is exceedingly difficult, and, in
fact, almost impossible, for a foreigner to become acquainted with
them.  I endeavoured to see as much as I could, and mixed on every
possible opportunity among the people, afterwards writing down a
true account of what I had seen.

On going out one morning, I met more than fifteen prisoners, all
with a wooden yoke (can-gue) about their necks, being led through
the streets.  This yoke is composed of two large pieces of wood,
fitting into one another, and having from one to three holes in
them; through these holes the head, and one or both hands, are
stuck, in proportion to the importance of the offence.  A yoke of
this description varies in weight from fifty to a hundred pounds,
and presses so heavily upon the neck and shoulders of the poor
wretch who bears it, that he is unable to convey his victuals to his
mouth himself, and is compelled to wait till some compassionate soul
feeds him.  This punishment lasts from a few days to several months;
in the latter case the prisoner generally dies.

Another description of punishment is the bastinado with the bamboo,
which, when applied to the more tender parts of the body, very
often, as early as the fifteenth blow, frees its victim for ever
from all his earthly sufferings.  Other more severe punishments,
which in no way yield the palm to those of the Holy Inquisition,
consist in flaying the prisoner alive, crushing his limbs, cutting
the sinews out of his feet, and so on.  Their modes of carrying out
the sentence of death appear to be mild in comparison, and are
generally confined to strangling and decapitation, although, as I
was informed, in certain extraordinary cases, the prisoner is
executed by being sawed in two, or left to die of starvation.  In
the first case, the unhappy victim is made fast between two planks,
and sawed in two longitudinally, beginning with the head; and, in
the second, he is either buried up to his head in the ground, and
thus left to perish of want, or else is fastened in one of the
wooden yokes I have described, while his food is gradually reduced
in quantity every day, until at last it consists of only a few
grains of rice.  In spite of the horrible and cruel nature of these
punishments, it is said that individuals are found ready, for a sum
of money, to undergo them all, death even included, instead of the
person condemned.

In the year 1846, 4,000 people were beheaded at Canton.  It is true
that they were the criminals of two provinces, which together
numbered a population of 9,000,000 souls, but the number is still
horrible to contemplate.  Is it possible that there could really be
so many who should be looked upon as criminals--or are persons
sentenced to death for a mere nothing--or are both these
suppositions true?

I once happened to go near the place of execution, and to my horror
beheld a long row of still bleeding heads exposed upon high poles.
The relations enjoy the privilege of carrying away and interring the

There are several different religions in China, the most prevalent
being Buddhism.  It is marked by great superstition and idolatry,
and is mostly confined to the lower classes.  The most natural is
that of the wise Confucius, which is said to be the religion of the
court, the public functionaries, the scholars, and educated classes.

The population of China is composed of a great many very different
races:  unfortunately, I am unable to describe their several
characteristics, as my stay in China was far too short.  The people
I saw in Canton, Hong-Kong, and Macao, are of middling stature.
Their complexion varies with their occupation:  the peasants and
labourers are rather sun-burnt; rich people and ladies white.  Their
faces are flat, broad, and ugly; their eyes are narrow, rather
obliquely placed, and far apart; their noses broad, and their mouth
large.  Their fingers I observed were in many cases extremely long
and thin; only the rich (of both sexes) allow their nails to grow to
an extraordinary length, as a proof that they are not obliged, like
their poorer brethren, to gain their livelihood by manual labour.
These aristocratic nails are generally half an inch long, though I
saw one man whose nails were quite an inch in length, but only on
his left hand.  With this hand it was impossible for him to raise
any flat object, except by laying his hand flat upon it, and
catching hold of it between his fingers.

The women of the higher classes are generally inclined to
corpulency, a quality which is highly esteemed not in women alone,
but in men as well.

Although I had heard a great deal about the small feet of Chinese
women, I was greatly astonished at their appearance.  Through the
kind assistance of a missionary's lady (Mrs. Balt) I was enabled to
behold one of these small feet in natura.  Four of the toes were
bent under the sole of the foot, to which they were firmly pressed,
and with which they appeared to be grown together; the great toe was
alone left in its normal state.  The fore-part of the foot had been
so compressed with strong broad bandages, that instead of expanding
in length and breadth, it had shot upwards and formed a large lump
at the instep, where it made part and parcel of the leg; the lower
portion of the foot was scarcely four inches long, and an inch and a
half broad.  The feet are always swathed in white linen or silk,
bound round with silk bandages and stuffed into pretty little shoes,
with very high heels.

To my astonishment these deformed beings tripped about, as if in
defiance of us broad-footed creatures, with tolerable ease, the only
difference in their gait being that they waddled like geese; they
even ran up and down stairs without the aid of a stick.

The only persons exempted from this Chinese method of improving
their beauty are girls of the lowest class--that is, those who live
in boats; in families of rank they are all subject to the same fate;
while in those of the middle classes, as a general rule, it is
limited to the eldest daughter.

The worth of a bride is reckoned by the smallness of her feet.

This process of mutilation is not commenced immediately the child is
born, but is deferred until the end of the first, or sometimes even
third year, nor is the foot after the operation forced into an iron
shoe, as many have affirmed, but merely firmly compressed with

The religion of the Chinese allows them to have a number of wives,
but in this respect they are far behind the Mahomedans.  The richest
have rarely more than from six to twelve, while poor persons content
themselves with one.

I visited during my stay in Canton as many workshops of the
different artists as I could.  My first visit was to the most
celebrated painters, and I must frankly own, that the vividness and
splendour of their colouring struck me exceedingly.  These qualities
are generally ascribed to the rice paper on which they paint, and
which is of the greatest possible fineness, and as white as milk.

The paintings upon linen and ivory differ very little, as far as the
colouring is concerned, from those of our European artists, and the
difference is therefore the more visible in their composition, and
perspective, which, with the Chinese, are yet in a state of infancy.
This is more especially true of perspective.  The figures and
objects in the back-ground rival in size and brilliancy those in
front, while rivers or seas float in the place which should be
occupied by clouds.  On the other hand, the native artists can copy
admirably, {101} and even take likenesses.  I saw some portraits so
strikingly well drawn, and admirably coloured, that first-rate
European artists need not have been ashamed to own them.

The Chinese possess marvellous skill in carving ivory,
tortoiseshell, and wood.  Among the superior black lacquered
articles, especially with flat or raised gold ornaments, I observed
some, which were worthy of a place in the most valuable collections
of objects of vertu.  I saw some small work-tables worth at least
600 dollars (120 pounds).  The baskets and carpets, made from the
bamboo, are also remarkably beautiful.

They are, however, far behind-hand in gold or silver work, which is
generally heavy and tasteless; but then again, they have attained
great celebrity by their porcelain, which is remarkable not only for
its size, but for its transparency.  It is true that vases and other
vessels four feet high are neither light nor transparent; but cups
and other small objects can only be compared to glass for fineness
and transparency.  The colours on them are very vivid, but the
drawings very stiff and bad.

In the manufacture of silks and crape shawls, the Chinese are
unsurpassable; the latter especially, in beauty, tastefulness, and
thickness, are far preferable to those made in England or France.

The knowledge of music, on the other hand, is so little developed,
that our good friends of the Celestial Empire might almost, in this
respect, be compared to savages--not that they have no instruments,
but they do not know how to use them.  They possess violins,
guitars, lutes (all with strings or wires), dulcimers, wind
instruments, ordinary and kettle-drums, and cymbals, but are neither
skilled in composition, melody, nor execution.  They scratch,
scrape, and thump upon their instruments in such a manner, as to
produce the finest marrowbone-and-cleaver kind of music imaginable.
During my excursions up and down the Pearl stream, I had frequent
opportunities of hearing artistic performances of this description
on board the mandarin and flower-boats.

In all kinds of deception the Chinese are great adepts, and
decidedly more than a match for any Europeans.  They have not the
slightest sense of honour, and if you detect them, content
themselves with saying:  "You are more clever or cunning than I."  I
was told that when they have any live stock, such as calves or pigs,
for sale, they compel them, as they are disposed of by weight, to
swallow stones or large quantities of water.  They also know how to
blow out and dress stale poultry, so as to make it look quite fresh
and plump.

But it is not the lower classes alone that indulge in cheating and
fraud; these agreeable qualities are shared by the highest
functionaries.  It is a well-known fact, for instance, that there
are nowhere so many pirates as in the Chinese sea, especially in the
vicinity of Canton; yet no measures are taken to punish or extirpate
them, simply because the mandarins do not think it beneath their
dignity to secretly share in the profits.

For example, though the opium trade is forbidden, so much of this
drug is smuggled in every year, that it is said to exceed in value
that of all the tea exported in the same period. {102a}  The
merchants enter into a private understanding with the officers and
mandarins, agreeing to give them a certain sum for every pikul, and
it is no rare occurrence for a mandarin to land whole cargoes under
the protection of his own flag.

In like manner there is said to be on one of the islands near Hong-
Kong a very extensive manufactory of false money, which is allowed
to be carried on without any interruption, as it pays a tribute to
the public functionaries and mandarins.  A short time ago, a number
of pirate vessels that had ventured too near Canton, were shot into
and sunk, the crews lost, and their leader taken.  The owners of the
vessels petitioned the government to set the prisoners free, and
threatened, in case of a refusal, to make extensive disclosures.
Every one was convinced that a sum of money accompanied this
threatening letter, for shortly after it was reported that the
prisoner had escaped.

I myself was witness of a circumstance in Canton, which caused me
great uneasiness, and was a pretty good proof of the helplessness or
apathy of the Chinese government.

On the 8th of August, Mr. Agassiz set out with a friend, intending
to return the same evening.  I was left at home alone with the
Chinese servants.  Mr. Agassiz did not return at the appointed time.
At last, about 1 o'clock the next morning, I suddenly heard voices
in loud conversation, and a violent knocking at the street door.  I
at first supposed it to be Mr. Agassiz, and felt much surprise at
the late hour of his arrival, but I soon perceived that the
disturbance was not in our house, but in that on the opposite side
of the way.  It is easy to fall into an error of this description,
as the houses are situated quite close to each other, and windows
are left open day and night.  I heard voices exclaim, "Get up,--
dress!" and then, "It is horrible--shocking--good heavens?--where
did it happen?"--I sprang quickly out of bed and huddled on my gown,
thinking either that a fire had broken out in some house or other,
or that the people had risen in insurrection. {102b}

Seeing a gentleman at one of the windows, I called and inquired of
him what was the matter.  He told me hurriedly that intelligence had
just arrived that two of his friends who were proceeding to Hong-
Kong (Whampoa lay on the road) had been attacked by pirates, and
that one was killed and the other wounded.  He then immediately
retired, so that I was unable to learn the name of the unfortunate
victim, and was left all night a prey to the greatest anxiety lest
it should be Mr. Agassiz.

Fortunately, this at least was not the case, as Mr. Agassiz returned
at 5 o'clock in the morning.  I then learned that this misfortune
had happened to Monsieur Vauchee, a Swiss gentleman, who had passed
many an evening in our house.  On the very day of his departure, I
met him at a neighbour's, where we had all been in the highest
spirits, singing songs and quartettes.  At 9 o'clock he went on
board the boat, set off at 10, and a quarter of an hour afterwards,
in the midst of thousands of schampans and other craft, met his
tragical end.

Monsieur Vauchee had intended to proceed to Hong-Kong, and there
embark on board a larger vessel for Shanghai; {103} he took with him
Swiss watches to the value of 40,000 francs (1,600 pounds), and, in
speaking to a friend, congratulated himself on the cautious manner
he had packed them up, without letting his servants know anything
about it.  This, however, could not have been the case:  and, as the
pirates have spies among the servants in every house, they were
unfortunately but too well acquainted with the circumstance.

During my stay in Canton, the house of a European was pulled down by
the populace, because it stood upon a piece of ground which, though
Europeans were allowed to occupy, they had not hitherto built upon.

In this manner there was hardly a day that we did not hear of acts
of violence and mischief, so that we were in a continual state of
apprehension, more especially as the report of the near approach of
a revolution, in which all the Europeans were to perish, was
everywhere bruited about.  Many of the merchants had made every
preparation for instant flight, and muskets, pistols, and swords
were neatly arranged ready for use in most of the counting-houses.
Luckily, the time fixed for the revolution passed over, without the
populace fulfilling its threats.

The Chinese are cowardly in the highest degree; they talk very large
when they are certain they have nothing to fear.  For instance, they
are always ready to stone, or even kill, a few defenceless
individuals, but if they have to fear any opposition, they are sure
not to commence the attack.  I believe that a dozen good European
soldiers would put to flight more than a hundred Chinese.  I myself
never met with a more dastardly, false, and, at the same time, cruel
race, in my life; one proof of this is, that their greatest pleasure
consists in torturing animals.

In spite of the unfavourable disposition of the populace, I ventured
out a good deal.  Herr von Carlowitz was untiring in his kindness to
me, and accompanied me everywhere, exposing himself to many dangers
on my account, and bearing patiently the insults of the populace,
who followed at our heels, and loudly expressed their indignation at
the boldness of the European woman in thus appearing in public.
Through his assistance, I saw more than any woman ever yet saw in

Our first excursion was to the celebrated Temple of Honan, which is
said to be one of the finest in China.

This temple is surrounded by numerous out-buildings, and a large
garden enclosed with a high wall.  You first enter a large fore-
court, at the extremity of which a colossal gateway leads into the
inner courts.  Under the archway of this portico are two War Gods,
each eighteen feet high, in menacing attitudes, and with horribly
distorted features.  They are placed there to prevent evil spirits
from entering.  A second similar portico, under which are the four
Celestial Kings, leads into the inmost court, where the principal
temple is situated.  The interior of the temple is 100 feet in
length, and 100 feet in breadth.  The flat roof, from which hang a
number of glass chandeliers, lamps, artificial flowers, and silk
ribbons, is supported upon several rows of wooden pillars, while the
multitude of statues, altars, flower-pots, censers, candelabra,
candlesticks, and other ornaments, involuntarily suggest to the mind
of the spectator the decoration of a Roman Catholic church.

In the foreground are three altars, and behind these three statues,
representing the God Buddha in three different aspects:  the past,
the present, and the future.  These figures, which are in a sitting
posture, are of colossal dimensions.

We happened to visit the temple just as service was being performed.
It was a kind of mass for the dead, which a mandarin had ordered for
his deceased wife.  At the right and left altars were the priests,
whose garments and gesticulations also resembled those of the Roman
Catholics.  At the middle altar was the mandarin, piously engaged in
prayer, while two stood beside him, fanning him with large fans.
{104}  He frequently kissed the ground, and every time he did so,
three wax tapers were presented to him, which he first elevated in
the air, and then gave to one of the priests, who placed them before
a statue of Buddha, but without lighting them.  The music was
performed by three men, one of whom twanged a stringed instrument,
while the second struck a metal globe, and the third played the

Besides the principal temple there are various smaller ones, and
halls, all adorned with statues of gods.  Especial honour is paid to
the twenty-four Gods of Pity, and to Kwanfootse, a demi-god of War.
Many of the former have four, six, and even eight arms.  All these
divinities, Buddha himself not excepted, are made of wood, gilt
over, and painted with glazing colours.

In the Temple of Mercy we met with an adventure which was nearly
attended with unpleasant consequences.  A priest, or bonze, handed
us some little tapers for us to light and offer to his divinity.
Herr von Carlowitz and myself had already got the tapers in our
hands, and were quite willing to afford him this gratification, when
an American missionary, who was with us, tore the tapers from our
grasp, and indignantly returned them to the priest, saying, that
what we were about to do was an act of idolatry.  The priest took
the matter very seriously, and, instantly closing the doors, called
his companions, who hurried in from all sides, and abused us in the
most violent and vociferous fashion, pressing closer every instant.
It was with the greatest difficulty that we succeeded in fighting
our way to the door, and thus making our escape.

After this little fray, our guide conducted us to the dwelling of
the Holy--Pigs! {105}  A beautiful stone hall is set apart for their
use, which hall these remarkable divinities fill, in spite of all
the care bestowed on them, with so horrible a stench, that it is
impossible to approach them without holding one's nose.  They are
taken care of and fed until death summons them away.  When we
visited the place there were only a pair of these fortunate beings,
and their number rarely exceeds three couples.

I was better pleased with the residence of a bonze, which adjoined
this holy spot.  It consisted of a sitting-room and bed-room merely,
but was very comfortably and elegantly fitted up.  The walls of the
sitting-room were ornamented with carved wood-work, and the
furniture was old-fashioned and pleasing:  at the back of the
apartment, which was flagged, stood a small altar.

We here saw an opium-eater, lying stretched out upon a mat on the
floor.  At his side was a cup of tea, with some fruit and a little
lamp, besides several pipes, with bowls that were smaller than a
thimble.  On our entrance, he was just inhaling the intoxicating
smoke from one of them.  It is said that some of the Chinese opium
smokers consume from twenty to thirty grains a-day.  As he was not
altogether unconscious of our presence, he managed to raise himself,
laid by his pipe, and dragged himself to a chair.  His eyes were
fixed and staring, and his face deadly pale, presenting altogether a
most pitiable and wretched spectacle.

Last of all, we were conducted to the garden, where the bonzes, at
their death, are burnt--a particular mark of distinction, as all
other people are interred.  A simple mausoleum, about thirty feet
square, and a few small private monuments, were all that was to be
seen.  None of them had any pretensions to elegance, being built of
the simplest masonry.  In the former of these edifices are preserved
the bones of the persons who have been burnt, and among them are
also buried the rich Chinese, whose heirs pay pretty handsomely to
obtain such an honour for them.  At a little distance stands a small
tower, eight feet in diameter and eighteen in height, with a small
pit, where a fire can be kindled, in the floor.  Over this pit is an
armchair, to which the deceased bonze is fastened in full costume.
Logs and dry brushwood are disposed all round, and the whole is set
fire to, and the doors closed.  In an hour they are again opened,
the ashes strewed around the tower, and the bones preserved until
the period for opening the mausoleum, which is only once every year.

A striking feature in the garden is this beautiful water-rose, or
lotus-flower (nymphaea nelumbo), which was originally a native of
China.  The Chinese admire this flower so much, that they have ponds
dug in their gardens expressly for it.  It is about six inches in
diameter, and generally white--very rarely pale red.  The seeds
resemble in size and taste those of the hazel; and the roots, when
cooked, are said to taste like artichokes.

There are more than a hundred bonzes who reside in the temple of
Honan.  In their ordinary dress, they differ nothing from the common
Chinamen, the only means of recognising them being by their heads,
which are _entirely_ shaved.  Neither these nor any other priests
can boast, as I was told, of being in the least respected by the

Our second excursion was to the Half-way Pagoda, so called by the
English from its lying half way between Canton and Whampoa.  We went
up the Pearl stream to it.  It stands upon a small eminence near a
village, in the midst of immense fields of rice, and is composed of
nine stories, 170 feet high.  Its circumference is not very
considerable, but nearly the same all the way up, which gives it the
look of a tower.  I was informed that this pagoda was formerly one
of the most celebrated in China, but it has long ceased to be used.
The interior was completely empty; there were neither statues nor
any other ornaments; nor were there any floors to prevent the eye
from seeing to the very top.  On the outside, small balconies
without railings surround each story, to which access is gained by
steep and narrow flights of stairs.  These projecting balconies
produce a very fine effect, being built of coloured bricks, very
artistically laid, and faced with variegated tiles.  The bricks are
placed in rows, with their points jutting obliquely outwards, so
that the points project about four inches over one another.  At a
distance, the work seems as if it were half pierced through, and
from the beautiful colours and fineness of the tiles, a person might
easily mistake the entire mass for porcelain.

While we were viewing the pagoda, the whole population of the
village had assembled round about us, and as they behaved with
tolerable quietness, we determined on paying a visit to the village
itself.  The houses, or rather huts, were small and built of brick,
and with the exception of their flat roofs, presented nothing
peculiar.  The rooms did not possess a ceiling of their own, but
were simply covered by the roof; the floor was formed of earth
closely pressed together, and the internal walls consisted partly of
bamboo-mats.  What little furniture there was, was exceedingly
dirty.  About the middle of the village was a small temple, with a
few lamps burning dimly before the principal divinity.

What struck me most was the quantity of poultry, both in and out of
the huts, and we had to take the greatest care to avoid treading on
some of the young brood.  The chickens are hatched, as they are in
Egypt, by artificial heat.

On our return from the village to the pagoda, we saw two schampans
run in shore, and a number of swarthy, half-naked, and mostly armed
men jump out, and hasten through the fields of rice directly to
where we were.  We set them down as pirates, and awaited the upshot
with a considerable degree of uneasiness.  We knew that, if we were
right in our supposition, we were lost without hope; for, at the
distance we were from Canton, and entirely surrounded by Chinese,
who would have been but too ready to lend them assistance, it would
have been doubly easy for pirates to dispatch us.  All idea of
escape or rescue was out of the question.

While these thoughts were flashing across our minds, the men kept
approaching us, and at length their leader introduced himself as the
captain of a Siamese man-of-war.  He informed us, in broken English,
that he had not long arrived with the Governor of Bangkok, who was
proceeding for the rest of the way to Pekin by land.  Our fears were
gradually dispelled, and we even accepted the friendly invitation of
the captain to run alongside his ship and view it, on our return.
He came in the boat with us, and took us on board, where he showed
us everything himself:  the sight, however, was not a particularly
attractive one.  The crew looked very rough and wild; they were all
dressed in a most slovenly and dirty manner, so that it was utterly
impossible to distinguish the officers from the common men.  The
vessel mounted twelve guns and sixty-eight hands.

The captain set before us Portuguese wine and English beer, and the
evening was far advanced before we reached home.

The longest trip that can be made from Canton is one twenty miles up
the Pearl stream, and Mr. Agassiz was kind enough to procure me this
pleasure.  He hired a good boat, which he furnished abundantly with
eatables and drinkables, and invited a missionary, who had made the
trip several times, Herr von Carlowitz, and myself.  The company of
a missionary is as yet by far the safest escort in China.  These
gentlemen speak the language; they become gradually acquainted with
the people, and travel about, with hardly any obstacle to speak of,
all round the vicinity of Canton.

About a week before we had decided on going, a few young gentlemen
had endeavoured to make the same excursion, but had been fired upon
from one of the fortresses that lie on the banks of the river, and
compelled to turn back half-way.  When we approached the fortress in
question, the crew of our boat refused to proceed any further, until
we had almost employed violence to make them do so.  We also were
fired into, but fortunately not until we were more than half past
the fortress.  Having escaped the danger, we pursued our course
without further interruption, landed at several hamlets, visited the
so-called Herren Pagoda, and took a good view of everything that was
to be seen.  The scenery all round was charming, and displayed to
our view large plains with rice, sugar, and tea-plantations,
picturesque clumps of trees, lovely hills, and more elevated
mountain ranges rising in the distance.  On the declivities of the
hills, we beheld a number of graves, which were marked by single,
upright stones.

The Herren Pagoda has three stories, with a pointed roof, and is
distinguished for its external sculpture.  It has no balconies
outside, but, instead of this, a triple wreath of leaves round each
story.  In the first and second story, to which access is gained by
more than usually narrow stairs, are some small altars with carved
idols.  We were not allowed to go into the third story, under the
excuse that there was nothing to be seen there.

The villages we visited, resembled more or less, that we had seen
near the Half-way Pagoda.

During this journey I was an eye-witness of the manner in which the
missionaries dispose of their religious tracts.  The missionary who
had been kind enough to accompany us, took this opportunity of
distributing among the natives some seeds that should bring forth
good fruit.  He had 500 tracts on board our boat, and every time
that another boat approached us, a circumstance that was of frequent
occurrence, he stretched himself as far as possible over the side
with half a dozen tracts in his hand, and made signs to the people
to approach and take them.  If people did not obey his summons, we
rowed up to them, and the missionary gratified them with his tracts
in dozens, and went his way rejoicing, in anticipation of the good
which he did not doubt they would effect.

Whenever we arrived at a village, however, matters reached even a
higher pitch.  The servant was obliged to carry whole packs of
tracts, which in a moment were distributed among the crowd of
curious who had quickly gathered round us.

Every one took what was offered to him, as it cost nothing, and if
he could not read it--the tracts were in Chinese--he had at least
got so much paper.  The missionary returned home delighted; he had
disposed of his 500 copies.  What glorious news for the Missionary
Society, and what a brilliant article for his religious paper, he no
doubt transmitted to Europe!

Six young Englishmen made this same excursion up the Pearl stream
six months later, stopping at one of the villages and mixing with
the people.  Unhappily, however, they all fell victims to the
fanaticism of the Chinese:  they were most barbarously murdered.

There was now no trip of any distance left but one round the walls
of the town of Canton, {108} properly so called.  This, too, I was
shortly enabled to undertake through the kindness of our good friend
the missionary, who offered to come as guide to Herr von Carlowitz
and myself, under the condition, however, that I should put on male
attire.  No woman had ever yet ventured to make this trip, and he
thought that I ought not to venture in my own dress; I complied with
his wish, therefore, and one fine morning early we set out.

For some distance our road lay through narrow streets or alleys
paved with large flags.  In a small niche somewhere in the front of
every house, we saw little altars from one to three feet high,
before which, as it was yet early, the night lamps were still
burning.  An immense quantity of oil is unnecessarily consumed in
keeping up this religious custom.  The shops now began to be opened.
They resemble neat entrance halls, having no front wall.  The goods
were exposed for sale either in large open boxes or on tables,
behind which the shopkeepers sit and work.  In one corner of the
shop, a narrow staircase leads up into the dwelling-house above.

Here, as in Turkish towns, the same regulation is observed of each
trade or calling having its especial street, so that in one nothing
but crockery and glass, in another silks, and so on, is to be seen.
In the physician's street are situated all the apothecaries' shops
as well, as the two professions are united in one and the same
person.  The provisions, which are very tastily arranged, have also
their separate streets.  Between the houses are frequently small
temples, not differing the least, however, in style from the
surrounding buildings:  the gods, too, merely occupy the ground
floor, the upper stories being inhabited by simple mortals.

The bustle in the streets was astonishing, especially in those set
apart for the sale of provisions.  Women and girls of the lower
classes went about making their purchases, just as in Europe.  They
were all unveiled, and some of them waddled like geese, in
consequence of their crippled feet, which, as I before observed,
extends to all ranks.  The crowd was considerably increased by the
number of porters, with large baskets of provisions on their
shoulders, running along, and praising in a loud voice their stock
in trade, or warning the people to make way for them.  At other
times, the whole breadth of the street would be taken up, and the
busy stream of human beings completely stopped by the litter of some
rich or noble personage proceeding to his place of business.  But
worse than all were the numerous porters we met at every step we
took, carrying large baskets of unsavoury matter.

It is a well known fact, that there is perhaps no nation on the face
of the earth equal to the Chinese in diligence and industry, or that
profits by, and cultivates, as they do, every available inch of
ground.  As, however, they have not much cattle, and consequently
but little manure, they endeavour to supply the want of it by other
means, and hence their great care of anything that can serve as a

All their small streets are built against the city walls, so that we
had been going round them for some time before we were aware of the
fact.  Mean-looking gates or wickets, which all foreigners are
strictly prohibited from passing, and which are shut in the evening,
lead into the interior of the town.

I was told that it has often happened for sailors, or other
strangers, during their walks, to penetrate through one of these
entrances into the interior of the town, and not discover their
mistake until the stones began flying about their ears.

After threading our way for at least two miles through a succession
of narrow streets, we at length emerged into the open space, where
we obtained a full view of the city walls, and from the summit of a
small hill which was situated near them, a tolerably extensive one
over the town itself.  The city walls are about sixty feet high,
and, for the most part, so overgrown with grass, creeping plants,
and underwood, that they resemble a magnificent mass of living
vegetation.  The town resembles a chaos of small houses, with now
and then a solitary tree, but we saw neither fine streets nor
squares, nor any remarkable buildings, temples, or pagodas.  A
single pagoda, five stories high, reminded us of the peculiar
character of Chinese architecture.

Our road now lay over fertile eminences, varied with fields and
meadows in a high state of cultivation.  Many of the hills are used
as cemeteries, and are dotted over with small mounds of earth,
walled in with stone flags, or rough hewn stones two feet high,
frequently covered with inscriptions.  Family tombs were also to be
seen, dug in the hill, and enclosed with stone walls of the shape of
a horse-shoe.  All the entrances were built up with stone.

The Chinese do not, however, bury all their dead:  they have a
remarkable way of preserving them in small stone chambers,
consisting of two stone walls and a roof, while the two other sides
are left open.  In these places, there are never more than from two
to four coffins, which are placed upon wooden benches two feet high:
the coffins themselves consist of massive trunks of trees hollowed

The villages through which we passed presented an animated
appearance, but appeared poor and dirty.  We were often obliged to
hold our noses in passing through the lanes and squares, and very
frequently would fain have closed our eyes as well, to avoid the
disgusting sight of people covered with eruptions of the skin,
tumours, and boils.

In all the villages I saw poultry and swine in great numbers, but
not more than three horses and a buffalo-cow; both the horses and
the cow were of an extremely small breed.

When we had nearly reached the end of our excursion, we met a
funeral.  A horrible kind of music gave us warning that something
extraordinary was approaching, and we had hardly time to look up and
step on one side, before the procession came flying past us at full
speed.  First came the worthy musicians, followed by a few Chinese,
next two empty litters carried by porters, and then the hollow trunk
of a tree, representing the coffin, hanging to a long pole, and
carried in a similar manner:  last of all, were some priests and a
crowd of people.

The chief priest wore a kind of white {110} fool's cap, with three
points; the other persons, who consisted of men alone, had a kind of
white cloth bound round their head or arm.

I was lucky enough to be enabled to visit some of the summer palaces
and gardens of the nobility.

The finest of all was certainly that belonging to the Mandarin
Howqua.  The house itself was tolerably spacious, one story high,
with very wide, splendid terraces.  The windows looked into the
inner courts, and the roof was like those in European buildings,
only much flatter.  The sloping roofs, with their multitude of
points and pinnacles, with their little bells and variegated tiles,
are only to be found in the temples and country-houses, but never in
the usual residences.  At the entrance there were two painted gods:
these, according to the belief of the Chinese, keep off evil

The front part of the house consisted of several reception rooms,
without front walls, and immediately adjoining them, on the ground
floor, elegant parterres; and on the first floor magnificent
terraces, which were also decorated with flowers, and afforded a
most splendid view over the animated scene on the river, the
enchanting scenery around, and the mass of houses in the villages
situated about the walls of Canton.

Neat little cabinets surrounded these rooms, from which they were
only separated by walls that in many cases were adorned with the
most artistic paintings, and through which the eye could easily
penetrate.  The most remarkable of these walls were those composed
of bamboos, which were as delicate as a veil, and plentifully
ornamented with painted flowers, or beautifully written proverbs.

A numberless quantity of chairs and a great many sofas were ranged
along the walls, from which I inferred that the Chinese are as much
accustomed to large assemblages as ourselves.  I observed some arm-
chairs most skilfully cut out of a single piece of wood; others with
seats of beautiful marble-slabs; and others again of fine coloured
tiles or porcelain.  Among various objects of European furniture, we
saw some handsome mirrors, clocks, vases, and tables of Florentine
mosaic, or variegated marble.  There was also a most extraordinary
collection of lamps and lanterns hanging from the ceilings, and
consisting of glass, transparent horn, and coloured gauze or paper,
ornamented with glass beads, fringe, and tassels.  Nor was there any
scarcity of lamps on the walls, so that when the apartments are
entirely lighted up, they must present a fairy-like appearance.

As we had been fortunate enough to reach this house without being
stoned, we were emboldened to visit the Mandarin Howqua's large
pleasure-garden, situated on a branch of the Pearl stream, about
three-quarters of a mile from the house.  We had, however, hardly
entered the branch of the river, before the crew wanted to turn
back, having observed a mandarin's junk, with all its flags hoisted,
a signal that the owner himself was on board.  They were unwilling
to venture on conveying us Europeans past the vessel, for fear they
should be punished, or stoned to death, along with ourselves, by the
people.  We obliged them to proceed, passed close by the junk, and
then landed, and continued our excursion on foot.  A large crowd of
people soon collected in our rear, and began pushing the children up
against us, in order to excite our rage; but arming ourselves with
patience, we moved quietly on, and reached, without any accident,
the garden gates, which we instantly closed behind us.

The garden was in a perfect state of cultivation, but without the
least pretension to taste in its arrangement.  On every side were
summer-houses, kiosks, and bridges, and all the paths and open spots
were lined with large and small flower-pots, in which were flowers
and dwarfed fruit-trees of every description.

The Chinese are certainly adepts in the art of diminishing the size
of, or rather crippling their trees, many of which very often
scarcely attain a height of three feet.  These dwarf trees are very
prevalent in their gardens, and preferred to the most magnificent
and shady trees of a natural size.  These lilliputian alleys can
hardly be considered in good taste, but it is most remarkable with
what a large quantity of beautiful fruit the tiny branches are

Besides these toys we also observed figures of all descriptions,
representing ships, birds, fish, pagodas, etc., cut out of foliage.
In the heads of the animals were stuck eggs, with a black star
painted on them to represent the eyes.

There was also no scarcity of rocks, both single and in groups,
ornamented with flower-pots, as well as little figures of men and
animals, which can be removed at pleasure, so as to form new
combinations, a kind of amusement of which the Chinese ladies are
said to be very fond.  Another source of entertainment, no less
popular, as well among the ladies as the gentlemen, consists in
kite-flying, and they will sit for hours looking at their paper
monsters in the air.  There is a large open spot set apart for this
purpose in the garden of every Chinese nobleman.  We noticed an
abundance of running water and ponds, but we did not observe any

As everything had passed off so well, Herr von Carlowitz proposed
that we should go and see the garden of the Mandarin Puntiqua, which
I was very anxious to do, as the mandarin had ordered a steam-boat
to be built there by a Chinese, who had resided thirteen years in
North America, where he had studied.

The vessel was so far advanced that it was to be launched in a few
weeks.  The artist showed us his work with great satisfaction, and
was evidently very much pleased at the praise we bestowed upon him
for it.  He attached great importance to his knowledge of the
English language, for when Herr von Carlowitz addressed him in
Chinese, he answered in English, and requested us to continue the
conversation in that idiom.  The machinery struck us as not being
constructed with the usual degree of neatness for which the Chinese
are famous, and also appeared far too large for the small vessel for
which it was intended.  Neither I nor my companion would have had
the courage to have gone in her on her experimental trip.

The mandarin who had the vessel built, had gone to Pekin to obtain a
"button" as his reward for being the first person to launch a
steamer in the Chinese empire.  The builder himself will, in all
probability, be obliged to rest contented with the consciousness of
his talent.

From the ship-yard we proceeded to the garden, which was very large
but greatly neglected.  There were neither alleys nor fruit trees,
rocks nor figures; but, to make up for these, an insufferable
quantity of summer-houses, bridges, galleries, little temples, and

The dwelling-house consisted of a large hall and a number of small
chambers.  The walls were ornamented, both inside and out, with
carved wood-work, and the roof abundantly decorated with points and

In the large halls plays and other entertainments are sometimes
enacted for the amusement of the ladies, who are universally
confined to their houses and gardens, which can only be visited by
strangers in their absence. {112}

A number of peacocks, silver-pheasants, mandarin-ducks, and deer are
preserved in their gardens.  In one corner was a small, gloomy
bamboo plantation, in which were some family graves; and not far off
a small earthen mound had been raised, with a wooden tablet, on
which was a long poetical inscription in honour of the favourite
snake of the mandarin, which was buried there.

After duly inspecting everything, we set off on our road home, and
reached there in safety.

I was not so fortunate a few days later on visiting a tea-factory.
The proprietor conducted me himself over the workshops, which
consisted of large halls, in which six hundred people, including a
great many old women and children, were at work.  My entrance
occasioned a perfect revolt.  Old and young rose from work, the
elder portion lifting up the younger members of the community in
their arms and pointing at me with their fingers.  The whole mass
then pressed close upon me and raised so horrible a cry that I began
to be alarmed.  The proprietor and his overseer had a difficult task
to keep off the crowd, and begged me to content myself with a hasty
glance at the different objects, and then to quit the building as
soon as possible.

In consequence of this I could only manage to observe that the
leaves of the plant are thrown for a few seconds into boiling water,
and then placed in flat iron pans, fixed slantingly in stone-work,
where they are slightly roasted by a gentle heat, during which
process they are continually stirred by hand.  As soon as they begin
to curl a little, they are thrown upon large planks, and each single
leaf is rolled together.  This is effected with such rapidity, that
it requires a person's undivided attention to perceive that no more
than one leaf is rolled up at a time.  After this, all the leaves
are placed once more in the pan.  Black tea takes some time to
roast, and the green is frequently coloured with Prussian blue, an
exceedingly small quantity of which is added during the second
roasting.  Last of all the tea is once more shaken out upon the
large boards, in order that it may be carefully inspected, and the
leaves that are not entirely closed are rolled over again.

Before I left, the proprietor conducted me into his house, and
treated me to a cup of tea prepared after the fashion in which it is
usually drunk by rich and noble Chinese.  A small quantity was
placed in a China cup, boiling water poured upon it, and the cup
then closed with a tightly-fitting cover.  In a few seconds the tea
is then drank and the leaves left at the bottom.  The Chinese take
neither sugar, rum, nor milk with their tea; they say that anything
added to it, and even the stirring of it, causes it to lose its
aroma; in my cup, however, a little sugar was put.

The tea-plant, which I saw in the plantations round about Canton,
was at most six feet high; it is not allowed to grow any higher, and
is consequently cut at intervals.  Its leaves are used from the
third to the eighth year; and the plant is then cut down, in order
that it may send forth new shoots, or else it is rooted out.  There
are three gatherings in the year; the first in March, the second in
April, and the third, which lasts for three months, in May.  The
leaves of the first gathering are so delicate and fine that they
might easily be taken for the blossom, which has no doubt given rise
to the error that the so-called "bloom or imperial tea" is supposed
not to consist of the leaves but of the blossom itself. {114}  This
gathering is so hurtful to the plant that it often perishes.

I was informed that the tea which comes from the neighbourhood of
Canton is the worst, and that from the provinces somewhat more to
the north the best.  The tea manufacturers of Canton are said to
possess the art of giving tea that has been frequently used, or
spoiled by rain, the appearance of good tea.  They dry and roast the
leaves, colour them yellow with powdered kurkumni, or light green
with Prussian blue, and then roll them tightly up.  The price of the
tea sent to Europe varies from fifteen to sixty dollars (3 to 12
pounds) a pikul, of 134 lb. English weight.  The kind at sixty
dollars does not find a very ready market; the greater part of it is
exported to England.  The "bloom" is not met with in trade.

I must mention a sight which I accidentally saw, one evening, upon
the Pearl stream.  It was, as I afterwards heard, a thanksgiving
festival in honour of the gods, by the owners of two junks that had
made a somewhat long sea voyage without being pillaged by pirates,
or overtaken by the dangerous typhoon.

Two of the largest flower boats, splendidly illuminated, were
floating gently down the stream.  Three rows of lamps were hung
round the upper part of the vessels, forming perfect galleries of
fire; all the cabins were full of chandeliers and lamps, and on the
forecastle large fires were burning out of which rockets darted at
intervals with a loud report, although they only attained the
elevation of a few feet.  On the foremost vessel there was a large
mast erected, and hung with myriads of coloured paper lamps up to
its very top, forming a beautiful pyramid.  Two boats, abundantly
furnished with torches and provided with boisterous music, preceded
these two fiery masses.  Slowly did they float through the darkness
of the night, appearing like the work of fairy hands.  Sometimes
they stopped, when high flames, fed with holy perfumed paper,
flickered upwards to the sky.

Perfumed paper, which must be bought from the priests, is burnt at
every opportunity, and very frequently beforehand, after every
prayer.  From the trade in this paper the greater portion of the
priests' income is derived.

On several occasions, accompanied by Herr von Carlowitz, I took
short walks in the streets near the factory.  I found the greater
pleasure in examining the beautiful articles of Chinese manufacture,
which I could here do at my leisure, as the shops were not so open
as those I saw during my excursion round the walls of Canton, but
had doors and windows like our own, so that I could walk in and be
protected from the pressure of the crowd.  The streets, also, in
this quarter were somewhat broader, well paved, and protected with
mats or planks to keep off the burning heat of the sun.

In the neighbourhood of the factory, namely in Fousch-an, where most
of the manufactories are situated, a great many places may be
reached by water, as the streets, like those in Venice, are
intersected by canals.  This quarter of Canton, however, is not the
handsomest, because all the warehouses are erected on the sides of
the canals, where the different workmen have also taken up their
residence in miserable huts that, built half upon the ground and
half upon worm-eaten piles, stretch far out over the water.

I had now been altogether, from July 13th to August 20th, five weeks
in Canton.  The season was the hottest in the whole year, and the
heat was really insupportable.  In the house, the glass rose as high
as 94.5 degrees, and out of doors, in the shade, as high as 99
degrees.  To render this state of things bearable, the inhabitants
use, besides the punkas in the rooms, wicker-work made of bamboo.
This wicker-work is placed before the windows and doors, or over
those portions of the roofs under which the workshops are situated.
Even whole walls are formed of it, standing about eight or ten feet
from the real ones, and provided with entrances, window-openings,
and roofs.  The houses are most effectually disguised by it.

On my return to Hong-Kong, I again set out on board a junk, but not
so fearlessly as the first time; the unhappy end of Monsieur Vauchee
was still fresh in my memory.  I took the precaution of packing up
the few clothes and linen I had in the presence of the servants,
that they might be convinced that any trouble the pirates might give
themselves on my account would be thrown away.

On the evening of the 20th of August I bade Canton, and all my
friends there, farewell; and at 9 o'clock I was once again floating
down the Si-Kiang, or Pearl stream, famous for the deeds of horror
perpetrated on it.



The passage from Canton to Hong-Kong was accomplished without any
circumstance worthy of notice, save the time it took, in consequence
of the prevalence of contrary winds the whole way.  We were, it is
true, woke up the first night by the report of guns; but I expect
they were not fired at us, as we were not molested.  My travelling
companions, the Chinese, also behaved themselves on this occasion
with the greatest politeness and decorum; and, had I been enabled to
look into the future, I would willingly have given up the English
steamer and pursued my journey as far as Singapore on board a junk.
But as this was impossible, I availed myself of the English steamer,
"Pekin," of 450 horse-power, Captain Fronson commander, which leaves
for Calcutta every month.

As the fares are most exorbitant, {116} I was advised to take a
third-class ticket, and hire a cabin from one of the engineers or
petty officers; I was greatly pleased with the notion, and hastened
to carry it out.  My astonishment, however, may be imagined when, on
paying my fare, I was told that the third-class passengers were not
respectable, that they were obliged to sleep upon deck, and that the
moon was exceedingly dangerous, etc.  It was in vain that I replied
I was the best judge of my own actions; I was obliged, unless I
chose to remain behind, to pay for one of the second places.  This
certainly gave me a very curious idea of English liberty.

On the 25th of August, at 1 o'clock, P.M., I went on board.  On
reaching the vessel I found no servant in the second places, and was
obliged to ask a sailor to take my luggage into the cabin.  This
latter was certainly anything but comfortable.  The furniture was of
the most common description, the table was covered with stains and
dirt, and the whole place was one scene of confusion.  I inquired
for the sleeping cabin, and found there was but one for both sexes.
I was told to apply to one of the officials, who would no doubt
allow me to sleep somewhere else.  I did so, and obtained a neat
little cabin in consequence, and the steward was kind enough to
propose that I should take my meals with his wife.  I did not,
however, choose to accept the offer; I paid dearly enough, Heaven
knows, and did not choose to accept everything as a favour.
Besides, this was the first English steamer I had ever been on
board, and I was curious to learn how second-class passengers were

The company at our table consisted not only of the passengers, of
whom there were three besides myself, but of the cooks and waiters
of the first-class places, as well as of the butcher; or, in a word,
of every one of the attendants who chose to take "pot-luck" with us.
As for any etiquette in the article of costume, that was entirely
out of the question.  Sometimes one of the company would appear
without either coat or jacket; the butcher was generally oblivious
of his shoes and stockings; and it was really necessary to be
endowed with a ravenous appetite to be enabled to eat anything with
such a set.

The bill of fare was certainly adapted to the crew and their
costume, but decidedly not to the passengers, who had to pay
thirteen dollars (2 pounds 12s.) a day each for provisions.

The table-cloth was full of stains, and, in lieu of a napkin, each
guest was at liberty to use his handkerchief.  The knives and forks
had white and black horn handles, with notched blades, and broken
prongs.  On the first day we had no spoons at all; on the second we
had one between us, and this one was placed on the table in solitary
grandeur during the entire voyage.  There were only two glasses, and
those of the most ordinary description, which circulated from mouth
to mouth; as I was a female, instead of my turn of the glasses, I
had, as a peculiar mark of distinction, an old tea-cup with the
handle knocked off.

The head cook, who did the honours, pleaded in excuse for all this
discomfort, that they happened this voyage to be short of servants.
This struck me as really a little too naive, for when I paid my
money I paid for what I ought to have then, and not for what I might
have another time.

As I said before, the provisions were execrable; the remnants of the
first cabin were sent to us poor wretches.  Two or three different
things would very often be side by side in the most friendly and
brotherly manner upon one dish, even although their character was
widely different; that was looked upon as a matter of no import,
which was also the case as to whether the things came to table hot
or cold.

On one occasion, during tea, the head cook was in unusually good
humour, and remarked, "I spare no possible pains to provide for you.
I hope you want for nothing."  Two of the passengers, Englishmen,
replied, "No, that's true!"  The third, who was a Portuguese, did
not understand the importance of the assertion.  As a native of
Germany, not possessing the patriotic feeling of an English subject
in the matter, I should have replied very differently had I not been
a women, and if, by so replying, I could have effected a change for
the better.

The only light we had was from a piece of tallow candle, that often
went out by eight o'clock.  We were then under the necessity of
sitting in the dark or going to bed.

In the morning the cabin served as a barber's shop, and in the
afternoon as a dormitory, where the cooks and servants, who were
half dead with sleep, used to come and slumber on the benches.

In order to render us still more comfortable, one of the officers
pitched upon our cabin as quarters for two young puppies, who did
nothing but keep up one continued howl; he would not have dared to
put them in the sailors' cabin, because the latter would have kicked
them out without farther ceremony.

My description will, in all probability, be considered exaggerated,
especially as there is an old opinion that the English are, above
all other people, justly celebrated for their comfort and
cleanliness.  I can, however, assure my readers that I have spoken
nothing but the truth; and I will even add that, although I have
made many voyages on board steam-ships, and always paid second fare,
never did I pay so high a price for such wretched and detestable
treatment.  In all my life I was never so cheated.  The only
circumstance on board the ship to which I can refer with pleasure
was the conduct of the officers, who were, without exception,
obliging and polite.

I was very much struck with the remarkable degree of patience
exhibited by my fellow-passengers.  I should like to know what an
Englishman, who has always got the words "comfort" and "comfortable"
at the top of his tongue, would say, if he were treated in this
manner on board a steamer belonging to any other nation?

For the first few days of our voyage we saw no land, and it was not
until the 28th of August that we caught sight of the rocky coast of
Cochin China.  During the whole of the 29th we steered close along
the coast, but could see no signs of either human beings or
habitations, the only objects visible being richly wooded mountain-
ranges; in the evening, however, we beheld several fires, which
might have been mistaken for the signals from lighthouses, and
proved that the country was not quite uninhabited.

During the following day we only saw a large solitary rock called
"The Shoe."  It struck me as being exactly like the head of a
shepherd's dog.

On the 2nd of September we neared Malacca.  Skirting the coast are
tolerably high, well-wooded mountain-ranges, infested, according to
all accounts, by numerous tigers, that render all travelling very

On the 3rd of September we ran into the port of Singapore; but it
was so late in the evening, that we could not disembark.

On the following morning I paid a visit to the firm of Behu and
Meyer, to whom I had letters of introduction.  Madame Behu was the
first German lady I had met since my departure from Hamburgh.  I
cannot say how delighted I was at forming her acquaintance.  I was
once more able to give free vent to my feelings in my own native
tongue.  Madame Behu would not hear of my lodging in an hotel; I was
immediately installed as a member of her own amiable family.  My
original plan was to have remained but a short period in Singapore,
and then proceed in a sailing vessel to Calcutta, as I had a perfect
horror of English steamers, and as I had been told that
opportunities continually presented themselves.  I waited, however,
week after week in vain, until, in spite of my unwillingness, I was
obliged to embark in a comfortable English steamer at last. {118}

The Europeans lead pretty much the same kind of life at Singapore
that they do at Canton, with this difference, however, that the
merchants reside with their families in the country, and come to
town every morning for business.  Each family is obliged to keep a
large staff of servants, and the lady of the house meddles very
little in domestic matters, as these are generally altogether
entrusted to the major-domo.

The servants are Chinese, with the exception of the seis (coachmen
or grooms), who are Bengalese.  Every spring, whole shiploads of
Chinese boys, from ten to fifteen years old, come over here.  They
are generally so poor that they cannot pay their passage.  When this
is the case, the captain brings them over on his own account, and is
paid beforehand, by the person engaging them, their wages for the
first year.  These young people live very economically, and when
they have a little money, return generally to their native country,
though many hire themselves as journeymen, and stop altogether.

The Island of Singapore has a population of 55,000 souls, 40,000 of
whom are Chinese, 10,000 Malays, or natives, and 150 Europeans.  The
number of women is said to be very small, in consequence of the
immigrants from China and India consisting only of men and boys.

The town of Singapore and its environs contain upwards of 20,000
inhabitants.  The streets struck me as being broad and airy, but the
houses are not handsome.  They are only one story high; and, from
the fact of the roof's being placed directly above the windows,
appear as if they were crushed.  On account of the continual heat,
there is no glass in any of the windows, but its place is supplied
by sun-blinds.

Every article of merchandise has here, as at Canton, if not its own
peculiar street, at least its own side of the street.  The building
in which meat and vegetables are sold, is a fine handsome edifice
resembling a temple.

As a natural result of the number of persons of different nations
congregated upon this island, there are various temples, none of
which are worthy of notice, however, with the exception of that
belonging to the Chinese.  It is formed like an ordinary house, but
the roof is ornamented in the usual Chinese fashion to rather too
great an extent.  It is loaded with points and pinnacles, with
circles and curves without end, all of which are formed of coloured
tiles or porcelain, and decorated with an infinity of arabesques,
flowers, dragons, and other monsters.  Over the principal entrance
are small stone bas-reliefs, and both the exterior and interior of
the building can boast of a profusion of carved wood-work richly

Some fruit and biscuits of various descriptions, with a very small
quantity of boiled rice, were placed upon the altar of the Goddess
of Mercy.  These are renewed every evening, and whatever the goddess
may leave is the perquisite of the bonzes.  On the same altar lay
pretty little wooden counters cut in an oval shape, which the
Chinese toss up in the air; it is held to be a sign of ill-luck if
they fall upon the reverse side, but if they fall upon the other,
this is believed to betoken good fortune.  The worthy people are in
the habit of tossing them up until they fall as desired.

Another manner of learning the decrees of fate consists in placing a
number of thin wooden sticks in a basin, and then shaking them until
one falls out.  Each of these sticks is inscribed with a certain
number, corresponding with a sentence in a book of proverbs.  This
temple was more frequented by the people than those in Canton.  The
counters and sticks seemed to exercise great influence over the
congregation, for it was only round them that they gathered.

There is nothing further to be seen in the town, but the environs,
or rather the whole island, offers the most enchanting sight.  The
view cannot certainly be called magnificent or grand, since one
great feature necessary to give it this character, namely,
mountains, is entirely wanting.  The highest hill, on which the
governor's house and the telegraph are situated, is scarcely more
than 200 feet high, but the luxuriant verdancy, the neat houses of
the Europeans in the midst of beautiful gardens, the plantations of
the most precious spices, the elegant areca and feathered palms,
with their slim stems shooting up to a height of a hundred feet, and
spreading out into the thick feather-like tuft of fresh green, by
which they are distinguished from every other kind of palms, and,
lastly, the jungle in the back-ground, compose a most beautiful
landscape, and which appears doubly lovely to a person like myself,
just escaped from that prison ycleped Canton, or from the dreary
scenery about the town of Victoria.

The whole island is intersected with excellent roads, of which those
skirting the sea-shore are the most frequented, and where handsome
carriages, and horses from New Holland, and even from England,
{120a} are to be seen.  Besides the European carriages, there are
also certain vehicles of home manufacture called palanquins, which
are altogether closed and surrounded on all sides with jalousies.
Generally, there is but one horse, at the side of which both the
coachman and footman run on foot.  I could not help expressing my
indignation at the barbarity of this custom, when I was informed
that the residents had wanted to abolish it, but that the servants
had protested against it, and begged to be allowed to run beside the
carriage rather than sit or stand upon it.  They cling to the horse
or vehicle, and are thus dragged along with it.

Hardly a day passed that we did not drive out.  Twice a week a very
fine military band used to play on the esplanade close to the sea,
and the whole world of fashionables would either walk or drive to
the place to hear the music.  The carriages were ranged several rows
deep, and surrounded by young beaux on foot and horseback; any one
might have been excused for imagining himself in an European city.
As for myself, it gave me more pleasure to visit a plantation, or
some other place of the kind, than to stop and look on what I had so
often witnessed in Europe. {120b}

I frequently used to visit the plantations of nutmegs and cloves,
and refresh myself with their balsamic fragrance.  The nutmeg-tree
is about the size of a fine apricot-bush, and is covered from top to
bottom with thick foliage; the branches grow very low down the stem,
and the leaves shine as if they were varnished.  The fruit is
exactly similar to an apricot covered with yellowish-brown spots.
When ripe it bursts, exposing to view a round kernel about the size
of a nut, enclosed in a kind of net-work of a fine deep red:  this
network is known as mace.  It is carefully separated from the nutmeg
itself, and dried in the shade.  While undergoing this process, it
is frequently sprinkled with sea-water, to prevent its original tint
turning black instead of yellow.  In addition to this net-work, the
nutmeg is covered with a thin, soft rind.  The nutmeg itself is also
dried, then smoke-dried a little, and afterwards, to prevent its
turning mouldy, dipped several times in sea-water, containing a weak
solution of lime.

The clove-tree is somewhat smaller, and cannot boast of such
luxuriant foliage, or such fine large leaves as the nutmeg-tree.
The cloves are the buds of the tree gathered before they have had
time to blossom.  They are first smoked, and then laid for a short
time in the sun.

Another kind of spice is the areca-nut, which hangs under the crown
of the palm of the same name, in groups containing from ten to
twenty nuts each.  It is somewhat larger than a nutmeg, and its
outer shell is of so bright a colour, that it resembles the gilt
nuts which are hung upon the Christmas-trees in Germany.  The kernel
is almost the same colour as the nutmeg, but it has no net-work:  it
is dried in the shade.

The Chinese and natives of the place chew this nut with betel-leaf
and calcined mussel-shells.  They strew the leaf with a small
quantity of the mussel-powder, to which they add a very small piece
of the nut, and make the whole into a little packet, which they put
into their mouth.  When they chew tobacco at the same time, the
saliva becomes as red as blood, and their mouths, when open, look
like little furnaces, especially if, as is frequently the case with
the Chinese, the person has his teeth dyed and filed.  The first
time I saw a case of the kind I was very frightened:  I thought the
poor fellow had sustained some serious injury, and that his mouth
was full of blood.

I also visited a sago manufactory.  The unprepared sago is imported
from the neighbouring island of Borromeo, and consists of the pith
of a short, thick kind of palm.  The tree is cut down when it is
seven years old, split up from top to bottom, and the pith, of which
there is always a large quantity, extracted; it is then freed from
the fibres, pressed in large frames, and dried at the fire or in the
sun.  At this period it has still a yellowish tinge.  The following
is the manner in which it is grained:  The meal or pith is steeped
in water for several days, until it is completely blanched; it is
then once more dried by the fire or in the sun, and passed under a
large wooden roller, and through a hair sieve.  When it has become
white and fine, it is placed in a kind of linen winnowing-fan, which
is kept damp in a peculiar manner.  The workman takes a mouthful of
water, and spurts it out like fine rain over the fan, in which the
meal is alternately shaken and moistened in the manner just
mentioned, until it assumes the shape of small globules, which are
constantly stirred round in large, flat pans until they are dried,
when they are passed through a second sieve, not quite so fine as
the first, and the larger globules separated from the rest.

The building in which the process takes place is a large shed
without walls, its roof being supported upon the trunks of trees.

I was indebted to the kindness of the Messrs. Behu and Meyer for a
very interesting excursion into the jungle.  The gentlemen, four in
number, all well provided with fowling-pieces, having determined to
start a tiger, besides which they were obliged to be prepared for
bears, wild boars, and large serpents.  We drove as far as the river
Gallon, where we found two boats in readiness for us, but, before
entering them, paid a visit to a sugar-refining establishment
situated upon the banks of the river.

The sugar-cane was piled up in stacks before the building, but there
had only been sufficient for a day's consumption, as all that
remained would have turned sour from the excessive heat.  The cane
is first passed under metal cylinders, which press out all the
juice; this runs into large cauldrons, in which it is boiled and
then allowed to cool.  It is afterwards placed in earthen jars,
where it becomes completely dry.

The buildings resembled those I have described when speaking of the
preparation of sago.

After we had witnessed the process of sugar-baking, we entered the
boats, and proceeded up the stream.  We were soon in the midst of
the virgin forests, and experienced, at every stroke of the oars,
greater difficulty in forcing our passage, on account of the
numerous trunks of trees both in and over the stream.  We were
frequently obliged to land and lift the boats over these trees, or
else lie flat down, and thus pass under them as so many bridges.
All kinds of brushwood, full of thorns and brambles, hung down over
our heads, and even some gigantic leaves proved a serious obstacle
to us.  These leaves belonged to a sort of palm called the
Mungkuang.  Near the stem they are five inches broad, but their
length is about twelve feet, and as the stream is scarcely more than
nine feet wide, they reached right across it.

The natural beauty of the scene was so great, however, that these
occasional obstructions, so far from diminishing, actually
heightened the charm of the whole.  The forest was full of the most
luxuriant underwood, creepers, palms, and fern plants; the latter,
in many instances sixteen feet high, proved a no less effectual
screen against the burning rays of the sun than did the palms and
other trees.

My previous satisfaction was greatly augmented on seeing several
apes skipping about on the highest branches of the trees, while
others were heard chattering in our immediate vicinity.  This was
the first time I had seen these animals in a state of perfect
freedom, and I secretly felt very much delighted that the gentlemen
with me did not succeed in shooting any of the mischievous little
creatures:  they brought down, however, a few splendid lories (a
sort of small parrot of the most beautiful plumage) and some
squirrels.  But our attention was soon attracted by a much more
serious object.  We remarked in the branches of one of the trees a
dark body, which, on nearer inspection, we found to be that of a
large serpent, lying coiled up, and waiting, probably, to dart upon
its prey.  We ventured pretty near, but it remained quite motionless
without turning its eyes from us, and little thinking how near its
death was.  One of the gentlemen fired, and hit it in the side.  As
quick as lightning, and with the greatest fury, it darted from the
tree, but remained fast, with its tail entangled in a bough.  It
kept making springs at us, with its forked tongue exposed to view,
but all in vain, as we kept at a respectable distance.  A few more
shots put an end to its existence, and we then pulled up under the
bough on which it was hanging.  One of the boatmen, a Malay, made a
small noose of strong, tough grass, which he threw round the head of
the serpent, and thus dragged it into the boat.  He also told us
that we should be sure to find a second not far off, as serpents of
this kind always go in pairs, and, true enough, the gentlemen in the
other boat had already shot the second, which was also coiled up on
the branch of a large tree.

These serpents were of a dark green colour, with beautiful yellow
streaks, and about twelve feet in length.  I was told that they
belonged to the boa species.

After having proceeded eight English miles in four hours, we left
the boats, and following a narrow footpath, soon reached a number of
plots of ground, cleared from trees, and planted with pepper and

The pepper-tree is a tall bush-like plant, that, when trained and
supported with props, will attain a height varying from fifteen to
eighteen feet.  The pepper grows in small, grape-like bunches, which
are first red, then green, and lastly, nearly black.  The plant
begins to bear in the second year.

White pepper is not a natural production, but is obtained by dipping
the black pepper several times in sea-water:  this causes it to lose
its colour, and become a dirty white.  The price of a pikul of white
pepper is six dollars (24s.), whereas that of a pikul of black is
only three dollars (12s.).

The greatest height attained by the gambir plant is eight feet.  The
leaves alone are used in trade:  they are first stripped off the
stalk, and then boiled down in large coppers.  The thick juice is
placed in wide wooden vessels, and dried in the sun; it is then cut
into slips three inches long and packed up.  Gambir is an article
that is very useful in dyeing, and hence is frequently exported to
Europe.  Pepper plantations are always to be found near a plantation
of the gambir plant, as the former are always manured with the
boiled leaves of the latter.

Although all the work on the plantations, as well as every other
description of labour at Singapore, is performed by free labourers,
I was told that it cost less than if it were done by slaves.  The
wages here are very trifling indeed; a common labourer receives
three dollars a month, without either board or lodging; and yet with
this, he is enabled not only to subsist himself, but to maintain a
family.  Their huts, which are composed of foliage, they build
themselves; their food consists of small fish, roots, and a few
vegetables.  Nor is their apparel more expensive; for, beyond the
immediate vicinity of the town, and where all the plantations are
situated, the children go about entirely naked, while the men wear
nothing more than a small apron about a hand's-breadth wide, and
fastened between the legs:  the women are the only persons dressed
with anything like propriety.

The plantations that we now saw, and which we reached about 10
o'clock, were cultivated by Chinese.  In addition to their huts of
leaves, they had erected a small temple, where they invited us to
alight.  We immediately spread out upon the altar some refreshments,
which Madame Behu, like a good housewife, had given us; but, instead
of imitating the Chinese, and sacrificing them to the gods, we were
wicked enough to devour them ravenously ourselves.

When we had satisfied our hunger, we skinned the serpent and then
made a present of it to the Chinese; but they gave us to understand
that they would not touch it, at which I was greatly surprised,
since they will generally eat anything.  I was afterwards convinced
that this was all pretence, for on returning some hours later from
our hunting excursion and going into one of their huts, we found
them all seated round a large dish in which were pieces of roast
meat of the peculiar round shape of the serpent.  They wanted to
hide the dish in a great hurry, but I entered very quickly and gave
them some money to be allowed to taste it.  I found the flesh
particularly tender and delicate, even more tender than that of a

But I have quite forgotten to describe our hunting excursion.  We
asked the labourers if they could not put us on the track of a
tiger; they described to us a part of the wood where one was
reported to have taken up his abode a few days previously, and we
immediately set off.  We had great difficulty in forcing our way
through the forest, having, at every instant, to clamber over
prostrate trees, creep through brambles or cross over swamps, but we
had, at all events, the satisfaction of progressing, which we
certainly should not have had in the forests of Brazil, where such
an undertaking would have been impracticable.  It is true that there
were creepers and orchids, but not in such numbers as in Brazil, and
the trees, too, stand far wider apart.  We saw some splendid
specimens, towering to a height of above a hundred feet.  The
objects which interested us most were the ebony and kolim trees.
The timber of the first is of two kinds, a layer of brownish-yellow
surrounding the inner stem, which composes that portion especially
known as ebony.

The kolim-tree diffuses an excessively strong odour, similar to that
of onions, indicating its site at some distance off.  The fruit
tastes extremely like onions, and is very often used by the common
people, but its odour and taste are too strong for Europeans.  I
merely just touched a piece of fresh rind, and my hands smelt of it
the next morning.

We beat about the forest for some hours without meeting the game of
which we were in search.  We once thought that we had found the
lair, but we soon found that we were mistaken.  One of the
gentlemen, too, affirmed that he heard the growl of a bear; it must,
however, have been a very gentle growl, as no one else heard it,
although we were all close together.

We returned home without any further addition to our stock of game,
but highly delighted with our agreeable trip.

Although Singapore is a small island, and all means have been used
and rewards offered for the extirpation of the tigers, they have
failed.  Government gives a premium of a hundred dollars, and the
Society of Singapore Merchants a similar sum for every tiger killed.
Besides this, the valuable skin belongs to the fortunate hunter, and
even the flesh is worth something, as it is eagerly bought by the
Chinese for eating.  The tigers, however, swim over from the
neighbouring peninsula of Malacca, which is only separated from
Singapore by a very narrow channel, and hence it will be impossible
to eradicate them entirely.

The varieties of fruit found at Singapore are very numerous and
beautiful.  Among the best may be reckoned the mangostan, which is
said to grow only here and in Java.  It is as big as a middling-
sized apple.  The rind is a deep brown on the outside and scarlet
inside, and the fruit itself is white, and divided naturally into
four or five sections:  it almost melts in the mouth, and has an
exquisite flavour.  The pine-apples are much more juicy, sweeter,
and considerably larger than those at Canton; I saw some which must
have weighed about four pounds.  Whole fields are planted with them,
and when they arrive at full maturity, three or four hundred may be
bought for a dollar.  They are often eaten with salt.  There is also
another kind of fruit, "sauersop," which also often weighs several
pounds, and is green outside and white or pale yellow inside.  It
very much resembles strawberries in taste, and, like them, is eaten
with wine and sugar.  The gumaloh is divided into several distinct
slices, and resembles a pale yellow orange, but is not so sweet and
juicy; many people, however, prefer it; it is at least five times as
large as an orange.  In my opinion, however, the palm of excellence
is borne away by the "custard apple," which is covered with small
green scales. {125}  The inside, which is full of black pips, is
very white, as soft as butter, and of the most exquisite flavour.
It is eaten with the help of small spoons.

A few days before my departure from Singapore, I had an opportunity
of witnessing the burial of a Chinese in easy circumstances.  The
procession passed our house, and in spite of a temperature of 113
degrees Fah., I went with it to the grave, which was three or four
miles distant, and was too much interested in the ceremony to leave
until it was concluded, although it lasted nearly two hours.

At the head of the procession was a priest, and at his side a
Chinese with a lantern two feet high, covered with white cambric.
Then came two musicians, one of whom beat a small drum at intervals,
and the other played the cymbals.  These persons were followed by
the coffin, with a servant holding a large open parasol over that
part of it on which the head of the deceased lay.  Alongside walked
the eldest son or the nearest male relative, carrying a small white
flag, and with his hair hanging in disorder over his shoulders.  The
relations were all dressed in the deepest mourning--that is to say,
entirely in white; the men had even got white caps on, and the women
were so enveloped in white cloths that it was impossible to see so
much as their faces.  The friends and attendants, who followed the
coffin in small groups without order or regularity, had all got a
white strip of cambric bound round their head, their waist, or their
arm.  As soon as it was remarked that I had joined the procession, a
man who had a quantity of these strips, came up and offered me one,
which I took and bound round my arm.

The coffin, which consisted of the trunk of a large tree, was
covered with a dark-coloured cloth; a few garlands of flowers were
suspended from it, and some rice, tied up in a cloth, was placed
upon it.  Four-and-twenty men bore this heavy burden on immense
poles:  their behaviour was excessively lively, and every time they
changed, they began quarrelling or laughing among themselves.  Nor
did the other personages in the ceremony display either grief or
respect; they ate, drank, smoked, and talked, while some carried
cold tea in small pails for the benefit of such as might be thirsty.
The son alone held himself aloof; he walked, according to custom,
plunged in deep sorrow by the side of the coffin.

On reaching the road that led to the last resting place, the son
threw himself upon the ground, and, covering up his face, sobbed
very audibly.  After a little, he got up again and tottered behind
the coffin, so that two men were obliged to support him; he appeared
very ill and deeply moved.  It is true, I was afterwards informed
that this grief is mostly merely assumed, since custom requires that
the chief mourner shall be, or pretend to be, weak and ill with

On arriving at the grave, which was seven feet deep, and dug on the
declivity of a hill, they laid the pall, flowers, and rice on one
side, and then, after throwing in a vast quantity of gold and silver
paper, lowered the coffin, which I then for the first time perceived
was of the finest workmanship, lacquered and hermetically closed.
At least half an hour was taken up by this part of the proceedings.
The relations at first threw themselves on the ground, and, covering
their faces, howled horribly, but finding the burial lasted rather
long, sat down in a circle all round, and taking their little
baskets of betel, burnt mussel-shells, and areca-nuts, began chewing
away with the greatest composure.

After the coffin was lowered into the grave, one of the attendants
advanced to the upper part of it, and opened the small packet of
rice, on which he placed a sort of compass.  A cord was then handed
to him.  He placed it over the middle of the compass, and altered
its position until it lay exactly in the same direction as the
needle.  A second cord, with a plummet attached, was then held to
the first and let down into the grave, and the coffin moved
backwards and forwards according to this line, until the middle was
in the same direction as the needle:  this arrangement consumed at
least another quarter of an hour.

After this, the coffin was covered over with numberless sheets of
white paper, and the person who had conducted the previous operation
made a short speech, during which the children of the deceased threw
themselves upon the ground.  When it was finished, the speaker threw
a few handfuls of rice over the coffin and to the children, who held
up the corner of their outer garments so as to catch as many of the
grains as possible; but as they only succeeded in obtaining a few,
the speaker gave about a handful more, which they tied up carefully
in the corner of their dress, and took away with them.

The grave was at last filled in, when the relations set up a most
dismal howl, but, as far as I could remark, every eye was dry.

After this, boiled fowls, ducks, pork, fruit, all kinds of pastry,
and a dozen cups full of tea, together with the tea-pot, were placed
in two rows upon the grave, and six painted wax tapers lighted and
stuck in the ground near the refreshments.  During all this time,
immense heaps of gold and silver paper were set fire to and

The eldest son now approached the grave again, and threw himself
down several times, touching the ground on each occasion with his
forehead.  Six perfumed paper tapers were handed to him a-light;
when he had swung them round in the air a few times he gave them
back, when they also, in their turn, were fixed in the earth.  The
other relations performed the same ceremony.

During all this time, the priest had been sitting at a considerable
distance from the grave under the shade of a large parasol, and
without taking the slightest share in the proceedings.  He now,
however, came forward, made a short speech, during which he rang a
small bell several times, and his duty was at an end.  The
refreshments were cleared away, the tea poured over the grave, and
the whole company returned home in excellent spirits accompanied by
the music, which had also played at intervals over the grave.  The
provisions, as I was informed, were distributed among the poor.

On the following day I witnessed the celebrated Chinese Feast of
Lanterns.  From all the houses, at the corners of the roofs, from
high posts, etc., were hung innumerable lanterns, made of paper or
gauze, and most artistically ornamented with gods, warriors, and
animals.  In the courts and gardens of the different houses, or,
where there were no courts or gardens, in the streets, all kinds of
refreshments and fruit were laid out with lights and flowers, in the
form of half pyramids on large tables.  The people wandered about
the streets, gardens, and courts, until nearly midnight, when the
edible portions of the pyramids were eaten by the proprietors of
them.  I was very much pleased with this feast, but with no part of
it more than the quiet and orderly behaviour of the people:  they
looked at all the eatables with a scrutinizing glance, but without
touching the smallest fragment.

Singapore is situated 58' (nautical miles) north of the line, in 104
degrees East longitude, and the climate, when compared to that of
other southern countries, is very agreeable.  During the period of
my stay, extending from September 3rd to October 8th, the heat
seldom exceeded 83 degrees 75' indoors, and 117 degrees in the sun.
There is never any great variation in the temperature, which is the
natural consequence of the place being near the equator.  The sun
always rises and sets at 6 A.M. and 6 P.M. respectively, and is
immediately followed by full daylight or perfect night; the twilight
hardly lasting ten minutes.

In conclusion, I must remark that Singapore will shortly become the
central point of all the Indian steamers.  Those from Hong-Kong,
Ceylon, Madras, Calcutta, and Europe arrive regularly once a month;
there is likewise a Dutch war-steamer from Batavia, and in a little
time there will also be steamers running to and fro between this
place, and Manilla and Sidney.



I once more embarked in an English steamer, the "Braganza," of 350
horse power, that left Singapore for Ceylon on the 7th of October.
The distance between the two places is 1,900 miles.

The treatment I experienced on board this vessel was, it is true, a
little different from that on board the other, although it was
nearly as bad.  There were four of us in the second cabin; {128} we
dined alone, and had a mulatto servant to attend upon us.
Unfortunately, he was afflicted with elephantiasis, and his
appearance did not at all tend to whet the edge of our appetites.

During the 7th and 8th of October, we held our course through the
Strait of Malacca, which separates Sumatra from the peninsula, and
during all this time we never lost sight of land.  Malacca is, near
the coast, merely hilly; but further in the interior the hills swell
into a fine mountain range.  To our left lay a number of mountainous
islands, which completely intercepted our view of Sumatra.

But if the scenery around us was not remarkable, the spectacle on
board the vessel itself was highly interesting.  The crew was
composed of seventy-nine persons, comprising Chinese, Malays,
Cingalese, Bengalese, Hindostanese, and Europeans.  As a general
rule, those of each country generally took their meals separately
with their own countrymen.  They all had immense plates of rice, and
little bowls full of curry; a few pieces of dried fish supplied the
place of bread.  They poured the curry over the rice, and mixing the
whole together with their hands, made it into small balls which they
put into their mouths with a small piece of fish; about half their
food used generally to fall back again into their plates.

The costume of these people was very simple.  Many of them had
nothing more than a pair of short trousers on, with a dirty old
turban, and even the place of this was sometimes supplied by a
coloured rag, or a cast-off sailor's cap.  The Malays wore long
cloths wound round their bodies, with one end hanging over their
shoulder.  The Chinese preserved intact their usual costume and mode
of life; and the coloured servants of the ship's officers were the
only ones who were occasionally well and even elegantly dressed.
Their costume consisted of white trousers, wide upper garments, also
white, with white sashes, silk jackets, and small embroidered white
caps, or handsome turbans.

The manner in which all these poor coloured people were treated was
certainly not in accordance with Christian principles.  No one ever
addressed them but in the roughest manner, and they were kicked and
cuffed about on every occasion; even the dirtiest little European
cabin-boy on board was allowed to act in the most cruel manner, and
play off the most ignoble practical jokes upon them.  Unhappy
creatures! how is it possible that they should feel any love for

On the 9th of October we landed on the small island of Pinang.  The
town of the same name lies in the midst of a small plain, which
forms the half of an isthmus.  Not far from the town rises a
picturesque mountain range.

I received five hours' leave, which I devoted to riding about in all
directions through the town in a palanquin, and even going a little
distance into the country.  All that I could see resembled what I
had already seen at Singapore.  The town itself is not handsome, but
the contrary is the case with the country houses, which are all
situated in beautiful gardens.  The island is intersected by a great
number of excellent roads.

From one of the neighbouring mountains there is said to be a very
fine prospect of Pinang, a part of Malacca, and the sea, and, on the
road to the mountain, a waterfall.  Unfortunately, the few hours at
my disposal did not allow me to see everything.

The greatest portion of the population of this island consists of
Chinese, who perform all the manual labour, and engross all the
retail trade.

On the 11th of October we saw the small island of Pulo-Rondo, which
appertains to Sumatra.  We now took the shortest line across the Bay
of Bengal, and beheld land no more until we came in sight of Ceylon.

On the afternoon of the 17th of October, we neared Ceylon.  I
strained my anxious eyes to catch a glimpse of it as soon as
possible, for it is always described as being a second Eden; some go
so far as to affirm that our common father, Adam, settled there on
his expulsion from Paradise, and, as a proof of this, adduce the
fact of many places in the island, such as Adam's Peak, Adam's
Bridge, etc., still bearing his name.  I breathed the very air more
eagerly, hoping, like other travellers, to inhale the fragrant
odours wafted to me from the plantations of costly spices.

It was one of the most magnificent sights I ever beheld, to observe
the island rising gradually from the sea, and to mark the numerous
mountain ranges, which intersect Ceylon in every direction, becoming
every instant more defined, their summits still magically lighted by
the setting sun, while the thick cocoa-groves, the hills, and plains
lay enveloped in dusky night.  The fragrant odours, however, were
wanting, and the vessel smelt, as usual, of nothing more than tar,
coals, steam, and oil.

About 9 in the evening, we arrived before the harbour at Pointe de
Galle, but, as the entrance is very dangerous, we quietly hove-to
for the night.  On the following morning two pilots came on board
and took us safely through the narrow passage of deep water leading
into the port.

Hardly were we landed before we were surrounded by a crowd of people
with precious stones, pearls, tortoiseshell, and ivory articles for
sale.  It is possible that a connoisseur may sometimes make a very
advantageous purchase; but I would advise those who have not much
experience in these things, not to be dazzled by the size and
splendour of the said precious stones and pearls, as the natives,
according to all accounts, have learnt from Europeans the art of
profiting as much as they can by a favourable opportunity.

Pointe de Galle is charmingly situated:  in the fore-ground are some
fine groups of rock, and in the back-ground, immediately adjoining
the little town, which is protected by fortifications, rise
magnificent forests of palms.  The houses present a neat appearance;
they are low, and shaded by trees, which, in the better streets, are
planted so as to form alleys.

Pointe de Galle is the place of rendezvous for the steamers from
China, Bombay, Calcutta, and Suez.  Passengers from Calcutta,
Bombay, and Suez, do not stop more than twelve, or, at most, twenty-
four hours; but those proceeding from China to Calcutta have to wait
ten or fourteen days for the steamer that carries them to their
destination.  This delay was to me very agreeable, as I profited by
it to make an excursion to Candy.

There are two conveyances from Pointe de Galle to Colombo--the mail
which leaves every day, and a coach which starts three times a week.
The distance is seventy-three English miles, and the journey is
performed in ten hours.  A place in the mail costs 1 pounds 10s.,
and in the coach 13s.  As I was pressed for time, I was obliged to
go by the first.  The roads are excellent; not a hill, not a stone
is there to impede the rapid rate at which the horses, that are
changed every eight miles, scamper along.

The greater portion of the road traversed thick forests of cocoa-
trees, at a little distance from the sea-shore, and the whole way
was more frequented and more thickly studded with houses than
anything I ever saw even in Europe.  Village followed village in
quick succession, and so many separate houses were built between
them, that there was not a minute that we did not pass one.  I
remarked also some small towns, but the only one worthy of notice
was Calturi, where I was particularly struck by several handsome
houses inhabited by Europeans.

Along the road-side, under little roofs of palm-leaves, were placed
large earthen vessels filled with water, and near them cocoa-nut
shells to drink out of.  Another measure for the accommodation of
travellers, which is no less worthy of praise, consists in the
establishment of little stone buildings, roofed in, but open at the
sides, and furnished with benches.  In these buildings many
wayfarers often pass the night.

The number of people and vehicles that we met made the journey
appear to me very short.  There were specimens of all the various
races which compose the population of Ceylon.  The Cingalese,
properly so called, are the most numerous, but, besides these, there
are Indians, Mahomedans, Malays, natives of Malabar, Jews, Moors,
and even Hottentots.  I saw numerous instances of handsome and
agreeable physiognomies among those of the first three races; the
Cingalese youths and boys, in particular, are remarkably handsome.
They possess mild, well-formed features, and are so slim and finely
built, that they might easily be mistaken for girls; an error into
which it is the more easy to fall from their manner of dressing
their hair.  They wear no covering on their head, and comb back all
their hair, which is then fastened behind by means of a comb, with a
flat, broad plate, four inches high.  This kind of head-dress looks
anything but becoming in the men.  The Mahomedans and Jews have more
marked features; the latter resemble the Arabs, and, like them, have
noble physiognomies.  The Mahomedans and Jews, too, are easily
recognised by their shaven heads, long beards, and small white caps
or turbans.  Many of the Indians, likewise, wear turbans; but the
most have only a simple piece of cloth tied round their head, which
is also the case with the natives of Malacca and Malabar.  The
Hottentots allow their coal-black hair to fall in rude disorder over
their foreheads and half-way down their necks.  With the exception
of the Mahomedans and Jews, none of these different people bestow
much care upon their dress.  Save a small piece of cloth of about a
hand's-breadth, and fastened between their legs, they go about
naked.  Those who are at all dressed, wear short trousers and an
upper garment.

I saw very few women, and these only near their huts, which they
appear to leave less than any females with whom I am acquainted.
Their dress, also, was exceedingly simple, consisting merely of an
apron bound round their loins, a short jacket that exposed rather
than covered the upper part of their body, and a sort of rag hanging
over their head.  Many were enveloped in large pieces of cloth worn
loosely about them.  The borders and lobes of their ears were
pierced and ornamented with ear-rings, while on their feet and arms,
and round their necks, they wore chains and bracelets of silver, or
some other metal, and round one of their toes an extremely massive

Any one would suppose that, in a country where the females are
allowed to show themselves so little, they would be closely wrapped
up; but this is not the case.  Many had forgotten their jackets and
head coverings, especially the old women, who seemed particularly
oblivious in this respect, and presented a most repulsive appearance
when thus exposed.  Among the younger ones I remarked many a
handsome and expressive face; only they, too, ought not to be seen
without their jackets, as their breasts hang down almost to their

The complexion of the population varies from a dark to a light or
reddish brown or copper colour.  The Hottentots are black, but
without that glossy appearance which distinguishes the negro.

It is extraordinary what a dread all these half-naked people have of
the wet.  It happened to commence raining a little, when they sprang
like so many rope-dancers over every little puddle, and hastened to
their huts and houses for shelter.  Those who were travelling and
obliged to continue their journey, held, instead of umbrellas, the
leaves of the great fan-palm (Corypha umbraculifera) over their
heads.  These leaves are about four feet broad, and can be easily
held, like fans.  One of them is large enough for two persons.

But if the natives dread the rain, they have no fear of the heat.
It is said that they run no risk from the rays of the sun, being
protected by the thickness of their skulls and the fat beneath.

I was much struck by the peculiarity of some of the waggons, which
consisted of wooden two-wheeled cars, roofed with palm leaves
stretching out about four feet, before and behind, beyond the body
of the car.  These projections serve to protect the driver from the
rain and the rays of the sun, whichever way they may chance to fall.
The oxen, of which there was always only a pair, were yoked at such
a distance from the waggon, that the driver could walk very
conveniently in the intervening space.

I profited by the half-hour allowed for breakfast to proceed to the
sea-shore, whence I observed a number of men busily employed on the
dangerous rock in the middle of the most violent breakers.  Some of
them loosened, by the aid of long poles, oysters, mussels, etc.,
from the rocks, while others dived down to the bottom to fetch them
up.  I concluded that there must be pearls contained inside, for I
could not suppose that human beings would encounter such risks for
the sake of the fish alone; and yet this was the case, for I found,
later, that though the same means are employed in fishing for
pearls, it is on the eastern coast and only during the months of
February and March.

The boats employed by these individuals were of two kinds.  The
larger ones, which contained about forty persons, were very broad,
and composed of boards joined together and fastened with the fibres
of the cocoa-tree; the smaller ones were exactly like those I saw in
Tahiti, save that they appeared still more dangerous.  The bottom
was formed of the trunk of an extremely narrow tree, slightly
hollowed out, and the sides of the planks are kept in their places
by side and cross supports.  These craft rose hardly a foot and a
half out of the water, and their greatest breadth did not average
quite a foot.  There was a small piece of plank laid across as a
seat, but the rower was obliged to cross his knees from want of room
to sit with them apart.

The road, as I before mentioned, lay for the most part through
forests of cocoa-trees, where the soil was very sandy and completely
free from creepers and underwood; but near trees that did not bear
fruit, the soil was rich, and both that and the trees covered with
creepers in wild luxuriance.  There were very few orchids.

We crossed four rivers, the Tindurch, Bentock, Cattura, and Pandura,
two by means of boats, two by handsome wooden bridges.

The cinnamon plantations commenced about ten miles from Colombo; and
on this side of the town are all the country-houses of the
Europeans.  They are very simple, shaded with cocoa-trees and
surrounded with stone walls.  At 3 o'clock in the afternoon, we
drove over two draw-bridges and through two fortified gateways into
the town, which is far more pleasantly situated than Pointe de
Galle, on account of its nearer proximity to the beautiful mountain

I only stopped a night here, and on the following morning again
resumed my journey in the mail to the town of Candy, which is
distant seventy-two miles.

We left on the 20th of October, at 5 o'clock in the morning.
Colombo is a very extensive town.  We drove through a succession of
long, broad streets of handsome houses, all of which latter were
surrounded by verandahs and colonnades.  I was very much startled at
the number of persons lying stretched out at full length under these
verandahs, and covered with white clothes.  I at first mistook them
for corpses, but I soon perceived that their number was too great to
warrant that supposition, and I then discovered that they were only
asleep.  Many, too, began to move and throw off their winding-
sheets.  I was informed that the natives prefer sleeping in this
manner before the houses to sleeping inside of them.

The Calanyganga, an important river, is traversed by a long floating
bridge; the road then branches off more and more from the sea-coast,
and the character of the scenery changes.  The traveller now meets
with large plains covered with fine plantations of rice, the green
and juicy appearance of which reminded me of our own young wheat
when it first shoots up in spring.  The forests were composed of
mere leaved wood, the palms becoming at every step more rare; one or
two might sometimes be seen, here and there, towering aloft like
giants, and shading everything around.  I can imagine nothing more
lovely than the sight of the delicate creepers attached to the tall
stems of these palms and twining up to their very crests.

After we had gone about sixteen miles, the country began to assume a
more hilly aspect, and we were soon surrounded by mountains on every
side.  At the foot of each ascent we found extra horses in waiting
for us; these were yoked to the ordinary team, and whirled us
rapidly over all obstacles.  Although there is a rise of about 2,000
feet on the road to Candy, we performed the distance, seventy-two
miles, in eleven hours.

The nearer we approached our destination, the more varied and
changing became the scenery.  At one time we might be closely hemmed
in by the mountains, and then the next moment they would stretch
away, one above the other, while their summits seemed to contend
which should outrival the rest in altitude and beauty of outline.
They were covered, to the height of several thousand feet, with
luxuriant vegetation, which, for the most part, then generally
ceased, and gave way to the bare rock.  I was not less interested,
however, with the curious teams we sometimes met, than I was with
the scenery.  It is well known that Ceylon abounds in elephants,
many of which are captured and employed for various purposes.  Those
that I now saw were yoked in twos or threes to large waggons, full
of stones for mending the roads.

Four miles before reaching Candy, we came to the river
Mahavilaganga, which is spanned by a masterly bridge of one arch.
The materials of the bridge are most costly, consisting of satin-
wood.  In connection with this structure, I learned the following

After the conquest of the island by the English, the natives did not
give up the hope of once more attaining their independence, because
one of their oracles had declared that it was as impossible for the
enemy to obtain a lasting dominion over them, as it was for the
opposite banks of the Mahavilaganga to be united by a road.  When
the bridge was begun, they smiled, and said that it could never be
successfully completed.  At present, I was told, they think of
independence no more.

Near the bridge is a botanical garden which I visited the following
day, and was astonished at its excellent arrangement, and the
richness of its collection of flowers, plants, and trees.

Opposite the garden is one of the largest sugar-plantations, and, in
the neighbourhood, a number of coffee-plantations.

In my opinion, the situation of Candy is most beautiful, but many
affirm that it is too near the mountains, and lies in a pit.  At any
rate, this pit is a very lovely one, abounding in the most luxuriant
vegetation.  The town itself is small and ugly, consisting of
nothing but a mass of small shops, with natives passing to and fro.
The few houses that belong to Europeans, the places of business, and
the barracks, are all outside the town, upon small hills.  Large
sheets of artificial water, surrounded by splendid stone
balustrades, and shaded by alleys of the mighty tulip-tree, occupy a
portion of the valley.  On the side of one of these basins, stands
the famous Buddhist temple of Dagoha, which is built in the Moorish-
Hindostanee style, and richly ornamented.

On my leaving the coach, one of the passengers was kind enough to
recommend me a good hotel, and to call a native and direct him where
to conduct me.  When I reached the hotel, the people there said that
they were very sorry, but that all their rooms were occupied.  I
asked them to direct my guide to another establishment, which they
did.  The rascal led me away from the town, and, pointing to a hill
which was near us, gave me to understand that the hotel was situated
behind it.  I believed him, as all the houses are built far apart;
but on ascending the hill, I found nothing but a lonely spot and a
wood.  I wished to turn back, but the fellow paid no attention to my
desire, and continued walking towards the wood.  I then snatched my
portmanteau from him, and refused to proceed any further.  He
endeavoured to wrest it from me, when, luckily, I saw in the
distance two English soldiers, who hastened up in answer to my
cries, and, on seeing this, the fellow ran off.  I related my
adventure to the soldiers, who congratulated me on the recovery of
my luggage, and conducted me to the barracks, where one of the
officers was kind enough to give orders that I should be conducted
to another hotel.

My first visit was to the temple of Dagoha, which contains a
valuable relic of the god Buddha, namely, one of his teeth, and,
together with the out-buildings, is surrounded by a wall.  The
circumference of the principal temple is not very considerable, and
the sanctuary, which contains the tooth, is a small chamber hardly
twenty feet broad.  Within this place all is darkness, as there are
no windows, and inside the door, there is a curtain, to prevent the
entry of any light.  The walls and ceiling are covered with silk
tapestry, which, however, has nothing but its antiquity to recommend
it.  It is true that it was interwoven with gold thread, but it
appeared never to have been especially costly, and I cannot believe
that it ever produced that dazzling effect which some travellers
have described.  Half of the chamber was engrossed by a large table,
or kind of altar, inlaid with plates of silver, and ornamented round
the edges with precious stones.  On it stands a bell-shaped case,
measuring at the bottom at least three feet in diameter, and the
same in height.  It is made of silver thickly gilt, and decorated
with a number of costly jewels; there is a peacock in the middle
entirely formed of precious stones; but all these treasures fail to
produce any very great effect, from the clumsy and inartistic
fashion in which they are set.

Under the large case there are six smaller ones, said to be of pure
gold; under the last is the tooth of the all-powerful divinity.  The
outer case is secured by means of three locks, two of the keys
belonging to which used to be kept by the English governor, while
the third remained in the custody of the chief priest of the temple.
A short time previous to my visit, however, the government had
restored the two keys to the natives with great solemnities, and
they are now confided to one of the native Radschas, or princes.

The relic itself is only shown to a prince or some other great
personage; all other people must be content to believe the priest,
who, for a small gratuity, has the politeness to describe the size
and beauty of the tooth.  The dazzling whiteness of its hue is said
to eclipse that of ivory, while its form is described as being more
beautiful than anything of the kind ever beheld, and its size to
equal that of the tooth of an immense bullock.

An immense number of pilgrims come here every year to pay their
adoration to this divine tooth.

"Where ignorance is bliss, 't is folly to be wise."  How many people
are there among us Christians who believe things which require quite
as great an amount of faith?  For instance, I remember witnessing,
when I was a girl, a festival at Calvaria, in Gallicia, which is
still celebrated every year.  A great multitude of pilgrims go there
to obtain splinters of the true cross.  The priests manufacture
little crosses of wax, on which, as they assure the faithful, they
stick splinters of the real one.  These little crosses, wrapped up
in paper and packed in baskets, are placed ready for distribution,
that is, for sale.  Every peasant generally takes three:  one to put
in his room, one in his stable, and another in his barn.  The most
wonderful portion of the business is that these crosses must be
renewed every year, as in that period they lose their divine power.

But let me return to Candy.  In a second temple, adjoining that in
which the relic is preserved, are two gigantic hollow statues of the
god Buddha in a sitting posture, and both are said to be formed of
the finest gold.  Before these colossi stand whole rows of smaller
Buddhas, of crystal, glass, silver, copper, and other materials.  In
the entrance hall, likewise, are several stone statues of different
gods, with other ornaments, most of them roughly and stiffly
executed.  In the middle stands a small plain monument of stone,
resembling a bell turned upside down; it is said to cover the grave
of a Brahmin.

On the outer walls of the principal temple are wretched daubs in
fresco, representing the state of eternal punishment.  Some of the
figures are being roasted, twitched with red-hot pincers, partly
baked, or forced to swallow fire.  Others again, are jammed between
rocks, or having pieces of flesh cut out of their bodies, etc., but
fire appears to play the principal part in these punishments.

The doors of the principal temple are made of metal, and the door
posts of ivory.  On the first are the most beautiful arabesques in
basso-relief, and on the second, in inlaid work, representing
flowers and other objects.  Before the principal entrance, four of
the largest elephant's teeth ever found are stuck up by way of

Ranged round the court-yard are the tents of the priests, who always
go about with bare, shaven heads, and whose costume consists of a
light yellow upper garment, which nearly covers the whole body.  It
is said that there were once 500 officiating priests in this temple;
at present the divinity is obliged to content himself with a few

The chief part of the religious ceremonies of the Buddhists consists
in presents of flowers and money.  Every morning and evening a most
horrible instrument, fit to break the drum of one's ear, and called
a tam-tam, together with some shrill trumpets and fifes, is played
before the door of the temple.  To this soon succeeds a crowd of
people from all sides, bringing baskets full of the most beautiful
flowers, with which the priests adorn the altars, and that in a
manner so elegant and tasty, that it cannot be surpassed.

Besides this temple, there are several others in Candy, but only one
worth noticing.  This is situated at the foot of a rocky hill, out
of which has been hewn a statue of Buddha, thirty-six feet high, and
over this is built the temple, which is small and elegant.  The god
is painted with the most glaring colours.  The walls of the temple
are covered with handsome red cement, and portioned out into small
panels, in all of which the god Buddha appears al fresco.  There are
also a few portraits of Vischnu, another god.  The colours on the
southern wall of the temple are remarkable for their fine state of

Here, likewise, there is a funeral monument, like that of the Temple
of Dagoha, not however, in the building itself, but under the lofty
firmament of heaven, and shaded by noble trees.

Attached to the temples are frequently schools, in which the priests
fulfil the duties of teachers.  Near this particular temple, we saw
about a dozen boys--girls are not allowed to attend school--busy
writing.  The copies for them were written very beautifully, by
means of a stylus, on small palm-leaves, and the boys used the same

It is well worth any person's while to walk to the great valley
through which the Mahavilaganga flows.  It is intersected with a
countless number of wave-like hills, many of which form regular
terraces, and are planted with rice or coffee.  Nature is here young
and vigorous, and amply rewards the planter's toil.  The darker
portions of the picture are composed of palms or other trees, and
the back-ground consists partly of towering mountains, in a holiday
suit of green velvet, partly of stupendous and romantic rocks in all
their gloomy nakedness.

I saw many of the principal mountains in Ceylon--giants, 8,000 feet
high; but, unfortunately, not the most celebrated one, Adam's Peak,
which has an altitude of 6,500 feet, and which, towards the summit
is so steep, that it was necessary, in order to enable any one to
climb up, to cut small steps in the rock, and let in an iron chain.

But the bold adventurer is amply repaid for his trouble.  On the
flat summit of the rock is the imprint of a _small_ foot, five feet
long.  The Mahomedans suppose it to be that of our vigorous
progenitor, Adam, and the Buddhists that of their large-toothed
divinity, Buddha.  Thousands of both sects flock to the place every
year, to perform their devotions.

There still exists at Candy the palace of the former king, or
emperor of Ceylon.  It is a handsome stone building, but with no
peculiar feature of its own; I should have supposed that it had been
built by Europeans.  It consists of a ground floor, somewhat raised,
with large windows, and handsome porticoes resting upon columns.
The only remarkable thing about it is a large hall in the interior,
with its walls decorated with some rough and stiffly executed
representations of animals in relief.  Since the English deposed the
native sovereign, the palace has been inhabited by the English
resident, or governor.

Had I only arrived a fortnight sooner, I should have witnessed the
mode of hunting, or rather snaring, elephants.  The scene of
operations is a spot on the banks of some stream or other, where
these animals go to drink.  A large place is enclosed with posts,
leading up to which, and also skirted by stout posts, are a series
of narrow passages.  A tame elephant, properly trained, is then made
fast in the middle of the large space, to entice by his cries the
thirsty animals, who enter unsuspiciously the labyrinth from which
they cannot escape, as the hunters and drivers follow, alarm them by
their shouts, and drive them into the middle of the enclosure.  The
finest are taken alive, by being deprived of food for a short time.
This renders them so obedient, that they quietly allow a noose to be
thrown over them, and then follow the tame elephant without the
least resistance.  The others are then either killed or set at
liberty, according as they possess fine tusks or not.

The preparations for capturing these animals sometimes last several
weeks, as, besides enclosing the spot selected, a great many persons
are employed to hunt up the elephants far and wide, and drive them
gradually to the watering place.

Persons sometimes go elephant-hunting, armed merely with firearms;
but this is attended with danger.  The elephant, as is well known,
is easily vulnerable in one spot only,--the middle of the skull.  If
the hunter happens to hit the mark, the monster lies stretched
before him at the first shot; but if he misses, then woe to him, for
he is speedily trampled to death by the enraged beast.  In all other
cases the elephant is very peaceable, and is not easily induced to
attack human beings.

The Europeans employ elephants to draw and carry burdens--an
elephant will carry forty hundred-weight; but the natives keep them
more for show and riding.

I left Candy after a stay of three days, and returned to Colombo,
where I was obliged to stop another day, as it was Sunday, and there
was no mail.

I profited by this period to visit the town, which is protected by a
strong fort.  It is very extensive; the streets are handsome, broad,
and clean; the houses only one story high, and surrounded by
verandahs and colonnades.  The population is reckoned at about
80,000 souls, of whom about 100 are Europeans, exclusive of the
troops, and 200 descendants of Portuguese colonists, who founded a
settlement here some centuries ago.  The complexion of the latter is
quite as dark as that of the natives themselves.

In the morning I attended mass.  The church was full of Irish
soldiers and Portuguese.  The dress of the Portuguese was extremely
rich; they wore ample robes with large folds, and short silk
jackets; in their ears hung ear-rings of pearls and diamonds, and
round their necks, arms, and even ankles, were gold and silver

In the afternoon I took a walk to one of the numerous cinnamon
plantations round Colombo.  The cinnamon tree or bush is planted in
rows; it attains at most a height of nine feet, and bears a white,
scentless blossom.  From the fruit, which is smaller than an acorn,
oil is obtained by crushing and boiling it; the oil then disengages
itself and floats on the top of the water.  It is mixed with cocoa-
oil and used for burning.

There are two cinnamon harvests in the course of the year.  The
first and principal one takes place from April to July, and the
second from November to January.  The rind is peeled from the
branches by means of knives, and then dried in the sun; this gives
it a yellowish or brownish tint.  The best cinnamon is a light
yellow, and not thicker than pasteboard.

The essential oil of cinnamon, used in medicine, is extracted from
the plant itself, which is placed in a vessel full of water, and
left to steep for eight to ten days.  The whole mass is then
transferred to a retort and distilled over a slow fire.  In a short
time, on the surface of the water thus distilled a quantity of oil
collects, and this is then skimmed off with the greatest care.

In the animal kingdom, besides the elephants, I was much struck by
the number and tameness of the ravens of Ceylon.  In every small
town and village may be seen multitudes of these birds, that come up
to the very doors and windows and pick up everything.  They play the
part of scavengers here, just as dogs do in Turkey.  The horned
cattle are rather small, with humps between the shoulder-blades;
these humps consist of flesh and are considered a great dainty.

In Colombo and Pointe de Galle there are likewise a great many large
white buffaloes, belonging to the English government, and imported
from Bengal.  They are employed in drawing heavy loads.

Under the head of fruit, I may mention the pine-apple as being
particularly large and good.

I found the temperature supportable, especially in the high country
round about Candy, where, after some heavy rain, it might almost be
called cold.  In the evening and morning the thermometer stood as
low as 61 degrees 25' Fah.; and in the middle of the day and in the
sun, it did not rise above 79 degrees 25'.  In Colombo and Pointe de
Galle, the weather was fine, and the heat reached 95 degrees Fah.

On the 26th of October I again reached Pointe de Galle, and on the
following day I embarked in another English steamer for India.



On the afternoon of the 27th of October I went on board the
steamship "Bentinck," of 500 horse-power; but we did not weigh
anchor much before evening.

Among the passengers was an Indian prince of the name of Schadathan,
who had been made prisoner by the English for breaking a peace he
had concluded with them.  He was treated with all the respect due to
his rank, and he was allowed his two companions, his mundschi, or
secretary, and six of his servants.  They were all dressed in the
Oriental fashion, only, instead of turbans, they wore high, round
caps, composed of pasteboard covered with gold or silver stuff.
They wore also luxuriant long black hair, and beards.

The companions of the prince took their meals with the servants.  A
carpet was spread out upon the deck, and two large dishes, one
containing boiled fowls, and the other pillau, placed upon it; the
company used their hands for knives and forks.

28th October.  We still were in sight of the fine dark mountain
ranges of Ceylon.  Now and then, too, some huge detached groups of
rocks would be visible towering above the waves.

29th October.  Saw no land.  A few whales betrayed their presence by
the showers of spray they spouted up, and immense swarms of flying
fish were startled by the noise of our engines.

On the morning of the 30th of October we came in sight of the Indian
continent.  We soon approached near enough to the shore to
distinguish that it was particularly remarkable for its beauty,
being flat and partly covered with yellow sand; in the back-ground
were chains of low hills.

At 1 o'clock, P.M., we anchored at a considerable distance (six
miles) from Madras.  The anchoring place here is the most dangerous
in the world, the ground-swell being so strong that at no time can
large vessels approach near the town, and many weeks often pass
without even a boat being able to do so.  Ships, consequently, only
stop a very short time, and there are rarely more than a dozen to be
seen riding at anchor.  Large boats, rowed by ten or twelve men,
come alongside them to take the passengers, letters, and merchandise

The steamer stops here eight hours, which may be spent in viewing
the town, though any one so doing runs a chance of being left
behind, as the wind is constantly changing.  I trusted to the good
luck which had always attended me during my travels, and made one of
the party that disembarked; but we had not got more than half way to
land when I was punished for my curiosity.  It began to rain most
fearfully, and we were very soon wet to the skin.  We took refuge in
the first coffee-house we saw, situated at the water's edge; the
rain had now assumed a tropical character, and we were unable to
leave our asylum.  As soon as the storm had passed by, a cry was
raised for us to return as quickly as possible, as there was no
knowing what might follow.

A speculative baker of Madras had come out in the first boat that
reached the steamer with ice and biscuits for sale, which he
disposed of very much to his profit.

The angry heavens at length took compassion on us and cleared up
before sunset.  We were then enabled to see the palace-like
dwellings of the Europeans, built half in the Grecian and half in
the Italian style of architecture, stretching along the shore and
beautifully lighted by the sun.  Besides these, there were others
standing outside the town in the midst of magnificent gardens.

Before we left, a number of natives ventured to us in small boats
with fruit, fish, and other trifles.  Their boats were constructed
of the trunks of four small trees, tightly bound together with thin
ropes made of the fibres of the cocoa-tree; a long piece of wood
served as an oar.  The waves broke so completely over them that I
imagined every instant that both boats and men were irretrievably

The good people were almost in a state of nature, and seemed to
bestow all their care on their heads, which were covered with pieces
of cloth, turbans, cloth or straw caps, or very high and peaked
straw hats.  The more respectable--among whom may be reckoned the
boatmen who brought the passengers and mails--were, however, in many
cases, very tastily dressed.  They had on neat jackets, and large
long pieces of cloth wrapped round their bodies; both the cloths and
jackets were white, with a border of blue stripes.  On their heads
they wore tightly fitting white caps, with a long flap hanging down
as far as their shoulders.  These caps, too, had a blue border.  The
complexion of the natives was a dark brown or coffee colour.

Late in the evening, a native woman came on board with her two
children.  She had paid second-class fare, and was shown a small
dark berth not far from the first cabin places.  Her younger child
had, unfortunately, a bad cough, which prevented some rich English
lady, who had likewise a child with her, from sleeping.  Perhaps the
exaggerated tenderness which this lady manifested for her little son
caused her to believe that the cough might be catching; but, be that
as it may, the first thing she did on the following morning, was to
beg that the captain would transfer mother and children to the deck,
which the noble-hearted humane captain immediately did, neither the
lady nor himself caring in the least whether the poor mother had or
had not, even a warm coverlid to protect her sick child from the
night cold and the frequent heavy showers.

Would that this rich English lady's child had only been ill, and
exposed with her to the foggy night air, that she might herself have
experienced what it is to be thus harshly treated!  A person of any
heart must almost feel ashamed at belonging to a class of beings who
allow themselves to be far surpassed in humanity and kindness by
those who are termed savages; no savages would have thus thrust
forth a poor woman with a sick child, but would, on the contrary,
have taken care of both.  It is only Europeans, who have been
brought up with Christian principles, who assume the right of
treating coloured people according as their whim or fancy may

On the 1st and 2nd of November we caught occasional glimpses of the
mainland, as well as of several little islands; but all was flat and
sandy, without the least pretensions to natural beauty.  Ten or
twelve ships, some of them East Indiamen of the largest size, were
pursuing the same route as ourselves.

On the morning of the 3rd of November, the sea had already lost its
own beautiful colour, and taken that of the dirty yellow Ganges.
Towards evening we had approached pretty close to the mouths of this
monster river, for some miles previous to our entering which, the
water had a sweet flavour.  I filled a glass from the holy stream,
and drank it to the health of all those near and dear to me at home.

At 5 o'clock in the afternoon, we cast anchor before Kadscheri, at
the entrance of the Ganges, it being too late to proceed to
Calcutta, which is sixty nautical miles distant.  The stream at this
point was several miles broad, so that the dark line of only one of
its banks was to be seen.

4th November.  In the morning we entered the Hoogly, one of the
seven mouths of the Ganges.  A succession of apparently boundless
plains lay stretched along on both sides of the river.  Fields of
rice were alternated with sugar plantations, while palm, bamboo, and
other trees, sprung up between, and the vegetation extended, in
wanton luxuriance, down to the very water's edge; the only objects
wanting to complete the picture were villages and human beings, but
it was not until we were within about five-and-twenty miles of
Calcutta that we saw now and then a wretched village or a few half-
naked men.  The huts were formed of clay, bamboos, or palm branches,
and covered with tiles, rice-straw, or palm leaves.  The larger
boats of the natives struck me as very remarkable, and differed
entirely from those I saw at Madras.  The front portion was almost
flat, being elevated hardly half a foot above the water while the
stern was about seven feet high.

The first grand-looking building, a cotton mill, is situated fifteen
miles below Calcutta, and a cheerful dwelling-house is attached.
From this point up to Calcutta, both banks of the Hoogly are lined
with palaces built in the Greco-Italian style, and richly provided
with pillars and terraces.  We flew too quickly by, unfortunately,
to obtain more than a mere passing glimpse of them.

Numbers of large vessels either passed us or were sailing in the
same direction, and steamer after steamer flitted by, tugging
vessels after them; the scene became more busy and more strange,
every moment, and everything gave signs that we were approaching an
Asiatic city of the first magnitude.

We anchored at Gardenrich, four miles below Calcutta.  Nothing gave
me more trouble during my travels than finding lodgings, as it was
sometimes impossible by mere signs and gestures to make the natives
understand where I wanted to go.  In the present instance, one of
the engineers interested himself so far in my behalf as to land with
me, and to hire a palanquin, and direct the natives where to take

I was overpowered by feelings of the most disagreeable kind the
first time I used a palanquin.  I could not help feeling how
degrading it was to human beings to employ them as beasts of burden.

The palanquins are five feet long and three feet high, with sliding
doors and jalousies:  in the inside they are provided with
mattresses and cushions, so that a person can lie down in them as in
a bed.  Four porters are enough to carry one of them about the town,
but eight are required for a longer excursion.  They relieve each
other at short intervals, and run so quickly that they go four miles
in an hour or even in three-quarters of an hour.  These palanquins
being painted black, looked like so many stretchers carrying corpses
to the churchyard or patients to the hospital.

On the road to the town, I was particularly struck with the
magnificent gauths (piazzas), situated on the banks of the Hoogly,
and from which broad flights of steps lead down to the river.
Before these gauths are numerous pleasure and other boats.

The most magnificent palaces lay around in the midst of splendid
gardens, into one of which the palanquin-bearers turned, and set me
down under a handsome portico before the house of Herr Heilgers, to
whom I had brought letters of recommendation.  The young and amiable
mistress of the house greeted me as a countrywoman (she was from the
north and I from the south of Germany), and received me most
cordially.  I was lodged with Indian luxury, having a drawing-room,
a bed-room, and a bath-room especially assigned to me.

I happened to arrive in Calcutta at the most unfavourable period
possible.  Three years of unfruitfulness through almost the whole of
Europe had been followed by a commercial crisis, which threatened
the town with entire destruction.  Every mail from Europe brought
intelligence of some failure, in which the richest firms here were
involved.  No merchant could say, "I am worth so much;"--the next
post might inform him that he was a beggar.  A feeling of dread and
anxiety had seized every family.  The sums already lost in England
and this place were reckoned at thirty millions of pounds sterling,
and yet the crisis was far from being at an end.

Misfortunes of this kind fall particularly hard upon persons who,
like the Europeans here, have been accustomed to every kind of
comfort and luxury.  No one can have any idea of the mode of life in
India.  Each family has an entire palace, the rent of which amounts
to two hundred rupees (20 pounds), or more, a month.  The household
is composed of from twenty-five to thirty servants; namely--two
cooks, a scullion, two water-carriers, four servants to wait at
table, four housemaids, a lamp-cleaner, and half-a-dozen seis or
grooms.  Besides this, there are at least six horses, to every one
of which there is a separate groom; two coachmen, two gardeners, a
nurse and servant for each child, a lady's maid, a girl to wait on
the nurses, two tailors, two men to work the punkahs, and one
porter.  The wages vary from four to eleven rupees (8s. to 1 pounds
2s.) a month.  None of the domestics are boarded, and but few of
them sleep in the house:  they are mostly married, and eat and sleep
at home.  The only portion of their dress which they have given to
them is their turban and belt; they are obliged to find the rest
themselves, and also to pay for their own washing.  The linen
belonging to the family is never, in spite of the number of
servants, washed at home, but is all put out, at the cost of three
rupees (6s.) for a hundred articles.  The amount of linen used is
something extraordinary; everything is white, and the whole is
generally changed twice a day.

Provisions are not dear, though the contrary is true of horses,
carriages, furniture, and wearing apparel.  The last three are
imported from Europe; the horses come either from Europe, New
Holland, or Java.

In some European families I visited there were from sixty to seventy
servants, and from fifteen to twenty horses.

In my opinion, the Europeans themselves are to blame for the large
sums they have to pay for servants.  They saw the native princes and
rajahs surrounded by a multitude of idle people, and, as Europeans,
they did not wish to appear in anyway inferior.  Gradually the
custom became a necessity, and it would be difficult to find a case
where a more sensible course is pursued.

It is true that I was informed that matters could never be altered
as long as the Hindoos were divided into castes.  The Hindoo who
cleans the room would on no account wait at table, while the nurse
thinks herself far too good ever to soil her hands by cleaning the
child's washing-basin.  There may certainly be some truth in this,
but still every family cannot keep twenty, thirty, or even more
servants.  In China and Singapore, I was struck with the number of
servants, but they are not half, nay, not a third so numerous, as
they are here.

The Hindoos, as is well known, are divided into four castes--the
Brahmins, Khetries, Bices and Sooders.  They all sprung from the
body of the god Brahma:  the first from his mouth, the second from
his shoulders, the third from his belly and thighs, and the fourth
from his feet.  From the first class are chosen the highest officers
of state, the priests, and the teachers of the people.  Members of
this class alone are allowed to peruse the holy books; they enjoy
the greatest consideration; and if they happen to commit a crime,
are far less severely punished than persons belonging to any of the
other castes.  The second class furnishes the inferior officials and
soldiers; the third the merchants, workmen, and peasants; while the
fourth and last provides servants for the other three.  Hindoos of
all castes, however, enter service when compelled by poverty to do
so, but there is still a distinction in the kind of work, as the
higher castes are allowed to perform only that of the cleanest kind.

It is impossible for a person of one caste to be received into
another, or to intermarry with any one belonging to it.  If a Hindoo
leaves his native land or takes food from a Paria, he is turned out
of his caste, and can only obtain re-admission on the payment of a
very large sum.

Besides these castes, there is a fifth class--the Parias.  The lot
of these poor creatures is the most wretched that can be imagined.
They are so despised by the other four castes, that no one will hold
the slightest intercourse with them.  If a Hindoo happens to touch a
Paria as he is passing, he thinks himself defiled, and is obliged to
bathe immediately.

The Parias are not allowed to enter any temple, and have particular
places set apart for their dwellings.  They are miserably poor, and
live in the most wretched huts; their food consists of all kinds of
offal and even diseased cattle; they go about nearly naked, or with
only a few rags at most on them, and perform the hardest and
commonest work.

The four castes are subdivided into an immense number of sects,
seventy of which are allowed to eat meat, while others are compelled
to abstain from it altogether.  Strictly speaking, the Hindoo
religion forbids the spilling of blood, and consequently the eating
of meat; but the seventy sects just mentioned are an exception.
There are, too, certain religious festivals, at which animals are
sacrificed.  A cow, however, is never killed.  The food of the
Hindoos consists principally of rice, fruit, fish, and vegetables.
They are very moderate in their living, and have only two simple
meals a day--one in the morning and the other in the evening.  Their
general drink is water or milk, varied sometimes with cocoa wine.

The Hindoos are of the middle height, slim, and delicately formed;
their features are agreeable and mild; the face is oval, the nose
sharply chiselled, the lip by no means thick, the eye fine and soft,
and the hair smooth and black.  Their complexion varies, according
to the locality, from dark to light brown; among the upper classes,
some of them, especially the women, are almost white.

There are a great number of Mahomedans in India; and as they are
extremely skilful and active, most trades and professions are in
their hands.  They also willingly hire themselves as servants to

Men here do that kind of work which we are accustomed to see
performed by women.  They embroider with white wool, coloured silk,
and gold; make ladies' head-dresses, wash and iron, mend the linen,
and even take situations as nurses for little children.  There are a
few Chinese, too, here, most of whom are in the shoemaking trade.

Calcutta, the capital of Bengal, is situated on the Hoogly, which at
this point is so deep and broad, that the largest men-of-war and
East Indiamen can lie at anchor before the town.  The population
consists of about 600,000 souls, of whom, not counting the English
troops, hardly more than 2,000 are Europeans and Americans.  The
town is divided into several portions--namely, the Business-town,
the Black-town, and the European quarter.  The Business-town and
Black-town are very ugly, containing narrow, crooked streets, filled
with wretched houses and miserable huts, between which there are
warehouses, counting-houses, and now and then some palace or other.
Narrow paved canals run through all the streets, in order to supply
the necessary amount of water for the numerous daily ablutions of
the Hindoos.  The Business-town and Black-town are always so densely
crowded, that when a carriage drives through, the servants are
obliged to get down and run on before, in order to warn the people,
or push them out of the way.

The European quarter of the town, however, which is often termed the
City of Palaces--a name which it richly merits--is, on the contrary,
very beautiful.  Every good-sized house, by the way, is called, as
it is in Venice, a palace.  Most of these palaces are situated in
gardens surrounded by high walls; they seldom join one another, for
which reason there are but few imposing squares or streets.

With the exception of the governor's palace, none of these buildings
can be compared for architectural beauty and richness with the large
palaces of Rome, Florence, and Venice.  Most of them are only
distinguished from ordinary dwelling-houses by a handsome portico
upon brick pillars covered with cement, and terrace-like roof's.
Inside, the rooms are large and lofty, and the stairs of greyish
marble or even wood; but neither in doors or out are there any fine
statues or sculptures.

The Palace of the governor is as I before said, a magnificent
building--one that would be an ornament to the finest city in the
world.  It is built in the form of a horse-shoe, with a handsome
cupola in the centre:  the portico, as well as both the wings, is
supported upon columns.  The internal arrangements are as bad as can
possibly be imagined; the supper-room being, for instance, a story
higher than the ball-room.  In both these rooms there is a row of
columns on each side, and the floor of the latter is composed of
Agra marble.  The pillars and walls are covered with a white cement,
which is equal to marble for its polish.  The private rooms are not
worth looking at; they merely afford the spectator an opportunity of
admiring the skill of the architect, who has managed to turn the
large space at his command to the smallest imaginable profit.

Among the other buildings worthy of notice are the Town-hall, the
Hospital, the Museum, Ochterlony's Monument, the Mint, and the
English Cathedral.

The Town-hall is large and handsome.  The hall itself extends
through one entire story.  There are a few monuments in white marble
to the memory of several distinguished men of modern times.  It is
here that all kinds of meetings are held, all speculations and
undertakings discussed, and concerts, balls, and other
entertainments given.

The Hospital consists of several small houses, each standing in the
midst of a grass plot.  The male patients are lodged in one house,
the females and children in a second, while the lunatics are
confined in the third.  The wards were spacious, airy, and
excessively clean.  Only Christians are received as patients.

The hospital for natives is similar, but considerably smaller.  The
patients are received for nothing, and numbers who cannot be
accommodated in the building itself are supplied with drugs and

The Museum, which was only founded in 1836, possesses, considering
the short space of time that has elapsed since its establishment, a
very rich collection, particularly of quadrupeds and skeletons, but
there are very few specimens of insects, and most of those are
injured.  In one of the rooms is a beautifully-executed model of the
celebrated Tatch in Agra; several sculptures and bas-reliefs were
lying around.  The figures seemed to me very clumsy; the
architecture, however, is decidedly superior.  The museum is open
daily.  I visited it several times, and, on every occasion, to my
great astonishment, met a number of natives, who seemed to take the
greatest interest in the objects before them.

Ochterlony's Monument is a simple stone column, 165 feet in height,
standing, like a large note of admiration, on a solitary grassplot,
in memory of General Ochterlony, who was equally celebrated as a
statesman and a warrior.  Whoever is not afraid of mounting 222
steps will be recompensed by an extensive view of the town, the
river, and the surrounding country; the last, however, is very
monotonous, consisting of an endless succession of plains bounded
only by the horizon.

Not far from the column is a neat little mosque, whose countless
towers and cupolas are ornamented with gilt metal balls, which
glitter and glisten like so many stars in the heavens.  It is
surrounded by a pretty court-yard, at the entrance of which those
who wish to enter the mosque are obliged to leave their shoes.  I
complied with this regulation, but did not feel recompensed for so
doing, as I saw merely a small empty hall, the roof of which was
supported by a few stone pillars.  Glass lamps were suspended from
the roof and walls, and the floor was paved with Agra marble, which
is very common in Calcutta, being brought down the Ganges.

The Mint presents a most handsome appearance; it is built in the
pure Grecian style, except that it is not surrounded by pillars on
all its four sides.  The machinery in it is said to be especially
good, surpassing anything of the kind to be seen even in Europe.  I
am unable to express any opinion on the subject, and can only say
that all I saw appeared excessively ingenious and perfect.  The
metal is softened by heat and then flattened into plates by means of
cylinders.  These plates are cut into strips and stamped.  The rooms
in which the operations take place are spacious, lofty, and airy.
The motive-power is mostly steam.

Of all the Christian places of worship, the English Cathedral is the
most magnificent.  It is built in the Gothic style, with a fine
large tower rising above half-a-dozen smaller ones.  There are other
churches with Gothic towers, but these edifices are all extremely
simple in the interior, with the exception of the Armenian church,
which has the wall near the altar crowded with pictures in gold

The notorious "Black Hole," in which the Rajah Suraja Dowla cast 150
of the principal prisoners when he obtained possession of Calcutta
in 1756, is at present changed into a warehouse.  At the entrance
stands an obelisk fifty feet high, and on it are inscribed the names
of his victims.

The Botanical Garden lies five miles distant from the town.  It was
founded in the year 1743, but is more like a natural park than a
garden, as it is by no means so remarkable for its collection of
flowers and plants as for the number of trees and shrubs, which are
distributed here and there with studied negligence in the midst of
large grass-plots.  A neat little monument, with a marble bust, is
erected to the memory of the founder.  The most remarkable objects
are two banana-trees.  These trees belong to the fig-tree species,
and sometimes attain a height of forty feet.  The fruit is very
small, round, and of a dark-red; it yields oil when burnt.  When the
trunk has reached an elevation of about fifteen feet, a number of
small branches shoot out horizontally in all directions, and from
these quantity of threadlike roots descend perpendicularly to the
ground, in which they soon firmly fix themselves.  When they are
sufficiently grown, they send out shoots like the parent trunk; and
this process is repeated ad infinitum, so that it is easy to
understand how a single tree may end by forming a whole forest, in
which thousands may find a cool and shady retreat.  This tree is
held sacred by the Hindoos.  They erect altars to the god Rama
beneath its shade, and there, too, the Brahmin instructs his

The oldest of these two trees, together with its family, already
describes a circumference of more than 600 feet, and the original
trunk measures nearly fifty feet round.

Adjoining the Botanical Garden is the Bishop's College, in which the
natives are trained as missionaries.  After the Governor's Palace,
it is the finest building in Calcutta, and consists of two main
buildings and three wings.  One of the main buildings is occupied by
an extremely neat chapel.  The library, which is a noble-looking
room, contains a rich collection of the works of the best authors,
and is thrown open to the pupils; but their industry does not appear
to equal the magnificence of the arrangements, for, on taking a book
from the bookcase, I immediately let it fall again and ran to the
other end of the room; a swarm of bees had flown upon me from out
the bookcase.

The dining and sleeping rooms, as well as all the other apartments,
are so richly and conveniently furnished, that a person might easily
suppose that the establishment had been founded for the sons of the
richest English families, who were so accustomed to comfort from
their tenderest infancy that they were desirous of transplanting it
to all quarters of the globe; but no one would ever imagine the
place had been built for "the labourers in the vineyard of the

I surveyed this splendid institution with a sadder heart than I
might have done, because I knew it was intended for the natives, who
had first to put off their own simple mode of life and accustom
themselves to convenience and superfluity, only to wander forth into
the woods and wildernesses, and exercise their office in the midst
of savages and barbarians.

Among the sights of Calcutta may be reckoned the garden of the chief
judge, Mr. Lawrence Peel, which is equally interesting to the
botanist and the amateur, and which, in rare flowers, plants, and
trees, is much richer than the Botanical Garden itself.  The noble
park, laid out with consummate skill, the luxuriant lawns,
interspersed and bordered with flowers and plants, the crystal
ponds, the shady alleys, with their bosquets and gigantic trees, all
combine to form a perfect paradise, in the midst of which stands the
palace of the fortunate owner.

Opposite this park, in the large village of Alifaughur, is situated
a modest little house, which is the birthplace of much that is good.
It contains a small surgery, and is inhabited by a native who has
studied medicine.  Here the natives may obtain both advice and
medicine for nothing.  This kind and benevolent arrangement is due
to Lady Julia Cameron, wife of the law member of the Supreme Council
of India, Charles Henry Cameron.

I had the pleasure of making this lady's acquaintance, and found her
to be, in every respect, an ornament to her sex.  Wherever there is
any good to be done, she is sure to take the lead.  In the years
1846-7, she set on foot subscriptions for the starving Irish,
writing to the most distant provinces and calling upon every
Englishman to contribute his mite.  In this manner she collected the
large sum of 80,000 rupees (8,000 pounds.)

Lady Peel has distinguished herself also in the field of science,
and Burger's "Leonore" has been beautifully translated by her into
English.  She is also a kind mother and affectionate wife, and lives
only for her family, caring little for the world.  Many call her an
original; would that we had a few more such originals!

I had brought no letters of recommendation to this amiable woman,
but she happened to hear of my travels and paid me a visit.  In
fact, the hospitality I met with here was really astonishing.  I was
cordially welcomed in the very first circles, and every one did all
in his power to be of use to me.  I could not help thinking of Count
Rehberg, the Austrian minister at Rio Janeiro, who thought he had
conferred a great mark of distinction by inviting me once to his
villa; and, to purchase this honour, I had either to walk an hour in
the burning heat or to pay six milreis (13s.) for a carriage.  In
Calcutta, a carriage was always sent for me.  I could relate a great
many more anecdotes of the worthy count, who made me feel how much I
was to blame for not descending from a rich and aristocratic family.
I experienced different treatment from the member of the Supreme
Council, Charles Henry Cameron, and from the chief judge, Mr. Peel.
These gentlemen respected me for myself alone without troubling
their heads about my ancestors.

During my stay in Calcutta, I was invited to a large party in honour
of Mr. Peel's birthday; but I refused the invitation, as I had no
suitable dress.  My excuse, however, was not allowed, and I
accompanied Lady Cameron, in a simple coloured muslin dress, to a
party where all the other ladies were dressed in silk and satin and
covered with lace and jewellery; yet no one was ashamed of me, but
conversed freely with me, and showed me every possible attention.

A very interesting promenade for a stranger is that to the Strand,
or "Maytown," as it is likewise called.  It is skirted on one side
by the banks of the Hoogly, and on the other by beautiful meadows,
beyond which is the noble Chaudrini Road, consisting of rows of
noble palaces, and reckoned the finest quarter of Calcutta.  Besides
this, there is a fine view of the governor's palace, the cathedral,
Ochterlony's monument, the magnificent reservoirs, Fort William, a
fine prutagon with extensive outworks, and many other remarkable

Every evening, before sunset, all the fashionable world of Calcutta
streams hitherward.  The purse-proud European, the stuck-up Baboo or
Nabob, the deposed Rajah, are to be beheld driving in splendid
European carriages, followed by a multitude of servants, in Oriental
costume, some standing behind their carriages, and some running
before it.  The Rajahs and Nabobs are generally dressed in silk
robes embroidered with gold, over which are thrown the most costly
Indian shawls.  Ladies and gentlemen mounted upon English blood
horses gallop along the meadows, while crowds of natives are to be
seen laughing and joking on their way home, after the conclusion of
their day's work.  Nor is the scene on the Hoogly less animated;
first-class East Indiamen are lying at anchor, unloading or being
cleaned out, while numberless small craft pass continually to and

I had been told that the population here suffered very much from
elephantiasis, and that numbers of poor wretches with horribly
swollen feet were to be seen at almost every turn.  But this is not
true.  I did not meet with as many cases of the kind during five
weeks here, as I did in one day in Rio Janeiro.

On one occasion I paid a visit to a rich Baboo.  The property of the
family, consisting of three brothers, was reckoned at 150,000
pounds.  The master of the house received me at the door, and
accompanied me to the reception-room.  He was clad in a large dress
of white muslin, over which was wound a magnificent Indian shawl,
which extended from the hips to the feet, and made up for the
transparency of the muslin.  One end of the shawl was thrown over
his shoulder in the most picturesque manner.

The parlour was furnished in the European fashion.  A large hand
organ stood in one corner, and in the other a spacious bookcase,
with the works of the principal English poets and philosophers; but
it struck me that these books were there more for show than use, for
the two volumes of Byron's works were turned different ways, while
Young's Night Thoughts were stuck between.  There were a few
engravings and pictures, which the worthy Baboo imagined to be an
ornament to the walls, but which were not of so much value as the
frames that contained them.

My host sent for his two sons, handsome boys, one seven and the
other four years old, and introduced them to me.  I inquired,
although it was quite contrary to custom to do so, after his wife
and daughters.  Our poor sex ranks so low in the estimation of the
Hindoos, that it is almost an insult to a person to mention any of
his female relations.  He overlooked this in me, as a European, and
immediately sent for his daughters.  The youngest, a most lovely
baby six months old, was nearly white, with large splendid eyes, the
brilliancy of which was greatly increased by the delicate eyelids,
which were painted a deep blue round the edges.  The elder daughter,
nine years old, had a somewhat common coarse face.  Her father, who
spoke tolerable English, introduced her to me as a bride, and
invited me to the marriage which was to take place in six weeks.  I
was so astonished at this, considering the child's extreme youth,
that I remarked he no doubt meant her betrothal, but he assured me
that she would then be married and delivered over to her husband.

On my asking whether the girl loved her intended bridegroom, I was
told that she would see him for the first time at the celebration of
the nuptials.  The Baboo informed me further, that every person like
himself looked out for a son-in-law as soon as possible, and that
the younger a girl married the more honourable was it accounted; an
unmarried daughter was a disgrace to her father, who was looked upon
as possessed of no paternal love if he did not get her off his
hands.  As soon as he has found a son-in-law, he describes his
bodily and mental qualities as well as his worldly circumstances to
his wife, and with this description she is obliged to content
herself, for she is never allowed to see her future son-in-law,
either as the betrothed, or the husband of her child.  The
bridegroom is never considered to belong to the family of the bride,
but the latter leaves her own relations for those of her husband.
No woman, however, is allowed to see or speak with the male
relations of her husband, nor dare she ever appear before the men-
servants of her household without being veiled.  If she wishes to
pay a visit to her mother, she is carried to her shut up in a

I also saw the Baboo's wife and one of his sisters-in-law.  The
former was twenty-five years old and very corpulent, the latter was
fifteen and was slim and well made.  The reason of this, as I was
told, is that the females, although married so young, seldom become
mothers before their fourteenth year, and until then preserve their
original slimness.  After their first confinement, they remain for
six or eight weeks shut up in their room, without taking the least
exercise, and living all the time on the most sumptuous and dainty
food.  This fattening process generally produces the desired effect.
The reader must know that the Hindoos, like the Mahomedans, are
partial to corpulent ladies.  I never saw any specimens of this kind
of beauty, however, among the lower classes.

The two ladies were not very decently attired.  Their bodies and
heads were enveloped in ample blue and white muslin drapery,
embroidered with gold, and bordered with lace of the same material
as broad as a man's hand, but the delicate texture {150} was so
ethereal, that every outline of the body was visible beneath it.
Besides this, whenever they moved their arms the muslin opened and
displayed not only their arm, but a portion of their bosom and body.
They appeared to pay a great deal of attention to their hair; their
chief care seemed to consist in replacing the muslin on their heads,
whenever it chanced to fall off.  As long as a female is unmarried,
she is never allowed to lay aside her head-dress.

These ladies were so overloaded with gold, pearls, and diamonds,
that they really resembled beasts of burden.  Large pearls, with
other precious stones strung together, adorned their head and neck,
as likewise did heavy gold chains and mounted gold coins.  Their
ears, which were pierced all over--I counted twelve holes in one
ear--were so thickly laden with similar ornaments, that the latter
could not be distinguished from one another; all that was to be seen
was a confused mass of gold, pearls, and diamonds.  On each arm were
eight or ten costly bracelets; the principal one, which was four
inches broad, being composed of massive gold, with six rows of small
brilliants.  I took it in my hand, and found that it weighed at
least half a pound.  They had gold chains twisted three times round
their thighs, and their ankles and feet were also encircled with
gold rings and chains; their feet were dyed with henna.

The two ladies then brought me their jewel-cases, and showed me a
great many more valuable ornaments.  The Hindoos must spend immense
sums in jewels and gold and silver embroidered Dacca muslin, as in
these articles it is the endeavour of every lady to outrival all her
acquaintances.  As they had anticipated my arrival, the two ladies
were arrayed in their most costly apparel; being determined to
exhibit themselves to me in true Indian splendour.

The Baboo also conducted me to the inner apartments looking into the
courtyard.  Some of these were furnished only with carpets and
pillows, the Hindoos not being, in general, partial to chairs or
beds; in others, were different pieces of European furniture, such
as, tables, chairs, presses, and even bedsteads.  A glass case
containing dolls, coaches, horses, and other toys, was pointed out
to me with peculiar satisfaction; both children and women are very
fond of playing with these things, though the women are more
passionately fond of cards.

No married woman is allowed to enter the rooms looking out upon the
street, as she might be seen by a man from the opposite windows.
The young bride, however, profited by her freedom, and tripping
before us to the open window, glanced into the busy street.

The wives of the rich Hindoos, or of those belonging to the higher
castes, are as much confined to their houses as the Chinese women.
The only pleasure that the husband's strictness permits the wife to
enjoy, is to pay a visit, now and then, in a carefully closed
palanquin, to some friend or relation.  It is only during the short
time that a woman remains unmarried that she is allowed rather more

A Hindoo may have several wives; there are, however, but few
examples of his availing himself of this privilege.

The husband's relations generally reside in the same house, but each
family has its separate household.  The elder boys take their meals
with their father, but the wife, daughters, and younger boys are not
allowed this privilege.  Both sexes are extremely fond of tobacco,
which they smoke in pipes called hookas.

At the conclusion of my visit, I was offered sweetmeats, fruits,
raisins, etc.  The sweetmeats were mostly composed of sugar,
almonds, and suet, but were not very palatable, owing to the
predominance of the suet.

Before leaving the house, I visited the ground-floor to examine the
room, in which, once a year, the religious festival called Natch is
celebrated.  This festival, which is the most important one in the
Hindoo religion, takes place in the beginning of October, and lasts
a fortnight, during which time neither poor nor rich do any business
whatever.  The master closes his shops and warehouses, and the
servant engages a substitute, generally from among the Mahomedans,
and then both master and servant spend the fortnight, if not in
fasting and prayer, most certainly in doing nothing else.

The Baboo informed me that on these occasions his room is richly
ornamented, and a statue of the ten-armed goddess Durga placed in
it.  This statue is formed of clay or wood, painted with the most
glaring colours, and loaded with gold and silver tinsel, flowers,
ribbons, and often with even real jewellery.  Hundreds of lights and
lamps, placed between vases and garlands of flowers, glitter in the
room, the court-yard, and outside the house.  A number of different
animals are offered up as sacrifices; they are not slain, however,
in the presence of the goddess, but in some retired part of the
house.  Priests attend upon the goddess, and female dancers display
their talent before her, accompanied by the loud music of the tam-
tam.  Both priests and danseuses are liberally paid.  Some of the
latter, like our Taglionis and Elslers, earn large sums.  During the
period of my stay here, there was a Persian danseuse, who never
appeared for less than 500 rupees (50 pounds.)  Crowds of the
curious, among whom are numbers of Europeans, flock from one temple
to another; the principal guests have sweetmeats and fruit served
round to them.

On the last day of the festival the goddess is conveyed with great
pomp, and accompanied by music, to the Hoogly, where she is put in a
boat, rowed into the middle of the stream, and then thrown overboard
in the midst of the shouts and acclamations of the multitude upon
the banks.  Formerly, the real jewels were thrown in along with the
goddess, but carefully fished up again by the priests during the
night; at present, the real jewels are replaced on the last day by
false ones, or else the founder of the feast takes an opportunity of
secretly obtaining possession of them during the goddess's progress
to the river.  He is obliged to do this very cautiously, however, so
as not to be observed by the people.  A Natch often costs several
thousand rupees, and is one of the most costly items in the
expenditure of the rich.

Marriages, too, are said to cost large sums of money.  The Brahmins
observe the stars, and by their aid calculate the most fortunate day
and even hour for the ceremony to take place.  It is, however,
frequently postponed, at the very last moment, for a few hours
longer, as the priest has taken fresh observations, and hit upon a
still luckier instant.  Of course, such a discovery has to be paid
for by an extra fee.

There are several different feasts every year in honour of the four-
armed goddess Kally, especially in the village of Kallighat, near
Calcutta.  There were two during my stay.  Before each hut was
placed a number of small clay idols, painted with various colours
and representing the most horrible creatures.  They were exposed
there for sale.  The goddess Kally, as large as life, had got her
tongue thrust out as far as possible between her open jaws; she was
placed either before or inside the huts, and was richly decorated
with wreaths of flowers.

The temple of Kally is a miserable building, or rather a dark hole,
from whose cupola-like roof rise several turrets:  the statue here
was remarkable for its immense head and horribly long tongue.  Its
face was painted deep-red, yellow, and sky-blue.  I was unable to
enter this god-like hole, as I was a woman, and as such was not
reckoned worthy of admission into so sacred a place as Kally's
temple.  I looked in at the door with the Hindoo woman, and was
quite satisfied.

The most horrible and distressing scenes occur in the Hindoo dead-
houses, and at the places where the corpses are burnt.  Those that I
saw are situated on the banks of the Hoogly, near the town, and
opposite to them is the wood market.  The dead-house was small, and
contained only one room, in which were four bare bedsteads.  The
dying person is brought here by his relations, and either placed
upon one of the bedsteads, or, if these are all full, on the floor,
or, at a push, even before the house in the burning sun.  At the
period of my arrival, there were five persons in the house and two
outside.  The latter were completely wrapped up in straw and woollen
counterpanes, and I thought they were already dead.  On my asking
whether or no this was the case, my guide threw off the clothes, and
I saw the poor wretches move.  I think they must have been half-
smothered under the mass of covering.  Inside, on the floor, lay a
poor old woman, the death-rattle in whose throat proclaimed that her
end was fast approaching.  The four bedsteads were likewise
occupied.  I did not observe that the mouths and noses of these poor
creatures were stopped up with mud from the Ganges:  this may,
perhaps, be the case in some other districts.  Near the dying
persons were seated their relations, quietly and silently waiting to
receive their last breath.  On my inquiring whether nothing was ever
given to them, I was told that if they did not die immediately, a
small draught of water from the Ganges was handed to them from time
to time, but always decreasing in quantity and at longer intervals,
for when once brought to these places, they must die at any price.

As soon as they are dead, and almost before they are cold, they are
taken to the place where they are burnt, and which is separated from
the high road by a wall.  In this place I saw one corpse and one
person at the point of death, while on six funeral-piles were six
corpses with the flames flaring on high all around them.  A number
of birds, larger than turkeys, and called here philosophers, {153}
small vultures, and ravens were seated upon the neighbouring trees
and house-tops, in anxious expectation of the half-burnt corpses.  I
was horrified.  I hurried away, and it was long before I could
efface the impression made upon my mind by this hideous spectacle.

In the case of rich people, the burning of the body sometimes costs
more than a thousand rupees; the most costly wood, such as rose and
sandal wood, being employed for that purpose.  Besides this, a
Brahmin, music, and female mourners, are necessary parts of the

After the body has been burnt, the bones are collected, laid in a
vase, and thrown into the Ganges, or some other holy river.  The
nearest relation is obliged to set fire to the pile.

There are naturally none of these ceremonies among poor people.
They simply burn their dead on common wood or cow-dung; and if they
cannot even buy these materials, they fasten a stone to the corpse
and throw it into the river.

I will here relate a short anecdote that I had from a very
trustworthy person.  It may serve as an example of the atrocities
that are often committed from false ideas of religion.

Mr. N--- was once, during his travels, not far from the Ganges, and
was accompanied by several servants and a dog.  Suddenly the latter
disappeared, and all the calling in the world would not bring him
back.  He was at last discovered on the banks of the Ganges,
standing near a human body, which he kept licking.  Mr. N--- went up
and found that the man had been left to die, but had still some
spark of life left.  He summoned his attendants, had the slime and
filth washed off the poor wretch's face, and wrapped him well up.
In a few days after he was completely recovered.  On Mr. N---'s now
being about to leave him, the man begged and prayed him not to do
so, as he had lost his caste, and would never more be recognised by
any of his relations; in a word that he was completely wiped out of
the list of the living.  Mr. N--- took him into his service, and the
man, at the present day, is still in the enjoyment of perfect
health.  The event narrated occurred years ago.

The Hindoos themselves acknowledge that their customs, with regard
to dying persons, occasion many involuntary murders; but their
religion ordains that when the physician declares there is no hope
left, the person must die.

During my stay in Calcutta, I could learn no more of the manners and
customs of the Hindoos than what I have described, but I became
acquainted with some of the particulars of a Mahomedan marriage.  On
the day appointed for the ceremony, the nuptial bed, elegantly
ornamented, is carried, with music and festivity, to the house of
the bridegroom, and late in the evening, the bride herself is also
conveyed there in a close palanquin, with music and torches, and a
large crowd of friends, many of whom carry regular pyramids of
tapers; that well known kind of firework, the Bengal-fire, with its
beautiful light-blue flame, is also in requisition for the evening's

On arriving at the bridegroom's house, the newly-married couple
alone are admitted; the rest remain outside playing, singing, and
hallooing until broad day.

I often heard Europeans remark that they considered the procession
of the nuptial couch extremely improper.  But as the old saying
goes--"A man can see the mote in his neighbour's eye when he cannot
perceive the beam in his own;" and it struck me that the manner in
which marriages are managed among the Europeans who are settled
here, is much more unbecoming.  It is a rule with the English, that
on the day appointed for the marriage, which takes place towards
evening, the bridegroom shall not see his bride before he meets her
at the altar.  An infringement of this regulation would be shocking.
In case the two who are about to marry should have anything to say
to each other, they are obliged to do so in writing.  Scarcely,
however, has the clergyman pronounced the benediction, ere the new
married couple are packed off together in a carriage, and sent to
spend a week in some hotel in the vicinity of the town.  For this
purpose, either the hotel at Barrackpore or one of two or three
houses at Gardenrich is selected.  In case all the lodgings should
be occupied, a circumstance of by no means rare occurrence, since
almost all marriages are celebrated in the months of November and
December, a boat containing one or two cabins is hired, and the
young people are condemned to pass the next eight days completely
shut up from all their friends, and even the parents themselves are
not allowed access to their children.

I am of opinion that a girl's modesty must suffer much from these
coarse customs.  How the poor creature must blush on entering the
place selected for her imprisonment; and how each look, each grin of
the landlord, waiters, or boatmen, must wound her feelings!

The worthy Germans, who think everything excellent that does not
emanate from themselves, copy this custom most conscientiously.



On the 10th of December, after a stay of more than five weeks, I
left Calcutta for Benares.  The journey may be performed either by
land, or else by water, on the Ganges.  By land, the distance is 470
miles; by water, 800 miles during the rainy season, and 465 miles
more during the dry months, as the boats are compelled to take very
circuitous routes to pass from the Hoogly, through the Sonderbunds,
into the Ganges.

The land journey is performed in post-palanquins, carried by men,
who, like horses, are changed every four or six miles.  The
traveller proceeds by night as well as day, and at each station
finds people ready to receive him, as a circular from the post-
office is always sent a day or two before, to prepare them for his
arrival.  At night the train is increased by the addition of a
torch-bearer, to scare off the wild beasts by the glare of his
torch.  The travelling expenses for one person are about 200 rupees
(20 pounds), independent of the luggage, which is reckoned

The journey by water can be accomplished in steamers, one of which
leaves almost every week for Allahabad (135 miles beyond Benares).
The journey occupies from fourteen to twenty days, as, on account of
the numerous sand-banks, it is impossible for the vessel to proceed
on her course except in the day-time, and even then it is by no
means unusual for her to run aground, especially when the water is

The fares to Benares are:  first cabin, 257 rupees (25 pounds 14s.);
second cabin, 216 rupees (21 pounds 12s.).  Provisions, without wine
or spirits, three rupees (6s.) a day.

As I had heard so much of the magnificent banks of the Ganges, and
of the important towns situated on them, I determined to go by

On the 8th of December, according to the advertisement, the steamer
"General Macleod," 140 horse-power, commanded by Captain Kellar, was
to leave her moorings; but on going on board, I received the
gratifying intelligence that we should have to wait twenty-four
hours, which twenty-four hours were extended to as much again, so
that we did not actually set off before 11 o'clock on the morning of
the 10th.  We first proceeded down the stream to the sea as far as
Katcherie, and on the following day we rounded Mud Point, and
entered the Sonderbunds, where we beat about as far as Culna.  From
there we proceeded up the Gury, a large tributary stream flowing
into the Ganges below Rumpurbolea.  During the first few days, the
scenery was monotonous to the highest degree; there were neither
towns nor villages to be seen; the banks were flat, and the prospect
everywhere bounded by tall, thick bushes, which the English term
_jungles_, that is to say, "virgin forests."  For my own part, I
could see no "virgin forests," as by this term I understand a forest
of mighty trees.  During the night, we heard, from time to time, the
roaring of tigers.  These animals are pretty abundant in these
parts, and frequently attack the natives if they happen to remain
out late wooding.  I was shown the tattered fragment of a man's
dress, hung upon a bush, to commemorate the fact of a native having
been torn to pieces there by one of these beasts.  But they are not
the only foes that man has to dread here; the Ganges contains quite
as deadly ones, namely--the ravenous crocodiles.  These may be seen
in groups of six or eight, sunning themselves on the slimy banks of
the river or on the numerous sandbanks.  They vary in length from
six to fifteen feet.  On the approach of the steamer, several
started up, affrighted by the noise, and glided hastily into the
dirty yellow stream.

The different branches of the Sonderbunds and the Gury are often so
narrow that there is hardly room for two vessels to pass each other;
while, on the other hand, they frequently expand into lakes that are
miles across.  In spite, too, of the precaution of only proceeding
by day, on account of the numerous sandbanks and shallows, accidents
are of frequent occurrence.  We ourselves did not come off scot
free.  In one of the narrow branches I have alluded to, while our
vessel was stopped to allow another to pass, one of the two ships
that we had in tow came with such violence against the steamer, that
the sides of a cabin were driven in:  luckily, however, no one was

In another arm of the river, two native vessels were lying at
anchor.  The crews were somewhat slow in perceiving us, and had not
time to raise their anchors before we came puffing up to them.  The
captain did not stop, as he thought there was room to pass, but
turned the steamer's head so far in shore, that he ran into the
bushes, and left some of the blinds of the cabin-windows suspended
as trophies behind him, whereat he was so enraged, that he
immediately dispatched two boats to cut the poor creatures' hawsers,
thereby causing them to lose their anchors.  This was another action
worthy of a European!

Near Culna (358 miles from the sea), we entered the Gury, a
considerable tributary of the Ganges, which it flows into below
Rumpurbolea.  The jungles here recede, and their place is occupied
by beautiful plantations of rice, and other vegetables.  There was,
too, no scarcity of villages, only the huts, which were mostly built
of straw and palm-leaves, were small and wretched.  The appearance
of the steamer soon collected all the inhabitants, who left their
fields and huts and greeted it with loud huzzas.

15th December.  This evening we struck, for the first time, on a
sandbank.  It cost us some trouble before we could get off again.

16th December.  We had entered the Ganges yesterday.  At a late hour
this evening we hove to near the little village of Commercolly.  The
inhabitants brought provisions of every description on board, and we
had an opportunity of becoming acquainted with the prices of the
various articles.  A fine wether cost four rupees (8s.); eighteen
fowls, a rupee (2s.); a fish, weighing several pounds, an anna
(1.5d.); eight eggs, an anna; twenty oranges, two annas (3d.); a
pound of fine bread, three beis (ld.); and yet, in spite of these
ludicrously cheap prices, the captain charged each passenger three
rupees (6s.) a-day for his board, which was not even passable!  Many
of the passengers made purchases here of eggs, new bread, and
oranges, and the captain was actually not ashamed to let these
articles, which were paid for out of our own pockets, appear at his
table that we all paid so dearly for.

18th December.  Bealeah, a place of considerable importance, noted
for the number of its prisons.  It is a depot for criminals, {158a}
who are sent here from all parts.  The prisoners here cannot be so
desirous of escaping as those in Europe, for I saw numbers of them,
very slightly ironed, wandering about in groups or alone, in the
place itself and its vicinity, without having any gaolers with them.
They are properly taken care of, and employed in various kinds of
light work.  There is a paper manufactory, which is almost entirely
carried on by them.

The inhabitants appeared to possess a more than usual degree of
fanaticism.  I and another passenger, Herr Lau, had gone to take a
walk in the place, and were about to enter a small street in which
there was a Hindoo temple; but no sooner, however, did the people
perceive our intention, than they set up a horrible yelling, and
pressed on us so closely, that we held it advisable to restrain our
curiosity and turn back.

19th December.  Today we perceived the low ranges of the Rajmahal
Hills, the first we had seen since we left Madras.  In the evening,
we were again stuck fast upon a sandbank.  We remained tolerably
quiet during the night, but, as soon as it was morning, every
possible means were adopted to get us off again.  The vessels we had
in tow were cast off, our steam got up to its highest pitch; the
sailors, too, exerted themselves indefatigably, and at noon we were
stuck just as fast as we were the evening before.  About this time,
we perceived a steamer on its way from Allahabad to Calcutta; but
our captain hoisted no signals of distress, being very much vexed
that he should be seen by a comrade in such a position.  The captain
of the other vessel, however, offered his assistance of his own
accord but his offer was coldly and curtly refused, and it was not
until after several hours of the most strenuous exertion that we
succeeded in getting off the bank into deep water.

In the course of the day, we touched at Rajmahal, {158b} a large
village, which, on account of the thick woods and numerous swamps
and morasses around it, is reckoned a most unhealthy place.

It was here that Gur, one of the largest towns of India, once stood.
It is said to have been twenty square miles in extent, and to have
contained about two millions of inhabitants, and, according to the
latest books of travels, the most splendid and considerable ruins
are still to be seen there.  Those of the so-called "Golden Mosque"
are especially remarkable, being very fine and faced with marble;
the gateways are celebrated for their great width of span and the
solidity of their side walls.

As there was, fortunately, a depot for coals here, we were allowed a
few hours to do as we liked.  The younger passengers seized the
opportunity to go out shooting, being attracted by the splendid
forests, the finest I had as yet seen in India.  It was certainly
reported that they were very much infested with tigers, but this
deterred no one.

I also engaged in the chase--although it was one of a different
description.  I penetrated far and wide, through forest and swamp,
in order to discover the ruins.  I was successful; but how meagre
and wretched they were!  The most important were those of two common
city-gates, built of sandstone and ornamented with a few handsome
sculptures, but without any arches or cupolas.  One inconsiderable
temple, with four corner towers, was in several places covered with
very fine cement.  Besides these, there were a few other ruins or
single fragments of buildings and pillars scattered around, but all
of them together do not cover a space of two square miles.

On the border of the forest, or some hundred paces farther in, were
situated a number of huts belonging to the natives, approached by
picturesque paths running beneath shady avenues of trees.  In
Bealeah, the people were very fanatic, while here the men were very
jealous.  At the conclusion of my excursion, one of the gentlemen
passengers had joined me, and we directed our steps towards the
habitations of the natives.  As soon as the men saw my companion,
they called out to their wives, and ordered them to take refuge in
the huts.  The women ran in from all directions, but remained very
quietly at the doors of their dwellings to see us pass, and quite
forgot to conceal their faces while they did so.

In these parts, there are whole woods of cocoa-palms.  This tree is
properly a native of India, where it attains a height of eighty
feet, and bears fruit in its sixth year.  In other countries, it is
scarcely fifty feet high, and does not bear fruit before it is
twelve or fifteen years old.  This tree is, perhaps, the most useful
one in the known world.  It produces large and nutritious fruit,
excellent milk, large leaves that are used for covering in and
roofing huts, materials for strong cordage, the clearest oil for
burning, mats, woven stuffs, colouring matter, and even a kind of
drink called surr, toddy, or palm brandy, and obtained by incisions
made in the crown of the tree, to which, during an entire month, the
Hindoos climb up every morning and evening, making incisions in the
stem and hanging pots underneath to catch the sap which oozes out.
The rough condition of the bark facilitates considerably the task of
climbing up the tree.  The Hindoos tie a strong cord round the trunk
and their own body, and another round their feet, which they fix
firmly against the tree; they then raise themselves up, drawing the
upper rope with their hands and the lower one with the points of
their feet, after them.  I have seen them climb the highest trees in
this manner with the greatest ease in two minutes at the most.
Round their bodies they have a belt, to which are suspended a knife
and one or two small jars.

The sap is at first quite clear, and agreeably sweet, but begins, in
six or eight hours' time, to ferment, and then assumes a whitish
tint, while its flavour becomes disagreeably acid.  From this, with
the addition of some rice, is manufactured strong arrack.  A good
tree will yield above a gallon of this sap in four-and-twenty hours,
but during the year in which the sap is thus extracted, it bears no

21st December.  About 80 miles below Rajmahal, we passed three
rather steep rocks rising out of the Ganges.  The largest is about
sixty feet high; the next in size, which is overgrown with bushes,
is the residence of a Fakir, whom the true believers supply with
provisions.  We could not see the holy man, as it was beginning to
grow dark as we passed.  This, however, did not cause us so much
regret, as that we were unable to visit the Botanical Garden at
Bogulpore, which is said to be the finest in all India; but as there
was no coal depot at Bogulpore, we did not stop.

On the 22nd of December, we passed the remarkable mountain scenery
of Junghera, which rises, like an island of rocks, from the majestic
Ganges.  This spot was, in former times, looked on as the holiest in
the whole course of the river.  Thousands of boats and larger
vessels were constantly to be seen there, as no Hindoo believed he
could die in peace without having visited the place.  Numerous
Fakirs had established themselves here, strengthening the poor
pilgrims with unctuous exhortations, and taking in return their
pious gifts.  The neighbourhood has, however, at present, lost its
reputation for sanctity, and the offerings received are scarcely
sufficient to maintain two or three Fakirs.

In the evening we stopped near Monghyr, {160a} a tolerably large
town, with some old fortifications.  The most conspicuous object is
a cemetery, crowded with monuments.  The monuments are so peculiar,
that had I not seen similar ones in the cemeteries of Calcutta, I
should never have imagined that they belonged to any sect of
Christians.  There were temples, pyramids, immense catafalques,
kiosks, etc., all massively built of tiles.  The extent of this
cemetery is quite disproportioned to the number of Europeans in
Monghyr; but the place is said to be the most unhealthy in India, so
that when a European is ordered there for any number of years, he
generally takes a last farewell of all his friends.

Six miles hence, there are some hot springs, which are looked upon
by the natives as sacred.

We had lost sight of the Rajmahal Hills at Bogulpore; on both sides
of the river, nothing was now to be seen but an uninterrupted
succession of flat plains.

24th December.  Patna, {160b} one of the largest and most ancient
cities of Bengal, with a population of about 300,000 souls, {161}
consists of a long, broad street, eight miles long, with numerous
short alleys running into it.  The houses, which are mostly
constructed of mud, struck me as particularly small and wretched.
Under the projecting roofs are exposed for sale goods and provisions
of the simplest kind.  That part of the street in which the greatest
number of these miserable shops are situated, is dignified by the
grand name of the "Bazaar."  The few houses of a better description
might easily be counted without any very great trouble; they are
built of tiles, and surrounded by wooden galleries and colonnades
prettily carved.  In these houses were to be found the best and
finest shops.

The temples of the Hindoos, the Ghauts (flights of steps, halls, and
gateways) on the Ganges, like the mosques of the Mahomedans, always
look a great deal better at a distance than they do on a nearer
inspection.  The only objects worthy of notice which I saw here,
were a few bell-shaped mausoleums, like those in Ceylon, which they
greatly surpassed in size, although not in artistic beauty; they
were certainly more than 200 feet in circumference, and eighty feet
in height.  Excessively narrow entrances, with simple doors, conduct
into the interior.  On the outside, two small flights of steps,
forming a semicircle, lead up to the top.  The doors were not opened
for us, and we were obliged to content ourselves with the assurance
that, with the exception of a small, plain sarcophagus there was
nothing inside.

Patna is a place of great importance, from the trade in opium, by
which many of the natives acquire large fortunes.  As a general
rule, they make no display of their riches, either as regards their
clothes, or in any other public kind of luxury.  There are only two
sorts of dress--one for those in easy circumstances, which is like
that of the Orientals, and one for the poorest classes, which
consists of a piece of cloth bound round the loins.

The principal street presents a bustling appearance, being much
frequented by carriages, as well as pedestrians.  The Hindoos, like
the Jews, are such determined foes to walking, that they do not
think the worst place in the most wretched cart beneath their

The vehicles in most general use are narrow, wooden cars upon two
wheels, and composed of four posts with cross-beams.  Coloured
woollen stuff is hung over these, and a kind of canopy keeps off the
sun.  There is properly only room for two persons, although I have
seen three or four crowded into them.  This put me in mind of the
Italians, who fill a carriage so that not even the steps are left
vacant.  These cars are called baili.  They are closely curtained
when women travel in them.

I expected to see the streets here full of camels and elephants,
since I had read so much about it in some descriptions:  but I saw
only bailis drawn by oxen and a few horsemen, but neither camels nor

Towards evening we drove to Deinapore, {162} which is eight miles
from Patna, along an excellent post-road, planted with handsome

Deinapore is one of the largest English military stations, and
contains extensive barracks, which almost constitute a town in
themselves.  The town is but a short distance from the barracks.
There are many Mahomedans among the inhabitants, who surpass the
Hindoos in industry and perseverance.

I here saw elephants for the first time on the Indian continent.  In
a serai outside the town there were eight large handsome animals.

When we returned to the ship in the evening, we found it like a
camp.  All kinds of articles were brought there and laid out for
inspection; but the shoemakers were particularly numerous.  Their
work appeared neat and lasting, and remarkably cheap.  A pair of
men's boots, for example, cost from one and a half to two rupees
(3s. to 4s.); but it is true that twice as much is always asked for
them.  I saw on this occasion the way in which the European sailors
conduct bargains with the natives.  One of the engineers wanted to
buy a pair of shoes, and offered a quarter of the price asked.  The
seller, not consenting to this, took his goods back; but the
engineer snatched them out of his hand, threw down a few beis more
than what he had offered, and hastened to his cabin.  The shoemaker
pursued him, and demanded the shoes back; instead of which he
received several tough blows, and was threatened that if he was not
quiet he should be compelled to leave the ship immediately.  The
poor creature returned half crying to his pack of goods.

A similar occurrence took place on the same evening.  A Hindoo boy
brought a box for one of the travellers, and asked for a small
payment for his trouble; he was not listened to.  The boy remained
standing by, repeating his request now and then.  He was driven
away, and as he would not go quietly, blows were had recourse to.
The captain happened to pass accidentally, and asked what was the
matter.  The boy, sobbing, told him; the captain shrugged his
shoulders, and the boy was put out of the ship.

How many similar and even more provoking incidents have I seen?  The
so-called "barbarian and heathen people" have good reason to hate
us.  Wherever the Europeans go they will not give any reward, but
only orders and commands; and their rule is generally much more
oppressive than that of the natives.

26th December.  The custom of exposing dying people on the banks of
the Ganges, does not appear to be so general as some travellers
state.  We sailed on the river for fourteen days, during which time
we passed many thickly populated towns and villages, and did not
meet with a single case until today.  The dying man lay close to the
water, and several men, probably his relations, were seated round
him, awaiting his decease.  One dipped water and mud out of the
river with his hands, and put them to the nose and mouth of the
dying man.  The Hindoos believe that if they die at the river with
their mouths full of the holy water, they are quite certain to go to
heaven.  His relations or friends remain by the dying man till
sunset, when they go home, and leave him to his fate.  He generally
falls a prey to crocodiles.  I very seldom saw any floating corpses;
only two during the whole journey.  Most of the corpses are burnt.

27th December.  Ghazipoor is an important place, and is remarkable
at a distance for its handsome ghauts.  Here stands a pretty
monument erected to the memory of Lord Cornwallis, who conquered
Tippoo Saib in 1790.  Very near is a large establishment for
training horses, which is said to turn out remarkably fine ones.
But Ghazipoor is most remarkable for its enormous rose-fields, and
the rose-water and attar prepared here.  The latter is obtained in
the following manner:--

Upon forty pounds of roses, with the calixes, sixty pounds of water
are poured, and the whole is distilled over a slow fire.  From this,
about thirty pounds of rose-water are obtained.  Another forty
pounds of roses are again added to this, and, at the utmost, twenty
pounds of water distilled off.  This is then exposed during the
night to the cold air in pans, and in the morning the oil is found
swimming upon the surface and is skimmed off.  Not more than an
ounce and a half of attar, at the utmost, is obtained from eighty
pounds of roses.  An ounce of true attar costs, even at Ghazipoor,
40 rupees (4 pounds).

At 10 o'clock on the morning of the 28th, we at length reached the
holy town of Benares.  We anchored near Radschgaht, where coolies
and camels were ready to receive us.

Before taking leave of the Ganges, I must remark that, during the
whole journey of about a thousand miles, I did not meet with a
single spot remarkable for its especial beauty, or one picturesque
view.  The banks are either flat or bounded by layers of earth ten
or twenty feet in height, and, further inland, sandy plains
alternate with plantations or dried-up meadows and miserable
jungles.  There are, indeed, a great number of towns and villages,
but, with the exception of occasional handsome houses and the
ghauts, they are composed of a collection of huts.  The river itself
is frequently divided into several branches, and is sometimes so
broad that it resembles a sea rather than a river, for the banks are
scarcely visible.

Benares is the most sacred town of India.  It is to the Hindoos what
Mecca is to the Mahomedans, or Rome to the Catholics.  The belief of
the Hindoos in its holiness is such that, according to their
opinion, every man will be saved who remains twenty-four hours in
the town, without reference to his religion.  This noble toleration
is one of the finest features in the religion and character of this
people, and puts to shame the prejudices of many Christian sects.

The number of pilgrims amounts annually to 300,000 or 400,000, and
the town is one of the most wealthy in the country, through their
trading, sacrifices, and gifts.

This may not be an improper place to make some remarks upon the
religion of these interesting people, which I extract from
Zimmerman's "Handbook of Travels."

"The foundation of the Hindoo faith is the belief in a superior
primitive being, immortality, and a reward of virtue.  The chief
idea of God is so great and beautiful, its moral so pure and
elevated, that its equal has not been found among any other people.

"Their creed is to worship the highest Being, to invoke their
guardian gods, to be well-disposed towards their fellow-men, to pity
the unfortunate and help them, to bear patiently the inconveniences
of life, not to lie or break their word, to read the sacred
histories and to give heed to them, not to talk much, to fast, pray,
and to bathe at stated periods.  These are the general duties which
the sacred writings of the Hindoos enforce, without exception, upon
all castes or sects.

"Their true and only god is called 'Brahma,' which must not be
confounded with Brahma who was created by the former, who is the
true, eternal, holy, and unchangeable light of all time and space.
The wicked are punished and the good rewarded.

"Out of the Eternal Being proceeded the goddess Bhavani, i.e.,
Nature, and a host of 1,180 million spirits.  Among these there are
three demi-gods or superior spirits, Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva, the
Hindoo Trinity, called by them Trimurti.

"For a long time, happiness and content prevailed; but they
afterwards revolted, and many gave up their allegiance.  The rebels
were cast down from on high into the pit of darkness.  Hereupon
succeeded the transmigration of souls; every animal and every plant
was animated by one of the fallen angels, and the remarkable
amiability of the Hindoos towards animals is owing to this belief.
They look upon them as their fellow-creatures, and will not put any
of them to death.

"The Hindoo reverences the great purpose of nature, the production
of organized bodies, in the most disinterested and pious manner.
Everything tending to this end is to him venerable and holy, and it
is in this respect alone that he worships the Lingam.

"It may be affirmed, that the superstitions of this creed have only
gradually become an almost senseless delusion through corruption and

"In order to judge of the present state of their religion, it will
be sufficient to describe the figures of a few of their chief

"Brahma, as the creator of the world, is represented with four human
heads and eight hands; in one hand he holds the scriptures, in the
others, various idols.  He is not worshipped in any temple, having
lost this prerogative on account of his ambitious desire to find out
the Supreme Being.  However, after repenting of his folly, it was
permitted that the Brahmins might celebrate some festivals in his
honour, called Poutsche.

"Vishnu, as the maintainer of the world, is represented in twenty-
one different forms:--Half fish half man, as tortoise, half lion
half man, Buddha, dwarf, etc.  The wife of Vishnu is worshipped as
the goddess of fruitfulness, plenty, and beauty.  The cow is
considered sacred to her.

"Shiva is the destroyer, revenger, and the conqueror of Death.  He
has, therefore, a double character, beneficent or terrible; he
rewards or punishes.  He is generally hideously represented,
entirely surrounded by lightning, with three eyes, the largest of
which is in the forehead; he has also eight arms, in each of which
he holds something.

"Although these three deities are equal, the religion of the Hindoos
is divided into only two sects--the worshippers of Vishnu and those
of Shiva.  Brahma has no peculiar sect, since he is denied temples
and pagodas; however, the whole priestly caste--the Brahmins--may be
considered as his worshippers, since they affirm that they proceeded
from his head.

"The worshippers of Vishnu have on their foreheads a red or
yellowish painted sign of the Jani; the Shiva worshippers, the sign
of the Lingam, or an obelisk, triangle, or the sun.

"333,000,000 subordinate deities are recognised.  They control the
elements, natural phenomena, the passions, acts, diseases, etc.
They are represented in different forms and having all kinds of

"There are also genii, good and evil spirits.  The number of the
good exceeds that of the bad by about 3,000,000.

"Other objects are also considered sacred by the Hindoos, as rivers,
especially the Ganges, which is believed to have been formed from
the sweat of Shiva.  The water of the Ganges is so highly esteemed,
that a trade is carried on in it for many miles inland.

"Among animals, they chiefly look upon the cow, ox, elephant, ape,
eagle, swan, peacock, and serpent, as sacred; among plants, the
lotus, the banana, and the mango-tree.

"The Brahmins have an especial veneration for a stone, which is,
according to Sonnerat, a fossil ammonite in slate.

"It is in the highest degree remarkable that there is no
representation of the Supreme Being to be found in all Hindostan.
The idea appears too great for them; they consider the whole earth
as his temple, and worship him under all forms.

"The adherents of Shiva bury their dead; the others either burn them
or throw them into the river."

No one can form an accurate idea of India who has not gone beyond
Calcutta.  This city has become almost European.  The palaces, the
equipages are European; there are societies, balls, concerts,
promenades, almost the same as in Paris or London; and if it was not
for the tawny natives in the streets, and the Hindoo servants in the
houses, a stranger might easily forget that he was in a foreign

It is very different in Benares.  The Europeans are isolated there;
foreign customs and manners everywhere surround them, and remind
them that they are tolerated intruders.  Benares contains 300,000
inhabitants, of which scarcely 150 are Europeans.

The town is handsome, especially when seen from the river side,
where its defects are not observed.  Magnificent rows of steps,
built of colossal stones, lead up to the houses and palaces, and
artistically built gateways.  In the best part of the town, they
form a continuous line two miles in length.  These steps cost
enormous sums of money, and a large town might have been built with
the stones employed for them.

The handsome part of the town contains a great number of antique
palaces, in the Moorish, Gothic, and Hindoo styles, many of which
are six stories high.  The gates are most magnificent, and the
fronts of the palaces and houses are covered with masterly
arabesques and sculptured work; the different stories are richly
ornamented with fine colonnades, verandahs, balconies, and friezes.
The windows alone did not please me; they were low, small, and
seldom regularly arranged.  All the houses and palaces have very
broad sloping roofs and terraces.  The innumerable temples afford a
proof of the wealth and piety of the inhabitants of this town.
Every Hindoo in good circumstances has a temple in his house, i.e.,
a small tower, which is frequently only twenty feet high.

The Hindoo temples consist properly of a tower thirty or sixty feet
in height, without windows, and having only a small entrance.  They
appear, especially at a distance, very striking and handsome, as
they are either artistically sculptured or richly covered with
projecting ornaments, such as pinnacles, small columns, pyramids,
leaves, niches, etc.

Unfortunately, many of these beautiful buildings are in ruins.  The
Ganges here and there undermines the foundations, and palaces and
temples sink into the soft earth or fall entirely down.  Miserable
little huts are in some places built upon these ruins, and disfigure
the fine appearance of the town, for even the ruins themselves are
still beautiful.

At sunrise, a spectacle is to be seen at the river which has not its
counterpart in the world.  The pious Hindoos come here to perform
their devotions; they step into the river, turn towards the sun,
throw three handsful of water upon their heads, and mutter their
prayers.  Taking into account the large population which Benares
contains, besides pilgrims, it will not be exaggeration to say that
the daily number of devotees amounts, on the average, to 50,000
persons.  Numbers of Brahmins sit in small kiosks, or upon blocks of
stone on the steps, close to the water's edge, to receive the
charity of the wealthy, and grant them absolution in return.

Every Hindoo must bathe at least once in the day, and particularly
in the morning; if he is pious and has time, he repeats the ceremony
again in the evening.  The women bathe at home.

At the time of the festival called Mala, when the concourse of
pilgrims is innumerable, the steps are crowded with masses of human
beings, and the river appears as if covered with black spots from
the number of the bathers' heads.

The interior of the city is far less handsome than that portion
which extends along the Ganges.  It contains many palaces; but these
have not the same beautiful gateways, colonnades, and verandahs as
those already described.  Many of these buildings are covered with
fine cement, and others are painted with miserable frescoes.

The streets are for the most part both dirty and ugly, and many of
them are so narrow, that there is scarcely room for a palanquin to
pass.  At the corner of almost every house stands the figure of the
god Shiva.

Among the temples in the town, the handsomest is the "Bisvishas:" it
has two towers connected by colonnades, with their summits covered
with golden plates.  The temple is surrounded by a wall, but we were
allowed to enter the fore-court, and to go as far as the entrance.
We saw inside several images of Vishnu and Shiva, wreathed with
flowers, and strewn over with grains of rice, wheat, etc.  Small
bulls of metal or stone stood in the porch, and living white bulls
(of which I counted eight) wandered about at liberty.  The latter
are considered sacred, and are allowed to roam where they please,
and are not prevented from satisfying their hunger with even the
sacrificial flowers and corn.

These sacred animals do not remain in the temples only--they wander
about the streets; and the people turn reverently out of their way,
and frequently give them fodder.  They do not, however, allow them
to eat the corn exposed for sale, as was formerly the case.  If one
of the sacred animals happen to die, it is either thrown into the
river or burnt.  They receive in this respect the same honour as the
Hindoos themselves.

In the temple, there were men and women who had brought flowers,
with which they decorated the images.  Some of them also laid a
piece of money under the flowers.  They then sprinkled them over
with Ganges' water, and strewed rice and other corn about.

Near the temple are the most holy places in the town, namely--the
so-called "holy well" and the Mankarnika, a large basin of water.
The following anecdote is told of the former:--

When the English had conquered Benares, they planted a cannon before
the entrance of the temple to destroy the image of the god Mahadeo.
The Brahmins, greatly indignant at this, instigated the people to
revolt, and they hastened in numerous crowds to the temple.  The
English, to prevent a disturbance, said to the people:  "If your god
is stronger than the Christian God, the balls will not hurt him; but
if not, he will be broken to pieces."  Of course; the latter was the
result.  The Brahmins, however, did not give up their cause, but
declared that they had seen the spirit of their god leave the idol
before the cannon was fired, and plunge into the spring near at
hand.  From this time the spring was considered sacred.

The Mankarnika is a deep basin, paved with stone, about sixty feet
long, and of equal breadth; broad steps lead from the four sides
into the water.  A similar tradition, but connected with the god
Shiva, is attached to this place.  Both deities are said to have
continued to reside in these waters down to the present day.  Every
pilgrim who visits Benares must, on his arrival, bathe in this holy
pool, and, at the same time, make a small offering.  Several
Brahmins are always present to receive these gifts.  They are in no
way distinguished by their dress from the bulk of the better
classes, but the colour of their skin is clearer, and many of them
have very noble features.

Fifty paces from this pool, on the banks of the Ganges, stands a
remarkably handsome Hindoo temple, with three towers.
Unfortunately, the ground sunk in a few years since, and the towers
were thrown out of their proper position:  one inclines to the right
and the other to the left; the third is almost sunk into the Ganges.

Among the thousand of other temples, there is here and there one
which is worth the trouble of a cursory inspection, but I would not
advise any one to go much out of their way on their account.  The
place for burning the dead is very near the holy pool.  When we went
there, they were just roasting a corpse--the mode of burning cannot
be described by any other name, the fire was so small, and the
corpse projected over on all sides.

Among the other buildings, the Mosque Aurang Zeb is most worthy of
the notice of travellers.  It is famous on account of its two
minarets, which are 150 feet high, and are said to be the slenderest
in the world.  They look like two needles, and certainly are more
deserving of the name than that of Cleopatra at Alexandria.  Narrow
winding staircases in the interior lead to the top, upon which a
small platform, with a balustrade a foot high, is erected.  It is
fortunate for those who are not subject to dizziness.  They can
venture out, and take a bird's-eye view of the endless sea of
houses, and the innumerable Hindoo temples; the Ganges also, with
its step quays, miles long, lies exposed below.  I was told that on
very clear, fine days, a distant chain of mountains was perceivable--
the day was fine and clear, but I could not see the mountains.

The observatory is a very remarkable and artistic building.  It was
built by Dscheising, under the intelligent Emperor Akbar, more than
two centuries since.  There are no ordinary telescopes to be found
there:  all the instruments are constructed of massive blocks of
stone.  Upon a raised terrace, to which stone steps lead, stand
circular tables, semicircular and quadratic curves, etc. which are
covered with signs, writing, and lines. With these instruments, the
Brahmins made, and still make, their observations and calculations.
We met with several Brahmins busily engaged with calculations and
written treatises.

Benares is on the whole the chief seat of Indian learning.  Among
the Brahmins, 6,000 in number, I was told there were many who give
instruction in astronomy, Sanscrit, and other scientific subjects.

The sacred apes are another of the curiosities of Benares.  Their
principal location is upon some of the immense mango-trees in the
suburbs of Durgakund.  The animals seemed as if they knew we had
come to see them, for they approached quite close to us; but when
the servant, whom I had sent for some food for them, returned, and
called them to him, it was amusing to see the merry creatures come
running from the trees, the roofs of the houses, and the streets.
We were in a moment closely surrounded by several hundreds, who
fought together in the most comical manner for the fruits and grain.
The largest or oldest acted as commander.  Wherever there was
quarrelling, he rushed in, and commenced thrashing the combatants,
threatening them with his teeth, and making a muttering sound, upon
which they immediately separated.  It was the largest and most
comical party of monkeys I ever saw.  They were generally more than
two feet high, and their skins were a dirty yellow colour.

My kind host took me one day to Sarnath (five miles from Benares),
where there are some interesting ruins of three remarkably massive
towers.  They are not particularly high, and stand upon three
artificially raised mounds, a mile distant from each other.  Both
the mounds and towers are constructed of large bricks.  The largest
of these towers is still covered in many places with stone slabs, on
which traces of arabesques are here and there visible.  Numbers of
slabs lie scattered about the ground.  There are no signs of any
such covering on the remaining towers.  In each there is a small
door and a single apartment.

Excavations were commenced beneath these towers by the English
government in the hope of making some discoveries which would throw
light upon the origin of these buildings; but nothing was found
beyond an empty underground vault.

There is a lake close by of artificial construction, which is
supplied with water from the Ganges by a canal.

There is a very singular tradition connected with these towers and
the lake.  "In very ancient times three brothers ruled here, who
were giants, and had these buildings erected and the lake excavated,
and all in one day.  It must, however, be known that a day at that
time was equal to two years of modern reckoning.  The giants were so
tall that they could go from one tower to the other with a step, and
the reason these were built so close was their fondness for each
other, and their desire to be always together."

An indigo plantation in the neighbourhood, the first I ever saw, was
not less interesting to me than these towers and their singular
tradition.  The indigo plant is herbaceous, and from one to three
feet high, with delicate bluish-green leaves.  The harvest is
generally in August; the plants are cut tolerably low on the
principal stem, tied together in bundles, and thrown into large
wooden vats.  Planks are laid on the tops of the bundles weighted
with stones, and water poured on them; generally after sixteen
hours, though sometimes after several days, according to the
character of the water, fermentation commences.  This is the
principal difficulty, and everything depends upon its continuance
for the proper time.  When the water has acquired a dark-green
colour, it is transferred to other wooden vessels, lime added, and
the whole stirred with wooden spades until a blue deposit takes
place.  After being allowed to settle, the water is poured off, and
the substance remaining behind is put into long linen bags through
which the moisture filters.  As soon as the indigo is dry, it is
broken in pieces and packed.

Shortly before my departure I had the pleasure of being presented to
the Rajah through the aid of my fellow-traveller, Mr. Law.  He
resides in the Citadel Rhamnughur, which lies on the left bank of
the Ganges, above the town.

A handsomely ornamented boat awaited us at the bank of the river,
and on the other side a palanquin.  We soon found ourselves at the
entrance of the palace, the gateway of which is lofty and majestic.
I expected to have been gratified in the interior by the sight of
spacious courts and a handsome style of architecture, but found only
irregular courts and small unsymmetrical apartments, destitute of
all taste and luxury.  In one of the courts was a plain-columned
hall on the level of the ground, which served as a reception-room.
This hall was overcrowded with glass lustres, lamps, and European
furniture; on the walls were some miserable pictures, framed and
glazed.  Outside was a swarm of servants, who gazed at us with great
attention.  Presently the prince made his appearance, accompanied by
his brother, and some courtiers and attendants, who could scarcely
be distinguished the one from the other.

The two princes were very richly dressed; they wore wide trousers,
long under and short over garments, all made of satin, embroidered
with gold.  The elder one, aged thirty-five, wore short silk cuffs,
embroidered with gold, the edge set with diamonds; he had several
large brilliant rings on his finger, and his silk shoes were covered
with beautiful gold embroidery.  His brother, a youth of nineteen,
whom he had adopted, {170} wore a white turban with a costly clasp
of diamonds and pearls.  He had large pearls hanging from his ears,
and rich massive bracelets on his wrists.  The elder prince was a
handsome man, with exceedingly amiable and intellectual features;
the younger one pleased me far less.

We had scarcely seated ourselves, when a large silver basin with
elaborately worked nargillys were brought, and we were invited to
smoke.  We declined this honour, and the prince smoked alone; he
took only a few whiffs from the same nargilly, which was then
replaced by another handsomer one.

The behaviour of the princes was very decorous and lively.  I
regretted that we could communicate only through an interpreter.  He
inquired whether I had ever seen a Natsch (festival dance).  On my
answering that I had not, he immediately ordered one to be

In half an hour two female dancers and three musicians appeared.
The dancers were dressed in gay gold-embroidered muslin, wide silk
trousers, embroidered with gold, which reached to the ground, and
quite covered their bare feet.  One of the musicians played upon two
small drums, the other two on four-stringed instruments, similar to
our violins.  They stood close behind the dancers, and played
without melody or harmony; the dancers making at the same time very
animated motions with their arms, hands, and fingers, more than with
their feet, on which they wore silver bells, which they rung at
intervals.  They made handsome and graceful drapings and figures
with their over garments.  This performance lasted about a quarter
of an hour, after which they accompanied the dance with singing.
The two sylphides shrieked so miserably that I was in fear for my
ears and nerves.

During the performance, sweetmeats, fruits, and sherbet (a cooling,
sweet, acidulated beverage) were handed round.

After the dance was ended, the prince asked if I would like to see
his garden, which is a mile distant from the palace.  I was
indiscreet enough to accept his offer.

In company with the young prince we proceeded to the front square of
the palace, where elegantly ornamented elephants stood ready.  The
elder prince's favourite elephant, an animal of uncommon size and
beauty, was destined for myself and Mr. Law.  A scarlet canopy, with
tassels, fringes, and gold embroidered lace, nearly covered the
whole animal.  A convenient seat was placed upon his broad back,
which might be compared to a phaeton without wheels.  The elephant
was made to kneel down, a ladder was placed against his side, and
Mr. Law and myself took our places.  Behind us sat a servant, who
held an enormously large umbrella over our heads.  The driver sat
upon the neck of the animal, and pricked it now and then between the
ears with a sharp-pointed iron rod.

The young prince, with his attendant and servants, took their places
upon the other elephants.  Several officers on horseback rode at our
side, two soldiers with drawn sabres ran in front of the party to
clear the way, and upwards of a dozen soldiers, also with drawn
sabres, surrounded us, while a few mounted soldiers brought up the

Although the motion of the elephant is quite as jolting and
unpleasant as that of the camel, this truly Indian ride afforded me
great pleasure.

When we had arrived at the garden, the young prince seemed by his
proud look to ask whether we were not charmed with its magnificence.
Our delight was unfortunately assumed, for the garden was far too
plain to deserve much praise.  In the back-ground of the garden
stands a somewhat ruinous royal summer palace.

As we were about leaving the garden, the gardener brought us some
beautiful nosegays and delicious fruits--a custom universal in

Outside the garden was a very large water-basin, covered with
handsome blocks of stone; broad steps led up to the water, and at
the corner stood beautiful kiosks, ornamented with tolerably well-
executed reliefs.

The Rajah of Benares receives from the English government an annual
pension of one lac, that is, 100,000 rupees (10,000 pounds).  He is
said to receive as much more from his property, and nevertheless to
be very much in debt.  The causes of this are his great extravagance
in clothes and jewellery, his numerous wives, servants, horses,
camels, and elephants, etc.  I was told that the prince has forty
wives, about a thousand servants and soldiers, a hundred horses,
fifty camels, and twenty elephants.

On the following morning the Rajah sent to inquire how the excursion
had pleased us, and presented me with confectionery, sweetmeats, and
the rarest fruits; among others, grapes and pomegranates, which at
this time of the year are scarce.  They came from Cabul, which is
about 700 miles distant from this place.

Finally, I must mention that for many years no one has died in the
palace which the Rajah occupies.  The reason of this is said to be
the following:--"One of the rulers of this palace once asked a
Brahmin what would become of the soul of any one who died in the
palace.  The Brahmin answered that it would go to heaven.  The Rajah
repeated the same question ninety-nine times, and always received
the same answer.  But on asking the hundredth time, the Brahmin lost
patience, and answered that it would go into a donkey."  Since that
time every one, from the prince to the meanest servant, leaves the
palace as soon as they feel themselves unwell.  None of them are
desirous of continuing after death the part which they have,
perhaps, so frequently commenced in this life.

While in Benares I had two opportunities of seeing the so-called
martyrs of the Fakirs (a priestly sect of the Hindoos).  These
martyrs impose upon themselves the most various tortures:  for
example, they stick an iron hook through their flesh, and have
themselves drawn up to a height of twenty or five-and-twenty feet;
or they stand several hours in the day upon one foot, and at the
same time stretch their arms in the air, or hold heavy weights in
various positions, turn round in a circle for hours together, tear
the flesh off their bodies, etc.  They frequently torment themselves
so much as to be in danger of their lives.  These martyrs are still
tolerably venerated by the people; however, there are at the present
time but a few more remaining.  One of the two whom I saw, held a
heavy axe over his head, and had taken the bent attitude of a
workman hewing wood.  I watched him for more than a quarter of an
hour; he remained in the same position as firmly and quietly as if
he had been turned to stone.  He had, perhaps, exercised this
useless occupation for years.  The other held the point of his foot
to his nose.

Another sect of the Fakirs condemn themselves to eat only a little
food, and that of the most disgusting kind:  the flesh of oxen that
have died, half-rotten vegetables, and refuse of every kind, even
mud and earth; they say that it is quite immaterial what the stomach
is filled with.

The Fakirs all go about almost naked, smear their bodies with cow-
dung, not even excepting the face; and then strew ashes over
themselves.  They paint their breasts and foreheads with the
symbolical figures of Vishnu and Shiva, and dye their ragged hair
dark reddish brown.  It is not easy to imagine anything more
disgusting and repulsive than these priests.  They wander about all
the streets, preaching and doing whatever they fancy; they are,
however, far less respected than the martyrs.

One of the gentlemen whose acquaintance I made in Benares, was so
obliging as to communicate to me some information as to the relation
of the peasants to the government.  The peasant has no landed
property.  All the land belongs either to the English government,
the East India Company, or the native princes.  It is let out
altogether; the principal tenants divide it into small lots, and
sublet these to the peasants.  The fate of the latter depends
entirely upon the disposition of the principal tenant.  He
determines the amount of rent, and frequently demands the money at a
time when the crops are not harvested, and the peasant cannot pay;
the poor people are then obliged to sell the unripe crops for half
their worth, and their landlord generally contrives to buy it
himself in the name of another person.  The unfortunate peasant
frequently has scarcely a sufficiency left to keep life in himself
and his family.

Laws and judges there certainly are in the country, and, as
everywhere else, the laws are good and the magistrates just; but it
is another question whether the poor ever receive justice.  The
districts are so extensive, that the peasant cannot undertake a
journey of seventy or eighty miles; and even when he lives near, he
cannot always reach the presence of the magistrate.  The business of
the latter is so great, that he cannot himself attend to the
details, and generally he is the only European in office, the
remaining officials consisting of Hindoos and Mahomedans, whose
character--a lamentable fact--is always worse the more they come in
contact with Europeans.  If, therefore, the peasant comes to the
court without bringing a present, he is generally turned away, his
petition or complaint is not accepted or listened to; and how is he
to bring a present after being deprived of everything by the
landlord?  The peasant knows this, and therefore seldom makes a

An Englishman (unfortunately I have forgotten his name) who
travelled in India for scientific purposes, proves that the peasants
have now to suffer more than formerly under their native princes.

In India, under the so-called "free English government," I found a
sad proof that the position of the slaves in Brazil is better than
that of the free peasants here.  The slave there has not to provide
for any of his wants, and he is never burdened with too much work,
as the interest of his master would then suffer; for a slave costs
seven or eight hundred gulders (70 or 80 pounds), and it is to the
interest of his owner that he should be well treated, that he may be
longer of service.  It cannot be denied that there are cases in
which the slaves are tyrannically treated, but this is extremely

Several German and English missionaries reside in the neighbourhood
of Benares, and go constantly to the town to preach.  At one of
these missionary establishments is a Christian village, which
contains more than twenty Hindoo families.  Nevertheless,
Christianity makes scarcely any advance. {173}  I inquired of each
of the missionaries how many Hindoos or Mahomedans they had baptized
in the course of their labours:  generally they said, "None;" very
seldom, "One."  The above mentioned families result from the year
1831, when nearly the whole of India was ravaged by cholera, nervous
fever, or famine; the people died, and many children remained
orphans, wandering about without a home.  The missionaries took
these, and brought them up in the Christian religion.  They were
instructed in all kinds of trades, were housed, married, and their
whole maintenance provided for.  The descendants of these families
are continually educated by the missionaries, and strictly watched:
as to new converts, however, there are unfortunately none.

I was present at several examinations:  the boys and girls seemed to
have been taught well to read, write, reckon, and were well
acquainted with religion and geography.  The girls were clever
embroiderers, they did needle-work very well, and sewed all kinds of
things; the boys and men made tables, carpets, bound books, printed,
etc.  The director and professor of this excellent establishment is
the missionary, Mr. Luitpold; his wife has the superintendence of
the girls.  The whole is sensibly and intelligently arranged and
conducted; Mr. and Mrs. Luitpold attend to their proteges with true
Christian love.  But what are a few drops in an immeasurable sea?



From Benares, Mr. Law and myself travelled in a post-dock to
Allahabad.  The distance, which amounts to seventy-six miles,
occupies about twelve or thirteen hours.  We left the sacred town on
the 7th of January, 1848, at 6 o'clock in the evening, and early in
the morning found ourselves already near Allahabad, at a long bridge
of boats which here crosses the Ganges.

We left the post-dock, and were carried in palanquins to the hotel,
about a mile further on.  When we arrived there, we found it so
occupied by some officers of a regiment on the march, that my
travelling companion was received only upon condition that he would
content himself with a place in the public-room.  In these
circumstances, nothing remained for me but to make use of my letter
of introduction to Dr. Angus.

My arrival placed the good old gentleman in no little embarrassment:
his house was also already filled with travellers.  His sister, Mrs.
Spencer, however, with great kindness, at once offered me half of
her own sleeping apartment.

Allahabad has 25,000 inhabitants.  It lies partly upon the Jumna
(Deschumna), partly on the Ganges.  It is not one of the largest and
handsomest, although it is one of the sacred towns, and is visited
by many pilgrims.  The Europeans reside in handsome garden-houses
outside the town.

Among the objects of interest, the fortress with the palace is the
most remarkable.  It was built during the reign of the Sultan Akbar.
It is situated at the junction of the Jumna with the Ganges.

The fortress has been much strengthened with new works by the
English.  It serves now as the principal depot of arms in British

The palace is a rather ordinary building; only a few of the saloons
are remarkable for their interior division.  There are some which
are intersected by three rows of columns, forming three adjoining
arcades.  In others, a few steps lead into small apartments which
are situated in the saloon itself, and resemble large private boxes
in theatres.

The palace is now employed as an armoury.  It contains complete arms
for 40,000 men, and there is also a quantity of heavy ordnance.

In one of the courts stands a metal column thirty-six feet high,
called Feroze-Schachs-Laht, which is very well preserved, is covered
with inscriptions, and is surmounted by a lion.

A second curiosity in the fort is a small unimportant temple, now
much dilapidated, which is considered as very sacred by the Hindoos.
To their great sorrow they are not allowed to visit it, as the fort
is not open to them.  One of the officers told me that, a short time
since, a very rich Hindoo made a pilgrimage here, and offered the
commandant of the fortress 20,000 rupees (2,000 pounds) to allow him
to make his devotions in this temple.  The commandant could not
permit it.

This fortress also has its tradition:--"When the Sultan Akbar
commenced building it, every wall immediately fell in.  An oracle
said that he would not succeed in its erection before a man
voluntarily offered himself as a sacrifice.  Such an one presented
himself, and made only one condition, that the fortress and town
should bear his name.  The man was called Brog, and the town is,
even at this time, more frequently called Brog by the Hindoos than

In memory of the heroic man, a temple was erected near the fortress,
under ground, where he is interred.  Many pilgrims come here
annually.  The temple is quite dark; lights or torches must be used
on entering it.  It resembles, on the whole, a large handsome
cellar, the roof of which rests upon a number of plain columns.  The
walls are full of niches, which are occupied by idols and figures of
deities.  A leafless tree is shown as a great curiosity, which grew
in the temple and made its way through the stone roof.

I also visited a fine large garden, in which stood four Mahomedan
mausoleums.  The largest contains a sarcophagus of white marble,
which is surrounded by wooden galleries extremely richly and
handsomely decorated with mother-of-pearl.  Here rests the Sultan
Koshru, son of Jehanpuira.  Two smaller sarcophagi contain children
of the sultan.  The walls are painted with stiff flowers and
miserable trees, between which are some inscriptions.

One part of the wall is covered with a small curtain.  The guide
pushed it with great devotion on one side, and showed me the
impression of a colossal open hand.  He told me that a great-great-
uncle of Mohamet once came here to pray.  He was powerful, large,
and clumsy; when raising himself up, he stumbled against the wall
and left the impression of his sacred hand.

These four monuments are said to be upwards of 250 years old.  They
are constructed of large blocks of stone, and richly decorated with
arabesques, friezes, reliefs, etc.  The sepulchre of Koshru and the
impression of the hand are much venerated by the Mahomedans.

The garden afforded me more pleasure than the monuments--especially
on account of the enormous tamarind-trees.  I thought that I had
seen the largest in Brazil, but the ground, or perhaps the climate,
here appears more favourable to this species of trees.  Not only is
the garden full of such magnificent specimens, but there are
beautiful avenues of them round the town.  The tamarinds of
Allahabad are even mentioned in geographical works.

On one side of the lofty wall which surrounds the garden, two
caravansaries are built, which are remarkable for their beautiful
high portals, their size, and convenient arrangement.  They
presented an uncommonly lively appearance, containing people in all
costumes, horses, oxen, camels, and elephants, and a large quantity
of wares in chests, bales, and sacks.

10th January.  About 3 in the afternoon, we left Allahabad and
continued our journey in a post-dock as far as Agra, with some short
stoppages.  The distance is nearly 300 miles.

In twenty-two hours we reached Caunipoor (150 miles), on the Ganges,
a town which is remarkable for its English settlement.

The journey so far offered little change, an uninterrupted richly-
cultivated plain and an unfrequented road.  With the exception of a
few companies of military, we did not meet a single traveller.

A party of military on the march in India resembles a small
emigration company; and, after seeing one, it is easy to form an
idea of the enormous trains of the Persian and other Asiatic armies.
The greater part of the native soldiers are married, as well as the
officers (Europeans); therefore, when the regiment marches, there
are nearly as many women and children as soldiers.  The women and
children ride, two or three together, upon horses or oxen, or sit
upon cars, or go on foot with bundles on their backs.  They have all
their effects packed upon cars, and drive their goats and cows
before them.  The officers follow, with their families, in European
carriages, palanquins, or on horseback.  Their tents, house
furniture, etc., are packed upon camels and elephants, which
generally bring up the rear.  The camp is pitched on both sides of
the road--on one side are the people, and on the other the animals.

Caunipoor is a strong military station, with four handsome barracks;
there is also an important missionary society.  The town possesses
some handsome schools and private buildings, and a Christian church,
in pure Gothic style.

12th January.  Towards noon, we reached the small village of Beura.
Here we found a bungalow; that is, a small house with two or four
rooms barely furnished with the most necessary and plainest
furniture.  These bungalows stand upon the post-roads, and supply
the place of hotels.  They are built by government.  One person pays
one rupee (2s.) a day for a small room; a family, two rupees.  The
payment is the same in most bungalows, if the travellers remain
twenty-four hours or only half an hour; it is only in a few that it
is considered enough to pay half-price for staying a short time.  At
each bungalow, a native is placed as superintendent, who waits on
the travellers, cooks for them, etc.  The control is carried out by
means of a book, in which each traveller writes his name.  If there
are no travellers, a person may remain as long as he chooses; when
the contrary happens, he cannot stay more than twenty-four hours.

The villages which lie on the road are small, and appear very
miserable and poor.  They are surrounded by high mud walls, which
give them the appearance of a fortification.

After we had travelled three nights and two days and a half, we
reached Agra on the 13th of January--the former residence of the
Great Mogul of India.

The suburbs of Agra resemble, in poverty, the miserable villages
before mentioned.  They are composed of high walls of earth, within
which are small dilapidated huts and barracks.  A change was at once
apparent when we had passed through a stately gateway.  We then
suddenly found ourselves in a large open square, surrounded by
walls, from which four lofty gates led to the town, the fortress,
and the suburbs.  Agra, like most Indian towns, has no inn.  A
German missionary received me kindly; and, in addition to his
hospitality, was obliging enough to show me personally whatever
there was of interest in the town and neighbourhood.

Our first visit was to the beautiful mausoleum of the Sultan Akbar,
at Secundra, four miles from Agra.

The porch which leads into the garden is a masterpiece.  I stood
before it for a long time amazed.  The enormous building is raised
upon a stone terrace, which is approached by broad steps; the gate
is lofty, and is surmounted by an imposing dome.  At the four
corners are minarets of white marble three stories high;
unfortunately, their upper parts are already somewhat dilapidated.
On the front of the gate are the remains of a stone trellis-work.

The mausoleum stands in the centre of the garden; it is a square
building four stories in height, each becoming narrower at the top,
like a pyramid.  The first sight of this monument is not very
attractive, for the beauty of the gateway eclipses it; however, it
improves on a more detailed examination.

The bottom story is surrounded by fine arcades; the rooms are plain,
the walls covered with a brilliant white cement, intended as a
substitute for marble.  Several sarcophagi stand inside.

The second story consists of a large terrace, which covers the whole
extent of the lower one; in its centre is an open airy apartment
with a light arched roof, supported by columns.  Several small
kiosks at the corners and sides of the terrace give to the whole a
somewhat bizarre though tasty appearance.  The pretty domes of the
kiosks must formerly have been very rich and splendid, for on many
there are still to be seen beautiful remains of coloured glazed
tiles and inlaid marble-work.

The third story resembles the second.  The fourth and highest is the
most handsome.  It is constructed entirely of white marble, while
the three lower ones are only of red sandstone.  Broad-roofed
arcades, whose exterior marble lattice-work is inimitably executed,
form an open square, over which the most beautiful roof--the blue
sky--spreads.  Here stands the sarcophagus which contains the bones
of the sultan.  On the arches of the arcades, texts from the Koran
are inlaid in characters of black marble.

I believe this is the only Mahomedan monument in which the
sarcophagus is placed at the top of the building in an uncovered

The palace of the Mongolian Sultan stands in the citadel.  It is
said to be one of the most remarkable buildings of Mongolian
architecture. {177}

The fortifications are nearly two miles in extent, and consist of
double and treble walls, the outer one of which is said to be
seventy-five feet high.

The interior is divided into three principal courts.  In the first
live the guards; in the second, the officers and higher authorities;
in the third, which occupies the side towards the Jumna, stands the
palace, the baths, the harem, and several gardens.  In this court,
everything is made of marble.  The walls of the rooms in the palaces
are covered with such stones as agates, onyxes, jasper, cornelian,
lapis-lazuli, etc., inlaid in mosaic work, representing flowers,
birds, arabesques, and other figures.  Two rooms without windows are
exclusively destined to show the effects of illumination.  The walls
and the arched roof are covered with mica slate in small silvered
frames; fountains splash over glass walls, behind which lights can
be arranged, and jets of water are thrown up in the centre of the
room.  Even without lights, it glittered and sparkled most
marvellously; what must be the effect when innumerable lamps throw
back their rays a thousandfold!  Such a sight enables one easily to
understand the imaginative descriptions of the Eastern tales of "a
thousand-and-one nights."  Such palaces and rooms may be truly
considered works of magic.

Near the palace stands a small mosque, which is also entirely
constructed of white marble, richly and artistically furnished with
arabesques, reliefs, etc.

Before leaving the fortress, I was led to a deep underground vault--
the former scene of numerous secret executions.  How much innocent
blood may have been shed there!

The Jumna Mosque, which the erudite affirm to surpass that of
Soliman's in Constantinople, stands outside the fortress, upon a
high terrace near the river.  It is of red sandstone, has the same
wonderful domes, and was built by the Sultan Akbar.  In the arches
are to be seen remains of rich paintings in light and dark-blue,
intermixed with gilding.  It is to be regretted that this mosque is
in a rather dilapidated condition; but it is hoped, however, that it
will soon be completely restored, as the English government have
already commenced repairing it.

From the mosque we returned again to the town, which is, for the
most part, surrounded by rubbish.  The principal street, "Sander,"
is broad and cleanly paved in the middle with square stones, and at
the sides with bricks.  At both extremities of this street stand
majestic gateways.  The houses of the town (from one to four stories
high) are almost entirely of red sandstone; most of them are small,
but many are surrounded by columns, pillars, and galleries.  Several
are distinguished by their handsome porches.  The streets are
narrow, crooked, and ugly; the bazaars unimportant.  In India, as
well as in the East, the more costly wares must be sought in the
interior of the houses.  The population of this town is said to have
amounted formerly to 800,000; it is now scarcely 60,000.

The whole environs are full of ruins.  Those who build can procure
the materials at the mere cost of gathering them from the ground.
Many Europeans inhabit half-ruinous buildings, which, at a small
expense, they convert into pretty palaces.

Agra is the principal seat of two missionary societies--a Catholic
and a Protestant.  Here, as in Benares, they educate the offspring
of the children they picked up in 1831.  A little girl was pointed
out to me that had recently been bought of a poor woman for two
rupees (4s.)

At the head of the Catholic mission is a bishop.  The present one,
Mr. Porgi, is the founder of a tastefully-built church.  In no
similar establishment did I ever see so much order, or find the
natives so well-behaved as here.  On Sundays, after prayers, they
amuse themselves with decorous and lively games; while in the
Protestant establishments, after having worked all the week, they
are compelled to pray all day long, and their greatest amusement
consists in being allowed to sit for a few hours gravely before the
house-doors.  A person who passed a Sunday in this country among
strict Protestants would imagine that God had forbidden the most
innocent amusements.

These two religious societies, unfortunately, are not on very
amicable terms, and censure and persecute every slight irregularity
on the part of each other; by this means not setting the natives
living round them a very good example.

My last visit was to the magnificent treasure of Agra, and, indeed,
of all India--the famous Taj-Mehal.

I had read somewhere that this monument ought to be visited last, as
the others would not be admired at all after seeing this.  Captain
Elliot says:  "It is difficult to give a description of this
monument; the architecture is full of strength and elegance."

The Taj-Mehal was erected by the Sultan Jehoe (Dschehoe), in memory
of his favourite muntaza, Zemani.  Its building is said to have cost
750,000 pounds.  Properly speaking, the sultan's memory is more
perpetuated by this building than that of his favourite, for every
one who saw it would involuntarily ask who erected it.  The names of
the architect and builder are unfortunately lost.  Many ascribe it
to Italian masters; but when it is seen that there are so many other
admirable works of Mahomedan architecture, either the whole must be
considered foreign or this must be admitted to be native.

The monument stands in the centre of a garden, upon an open terrace
of red sandstone, raised twelve feet above the ground.  It
represents a mosque of an octagon form, with lofty arched entrances,
which, together with the four minarets that stand at the corners of
the terrace, is entirely built of white marble.  The principal dome
rises to a height of 260 feet, and is surrounded by four smaller
ones.  Round the outside of the mosque extracts from the Koran are
inlaid in characters of black marble.

In the principal apartment stand two sarcophagi, of which one
contains the remains of the sultan, the other those of his
favourite.  The lower part of the walls of this apartment, as well
as both sarcophagi, are covered with costly mosaic work of the most
beautiful stones.  A marble lattice-work, six feet high, surrounding
the two sarcophagi, is a masterpiece of art.  It is so delicate and
finely worked, that it seems as if turned out of ivory.  The
graceful columns and the narrow cornices are also covered, above and
below, with jasper, agate, etc.  Among these, I was shown the so-
called "goldstone," which has a perfect gold colour, and is said to
be very costly, even more so than lapis-lazuli.

Two gateways and two mosques stand at a small distance from the Taj-
Mehal.  They are built of red sandstone and white marble.  If they
stood apart, each would be considered a master-work; as it is,
however, they lose in attraction by their proximity to the Taj-
Mehal, of which a traveller says, with full justice:  "It is too
pure, too sacred, too perfect, to have been constructed by men's
hands--angels must have brought it from heaven; and one imagines
there ought to be a glass shade over it, to protect it from every
breath and every wind."

Although this mausoleum is more than 250 years old, it is as perfect
as if it was only just finished.

Many travellers affirm that the Taj-Mehal produces a magical effect
when lighted by the moon.  I saw it during a full moonshine, but was
so little pleased, that I much regretted, by this sight, having
somewhat weakened my former impression of it.  The moon's light
gives a magical effect to old ruins or Gothic buildings, but not to
a monument which consists of white brilliant marble.  Moonlight
makes the latter appear in indistinct masses, and as if partly
covered with snow.  Whoever first promulgated this opinion
respecting the Taj-Mehal perhaps visited it in some charming
company, so that he thought everything round him was heavenly and
supernatural; and others may have found it more convenient, instead
of putting it to the test themselves, to repeat the statement of
their predecessors.

One of the most interesting excursions of my whole journey was to
the ruins of the town of Fattipoor Sikri, eighteen miles from Agra,
and six miles in circumference.  We rode thither, and had ordered
changes of horses, so as to be able to make the journey in one day.

On our way, we passed at times over extended heaths, on one of which
we saw a small herd of antelopes.  The antelope is a kind of deer,
but smaller in size.  It is extremely delicate and prettily formed,
and is distinguished by narrow dark-brown stripes along the back.
The herd crossed the road before us without much timidity, passing
over ditches and bushes, and leaping more than twenty feet at a
time, with such graceful movements that they seemed as if dancing
through the air.  I was not less delighted by the sight of two wild
peacocks.  It afforded me peculiar pleasure to see these animals in
a state of freedom, which we Europeans are accustomed to keep as
rarities, like exotic plants.

The peacock is here somewhat larger than any I had seen in Europe;
the display of colours also, and the general brilliancy of the
plumage, struck me as being finer and brighter.

These birds are considered by the Indians almost as sacred as the
cow.  They appear to fully understand this kindness, for they are
seen, like house-birds, walking about in the villages or quietly
resting upon the roofs.  In some districts, the Indians are so
prejudiced in their favour, that no European can venture to shoot
one of them without exposing himself to the greatest insults.  Only
four months since, two English soldiers fell victims to this neglect
of Hindostanee customs.  They killed several peacocks; the enraged
people fell upon them and ill-used them in such a way that they
shortly afterwards died.

Fattipoor Sikri stands upon a hill; the fortress walls, the mosque,
and other buildings can therefore be seen from a distance.  On both
sides of the road, a short distance outside the walls, lie remains
of houses or single apartments, fragments of handsome columns, etc.
With great regret I saw the natives breaking many of them, and
converting them into building materials for their houses.

The entrance to the fortress and town was through three handsome
gates, and over masses of rubbish and fragments.  The view which
here presents itself is much more impressive than that at Pompeii,
near Naples.  There, indeed, everything is destroyed, but it is
another and more orderly kind of destruction--streets and squares
appear as clean as if they had only been abandoned yesterday.
Houses, palaces, and temples are free from rubbish; even the track
of the carriages remain uneffaced.  Pompeii, moreover, stands on a
plain, and it cannot, therefore, be seen at one glance; its extent,
too, is scarcely half so great as that of Sikri; the houses are
smaller, the palaces not so numerous, and inferior in splendour and
magnitude.  But here a larger space is covered with magnificent
buildings, mosques, kiosks, columned halls, and arcades, with
everything that was in the power of art to create; and no single
object has escaped the destructive influence of time--all is falling
into ruin.  It is scarcely more than two hundred years since the
town was in a flourishing state of wealth and magnificence, and it
is hardly possible to divest the mind of the idea of a terrible
earthquake having overwhelmed it.  Unlike Pompeii, it was not
covered by protecting ashes, but laid openly exposed to the weather.
My sadness and astonishment increased at every step--sadness at the
terrible destruction, astonishment at the still perceptible
magnificence, the number of splendid buildings, the beautiful
sculptures, and the rich ornaments.  I saw some buildings whose
interior and exterior were so covered with sculptures, that not the
smallest space remained bare.  The principal mosque exceeds in size
and artistic construction even the Jumna Mosque in Agra.  The
entrance porch in the fore-court is said to be the loftiest in the
world.  The interior arch measures 72 feet, and the entire height
amounts to 140 feet.  The fore-court of the mosque is also one of
the largest existing; its length is 436 feet, its breadth 408; it is
surrounded by fine arabesques and small cells.  This court is
considered almost as sacred as the mosque itself, in consequence of
the Sultan Akbar, "the just," having been accustomed to pay his
devotions there.  After his death, this spot was indicated by a kind
of altar, which is of white marble, and of wonderful workmanship.

The mosque itself is built in the style of the Jumna Mosque, and
has, like that, four enormous domes.  The interior is filled with
sarcophagi, in which lie the remains either of relations or
favourite ministers of the Sultan Akbar.  An adjoining court also
contains a great number of sepulchral monuments.

The Sultan Akbar passed several hours every day in the Hall of
Justice, and gave audience there to the meanest, as well as the most
important of his subjects.  A single column, standing in the centre
of the hall, was the divan of the emperor.  This column, the capital
of which is marvellously executed, becomes broader towards the top,
and is surrounded by a beautifully worked stone gallery, a foot
high.  Four broad stone passages or bridges lead into the adjoining
apartments of the palace.

The sultan's palace is less remarkable for size than for its
sculptures, columns, ornaments, etc.  Every part is over-richly
furnished with them.

I found less to admire in the famous Elephant gate.  It is, indeed,
loftily arched, but not so high as the entrance gate in the fore-
court of the mosque; the two elephants, which were very beautifully
executed in stone, are so much dilapidated, that it is scarcely
possible to tell what they are intended to represent.

The so-called Elephant's Tower is in a better state of preservation.
In some descriptions of this, it is stated that it is constructed
only of elephants' tusks, and even of the tusks of those elephants
only which were taken from enemies during Akbar's time, or had been
captured by him in hunting.  This is, however, not the case; the
tower, which is sixty feet high, is built of stone, and the tusks
are fastened on from top to bottom, so that they project out from
it.  The Sultan Akbar is said to have frequently sat upon the top of
this tower, occupying himself by shooting birds.

All the buildings, even the enormous wall, are of red sandstone, and
not, as many affirm, of red marble.

Many hundreds of small green birds have formed their nests in the
holes and crevices of the buildings.

On the 19th of January I left the famous town of Agra, in the
company of Mr. Law, in order to visit the still more celebrated city
of Delhi, which is 122 miles from Agra.  There is an excellent post-
road all the way.

The country between Agra and Delhi continues tolerably unchanged;
there is no elevation to be seen.  Far and wide, cultivated land
alternates with heaths and sandy moors, and the miserable villages
or small towns which lie on the road, excite no desire to delay the
journey even for a moment.

A long and handsome chain bridge crosses the Jumna near the town of

On the 20th of January, at 4 in the afternoon, we reached Delhi.
Here I met with Dr. Sprenger, a very kind and amiable countryman.
Dr. Sprenger, a Tyrolese, has won for himself, by his remarkable
abilities and knowledge, a considerable reputation, not only among
the English, but throughout the whole learned world.  He holds the
position of Director of the College in this place, and but a short
time since was requested by the English government to go to Lucknau,
for the purpose of examining the library of the Indian King of
Lucknau, to make known the valuable works, and put the whole in
order.  He is a perfect master of the Sanscrit, the ancient and
modern Persian, the Turkish, Arabic, and Hindostanee languages, and
translates the most difficult of them into English and German.  He
has already made the most valuable and interesting contributions to
literature, and will still continue to do so, as he is an extremely
active man, and scarcely thirty-four years of age.

Although he was on the eve of his departure for Lucknau, he was,
nevertheless, kind enough to become my Mentor.

We commenced with the great imperial town of Delhi; the town to
which formerly the eyes not only of all India, but almost of all
Asia, were directed.  It was in its time to India what Athens was to
Greece, and Rome to Europe.  It also shares their fate--of all its
greatness only the name remains.

The present Delhi is now called New Delhi, although it is already
two hundred years old; it is a continuation of the old towns, of
which there are said to have been seven, each of which were called
Delhi.  As often as the palaces, fortifications, mosques, etc.,
became dilapidated, they were left to fall into ruins, and new ones
were built near the old ones.  In this way, ruins upon ruins
accumulated, which are said to have occupied a space more than six
miles in breadth, and eighteen in length.  If a great part of them
were not already covered with a thin layer of earth, these ruins
would certainly be the most extensive in the world.

New Delhi lies upon the Jumna; it contains, according to Bruckner, a
population of 500,000, {183} but I was informed that there was
really only 100,000, among which are 100 Europeans.  The streets are
broader and finer than any I had yet seen in any Indian town.  The
principal street, Tchandni-Tschank, would do honour to an European
city:  it is nearly three-quarters of a mile long, and about a
hundred feet broad; a narrow canal, scant of water and half filled
with rubbish, runs through its entire length.  The houses in this
street are not remarkable either for magnitude or splendour; they
are at most one story high, and are furnished below with miserable
porches or arcades, under which worthless goods are exposed for
sale.  I saw nothing of the costly shops, the numerous precious
stones glittering in the evening with the lamps and lights, of which
many travellers speak.  The pretty houses and the rich shops must be
sought for in the bye streets near the bazaar.  The manufactures
which I saw, consisted of gold and silver work, gold tissues and
shawls.  The natives execute the gold and silver wares so tastefully
and artistically, that finer cannot be found even in Paris.  The
tissues woven in gold, the gold and silk embroideries and Cashmere
shawls, are of the highest degree of perfection.  The finest
Cashmere shawls cost here as much as 4,000 rupees (400 pounds).  The
dexterity of the workmen appears still more surprising after seeing
the simple machines which they employ to produce their beautiful

It is extremely interesting to walk about the principal streets of
Delhi in the evening.  There may be seen at once the modes of life
of both the rich and the poor Indians.  There is no town in which
there are so many princes and nobles as in this.  Besides the
pensioned emperor and his relations, whose number amounts to several
thousand, many other deposed and pensioned regents and ministers
reside here.  Their presence gives great animation to the town; they
are fond of going out in public, frequently make greater or less
parties, and ride (always on elephants) either in the neighbouring
gardens, or in the evenings through the streets.  In the day
excursions, the elephants are decorated in the most costly manner
with rugs and fine stuffs, gold lace, and fringe; the seats called
the howdahs are even covered with Cashmere shawls; richly fringed
canopies keep off the heat of the sun, or else servants hold
enormous umbrellas for this purpose.  The princes and nobles sit in
these howdahs to the number of two or four, and are very gorgeously
attired in Oriental costumes.  These processions present a most
beautiful appearance, and are even larger and more splendid than
those of the Rajah of Benares, which I have described.  Each
procession consists frequently of as many as a dozen or more
elephants, and fifty or sixty soldiers on foot and mounted, and as
many servants, etc.  In the evenings, on the contrary, they are not
so pompous--one elephant, together with a few servants, suffices;
they ride up and down the streets, coquetting with females of a
certain class, who sit richly dressed and with unveiled faces at
open windows or outside galleries.  Others ride noble Arabian
horses, whose stately appearance is still more increased by gold-
embroidered trappings and bridles inlaid with silver.  Between these
riding parties, heavily laden camels from far distant regions walk
deliberately along.  There are, moreover, not a few bailis, drawn by
beautiful white oxen, which the less wealthy people or the above
mentioned women use.  The bailis, as well as the oxen, are draped
with scarlet cloths:  the animals have their horns and the lower
half of their feet painted brownish-red, and round their neck is a
handsome collar, on which bells are fastened.  The most beautiful
women peep modestly out of the half-open bailis.  If it were not
known to what class unveiled women belong in India, it would be
impossible to tell their position from their behaviour.
Unfortunately, there are more of this class in India than in any
other country:  the principal cause of this is an unnatural law, a
revolting custom.  The girls of every family are generally betrothed
when they are only a few months old; if, however, the bridegroom
dies immediately, or at any time after the betrothal, the girl is
considered as a widow, and as such cannot marry again.  They then
generally become dancers.  The condition of widowhood is looked upon
as a great misfortune, as it is believed that only those women are
placed in this position, who have deserved it in a previous state of
existence.  An Indian can only marry a girl belonging to his own

To the various objects of interest in the streets already noticed,
must be added the jugglers, mountebanks, and serpent charmers, who
wander about everywhere, and are always surrounded by a crowd of
curious people.

I saw several tricks performed by the jugglers which were truly
astonishing.  One poured out fire and smoke from his mouth; then
mixed white, red, yellow, and blue powders together, swallowed them,
and then immediately spit out each one separately and dry; some
turned their eyes downwards, and when they again raised them the
pupils appeared as if of gold; they then bowed the head forward, and
on again raising it, the pupils of their eyes had their natural
colour, and their teeth were gold.  Others made a small opening in
their skin, and drew out of it yards of thread, silk cord, and
narrow ribbons.  The serpent charmers held the animals by their
tails, and allowed them to twine round their arms, neck, and body;
they took hold of large scorpions, and let them run over their
hands.  I also saw several battles between large serpents and
ichneumons.  These little animals, rather larger than a weasel,
live, as is known, upon serpents and the eggs of crocodiles.  They
seize the former so dexterously by the neck that they always master
them; the crocodile eggs they suck.

At the end of the principal street stands the imperial palace, which
is considered one of the finest buildings in Asia.  It occupies,
together with its adjoining buildings, an extent of more than two
miles, and is surrounded by a wall forty feet high.

At the principal entrance, a fine perspective view is obtained
through several successive gateways, which is terminated in the
background by a handsome hall.  This hall is but small, and is
inlaid with white marble and rare stones; the roof is arched over
with mica, powdered over with small stars.  Unfortunately, these
will soon lose all their glittering brilliancy, as the greater
portion of the mica has already fallen, and the remainder is likely
to follow.  At the back of the hall is a door of gilt metal,
decorated with beautiful engraved work.  In this hall the ex-monarch
is accustomed to show himself to the people, who, from traditionary
respect or curiosity, visit the palace.  He also receives European
visitors here.

The handsomest parts of the imperial palace are the universally
admired and magnificent audience saloon and the mosque.  The former
stands in the centre of an open court; it is a long, square
building; the roof is supported by thirty columns, and is open on
all sides; several steps lead up to it, and a prettily decorated
marble gallery, two feet high, surrounds it.

The present Great Mogul has so little taste, that he has had this
divan divided into two parts by a very paltry partition wall.  A
similar wall adjoins both sides of the saloon, for what purpose I
could not learn.  In this divan is a great treasure:  the largest
crystal in the world.  It is a block of about four feet in length,
two and a half broad, and one foot thick; {185} it is very
transparent.  It was used by the emperors as a throne or seat in the
divan.  Now it is hidden behind the blank wall; and if I had not
known of its existence from books, and been very curious to see it,
it would not have been shown to me at all.

The mosque is indeed small, but, like the judgment-hall, it is of
white marble, and with fine columns and sculptures.

Immediately adjoining the mosque is the garden "Schalinar," which is
said to have been formerly one of the finest in India, but has now
quite fallen to decay.

Heaps of dust and rubbish were laying in the court-yards; the
buildings were almost like ruins; and miserable barracks stood
against dilapidated walls.  On account of the emperor's residence,
it soon became necessary to build a new Delhi.

On my entrance to the palace, I had observed a group of men
collected together in the court-yard.  An hour afterwards, when we
were returning from our visit, they were still seated there.  We
drew near to discover what it was that so attracted their attention,
and saw a few dozen of tame birds seated upon perches quietly taking
their food from the hands of attendants, or else fighting for it.
The lookers-on were, as I was told, nearly all princes.  Some were
seated upon chairs, others stood round, together with their
followers.  In their home dresses, the princes are hardly to be
distinguished from their servants, and in education and knowledge
they are certainly not much in advance of them.

The emperor amuses himself with a diversion which is not more
commendable.  His troops consist of boys about eight or fourteen.
They wear a miserable uniform, which in make and colour resembles
the English; their exercises are conducted partly by old officers
and partly by boys.  I pitied the young soldiers from my heart, and
wondered how it was possible for them to handle their heavy muskets
and banners.  The monarch generally sits for some hours every day in
the small reception hall, and amuses himself by watching the
manoeuvres of his young warriors.  This is the best time to get
presented to his majesty.  He is eighty-five, and at the time of my
visit was so unwell, that I had not the good fortune to see him.

The emperor receives from the English government a yearly pension of
fourteen lacs (1,400,000 rupees = 140,000 pounds).  The revenues of
his own possessions amount to half as much more; but with all this,
he is not so well off as the Rajah of Benares.  He has too large a
number of people to maintain:  of the descendants of the imperial
family alone more than three hundred, as well as a hundred women,
and two thousand attendants.  If to these are added the numerous
elephants, camels, horses, etc., it may be easily understood why his
exchequer is always empty.

He receives his pension on the first of every month.  It has to be
brought to him under the protection of the English military, or it
would otherwise be seized by his creditors.

The emperor is said to be very discreet in raising his revenues by
various means.  For example, he confers honorary posts and appoints
officials, for which he requires considerable sums of money; and--
can it be believed!--he always finds fools enough to pay for such
absurdities.  Parents even buy appointments for their children.  The
present commander of the imperial troops is scarcely ten years old.
The most remarkable fact, however, is that the vizier, who manages
the emperor's income and expenditure, not only receives no salary,
but pays the emperor annually 10,000 rupees for this office.  What
sums must be embezzled to make up for this!

The emperor issues a newspaper in his own palace, which is in the
highest degree absurd and laughable.  It does not treat of politics
or the occurrences of the day, but exclusively of domestic
incidents, conversation and relative affairs.  It states, for
example, "that the sultan's wife, A., owed the laundress, B., three
rupees, and that the laundress came yesterday to ask for her money;
that the lady had sent to her imperial husband to ask for the sum.
The emperor referred her to the treasurer, who assured her, that as
it was near the end of the month, he could not command a penny.  The
laundress was therefore put off until the next month."  Or, "The
Prince C. visited at such an hour the Prince D. or F.; he was
received in such a room; stayed so long; the conversation was on
this or that subject," etc.

Among the other palaces of the town, that in which the college is
located is one of the handsomest.  It is built in the Italian style,
and is truly majestic; the columns are of uncommon height; the
stairs, saloons, and rooms are very spacious and lofty.  A fine
garden surrounds the back of the palace, a large court-yard the
front, and a high fortified wall encloses the whole.  Dr. Sprenger,
as director of the college, occupies a truly princely dwelling in

The palace of the Princess Begum, half in the Italian and half in
the Mongolian style, is tolerably large, and is remarkable for its
extremely handsome saloons.  A pretty and hitherto well kept garden
surrounds it on all sides.

The Princess Begum attracted great attention at the time before
Delhi was under the English dominion, by her intelligence,
enterprise, and bravery.  She was a Hindoo by birth, and became
acquainted in her youth with a German named Sombre, with whom she
fell in love, and turned Christian in order to marry him.  Mr.
Sombre formed a regiment of native troops, which, after they were
well trained, he offered to the emperor.  In the course of time, he
so ingratiated himself with the emperor, that the latter presented
him with a large property, and made him a prince.  His wife is said
to have supported him energetically in everything.  After his death,
she was appointed commander of the regiment, which post she held
most honourably for several years.  She died a short time since at
the age of eighty.

Of the numerous mosques of New Delhi, I visited only two, the Mosque
Roshun-ad-dawla, and the Jumna Mosque.  The former stands in the
principal street, and its pinnacles and domes are splendidly gilt.
It is made famous through its connection with an act of cruelty on
the part of Sheikh Nadir.  This remarkable, but fearfully cruel
monarch, on conquering Delhi in the year 1739, had 100,000 of the
inhabitants cut to pieces, and is said to have sat upon a tower of
this mosque to watch the scene.  The town was then set fire to and

The Jumna Mosque, built by the Sheikh Djihan, is also considered a
masterpiece of Mahomedan architecture; it stands upon an enormous
platform, to which forty steps lead up, and rises in a truly
majestic manner above the surrounding mass of houses.  Its symmetry
is astonishing.  The three domes, and the small cupolas on the
minarets, are of white marble; all the other parts, even the large
slates with which the fine court-yard is paved, are of red
sandstone.  The inlaid ornamental work and stripes on the mosque,
are also of white marble.

There are great numbers of caravansaries, frequently with very
handsome portals.  The baths are unimportant.

We devoted two days to making an excursion to the more distant
monuments of Delhi.  We first stopped at the still well-preserved
"Purana Kale."  All the handsome mosques resemble each other much.
This one, however, is distinguished by its decoration, the richness
and correctness of its sculptures, its beautiful inlaid work, and
its size.  Three lightly arched and lofty cupolas cover the
principal building, small towers adorn the corners, and two high
minarets stand at the sides.  The entrance and the interior of the
domes are inlaid with glazed tiles and painted, the colours are
remarkably brilliant.  The interior of every mosque is empty; a
small tribune for speakers, and a few glass lustres and lamps,
constitute the whole decoration.

The mausoleum of the Emperor Humaione, very much in the same style
as the mosque, was commenced by this monarch himself.  But as he
died before it was completed, his son Akbar carried out his
intentions.  The high-arched temple, in the centre of which stands
the sarcophagus, is inlaid with mosaic work of rare stones.  Instead
of window-panes, the openings are furnished with artistically worked
stone lattices.  In adjoining halls, under plain sarcophagi, rest
the remains of several wives and children of the Emperor Humaione.

Not far from this is the monument of Nizam-ul-din, a very sacred and
greatly venerated Mahomedan.  It stands in a small court, the floor
of which is paved with marble.  A square screen of marble, with four
small doors, surrounds the sarcophagus.  This screen is still more
delicate and finely worked than that in the Taj-Mehal; it is
scarcely conceivable how it was possible to execute such work in
stone.  The doors, pillars, and elegant arches are covered with the
most chaste reliefs, as fine and perfect as any that I have seen in
the most artistic towns of Italy.  The marble used for them is of
remarkable whiteness and purity, worthy, indeed, of these great
works of art.

Adjoining this are several pretty monuments, all of white marble.
They are passed by with some indifference when the most perfect of
them all has been seen first.

A great deal has been said about a large water basin, which is
surrounded on three sides by cells, already much dilapidated; the
fourth side is open, and from it a beautiful stone staircase, forty
feet broad, leads to the water basin, which is twenty-five feet
deep.  Every pilgrim would consider his pilgrimage of no account if
he did not step in here immediately on his arrival.

Divers plunge from the terraces of the cells to the bottom of the
basin, and fetch out the smallest pieces of money which have been
thrown in.  Some are dexterous enough to catch the coin even before
it touches the bottom.  We threw in several coins, which they
succeeded in bringing up every time, but I can scarcely believe that
they caught them before they reached the bottom.  They remained long
enough under water each time, not only to pick the coin up, but also
to look for it.  The feat was certainly surprising, but not, as some
travellers affirm, so remarkable that similar ones might not be seen

Our last visit on this day was to the beautiful monument of the
Vizier Sofdar-Dchang, which is also a mosque.  In this monument I
was especially struck by the inlaid work of white marble in red
sandstone upon the four minarets, it was so diversified and so
delicate; so chastely executed that the most expert draughtsman
could not have produced it more correctly and delicately upon paper.
The same may be said of the sarcophagi in the principal temple,
which is hewn out of a block of fine white marble.

The monument is surrounded by a tolerably well-kept garden, laid out
in the European style.

At the end of the garden, opposite the mausoleum, stands a small
palace, principally belonging to the King of Lucknau.  It is at
present kept in good condition by the few European inhabitants of
New Delhi.  It contains a few articles of furniture, and serves for
the accommodation of visitors to these ruins.

We remained here over night, and, thanks to the good-hearted and
amiable Mrs. Sprenger, found every possible convenience we could
desire.  The first and most agreeable thing after our long
wandering, was a well-furnished table.  Such attentions are doubly
deserving of thanks, when it is remembered at what a great amount of
trouble they are procured.  It is necessary on such excursions to
take not only provisions and a cook, but also cooking utensils,
table-services, bed-linen, and servants, enough in short for a small
establishment.  The train of baggage, which is always sent on before
on these occasions, resembles a small emigration party.

On the following morning we went on to Kotab-Minar, one of the
oldest and most beautiful buildings of the Patanas (from which
people the Affghans derive their origin).  The most wonderful part
of this monument is the so-called "Giant's Column," a polygon with
twenty-seven sides or half-round corners, and five stories or
galleries, whose diameter at the basement is fifty-four feet, and
whose height is twenty-six feet.  A winding staircase of 386 steps,
leads to the top.  This building is said to belong to the thirteenth
century, and to have been built by Kotab-ud-dun.  The column is of
red sandstone, and only the exterior is of white marble; decorations
and wonderful sculptures are wound in broad stripes around the
column; these are so finely and neatly chiselled as to resemble an
elegant lace pattern.  Any description of the delicacy and effect of
this work would be far exceeded by the reality.  The column is
fortunately as well preserved as if it had only been standing about
a hundred years.  The upper part leans a little forwards (whether
artificially, as in the tower at Bologna, is not decided); its top
is flat, like a terrace, which does not correspond with the
remainder of the architecture.  It is not known whether anything
formerly stood upon it.  The column was in its present condition
when the English conquered Delhi.

We mounted as far as the highest point, and a most charming view of
the whole remains of Delhi, the Jumna, and the unbounded plain,
opened itself here before us.  The history of the people who once
ruled Hindostan may here be studied in the ruins of imperial towns,
lying one close beside the other.  It was a great and imposing

Many places where magnificent palaces and monuments formerly stood
are now cultivated fields.  Wherever the ground is broken up,
fragments of ruins show themselves.

Opposite the tower or column of Kotab-Minar stands a similar
unfinished building, the base of which is considerably larger in
circumference than that of the finished one.  It is supposed that
these two towers belonged to a magnificent mosque, {190} of which
some courts, gateways, columns, and walls still remain.

These few remains of the mosque are remarkable for the perfect
sculptures which covered the walls, gateways, etc., both outside and
inside.  The entrance-gateway has a considerable height.  The
columns in the courts are of Buddhist origin; the bell with long
chain is sculptured on them in relief.

In the fore-court of the mosque stands a metal column similar to
that at Allahabad, except that there is no lion upon its summit, and
its height is not more than thirty-six feet.  It is defaced by
several marks and slight injuries, which are ascribed to the
Mongolians, who, when they conquered Delhi, attempted in their
destructive rage to pull down these columns; but they stood too
firmly, and all their exertions were insufficient to destroy any of
the inscriptions on them.

The remaining Patan or Affghan temples and monuments which lie
dispersed among the other ruins, resemble each other as much as they
differ from the Mahomedan and Hindoo buildings.  The monuments of
this kind generally consist of a small round temple, with a not very
high cupola, surrounded by open arcades supported on pillars.

Here also, in the neighbourhood of Kotab-Minar, a hospitable
dwelling is to be found.  A ruined building is fitted up, and three
of the rooms are furnished.

On the way homewards, we visited the observatory of the famous
astronomer, Dey Singh.  If that at Benares has been seen, this may
well be passed by.  Both were built by the same architect, and in
the same style; but that at Benares is well preserved, while the one
here is already much dilapidated.  Some travellers consider this
memorial as one of the most wonderful works of Indian art.

Near the observatory stands the old madrissa (school-house), a large
building, with numerous rooms for teachers and pupils, and with open
galleries and halls, in which the teachers sat surrounded by groups
of youths.  The building is rather neglected, but is partly
inhabited by private persons.

Adjoining the madrissa stands a pretty mosque and a very handsome
monument, both of white marble.  The latter was erected by Aurang
Zeb, in memory of his vizier Ghasy-al dyn Chan, the founder of the
madrissa.  It is as perfect in its execution as that of the saint
Nizam-ul-din, and appears to have been erected by the same artist.

The palace of Feroze Schah is near New Delhi.  It is indeed somewhat
in ruins, but there is much to be seen in the existing remains of
the building.  The fore-court of the mosque was a short time since
cleared with great labour of the rubbish and masses of stone which
covered it, by the untiring zeal of Mr. Cobb, the esteemed editor of
the English Delhi News.  It is in very good preservation.  In this
palace stands the third metal column--Feroze-Schachs-Laht.  The
inscriptions upon it show that it existed a hundred years before the
birth of Christ, and may therefore be considered as one of the
oldest monuments of India.  It was brought here from Lahore at the
time this palace was built.

The Purana-Killa, or the old fortress of the palace of Babar, is
much decayed.  From the height and style of the remaining fragments
of gateways and walls, an idea may be formed of the magnitude of the

The ruins of Loglukabad are in an advanced state of dilapidation,
and do not repay the trouble of a journey of seven miles.

The other numerous ruins are little more than mere repetitions of
those already described, with which, however, they cannot be
compared in size, elegance, and beauty.  They may be of great
interest to antiquarians and historians; but by myself, I candidly
admit, they were not much valued.

I must not neglect to mention the English military station, which is
situated upon some low hills near New Delhi.  The peculiar formation
of the ground renders a journey there extremely interesting:  a
district of enormous blocks of red sandstone, between which
beautiful flowers were growing.  There are numerous ruins here, much
the same as in Delhi.



In order to reach Bombay, I had two routes before me; the one leads
past Simla to the foot of the Himalayas, the other to the famous
rock temples of Adjunta and Elora.  I would gladly have chosen the
former, and have penetrated as far as the principal chain of the
Himalayas--Lahore and the Indus; but my friends advised me not to
make the attempt, for the simple reason, that these mountains were
covered with deep snow, in which case I must have postponed my
journey for at least three months.  As I was unable to wait so long,
I decided upon taking the latter road.  In Calcutta, I had been
recommended not to continue my journey beyond Delhi at all.  They
said the country was not under the control of the English
government, and the people were far less civilized.  People
endeavoured more especially to excite my apprehension by terrible
accounts of the Thugs or stranglers.

These Thugs form a singular sect, whose object is robbery and
murder, and who, like the Italian banditti, are prepared to
undertake any atrocity for which they are paid.  They must not,
however, in any case shed blood, and dare only make away with their
victim by strangling.  The act is not considered as very criminal,
and the murderer absolves himself by a small present, which he gives
to his priest; but, if he sheds only one drop of blood, he falls
into the deepest disgrace, is expelled from his caste, and abandoned
even by his own associates.

Many travellers affirm that the Thugs are a religious sect, and that
they do not murder for the sake of plunder or of revenge, but in
order, according to their belief, to ensure a meritorious action.  I
made many inquiries about this, and learnt from every one that it
was no religious compulsion, but hatred, revenge, or desire of gain,
which led to these acts.  These stranglers are represented as
possessing a most extraordinary dexterity in their abominable trade,
united with the most untiring patience and perseverance; they
frequently follow the victims they have selected for months, and
strangle them either while sleeping, or by stealing behind them and
throwing a twisted cloth or a cord round their necks, which they
draw tight with such rapidity and force that death ensues

In Delhi, I gained more information.  I was assured that all these
dangers were exaggerated; that travellers were very rarely attacked
in India, and that the Thugs were much reduced in numbers.
Moreover, they did not make any attempt upon Europeans, as the
English government instituted the strictest search for the culprits.
With regard, therefore, to the danger, I was tolerably at ease, but
I had still to anticipate privation and fatigue.

The first part of the journey was to Kottah, distant 290 miles.  I
had the choice of three modes of conveyance--palanquins, camels, or
oxen bailis.  None of them are expeditious; there are no highroads,
and no organized accommodation for travelling; you must retain the
same men and animals to the end of the journey, and, at the utmost,
cannot go more than from twenty to twenty-two miles in one day.  For
a palanquin, it is necessary to engage eight bearers, besides
several for the luggage.  Although each does not receive more than
eight rupees a-month, out of which he pays his own expenses; still
the expense is heavy, because so many are required, and their return
journey must be paid for.  Travelling on camels is also expensive,
and is the most inconvenient.  I decided, therefore, on adopting the
less costly mode of conveyance by oxen.  As I travelled alone, Dr.
Sprenger very kindly made all the necessary preparations; he drew up
a written contract with the tschandrie (waggoner) in Hindostanee to
the effect that I was to pay him the half of the fare, fifteen
rupees (1 pounds 10s.), immediately, and the other half when we
arrived at Kottah, to which place he was to bring me in fourteen
days; for every day over that time I had the right to deduct three
rupees (6s.)  Dr. Sprenger also sent one of his most trusty
cheprasses {193} to accompany me, and his good wife furnished me
with an excellent warm wrapper, and every kind of provision, so that
my waggon would hardly hold all that I had.

With a sorrowful heart I parted from my good country people.  God
grant that I may see them yet again during my life!

On the morning of 30th of January, 1848, I left Delhi.  The first
day, we made very little progress, only eighteen miles, which
brought us to Faridabad; the heavy awkward animals required to be
first used to the draught.  The first twelve miles of the journey
afforded me some gratification, as along both sides of the road lay
innumerable ruins, which I had visited with my friends only a few
days previously.

This, as well as the following nights, were passed in caravansaries.
I had no tent--no palanquins, and on this road there were no
bungalows.  Unfortunately, the caravansaries in the smaller villages
are not to be compared with those in the larger towns; the cells are
rudely constructed of clay, their length is scarcely seven feet, and
the small opening, only four feet high, is without a door; but, to
my astonishment, I found them always very cleanly swept, and I was
also furnished with a low wooden stool, covered with network, upon
which I threw my wrapper, and which served me for an excellent
couch.  The cheprasse laid himself, like Napoleon's Mameluke, before
the entrance of my cell; but he slept much more soundly, for, even
on the first night, he did not hear the least of a very sharp
encounter which I had with an enormous dog that had been attracted
by my well-filled provision basket.

31st January.  Towards noon, we passed through the little town of
Balamgalam, in which there is a small English military station, a
mosque, and a very recently-erected Hindoo temple.  We passed the
night in the little town of Palwal.

In this neighbourhood, the peacocks are very tame.  Every morning, I
saw dozens of these beautiful birds on the trees; they come into the
fields, and even into the towns, to fetch food from the good-natured

1st February.  Our night's station on this day was the small town of
Cossi.  We had already been overtaken during the last mile by a
number of natives, who were busily hurrying into the town, in and
outside of which a considerable cattle-market was being held.  This
market presented a picture of the greatest confusion; the animals
stood on all sides between a multitude of trusses of hay and straw,
the sellers crying and praising their wares without cessation, and
leading the buyers here and there, partly by persuasion and partly
by force, who also made no less noise than the former.

I was most struck by the innumerable cobblers, who set up their
simple working implements between the piled-up bundles of hay and
straw, consisting of small tables with thread, wire, and leather,
and who were busily engaged at their trade, repairing the coverings
for the feet.  I remarked at this time, as well as on several other
occasions, that the natives are by no means so indolent as they are
generally represented to be, but, on the contrary, that they avail
themselves of every favourable opportunity of earning money.  All
the caravansaries at the entrance of the town were crowded, and
there was no other alternative except to pass through the whole town
to the other side.  The town-gate had a very promising appearance,
rising proudly and boldly into the air; I hoped to see corresponding
buildings, and saw instead wretched mud hovels and narrow lanes; so
narrow, indeed, that the foot passengers were obliged to step under
the entrances of the huts to allow our baili to pass them.

2nd February.  A few miles distant from Matara, we turned out of the
beaten road which leads from Delhi to Mutra, a town which still
remains under English government.  Matara is a pretty little town,
with a very neat mosque, broad streets, and walled houses, many of
which, indeed, are decorated with galleries, columns, or sculptures
of red sandstone.

The appearance of the country here is of monotonous uniformity--
boundless plains, on which orchards and meadows alternately present
themselves, the latter apparently quite scorched up in consequence
of the dry season.  The corn was already a foot high; but such large
quantities of yellow flowers were mixed with it, that there was
great difficulty in telling whether corn or weeds had been sown.
The cultivation of cotton is of very great importance here.  The
Indian plant does not, indeed, attain the height and thickness of
the Egyptian; however, it is considered that the quality of the
cotton does not depend upon the size of the plants, and that the
cotton of this country is the finest and the best.

I observed upon these plains little houses here and there, built
upon artificially-raised perpendicular mounds of clay, of from six
to eight feet high.  There are no steps leading to the tops of these
mounds, the only means of access being by ladders, which can be
drawn up at night.  From what I could draw from the explanations of
my servants, which, however, I only partially understood, they are
used by families, who live in retired places, for security against
the tigers, which are here very frequently seen.

3rd February.  Baratpoor.  We passed a place which was overgrown, in
broad patches, with misshapen stunted bushes--a rare occurrence in
this part of the country, where wood is scarce.  My driver bestowed
upon this tangled brushwood the high-sounding name of jungle.  I
should rather have compared them with the dwarfed bushes and shrubs
of Iceland.  The country beyond this woody district had a very
remarkable appearance; the ground was in many places torn and
fissured, as if in consequence of an earthquake.

In the caravansary at Baratpoor there were a great number of
natives, soldiers, and particularly some very rough-looking men, of
whom I felt inclined to be afraid:  I was no longer in the English
territories, and alone among all these people.  However, they
behaved themselves with the greatest civility, and greeted me in the
evening and morning with a right hearty salaam.  I think that a
similar set of men in our own country would scarcely have shown me
the same respect.

4th February.  On the other side of the town, I saw two fine
monuments before the door, round temples with lofty cupolas, and
carved stone lattice work in the window openings.  The fields and
meadows were richly strewed with Indian fig-trees, a thing which I
have scarcely met with anywhere else, except in Syria and Sicily; to
the right of the road was a low rocky peak, whose highest point was
crowned by a fortress.  The dwelling-houses of the commanders,
instead of being sheltered by the walls, rose high above them, and
were tastily surrounded by verandahs; on the terrace of the
principal building was a handsome pavilion, supported upon pillars.
The outer walls of the fortress extended down into the valley below.
We had proceeded about fourteen miles, when we came upon some
monuments which had a very unique appearance.  On a small spot,
shaded by beautiful trees, was a round wall, formed of a number of
flagstones of seven feet high and four feet wide; in the middle
stood three monuments of a circular form, built of large square
stones.  The diameter of their tower part was about twelve feet,
their height about six.  They had no entrance.

I also saw a new species of bird today.  It was very similar in size
and form to the flamingo, with beautiful pinion feathers; its
plumage was tinged with a rich whitish grey shade, the head was
covered with deep red feathers.  We rested this night at the
somewhat large town of Hindon.  The only object which attracted my
notice here was a palace with such small windows, that they seemed
more fitted for dolls than for men.

6th February.  As I was about to leave the caravansary this morning,
three armed men placed themselves before my waggon, and in spite of
the exclamations of my people, prevented our starting.  At last, I
succeeded in understanding that the dispute was about a few pence,
for having kept watch before the door of my sleeping-room during the
night, which my people would not pay.  The caravansary did not
appear to the cheprasse very safe, and he had requested a guard in
the evening from the serdar (magistrate).  The people might have
slept quite soundly in some corner of the court-yard, and, perhaps,
have dreamt of watching, for although I had looked out several times
during the night, there was not one of them to be seen; however,
what can one expect for a few pence?  I satisfied them with a small
present, upon which they made a regular military movement, and
allowed us to proceed.

If I had been inclined to be timid, I must have been in continual
anxiety for several days from the appearance of the natives.

All of them were armed with sabres, bows and arrows, matchlocks,
formidable clubs bound with iron, and even shields of ironplate.
These arms were also carried by the cattle tenders in the fields.
But nothing disturbed my equanimity, although ignorant of the
language, and with only the old cheprasse with me; I always felt as
though my last hours were not yet come.  Nevertheless, I was glad
that we had passed by clear daylight the dangerous ravines and deep
gorges through which our road lay for several miles.  From these we
entered a large valley, at the entrance of which was an isolated
mountain, surmounted by a fortress; four miles further on, we came
to a small group of trees, in the middle of which was a stone
terrace, five feet in height, upon which was a life-size statue of a
horse carved in stone.  By the side of this a well was dug out; a
kind of cistern, built of large blocks of red sandstone, with steps
leading up to the water.

Similar wells and cisterns, some of which are much larger, screened
by beautiful mango and tamarind trees, are frequently met with in
India, especially in districts where, as in the present one, good
springs are scarce.  The Hindoos and Mahomedans have the good belief
that by the erection of works for general benefit, they may more
easily attain future happiness.  When such water reservoirs and
groups of trees have been founded by Hindoos, several sculptured
figures of their deities, or red painted stones, are commonly found
placed on them.  At many of the wells, and cisterns also, a man is
placed, whose business it is to draw water for the weary travellers.

However agreeable the erection of these reservoirs may be in many
respects, there is one circumstance which detracts from their value;
the people always wash and bathe in the same ones from which they
must procure their drinking water.  But what objections will not
thirst silence?  I filled my jug as well as the others!

7th February.  Dungerkamaluma is a small village at the foot of a
low mountain.  A short distance from the station lay a true Arabian
sand desert, but which was fortunately not of very great extent.
The sand plains of India are generally capable of being cultivated,
as it is only necessary to dig a few feet deep to reach water, with
which to irrigate the fields.  Even in this little desert were a few
fine-looking wheat fields.

This evening I thought that I should have been obliged to make use
of my pistols.  My waggoner always wanted every one to give him the
road; if they did not do so, he abused them.  Today we came upon
half a dozen of armed traveller-waggoners, who took no notice of the
calls of my driver, upon which he was enraged, and threatened to
strike them with his whip.  If it had come to blows, we should, no
doubt, in spite of my aid, have come off the worst; but they
contented themselves with mutual abuse and threats, and the fellows
got out of the way.

I have everywhere remarked that the Indians jangle and threaten a
great deal, but that they never go beyond that.  I have lived a
great deal among the people and observed them, and have often seen
anger and quarrelling, but never fighting.  Indeed, when their anger
lasts long, they sit down together.  The children never wrestle or
pull each other about, either in sport or earnest.  I only once saw
two boys engaged in earnest quarrel, when one of them so far forgot
himself as to give the other a box on the ear, but he did this as
carefully as if he received the blow himself.  The boy who was
struck drew his sleeve over his cheek, and the quarrel was ended.
Some other children had looked on from the distance, but took no
part in it.

This good nature may partly depend upon the fact that the people eat
so little flesh, and, according to their religion, are so extremely
kind to all animals; but I think still that there is some cowardice
at the bottom of it.  I was told that a Hindoo could scarcely be
persuaded to enter a dark room without a light; if a horse or ox
makes the slightest start, both great and small run frightened and
shrieking away.  On the other side, again, I heard from the English
officers that the sepoys were very brave soldiers.  Does this
courage come with the coat, or from the example of the English?

During the last day I saw a great many poppy plantations.  They
present a remarkable appearance; the leaves are fatty and shining,
the flowers large and variegated.  The extraction of the opium is
performed in a very simple, but exceedingly tedious manner.  The yet
unripe poppy heads are cut in several places in the evening.  A
white tenacious juice flows out of these incisions, which quickly
thickens by exposure to the air, and remains hanging in small tears.
These tears are scraped off with a knife in the morning, and poured
into vessels which have the form of a small cake.  A second inferior
quantity is obtained by pressing and boiling the poppy heads and

In many books, and, for instance, in Zimmerman's "Pocket-Book of
Travels," I read under this head that the poppy plants reached a
height of forty feet in India and Persia, and that the capsules were
as large as a child's head, and held nearly a quart of seeds.  This
is not correct.  I saw the finest plantations in India, and
afterwards also in Persia, but found that the plants were never more
than three, and, at the most, four feet high, and the capsule about
as large round as a small hen's egg.

8th February.  Madopoor, a wretched village at the foot of some low
mountains.  Today also we passed through terrible ravines and
chasms, which like those of yesterday, were not near the mountains,
but in the middle of the plains.  The sight of some palms was, on
the contrary, agreeable, the first I had seen since I left Benares;
however, they bore no fruit.  I was still more surprised to see, in
a place so destitute of trees and shrubs, tamarind, and banyan or
mango trees planted singly, which, cultivated with great care,
flourish with incomparable splendour and luxuriance.  Their value is
doubled when it is known that under each there is either a well or a

9th February.  Indergur, a small, unimportant town.  We approached
today very much nearer to the low mountains which we had already
seen yesterday.  We soon found ourselves in narrow valleys, whose
outlets appeared to be closed with high, rocky wells.  Upon some of
the higher mountain peaks stood little kiosks, dedicated to the
memory of the Suttis.  The Suttis are those women who are burnt with
the corpse of their husbands.  According to the statement of the
Hindoos, they are not compelled to do so, but their relations insult
and neglect them when they do not, and they are driven out of
society; consequently the poor women generally give their free
consent.  Upon the occasion, they are handsomely dressed and
ornamented, and frequently stupefied with opium almost to madness;
are led with music and singing to the place where the corpse of the
husband, wrapped in white muslin, lies upon the funeral pile.  At
the moment that the victim throws herself upon the corpse, the wood
is lighted on all sides.  At the same time, a deafening noise is
commenced with musical instruments, and every one begins to shout
and sing, in order to smother the howling of the poor woman.  After
the burning, the bones are collected, placed in an urn, and interred
upon some eminence under a small monument.  Only the wives (and of
these only the principal or favourite ones) of the wealthy or noble
have the happiness to be burnt!  Since the conquest of Hindostan by
the English, these horrible scenes are not permitted to take place.

The mountain scenery alternated with open plains, and towards
evening we came to still more beautiful mountains.  A small
fortress, which was situated upon the slope of a mountain, quite
exposed, presented a very interesting appearance; the mosques,
barracks, little gardens, etc., could be entirely overlooked.  At
the foot of this fortress lay our night-quarters.

10th February.  Notara.  We travelled a long distance through narrow
valleys, upon roads which were so stony that it was scarcely
possible to ride, and I thought every moment that the waggon must be
broken to pieces.  So long as the sun was not scorching on my head,
I walked by the side, but I was soon compelled to seek the shade of
the linen covering of the wagon.  I bound up my forehead tightly,
grasped both sides of the car, and submitted to my fate.  The jungle
which surrounded us resembled in beauty and luxuriance that near
Baratpoor but it afforded me more amusement, as it was inhabited by
wild apes.  They were tolerably large, with yellowish, brown hair,
black faces, and very long tails.

It was very pretty to see how anxious the mothers were about their
young.  When I startled them, she took one upon her back, the other
clung to her breast, and with this double weight she not only sprung
from branch to branch, but even from tree to tree.

If I had only possessed somewhat more imaginative power, I should
have taken the forest for a fairy wood, for besides the merry
monkeys, I saw many remarkable things.  The rock sides and debris to
the left of the road, for example, had the most singular and varied
forms.  Some resembled the ruins of temples and houses, others
trees; indeed, the figure of a woman with a child in her arms, was
so natural, that I could scarcely help feeling a regret at seeing it
turned into this dismal lifelessness.  Further on, lay a gate, whose
noble artistic construction so deceived me, that I long sought for
the ruins of the town to which it appeared to lead.

Not far distant from the jungle is the little town of Lakari,
situated upon the almost perpendicular declivity of a mountain
ridge, and also protected by fortifications.  A beautiful pond, a
large well with an artificial portico, terraces with Hindoo idols
and Mahomedan funeral monuments, lie in very attractive disorder.
Before Notara I found several altars, with the sacred bull carved in
red stone.  In the town itself stood a handsome monument, an open
temple with columns upon a stone terrace, which was surrounded with
fine reliefs, representing elephants and riders.

There was no caravansary at this place, and I was obliged to go
about the streets with my cumbrous equipage in search of a lodging;
but as no one would receive a Christian, not from any want of good
nature, but in consequence of an erroneous religious opinion that a
house which has been visited by an unbeliever is defiled.  This
opinion also extends to many other matters.

There was no alternative left for me except to pass the night in an
open verandah.

In this town I saw a circumstance which proved the amiability of the
people.  A donkey, that was maimed either from its birth or by an
accident, was dragging itself with great exertion across the street,
a task which it required several minutes to accomplish.  Several
people who were coming that way with their loaded animals waited
with great patience, without making a single murmur or raising a
hand to drive the creature on.  Many of the inhabitants came out of
their houses and gave it fodder, and every passer-by turned out of
the way for it.  This feeling of sympathy touched me uncommonly.

11th February.  On this, the thirteenth day of my journey, I reached
Kottah.  I was very well satisfied with my servants and driver, and
indeed with the journey altogether!  The owners of the caravansaries
had not charged me more than a native; and had afforded me all the
conveniences which the strict rules of religion allowed.  I had
passed the nights in open chambers, even under the open sky,
surrounded by people of the poorest and lowest classes, and never
received the slightest ill-treatment either by word or deed.  I
never had anything stolen, and when ever I gave any little trifle to
a child, {200} such as a piece of bread, cheese, or the like, their
parents always endeavoured to show their gratitude by other acts of
kindness.  Oh, that the Europeans only knew how easily these simple
children of nature might be won by attention and kindness!  But,
unfortunately, they will continue to govern them by force, and treat
them with neglect and severity.

Kottah is the chief city of the kingdom of Rajpootan.  Here, as in
all those provinces which the English government has left under the
dominion of their native princes, there is an English official
appointed, who bears the title of the "Resident."  These residents
might be properly called "kings," or at least the king's governors,
since the real kings cannot do anything without their consent.
These miserable shadows of kings dare not, for example, cross the
boundaries of their own states without permission of the resident.
The more important fortresses of the country have English garrisons,
and here and there small English military stations are established.

This control is in some respects beneficial to the people, in others
injurious.  The custom of burning widows is done away with, and
strictly forbidden; as well as the horrible punishment of being
trodden to death by elephants, or dragged along, tied to their
tails.  On the other hand, the taxation is increased, for the king
is obliged to pay a considerable tribute for the right of ruling
according to the will of the resident.  This naturally comes out of
the pockets of the people.  The King of Rajpootan pays annually
300,000 rupees (30,000 pounds) to the English government.

The resident at Kottah, Captain Burdon, was an intimate friend of
Dr. Sprenger's, who had previously acquainted him with my speedy
arrival.  But, unfortunately, he was at that time inspecting the
different military stations; however, he had before his departure
made arrangements for my reception, and requested Dr. Rolland to see
them carried out.  He carried his attentions so far as to send on
books, newspapers, and servants, to the last station, which,
however, I missed, as my driver had turned off from the main road,
during the last two days, into a shorter one.  I reached the
handsome bungalow of the resident, and found the house quite vacant;
Mrs. Burdon, together with her children, had accompanied her
husband, as is generally the case in India, where frequent change of
air is very necessary for Europeans.  The house, the servants, and
sepoys which were left, and the captain's palanquin and equipage,
were placed entirely at my disposal; and in order to complete my
happiness, Dr. Rolland was so good as to accompany me in all my

12th February.  This morning, the king, Ram-Singh, who had been
immediately informed of my arrival, sent me a quantity of fruits and
sweetmeats in large baskets, his own riding elephant, handsomely
caparisoned, an officer on horseback, and some soldiers.  I was very
soon seated with Dr. Rolland in the howdah, and trotted to the
neighbouring town.  Kottah contains about 30,000 inhabitants, and
lies on the river Chumbal, in a far stretching and, in some places,
very rocky plain, 1,300 feet above the level of the sea.  The town,
which is conspicuously situated, is surrounded by strong fortified
works, upon which are placed fifty pieces of cannon.  The immediate
neighbourhood is rocky, naked, and barren.  The interior of the town
is separated into three parts by as many gates.  The first part is
inhabited by the poorer classes, and appeared very wretched.  In the
two other parts the tradespeople and the gentry reside; they have an
incomparably better aspect.  The principal street, although uneven
and stony, is sufficiently wide to allow carriages, and ponderous
beasts of burden, to pass without hindrance.

The architecture of the houses is in the highest degree original.
The smallness of the windows had already attracted my notice in
Benares, here they are so narrow and low that it is hardly possible
to put the head out; they are for the most part closed with finely
worked stone lattice, instead of glass.  Many of the houses have
large alcoves; in others there are spacious saloons on the first
floor, which rest on pillars and occupy the whole front of the
house; many of these halls were separated by partition walls into
smaller open saloons.  At both corners of the hall were decorated
pavilions, and at the further end, doors leading to the interior of
the house.  These halls are generally used as shops and places of
business; also as the resort of idlers, who sit upon mats and
ottomans, smoking their hookas and watching the bustle in the
streets.  In other houses, again, the front walls were painted in
fresco, with terrible-looking dragons, tigers, lions, twice or
thrice as large as life, stretching their tongues out, with hideous
grimaces; or with deities, flowers, arabesques, etc., without sense
or taste grouped together, miserably executed, and bedaubed with the
most glaring colours.

The numerous handsome Hindoo temples, all built upon lofty stone
terraces, form an agreeable feature of the town.  They are higher,
more capacious, and finer buildings than those of Benares, with the
exception of the Bisvishas.  The temples here stand in open halls,
intersected by colonnades, ornamented with several quadrangular
towers, and surmounted by a cupola of from twenty to forty feet in
height.  The sanctuary is in the middle; it is a small, carefully
enclosed building, with a door leading into it.  This door, as well
as the pillars and friezes, is covered with beautiful sculptures;
the square towers are quite as carefully constructed as those at
Benares.  Hideous statues and fanciful figures stand under the
halls, some of which are painted in bright red colours.  On the side
walls of the terraces are arabesques, elephants, horses, etc.,
carved in relief.

The royal palace lies at the extremity of the third part of the
town, and forms a town within a town, or rather a fortress in a
fortress, as it is surrounded by immense fortified walls, which
command the town as well as the country round it; many large and
small buildings are enclosed within these walls, but do not present
anything remarkable beyond their handsome halls.  Had the resident
been in Kottah I should have been presented to the king, but as it
was not etiquette in his absence, I was compelled to put up with my

From the town we proceeded to Armornevas, one of the neighbouring
palaces of the king's.  The road to it was indescribably bad, full
of rocks and large stones.  I was astonished to see with what
dexterity our elephant set his plump feet between them, and
travelled on as quickly as if he was going over the levellest road.

When I expressed my surprise to Dr. Rolland that the king should not
have a good road made to his residence, which he so often visited,
he informed me that it was a maxim with all Indian monarchs not to
make roads, for, according to their opinion, in case of a war, they
offered too great facilities to the invasion of the enemy.

The castle is small and unimportant.  It lies on the river Chumbal,
which has here hollowed out for itself a remarkably deep bed in the
rock.  Picturesque ravines and groups of rock form its shores.

The garden of the castle is so thickly planted with orange, citron,
and other trees, that there is not room for even the smallest
flowering plant or shrub.

The few flowers which the Indian gardens contain, are placed at the
entrances.  The paths are raised two feet, as the ground is always
muddy and damp in consequence of the frequent watering.  Most of the
Indian gardens which I afterwards saw resembled these.

The king frequently amuses himself here with tiger-hunting.
Somewhat higher up the river small towers are erected upon slight
eminences; the tigers are driven gradually towards the water, and
always more and more hemmed in, until they are within shot of the
towers; the king and his friends sit securely upon the tops of the
towers, and fire bravely upon the wild beasts.

Near the castle was a small wooden temple, which had just been
built; the principal part, however, the amiable idols, was awanting.
It was owing to this fortunate circumstance that we were allowed to
enter the sanctuary, which consisted of a small marble kiosk
standing in the centre of the hall.  The temple and the columns were
covered with bad paintings in the most brilliant colours.  It is
strange that neither the Hindoos nor the Mahometans should have
applied themselves to painting, for there are neither good pictures
nor drawings to be seen among any of these people, although they
have displayed such proficiency in architecture, carving in relief,
and in mosaic work.

We lastly visited a remarkably fine wood of tamarind and mango
trees, under the shadows of which the ashes of a number of kings are
preserved in handsome monuments.  These monuments consist of open
temples, with broad flights of ten or twelve steps leading up to
them.  At the bottom of the steps, on each side, stand stone figures
of elephants.  Some of the temples are ornamented with beautiful

The evening was passed in all kinds of amusements.  The good doctor
would have made me acquainted with all the arts of the Hindoos;
however, the greater number of them were no longer new to me.  A
snake-charmer exhibited his little society, which performed very
clever tricks, and also allowed the most poisonous serpents to twine
themselves round his body, and the largest scorpions ran over his
arms and legs.  Afterwards, four elegant female dancers appeared
dressed in muslin, ornamented with gold and silver, and loaded with
jewellery,--ears, forehead, neck, breast, loins, hands, arms, feet,
in short, every part of the body was covered with gold, silver, and
precious stones; even the toes were ornamented with them, and from
the nose, a large ring with three stones hung over the mouth.  Two
of the dancers first commenced.  Their dance consisted of the same
winding movements which I had already seen in Benares, only they
were far more animated, and twisted their fingers, hands, and arms
about in every conceivable manner.  They might well be said to dance
with their arms but not with their feet.  They danced for ten
minutes without singing, then they began to scream, without however
keeping time, and their motions became more violent and wild, until
in about half an hour both strength and voice failed, they stopped
quite exhausted, and made way for their sisters, who repeated the
same spectacle.  Dr. Rolland told me that they represented a love
story, in which every virtue and passion, such as truth, self-
devotion, hate, persecution, despair, etc., played a part.  The
musicians stood a little behind the dancers, and followed all their
movements.  The whole space which such a company requires, is at the
most ten feet in length and eight broad.  The good Hindoos amuse
themselves for hours together with these tasteless repetitions.

I remember having read in books that the Indian female dancers were
far more graceful than the European, that their songs were highly
melodious, and that their pantomime was tender, inspiring, and
attractive.  I should scarcely think the authors of such books could
have been in India!  Not less exaggerated are the descriptions of
others, who affirm that there are no dances more indelicate than
those of the Indians.  I might again ask these people if they had
ever seen the Sammaquecca and Refolosa in Valparaiso, the female
dancers of Tahiti, or even our own in flesh-coloured leggings?  The
dresses of the females in Rajpootan and some parts of Bundelkund are
very different from those of other parts of India.  They wear long,
coloured, many-folded skirts, tight bodies, which are so short that
they scarcely cover the breasts; and, over this, a blue mantle, in
which they envelop the upper part of the body, the head, and the
face, and allow a part to hang down in front like a veil.  Girls who
do not always have the head covered, nearly resemble our own peasant
girls.  Like the dancers, they are overloaded with jewellery; when
they cannot afford gold and silver, they content themselves with
some other metals.  They wear also rings of horn, bone, or glass
beads, on the fingers, arms, and feet.  On the feet they carry
bells, so that they are heard at a distance of sixty paces; the toes
are covered with broad heavy rings, and they have rings hanging from
their noses down to the chin, which they are obliged to tie up at
meal time.  I pitied the poor creatures, who suffered not a little
from their finery!  The eyebrows and eyelids are dyed black while
the children are very young, and they frequently paint themselves
with dark-blue streaks of a finger's breadth over the eyebrows, and
with spots on the forehead.  The adult women tattoo their breasts,
foreheads, noses, or temples with red, white, or yellow colours,
according as they are particularly attached to one or the other
deity.  Many wear amulets or miniatures hung round their necks, so
that I at first thought they were Catholics, and felt gratified at
the brilliant successes of the missionaries.  But, when I came
nearer to one of the people, that I might see these pictures better,
what did I discover there?  Perhaps a beautiful Madonna!--a fair-
haired angel's head!--an enthusiastic Antonio of Padua!  Ah no!  I
was met by the eight-armed god Shiva grinning at me, the ox's head
of Vishnu, the long-tongued goddess Kalli.  The amulets contained,
most probably, some of the ashes of one of their martyrs who had
been burned, or a nail, a fragment of skin, a hair of a saint, a
splinter from the bone of a sacred animal, etc.

13th February.  Dr. Rolland conducted me to the little town of
Kesho-Rae-Patum, one of the most sacred in Bunda and Rajpootan.  It
lies on the other side of the river, six miles from Kottah.  A great
number of pilgrims come here to bathe, as the water is considered
particularly sacred at this spot.  This belief cannot be condemned,
when it is remembered how many Christians there are who give the
preference to the Holy Maria at Maria-Zell, Einsiedeln, or Loretto,
which, nevertheless, all represent one and the same.

Handsome steps lead from the heights on the banks down to the river,
and Brahmins sit in pretty kiosks to take money from believers for
the honour of the gods.  On one of the flights of steps lay a very
large tortoise.  It might quietly sun itself there in safety--no one
thought of catching it.  It came out of the sacred river; indeed, it
might, perhaps, be the incarnation of the god Vishnu himself. {204}
Along the river stood numbers of stone altars, with small bulls, and
other emblematical figures, also cut in stone.  The town itself is
small and miserable, but the temple is large and handsome.

The priests were here so tolerant as to admit us to all parts of the
temple.  It is open on all sides, and forms an octagon.  Galleries
run round the upper part, one-half of which are for women, the other
for the musicians.  The sanctuary stands at the back of the temple;
five bells hang before it, which are struck when women enter the
temple; they rung out also at my entrance.  The curtained and closed
doors were then opened, and afforded us a full view of the interior.
We saw there a little group of idols carved in stone.  The people
who followed us with curiosity commenced a gentle muttering upon the
opening of the doors.  I turned round, somewhat startled, thinking
that it was directed against us and indicated anger, but it was the
prayers, which they repeated in a low voice and with a feeling of
devotion.  One of the Brahmins brushed off the flies from the
intelligent countenances of the gods.

Several chapels join the large temple, and were all opened to us.
They contained red-painted stones or pictures.  In the front court
sits a stone figure of a saint under a covering, completely clothed,
and with even a cap on the head.  On the opposite bank of the river,
a small hill rises, upon which rests the figure of a large and
rather plump ox hewn in stone.  This hill is called the "holy

Captain Burdon has built a very pretty house near the holy mountain,
where he sometimes lives with his family.  I saw there a fine
collection of stuffed birds, which he had brought himself from the
Himalayas.  I was particularly struck by the pheasants, some of
which shone with quite a metallic lustre; and there were some not
less beautiful specimens of heathcocks.

I had now seen all, and therefore asked the doctor to order me a
conveyance to Indor, 180 miles distant, for the next day.  He
surprised me with the offer, on the part of the king, to provide me
with as many camels as I required, and two sepoys on horseback as
attendants.  I asked for two; the one for myself, the other for the
driver and the servants which Dr. Rolland sent with me.



14TH February.  The camels were ordered at 5 o'clock in the morning,
but it was not until towards noon that they came, each with a
driver.  When they saw my portmanteau (twenty-five pounds in
weight), they were quite puzzled to know what to do with it.  It was
useless my explaining to them how the luggage is carried in Egypt,
and that I had been accustomed to carry very little with me on my
own animal:  they were used to a different plan, and would not
depart from it.

Travelling on camels is always unpleasant and troublesome.  The
jolting motion of the animal produces in many people the same ill
effects as the rocking of a ship on the sea; but in India it is
almost unbearable, on account of the inconvenience of the
arrangements.  Here each animal has a driver, who sits in front and
takes the best place; the traveller has only a little space left for
him on the hinder part of the animal.

Dr. Rolland advised me at once to put up with the inconvenience as
well as I could.  He told me that I should fall in with Captain
Burdon in the next day or two, and it would be easy to obtain a more
convenient conveyance from him.  I followed his advice, allowed my
luggage to be carried, and patiently mounted my camel.

We passed through extensive plains, which were most remarkable for
some considerable flax plantations, and came to a beautiful lake,
near to which lay a very pretty palace.  Towards evening, we reached
the little village of Moasa, where we stayed for the night.

In those countries which are governed by native princes, there are
neither roads nor arrangements for travelling; although in every
village and town there are people appointed whose business it is to
direct travellers on their way and carry their luggage, for which
they are paid a small fee.  Those travellers who have a guard from
the king or aumil (governor), or a cheprasse with them, do not pay
anything for this attendance; others give them a trifle for their
services, according as the distance is greater or less.

When I reached Moasa, every one hastened to offer me their services--
for I travelled with the king's people, and in this part of the
country a European woman is a rarity.  They brought me wood, milk,
and eggs.  My table was always rather frugally furnished:  at the
best I had rice boiled in milk or some eggs, but generally only
rice, with water and salt.  A leathern vessel for water, a little
saucepan for boiling in, a handful of salt, and some rice and bread,
were all that I took with me.

15th February.  Late in the evening I reached Nurankura, a small
place surrounded by low mountains.  I found here some tents
belonging to Captain Burdon, a maid, and a servant.  Terribly
fatigued, I entered one of the tents directly, in order to rest
myself.  Scarcely had I taken possession of the divan, than the maid
came into the tent, and, without any observation, commenced kneading
me about with her hands.  I would have stopped her, but she
explained to me that when a person was fatigued it was very
refreshing.  For a quarter of an hour she pressed my body from head
to foot vigorously, and it certainly produced a good effect--I found
myself much relieved and strengthened.  This custom of pressing and
kneading is very common in India, as well as in all Oriental
countries, especially after the bath; and Europeans also willingly
allow themselves to be operated upon.

The maid informed me, partly by signs, partly by words, that I had
been expected since noon; that a palanquin stood ready for me, and
that I could sleep as well in it as in the tent.  I was rejoiced at
this, and again started on my journey at 11 o'clock at night.  The
country was indeed, as I knew, infested with tigers, but as several
torch-bearers accompanied us, and the tigers are sworn enemies of
light, I could composedly continue my uninterrupted sleep.  About 3
o'clock in the morning, I was set down again in a tent, which was
prepared for my reception, and furnished with every convenience.

16th February.  This morning I made the acquaintance of the amiable
family of the Burdons.  They have seven children, whom they educate
chiefly themselves.  They live very pleasantly and comfortably,
although they are wholly thrown on their own resources for
amusement, as there are, with the exception of Dr. Rolland, no
Europeans in Kottah.  It is only very rarely that they are visited
by officers who may be passing through, and I was the first European
female Mrs. Burdon had seen for four years.

I passed the most delightful day in this family circle.  I was not a
little astonished to find here all the conveniences of a well-
regulated house; and I must take this opportunity of describing, in
few words, the mode of travelling adopted by the English officers
and officials in India.

In the first place, they have tents which are so large, that they
contain two or three rooms; one which I saw was worth more than 800
rupees (80 pounds).  They take with them corresponding furniture,
from a footstool to the most elegant divan; in fact, nearly the
whole of the house and cooking utensils.  They have also a multitude
of servants, every one of whom has his particular occupation, which
he understands exceedingly well.  The travellers, after passing the
night in their beds, about 3 o'clock in the morning either lie or
sit in easy palanquins, or mount on horseback, and after four or
five hours' ride, dismount, and partake of a hot breakfast under
tents.  They have every household accommodation, carry on their
ordinary occupations, take their meals at their usual hours, and
are, in fact, entirely at home.

The cook always proceeds on his journey at night.  As soon as the
tents are vacated, they are taken down and quickly removed, and as
quickly re-erected:  there is no scarcity of hands or of beasts of
burden.  In the most cultivated countries of Europe, people do not
travel with so much luxury and ease as in India.

In the evening, I was obliged to take my departure again.  Captain
Burdon very kindly offered me the use of his palanquin and the
necessary bearers as far as Indos, but I pitied the people too much,
and declared that I did not find travelling on camels unpleasant;
that in fact, on account of the open view, that mode was to be
preferred to palanquins.  However, on account of my little
portmanteau, I took a third camel.  I left the sepoys behind here.
This evening we went eight miles towards the little town Patan.

17th February.  It was not till this morning that I saw Patan was
situated on a romantic chain of hills, and possesses several
remarkably handsome temples, in the open halls belonging to which
are placed sculptured stone figures, the size of life.  The
arabesques and figures on the pillars were sharply executed in
relief.  In the valleys which we passed through, there was a large
quantity of basaltic rock and most beautifully crystallized quartz.
Towards evening, we reached Batschbachar, a miserable little town.

18th February.  Rumtscha is somewhat larger and better.  I was
obliged to put up my bed in the middle of the bazaar under an open
verandah.  Upon this road there were no caravansaries.  Half of the
inhabitants of the town gathered round me, and watched all my
motions and doings with the greatest attention.  I afforded them an
opportunity of studying the appearance of an angry European female,
as I was very much displeased with my people, and, in spite of my
slight knowledge of the language, scolded them heartily.  They
allowed the camels to go so lazily, that although we had travelled
since early in the morning until late in the evening, we had not
gone more than twenty or twenty-two miles, not faster than an ox-
waggon would have gone.  I made them understand that this negligence
must not happen again.  I must now take occasion to contradict those
persons who affirm that the camel can travel on the average eighty
miles daily, and that even when they go slowly, their steps are very
long.  I examine every circumstance very accurately, and then form
an opinion from my own experience, without allowing myself to be
misled by what has been written about it.  Before commencing a
journey, I observe not only the principal distances, but also those
between the individual places, arrange a plan of my journey with the
help of friends who are acquainted with the subject, and by this
means have the advantage over my driver, who cannot persuade me that
we have gone forty or sixty miles, when we have not gone more than
half this distance.  Moreover, I was able, while travelling from
Delhi to Kottah by the ox-waggon, to observe several camel
equipages, which I fell in with every evening at the same night
station.  It is true that I had most excellent oxen, and that the
camels were ordinary; but in this journey, with good camels, I did
not go more than thirty, or at the utmost, thirty-two miles in the
day, and travelled from 4 o'clock in the morning until 6 in the
evening, without any other stoppage than two hours at noon.  A camel
which is able to travel eighty miles in a day is an exception to the
general rule, and would scarcely perform such a feat the second or
third time.

19th February.  Ranera is an unimportant place.  I was here offered
a cow-stall to sleep in.  It was indeed kept very clean; but I
preferred sleeping in the open air.

Till a late hour of the night this town was very lively:
processions of men and a number of women and children followed the
noise of the tam-tam, which they accompanied with a wild, howling
song, and proceeded to some tree, under which an image of an idol
was set up.

We had on this day to cross several ranges of low hills.  The
uncultivated ground was everywhere scorched up by the sun; {209}
nevertheless, the plantations of poppies, flax, corn, and cotton,
etc., grew very luxuriantly.  Water-dykes were let into the fields
on every side, and peasants, with their yokes of oxen, were engaged
in bringing water from the wells and streams.  I did not see any
women at work.

In my numerous journeys, I had an opportunity of observing that the
lot of the poorer classes of women in India, in the East, and among
coloured people generally, was not so hard as it is believed to be.
In the towns where Europeans reside, for example, their linen is
washed and prepared by men; it is very seldom that it is necessary
for women to take part in out-door labour; they carry wood, water,
or any other heavy burdens only in their own houses.  At harvest
time, indeed, the women are seen in the fields, but there also they
only do the lighter kind of work.  If carriages with horses or oxen
are seen, the women and children are always seated upon them, and
the men walk by the side, often laden with bundles.  When there are
no beasts of burden with the party, the men carry the children and
baggage.  I also never saw a man ill use his wife or child.  I
heartily wish that the women of the poorer classes in my own country
were treated with only half the consideration which I saw in all
other parts of the world.

20th February.  Udjein on the Seepa, one of the oldest and best
built towns of India, is the capital of the kingdom of Sindhia, with
a population of more than 100,000 souls.

The architecture of this town is quite peculiar:  the front walls of
the houses, only one story high, are constructed of wood, and
furnished with large regular window openings in the upper part,
which are securely closed by beams, instead of glass.  In the
interior, the apartments are built very lofty and airy:  they have
the full height from the level of the ground to the roof, without
the interruption of an intermediate arch.  The outer walls and beams
of the houses are painted with a dark brown oil colour, which gave
to the town an indescribably dusky appearance.

Two houses were remarkable for their size and the uncommonly fine
execution of the wood carvings.  They contained two stories, and
were very tastefully ornamented with galleries, pillars, friezes,
niches, etc.  As far as I could learn from the answers I received to
my questions, and the numerous servants and soldiers walking about
before them, they were the palaces of the aumil and the Queen Widow
of Madhadji-Sindhia.

We passed through the entire town; the streets were broad, the
bazaars very extensive, and so overcrowded with men, that we were
frequently compelled to stop; it happened to be a large market.
Upon such occasions in India, as well as at great festivals and
meetings of people, I never once saw any one intoxicated, although
there was no lack of intoxicating drinks.  The men here are
temperate, and restrain themselves, yet without forming into

Outside the town I found an open verandah, in which I took up my
quarters for the night.

I was here a witness of a deplorable scene, a consequence of an
erroneous religious belief of the otherwise amiable Hindoos.  Not
far from the verandah lay a fakir, outstretched upon the earth,
without any signs of life; many of the passers-by stopped, looked at
him, and then went on their way.  No one spoke to or helped him.
The poor man had sunk exhausted on this spot, and was no longer
capable of saying to what caste he belonged.  I took heart,
approached him, and raised the head-cloth, which had fallen over a
part of his face; two glassy eyes stared at me.  I felt the body; it
was stiff and cold.  My help came too late.

The next morning the corpse still lay in the same place.  I was
informed that they waited to see if any relations would come to
carry it away, if not it would be removed by the pariahs.

21st February.  In the afternoon I reached Indor, the capital of the
kingdom of Holkar.

As I approached the dwelling of the Europeans, I found them just
about to ride out.  The equipage of the resident, Mr. Hamilton, to
whom I had letters, was distinguishable from the others by its
greater splendour.  Four beautiful horses were harnessed to an open
landau, and four servants, in Oriental liveries, ran by the side of
the carriage.  The gentlemen had scarcely perceived my approach,
when they stopped, and sent a servant towards me; they, perhaps,
wished to know what chance had thrown a solitary European female
into this remote country.  My servant, who already had the letter to
Mr. Hamilton in his hand, hastened to him directly, and gave it to
him.  Mr. Hamilton read it hastily through, alighted from his
carriage immediately, came and received me very cordially.  My
shabby clothes, faded by the sun, were of no account to him, and he
did not treat me with less respect, because I came without much
baggage, and without a train of attendants.

He conducted me himself to the bungalow, set apart for strangers,
offered me several rooms, and remained until he saw that the
servants had properly provided all conveniences.  After he had given
me a servant for my own exclusive use, and had ordered a guard
before the bungalow, in which I was about to live alone, he took his
departure, and promised to send for me to dinner in an hour.

A few hundred paces distant from the bungalow is the palace of the
resident; it is a building of very great beauty, constructed of
large, square stones, in a pure Italian style of architecture.
Broad flights of steps led up into halls which are peculiarly
remarkable for their magnitude and beautifully arched roofs, the
latter being finer than any that I had yet seen.  The saloons,
rooms, and internal arrangements corresponded to the high
expectations which the sight of the outside raised.

It was a Sunday, and I had the pleasure of finding the whole
European society of Indor assembled at the house of the resident.
It consisted of three families.  My astonishment at the magnificence
surrounding me, at the luxuries at table, was yet more increased
when a complete, well-trained band of musicians commenced playing
fine overtures and some familiar German melodies.  After dinner Mr.
Hamilton introduced the chaplain to me, a Tyrolese, named Naher.
This active man had established his chapel in the space of three
years, the congregation consisting chiefly of young natives.

I was invited to be present on the following morning at the first
operation performed here, by a European surgeon, on a patient under
the influence of ether.  A large tumour was to be extracted from the
neck of a native.  Unfortunately the inhalation did not turn out as
was expected:  the patient came to again after the first incision,
and began shrieking fearfully.  I hastily left the room, for I
pitied the poor creature too much to bear his cries.  The operation
indeed was successful, but the man suffered considerable pain.

During breakfast, Mr. Hamilton proposed that I should exchange my
apartments in the bungalow for a similar one in his palace, because
the going backwards and forwards at each meal time was very
fatiguing.  He placed at my disposal the rooms of his wife, who was
deceased, and appointed me a female servant.

After tiffen (lunch) I was to see the town, and be presented at
court.  I employed the intermediate time in visiting Mr. and Mrs.
Naher.  The latter, who was also a German, was moved even to tears
when she saw me:  for fifteen years she had not spoken with a

The town of Indor contains nearly 25,000 inhabitants; it is not
fortified; the houses are built in the same manner as those in

The royal palace stands in the centre of the town, and forms a
quadrangle.  The middle of the front rises in the form of a pyramid,
to the height of six stories.  A remarkably lofty and very handsome
gateway, flanked on both sides by round and somewhat projecting
towers, leads into the court-yard.  The exterior of the palace is
completely covered with frescoes, for the most part representing
elephants and horses, and from a distance they present a good
appearance.  The interior is separated into several courts.  In the
first court, on the ground floor, is situated a saloon, surrounded
by two rows of wooden pillars.  The Durwar (ministerial council) is
held here.  In the first story of the same building a fine open
saloon is appropriated to the use of some sacred oxen.

Opposite this cattle-stall is the reception-room.  Dark stairs,
which require to be lighted in broad daylight, lead to the royal
apartments.  The stairs are said to be equally dark in almost all
the Indian palaces; they believe it is a security against enemies,
or, at least, that it makes their entrance more difficult.  In the
reception saloon sat the queen, Jeswont-Rao-Holcar, an aged,
childless widow; at her side her adopted son, Prince Hury-Rao-
Holcar, a youth of fourteen years, with very good-natured features
and expressive eyes.  Seats, consisting of cushions, were placed for
us by their side.  The young prince spoke broken English, and the
questions which he put to me proved him to be well acquainted with
geography.  His mundsch, {212a} a native, was represented as a man
of intelligence and learning.  I could not find an opportunity,
after the audience, of complimenting him upon the progress which the
prince had made.  The dress of the queen and of the prince consisted
of white Dacca muslin; the prince had several precious stones and
pearls upon his turban, breast, and arms.  The queen was not veiled,
although Mr. Hamilton was present.

All the apartments and passages were crowded with servants, who,
without the slightest ceremony, came into the audience-hall, that
they might observe us more closely; we sat in a complete crowd.

We were offered sweetmeats and fruits, sprinkled with rosewater, and
some attar of roses was put upon our handkerchiefs.  After some time
areca nuts and betel leaves were brought on silver plates, which the
queen herself handed to us; this is a sign that the audience is at
an end, and visitors cannot leave until it is made.  Before we got
up to go, large wreaths of jasmine were hung round our necks, and
small ones round our wrists.  Fruits and sweetmeats were also sent
home to us.

The queen had given the mundsch directions to conduct us round the
whole of the palace.  It is not very large, and the rooms, with the
exception of the reception-saloon, are very simple, and almost
without furniture; in each, cushions covered with white muslin lie
upon the floor.

As we stood upon the terrace of the house, we saw the prince ride
out.  Two servants led his horse, and a number of attendants
surrounded him.  Several officers accompanied him upon elephants,
and mounted soldiers closed the procession.  The latter wore wide
white trousers, short blue jackets, and handsome round caps; they
looked very well.  The people raised a low murmur when they saw the
prince, as an indication of their pleasure.

The mundsch was good enough to show me the mode adopted for making
ice.  The proper time for this is during the months of December and
January; although, even in the month of February, the nights, and
especially the early hours of the morning before sun-rise, are so
cold, that small quantities of water are covered with a thin sheet
of ice.  For this purpose, either shallow pits are dug in earth rich
in saltpetre, {212b} and small shallow dishes of burnt porous clay
are filled with water, and placed in these pits, or when the soil
does not contain any saltpetre, the highest terraces on the houses
are covered with straw, and the little dishes of water are placed up
there.  The thin crusts of ice thus obtained are broken into small
pieces, a little water is poured over them, and the whole is put
into the ice-houses, which are also lined with straw.  This mode of
obtaining ice is already practised in Benares.

Mr. Hamilton was so obliging as to make the arrangements for the
continuance of my journey.  I could have had the royal camels again,
but preferred a car with oxen, as the loss of time was
inconsiderable, and the trouble far less.  Mr. Hamilton himself made
the contract with the driver, pointed out the stations at which we
should stop between this and Auranjabad (230 miles), gave me an
excellent servant and sepoy, furnished me with letters, and even
asked me if I had sufficient money.  This excellent man did all this
with so much amiability, that, in fact, I scarcely knew whether the
kindnesses or the way in which they were offered, were most to be
admired.  And not only in Indor, but everywhere else that he was
known, I heard his name always mentioned with the most profound

On the 23rd of February I left Indor on my way to the little village
of Simarola.  The road led through delightful groves of palm-trees
and richly cultivated land.  In Simarola, I found a pretty and
comfortably furnished tent, which Mr. Hamilton had sent on, in order
to surprise me with a good night station.  I silently thanked him
most heartily for his care.

24th February.  From Simarola the country was truly picturesque.  A
narrow ledge of rock, in some places scarcely broad enough for the
road, led down a considerable declivity {213} into small valleys, on
the sides of which beautiful mountains towered up.  The latter were
thinly wooded; among the trees I was particularly struck by two
species, the one with yellow, the other with red flowers; both of
them, very singularly, were quite destitute of leaves.

On this side of Kottah the camel trains were less frequent, in
consequence of the very stony state of the road; instead of these,
we met trains of oxen.  We passed some today of incredible extent.
I do not exaggerate when I affirm that I have seen trains of several
thousand head of cattle, on whose backs, corn, wool, salt, etc.,
were conveyed.  I cannot imagine where the food for so many animals
is obtained; there are nowhere any meadows, for, with the exception
of the plantations, the ground is scorched up, or at most covered
with thin, parched, jungle grass, which I never saw any animal eat.

The industry of the women and children in the villages through which
these trains pass is great beyond measure; they provide themselves
with baskets, and follow the train for a considerable distance,
collecting the excrement of the oxen, which they work up into flat
bricks, and dry them in the sun to use as fuel.  Late in the
evening, we entered the village of Burwai, which lies on the river
Nurbuda, in the midst of a storm of thunder and lightning.  I was
told that there was a public bungalow here, but as the darkness of
the night prevented our finding it, I contented myself with the
balcony of a house.

25th February.  We had this morning to cross the river Nurbuda,
which, with the preparations for doing so, occupied two hours.

26th February.  Rostampoor.  Between this place and Simarola, the
land is rather barren, and also very thinly inhabited; we often
travelled several miles without seeing a village.

27th February.  Today we were gratified with the prospect of a
fertile country and beautiful mountains.  On an isolated mountain
was situated the famous old fortress of Assergur, from which arose
two half-decayed minarets.  Towards evening we passed between many
ruins; amongst which I observed another handsome mosque, the fore-
court, the minarets, and side walls of which were standing.
Adjoining this district of ruins, lay the very flourishing town of
Berhampoor, which still numbers 60,000 inhabitants, but I was told
that it was formerly much larger.

An aumil resides in the town, and also an English officer, who keeps
an eye on his proceedings.  We were obliged to pass through the
whole town, through the deep river Taptai, up and down hill, and
over shocking roads, to reach the bungalow of the latter, so that we
did not arrive there till late at night.  Captain Henessey and his
family were already supping:  they received me with true cordiality,
and, although worn out with fatigue, and much travel-stained, I took
my place at their hospitable table, and continued a conversation
with this amiable family until a late hour of the night.

28th February.  Unfortunately I was obliged to proceed on my journey
again this morning.  Between Berhampoor and Ichapoor, there were the
most beautiful and varied plantations--corn, flax, cotton, sugar-
cane, poppies, dahl, etc.  The heat had already began to be
oppressive (towards 108 degrees Fah.)  I was at the same time
continually on the road from 4 o'clock in the morning, till 5 or 6
in the evening, and only seldom made a short halt on the banks of
some river, or under a tree.  It was altogether impossible to travel
at night, as the heaths and jungles were frequently of great extent,
and moreover, somewhat infested with tigers, the presence of which
we experienced on the following day; besides all this, my people
were unacquainted with the road.

29th February.  Today's stage was one of the most considerable; we
therefore started as early as 3 o'clock in the morning; the road
passed through terrible wastes and wild jungles.  After we had
proceeded for some time quietly, the animals stopped short and
remained as if fixed to the ground, and began to tremble; their fear
soon communicated itself to my people, who shouted, without
intermission, the words "Bach! bach!" which means "Tiger! tiger!"  I
ordered them to continue making as much noise as possible, in order
to scare away the animals if they really were near.  I had some
jungle grass gathered and made a fire, which I kept constantly
blazing.  However, I heard no howling, and observed no other
indication of our dreaded neighbour than the terror of my people and
cattle.  Nevertheless, I awaited the sunrise this time with great
anxiety, when we continued our journey.  We afterwards learnt that
scarcely a night passes in this neighbourhood without an ox, horse,
or goat being carried off by tigers.  Only a few days previously, a
poor woman who was late in returning from gathering jungle grass,
had been torn to pieces.  All the villages were surrounded with high
stone and mud walls, whether from fear of the wild beasts, or from
any other cause, I could not learn with certainty.  These fortified
villages extend as far as Auranjabad, over a distance of 150 miles.

March 1st.  Bodur is an unimportant village.  Upon the road from
Indor to Auranjabad, there are no bungalows with rooms, and it is
very seldom that even an open one is to be found--that is, a
building with three wooden walls, over which a roof is thrown.  We
found one of these bungalows in Bodur.  It was indeed already taken
possession of by about a dozen Indian soldiers, but they withdrew
unasked, and gave up to me half of the airy chamber.  During the
whole night they remained still and quiet, and were not the
slightest annoyance.

2nd March.  Furdapoor, a small village at the foot of beautiful
mountains.  As the poor oxen began to be wearied with travelling,
the driver rubbed them down every evening from head to foot.

3rd March.  Adjunta.  Before coming to this place we passed a
terrible rocky pass which might be easily defended.  The road was
very narrow, and so bad that the poor animals could scarcely make
any way with the empty cars.  On the heights of the pass, a strongly
fortified gate was placed, which closed the narrow road; it was,
however, left open in time of peace.  The low ground and the heights
on the sides were rendered inaccessible by strong and lofty walls.

The view became more delightful at every step:  romantic valleys and
ravines, picturesque masses and walls of rock lay on both sides,
immeasurable valleys spread themselves out behind the mountains,
while in front the view swept over an extensive open plain, at the
commencement of which lay the fortress of Adjunta.  We had already
reached it at about 8 o'clock in the morning.  Captain Gill resides
in Adjunta, and I had letters of introduction to him from Mr.
Hamilton.  When I expressed a wish, after the first greeting was
over, to visit the famous rock temples of Adjunta, he deeply
regretted that he had not received a letter from me four-and-twenty
hours sooner, as the temples were nearer to Furdapoor than to
Adjunta.  What was to be done?  I was resolved upon seeing them, and
had but little time to lose, so I decided upon retracing my way.  I
only provided myself with a small stock of provisions, and
immediately mounted one of the horses from the captain's stable,
which brought me past the rocky pass in a good hour.  The road
towards the temples here turns off to the right into desolate,
barren mountain valleys, whose death-like stillness was unbroken by
the breathing of an animal, or the song of a bird.  This place was
well calculated to raise and excite expectations.

The temples, twenty-seven in number, are excavated in tall
perpendicular cliffs, which form a semicircle.  In some of the
cliffs there are two stories of temples, one over the other; paths
lead to the top, but these are so narrow and broken, that one is
frequently at a loss where to set the foot.  Beneath are terrible
chasms, in which a mountain stream loses itself; overhead, the
smooth rocky surface extends several hundred feet in height.  The
majority of the temples are quadrangular in form, and the approach
to the interior is through verandahs and handsome gateways, which,
from being supported on columns, appear to bear the weight of the
whole mass of rock.  These temples are called "Vihara."  In the
larger one I counted twenty-eight, in the smallest eight pillars.
On one, and sometimes on both side-walls, there is a very small dark
cell, in which most probably the priest lived.  In the background,
in a large and lofty cell, is the sanctuary.  Here are gigantic
figures in every position; some measure more than eighteen feet, and
nearly reach to the roof of the temple, which is about twenty-four
feet high.  The walls of the temples and verandahs are full of idols
and statues of good and evil spirits.  In one of the temples, a
battle of giants is represented.  The figures are above life size,
and the whole of the figures, columns, verandahs and gateways, are
cut out of the solid rock.  The enormous number and remarkable
beauty of the sculptures and reliefs on the columns, capitals,
friezes, gateways, and even on the roof of the temples, is indeed
most astonishing; the variety in the designs and devices is
inexhaustible.  It appears incredible that human hands should have
been able to execute such masterly and gigantic works.  The Brahmins
do, indeed, ascribe their origin to supernatural agencies, and
affirm that the era of their creation cannot be ascertained.

Remains of paintings are found on the walls, ceiling, and pillars,
the colours of which are brighter and fresher than those of many
modern works of art.

The second class of temples have an oval form, and have majestic
lofty portals leading immediately into the interior; they are called
chaitya.  The largest of these temples has on each side a colonnade
of nineteen pillars--the smallest, one of eight; in these there are
no verandahs, no priest's cells, and no sanctuaries.  Instead of the
latter, a high monument stands at the extremity of the temple.  Upon
one of these monuments an upright figure of the deity Buddha is
sculptured in a standing position.  On the walls of the larger
temple gigantic figures are hewn out of the solid rock, and under
these a sleeping Buddha, twenty-one feet in length.

After I had wandered about here for some hours, and had seen enough
of each of the temples, I was led back to one of them, and saw there
a small table well covered with eatables and drinkables, inviting me
to a welcome meal.  Captain Gill had been so kind as to send after
me a choice tiffen, together with table and chairs, into this
wilderness.  Thus refreshed and invigorated, I did not find the
return fatiguing.  The house in which Captain Gill lives at Adjunta
is very remarkably situated:  a pleasant little garden, with flowers
and shrubs, surrounds the front, which commands a view of a fine
plain, while the back stands upon the edge of a most fearful
precipice, over which the dizzy glance loses itself among steep
crags and terrible gorges and chasms.

As Captain Gill had learnt that I wished to visit the famous
fortress of Dowlutabad, he told me that no one was admitted without
the permission of the commander of Auranjabad; but, to spare my
going out of my way (as the fortress lies on this side of
Auranjabad), he offered to send a courier there immediately, and
order him to bring the card of admission to me at Elora.  The
courier had to travel altogether a distance of 140 miles--70 there
and as many back.  I looked upon all these attentions as the more
obliging, as they were shown to me--a German woman, without
distinction or attractions--by English people.

4th March.  At 4 o'clock in the morning, the good captain joined me
at the breakfast table; half an hour later, I was seated in my
waggon and travelling towards the village of Bongeloda, which I
reached the same day.

5th March.  Roja is one of the most ancient towns of India.  It has
a gloomy aspect; the houses are one story high, and built of large
square stones, blackened by age; the doors and windows are few in
number and irregularly situated.

Outside the town lay a handsome bungalow with two rooms; but, as I
was informed that it was occupied by Europeans, I decided upon not
going there, and took up my quarters for the night under the eaves
of a house.

The country between this and Adjunta is a flat plain; the parched
heaths and poor jungles are interspersed with beautiful plantations.
The land near Pulmary was especially well cultivated.

6th March.  Early in the morning, I mounted a horse for the purpose
of visiting the equally-renowned rock temples of Elora (ten miles
from Roja).  But, as it frequently happens in life that the proverb,
"man proposes and God disposes," proves true, such was the case in
the present instance--instead of the temples, I saw a tiger-hunt.

I had scarcely left the gates of the town behind, when I perceived a
number of Europeans seated upon elephants, coming from the bungalow.
On meeting each other, we pulled up, and commenced a conversation.
The gentlemen were on the road to search for a tiger-lair, of which
they had received intimation, and invited me, if such a sport would
not frighten me too much, to take part in it.  I was greatly
delighted to receive the invitation, and was soon seated on one of
the elephants, in a howdah about two feet high, in which there were
already two gentlemen and a native--the latter had been brought to
load the guns.  They gave me a large knife to defend myself with, in
case the animal should spring too high and reach the side of the

Thus prepared, we approached the chain of hills, and, after a few
hours, were already pretty near the lair of the tigers, when our
servants cried out quite softly, "Bach, bach!" and pointed with
their fingers to some brushwood.  I had scarcely perceived the
flaming eyes which glared out of one of the bushes before shots were
fired.  Several balls took effect on the animal, who rushed,
maddened, upon us.  He made such tremendous springs, that I thought
every moment he must reach the howdah and select a victim from among
us.  The sight was terrible to see, and my apprehensions were
increased by the appearance of another tiger; however, I kept myself
so calm, that none of the gentlemen had any suspicion of what was
going on in my mind.  Shot followed shot; the elephants defended
their trunks with great dexterity by throwing them up or drawing
them in.  After a sharp contest of half an hour, we were the
victors, and the dead animals were triumphantly stripped of their
beautiful skins.  The gentlemen politely offered me one of them as a
present; but I declined accepting it, as I could not postpone my
journey sufficiently long for it to be dried.  They complimented me
on my courage, and added, that such sport would be extremely
dangerous if the elephants were not particularly well trained; above
all, they must not be afraid of the tigers, nor even stir from the
spot; for, if they ran away, the hunters would be upset by the
branches of the trees, or be left hanging upon them, when they would
certainly become the victims of the bloodthirsty animals.  It was
too late to visit the temples today, and I therefore waited till the
next morning.

The temples of Elora lie on that kind of table-land which is
peculiar to India.  The principal temple, Kylas, is the most
wonderful of all those which are hewn out of the rock.  It
surpasses, in magnitude and finish, the best specimens of Indian
architecture; it is, indeed, affirmed to have claims to precedence
over the marvellous buildings of the ancient Egyptians.  The Kylas
is of conical form, 120 feet in height and 600 in circumference.
For the construction of this masterwork, a colossal block was
separated from the solid rock by a passage 240 feet long and 100
broad.  The interior of the temple consists of a principal hall (66
feet long by 100 broad), and several adjoining halls, which are all
furnished with sculptures and gigantic idols; but the real
magnificence consists in the rich and beautiful sculptures on the
exterior, in the tastefully-executed arabesques, and in the fine
pinnacles and niches, which are cut out on the tower.  The temple
rests on the backs of numerous elephants and tigers, which lie next
to each other in peaceful attitudes.  Before the principal entrance,
to which several flights of steps lead, stand two figures of
elephants above life-size.  The whole is, as has been said before,
hewn from a single mass of rock.  The cliff from which this immense
block was separated surrounds the temple, on three sides, at a
distance of 100 feet, forming colossal perpendicular walls, in
which, as at Adjunta, enormous colonnades, larger and smaller
temples, from two to three stories high, are excavated.  The
principal temple is called Rameswur, and somewhat exceeds in size
the largest vichara at Adjunta; its breadth is ninety-eight feet, it
extends into the rock 102 feet, and the height of the ceiling is
twenty-four feet; it is supported by twenty-two pilasters, and
covered with the most beautiful sculptures, reliefs, and colossal
gods, among which the principal group represents the marriage of the
god Ram and the goddess Seeta.  A second vichara, nearly as handsome
as this last, is called Laoka; the principal figure in this is

Not far distant, a number of similar temples are excavated in
another rock.  They are much more simple, with unattractive portals
and plain columns; therefore, not to be compared with those at
Adjunta.  This task would have been impossible if the rock had been
granite or a similar primitive foundation; unfortunately, I could
not ascertain what the rock was, I only examined the pieces which
were here and there chipped off, and which were very easily broken.
It is not with the less astonishment that one contemplates these
surprising works, which will always be considered as inimitable
monuments of human ingenuity.

The temple of Kylas is, unfortunately, somewhat decayed from age and
the destructive action of the weather.  It is a sad pity that the
only monument of this kind in the world will, by-and-bye, fall into
ruins.  Towards 11 o'clock in the morning I returned to Roja, and
immediately continued my journey to the famous fortress Dowlutabad,
having safely received the admission in Roja.

The distance was only eight miles; but the roads were execrably bad,
and there was a mountain-pass to cross similar to that near Adjunta.
The fortress, one of the oldest and strongest in India, is
considered as the most remarkable of its kind, not only in the
Deccan but in all India.  It presents a most imposing aspect, and is
situated upon a peak of rock 600 feet high, which stands isolated in
a beautiful plain, and appears to have been separated from the
adjoining mountains by some violent natural convulsion.  The
circumference of this rock amounts to about a mile.  It is cut round
perpendicularly to a height of 130 feet and thirty feet below the
top of the moat by which it is surrounded, which cutting is equally
perpendicular, so that the whole height of the escarpment is 160
feet, and the rock, consequently, inaccessible.  There is no pathway
leading to the fortress, and I was, therefore, extremely curious to
know by what means the summit was reached.  In the side of the rock
itself was a very low iron door, which is only visible in time of
peace, as the ditch can be filled a foot above its level when
required.  Torches were lighted, and I was carefully conducted
through narrow low passages, which led with numerous windings
upwards through the body of the rock.  These passages were closed in
many places by massive iron gates.  Some considerable distance above
the precipitous part of the rock, we again emerged into the open
air; narrow paths and steps, protected by strongly-fortified works,
led from this place to the highest point.  The latter was somewhat
flattened, (140 feet in diameter), completely undermined, and so
contrived, that it could be heated red-hot.  A cannon, twenty-three
feet long, was planted here.

At the foot of this fortress are scattered numerous ruins, which, I
was told, were the remains of a very important town; nothing is left
of it now except the fortified walls, three or four feet deep, which
must be passed to reach the peak of rock itself.

In the same plain, but near to the range of mountains, standing on a
separate elevation, is a considerably larger fortress than
Dowlutabad, but of far inferior strength.

The numerous fortresses, as well as the fortified towns, were, as I
here learned, the remnants of past times, when Hindostan was divided
into a great number of states, continually at war with each other.
The inhabitants of the towns and villages never went out unarmed;
they had spies continually on the watch; and to secure themselves
from sudden attacks, drove their herds inside the walls every night,
and lived in a continual state of siege.  In consequence of the
unceasing warfare which prevailed, bands of mounted robbers were
formed, frequently consisting of as many as ten or twelve thousand
men, who too often starved out and overcame the inhabitants of the
smaller towns, and completely destroyed their young crops.  These
people were then compelled to enter into a contract with these wild
hordes, and to buy themselves off by a yearly tribute.

Since the English have conquered India, peace and order have been
everywhere established; the walls decay and are not repaired; the
people indeed frequently wear arms, but more from habit than

The distance from Dowlutabad to Auranjabad was eight miles.  I was
already much fatigued, for I had visited the temples, ridden eight
miles over the mountain pass, and mounted to the top of the fortress
during the greatest heat; but I looked forward to the night, which I
preferred passing in a house and a comfortable bed, rather than
under an open verandah; and, seating myself in my waggon, desired
the driver to quicken the pace of his weary oxen as much as



On the 7th of March, late in the evening, I reached Auranjabad.
Captain Stewart, who lived outside the town, received me with the
same cordiality as the other residents had done.

8th March.  Captain Stewart and his wife accompanied me this morning
to the town to show me its objects of interest, which consisted of a
monument and a sacred pool.  Auranjabad is the capital of the
Deccan, has 60,000 inhabitants, and is partly in ruins.

The monument, which is immediately outside the town, was built more
than two hundred years since by the Sultan Aurung-zeb-Alemgir, in
memory of his daughter.  It by no means deserves to be compared to
the great Tadsch at Agra.  It is a mosque, with a lofty arched dome
and four minarets.  The building is covered all round--the lower
part of the outside with a coating of white marble five feet high;
the upper portion is cased with fine white cement, which is worked
over with ornamental flowers and arabesques.  The entrance doors are
beautifully inlaid with metal, on which flowers and ornamental
designs are engraved in a highly artistic manner.  Unfortunately,
the monument is already much decayed; one of the minarets is half
fallen in ruins.  In the mosque stands a plain sarcophagus,
surrounded by a marble trellis-work.  Both have nothing in common
with the great Tadsch beyond the white marble of which they are
constructed; in richness and artistic execution, they are so much
inferior, that I could not understand how any one could be led to
make so incredible a comparison.

Near the mosque lies a pretty marble hall, surrounded by a neglected

The reigning king would have removed the marble from this monument
for use in some building in which he was to be interred!  He
requested permission to do so from the English government.  The
answer was to the effect, that he could do so if he wished, but he
should remember, that if he had so little respect for the monuments
of his predecessors, his own might experience a similar fate.  This
answer induced him to relinquish his intentions.

The pool considered sacred by the Mahomedans is a large basin,
constructed of square stones.  It is full of large pikes, none of
which, however, are allowed to be taken; in fact, there is an
attendant appointed to supply them with food.  The fish are
consequently so tame and familiar, that they will eat turnips,
bread, etc., out of the hand.  The rainy season causes the death of
many of them:  were it not for this fortunate circumstance, the pool
would before long contain more fish than water.  Since the English
have come here, the attendants are said not to be so conscientious,
and very often smuggle fish out of the pool into the English
kitchens, for the sake of a little ready money.

After spending a very agreeable day, I took a hearty farewell of my
friendly hostess, and continued my journey in a fresh waggon towards
Puna, 136 miles distant.

9th March.  Toka.  The roads here began to be better, and there were
bungalows to be had on payment of the ordinary fees.

10th March.  Emanpoor, a small village situated on the summit of a
chain of hills.  I found here the handsomest bungalow I had seen
during the whole journey from Benares to Bombay.

11th March.  We passed the whole day in travelling through a barren
country, over naked hills and mountains:  the majestic solitary
trees with the wells had already ceased at Auranjabad.

Towards noon we passed the very flourishing town of Ahmednugger, in
the neighbourhood of which a large English military station is

12th March.  The bungalow at Serur was too near, that at Candapoor
too distant.  I therefore decided upon taking up my quarters for the
night under the eaves of a house.

13th March.  In Candapoor there are some handsome Hindoo temples and
several small Mahomedan monuments.  Near Lony is a large English
military station.  I also found an obelisk erected there in memory
of a battle won by 1,200 English against 20,000 natives.

14th March.  Puna.  I had endless trouble here to find Mr. Brown, to
whom I had an introduction from Mr. Hamilton.  The Europeans reside
in all parts of the town, for the most part miles apart, and I had
the misfortune to meet with some who were not the most polite, and
did not consider it worth taking the trouble to give me information.
Mr. Brown, on the contrary, received me as kindly as I could desire.

His first inquiry was whether any accident had happened to me on the
road.  He told me that, only a short time since, an officer was
robbed between Suppa and Puna, and as he attempted to defend
himself, was murdered; but he added that such instances were
extraordinarily rare.

I had arrived about noon.  After dinner, Mr. Brown conducted me to
the town, which belongs to the East India Company.  It contains
15,000 inhabitants, and is situated at the junction of the rivers
Mulla and Mutta, over both of which handsome bridges are thrown.
The streets are broad and kept clean; the houses, like those in
Udjein, are furnished with false wooden walls.  Some were painted
all over, and belonged mostly, as I was informed, to fakirs, with
whom the town swarmed.

It was the month in which the Hindoos prefer to celebrate their
marriages, and we met in several streets merry processions of that
kind.  The bridegroom is enveloped in a purple mantle, his turban
dressed out with gold tinsel, tresses, ribbons, and tassels, so that
from a distance it appears like a rich crown.  The depending ribbons
and tassels nearly cover the whole face.  He is seated upon a horse;
relatives, friends, and guests surround him on foot.  When he
reaches the house of the bride, the doors and windows of which are
securely closed, he seats himself quietly and patiently on the
threshold.  The female relations and friends also gather together
here, without conversing much with the bridegroom and the other men.
This scene continues unchanged until nightfall.  The bridegroom then
departs with his friends; a closely covered waggon, which has been
held in readiness, is drawn up to the door; the females slip into
the house, bring out the thickly-veiled bride, push her into the
waggon, and follow her with the melodious music of the tam-tam.  The
bride does not start until the bridegroom has been gone a quarter of
an hour.  The women then accompany her into the bridegroom's house,
which, however, they leave soon afterwards.  The music is kept up in
front of the house until late in the night.  It is only the
marriages of the lower classes that are celebrated in this manner.

There is a road leading from Puna to Pannwell, a distance of seventy
miles, and travellers can post all the way.  From Pannwell to Bombay
the journey is made by water.  I adhered to the cheaper baili, and
Mr. Brown was so obliging as to procure one for me, and to lend me a

On the 15th of March I again set out, and on the same day arrived at
Woodgown, a village with one of the dirtiest bungalows in which I
ever made up my bed.

16th March.  Cumpuily.  The country between this place and Woodgown
is the most beautiful that I saw in India; the view from a mountain
some miles on this side of Kundalla, was particularly striking.  The
spectator stands here in the midst of an extensive mountainous
district:  peaks of the most diversified forms are piled in numerous
rows above and alongside of each other, presenting the most
beautiful and variegated outlines.

There are, also, enormous terraces of rock, flattened cones of
peaks, with battlements and pinnacles, which at first sight might be
taken for ruins and fortresses.  In one place the lofty roof of a
majestic building presents itself--in another, a gigantic Gothic
tower rises aloft.  The volcanic form of the Tumel mountain is the
most uncommon object which meets the eye.  Beyond the mountains
extends a wide plain, at the extremity of which lies the polished
surface of the long wished-for ocean.  The greater part of the
mountains is covered with beautiful green woods.  I was so much
delighted with the extreme beauty of the prospect, that I
congratulated myself for the first time on the slow pace of my
sleepy oxen.

The village of Karly lies between Woodgown and Kundalla; it is
famous on account of its temples, which are about two miles distant.
I did not visit them, because I was assured that they were not half
so interesting as those at Adjunta and Elora.

Kundalla lies upon a mountain plateau.  There are several pretty
country-houses here, to which many European families, from the
neighbourhood of Bombay, resort during the hot weather.

In the Deccan, and the province of Bombay, I found the natives were
less handsome than in Bengal and Hindostan; their features were much
coarser, and not so open and amiable.

For several days we have again met very large trains of oxen, some
of the drivers of which had their families with them.  The females
of these people were very ragged and dirty, and at the same time
loaded with finery.  The whole body was covered with coloured
woollen borderings and fringes, the arms with bracelets of metal,
bone, and glass beads; even to the ears large woollen tassels were
hung, in addition to the usual ornaments, and the feet were loaded
with heavy rings and chains.  Thus bedecked, the beauties sat on the
backs of the oxen, or walked by the side of the animals.

17th March.  Since the attack of the negroes in Brazil, I had not
been in such a fright as I was today.  My driver had appeared to me,
during the whole journey, somewhat odd in his manner, or rather
foolish:  sometimes abusing his oxen, sometimes caressing them,
shouting to the passers-by, or turning round and staring at me for
some minutes together.  However, as I had a servant with me who
always walked by the baili, I paid little attention to him.  But
this morning my servant had gone on, without my consent, to the next
station, and I found myself alone with this foolish driver, and on a
rather secluded road.  After some time he got down from the waggon,
and went close behind it.  The bailis are only covered over at the
sides with straw matting, and are open at the front and back; I
could therefore observe what he was doing, but I would not turn
round, as I did not wish to make him think that I suspected him.  I,
however, moved my head gradually on one side to enable me to watch
his proceedings.  He soon came in front again, and, to my terror,
took from the waggon the hatchet which every driver carries with
him, and again retired behind.  I now thought nothing less than that
he had evil intentions, but I could not fly from him, and dare not,
of course, evince any fear.  I very gently and unobserved drew my
mantle towards me, rolled it together, so that I might, at least,
protect my head with it, in case he made a blow at me with the

He kept me for some time in this painful state of suspense, then
seated himself on his place and stared at me, got down again, and
repeated the same proceedings several times.  It was not until after
a long hour that he laid the hatchet on one side, remained sitting
on the waggon, and contented himself with gaping vacantly at me
every now and then.  At the end of a second hour we reached the
station where my servant was, and I did not allow him to leave my
side again.

The villages through which we passed today were of the most wretched
description; the walls of the huts were constructed of rushes, or
reeds, covered with palm leaves; some had no front wall.

These villages are chiefly inhabited by Mahrattas, a race which
were, at one period, rather powerful in India, and indeed in the
whole peninsula.  They were, however, expelled from Hindostan by the
Mongols, in the eighteenth century, and fled into the mountains
which extend from Surata to Goa.  During the present century, the
majority of these people were compelled to place themselves under
the protection of the English.  The only Mahratta prince who still
maintains, in any degree, his independence, is the Scindiah; the
others receive pensions.

The Mahrattas are adherent to the religion of Brahma.  They are
powerfully built; the colour of their skin varies from dirty black
to clear brown; their features are repulsive and ill-formed.  They
are inured to all manner of hardships, live chiefly upon rice and
water, and their disposition is represented as being morose,
revengeful, and savage.  They excite themselves to fighting by means
of opium, or Indian hemp, which they smoke like tobacco.

In the afternoon, I reached the little town of Pannwell.  Travellers
embark, towards the evening, in boats, and proceed down the river
Pannwell to the sea, reaching Bombay about morning.

I had safely completed the long and tedious journey from Delhi to
Pannwell in seven weeks.  For having accomplished it I was
especially indebted to the English officials, who afforded me both
advice and assistance; their humanity, their cordial friendliness I
shall ever remember.  I again offer them my most sincere and warmest
thanks; and the greatest compliment which I can pay them is the wish
that my own countrymen, the Austrian consuls and ambassadors,
resembled them!

At Bombay I stayed at the country-house of the Hamburgh consul, Herr
Wattenbach, intending only to draw upon his hospitality for a few
days, and to leave as soon as possible, in order to take advantage
of the monsoon {225} in my passage through the Arabian and Persian
seas.  Days, however, grew into weeks, for the favourable time was
already past, and the opportunity of meeting with ship conveyance
was there very rare.

Herr Wattenbach made my stay in Bombay very agreeable; he showed me
everything worth seeing, and accompanied me in excursions to
Elephanta and Salsette.

Bombay lies on a small but remarkably pretty island, which is
separated from the mainland by a very narrow arm of the sea; its
extent is about five square miles, and it is inhabited by 250,000
souls.  Bombay is the principal town of Western India, and as its
harbour is the best and safest on the whole west coast, it is the
chief seat of commerce for the produce and manufactures of India,
the Malay country, Persia, Arabia, and Abyssinia.  In a commercial
respect, it stands only second to Calcutta.  In Bombay, every
language of the civilized world is to be heard, and the costumes and
habits of every nation are to be seen.  The finest view of the whole
island and town of Bombay, as well as the neighbouring islands of
Salsette, Elephanta, Kolabeh, Caranjah, and the mainland, is to be
had from the Malabar point.  The country, at some distance from the
town, consists chiefly of low hills, which are covered with
beautiful woods of cocoa-nut and date-trees; in the plain
surrounding the town there are also many such groves divided into
gardens by walls.  The natives are very fond of building their
dwellings under the dark shadows of these trees; while, on the
contrary, the Europeans seek for as much light and air as possible.
The country-houses of the latter are handsome and convenient, but
not to be compared with those of Calcutta, either in size or
magnificence.  The town lies on a level, along the sea-shore.

The active life of the rich inland and European commercial
population must be sought for in the fortified parts of the town,
which constitute a large quadrangle.  Here is to be found
merchandise from all parts of the world.  The streets are handsome,
the large square called The Green especially so.  The buildings most
remarkable for their architectural beauty are the Town-hall, whose
saloon has no equal, the English Church, the Governor's Palace, and
the Mint.

The Open Town and the Black Town {226} adjoin the fortified
portions, and are considerably larger.  In the Open Town, the
streets are very regular and broad, more so than any other Indian
city that I saw; they are also carefully watered.  I observed many
houses decorated with artistically-carved wooden pillars, capitals,
and galleries.  The bazaar is an object of great interest; not, as
many travellers affirm, on account of the richness of the
merchandise, of which there is not more to be seen than in other
bazaars--in fact, there is not even any of the beautiful wood mosaic
work of which Bombay produces the finest--but from the diversity of
people, which is greater here than anywhere else.  Three parts,
indeed, are Hindoos, and the fourth Mahomedans, Persians, Fire-
worshippers, Mahrattas, Jews, Arabs, Bedouins, Negroes, descendants
of Portuguese, several hundred Europeans, and even some Chinese and
Hottentots.  It requires a long time to be able to distinguish the
people of the different nations by their dress and the formation of
their faces.

The most wealthy among people owning property here are the Fire-
worshippers, called also Gebers, or Parsees.  They were expelled
from Persia about 1,200 years since, and settled down along the west
coast of India.  As they are remarkably industrious and hard-
working, very well disposed and benevolent, there are no poor, no
beggars to be found among them--all appear to be prosperous.  The
handsome houses in which the Europeans reside mostly belong to them;
they are the largest owners of land, ride out in the most beautiful
carriages, and are surrounded by innumerable servants.  One of the
richest of them--Jamsetize-Jeejeebhoy--built, at his own expense, a
handsome hospital in the Gothic style, and provides European medical
men and receives the sick of every religious denomination.  He was
knighted by the English government, and is certainly the first
Hindoo who could congratulate himself on such a distinction.

While speaking of the Fire-worshippers, I will relate all that I
myself saw of them, as well as what I learnt from Manuckjee-
Cursetjee, one of the most cultivated and distinguished among them.

The Fire-worshippers believe in one Supreme Being.  They pay the
greatest reverence to the four elements, and especially to the
element of fire, and to the sun, because they look upon them as
emblems of the Supreme Being.  Every morning they watch for the
rising sun, and hasten out of their houses, and even outside of the
town, to greet it immediately with prayers.  Besides the elements,
the cow is considered sacred by them.

Soon after my arrival, I went one morning upon the esplanade of the
town for the purpose of seeing the great number of Parsees {227}
who, as I had read, assembled themselves there waiting for the first
rays of the sun, on the appearance of which, as if at a given
signal, they throw themselves on the ground, and raise a loud cry of
joy.  I, however, merely saw several Parsees, not in groups, but
standing separately here and there, reading silently from a book, or
murmuring a prayer to themselves.  These did not even come at the
same time, for many arrived as late as 9 o'clock.

It was precisely the same with the corpses which are stated to be
exposed upon the roofs for the birds of prey to feed upon.  I saw
not a single one.  In Calcutta, Mr. V---, who had but recently come
from Bombay, assured me that he had himself seen many.  I cannot
believe that the English government would permit such a barbarous
proceeding, and one so prejudicial to health.  But I must resume my
narrative.  My first question, after I had been introduced to
Manuckjee, was as to the manner in which the Parsees bury their
dead.  He conducted me to a hill outside the town, and pointed out a
wall, four-and-twenty feet high, enclosing a round space of about
sixty feet in diameter.  He told me that within this wall there was
a bier, with three partitions, built up, and near to it a large pit
excavated.  The bodies of the deceased are placed upon the bier, the
men on the first, the women on the second, and children on the third
compartment, and are fastened down with iron bands; and, according
to the commands of their religion, are left exposed to the action of
the element of air.  The birds of prey, which always gather in large
swarms round such places, fall upon the bodies ravenously, and in a
few minutes devour the flesh and skin; the bones are gathered up and
thrown into the cave.  When this becomes full, the place is
abandoned and another erected.

Many wealthy people have private burial-places, over which they have
fine wire gauze stretched, so that the deceased members of their
family may not be stripped of their flesh by birds of prey.

No one is allowed to enter the burial-ground except the priests, who
carry the bodies; even the door is rapidly closed, for only one
glance into it would be a sin.  The priests, or rather bearers, are
considered so impure that they are excluded from all other society,
and form a separate caste.  Whoever has the misfortune to brush
against one of these men, must instantly throw off his clothes and

The Parsees are not less exclusive with respect to their temples; no
one of any other belief is allowed to enter them, or even to look
in.  The temples which I saw here, of course only from the outside,
are very small, extremely plain, and destitute of the slightest
peculiarity of architecture; the round entrance-hall surrounds a
kind of fore-court, enclosed by a wall.  I was only allowed to go as
far as the entrance of the wall leading to the fore-court.  The
handsomest temple in Bombay {228} is a small unimportant building,
and I must again contradict those descriptions which make so much of
the beautiful temples of the Fire-worshippers.

As I was informed by Manuckjee, the fire burns in a kind of iron
vase, in a completely empty, unornamented temple or apartment.  The
Parsees affirm that the fire which burns in the principal temple,
and at which all the others are lighted, originates from the fire
which their prophet, Zoroaster, lighted in Persia 4,000 years since.
When they were driven out of Persia they took it with them.  This
fire is not fed with ordinary wood alone; more costly kinds, such as
sandal, rose-wood, and such like, are mixed with it.

The priests are called magi, and in each temple there is a
considerable number of them.  They are distinguished, as regards
their dress, from the other Parsees, only by a white turban.  They
are allowed to marry.

The women visit the temple generally at different hours from the
men.  They are not forbidden to go there at the same time as the
latter; but they never do so, and, indeed, very seldom go at all.  A
pious Parsee is supposed to pray daily four times, and each time for
an hour; for this purpose, however, it is not necessary that he
should go to the temple; he fixes his eyes upon fire, earth, or
water, or stares into the open air.  Whoever finds four hours of
prayer daily too much, ingratiates himself with the priests, who are
humane and considerate, like the priests of other religions, and
willingly release applicants from their cares for the consideration
of a moderate gift.

The Parsees prefer offering up their prayers in the morning in the
presence of the sun, which they honour the most, as the greatest and
most sacred fire.  The worship of fire is carried to such an extent
by them that they do not pursue any trades which require the use of
fire, neither will they fire a gun, or extinguish a light.  They let
their kitchen-fires burn out.  Many travellers even affirm that they
will not assist in extinguishing a conflagration; but this is not
the case.  I was assured that on such an occasion, some years since,
many Parsees had been seen giving their help to put the fire out.

Manuckjee was so obliging as to invite me to his house, that I might
become acquainted in some degree with the mode of life of Parsee
families; he also conducted me to the houses of several of his

I found the rooms furnished in the European manner, with chairs,
tables, sofas, ottomans, pictures, mirrors, etc.  The dress of the
women was little different from that of the more wealthy Hindoos; it
was more decorous, as it was not made of transparent muslin, but of
silk; and they had, moreover, trousers.  The silk was richly
embroidered with gold, which luxury is extended to three-year old
children.  The younger ones, and even the newly-born infants, are
wrapped in plain silk stuff.  The children wore little caps, worked
with gold and silver.  The Parsee women consider gold ornaments,
pearl and precious stones as necessary a part of their dress as the
Hindoos; even in the house they wear a great quantity, but when
visiting, or on the occasion of any festival, the jewellery of a
wealthy Parsee woman is said to exceed in value 100,000 rupees
(10,000 pounds).  Children of only seven or eight months old, wear
finger-rings and bracelets of precious stones or pearls.

The dress of the men consists of wide trousers and long kaftans.
The shirts and trousers are chiefly made of white silk, the jacket
of white muslin.  The turban differs greatly from that of the
Mahomedans; it is a cap of pasteboard, covered with coloured stuff
or waxed cloth, ten or twelve inches high.

Both men and women wear round their waists, over the shirt, a girdle
passing twice round, which they take off during prayers and hold in
their hands; with this exception, they are never seen without it.
The law is so strict with regard to the point, that whoever does not
wear the girdle is driven out of society.  No agreement or contract
is valid if the girdle is not worn when it is made.  The children
begin to wear it when they reach their ninth year.  Before this
ceremony, they do not belong to the community; they may even eat of
food prepared by Christians, and the girls can accompany their
fathers in a public place.  The girdle changes all; the son eats at
his father's table, the girls remain at home, etc.

A second religious ordinance relates to the shirt; this must be cut
of a certain length and breadth, and consist of nine seams, which
are folded over each other on the breast in a peculiar manner.

A Parsee is allowed to have only one wife.  If the wife has no
children, or only girls, during a period of nine years, he can, if
she consents, be divorced from her, and marry another; he must,
however, still provide for her.  She can also marry again.
According to the religious belief of the Parsee, he is certain to
enjoy perfect happiness in a future state of existence if he has a
wife and a son in this life.

The Parsees are not divided into castes.  In the course of time the
Parsees have acquired many of the customs of the Hindoos.  For
example, the women are not allowed to show themselves in public
places; in the house they are separated from the men, take their
meals alone, and are, upon the whole, considered more as mere
property.  The girls are promised when children, and betrothed to
the man when in their fourteenth year; if, however, the bridegroom
dies, the parents can seek for another.  It is considered by the
Parsees to be a disgrace if the father does not find a husband for
his daughter.

The Parsee women, however, enjoy far more freedom in their houses
than the unfortunate Hindoos:  they are allowed to sit even at the
front windows, and sometimes be present when their husbands receive
visits from their male friends, and on both occasions without being

The Parsees may be easily distinguished from all other Asiatic
people by their features, and especially by the lighter colour of
their skin.  Their features are rather regular, but somewhat sharp,
and the cheekbones are broad.  I did not think them so handsome as
the Mahomedans and Hindoos.

Manuckjee is a great exception to his country people.  He is,
perhaps, the first who has visited Paris, London, and a considerable
part of Italy.  He was so well pleased with European manners and
customs, that on his return he endeavoured to introduce several
reforms among the people of his sect.  Unfortunately, he was
unsuccessful.  He was decried as a man who did not know what he
would be doing, and many withdrew from him their friendship and
respect in consequence.

He allows his family to go about the house with freedom; but even
there he cannot depart much from established custom, as he does not
wish to separate entirely from his sect.  His daughters are educated
in the European method; the eldest plays a little on the piano,
embroiders, and sews.  She wrote a small paragraph in English in my
album very well.  Her father did not engage her as a child, but
wished that her own inclinations might correspond with his selection
of a husband.  I was told that she would probably not meet with one,
because she is educated too much in the European style; she is
already fourteen years of age, and her father has not yet provided
her with a bridegroom.

When I first visited this house, the mother and daughters were
seated in a drawing-room, engaged with needlework.  I remained
during their meal-time, a liberty which an orthodox Parsee would not
have afforded to me; I was not, however, allowed to join them at
table.  It was first laid for me, and I ate alone.  Several dishes
were placed before me, which, with slight deviations, were prepared
in the European manner.  Everyone, with the exception of the master
of the house, watched with surprise the way in which I used a knife
and fork; even the servants stared at this, to them, singular
spectacle.  When I had sufficiently appeased my appetite in this
public manner, the table was as carefully brushed as if I had been
infected with the plague.  Flat cakes of bread were then brought and
laid upon the uncovered table, instead of plates, and six or seven
of the same dishes which had been served to me.  The members of the
family each washed their hands and faces, and the father said a
short grace.  All except the youngest child, who was only six years
of age, sat at the table, and reached with their right hands into
the different dishes.  They tore the flesh from the bones, separated
the fish into pieces, and then dipped the pieces into the various
soups and sauces, and threw them with such dexterity into the mouth,
that they did not touch their lips with their fingers.  Whoever
accidentally does, must immediately get up and wash his hand again,
or else place before him the dish into which he has put his unwashed
hand, and not touch any other one.  The left hand is not used during
the whole meal time.

This mode of eating appears, indeed, very uninviting; but it is, in
fact, not at all so; the hand is washed, and does not touch anything
but the food.  It is the same in drinking; the vessel is not put to
the lips, but the liquid is very cleverly poured into the open
mouth.  Before the children have acquired this dexterity in eating
and drinking, they are not permitted, even when they wear the
girdle, to come to the table of the adults.

The most common drink in Bombay is called sud or toddy, a kind of
light spirituous beverage which is made from the cocoa and date-
palm.  The taxes upon these trees are very high; the latter are, as
in Egypt, numbered and separately assessed.  A tree which is only
cultivated for fruit, pays from a quarter to half a rupee (6d. to
1s.); those from which toddy is extracted, from three-quarters to
one rupee each.  The people here do not climb the palm-trees by
means of rope-ladders, but they cut notches in the tree, in which
they set their feet.

During my stay here, an old Hindoo woman died near to Herr
Wattenbach's house, which circumstance gave me an opportunity of
witnessing an Indian funeral.  As soon as she began to show signs of
death, the women about her every now and then set up a horrible
howling, which they continued at short intervals after her decease.
Presently, small processions of six or eight women approached, who
also commenced howling as soon as they discovered the house of the
mourners.  These women all entered the house.  The men, of whom
there were a great number present, seated themselves quietly in
front of it.  At the expiration of some hours, the dead body was
enveloped in a white shroud, laid upon an open bier, and carried by
the men to the place where it was to be burnt.  One of them carried
a vessel with charcoal and a piece of lighted wood, for the purpose
of igniting the wood with the fire of the house.

The women remained behind, and collected in front of the house in a
small circle, in the middle of which was placed a woman who was
hired to assist in the lamentations.  She commenced a wailing song
of several stanzas, at the end of each of which the whole joined in
chorus; they kept time also by beating their breasts with the right
hand and bowing their heads to the ground.  They executed this
movement as quickly and regularly as if they had been dolls worked
by a wire.

After this had been carried on for a quarter of an hour, there was a
short pause, during which the women struck their breasts with both
their fists so violently, that the blows could be heard at some
considerable distance.  After each blow, they stretched their hands
up high and bowed their heads very low, all with great regularity
and rapidity.  This proceeding seemed even more comical than the
first.  After much exertion, they seated themselves round in a ring,
drank toddy, and smoked tobacco.

On the following morning, both men and women repeated their visit.
The former, however, did not enter the house; they lit a fire and
prepared a plain meal.  As often as a party of women came, one of
the men went to the house-door and announced them, upon which the
principal mourner came out of the house to receive them.  She threw
herself with such violence on the ground before them, that I thought
she would not be able to rise up again; the women struck themselves
with their fists once on their breasts, and then drew their hands to
their heads.  The widow raised herself in the meantime, threw
herself impetuously round the necks of each of the women, throwing,
at the same time, her head-dress over the head of her consoler, and
both endeavoured to out-do each other in howling.  All these
evolutions were very rapidly performed; a dozen embraces were gone
through in a moment.  After the reception, they went into the house
and continued howling at intervals.  It was not until sun-set that
all was still, and a supper concluded the whole affair.  The women
ate in the house--the men in the open air.

Funerals and marriages always cost the Hindoos a great deal.  The
one here described was that of a woman of the poorer class.
Nevertheless, it is considered essential that there should be no
want of toddy during two days, or of provisions for meals, at which
there are an abundance of guests.  In addition to this, there is the
wood, which also costs a considerable sum, even when it is only
common wood.  The rich, who use on such occasions the most costly
wood, frequently pay more than a thousand rupees (100 pounds).

I once met the funeral procession of a Hindoo child.  It lay upon a
cushion, covered with a white sheet, and was strewed with fresh and
beautiful flowers.  A man carried it on both his arms as gently and
carefully as if it was sleeping.  In this instance, also, there were
only men present.

The Hindoos have no particular festival-day in the week, but
festivals at certain times, which last for some days.  I was present
at one of these during my stay, Warusche-Parupu, the New-Year's
festival, which took place on the 11th of April.  It was a kind of
fast-night celebration.  The principal amusement consisted in
throwing yellow, brown, and red colours over each other, and
painting themselves with the same on their cheeks and foreheads.
The noisy tam-tam, or a couple of violins, headed the procession,
and greater or less followed, who, laughing and singing, danced from
house to house, or from one place to another.  Several, indeed, on
this occasion, found the toddy rather too exciting, but not so much
as to lose their consciousness or to exceed the bounds of decorum.
The women do not take part in these public processions; but, in the
evening, both sexes assemble in the houses, where the festivities
are said not to be carried on in the most decorous manner.

Martyrs' festivals are no longer celebrated with full splendour.  I
did not see any; their time is past.  I was, however, so fortunate
as to see a martyr, to whom great numbers of people flocked.  This
holy man had, for three-and-twenty years, held one of his arms
raised up with the hand turned back so far that a flower-pot could
stand upon it.  The three-and-twenty years were passed, and the
flower-pot was removed; but neither hand nor arm were to be brought
into any other position, for the muscles had contracted, the arm was
quite withered, and presented a most repulsive appearance.

The Island of Elephanta is about six or eight miles distant from
Bombay.  Herr Wattenbach was so kind as to take me there one day.  I
saw some rather high mountains, which, however, we did not ascend;
we visited only the temples, which are very near to the landing-

The principal temple resembles the larger viharas at Adjunta, with
the single exception, that it is separated on both sides from the
solid rock, and is connected with it only above, below, and at the
back.  In the sanctuary stands a gigantic three-headed bust.  Some
believe that it represents the Hindoo Trinity; one of the heads is
full-faced, the two others in profile, one right, the other left.
The bust, including the head-dress, measures certainly as much as
eight feet.  On the walls and in the niches, there are a number of
giant statues and figures; in fact, whole scenes of the Hindoo
mythology.  The female figures are remarkable; they all have the
left hip turned out, the right turned inwards.  The temple appears
to be devoted to the god Shiva.

In the neighbourhood of the large temple stands a smaller one, whose
walls are also covered with deities.  Both temples were much injured
by the Portuguese, who, when they conquered the island, in their
noble religious zeal planted cannon before them, in order to destroy
the shocking Pagan temples; in which attempt they succeeded much
better than in the conversion of the Pagans.  Several columns are
quite in ruins; nearly all are more or less damaged, and the ground
is covered with fragments.  None of either the gods or their
attendants escaped uninjured.

There is a most enchanting view across the sea of the extensive
town, and the delightful hills surrounding it, from the facade of
the large temple.  We passed a whole day here very agreeably.
During the hot hours of noon, we amused ourselves by reading in the
cool shadows of the temple.  Herr Wattenbach had sent on several
servants previously; among others, the cook, together with tables,
chairs, provisions, books, and newspapers.  In my opinion, this was
rather superfluous; but what would my countrywomen have said could
they have seen the English family which we accidentally met with
here; they carried several couches, easy chairs, enormous foot-
stools, a tent, etc., with them.  That is what I call a simple
country party!

Salsetta (also called Tiger Island) is united to Bombay by means of
a short artificial dam.  The distance from the fort to the village,
behind which the temples are situated, is eighteen miles, which we
travelled, with relays of horses, in three hours.  The roads were
excellent, the carriage rolled along as if on a floor.

The natural beauty of this island far exceeds that of Bombay.  Not
mere rows of hills, but magnificent mountain chains here raise their
heads, covered even to their summits with thick woods, from which
bare cliffs here and there project; the valleys are planted with
rich fields of corn, and slender green palms.

The island does not appear to be densely populated.  I saw only a
few villages and a single small town inhabited by Mahrattas, whose
appearance is as needy and dirty as those near Kundalla.

From the village where we left the carriage we had still three miles
to go to the temples.

The principal temple alone is in the style of a chaitza; but it is
surrounded by an uncommonly high porch, at both extremities of which
idols one-and-twenty feet high stand in niches.  Adjoining to the
right is a second temple, which contains several priests' cells,
allegorical figures of deities, and reliefs.  Besides these two,
there are innumerable other smaller ones in the rocks, which extend
on both sides from the principal temple; I was told there were more
than a hundred.  They are all viharas with the exception of the
principal temple; the greater number, however, are scarcely larger
than ordinary small chambers, and are destitute of any peculiarity.

The rock temples of Elephanta and Salsetta rank, in respect to
magnitude, grandeur, and art, far below those of Adjunta and Elora,
and are of interest only to those who have not seen the latter.

It is said that the temples at Salsetta are not much visited,
because there is considerable danger attending it; the country is
represented to be full of tigers, and so many wild bees are said to
swarm round the temples that it is impossible to enter them; and
moreover the robbers, which are known by the name of bheels, live
all round here.  We fortunately met with none of these misfortunes.
Later, indeed, I wandered about here alone.  I was not satisfied
with a single sight, and left my friends privately while they were
taking their noon rest, and clambered from rock to rock as far as
the most remote temple.  In one I found the skin and horns of a goat
that had been devoured, which sight somewhat frightened me; but
trusting to the unsociability of the tiger, who will rather fly from
a man in broad day than seek him out, I continued my ramble.  We
had, as I have said, no danger to resist; it was different with two
gentlemen who, some days later, nearly fell victims, not indeed to
wild beasts, but to wild bees.  One of them knocked upon an opening
in the side of the rock, when an immense swarm of bees rushed out
upon them, and it was only by the greatest exertion that they
escaped, miserably stung on the head, face, and hands.  This
occurrence was published in the newspapers as a warning for others.

The climate of Bombay is healthier than that of Calcutta; even the
heat is more tolerable on account of the continual sea-breezes,
although Bombay lies five degrees further south.  The mosquitoes
here, as in all hot countries, are very tormenting.  A centipede
slipped into my bed one evening, but I fortunately discovered it in

I had already decided upon taking my passage in an Arabian boat,
which was to leave for Bassora on the 2nd of April, when Herr
Wattenbach brought the news that on the 10th a small steamer would
make its first voyage to Bassora.  This afforded me great pleasure--
I did not suspect that it would happen with a steamer as with a
sailing vessel, whose departure is postponed from day to day;
nevertheless, we did not leave the harbour of Bombay until the 23rd
of April.



The steamer "Sir Charles Forbes" (forty horse-power, Captain
Lichfield) had only two cabins, a small and a large one.  The former
had already been engaged for some time by an Englishman, Mr. Ross;
the latter was bespoken by some rich Persians for their wives and
children.  I was, therefore, obliged to content myself with a place
upon deck; however, I took my meals at the captain's table, who
showed me the most extreme attention and kindness during the whole

The little vessel was, in the fullest sense of the word, overloaded
with people; the crew alone numbered forty-five; in addition to that
there were 124 passengers, chiefly Persians, Mahomedans, and Arabs.
Mr. Ross and myself were the only Europeans.  When this crowd of
persons were collected, there was not the smallest clear space on
the deck; to get from one place to another it was necessary to climb
over innumerable chests and boxes, and at the same time to use great
caution not to tread upon the heads or feet of the people.

In such critical circumstances I looked about immediately to see
where I could possibly secure a good place.  I found what I sought,
and was the most fortunate of all the passengers, more so than even
Mr. Ross, who could not sleep any night in his cabin on account of
the heat and insects.  My eye fell upon the under part of the
captain's dinner-table, which was fixed upon the stern deck; I took
possession of this place, threw my mantle round me, so that I had a
pretty secure position, and no cause to fear that I should have my
hands, feet, or indeed my head trodden upon.

I was somewhat unwell when I left Bombay, and on the second day of
the voyage a slight attack of bilious fever came on.  I had to
contend with this for five days.  I crept painfully from my asylum
at meal times to make way for the feet of the people at table.  I
did not take any medicine (I carried none with me), but trusted to
Providence and my good constitution.

A much more dangerous malady than mine was discovered on board on
the third day of the voyage.  The small-pox was in the large cabin.
Eighteen women and seven children were crammed in there.  They had
much less room than the negroes in a slave-ship; the air was in the
highest degree infected, and they were not allowed to go on the
deck, filled as it was with men; even we deck passengers were in
great anxiety lest the bad air might spread itself over the whole
ship through the opened windows.  The disease had already broken out
on the children before they were brought on board; but no one could
suspect it, as the women came late at night, thickly veiled, and
enveloped in large mantles, under which they carried the children.
It was only on the third day, when one of the children died, that we
discovered our danger.

The child was wrapped in a white cloth, fastened upon a plank, which
was weighted by some pieces of coal or stone, and lowered into the
sea.  At the moment that it touched the water, the waves closed over
it, and it was lost to our sight.

I do not know whether a relation was present at this sad event; I
saw no tears flow.  The poor mother might, indeed, have sorrowed,
but she dare not accompany her child; custom forbade it.

Two more deaths occurred, the other invalids recovered, and the
contagion happily did not spread any further.

30th April.  Today we approached very near to the Arabian coast,
where we saw a chain of mountains which were barren and by no means
attractive.  On the following morning (1st of May) small forts and
watch-towers made their appearance, here and there, upon the peaks
of beautiful groups of rock, and presently, also, a large one was
perceptible upon an extensive mountain at the entrance of a creek.

We came to anchor off the town of Muscat, which lies at the
extremity of the creek.  This town, which is subject to an Arabian
prince, is very strongly fortified, and surrounded by several ranges
of extraordinarily formed rocks, all of which are also occupied by
forts and towers.  The largest of these excites a sad reminiscence:
it was formerly a cloister of Portuguese monks, and was attacked by
the Arabs one night, who murdered the whole of its inmates.  This
occurrence took place about two centuries since.

The houses of the town are built of stone, with small windows and
terraced roofs.  Two houses, distinguished from the others only by
their larger dimensions, are the palaces of the mother of the
reigning prince, and of the sheikh (governor).  Some of the streets
are so narrow that two persons can scarcely walk together.  The
bazaar, according to the Turkish custom, consists of covered
passages, under which the merchants sit cross-legged before their
miserable stalls.

In the rocky valley in which Muscat lies the heat is very oppressive
(124 degrees Fah. in the sun), and the sunlight is very injurious to
the eyes, as it is not in the slightest degree softened by any
vegetation.  Far and wide there are no trees, no shrubs or grass to
be seen.  Every one who is in any way engaged here, go as soon as
their business is finished to their country-houses situated by the
open sea.  There are no Europeans here; the climate is considered
fatal to them.

At the back of the town lies a long rocky valley, in which is a
village containing several burial-places, and, wonderful to say, a
little garden with six palms, a fig, and a pomegranate-tree.  The
village is larger and more populous than the town; containing 6,000
inhabitants, while the latter has only 4,000.  It is impossible to
form any conception of the poverty, filth, and stench in this
village; the huts stand nearly one over the other, are very small,
and built only of reeds and palm-leaves; every kind of refuse was
thrown before the doors.  It requires considerable self-denial to
pass through such a place, and I wonder that plague, or some other
contagion, does not continually rage there.  Diseases of the eyes
and blindness are, however, very frequent.

From this valley I passed into a second, which contains the greatest
curiosity of Muscat, a rather extensive garden, which, with its
date-palms, flowers, vegetables, and plantations, constitutes a true
picture of an oasis in the desert.  The vegetation is only kept up,
for the most part, by continual watering.  The garden belongs to the
Arabian prince.  My guide seemed to be very proud of this wonderful
garden, and asked me whether there were such beautiful gardens in my

The women in Muscat wear a kind of mask of blue stuff over the face,
fastened upon springs or wires, which project some distance beyond
the face; a hole is cut in the mask between the forehead and nose,
which allows something more than the eyes to be seen.  These masks
are worn by the women only when they are at some distance from home;
in and near their houses they are not used.  All the women that I
saw were very ugly; the men, also, had not the fine, proud features
which are so frequently met with among the Arabians.  Great numbers
of negroes are employed here as slaves.

I made this excursion at the time of the greatest heat (124 degrees
Fah. in the sun), and rather weakened by my illness, but did not
experience the slightest ill consequences.  I had been repeatedly
warned that in warm countries the heat of the sun was very injurious
to Europeans who were not accustomed to it, and frequently caused
fever and sometimes even sun-stroke.  If I had attended to every
advice, I should not have seen much.  I did not allow myself to be
led astray--went out in all weathers, and always saw more than my
companions in travel.

On the 2nd of May we again set sail, and on the 3rd of May entered
the Persian Sea, and passed very near to the island of Ormus.  The
mountains there are remarkable for a variegated play of colours;
many spots shine as if they were covered with snow.  They contain
large quantities of salt, and numbers of caravans come annually from
Persia and Arabia to procure it.  In the evening we reached the
small Persian town of Bandr-Abas, off which we anchored.

May 4th.  The town is situated on low hills of sand and rocks, which
are separated from higher mountains by a small plain.  Here also the
whole country is barren and wild; solitary groups of palms are found
only in the plains.

I looked wistfully towards the land,--I would gladly have visited
Persia.  The captain, however, advised me not to do so in the dress
I wore; because, as he informed me, the Persians were not so good-
natured as the Hindoos, and the appearance of a European woman in
this remote district was too uncommon an event; I might probably be
greeted with a shower of stones.

Fortunately there was a young man on board who was half English and
half Persian (his father, an Englishman, had married an Armenian
from Teheran), and spoke both languages equally well.  I asked him
to take me on shore, which he very readily did.  He conducted me to
the bazaar, and through several streets.  The people indeed flocked
from all sides and gazed at me, but did not offer me the slightest

The houses here are small, and built in the Oriental style, with few
windows, and terraced roofs.  The streets are narrow, dirty, and
seemingly uninhabited; the bazaar only appeared busy.  The bakers
here prepare their bread in the most simple manner, and, indeed,
immediately in the presence of their customers:  they knead some
meal with water into a dough, in a wooden dish, separate this into
small pieces, which they squeeze and draw out with their hands,
until they are formed into large thin flakes, which are smeared over
with salt water, and stuck into the inner side of a round tube.
These tubes are made of clay, are about eighteen inches in diameter,
and twenty-two in length; they are sunk one half in the ground, and
furnished with an air-draft below.  Wood-charcoal is burnt inside
the tube at the bottom.  The cakes are baked on both sides at once;
at the back by the red-hot tube, and in front by the charcoal fire.
I had half-a-dozen of such cakes baked--when eaten warm, they are
very good.

It is easy to distinguish the Persians from the Arabs, of whom there
are many here.  The former are larger, and more strongly built;
their skin is whiter, their features coarse and powerful, and their
general appearance rude and wild.  Their dress resembles that of the
Mahomedans.  Many wear turbans, others a conical cap of black
Astrachan, from a foot to one and a half high.

I was told of so great an act of gratitude of the young man, Mr.
William Hebworth, who accompanied me to Bandr-Abas, that I cannot
omit to mention it.  At the age of sixteen he went from Persia to
Bombay, where he met with the kindest reception in the house of a
friend of his father's, by whom he was assisted in every way, and
even obtained an appointment through his interest.  One day his
patron, who was married, and the father of four children, had the
misfortune to be thrown from his horse, and died from the effects of
the fall.  Mr. Hebworth made the truly noble resolve of marrying the
widow, who was much older than himself, and, instead of property,
possessed only her four children, that he might in this way pay the
debt of gratitude which he owed to his deceased benefactor.

In Bandr-Abas we hired a pilot to take us through the Straits of
Kishma.  About noon we sailed.

The passage through these straits is without danger for steamers,
but is avoided by sailing vessels, as the space between the island
Kishma and the mainland is in parts very narrow, and the ships might
be driven on to the shore by contrary winds.

The inland forms an extended plain, and is partially covered with
thin underwood.  Great numbers of people come from the neighbouring
mainland to fetch wood from here.

The captain had spoken very highly of the remarkable beauty of this
voyage, the luxuriance of the island, the spots where the sea was so
narrow that the tops of the palms growing on the island and mainland
touched each other, etc.  Since the last voyage of the good captain,
a very unfrequent phenomenon would seem to have taken place--the
lofty slender palms were transformed into miserable underwood, and,
at the narrowest point, the mainland was at least half a mile from
the island.  Strange to say, Mr. Ross afterwards gave the same
description of the place; he believed the captain in preference to
his own eyes.

At one of the most considerable contractions stands the handsome
fort Luft.  Fifteen years since the principal stronghold of the
Persian pirates was in this neighbourhood.  A severe battle was
fought between them and the English, near Luft, in which upwards of
800 were killed, many taken prisoners, and the whole gang broken up.
Since that event, perfect security has been restored.

5th May.  We left the straits, and three days later came to anchor
off Buschir.

There are considerable quantities of sea-weeds and molluscae in the
Persian Gulf; the latter had many fibres, were of a milk-white
colour, and resembled a forest agaric in form; others had a
glistening rose colour with small yellow spots.  Conger eels of two
or three feet in length were not uncommon.

8th May.  The town of Buschir is situated on a plain six miles from
the mountains, whose highest peak, called by the Persians Hormutsch,
by the English Halala, is 5,000 feet high.

The town contains 15,000 inhabitants, and has the best harbour in
Persia; but its appearance is very dirty and ugly.

The houses stand quite close together, so that it is easy to pass
from one to the other over the terraces, and it requires no great
exertion to run over the roofs, as the terraces are enclosed only by
walls one or two feet high.  Upon some houses, square chambers
(called wind-catchers), fifteen or twenty feet high, are erected,
which can be opened above and at the sides, and serve to intercept
the wind and lead it into the apartments.

The women here cover up their faces to such a degree that I cannot
imagine how they find their way about.  Even the smallest girls
imitate this foolish custom.  There is also no lack of nose-rings,
bracelets, sandals, etc.; but they do not wear nearly so many as the
Hindoos.  The men are all armed; even in the house they carry
daggers or knives, and besides these, pistols in the streets.

We remained two days in Buschir, where I was very well received by
Lieutenant Hennelt, the resident.

I would gladly have left the ship here to visit the ruins of
Persepolis, and travel by land from thence to Shiraz, Ispahan,
Teheran, and so onwards; but serious disturbances had broken out in
these districts, and numerous hordes of robbers carried on their
depredations.  I was in consequence compelled to alter my plan, and
to go straight on to Baghdad.

10th May.  In the afternoon we left Buschir.

11th May.  Today I had the gratification of seeing and sailing on
one of the most celebrated rivers in the world, the Schatel-Arab
(river of the Arabs), which is formed by the junction of the
Euphrates, Tigris, and Kaurun, and whose mouth resembles an arm of
the sea.  The Schatel-Arab retains its name as far as the delta of
the Tigris and Euphrates.

12th May.  We left the sea and the mountains behind at the same
time, and on both shores immense plains opened before us whose
boundaries were lost in the distance.

Twenty miles below Bassora we turned off into the Kaurun to set down
some passengers at the little town of Mahambrah, which lies near the
entrance of that river.  We immediately turned back again, and the
captain brought the vessel round in the narrow space in an
exceedingly clever way.  This proceeding caused the uninitiated some
anxiety; we expected every moment to see either the head or stern
run a-ground, but it succeeded well beyond all measure.  The whole
population of the town was assembled on the shore; they had never
before seen a steamer, and took the most lively interest in the bold
and hazardous enterprise.

About six years ago, the town Mahambrah experienced a terrible
catastrophe; it was at that time under Turkish rule, and was
surprised and plundered by the Persians; nearly all the inhabitants,
amounting to 5,000, were put to death.  Since that period it has
been retained by the Persians.

Towards noon we arrived at Bassora.  Nothing is visible from the
river but some fortified works and large forests of date-trees,
behind which the town is situated far inland.

The journey from Bombay to this place had occupied eighteen days, in
consequence of the unfavourable monsoon, and was one of the most
unpleasant voyages which I ever made.  Always upon deck in the midst
of a dense crowd of people, with a heat which at noon time rose to
99 degrees 5' Fah., even under the shade of a tent.  I was only once
able to change my linen and dress at Buschir, which was the more
annoying as one could not prevent the accumulation of vermin.  I
longed for a refreshing and purifying bath.

Bassora, one of the largest towns of Mesopotamia, has among its
inhabitants only a single European.  I had a letter to the English
agent, an Armenian named Barseige, whose hospitality I was compelled
to claim, as there was no hotel.  Captain Lichfield presented my
letter to him and made known my request, but the polite man refused
to grant it.  The good captain offered me accommodation on board his
ship, so that I was provided for for the present.

The landing of the Persian women presented a most laughable
spectacle:  if they had been beauties of the highest order, or
princesses from the sultan's harem, there could not have been more
care taken to conceal them from the possibility of being seen by

I was indebted to my sex for the few glimpses which I caught of them
in the cabin; but among the whole eighteen women I did not see a
single good-looking one.  Their husbands placed themselves in two
rows from the cabin to the ship's ladder, holding large cloths
stretched before them, and forming in this way a kind of opaque
moveable wall on both sides.  Presently the women came out of the
cabin; they were so covered with large wrappers that they had to be
led as if they were blind.  They stood close together between the
walls, and waited until the whole were assembled, when the entire
party, namely, the moveable wall and the beauties concealed behind
it, proceeded step by step.  The scrambling over the narrow ship's
ladders was truly pitiable; first one stumbled, and then another.
The landing occupied more than an hour.

13th May.  The captain brought me word that a German missionary was
accidentally at Bassora, who had a dwelling with several rooms, and
could probably give me shelter.  I went to him immediately, and he
was so obliging as to provide me with a room in which, at the same
time, I found a fireplace.  I took leave of the good captain with
sincere regret.  I shall never forget his friendliness and
attentions.  He was a truly good-hearted man, and yet the
unfortunate crew, mostly Hindoos and negroes, were treated worse on
board his ship than I had observed elsewhere.  This was the fault of
the two mates, who accompanied nearly every word with pushes and
blows of the fist.  In Muscat three of the poor fellows ran away.

The Christian Europeans excel the pagan Hindoos and Musselmen in
learning and science; might they not also at least equal the latter
in kindness and humanity?

A small English war-steamer was expected at Bassora in the course of
a few days, which carried letters and dispatches between this place
and Baghdad, and whose captain was so good as to take European
travellers (of whom there are not many that lose themselves here)
with him.

I availed myself of the few days of my stay to look about the town,
and see what still remains of its ancient celebrity.

Bassora, or Bassra, was founded in the reign of the Caliph Omar, in
the year 656.  Sometimes under Turkish, sometimes under Persian
dominion, it was at last permanently placed under the latter power.
There are no vestiges of antiquity remaining; neither ruins of
handsome mosques nor caravansaries.  The fortified walls are much
dilapidated, the houses of the town small and unattractive, the
streets crooked, narrow, and dirty.  The bazaar, which consists of
covered galleries with wretched stalls, cannot show a single good
stock of goods, although Bassora is the principal emporium and
trading port for the Indian wares imported into Turkey.  There are
several coffee-stalls and a second-rate caravansary in the bazaar.
A large open space, not very remarkable for cleanliness, serves in
the day as a corn-market; and in the evening several hundred guests
are to be seen seated before a large coffee-stall, drinking coffee
and smoking nargillies.

Modern ruins are abundant in Bassora, the result of the plague which
in the year 1832 carried off nearly one half of the inhabitants.
Numbers of streets and squares consist only of forsaken and decaying
houses.  Where, a few years back, men were busily engaged in trade,
there is now nothing left but ruins and rubbish and weeds, and palms
grow between crumbling walls.

The position of Bassora is said to be particularly unhealthy:  the
plain surrounding it is intersected at one extremity with numerous
ditches filled with mud and filth, which give off noxious
exhalations, at the other it is covered with forests of date trees,
which hinders the current of air.  The heat is so great here, that
nearly every house is furnished with an apartment, which lies
several feet below the level of the street, and has windows only in
the high arches.  People live in these rooms during the day.

The inhabitants consist for the most part of Arabs; the rest are
Persians, Turks, and Armenians.  There are no Europeans.  I was
advised to wrap myself in a large cloth and wear a veil when I went
out; the former I did, but I could not endure the veil in the
excessive heat, and went with my face uncovered.  The cloth (isar) I
carried so clumsily that my European clothes were always visible;
nevertheless I was not annoyed by any one.

On the 16th of May, the steamer Nitocris arrived.  It was small
(forty horse power), but very handsome and clean; the captain, Mr.
Johns, declared himself ready to take me, and the first officer, Mr.
Holland, gave up his cabin to me.  They would not take any
compensation either for passage or board.

The journey from Bassora to Baghdad would have been very fatiguing
and inconvenient if I had not met with this opportunity.  With a
boat it would have required forty or fifty days, as the distance is
500 English miles, and the boat must have been for greater part of
the distance drawn by men.  The distance by land amounts to 390
miles; but the road is through deserts, which are inhabited by
nomadic tribes of Bedouins, and over-run with hordes of robbers,
whose protection must be purchased at a high price.

17th May.  We weighed anchor in the morning at 11 o'clock, and
availed ourselves of the current which extends 120 miles up the

In the afternoon we reached the point Korne, also called the Delta
(fifty miles from Bassora).  The Tigris and Euphrates join here.
Both rivers are equally large, and as it could not, probably, be
decided which name should be retained, both were given up, and that
of Schatel-Arab adopted.

Many learned writers attempt to give increased importance to this
place, by endeavouring to prove by indubitable evidence that the
garden of Eden was situated here.  If this was the case, our worthy
progenitor made a long journey after he was driven out of Paradise,
to reach Adam's Peak in Ceylon.

We now entered the Tigris.  For a distance of three miles further,
we were gratified by the sight of beautiful forests of date-trees,
which we had already enjoyed, almost without intermission, from the
mouth of the Schatel-Arab; they now suddenly terminated.  Both sides
of the river were still covered with a rich vegetation, and
beautiful orchards, alternated with extended plots of grass, which
were partially covered with bushes or shrub-like trees.  This
fruitfulness, however, is said to extend only a few miles inland:
more distant from the river the country is a barren wilderness.

We saw in several places large tribes of Bedouins, who had pitched
their tents in long rows, for the most part close to the banks.
Some of these hordes had large closely-covered tents; others again
had merely a straw mat, a cloth, or some skins stretched on a pair
of poles, scarcely protecting the heads of those lying under them
from the burning rays of the sun.  In winter, when the temperature
frequently falls to freezing point, they have the same dwellings and
clothing as in summer:  the mortality among them is then very great.
These people have a wild appearance, and their clothing consists of
only a dark-brown mantle.  The men have a part of this drawn between
the legs, and another part hung round them; the women completely
envelop themselves in it; the children very commonly go quite naked
until the twelfth year.  The colour of their skin is a dark brown,
the face slightly tattooed:  both the men and women braid their hair
into four plaits, which hang down upon the back of the head and
temples.  The weapons of the men are stout knotted sticks; the women
are fond of adorning themselves with glass beads, mussel-shells, and
coloured rags; they also wear large nose-rings.

They are all divided into tribes, and are under the dominion of the
Porte, to whom they pay tribute; but they acknowledge allegiance
only to the sheikh elected by themselves, many of whom have forty or
fifty thousand tents under their control.  Those tribes who
cultivate land have fixed dwellings; the pastoral tribes are

Half-way between Bassora and Baghdad, the lofty mountain chain of
Luristan becomes visible.  When the atmosphere is clear, the
summits, 10,000 feet high, and covered with perpetual snow, may be

Every step in advance leads to the scene of the great deeds of
Cambyses, Cyrus, Alexander, etc.:  every spot of ground has
historical associations.  The country is the same; but what has
become of its towns and its powerful empires?  Ruined walls and
heaps of earth and rubbish are the only remains of the most
beautiful cities; and where firmly established empires formerly
existed, are barren steppes overrun by robber hordes.

The Arabs engaged in agriculture are themselves exposed to the
depredations of their nomadic countrymen, especially in harvest
time.  In order to avoid this evil as much as possible, they bring
their crops into small fortified places, of which I observed many
between Bassora and Baghdad.

We took in wood several times during the passage, and on these
occasions I could approach the inhabitants without fear, as they
were inspired with respect for the well-manned and armed vessel.  In
one instance, I was led far into the underwood in pursuit of some
beautiful insects, when I found myself on a sudden surrounded by a
swarm of women and children, so that I thought it advisable to
hasten back again to the ship's people--not that any one offered me
any violence; but they crowded round me, handled my dress, wanted to
put on my straw bonnet; and this familiarity was far from pleasant
on account of their extreme dirtiness.  The children seemed
shockingly neglected; many were covered with pimples and small
sores; and both great and small had their hands constantly in their

At the places where we stopped they generally brought sheep and
butter, both of which were singularly cheap.  A sheep cost at the
utmost five krans (4s. 6d.).  They were very large and fat, with
long thick wool, and fat tails of about fifteen inches long and
eight inches broad.  Our crew had a better diet than I had ever
noticed on board any ship.  What pleased me even more was the equal
good treatment of the natives, who were not in any particular less
thought of than the English.  I never met with greater order and
cleanliness than here--a proof that blows and thumps are not
indispensably necessary, as I had so often been assured.

In the districts where the ground was covered with underwood and
grass, I saw several herds of wild swine; and there were said to be
lions here, who come from the mountains, especially during the
winter time, when they carried off cows and sheep:  they very seldom
attacked men.  I was so fortunate as to see a pair of lions, but at
such a distance, that I cannot say whether they exceeded in beauty
and size those in European menageries.  Among the birds, the
pelicans were so polite as to make their respects to us by scraping.

21st May.  Today we saw the ruins of the palace of Khuszew
Anushirwan at Ctesiphon.  Ctesiphon was formerly the capital of the
Parthian, and afterwards of the new Persian empire:  it was
destroyed by the Arabs in the seventeenth century.  Nearly opposite,
on the right bank of the Tigris, lay Seleucia, one of the most
celebrated towns of Babylon, and which, at the time of its
prosperity, had a free independent government and a population of
600,000 souls.  The chief portion were Greeks.

One obtained two views of Ctesiphon in passing, in consequence of
the river winding considerably--almost running back again several
miles.  I made a trip there from Baghdad, and therefore reserve my
account of it.

The old caliphate appears in marvellous magnificence and extent from
a distance, but unfortunately loses this on nearer approach.  The
minarets and cupolas, inlaid with variegated earthenware tiles,
glitter in the clear sunlight; palaces, gateways, and fortified
works, in endless succession, bound the yellow, muddy Tigris; and
gardens, with date and other fruit trees, cover the flat country for
miles round.

We had scarcely anchored, when a number of natives surrounded the
ship.  They made use of very singular vehicles, which resemble round
baskets:  these are formed of thick palm leaves, and covered with
asphalt.  They are called "guffer;" are six feet in diameter and
three feet in height; are very safe, for they never upset, and may
be travelled in over the worst roads.  Their invention is very

I had a letter to the English resident, Major Rawlinson; but as Mr.
Holland, the first officer of the ship, offered me the use of his
house, I took advantage of this, on account of his being a married
man, which Mr. Rawlinson was not.  I found Mrs. Holland a very
pretty, amiable woman (a native of Baghdad), who, though only three-
and-twenty, had already four children, the eldest of whom was eight
years old.



Baghdad, the capital of Assyria, was founded during the reign of the
Caliph Abu-Jasar-Almansor.  A century later, in the reign of Haroun-
al-Raschid, the best and most enlightened of all the caliphs, the
town was at its highest pitch of prosperity; but at the end of
another century, it was destroyed by the Turks.  In the sixteenth
century it was conquered by the Persians, and continued to be a
perpetual source of discord between them and the Turks, although it
at length became annexed to the Ottoman Empire.  Nadir Schah again
endeavoured to wrest it from the Turks in the eighteenth century.

The present population, of about 60,000 souls, consists of about
three-fourths Turks, and the remainder of Jews, Persians, Armenians,
and Arabs.  There are only fifty or sixty Europeans living there.

The town is partly situated on both sides of the Tigris, but chiefly
on the east.  It is surrounded by fortified walls of brick, with
numerous towers at regular intervals; both walls and towers,
however, are weak, and even somewhat dangerous, and the cannons upon
them are not in good condition.

The first thing that it was necessary for me to provide myself with
here, was a large linen wrapper, called isar, a small fez, and a
kerchief, which, wound round the fez, forms a little turban; but I
did not make use of the thick, stiff mask, made of horse-hair, which
covers the face, and under which the wearer is nearly suffocated.
It is impossible to imagine a more inconvenient out-door dress for
our sex than the one worn here.  The isar gathers the dust from the
ground, and it requires some dexterity to hold it together in such a
way as to envelop the whole body.  I pitied the poor women greatly,
who were often obliged to carry a child, or some other load, or
perhaps even to wash linen in the river.  They never came from this
work, except dripping with water.  Even the smallest girls here are
clothed in this way whenever they go out.

In my Oriental dress I could walk about without any covering on my
face, perfectly uninterrupted.  I first examined the town, but there
was not much to see, as there are no remains of the old Caliphate
buildings.  The houses are of burnt bricks, and are only one story
high; the backs are all turned towards the streets, and it is but
rarely that a projecting part of the house is seen with narrow
latticed windows.  Those houses only whose facades are towards the
Tigris make an exception to this rule; they have ordinary windows,
and are sometimes very handsome.  I found the streets rather narrow,
and full of dirt and dust.  The bridge of boats over the Tigris,
which is here 690 feet broad, is the most wretched that I ever saw.
The bazaars are very extensive.  The old bazaar, a relic of the
former town, still shows traces of handsome columns and arabesques,
and Chan Osman is distinguished by its beautiful portal and lofty
arches.  The principal passages are so broad, that there is room for
a horseman and two foot passengers, to go through side by side.  The
merchants and artisans here, as in all eastern countries, live in
separate streets and passages.  The better shops are to be found in
private houses, or in the chans at the bazaars.  Miserable coffee-
stalls are everywhere numerous.

The palace of the pascha is an extensive building, but neither
tasteful nor costly; it is imposing only from a distance.  There are
but few mosques, and those present nothing costly or artistic,
except the inlaid tiles.

To be able to overlook the whole of Baghdad, I mounted, with great
difficulty, the exterior of the dome of the Osman Chan, and was
truly astounded at the extent and beautiful position of the town.
It is impossible to form any idea of an Oriental town by passing
through the narrow and uniform streets, no matter how often, as
these are all alike, and, one with the other, resemble the passages
of a jail.  But, from above, I looked down over the whole town, with
its innumerable houses, many of which are situated in pretty
gardens.  I saw thousands and thousands of terraces spread at my
feet, and before all, the beautiful river, rolling on through dark
orchards and palm groves, to the town, which extends along its banks
for five miles.

All the buildings are, as already remarked, constructed of unburnt
bricks, of which the greater part are stated to have been brought
down the Euphrates, from the ruins of the neighbouring city of
Babylon.  By a close examination, traces of the old architecture are
to be found on the fortifications; the bricks of which they are
built are about two feet in diameter, and resemble fine slabs of

The houses are prettier inside than out; they have clean plastered
courts, numerous windows, etc.  The rooms are large and lofty, but
not nearly so magnificently furnished as those in Damascus.  The
summer is so hot here, that people find it necessary to change their
rooms three times a-day.  The early part of the morning is passed in
the ordinary rooms; towards 9 o'clock they retire, during the
remainder of the day, into the underground rooms, called sardab,
which, like cellars, are frequently situated fifteen or twenty feet
below the surface; at sunset they go up on to the terraces, where
they receive visits, gossip, drink tea, and remain until night.
This is the most pleasant time, as the evenings are cool and
enlivening.  Many affirm the moonlight is clearer here than with us,
but I did not find this to be the case.  People sleep on the
terraces under mosquito nets, which surround the whole bed.  The
heat rises in the rooms, during the day, as high as 99 degrees; in
the sun, to 122 or 131 degrees Fah.; it seldom exceeds 88 degrees
25' in the sardabs.  In winter, the evenings, nights, and mornings
are so cold, that fires are necessary in the rooms.

The climate of this place is considered very healthy, even by
Europeans.  Nevertheless, there is a disease here of which the young
females are terribly afraid, and which not only attacks the natives,
but strangers, when they remain several months here.  This is a
disgusting eruption, which is called the Aleppo Boil, or Date-mark.

This ulcer, which is at first no larger than a pin's head, gradually
increases to the size of a halfcrown piece, and leaves deep scars.
It generally breaks out on the face; there is scarcely one face
among a hundred, to be seen without these disfiguring marks.  Those
who have only one have reason to consider themselves fortunate; I
saw many with two or three of them.  Other parts of the body are
also not exempt.  The ulcers generally appear with the ripening of
the dates, and do not go away until the next year, when the same
season returns again.  This disease does not occur more than once in
a lifetime; it attacks children for the most part during their
infancy.  No remedy is ever applied, as experience has shown that it
cannot be prevented; the Europeans have tried inoculation, but
without success.

This disease is met with in several districts on the Tigris; there
are no traces of it to be found at a distance from the river.  It
would appear, therefore, to be, in some way, connected with the
evaporation from the stream, or the mud deposited on its banks; the
former seems less probable, as the crews of the English steamers,
which are always on the river, escape, while all the Europeans who
live on land fall victims to it.  One of the latter had forty such
boils, and I was told that he suffered horribly.  The French consul,
who expected to remain here for several years, would not bring his
wife with him, to expose her face to the danger of these
ineradicable marks.  I had only been here some weeks, when I
discovered slight indications of a boil on my hand, which became
large, but did not penetrate very deep, and left no permanent scar.
I exulted greatly at escaping so easily, but my exultation did not
continue long; only six months afterwards, when I had returned to
Europe, this disease broke out with such violence that I was covered
with thirteen of those boils, and had to contend with them more than
eight months.

On the 24th of May I received an invitation from the English
resident, Major Rawlinson, to an entertainment in honour of the
queen's birthday.  There were only Europeans present at dinner, but
in the evening, all denominations of the Christian world were
admitted--Armenians, Greeks, etc.  This entertainment was given upon
the handsome terraces of the house.  The floor was covered with soft
carpets; cushioned divans invited the fatigued to rest, and the
brilliant illumination of the terraces, courts, and gardens diffused
a light almost equal to that of day.  Refreshments of the most
delicate kind made it difficult for Europeans to remember that they
were so far from their native country.  Less deceptive were two
bands of music, one of which played European, the other native
pieces, for the amusement of the guests.  Fire-works, with balloons
and Bengal lights, were followed by a sumptuous supper, which closed
the evening's entertainments.  Among the women and girls present,
there were some remarkably beautiful, but all had most bewitching
eyes, which no young man could glance at with impunity.  The art of
dyeing the eyelids and eyebrows principally contributes to this.
Every hair on the eyebrows which makes its appearance in an improper
place, is carefully plucked out, and those which are deficient have
their place most artistically supplied by the pencil.  The most
beautiful arched form is thus obtained, and this, together with the
dyeing of the eyelids, increases uncommonly the brightness of the
eye.  The desire for such artificial beauty extends itself even to
the commonest servant girls.

The fair sex were dressed in Turkish-Greek costume; they wore silk
trousers, gathered together round the ankles, and over these, long
upper garments, embroidered with gold, the arms of which were tight
as far as the elbow, and were then slit open, and hung down.  The
bare part of the arm was covered by silk sleeves.  Round their
waists were fastened stiff girdles of the breadth of the hand,
ornamented in front with large buttons, and at the sides with
smaller ones.  The buttons were of gold, and worked in enamel.
Mounted pearls, precious stones, and gold coins, decorated the arms,
neck, and breast.  The head was covered with a small, pretty turban,
wound round with gold chains, or gold lace; numerous thin tresses of
hair stole from underneath, falling down to the hips.
Unfortunately, many of them had the bad taste to dye their hair, by
which its brilliant black was changed into an ugly brown-red.

Beautiful as this group of women were in appearance, their society
was very uninteresting, for an unbroken silence was maintained by
these members of our garrulous sex, and not one of their pretty
faces expressed an emotion or sentiment.  Mind and education, the
zests of life, were wanting.  The native girls are taught nothing;
their education is completed when they are able to read in their
mother tongue (Armenian or Arabian), and then, with the exception of
some religious books, they have no other reading.

It was more lively at a visit which I made, some days later, to the
harem of the pasha; there was then so much chatting, laughing, and
joking, that it was almost too much for me.  My visit had been
expected, and the women, fifteen in number, were sumptuously dressed
in the same way that I have already described; with the single
exception, that the upper garment (kaftan) was shorter, and made of
a more transparent material, and the turbans ornamented with ostrich

I did not see any very handsome women here; they had only good eyes,
but neither noble nor expressive features.

The summer harem, in which I was received, was a pretty building, in
the most modern style of European architecture, with lofty, regular
windows.  It stood in the middle of a small flower-garden, which was
surrounded by a large fruit-garden.

After I had been here rather more than an hour, a table was laid,
and chairs placed round it.  The principal woman invited me to join
them, and leading the way, seated herself at the table, when,
without waiting till we were seated, she hastily picked out her
favourite morsels from the various dishes with her hands.  I was
also compelled to help myself with my hands, as there was no knife
and fork in the whole house, and it was only towards the end of the
meal that a large gold teaspoon was brought for me.

The table was profusely covered with excellent meat-dishes, with
different pilaus, and a quantity of sweet-meats and fruits.  I found
them all delicious, and one dish so much resembled our fritters,
that I almost thought it was meant for them.

After we had finished, those who had not room to sit down with us
took their seats together with some of the principal attendants:
after them came, in succession, the inferior slaves, among whom were
some very ugly negresses; these also seated themselves at the table,
and ate what remained.

After the conclusion of the meal, strong coffee was handed round in
small cups, and nargillies brought.  The cups stood in little golden
bowls, ornamented with pearls and turquoises.

The pasha's women are distinguished from their attendants and slaves
only by their dress and jewellery; in demeanour I found no
difference.  The attendants seated themselves without hesitation
upon the divans, joined, uninvited, in the conversation, smoked, and
drank coffee as we did.  Servants and slaves are far better and more
considerately treated by the natives than by the Europeans.  Only
the Turks hold slaves here.

Although such strict decorum is observed in all public places, there
is an utter disregard of it in the harems and baths.  While a part
of the women were engaged in smoking and drinking coffee, I slipped
away, and went into some of the adjoining apartments, where I saw
enough, in a few minutes, to fill me with disgust and commiseration
for these poor creatures; from slothfulness and the want of
education, morality appeared to be so degraded as to profane the
very name of humanity.

I was not less grieved by a visit to a public female bath.  There
were young children, girls, women, and mothers; some having their
hands, feet, nails, eyebrows, hair, etc., washed and coloured:
others were being bathed with water, or rubbed with fragrant oils
and pomades, while the children played about among them.  While all
this was going on, the conversation that prevailed was far from
being remarkable for its decency.  Poor children! how are they to
acquire a respect for modesty, when they are so early exposed to the
influence of such pernicious examples.

Among the other curiosities of Baghdad, I saw the funeral monument
of Queen Zobiede, the favourite wife of Haroun-al-Raschid.  It is
interesting, because it differs very much from the ordinary
monuments of the Mahomedans.  Instead of handsome cupolas and
minarets, it consists of a moderate sized tower, rising from an
octagon building; the tower has a considerable resemblance to those
of the Hindoo temples.  In the interior stand three plainly built
tombs, in one of which the queen is buried; in the other two,
relations of the royal family.  The whole is constructed of bricks,
and was formerly covered with handsome cement, coloured tiles, and
arabesques, of which traces still remain.

Mahomedans consider all such monuments sacred; they frequently come
from great distances to offer up their devotions before them.  They
think it equally desirable to erect a burial-place near such a
monument, which they show with pride to their friends and relations.
Round this monument there were large spaces covered with tombs.

On the return from this monument, I went a little out of my way to
see that part of the town which had fallen into ruins, and been
desolated by the last plague.  Herr Swoboda, an Hungarian, gave me a
dreadful picture of the state of the town at that time.  He had shut
himself closely up with his family and a maid servant, and being
well furnished with provisions, received nothing from outside but
fresh water.  He carefully plastered up the doors and windows, and
no one was allowed to go out upon the terraces, or, indeed, into the
air at all.

These precautions were the means of preserving his whole family in
health, while many died in the neighbouring houses.  It was
impossible to bury all the dead, and the bodies were left to
decompose where they died.  After the plague had ceased, the Arabs
of the desert made their appearance for the purpose of robbing and
plundering.  They found an easy spoil, for they penetrated without
resistance into the empty houses, or without difficulty overpowered
the few enfeebled people who remained.  Herr Swoboda, among the
rest, was obliged to make an agreement with the Arabs, and pay

I was glad to leave this melancholy place, and directed my steps
towards some of the pleasant gardens, of which there are great
numbers in and round Baghdad.  None of these gardens, however, are
artificial; they consist simply of a thick wood of fruit-trees, of
all species (dates, apple, apricot, peach, fig, mulberry, and other
trees), surrounded by a brick wall.  There is, unfortunately,
neither order nor cleanliness observed, and there are neither grass
plots nor beds of flowers, and not a single good path; but there is
a considerable number of canals, as it is necessary to substitute
artificial watering for rain and dew.

I made two long excursions from Baghdad; one to the ruins of
Ctesiphon, the other to those of Babylon.  The former are eighteen,
the latter sixty miles distant from Baghdad.  On both occasions,
Major Rawlinson provided me with good Arabian horses, and a trusty

I was obliged to make the journey to Ctesiphon and back again in one
day, to avoid passing the night in the desert; and, indeed, had to
accomplish it between sunrise and sunset, as it is the custom in
Baghdad, as in all Turkish towns, to close the gates towards sunset,
and to give up the keys to the governor.  The gates are again opened
at sunrise.

My considerate hostess would have persuaded me to take a quantity of
provisions with me; but my rule in travelling is to exclude every
kind of superfluity.  Wherever I am certain to find people living, I
take no eatables with me, for I can content myself with whatever
they live upon; if I do not relish their food, it is a sign that I
have not any real hunger, and I then fast until it becomes so great
that any kind of dish is acceptable.  I took nothing with me but my
leathern water flask, and even this was unnecessary, as we
frequently passed creeks of the Tigris, and sometimes the river
itself, although the greater part of the road lay through the

About half-way, we crossed the river Dhyalah in a large boat.  On
the other side of the stream, several families, who live in huts on
the bank, subsist by renting the ferry.  I was so fortunate as to
obtain here some bread and buttermilk, with which I refreshed
myself.  The ruins of Ctesiphon may already be seen from this place,
although they are still nine miles distant.  We reached them in
three hours and a half.

Ctesiphon formerly rose to be a very powerful city on the Tigris; it
succeeded Babylon and Seleucia; the Persian viceroys resided in the
summer at Ecbatania, in the winter at Ctesiphon.  The present
remains consist only of detached fragments of the palace of the
Schah Chosroes.  These are the colossal arched gate-porch, together
with the gate, a part of the principal front, and some side walls,
all of which are so strong that it is probable that travellers may
still continue to be gratified with a sight of them for centuries.
The arches of the Tauk-kosra gate is the highest of the kind that is
known; it measures ninety feet, and is therefore about fifteen feet
higher than the principal gate at Fattipore-Sikri, near Agra, which
is erroneously represented by many as being the highest.  The wall
rises sixteen feet above the arch.

On the facade of the palace, small niches, arches, pillars, etc.,
are hewn out from the top to bottom; the whole appears to be covered
with fine cement, in which the most beautiful arabesques are still
to be seen.  Opposite these ruins on the western shore of the
Tigris, lie a few remains of the walls of Seleucia, the capital of

On both banks, extensive circles of low mounds are visible in every
direction; these all contain, at a slight depth, bricks and rubbish.

Not far from the ruins stands a plain mosque, which holds the tomb
of Selamam Pak.  This man was a friend of Mahomet's, and is on that
account honoured as a saint.  I was not allowed to enter the mosque,
and was obliged to content myself with looking in through the open
door.  I saw only a tomb built of bricks, surrounded by a wooden
lattice, painted green.

I had already observed a number of tents along the banks of the
Tigris on first reaching the ruins; my curiosity induced me to visit
them, where I found everything the same as among the desert Arabs,
except that the people were not so savage and rough; I could have
passed both day and night among them without apprehension.  This
might be from my having been accustomed to such scenes.

A much more agreeable visit was before me.  While I was amusing
myself among the dirty Arabs, a Persian approached, who pointed to a
pretty tent which was pitched at a short distance from us, and said
a few words to me.  My guide explained to me that a Persian prince
lived in this tent, and that he had politely invited me by this
messenger.  I accepted the invitation with great pleasure, and was
received in a very friendly manner by the prince, who was named Il-

The prince was a handsome young man, and said that he understood
French; but we soon came to a stop with that, as his knowledge of it
did not extend beyond "Vous parlez Francais!"  Luckily, one of his
people had a better acquaintance with English, and so we were able
to carry on some conversation.

The interpreter explained to me that the prince resided in Baghdad,
but on account of the oppressive heat, he had taken up his residence
here for some time.  He was seated upon a low divan under an open
tent, and his companions reclined upon carpets.  To my surprise, he
had sufficient politeness to offer me a seat by his side upon the
divan.  Our conversation soon became very animated, and his
astonishment when I related to him my travels increased with every
word.  While we were talking, a nargilly of most singular beauty was
placed before me; it was made of light-blue enamel on gold,
ornamented with pearls, turquoises, and precious stones.  For
politeness' sake, I took a few puffs from it.  Tea and coffee were
also served, and afterwards the prince invited me to dinner.  A
white cloth was spread upon the ground, and flat cakes of bread,
instead of plates, laid upon it:  an exception was made for me, as I
had a plate and knife and fork.  The dinner consisted of a number of
dishes of meat, among which was a whole lamb with the head, which
did appear very inviting; besides these, several pilaus, and a large
roast fish.  Between the eatables stood bowls of curds and whey, and
sherbet:  in each bowl was a large spoon.  The lamb was carved by a
servant with a knife and the hand; he distributed the parts among
the guests, placing a piece upon the cake of bread before each one.
They ate with their right hand.  Most of them tore off small morsels
of meat or fish, dipped them in one of the pilaus, kneaded them into
a ball, and put them into their mouths.  Some, however, ate the fat
dishes without pilau; after each mouthful they wiped off the fat,
which ran over their fingers, on the bread.  They drank a great deal
while eating, all using the same spoons.  At the conclusion of the
meal, the prince, in spite of the strict prohibition of wine,
ordered some to be brought (my presence serving as an excuse).  He
then poured out a glass for me, and drank a couple himself--one to
my health and one to his own.

When I told him that I intended to go to Persia, and in particular
to Teheran, he offered to give me a letter to his mother, who was at
court, and under whose protection I could be introduced there.  He
wrote immediately, using his knee for want of a table, pressed his
signet ring upon the letter, and gave it to me; but told me
laughingly not to say anything to his mother about his having drank

After meal time, I asked the prince whether he would allow me to pay
a visit to his wife,--I had already learned that one of his wives
was with him.  My request was granted, and I was led immediately
into a building, near which had formerly been a small mosque.

I was here received in a cool arched apartment by a remarkably
handsome young creature.  She was the most beautiful of all the
women I had ever yet seen in harems.  Her figure, of middling
proportions, was most exquisitely symmetrical; her features were
noble and truly classical; and her large eyes had a melancholy
expression:  the poor thing was alone here, and had no society but
an old female servant and a young gazelle.  Her complexion, probably
not quite natural, was of dazzling whiteness, and a delicate red
tinted her cheeks.  The eyebrows only, in my opinion, were very much
deformed by art.  They were in the form of a dark-blue streak, an
inch wide, which extended in two connected curves from one temple to
the other, and gave the face a somewhat dark and very uncommon
appearance.  The principal hairs were not dyed; her hands and arms,
however, were slightly tattooed.  She explained to me that this
shocking operation was performed upon her when she was only a child,
a custom which is also practised by the Mahomedan women in Baghdad.

The dress of this beauty was like that of the women in the pasha's
harem, but instead of the small turban, she wore a white muslin
cloth lightly twisted round the head, which she could also draw over
her face as a veil.

Our conversation was not very lively, as the interpreter was not
allowed to follow me into this sanctum.  We were therefore obliged
to content ourselves with making signs and looking at one another.

When I returned to the prince, I expressed to him my wonder at the
rare beauty of his young wife, and asked him what country was the
cradle of this true angel.  He told me the north of Persia, and
assured me, at the same time, that his other wives, of whom he had
four in Baghdad and four in Teheran with his mother, very much
excelled this one in beauty.

When I would have taken my leave of the prince to return home, he
proposed to me that I should remain a little while longer and hear
some Persian music.  Two minstrels presently appeared, one of whom
had a kind of mandolin with five strings; the other was a singer.
The musician preluded very well, played European as well as Persian
melodies, and handled his instrument with great facility; the singer
executed roulades, and, unfortunately, his voice was neither
cultivated nor pure; but he seldom gave false notes, and they both
kept good time.  The Persian music and songs had considerable range
of notes and variations in the melody; I had not heard anything like
them for a long time.

I reached home safely before sunset, and did not feel very much
fatigued, either by the ride of thirty-six miles, the terrible heat,
or the wandering about on foot.  Only two days afterwards, I set out
on my road to the ruins of the city of Babylon.  The district in
which these ruins lie is called Isak-Arabia, and is the seat of the
ancient Babylonia and Chaldea.

I rode, the same evening, twenty miles, as far as the Chan Assad.
The palms and fruit-trees gradually decreased in number, the
cultivated ground grew less and less, and the desert spread itself
before me, deadening all pleasure and animation.  Here and there
grew some low herbage scarcely sufficient for the frugal camel; even
this ceases a few miles before coming to Assad, and from thence to
Hilla the desert appeared uninterruptedly in its sad and uniform

We passed the place where the town of Borossippa formerly stood, and
where it is said that a pillar of Nourhwan's palace is yet to be
seen; but I could not discover it anywhere, although the whole
desert lay open before me and a bright sunset afforded abundance of
light.  I therefore contented myself with the place, and did not, on
that account, remember with less enthusiasm the great Alexander,
here at the last scene of his actions, when he was warned not to
enter Babylon again.  Instead of the pillar, I saw the ruins of one
large and several smaller canals.  The large one formerly united the
Euphrates with the Tigris, and the whole served for irrigating the

31st May.  I had never seen such numerous herds of camels as I did
today; there might possibly have been more than 7,000 or 8,000.  As
most of them were unloaded and carried only a few tents, or women
and children, it was probably the wandering of a tribe in search of
a more fruitful dwelling-place.  Among this enormous number, I saw
only a few camels that were completely white.  These are very highly
prized by the Arabians; indeed, almost honoured as superior beings.
When I first saw the immense herd of these long-legged animals
appearing in the distant horizon, they looked like groups of small
trees; and I felt agreeably surprised to meet with vegetation in
this endless wilderness.  But the wood, like that in Shakspere's
Macbeth, shortly advanced towards us, and the stems changed into
legs and the crowns into bodies.

I also observed a species of bird today to which I was a complete
stranger.  It resembled, in colour and size, the small green
papagien, called paroquets, except that its beak was rather less
crooked and thick.  It lives, like the earth-mouse, in small holes
in the ground.  I saw flocks of them at two of the most barren
places in the desert, where there was no trace of a blade of grass
to be discovered, far and wide.

Towards 10 o'clock in the morning, we halted for two hours only at
Chan Nasri, as I was resolved to reach Hilla today.  The heat rose
above 134 degrees Fah.; but a hot wind, that continually accompanied
us, was still more unbearable, and drove whole clouds of hot sand
into the face.  We frequently passed half-ruined canals during the

The chans upon this road are among the best and the most secure that
I have ever met with.  From the exterior, they resemble small
fortresses; a high gateway leads into a large court-yard, which is
surrounded on all sides by broad, handsome halls built with thick
brick walls.  In the halls, there are niches arranged in rows; each
one being large enough to serve three or four persons as a resting-
place.  Before the niches, but also under the halls, are the places
for the cattle.  In the court-yard, a terrace is also built five
feet high for sleeping in the hot summer nights.  There are likewise
a number of rings and posts for the cattle in the court, where they
can be in the open air during the night.

These chans are adapted for whole caravans, and will contain as many
as 500 travellers, together with animals and baggage; they are
erected by the government, but more frequently by wealthy people,
who hope by such means to procure a place in heaven.  Ten or twelve
soldiers are appointed to each chan as a guard.  The gates are
closed in the evening.  Travellers do not pay anything for staying
at these places.

Some Arabian families generally live outside the chans, or even in
them, and they supply the place of host, and furnish travellers with
camel's milk, bread, coffee, and sometimes, also, with camel's or
goat's flesh.  I found the camel's milk rather disagreeable, but the
flesh is so good that I thought it had been cow-beef, and was
greatly surprised when my guide told me that it was not.

When travellers are furnished with a pasha's firman (letter of
recommendation), they can procure one or more mounted soldiers (all
the soldiers at the chans have horses) to accompany them through
dangerous places, and at times of disturbances.  I had such a
firman, and made use of it at night.

In the afternoon we approached the town of Hilla, which now occupies
a part of the space where Babylon formerly stood.  Beautiful woods
of date-trees indicated from afar the inhabited country, but
intercepted our view of the town.

Four miles from Hilla we turned off the road to the right, and
shortly found ourselves between enormous mounds of fallen walls and
heaps of bricks.  The Arabs call these ruins Mujellibe.  The largest
of these mounds of bricks and rubbish is 2,110 feet in
circumference, and 141 feet in height.

Babylon, as is known, was one of the greatest cities of the world.
With respect to its founder there are various opinions.  Some say
Ninus, others Belus, others Semiramis, etc.  It is said that, at the
building of the city (about 2,000 years before the birth of Christ),
two million of workmen, and all the architects and artificers of the
then enormous Syrian empire, were employed.  The city walls are
described as having been 150 feet high, and twenty feet thick.  The
city was defended by 250 towers; it was closed by a hundred brazen
gates, and its circumference was sixty miles.  It was separated into
two parts by the Euphrates.  On each bank stood a beautiful palace,
and the two were united by an artistic bridge, and even a tunnel was
constructed by the Queen Semiramis.  But the greatest curiosities
were the temples of Belus and the hanging gardens.  The tower of the
temple was ornamented with three colossal figures, made of pure
gold, and representing gods.  The hanging gardens (one of the seven
wonders of the world) are ascribed to Nebuchadnezar, who is said to
have built them at the wish of his wife Amytis.

Six hundred and thirty years before Christ, the Babylonian empire
was at the highest point of its magnificence.  At this time it was
conquered by the Chaldeans.  It was afterwards subject in succession
to the Persians, Osmans, Tartars, and others, until the year A.D.
1637, since which time it has remained under the Osman government.

The temple of Belus or Baal was destroyed by Xerxes, and Alexander
the Great would have restored it; but as it would have required
10,000 men for two months (others say two years) merely to remove
the rubbish, he did not attempt it.

One of the palaces is described as having been the residence of the
king, the other a castle.  Unfortunately they are so fallen to
decay, that they afford no means of forming a satisfactory opinion
even to antiquarians.  It is supposed, however, that the ruins
called Mujellibe are the remains of the castle.  Another large heap
of ruins is situated about a mile distant, called El Kasir.
According to some, the temple of Baal stood here, according to
others the royal palace.  Massive fragments of walls and columns are
still to be seen, and in a hollow a lion in dark grey granite, of
such a size that at some distance I took it for an elephant.  It is
very much damaged, and, to judge from what remains, does not appear
to have been the work of a great artist.

The mortar is of extraordinary hardness; it is easier to break the
bricks themselves, than to separate them from it.  The bricks of all
the ruins are partly yellow and partly red, a foot long, nearly as
broad, and half an inch thick.

In the ruins El Kasir stands a solitary tree, which belongs to a
species of firs which is quite unknown in this district.  The Arabs
call it Athale, and consider it sacred.  There are said to be
several of the same kind near Buschir--they are there called Goz or

Many writers see something very extraordinary in this tree; indeed
they go so far as to consider it as a relic of the hanging gardens,
and affirm that it gives out sad melancholy tones when the wind
plays through its branches, etc.  Everything, indeed, is possible
with God; but that this half-stunted tree which is scarcely eighteen
feet high, and whose wretched stem is at most only nine inches in
diameter, is full 3,000 years old, appears to me rather too

The country round Babylon is said to have been formerly so
flourishing and fruitful, that it was called the Paradise of
Chaldea.  This productiveness ceased with the existence of the

As I had seen everything completely, I rode on as far as Hilla, on
the other side of the Euphrates.  A most miserable bridge of forty-
six boats is here thrown across the river, which is four hundred and
thirty feet broad.  Planks and trunks of trees are laid from one
boat to the other, which move up and down at every step; there is no
railing at the side, and the space is so narrow that two riders can
scarcely pass.  The views along the river are very charming; I found
the vegetation here still rich, and several mosques and handsome
buildings give life to the blooming landscape.

In Hilla I was received by a rich Arab.  As the sun was already very
near setting, I was shown to a beautiful terrace instead of a room.
A delicious pilau, roast lamb, and steamed vegetables were sent to
me for supper, with water and sour milk.

The terraces here were not surrounded by any walls, a circumstance
which was very agreeable to me, as it gave me an opportunity of
observing the mode of life and customs of my neighbours.

In the court-yards I saw the women engaged in making bread, and in
the same way as at Bandr-Abas.  The men and children meanwhile
spread straw mats upon the terraces, and brought dishes with pilaus,
vegetables, or some other eatables.  As soon as the bread was ready,
they began their meal.  The women also seated themselves, and I
thought that the modern Arabs were sufficiently advanced in
civilization to give my sex their place at table.  But to my regret
I saw the poor women, instead of helping themselves from the dishes,
take straw fans to keep off the flies from the heads of their
husbands.  They may have had their meal afterwards in the house, for
I did not see them eat anything, either upon the terraces or in the
courts.  They all slept upon the terraces.  Both men and women
wrapped themselves in rugs, and neither the one nor the other took
off any of their clothing.

1st June.  I had ordered for this morning two fresh horses and Arabs
as a guard, that I might proceed with some safety to the ruins of
Birs Nimroud.  These ruins are situated six miles distant from
Hilla, in the desert or plain of Shinar, near the Euphrates, upon a
hill 265 feet high, built of bricks, and consist of the fragments of
a wall twenty-eight feet long, on one side thirty feet high, and on
the other thirty-five.  The greater part of the bricks are covered
with inscriptions.  Near this wall lie several large blackish blocks
which might be taken for lava, and it is only on closer examination
that they are found to be remains of walls.  It is supposed that
such a change could only have been brought about by lightning.

People are not quite unanimous in their opinions with respect to
these ruins.  Some affirm that they are the remains of the Tower of
Babel, others that they are those of the Temple of Baal.

There is an extensive view from the top of the hill over the desert,
the town of Hilla with its charming palm-gardens, and over
innumerable mounds of rubbish and brick-work.  Near these ruins
stands an unimportant Mahomedan chapel, which is said to be on the
same spot where, according to the Old Testament, the three youths
were cast into the furnace for refusing to worship idols.

In the afternoon I was again in Hilla.  I looked over the town,
which is said to contain 26,000 inhabitants, and found it built like
all Oriental towns.  Before the Kerbela gates is to be seen the
little mosque Esshems, which contains the remains of the prophet
Joshua.  It completely resembles the sepulchre of the Queen Zobiede
near Baghdad.

Towards evening the family of my obliging host, together with some
other women and children, paid me a visit.  Their natural good sense
had deterred them from visiting me on the day of my arrival, when
they knew I was fatigued by the long ride.  I would willingly have
excused their visit today also, for neither the rich nor poor Arabs
have much idea of cleanliness.  They, moreover, would put the little
dirty children into my arms or on my lap, and I did not know how to
relieve myself of this pleasure.  Many of them had Aleppo boils, and
others sore eyes and skin diseases.  After the women and children
had left, my host came.  He was, at least, clean in his dress, and
conducted himself with more politeness.

On the 2nd of July I left Hilla at sunrise, and went on, without
stopping, to the Khan Scandaria (sixteen miles), where I remained
some hours; and then went the same day as far as Bir-Zanus, sixteen
miles further.  About an hour after midnight I again halted, and
took a soldier to accompany me.  We had scarcely proceeded four or
five miles from the khan when we perceived a very suspicious noise.
We stopped, and the servant told me to be very quiet, so that our
presence might not be detected.  The soldier dismounted, and crept
rather than walked in the sand to reconnoitre the dangerous spot.
My exhaustion was so great that, although alone in this dark night
on the terrible desert, I began to doze upon the horse, and did not
wake up till the soldier returned with a cry of joy, and told us
that we had not fallen in with a horde of robbers, but with a
sheikh, who, in company with his followers, were going to Baghdad.
We set spurs to our horses, hastened after the troop, and joined
them.  The chief greeted me by passing his hand over his forehead
towards his breast; and, as a sign of his good will, offered me his
arms, a club with an iron head, covered with a number of spikes.
Only a sheikh is allowed to carry such a weapon.

I remained in the sheikh's company until sunrise, and then quickened
my horse's pace, and at about 8 o'clock was again seated in my
chamber at Baghdad, after having, in the short space of three days
and a half, ridden 132 miles and walked about a great deal.  The
distance from Baghdad to Hilla is considered to be sixty miles, and
from Hilla to Birs Nimroud six.

I had now seen everything in and around Baghdad, and was desirous of
starting on my journey towards Ispahan.  Just at this time the
Persian prince, Il-Hany-Ala-Culy-Mirza, sent me a letter, informing
me that he had received very bad news from his native country; the
governor of Ispahan had been murdered, and the whole province was in
a state of revolt.  It was therefore impossible to enter Persia by
this route.  I decided in this case to go as far as Mosul, and there
determine my further course according to circumstances.

Before concluding my account of Baghdad, I must state that at first
I was greatly afraid of scorpions, as I had heard that there were
great numbers there; but I never saw one, either in the sardabs or
on the terraces, and during my stay of four weeks only found one in
the court.



In order to travel from Baghdad to Mosul safely, and without great
expense, it is necessary to join a caravan.  I requested Herr
Swoboda to direct me to a trustworthy caravan guide.  I was indeed
advised not to trust myself alone among the Arabs, at least to take
a servant with me; but with my limited resources this would have
been too expensive.  Moreover, I was already pretty well acquainted
with the people, and knew from experience that they might be

A caravan was to have left on the 14th of June, but the caravan
guides, like the ship captains, always delay some days, and so we
did not start until the 17th instead of the 14th.

The distance from Baghdad to Mosul is 300 miles, which occupy in
travelling from twelve to fourteen days.  Travellers ride either
horses or mules, and in the hot months travel during the night.

I had hired a mule for myself and my little baggage, for which I
paid the low price of fifteen krans (12s. 6d.), and had neither
fodder nor anything else to provide.

Every one who intends proceeding with the caravan is obliged to
assemble before the city gate about 5 o'clock in the evening.  Herr
Swoboda accompanied me there, and particularly recommended me to the
care of the caravan guide, and promised him in my name a good
bachshish if he saved me all the trouble he could during the

In this way I entered upon a fourteen days' journey through deserts
and steppes, a journey full of difficulties and dangers, without any
convenience, shelter, or protection.  I travelled like the poorest
Arab, and was obliged, like him, to be content to bear the most
burning sun, with no food but bread and water, or, at the most, a
handful of dates, or some cucumbers, and with the hot ground for a

I had, while in Baghdad, written out a small list of Arabian words,
so that I might procure what was most necessary.  Signs were easier
to me than words, and by the aid of both, I managed to get on very
well.  I became in time so used to the signs that, in places where I
could make use of the language, I was obliged to take some pains to
prevent myself from using my hands at the same time.

While I was taking leave of Herr Swoboda, my little portmanteau, and
a basket with bread and other trifles, had already been put into two
sacks, which were hung over the back of the mule.  My mantle and
cushion formed a comfortable soft seat, and everything was in
readiness--only the mounting was rather difficult, as there was no

Our caravan was small.  It counted only twenty-six animals, most of
which carried merchandise, and twelve Arabs, of whom five went on
foot.  A horse or mule carries from two to three and a half
hundredweight, according to the state of the road.

About 6 we started.  Some miles outside the town several other
travellers joined us, chiefly pedlars with loaded animals, so that
presently our party increased in numbers to sixty.  But our numbers
changed every evening, as some always remained behind, or others
joined us.  We often had with us some shocking vagabonds, of whom I
was more afraid than robbers.  It is, moreover, said not to be
uncommon for thieves to join the caravan, for the purpose of
carrying on their depredations, if there should be an opportunity of
doing so.

I should, on the whole, have no great faith in the protection which
such a caravan is capable of affording, as the people who travel in
this way are principally pedlars, pilgrims, and such like, who
probably have never in their lives used a sword or fired a gun.  A
few dozen well-armed robbers would certainly get the better of a
caravan of even a hundred persons.

On the first night we rode ten hours, until we reached Jengitsche.
The country around was flat and barren, uncultivated and
uninhabited.  Some few miles outside Baghdad cultivation appeared to
be suddenly cut off, and it was not until we came to Jengitsche that
we saw again palms and stubble fields, showing that human industry
is capable of producing something everywhere.

Travelling with caravans is very fatiguing:  although a walking pace
is never exceeded, they are on the road from nine to twelve hours
without halting.  When travelling at night the proper rest is lost,
and in the day it is scarcely possible to get any sleep, exposed in
the open air to the excessive heat, and the annoyances of flies and

18th June.  In Jengitsche we met with a chan, but it was by no means
equal in appearance and cleanliness to that on the road to Babylon;
its chief advantage was being situated near the Tigris.

The chan was surrounded by a small village, to which I proceeded for
the purpose of satisfying my hunger.  I went from hut to hut, and at
last fortunately succeeded in obtaining some milk and three eggs.  I
laid the eggs in the hot ashes and covered them over, filled my
leathern flask from the Tigris, and thus loaded returned proudly to
the chan.  The eggs I ate directly, but saved the milk for the
evening.  After this meal, procured with such difficulty, I
certainly felt happier, and more contented than many who had dined
in the most sumptuous manner.

During my search through the village, I noticed, from the number of
ruined houses and huts, that it seemed to have been of some extent
formerly.  Here, also, the last plague had carried off the greater
part of the inhabitants; for, at the present time, there were only a
few very poor families.

I here saw a very peculiar mode of making butter.  The cream was put
into a leathern bottle, and shaken about on the ground until the
butter had formed.  When made, it was put into another bottle filled
with water.  It was as white as snow, and I should have taken it for
lard if I had not seen it made.

We did not start this evening before 10 o'clock, and then rode
eleven hours without halting, to Uesi.  The country here was less
barren than that between Baghdad and Jengitsche.  We did not,
indeed, see any villages on the road; but small groups of palms, and
the barking of dogs, led us to conclude that there were some very
near.  At sun-rise we were gratified by the sight of a low range of
mountains, and the monotony of the plain was here and there broken
at intervals, by small rows of hills.

19th June.  Yesterday I was not quite satisfied with the chan at
Jengitsche; but I should have been very thankful for a far worse one
today, that we might have found any degree of shelter from the
pitiless heat of the sun; instead, we were obliged to make our
resting place in a field of stubble, far removed from human
habitations.  The caravan guide endeavoured to give me some little
shade by laying a small cover over a couple of poles stuck into the
ground; but the place was so small, and the artificial tent so weak,
that I was compelled to sit quietly in one position, as the
slightest movement would have upset it.  How I envied the
missionaries and scientific men, who undertake their laborious
journeys furnished with horses, tents, provisions, and servants.
When I wished, shortly afterwards, to take some refreshments, I had
nothing but lukewarm water, bread so hard that I was obliged to sop
it in water to be able to eat it, and a cucumber without salt or
vinegar!  However, I did not lose my courage and endurance, or
regret, even for a moment, that I had exposed myself to these

We set out again about 8 o'clock in the evening, and halted about 4
in the morning at Deli-Abas.  The low range of mountains still
remained at our side.  From Deli-Abas we crossed the river Hassei by
a bridge built over it.

20th June.  We found a chan here; but it was so decayed that we were
obliged to encamp outside, as there is danger of snakes and
scorpions in such ruins.  A number of dirty Arab tents lay near the
chan.  The desire for something more than bread and cucumber, or
old, half-rotten dates, overcame my disgust, and I crept into
several of these dwellings.  The people offered me buttermilk and
bread.  I noticed several hens running about the tents with their
young, and eagerly looking for food.  I would gladly have bought
one, but as I was not disposed to kill and prepare it myself, I was
obliged to be contented with the bread and buttermilk.

Some plants grow in this neighbourhood which put me in mind of my
native country--the wild fennel.  At home I scarcely thought them
worth a glance, while here they were a source of extreme
gratification.  I am not ashamed to say, that at the sight of these
flowers the tears came into my eyes, and I leant over them and
kissed them as I would a dear friend.

We started again today, as early as 5 in the evening, as we had now
the most dangerous stage of the journey before us, and were desirous
of passing it before nightfall.  The uniformly flat sandy desert in
some degree altered in character.  Hard gravel rattled under the
hoofs of the animals; mounds, and strata of rock alternated with
rising ground.  Many of the former were projecting from the ground
in their natural position, others had been carried down by floods,
or piled over each other.  If this strip had not amounted to more
than 500 or 600 feet, I should have taken it to be the former bed of
a river; but as it was, it more resembled the ground left by the
returning of the sea.  In many places saline substances were
deposited, whose delicate crystals reflected the light in all

This strip of ground, which is about five miles long, is dangerous,
because the hills and rocks serve as a favourable ambush for
robbers.  Our drivers constantly urged the poor animals on.  They
were obliged to travel here over hills and rocks quicker than across
the most convenient plains.  We passed through in safety before
darkness came on, and then proceeded more leisurely on our journey.

21st June.  Towards 1 in the morning, we came up with the town
Karatappa, of which, however, we saw only the walls.  A mile beyond
this we halted in some stubble fields.  The extensive deserts and
plains end here, and we entered upon a more cultivated and hilly

On the 22nd of June, we halted in the neighbourhood of the town

Nothing favourable can be said of any of the Turkish towns, as they
so much resemble each other in wretchedness, that it is a pleasure
not to be compelled to enter them.  The streets are dirty, the
houses built of mud or unburnt bricks, the places of worship
unimportant, miserable stalls and coarse goods constitute the
bazaars, and the people, dirty and disgusting, are of a rather brown
complexion.  The women increase their natural ugliness, by dyeing
their hair and nails reddish brown with henna, and by tattooing
their hands and arms.  Even at twenty-five years old, they appear
quite faded.

On the 23rd of June, we halted not far from the town of Dus, and
took up our resting-place for the day.

In this place, I was struck by the low entrances of the houses; they
were scarcely three feet high, so that the people were obliged to
crawl rather than walk into them.

On the 25th of June, we came to Daug, where I saw a monument which
resembled that of Queen Zobiede in Baghdad.  I could not learn what
great or holy man was buried under it.

25th June.  At 4 this morning we came to the place where our caravan
guide lived, a village about a mile from Kerku.  His house was
situated, with several others, in a large dirty court-yard, which
was surrounded by a wall with only one entrance.  This court-yard
resembled a regular encampment:  all the inhabitants slept there;
and, besides these, there was no want of mules, horses, and asses.
Our animals immediately went to their stalls, and trod so near to
the sleepers, that I was quite anxious for their safety; but the
animals are cautious, and the people know that, and remain perfectly

My Arab had been absent three weeks, and now returned only for a
very short time; and yet none of his family came out to greet him
except an old woman.  Even with her, whom I supposed to be his
mother, he exchanged no kind of welcome.  She merely hobbled about
here and there, but gave no help, and might as well have remained
where she was lying, as the others.

The houses of the Arabs consist of a single, lofty, spacious
apartment, separated into three parts by two partition walls, which
do not extend quite across to the front wall.  Each of these
compartments is about thirty feet in length by nine in breadth, and
serves as a dwelling for a family.  The light fell through the
common door-way and two holes, which were made in the upper part of
the front wall.  A place was set apart for me in one of these
compartments, where I could pass the day.

My attention was first directed to the nature of the relationships
between the several members of the family.  At first this was very
difficult, as it was only towards the very young children that any
kind of attachment or love was shown.  They appeared to be a common
property.  At last, however, I succeeded in ascertaining that three
related families lived in the house--the patriarch, a married son,
and a married daughter.

The patriarch was a handsome, powerful old man, sixty years of age,
and the father of my guide, which I had learnt before, as he was one
of our travelling party; he was a terrible scold, and wrangled about
every trifle; the son seldom contradicted him, and gave way to all
that his father wished.  The caravan animals belonged, in common, to
both, and were driven by themselves, and by a grandson fifteen years
old, and some servants.  When we had reached the house, the old man
did not attend to the animals much, but took his ease and gave his
orders.  It was easy to see that he was the head of the family.

The first impression of the Arab character is that it is cold and
reserved; I never saw either husband and wife, or father and
daughter, exchange a friendly word; they said nothing more than was
positively necessary.  They show far more feeling towards children.
They allow them to shout and make as much noise as they like, no one
vexes or contradicts them, and every misconduct is overlooked.  But
as soon as a child is grown up, it becomes his duty to put up with
the infirmities of his parents, which he does with respect and

To my great astonishment, I heard the children call their mothers
mama or nana, their fathers baba, and their grandmothers ete or eti.

The women lie lazily about during the whole day, and only in the
evening exert themselves to make bread.  I thought their dress
particularly awkward and inconvenient.  The sleeves of their shirts
were so wide that they stuck out half a yard from the arms; the
sleeves of the kaftan were still larger.  Whenever they do any work,
they are obliged to wind them round their arms, or tie them in a
knot behind.  Of course they are always coming undone, and causing
delay and stoppage of their work.  In addition to this, the good
folks are not much addicted to cleanliness, and make use of their
sleeves for blowing their noses on, as well as for wiping their
spoons and plates.  Their head coverings are not less inconvenient:
they use first a large cloth, twice folded; over this two others are
wound, and a fourth is thrown over the whole.

Unfortunately, we stayed here two days.  I had a great deal to
undergo the first day:  all the women of the place flocked round me
to stare at the stranger.  They first commenced examining my
clothes, then wanted to take the turban off my head, and were at
last so troublesome, that it was only by force that I could get any
rest.  I seized one of them sharply by the arm, and turned her out
of the door so quickly, that she was overcome before she knew what I
was going to do.  I signified to the others that I would serve them
the same.  Perhaps they thought me stronger than I was, for they
retired immediately.

I then drew a circle round my place and forbade them to cross it, an
injunction they scrupulously attended to.

I had now only to deal with the wife of my guide.  She laid siege to
me the whole day, coming as near to me as possible, and teasing me
to give her some of my things.  I gave her a few trifles, for I had
not much with me, and she then wanted everything.  Fortunately her
husband came out of the house just then; I called him and complained
of his wife, and at the same time threatened to leave his house, and
seek shelter somewhere else, well knowing that the Arabs consider
this a great disgrace.  He immediately ordered her harshly out, and
I at last had peace.  I always succeeded in carrying out my own
will.  I found that energy and boldness have a weight with all
people, whether Arabs, Persians, Bedouins, or others.

Towards evening I saw, to my great delight, a cauldron of mutton set
on the fire.  For eight days I had eaten nothing but bread,
cucumber, and some dates; and, therefore, had a great desire for a
hot and more nutritious meal.  But my appetite was greatly
diminished when I saw their style of cookery.  The old woman (my
guide's mother) threw several handsful of small grain, and a large
quantity of onions, into a pan full of water to soften.  In about
half an hour she put her dirty hands into the water, and mixed the
whole together, now and then taking a mouthful, and, after chewing
it, spitting it back again into the pan.  She then took a dirty rag,
and strained off the juice, which she poured over the flesh in the

I had firmly made up my mind not to touch this food; but when it was
ready it gave out such an agreeable odour, and my hunger was so
great, that I broke my resolution, and remembered how many times I
had eaten of food the preparation of which was not a whit cleaner.
What was so bad in the present instance was that I had seen the
whole process.

The broth was of a bluish black in colour, and with a rather
strongly acid taste--both the result of the berries.  But it agreed
with me very well, and I felt as strong and well as if I had
undergone no hardships during my journey from Baghdad.

I hoped soon to have had a similar dainty meal, but the Arab does
not live so extravagantly; I was obliged to remain satisfied with
bread and some cucumbers, without salt, oil, or vinegar.

26th June.  We left the village and passed Kerku.  At sunrise, we
ascended a small hill, from the summit of which I was astonished by
a beautiful prospect:  a majestic lofty chain of mountains extended
along an enormous valley, and formed the boundary between Kurdistan
and Mesopotamia.

In this valley there were the most beautiful flowers, mallows,
chrysanthemums, and thistly plants.  Among the latter, there was one
which frequently occurs in Germany, but not in such richness and
magnificence.  In many places these thistles cover large spaces of
ground.  The country people cut them down, and burn them instead of
wood, which is here a great luxury, as there are no trees.  We saw,
today, some herds of gazelles, which ran leaping past us.

On the 27th of June we made our encampment near the miserable little
town Attum-Kobri.  Before reaching it, we crossed the river Sab
(called by the natives Altum-Su, golden water), by two old Roman
bridges.  I saw several similar bridges in Syria.  In both instances
they were in good preservation, and will apparently long remain as
evidences of the Roman power.  Their wide and lofty arches rested
upon massive pillars, and the whole was constructed of large square
blocks of stone; the ascent of bridges of this kind is so steep that
the animals are obliged to scramble up like cats.

On the 28th of June we reached the town of Erbil (formerly Arbela),
where, to my great chagrin, we remained until the evening of the
following day.  This little town, which is fortified, is situated
upon an isolated hill in the centre of a valley.  We encamped,
fortunately, near some houses outside the town, at the foot of the
hill.  I found a hut, which was tenanted by some men, two donkeys,
and a number of fowls.  The mistress, for a small acknowledgment,
provided me a little place, which at least sheltered me from the
burning heat of the sun.  Beyond that, I had not the slightest
convenience.  As this hut, in comparison with the others, was a
complete palace, the whole of the neighbours were constantly
collected here.  From early in the morning till late in the evening,
when it is the custom to recline upon the terraces, or before the
huts, there was always a large party; one came to gossip, others
brought meal with them, and kneaded their bread meanwhile, so as not
to miss the conversation.  In the background, the children were
being washed and freed from vermin, the asses were braying, and the
fowls covering everything with dirt.  These, altogether, made the
stay in this place more unbearable than even hunger and thirst.
Still, I must say, to the credit of these people, that they behaved
with the greatest propriety towards me, although not only women, but
a great number of men of the poorest and lowest class, were coming
backwards and forwards continually; even the women here left me in

In the evening, some mutton was cooked in a vessel which just before
was full of dirty linen steeped in water.  This was emptied out,
and, without cleaning the pot, it was used to prepare the food in
the same manner as at the house of my guide.

On the 30th of June we halted at the village of Sab.  We here
crossed the great river Sab by means of rafts, the mode of
constructing which is certainly very ancient.  They consist of
leathern bottles, filled with air, fastened together with poles, and
covered with planks, reeds, and rushes.  Our raft had twenty-eight
wind-bags, was seven feet broad, nearly as long, and carried two
horse-loads and six men.  As our caravan numbered thirty-two loaded
animals, the crossing of the river occupied half a day.  Four or
five of the animals were tied together and drawn over by a man
seated across an air-bag.  The weaker animals, such as the donkeys,
had a bag half filled with air tied on their backs.

The night of the 30th of June, the last of our journey, was one of
the most wearisome:  we travelled eleven hours.  About half-way, we
came to the river Hasar, called Gaumil by the Greeks, and made
remarkable by the passage of Alexander the Great.  It was broad, but
not deep, and we therefore rode through.  The chain of mountains
still continued at the side at some considerable distance, and here
and there rose low, sterile hills, or head-lands.  The total absence
of trees in this part of Mesopotamia is striking:  during the last
five days I did not see a single one.  It is, therefore, easy to
imagine that there are many people here who have never seen such a
thing.  There were spaces of twenty miles in extent, upon which not
a single branch was to be seen.  However, it is fortunate that there
is no scarcity of water; every day we came once or twice to rivers
of various sizes.

The town of Mosul did not become visible until we were within about
five miles.  It is situated upon a slight elevation in a very
extensive valley, on the west bank of the Tigris, which is already
much narrower here than near Baghdad.  We arrived about 7 o'clock in
the morning.

I was fresh and active, although during these fifteen days I had
only twice had a hot meal--the ink-coloured lamb soup at Kerku and
Ervil; although I had been obliged to remain day and night in the
same clothes, and had not even an opportunity of once changing my
linen, not to say anything of the terrific heat, the continual
riding, and other fatigues.

I first dismounted at the caravansary, and then procured a guide to
the English Vice-consul, Mr. Rassam, who had already prepared a room
for me, as he had been previously informed of my coming by a letter
from Major Rawlinson, at Baghdad.

I first visited the town, which, however, does not present any very
remarkable features.  It is surrounded by fortified works, and
contains 25,000 inhabitants, among which there are scarcely twelve
Europeans.  The bazaars are extensive, but not in the least degree
handsome; between them lie several coffee-stalls and some chans.  I
found the entrances to all the houses narrow, low, and furnished
with strong gates.  These gates are relics of former times, when the
people were always in danger from the attacks of enemies.  In the
interiors, there are very beautiful court-yards, and lofty, airy
rooms, with handsome entrances and bow-windows.  The doors and
window-frames, the stairs and walls of the ground-floor rooms, are
generally made of marble; though the marble which is used for these
purposes is not very fine, yet it still looks better than brick
walls.  The quarry lies close to the town.

Here also the hot part of the day is passed in the sardabs.  The
heat is most terrible in the month of July, when the burning simoom
not unfrequently sweeps over the town.  During my short stay at
Mosul, several people died very suddenly; these deaths were ascribed
to the heat.  Even the sardabs do not shelter people from continual
perspiration, as the temperature rises as high as 97 degrees 25'

The birds also suffer much from the heat:  they open their beaks
wide, and stretch their wings out far from their bodies.

The inhabitants suffer severely in their eyes; but the Aleppo boils
are not so common as in Baghdad, and strangers are not subject to

I found the heat very oppressive, but in other respects was very
well, especially as regards my appetite:  I believe that I could
have eaten every hour of the day.  Probably this was in consequence
of the hard diet which I had been obliged to endure on my journey.

The principal thing worth seeing at Mosul is the palace, about half
a mile from the town.  It consists of several buildings and gardens,
surrounded with walls which it is possible to see over, as they lie
lower than the town.  It presents a very good appearance from a
distance, but loses on nearer approach.  In the gardens stand
beautiful groups of trees, which are the more valuable as they are
the only ones in the whole neighbourhood.

During my stay at Mosul, a large number of Turkish troops marched
through.  The Pasha rode out a short distance to receive them, and
then returned to the town at the head of the foot regiments.  The
cavalry remained behind, and encamped in tents along the banks of
the Tigris.  I found these troops incomparably better clothed and
equipped than those which I had seen, in 1842, at Constantinople.
Their uniform consisted of white trousers, blue cloth spencers, with
red facings, good shoes, and fez.

As soon as I was in some degree recovered from the fatigue of my
late journey, I requested my amiable host to furnish me with a
servant who should conduct me to the ruins of Nineveh; but instead
of a servant, the sister of Mrs. Rassam and a Mr. Ross accompanied
me.  One morning we visited the nearest ruins on the other side of
the Tigris, at the village Nebbi Yunus opposite the town; and, on
another day, those called Tel-Nimroud, which are situated at a
greater distance, about eighteen miles down the river.

According to Strabo, Nineveh was still larger than Babylon.  He
represents it as having been the largest city in the world.  The
journey round it occupied three days.  The walls were a hundred feet
high, broad enough for three chariots abreast, and defended by
fifteen hundred towers.  The same authority states that the Assyrian
king Ninus was the founder, about 2,200 years before the birth of

The whole is now covered with earth, and it is only when the
peasants are ploughing, that fragments of brick or marble are here
and there turned up.  Long ranges of mounds, more or less high,
extending over the immeasurable plain on the left bank of the
Tigris, are known to cover the remains of this town.

In the year 1846, the Trustees of the British Museum sent the
erudite antiquarian, Mr. Layard, to undertake the excavations.  It
was the first attempt that had ever been made, and was very
successful. {268}

Several excavations were made in the hills near Nebbi Yunus, and
apartments were soon reached whose walls were covered with marble
slabs wrought in relief.  These represented kings with crowns and
jewels, deities with large wings, warriors with arms and shields,
the storming of fortifications, triumphal processions, and hunting
parties, etc.  They were unfortunately deficient in correct drawing,
proportions, or perspective; the mounds and fortifications were
scarcely three times as high as the besiegers; the fields reached to
the clouds; the trees and lotus flowers could scarcely be
distinguished from each other; and the heads of men and animals were
all alike, and only in profile.  On many of the walls were found
those wedge-shaped characters, or letters, which constitute what are
called cuneiform inscriptions, and are found only on Persian and
Babylonian monuments.

Among all the rooms and apartments which were brought to light,
there was only one in which the walls were covered with fine cement
and painted; but, notwithstanding the greatest care, it was not
possible to preserve this wall.  When it came in contact with the
air, the cement cracked and fell off.  The marble also is partially
converted into lime, or otherwise injured, in consequence of the
terrible conflagration which laid the city in ruins.  The bricks
fall to pieces when they are dug out.

From the number of handsome apartments, the abundance of marble, and
the paintings and inscriptions upon it, the inference is drawn that
this spot contains the ruins of a royal palace.

A considerable quantity of marble slabs, with reliefs and cuneiform
inscriptions, were carefully detached from the walls and sent to
England.  When I was at Bassora, a whole cargo of similar remains
lay near the Tigris, and among others a sphynx.

On our return we visited the village Nebbi Yunus, which is situated
on a slight eminence near the ruins.  It is remarkable only on
account of a small mosque, which contains the ashes of the prophet
Jonas, and to which thousands of devotees make annual pilgrimages.

During this excursion we passed a number of fields, in which the
people were engaged in separating the corn from the straw in a very
peculiar manner.  For this purpose, a machine was employed,
consisting of two wooden tubs, between which was fastened a roller,
with from eight to twelve long, broad, and blunt knives or hatchets.
This was drawn by two horses or oxen over the bundles of corn laid
on the ground, until the whole of the corn was separated from the
straw.  It was then thrown up into the air by means of shovels, so
that the chaff might be separated from the grain by the wind.

We finally visited the sulphur springs, which lie close to the walls
of Mosul.  They are not warm, but appear to contain a large quantity
of sulphur, as the smell is apparent at a considerable distance.
These springs rise in natural basins, which are surrounded by walls
eight feet in height.  Every one is allowed to bathe there without
any charge, for people are not so niggardly and sparing of nature's
gifts as in Europe.  Certain hours are set apart for women, and
others for the men.

On the following day we rode to the Mosque Elkosch, near the town.
Noah's son Shem has found a resting-place here.  We were not allowed
to enter this mosque, but certainly did not lose much by that, as
all these monuments are alike, and are not remarkable either for
architecture or ornament.

The Nineveh excavations are carried on most extensively at Tel-
Timroud, a district where the mounds of earth are the most numerous.
Tel-Nimroud is situated about eighteen miles from Mosul down the

We took our seats one moonlight evening upon a raft, and glided down
between the dull banks of the Tigris.  After seven hours, we landed,
about 1 o'clock in the morning, at a poor village, bearing the high
sounding name Nimroud.  Some of the inhabitants, who were sleeping
before their huts, made us a fire and some coffee, and we then laid
down till daybreak upon some rugs we had brought with us.

At daybreak we took horses (of which there are plenty in every
village), and rode to the excavations, about a mile from Nimroud.
We found here a great number of places which had been dug up, or
rather, uncovered mounds of earth, but not, as at Herculaneum, whole
houses, streets, squares, indeed, half a town.  Nothing beyond
separate rooms has been brought to light here, or at the utmost,
three or four adjoining ones, the exterior walls of which are not,
in any case, separated from the earth, and have neither windows nor
doors visible.

The objects which have been discovered exactly resemble those in the
neighbourhood of Mosul, but occur in greater numbers.  Besides
these, I saw several idols and sphynxes in stone.  The former
represented animals with human heads; their size was gigantic--about
that of an elephant.  Four of these statues have been found, two of
which were, however, considerably damaged.  The others were not
indeed in very good preservation, although sufficiently so to show
that the sculptors did not particularly excel in their profession.
The sphynxes were small, and had unfortunately suffered more damage
than the bulls.

Shortly before my arrival, an obelisk of inconsiderable height, a
small and uninjured sphynx, together with other remains, had been
sent to England.

The excavations near Tel-Nimroud have been discontinued about a
year, and Mr. Layard has been recalled to London.  An order was
afterwards given to cover in the places which had been dug open, as
the wandering Arabs had begun to do a great deal of injury.  When I
visited the spot, some places were already covered in, but the
greater part remained open.

The excavations near Nebbi Yunus are still being carried on.  An
annual grant is made by the British government for this purpose.

The English resident at Baghdad, Major Rawlinson, had made himself
perfectly master of the cuneiform character.  He reads the
inscriptions with ease, and many of the translations are the results
of his labours.

We returned to Mosul on horseback in five hours and a half.  The
power of endurance of the Arabian horses is almost incredible.  They
were allowed only a quarter of an hour's rest in Mosul, where they
had nothing but water, and then travelled the eighteen miles back
again during the hottest part of the day.  Mr. Ross told me that
even this was not equal to the work done by the post horses:  the
stations for these are from forty-eight to seventy-two miles distant
from each other.  It is possible to travel from Mosul by Tokat to
Constantinople in this way.  The best Arabian horses are found round
Baghdad and Mosul.

An agent of the Queen of Spain had just purchased a stud of twelve
magnificent horses (eight mares and four stallions), the dearest of
which had cost on the spot 150 pounds sterling.  They stood in Mr.
Rassam's stable.  Their handsome, long, slender heads, their
sparkling eyes, slight bodies, and their small delicately formed
feet, would have filled any admirer of horses with delight.

I could now venture, not, indeed, without considerable risk,
although with the possibility of some insult, upon the desired
journey into Persia.  I sought a caravan to Tebris.  Unfortunately,
I could not find one which went direct there, and I was, therefore,
compelled to make this journey in separate stages, a circumstance
which was so much the worse for me, as I was told that I should not
find any Europeans on the way.

Nevertheless I took the chance.  Mr. Rassam arranged for me the
journey as far as Ravandus, and furnished me with a letter of
recommendation to one of the natives there.  I wrote out a small
lexicon of Arabian and Persian words, and took leave of this
hospitable family at sunset, on the 8th of July.  I started on this
journey with some feelings of anxiety, and scarcely dared to hope
for a fortunate termination.  On that account I sent my papers and
manuscripts from here to Europe, so that in case I was robbed or
murdered my diary would at least come into the hands of my sons.



On the 8th of July the caravan guide called for me in the evening.
His appearance was so unfavourable that I should scarcely have
ventured to travel a mile with him had I not been assured that he
was a man well known in the place.  His dress consisted of rags and
tatters, and his countenance resembled that of a robber.  Ali, that
was his name, told me that the travellers and goods had already gone
on and were encamped in the chan near Nebbi-Yunus, where they were
to pass the night.  The journey was to be commenced before sunrise.
I found three men and some pack-horses; the men (Kurds) were no
better in appearance than Ali, so that I could not promise myself
much gratification from their society.  I took up my quarters for
the night in the dirty court-yard of the chan, but was too much
frightened to sleep well.

In the morning, to my astonishment, there were no indications of
starting.  I asked Ali what was the cause of this, and received as
answer that the travellers were not all assembled yet, and that, as
soon as they were, we should proceed immediately.  In the
expectation that this might soon happen, I dared not leave the
miserable shelter to return to Mosul, from which we were only a mile
distant.  The whole day was spent in waiting; these people did not
come until evening.  There were five of them:  one, who appeared to
be a wealthy man, with his two servants, was returning from a
pilgrimage.  We started at last about 10 o'clock at night.  After
travelling for four hours we crossed several ranges of hills, which
form the boundaries of Mesopotamia and Kurdistan.  We passed several
villages, and reached Secani on the morning of the 10th of July.
Ali did not halt at the village which lies on the pretty river
Kasir, but on the other side of the river near a couple of deserted,
half-ruined huts.  I hastened directly into one of the best to make
sure of a good place, where the sun did not come through the sieve-
like roof, which I fortunately found but the pilgrim, who hobbled in
directly after me, was inclined to dispute its possession.  I threw
my mantle down, and seating myself upon it, did not move from the
place, well knowing that a Mussulman never uses force towards a
woman, not even towards a Christian one.  And so it turned out; he
left me in my place and went grumbling away.  One of the pedlars
behaved himself in a very different manner:  when he saw that I had
nothing for my meal but dry bread, while he had cucumbers and sweet
melons, he gave me a cucumber and a melon, for which he would not
take any money.  The pilgrim also ate nothing else, although he had
only to send one of his servants to the village to procure either
fowls or eggs, etc.  The frugality of these people is really

About 6 in the evening we again proceeded on our journey, and for
the first three hours went continually up-hill.  The ground was
waste and covered with boulders, which were full of shallow holes,
and resembled old lava.

Towards 11 at night we entered an extensive and beautiful valley,
upon which the moon threw a brilliant light.  We purposed halting
here, and not continuing our journey further during the night, as
our caravan was small, and Kurdistan bears a very bad name.  The
road led over fields of stubble near to stacks of corn.  Suddenly
half a dozen powerful fellows sprung out from behind, armed with
stout cudgels, and seizing our horses' reins, raised their sticks,
and shouted at us terribly.  I felt certain that we had fallen into
the hands of a band of robbers, and was glad to think that I had
left my treasures which I had collected at Babylon and Nineveh,
together with my papers, at Mosul; my other effects might have been
easily replaced.  During the time this was passing in my mind, one
of our party had sprung from his horse and seized one of the men by
the breast, when he held a loaded pistol before his face and
threatened to shoot him.  This had an immediate effect; the
waylayers relinquished their hold, and soon entered into a peaceful
conversation with us; and at last, indeed, showed us a good place to
encamp, for which, however, they requested a small bachshish, which
was given to them by a general collection.  From me, as belonging to
the female sex, they required nothing.  We passed the night here,
though not without keeping guard.

11th July.  About 4 o'clock we were again upon the road, and rode
six hours, when we came to the village of Selik.  We passed through
several villages, which, however, had a very miserable appearance.
The huts were built of reeds and straw; the slightest gust of wind
would have been sufficient to have blown them over.  The dress of
the people approaches in character to the Oriental; all were very
scantily, dirtily, and raggedly clothed.

Near Selik I was surprised by the sight of a fig-tree and another
large tree.  In this country trees are rare.  The mountains
surrounding us were naked and barren, and in the valleys there grew
at most some wild artichokes or beautiful thistles and

The noble pilgrim took upon himself to point out my place under the
large tree, where the whole party were encamped.  I gave him no
reply, and took possession of one of the fig-trees.  Ali, who was
far better than he looked, brought me a jug of buttermilk, and
altogether today passed off tolerably pleasantly.

Several women from the village visited me and begged for money, but
I gave them none, as I knew from experience that I should be
attacked by all if I gave to one.  I once gave a child a little
ring, and not only the other children, but their mothers and
grandmothers, crowded round me.  It cost me some trouble to keep
them from forcibly emptying my pockets.  Since that time I was more
cautious.  One of the women here changed her begging manner into one
so threatening, that I was heartily glad at not being alone with

We left this village at 4 in the afternoon.  The pilgrim separated
from us, and the caravan then consisted of only five men.  In about
an hour and a half we reached an eminence from which we obtained a
view of an extensive and well cultivated hill country.  The land in
Kurdistan is without comparison better than in Mesopotamia, and the
country is consequently better inhabited; we were, therefore
continually passing through different villages.

Before nightfall we entered a valley which was distinguished for
fresh rice plantations, beautiful shrubs, and green reeds:  a brisk
stream murmured at our side, the heat of the day was now succeeded
by the evening shadows, and, at this moment we had nothing to wish
for.  This good fortune, however, did not last long; one of the
pedlars was suddenly taken so ill that we were obliged to stop.  He
nearly fell off his mule, and remained motionless.  We covered him
with rugs, but beyond that we could not do anything for him, as we
had neither medicines nor other remedies with us.  Fortunately, he
fell asleep after a few hours, and we squatted down on the ground
and followed his example.

12th July.  This morning our patient was well again; a doubly
fortunate circumstance, as we had to pass a terribly rocky and stony
road.  We were obliged to scramble up and down the mountainous side
of a valley, as the valley itself was completely occupied by the
irregular course of the river Badin, which wound in a serpentine
direction from side to side.  Pomegranates and oleanders grew in the
valley, wild vines twined themselves round the shrubs and trees, and
larches covered the slopes of the hills.

After a difficult and dangerous ride of six hours, we came to a ford
of the river Badin.  Our raft turned out to be so small that it
would carry only two men, and very little baggage; and we were, in
consequence, four hours in crossing.  We stayed for the night not
far from the ferry of Vakani.

13th July.  The road still continued bad; we had to ascend an
immense pile of mountains.  Far and wide, nothing was to be seen but
rock and stone, although, to my astonishment, I observed that in
many places the stones had been gathered on one side, and every
little spot of earth made use of.  A few dwarf ash-trees stood here
and there.  The whole has the character of the country near Trieste.

Although there were no villages on the road, there appeared to be
some near, for on many of the heights I observed large burial-
places, especially on those which are overshadowed by ash-trees.  It
is the custom throughout Kurdistan to establish the burial-places on
high situations.

We did not travel more than seven hours today, and halted in the
valley of Halifan.  This little valley has an uncommonly romantic
situation; it is surrounded by lofty and beautiful mountains, which
rise with a gentle slope on one side, and on the other are steep and
precipitous.  The whole valley was covered with a rich vegetation;
the stubble-fields were interspersed with tobacco and rice
plantations, and meadows.  Poplar-trees surrounded the village,
which was pleasantly situated at the foot of a hill, and a stream of
crystalline clearness rushed forcibly out of a mountain chasm, and
flowed calmly and still through this delightful valley.  Towards
evening, numerous herds of cows, sheep, and goats came from the
mountain-slopes towards the village.

We encamped at some distance from the village; I could not procure
any relish for my dry bread, and had no other bed than the hard
ground of a stubble-field.  Nevertheless I should include this
evening among the most agreeable; the scenery round compensated me
sufficiently for the want of every other enjoyment.

14th July.  Ali allowed us to rest only half the night; at 2 o'clock
we were again mounted.  A few hundred paces from our resting-place
was the entrance of a stupendous mountain-pass.  The space between
the sides of the rocks afforded only sufficient room for the stream
and a narrow pathway.  Fortunately the moon shone out brilliantly,
otherwise it would have been scarcely possible for the most
practised animal to ascend the narrow and extremely dangerous road
between the fallen masses of rock and rolling stones.  Our hardy
animals scrambled like chamois along, over the edges of the steep
precipices, and carried us with safety past the terrible abyss, at
the bottom of which the stream leapt, with a frightful roaring, from
rock to rock.  This night-scene was so terrible and impressive that
even my uncultivated companions were involuntarily silent--mute, and
noiseless, we went on our way, nothing breaking the death-like
stillness but the rattling steps of our animals.

We had proceeded about an hour in this way, when the moon was
suddenly obscured; thick clouds gathered round from all sides, and
the darkness soon became so great that we could scarcely see a few
steps before us.  The foremost man continually struck fire, so as to
light up the path somewhat by the sparks.  But this did not help us
much, the animals began to slip and stumble.  We were compelled to
halt, and stood quiet and motionless, one behind the other, as if
suddenly changed to stone by magic.  Life returned again with
daybreak, and we spurred our animals briskly forwards.

We were in an indescribably beautiful circle of mountains; at our
side lay high cliffs; before and behind, hills and mountains crowded
over each other, and in the far distance an enormous peak, covered
with snow, completed the romantic picture.  This mountain-pass is
called Ali-Bag.  For three hours and a half we continued going up
hill, without intermission.

A short distance before reaching the plateau, we observed, in
several places, small spots of blood, of which nobody at first took
much notice, as they might have been caused by a horse or mule that
had injured itself.  But shortly we came to a place which was
entirely covered with large blood-spots.  This sight filled us with
great horror; we looked round anxiously for the cause of these marks
and perceived two human bodies far down below.  One hung scarcely a
hundred feet down on the declivity of the rock, the other had rolled
further on, and was half-buried under a mass of rock.  We hastened
from this horrible scene as quickly as we could; it was several days
before I could free myself from the recollection of it.

All the stones on the plateau were full of holes, as if other stones
had been stuck in.  This appearance ceased as we went further up.
In the valley, at the other side of the plateau, there were vines,
which, however, did not rise far above the ground, as they were not
supported in any way.

Our road continued on through the mountains.  We frequently
descended, but again had to cross several heights, and, finally,
came out upon a small elevated plain, which, on both sides, was
bounded by steep declivities.  A village of huts, made of branches,
was situated on this plain, and on the summits of two neighbouring
rocks fortified works were erected.

My travelling companions remained behind here; but Ali went with me
to the town of Ravandus, which only becomes visible from this side
at a very short distance.

The situation and view of this town is most charming; not indeed
from its beauty, for it is not more remarkable in that respect than
other Turkish towns, but on account of its peculiarity.  It is
situated upon a steep, isolated cone, surrounded by mountains.  The
houses are built in the form of terraces, one above another, with
flat roofs, which are covered with earth, stamped down hard, so as
to resemble narrow streets, for which they serve to the upper
houses, and it is frequently difficult to tell which is street and
which roof.  On many of the terraces, walls, formed of the branches
of trees, are erected, behind which the people sleep.  Lower down,
the hill is surrounded by a fortified wall.

When I first caught hold of this eagle's nest, I feared that I had
not much probability of finding any conveniences for travellers, and
every step further confirmed this opinion.  Ravandus was one of the
most miserable towns I ever saw.  Ali conducted me over a beggarly
bazaar to a dirty court, which I took for a stable, but was the
chan; and, after I had dismounted, took me into a dark recess, in
which the merchant, to whom I had a letter, sat upon the ground
before his stall.  This merchant was the most considerable of his
class in Ravandus.  Mr. Mansur, that was the merchant's name, read
over the letter which I had brought, for full a quarter of an hour,
although it only consisted of a few lines, and then greeted me with
a repeated salaam, which means "you are welcome."

The good man must have concluded that I had not tasted any food
today, for he very hospitably ordered breakfast immediately,
consisting of bread, sheep's cheese, and melons.  These were eaten
all together.  My hunger was so great that I found this plan
excellent.  I ate without ceasing.  The conversation, on the
contrary, was not so successful; my host did not understand any
European language, nor I any Asiatic language.  We made use of
signs, and I took pains to make him understand that I was desirous
of going on further as soon as possible.  He promised to do his
utmost for me, and also explained that he would see to me during my
stay; he was not married, and therefore could not receive me into
his own house, but would take me to one of his relations.

After breakfast was ended he took me to a house resembling those of
the Arabs at Kerkil, except that the court-yard was very small, and
completely filled with rubbish and puddles.  Under the door-way,
four ugly women with half-ragged clothes, were seated upon a dirty
rug, playing with some little children.  I was obliged to sit down
with them, and undergo the usual curious examination and staring.
For some time I put up with it, but then left this charming society,
and looked about for a place where I could arrange my toilette a
little.  I had not changed my clothes for six days, having been
exposed, at the same time, to a heat which was far greater than that
under the line.  I found a dirty and smutty room, which, in addition
to the disgust it excited, made me fear the presence of vermin and
scorpions; of the latter I had a particular dread.  I thought at
first that they were to be found in every place, as I had read in
many descriptions of travels that they were innumerable in these
countries.  My fear lessened afterwards, as I did not meet with any,
even in the dirtiest places; in ruins, court-yards, or sardabs.
Altogether I only saw two during my whole journey, but I suffered a
great deal from other vermin, which are only to be removed by
burning the clothes and linen.

I had scarcely taken possession of this beggarly room, when one
woman after the other came in; the women were followed by the
children, and then by several neighbours, who had heard of the
arrival of an Inglesi; I was worse off here than under the gateway.

At last, one of the women luckily thought of offering me a bath, and
I accepted the proposal with great joy.  Hot water was prepared, and
they made a sign for me to follow them, which I did, and found
myself in the sheep-stall, which, perhaps, had not been cleaned for
years, or indeed as long as it had stood.  In this place they pushed
two stones together, upon which I was to stand, and in the presence
of the whole company, who followed me like my shadow, allow myself
to be bathed with water.  I made signs to them to go out, as I
wished to perform this office myself; they did indeed leave me, but
as misfortune had it, the stall had no door, and they were all able
to look in just the same.

I passed four days among these people, the day time in dark
recesses, the evenings and nights upon the terraces.  I was obliged,
like my hostess, constantly to squat down on the ground, and when I
wanted to write anything I had to make use of my knees instead of a
table.  Every day they told me there was a caravan going away to-
morrow.  Alas! they said so only to quiet me, they saw, perhaps, how
disagreeable the stay was to me.  The women lounged about the whole
day sleeping or chattering, playing with, or scolding the children.
They preferred going about in dirty rags to mending and washing
them, and they allowed their children to tyrannize over them

When the latter wanted anything and did not get it, they threw
themselves on the ground, struck about with their hands and feet,
howling and shrieking until they obtained what they desired.

They had no fixed meal-times during the day, but the women and
children were constantly eating bread, cucumbers, melons and
buttermilk.  In the evenings they bathed very much, and every one
washed their hands, faces, and feet, which ceremony was frequently
repeated three or four times before prayers; but there was a great
want of real devotion:  in the middle of the prayers they chattered
right and left.  However, there is not much difference with us.

Notwithstanding all these glaring and gross defects I found these
people very amiable:  they willingly permitted themselves to be
taught, admitted their failings, and always allowed me to be right
when I said or explained anything to them.  For example, the little
Ascha, a girl seven years of age was very intractable.  If she was
denied anything she threw herself on the ground, crying miserably,
rolling about in the filth and dirt, and smearing with her dirty
hands the bread, melons, etc.  I endeavoured to make the child
conscious of her misbehaviour, and succeeded beyond all expectation.
I, in fact, imitated her.  The child looked at me astounded, upon
which I asked if it had pleased her.  She perceived the
offensiveness of her conduct, and I did not often need to imitate
her.  It was just the same with regard to cleanliness.  She
immediately washed herself carefully, and then came running joyfully
to me showing her hands and face.  During the few days I was here
the child became so fond of me that she would not leave my side, and
sought in every way to make friends with me.

I was not less fortunate with the women; I pointed out their torn
clothes, brought needles, and thread, and taught them how to sew and
mend.  They were pleased with this, and I had in a short time a
whole sewing school round me.

How much good might be done here by any one who knew the language
and had the inclination, only the parents must be taught at the same
time as the children.

What a fine field is here open to the missionaries if they would
accustom themselves to live among these people, and with kindness
and patience to counteract their failings!  As it is, however, they
devote at the utmost only a few hours in the day to them, and make
their converts come to them, instead of visiting them in their own

The women and girls in the Asiatic countries receive no education,
those in the towns have little or no employment, and are left to
themselves during the whole day.  The men go at sunrise to the
bazaars, where they have their stalls or workshops, the bigger boys
go to school or accompany their fathers, and neither return home
before sunset.  There the husband expects to find the carpets spread
out on the terraces, the supper ready, and the nargilly lighted, he
then plays a little with the young children, who, however, during
meal-time are obliged to keep away with their mothers.  The women in
the villages have more liberty and amusement, as they generally take
part in the housekeeping.  It is said that the people in the country
here are, as among ourselves, more moral than in the towns.

The dress worn by the richer Kurds is the Oriental, that of the
common people differs slightly from it.  The men wear wide linen
trousers, over them a shirt reaching to the hips, and fastened round
the waist by a girdle.  They frequently draw on, over the shirt, a
jacket without sleeves, made of coarse brown woollen stuff, which is
properly cut into strips of a hand's breath, and joined together by
broad seams.  Others wear trousers of brown stuff instead of white
linen; they are, however, extremely ugly, as they are really nothing
more than a wide shapeless sack with two holes, through which the
feet are put.  The coverings for the feet are either enormous shoes
of coarsely woven white sheeps' wool, ornamented with three tassels,
or short, very wide boots of red or yellow leather, reaching only
just above the ankle and armed with large plates an inch thick.  The
head-dress is a turban.

The women wear long wide trousers, blue shirts, which frequently
reach half a yard over the feet, and are kept up by means of a
girdle; a large blue mantle hangs from the back of the neck,
reaching down to the calves.  They wear the same kind of plated
boots as the men.  On their heads they wear either black kerchiefs
wound in the manner of a turban, or a red fez, the top of which is
very broad, and covered with silver coins arranged in the form of a
cross.  A coloured silk kerchief is wound round the fez, and a
wreath made of short black silk fringe is fastened on the top.  This
wreath looks like a handsome rich fur-trimming, and is so arranged
that it forms a coronet, leaving the forehead exposed.  The hair
falls in numerous thin tresses over the shoulders, and a heavy
silver chain hangs down behind from the turban.  It is impossible to
imagine a head dress that looks better than this.

Neither women or girls cover their faces, and I saw here several
very beautiful girls with truly noble features.  The colour of the
skin is rather brown, the eyebrows and lashes were black, and the
hair dyed reddish-brown with henna.  Among the lower orders small
nose rings are sometimes worn here.

Mr. Mansur furnished me with a very good table in the morning, I had
buttermilk, bread, cucumber, and on one occasion dates roasted in
butter, which, however, was not very palatable; in the evening
mutton and rice, or a quodlibet of rice, barley, maize, cucumber,
onions and minced meat.  I found it all very good as I was healthy,
and had a good appetite.  The water and buttermilk are taken very
cold, and a piece of ice is always put into them.  Ice is to be met
with in abundance not only in the towns, but also in every village.
It is brought from the mountains in the neighbourhood, the people
eat large pieces of it with great relish.

In spite of the endeavours of Mr. Mansur and his relations to render
my stay bearable, or perhaps, indeed, pleasant, according to their
ideas, I was agreeably surprised when Ali came one morning bringing
the news that he had met with a small freight to Sauh-Bulak (seventy
miles) a place which laid on my road.  That same evening I went to
the caravansary, and the next morning, 18th July, was on the road
before sunrise.

Mr. Mansur was to the last very hospitable.  He not only gave me a
letter to a Persian living in Sauh-Bulak, but also provided me with
bread for the journey, some melons, cucumbers, and a small bottle of
sour milk.  The latter was particularly acceptable to me, and I
would advise every traveller to remember this nourishing and
refreshing drink.

Sour milk is put into a small bag of thick linen, the watery part
filters through, and the solid part can be taken out with a spoon,
and mixed with water as desired.  In the hot season, indeed, it
dries into cheese on the fourth or fifth day, but this also tastes
very well, and in four or five days you come to places where the
supply may be renewed.

On the first day we passed continually through narrow valleys
between lofty mountains.  The roads were exceedingly bad, and we
were frequently obliged to cross over high mountains to pass from
one valley into another.  These stony valleys were cultivated as
much as was possible.  We halted at Tschomarichen.

19th July.  The road and country was the same as those of yesterday,
except that we had more hilly ground to ascend.  We very nearly
reached the height of the first snow region.

Towards evening, we came to Raid, a miserable place with a half-
ruined citadel.  Scarcely had we encamped, when several well-armed
soldiers, headed by an officer, made their appearance.  They spoke
for some time with Ali, and at last the officer introduced himself
to me, took his place at my side, showed me a written paper, and
made several signs.  As far as I could understand, he meant to say
that I was now in Persia, and that he wanted to see my passport.
However, I did not wish to take it out of my portmanteau in the
presence of the whole of the villagers, who were already assembled
round me, and, therefore, explained to him that I did not understand
him.  With this assurance he left me, saying to Ali:  "What shall I
do with her?  She does not understand me, and may go on further."
{279}  I do not think that I should have been so leniently dealt
with in any European state!

In almost every village, a great part of the people immediately
assembled round me.  The reader may imagine what a crowd had
gathered together during this discussion.  To be continually stared
at in this way was one of the greatest inconveniences of my journey.
Sometimes I quite lost my patience, when the women and children
pressed round me, handling my clothes and head.  Although quite
alone among them, I gave them several slight blows with my riding-
whip.  This always had the desired effect; the people either went
away altogether or drew back in a ring.  But here, a boy about
sixteen was inclined to punish my boldness.  As usual, I went to the
river to fill my leathern flask, to wash my hands and face, and
bathe my feet.  This boy slipped after me, picked up a stone, and
threatened to throw it at me.  I dare not, of course, evince any
fear; and I went, therefore, quite composedly into the river.  The
stone came flying, although I observed, by the way in which it was
thrown, that he was more desirous of frightening than hitting me; it
was not thrown with force, and fell several feet away.  After
throwing a second and third, he went away; perhaps because he saw
that I did not heed him.

20th July.  Immediately outside Raid, we had to ascend a rather
considerable mountain by a bad and dangerous road, and then came out
upon an extensive elevated plain.  We left the high mountains
further behind, the headlands were covered with short grass, but
there was again a great deficiency of trees.  We met great numbers
of herds of goats and sheep.  The latter were very large, with thick
wool and fat tails; the wool is said to be particularly good and

My apprehensions on this journey were not quite groundless, as it
was seldom that a day passed in undisturbed quiet.  Today, for
instance, a circumstance occurred which frightened me not a little:
our caravan consisted of six men and fourteen pack animals; we were
quietly pursuing our way, when suddenly a troop of mounted men came
dashing down upon us at full gallop.  There were seven well-armed,
and five unarmed.  The former carried lances, sabres, daggers,
knives, pistols, and shields; they were dressed like the common
people, with the exception of the turban, which was wound round with
a simple Persian shawl.  I thought they had been robbers.  They
stopped and surrounded us, and then inquired where we came from,
where we were going to, and what kind of goods we carried?  When
they had received an explanation, they allowed us to go on.  At
first I could not understand the meaning of the proceeding at all;
but, as we were stopped several times in the course of the day in a
similar manner, I concluded that these men were soldiers on duty.

We remained at Coromaduda over night.

21st July.  The roads and prospects very similar to those of
yesterday.  We were again stopped by a troop of soldiers, and this
time the affair seemed likely to be of more consequence.  Ali must
have made some incorrect statements.  They took possession of both
of his pack animals, threw their loads down on the ground, and one
of the soldiers was ordered to lead them away.  Poor Ali begged and
entreated most pitifully.  He pointed to me, and said that
everything belonged to me, and requested that they should have some
compassion with me as a helpless woman.  The soldier turned to me
and asked if it was true.  I did not think it advisable to give
myself out as their owner, and therefore appeared not to understand
him, but assumed an air of great concern and trouble.  Ali, indeed,
began to cry.  Our position would have been most desperate; for,
what could we have done with the goods in this barren uninhabited
district without our animals.  At last, however, the leader of the
party relented, sent after the animals, and returned them to us.

Late in the evening, we reached the little town of Sauh-Bulak.  As
it was not fortified, we could still enter; however, the chans and
bazaars were all closed, and we had much trouble to get the people
of one of the chans to receive us.  It was very spacious and
handsome; in the centre was a basin of water, and round it small
merchants' stalls and several niches for sleeping.  The people--all
men--were mostly retired to rest; only a few remained at their
devotions.  Their astonishment may be imagined when they saw a woman
enter with a guide.  It was too late to give my letter today, and I
therefore seated myself composedly against the luggage, in the
belief that I should have to pass the night so; but a Persian came
to me and pointed out a niche to sleep in, carried my luggage there,
and, after a little while, brought me some bread and water.  The
kindness of this man was the more admirable, as it is known how much
the Mahomedans hate the Christians.  May God reward him for it.  I
was truly in want of this refreshment.

22nd July.  Today I presented my letter, and the Persian merchant
received me with a welcome.  He conducted me to a Christian family,
and promised to make arrangements for the continuation of my journey
as soon as possible.  In this instance, also, the conversation was
carried on more by the means of signs than words.

There were twenty Christian families in this town, who are under the
care of a French missionary and have a very pretty church.  I looked
forward with pleasure to conversing again in a language with which I
was familiar, but learnt that the missionary was on a journey, so
that I was not better off than at Ravandus, as the people with whom
I lived spoke only Persian.

The man, whose trade was that of a carpenter, had a wife, six
children, and an apprentice.  They all lived in the same room, in
which they gave me a place with great readiness.  The whole family
were uncommonly good and obliging towards me, were very open-
hearted, and if I bought fruit, eggs, or anything of the kind, and
offered them any, they accepted it with great modesty.  But it was
not only towards myself that they were so kind, but also towards
others; no beggar went away from their threshold unrelieved; and yet
this family was terrible, and made my stay a complete purgatory.
The mother, a very stupid scolding woman, bawled and beat her
children the whole day.  Ten minutes did not pass without her
dragging her children about by the hair, or kicking and thumping
them.  The children were not slow in returning it; and, besides
that, fought among themselves; so that I had not a moment's quiet in
my corner, and was not unfrequently in danger of coming in for my
share, for they amused themselves by spitting and throwing large
blocks of wood at each other's heads.  The eldest son several times
throttled his mother in such a way that she became black and blue in
the face.  I always endeavoured, indeed, to establish peace; but it
was very seldom that I succeeded, as I was unfortunately not
sufficient master of the language to make them understand the
impropriety of their conduct.

It was only in the evening, when the father returned, that there was
any order of peace; they dare not quarrel then, much less fight.

I never met with such conduct among any people--even the poorest or
lowest classes of the so-called heathens or unbelievers; I never saw
their children attempt to strike their parents.  When I left Sauh-
Bulak, I wrote a letter for the missionary, in which I directed his
attention to the failings of this family, and besought him to
counteract them, by teaching them that religion does not consist
merely in prayers and fasts, in bible-reading, and going to church.

My stay here was far less bearable than at Ravandus.  I daily
entreated the Persian merchant to help me to go on further, even if
the journey should be attended with some danger.  He shook his head
and explained to me, that there was no caravan going, and that if I
travelled alone I might expect either to be shot or beheaded.

I bore it for five days, but it was impossible to do so any longer.
I begged the merchant to hire me a horse and a guide, and made up my
mind at least to go as far as Oromia, fifty miles, in spite of all
dangers or other circumstances.  I knew that I should find American
missionaries there, and that I should then have no more anxiety
about proceeding on further.

The merchant came on the following day, accompanied by a wild-
looking man, whom he introduced to me as my guide.  I was obliged,
in consequence of the danger of travelling without a caravan, to pay
four times as much; but I was willing to accede to anything to be
able to get away.  The bargain was made, and the guide pledged
himself to start the next morning, and to bring me to Oromia in
three days.  I paid him half of the money in advance, and retained
the other half until we came to our journey's end, so as to be able
to fine him in case he did not keep his agreement.

I was partly glad and partly afraid when the contract was concluded,
and to overcome my apprehensions, I went into the Bazaars, and
walked about outside the town.

This town is situated in a small treeless valley near a range of
hills.  Although I did not wear anything but the isar, I was never
annoyed out of doors.  The bazaars are less beggarly than those at
Ravandus, the chan is large and comfortable.  I found the appearance
of the common people very repulsive.  Tall and strongly built, with
marked features, which were still more disfigured by an expression
of wildness and ferocity, they all appeared to me like robbers or

In the evening I put my pistols in proper order, and made up my mind
not to sell my life cheaply.

28th July.  Instead of leaving Sauh-Bulak at sunrise, I did not
start until towards mid-day.  I travelled on with my guide through
desolate roads between treeless hills, and trembled involuntarily
when any one met us.  However, thank God, there were no adventures
to go through.  We had to fight indeed, but only with tremendous
swarms of large grasshoppers which flew up in some places in clouds.
They were about three inches long, and were furnished with large
wings of a red or blue colour.  All the plants and grass in the
district were eaten away.  I was told that the natives catch these
grasshoppers and dry and eat them.  Unluckily I never saw any such

After a ride of seven hours we came to a large fruitful and
inhabited valley.  Today's journey seemed to promise a favourable
termination, for we were now in an inhabited neighbourhood, and
frequently passed villages.  Some peasants were still working here
and there in the fields, their appearance greatly amused me:  they
wore the high black Persian caps, which were comically contrasted
with their ragged dress.

We remained in this valley, over night, at the village Mahomed-Jur.
If I had not been too idle I might have had an excellent meal of
turtle.  I saw several of them on the road by the brooks, and even
in the fields, and had only to pick them up.  But then to hunt for
wood, make a fire, and cook!  No; I preferred eating a crust of
bread and a cucumber in quiet.

29th July.  This morning we reached, in three hours, the village of
Mahomed-Schar.  To my astonishment my driver made preparations for
stopping here.  I urged him to continue the journey, but he
explained to me that he could not go any further without a caravan,
as the most dangerous part of the journey was now before us.  At the
same time he pointed to some dozens of horses in an adjoining
stubble field, and endeavoured to make me understand that in a few
hours a caravan was going our way.  The whole day passed, and the
caravan did not appear.  I thought that my guide was deceiving me;
and was exceedingly irritated when, in the evening, he arranged my
mantle on the ground for me to sleep.  It was now necessary that I
should make a strenuous effort to show the fellow that I would not
be treated like a child, and remain here as long as he thought fit.
Unfortunately I could not scold him in words, but I picked up the
mantle and threw it at his feet, and explained to him that I would
keep the remainder of the fare if he did not bring me to Oromia to-
morrow on the third day.  I then turned my back to him (one of the
greatest slights), seated myself on the ground, and, resting my head
in my hands, gave myself up to the most melancholy reflections.
What should I have done here if my guide had left me, or had thought
fit to remain until a caravan happened to pass by.

During my dispute with the guide, some women had come up from the
village.  They brought me some milk and some hot food, seated
themselves by me, and inquired what I was so troubled about.

I endeavoured to explain the whole affair.  They understood me and
took my part.  They were vexed with my guide, and endeavoured to
console me.  They did not stir from me, and pressed me so heartily
to partake of their food, that I found myself compelled to eat some.
It consisted of bread, eggs, butter, and water, which were boiled up
together.  Notwithstanding my trouble, I enjoyed it very much.  When
I offered the good people a trifle for this meal they would not take
it.  They seemed gratified that I was more at ease.

30th July.  About 1 o'clock at night my guide began to stir himself,
saddled my horse, and called me to mount.  Still I was at a loss to
understand his proceedings, for I saw no signs of a caravan.  Could
he mean to take his revenge on me?  Why did he travel at night
through a country which he ought to have chosen day-time for?  I did
not understand enough Persian to be able to obtain an explanation,
and did not wish to say anything more to the fellow about not
keeping his contract, so I was obliged to go--and I did go.

With great anxiety I mounted my horse and ordered my guide, who was
inclined to ride behind, to go on in front.  I had no mind to be
attacked from behind, and kept my hand constantly on my pistols.  I
listened to every sound, watched every movement of my guide, even
the shadow of my own horse sometimes scared me; however, I did not
turn back.

After a sharp ride of about half-an-hour, we came up with a large
caravan train, which was guarded by half a dozen well-armed
peasants.  It really appeared that the place was very dangerous, and
that my guide had been acquainted with the passing of a caravan.
Nothing caused me more surprise on this occasion, than the indolence
of these people.  As they are accustomed to travel in the night
during the hot season, they also continue the custom at other times,
and pass through the most dangerous places, although the danger
would be much less during the day.

After some hours we came to the Lake Oromia, which henceforth
continued on our right side; on the left lay barren hills, ravines
and mountains, extending for some miles, forming a most dreaded
place.  Morning brought us into another beautiful fruitful valley,
studded with villages, the sight of which gave me courage to leave
the caravan, and hasten on.

The Lake Oromia, from which the town takes its name, is more than
sixty miles long, and in many places more than thirty wide.  It
appears closely surrounded by lofty mountains, although considerable
levels intervene.  Its water contains so much salt, that neither
fish nor mollusca can live in it.  It is a second Dead Sea--it is
said that a human body cannot sink in it.  Large patches of the
shore are covered with thick, white saline incrustations, so that
the people have only to separate the salt they want from the ground.
Although the lake, and the country round it are very beautiful, they
do not present a very attractive prospect, as the surface of the
lake is not enlivened by any boats.

Since I had left the sandy deserts round Baghdad, I had not seen any
camels, and thought that I should not see this animal again, as I
was travelling northwards.  To my astonishment, we met several
trains of camels, and I learnt afterwards, that these animals were
used as beasts of burden by the Kurds, as well as the Arabs.  This
is a proof that they are able to bear a colder climate; for in
winter the snow drifts to a depth of several feet in the valleys.
The camels in these districts are somewhat more robust, their feet
are thicker, their hair closer and longer, their necks longer, and
not nearly so slender, and their colour darker.  I did not see any
light-coloured ones.

The Kurds of the valleys employ beasts of burden for carrying their
crops, as well as waggons, which are however very simple and clumsy.
The body is formed of several long thin stems of trees bound
together; the axles of shorter stems, with disks of thick board for
wheels, of which each waggon has generally only two.  Four oxen are
yoked to these, each pair being led by a guide, who sits very oddly
on the shaft between the yoke, with his back towards them.

Late in the evening, we reached Oromia safely, after a hard ride of
more than sixteen hours.  I had no letters to any of the
missionaries, and with the exception of Mr. Wright, they were all
absent.  They lived with their wives and children in the country.
However, Mr. Wright received me with true Christian friendship, and
after many disagreeable days I again found comfort.

The first evening I laughed heartily when Mr. Wright told me in what
manner the servant had informed him of my arrival.  As I did not
know enough of Persian to be able to tell the servant to announce
me, I merely pointed to the stairs.  He understood this, and went up
to his master, saying that there was a woman below who could not
speak any language.  Afterwards I asked a servant for a glass of
water, in English; he rushed up stairs as if he had been possessed,
not, as I thought, to get what I wanted, but to tell his master that
I spoke English.

Mr. Wright acquainted the other missionaries of my presence, and
they were so good as to come and visit me.  They also invited me to
spend a few days with them in the country, but I accepted their
friendly invitation for one day only, as I had already lost so much
time on the road.  They all advised me not to go any further alone;
although they admitted that the most dangerous part of the journey
was past, and recommended me to take with me some armed peasants
when passing the mountains near Kutschie.

Mr. Wright was so good as to look out for a courageous and trusty
guide.  I paid double fare, in order to reach Tebris in four,
instead of six days.  In order to make the guide think that I was a
poor pilgrim, I gave Mr. Wright the half of the agreed price, and
begged him to pay it instead of myself, and also to say that he
would be paid the other half by Mr. Stevens, the English consul.

I made as good use as possible of the day which I passed at Oromia.
In the morning I visited the town, and afterwards I visited, with
Mrs. Wright, several rich and poor families, in order to observe
their mode of life.

The town contains 22,000 inhabitants, is surrounded by walls, but
not closed by gates; it is possible to pass in and out at any hour
of the night.  It is built like all Turkish towns, with this
exception--that the streets are rather broad, and kept clean.
Outside the town are numerous large fruit and vegetable gardens,
which are surrounded by very high walls; pretty dwelling-houses
stand in the centre of the gardens.

The women here go closely veiled.  They cover over their heads and
breast with a white kerchief, in which thick impenetrable network is
inserted, at the places opposite the eyes.

In the houses of the poorer classes two or three families live under
one roof.  They possess little more than straw mats, blankets,
pillows, and a few cooking utensils, not to forget a large wooden
box in which the meal, their chief property, is kept.  Here as
everywhere else where corn is cultivated, bread is the principal
food of the common people.  Every family bake twice daily, morning
and evening.

Many of the small houses have very pretty courts, which are planted
with flowers, vines, and shrubs, and looked like gardens.

The dwellings of the wealthy are lofty, airy, and spacious; the
reception rooms have a large number of windows, and are covered with
carpets.  I saw no divans, people always lie upon the carpets.  As
we made the visits without being invited, we found the women in very
plain coloured cotton dresses, of course, made in their own fashion.

In the afternoon I rode with the missionaries to their large
country-house, which is situated about six miles from the town, on
some low hills.  The valley through which we rode was very large,
and altogether well cultivated and delightful.  Although it is said
to lie about 4,000 feet above the level of the sea, cotton, castor-
oil plants, vines, tobacco, and every kind of fruit grow here as in
South Germany.  The castor-oil plant, indeed, is not more than four
feet high, and the cotton but one foot; they produce, however,
rather abundantly.  Several villages are half hid in orchards.  I
came into this country at a fortunate time:  there were beautiful
peaches, apricots, apples, grapes, etc., true fruits of my native
country, of which I had long been deprived.

The house of the missionary society is most charmingly situated; it
commands a view of the whole valley, the town, the low range of
hills, and the mountains.  The house itself is large, and furnished
with every possible convenience, so that I thought I was in the
country-house of wealthy private people, and not under the roof of
simple disciples of Christ.  There were four women here, and a whole
troop of children, great and small.  I passed several very pleasant
hours among them, and was heartily sorry that I was obliged to take
leave of them at 9 in the evening.

Several native girls were also introduced to me who were educated by
the wives of the missionaries.  They spoke and wrote a little
English, and were well acquainted with geography.  I cannot avoid,
on this occasion, making some observations with regard to the
missionaries, whose mode of life and labours I had frequent
opportunities of observing during my journey.  I met with
missionaries in Persia, China, and India, and everywhere found them
living in a very different manner to what I had imagined.

In my opinion the missionaries were almost, if not complete martyrs,
and I thought that they were so absorbed with zeal and the desire to
convert the heathen, that, like the disciples of Christ, quite
forgetting their comforts and necessaries, they dwelt with them
under one roof, and ate from one dish, etc.  Alas! these were
pictures and representations which I had gathered out of books; in
reality the case was very different.  They lead the same kind of
life as the wealthy:  they have handsome dwellings, which are fitted
up with luxurious furniture, and every convenience.  They recline
upon easy divans, while their wives preside at the tea-table, and
the children attack the cakes and sweetmeats heartily; indeed their
position is pleasanter and freer from care than that of most people;
their occupation is not very laborious, and their income is certain,
whatever may be the national or political condition of their

In places where several missionaries reside meetings are held three
or four times a week.  These meetings or assemblies are supposed to
be for the transaction of business; but are not much other than
soirees, at which the ladies and children make their appearance in
elegant full dress.  One missionary receives his friends at
breakfast, a second at dinner, the third at tea, several equipages
and a number of servants stand in the court-yard.

Business is also attended to:  the gentleman generally retire for
half an hour or so; but the greater part of the time is passed in
mere social amusement.

I do not think that it can be easy to gain the confidence of the
natives in this way.  Their foreign dress, and elegant mode of life,
make the people feel too strongly the difference of rank, and
inspire them with fear and reserve rather than confidence and love.
They do not so readily venture to look up to people of wealth or
rank, and the missionaries have consequently to exert themselves for
some time until this timidity is overcome.  The missionaries say
that it is necessary to make this appearance, in order to create an
impression and command respect; but I think that respect may be
inspired by noble conduct, and that virtue will attract men more
than external splendour.

Many of the missionaries believe that they might effect a great deal
by preaching and issuing religious tracts in the native language in
the towns and villages.  They give the most attractive report of the
multitude of people who crowd to hear their preaching and receive
their tracts, and it might reasonably be thought that, according to
their representations, at least half of their hearers would become
converts to Christianity; but unfortunately the listening and
receiving tracts is as good as no proof at all.  Would not Chinese,
Indian, or Persian priests have just as great troops of hearers if
they appeared in their respective national costume in England or
France, and preached in the language of those countries?  Would not
people flock round them? would they not receive the tracts given out
gratis, even if they could not read them?

I have made the minutest inquiries in all places respecting the
results of missions, and have always heard that a baptism is one of
the greatest rarities.  The few Christians in India, who here and
there form villages of twenty or thirty families, have resulted
principally from orphan children, who had been adopted and brought
up by the missionaries; but even these require to be supplied with
work, and comfortably attended to, in order to prevent them from
falling back into their superstitions.

Preaching and tracts are insufficient to make religious doctrine
understandable, or to shake the superstitions which have been
imbibed in infancy.  Missionaries must live among the people as
fathers or friends, labour with them--in short, share their trials
and pleasures, and draw them towards them by an exemplary and
unpretending mode of life, and gradually instruct them in a way they
are capable of understanding.  They ought not to be married to
Europeans for the following reasons:--European girls who are
educated for missionaries frequently make this their choice only
that they be provided for as soon as possible.  If a young European
wife has any children, if she is weak or delicate, they are then
unable to attend any longer to their calling, and require a change
of air, or even a journey to Europe.  The children also are weak,
and must be taken there, at latest in their seventh year.  Their
father accompanies them, and makes use of this pretext to return to
Europe for some time.  If it is not possible to undertake this
journey, they go to some mountainous country, where it is cooler, or
he takes his wife and family to visit a Mela. {287}  At the same
time, it must be remembered that these journeys are not made in a
very simple manner:  as mine has been, for instance; the missionary
surrounds himself with numerous conveniences; he has palanquins
carried by men, pack-horses, or camels, with tents, beds, culinary,
and table utensils; servants and maids in sufficient number.  And
who pays for all this?  Frequently poor credulous souls in Europe
and North America, who often deny themselves the necessaries of
life, that their little savings may be squandered in this way in
distant parts of the world.

If the missionaries were married to natives, the greater part of
these expenses and requirements would be unnecessary; there would be
few sick wives, the children would be strong and healthy, and would
not require to be taken to Europe.  Schools might be established
here and there for their education, although not in such a luxurious
manner as those at Calcutta.

I hope that my views may not be misunderstood; I have great respect
for missionaries, and all whom I have known were honourable men, and
good fathers; I am also convinced that there are many learned men
among them, who make valuable contributions to history and
philosophy, but whether they thus fulfil their proper object is
another question.  I should consider that a missionary has other
duties than those of a philosopher.

For my own part, I can only express my obligations to the
missionaries; everywhere they showed me the greatest kindness and
attention.  Their mode of life certainly struck me, because I
involuntarily associate with the name "missionary" those men who at
first went out into the world, without support, to diffuse the
doctrines of Christ, taking nothing with them but a pilgrim's staff.

Before concluding my description of Oromia, I must remark that this
neighbourhood is considered to be the birth-place of Zoroaster, who
is said to have lived 5,500 years before the birth of Christ, and
was the founder of the sect of Magi, or fire-worshippers.

On the 1st of August, I rode ten hours to the village of Kutschie,
which lies near the Lake Oromia; we seldom caught sight of the lake,
although we were always very near to it all day.  We passed through
large, fertile villages, which would have presented a charming
prospect if they had not been situated between barren and naked
hills and mountains.

I had not enjoyed so pleasant a day during the whole journey from
Mosul, or from Baghdad.  My guide was a remarkably good fellow, very
attentive to me, and provided everything carefully when we reached
Kutschie; he took me to a very cleanly peasant's cottage, among some
excellent people; they immediately laid down a nice carpet for me on
a small terrace, brought me a basin of water to wash, and a quantity
of large black mulberries on a lacquered plate.  Afterwards I had
some strong soup with meat, fat, sour milk, and good bread, all in
clean vessels; but what was better than all, the people retired as
soon as they had set the food before me, and did not stare at me as
if I was a strange animal.  When I offered to pay these good people,
they would not take anything; I had no opportunity of rewarding them
until the following morning, when I took two men of the family as
guard across the mountains, and gave them twice as much as they are
generally paid; they thanked me, with touching cordiality, and
wished me safety and good fortune on my journey.

2nd August.  It occupied three hours to pass the most dangerous part
of these desolate mountains.  My two armed men would not, indeed,
have afforded me much protection against a band of robbers, although
they were the means of making the journey less terrible than it
would have been if I had gone with my old guide alone.  We met
several large caravans, but all going towards Oromia.

When we had crossed the mountains, the two men left us.  We entered
into enormous valleys, which seemed to have been forgotten by
nature, and deserted by man.  In my opinion, we were not in any
degree out of the danger, and I was right; for, as we were passing
three ruined cottages in this barren valley, several fellows rushed
out upon us, laid hold of our horses' reins, and commenced rummaging
my luggage.  I expected nothing but an order to dismount, and
already saw my little property lost.  They talked with my guide, who
told them the tale which I had imposed upon him--that I was a poor
pilgrim, and that the English consuls or missionaries paid all my
travelling expenses.  My dress, the smallness of my baggage, and
being alone, agreed perfectly with this; they believed him, and my
silent supplicative look, and let me go; they even asked me if I
would have some water, of which there is a scarcity in these
villages.  I begged them for a draught, and so we parted good
friends.  Nevertheless I was for some time fearful that they might
repent their generosity and follow us.

We came to the shores of the lake again today, and continued to
travel for some time at its side.  After a ride of fourteen hours,
we rested at a chan in the village of Schech-Vali.

3rd August.  The oppressive sense of fear was now at an end.  We
passed through peaceful inhabited valleys, where the people were
working in the fields, carrying home corn, tending cattle, etc.

During the hot noon hours we rested at Dise-halil, a rather
considerable town, with very clean streets; the principal street is
intersected by a clear brook, and the court-yards of the houses
resemble gardens.  Here also I saw outside the town a great number
of very large gardens surrounded by high walls.

From the number of chans, this town would appear to be very much
visited.  In the small street through which we passed, I counted
more than half a dozen.  We dismounted at one of them, and I was
quite astonished at the conveniences which I found there.  The
stalls were covered; the sleeping-places for the drivers were on
pretty walled terraces; and the rooms for travellers, although
destitute of all furniture, were very clean, and furnished with
stoves.  The chans were open to every one, and there is nothing to
pay for using them; at the utmost, a small trifle is given to the
overseer, who provides the travellers' meals.

In this respect, the Persians, Turks, and the so-called uncultivated
people, are much more generous than we are.  In India, for example,
where the English build bungalows, travellers must pay a rupee per
night, or even for an hour, which does not include any provision for
the driver or the animals:  they are obliged to take their rest in
the open air.  The travellers who are not Christians are not allowed
to come into most of the bungalows at all; in a few they are
admitted, but only when the rooms are not required by a Christian;
if, however, one should arrive at night, the poor unbeliever is
obliged to turn out for him without pity.  This humane custom
extends also to the open bungalows, which consist only of a roof and
three wooden walls.  In the countries of the unbelievers, however,
those who come first have the place, whether they are Christians,
Turks, or Arabs; indeed, I am firmly convinced, that if all the
places were occupied by unbelievers, and a Christian was to come,
they would make room for him.

In the afternoon, we went as far as Ali-Schach, a considerable
place, with a handsome chan.

We here met with three travellers, who were also going to Tebris.
My guide agreed to travel with them, and that we should start at
night.  Their society was not very agreeable to me, for they were
well armed, and looked very savage.  I should have preferred waiting
until daybreak, and going without them, but my guide assured me that
they were honest people; and trusting more to my good fortune than
his word, I mounted my horse about 1 o'clock at night.

4th August.  I soon lost my fear, for we frequently met small
parties of three or four persons, who would scarcely have ventured
to travel at night if the road had been dangerous.  Large caravans
also, of several hundred camels, passed us and took up the road in
such a way, that we were obliged to wait for half an hour to allow
them to pass.

Towards noon we entered a valley in which lay a town, which was
certainly large, but of such an unpretending appearance, that I did
not at once inquire what was its name.  The nearer we approached the
more ruined it appeared.  The walls were half fallen, the streets
and squares full of heaps of rubbish, and many of the houses were in
ruins; it seemed as if a pestilence or an enemy had destroyed it.
At last I asked its name, and could hardly believe that I had
understood it rightly when I was told that it was Tebris.

My guide conducted me to the house of Mr. Stevens, the English
consul, who, to my vexation, was not in the town, but ten miles away
in the country.  A servant, however, told me that he would go
directly to a gentleman who could speak English.  In a very short
time he came, and his first questions were:  "How did you come here,
_alone_?  Have you been robbed?  Have you parted from your company
and only left them in the town?"  But when I gave him my pass, and
explained everything to him, he appeared scarcely to believe me.  He
thought it bordered upon the fabulous that a woman should have
succeeded, without any knowledge of the language, in penetrating
through such countries and such people.  I also could not be too
thankful for the evident protection which Providence had afforded
me.  I felt myself as happy and lively as if I had taken a new lease
of my life.

Doctor Cassolani showed me to some rooms in Mr. Stevens's house, and
said that he would immediately send a messenger to him, and I might
meanwhile make known my wants to him.

When I expressed to him my astonishment at the miserable appearance
and ugly entrance to this town, the second in the country, he told
me that the town could not be well seen from the side at which I
came in, and that the part which I saw was not considered the town,
but was chiefly old and, for the most part, deserted.



Tebris, or Tauris, is the capital of the province of Aderbeidschan,
and the residence of the successor to the throne of Persia, who
bears the title of Viceroy.  It is situated in a treeless valley on
the rivers Piatscha and Atschi, and contains 160,000 inhabitants.
The town is handsomer than Teheran or Ispahan, possesses a number of
silk looms and leather manufactories, and is said to be one of the
principal seats of Asiatic commerce.

The streets are tolerably broad, and are also kept clean, there is
in each an underground water canal with openings at regular
intervals for the purpose of dipping out water.

There is no more to be seen of the houses than in any other Oriental
town.  Lofty walls with low entrances, without windows, and with the
fronts always facing the court-yards, which are planted with flowers
and small trees, and generally adjoining a beautiful garden.  The
reception rooms are large and lofty, with whole rows of windows,
forming a complete wall of glass.  The decoration of the rooms is
not elegant, generally nothing beyond some few carpets; European
furniture and articles of luxury are rare.

There are no handsome mosques, palaces, or monuments, either ancient
or modern, with the exception of the partly ruined mosque of Ali-
Schach, which, however, will not bear comparison in any respect with
those in India.

The new bazaar is very handsome, its lofty, broad covered streets
and passages forcibly called to my remembrance the bazaar at
Constantinople; but it had a more pleasant appearance as it is
newer.  The merchant's stalls also are larger, and the wares,
although not so magnificent and rich as some travellers represent,
are more tastefully displayed and can be more easily overlooked,
especially the carpets, fruits, and vegetables.  The cookshops also
looked very inviting, and the various dishes seemed so palatable and
diffused such a savoury odour, that I could have sat down with
pleasure and partaken of them.  The shoe department, on the
contrary, presented nothing attractive; there were only goods of the
plainest description exposed; while in Constantinople the most
costly shoes and slippers, richly embroidered with gold, and even
ornamented with pearls and precious stones, are to be seen under
glass cases.

I had arrived at Tebris at a rather unfavourable time--namely, the
fast month.  From sunrise to sunset nothing is eaten, nobody leaves
the house, there are neither visits nor company--indeed, nothing but
praying.  This ceremony is so strictly observed that invalids
frequently fall victims to it, as they will take neither medicine
nor food during the day; they believe that if they were to eat only
a mouthful, they would forfeit the salvation to be obtained by
fasting.  Many of the more enlightened make an exception to this
custom in cases of illness; however, in such an instance the
physician must send a written declaration to the priest, in which he
explains the necessity of taking medicine and food.  If the priest
puts his seal to this document, pardon is obtained.  I am not aware
whether this granting of indulgences was taken by the Mahomedans
from the Christians, or the reverse.  Girls are obliged to keep
these fasts after their tenth year, and boys after their fifteenth.

It was to the courteousness of Dr. Cassolani, and his intimacy with
some of the principal families in Tebris, that I was indebted for my
introduction to them, and even for my presentation at court,
notwithstanding the strict observance of the fast.

There was no viceroy in Tebris until about six months since, but
only a governor; the present reigning schach, Nesr-I-Din, raised the
province of Aderbeidschan to a vice-royalty, and decreed that every
eldest son of the future inheritor of the empire should reside here
as viceroy until he came to the throne.

The last governor of Tebris, Behmen Mirza, the schach's brother, was
a remarkably intelligent and just man.  He brought the province of
Aderbeidschan into a flourishing condition in a few years, and
everywhere established order and security.  This soon excited the
envy of the prime minister Haggi-Mirza-Aagassi; he urged the schach
to recall his brother, and represented to him that he would engage
the affections of the people too much, and that he might at last
make himself king.

For a long time the schach paid no attention to these insinuations,
for he loved his brother sincerely; but the minister did not rest
until he had attained his wishes.  Behmen Mirza, who knew all that
was going on at court, hastened to Teheran for the purpose of
exculpating himself before the schach.  The latter assured him of
his love and confidence, and told him, candidly, that he might
retain his office if the minister would consent to it, and
recommended him to endeavour to gain his favour.

Behmen Mirza learnt, however, through his friends, that the minister
entertained an inveterate hatred towards him, and that he ran the
risk of being deprived of his sight, or even made away with
altogether.  They advised him to lose no time, but quit the country
immediately.  He followed their advice, returned quickly to Tebris,
gathered his valuables together, and fled with a part of his family
to the neighbouring Russian dominions.  Having arrived there, he
appealed to the Emperor of Russia by letter, soliciting his
protection, which was magnanimously afforded to him.  The emperor
wrote to the schach declaring that the prince was no longer a
Persian subject, and that therefore every persecution of himself or
his family must cease; he also provided him with a pretty palace
near Tiflis, sent him costly presents, and, as I was informed,
allowed him a yearly pension of 20,000 ducats.

It may be seen from this circumstance that the minister completely
governed the schach; indeed he succeeded to such an extent, that the
schach honoured him as a prophet, and unconditionally carried out
all his suggestions.  He was, on one occasion, desirous of effecting
some very important object.  He told the schach, at a morning visit,
that he woke in the night and felt himself being carried upwards.
He went up higher and higher, and finally entered heaven, where he
saw and spoke with the king's father, who requested him to describe
the government of his son.  The deceased king was greatly rejoiced
to hear of his good conduct, and recommended that he should continue
to go on thus.  The delighted king, who had cordially loved his
father, did not cease from asking further questions, and the artful
minister always contrived to bring in at the end of his answers--"It
was only this or that thing that the father wished to see done," and
of course the good son fulfilled his father's wishes, not for one
moment doubting the assertions of his minister.

The king is said to be rather passionate, and when in such a state
of mind, will order the immediate execution of an offender.  The
minister, on the other hand, possesses at least enough sense of
justice to endeavour to stay the sentence of death upon men whom he
does not fear.  He has, therefore, given orders that when such a
circumstance occurs, he is to be sent for immediately, and that the
preparations for the execution are to be delayed until he comes.  He
makes his appearance then as if accidentally, and asks what is going
on.  The enraged sovereign tells him that he is about to have an
offender executed.  The minister agrees with him completely, and
steps to the window to consult the sky, clouds, and sun.  Presently
he cries out that it would be better to postpone the execution until
the following day, as the clouds, sun, or sky at the present moment
are not favourable to it, and that some misfortune to the king might
probably result from it.  In the meanwhile, the king's rage abates,
and he consents that the condemned should be taken away, and
generally, that he shall be set free; the next morning the whole
affair is forgotten.

The following circumstance is also interesting; the king had once a
particular hatred for one of his town governors, and ordered him to
the capital, with the intention of having him strangled.  The
minister, who was a friend of the governor, was desirous of saving
him, and did so in the following manner.  He said to the king,
"Sire, I bid you farewell, I am going to Mecca."  The king, greatly
grieved at the prospect of losing his favourite for so long (the
journey to Mecca takes at least a year), hastily asked the reason of
his making this journey.  "You know, sire, that I am childless, and
that I have adopted the governor whom you wish to have executed; I
shall then lose my son, and I wish to fetch another from Mecca."
The king answered that he knew nothing of this, but as such was the
case he would not have him executed, but allow him to retain his

The king has a great affection for his mother.  When she visited
him, he always rose and continued standing, while she sat down.  The
minister was much annoyed at this mark of respect, and said to him,
"You are king, and your mother must stand before you."  And he
ultimately succeeded according to his wish.  If, however, the king's
mother comes at a time when the minister is not present, her son
pays her this respect.  He then gives strict orders to his people
not to say anything of it to the minister.

I was told these and other things by a very trustworthy person, and
they may serve to give my readers some slight idea of the system of
government in Persia.

I was presented to the viceroy a few days after my arrival.  I was
conducted one afternoon by Dr. Cassolani to one of the royal summer-
houses.  The house was situated in a small garden, which was
surrounded by another larger one, both enclosed by very high walls.
In the outer garden there were, besides meadows and fruit trees,
nothing deserving of much notice, except a number of tents, in which
the military were encamped.  The soldiers wore the usual Persian
dress, with the single exception that the officers on duty had a
sword, and the soldiers a musket.  They only appear in uniform on
the most rare occasions, and then they are, in some respects, like
European soldiers.

Several eunuchs received us at the entrance of the small garden.
They conducted us to an unpretending looking house, one story high,
at the end of a field of flowers.  I should never have looked for
the country seat of the successor to the Persian throne in this
house; but such it was.  At the narrow entrance of the little house
were two small flights of stairs, one of which led to the reception-
room of the viceroy, the other to that of his wife.  The doctor
entered the former and several female slaves took me to the
viceroy's wife.  When I reached the top of the stairs, I took off my
shoes, and entered a small, comfortable room, the walls of which
consisted almost entirely of windows.  The viceroy's wife, who was
only fifteen years of age, sat upon a plain easy chair, not far from
her stood a middle-aged woman, the duenna of the harem, and an easy
chair was placed for me opposite the princess.

I was fortunate enough to be remarkably well received.  Dr.
Cassolani had described me as an authoress, adding that I intended
to publish the experiences of my journey.  The princess inquired
whether I should mention her also, and when she was answered in the
affirmative, she determined to show herself in full dress, in order
to give me an idea of the gorgeous and costly dress of her country.

The young princess wore trousers of thick silk, which were so full
of plaits that they stood out stiff, like the hooped petticoats of
our good old times.  These trousers are from twenty to five and
twenty yards wide, and reach down to the ankle.  The upper part of
the body was covered as far as the hips by a bodice, which, however,
did not fit close to the body.  The sleeves were long and narrow.
The corset resembled that of the time of the hooped petticoats; it
was made of thick silk, richly and tastefully embroidered round the
corners with coloured silk and gold.  A very short white silk
chemise was to be seen under the corset.  On her head she wore a
three-cornered white kerchief, extending in front round the face,
and fastened under the chin; behind, it fell down as far as the
shoulders.  This kerchief was also very handsomely embroidered with
gold and silk.  The jewellery consisted of precious stones and
pearls of great purity and size; but they had not much effect, as
they were not set in gold, but simply perforated and strung upon a
gold thread, which was fastened above the head kerchief, and came
down under the chin.

The princess had on black silk open-worked gloves, over which were
several finger rings.  Round the wrists sparkled costly bracelets of
precious stones and pearls.  On her feet she wore white silk

She was not remarkably beautiful; her cheek bones were rather too
prominent; but altogether her appearance was very attractive.  Her
eyes were large, handsome, and intellectual, her figure pretty, and
her age--fifteen years.

Her face was a very delicate white and red; and the eyebrows were
covered with blue streaks, which, in my opinion, rather disfigured
than adorned them.  On the temple a little of her brilliant black
hair was to be seen.

Our conversation was carried on by signs.  Dr. Cassolani, who spoke
Persian very well, was not allowed to cross the threshold today, and
the princess had received me, consequently, unveiled.  During this
stupid interview, I found time enough to look at the distant view
from the windows.  It was here that I first saw how extensive the
town was, and what an abundance of gardens it possessed.  The latter
are, indeed, its peculiar ornament, for it contains no fine
buildings; and the large valley in which it lies, together with the
mountains round, are naked and barren, and present no attractions.
I expressed my surprise at the great size of the town and the number
of the gardens.

Towards the end of the audience, a quantity of fruits and sweetmeats
were brought, of which, however, I alone partook--it being fast

Leaving the princess, I was conducted to her husband, the viceroy.
He was seventeen, and received me seated upon an easy chair at a
bow-window.  I had to thank my character of authoress, that a chair
was placed ready for me.  The walls of the large room were panelled
with wood, and ornamented with several mirrors, gilt-work, and oil-
paintings of heads and flowers.  In the middle of the saloon stood
two large empty bedsteads.

The prince wore a European dress:  trousers of fine white cloth,
with broad gold lace; a dark blue coat, the collar, facings, and
corners of which were richly embroidered with gold; white silk
gloves and stockings.  His head was covered by a Persian fur cap
nearly a yard high.  This is not, however, his ordinary dress; he is
said to change his mode of dressing oftener than his wife, and
sometimes to wear the Persian costume, sometimes to envelop himself
in cashmere shawls, as his fancy may be.

I should have supposed that he was at least twenty-two.  He has a
pale, tawny complexion, and, altogether, no attractive, amiable, or
intellectual expression; never looks straightforward and openly at
you, and his glance is savage and repulsive.  I pitied, in my mind,
all those who were his subjects.  I would rather be the wife of a
poor peasant than his favourite princess.

The prince put several questions to me, which Dr. Cassolani, who
stood a few paces from us, interpreted.  They were nothing
remarkable, chiefly common-places about my journey.  The prince can
read and write in his mother tongue, and has, as I was told, some
idea of geography and history.  He receives a few European
newspapers and periodicals from which the interpreter has to make
extracts, and read to him.  His opinion of the great revolutions of
the time was, that the European monarchs might have been very good,
but they were most remarkably stupid to allow themselves to be so
easily driven from the throne.  He considered that the result would
have been very different if they had had plenty of people strangled.
As far as regards execution and punishment, he far exceeds his
father; and, unfortunately, has no controlling minister at his side.
His government is said to be that of a child; one moment he orders
something to be done, and an hour afterwards countermands it.  But
what can be expected from a youth of seventeen, who has received
little or no education; was married at fifteen, and, two years
afterwards, takes the unlimited control of a large province with a
revenue of a million tomans (500,000 pounds), and with every means
of gratifying his desires.

The prince has at present only one regular wife, although he is
allowed to have four; however, he has no scarcity of handsome female
friends.  It is the custom in Persia, that when the king, or the
successor to the throne, hears that any one of his subjects has a
handsome daughter or sister, he demands her.  The parents or
relations are greatly rejoiced at this command, for if the girl is
really handsome, she is, in any case, well provided for.  If, after
some time, she no longer pleases the king or prince, she is married
to some minister or rich man; but, if she has a child, she is
immediately considered as the king's or prince's acknowledged wife,
and remains permanently at court.  When, on the contrary, a girl
does not please the regent at first sight, her family are very much
disappointed, and consider themselves unfortunate.  She is, in this
case, sent home again immediately, her reputation for beauty is
lost, and she has not, after this, much chance of making a good

The princess is already a mother, but, unfortunately, only of a
daughter.  She is, for the present, the chief wife of the prince,
because no other female has given birth to a son; but whoever brings
the first son into the world will then take her place:  she will be
honoured as the mother of the heir to the throne.  In consequence of
this custom, the children are unfortunately liable to the danger of
being poisoned; for any woman who has a child excites the envy of
all those who are childless; and this is more particularly the case
when the child is a boy.  When the princess accompanied her husband
to Tebris, she left her little daughter behind, under the protection
of its grandfather, the Schach of Persia, in order to secure it from
her rivals.

When the viceroy rides out, he is preceded by several hundred
soldiers.  They are followed by servants with large sticks, who call
upon the people to bow before the powerful ruler.  The prince is
surrounded by officers, military, and servants, and the procession
is closed by more soldiers.  The prince only is mounted, all the
rest are on foot.

The prince's wives are also permitted to ride out at times, but they
are obliged to be thickly veiled, and entirely surrounded by
eunuchs, several of whom hasten on before, to tell the people that
the wives of the monarch are on the road.  Every one must then leave
the streets, and retire into the houses and bye-lanes.

The wives of the banished prince, Behmen, who were left behind,
learnt, through Dr. Cassolani, that I thought of going to Tiflis.
They requested me to visit them, that I might be able to tell the
prince that I had seen them and left them well.  The doctor
conducted me into their presence.  He had been the friend and
physician of the prince, who was not one of the fanatic class, and
allowed him the entree to the females.

Nothing very worthy of notice took place at this visit.  The house
and garden were plain, and the women had wrapped themselves in large
mantles, as the doctor was present, some, indeed, covered a part of
their faces while speaking with him.  Several of them were young,
although they all appeared older than they really were.  One, who
was twenty-two, I should have taken to be at least thirty.  A rather
plump dark beauty of sixteen was also introduced to me as the latest
addition to the harem.  She had been bought at Constantinople only a
short time since.  The women appeared to treat her with great good-
nature; they told me that they took considerable pains to teach her

Among the children there was a remarkably beautiful girl of six,
whose pure and delicate countenance was fortunately not yet
disfigured by paint.  This child, as well as the others, was dressed
in the same way as the women; and I remarked that the Persian dress
was really, as I had been told, rather indecorous.  The corset fell
back at every quick movement; the silk or gauze chemise, which
scarcely reached over the breast, dragged up so high that the whole
body might be seen as far as the loins.  I observed the same with
the female servants, who were engaged in making tea or other
occupations; every motion disarranged their dress.

My visit to Haggi-Chefa-Hanoum, one of the principal and most-
cultivated women in Tebris, was far more interesting.  Even at the
entrance of the court-yard and house, the presence of a well-
regulating mind might be perceived.  I had never seen so much
cleanliness and taste in any Oriental house.  I should have taken
the court-yard for the garden, if I had not afterwards seen the
latter from the windows.  The gardens here are, indeed, inferior to
ours, but are magnificent when compared with those at Baghdad.  They
have flowers, rows of vines and shrubs, and between the fruit-trees
pleasant basins of water and luxuriant grass-plots.

The reception-room was very large and lofty; the front and back (of
which the former looked out into the court-yard, the latter into the
garden), consisted of windows, the panes of which were in very small
six and eight-sided pieces, framed in gilded wood; on the door-posts
there was also some gilding.  The floor was covered with carpeting;
and at the place where the mistress of the house sat, another piece
of rich carpet was laid over.  In Persia, there are no divans, but
only thick round pillows for leaning upon.

Intimation had previously been given of my visit.  I found a large
party of women and young girls assembled, who had probably been
attracted here by their curiosity to see a European woman.  Their
dress was costly, like that of the princess, but there was a
difference in the jewellery.  Several among them were very handsome,
although they had rather broad foreheads, and too prominent cheek-
bones.  The most charming features of the Persians are their eyes,
which are remarkable, as well for their size as their beautiful form
and animated expression.  Of course, there was no want of paint on
their skins and eye-brows.

This party of women was the most agreeable and unconstrained that I
ever found in Oriental houses.  I was able to converse in French
with the mistress of the house, by the help of her son, of about
eighteen, who had received an excellent education in Constantinople.
Not only the son, but also the mother and the other women, were read
and well-informed.  Dr. Cassolani, moreover, assured me that the
girls of rich families could nearly all read and write.  They are,
in this respect, far in advance of the Turks.

The mistress of the house, her son, and myself, sat upon chairs, the
rest squatted down on carpets round us.  A table, the first that I
had seen in a Persian house, was covered with a handsome cloth, and
set out with the most magnificent fruits, sherbets, and various
delicacies, which had been prepared by my host herself; among the
sweetmeats were sugared almonds and fruits, which not only appeared
inviting, but tasted deliciously.

The sweet melons and peaches were just in their prime during my stay
at Tebris.  They were so delicious, that it may well be said Persia
is their native country.  The melons have more frequently a whitish,
or greenish, than a yellow pulp.  They may be eaten entirely, with
the exception of the outermost thin rind; and, if it were possible
for anything to exceed sugar in sweetness, it would be these melons.
The peaches are also juicy, sweet, and aromatic.

Before leaving Tebris, I must say a few words about the people.  The
complexion of the common men is rather more than sunburnt; among the
upper classes, white is the prevailing colour of the skin.  They all
have black hair and eyes.  Their figures are tall and powerful, the
features very marked--especially the nose--and the look rather wild.
The women, both of the upper and lower classes, are uncommonly
thickly veiled when they go out.  The better-dressed men wear, out
of doors, a very long mantle of dark cloth with slashed sleeves,
which reach to the ground; a girdle or shawl surrounds their waist,
and their head-dress consists of a pointed black fur cap more than a
foot high, which is made of the skins of unborn sheep.  The women of
the labouring class do not appear to have much to do; during my
journey, I saw only a few at work in the fields, and I noticed also
in the town that all the hard work is done by the men.

In Tebris, as well as throughout the whole of Persia, the Jews,
semi-Mahomedans, and Christians, are intolerably hated.  Three
months since, the Jews and Christians in Tebris were in great
danger.  Several crowds of people gathered together and marched
through the quarter where these people dwelt, when they commenced
plundering and destroying the houses, threatening the inhabitants
with death, and, in some cases, even putting their threats into
execution.  Fortunately, this horrible proceeding was immediately
made known to the governor of the town; and he, being a brave and
determined man, lost not a moment's time even to throw his kaftan
over his house-dress, but hastened out into the midst of the crowd,
and succeeded, by means of a powerful speech, in dispersing the

On arriving at Tebris, I expressed my desire to continue my journey
from here to Tiflis by way of Natschivan and Erivan.  It appeared at
first that there was not much hope of its possibility, as, since the
late political disturbances in Europe, the Russian government, like
the Chinese, had strictly prohibited the entrance of any foreigners;
however, Mr. Stevens promised to make use of all his power with the
Russian consul, Mr. Anitschow, in my favour.  I was indebted to
this, together with my sex and age, for being made an exception.  I
received from the Russian consul not only the permission, but also
several kind letters of introduction to people at Natschivan,
Erivan, and Tiflis.

I was advised to ride from Tebris to Natschivan with post-horses,
and to take a servant with me as far as that place.  I did so, and
commenced my journey at 9 o'clock in the morning of the 11th of
August.  Several gentlemen, whose acquaintance I had made in Tebris,
accompanied me about a mile out of the town, and we encamped on the
bank of a beautiful little river, and partook of a cold breakfast.
Then I began my journey alone, indeed, but composedly and with good
courage, for now I thought I was entering a Christian country,
beneath the sceptre of a civilized, European, law and order-loving



11th August.  The stations between Tebris and Natschivan are very
irregular; one of the longest, however, is the first--namely, to the
village of Sophia, which occupied us six hours.  The road lay
through valleys, which were, for the most part, barren and

As it was already 3 o'clock when we reached Sophia, the people there
endeavoured to prevent me from going any further.  They pointed to
the sun, and at the same time signified that I might be attacked by
robbers, plundered, and even murdered; but such statements had no
influence with me; and after I had with great trouble ascertained
that it would only require four hours to reach the next station, I
determined to continue my journey; and to the vexation of my
servant, whom I had engaged as far as Natschivan, ordered him to
saddle fresh horses.

Immediately after leaving Sophia, we entered barren, rocky valleys,
which my guide represented as being very dangerous, and which I
should not have liked to pass at night; but as the sun was shining
in full splendour, I urged on my horse, and amused myself by looking
at the beautiful colours and grouping of the rocks.  Some were of a
glittering pale green; others covered with a whitish, half
transparent substance; others again terminated in numerous oddly
formed angles, and from the distance looked like beautiful groups of
trees.  There was so much to see that I really had no time to think
of fear.

About half-way lay a pretty little village in a valley, and beyond
it rose a steep mountain, on the summit of which a charming prospect
of mountain country kept me gazing for a long while.

We did not reach Marand till nearly 8 o'clock; but still with our
heads, necks, and baggage, all safe.

Marand lies in a fertile valley, and is the last Persian town which
I saw, and one of the most agreeable and handsome.  It has broad,
clean streets, houses in good repair, and several small squares with
beautiful springs, which are, moreover, surrounded by trees.

My shelter for the night was not so good as the town promised:  I
was obliged to share the court with the post-horses.  My supper
consisted of some roasted and very salt eggs.

12th August.  Our journey for today was as far as Arax, on the
Russian frontier.  Although only one stage, it took us eleven hours.
We followed the course of a small brook, which wound through barren
valleys and ravines; not a single village lay on our road; and with
the exception of some little mills and the ruins of a mosque, I saw
no more buildings in Persia.  Persia is, on the whole, very thinly
populated, on account of the scarcity of water.  No country in the
world has more mountains, and fewer rivers, than Persia.  The air
is, on this account, very dry and hot.

The valley in which Arax is situated is large, and the extraordinary
formation of the mountains and rocks renders it very picturesque.
In the extreme distance rise lofty mountains, of which Ararat is
more than 16,000 feet in height, and in the valley itself there are
numerous rocky elevations.  The principal of these, a beautiful
sharp rocky cone, of at least 1,000 feet in height, is called the
Serpent Mountain.

The river Aras flows close to the headland.  It separates Armenia
from Media, has a terrible fall, and high waves.  It here forms the
boundary between the Russian and Persian dominions.  We crossed in a
boat.  On the opposite side of the river were several small houses
where travellers are obliged to stop and prove that they are not
robbers, and especially that they are not politically dangerous.
Occasionally they are detained in quarantine for some time, when the
plague or cholera happens to be prevalent in Persia.

A letter from the Russian consul at Tebris ensured me a very
courteous reception; from the quarantine I was saved, as there was
no plague or cholera.  I had, however, scarcely set my foot upon
Russian ground, when the impudent begging for drink-money began.
The officer had among his people a Cossack, who represented himself
as understanding German, and he was sent to me to ask what I wished
for.  The rogue knew about as much German as I did Chinese--hardly
three or four words.  I therefore signified to him that I did not
require his services, in spite of which he held out his hand,
begging for money.

13th August.  I left Arax betimes in the morning, in company with a
customs' officer, and rode to the town of Natschivan, which lies in
a large valley, surrounded by the lofty mountains of Ararat.  The
country here is fertile, but there are very few trees.

I never had so much trouble to obtain shelter in any place as in
this.  I had two letters, one to a German physician, the other to
the governor.  I did not wish to go to the latter in my travelling
dress, as I was again among cultivated people, who are accustomed to
judge of you by your dress, and there was no inn.  I therefore
intended to ask accommodation in the doctor's house.  I showed the
address, which was written in the native language, to several people
to read, that they might point out the house to me; but they all
shook their heads, and let me go on.  At last I came to the custom-
house, where my little luggage was immediately taken possession of,
and myself conducted to the inspector.  He spoke a little German,
but paid no regard to my request.  He told me to go into the custom-
house, and unlock my portmanteau.

The inspector's wife and sister accompanied me.  I was much
astonished at this politeness, but found, however, too soon that
other reasons had induced them to come--both the ladies wished to
see what I had brought with me.  They had chairs brought, and took
their places before my portmanteau, which was opened, when three
pair of hands were thrust in.  A number of papers folded together,
coins, dried flowers, and other objects, obtained from Nineveh, were
instantly seized hold of, and thrown about; every ribbon, every cap,
was taken out; and it was clearly perceptible that the inspector's
wife had some difficulty in parting with them again.

After this was sufficiently examined, a common box, which contained
my greatest treasure, a small relief from Nineveh, was brought
forward.  One of the men took hold of a heavy wooden axe, for the
purpose of striking off the lid.  This was rather too much for me,
and I would not allow it.  To my great satisfaction, a German woman
came in just at this moment.  I told her what was in the box, and
that I did not object to its being opened, although I wished them to
do it carefully with a chisel and pincers; but, strange to say,
there were no such tools in the place, although they were wanted
daily.  I at last succeeded in persuading them to break off the lid
with care.  Notwithstanding the anxiety I was in, I could not help
laughing at the foolish faces which both the women and the customs'
officer made when they saw the fragments of brick from Babylon, and
the somewhat damaged Ninevite head.  They could not at all
comprehend why I should carry such objects with me.

The German woman, Henriette Alexandwer, invited me to take coffee
with her; and when she heard of my perplexity with respect to a
lodging, she offered me a room in her house.  On the following day,
I visited the governor, who received me very politely, and
overpowered me with favours,--I was obliged to move into his house
directly.  He attended to my passport, and obtained all the
necessary vises, of which I required half a dozen since entering the
Christian dominions, and made an agreement for me with some Tartars,
whose caravan was going to Tiflis.  I then looked round the
miserable half-ruined town with the good Mrs. Alexandwer, and saw
Noah's monument.

According to Persian accounts, Natschivan is said to have been one
of the largest and handsomest towns of Armenia; and Armenian writers
affirm that Noah was the founder.  The modern town is built quite in
the Oriental style; only a few of the houses have the windows and
doors turned towards the streets; generally the front faces the
small garden.  The dress of the people is also rather like the
Persian, but the officials, merchants, etc., wear European costume.

Nothing more remains of Noah's sepulchre than a small arched
chamber, without a cupola.  It appears to have been formerly covered
with one, but it is not possible to decide from the few ruins that
now remain.  In the interior, neither a sarcophagus nor grave are to
be seen; a single brick pillar stands in the centre, and supports
the roof.  The whole is surrounded by a low wall.  Many pilgrims
come here, Mahomedans as well as Christians; and both sects
entertain the remarkable belief, that if they press a stone into the
wall while thinking of something at the same time, and the stone
remains sticking to the wall, that their thoughts are either true or
will come to pass, and the reverse when the stone does not adhere.
The truth of the matter is, however, simply this:  the cement or
mortar is always rather moist, and if a smooth stone is pushed a
little upwards while being pressed, it remains hanging; if it is
only pressed horizontally, it falls off again.

Not far from Noah's tomb stands another very handsome monument;
unfortunately I could not learn to whose memory it was erected, or
to what age it belonged.  It consists of a high building, resembling
a tower with twelve angles; the walls between the angles are
covered, from top to bottom, with the most artistic mathematical
figures in triangles and sexagons, and some places are inlaid with
glazed tiles.  The monument is surrounded by a wall, forming a small
court-yard; at the entrance-gates stand half-ruined towers, like

17th August.  I felt very unwell today, which was the more
unpleasant, as the caravan started in the evening.  For several days
I had been unable to take any food, and suffered from excessive
lassitude.  Nevertheless I left my rest, and mounted my caravan nag;
I thought that change of air would be the best restorative.

Fortunately we went only a short distance beyond the city gate, and
remained there during the night and the following day.  We did not
proceed any further until the evening of the 18th of August.  The
caravan only conveyed goods, and the drivers were Tartars.  The
journey from Natschivan to Tiflis is generally made in from twelve
to fourteen days; but with my caravan, to judge from the progress we
made at the commencement, it would have occupied six weeks, for on
the first day we went scarcely any distance, and on the second, very
little more than the first; I should have travelled quicker on foot.

19th August.  It is really unbearable.  During the whole day we lay
in waste stubble-fields, exposed to the most scorching heat, and did
not mount our horses until 9 o'clock in the evening; about an hour
afterwards we halted, and encamped.  The only thing good about this
caravan was the food.  The Tartars do not live so frugally as the
Arabs.  Every evening an excellent pillau was made with good-tasting
fat, frequently with dried grapes or plums.  Almost every day
beautiful water and sugar-melons were brought to us to buy.  The
sellers, mostly Tartars, always selected a small lot and offered it
to me as a present.

The road led continually through large, fertile valleys round the
foot of Ararat.  Today I saw the majestic mountain very clearly, and
in tolerable proximity.  I should think we were not more than two or
three miles from it.  It seemed, from its magnitude, as if separated
from the other mountains, and standing alone; but it is in fact,
connected with the chain of Taurus by a low range of hills.  Its
highest summit is divided in such a way that between two peaks there
is a small plain, on which it is said that Noah's ark was left after
the deluge.  There are people who affirm that it would still be
found there if the snow could be removed.

In the more recent treatises on geography, the height of Ararat is
given as 16,000 feet; in the older ones, as 11,000.  The Persians
and Armenians call this mountain Macis; the Grecian writers describe
it as a part of the Taurus range.  Ararat is quite barren, and
covered above with perpetual snow; lower down lies the cloister,
Arakilvank, at the place where Noah is said to have taken up his
first abode.

20th August.  We encamped in the neighbourhood of the village Gadis.
Many commentators of the Scriptures place the garden of Eden in the
Armenian province of Ararat.  In any case, Armenia has been the
scene of most important events.  Nowhere have so many bloody battles
taken place as in this country, as all the great conquerors of Asia
have brought Armenia under their control.

21st August.  We still continued near Ararat; meanwhile we passed by
Russian and German colonies, the houses in the latter had exactly
the appearance of those in German mountain villages.  The road was,
throughout, very uneven and stony, and I cannot imagine how the post
can travel upon it.

Today I met with another very unpleasant adventure.  My caravan
encamped in the neighbourhood of the station Sidin, about fifty
paces from the side of the post-road.  Towards 8 in the evening I
walked out as far as the road, and as I was about to return I heard
the sound of post-horses coming; I remained in the road to see the
travellers, and noticed a Russian, seated in an open car, and by his
side a Cossack, with a musket.  When the vehicle had passed, I
turned quietly round; but, to my astonishment, heard it stop, and
felt myself, almost at the same moment, seized forcibly by the arms.
It was the Cossack who held me, and endeavoured to drag me to the
car.  I tried to release myself, pointed to the caravan, and said
that I belonged to it.  The fellow immediately stopped my mouth with
his hand, and threw me into the car, where I was tightly held by the
other man.  The Cossack immediately jumped up, and the driver urged
his horses on as quickly as they could go.  The whole was done so
quickly that I scarcely knew what had happened to me.  The men held
me tightly by the arms, and my mouth was kept covered up until we
were so far from the caravan that the people belonging to it could
no longer have heard my cries.

Fortunately I was not frightened; I thought at once that these two
amiable Russians might, in their zeal, have taken me for a very
dangerous person, and have supposed they had made a very important
capture.  When they uncovered my mouth, they commenced questioning
me as to my native country, name, etc.  I understood enough Russian
to give them this information, but they were not satisfied with
that, and required to see my passport; I told them that they must
send for my portmanteau, and then I would show them that I had
permission to travel.

We came, at last, to the post-house, where I was taken into a room;
the Cossack placed himself with his musket under the open door, so
as to keep his eye continually on me; and the other man, who, from
his dark-green velvet facings, I supposed to be one of the Emperor's
officers, remained some time in the room.  At the end of half an
hour, the post-master, or whoever he was, came to examine me, and to
hear an account of the achievements of my captors, who hastened,
with laughing countenances, to give a complete statement of what had

I was obliged to pass the night, under strict guard, upon a wooden
bench, without either a wrapper or a mantle with me, and suffering
from hunger and thirst.  They neither gave me a coverlet nor a piece
of bread; and when I merely rose from the bench to walk up and down
the room, the Cossack rushed in immediately, seized my arms, and led
me back to the bench, telling me, at the same time, that I must
remain there quietly.

Towards morning they brought me my luggage, when I showed them my
papers, and was set at liberty.  Instead, however, of apologizing
for having treated me in such a way, they laughed at me; and when I
came out into the court, every one pointed at me with their fingers,
and joined my gaolers in their laughter.  Oh! you good Turks, Arabs,
Persians, Hindoos, or whatever else you may be called, such
treatment was never shown to me amongst you!  How pleasantly have I
always taken leave of all your countries; how attentively I was
treated at the Persian frontiers, when I would not understand that
my passport was required, and here, in a Christian empire, how much
incivility have I had to bear during this short journey!

On the 22nd of August I rejoined my caravan, where I was received
with cordiality.

23rd August.  The country still presented the same features; one
large valley succeeding another.  These valleys are less cultivated
than those in Persia; today, however, I saw one which was tolerably
well planted, and in which the villagers had even planted trees
before their huts.

24th August.  Station Erivan.  I was happy to have reached this
town, as I hoped to meet with some of my country-people here, and,
by their help, to find a quicker mode of conveyance to Tiflis.  I
was determined to leave the caravan, since we did not go more than
four hours a day.

I had two letters; one to the town physician, the other to the
governor.  The latter was in the country; Dr. Muller, however,
received me so well that I could not possibly have been better taken
care of.

Erivan {305} is situated on the river Zengui, and is the capital of
Armenia; it contains about 17,000 inhabitants, and is built upon low
hills, in a large plain, surrounded on all sides with mountains.
The town has some fortified walls.  Although the European mode of
architecture already begins to predominate greatly, this town is by
no means to be reckoned among either the handsome or cleanly ones.
I was most amused by the bazaars, not on account of their contents,
for these do not present any remarkable features, but because I
always saw there different, and for the most part unknown, national
costumes.  There were Tartars, Cossacks, Circassians, Georgians,
Mingrelians, Turkonians, Armenians, etc.; chiefly powerful, handsome
people, with fine expressive features--particularly the Tartars and
Circassians.  Their dress partly resembled the Persian; indeed that
of the Tartars differed from it only by points to the boots, and a
less lofty cap.  The points on the boots are frequently as much as
four inches long, and turned inward and towards the end; the caps
are also pointed, and made of black fur, but not more than half as
high.  Very few of the women of these tribes are seen in the
streets, and those are enveloped in wrappers; nevertheless, they do
not veil their faces.

The Russians and the Cossacks have stupid coarse features, and their
behaviour corresponds completely to what their appearance indicates;
I never met with a people so covetous, coarse, and slavish as they
are.  When I asked about anything, they either gave me a surly
answer, or none at all, or else laughed in my face.  This rudeness
would not, perhaps, have appeared so remarkable if I had come from

It had already been my intention in Natschivan to travel with the
Russian post; but I had been dissuaded from doing so, as I was
assured that, as a solitary woman, I should not be able to agree
with the people.  However, here I was determined to do so, and I
requested Dr. Muller to make the necessary preparations for me.

In order to travel in Russia by the post, it is necessary to procure
a padroschne (certificate of permission), which is only to be had in
a town where there are several grades of officials, as this
important document requires to be taken to six of the number.  1st,
to the treasurer; 2nd, to the police (of course with the passport,
certificate of residence, etc.); 3rd, to the commandant; 4th, again
to the police; 5th, again to the treasurer; and 6th, to the police
again.  In the padroschne an accurate account must be given of how
far the traveller wishes to go, as the postmaster dare not proceed a
single werst beyond the station named.  Finally, a half kopec (half
kreutzer), must be paid per werst for each horse.  This at first
does not appear much; but is, nevertheless, a considerable tax, when
it is remembered that seven wersts are only equal to a geographical
mile, and that three horses are always used.

On the 26th of August, about 4 in the morning, the post was to have
been at the house; but it struck 6, and there was still no
appearance of it.  If Dr. Muller had not been so kind as to go
there, I should not have started until the evening.  About 7, I got
off--an excellent foretaste of my future progress.

We travelled certainly with speed; but any one who had not a body of
iron, or a well-cushioned spring carriage, would not find this very
agreeable, and would certainly prefer to travel slower upon these
uneven, bad roads.

The post carriage, for which ten kopecs a station is paid, is
nothing more than a very short, wooden, open car, with four wheels.
Instead of a seat, some hay is laid in it, and there is just room
enough for a small chest, upon which the driver sits.  These cars
naturally jolt very much.  There is nothing to take hold of, and it
requires some care to avoid being thrown out.  The draught consists
of three horses abreast; over the centre one a wooden arch is fixed,
on which hang two or three bells, which continually made a most
disagreeable noise.  In addition to this, imagine the rattling of
the carriage, and the shouting of the driver, who is always in great
activity urging on the poor animals, and it may be easily understood
that, as is often the case, the carriage arrives at the station
without the travellers.

The division of the stations is very irregular, varying from
fourteen to thirty wersti.  Between the second and third stations, I
passed over a very short space of ground, where I found a kind of
lava, exactly resembling the beautiful, brilliant, glassy lava of
Iceland (black agate, also called obsidian), which was stated to be
found in that island only.  The second stage led through a newly-
erected Russian village, extending to Lake Liman.

August 27th.  Today I had another evidence of the pleasure of
travelling by the Russian post.  On the previous evening I had
ordered and paid for everything before-hand; yet I was obliged in
the morning to awaken the post officers myself, as well as to see
after the driver, and to be constantly about among the people, in
order to get away.  At the third station I was kept waiting three
hours for the horses; at the fourth they gave me none, and I was
obliged to stay all night, although I had gone only fifty-five
wersti the whole day.

The character of the country changes before reaching Delischan:  the
valleys contract to narrow gorges, and the mountains seldom leave
space for small villages and plots of ground.  The naked masses of
rock cease, and luxuriant woods cover the heights.

Near Pipis, the last stage that I went today, beautiful cliffs and
rocks rose close to the post-road, many of them presenting the
appearance of enormous columns.

August 28th.  Continual trouble with the post people.  I am the
greatest enemy of scolding and harsh treatment; but I should have
best liked to have spoken to these people with a stick.  No idea can
be formed of their stupidity, coarseness, and want of feeling.
Officers, as well as servants, are frequently found at all hours of
the day sleeping or drunk.  In this state they do as they please,
will not stir from their places, and even laugh in the faces of the
unfortunate travellers.  By the aid of much quarrelling and noise,
one is at last induced to drag out the car, a second to grease it,
another baits the horses, which have often to be harnessed, then the
straps are not in order, and must be first fastened and repaired;
and innumerable other things of this kind, which are done with the
greatest tardiness.  When, afterwards, in the towns I expressed my
disapprobation of these wretched post establishments, I received as
answer that these countries had been too short a time under Russian
dominion, that the imperial city was too far distant, and that I, as
a single woman without servants, might consider myself fortunate in
having got through as I had.

I did not know what reply to make to this, except that in the most
recently acquired colonial possessions of the English, which are
still farther from the capital, everything is excellently arranged;
and that there a woman without servants was as quickly attended to
as a gentleman, since they find her money not less acceptable than
that of the latter.  The case is very different, however, at a
Russian post station; when an official or officer comes, every one
is active enough, cringing round the watering-place for fear of
flogging or punishment.  Officers and officials belong, in Russia,
to the privileged class, and assume all kinds of despotism.  If, for
example, they do not travel on duty, they should not, according to
the regulations, have any greater advantages than private
travellers.  But, instead of setting a good example, and showing the
mass of the people that the laws and regulations must be observed,
it is precisely these people who set all laws at defiance.  They
send a servant forward or borrow one from their fellow-travellers,
to the station to announce that on such a day they shall arrive, and
will require eight or twelve horses.  If any hindrance occurs during
this time--a hunt or a dinner--or if the wife of the traveller has a
headache or the cramp, they postpone the journey without any ado to
another day or two; the horses stand constantly ready, and the
postmaster dare not venture to give them to private travellers.
{308}  It may so happen that travellers have in such a case to wait
one or even two days at a station, and do not get through their
journey quicker by the post than by a caravan.  In the course of my
journey by the Russian post, I several times went only a single
stage during a whole long day.  When I saw an uniform I was always
in dread, and made up my mind that I should have no horses.

In each post-house, there are one or two rooms for travellers, and a
married Cossack in charge, who, together with his wife, attends to
strangers, and cooks for them.  No charge is made for the room, the
first comer is entitled to it.  These attendants are as obliging as
the stable people, and it is often difficult to procure with money a
few eggs, milk, or anything of the kind.

The journey through Persia was dangerous; that through Asiatic
Russia, however, was so troublesome, that I would prefer the former
under any circumstances.

From Pipis the country again diminishes in beauty:  the valleys
expand, the mountains become lower, and both are frequently without
trees, and barren.

I met, today, several nomadic parties of Tartars.  The people sat
upon oxen and horses, and others were loaded with their tents and
household utensils; the cows and sheep, of which there were always a
great number, were driven by the side.  The Tartar women were mostly
richly clothed, and also very ragged.  Their dress consisted almost
entirely of deep red silk, which was often even embroidered with
gold.  They wore wide trousers, a long kaftan, and a shorter one
over that; on the head a kind of bee-hive, called schaube, made of
the bark of trees, painted red and ornamented with tinsel, coral,
and small coins.  From the breast to the girdle their clothes were
also covered with similar things, over the shoulders hung a cord
with an amulet in the nose, they wore small rings.  They had large
wrappers thrown round them; but left their faces uncovered.

Their household goods consisted of tents, handsome rugs, iron pots,
copper coins, etc.  The Tartars are mostly of the Mahomedan

The permanent Tartars have very peculiar dwellings, which may be
called enormous mole-hills.  Their villages are chiefly situated on
declivities, and hills, in which they dig holes of the size of
spacious rooms.  The light falls only through the entrance, or
outlet.  This is broader than it is high, and is protected by a long
and broad portico of planks, resting either upon beams or the stems
of trees.  Nothing is more comical than to see such a village,
consisting of nothing but these porticoes, and neither windows,
doors, nor walls.

Those who dwell in the plains make artificial mounds of earth, and
build their huts of stone or wood.  They then throw earth over them,
which they stamp down tightly, so that the huts themselves cannot be
seen at all.  Until within the last sixty years, it is said that
many such dwellings were to be seen in the town of Tiflis.

29th August.  This morning I had still one stage of twenty-four
wersti ere I reached Tiflis.  The road was, as everywhere else, full
of holes, ruts and stones.  I was obliged always to tie a
handkerchief tightly round my head, to ease the jolting; and still,
I was every day attacked with headache.  Today, however, I learnt
the full nuisance of these carriages.  It had rained, not only
during the whole night, but still continued so.  The wheels threw up
such masses of mud, that I soon sat in a thick puddle, I was covered
even over the head, and my face did not escape.  Small boards
hanging over the wheels would have easily remedied this
inconvenience; but none trouble themselves in this country about the
comfort of travellers.

Tiflis comes in sight during the latter half of the stage.  The
prospect of the town charmed me much; as, with the exception of a
few church towers, it was built in the European style; and, since
Valparaiso, I had not seen any town resembling the European.  Tiflis
contains 50,000 inhabitants, it is the capital of Georgia, {309} and
is situated tolerably near the mountains.  Many of the houses are
built on hills, on high steep rocks.  From some of the hills there
is a beautiful view of the town and valley.  The latter, at the time
of my visit, was not very attractive, as the harvest had deprived it
of all the charms of colour; there were also but few gardens, etc.
On the other hand, the river Kurry (generally called Cyrus) winds in
graceful curves through the town and valley, and in the far distance
sparkle the snow-crowned summits of the Caucasus.  A strong citadel,
Naraklea, is situated upon steep rocks, immediately before the town.

The houses are large, and tastefully ornamented with facades and
columns, and covered with sheet iron or bricks.  The Erivanski Place
is very handsome.  Among the buildings the Palace of the governor,
the Greek and Armenian seminaries, and several barracks are
conspicuous.  The large theatre, in the centre of the Erivanski
Place, was not then finished.  It is evident that the old town must
give place to the new one.  Everywhere houses are being pulled down,
and new ones built; the narrow streets will soon only be known by
tradition, and the only remains of the Oriental architecture, are
the Greek and Armenian houses.  The churches are far inferior in
splendour and magnitude to the other buildings; the towers are low,
round, and generally covered with green glazed tiles.  The oldest
Christian church stands upon a high rock in the fortress, and is
used only for the prisoners.

The bazaars and chan present no features worthy of notice; moreover,
there are already here, as in all European towns, shops and stores
in all the streets.  Several wide bridges are thrown over the Kurry.
The town contains numerous warm sulphuretted springs, from which,
indeed, it derives its name:  Tiflis or Ibilissi, meaning "warm
town."  Unfortunately, the greater number of the many baths are in
the worst condition.  The buildings, within which the springs are
enclosed, are surmounted by small cupolas with windows.  The
reservoirs, the floor, and walls, are for the most part covered with
large stone slabs; very little marble is to be seen.  There are
private and public baths, and men are not allowed to enter the
buildings where the women assemble; however, they are not nearly so
strict here as in the East.  The gentleman who was so kind as to
accompany me to one of these baths, was permitted to come into the
anteroom, although it was separated from the bathing-place only by a
simple wooden partition.

Not far from the baths lies the Botanic Garden, which has been laid
out, at great expense, on the declivity of a mountain.  The
terraces, which had to be artificially cut, are supported by masonry
and filled with earth.  Why such an unsuitable place was chosen I
cannot imagine; the less so as I saw only a few rare plants and
shrubs, and everywhere nothing but grape-vines; I fancied myself in
a vineyard.  The most remarkable things in this garden are two vine-
stocks, whose stems were each a foot in diameter.  They are so
extended in groves and long rows that they form pleasant walks.
More than a thousand flasks of wine are annually obtained from these
two vines.

A large grotto has been excavated in one of the upper terraces whose
whole front side is open, and forms a high-arched hall.  In the fine
summer evenings there is music, dancing, and even theatrical

On Sundays and festivals the pretty gardens of the governor are
opened to the public.  There are swings and winding-paths, and two
bands of music.  The music executed by the Russian military was not
so good as that which I heard by the blacks in Rio Janeiro.

When I visited the Armenian Church, the corpse of a child had just
been laid out.  It was in a costly open bier, covered with red
velvet and richly ornamented with gold lace.  The corpse was strewed
over with flowers, decorated with a crown, and covered with fine
white gauze.  The priests, in sumptuous robes, conducted the funeral
ceremonies, which were very similar to the Catholic.  The poor
mother, at whose side I accidentally happened to kneel, sobbed
loudly when preparations were made to carry away the dear remains.
I also could not restrain my tears:  I wept not for the death of the
child, but for the deep grief of the afflicted parent.

Leaving this place of mourning, I visited some Greek and Armenian
families.  I was received in spacious rooms, which were fitted up in
the most simple manner.  Along the walls stood painted wooden
benches partly covered with rugs.  On these benches the people sit,
eat, and sleep.  The women wear Grecian dresses.

European and Asiatic costumes are seen so frequently together in the
streets, that neither the one nor the other appears peculiar.  The
greatest novelty to me, in this respect, was the Circassian dress.
It consists of wide trousers, short coats full of folds, with narrow
sashes, and breast pockets for from six to ten cartridges; tight
half-boots, with points turned inwards, and close-fitting fur caps.
The more wealthy wore coats of fine dark-blue cloth, and the edges
were ornamented with silver.

The Circassians are distinguished from all other Caucasian people by
their beauty.  The men are tall, have very regular features and
great ease in their motions.  The women are of a more delicate
build; their skin is whiter, their hair dark, their features
regular, their figures slender, with their busts well developed:  in
the Turkish harems they are considered the greatest beauties.  I
must confess, however, that I have seen many handsomer women in the
Persian harems than in the Turkish, even when they contained

The Asiatic women, when in the streets here, wrap themselves in
large white mantles; many cover the mouth as well, and some few the
remainder of the face.

Of the domestic life of the Russian officials and officers I cannot
say much.  I had, indeed, a letter to the chancellor director, Herr
von Lille, and to the governor, Herr von Jermaloff; but both
gentlemen were not much pleased with me--my free expression of
opinion, perhaps, did not suit them.  I made no scruple of speaking
my mind with regard to the ill-regulated posting establishments, and
the miserable roads.  I, moreover, related my imprisonment, with a
few comments; and, what crowned all, I said that I had intended to
have gone on from here across the Caucasus to Moscow and
Petersburgh, but that I had been completely deterred from doing so
by my short experience of travelling in the country, and would take
the shortest road to get beyond the frontier as soon as possible.
If I had been a man and had spoken so, I should probably have been
treated with a temporary residence in Siberia.

Herr von Lille, however, always received me with politeness when I
called on him for the purpose of having my passport prepared.  The
governor did not treat me with a like consideration; first he put me
off from one day to another, then it pleased the mighty man to pass
two days in the country.  When he came back, it was a Sunday; on
which day such a great work could not possibly be done, and so I did
not obtain my passport until the sixth day.

Thus it fared with me, who was provided with letters to the chief
officers,--how do poor people come off?  I heard, indeed, that they
are often kept waiting two or three weeks.

The viceroy, Prince Woronzou, was unfortunately not in Tiflis at the
time.  I regretted his absence the more, as I everywhere heard him
represented as an educated, just, and extremely amiable man.

Far pleasanter than these visits to the Russian governor was that to
the Persian Prince Behmen Mirza, to whom I brought letters and
intelligence from his family, who were remaining in Tebris.
Although he was ill at the time, nevertheless he received me.  I was
conducted into a large saloon, a complete hospital for eight sick
persons:  the prince, four of his children, and three wives, laid
there upon rugs and cushions.  They all suffered from fever.  The
prince was a remarkably handsome and powerful man of five and
thirty; his full eyes were expressive of intelligence and goodness.
He spoke with great regret of his fatherland; a smile of painful
delight played round his features when I mentioned his children,
{312} and related how safely and well I had travelled through those
provinces which, but a short time before, had been under his
control.  What a happiness would it be for Persia if such a man as
this was to come to the throne instead of the young viceroy.

The most interesting, and, at the same time, useful acquaintance
which I made was that of Herr Salzmann, a German.  This gentleman
possesses considerable knowledge of agriculture, and more than all,
a singularly good heart; he interests himself for all kinds of
people, and more especially his own countrymen.  Wherever I
mentioned his name, people spoke of him with true respect.  He had
just received a decoration from the Russian government, although he
was not in their service.

Herr Salzmann has built a very handsome house, with every possible
convenience for the reception of travellers; besides this he owns a
large fruit-garden, ten wersti distant from the town, in the
neighbourhood of which are some naphtha springs.  When he found that
I wished to see these he immediately invited me to join a party to
visit them.  The springs are situated very near to the Kurry.
Square pits, about twenty-five fathoms deep, are dug, and the
naphtha is dipped out by means of wooden buckets.  This naphtha,
however, is of the commonest kind, of a dark brown colour, and
thicker than oil.  Asphalte, cart-grease, etc., are made from it.
The fine white naphtha, which can be used for lighting and fuel, is
peculiar to the Caspian Sea.

A walk to the Chapel of David, which lies upon a hill immediately in
front of the town, repays the trouble.  Besides the lovely country,
there is to be seen here a fine monument erected in memory of the
Russian ambassador, Gribojetof, who was murdered in Persia on the
occasion of a revolt.  A cross, at the foot of which lies his
mourning wife, is very artistically cast in metal.

On Monday, the 5th of September, I received my passport, about 11
o'clock; I ordered the post carriage an hour afterwards.  Herr
Salzmann proposed that I should visit some German settlements, which
were situated at about ten or twenty wersti from Tiflis, and offered
to accompany me there; but I had not much inclination to do so, more
particularly as I had heard everywhere that the settlers had already
much degenerated, and that idleness, fraud, dirt, drunkenness, etc.,
was not less frequent among them than in the Russian colonies.

I left Tiflis about 3 in the afternoon.  Just outside the town
stands, by the roadside, a cross cast in metal, with the eye of
Providence upon a pedestal of polished granite, surrounded by an
iron railing.  An inscription states that, on the 12th of October,
in the year 1837, his imperial majesty was upset here, but that he
had escaped without injury.  "Erected by his grateful subjects."

This incident appears, therefore, to have been one of the most
remarkable in the life of this powerful ruler, as it has been
commemorated by a monument.  It has, certainly, not been erected
without the approval of the emperor.  I am by no means certain which
is the most to be wondered at, the people who placed it here, or the
monarch who permitted it.

I went only one stage today, but it was so long, that I had to
continue my journey into the evening.  To go any further was not to
be thought of, as the country, not only here, but in the greater
part of this province, is so unsafe that it is impossible to travel
in the evening or night without the protection of Cossacks, for
which purpose a small company is placed at each station.

The scenery was rather agreeable; pretty hills enclosed pleasant
looking valleys, and on the tops of some mountains stood ruins of
castles and fortified places.  There were times in the history of
this kingdom as well as the German when one noble made war upon the
others, and no man was safe of his life and property.  The nobles
lived in fortified castles upon hills and mountains, went out mailed
and harnessed like knights, and when threatened by hostile attacks,
their subjects fled to the castles.  There are still said to be
people who wear, either over or under the clothes, shirts of mail,
and helmets instead of caps.  I did not, however, see anything of
the kind.  The river Kurry continued to run along by our road.  Not
far from the station a long handsome bridge led across, but it was
so awkwardly placed that it was necessary to go out of the way a
whole werst to reach it.

6th September.  The journey became still more romantic.  Bushes and
woods covered the hills and valleys, and the tall-stemmed, rich,
green Turkish corn waved in the fields.  There were also numbers of
old castles and fortresses.  Towards evening, after having with
great exertion travelled four stages, I reached the little town of
Gory, whose situation was exceedingly charming.  Wooded mountains
surrounded it in wide circles, while nearer at hand rose pretty
groups of hills.  Nearly in the centre of the mass of houses a hill
was to be seen, whose summit was crowned by a citadel.  The little
town possesses some pretty churches, private houses, barracks, and a
neat hospital.  Both towns and villages here lose the Oriental
character entirely.

When the atmosphere is clear the Caucasian mountains are to be seen
rising in three ranges between the Caspian and Black seas, forming
the boundary between Asia and Europe.  The highest points are the
Elberus and the Kasbeck; these, according to a new geography, are of
the respective heights of 16,800 and 14,000 feet.  The mountains
were covered with snow far down their sides.

7th September.  Today I travelled one stage as far as Suram:  I
could not proceed any further, as twelve horses were ordered for an
officer who was returning from a bathing-place, with his wife and

Suram lies in a fruitful valley, in the centre of which rises a
beautiful mountain with the ruins of an old castle.  In order to
dispel my bad humour I took a walk to this old castle.  Although it
was considerably ruined, the lofty arches, stately walls, and
extensive fortifications showed that the noble knight had lived
tolerably sumptuously.  On the return nothing astonished me more
than the number of animals yoked to the ploughs.  The fields lay in
the finest plains, the ground was loose and free from stones, and
yet each plough was drawn by twelve or fourteen oxen.

8th September.  The mountains drew nearer and nearer together, the
prospect became more beautiful; climbing plants, wild hops, vines,
etc., twined round the trees to their highest branches, and the
underwood grew so thick and luxuriantly, that it called to my mind
the vegetation of the Brazils.

The third stage was for the greater part of the way along the banks
of the river Mirabka through a narrow valley.  The road between the
river and the mountain side was so narrow, that in many places there
was only room for one carriage.  We had frequently to wait ten or
twenty minutes to allow the cars loaded with wood, of which we met a
great number, to pass us, and yet this was called a post-road.

Georgia has been for fifty year under Russian dominion, and only
within a recent time have roads been commenced here and there.
Fifty years hence, they may, perhaps, be finished, or fallen again
into decay.  Bridges are as scarce as roads.  The rivers, such as
the Mirabka are crossed in miserable ferry boats, those which are
shallower must be forded.  In time of rain, or sudden thaw in the
snow mountains, the rivers are overflowed, and travellers must then
either wait some days or risk their lives.  What a tremendous
difference between the colonies of Russia and England!

Late in the evening, I arrived, wet through and covered with mud, at
the station, two wersti from Kutais.  It is remarkable that the
post-houses are generally one or two wersti from the villages or
towns.  A traveller, in consequence of this custom, is exposed to
the inconvenience of making a special journey if he has anything to
attend to in those places.

9th September.  Kutais contains 10,000 inhabitants, and lies in a
natural park; all round is the most luxuriant vegetation.  The
houses are neat and ornamental; the green painted church towers and
barracks peep invitingly from between.  The large river Ribon {314}
separates the town from the large citadel which very picturesquely
occupies a neighbouring hill.

The dresses of the people are as various as round Tiflis; the
headgear of the Mingrelian peasants appears truly comic.  They wear
round black felt caps, in the shape of a plate, fastened by a string
under the chin.  The women frequently wear the Tartarian schaube,
over which they throw a veil, which, however, is put back so that
the face is seen.  The men wear, in the mornings, and in rainy
weather, large black collars (called burki) of sheep's wool, or
felt, which reach below the knees.  I must here mention that the
beauty for which the Georgians are so famous must not be sought for
among the common people.  I did not find them particularly handsome.

The carts which the peasants use are remarkable, the front part
rests upon curved pieces of wood, or sledge-bars; the hinder part
upon two small thick discs of wood.

My stay in Kutais was caused by the want of horses; it was not till
2 o'clock in the afternoon that I could continue my journey.  I had
two stages to reach the village of Marand, which lies on the river
Ribon, where the post-cars are changed for a boat, by which the
journey to Redutkale, on the Black Sea, is made.

The first stage passes chiefly through fine woods, the second
presents an open view over fields and meadows; the houses and huts
are quite buried beneath bushes and trees.  We met a number of
peasants who, although they had only a few fowls, eggs, fruits,
etc., to carry to the town for sale, were nevertheless on horseback.
There was abundance of grass and willow trees, and consequently of
horses and horned cattle.

At Marand I stopped, for want of an inn, with a Cossack.  These
people, who also live here as settlers, have pretty wooden cottages,
with two or three rooms, and a piece of land which they use as field
and garden.  Some of them receive travellers, and know how to charge
enough for the miserable accommodation they afford.  I paid twenty
kopecs (8d.) for a dirty room without a bed, and as much for a
chicken.  Beyond that I had nothing, for the people are too lazy to
fetch what they have not by them.  If I wanted bread, or anything
that my hosts had not got, I might seek for it myself.  As I have
said before, it is only for an officer that they will make any

I had left Tiflis about 3 in the afternoon of the 5th of September,
and reached this place in the evening of the 9th, five days to
travel 274 wersti (195 miles).  I call that a respectable Russian

The boat did not start for Redutkale, a distance of eighty wersti,
until the morning of the 11th.  It was bad weather; and the Ribon,
otherwise a fine river, cannot be navigated during a strong wind, on
account of the projecting trunks of trees and logs.  The scenery
still continued beautiful and picturesque.  The stream flows between
woods, maize, and millet fields, and the view extends over hills and
mountains to the distant and gigantic Caucasus.  Their singular
forms, peaks, sunken plateaus, split domes, etc. appear sometimes on
the right, sometimes on the left, in front, and behind, according to
the ever-changing windings of the river.  We frequently halted and
landed, every one running to the trees.  Grapes and figs were
abundant, but the former were as sour as vinegar, and the latter
hard and small.  I found a single one ripe, and that I threw away
when I had tasted it.  The fig-trees were of a size such as I had
never seen, either in India or Sicily.  I believe the whole sap is
here converted into wood and leaves.  In the same way, the great
height of the vines may be the cause of the grapes being so small
and bad.  There must certainly be a great field for improved
cultivation here.

12th September.  Our boat did not go far.  There was a smart breeze,
and as we were already near the Black Sea, we were obliged to remain
at anchor.

13th September.  The wind had dropped, and we could, without danger,
trust ourselves on the sea, upon which we had to sail for some
hours, from the principal arm of the Ribon to that on which
Redutkale was situated.  There was indeed a canal leading from the
one to the other, but it can only be passed at very high water, as
it is much filled with drift sand.

In Redutkale, a speculating Cossack host also received me, who had
three little rooms for guests.

According to the Russian calendar, this was the last day of August.
On the 1st of September, the steamer was to come, and sail again
after two hours.  I therefore hastened to the commandant of the town
to have my passport signed, and to request admittance to the ship.
Government steamers ply twice every month, on the 1st and 15th, from
Redutkale to Odessa, by way of Kertsch.  Sailing vessels rarely
offer an opportunity of passage.  These steamers always keep close
into the coast; they touch at eighteen stations (fortresses and
military posts), carry military transports of all kinds, and convey
all passengers free.  Travellers must, however, be content with a
deck place:  the cabins are few, and belong to the crew and higher
officers, who frequently travel from one station to another.  No
places can be had by paying for them.

The commandant prepared my passport and ticket directly.  I cannot
avoid remarking in this place that the prolixity of writing by the
Russian government officials far exceeds that of the Austrians,
which I had formerly considered impossible.  Instead of a simple
signature, I received a large written sheet, of which several copies
were taken, the whole ceremony occupying more than half an hour.

The steamer did not arrive until the 5th (Russian calendar).
Nothing is more tedious than to wait from hour to hour for a
conveyance, especially when it is necessary, in addition, to be
ready to start at any moment.  Every morning I packed up.  I did not
venture to cook a fowl or anything else, for fear I should be called
away from it as soon as ready; and it was not until the evening that
I felt a little safer, and could walk out a little.

From what I could see of the neighbourhood of Redutkale and
Mingrelia altogether, the country is plentifully furnished with
hills and mountains, large valleys lie between, and the whole are
covered with rich woods.  The air is on that account moist and
unhealthy, and it rains very frequently.  The rising sun draws up
such dense vapours, that they float like impenetrable clouds, four
or five feet above the earth.  These vapours are said to be the
cause of many diseases, especially fever and dropsy.  In addition to
this, the people are so foolish as to build their houses in among
the bushes and under thick trees, instead of in open, airy, and
sunny places.  Villages are frequently passed, and scarcely a house
is to be seen.  The men are remarkably idle and stupid; they are
tawny and lean.  The natives seldom reach the age of sixty; and it
is said that the climate is even more unhealthy for strangers.

Still I believe that much might be done in this country by
industrious settlers and agriculturists.  There is abundance of
land, and three-fourths of it certainly lies uncultivated.  By
thinning the woods and draining the land, the badness of the climate
would be lessened.  It is already, even without cultivation, very
fruitful; and how much this might be increased by a proper and
rational mode of treatment.  Rich grass grows everywhere, mixed with
the best herbs and clover.  Fruit grows wild; the vines run up to
the tops of the highest trees.  It is said that in time of rain the
ground is so soft, that only wooden ploughs are used.  Turkish corn
is most generally grown, and a kind of millet, called gom.

The inhabitants prepare the wine in the most simple manner.  They
hollow out the trunk of a tree, and tread the grapes in it; they
then pour the juice into earthen vessels, and bury these in the

The character of the Mingrelians is said to be altogether bad, and
they are generally looked upon as thieves and robbers; murders are
said not to be unfrequent.  They carry off one another's wives, and
are much addicted to drunkenness.  The father trains the children to
stealing, and the mother to obscenity.

Colchis or Mingrelia lies at the end of the Black Sea, and towards
the north on the Caucasian mountains.  The neighbouring people were
formerly known under the name of Huns and Alani.  The Amazons are
said to have dwelt in the country between the Caucasus and the
Caspian Sea.

The little town of Redutkale may contain about 1,500 inhabitants.
The men are so indolent that, during the five days that I passed
here, I could not procure a few grapes or figs for love or money.  I
went daily to the bazaar, and never found any for sale.  The people
are too lazy to bring wood from the forest; they work only when the
greatest necessity compels them, and require to be paid
exorbitantly.  I paid as much, if not more, for eggs, milk, and
bread as I would have done in Vienna.  It might well be said that
the people are here in the midst of plenty, and yet almost starve.

I was not better pleased by the thoughtless and meaningless
performance of religious ceremonies among these people.  On all
occasions, they cross themselves before eating or drinking, before
entering a room, before putting on an article of clothing, etc.  The
hands have nothing else to do but to make crosses.  But the most
provoking thing of all is, that they stand still before every church
they pass, bow half a dozen times, and cross themselves without end.
When they are travelling, they stop their carriages to perform this

While I was at Redutkale a vessel sailed.  The priests were brought
on board, and were obliged to go all over the ship, and pronounce a
blessing upon it on every corner of the sails.  They crept into
every cabin or hole, and at last blessed the sailors, who laughed at
them for their trouble.

I constantly found that there was less real religion in those places
where there was the most parade made of it.



On the 17th of September, at 9 in the morning, the steamer arrived,
and an hour afterwards I was seated on the deck.  The vessel was
called Maladetz; it was 140 horse power, and the commandant's name
was Zorin.

The distance from Redutkale to Kertsch is only 420 miles in a
straight line, but for us, who continually kept close to the shore,
it amounted to nearly 580.

The view of the Caucasus--the hills and headlands--the rich and
luxuriant country remains fresh in my memory to this day.  In a
charming valley lies the village Gallansur, the first station, at
which we stopped for a short time.

Towards 6 o'clock in the evening, we reached the fortified town
Sahun, which lies partly on the shore, and partly on a broad hill.
Here I saw, for the first time, Cossacks in full uniform; all those
I had previously seen were very badly dressed, and had no military
appearance; they wore loose linen trousers, and long ugly coats,
reaching down to their heels.  These, however, wore close-fitting
spencers with breast-pockets, each of which was divided for eight
cartridges, wide trousers, which sat in folds upon the upper part of
the body, and dark blue cloth caps, trimmed with fur.  They rowed a
staff officer to the ship.

18th September.  We remained the whole day in Sahun.  The coal-
boats, from some inconceivable negligence, had not arrived; the
coals were taken on board after we had been some time at anchor, and
our supply was not completed until 6 o'clock in the evening, when we
again started.

19th September.  During the night there was much storm and rain.  I
begged permission to seat myself on the cabin steps, which I
received; but, after a few minutes, an order came from the
commandant to take me under cover.  I was much surprised and pleased
at this politeness, but I was soon undeceived when I was led into
the large sailors' cabin.  The people smelt horribly of brandy, and
some of them had evidently taken too much.  I hastened back on to
the deck, where, in spite of the raging of the elements, I felt more
comfortable than among these well-bred Christians.

In the course of the day we stopped at Bambur, Pizunta, Gagri,
Adlar, and other places.  Near Bambur I observed majestic groups of

20th September.  The Caucasian mountains were now out of sight, and
the thick woods were also succeeded by wide open spaces.  We were
still troubled with wind, storm, and rain.

The engineer of the ship, an Englishman, Mr. Platt, had accidentally
heard of my journey (perhaps from my passport, which I had to give
up on entering the ship); he introduced himself to me today, and
offered me the use of his cabin during the day-time; he also spoke
to one of the officers for me, and succeeded in obtaining a cabin
for me, which, although it joined the sailors' cabin, was separated
from it by a door.  I was very thankful to both the gentlemen for
their kindness, which was the greater, as the preference was given
to me, a stranger, over the Russian officers, of whom at least half
a dozen were on deck.

We remained a long time at Sissasse.  This is an important station;
there is a fine fortress upon a hill--round it stand pretty wooden

21st September.  This was a terrible night!  One of the sailors, who
was healthy and well the day before, and had taken his supper with a
good appetite, was suddenly attacked with cholera.  The cries of the
poor fellow disturbed me greatly, and I went upon deck, but the
heavy rain and piercing cold were not less terrible.  I had nothing
but my mantle, which was soon wet through; my teeth chattered; the
frost made me shake throughout; so there was nothing to be done but
to go below again--to stop my ears, and remain close to the dying
man.  He was, in spite of all help, a corpse before the end of eight
hours.  The dead body was landed in the morning, at Bschada; it was
packed in a heap of sail-cloth, and kept secret from the travellers.
The cabin was thoroughly washed with vinegar, and scoured, and no
one else was attacked.

I did not at all wonder that there was sickness on board, only I had
expected it would be among the poor soldiers, who were day and night
upon the deck, and had no further food than dry, black bread, and
had not even mantles or covering; I saw many half-frozen from cold,
dripping with rain, gnawing a piece of bread:  how much greater
suffering must they have to undergo in the winter time!  The passage
from Redutkale to Kertsch, I was told, then frequently occupied
twenty days.  The sea is so rough that it is difficult to reach the
stations, and sometimes the ship lies for days opposite them.  If it
should happen that a poor soldier has to proceed the whole distance,
it is really a wonder that he should reach the place of his
destination alive.  According to the Russian system, however, the
common man is not worthy of any consideration.

The sailors are indeed better, but, nevertheless, not well provided
for; they receive bread and spirits, a very small quantity of meat,
and a soup made of sour cabbage, called bartsch, twice a day.

The number of officers, their wives, and soldiers on the deck,
increased at every station, very few being landed from the ship.

The deck was soon so covered with furniture, chests, and trunks,
that there was scarcely a place to sit down, except on the top of a
pile of goods.  I never saw such an encampment on board a ship.

In fine weather, this life afforded me much amusement; there was
always something new to see; every one was animated and happy, and
appeared to belong to the same family; but if a heavy rain came on
suddenly, or a wave washed over the deck, the passengers began to
shout and cry, and the contents of every chest became public.  One
cried, "How shall I shelter my sugar-loaves?" another, "Oh, my meal
will be spoiled."  There a woman complained that her bonnet would be
full of spots; here, another, that the uniform of her husband would
certainly be injured.

At some of the smaller stations, we had taken on board sick
soldiers, in order to carry them to the hospital at Kertsch.  This
was done, as I was told, less on account of nursing them than as a
measure of safety.  The former they would have received at the place
they came from; but all the small villages between Redutkale and
Anapka are still frequently disturbed by the Circassian-Tartars, who
undauntedly break out from the mountains and rob and murder.  Very
lately they were reported to have fired a cannon at one of the
government steamers.  The Circassians {320a} are as partial to the
Russians as the Chinese are to the English!

The poor invalids were also laid on the deck, and but little
attention was shown to them, beyond stretching a sail-cloth over
them, to keep the wind partially off; but when it rained heavily,
the water ran in on all sides, so that they lay half in the wet.

22nd September.  We saw the handsome town and fortress Nowa
Russiska, which contains some very pretty private houses, hospitals,
barracks, and a fine church.  The town and fortress lie upon a hill,
and were founded only ten years since.

In the evening, we reached Anapka, which place was taken by the
Turks in 1829.  Here the finely wooded mountains and hills, and the
somewhat desolate steppes {320b} of the Crimea commence.

In the course of the day I had an opportunity of observing the
watchfulness and penetration of our commandant.  A sailing-vessel
was quietly at anchor in a small creek.  The commandant, perceiving
it, immediately ordered the steamer to stop, ordered out a boat, and
sent an officer to see what it was doing there.  So far everything
had gone correctly; for in Russia, where the limits of every foreign
fly is known, what a whole ship is about, must also be seen to.  But
now comes the comical part of the affair.  The officer went near the
ship, but did not board it, and did not ask for the ship's papers,
but merely called out to the captain to know what he was about
there?  The captain answered that contrary winds had compelled him
to anchor there, and that he waited for a favourable one to sail to
this place and that.  This answer satisfied the officer and the
commandant completely.  To me it seemed just as if any one was asked
whether he was an honourable man or a rogue, and then trusted to his
honour when he gave himself a good character.

23rd September.  Another bad night; nothing but wind and rain.  How
I pitied the poor, sick fellows, and even those who were well,
exposed to this weather on the deck.

Towards noon we arrived at Kertsch; the town can be seen very well
from the sea, as it stretches out in a semi-circle on the shore, and
rises a little up the hill Mithridates {321}, which lies behind.
Higher up the hill is the museum, in the style of a Grecian temple--
circular, and surrounded with columns.  The summit of the mountain
ends in a fine group of rocks, between which stand some obelisks and
monuments, which belong to the old burial-place.  The country round
is a steppe, covered with artificial earth-mounds, which make the
graves of a very remote period.  Besides the Mithridates, there is
no hill or mountain to be seen.

Kertsch lies partly on the spot where Pantikapaum formerly stood.
It is now included in the government of Tauria; it is fortified, has
a safe harbour, and rather considerable commerce.  The population
amounts to 12,000.  The town contains many fine houses, which are
chiefly of modern date; the streets are broad, and furnished with
raised pavements for foot passengers.  There is much gaiety in the
two squares on Sundays and festivals.  A market of every possible
thing, but especially provisions, is held there.  The extraordinary
vulgarity and rudeness of the common people struck me greatly; on
all sides I heard only abuse, shouting, and cursing.  To my
astonishment I saw dromedaries yoked to many loaded carts.

The Mithridates is 500 feet high, and beautiful flights of stone
steps and winding paths lead up its sides, forming the only walks of
the towns' people.  This hill must formerly have been used by the
ancients as a burial-place, for everywhere, if the earth is only
scraped away, small narrow sarcophagi, consisting of four stone
slabs, are found.  The view from the top is extensive, but tame; on
three sides a treeless steppe, whose monotony is broken only by
innumerable tumuli; and on the fourth side, the sea.  The sight of
that is everywhere fine, and here the more so, as one sea joins
another, namely, the Black Sea and the Sea of Asoph.

There was a tolerable number of ships in the roads, but very far
short of four or six hundred, as the statements in the newspapers
gave out, and as I had hoped to see.

On my return, I visited the Museum, which consists of a single
apartment.  It contains a few curiosities from the tumuli, but
everything handsome and costly that was found was taken to the
Museum at St. Petersburgh.  The remains of sculptures, bas-reliefs,
sarcophagi, and epitaphs are very much decayed.  What remains of the
statues indicates a high state of art.  The most important thing in
the Museum is a sarcophagus of white marble, which, although much
dilapidated, is still very beautiful.  The exterior is full with
fine reliefs, especially on one side, where a figure, in the form of
an angel, is represented holding two garlands of fruit together over
its head.  On the lid of the sarcophagus are two figures in a
reclining posture.  The heads are wanting; but all the other parts,
the bodies, their position, and the draping of the garments, are
executed in a masterly manner.

Another sarcophagus of wood, shows great perfection in the carving
and turning of the wood.

A collection of earthen jars, water jugs and lamps, called to my
mind those in the museum at Naples.  The jars, burnt and painted
brown, have a form similar to those discovered at Herculaneum and
Pompeii.  The water jugs are furnished with two ears, and are so
pointed at the bottom, that they will not stand unless rested
against something.  This form of vessel is still used in Persia.
Among other glass-ware, there were some flasks which consisted
almost entirely of long necks, bracelets, rings and necklaces of
gold; some small four-cornered embossed sheets, which were worn
either on the head or chest, and some crowns, made of laurel
wreaths, were very elegant.  There were chains and cauldrons in
copper, and ugly grotesque faces and ornaments of various kinds,
which were probably fixed on the exterior of the houses.  I saw some
coins which were remarkably well stamped.

I had now to visit the tumuli.  I sought long and in vain for a
guide:  very few strangers come to this place, and there are
consequently no regular guides.  At last there was nothing left for
me but to apply to the Austrian Vice-consul, Herr Nicolits.  This
gentleman was not only willing to comply with my wish, but was even
so obliging as to accompany me himself.

The tumuli are monuments of an entirely peculiar character; they
consist of a passage about sixty feet long, fourteen broad, and
twenty-five high, and a very small chamber at the end of the
passage.  The walls of the passage are sloping, like the roof of a
house, and contract so much at the top, that at the utmost one foot
is left between.  They are built of long and very thick stone slabs,
which are placed over each other in such a way that the upper row
projects about six or seven inches beyond the under one.  Upon the
opening at the top are placed massive slabs of stone.  Looking down
from the entrance, the walls appear as if fluted.  The room, which
is a lengthened quadrangle, is spanned by a small arched roof, and
is built in the same manner as the passage.  After the sarcophagus
was deposited in the room, the whole monument was covered with

The fine marble sarcophagus which is in the Museum, was taken from a
tumulus which was situated near the quarantine house, and is
considered to be that of King Bentik.

The greater number of the monuments were opened by the Turks; the
remainder were uncovered by the Russian government.  Many of the
bodies were found ornamented with jewels and crowns of leaves, like
those in the Museum; an abundance of coins was also found.

The 26th of September was a great festival among the Russians, who
celebrated the finding of the cross.  The people brought bread,
pastry, fruit, etc., to the church, by way of sacrifice.  The whole
of these things were laid up in one corner.  After the service, the
priest blessed them, gave some few morsels to the beggars round him,
and had the remainder packed into a large basket and sent to his

In the afternoon, nearly the whole of the people went to the burial-
ground.  The common people took provisions with them, which were
also blessed by the priests, but were hastily consumed by the

I saw only a few people in the Russian dress.  This consists, both
for men and women, of long wide blue cloth coats; the men wear low
felt hats, with broad brims, and have their hair cut even all round;
the women bind small silk kerchiefs round their heads.

Before finishing my account of Kertsch, I must mention that there
are naphtha springs in the neighbourhood; but I did not visit them,
as they were described to me as precisely similar to those at

The next part of my journey was to Odessa.  I could go either by sea
or land.  The latter was said to present many objects of beauty and
interest; but I preferred the former, as I had in the first place no
great admiration of the Russian post; and, secondly, I was heartily
anxious to turn my back upon the Russian frontiers.

On the 27th of September, at 8 in the morning, I went on board the
Russian steamer Dargo, of 100 horse power.  The distance from Odessa
to Constantinople amounts to 420 miles.  The vessel was handsome and
very clean, and the fare very moderate.  I paid for the second cabin
thirteen silver roubles, or twenty florins fifty kreutzers (2 pounds
1s.  4d.)  The only thing which did not please me in the Russian
steamer, was the too great attention of the steward who, as I was
told, pays for his office.  All the travellers are compelled to take
their meals with him, the poor deck passengers not excepted, who
have often to pay him their last kopecs.

About afternoon we came to Feodosia (Caffa), which was formerly the
largest and most important town in the Crimea, and was called the
second Constantinople.  It was at the height of its prosperity about
the end of the fifteenth century, under the dominion of Genueser.
Its population at that time is said to have been upwards of 200,000.
It has now declined to a minor town, with 5,000 inhabitants.

Half-ruined fortification walls and towers of the time of Genueser
remain, as well as a fine mosque, which has been turned into a
Christian church by the Russians.

The town lies upon a large bay of the Black Sea, on the declivity of
barren hills.  Pretty gardens between the houses form the only
vegetation to be seen.

28th September.  We stopped this morning at Jalta, a very small
village, containing 500 inhabitants, and a handsome church founded
by the Prince Woronzoff.  It is built in pure Gothic style, and
stands upon a hill outside of the village.  The country is again
delightful here, and beautiful hills and mountains, partly covered
with fine woods, partly rising in steep precipices, extend close to
the sea-shore.

The steamer stayed twenty-four hours at Jalta.  I took advantage of
the time to make an excursion to Alupka, one of the estates of
Prince Woronzoff, famous for a castle which is considered one of the
curiosities of the Crimea.  The road to it passed over low ranges of
hills close to the sea through a true natural park, which had here
and there been embellished by the help of art.  The most elegant
castles and country-houses belonging to the Russian nobles are
seated between woods and groves, gardens and vineyards, in open
spaces on hills and declivities.  The whole prospect is so charming,
that it appears as if prosperity, happiness, and peace, only reigned

The first villa which attracted me was that of Count Leo Potocki.
The building is extremely tasteful.  The gardens were laid out with
art and sumptuousness.  The situation is delightful, with an
extensive view of the sea and neighbourhood.

A second magnificent building, which, however, is more remarkable
for magnitude than beauty of construction, lies near the sea-shore.
It resembles an ordinary square house with several stories; and, as
I was informed, was built as a country bathing-place of the emperor,
but had not yet been made use of.  This castle is called Oriander.

Far handsomer than this palace was the charming country-house of
Prince Mirzewsky.  It is seated on a hill, in the centre of a
magnificent park, and affords a delightful view of the mountains and
sea.  The principal front is Gothic.

The villa of Prince Gallizin is built entirely in the Gothic style.
The pointed windows, and two towers of which, decorated with a
cross, give to it the appearance of a church, and the beholder
involuntarily looks for the town to which this gorgeous building

This place lies nearly at the extremity of the fine country.  From
here the trees are replaced by dwarf bushes, and finally by
brambles; the velvety-green turf is succeeded by stony ground, and
steep rocks rise behind, at the foot of which lie a quantity of
fallen fragments.

Even here very pretty seats are to be seen; but they are entirely
artificial, and want the charm of nature.

After travelling about thirteen wersti, the road winds round a stony
hill, and the castle of Prince Woronzoff comes in sight in its
entire extent.  The appearance of it is not by any means so fine as
I had imagined.  The castle is built entirely of stone, of the same
colour as the neighbouring rocks.  If a large park surrounded the
castle, it would stand out more prominently, and the beauty and
magnificence of its architecture would be better shown.  There is,
indeed, a well laid out garden, but it is yet new and not very
extensive.  The head gardener, Herr Kebach (a German), is a master
in his art; he well knows how to manage the naked barren land, so
that it will bear not only the ordinary trees, plants, and flowers,
but even the choicest exotic plants.

The castle is built in the Gothic style, and is full of towers,
pinnacles, and buttresses, such as are seen in similar well
preserved buildings of olden time.  The principal front is turned
towards the sea.  Two lions, in Carrara marble, artistically
sculptured, lie in comfortable ease at the top of the majestic
flight of steps which lead from the castle far down to the sea-

The interior arrangement of the castle reminded me of the "Arabian
Nights;" every costly thing from all parts of the world, such as
fine woods and choice works of art, is to be seen here in the
greatest perfection and splendour.  There are state apartments in
Oriental, Chinese, Persian, and European styles; and, above all, a
garden saloon, which is quite unique, for it not only contains the
finest and rarest flowers but even the tallest trees.  Palms, with
their rich leafy crowns, extend to a great height, climbing plants
cover the walls, and on all sides are flowers and blossoms.  The
most delightful odour diffused itself through the air, cushioned
divans stood half-buried under the floating leaves; in fact,
everything combined to produce the most magical impression upon the

The owner of this fairy palace was unfortunately absent at a fete on
a neighbouring estate.  I had letters to him, and should have been
glad to have made his acquaintance, as I had heard him spoken of
here, both by rich and poor, as a most noble, just and generous man.
I was, indeed, persuaded to wait his return, but I could not accept
this offer, as I should have had to wait eight days for the arrival
of the next steamer, and my time was already very limited.

In the neighbourhood of the castle is a Tartar village, of which
there are many in the Crimea.  The houses are remarkable for their
flat earth roofs, which are more used by the inhabitants than the
interior of the huts; as the climate is mild and fine they pass the
whole day at their work on the roofs, and at night sleep there.  The
dress of the men differs somewhat from that of the Russian peasants,
the women dress in the Oriental fashion, and have their faces

I never saw such admirably planted and clean vineyards as here.  The
grapes are very sweet, and of a good flavour; the wine light and
good, and perfectly suited for making champagne, which indeed is
sometimes done.  I was told that more than a hundred kinds of grapes
are grown in the gardens of Prince Woronzoff.

When I returned to Jalta, I was obliged to wait more than two hours,
as the gentlemen with whom I was to go on board had not yet finished
their carouse.  At last, when they broke up, one of them, an officer
of the steamer, was so much intoxicated that he could not walk.  Two
of his companions and the landlord dragged him to the shore.  The
jolly-boat of the steamer was indeed there, but the sailors refused
to take us, as the jolly-boat was ordered for the captain.  We were
obliged to hire a boat, for which each had to pay twenty kopecs
(8d.)  The gentlemen knew that I did not speak Russian but they did
not think I partially understood the language.  I, however,
overheard one of them say to the other "I have no change with me,
let us leave the woman to pay."  Upon this the other turned round to
me, and said in French, "The share that you have to pay is twenty
silver kopecs."  These were gentlemen who made pretensions to
honesty and honour.

29th September.  Today we stopped at the strong and beautiful
fortress Sewastopol.  The works are partly situated at the entrance
of the harbour, and partly in the harbour itself; they are executed
in massive stone, and possess a number of towers and outworks which
defend the entrance to the harbour.  The harbour itself is almost
entirely surrounded by hills, and is one of the safest and most
excellent in the world.  It can hold the largest fleets, and is so
deep that the most gigantic men-of-war can lie at anchor close to
the quays.  Sluices, docks and quays have been constructed in
unlimited splendour and magnificence.  The whole of the works were
not quite finished, and there was an unparalleled activity apparent.
Thousands of men were busy on all sides.  Among the workmen I was
shown many of the captured Polish nobles who had been sent here as a
punishment for their attempt, in 1831, to shake of the Russian yoke.

The works of the fortress and the barracks are so large that they
will hold about 30,000 men.

The town itself is modern, and stands upon a range of barren hills.
The most attractive among the buildings is the Greek church, as it
stands quite alone on a hill, and is built in the style of a Grecian
temple.  The library is situated on the highest ground.  There is
also an open-columned hall near the club, with stone steps leading
to the sea-shore, which serves as the most convenient passage to the
town for those who land here.  A Gothic monument to the memory of
Captain Cozar, who distinguished himself greatly at the battle of
Navarino, and was killed there, does not less excite the curiosity
of the traveller.  Like the church, it stands alone upon a hill.

The streets here, as in all the new Russian towns, are broad and

30th September.  Early in the morning we reached Odessa.  The town
looks very well from the sea.  It stands high; and consequently many
of the large and truly fine buildings can be seen at one glance.
Among these are the Palace of Prince Woronzoff, the Exchange, the
government offices, several large barracks, the quarantine
buildings, and many fine private houses.  Although the surrounding
country is flat and barren, the number of gardens and avenues in the
town give it a pleasant appearance.  In the harbour was a perfect
forest of masts.  By far the greater number of ships do not lie
here, but in the quarantine harbour.  Most of the ships come from
the Turkish shore, and are obliged to pass through a quarantine of
fourteen days, whether they have illness on board or not.

Odessa, the chief town of the government of Cherson, is, from its
situation on the Black Sea, and at the mouth of the Dniester and
Dnieper, one of the most important places of commerce in South
Russia.  It contains 50,000 inhabitants, was founded in 1794, and
declared a free port in 1817.  A fine citadel entirely commands the

The Duke of Richelieu contributed most to the advancement of Odessa;
for after having made several campaigns against his native country
(France) in an emigrant corps, he went to Russia; and in 1803 was
made governor-general of Cherson.  He filled this post until 1814,
during which time he brought the town to its present position.  When
he was appointed it contained scarcely 5,000 inhabitants.  One of
the finest streets bears the name of the duke, and several squares
are also named in honour of him.

I remained only two days in Odessa.  On the third I started by the
steamer for Constantinople.  I went through the town and suburbs in
every direction.  The finest part lies towards the sea, especially
the boulevard, which is furnished with fine avenues of trees, and
offers a delightful promenade; a life-size statue of the Duke
Richelieu forms a fine ornament to it.  Broad flights of stone steps
lead from here down to the sea-shore; and in the background are rows
of handsome palaces and houses.  The most remarkable among them are
the Government House, the Hotel St. Petersburgh, and the Palace of
Prince Woronzoff, built in the Italian style, with a tasteful garden
adjoining.  At the opposite end of the boulevard is the Exchange,
also built in the Italian style, and surrounded by a garden.  Not
far from this is the Academy of Arts, a rather mediocre one-story
building.  The Theatre, with a fine portico, promises much outside,
but is nothing great within.  Next to the theatre is the Palais
Royal, which consists of a pretty garden, round which are ranged
large handsome shops, filled with costly goods.  Many articles are
also hung out, but the arrangement is not near so tasteful as is the
case in Vienna or Hamburgh.

Among the churches the Russian cathedral is the most striking.  It
has a lofty arched nave and a fine dome.  The nave rests upon strong
columns covered with brilliant white plaster, which looks like
marble.  The decorations of the churches with pictures, lamps, and
lustres, etc., is rich but not artistic.  This was the first church
in which I found stoves, and really it was quite necessary that
these should be used, the difference of temperature between this
place and Jalta was very considerable for the short distance.

A second Russian church stands in the new bazaar; it has a large
dome surrounded by four smaller ones, and has a very fine appearance
from the exterior; inside it is small and plain.

The Catholic church, not yet quite finished, vies in point of
architecture with the Russian cathedral.

The streets are all broad, handsome, and regular, it is almost
impossible to lose your way in this town.  In every street there are
fine large houses, and this is the case even in the most remote
parts as well.

In the interior of the town lies the so-called "crown garden," which
is not, indeed, very large or handsome, but still affords some
amusement, as great numbers of people assemble here on Sundays, and
festivals, and a very good band of music plays here in summer under
a tent; in winter the performances take place in a plain room.

The botanic garden, three wersti from the town, has few exotic
plants, and is much neglected.  The autumn changes, which I again
saw here for the first time for some years, made a truly sad
impression upon me.  I could almost have envied the people who live
in hot climates, although the heat is very troublesome.

The German language is understood by almost all but the lowest
orders in Odessa.

On leaving the Russian dominions I had as much trouble with the
passport regulations as on entering.  The passport which was
obtained on entering must be changed for another for which two
silver roubles are paid.  Besides this, the traveller's name has to
be three times printed in the newspaper, so that if he has debts,
his creditors may know of his departure.  With these delays it takes
at least eight days, frequently, however, two or three weeks to get
away; it is not, however, necessary to wait for these forms, if the
traveller provides security.

The Austrian Consul, Herr Gutenthal, answered for me, and I was thus
able to bid adieu to Russia on the 2nd of October.  That I did this
with a light heart it is not necessary for me to assure my readers.



Little can be said of the passage from Odessa to Constantinople; we
continued out at sea and did not land anywhere.  The distance is 420
miles.  The ship belonged to the Russian government, it was named
Odessa, was of 260 horse power, and was handsome, clean, and neat.

In order that my parting with my dear friends, the Russians, might
not be too much regretted, one of them was so good at the end of the
passage as to behave in a manner that was far from polite.  During
the last night which was very mild and warm, I went out of the close
cabin on to the deck, and placed myself not far from the compass-
box, where I soon began to sleep, wrapt in my mantle.  One of the
sailors came, and giving me a kick with his foot, told me to leave
the place.  I thanked him quietly for the delicate way in which he
expressed himself, and requesting him to leave me at peace,
continued to sleep.

Among the passengers were six English sailors, who had taken a new
ship to Odessa, and were returning home.  I spoke with them several
times, and had soon quite won them.  As they perceived that I was
without any companion, they asked me if I spoke enough Turkish to be
able to get what I wanted from the ship's people and porters.  On my
answering that I did, they offered to manage everything for me if I
would go on shore with them.  I willingly accepted their offer.

As we approached land a customs' officer came on board to examine
our luggage.  In order to avoid delay I gave him some money.  When
we landed I wanted to pay, but the English sailors would not allow
it; they said I had paid for the customs' officer, and it was
therefore their time to pay for the boat.  I saw that I should only
have affronted them if I had pressed them further to receive the
money.  They settled with the porter for me, and we parted good
friends.  How different was the behaviour of these English sailors
from that of the three well-bred Russian gentlemen at Jalta!